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Title: Henley's Twentieth Century Formulas, Recipes and Processes
Author: Various
Language: English
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«HENLEY’S TWENTIETH CENTURY RECIPES, FORMULAS AND PROCESSES»

 CONTAINING TEN THOUSAND SELECTED HOUSEHOLD AND WORKSHOP FORMULAS,
 RECIPES, PROCESSES AND MONEY-SAVING METHODS FOR THE PRACTICAL USE OF
 MANUFACTURERS, MECHANICS, HOUSEKEEPERS AND HOME WORKERS

 EDITED BY
 GARDNER D. HISCOX, M.E.

 AUTHOR OF “MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS, POWERS AND DEVICES,” “COMPRESSED
 AIR,” “GAS, GASOLINE AND OIL ENGINES,” ETC., ETC.

 [Illustration]

 1914 EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED

 NEW YORK
 THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY
 132 NASSAU STREET
 1914


 COPYRIGHT, 1914 AND 1913, BY
 THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY

 COPYRIGHT, 1912 AND 1907, BY
 THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY
 Also, Entered at Stationers’ Hall Court, London, England

 _All rights reserved_

 THE TROW PRESS, NEW YORK



«PREFACE»


In compiling this book of formulas, recipes and processes, the Editor
has endeavored to meet the practical requirements of the home and
workshop—the mechanic, the manufacturer, the artisan, the housewife,
and the general home worker.

In addition to exercising the utmost care in selecting his materials
from competent sources, the Editor has also modified formulas which
were obviously ill adapted for his needs, but were valuable if altered.
Processes of questionable merit he has discarded. By adhering to this
plan the Editor trusts that he has succeeded in preparing a repository
of useful knowledge representing the experience of experts in every
branch of practical achievement. Much of the matter has been specially
translated for this work from foreign technological periodicals and
books. In this way the Editor has embodied much practical information
otherwise inaccessible to most English-speaking people.

Each recipe is to be regarded as a basis of experiment, to be modified
to suit the particular purpose in hand, or the peculiar conditions
which may affect the experimenter. Chemicals are not always of uniform
relative purity and strength; heat or cold may markedly influence the
result obtained, and lack of skill in the handling of utensils and
instruments may sometimes cause failure. Inasmuch as a particular
formula may not always be applicable, the Editor has thought it
advisable to give as many recipes as his space would allow under
each heading. In some instances a series of formulas is given which
apparently differ but slightly in their ingredients. This has been done
on the principle that one or more may be chosen for the purpose in hand.

Recognizing the fact that works of a similar character are not unknown,
the Editor has endeavored to present in these pages the most modern
methods and formulas. Naturally, old recipes and so-called trade
secrets which have proven their value by long use are also included,
particularly where no noteworthy advance has been made; but the primary
aim has been to modernize and bring the entire work up to the present
date.

 THE EDITOR.

 JANUARY, 1914.



«PARTIAL LIST OF AUTHORITIES CONSULTED»


 Apothecary, The.
 Berliner Drog. Zeitung.
 Brass World.
 British Journal of Photography.
 Chemical News.
 Chemiker Zeitung Repertorium.
 Chemisch Technische Fabrikant.
 Chemische Zeitung.
 Chemist-Druggist.
 Comptes Rendus.
 Cooley’s Receipts.
 Cosmos.
 Dekorationsmaler, Der.
 Deutsche Drog. Zeitung.
 Deutsche Goldschmiede Zeitung.
 Deutsche Handwerk.
 Deutsche Maler Zeitung.
 Deutsche Topfer und Ziefler Zeitung.
 Dingler’s Polytechnic Journal.
 Drogisten Zeitung.
 Druggists’ Circular.
 English Mechanic.
 Farben Zeitung.
 Gummi Zeitung.
 Journal der Goldschmiedekunst.
 Journal of Applied Microscopy.
 Journal of the Franklin Institute.
 Journal Society of Chemical Industry.
 Journal Suisse d’Horlogerie.
 Keramische Rundschau.
 La Nature.
 La Science en Famille.
 La Vie Scientifique.
 Lack und Farben Industrie.
 Legierungen.
 Le Genie Civil.
 Le Praticien.
 Leipziger Farber und Zeugdrucker Zeitung.
 Maler Zeitung.
 Metallarbeiter.
 Mining and Scientific Press.
 Neueste Erfindungen und Erfahrungen.
 Nouvelles Scientifiques.
 Oils, Colors, and Drysalteries.
 Papier-Zeitung.
 Parfumer, Der.
 Pharmaceutische Zeitung.
 Pharmaceutische Centralhalle.
 Pharmaceutische Era.
 Pharmaceutische Journal.
 Pharmaceutische Journal Formulary.
 Photo Times.
 Polytech. Centralblatt.
 Polyt. Notizblatt.
 Popular Science News.
 Pottery Gazette.
 Practical Druggist.
 Revue Chronometrique.
 Revue de la Droguerie.
 Revue des Produits Chimiques.
 Revue Industrielle.
 Science, Arts and Nature.
 Science Pratique.
 Seifensieder Zeitung, Der.
 Seifenfabrikant, Der.
 Spatula.
 Stein der Weisen, Der.
 Sudd. Apoth. Zeitung.
 Technisches Centralblatt.
 Technische Rundschau.
 Uhland’s Technische Rundschau.
 Verzinnen Verzinken Vernickeln, Das.
 Werkmeister Zeitung.
 Wiener Drogisten Zeitung.
 Wiener Gewerbe Zeitung.
 Zeitschrift für die Gesammte Kohlensaure Industrie.



{9}

«HENLEY’S BOOK OF RECIPES»


ABRASION REMEDY: See Cosmetics and Ointments.

ABSINTHE: See Wines and Liquors.


«Acid-Proofing»


«An Acid-Proof Table Top.»—

 1.

 Copper sulphate             1 part
 Potassium chlorate          1 part
 Water                       8 parts

Boil until salts are dissolved.

 2.

 Aniline hydrochlorate       3 parts
 Water                      20 parts

Or, if more readily procurable:

 Aniline                     6 parts
 Hydrochloric acid           9 parts
 Water                      50 parts

By the use of a brush two coats of solution No. 1 are applied while
hot; the second coat as soon as the first is dry. Then two coats of
solution No. 2, and the wood allowed to dry thoroughly. Later, a coat
of raw linseed oil is to be applied, using a cloth instead of a brush,
in order to get a thinner coat of the oil.

A writer in the _Journal of Applied Microscopy_ states that he has used
this method upon some old laboratory tables which had been finished in
the usual way, the wood having been filled oiled, and varnished. After
scraping off the varnish down to the wood, the solutions were applied,
and the result was very satisfactory.

After some experimentations the formula was modified without materially
affecting the cost, and apparently increasing the resistance of the
wood to the action of strong acids and alkalies. The modified formula
follows:

 1.

 Iron sulphate               4 parts
 Copper sulphate             4 parts
 Potassium permanganate      8 parts
 Water, q. s.              100 parts

 2.

 Aniline                    12 parts
 Hydrochloric acid          18 parts
 Water, q. s.              100 parts

Or:

 Aniline hydrochlorate      15 parts
 Water, q. s.              100 parts

Solution No. 2 has not been changed, except to arrange the parts per
hundred.

The method of application is the same, except that after solution No. 1
has dried the excess of the solution which has dried upon the surface
of the wood is thoroughly rubbed off before the application of solution
No. 2. The black color does not appear at once, but usually requires a
few hours before becoming ebony black. The linseed oil may be diluted
with turpentine without disadvantage, and after a few applications the
surface will take on a dull and not displeasing polish. The table tops
are easily cleaned by washing with water or suds after a course of work
is completed, and the application of another coat of oil puts them in
excellent order for another course of work. Strong acids or alkalies
when spilled, if soon wiped off, have scarcely a perceptible effect.

A slate or tile top is expensive not only in its original cost, but
also as a destroyer of glassware. Wood tops when painted, oiled, or
paraffined have objectionable features, the latter especially in warm
weather. Old table tops, after the paint or oil is scraped off down to
the wood, take the above finish nearly as well as the new wood.


«To Make Wood Acid- and Chlorine-Proof.»—Take 6 pounds of wood tar and
12 pounds rosin, and melt them together in an iron kettle, after which
stir in 8 pounds finely powdered brick dust. The damaged parts must be
cleaned perfectly and dried, whereupon they may be painted over with
the warm preparation or filled up and drawn off, leaving the film on
the inside.


«Protecting Cement Against Acid.»—A paint to protect cement against
acid is obtained by mixing pure asbestos, very finely powdered,
with a thick solution of {10} sodium silicate. The sodium silicate
must be as alkaline as possible. The asbestos is first rubbed with
a small quantity of the silicate, until a cake is obtained and then
kept in well-closed vessels. For use this cake is simply thinned with
a solution of the silicate, which furnishes a paint two or three
applications of which protect the walls of reservoirs, etc., against
any acid solid or liquid. This mass may also be employed for making a
coating of sandstone.


«To Make Corks Impermeable and Acid-Proof.»—Choose your corks
carefully. Then plunge them into a solution of gelatin or common glue,
15 parts, in 24 parts of glycerine and 500 parts of water, heated to
44° or 48° C. (112°–120° F.), and keep them there for several hours. On
removing the corks, which should be weighted down in the solution, dry
them in the shade until they are free from all surplus moisture. They
are now perfectly tight, retaining at the same time the greater portion
of their elasticity and suppleness. To render them acid-proof, they
should be treated with a mixture of vaseline, 2 parts, and paraffine
7 parts, heated to about 105° F. This second operation may be avoided
by adding to the gelatin solution a little ammonium dichromate and
afterwards exposing the corks to the light.


«Lining for Acid Receptacles.»—Plates are formed of 1 part of brown
slate, 2 of powdered glass, and 1 of Portland cement, the whole worked
up with silicate of soda, molded and dried. Make a cement composed of
ground slate and silicate of soda and smear the surface for the lining;
then, while it is still plastic, apply the plates prepared as above
described. Instead of these plates, slabs of glass or porcelain or
similar substances may be employed with the same cement.

ACACIA, MUCILAGE OF: See Adhesives under Mucilages.

ACID-PROOF GLASS: See Glass.

ACID-RESISTING PAINT: See Paint.

ACIDS, SOLDERING: See Solders.

ACID STAINS FROM THE SKIN, TO REMOVE: See Cleaning Preparations and
Methods.

ACID TEST FOR VINEGAR: See Vinegar.


«Adhesives»


«GLUES:»


«Manufacture of Glue.»—I.—The usual process of removing the phosphate
of lime from bones for glue-making purposes by means of dilute
hydrochloric acid has the disadvantage that the acid cannot be
regenerated. Attempts to use sulphurous acid instead have so far proved
unsuccessful, as, even with the large quantities used, the process
is very slow. According to a German invention this difficulty with
sulphurous acid can be avoided by using it in aqueous solution under
pressure. The solution of the lime goes on very rapidly, it is claimed,
and no troublesome precipitation of calcium sulphite takes place. Both
phosphate of lime and sulphurous acid are regenerated from the lyes by
simple distillation.

II.—Bones may be treated with successive quantities of combined
sulphurous acid and water, from which the heat of combination has been
previously dissipated, the solution being removed after each treatment,
before the bone salts dissolved therein precipitate, and before the
temperature rises above 74° F.—U. S. Pat. 783,784.

III.—A patent relating to the process for treating animal sinews,
preparatory for the glue factory, has been granted to Florsheim,
Chicago, and consists in immersing animal sinews successively in
petroleum or benzine to remove the outer fleshy animal skin; in
a hardening or preserving bath, as boric acid, or alum or copper
sulphate; and in an alkaline bath to remove fatty matter from the
fibrous part of the sinews. The sinews are afterwards tanned and
disintegrated.


«Test for Glue.»—The more water the glue takes up, swelling it, the
better it is. Four ounces of the glue to be examined are soaked for
about 12 hours in a cool place in 4 pounds of cold water. If the glue
has dissolved after this time, it is of bad quality and of little
value; but if it is coherent, gelatinous, and weighing double, it is
good; if it weighs up to 16 ounces, it is very good; if as much as 20
ounces, it may be called excellent.


«To Prevent Glue from Cracking.»—To prevent glue from cracking, which
frequently occurs when glued articles are {11} exposed to the heat of a
stove, a little chloride of potassium is added. This prevents the glue
from becoming dry enough to crack. Glue thus treated will adhere to
glass, metals, etc., and may also be used for pasting on labels.


«Preventing the Putrefaction of Strong Glues.»—The fatty matter always
existing in small quantity in sheets of ordinary glue affects the
adhesive properties and facilitates the development of bacteria, and
consequently putrefaction and decomposition. These inconveniences are
remedied by adding a small quantity of caustic soda to the dissolved
glue. The soda prevents decomposition absolutely; with the fatty matter
it forms a hard soap which renders it harmless.


«Liquid Glues.»—

 I.—Glue                    3 ounces
     Gelatin                3 ounces
     Acetic acid            4 ounces
     Water                  2 ounces
     Alum                  30 grains

Heat together for 6 hours, skim, and add:

 II.—Alcohol                  1 fluid ounce
      Brown glue, No. 2.      2 pounds
      Sodium carbonate       11 ounces
      Water               3 1/2 pints
      Oil of clove          160 minims

Dissolve the soda in the water, pour the solution over the dry glue,
let stand over night or till thoroughly soaked and swelled, then heat
carefully on a water bath until dissolved. When nearly cold stir in the
oil of cloves.

By using white glue, a finer article, fit for fancy work, may be made.

III.—Dissolve by heating 60 parts of borax in 420 parts of water,
add 480 parts dextrin (pale yellow) and 50 parts of glucose and heat
carefully with continued stirring, to complete solution; replace the
evaporated water and pour through flannel.

The glue made in this way remains clear quite a long time, and
possesses great adhesive power; it also dries very quickly, but upon
careless and extended heating above 90° C. (194° F.), it is apt to turn
brown and brittle.

IV.—Pour 50 parts of warm (not hot) water over 50 parts of Cologne glue
and allow to soak over night. Next day the swelled glue is dissolved
with moderate heat, and if still too thick, a little more water is
added. When this is done, add from 2 1/2 to 3 parts of crude nitric
acid, stir well, and fill the liquid glue in well-corked bottles. This
is a good liquid steam glue.

V.—Soak 1 pound of good glue in a quart of water for a few hours, then
melt the glue by heating it, together with the unabsorbed water, then
stir in 1/4 pound dry white lead, and when that is well mixed pour in
4 fluidounces of alcohol and continue the boiling 5 minutes longer.

VI.—Soak 1 pound of good glue in 1 1/2 pints of cold water for
5 hours, then add 3 ounces of zinc sulphate and 2 fluidounces of
hydrochloric acid, and keep the mixture heated for 10 or 12 hours at
175° to 190° F. The glue remains liquid and may be used for sticking a
variety of materials.

VII.—A very inexpensive liquid glue may be prepared by first soaking
and then dissolving gelatin in twice its own weight of water at a very
gentle heat; then add glacial acetic acid in weight equal to the weight
of the dry gelatin. It should be remembered, however, that all acid
glues are not generally applicable.

 VIII.—Glue                   200 parts
        Dilute acetic acid    400 parts

Dissolve by the aid of heat and add:

      Alcohol                25 parts
      Alum                    5 parts

 IX.—Glue                     5 parts
      Calcium chloride        1 part
      Water                   1 part

  X.—Sugar of lead        1 1/2 drachms
      Alum                1 1/2 drachms
      Gum arabic          2 1/2 drachms
      Wheat flour             1 av. lb.
      Water, q. s.

Dissolve the gum in 2 quarts of warm water; when cold mix in the flour,
and add the sugar of lead and alum dissolved in water; heat the whole
over a slow fire until it shows signs of ebullition. Let it cool, and
add enough gum water to bring it to the proper consistence.

XI.—Dilute 1 part of official phosphoric acid with 2 parts of water and
neutralize the solution with carbonate of ammonium. Add to the liquid
an equal quantity of water, warm it on a water bath, and dissolve in it
sufficient glue to form a thick syrupy liquid. Keep in well-stoppered
bottles.

XII.—Dissolve 3 parts of glue in small pieces in 12 to 15 of saccharate
of lime. By heating, the glue dissolves rapidly and remains liquid,
when cold, without loss of adhesive power. Any desirable consistence
can be secured by varying the amount of saccharate of lime. Thick
glue retains its muddy color, while a thin solution becomes clear on
standing.

The saccharate of lime is prepared by {12} dissolving 1 part of sugar
in 3 parts of water, and after adding 1/4 part of the weight of the
sugar of slaked lime, heating the whole from 149° to 185° F., allowing
it to macerate for several days, shaking it frequently. The solution,
which has the properties of mucilage, is then decanted from the
sediment.

XIII.—In a solution of borax in water soak a good quantity of glue
until it has thoroughly imbibed the liquid. Pour off the surplus
solution and then put on the water bath and melt the glue. Cool down
until the glue begins to set, then add, drop by drop, with agitation,
enough acetic acid to check the tendency to solidification. If, after
becoming quite cold, there is still a tendency to solidification, add a
few drops more of the acid. The liquid should be of the consistence of
ordinary mucilage at all times.

 XIV.—Gelatin                     100 parts
       Cabinetmakers’ glue        100 parts
       Alcohol                     25 parts
       Alum                         2 parts
       Acetic acid, 20 per cent   800 parts

Soak the gelatin and glue with the acetic acid and heat on a water bath
until fluid; then add the alum and alcohol.

 XV.—Glue                         10 parts
      Water                       15 parts
      Sodium salicylate            1 part

XVI.—Soak 5 parts of Cologne glue in an aqueous calcium chloride
solution (1:4) and heat on the water bath until dissolved, replacing
the evaporating water; or slack 100 parts of lime with 150 parts of hot
water, dissolve 60 parts of sugar in 180 parts of water, and add 15
parts of the slacked lime to the solution, heating the whole to 75° C.
(167° F.). Place aside for a few days, shaking from time to time. In
the clear sugar-lime solution collected by decanting soak 60 parts of
glue and assist the solution by moderate heating.

XVII.—Molasses, 100 parts, dissolved in 300 parts of water, 25 parts
of quicklime (slaked to powder), being then stirred in and the
mixture heated to 167° F. on a water bath, with frequent stirrings.
After settling for a few days a large portion of the lime will have
dissolved, and the clear, white, thick solution, when decanted, behaves
like rubber solution and makes a highly adherent coating.

XVIII.—Dissolve bone glue, 250 parts, by heating in 1,000 parts of
water, and add to the solution barium peroxide 10 parts, sulphuric acid
(66° B.) 5 parts, and water 15 parts. Heat for 48 hours on the water
bath to 80° C. (176° F.). Thus a syrupy liquid is obtained, which is
allowed to settle and is then decanted. This glue has no unpleasant
odor, and does not mold.

XIX.—A glue possessing the adhesive qualities of ordinary joiners’
glue, but constituting a pale yellow liquid which is ready for use
without requiring heating and possesses great resistance to dampness,
is produced by treating dry casein with a diluted borax solution or
with enough ammonia solution to cause a faintly alkaline reaction. The
preparation may be employed alone or mixed with liquid starch in any
proportion.


«Glue for Celluloid.»—I.—Two parts shellac, 3 parts spirits of camphor,
and 4 parts strong alcohol dissolved in a warm place, give an excellent
gluing agent to fix wood, tin, and other bodies to celluloid. The glue
must be kept well corked up.

II.—A collodion solution may be used, or an alcoholic solution of fine
celluloid shavings.


«Glue to Form Paper Pads.»—

 I.—Glue                            3 1/2 ounces
     Glycerine                      8     ounces
     Water, a sufficient quantity.

Pour upon the glue more than enough water to cover it and let stand for
several hours, then decant the greater portion of the water; apply heat
until the glue is dissolved, and add the glycerin. If the mixture is
too thick, add more water.

 II.—Glue                         6     ounces
      Alum                       30     grains
      Acetic acid                   1/2 ounce
      Alcohol                     1 1/2 ounces
      Water                       6 1/2 ounces

Mix all but the alcohol, digest on a water bath till the glue is
dissolved, allow to cool and add the alcohol.

 III.—Glue                        5 ounces
       Water                      1 ounce
       Calcium chloride           1 ounce

Dissolve the calcium chloride in the water, add the glue, macerate
until it is thoroughly softened, and then heat until completely
dissolved.

 IV.—Glue                        20 ounces
      Glycerine                   5 ounces
      Syrupy glucose              1 ounce
      Tannin                     50 grains

Cover the glue with cold water, and let stand over night. In the
morning pour off superfluous water, throw the glue on muslin, and
manipulate so as to get rid of as much moisture as possible, then put
in a water bath and melt. Add the {13} glycerine and syrup, and stir
well in. Finally, dissolve the tannin in the smallest quantity of water
possible and add.

This mixture must be used hot.

 V.—Glue                         15 ounces
     Glycerine                    5 ounces
     Linseed oil                  2 ounces
     Sugar                        1 ounce

Soak the glue as before, melt, add the sugar and glycerine, continuing
the heat, and finally add the oil gradually under constant stirring.

This must be used hot.


«Glue for Tablets.»—

 I.—Glue                          3 1/2 ounces
     Glycerine                    8     ounces
     Water, a sufficient quantity.

Pour upon the glue more than enough water to cover it and let stand for
several hours, then decant the greater portion of the water; apply heat
until the glue is dissolved, and add the glycerine. If the mixture is
too thick, add more water.

 II.—Glue                         6     ounces
      Alum                       30     grains
      Acetic acid                   1/2 ounce
      Alcohol                     1 1/2 ounces
      Water                       6 1/2 ounces

Mix all but the alcohol, digest on a water bath till the glue is
dissolved, allow to cool and add the alcohol.

 III.—Glue                        5 ounces
       Water                      1 ounce
       Calcium chloride           1 ounce

Dissolve the calcium chloride in the water, add the glue, macerate
until it is thoroughly softened, and then apply heat until completely
dissolved.

IV.—Glue, 1 pound; glycerine, 4 ounces; glucose syrup, 2
tablespoonfuls; tannin, 1/10 ounce. Use warm, and give an hour to dry
and set on the pads. This can be colored with any aniline dye.


«Marine Glue.»—Marine glue is a product consisting of shellac and
caoutchouc, which is mixed differently according to the use for which
it is required. The quantity of benzol used as solvent governs the
hardness or softness of the glue.

I.—One part Pará caoutchouc is dissolved in 12 parts benzol; 20
parts powdered shellac are added to the solution, and the mixture is
carefully heated.

II.—Stronger glue is obtained by dissolving 10 parts good crude
caoutchouc in 120 parts benzine or naphtha which solution is poured
slowly and in a fine stream into 20 parts asphaltum melted in a kettle,
stirring constantly and heating. Pour the finished glue, after the
solvent has almost evaporated and the mass has become quite uniform,
into flat molds, in which it solidifies into very hard tablets of dark
brown or black color. For use, these glue tablets are first soaked in
boiling water and then heated over a free flame until the marine glue
has become thinly liquid. The pieces to be glued are also warmed and a
very durable union is obtained.

III.—Cut caoutchouc into small pieces and dissolve in coal naphtha by
heat and agitation. Add to this solution powdered shellac, and heat
the whole, constantly stirring until combination takes place, then pour
it on metal plates to form sheets. When used it must be heated to 248°
F., and applied with a brush.


«Water-Proof Glues.»—I.—The glue is put in water till it is soft, and
subsequently melted in linseed oil at moderate heat. This glue is
affected neither by water nor by vapors.

II.—Dissolve a small quantity of sandarac and mastic in a little
alcohol, and add a little turpentine. The solution is boiled in a
kettle over the fire, and an equal quantity of a strong hot solution of
glue and isinglass is added. Then filter through a cloth while hot.

III.—Water-proof glue may also be produced by the simple addition of
bichromate of potassium to the liquid glue solution, and subsequent
exposure to the air.

IV.—Mix glue as usual, and then add linseed oil in the proportion of
1 part oil to 8 parts glue. If it is desired that the mixture remain
liquid, 1/2 ounce of nitric acid should be added to every pound of
glue. This will also prevent the glue from souring.

V.—In 1,000 parts of rectified alcohol dissolve 60 parts of sandarac
and as much mastic whereupon add 60 parts of white oil of turpentine.
Next, prepare a rather strong glue solution and add about the like
quantity of isinglass, heating the solution until it commences to boil;
then slowly add the hot glue solution till a thin paste forms, which
can still be filtered through a cloth. Heat the solution before use and
employ like ordinary glue. A connection effected with this glue is not
dissolved by cold water and even resists hot water for a long time.

VI.—Soak 1,000 parts of Cologne glue in cold water for 12 hours and in
another vessel for the same length of time 150 parts of isinglass in a
mixture of lamp spirit and water. Then dissolve both masses together on
the water bath in a suitable vessel, thinning, if necessary, with some
hot water. Next add 100 {14} parts of linseed oil varnish and filter
hot through linen.

VII.—Ordinary glue is kept in water until it swells up without losing
its shape. Thus softened it is placed in an iron crucible without
adding water; then add linseed oil according to the quantity of the
glue and leave this mixture to boil over a slow fire until a gelatinous
mass results. Such glue unites materials in a very durable manner. It
adheres firmly and hardens quickly. Its chief advantage, however,
consists in that it neither absorbs water nor allows it to pass
through, whereby the connecting places are often destroyed. A little
borax will prevent putrefaction.

VIII.—Bichromate of potassium 40 parts (by weight); gelatin glue, 55
parts; alum, 5 parts. Dissolve the glue in a little water and add the
bichromate of potassium and the alum.

IX.—This preparation permits an absolutely permanent gluing of pieces
of cardboard, even when they are moistened by water. Melt together
equal parts of good pitch and gutta-percha; of this take 9 parts, and
add to it 3 parts of boiled linseed oil and 1 1/2 parts of litharge.
Place this over the fire and stir it till all the ingredients are
intimately mixed. The mixture may be diluted with a little benzine or
oil of turpentine, and must be warm when used.


«Glue to Fasten Linoleum on Iron Stairs.»—I.—Use a mixture of glue,
isinglass, and dextrin which, dissolved in water and heated, is given
an admixture of turpentine. The strips pasted down must be weighted
with boards and brick on top until the adhesive agent has hardened.

II.—Soak 3 parts of glue in 8 parts water, add 1/2 part hydrochloric
acid and 3/4 part zinc vitriol and let this mixture boil several
hours. Coat the floor and the back of the linoleum with this. Press the
linoleum down uniformly and firmly and weight it for some time.


«Glue for Attaching Gloss to Precious Metals.»—Sandarac varnish, 15
parts; marine glue, 5 parts; drying oil, 5 parts; white lead, 5 parts;
Spanish white, 5 parts; turpentine, 5 parts. Triturate all to form a
rather homogeneous paste. This glue becomes very hard and resisting.


«Elastic Glue.»—Although elastic glue is less durable than rubber,
and will not stand much heat, yet it is cheaper than rubber, and is
not, like rubber affected by oil colors. Hence it is largely used for
printing rollers and stamps. For stamps, good glue is soaked for 24
hours in soft water. The water is poured off, and the swollen glue is
melted and mixed with glycerine and a little salicylic acid and cast
into molds. The durability is increased by painting the mass with a
solution of tannin, or, better, of bichromate of potassium. Printing
rollers require greater firmness and elasticity. The mass for them
once consisted solely of glue and vinegar, and their manufacture was
very difficult. The use of glycerine has remedied this, and gives
great elasticity without adhesiveness, and has removed the liability
of moldiness. Swollen glue, which has been superficially dried, is
fused with glycerine and cast into oil molds. Similar mixtures are
used for casting plaster ornaments, etc., and give very sharp casts.
A mass consisting of glue and glycerine is poured over the model in a
box. When the mold is removed, it is painted with plaster outside and
with boiled oil inside, and can then be used many times for making
reproductions of the model.


«Glue for Paper and Metal.»—A glue which will keep well and adhere
tightly is obtained by diluting 1,000 parts by weight of potato starch
in 1,200 parts by weight of water and adding 50 parts by weight of
pure nitric acid. The mixture is kept in a hot place for 48 hours,
taking care to stir frequently. It is afterwards boiled to a thick and
transparent consistency, diluted with water if there is occasion, and
then there are added in the form of a screened powder, 2 parts of sal
ammoniac and 1 part of sulphur flowers.


«Glue for Attaching Cloth Strips to Iron.»—Soak 500 parts of Cologne
glue in the evening with clean cold water in a clean vessel; in the
morning pour off the water, place the softened glue without admixture
of water into a clean copper or enamel receptacle, which is put on a
moderate low fire (charcoal or steam apparatus). During the dissolution
the mass must be continually stirred with a wooden trowel or spatula.
If the glue is too thick, it is thinned with diluted spirit, but not
with water. As soon as the glue has reached the boiling point, about
50 parts of linseed oil varnish (boiled oil) is added to the mass with
constant stirring. When the latter has been stirred up well, add 50
parts of powdered colophony and shake it into the mass with stirring,
subsequently removing the glue from the fire. In order to increase the
binding qualities and to guard against moisture, it is well still to
add about 50 parts of isinglass, which has been previously cut {15}
into narrow strips and placed, well beaten, in a vessel, into which
enough spirit of wine has been poured to cover all. When dissolved, the
last-named mass is added to the boiling glue with constant stirring.
The adhesive agent is now ready for use and is employed hot, it
being advisable to warm the iron also. Apply glue only to a surface
equivalent to a single strip at a time. The strips are pressed down
with a stiff brush or a wad of cloth.


«Glue for Leather or Cardboard.»—To attach leather to cardboard
dissolve good glue (softened by spelling in water) with a little
turpentine and enough water in an ordinary glue pot, and then having
made a thick paste with starch in the proportion of 2 parts by weight,
of starch powder for every 1 part, by weight, of dry glue, mix the
compounds and allow the mixture to become cold before application to
the cardboard.


«For Wood, Glass, Cardboard, and all Articles of a Metallic or Mineral
Character.»—Take boiled linseed oil 20 parts, Flemish glue 20 parts,
hydrated lime 15 parts, powdered turpentine 5 parts, alum 5 parts
acetic acid 5 parts. Dissolve the glue with the acetic acid, add the
alum, then the hydrated lime, and finally the turpentine and the boiled
linseed oil. Triturate all well until it forms a homogeneous paste and
keep in well-closed flasks. Use like any other glue.


«Glue for Uniting Metals with Fabrics.»—Cologne glue of good quality
is soaked and boiled down to the consistency of that used by
cabinetmakers. Then add, with constant stirring, sifted wood ashes
until a moderately thick, homogeneous mass results. Use hot and press
the pieces well together during the drying. For tinfoil, about 2 per
cent of boracic acid should be added instead of the wood ashes.


«Glue or Paste for Making Paper Boxes.»—

 Chloral hydrate            5 parts
 Gelatin, white             8 parts
 Gum arabic                 2 parts
 Boiling water             30 parts

Mix the chloral, gelatin, and gum arabic in a porcelain container, pour
the boiling water over the mixture and let stand for 1 day, giving it
a vigorous stirring several times during the day. In cold weather this
is apt to get hard and stiff, but this may be obviated by standing the
container in warm water for a few minutes. This paste adheres to any
surface whatever.


«Natural Glue for Cementing Porcelain, Crystal Glass, etc.»—The large
shell snails which are found in vineyards have at the extremity of
their body a small, whitish bladder filled with a substance of greasy
and gelatinous aspect. If this substance extracted from the bladder
is applied on the fragments of porcelain or any body whatever, which
are juxtaposed by being made to touch at all parts, they acquire such
adhesion that if one strives to separate them by a blow, they are
more liable to break at another place than the cemented seam. It is
necessary to give this glue sufficient time to dry perfectly, so as to
permit it to acquire the highest degree of strength and tenacity.


«Belt Glue.»—A glue for belts can be prepared as follows: Soak 50
parts of gelatin in water, pour off the excess of water, and heat on
the water bath. With good stirring add, first, 5 parts, by weight, of
glycerine, then 10 parts, by weight, of turpentine, and 5 parts, by
weight, of linseed oil varnish and thin with water as required. The
ends of the belts to be glued are cut off obliquely and warmed; then
the hot glue is applied, and the united parts are subjected to strong
pressure, allowing them to dry thus for 24 hours before the belts are
used.


«Chromium Glue for Wood, Paper, and Cloth.»—I.—(_a_) One-half pound
strong glue (any glue if color is immaterial, white fish glue
otherwise); soak 12 hours in 12 fluidounces of cold water. (_b_)
One-quarter pound gelatin; soak 2 hours in 12 fluidounces cold water.
(_c_) Two ounces bichromate of potassium dissolved in 8 fluidounces
boiling water. Dissolve (_a_) after soaking, in a glue pot, and add
(_b_). After (_a_) and (_b_) are mixed and dissolved, stir in (_c_).
This glue is exceedingly strong, and if the article cemented be exposed
to strong sunlight for 1 hour, the glue becomes perfectly waterproof.
Of course, it is understood that the exposure to sunlight is to be made
after the glue is thoroughly dry. The one objectionable feature of this
cement is its color, which is a yellow-brown. By substituting chrome
alum in place of the bichromate, an olive color is obtained.

II.—Use a moderately strong gelatin solution (containing 5 to 10
per cent of dry gelatin), to which about 1 part of acid chromate of
potassium in solution is added to every 5 parts of gelatin. This
mixture has the property of becoming insoluble by water through the
action of sunlight under partial reduction of the chromic acid. {16}


«Fireproof Glue.»—

 Raw linseed oil                  8 parts
 Glue or gelatin                  1 part
 Quicklime                        2 parts

Soak the glue or gelatin in the oil for 10 to 12 hours, and then melt
it by gently heating the oil, and when perfectly fluid stir in the
quicklime until the whole mass is homogeneous, then spread out in
layers to dry gradually, out of the sun’s rays. For use, reheat the
glue in a glue pot in the ordinary way of melting glue.


«CEMENTS.»

Under this heading will be found only cements for causing one substance
to adhere to another. Cements used primarily as fillers, such as dental
cements, will be found under Cements, Putties, etc.


«Cutlers’ Cements for Fixing Knife Blades into Handles.»—

  I.—Rosin                          4 pounds
      Beeswax                        1 pound
      Plaster of Paris or brickdust  1 pound

 II.—Pitch                          5 pounds
      Wood ashes                     1 pound
      Tallow                         1 pound

III.—Rosin, 12; sulphur flowers, 3; iron filings, 5. Melt together,
fill the handle while hot, and insert the instrument.

IV.—Plaster of Paris is ordinarily used for fastening loose handles.
It is made into a moderately thick paste with water run into the hole
in the head of the pestle, the handle inserted and held in place till
the cement hardens. Some add sand to the paste, and claim to get better
results.

V.—Boil together 1 part of caustic soda, 3 parts of rosin, and 5 parts
of water till homogeneous and add 4 parts of plaster of Paris. The
paste sets in half an hour and is but little affected by water.

VI.—Equal quantities of gutta percha and shellac are melted together
and well stirred. This is best done in an iron capsule placed on a
sandbath and heated over a gas furnace or on the top of a stove. The
combination possesses both hardness and toughness, qualities that make
it particularly desirable in mending mortars and pestles. In using, the
articles to be cemented should be warmed to about the melting point of
the mixture and retained in proper position until cool, when they are
ready for use.

 VII.—Rosin                    600 parts by weight
       Sulphur                  150 parts by weight
       Iron filings             250 parts by weight

Pour the mixture, hot, into the opening of the heated handle and shove
in the knife likewise heated.

VIII.—Melt sufficient black rosin, and incorporate thoroughly with it
one-fifth its weight of very fine silver sand. Make the pestle hot,
pour in a little of the mixture, then force the handle well home, and
set aside for a day before using.

IX.—Make a smooth, moderately soft paste with litharge and glycerine;
fill the hole in the pestle with the cement, and firmly press the
handle in place, keeping it under pressure for three or four days.


«Cements for Stone.»—I.—An excellent cement for broken marble consists
of 4 parts of gypsum and 1 part of finely powdered gum arabic. Mix
intimately. Then with a cold solution of borax make into a mortarlike
mass. Smear on each face of the parts to be joined, and fasten the bits
of marble together. In the course of a few days the cement becomes
very hard and holds very tenaciously. The object mended should not be
touched for several days. In mending colored marbles the cement may be
given the hue of the marble by adding the color to the borax solution.

II.—A cement which dries instantaneously, qualifying it for all sorts
of repairing and only presenting the disadvantage of having to be
freshly prepared each time, notwithstanding any subsequent heating, may
be made as follows: In a metal vessel or iron spoon melt 4 to 5 parts
of rosin (or preferably mastic) and 1 part of beeswax. This mixture
must be applied rapidly, it being of advantage slightly to heat the
surfaces to be united, which naturally must have been previously well
cleaned.

III.—Slaked lime, 10 parts; chalk, 15 parts; kaolin, 5 parts; mix, and
immediately before use stir with a corresponding amount of potash water
glass.

IV.—Cement on Marble Slabs.—The whole marble slab is thoroughly warmed
and laid face down upon a neatly cleaned planing bench upon which a
woolen cloth is spread so as not to injure the polish of the slab. Next
apply to the slab very hot, weak glue and quickly sift hot plaster of
Paris on the glue in a thin even layer, stirring the plaster rapidly
into the applied glue by means of a strong spatula, so that a uniform
glue-plaster coating is formed on the warm slab. Before this has time
to harden tip the respective piece of furniture on the slab. The frame,
likewise warmed, will adhere very firmly to the slab after two days.
Besides, this process has the advantage of great cleanliness. {17}

V.—The following is a recipe used by marble workers, and which probably
can be used to advantage: Flour of sulphur, 1 part; hydrochlorate of
ammonia, 2 parts; iron filings, 16 parts. The above substances must
be reduced to a powder, and securely preserved in closely stoppered
vessels. When the cement is to be employed, take 20 parts very fine
iron filings and 1 part of the above powder; mix them together with
enough water to form a manageable paste. This paste solidifies in 20
days and becomes as hard as iron. A recipe for another cement useful
for joining small pieces of marble or alabaster is as follows: Add
1/2 pint of vinegar to 1/2 pint skimmed milk; mix the curd with the
whites of 5 eggs, well beaten, and sufficient powdered quicklime sifted
in with constant stirring so as to form a paste. It resists water and a
moderate degree of heat.

VI.—Cement for Iron and Marble.—For fastening iron to marble or stone a
good cement is made as follows: Thirty parts plaster of Paris, 10 parts
iron filings, 1/2 part sal ammoniac mixed with vinegar to a fluid
paste fresh for use.


«Cement for Sandstones.»—One part sulphur and 1 part rosin are melted
separately; the melted masses are mixed and 3 parts litharge and 2
parts ground glass stirred in. The latter ingredients must be perfectly
dry, and have been well pulverized and mixed previously.

Equally good cement is obtained by melting together 1 part pitch and
1/10 part wax, and mixing with 2 parts brickdust.

The stones to be cemented, or between the joints of which the putty
is to be poured, must be perfectly dry. If practicable, they should
be warmed a little, and the surfaces to which the putty is to adhere
painted with oil varnish once or twice. The above two formulæ are of
especial value in case the stones are very much exposed to the heat
of the sun in summer, as well as to cold, rain, and snow in winter.
Experience has shown that in these instances the above-mentioned
cements give better satisfaction than the other brands of cement.


«Cements for Attaching Objects to Glass.»—

 Rosin              1 part
 Yellow wax         2 parts

Melt together.


«To Attach Copper to Glass.»—Boil 1 part of caustic soda and 3 parts of
colophony in 5 parts of water and mix with the like quantity of plaster
of Paris. This cement is not attacked by water, heat, and petroleum.
If, in place of the plaster of Paris, zinc white, white lead, or slaked
lime is used, the cement hardens more slowly.


«To Fasten Brass upon Glass.»—Boil together 1 part of caustic soda, 3
parts of rosin, 3 parts of gypsum, and 5 parts of water. The cement
made in this way hardens in about half an hour, hence it must
be applied quickly. During the preparation it should be stirred
constantly. All the ingredients used must be in a finely powdered state.


«Uniting Glass with Horn.»—(1) A solution of 2 parts of gelatin in
20 parts water is evaporated up to one-sixth of its volume and 1/3
mastic dissolved in 1/2 spirit added and some zinc white stirred in.
The putty is applied warm; it dries easily and can be kept a long time.
(2) Mix gold size with the equal volume of water glass.


«To Cement Glass to Iron.»—

 I.—Rosin                  5 ounces
     Yellow wax             1 ounce
     Venetian red           1 ounce

Melt the wax and rosin on a water bath and add, under constant
stirring, the Venetian red previously well dried. Stir until nearly
cool, so as to prevent the Venetian red from settling to the bottom.

  II.—Portland cement       2 ounces
       Prepared chalk        1 ounce
       Fine sand             1 ounce
       Solution of sodium silicate
         enough to form a semi-liquid
         paste.
 III.—Litharge              2 parts
       White lead            1 part

Work into a pasty condition by using 3 parts boiled linseed oil, 1 part
copal varnish.


«Celluloid Cements.»—I.—To mend broken draughting triangles and other
celluloid articles, use 3 parts alcohol and 4 parts ether mixed
together and applied to the fracture with a brush until the edges
become warm. The edges are then stuck together, and left to dry for at
least 24 hours.

II.—Camphor, 1 part; alcohol, 4 parts. Dissolve and add equal quantity
(by weight) of shellac to this solution.

III.—If firmness is desired in putting celluloid on wood, tin, etc.,
the following gluing agent is recommended, viz.: A compound of 2 parts
shellac, 3 parts spirit of camphor, and 4 parts strong alcohol. {18}

 IV.—Shellac                    2 ounces
      Spirits of camphor         2 ounces
      Alcohol, 90 per cent       6 to 8 ounces

V.—Make a moderately strong glue or solution of gelatin. In a dark
place or a dark room mix with the above a small amount of concentrated
solution of potassium dichromate. Coat the back of the label, which
must be clean, with a thin layer of the mixture. Strongly press the
label against the bottle and keep the two in close contact by tying
with twine or otherwise. Expose to sunlight for some hours; this causes
the cement to be insoluble even in hot water.

 VI.—Lime                     av. oz. 1
      White of egg             av. oz. 2 1/2
      Plaster of Paris         av. oz. 5 1/2
      Water                    fl. oz. 1

Reduce the lime to a fine powder; mix it with the white of egg by
trituration, forming a uniform paste. Dilute with water, rapidly
incorporate the plaster of Paris, and use the cement immediately. The
surfaces to be cemented must first be moistened with water so that the
cement will readily adhere. The pieces must be firmly pressed together
and kept in this position for about 12 hours.


«Cementing Celluloid and Hard-Rubber Articles.»—I.—Celluloid articles
can be mended by making a mixture composed of 3 parts of alcohol and 4
parts of ether. This mixture should be kept in a well-corked bottle,
and when celluloid articles are to be mended, the broken surfaces are
painted over with the alcohol and ether mixture until the surfaces
soften: then press together and bind and allow to dry for at least 24
hours.

II.—Dissolve 1 part of gum camphor in 4 parts of alcohol; dissolve an
equal weight of shellac in such strong camphor solution. The cement
is applied warm and the parts united must not be disturbed until the
cement is hard. Hard-rubber articles are never mended to form a strong
joint.

III.—Melt together equal parts of gutta percha and real asphaltum. The
cement is applied hot, and the broken surfaces pressed together and
held in place while cooling.


«Sign-Letter Cements.»—

 I.—Copal varnish              15 parts
     Drying oil                  5 parts
     Turpentine (spirits)        3 parts
     Oil of turpentine           2 parts
     Liquefied glue              5 parts

Melt all together on a water bath until well mixed, and then add 10
parts slaked lime.

II.—Mix 100 parts finely powdered white litharge with 50 parts dry
white lead, knead together 3 parts linseed oil varnish and 1 part copal
varnish into a firm dough. Coat the side to be attached with this,
removing the superfluous cement. It will dry quickly and become very
hard.

 III.—Copal varnish                         15 parts
       Linseed-oil varnish                    5 parts
       Raw turpentine                         3 parts
       Oil of turpentine                      2 parts
       Carpenters’ glue, dissolved in water   5 parts
       Precipitated chalk                    10 parts

  IV.—Mastic gum                             1 part
       Litharge, lead                         2 parts
       White lead                             1 part
       Linseed oil                            3 parts

Melt together to a homogeneous mass. Apply hot. To make a thorough and
reliable job, the letters should be heated to at least the temperature
of the cement.


«To Fix Gold Letters, etc., upon Glass.»—I.—The glass must be entirely
clean and polished, and the medium is prepared in the following manner:
One ounce fish glue or isinglass is dissolved in water so that the
latter covers the glue. When this is dissolved a quart of rectified
spirit of wine is added, and enough water is poured in to make up
one-quarter the whole. The substance must be kept well corked.

II.—Take 1/2 quart of the best rum and 1/4 ounce fish glue, which
is dissolved in the former at a moderate degree of heat. Then add 1/2
quart distilled water, and filter through a piece of old linen. The
glass is laid upon a perfectly level table and is covered with this
substance to the thickness of 1/8 inch, using a clean brush. Seize
the gold leaf with a pointed object and place it smoothly upon the
prepared mass, and it will be attracted by the glass at once. After 5
minutes hold the glass slightly slanting so that the superfluous mass
can run off, and leave the plate in this position for 24 hours, when
it will be perfectly dry. Now trace the letters or the design on a
piece of paper, and perforate the lines with a thick needle, making
the holes 1/16 inch apart. Then place the perforated paper upon the
surface of the glass, and stamp the tracery on with powdered chalk.
The paper pattern is then carefully removed, and the accurate design
will remain upon the gold. The outlines are now filled out with an oily
gold mass, mixed with a little chrome orange and diluted with boiled
oil or turpentine. When all is dry the superfluous gold is washed off
{19} with water by means of a common rag. The back of the glass is then
painted with a suitable color.


«Attaching Enamel Letters to Glass.»—To affix enamel letters to glass,
first clean the surface of the glass perfectly, leaving no grease or
sticky substance of any kind adhering to the surface. Then with a piece
of soap sketch the outlines of the design. Make the proper division
of the guide lines, and strike off accurately the position each letter
is to occupy. Then to the back of the letters apply a cement made as
follows: White lead ground in oil, 2 parts; dry white lead, 3 parts.
Mix to a soft putty consistency with good copal varnish.

With a small knife or spatula apply the cement to the back of the
letters, observing especial care in getting the mixture well and
uniformly laid around the inside edges of the letter. In attaching
the letters to the glass make sure to expel the air from beneath the
characters, and to do this, work them up and down and sidewise. If the
weather be at all warm, support the letters while drying by pressing
tiny beads of sealing wax against the glass, close to the under side
or bottom of the letters. With a putty knife, keenly sharpened on one
edge, next remove all the surplus cement. Give the letters a hard, firm
pressure against the glass around all edges to securely guard against
the disruptive attacks of moisture.

The seepage of moisture beneath the surface of the letters is the main
cause of their early detachment from the glass.

The removal of the letters from the glass may be effected by applying
turpentine to the top of the characters, allowing it to soak down and
through the cement. Oxalic acid applied in the same way will usually
slick the letters off in a trice.


«Cement for Porcelain Letters.»—Slake 15 parts of fresh quicklime in 20
parts of water. Melt 50 parts of caoutchouc and 50 parts of linseed-oil
varnish together, and bring the mixture to a boil. While boiling,
pour the liquid on the slaked lime, little by little, under constant
stirring. Pass the mixture, while still hot, through muslin, to remove
any possible lumps, and let cool. It takes the cement 2 days to set
completely, but when dry it makes a joint that will resist a great
deal of strain. By thinning the mixture down with oil of turpentine, a
brilliant, powerfully adhesive varnish is obtained.


«Water-Glass Cements.»—I.—Water glass (sodium of potassium silicate),
which is frequently recommended for cementing glass, does not, as is
often asserted, form a vitreous connection between the joined surfaces;
and, in fact, some of the commercial varieties will not even dry, but
merely form a thick paste, which has a strong affinity for moisture.
Good 30° B. water glass is, however, suitable for mending articles that
are exposed to heat, and is best applied to surfaces that have been
gently warmed; when the pieces are put together they should be pressed
warmly, to expel any superfluous cement, and then heated strongly.

To repair cracked glasses or bottles through which water will leak,
water glasses may be used, the application being effected in the
following easy manner: The vessel is warmed to induce rarefaction of
the internal air, after which the mouth is closed, either by a cork
in the case of bottles, or by a piece of parchment or bladder if a
wide-mouthed vessel is under treatment.

While still hot, the outside of the crack is covered with a little
glass, and the vessel set aside to cool, whereupon the difference
between the pressure of the external and internal air will force the
cement into the fissure and close it completely. All that is then
necessary is to take off the cover and leave the vessel to warm for a
few hours. Subsequently rinse it out with lime water, followed by clean
water, and it will then hold any liquid, acids and alkaline fluids
alone excepted.

II.—When water glass is brought into contact with calcium chloride,
a calcium silicate is at once formed which is insoluble in water. It
seems possible that this reaction may be used in binding together
masses of sand, etc. The process indicated has long been used in the
preservation of stone which has become “weathered.” The stone is first
brushed with the water glass and afterwards with a solution of calcium
chloride. The conditions here are of course different.

Calcium chloride must not be confounded with the so-called “chloride of
lime” which is a mixture of calcium hypochlorite and other bodies.


«To Fasten Paper Tickets to Glass.»—To attach paper tickets to glass,
the employment of water glass is efficacious. Care should be taken
to spread this product on the glass and not on the paper, and then
to apply the paper dry, which should be done immediately. When the
solution is dry the paper cannot be {20} detached. The silicate should
be somewhat diluted. It is spread on the glass with a rag or a small
sponge.


«JEWELERS’ CEMENTS.»

Jewelers and goldsmiths require, for the cementing of genuine and
colored gems, as well as for the placing of colored folio under
certain stones, very adhesive gluing agents, which must, however,
be colorless. In this respect these are distinguished chiefly by the
so-called diamond cement and the regular jewelers’ cement. Diamond
cement is much esteemed by jewelers for cementing precious stones and
corals, but may also be employed with advantage for laying colored
fluxes of glass on white glass. The diamond cement is of such a nature
as to be able to remain for some time in contact with water without
becoming soft. It adheres best between glass or between precious
stones. It is composed as follows: Isinglass 8 parts, gum ammoniac 1
part, galbanum 1 part, spirit of wine 4 parts. Soak the isinglass in
water with admixture of a little spirit of wine and add the solution
of the gums in the remainder of the spirit of wine. Before use, heat
the diamond cement a little so as to soften it. Jewelers’ cement is
used for similar purposes as is the diamond cement, and is prepared
from: Isinglass (dry) 10 parts, mastic varnish 5 parts. Dissolve the
isinglass in very little water, adding some strong spirit of wine. The
mastic varnish is prepared by pouring a mixture of highly rectified
spirit of wine and benzine over finely powdered mastic and dissolving
it in the smallest possible quantity of liquid. The two solutions of
isinglass and mastic are intimately ground together in a porcelain dish.


«Armenian Cement.»—The celebrated “Armenian” cement, so called formerly
used by Turkish and Oriental jewelers generally, for setting precious
stones, “facing diamonds,” rubies, etc., is made as follows:

 Mastic gum                10 parts
 Isinglass (fish glue)     20 parts
 Gum ammoniac               5 parts
 Alcohol absolute          60 parts
 Alcohol, 50 per cent      35 parts
 Water                    100 parts

Dissolve the mastic in the absolute alcohol; dissolve, by the aid of
gentle heat, on the water bath, the isinglass in the water, and add 10
parts of the dilute alcohol. Now dissolve the ammoniacum in the residue
of the dilute alcohol. Add the first solution to the second, mix
thoroughly by agitation and then add the solution of gum ammoniac and
stir well in. Finally put on the water bath, and keeping at a moderate
heat, evaporate the whole down to 175 parts.


«Cement for Enameled Dials.»—The following is a good cement for
enameled dials, plates, or other pieces: Grind into a fine powder
2 1/2 parts of dammar rosin and 2 1/2 parts of copal, using
colorless pieces if possible. Next add 2 parts of Venetian turpentine
and enough spirit of wine so that the whole forms a thick paste. To
this grind 3 parts of the finest zinc white. The mass now has the
consistency of prepared oil paint. To remove the yellow tinge of the
cement add a trifle of Berlin blue to the zinc white. Finally, the
whole is heated until the spirit of wine is driven off and a molten
mass remains, which is allowed to cool and is kept for use. Heat the
parts to be cemented.


«Watch-Lid Cement.»—The hardest cement for fixing on watch lids is
shellac. If the lids are exceedingly thin the engraving will always
press through. Before cementing it on the inside of the lid, in order
not to injure the polish, it is coated with chalk dissolved in alcohol,
which is first allowed to dry. Next melt the shellac on the stick, heat
the watch lid and put it on. After the engraving has been done, simply
force the lid off and remove the remaining shellac from the latter by
light tapping. If this does not remove it completely lay the lid in
alcohol, leaving it therein until all the shellac has dissolved. All
that remains to be done now is to wash out the watch lid.


«Jewelers’ Glue Cement.»—Dissolve on a water bath 50 parts of fish glue
in a little 95-per-cent alcohol, adding 4 parts, by weight, of gum
ammoniac. On the other hand, dissolve 2 parts, by weight, of mastic in
10 parts, by weight, of alcohol. Mix these two solutions and preserve
in a well-corked flask. For use it suffices to soften it on the water
bath.


«Casein Cements.»—

 I.—Borax                      5 parts
     Water                     95 parts
     Casein, sufficient quantity.

Dissolve the borax in water and incorporate enough casein to produce a
mass of the proper consistency.

II.—The casein is made feebly alkaline by means of soda or potash lye
and {21} then subjected for about 24 hours to a temperature of 140° F.
Next follow the customary admixture, such as lime and water glass, and
finally, to accomplish a quicker resinification, substances containing
tannin are added. For tannic admixtures to the partially disintegrated
casein, slight quantities—about 1 per cent—of gallic acid, cutch, or
quercitannic acid are employed. The feebly alkaline casein cement
containing tannic acid is used in the well-known manner for the gluing
together of wood.


«For Metals.»—Make a paste with 16 ounces casein, 20 ounces slaked
lime, and 20 ounces of sand, in water.


«For Glass.»—I.—Dissolve casein in a concentrated solution of borax.

II.—Make a paste of casein and water glass.


«Pasteboard and Paper Cement.»—I.—Let pure glue swell in cold water;
pour and press off the excess; put on the water bath and melt. Paper
or other material cemented with this is then immediately, before the
cement dries, submitted to the action of formaldehyde and dried. The
cement resists the action of water, even hot.

II.—Melt together equal parts of good pitch and gutta percha. To 9
parts of this mass add 3 parts of boiled linseed oil and 1/5 part
litharge. The heat is kept up until, with constant stirring, an
intimate union of all the ingredients has taken place. The mixture is
diluted with a little benzine or oil of turpentine and applied while
still warm. The cement is waterproof.

III.—The _National Druggist_ says that experience with pasting or
cementing parchment paper seems to show that about the best agent
is casein cement, made by dissolving casein in a saturated aqueous
solution of borax.

IV.—The following is recommended for paper boxes:

 Chloral hydrate     5 parts
 Gelatin, white      8 parts
 Gum arabic          2 parts
 Boiling water      30 parts

Mix the chloral, gelatin, and gum arabic in a porcelain container, pour
the boiling water over the mixture and let stand for 1 day, giving it
a vigorous stirring several times during the day. In cold weather this
is apt to get hard and stiff, but this may be obviated by standing the
container in warm water for a few minutes. This paste adheres to any
surface whatever.


«Waterproof Cements for Glass, Stoneware, and Metal.»—I.—Make a paste
of sulphur, sal ammoniac, iron filings, and boiled oil.

II.—Mix together dry: Whiting, 6 pounds; plaster of Paris, 3 pounds;
sand, 3 pounds; litharge, 3 pounds; rosin, 1 pound. Make to a paste
with copal varnish.

III.—Make a paste of boiled oil, 6 pounds; copal, 6 pounds; litharge, 2
pounds; white lead, 1 pound.

IV.—Make a paste with boiled oil, 3 pounds; brickdust 2 pounds; dry
slaked lime, 1 pound.

V.—Dissolve 93 ounces of alum and 93 ounces of sugar of lead in water
to concentration. Dissolve separately 152 ounces of gum arabic in 25
gallons of water, and then stir in 62 1/2 pounds of flour. Then heat
to a uniform paste with the metallic salts, but take care not to boil
the mass.

VI.—For Iron and Marble to Stand in Heat.—In 3 pounds of water dissolve
first, 1 pound water glass and then 1 pound of borax. With the solution
make 2 pounds of clay and 1 pound of barytes, first mixed dry, to a
paste.

VII.—Glue to Resist Boiling Water.—Dissolve separately in water 55
pounds of glue and a mixture of 40 pounds of bichromate and 5 pounds of
alum. Mix as wanted.

VIII. (Chinese Glue).—Dissolve shellac in 10 times its weight of
ammonia.

IX.—Make a paste of 40 ounces of dry slaked lime 10 ounces of alum, and
50 ounces of white of egg.

 X.—Alcohol         1,000 parts
     Sandarac           60 parts
     Mastic             60 parts
     Turpentine oil     60 parts

Dissolve the gums in the alcohol and add the oil and stir in. Now
prepare a solution of equal parts of glue and isinglass, by soaking 125
parts of each in cold water until it becomes saturated, pouring and
pressing off the residue, and melting on the water bath. This should
produce a volume of glue nearly equal to that of the solution of gums.
The latter should, in the meantime, have been cautiously raised to
the boiling point on the water bath, and then mixed with the hot glue
solution.

It is said that articles united with this substance will stand the
strain of cold water for an unlimited time, and it takes hot water even
a long time to affect it. {22}

 XI.—Burgundy pitch                 6 parts
      Gutta percha                   1 part
      Pumice stone, in fine powder   3 parts

Melt the gutta percha very carefully add the pumice stone, and lastly
the pitch, and stir until homogeneous.

Use while still hot. This cement will withstand water and dilute
mineral acids.


«LEATHER AND RUBBER CEMENTS.»

I.—Use a melted mixture of gutta percha and genuine asphalt, applied
hot. The hard-rubber goods must be kept pressed together until the
cement has cooled.

II.—A cement which is effective for cementing rubber to iron and which
is especially valuable for fastening rubber bands to bandsaw wheels is
made as follows: Powdered shellac, 1 part; strong water of ammonia,
10 parts. Put the shellac in the ammonia water and set it away in a
tightly closed jar for 3 or 4 weeks. By that time the mixture will
become a perfectly liquid transparent mass and is then ready for
use. When applied to rubber the ammonia softens it, but it quickly
evaporates, leaving the rubber in the same condition as before. The
shellac clings to the iron and thus forms a firm bond between the iron
and the rubber.

 III.—Gutta percha white    1 drachm
       Carbon disulphide     1 ounce

Dissolve, filter, and add:

 India rubber         15 grains

Dissolve.


«Cement for Metal on Hard Rubber.»—I.—Soak good Cologne glue and boil
down so as to give it the consistency of joiners’ glue, and add with
constant stirring, enough sifted wood ashes until a homogeneous,
moderately thick mass results. Use warm and fit the pieces well
together while drying.


«How to Unite Rubber and Leather.»—II.—Roughen both surfaces, the
leather and the rubber, with a sharp glass edge; apply to both a
diluted solution of gutta percha in carbon bisulphide and let this
solution soak into the material. Then press upon each surface a skin
of gutta percha 1/10 of an inch in thickness between rolls. The two
surfaces are now united in a press, which should be warm but not hot.
This method should answer in all cases in which it is applicable. The
other prescription covers cases in which a press cannot be used. Cut
30 parts of rubber into small pieces, and dissolve it in 140 parts of
carbon bisulphide, the vessel being placed on a water bath of 30° C.
(86° F.). Further, melt 10 parts of rubber with 15 of colophony, and
add 35 parts of oil of turpentine. When the rubber has been completely
dissolved, the two liquids may be mixed. The resulting cement must be
kept well corked.


«To Fasten Rubber to Wood.»—I.—Make a cement by macerating virgin gum
rubber, or as pure rubber as can be had, cut in small pieces, in just
enough naphtha or gasoline to cover it. Let it stand in a very tightly
corked or sealed jar for 14 days, or a sufficient time to become
dissolved, shaking the mixture daily.

II.—Dissolve pulverized gum shellac, 1 ounce, in 9 1/2 ounces of
strong ammonia. This of course must be kept tightly corked. It will not
be as elastic as the first preparation.

III.—Fuse together shellac and gutta percha in equal weights.

 IV.—India rubber             8 ounces
      Gutta percha             4 ounces
      Isinglass                2 ounces
      Bisulphide of carbon    32 ounces

  V.—India rubber             5 ounces
      Gum mastic               1 ounce
      Chloroform               3 ounces

 VI.—Gutta percha            16 ounces
      India rubber             4 ounces
      Pitch                    4 ounces
      Shellac                  1 ounce
      Linseed oil              1 ounce

Amalgamate by heat.

VII.—Mix 1 ounce of oil of turpentine with 10 ounces of bisulphide of
carbon in which as much gutta percha as possible has been dissolved.

VIII.—Amalgamate by heat:

 Gutta percha         100 ounces
 Venice turpentine     80 ounces
 Shellac                8 ounces
 India rubber           2 ounces
 Liquid storax         10 ounces

IX.—Amalgamate by heat:

 India rubber         100 ounces
 Rosin                 15 ounces
 Shellac               10 ounces

Then dissolve in bisulphide of carbon.

X.—Make the following solutions separately and mix:

 (_a_)  India rubber         5 ounces
        Chloroform         140 ounces

 (_b_)  India rubber         5 ounces
        Rosin                2 ounces
        Venice turpentine    1 ounce
        Oil of turpentine   20 ounces

{23}


«Cement for Patching Rubber Boots and Shoes.»—

 I.—India rubber, finely chopped   100 parts
     Rosin                           15 parts
     Shellac                         10 parts
     Carbon disulphide, q. s. to dissolve.

This will not only unite leather to leather, india rubber, etc., but
will unite rubber to almost any substance.

 II.—Caoutchouc, finely cut      4 parts
      India rubber, finely cut    1 part
      Carbon disulphide          32 parts

Dissolve the caoutchouc in the carbon disulphide, add the rubber, let
macerate a few days, then mash with a palette knife to a smooth paste.
The vessel in which the solution is made in both instances above must
be kept tightly closed, and should have frequent agitations.

III.—Take 100 parts of crude rubber or caoutchouc, cut it up in small
bits, and dissolve it in sufficient carbon bisulphide, add to it 15
parts of rosin and 10 parts of gum lac. The user must not overlook the
great inflammability and exceedingly volatile nature of the carbon
bisulphide.


«Tire Cements.»—

 I.—India rubber      15 grams
     Chloroform         2 ounces
     Mastic           1/2 ounce

Mix the india rubber and chloroform together, and when dissolved, the
mastic is added in powder. It is then allowed to stand a week or two
before using.

II.—The following is recommended as very good for cementing pneumatic
tires to bicycle wheels:

 Shellac         1 ounce
 Gutta percha    1 ounce
 Sulphur        45 grains
 Red lead       45 grains

Melt together the shellac and gutta percha, then add, with constant
stirring, the sulphur and red lead. Use while hot.

 III.—Raw gutta percha       16 ounces
       Carbon bisulphide      72 ounces
       Eau de Cologne      2 2/3 ounces

This cement is the subject of an English patent and is recommended for
patching cycle and motor tires, insulating electric wires, etc.

IV.—A good thick shellac varnish with which a small amount of castor
oil has been mixed will be found a very excellent bicycle rim cement.
The formula recommended by Edel is as follows:

 Shellac         1 pound
 Alcohol         1 pint

Mix and dissolve, then add:

 Castor oil    1/2 ounce

The castor oil prevents the cement from becoming hard and brittle.

A cement used to fasten bicycle tires may be made by melting together
at a gentle heat equal parts of gutta percha and asphalt. Apply hot.
Sometimes a small quantity each of sulphur and red lead is added (about
1 part of each to 20 parts of cement).


«Cements for Leather.»—

 I.—Gutta percha                20 parts
     Syrian asphalt, powdered    20 parts
     Carbon disulphide           50 parts
     Oil of turpentine           10 parts

The gutta percha, shredded fine, is dissolved in the carbon disulphide
and turpentine oil. To the solution add the asphalt and set away for
several days, or until the asphalt is dissolved. The cement should have
the consistency of honey. If the preparation is thinner than this let
it stand, open, for a few days. Articles to be patched should first be
washed with benzine.

 II.—Glue             1 ounce
      Starch paste     2 ounces
      Turpentine       1 drachm
      Water, a sufficient quantity.

Dissolve the glue in sufficient water with heat; mix the starch paste
with water; add the turpentine, and finally mix with the glue while hot.

III.—Soak for one day 1 pound of common glue in enough water to cover,
and 1 pound of isinglass in ale droppings. Then mix together and heat
gently until boiling. At this point add a little pure tannin and keep
boiling for an hour. If the glue and isinglass when mixed are too
thick, add water. This cement should be used warm and the jointed
leather pressed tightly together for 12 hours.

IV.—A waterproof cement for leather caoutchouc, or balata, is prepared
by dissolving gutta percha, caoutchouc, benzoin, gum lac, mastic,
etc., in some convenient solvent like carbon disulphide, chloroform,
ether, or alcohol. The best solvent, however, in the case of gutta
percha, is carbon disulphide and ether for mastic. The most favorable
proportions are as follows: Gutta percha, 200 to 300 parts to 100 parts
of the solvent, and 75 to 85 parts of mastic to 100 parts of ether.
From 5 to 8 parts of the former solution are mixed with 1 {24} part of
the latter, and the mixture is then boiled on the water bath, or in a
vessel fitted with a water jacket.

V.—Make a solution of 200 to 300 parts of caoutchouc, gutta percha,
india rubber, benzoin, or similar gum, in 1,000 parts of carbon
disulphide, chloroform, ether, or alcohol, and of this add 5 to 8 parts
to a solution of mastic (75 to 125 parts) in ether 100 parts, of equal
volume and boil together. Use hot water as the boiling agent, or boil
very cautiously on the water bath.

VI.—Forty parts of aluminum acetate, 10° B., 10 parts of glue, 10 parts
of rye flour. These materials are either to be simultaneously mixed and
boiled, or else the glue is to be dissolved in the aluminum acetate,
and the flour stirred into the solution. This is an excellent cement
for leather, and is used in so-called art work with leather, and with
leather articles which are made of several pieces. It is to be applied
warm.


«Rubber Cement for Cloth.»—The following formulas have been recommended:

I.—Caoutchouc, 5 parts; chloroform, 3 parts. Dissolve and add gum
mastic (powder) 1 part.

II.—Gutta percha, 16 parts; india rubber, 4 parts; pitch, 2 parts;
shellac, 1 part; linseed oil, 2 parts. Reduce the solids to small
pieces, melt together with the oil and mix well.

III.—The following cement for mending rubber shoes and tires will
answer similar purposes:

 Caoutchouc in shavings      10  parts by weight
 Rosin                        4  parts by weight
 Gum turpentine              40  parts by weight
 Oil turpentine, enough.

Melt together first the caoutchouc and rosin, then add the gum
turpentine, and when all is liquefied, add enough of oil of turpentine
to preserve it liquid. A second solution is prepared by dissolving
together:

 Caoutchouc                  10  parts by weight
 Chloroform                 280  parts by weight

For use these two solutions are mixed. Wash the hole in the rubber shoe
over with the cement, then a piece of linen dipped in it is placed
over it; as soon as the linen adheres to the sole, the cement is then
applied as thickly as required.


«CEMENTS FOR METALS AND FOR ATTACHING VARIOUS SUBSTANCES TO METALS:»


«Cements for Iron.»—I.—To make a good cement for iron on iron, make a
thick paste, with water, of powdered iron, 60 parts; sal ammoniac, 2
parts, and sulphur flowers, 1 part. Use while fresh.

II.—Sulphur flowers, 6 parts; dry white lead 6 parts, and powdered
borax, 1 part. Mix by sifting and keep as a dry powder in a closed tin
box. To use, make into a thin paste with strong sulphuric acid and
press together immediately. This cement will harden in 5 days.

 III.—Graphite            50 pounds
       Whiting             15 pounds
       Litharge            15 pounds

Make to a paste with a boiled oil.

IV.—Make a paste of white lead and asbestos.

V.—Make a paste of litharge and glycerine. Red lead may be added. This
also does for stone.

VI.—Make a paste of boiled oil of equal parts of white lead, pipe clay,
and black oxide of manganese.

VII.—Make iron filings to a paste with water glass.

 VIII.—Sal ammoniac      4 ounces
        Sulphur           2 ounces
        Iron filings     32 ounces

Make as much as is to be used at once to a paste with a little water.
This remark applies to both the following dry recipes:

 IX.—Iron filings              160 ounces
      Lime                       80 ounces
      Red lead                   16 ounces
      Alum                        8 ounces
      Sal ammoniac                2 ounces

  X.—Clay                       10 ounces
      Iron filings                4 ounces
      Salt                        1 ounce
      Borax                       1 ounce
      Black oxide of manganese    2 ounces

XI.—Mix:

 Iron filings      180 ounces
 Lime               45 ounces
 Salt                8 ounces

XII.—Mix:

 Iron filings      140 ounces
 Hydraulic lime     20 ounces
 Sand               25 ounces
 Sal ammoniac        3 ounces

Either of these last two mixtures is made into a paste with strong
vinegar just before use.

XIII.—Mix equal weights of zinc oxide and black oxide of manganese into
a paste with water glass.

XIV.—Copal varnish, 15 parts; hydrated lime, 10 parts; glue _de
nerfs_ (of sinews), 5 parts; fat drying oil, 5 parts; {25} powdered
turpentine, 3 parts; essence of turpentine, 2 parts. Dissolve the
glue _de nerfs_ on the water bath, add all the other substances, and
triturate intimately.

XV.—Copal varnish, 15 parts; powdered turpentine, 3 parts; essence
of turpentine, 2 parts; powdered fish glue, 3 parts; iron filings, 3
parts; ocher, 10 parts.

XVI.—To make a cement for cast iron, take 16 ounces cast-iron borings;
2 ounces sal ammoniac, and 1 ounce sulphur. Mix well and keep dry.
When ready to use take 1 part of this powder to 20 parts of cast-iron
borings and mix thoroughly into a stiff paste, adding a little water.

 XVII.—Litharge             2 parts
        Boiled linseed oil   2 parts
        White lead           1 part
        Copal                1 part

Heat together until of a uniform consistence and apply warm.

XVIII.—A cement for iron which is said to be perfectly waterproof and
fireproof is made by working up a mixture of equal weights of red lead
and litharge with glycerine till the mass is perfectly homogeneous and
has the consistency of a glazier’s putty. This cement is said to answer
well, even for very large iron vessels, and to be unsurpassable for
stopping up cracks in large iron pans of steam pipes.


«Cement for Metal, Glass, and Porcelain.»—A soft alloy is prepared by
mixing from 30 to 36 parts of copper precipitated in the form of a
fine brown powder, with sulphuric acid of a specific gravity of 1.85
in a cast-iron or porcelain mortar and incorporating by stirring with
75 parts of mercury, the acid being afterwards removed by washing with
water. In from 10 to 14 hours the amalgam becomes harder than tin, but
when heated to 692° F., it can be kneaded like wax. In this condition
it is applied to the surface to be cemented, and will fix them firmly
together on cooling.

Dissolve 1 drachm of gum mastic in 3 drachms of spirits of wine. In
a separate vessel containing water soak 3 drachms of isinglass. When
thoroughly soaked take it out of the water and put it into 5 drachms
of spirits of wine. Take a piece of gum ammoniacum the size of a large
pea and grind it up finely with a little spirits of wine and isinglass
until it has dissolved. Then mix the whole together with sufficient
heat. It will be found most convenient to place the vessel on a
hot-water bath. Keep this cement in a bottle closely stoppered, and
when it is to be used, place it in hot water until dissolved.


«Cements for Fastening Porcelain to Metal.»—I.—Mix equal parts of
alcohol (95 per cent) and water, and make a paste by incorporating
the liquid with 300 parts of finely pulverized chalk and 250 parts of
starch.

II.—Mix finely powdered burned lime, 300 parts, with powdered starch,
250 parts, and moisten the mixture with a compound of equal parts of
water and alcohol of 95 per cent until a paste results.

III.—Cement or plaster can be used if the surfaces are sufficiently
large; cement is the better article when the object may be exposed
to moisture or subjected to much pressure. A process which can be
recommended consists in mingling equal weights of chalk, brickdust,
clay, and Romain cement. These materials, pulverized and sifted are
incorporated with linseed oil in the proportion of half a kilo of oil
to 3 kilos of the mingled powder. The Romain or Romanic cement is so
designated from the district in France where the calcareous stone from
which it is prepared is found in considerable quantity. Although its
adhesive qualities are unquestioned, there are undoubtedly American
cements equally as good.

IV.—Acetate of lead, 46 1/2 parts by weight; alum, 46 1/2 parts by
weight; gum arabic, 76 parts by weight; flour, 500 parts by weight;
water, 2,000 parts by weight. Dissolve the acetate of lead and the alum
in a little water; on the other hand dissolve the gum arabic in water
by pouring, for instance, the 2 liters of boiling water on the gum
arabic reduced to powder. When the gum has dissolved, add the flour,
put all on the fire, and stir well with a piece of wood; then add the
solution of acetate of lead and the alum; agitate well so as to prevent
any lumps from forming; retire from the fire before allowing to boil.
This glue is used cold, does not peel off, and is excellent to make
wood, glass, cardboard, etc. adhere to metals.


«Cement for Leather and Iron.»—To face a cast-iron pulley with leather
apply acetic acid to the face of the pulley with a brush, which will
roughen it by rusting, and then when dry apply a cement made of 1 pound
of fish glue and 1/2 pound of common glue, melted in a mixture of
alcohol and water. The leather should then be placed on the pulley and
dried under pressure. {26}


«Amber Cements.»—I.—To solder together two pieces of yellow amber,
slightly heat the parts to be united and moisten them with a solution
of caustic soda; then bring the two pieces together quickly.

II.—Dissolve in a closed bottle 75 parts of cut-up caoutchouc in 60
parts of chloroform. Add 15 parts of mastic and let the mixture stand
in the cold until all has dissolved.

III.—Moisten the pieces to be joined with caustic potash and press
them together when warm. The union is so perfect that no trace of the
juncture is visible. A concentrated alcoholic solution of the rosin
over the amber, soluble in alcohol, is also employed for this purpose.
Another medium is a solution of hard and very finely powdered copal in
pure sulphuric ether. Coat both fractures, previously well cleaned,
with this solution and endeavor to combine them intimately by tying or
pressing.

IV.—In 30 parts by weight of copal dissolve 30 parts by weight of
alumina by means of a water bath. Bathe the surface to be cemented with
this gelatinous liquid, but very slightly. Unite the fractures and
press them together firmly until the mixture is dry.


«Acid-Proof Cements for Stoneware and Glass.»—I.—Mix with the aid of
heat equal weights of pitch, rosin, and plaster of Paris.

II.—Mix silicate of soda to a paste with ground glass.

III.—Mix boiled oil to a paste with china clay.

IV.—Mix coal tar to a paste with pipe clay.

V.—Mix boiled oil to a paste with quicklime.

VI.—Mix with the aid of heat: Sulphur, 100 pounds; tallow, 2 pounds;
rosin, 2 pounds. Thicken with ground glass.

VII.—Mix with the aid of heat: Rosin, 2 pounds; sulphur, 2 pounds;
brickdust, 4 pounds.

VIII.—Mix with the aid of heat 2 pounds of india rubber and 4 pounds of
oiled oil. Thicken with 12 pounds of pipe clay.

IX.—Fuse 100 pounds of india rubber with 7 pounds of tallow. Then make
to a paste with dry slaked lime and finally add 20 pounds of red lead.

X.—Mix with the aid of heat: Rosin, 24 pounds; red ocher, 8 pounds;
boiled oil, 2 pounds; plaster of Paris, 4 pounds.


«Acid-Proof Cement for Wood, Metals, etc.»—

 I.—Powdered asbestos            2 parts
     Ground baryta                1 part
     Sodium water-glass solution  2 parts

Mix.

II.—To withstand hot nitric acid the following is used:

 Sodium water-glass solution      2 parts
 Sand                             1 part
 Asbestos                         1 part

Mix.

 III.—Asbestos                   2 parts
       Sulphate of barium         3 parts
       Silicate of sodium         2 parts

By mixing these ingredients a cement strong enough to resist the
strongest nitric acid will be obtained.

IV.—If hot acids are dealt with, the following mixture will be found to
possess still more resistant powers:

 Silicate of sodium (50° Baumé)   2 parts
 Fine sand                        1 part
 Asbestos                         1 part

Both these cements take a few hours to set. If the cement is wanted to
set at once, use silicate of potassium, instead of silicate of sodium.
This mixture will be instantly effective and possesses the same power
of resistance as the other.


«Directions for Repairing Broken Glass, Porcelain, Bric-à-Brac.»—Broken
glass, china, bric-à-brac, and picture frames, not to name casts,
require each a different cement—in fact, several different cements.
Glass may be beautifully mended to look at, but seldom so as to be
safely used. For clear glass the best cement is isinglass dissolved in
gin. Put 2 ounces of isinglass in a clean, wide-mouthed bottle, add
half a pint of gin, and set in the sun until dissolved. Shake well
every day, and before using strain through double lawn, squeezing very
gently.

Spread a white cloth over the mending table and supply it with plenty
of clean linen rags, strong rubber bands, and narrow white tape,
also a basin of tepid water and a clean soft towel. Wash the broken
glass very clean, especially along the break, but take care not to
chip it further. Wet both broken edges well with the glue, using a
camel’s-hair pencil. Fit the break to a nicety, then slip on rubber
bands length- and cross-wise, every way they will hold. If they will
not hold true as upon a stemmed {27} thing, a vase or jug or scent
bottle, string half a dozen bands of the same size and strength upon a
bit of tape, and tie the tape about neck or base before beginning the
gluing. After the parts are joined slip another tape through the same
bands and tie it above the fracture; thus with all their strength the
bands pull the break together. The bands can be used thus on casts of
china—in fact, to hold anything mendable. In glass mending the greater
the pressure the better—if only it stops short of the breaking point.
Properly made the isinglass cement is as clear as water. When the
pieces fit true one on the other the break should be hardly visible, if
the pressure has been great enough to force out the tiny bubbles, which
otherwise refract the light and make the line of cleavage distressingly
apparent. Mended glass may be used to hold dry things—as rose leaves,
sachets, violet powder, even candies and fruits. But it will not bear
to have any sort of liquid left standing in it, nor to be washed beyond
a quick rinsing in tepid water. In wiping always use a very soft towel,
and pat the vessel dry with due regard to its infirmities.

Mend a lamp loose in the collar with sifted plaster of Paris mixed to a
very soft paste with beaten white of egg. Have everything ready before
wetting up the plaster, and work quickly so it may set in place. With
several lamps to mend wet enough plaster for one at a time. It takes
less than 5 minutes to set, and is utterly worthless if one tries
working it over. Metal work apart from the glass needs the soldering
iron. Dust the break well with powdered rosin, tie the parts firmly
together, lay the stick of solder above the break, and fetch the iron
down on it lightly but firmly. When the solder cools, remove the melted
rosin with a cloth dipped in alcohol.

Since breakables have so unhappy a knack of fracturing themselves in
such fashion they cannot possibly stand upright, one needs a sand box.
It is only a box of handy size with 8 inches of clean, coarse sand in
the bottom. Along with it there should be some small leaden weights,
with rings cast in them, running from an ounce to a quarter pound. Two
of each weight are needed. In use, tapes are tied to the rings, and
the pair of weights swung outside the edges of the box, so as to press
in place the upper part of a broken thing to which the tapes have been
fastened.

Set broken platters on edge in the sand box with the break up. The
sand will hold them firm, and the broken bit can be slapped on. It
is the same with plates and saucers. None of these commonly requires
weighting. But very fine pieces where an invisible seam is wanted
should be held firm until partly set, then have the pair of heaviest
weights accurately balanced across the broken piece. The weights are
also very useful to prop and stay topheavy articles and balance them so
they shall not get out of kilter. A cup broken, as is so common with
cups, can have the tape passed around it, crossing inside the handle,
then be set firmly in the sand, face down, and be held by the hanging
weights pulling one against the other.

The most dependable cement for china is pure white lead, ground
in linseed oil, so thick it will barely spread smoothly with a
knife. Given time enough to harden (some 3 months), it makes a seam
practically indestructible. The objection to it is that it always shows
in a staring white line. A better cement for fine china is white of egg
and plaster. Sift the plaster three times and tie a generous pinch of
it loosely in mosquito netting. Then beat the egg until it will stick
to the plaster. Have the broken edge very clean, cover both with the
beaten egg, dust well with the plaster, fit together at once, tie,
using rubber bands if possible, wrap loosely in very soft tissue paper,
and bury head and ears in the sand box, taking care that the break lies
so that the sand will hold it together. Leave in the box 24 hours.
After a week the superfluous plaster may be gently scraped away.


«General Formulas for Cements for Repairing Porcelain, Glassware,
Crockery, Plaster, and Meerschaum.»—I.—An excellent cement for joining
broken crockery and similar small articles can be made by melting 4 or
5 parts of rosin (or, better still, gum mastic) with 1 part of beeswax
in an iron spoon or similar vessel. Apply while hot. It will not stand
great heat.

II.—An excellent cement for porcelain and stoneware is obtained by
mixing 20 parts of fish glue with an equal weight of crystallizable
acetic acid and evaporate the mixture carefully to a syrupy consistency
so that it forms a gelatinous mass on cooling. For use the cement thus
obtained is made liquid again by heating and applied to the fracture
with a brush. The pieces should now be pressed firmly together, by
winding a twine tightly around them, until the cement has hardened.

III.—For luting vessels made of glass, {28} porcelain, etc., which
are to be used to hold strong acids, a mixture of asbestos powder,
water glass, and an indifferent powder (permanent white, sand, etc.)
is recommended. To begin with, asbestos powder is made into a pulp
with three or four times the quantity (weight) of a solution of soda
water glass (of 30° B.). The same is exceedingly fat and plastic, but
is not very well suited for working, as it shrinks too much and cracks
when drying. By an addition of fine writing sand of the same weight
as the asbestos used, the mass can be made less fat, so as to obviate
shrinking, without detracting from the plasticity. Small vessels were
molded from it and dried in the air, to be tested afterwards. Put in
water, the hardened mass becomes soft again and falls apart. Brought
into contact, however, with very strong mineral acids, it becomes even
firmer and withstands the liquid perfectly. Concentrated nitric acid
was kept in such small vessels without the mass being visibly attacked
or anything penetrating it. The action of the acid manifestly has the
effect that silicic acid is set free from the water glass in excess,
which clogs up the pores entirely and contributes to the lutation.
Later on, the mass cannot be dissolved by pure water any more. The mass
is also highly fireproof. One of the molded bodies can be kept glowing
in a Bunsen gas flame for about half a day after treatment with acid,
without slagging in the least. For many purposes it ought to be welcome
to have such a mass at hand. It cannot be kept ready for use, however,
as it hardens a few hours after being prepared; if potash water glass
is used, instead of the soda composition, this induration takes place
still more quickly.

IV.—Cement for Glass, Porcelain, etc.—

 Isinglass (fish glue)      50 parts
 Gum ammoniac                4 parts
 Gum mastic                  2 parts
 Alcohol, 95 per cent       10 parts
 Water, q. s.

Soak the isinglass in cold water over night, or until it has become
swollen and soft throughout. In the morning throw off any superfluous
fluid and throw the isinglass on a clean towel or other coarse cloth,
and hang it up in such a way that any free residual water will drain
away. Upon doing this thoroughly depends, in a great measure, the
strength of the cement. When the gelatin has become thoroughly drained
put it into a flask or other container, place it in the water bath and
heat carefully until it becomes fluid, being careful not to let it come
to a boil, as this injures its adhesive properties (the same may be
said in regard to glues and gelatins of all kinds). Dissolve the gums
in the alcohol and add the solution to the gelatin after removing the
same from the water bath, and letting it cool down to about 160° F.
Stir well together or mix by agitation.

The following precautions must be observed: 1. Both surfaces to be
joined must be absolutely clean, free from dust, dirt, grease, etc.
2. Where the cement is one that requires the application of heat
before use, the objects to be united should also _be heated to a point
at least as high as the melting point of the cement_. Otherwise, the
cement on application is chilled and consequently fails to make a
lasting joint. 3. The thinner the layer of cement the stronger the
joint; avoid, therefore, using too much of the binding material. Cover
both surfaces to be united, coapt them exactly, and press together as
closely as possible. In this manner the thinnest possible layer is
secured. 4. Bind the parts securely together, and let remain without
loosening or attempting to use the article for 2 or 3 days or longer. A
liquid cement acquires its full strength only after evaporation of the
fluids used as solvents, and this can occur only from the infinitesimal
line of exposed surface.

V.—Liquid Porcelain Cement.—Fish glue, 20 parts; glass acetic acid, 20
parts; heat together until the mass gelatinizes on cooling.

VI.—Take 1 ounce of Russian isinglass, cut in small pieces, and bruise
well; then add 6 ounces of warm water, and leave it in a warm place
for from 24 to 48 hours. Evaporate the resulting solution to about 3
ounces. Next dissolve 1/2 ounce of mastic in 4 ounces of alcohol,
and add the mastic solution to the isinglass in small quantities at a
time, continuing the heat and stirring well. While still hot strain the
liquid through muslin.

VII.—For optical glasses, Canada balsam is employed, the two pieces
being firmly pressed together. After a while, especially by humidity,
punctures will form, and the glass is separated by a mist of varying
reflexes, while in certain climates the heat will melt the balsam. For
all other glass articles which require only simple treatment, such as
knobs of covers, plates, etc., silicate of potash is excellent.

VIII.—Glass Cement.—Dissolve in 150 parts of acetic acid of 96 per
cent, 100 {29} parts of gelatin by the use of heat, and add ammonium
bichromate, 5 parts. This glue must be kept away from the light.

 IX.—White glue                 10 parts
      Potassium bichromate        2 parts
      Water                     100 parts

The glue is dissolved in a portion of the water by the aid of heat,
the bichromate in the remainder, and the liquids mixed, the mixing
being done in a feebly lighted place, and the mixture is then kept
in the dark. It is applied in feeble light, being reliquefied by
gentle heat, and the glass, the fractured pieces being tightly clamped
together, is then exposed to a strong light for some time. By this
exposure the cement becomes insoluble. This is waterproof cement for
glass.

X.—Diamond Glass Cement.—Dissolve 100 parts of fish glue in 150 parts
of 90 per cent alcohol and add, with constant stirring, 200 parts of
powdered rosin. This cement must be preserved in absolutely tight
bottles, as it solidifies very quickly.

XI.—To unite objects of crystal dissolve 8 parts of caoutchouc and 100
parts of gum mastic in 600 parts of chloroform. Set aside, hermetically
closed, for 8 days; then apply with a brush, cold.

XII.—To make a transparent cement for glass, digest together for a week
in the cold 1 ounce of india rubber, 67 ounces of chloroform, and 40
ounces of mastic.

XIII.—A mixture of traumaticin, a solution of caoutchouc in chloroform,
and a concentrated solution of water glass make a capital cement for
uniting articles of glass. Not only is the joint very strong, but it
is transparent. Neither changes of temperature nor moisture affect the
cement.

XIV.—A transparent cement for porcelain is prepared by dissolving 75
parts of india rubber, cut into small pieces, in a bottle containing
60 parts chloroform; to this add 15 parts green mastic. Let the
bottle stand in the cold until the ingredients have become thoroughly
dissolved.

XV.—Some preparations resist the action of heat and moisture a short
time, but generally yield very quickly. The following cement for glass
has proven most resistant to liquids and heat:

 Silver litharge          1,000 parts
 White lead                  50 parts
 Boiled linseed oil           3 parts
 Copal varnish                1 part

Mix the lead and litharge thoroughly, and the oil and copal in the
same manner, and preserve separately. When needed for use, mix in
the proportions indicated (150 parts of the powder to 4 parts of the
liquid) and knead well together. Apply to the edges of the glass, bind
the broken parts together, and let stand for from 24 to 48 hours.

XVI.—To reunite plaster articles dissolve small pieces of celluloid in
ether; in a quarter of an hour decant, and use the pasty deposit which
remains for smearing the edges of the articles. It dries rapidly and is
insoluble in water.

XVII.—To Mend Wedgwood Mortars.—It is easy enough to mend mortars so
that they may be used for making emulsions and other light work which
does not tax their strength too much. But a mended mortar will hardly
be able to stand the force required for powdering hard substances. A
good cement for mending mortars is the following:

 _a._—Glass flour elutriated               10 parts
       Fluorspar, powdered and elutriated   20 parts
       Silicate of soda                     60 parts

Both glass and fluorspar must be in the finest possible condition,
which is best done by shaking each in fine powder, with water allowing
the coarser particles to deposit, and then to pour off the remainder,
which holds the finest particles in suspension. The mixture must be
made very rapidly by quick stirring, and when thoroughly mixed must be
at once applied. This is said to yield an excellent cement.

 _b._—Freshly burnt plaster of Paris  5 parts
       Freshly burnt lime              1 part
       White of egg, sufficient.

Reduce the first two ingredients to a very fine powder and mix them
well; moisten the two surfaces to be united with a small quantity of
white of egg to make them adhesive; then mix the powder very rapidly
with the white of egg and apply the mixture to the broken surfaces. If
they are large, two persons should do this, each applying the cement
to one portion. The pieces are then firmly pressed together and left
undisturbed for several days. The less cement is used the better will
the articles hold together.

_c._—If there is no objection to dark-colored cement, the very best
that can be used is probably marine glue. This is made thus: Ten parts
of caoutchouc or india rubber are dissolved in 120 parts of benzine
or petroleum naphtha, with {30} the aid of a gentle heat. When the
solution is complete, which sometimes requires from 10 to 14 days,
20 parts of asphalt are melted in an iron vessel and the caoutchouc
solution is poured in very slowly in a fine stream and under continued
heating, until the mass has become homogeneous and nearly all the
solvent has been driven off. It is then poured out and cast into
greased tin molds. It forms dark brown or black cakes, which are very
hard to break. This cement requires considerable heat to melt it; and
to prevent it from being burnt it is best to heat a capsule containing
a piece of it first on a water bath until the cake softens and begins
to be liquid. It is then carefully wiped dry and heated over a naked
flame, under constant stirring, up to about 300° F. The edges of the
article to be mended should, if possible, also be heated to at least
212° F., so as to permit the cement to be applied at leisure and with
care. The thinner the cement is applied the better it binds.


«Meerschaum Cements.»—I.—If the material is genuine (natural)
meerschaum a lasting joint can be made between the parts by proceeding
as follows: Clean a clove or two of garlic (the fresher the better) by
removing all the outside hull of skin; throw into a little mortar and
mash to a paste. Rub this paste over each surface to be united and join
quickly. Bring the parts as closely together as possible and fasten in
this position. Have ready some boiling fresh milk; place the article in
it and continue the boiling for 30 minutes. Remove and let cool slowly.
If properly done, this makes a joint that will stand any ordinary
treatment, and is nearly invisible. For composition, use a cement made
of quicklime, rubbed to a thick cream with egg albumen.

II.—Mix very fine meerschaum shavings with albumen or dissolve casein
in water glass, stir finely powdered magnesia into the mass, and use
the cement at once. This hardens quickly.


«Asbestos Cement.»—Ground asbestos may be made into a cement which
will stand a high degree of heat by simply mixing it with a solution
of sodium silicate. By subsequent treatment with a solution of calcium
chloride the mass may be made insoluble, silicate of calcium being
formed.

A cement said to stand a high degree of heat and to be suitable for
cementing glass, porcelain, or other vessels intended to hold corrosive
acids, is this one:

 I.—Asbestos         2 parts
     Barium sulphate  3 parts
     Sodium silicate  2 parts

By mixing these ingredients a cement strong enough to resist the
strongest nitric acid will be obtained. If hot acids are dealt with,
the following mixture will be found to possess still more resistant
powers:

 II.—Sodium silicate   2 parts
      Fine sand         1 part
      Asbestos powder   1 part

Both these cements take a few hours to set. If the cement is wanted to
set at once, use potassium silicate instead of sodium silicate. This
mixture will be instantly effective, and possesses the same power of
resistance as the other.


«Parisian Cement.»—Mix 1 part of finely ground glass powder, obtained
by levigation, with 3 parts of finely powdered zinc oxide rendered
perfectly free from carbonic acid by calcination. Besides prepare a
solution of 1 part, by weight, of borax in a very small quantity of
hot water and mix this with 50 parts of a highly concentrated zinc
chloride solution of 1.5 to 1.6 specific gravity. As is well known the
mixture of this powder with the liquid into a soft uniform paste is
accomplished only immediately before use. The induration to a stonelike
mass takes place within a few minutes, the admixture of borax retarding
the solidification somewhat. The pure white color of the powder may be
tinted with ocher, manganese, etc., according to the shade desired.


«Strong Cement.»—Pour over well-washed and cleaned casein 12 1/2
parts of boiled linseed oil and the same amount of castor oil. Boil.
Stir actively and add a small amount of a saturated aqueous solution of
alum; remove from the fire and set aside. After a while a milky looking
fluid will separate and rise. This should be poured off. To the residue
add 120 parts of rock candy syrup and 6 parts of dextrin.


«A Cheap and Excellent Cement.»—A cheap and excellent cement, insoluble
after drying in water, petroleum, oils, carbon disulphide, etc., very
hard when dry and of very considerable tensile strength, is composed
of casein and some tannic-acid compound, as, for instance, calcium
tannate, and is prepared as follows:

First, a tannin solution is prepared either by dissolving a tannin
salt, or by extraction from vegetable sources (as barks from certain
trees, etc.), to which {31} is added clear lime water (obtained by
filtering milk of lime, or by letting the milk stand until the lime
subsides) until no further precipitation occurs, and red litmus paper
plunged in the fluid is turned blue. The liquid is now separated
from its precipitate, either by decantation or otherwise, and the
precipitate is dried. In operating with large quantities of the
substance, this is done by passing a stream of atmospheric air through
the same. The lime tannate obtained thus is then mixed with casein in
proportions running from 1:1 up to 1:10, and the mixture, thoroughly
dried, is milled into the consistency of the finest powder. This
powder has now only to be mixed with water to be ready for use, the
consistency of the preparation depending upon the use to which it is to
be put.


«Universal Cement.»—Take gum arabic, 100 parts, by weight; starch, 75
parts, by weight; white sugar, 21 parts, by weight; camphor, 4 parts,
by weight. Dissolve the gum arabic in a little water; also dissolve the
starch in a little water. Mix and add the sugar and camphor. Boil on
the water bath until a paste is formed which, on coating, will thicken.


«Cement for Ivory.»—Melt together equal parts of gutta percha and
ordinary pitch. The pieces to be united have to be warmed.


«Cement for Belts.»—Mix 50 parts, by weight, of fish glue with equal
parts of whey and acetic acid. Then add 50 parts, by weight, of garlic
in paste form and boil the whole on the water bath. At the same time
make a solution of 100 parts, by weight, of gelatin in the same
quantity of whey, and mix both liquids. To the whole add, finally,
50 parts, by weight, of 90-per-cent alcohol and, after filtration,
a cement is obtained which can be readily applied with a brush and
possesses extraordinary binding qualities.


«Cement for Chemical Apparatus.»—Melt together 20 parts of gutta
percha, 10 parts of yellow wax, and 30 parts of shellac.


«Size Over Portland Cement.»—The best size to use on Portland cement
molding for wall paper would ordinarily be glue and alum size put on
thin and warm, made in proportion of 1/2 pound of glue and same
weight of alum dissolved in separate pails, then poured together.


«Aquarium Cements.»—

 I.—Litharge                   3 ounces
     Fine white sand            3 ounces
     Plaster of Paris           3 ounces
     Rosin, in fine powder      1 ounce
     Linseed oil, enough.
     Drier, enough.

Mix the first three ingredients, add sufficient linseed oil to make a
homogeneous paste, and then add a small quantity of drier. This should
stand a few hours before it is used. It is said that glass joined to
iron with this cement will break before it will come loose.

 II.—Litharge                           1 ounce
      Fine white sand                    1 ounce
      Plaster of Paris                   1 ounce
      Manganese borate                  20 grains
      Rosin, in fine powder          3 1/2 pounds
      Linseed varnish oil, enough.

III.—Take equal parts of flowers of sulphur, ammonium chloride, and
iron filings, and mix thoroughly with boiled linseed oil. Finally, add
enough white lead to form a thin paste.

 IV.—Powdered graphite        6 parts
      Slaked lime              3 parts
      Barium sulphate          8 parts
      Linseed varnish oil      7 parts

V.—Simply mix equal parts of white and red lead with a little
kettle-boiled linseed oil.


«Substitute for Cement on Grinder Disks.»—A good substitute in place of
glue or various kinds of cement for fastening emery cloth to the disks
of grinders of the Gardner type is to heat or warm the disk and apply a
thin coating of beeswax; then put the emery cloth in place and allow to
set and cool under pressure.


«Knockenplombe.»—If 1 part of thymol be mixed with 2 parts of iodoform
we obtain a substance that retains its fluidity down to 72° C.
(161.6° F.). If the temperature be carried down to 60° C. (140° F.)
it suddenly becomes solid and hard. If, in its liquid condition, this
substance be mixed intimately with an equal quantity of calcined bone,
it forms a cement that can be molded or kneaded into any shape, that,
at the temperature of the body (98° F.), becomes as hard as stone, a
fact that suggests many useful purposes to which the mixture may be put.


«Cement for General Use.»—Take gum arabic, 100 parts, by weight;
starch, 75 {32} parts by weight; white sugar, 21 parts, by weight;
camphor, 4 parts, by weight. Dissolve the gum arabic in a little water.
On the other hand, dissolve the starch also in some water. When this is
done add the sugar and the camphor and put in a water bath. Boil until
a paste is formed, which must be rather thin, because it will thicken
on cooling.


«Strong Cement.»—Pour over well-washed and cleaned casein 12 1/2
parts of boiled linseed oil and the same amount of castor oil, put on
the fire and bring to a boil; stir actively and add a small amount of
a saturated aqueous solution of alum; remove from the fire and set
aside. After standing a while a milky-looking fluid will separate at
the bottom and rise to the top. This should be poured off and to the
residue add 120 parts of rock-candy syrup and 6 parts of dextrine.


«Syndeticon.»—I.—Slake 100 parts of burnt lime with 50 parts of water,
pour off the supernatant water; next, dissolve 60 parts of lump sugar
in 160 parts of water, add to the solution 15 parts of the slaked
lime, heat to 70° or 80° C. (158° to 176° F.), and set aside, shaking
frequently. Finally dissolve 50 to 60 parts of genuine Cologne glue in
250 parts of the clear solution.

II.—A solution of 10 parts gum arabic and 30 parts of sugar in 100
parts of soda water glass.

III.—A hot solution of 50 parts of Cologne glue in 60 parts of a
20-per-cent aqueous calcium-chloride solution.

IV.—A solution of 50 parts of Cologne glue in 60 parts of acetic acid.

V.—Soak isinglass (fish bladder) in acetic acid of 70 per cent until it
swells up, then rub it up, adding a little water during the process.


«“Shio Liao.”»—Under this name the Chinese manufacture an excellent
cement which takes the place of glue, and with which gypsum, marble,
porcelain, stone, and stoneware can be cemented. It consists of the
following parts (by weight): Slaked powdered lime, 54 parts; powdered
alum, 6 parts; and fresh, well-strained blood, 40 parts. These
materials are stirred thoroughly until an intimately bound mass of
the consistency of a more or less stiff salve is obtained. In paste
form this mass is used as cement; in a liquid state it is employed for
painting all sorts of articles which are to be rendered waterproof and
durable. Cardboard covers, which are coated with it two or three times,
become as hard as wood. The Chinese paint their houses with “shio liao”
and glaze their barrels with it, in which they transport oil and other
greasy substances.


«LUTES.»

Lutes always consist of a menstruum and dissolved or suspended solids,
and they must not be attacked by the gases and liquids coming in
contact with them. In some cases the constituents of the lute react to
form a more strongly adhering mass.

The conditions of application are, in brief:

(_a_) Heating the composition to make it plastic until firmly fixed in
place.

(_b_) Heating the surfaces.

(_c_) Applying the lute with water or a volatile solvent, which is
allowed to volatilize.

(_d_) Moistening the surfaces with water, oil, etc. (the menstruum of
the lute itself).

(_e_) Applying the lute in workable condition and the setting taking
place by chemical reactions.

(_f_) Setting by hydration.

(_g_) Setting by oxidation.

These principles will be found to cover nearly all cases.

Joints should not be ill-fitting, depending upon the lute to do what
the pipes or other parts of the apparatus should do. In most cases one
part of the fitting should overlap the other, so as to make a small
amount of the lute effective and to keep the parts of the apparatus
rigid, as a luted joint is not supposed to be a particularly strong
one, but rather one quickly applied, effective while in place and
easily removed.

Very moderate amounts of the lute should be used, as large amounts are
likely to develop cracks, be rubbed off, etc.

A classification may be given as follows:

(1) Plaster of Paris.

(2) Hydraulic cement.

(3) Clay.

(4) Lime.

(5) Asphalt and pitch.

(6) Rosin.

(7) Rubber.

(8) Linseed oil.

(9) Casein and albumen.

(10) Silicates of soda and oxychloride cements.

(11) Flour and starch.

(12) Miscellaneous, including core compounds.

I. Plaster of Paris is, of course, often used alone as a paste; which
quickly {33} solidifies, for gas and wood distillation retorts, etc.,
and similar places where quickness of setting is requisite. It is more
often, however, used with some fibrous material to give it greater
strength. Asbestos is the most commonly used material of these, as it
will stand a high temperature. When that is not so important, straw,
plush trimmings, hair, etc., are used as binders, while broken stone,
glass, and various mineral substances are used as fillers, but they do
not add anything to the strength. These lutes seem to be particularly
suitable for oil vapors and hydrocarbon gases.

Formulas:

 (1) Plaster and water.
 (2) Plaster (wet) and asbestos.
 (3) Plaster (wet) and straw.
 (4) Plaster (wet) and plush trimmings.
 (5) Plaster (wet) and hair.
 (6) Plaster (wet) and broken stone, etc.

II. Hydraulic Cement.—Cement is used either alone or with sand,
asbestos, etc. These lutes are suitable for nitric acid. When used
with substances such as rosin or sulphur, cement is probably employed
because it is in such a fine state of division and used as a filler and
not because of any powers of setting by hydration.

Formulas:

 (1) Cement—neat.
 (2) Cement and asbestos.
 (3) Cement and sand.

III. Clay.—This most frequently enters into the composition of lutes as
a filler, but even then the very finely divided condition of certain
grades renders it valuable, as it gives body to a liquid, such as
linseed oil, which, unless stiffened, would be pervious to a gas,
the clay in all cases being neutral. Thus, for luting pipes carrying
chlorine, a stiff paste of clay and molasses has been suggested by
Theo. Köller in _Die Surrogate_, but it soon gives way.

Formulas:

 (1) Clay and linseed oil.
 (2) Same, using fire clay.
 (3) Clay and molasses.

(1) Is suitable for steam, etc.; (2) for chlorine, and (3) for oil
vapors.

IV. Lime is used in the old lute known as putty, which consists of
caustic lime and linseed oil. Frequently the lime is replaced by chalk
and china clay, but the lime should be, in part at least, caustic, so
as to form a certain amount of lime soap. Lime is also used in silicate
and casein compositions, which are very strong and useful, but will be
described elsewhere.

Formulas:

 (1)  Lime and boiled oil to stiff mass.
 (2)  Clay, etc., boiled oil to stiff mass.

V. Asphalt and Pitch.—These substances are used in lutes somewhat
interchangeably. As a rule, pitch makes the stronger lutes. Tar is
sometimes used, but, because of the light oils and, frequently, water
contained, it is not so good as either of the others.

Asphalt dissolved in benzol is very useful for uniting glass for
photographic, microscopical, and other uses. Also for coating wood,
concrete, etc., where the melted asphalt would be too thick to cover
well. Benzol is the cheapest solvent that is satisfactory for this
purpose, as the only one that is cheaper would be a petroleum naphtha,
which does not dissolve all the constituents of the asphalt. For
waterproofing wood, brick, concrete, etc., melted asphalt alone is
much used, but when a little paraffine is added, it improves its
waterproofing qualities, and in particular cases boiled oil is also
added to advantage.

Formulas:

 1. Refined lake asphalt.

 2. Asphalt                4 parts
    Paraffine              1 part

 3. Asphalt               10 parts
    Paraffine              2 parts
    Boiled oil             1 part

Any of these may be thinned with hot benzol or toluol. Toluol is
less volatile than benzol and about as cheap, if not cheaper, the
straw-colored grades being about 24 cents per gallon.

Examples of so-called “stone cement” are:

 4. Pitch                 8 parts
    Rosin                 6 parts
    Wax                   1 part
    Plaster          1/4 to 1/2 part

 5. Pitch                 8 parts
    Rosin                 7 parts
    Sulphur               2 parts
    Stone powder          1 part

These compositions are used to unite slate slabs and stoneware for
domestic, engineering, and chemical purposes. Various rosin and pitch
mixtures are used for these purposes, and the proportions of these two
ingredients are determined by the consistency desired. Sulphur and
stone powder are added to prevent the formation of cracks, sulphur
acting chemically and stone powder mechanically. {34} Where the lute
would come in contact with acid or vapors of the same, limestone should
not be the powder used, otherwise it is about the best. Wax is a useful
ingredient to keep the composition from getting brittle with age.

A class of lutes under this general grouping that are much used are
so-called “marine glues” (q. v.). They must be tough and elastic. When
used for calking on a vessel they must expand and contract with the
temperature and not crack or come loose.

Formulas:

 6. Pitch                  3 parts
    Shellac                2 parts
    Pure crude rubber      1 part

 7. Pitch                  1 part
    Shellac                1 part
    Rubber substitute      1 part

These are used by melting over a burner.

VI. Rosin, Shellac, and Wax.—A strong cement, used as a stone cement,
is:

 1. Rosin                  8 parts
    Wax                    1 part
    Turpentine             1 part

It has little or no body, and is used in thin layers.

For nitric and hydrochloric acid vapors:

 2. Rosin                  1 part
    Sulphur                1 part
    Fire clay              2 parts

Sulphur gives great hardness and permanency to rosin lutes, but this
composition is somewhat brittle.

Good waterproof lutes of this class are:

 3. Rosin                  1 part
    Wax                    1 part
    Powdered stone         2 parts

 4. Shellac                5 parts
    Wax                    1 part
    Turpentine             1 part
    Chalk, etc.      8 to 10 parts

For a soft air-tight paste for ground-glass surfaces:

 5. Wax                    1 part
    Vaseline               1 part

6. A strong cement, without body, for metals (other than copper or
alloys of same), porcelain, and glass is made by letting 1 part of
finely powdered shellac stand with 10 parts of ammonia water until
solution is effected.

VII. Rubber.—Because of its toughness, elasticity, and resistance to
alterative influences, rubber is a very useful constituent in lutes,
but its price makes its use very limited.

Leather Cement.

 1. Asphalt                1 part
    Rosin                  1 part
    Gutta percha           4 parts
    Carbon disulphide     20 parts

To stand acid vapors:

 2. Rubber                 1 part
    Linseed oil            3 parts
    Fire clay              3 parts

3. Plain Rubber Cement.—Cut the crude rubber in small pieces and then
add the solvent. Carbon disulphide is the best, benzol good and much
cheaper, but gasoline is probably most extensively used because of its
cheapness.

4. To make corks and wood impervious to steam and water, soak them in
a rubber solution as above; if it is desired to protect them from oil
vapors, use glue composition. (See Section IX.)

VIII. Linseed Oil.—This is one of the most generally useful substances
we have for luting purposes, if absorbed by a porous substance that is
inert.

Formulas: 1. China clay of general utility for aqueous vapors.

Linseed oil of general utility for aqueous vapors.

2. Lime forming the well-known putty.

Linseed oil forming the well-known putty.

3. Red or white lead and linseed oil.

These mixtures become very strong when set and are best diluted with
powdered glass, clay, or graphite. There are almost an endless number
of lutes using metallic oxides and linseed oil. A very good one, not
getting as hard as those containing lead, is:

4. Oxide of iron and linseed oil.

IX. Casein, Albumen, and Glue.—These, if properly made, become very
tough and tenacious; they stand moderate heat and oil vapors, but not
acid vapors.

 1. Finely powdered casein    12 parts
    Slaked lime (fresh)       50 parts
    Fine sand                 50 parts
    Water to thick mush.

A very strong cement which stands moderate heat is the following:

 2. Casein in very fine powder       1 part
    Rubbed up with silicate of soda  3 parts

A strong lute for general purposes, {35} which must be used promptly
when made:

3. White of egg made into a paste with slaked lime.

A composition for soaking corks, wood, packing, etc., to render them
impervious to oil vapors, is:

 Gelatine or good glue         2 parts
 Glycerine              1/2 to 1 part
 Water                         6 parts
 Oil of wintergreen, etc., to keep from spoiling.

X. Silicate of Oxychloride Cements.—For oil vapors, standing the
highest heat:

1. A stiff paste of silicate of soda and asbestos.

Gaskets for superheated steam, retorts, furnaces, etc.:

2. Silicate of soda and powdered glass; dry the mixture and heat.

Not so strong, however, as the following:

 3. Silicate of soda           50 parts
    Asbestos                   15 parts
    Slaked lime                10 parts

Metal Cement:

 4. Silicate of soda            1 part
    Oxides of metal, such
      as zinc oxide; litharge,
      iron oxide,
      singly or mixed           1 part

Very hard and extra strong compositions:

 5. Zinc oxide                  2 parts
    Zinc chloride               1 part
    Water to make a paste.

 6. Magnesium oxide             2 parts
    Magnesium chloride          1 part
    Water to make a paste.

XI. Flour and Starch Compositions.—

1. The well-known flaxseed poultice sets very tough, but does not stand
water or condensed steam.

2. Flour and molasses, made by making a stiff composition of the two.
This is an excellent lute to have at hand at all times for emergency
use, etc.

3. Stiff paste of flour and strong zinc-chloride solution forms a
more impervious lute, and is more permanent as a cement. This is good
for most purposes, at ordinary temperature, where it would not be in
contact with nitric-acid vapors or condensing steam.

4. A mixture of dextrine and fine sand makes a good composition, mainly
used as core compound.

XII. Miscellaneous.—

 1. Litharge.
    Glycerine.

Mixed to form a stiff paste, sets and becomes very hard and strong, and
is very useful for inserting glass tubes, etc., in iron or brass.

For a high heat:

 2. Alumina              1 part
    Sand                 4 parts
    Slaked lime          1 part
    Borax              1/2 part
    Water sufficient.

A class of mixtures that can be classified only according to their
intended use are core compounds.

 I.—Dextrine, about          1 part
     Sand, about             10 parts
     With enough water to form a paste.

II.—Powdered anthracite coal, with molasses to form a stiff paste.

 III.—Rosin, partly saponified by soda lye  1 part
       Flour                                 2 parts
       Sand (with sufficient water)          4 parts

(These proportions are approximate and the amount of sand can be
increased for some purposes.)

 IV.—Glue, powdered                 1 part
      Flour                          4 parts
      Sand (with sufficient water)   6 parts

For some purposes the following mixture is used. It does not seem to be
a gasket or a core compound:

 V.—Oats (or wheat) ground   25 parts
     Glue, powdered            6 parts
     Sal ammoniac              1 part

_Paper read by Samuel S. Sadtler before the Franklin Institute._


«PASTES:»


«Dextrine Pastes.»—

 I.—Borax, powdered          60 parts
     Dextrine, light yellow  480 parts
     Glucose                  50 parts
     Water                   420 parts

By the aid of heat, dissolve the borax in the water and add the
dextrine and glucose. Continue the heat, but do not let the mixture
boil, and stir constantly until a homogeneous solution is obtained,
from time to time renewing the water lost by evaporation with hot
water. Finally, bring up to full weight (1,000 parts) by the addition
of hot water, then strain through flannel. Prepared in this manner the
paste remains bright and clear for a long time. It has extraordinary
adhesive properties and dries very rapidly. If care is not taken to
keep the cooking temperature below the boiling point of water, the
paste is apt to become brown and to be very brittle on drying. {36}

II.—Dissolve in hot water a sufficient quantity of dextrine to bring
it to the consistency of honey. This forms a strong adhesive paste
that will keep a long time unchanged, if the water is not allowed to
evaporate. Sheets of paper may be prepared for extempore labels by
coating one side with the paste and allowing it to dry; by slightly
wetting the gummed side, the label will adhere to glass. This paste is
very useful in the office or laboratory.

III.—Pour over 1,000 parts of dextrine 450 parts of soft water and stir
the mixture for 10 minutes. After the dextrine has absorbed the water,
put the mixture over the fire, or, preferably, on a water bath, and
heat, with lively stirring for 5 minutes, or until it forms a light
milk-like liquid, on the surface of which little bubbles begin to form
and the liquid is apparently beginning to boil. Do not allow it to come
to a boil. Remove from the fire and set in a bucket of cold water to
cool off. When cold add to every 1,000 parts of the solution 51 parts
glycerine and as much salicylic acid as will stand on the tip of a
knife blade. If the solution is too thick, thin it with water that has
been boiled and cooled off again. Do not add any more glycerine or the
solution will never set.

IV.—Soften 175 parts of thick dextrine with cold water and 250 parts of
boiling water added. Boil for 5 minutes and then add 30 parts of dilute
acetic acid, 30 parts glycerine, and a drop or two of clove oil.

V.—Powder coarsely 400 parts dextrine and dissolve in 600 parts of
water. Add 20 parts glycerine and 10 parts glucose and heat to 90° C.
(195° F.).

VI.—Stir 400 parts of dextrine with water and thin the mass with 200
parts more water, 20 parts glucose, and 10 parts aluminum sulphate.
Heat the whole to 90° C. (195° F.) in the water bath until the whole
mass becomes clear and liquid.

VII.—Warm 2 parts of dextrine, 5 parts of water, 1 part of acetic acid,
1 part of alcohol together, with occasional stirring until a complete
solution is attained.

VIII.—Dissolve by the aid of heat 100 parts of builders’ glue in 200
parts of water add 2 parts of bleached shellac dissolved previously
in 50 parts of alcohol. Dissolve by the aid of heat 50 parts of
dextrine in 50 parts of water, and mix the two solutions by stirring
the second slowly into the first. Strain the mixture through a cloth
into a shallow dish and let it harden. When needed cut off a piece of
sufficient size and warm until it becomes liquid and if necessary or
advisable thin with water.

IX.—Stir up 10 parts of dextrine with sufficient water to make a thick
broth. Then, over a light fire, heat and add 25 parts of sodium water
glass.

X.—Dissolve 5 parts of dextrine in water and add 1 part of alum.


«Fastening Cork to Metal.»—In fastening cork to iron and brass, even
when these are lacquered, a good sealing wax containing shellac will
be found to serve the purpose nicely. Wax prepared with rosin is not
suitable. The cork surface is painted with the melted sealing wax.
The surface of the metal is heated with a spirit flame entirely free
from soot, until the sealing wax melts when pressed upon the metallic
surface. The wax is held in the flame until it burns, and it is then
applied to the hot surface of the metal. The cork surface painted with
sealing wax is now held in the flame, and as soon as the wax begins to
melt the cork is pressed firmly on the metallic surface bearing the wax.


«To Paste Celluloid on Wood, Tin, or Leather.»—To attach celluloid to
wood, tin, or leather, a mixture of 1 part of shellac, 1 part of spirit
of camphor, 3 to 4 parts of alcohol and spirit of camphor (90°) is well
adapted, in which 1 part of camphor is dissolved without heating in 7
parts of spirit of wine of 0.832 specific gravity, adding 2 parts of
water.


«To Paste Paper Signs on Metal or Cloth.»—A piece of gutta percha of
the same size as the label is laid under the latter and the whole is
heated. If the heating cannot be accomplished by means of a spirit lamp
the label should be ironed down under a protective cloth or paper in
the same manner as woolen goods are pressed. This method is also very
useful for attaching paper labels to minerals.


«Paste for Fastening Leather, Oilcloth, or Similar Stuff to Table
or Desk Tops, etc.»—Use the same paste for leather as for oilcloth
or other goods, but moisten the leather before applying the paste.
Prepare the paste as follows: Mix 2 1/4 pounds of good wheat flour
with 2 tablespoonfuls of pulverized gum arabic or powdered rosin and
2 tablespoonfuls of pulverized alum in a clean dish with water enough
to make a uniformly thick batter; set it over a slow fire and stir
continuously until the paste is uniform and free from lumps. When the
mass has become so stout that the wooden spoon or stick will stand in
it {37} upright, it is taken from the fire and placed in another dish
and covered so that no skin will form on top. When cold, the table or
desk top, etc., is covered with a thin coat of the paste, the cloth,
etc., carefully laid on and smoothed from the center toward the edges
with a rolling pin. The trimming of edges is accomplished when the
paste has dried. To smooth out the leather after pasting, a woolen
cloth is of the best service.


«To Paste Paper on Smooth Iron.»—Over a water bath dissolve 200 parts,
by weight, of gelatine in 150 parts, by weight, of water; while
stirring add 50 parts, by weight, of acetic acid, 50 parts alcohol,
and 50 parts, by weight, of pulverized alum. The spot upon which it is
desired to attach the paper must first be rubbed with a bit of fine
emery paper.


«Paste for Affixing Cloth to Metal.»—

 Starch          20 parts
 Sugar           10 parts
 Zinc chloride    1 part
 Water          100 parts

Mix the ingredients and stir until a perfectly smooth liquid results
entirely free from lumps, then warm gradually until the liquid thickens.


«To Fix Paper upon Polished Metal.»—Dissolve 400 parts, by weight, of
dextrine in 600 parts, by weight, of water; add to this 10 parts, by
weight, of glucose, and heat almost to boiling.


«Albumen Paste.»—Fresh egg albumen is recommended as a paste for
affixing labels on bottles. It is said that labels put on with this
substance, and well dried at the time, will not loosen even when
bottles are put into water and left there for some time. Albumen, dry,
is almost proof against mold or ferments. As to cost, it is but little
if any higher than gum arabic, the white of one egg being sufficient to
attach at least 100 medium-sized labels.


«Paste for Parchment Paper.»—The best agent is made by dissolving
casein in a saturated aqueous solution of borax.


«Medical Paste.»—As an adhesive agent for medicinal purposes Professor
Reihl, of Leipsic, recommends the viscous substance contained in the
white mistletoe. It is largely present in the berries and the bark
of the plant; it is called viscin, and can be produced at one-tenth
the price of caoutchouc. Solutions in benzine may be used like those
of caoutchouc without causing any irritation if applied mixed with
medicinal remedies to the skin.


«Paste That Will Not Mold.»—Mix good white flour with cold water into a
thick paste. Be sure to stir out all the lumps; then add boiling water,
stirring all the time until thoroughly cooked. To 6 quarts of this add
1/2 pound light brown sugar and 1/4 ounce corrosive sublimate,
dissolved in a little hot water. When the paste is cool add 1 drachm
oil of lavender. This paste will keep for a long time.


«Pasting Wood and Cardboard on Metal.»—In a little water dissolve
50 parts of lead acetate and 5 parts of alum. In another receptacle
dissolve 75 parts of gum arabic in 2,000 parts of water. Into this
gum-arabic solution pour 500 parts of flour, stirring constantly, and
heat gradually to the boiling point. Mingle the solution first prepared
with the second solution. It should be kept in mind that, owing to the
lead acetate, this preparation is poisonous.


«Agar Agar Paste.»—The agar agar is broken up small, wetted with water,
and exposed in an earthenware vessel to the action of ozone pumped
under pressure into the vessel from the ozonizing apparatus. About an
hour of this bleaches the agar agar and makes it freely soluble in
boiling water, when solutions far more concentrated than has hitherto
been possible can be prepared. On cooling, the solutions assume a milky
appearance, but form no lumps and are readily reliquefied by heating.
If the solution is completely evaporated, as of course happens when
the adhesive is allowed to dry after use, it leaves a firmly holding
mass which is insoluble in cold water. Among the uses to which the
preparation can be applied are the dressing of textile fabrics and
paper sizing, and the production of photographic papers, as well as the
ordinary uses of an adhesive.


«Strongly Adhesive Paste.»—Four parts glue are soaked a few hours in
15 parts cold water, and moderately heated till the solution becomes
perfectly clear, when 65 parts boiling water are added, while stirring.
In another vessel 30 parts boiled starch are previously stirred
together with 20 parts cold water, so that a thin, milky liquid without
lumps results. The boiling glue solution is poured into this while
stirring constantly, and the whole is kept boiling another 10 minutes.


«Paste for Tissue Paper.»—

 (_a_) Pulverized gum arabic   2 ounces
       White sugar             4 drachms
       Boiling water           3 fluidounces {38}
 (_b_) Common laundry starch   1 1/2 ounces
       Cold water              3     fluidounces

Make into a batter and pour into

 Boiling water           32    fluidounces

Mix (_a_) with (_b_), and keep in a wide-mouthed bottle.


«Waterproof and Acidproof Pastes.»—

  I.—Chromic acid                      2 1/2 parts
      Stronger ammonia                 15     parts
      Sulphuric acid                      1/2 part
      Cuprammonium solution            30     parts
      Fine white paper                  4     parts
 II.—Isinglass, a sufficient quantity
      Acetic acid                       1     part
      Water                             7     parts

Dissolve sufficient isinglass in the mixture of acetic acid and water
to make a thin mucilage.

One of the solutions is applied to the surface of one sheet of paper
and the other to the other sheet, and they are then pressed together.

III.—A fair knotting varnish free from surplus oil is by far the best
adhesive for fixing labels, especially on metal surfaces. It dries
instantly, insuring a speedy job and immediate packing, if needful,
without fear of derangement. It has great tenacity, and is not only
absolutely damp-proof itself, but is actually repellent of moisture, to
which all water pastes are subject. It costs more, but the additional
expense is often infinitesimal compared with the pleasure of a
satisfactory result.


«Balkan Paste.»—

 Pale glue           4     ounces
 White loaf sugar    2     ounces
 Powdered starch     1     ounce
 White dextrine        1/4 pound
 Pure glycerine      3     ounces
 Carbolic acid         1/4 ounce
 Boiling water      32     ounces

Cut up the glue and steep it in 1/2 pint boiling water; when softened
melt in a saucepan; add sugar, starch, and dextrine, and lastly the
glycerine, in which carbolic acid has been mixed; add remainder of
water, and boil until it thickens. Pour into jars or bottles.


«Permanent Paste.»—

 I.—Wheat flour       1 pound
     Water, cold       1 quart
     Nitric acid       4 fluidrachms
     Boric acid       40 grains
     Oil of cloves    20 minims

Mix the flour, boric acid, and water, then strain the mixture; add
the nitric acid, apply heat with constant stirring until the mixture
thickens; when nearly cold add the oil of cloves. This paste will have
a pleasant smell, will not attract flies, and can be thinned by the
addition of cold water as needed.

II.—Dissolve 4 ounces alum in 4 quarts hot water. When cool add as much
flour as will make it of the usual consistency; then stir into it 1/2
ounce powdered rosin; next add a little water in which a dozen cloves
have been steeped; then boil it until thick as mush, stirring from the
bottom all the time. Thin with warm water for use.


«Preservatives for Paste.»—Various antiseptics are employed for the
preservation of flour paste, mucilage, etc. Boric and salicylic acids,
oil of cloves, oil of sassafras, and solution of formaldehyde are among
those which have given best service. A durable starch paste is produced
by adding some borax to the water used in making it. A paste from 10
parts (weight) starch to 100 parts (weight) water with 1 per cent borax
added will keep many weeks, while without this addition it will sour
after six days. In the case of a gluing material prepared from starch
paste and joiners’ glue, borax has also demonstrated its preserving
qualities. The solution is made by mixing 10 parts (weight) starch into
a paste with water and adding 10 parts (weight) glue soaked in water to
the hot solution; the addition of 1/10 part (weight) of borax to the
solution will cause it to keep for weeks. It is equal to the best glue,
but should be warmed and stirred before use.


«Board-Sizing.»—A cheap sizing for rough, weather-beaten boards may be
made by dissolving shellac in sal soda and adding some heavy-bodied
pigment. This size will stick to grease spots. Linseed oil may be
added if desired. Limewater and linseed oil make a good heavy sizing,
but hard to spread. They are usually used half and half, though these
proportions may be varied somewhat.


«Rice Paste.»—Mix the rice flour with cold water, and boil it over a
gentle fire until it thickens. This paste is quite white and becomes
transparent on drying. It is very adherent and of great use for many
purposes.


«Casein Paste.»—A solution of tannin, prepared from a bark or from
commercial tannin, is precipitated with limewater, the lime being added
until the solution just turns red litmus paper blue. The supernatant
liquid is then decanted, {39} and the precipitate is dried without
artificial heat. The resulting calcium tannate is then mixed, according
to the purpose for which the adhesive is intended, with from 1 to 10
times its weight of dry casein by grinding in a mill. The adhesive
compound is soluble in water, petroleum, oils, and carbon bisulphide.
It is very strong, and is applied in the form of a paste with water.


«PASTES FOR PAPERHANGERS.»

I.—Use a cheap grade of rye or wheat flour, mix thoroughly with cold
water to about the consistency of dough, or a little thinner, being
careful to remove all lumps; stir in a tablespoonful of powdered alum
to a quart of flour, then pour in boiling water, stirring rapidly until
the flour is thoroughly cooked. Let this cool before using, and thin
with cold water.

II.—Venetian Paste.—

 (_a_)  4 ounces white or fish glue
        8 fluidounces cold water
 (_b_)  2 fluidounces Venice turpentine
 (_c_)  1 pound rye flour
       16 fluidounces (1 pint) cold water
 (_d_) 64 fluidounces (1/2 gallon) boiling water

Soak the 4 ounces of glue in the cold water for 4 hours; dissolve on
a water bath (glue pot), and while hot stir in the Venice turpentine.
Make up (_c_) into a batter free from lumps and pour into (_d_). Stir
briskly, and finally add the glue solution. This makes a very strong
paste, and it will adhere to a painted surface, owing to the Venice
turpentine in its composition.

III.—Strong Adhesive Paste.—

 (_a_) 4     pounds rye flour
         1/2 gallon cold water
 (_b_) 1 1/2 gallons boiling water
 (_c_) 2     ounces pulverized rosin

Make (_a_) into a batter free from lumps; then pour into (_b_). Boil
if necessary, and while hot stir in the pulverized rosin a little at a
time. This paste is exceedingly strong, and will stick heavy wall paper
or thin leather. If the paste be too thick, thin with a little hot
water; never thin paste with cold water.

IV.—Flour Paste.—

 (_a_)  2 pounds wheat flour
       32 fluidounces (1 quart) cold water
 (_b_) 1 ounce alum
        4 fluidounces hot water
 (_c_) 96 fluidounces (1/2 gallon) boiling water

Work the wheat flour into a batter free from lumps with the cold water.
Dissolve the alum as designated in (_b_). Now stir in (_a_) and (_c_)
and, if necessary, continue boiling until the paste thickens into a
semitransparent mucilage, after which stir in solution (_b_). The above
makes a very fine paste for wall paper.

V.—Elastic or Pliable Paste.—

 (_a_)  4 ounces common starch
        2 ounces white dextrine
       10 fluidounces cold water

 (_b_)  1 ounce borax
        3 fluidounces glycerine
       64 fluidounces (1/2 gallon) boiling water

Beat to a batter the ingredients of (_a_). Dissolve the borax in the
boiling water; then add the glycerine, after which pour (_a_) into
solution (_b_). Stir until it becomes translucent. This paste will not
crack, and, being very pliable, is used for paper, cloth, leather, and
other material where flexibility is required.

VI.—A paste with which wall paper can be attached to wood or masonry,
adhering to it firmly in spite of dampness, is prepared, as usual, of
rye flour, to which, however, are added, after the boiling, 8 1/3
parts, by weight, of good linseed-oil varnish and 8 1/3 parts, by
weight, of turpentine to every 500 parts, by weight.

VII.—Paste for Wall Paper.—Soak 18 pounds of bolus (bole) in water,
after it has been beaten into small fragments, and pour off the
supernatant water. Boil 10 ounces of glue into glue water, mix it
well with the softened bolus and 2 pounds plaster of Paris and strain
through a sieve by means of a brush. Thin the mass with water to the
consistency of a thin paste. The paste is now ready for use. It is not
only much cheaper than other varieties, but has the advantage over them
of adhering better to whitewashed walls, and especially such as have
been repeatedly coated over the old coatings which were not thoroughly
removed. For hanging fine wall paper this paste is less commendable, as
it forms a white color, with which the paper might easily become soiled
if great care is not exercised in applying it. If the fine wall paper
is mounted on ground paper, however, it can be recommended for pasting
the ground paper on the wall.


«LABEL PASTES:»


«Pastes to Affix Labels to Tin.»—Labels separate from tin because the
paste becomes too dry. Some moisture is presumably always present; but
more is required to cause continued adhesion in the case of tin than
where the container is of {40} glass. Paste may be kept moist by the
addition of calcium chloride, which is strongly hygroscopic, or of
glycerine.

The following formulas for pastes of the type indicated were proposed
by Leo Eliel:

 I.—Tragacanth                  1 ounce
     Acacia                      4 ounces
     Thymol                     14 grains
     Glycerine                   4 ounces
     Water, sufficient to make   2 pints

Dissolve the gums in 1 pint of water, strain, and add the glycerine, in
which the thymol is suspended; shake well and add sufficient water to
make 2 pints. This separates on standing, but a single shake mixes it
sufficiently for use.

 II.—Rye flour         8 ounces
      Powdered acacia   1 ounce
      Glycerine         2 ounces
      Oil of cloves    40 drops

Rub the rye flour and acacia to a smooth paste with 8 ounces of cold
water; strain through cheese cloth, and pour into 1 pint of boiling
water, and continue the heat until as thick as desired. When nearly
cold add the glycerine and oil of cloves.

 III.—Rye flour               5 parts
       Venice turpentine       1 part
       Liquid glue, a sufficient quantity

Rub up the flour with the turpentine and then add sufficient freshly
prepared glue (glue or gelatine dissolved in water) to make a stiff
paste. This paste dries slowly.

 IV.—Dextrine                   2 parts
      Acetic acid                1 part
      Water                      5 parts
      Alcohol, 95 per cent.      1 part

Dissolve the dextrine and acetic acid in water by heating together in
the water bath, and to the solution add the alcohol.

 V.—Dextrine       3 pounds
     Borax          2 ounces
     Glucose        5 drachms
     Water   3 pints 2 ounces

Dissolve the borax in the water by warming, then add the dextrine and
glucose, and continue to heat gently until dissolved.

Another variety is made by dissolving a cheap Ghatti gum in limewater,
but it keeps badly.

VI.—Add tartaric acid to thick flour paste. The paste is to be boiled
until quite thick, and the acid, previously dissolved in a little
water, is added, the proportion being about 2 ounces to the pint of
paste.

VII.—Gum arabic, 50 parts; glycerine, 10 parts; water, 30 parts; liq.
Stibii chlorat., 2 parts.

VIII.—Boil rye flour and strong glue water into a mass to which are
added, for 1,000 parts, good linseed-oil varnish 30 parts and oil of
turpentine 30 parts. This mixture furnishes a gluing agent which, it
is claimed, even renders the labels proof against being loosened by
moisture.

IX.—Pour 140 parts of distilled cold water over 100 parts of gum arabic
in a wide-necked bottle and dissolve by frequent shaking. To the
solution, which is ready after standing for about 3 days, add 10 parts
of glycerine; later, 20 parts of diluted acetic acid, and finally 6
parts of aluminum sulphate, then straining it through a fine-hair sieve.

X.—Good glue is said to be obtained by dissolving 1 part of powdered
sugar in 4 parts of soda water glass.

XI.—A glue for bottle labels is prepared by dissolving borax in water;
soak glue in this solution and dissolve the glue by boiling. Carefully
drop as much acetic acid into the solution as will allow it to remain
thin on cooling. Labels affixed with this agent adhere firmly and do
not become moldy in damp cellars.

XII.—Dissolve some isinglass in acetic acid and brush the labels over
with it. There will be no cause to complain of their coming off, nor
of striking through the paper. Take a wide-mouthed bottle, fill about
two-thirds with commercial acetic acid, and put in as much isinglass as
the liquid will hold, and set aside in a warm place until completely
dissolved. When cold it should form a jelly. To use it place the bottle
in hot water. The cork should be well-fitting and smeared with vaseline
or melted paraffine.


«How to Paste Labels on Tin.»—Brush over the entire back of the label
with a flour paste, fold the label loosely by sticking both ends
together without creasing the center, and throw to one side until this
process has been gone through with the whole lot. Then unfold each
label and place it on the can in the regular manner. The paste ought
not to be thicker than maple syrup. When of this consistency it soaks
through the label and makes it pliable and in a condition to be easily
rubbed into position. If the paste is too thick it dries quickly, and
does not soak through the label sufficiently. After the labels have
been placed upon the cans the latter must be {41} kept apart until dry.
In putting the paste upon the labels in the first place, follow the
method of placing the dry labels over one another, back sides up, with
the edge of each just protruding over the edge of the one beneath it,
so that the fingers may easily grasp the label after the pasting has
been done.


«Druggists’ Label Paste.»—This paste, when carefully made, is an
admirable one for label use, and a very little will go a long way:

 Wheat flour      4     ounces
 Nitric acid      1     drachm
 Boric acid      10     grains
 Oil of cloves    5     drops
 Carbolic acid      1/2 drachm

Stir flour and water together, mixing thoroughly, and add the other
ingredients. After the stuff is well mixed, heat it, watching very
carefully and removing the instant it stiffens.


«To Attach Glass Labels to Bottles.»—Melt together 1 part of rosin and
2 parts of yellow wax, and use while warm.


«Photographic Mountants (see also Photography).»—Owing to the nature
of the different papers used for printing photographs, it is a
matter of extreme importance to use a mountant that shall not set up
decomposition in the coating of the print. For example, a mountant that
exhibits acidity or alkalinity is injurious with most varieties of
paper; and in photography the following formulas for pastes, mucilages,
etc., have therefore been selected with regard to their absolute
immunity from setting up decomposition in the print or changing its
tone in any way. One of the usual mountants is rice starch or else
rice water. The latter is boiled to a thick jelly, strained, and the
strained mass used as an agglutinant for attaching photographic prints
to the mounts. There is nothing of an injurious nature whatever in this
mountant, neither is there in a mucilage made with gum dragon.

This gum (also called gum tragacanth) is usually in the form of curls
(i.e., leaf gum), which take a long time to properly dissolve in
water—several weeks, in fact—but during the past few years there has
been put on the market a powdered gum dragon which does not occupy so
many days in dissolving. To make a mucilage from gum dragon a very
large volume of water is required. For example, 1 ounce of the gum,
either leaf or powder, will swell up and convert 1 gallon of water into
a thickish mucilage in the course of 2 or 3 weeks. Only cold water must
be used, and before using the mucilage, all whitish lumps (which are
particles of undissolved gum) should be picked out or else the mucilage
strained. The time of solution can be considerably shortened (to a few
hours) by acidifying the water in which the gum is placed with a little
sulphuric or oxalic acid; but as the resultant mucilage would contain
traces of their presence, such acids are not permissible when the
gum-dragon mucilage is to be used for mounting photographs.

Glycerine and gum arabic make a very good adhesive of a fluid nature
suited to mounting photographs; and although glycerine is hygroscopic
by itself, such tendency to absorb moisture is checked by the reverse
nature of the gum arabic; consequently an ideal fluid mucilage is
produced. The proportions of the several ingredients are these:

 Gum arabic, genuine (gum acacia, not Bassora gum)   4 ounces
 Boiling water                                      12 ounces
 Glycerine, pure                                     1 ounce

First dissolve the gum in the water, and then stir in the glycerine,
and allow all _débris_ from the gum to deposit before using. The
following adhesive compound is also one that is free from chemical
reactions, and is suited for photographic purposes:

 Water                     2 pints
 Gum dragon, powdered      1 ounce
 Gum arabic, genuine       4 ounces
 Glycerine                 4 ounces

Mix the gum arabic with half the water, and in the remainder of the
water dissolve the gum dragon. When both solids are dissolved, mix them
together, and then stir in the glycerine.

The following paste will be found a useful mountant:

 Gum arabic, genuine       1 ounce
 Rice starch               1 ounce
 White sugar               4 ounces
 Water, q. s.

Dissolve the gum in just sufficient water to completely dissolve it,
then add the sugar, and when that has completely dissolved stir in the
starch paste, and then boil the mixture until the starch is properly
cooked.

A very strong, stiff paste for fastening cardboard mounts to frames,
wood, and other materials is prepared by making a bowl of starch
paste in the usual way, and then adding 1 ounce of Venice turpentine
per pound of paste, and {42} boiling and stirring the mixture until
the thick turpentine has become well incorporated. Venice turpentine
stirred into flour paste and boiled will also be found a very
adhesive cement for fastening cardboard, strawboard, leatherette, and
skiver leather to wood or metal; but owing to the resinous nature
of the Venice turpentine, such pastes are not suitable for mounting
photographic prints. The following half-dozen compounds are suitable
mountants to use with silver prints:

 Alcohol, absolute          10 ounces
 Gelatine, good              1 ounce
 Glycerine            1/2 to 1 ounce

Soak the gelatine in water for an hour or two until it is completely
softened; take the gelatine out of the water, and allow it to drain,
and put it into a bottle and pour alcohol over it; add the glycerine
(if the gelatine is soft, use only 1/2 ounce; if the gelatine is
hard, use 1 ounce of the glycerine), then melt the gelatine by standing
the bottle in a vessel of hot water, and shake up very well. For use,
remelt by heat. The alcohol prevents the prints from stretching or
cockling, as they are apt to, under the influence of the gelatine.

In the following compound, however, only sufficient alcohol is used to
serve as an antiseptic, and prevent the agglutinant from decomposing:
Dissolve 4 ounces of photographic gelatine in 16 ounces of water (first
soaking the gelatine therein for an hour or two until it is completely
softened), then remove the gelatine from the water, allow it to drain,
and put it into the bottle, and pour the alcohol over it, and put in
the glycerine (if the gelatine is soft, use only 1/2 ounce; if the
gelatine is hard, use 1 ounce of the glycerine), then melt the gelatine
by standing the bottle in a vessel of hot water, and shake up well and
mix thoroughly. For use, remelt by heat. The alcohol prevents the print
from stretching or cockling up under the influence of the gelatine.

The following paste agglutinant is one that is very permanent and
useful for all purposes required in a photographic studio: Take 5 pints
of water, 10 ounces of arrowroot, 1 ounce of gelatine, and a 1/2 pint
(10 fluidounces) of alcohol, and proceed to combine them as follows:
Make arrowroot into a thick cream with a little of the water, and in
the remainder of the water soak the gelatine for a few hours, after
which melt the gelatine in the water by heating it, add the arrowroot
paste, and bring the mixture to the boil and allow to boil for 4 or 5
minutes, then allow to cool, and mix in the alcohol, adding a few drops
of oil of cloves.

Perhaps one of the most useful compounds for photographic purposes is
that prepared as follows: Soak 4 ounces of hard gelatine in 15 ounces
of water for a few hours, then melt the gelatine by heating it in a
glue pot until the solution is quite clear and free from lumps, stir in
65 fluidounces of cold water so that it is free from lumps, and pour in
the boiling-hot solution of gelatine and continue stirring, and if the
starch is not completely cooked, boil up the mixture for a few minutes
until it “blows,” being careful to keep it well stirred so as not to
burn; when cold add a few drops of carbolic acid or some essential oil
as an antiseptic to prevent the compound from decomposing or becoming
sour.

A useful photographic mucilage, which is very liquid, is obtained
by mixing equal bulks of gum-arabic and gum-dragon mucilages of the
same consistence. The mixture of these mucilages will be considerably
thinner than either of them when alone.

As an agglutinant for general use in the studio, the following is
recommended: Dissolve 2 ounces of gum arabic in 5 ounces of water,
and for every 250 parts of the mucilage add 20 parts of a solution of
sulphate of aluminum, prepared by dissolving 1 part of the sulphate
in 20 parts of water (common alum should not be used, only the pure
aluminum sulphate, because common alum is a mixture of sulphates, and
usually contaminated with iron salts). The addition of the sulphate
solution to the gum mucilage renders the latter less hygroscopic, and
practically waterproof, besides being very adhesive to any materials,
particularly those exhibiting a smooth surface.


«MUCILAGES:»


«For Affixing Labels to Glass and Other Objects.»—I.—The mucilage is
made by simply pouring over the gum enough water to a little more
than cover it, and then, as the gum swells, adding more water from
time to time in small portions, until the mucilage is brought to such
consistency that it may be easily spread with the brush. The mucilage
keeps fairly well without the addition of any antiseptic.

 II.—Tragacanth                  1 ounce
      Acacia                      4 ounces
      Thymol                     14 grains
      Glycerine                   4 ounces
      Water, sufficient to make   2 pints

{43}

Dissolve the gums in 1 pint of water, strain and add the glycerine, in
which the thymol is suspended; shake well and add sufficient water to
make 2 pints. This separates on standing, but a single shake mixes it
sufficiently for use.

 III.—Rye flour             8 ounces
       Powdered acacia       1 ounce
       Glycerine             2 ounces
       Oil of cloves        40 drops
       Water, a sufficient quantity.

Rub the rye flour and the acacia to a smooth paste with 8 ounces of
cold water; strain through cheese cloth, and pour into 1 pint of
boiling water and continue the heat until as thick as desired. When
nearly cold add the glycerine and oil of cloves.

IV.—One part, by weight, of tragacanth, when mixed with 95-per-cent
alcohol to form 4 fluidounces, forms a liquid in which a portion of
the tragacanth is dissolved and the remainder suspended; this remains
permanently fluid, never deteriorates, and can be used in place of the
present mucilage; 4 to 8 minims to each ounce of mixture is sufficient
to suspend any of the insoluble substances usually given in mixtures.

V.—To 250 parts of gum-arabic mucilage add 20 parts of water and 2
parts of sulphate of alumina and heat until dissolved.

VI.—Dissolve 1/2 pound gum tragacanth, powdered, 1/4 pound gum
arabic, powdered, cold water to the desired consistency, and add 40
drops carbolic acid.


«Mucilage of Acacia.»—Put the gum, which should be of the best kind,
in a flask the size of which should be large enough to contain the
mucilage with about one-fifth of its space to spare (i. e., the product
should fill it about four-fifths full). Now tare, and wash the gum with
distilled water, letting the latter drain away as much as possible
before proceeding further. Add the requisite quantity of distilled
water slowly, which, however, should first have added to it about 10
per cent of limewater. Now cork the flask, and lay it, without shaking,
horizontally in a cool place and let it remain quietly for about 3
hours, then give it a half turn to the right without disturbing its
horizontal position. Repeat this operation three or four times during
the day, and keep it up until the gum is completely dissolved (which
will not be until the fourth day probably), then strain through a thin
cloth previously wet with distilled water, avoiding, in so doing, the
formation of foam or bubbles. This precaution should also be observed
in decantation of the percolate into smaller bottles provided with
paraffine corks. The small amount of limewater, as will be understood,
is added to the solvent water in order to prevent the action of free
acid.


«Commercial Mucilage.»—Dissolve 1/2 pound white glue in equal parts
water and strong vinegar, and add 1/4 as much alcohol and 1/2 ounce
alum dissolved in a little water. To proceed, first get good glue and
soak in cold water until it swells and softens. Use pale vinegar. Pour
off the cold water, then melt the glue to a thick paste in hot water,
and add the vinegar hot. When a little cool add the alcohol and alum
water.


«To Render Gum Arabic More Adhesive.»—I.—Add crystallized aluminum
sulphate in the proportion of 2 dissolved in 20 parts of water to 250
parts of concentrated gum solution (75 parts of gum in 175 parts of
water).

II.—Add to 250 parts of concentrated gum solution (2 parts of gum in 5
parts of water) 2 parts of crystallized aluminum sulphate dissolved in
20 parts of water. This mixture glues even unsized paper, pasteboard
on pasteboard, wood on wood, glass, porcelain, and other substances on
which labels frequently do not adhere well.


«Envelope Gum.»—The gum used by the United States Government on postage
stamps is probably one of the best that could be used not only for
envelopes but for labels as well. It will stick to almost any surface.
Its composition is said to be the following:

 Gum arabic            1 part
 Starch                1 part
 Sugar                 4 parts
 Water, sufficient to give the desired consistency.

The gum arabic is first dissolved in some water, the sugar added, then
the starch, after which the mixture is boiled for a few minutes in
order to dissolve the starch, after which it is thinned down to the
desired consistency.

Cheaper envelope gums can be made by substituting dextrine for the gum
arabic, glucose for the sugar, and adding boric acid to preserve and
help stiffen it.


«Mucilage to Make Wood and Pasteboard Adhere to Metals.»—Dissolve 50
parts, by weight, of lead acetate together with 5 parts, by weight,
of alum in a little water. Make a separate solution of 75 parts, by
weight, of gum arabic in 2,000 parts, by weight, of water, stir in
this 500 {44} parts, by weight, of flour, and heat slowly to boiling,
stirring the while. Let it cool somewhat, and mix with it the solution
containing the lead acetate and alum, stirring them well together.


«Preservation of Gum Solution.»—Put a small piece of camphor in the
mucilage bottle. Camphor vapors are generated which kill all the
bacterial germs that have entered the bottle. The gum maintains its
adhesiveness to the last drop.

ADULTERANTS IN FOODS: See Foods.

ADUROL DEVELOPER: See Photography.

ÆSCO-QUININE: See Horse Chestnut.

AGAR AGAR PASTE: See Adhesives.


«AGATE, BUTTONS OF ARTIFICIAL.»

Prepare a mixture or frit of 33 parts of quartz sand, 65 parts calcium
phosphate, and 2 parts of potash. The frit, which has been reduced by
heat to the fusing point, is finely ground, intimately mingled with a
small quantity of kaolin and pressed in molds which yield button-shaped
masses. These masses, after having been fired, are given a transparent
glaze by any of the well-known processes.

AGATE (IMITATION): See Gems, Artificial.

AGING OF SILK: See Silk.

AGING, SILVER AND GOLD: See Plating.


«AIR BATH.»

This air bath is employed in cases in which, upon drying or heating
substances, acid vapors arise because the walls of the bath are not
attacked by them. For the production of the drying apparatus take a
flask with the bottom burst off or a bell jar tubulated above. This
is placed either upon a sand bath or upon asbestos paper, previously
laid upon a piece of sheet iron. The sand bath or the sheet iron is
put on a tripod, so that it can be heated by means of a burner placed
underneath. The substance to be dried is placed in a glass or porcelain
dish, which is put under the bell jar, and if desired the drying dish
may be hung on the tripod. For regulating the temperature the tubulure
of the jar is closed with a pierced cork, through whose aperture the
thermometer is thrust. In order to permit the vapors to escape, the
cork is grooved lengthwise along the periphery.

AIR BUBBLES IN GELATINE: See Gelatine.

AIR, EXCLUSION OF, FROM SOLUTIONS: See Photography.


«AIR-PURIFYING.»


«Ozonatine» is a fragrant air-purifying preparation consisting of
dextrogyrate turpentine oil scented with slight quantities of fragrant
oils.

ALABASTER CLEANING: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.

ALBATA METAL: See Alloys.


«ALBUMEN IN URINE, DETECTION OF.»

Patein (_Pharm. Zeit._) recommends the following test for albumen in
urine: Dissolve 250 grams of citric acid in a sufficient quantity of
water, add enough ammonia to neutralize, then 50 grams of alcohol,
and finally enough water to make 1 liter. To the acid (or acidulated)
urine, one-tenth its volume of the ammonium-citrate solution made
as above is added, and the whole heated in the usual manner. The
appearance of the faintest turbidity is said to indicate with positive
certainty the presence of albumen.

ALBUMEN PAPER: See Photography.

ALBUMEN PASTE: See Adhesives.


«Alcohol»

After the manuscript of this book was ready for the press, Congress
passed the bill which has since become a law, whereby the prohibitive
tax on industrial or denatured alcohol is removed. So important is this
legislative measure that the Editor has deemed it wise to insert an
article on the sources of alcohol and the manufacture of alcohol from
farm products. Because the first portion of the book was in type when
this step was decided upon, the Editor was compelled to relegate to a
later page a monograph which should properly have appeared here. The
reader will find the matter on alcohol referred to under the heading
{45} “Spirit”; likewise methods of denaturing and a list of denaturants.

ALCOHOL, DILUTION OF: See Tables.


«Alcohol, Tests for Absolute.»—The committee for the compilation of the
German Arzneibuch established the following tests for the determination
of absolute alcohol:

Absolute alcohol is a clear, colorless, volatile, readily imflammable
liquid which burns with a faintly luminous flame. Absolute alcohol has
a peculiar odor, a burning taste, and does not affect litmus paper.
Boiling point, 78.50. Specific gravity, 0.795 to 0.797. One hundred
parts contain 99.7 to 99.4 parts, by volume, or 99.6 to 99.0 parts, by
weight, of alcohol.

Absolute alcohol should have no foreign smell and should mix with water
without cloudiness.

After the admixture of 5 drops of silver-nitrate solution, 10 cubic
centimeters of absolute alcohol should not become turbid or colored
even on heating.

A mixture of 10 cubic centimeters of absolute alcohol and 0.2 cubic
centimeter of potash lye evaporated down to 1 cubic centimeter should
not exhibit an odor of fusel oil after supersaturation with dilute
sulphuric acid.

Five cubic centimeters of sulphuric acid, carefully covered, in a
test tube, with a stratum of 5 cubic centimeters of absolute alcohol,
should not form a rose-colored zone at the surface of contact, even on
standing for some time.

The red color of a mixture of 10 cubic centimeters of absolute alcohol
and 1 cubic centimeter of potassium-permanganate solution should not
pass into yellow before 20 minutes.

Absolute alcohol should not be dyed by hydrogen sulphide water or by
aqueous ammonia.

Five cubic centimeters of absolute alcohol should not leave behind a
weighable residue after evaporation on water bath.


«Absolute Alcohol.»—If gelatine be suspended in ordinary alcohol
it will absorb the water, but as it is insoluble in alcohol, that
substance will remain behind, and thus nearly absolute alcohol will be
obtained without distillation.


«Perfumed Denaturized Alcohol.»—

 East India lemon oil      1,250 parts
 Mirbane oil               1,000 parts
 Cassia oil                   50 parts
 Clove oil                    75 parts
 Lemon oil                   100 parts
 Amyl acetate                500 parts
 Spirit (95 per cent)      7,000 parts

Dissolve the oils in the spirit and add the amyl acetate. The mixture
serves for destroying the bad odor of denaturized spirit in distilling.
Use 50 parts of the perfume per 1,000 parts of spirit.


«Solid Alcohol.»—I.—Heat 1,000 parts of denaturized alcohol (90 per
cent) in a flask of double the capacity on the water bath to about
140° F., and then mix with 28 to 30 parts of well-dried, rasped
Venetian soap and 2 parts of gum lac. After repeated shaking, complete
dissolution will take place. The solution is put, while still warm,
into metallic vessels, closing them up at once and allowing the mixture
to cool therein. The admixture of gum lac effects a better preservation
and also prevents the evaporation of the alcohol. On lighting the solid
spirit the soap remains behind.

II.—Smaragdine is a trade name for solidified alcohol. It consists of
alcohol and gun cotton, colored with malachite green. It appears in the
market in the form of small cubes.


«Alcohol in Fermented Beers.»—Experience has shown that 1/4 pound of
sugar to 1 gallon of water yields about 2 per cent of proof spirit,
or about 1 per cent of absolute alcohol. Beyond this amount it is not
safe to go, if the legal limit is to be observed, yet a ginger beer
brewed with 1/4 pound per gallon of sugar would be a very wishy-washy
compound, and there is little doubt that a much larger quantity is
generally used. The more sugar that is used—up to 1 1/2 or 1 1/4
pounds per gallon—the better the drink will be and the more customers
will relish it; but it will be as “strong” as lager and contain perhaps
5 per cent of alcohol, which will make it anything but a “temperance”
drink. Any maker who is using as much as even 1/2 pound of sugar per
gallon is bound to get more spirit than the law allows. Meanwhile it is
scarcely accurate to term ginger beers, etc., non-alcoholic.


«Alcohol Deodorizer.»—

 Alcohol                  160     ounces
 Powdered quicklime       300     grains
 Powdered alum            150     grains
 Spirit of nitrous ether    1 1/4 drachms

Mix the lime and alum intimately by trituration; add the alcohol and
shake well; then add the spirit of nitrous ether; set aside for 7 days
and filter through animal charcoal.


«Denaturized Alcohol.»—There are two general classes or degrees of
denaturizing, viz., the “complete” and the “incomplete,” according
to the purpose for {46} which the alcohol so denaturized is to be
ultimately used.

I.—Complete denaturization by the German system is accomplished by the
addition to every 100 liters (equal to 26 1/2 gallons) of spirits:

(_a_) Two and one-half liters of the “standard” denaturizer, made of 4
parts of wood alcohol, 1 part of pyridine (a nitrogenous base obtained
by distilling bone oil or coal tar), with the addition of 50 grams to
each liter of oil of lavender or rosemary.

(_b_) One and one-fourth liters of the above “standard” and 2 liters of
benzol with every 100 liters of alcohol.

II.—Incomplete denaturization—i. e., sufficient to prevent alcohol
from being drunk, but not to disqualify it from use for various
special purposes, for which the wholly denaturized spirits would be
unavailable—is accomplished by several methods as follows, the quantity
and nature of each substance given being the prescribed dose for each
100 liters (26 1/2 gallons) of spirits:

(_c_) Five liters of wood alcohol or 1/2 liter of pyridine.

(_d_) Twenty liters of solution of shellac, containing 1 part gum to
2 parts alcohol of 90-per-cent purity. Alcohol for the manufacture of
celluloid and pegamoid is denaturized.

(_e_) By the addition of 1 kilogram of camphor or 2 liters oil of
turpentine or 1/2 liter benzol to each 100 liters of spirits. Alcohol
to be used in the manufacture of ethers, aldehyde, agaricin, white
lead, bromo-silver gelatines, photographic papers and plates, electrode
plates, collodion, salicylic acid and salts, aniline chemistry, and a
great number of other purposes, is denaturized by the addition of—

(_f_) Ten liters sulphuric ether, or 1 part of benzol, or 1/2 part
oil of turpentine, or 0.025 part of animal oil.

For the manufacture of varnishes and inks alcohol is denaturized by the
addition of oil of turpentine or animal oil, and for the production of
soda soaps by the addition of 1 kilogram of castor oil. Alcohol for the
production of lanolin is prepared by adding 5 liters of benzine to each
hectoliter of spirits.


«ALE.»

The ale of the modern brewer is manufactured in several varieties,
which are determined by the wants of the consumer and the particular
market for which it is intended. Thus, the finer kinds of Burton, East
India, Bavarian, and other like ales, having undergone a thorough
fermentation, contain only a small quantity of undecomposed sugar and
gum, varying from 1 to 5 per cent. Some of these are highly “hopped” or
“bittered,” the further to promote their preservation during transit
and change of temperature. Mild or sweet ales, on the contrary, are
less accentuated by lengthened fermentation, and abound in saccharine
and gummy matter. They are, therefore, more nutritious, though less
intoxicating, than those previously referred to.

In brewing the finer kinds of ales, pale malt and the best hops of the
current season’s growth are always employed; and when it is desired to
produce a liquor possessing little color, very great attention is paid
to their selection. With the same object, the boiling is conducted with
more than the usual precautions, and the fermentation is carried on
at a somewhat lower temperature than that commonly allowed for other
varieties of beer. For ordinary ale, intended for immediate use, the
malt may be all pale; but, if the liquor be brewed for keeping, and
in warm weather, when a slight color is not objectionable, one-fifth,
or even one-fourth of amber malt may be advantageously employed. From
4 1/2 to 6 pounds of hops is the quantity commonly used to the
one-fourth of malt, for ordinary ales; and 7 pounds to 10 pounds for
“keeping” ales. The proportions, however, must greatly depend on the
intended quality and description of the brewing and the period that
will be allowed for its maturation.

The stronger varieties of ale usually contain from 6 to 8 per cent
of “absolute alcohol”; ordinary strong ale, 4 1/2 to 6 per cent;
mild ale, 3 to 4 percent; and table ale, 1 to 1 1/2 per cent (each
by volume); together with some undecomposed saccharine, gummy, and
extractive matter, the bitter and narcotic principles of the hop, some
acetic acid formed by the oxidation of the alcohol, and very small and
variable quantities of mineral and saline matter.

Ordinary ale-wort (preferably pale), sufficient to produce 1 barrel,
is slowly boiled with about 3 handfuls of hops, and 12 to 14 pounds of
crushed groats, until the whole of the soluble matter of the latter
is extracted. The resulting liquor, after being run through a coarse
strainer and become lukewarm, is fermented with 2 or 3 pints of yeast;
and, as soon as the fermentation is at its height, is either closely
bunged up for draft or is at once put into strong stoneware bottles,
which are then well corked and wired.

White ale is said to be very nutritious, though apt to prove laxative
to those {47} unaccustomed to its use. It is drunk in a state of
effervescence or lively fermentation; the glass or cup containing it
being kept in constant motion, when removed from the mouth, until the
whole is consumed, in order that the thicker portion may not subside to
the bottom.

ALE, GINGER: See Beverages.

ALFENIDE METAL: See Alloys.

ALKALI, HOW TO DETECT: See Soaps.

ALKALOIDS, ANTIDOTES TO: See Atropine.


«Alloys»

No general rules can be given for alloying metals. Alloys differing
greatly in fusibility are commonly made by adding the more fusible
ones, either in the melted state or in small portions at a time, to
the other melted or heated to the lowest possible temperature at which
a perfect union will take place between them. The mixture is usually
effected under a flux, or some material that will promote liquefaction
and prevent volatilization and unnecessary exposure to the air. Thus,
in melting lead and tin together for solder, rosin or tallow is thrown
upon the surface is rubbed with sal ammoniac; and in combining some
metals, powdered charcoal is used for the same purpose. Mercury or
quicksilver combines with many metals in the cold, forming AMALGAMS, or
easily fusible alloys (q. v.).

Alloys generally possess characteristics unshared by their component
metals. Thus, copper and zinc form brass, which has a different
density, hardness, and color from either of its constituents. Whether
the metals tend to unite in atomic proportions or in any definite ratio
is still undetermined. The evidence afforded by the natural alloys
of gold and silver, and by the phenomena accompanying the cooling of
several alloys from the state of fusion, goes far to prove that such
is the case (Rudberg). The subject is, however, one of considerable
difficulty, as metals and metallic compounds are generally soluble
in each other, and unite by simple fusion and contact. That they do
not combine indifferently with each other, but exercise a species of
elective affinity not dissimilar to other bodies, is clearly shown
by the homogeneity and superior quality of many alloys in which the
constituent metals are in atomic proportion. The variation of the
specific gravity and melting points of alloys from the mean of those
of their component metals also affords strong evidence of a chemical
change having taken place. Thus, alloys generally melt at lower
temperatures than their separate metals. They also usually possess more
tenacity and hardness than the mean of their constituents.

Matthiessen found that when weights are suspended to spirals of
hard-drawn wire made of copper, gold, or platinum, they become nearly
straightened when stretched by a moderate weight; but wires of equal
dimensions composed of copper-tin (12 per cent of tin), silver-platinum
(36 per cent of platinum), and gold-copper (84 per cent of copper)
scarcely undergo any permanent change in form when subjected to tension
by the same weight.

The same chemist gives the following approximate results upon the
tenacity of certain metals and wires hard-drawn through the same gauge
(No. 23):

                                  Pounds
 Copper, breaking strain           25–30
 Tin, breaking strain      under       7
 Lead, breaking strain     under       7
 Tin-lead (20% lead)       about       7
 Tin-copper (12% copper)   about       7
 Copper-tin (12% tin)      about   80–90
 Gold (12% tin)                    20–25
 Gold-copper (8.4% copper)         70–75
 Silver (8.4% copper)              45–50
 Platinum (8.4% copper)            45–50
 Silver-platinum (30% platinum)    75–80

On the other hand, the malleability, ductility, and power of resisting
oxygen of alloys is generally diminished. The alloy formed of two
brittle metals is always brittle; that of a brittle and a ductile
metal, generally so; and even two ductile metals sometimes unite to
form a brittle compound. The alloys formed of metals having different
fusing points are usually malleable while cold and brittle while hot.
The action of the air on alloys is generally less than on their simple
metals, unless the former are heated. A mixture of 1 part of tin and 3
parts of lead is scarcely acted on at common temperatures; but at a red
heat it readily takes fire, and continues to burn for some time like
a piece of bad turf. In like manner, a mixture of tin and zinc, when
strongly heated, decomposes both moist air and steam with rapidity.

The specific gravity of alloys is rarely {48} the arithmetical mean
of that of their constituents, as commonly taught; and in many cases
considerable condensation or expansion occurs. When there is a strong
affinity between two metals, the density of their alloy is generally
greater than the calculated mean; and vice versa, as may be seen in the
following table:

 ALLOYS HAVING A DENSITY
 Greater than the Mean of their Constituents:

 Copper and bismuth,
 Copper and palladium,
 Copper and tin,
 Copper and zinc,
 Gold and antimony,
 Gold and bismuth,
 Gold and cobalt,
 Gold and tin,
 Gold and zinc,
 Lead and antimony,
 Palladium and bismuth,
 Silver and antimony,
 Silver and bismuth,
 Silver and lead,
 Silver and tin,
 Silver and zinc.

 Less than the Mean of their Constituents:

 Gold and copper,
 Gold and iridium,
 Gold and iron,
 Gold and lead,
 Gold and nickel,
 Gold and silver,
 Iron and antimony,
 Iron and bismuth,
 Iron and lead,
 Nickel and arsenic,
 Silver and copper,
 Tin and antimony,
 Tin and lead,
 Tin and palladium,
 Zinc and antimony.


«Compounding Alloys.»—Considerable experience is necessary to insure
success in compounding alloys, especially when the metals employed vary
greatly in fusibility and volatility. The following are rules supplied
by an experienced workman:

1. Melt the least fusible, oxidizable, and volatile first, and then add
the others heated to their point of fusion or near it. Thus, if it is
desired to make an alloy of exactly 1 part of copper and 3 of zinc, it
will be impossible to do so by putting proportions of the metals in a
crucible and exposing the whole to heat. Much of the zinc would fly off
in vapor before the copper was melted. First, melt the copper and add
the zinc, which has been melted in another crucible. The zinc should be
in excess, as some of it will be lost anyway.

2. Some alloys, as copper and zinc, copper and arsenic, may be formed
by exposing heated plates of the least fusible metal to the vapor of
the other. In making brass in the large way, thin plates of copper are
dissolved, as it were, in melted zinc until the proper proportions have
been obtained.

3. The surface of all oxidizable metals should be covered with some
protecting agent, as tallow for very fusible ones, rosin for lead and
tin, charcoal for zinc, copper, etc.

4. Stir the metal before casting and if possible, when casting, with a
whitewood stick; this is much better for the purpose than an iron rod.

5. If possible, add a small portion of old alloy to the new. If
the alloy is required to make sharp castings and strength is not a
very great object, the proportion of old alloy to the new should be
increased. In all cases a new or thoroughly well-cleansed crucible
should be used.

To obtain metals and metallic alloys from their compounds, such as
oxides, sulphides, chlorides, etc., a process lately patented makes use
of the reducing qualities of aluminum or its alloys with magnesium. The
finely powdered material (e. g., chromic oxide) is placed in a crucible
mixed with aluminum oxide. The mixture is set afire by means of a
soldering pipe or a burning magnesium wire, and the desired reaction
takes place. For igniting, one may also employ with advantage a special
priming cartridge consisting of pulverized aluminum to which a little
magnesium may be mixed, and peroxide of magnesia, which is shaped into
balls and lighted with a magnesium wire. By suitable additions to the
pulverized mixture, alloys containing aluminum, magnetism, chromium,
manganese, copper, iron, boron, silicic acid, etc., are obtained.


«ALUMINUM ALLOYS.»

M. H. Pecheux has contributed to the _Comptes Rendus_, from time to
time, the results of his investigations into the alloys of aluminum
with soft metals, and the following constitutes a brief summary of his
observations:


«Lead.»—When aluminum is melted and lead is added in proportion
greater than 10 per cent, the metals separate on cooling into three
layers—lead, aluminum, and between them an alloy containing from 90 to
97 per cent of aluminum. {49} The alloys with 93, 95, and 98 per cent
have densities of 2.745, 2.674, and 2.600 respectively, and melting
points near that of aluminum. Their color is like that of aluminum,
but they are less lustrous. All are malleable, easily cut, softer
than aluminum, and have a granular fracture. On remelting they become
somewhat richer in lead, through a tendency to liquation. They do not
oxidize in moist air, nor at their melting points. They are attacked in
the cold by hydrochloric and by strong sulphuric acid, with evolution
of hydrogen, and by strong nitric acid when hot; strong solution of
potassium hydroxide also attacks them. They are without action on
distilled water, whether cold or hot.


«Zinc.»—Well-defined alloys were obtained, corresponding to the
formulas Zn_〈3〉Al, Zn_〈2〉Al, ZnAl, ZnAl_〈2〉, ZnAl_〈3〉, ZnAl_〈4〉,
ZnAl_〈6〉, ZnAl_〈10〉, ZnAl_〈12〉. Their melting points and densities
all lie between those of zinc and aluminum, and those containing most
zinc are the hardest. They are all dissolved by cold hydrochloric acid
and by hot dilute nitric acid. Cold concentrated nitric acid attacks
the first three, and cold dilute acid the first five. The Zn_〈3〉Al,
ZnAl_〈6〉, ZnAl_〈10〉, and ZnAl_〈12〉 are only slightly affected by
cold potassium-hydroxide solution; the others are strongly attacked,
potassium zincate and aluminate probably being formed.


«Tin.»—A filed rod of tin-aluminum alloy plunged in cold water gives
off for some minutes bubbles of gas, composed of hydrogen and oxygen
in explosive proportions. An unfiled rod, or a filed rod of either
aluminum or tin, is without action, though the unfiled rod of alloy
will act on boiling water. The filed rod of alloy, in faintly acid
solution of copper or zinc sulphate, becomes covered with a deposit
of copper or zinc, while bubbles of oxygen are given off. M. Pecheux
believes that the metals are truly alloyed only at the surface, and
that filing lays bare an almost infinitely numerous series of junctions
of the two metals, which, heated by the filing, act as thermocouples.


«Bismuth.»—By the method used for lead, bismuth alloys were obtained
containing 75, 85, 88, and 94 per cent of aluminum, with densities
2.86, 2.79, 2.78, and 2.74 respectively. They were sonorous, brittle,
finely grained, and homogeneous, silver-white, and with melting points
between those of their constituents, but nearer that of aluminum. They
are not oxidized in air at the temperature of casting, but are readily
attacked by acids, concentrated or dilute, and by potassium-hydroxide
solution. The filed alloys behave like those of tin, but still more
markedly.


«Magnesium.»—These were obtained with 66, 68, 73, 77, and 85 per cent
of aluminum, and densities 2.24, 2.47, 2.32, 2.37, 2.47. They are
brittle, with large granular fracture, silver-white, file well, take
a good polish, and have melting points near that of aluminum. Being
viscous when melted, they are difficult to cast, and when slowly cooled
form a gray, spongy mass which cannot be remelted. They do not oxidize
in air at the ordinary temperatures, but burn readily at a bright-red
heat. They are attacked violently by acids and by potassium-hydroxide
solution, decompose hydrogen peroxide, and slowly decompose water even
in the cold.


«Tin, Bismuth, and Magnesium.»—The action of water on these alloys
just referred to has been recently demonstrated on a larger scale, 5
to 6 cubic centimeters of hydrogen having been obtained in 20 minutes
from 2 cubic centimeters of the filed tin alloy. The bismuth alloy
yielded more hydrogen than the tin alloy, and the magnesium alloy more
than the bismuth alloy. The oxygen of the decomposed water unites
with the aluminum. Larger quantities of hydrogen are obtained from
copper-sulphate solution, apart from the decomposition of this solution
by precipitation of copper at the expense of the metal alloyed with the
aluminum. The alloys of aluminum with zinc and lead do not decompose
pure water, but do decompose the water of copper-sulphate solution,
and, more slowly, that of zinc-sulphate solution.

Aluminum is a metal whose properties are very materially influenced
by a proportionately small addition of copper. Alloys of 99 per cent
aluminum and 1 per cent of copper are hard, brittle, and bluish in
color; 95 per cent of aluminum and 5 per cent of copper give an alloy
which can be hammered, but with 10 percent of copper the metal can no
longer be worked. With 80 per cent and upward of copper are obtained
alloys of a beautiful yellow color, and these mixtures, containing
from 5 to 10 percent of aluminum and from 90 to 95 per cent of copper,
are the genuine aluminum bronzes. The 10-per-cent alloys are of a pure
golden-yellow color; with 5 per cent of aluminum they are reddish
yellow, like gold heavily alloyed with copper, and a 2-per-cent
admixture is of an almost pure copper red. {50} As the proportion of
copper increases, the brittleness is diminished, and alloys containing
10 per cent and less of aluminum can be used for industrial purposes,
the best consisting of 90 per cent of copper and 10 of aluminum. The
hardness of this alloy approaches that of the general bronzes, whence
its name. It can be stretched out into thin sheets between rollers,
worked under the hammer, and shaped as desired by beating or pressure,
in powerful stamping presses. On account of its hardness it takes a
fine polish, and its peculiar greenish-gold color resembles that of
gold alloyed with copper and silver together.

Alloys with a still greater proportion of copper approach this metal
more and more nearly in their character; the color of an alloy, for
instance, composed of 95 per cent of copper and 5 per cent of aluminum,
can be distinguished from pure gold only by direct comparison, and the
metal is very hard, and also very malleable.


«Electrical Conductivity of Aluminum Alloys.»—During three years’
exposure to the atmosphere, copper-aluminum alloys in one test
gradually diminished in conductivity in proportion to the amount of
copper they contained. The nickel-copper aluminum alloys, which show
such remarkably increased tensile strength as compared with good
commercial aluminum, considerably diminished in total conductivity.
On the other hand, the manganese-copper aluminum alloys suffered
comparatively little diminution in total conductivity, and one of them
retained comparatively high tensile strength. It was thought that an
examination of the structure of these alloys by aid of microphotography
might throw some light on the great difference which exists between
some of their physical properties. For instance, a nickel-copper
aluminum alloy has 1.6 times the tensile strength of ordinary
commercial aluminum. Under a magnification of 800 diameters practically
no structure could be discovered. Considering the remarkable
crystalline structure exhibited by ordinary commercial aluminum near
the surface of an ingot, when allowed to solidify at an ordinary rate,
the want of structure in these alloys must be attributed to the process
of drawing down. The inference is that the great difference which
exists between their tensile strengths and other qualities is not due
to variation in structure.


«Colored Alloys of Aluminum.»—A purple scintillating composition is
produced by an alloyage of 78 parts of gold and 22 parts aluminum.
With platinum a gold-colored alloy is obtained; with palladium a
copper-colored one; and with cobalt and nickel one of a yellow color.
Easily fusible metals of the color of aluminum give white alloys. Metal
difficult of fusion, such as iridium, osmium, titanium, etc., appear in
abnormal tones of color through such alloyages.


«Aluminum-Brass.»—Aluminum, 1 per cent; specific gravity, 8.35; tensile
strength, 40. Aluminum, 3 per cent; specific gravity, 8.33; tensile
strength, 65. The last named is harder than the first.


«Aluminum-Copper.»—Minikin is principally aluminum with a small
percentage of copper and nickel. It is alloyed by mixing the aluminum
and copper, then adding the nickel. It resembles palladium and is very
strong.


«Aluminum-Silver.»—I.—Silver, 3 per cent; aluminum, 97 per cent. A
handsome color.

II.—A silver aluminum that is easily worked into various articles
contains about one-fourth silver and three-fourths of aluminum.


«Aluminum-Tin.»—Bourbon metal is composed of equal parts of aluminum
and tin; it solders readily.


«Aluminum-Tungsten.»—A new metal alloy consisting of aluminum and
tungsten is used of late in France in the construction of conveyances,
especially carriages, bicycles, and motor vehicles. The French call
it partinium; the composition of the new alloy varies according to
the purposes for which it is used. It is considerably cheaper than
aluminum, almost as light, and has a greater resistance. The strength
is stated at 32 to 37 kilograms per square millimeter.


«Aluminum-Zinc.»—Zinc, 3 per cent; aluminum, 97 per cent. Very ductile,
white, and harder than aluminum.

AMALGAMS: See Fusible Alloys.


«Anti-Friction Bearing or Babbitt Metals.»—These alloys are usually
supported by bearings of brass, into which it is poured after they have
been tinned, and heated and put together with an exact model of the
axle, or other working piece, plastic clay being previously applied,
in the usual manner, as a lute or outer mold. Soft gun metal is also
excellent, and is much used for bearings. They all become less heated
in working than the {51} harder metals, and less grease or oil is
consequently required when they are used.

I.—An anti-friction metal of excellent quality and one that has been
used with success is made as follows: 17 parts zinc; 1 part copper;
1 1/2 parts antimony; prepared in the following way: Melt the copper
in a small crucible, then add the antimony, and lastly the zinc, care
being taken not to burn the zinc. Burning can be prevented by allowing
the copper and antimony to cool slightly before adding the zinc. This
metal is preferably cast into the shape desired and is not used
as a lining metal because it requires too great a heat to pour. It
machines nicely and takes a fine polish on bearing surfaces. It has the
appearance of aluminum when finished. Use a lubricating oil made from
any good grade of machine oil to which 3 parts of kerosene have been
added.

II.—Copper, 6 parts; tin, 12 parts; lead, 150 parts; antimony, 30
parts; wrought iron, 1 part; cast iron, 1 part. For certain purposes
the composition is modified as follows: Copper, 16 parts; tin, 40
parts; lead, 120 parts; antimony, 24 parts; wrought iron, 1 part; cast
iron, 1 part. In both cases the wrought iron is cut up in small pieces,
and in this state it will melt readily in fused copper and cast iron.
After the mixture has been well stirred, the tin, lead, and antimony
are added; these are previously melted in separate crucibles, and when
mingled the whole mass is again stirred thoroughly. The product may
then be run into ingots, to be employed when needed. When run into the
molds the surface should be well skimmed, for in this state it oxidizes
rapidly. The proportions may be varied without materially affecting the
results.

III.—From tin, 16 to 20 parts; antimony, 2 parts; lead, 1 part; fused
together, and then blended with copper, 80 parts. Used where there is
much friction or high velocity.

IV.—Zinc, 6 parts; tin, 1 part; copper, 20 parts. Used when the metal
is exposed to violent shocks.

V.—Lead, 1 part; tin, 2 parts; zinc, 4 parts; copper, 68 parts. Used
when the metal is exposed to heat.

VI.—Tin, 48 to 50 parts; antimony, 5 parts; copper, 1 part.

VII.—(Fenton’s.) Tin, with some zinc, and a little copper.

VIII.—(Ordinary.) Tin, or hard pewter, with or without a small portion
of antimony or copper. Without the last it is apt to spread out under
the weight of heavy machinery. Used for the bearings of locomotives,
etc.

The following two compositions are for motor and dynamo shafts: 100
pounds tin; 10 pounds copper; 10 pounds antimony.

83 1/2 pounds tin; 8 1/4 pounds antimony; 8 1/4 pounds copper.

IX.—Lead, 75 parts; antimony, 23 parts; tin, 2 parts.

X.—Magnolia Metal.—This is composed of 40 parts of lead, 7 1/2 parts
of antimony, 2 1/2 of tin, 1/8 of bismuth, 1/8 of aluminum, and
1/4 of graphite. It is used as an anti-friction metal, and takes its
name from its manufacturer’s mark, a magnolia flower.

ARGENTAN: See German Silver, under this title.


«BELL METAL.»

The composition of bell metal varies considerably, as may be seen below:

I.—(Standard.) Copper, 78 parts; tin, 22 parts; fused together and
cast. The most sonorous of all the alloys of copper and tin. It is
easily fusible, and has a fine compact grain, and a vitreous conchoidal
and yellowish-red fracture. According to Klaproth, the finest-toned
Indian gongs have this composition.

II.—(Founder’s Standard.) Copper, 77 parts; tin, 21 parts; antimony, 2
parts. Slightly paler and inferior to No. I.

III.—Copper, 80 parts; tin, 20 parts. Very deep-toned and sonorous.
Used in China and India for the larger gongs, tam-tams, etc.

IV.—Copper, 78 to 80 parts; tin, 22 to 20 parts. Usual composition of
Chinese cymbals, tam-tams, etc.

V.—Copper, 75 (= 3) parts; tin, 25 (= 1) part. Somewhat brittle. In
fracture, semivitreous and bluish-red. Used for church and other large
bells.

VI.—Copper, 80 parts; tin, 10 1/4 parts; zinc, 5 1/2 parts; lead,
4 1/4 parts. English bell metal, according to Thomson. Inferior to
the last; the lead being apt to form isolated drops, to the injury of
the uniformity of the alloy.

VII.—Copper, 68 parts; tin, 32 parts. Brittle; fracture conchoidal
and ash-gray. Best proportions for house bells, hand bells, etc.; for
which, however, 2 of copper and 1 of tin is commonly substituted by the
founders.

VIII.—Copper, 72 parts; tin, 26 1/2 parts; iron, 1 1/2 parts. Used
by the Paris houses for the bells of small clocks.

IX.—Copper, 72 parts; tin, 26 parts; zinc, 2 parts. Used, like the
last, for very small bells.

X.—Copper, 70 parts; tin, 26 parts; {52} zinc, 2 parts. Used for the
bells of repeating watches.

XI.—Melt together copper, 100 parts; tin, 25 parts. After being cast
into the required object, it should be made red-hot, and then plunged
immediately into cold water in order to impart to it the requisite
degree of sonorousness. For cymbals and gongs.

XII.—Melt together copper, 80 parts; tin, 20 parts. When cold it has to
be hammered out with frequent annealing.

XIII.—Copper, 78 parts; tin, 22 parts; This is superior to the former,
and it can be rolled out. For tam-tams and gongs.

XIV.—Melt together copper, 72 parts; tin, 26 to 56 parts; iron 1/44
part. Used in making the bells of ornamental French clocks.

Castings in bell metal are all more or less brittle; and, when recent,
have a color varying from a dark ash-gray to grayish-white, which is
darkest in the more cuprous varieties, in which it turns somewhat on
the yellowish-red or bluish-red. The larger the proportion of copper
in the alloy, the deeper and graver the tone of the bells formed of
it. The addition of tin, iron, or zinc, causes them to give out their
tones sharper. Bismuth and lead are also often used to modify the tone,
which each metal affects differently. The addition of antimony and
bismuth is frequently made by the founder to give a more crystalline
grain to the alloy. All these conditions are, however, prejudicial
to the sonorousness of bells, and of very doubtful utility. Rapid
refrigeration increases the sonorousness of all these alloys. Hence
M. D’Arcet recommends that the “pieces” be heated to a cherry-red
after they are cast, and after having been suddenly plunged into cold
water, that they be submitted to well-regulated pressure by skillful
hammering, until they assume their proper form; after which they are
to be again heated and allowed to cool slowly in the air. This is the
method adopted by the Chinese with their gongs, etc., a casing of sheet
iron being employed by them to support and protect the pieces during
the exposure to heat. In a general way, however, bells are formed and
completed by simple casting. This is necessarily the case with all
very large bells. Where the quality of their tones is the chief object
sought after, the greatest care should be taken to use commercially
pure copper. The presence of a very little lead or any similar metal
greatly lessens the sonorousness of this alloy; while that of silver
increases it.

The specific gravity of a large bell is seldom uniform through its
whole substance; nor can the specific gravity from any given portion
of its constituent metals be exactly calculated owing to the many
interfering circumstances. The nearer this uniformity is approached,
or, in other words, chemical combination is complete, the more durable
and finer-toned will be the bell. In general, it is found necessary to
take about one-tenth more metal than the weight of the intended bell,
or bells, in order to allow for waste and scorification during the
operations of fusing and casting.


«BISMUTH ALLOYS.»

Bismuth possesses the unusual quality of expanding in cooling. It is,
therefore, introduced in many alloys to reduce or check shrinkage in
the mold.

For delicate castings, and for taking impressions from dies, medals,
etc., various bismuth alloys are in use, whose composition corresponds
to the following figures:

             I  II  III  IV
 Bismuth     6   5   2    8
 Tin         3   2   1    3
 Lead       13   3   1    5

V.—Cliché Metal.—This alloy is composed of tin, 48 parts; lead,
32.5; bismuth, 9; and antimony, 10.5. It is especially well adapted
to dabbing rollers for printing cotton goods, and as it possesses a
considerable degree of hardness, it wears well.

VI.—For filling out defective places in metallic castings, an alloy of
bismuth 1 part, antimony 3, lead 8, can be advantageously used.

VII.—For Cementing Glass.—Most of the cements in ordinary use are
dissolved, or at least softened, by petroleum. An alloy of lead 3
parts, tin 2, bismuth 2.5, melting at 212° F., is not affected by
petroleum, and is therefore very useful for cementing lamps made of
metal and glass combined.

LIPOWITZ’S BISMUTH ALLOY: See Cadmium Alloys.


«BRASS.»

In general brass is composed of two-thirds copper and one-third zinc,
but a little lead or tin is sometimes advantageous, as the following:

I.—Red copper, 66 parts; zinc, 34 parts; lead, 1 part.

II.—Copper, 66 parts; zinc, 32 parts; tin, 1 part; lead, 1 part.

III.—Copper, 64.5 parts; zinc, 33.5 parts; lead, 1.5 parts; tin, 0.5
part.


«Brass-Aluminum.»—A small addition of aluminum to brass (1.5 to 8
per cent) {53} greatly increases its hardness and elasticity, and
this alloy is also easily worked for any purpose. Brass containing 8
per cent of aluminum has the valuable property of being but slightly
affected by acids or gases. A larger percentage of aluminum makes the
brass brittle. It is to be noted that aluminum brass decreases very
materially in volume in casting, and the casts must be cooled slowly or
they will be brittle. It is an alloy easily made, and its low price,
combined with its excellent qualities, would seem to make it in many
cases an advantageous substitute for the expensive phosphorous bronze.


«Bristol Brass (Prince’s Metal).»—This alloy, which possesses
properties similar to those of French brass, is prepared in the
following proportions:

           I    II    III
 Copper  75.7  67.2  60.8
 Zinc    24.3  32.8  39.2

Particular care is required to prevent the zinc from evaporating during
the fusing, and for this purpose it is customary to put only half of it
into the first melting, and to add the remainder when the first mass is
liquefied.


«Brass-Iron (Aich’s Metal).»—This is a variety of brass with an
admixture of iron, which gives it a considerable degree of tenacity.
It is especially adapted for purposes which require a hard and, at the
same time, tenacious metal. Analyses of the various kinds of this metal
show considerable variation in the proportions. Even the amount of
iron, to which the hardening effect must be attributed, may vary within
wide limits without materially modifying the tenacity which is the
essential characteristic of this alloy.

I.—The best variety of Aich’s metal consists of copper, 60 parts;
zinc, 38.2; iron, 1.8. The predominating quality of this alloy is its
hardness, which is claimed to be not inferior to that of certain kinds
of steel. It has a beautiful golden-yellow color, and is said not to
oxidize easily, a valuable property for articles exposed to the action
of air and water.

II.—Copper, 60.2 parts; zinc, 38.2; iron, 1.6. The permissible
variations in the content of iron are from 0.4 to 3 per cent.

Sterro metal may properly be considered in connection with Aich’s
metal, since its constituents are the same and its properties very
similar. The principal difference between the two metals is that sterro
metal contains a much larger amount of iron. The composition of this
alloy varies considerably with different manufacturers.

III.—Two varieties of excellent quality are the product of the Rosthorn
factory, in Lower Austria—copper, 55.33 parts; zinc, 41.80; iron, 4.66.
Also

IV.—English sterro metal (Gedge’s alloy for ship sheathing), copper, 60
parts; zinc, 38.125; iron, 1.5.

The great value of this alloy lies in its strength, which is equaled
only by that of the best steel. As an illustration of this, a
wrought-iron pipe broke with a pressure of 267 atmospheres, while a
similar pipe of sterro metal withstood the enormous pressure of 763
atmospheres without cracking. Besides its remarkable strength, it
possesses a high degree of elasticity, and is, therefore, particularly
suitable for purposes which require the combination of these two
qualities, such as the construction of hydraulic cylinders. It is well
known that these cylinders, at a certain pressure, begin to sweat, that
is, the interior pressure is so great that the water permeates through
the pores of the steel. With a sterro metal cylinder, the pressure can
be considerably increased without any moisture being perceptible on the
outside of the cylinder.

Sterro metal can be made even more hard and dense, if required
for special purposes, but this is effected rather by mechanical
manipulation than by any change in the chemical composition. If rolled
or hammered in heat, its strength is increased, and it acquires, in
addition, an exceedingly high degree of tenacity. Special care must be
taken, however, in hammering not to overheat the metal, as in this case
it would become brittle and might crack under the hammer. Sterro metal
is especially suitable for all the purposes for which the so-called red
metal has been in the past almost exclusively used. Axle bearings, for
example, made of sterro metal have such excellent qualities that many
machine factories are now using this material entirely for the purpose.


«Cast Brass.»—The various articles of bronze, so called, statuettes,
clock cases, etc., made in France, where this industry has attained
great perfection and extensive proportions, are not, in many cases,
genuine bronze, but fine cast brass. Following are the compositions of
a few mixtures of metals most frequently used by French manufacturers:

          Copper   Zinc   Tin    Lead
   I      63.70   33.55   2.50   0.25
  II      64.45   32.44   0.25   2.86
 III      70.90   24.05   2.00   3.05
  IV      72.43   22.75   1.87   2.95

{54}

Their special advantage is that they can be readily cast, worked with
file and chisel, and easily gilded.


«To Cast Yellow Brass.»—If good, clean, yellow brass sand castings
are desired, the brass should not contain over 30 per cent of zinc.
This will assure an alloy of good color and one which will run free
and clean. Tin or lead may be added without affecting the property of
casting clean. A mixture of 7 pounds of copper, 3 pounds of spelter, 4
ounces of tin, and 3 ounces of lead makes a good casting alloy and one
which will cut free and is strong. If a stronger alloy be desired, more
tin may be added, but 4 ounces is usually sufficient. If the alloy be
too hard, reduce the proportion of tin.


«Leaf Brass.»—This alloy is also called Dutch gold, or imitation gold
leaf. It is made of copper, 77.75 to 84.5 parts; zinc, 15.5 to 22.25.
Its color is pale or bright yellow or greenish, according to the
proportions of the metals. It has an unusual degree of ductility.


«Malleable Brass.»—This metal is affected less by sea water than
pure copper, and was formerly much used for ship sheathing, and for
making nails and rivets which were to come in contact with sea water.
At the present day it has lost much of its importance, since all the
larger ships are made of steel. It is usually composed of copper, 60
to 62 parts; and zinc, 40 to 38 parts. It is sometimes called yellow
metal, or Müntz metal (called after its inventor), and is prepared
with certain precautions, directed toward obtaining as fine a grain as
possible, experience having shown that only a fine-grained alloy of
uniform density can resist the action of the sea water evenly. A metal
of uneven density will wear in holes. To obtain as uniform a grain as
possible, small samples taken from the fused mass are cooled quickly
and examined as to fracture. If they do not show the desired uniform
grain, some zinc is added to the mass. After it has permeated the whole
mass, a fresh sample is taken and tested, this being continued until
the desired result is reached. It is scarcely necessary to remark that
considerable experience is required to tell the correct composition
of the alloy from the fracture. The mass is finally poured into molds
and rolled cold. Malleable brass can be worked warm, like iron, being
ductile in heat, a valuable quality.

Experiments with malleable brass show that all alloys containing up
to 58.33 per cent of copper and up to 41.67 per cent of zinc are
malleable. There is, in addition, a second group of such alloys, with
61.54 per cent of copper and 38.46 per cent of zinc, which are also
malleable in heat.

The preparation of these alloys requires considerable experience,
and is best accomplished by melting the metals together in the usual
manner, and heating the fused mass as strongly as possible. It must
be covered with a layer of charcoal dust to prevent oxidation of the
zinc. The mass becomes thinly fluid, and an intimate mixture of the
constituents is effected. Small pieces of the same alloy are thrown
into the liquid mass until it no longer shows a reflecting surface,
when it is cast into ingots in iron molds. The ingots are plunged
into water while still red-hot, and acquire by this treatment a very
high degree of ductility. The alloy, properly prepared, has a fibrous
fracture and a reddish-yellow color.


«Sheet Brass» (For Sheet and Wire).—In the preparation of brass for
the manufacture of wire, an especially pure quality of copper must be
used; without this, all efforts to produce a suitable quality of brass
will be in vain. That pure copper is indispensable to the manufacture
of good, ductile brass may be seen from the great difference in the
composition of the various kinds, all of which answer their purpose,
but contain widely varying quantities of copper and zinc. The following
table shows the composition of some excellent qualities of brass
suitable for making sheet and wire:

 ───────────────────+──────+──────+──────+─────
 Brass Sheet—Source │Copper│ Zinc │ Lead │ Tin
 ───────────────────+──────+──────+──────+─────
 Jemappes           │ 64.6 │ 33.7 │ 1.4  │ 0.2
 Stolberg           │ 64.8 │ 32.8 │ 2.0  │ 0.4
 Romilly            │ 70.1 │ 29.26│ 0.38 │ 0.17
 Rosthorn (Vienna)  │ 68.1 │ 31.9 │  —   │  —
 Rosthorn (Vienna)  │ 71.5 │ 28.5 │  —   │  —
 Rosthorn (Vienna)  │ 71.1 │ 27.6 │ 1.3  │  —
 Iserlohn & Romilly │ 70.1 │ 29.9 │  —   │  —
 Lüdenscheid        │ 72.73│ 27.27│  —   │  —
 (Brittle)          │ 63.66│ 33.02│ 2.52 │  —
 Hegermühl          │ 70.16│ 27.45│ 0.79 │ 0.20
 Oker               │ 68.98│ 29.54│ 0.97 │  —
                    │      │      │      │
   Brass Wire—      │      │      │      │
 England            │ 70.29│ 29.26│ 0.28 │ 0.17
 Augsburg           │ 71.89│ 27.63│ 0.85 │  —
 Neustadt           │ 70.16│ 27.45│ 0.2  │ 0.79
 Neustadt           │ 71.36│ 28.15│  —   │  —
 Neustadt           │ 71.5 │ 28.5 │  —   │  —
 Neustadt           │ 71.0 │ 27.6 │  —   │  —
 (Good quality)     │ 65.4 │ 34.6 │  —   │  —
 (Brittle)          │ 65.5 │ 32.4 │ 2.1  │  —
 For wire and sheet │ 67.0 │ 32.0 │ 0.5  │ 0.5
 ───────────────────+──────+──────+──────+─────

{55}

As the above figures show, the percentage of zinc in the different
kinds of brass lies between 27 and 34. Recently, alloys containing a
somewhat larger quantity of zinc have been used, it having been found
that the toughness and ductility of the brass are increased thereby,
without injury to its tenacity. Alloys containing up to 37 per cent
of zinc possess a high degree of ductility in the cold, and are well
adapted for wire and sheet.


«Gilders’ Sheet Brass.»—Copper, 1 part; zinc, 1 part; tin, 1/10 part;
lead, 1/10 part. Very readily fusible and very dense.


«White Brass.»—Birmingham platina is an alloy of a pure white, almost
silver-white color, remaining unaffected by tolerably long exposure
to the atmosphere. Unfortunately this alloy is so brittle that it can
rarely be shaped except by casting. It is used only in the manufacture
of buttons. The alloy is poured into molds giving rather sharp
impressions and allowing the design on the button (letters or coat of
arms) to stand out prominently with careful stamping. The composition
of this alloy, also known by the name of platinum lead, is as follows:

                    I      II
 Copper            46.5     4
 Zinc              53.5    16

III.—Zinc, 80 parts; copper, 10 parts; iron, 10 parts.


«BRITANNIA METAL.»

Britannia metal is an alloy consisting principally of tin and
antimony. Many varieties contain only these two metals, and may be
considered simply as tin hardened with antimony, while others contain,
in addition, certain quantities of copper, sometimes lead, and
occasionally, though rarely on account of its cost, bismuth. Britannia
metal is always of a silvery-white color, with a bluish tinge, and its
hardness makes it capable of taking a high polish, which is not lost
through exposure to the air. Ninety per cent of tin and 10 per cent
of antimony gives a composition which is the best for many purposes,
especially for casting, as it fills out the molds well, and is readily
fusible. In some cases, where articles made from it are to be subjected
to constant wear, a harder alloy is required. In the proportions given
above, the metal is indeed much harder than tin, but would still soon
give way under usage.

A table is appended, giving the composition of some of the varieties of
Britannia metal and their special names.

 ───────────────────────+─────+────────+──────+──────+────
                        │ Tin │Antimony│Copper│ Zinc │Lead
 ───────────────────────+─────+────────+──────+──────+────
 English                │81.90│ 16.25  │ 1.84 │  —   │ —
 English                │90.62│  7.81  │ 1.46 │  —   │ —
 English                │90.1 │  6.3   │ 3.1  │ 0.5  │ —
 English                │85.4 │  9.66  │ 0.81 │ 3.06 │ —
 Pewter                 │81.2 │  5.7   │ 1.60 │  —   │11.5
 Pewter                 │89.3 │  7.6   │ 1.8  │  —   │ 1.8
 Tutania                │91.4 │  —     │  0.7 │ 0.3  │ 7.6
 Queen’s metal          │88.5 │  7.1   │  3.5 │ 0.9  │  —
 German                 │72.0 │ 24.0   │  4.0 │  —   │  —
 German                 │84.0 │  9.0   │  2.0 │ 5.0  │  —
 German (for casting)   │20.0 │ 64.0   │ 10.0 │ 6.0  │  —
 Malleable (for casting)│48.0 │  —     │  3.0 │48.0  │ 1.0
 ───────────────────────+─────+────────+──────+──────+────

Britannia metal is prepared by melting the copper alone first, then
adding a part of the tin and the whole of the antimony. The heat can
then be quickly moderated, as the melting point of the new alloy is
much lower than that of copper. Finally, the rest of the tin is added,
and the mixture stirred constantly for some time to make it thoroughly
homogeneous.

An alloy which bears a resemblance to Britannia metal is Ashberry
metal, for which there are two formulas.

                                  I  II
 Copper                           2   3
 Tin                              8  79
 Antimony                        14  15
 Zinc                             1   2
 Nickel                           2   1


«BRONZES.»

The composition of bronze must be effected immediately before the
casting, for bronze cannot be kept in store ready prepared. In forming
the alloy, the refractory compound, copper, is first melted separately,
the other metals, tin, zinc, etc., previously heated, being then added;
the whole is then stirred and the casting carried out without loss of
time. The process of forming the alloy must be effected quickly, so
that there may be no loss of zinc, tin, or lead through oxidation,
and also no interruption to the flow of metal, as metal added after
an interval of time will not combine perfectly with the metal already
poured in. It is important, therefore, to ascertain the specific
weights of the metals, for the heavier metal will naturally tend to
sink to the bottom and the lighter to collect at the top. Only in this
way, and by vigorous stirring, can the complete blending of the two
metals be secured. In adding the zinc, great care {56} must be taken
that the latter sinks at once to the level of the copper, otherwise a
considerable portion will be volatilized before reaching the copper.
When the castings are made, they must be cooled as quickly as possible,
for the components of bronze have a tendency to form separate alloys of
various composition, thus producing the so-called tin spots. This is
much more likely to occur with a slow than with a sudden cooling of the
mass.


«Annealing Bronze.»—This process is more particularly employed in
the preparation of alloys used in the manufacture of cymbals, gongs,
bells, etc. The alloy is naturally brittle, and acquires the properties
essential to the purpose for which it is intended only after casting.
The instruments are plunged into cold water while red-hot, hammered,
reheated, and slowly cooled, when they become soft and sonorous. The
alloy of copper and tin has the peculiar property that, whereas steel
becomes hard through cooling, this mixture, when cooled suddenly,
becomes noticeably soft and more malleable. The alloy is heated to a
dark-red heat, or, in the case of thin articles, to the melting point
of lead, and then plunged in cold water. The alloy may be hammered
without splitting or breaking.


«Aluminum Bronze.»—This is prepared by melting the finest copper in a
crucible, and adding the aluminum. The copper is cooled thereby to the
thickly fluid point, but at the moment of the combination of the two
metals, so much heat is released that the alloy becomes white hot and
thinly fluid. Aluminum bronze thus prepared is usually brittle, and
acquires its best qualities only after having been remelted several
times. It may be remarked that, in order to obtain a bronze of the best
quality, only the very purest copper must be used; with an inferior
quality of copper, all labor is wasted. Aluminum bronze is not affected
by exposure to the air; and its beautiful color makes it very suitable
for manufacturing various ornamental articles, including clock cases,
door knobs, etc.

Aluminum bronze wire is almost as strong as good steel wire, and
castings made from it are almost as hard as steely iron; its resistance
to bending or sagging is great.

I.—A good formula is 90 to 95 per cent of aluminum and 5 to 10 per
cent of copper, of golden color, which keeps well in the air, without
soon becoming dull and changing color like pure copper and its alloys
with tin and zinc (bronze, brass, etc.). It can be cast excellently,
can be filed well and turned, possesses an extraordinary hardness and
firmness, and attains a high degree of polish; it is malleable and
forgeable. On the latter quality are founded applications which were
formerly never thought of, viz.: forged works of art for decorative
purposes. An alloy of 95 parts aluminum and 5 parts copper is used
here. The technical working of bronze is not materially different from
that of iron. The metal, especially in a hot condition, is worked like
iron on the anvil, with hammer and chisel, only that the temperature
to be maintained in forging lies between dark and light cherry red.
If the articles are not forged in one piece and the putting together
of the separate parts becomes necessary, riveting or soldering has to
be resorted to. Besides forging, aluminum bronze is well suited for
embossing, which is not surprising considering the high percentage of
copper. After finishing the pieces, the metal can be toned in manifold
ways by treatment with acid.

II.—Copper, 89 to 98 per cent; aluminum and nickel, 1 to 2 per cent.
Aluminum and nickel change in the opposite way, that is to say, in
increasing the percentage of nickel the amount of aluminum is decreased
by the equal quantity. It should be borne in mind that the best ratio
is aluminum, 9.5 per cent; nickel, 1 to 1.5 per cent at most. In
preparing the alloy a deoxidizing agent is added, viz., phosphorus to
0.5 per cent; magnesium to 1.5 per cent. The phosphorus should always
be added in the form of phosphorous copper or phosphor aluminum of
exactly determined percentage. It is first added to the copper, then
the aluminum and the nickel, and finally the magnesium, the last named
at the moment of liquidity, are admixed.

III.—A gold bronze, containing 3 to 5 per cent aluminum; specific
gravity, 8.37 to 8.15. Handsome golden color. This alloy oxidizes less
on heating than copper and iron, and is therefore especially adapted
for locomotive fireboxes and spindles, etc.

IV.—A steel bronze containing on an average 8.5 per cent aluminum
(including 1 per cent silicium); specific gravity, 7.7. Very ductile
and tough, but slightly elastic; hence its use is excluded where, with
large demands upon tension and pressure, no permanent change of form
must ensue. This is changed by working, such as rolling, drawing,
etc. {57} Especially useful where infrangibility is desired, as in
machinery, ordnance, etc. At high temperature this bronze loses its
elasticity again.

V.—This contains 8.5 per cent aluminum and 1 1/2 to 2 per cent
silicium. Its use is advisable in cases where the metal is to possess a
good elasticity, even in the cast state, and to retain it after being
worked in red heat.

VI.—An acid bronze, containing 10 per cent aluminum; specific gravity,
7.65. Especially serviceable to resist oxidation and the action of
acids.

VII.—Diamond bronze, containing 10 per cent aluminum and 2 per cent
silicium. Specific gravity, 7.3. Very hard; of great firmness, but
brittle.


«Art Bronzes.» (See also Aluminum Bronzes and Japanese Bronzes under
this title.)—I.—Copper, 84 parts; zinc, 11 parts; tin, 5 parts.

II.—Copper, 90 parts; zinc, 6 parts; tin, 2 parts; lead, 2 parts.

III.—Copper, 65 parts; zinc, 30 parts; tin, 5 parts.

IV.—Copper, 90 parts; tin, 5 parts; zinc, 4 parts; lead, 1 part.

V.—Copper, 85 parts; zinc, 10 parts; tin, 3 parts; lead, 2 parts.

VI.—Copper, 72 parts; zinc, 23 parts; tin, 3 parts; lead, 2 parts.


«Statuary Bronze.»—Many of the antique statues were made of genuine
bronze, which has advantages for this purpose, but has been superseded
in modern times by mixtures of metals containing, besides copper and
tin—the constituents of real bronze—a quantity of zinc, the alloy thus
formed being really an intermediate product between bronze and brass.
The reason for the use of such mixtures lies partly in the comparative
cheapness of their production as compared with genuine bronze, and
partly in the purpose for which the metal is to be used. A thoroughly
good statuary bronze must become thinly fluid in fusing, fill the molds
out sharply, allow of being easily worked with the file, and must take
on the beautiful green coating called patina, after being exposed to
the air for a short time.

Genuine bronze, however strongly heated, does not become thin enough to
fill out the molds well, and it is also difficult to obtain homogeneous
castings from it. Brass alone is also too thickly fluid, and not hard
enough for the required fine chiseling or chasing of the finished
object. Alloys containing zinc and tin, in addition to copper, can be
prepared in such a manner that they will become very thinly fluid, and
will give fine castings which can easily be worked with the file and
chisel. The best proportions seem to be from 10 to 18 per cent of zinc
and from 2 to 4 per cent of tin. In point of hardness, statuary bronze
holds an intermediate position between genuine bronze and brass, being
harder and tougher than the latter, but not so much so as the former.

Since statuary bronze is used principally for artistic purposes, much
depends upon the color. This can be varied from pale yellow to orange
yellow by slightly varying the content of tin or zinc, which must, of
course, still be kept between the limits given above. Too much tin
makes the alloy brittle and difficult to chisel; with too much zinc, on
the other hand, the warm tone of color is lost, and the bronze does not
acquire a fine patina.

The best proportions for statuary bronze are very definitely known at
the present day; yet it sometimes happens that large castings have not
the right character. They are either defective in color, or they do not
take on a fine patina, or they are difficult to chisel. These phenomena
may be due to the use of impure metals—containing oxides, iron, lead,
etc.—or to improper treatment of the alloy in melting. With the most
careful work possible, there is a considerable loss in melting—3 per
cent at the very least, and sometimes as much as 10. This is due to the
large proportion of zinc, and it is evident that, in consequence of it,
the nature of the alloy will be different from what might be expected
from the quantities of metals used in its manufacture.

It has been remarked that slight variations in composition quickly
change the color of the alloy. The following table gives a series of
alloys of different colors, suitable for statuary bronze:

 ──────+────────+───────+──────+───────────────
       │ Copper │  Zinc │  Tin │   Color
 ──────+────────+───────+──────+───────────────
    I  │ 84.42  │ 11.28 │ 4.30 │ Reddish yellow
   II  │ 84.00  │ 11.00 │ 5.00 │ Orange red
  III  │ 83.05  │ 13.03 │ 3.92 │ Orange red
   IV  │ 83.00  │ 12.00 │ 5.00 │ Orange red
    V  │ 81.05  │ 15.32 │ 3.63 │ Orange yellow
   VI  │ 81.00  │ 15.00 │ 4.00 │ Orange yellow
  VII  │ 78.09  │ 18.47 │ 3.44 │ Orange yellow
 VIII  │ 73.58  │ 23.27 │ 3.15 │ Orange yellow
   IX  │ 73.00  │ 23.00 │ 4.00 │ Pale orange
    X  │ 70.36  │ 26.88 │ 2.76 │ Pale yellow
   XI  │ 70.00  │ 27.00 │ 3.00 │ Pale yellow
  XII  │ 65.95  │ 31.56 │ 2.49 │ Pale yellow
 ──────+────────+───────+──────+───────────────

{58}

Perhaps the most satisfactory bronze metal is the alloy used in France
for more than a century. It contains 91.60 per cent of copper, 5.33 per
cent of zinc, 1.70 per cent of tin, and 1.37 per cent of lead. Somewhat
more zinc is taken for articles to be gilded.


«Bismuth Bronze.»—Copper, 52 parts; nickel, 30 parts; zinc, 12 parts;
lead, 5 parts; bismuth, 1 part. For metallic mirrors, lamp reflectors,
etc.

Gun Bronze.—See Phosphor Bronze under this title.


«Japanese Bronzes.»—The formulas given below contain a large percentage
of lead, which greatly improves the patina. The ingredients and the
ratio of their parts for several sorts of modern Japanese bronze follow:

I.—Copper, 81.62 per cent; tin, 4.61 per cent; lead, 10.21 per cent.

II.—Copper, 76.60 per cent; tin, 4.38 per cent; lead, 11.88 per cent;
zinc, 6.53 per cent.

III.—Copper, 88.55 per cent; tin, 2.42 per cent; lead, 4.72 per cent;
zinc, 3.20 per cent.

Sometimes a little antimony is added just before casting, and such a
composition would be represented more nearly by this formula:

IV.—Copper, 68.25 per cent; tin, 5.47 per cent; zinc, 8.88 per cent;
lead, 17.06 per cent; antimony, 0.34 per cent.

For imitation Japanese bronze, see Plating under Bronzing.


«Machine Bronze.»—I.—Copper, 89 per cent; tin, 11 per cent.

II.—Copper, 80 per cent; tin, 16 per cent.


«Phosphor Bronze.»—Phosphor bronze is bronze containing varying amounts
of phosphorus, from a few hundredths of 1 per cent to 1 or 2 per cent.
Bronze containing simply copper and tin is very liable to be defective
from the presence of oxygen, sulphur, or occluded gases. Oxygen causes
the metal to be spongy and weak. Sulphur and occluded gases cause
porosity. Oxygen gets into the metal by absorption from the air. It
can be eliminated by adding to the metal something which combines with
the oxygen and then fluxes off. Such deoxidizers are zinc, antimony,
aluminum, manganese, silicon, and phosphorus. Sulphur and occluded
gases can be eliminated by melting the metal, exposing it to the
air, and letting it thus absorb some oxygen, which then burns the
sulphur and gas. The oxygen can then be removed by adding one of the
above-mentioned deoxidizers. The important use of phosphorus in bronze
is, therefore, to remove oxygen and also indirectly to destroy occluded
gas and sulphur.

A bronze is sometimes made with an extra high percentage of phosphorus,
namely, 6 per cent. This alloy is made so as to have phosphorus in
convenient form for use, and the process of manufacture is as follows:
Ninety pounds of copper are melted under charcoal in a No. 70 crucible,
which holds about 200 pounds of metal when full; 11 pounds of tin are
added and the metal is allowed to become hot. The crucible is then
removed from the furnace and 7 pounds of phosphorus are introduced
in the following manner: A 3-gallon stone jar, half full of dilute
solution of blue vitriol, is weighed. Then the weights are increased 7
pounds, and phosphorus in sticks about 4 inches long is added till the
scales balance again. The phosphorus is left in this solution half an
hour or longer, the phosphorus being given a coating of copper, so that
it may be dried and exposed to the air without igniting. Have ready a
pan about 30 inches square and 6 inches deep, containing about 2 inches
of water. Over the water is a wire netting, which is laid loose on
ledges or supports along the inner sides of the pan. On the netting is
blotting paper, and on this the phosphorus is laid to dry when taken
out of the blue-vitriol solution. The pan also has a lid which can be
put down in case of ignition of the phosphorus.

The phosphorus is now ready for introduction into the metal. This
is done by means of a cup-shaped instrument called a retort or
phosphorizer. One man holds the retort on the rim of the crucible
in a horizontal position. A second man takes about three pieces
of phosphorus and throws them into the retort. The first man then
immediately plunges the mouth of the retort below the surface of the
metal before the phosphorus has a chance to fall or flow out. Of course
the phosphorus immediately melts and also begins to volatilize. As the
phosphorus comes in contact with the metal, it combines with it. This
process is continued till all the 7 pounds of phosphorus has been put
into the metal. The metal is then poured into slabs about 3 inches by 4
inches by 1 inch thick. The metal is so hard that a greater thickness
would make it difficult to break it up. When finished, the metal
contains, by analysis, 6 per cent of phosphorus. When phosphorus is to
be added to metal, a little of this hardener is employed.

Copper is a soft, ductile metal, with its melting point at about
2,000° F. {59} Molten copper has the marked property of absorbing
various gases. It is for this reason that it is so difficult to make
sound castings of clear copper. Molten copper combines readily with
the oxygen of the air, forming oxide of copper, which dissolves in the
copper and mixes homogeneously with it.

A casting made from such metal would be very spongy. The bad effect of
oxygen is intended to be overcome by adding zinc to the extent of 1
per cent or more. This result can be much more effectively attained
by the use of aluminum, manganese, or phosphorus. The action of these
substances is to combine with the oxygen, and as the product formed
separates and goes to the surface, the metal is left in a sound
condition. Aluminum and manganese deoxidize copper and bronze very
effectively, and the oxide formed goes to the surface as a scum. When a
casting is made from such metal, the oxide or scum, instead of freeing
itself from the casting perfectly, generally remains in the top part
of the casting mixed with the metal, as a fractured surface will show.
Phosphorus deoxidizes copper, and the oxide formed leaves the metal
in the form of a gas, so that a casting made from such metal shows a
clean fracture throughout, although the metal is not so dense as when
aluminum or manganese is used.

Copper also has the property of absorbing or occluding carbon monoxide.
But the carbonic oxide thus absorbed is in a different condition from
the oxygen absorbed. When oxygen is absorbed by copper, the oxygen
combines chemically with the copper and loses its own identity as
a gas. But when coal gas is absorbed by the copper, it keeps its
own physical identity and simply exists in the copper in a state of
solution. All natural waters, such as lake water, river water, spring
water, etc., contain air in solution or occlusion. When such water is
cooled and frozen, just at the time of changing from the liquid to the
solid state, the dissolved gas separates and forms air bubbles, which
remain entangled in the ice. The carbonic oxide which is dissolved or
occluded in copper acts in exactly the same way.

Hydrogen acts in exactly the same manner as carbonic oxide. Sulphur
also has a bad effect upon copper and bronze. Sulphur combines with
copper and other metals, forming sulphide of copper, etc. When
molten copper or bronze containing sulphur comes in contact with air
it absorbs some oxygen, and this in turn combines with the sulphur
present, forming sulphur dioxide, which is a gas which remains occluded
in the metal.

Tin is a soft, white metal, melting at 440° F. Toward gases it acts
something like copper, but not in so marked a degree. Although copper
and tin are both soft, yet when mixed they make a harder metal. When
bronze cools from the molten state, the copper and the copper-tin alloy
tend to crystallize by themselves. The quicker the cooling occurs the
less separation will there be, and also the fracture will be more
homogeneous in appearance.

Gun bronze contains copper and tin in the proportion of 9 or 10 parts
of copper to 1 of tin. This is the metal used when an ordinary bronze
casting is wanted. A harder bronze is copper and tin in the ratio of
6 to 1. This is often used as a bearing metal. When either of these
metals is to be turned in the machine shop, they should contain about
3 per cent of lead, which will make them work very much better, but
it also decreases their tensile strength. Bearing metal now generally
contains about 10 per cent of lead, with copper and tin in varying
ratios. The large percentage of lead is put in that the metal may wear
away slower. Lead, although a metal having properties similar to tin,
acts entirely different toward copper. Copper and tin have a good deal
of affinity for each other, but copper and lead show no attraction at
all for each other. Copper and tin mix in all proportions, but copper
and lead mix only to a very limited extent. About 3 per cent of lead
can be mixed with copper. With bronze about 15 per cent to 20 per
cent of lead can be mixed. In bearing bronze the lead keeps its own
physical properties, so that the constituent lead melts long before
the metal attains a red heat. It sometimes happens when a bearing runs
warm that the lead actually sweats out and forms pimples on the metal.
Or, sometimes, in remelting a bearing bronze casting the lead may be
seen to drop out while the metal is warming up. All of these metals,
however, should contain something to flux or deoxidize them, such as
zinc, manganese, aluminum, silicon, antimony, or phosphorus.

The phosphor bronze bearing metal in vogue has the following
composition: Copper, 79.7 per cent; tin, 10 per cent; lead, 10 percent;
and phosphorus, 0.3 per cent.

Melt 140 pounds of copper in a No. 70 pot, covering with charcoal. When
copper is all melted, add 17 1/2 pounds of tin to 17 1/2 pounds
of lead, and allow the metal to become sufficiently warm, but {60}
not any hotter than is needed. Then add 10 pounds of “hardener” (made
as previously described) and stir well. Remove from furnace, skim off
the charcoal, cool the metal with gates to as low a temperature as is
consistent with getting a good casting, stir well again, and pour. The
molds for this kind of work are faced with plumbago.

There are several firms that make phosphor-bronze bearings with a
composition similar to the above one, and most of them, or perhaps all,
make it by melting the metals and then charging with phosphorus to the
extent of 0.7 to 1 per cent. But some metal from all brands contains
occluded gas. So that after such metal is cast (in about two minutes
or so) the metal will ooze or sweat out through the gate, and such a
casting will be found to be porous. But not one such experience with
metal made as described above has yet been found.

This practical point should be heeded, viz., that pig phosphor bronze
should be brought to the specifications that the metal should have
shrunk in the ingot mold in cooling, as shown by the concave surface
of the upper side, and that it should make a casting in a sand mold
without rising in the gate after being poured.

In bearing metal, occluded gas is very objectionable, because the gas,
in trying to free itself, shoves the very hard copper-tin compound
(which has a low melting point and remains liquid after the copper has
begun to set) into spots, and thus causes hard spots in the metal.

Phosphorus is very dangerous to handle, and there is great risk from
fire with it, so that many would not care to handle the phosphorus
itself. But phosphor copper containing 5 per cent of phosphorus, and
phosphor tin containing 2 to 7 per cent of phosphorus, and several
other such alloys can be obtained in the market. It may be suggested
to those who wish to make phosphor bronze, but do not want to handle
phosphorus itself, to make it by using the proper amounts of one of
these high phosphorus alloys. In using phosphorus it is only necessary
to use enough to thoroughly deoxidize the metal, say 0.3 per cent. More
than this will make the metal harder, but not any sounder.

Phosphor bronze is not a special kind of alloy, but any bronze can be
made into phosphor bronze; it is, in fact, simply a deoxidized bronze,
produced under treatment with phosphorus compounds.

Although the effect of phosphorus in improving the quality of bronze
has been known for more than fifty years, it is only of late that
the mode for preparing phosphor bronze has been perfected. It is now
manufactured in many localities. Besides its action in reducing the
oxides dissolved in the alloy, the phosphorus exerts another very
material influence upon the properties of the bronze. The ordinary
bronzes consist of mixtures in which the copper is really the only
crystallized constituent, since the tin crystallizes with great
difficulty. As a consequence of this dissimilarity in the nature of
the two metals, the alloy is not so solid as it would be if both were
crystallized. The phosphorus causes the tin to crystallize, and the
result is a more homogeneous mixture of the two metals.

If enough phosphorus is added, so that its presence can be detected
in the finished bronze, the latter may be considered an alloy of
crystallized phosphor tin with copper. If the content of phosphor
is still more increased, a part of the copper combines with the
phosphorus, and the bronze then contains, besides copper and tin,
compounds of crystallized copper phosphide with phosphide of tin.
The strength and tenacity of the bronze are not lessened by a larger
amount of phosphorus, and its hardness is considerably increased. Most
phosphor bronzes are equal in this respect to the best steel, and some
even surpass it in general properties.

The phosphorus is added to the bronze in the form of copper phosphide
or phosphide of tin, the two being sometimes used together. They must
be specially prepared for this purpose, and the best methods will be
here given. Copper phosphide is prepared by heating a mixture of 4
parts of superphosphate of lime, 2 parts of granulated copper, and
1 part of finely pulverized coal in a crucible at a temperature not
too high. The melted copper phosphide, containing 14 per cent of
phosphorus, separates on the bottom of the crucible.

Tin phosphide is prepared as follows: Place a bar of zinc in an aqueous
solution of tin chloride. The tin will be separated in the form of a
sponge-like mass. Collect it, and put it into a crucible, upon the
bottom of which sticks of phosphorus have been placed. Press the tin
tightly into the crucible, and expose to a gentle heat. Continue the
heating until flames of burning phosphorus are no longer observed
on the crucible. The pure tin phosphide, in the form of a coarsely
crystalline mass, tin-white in color, will be found on the bottom of
the crucible.

To prepare the phosphor bronze, the {61} alloy to be treated is melted
in the usual way, and small pieces of the copper phosphide and tin
phosphide are added.

Phosphor bronze, properly prepared, has nearly the same melting point
as that of ordinary bronze. In cooling, however, it has the peculiarity
of passing directly from the liquid to the solid state, without first
becoming thickly fluid. In a melted state it retains a perfectly bright
surface, while ordinary bronze in this condition is always covered with
a thin film of oxide.

If phosphor bronze is kept for a long time at the melting point, there
is not any loss of tin, but the amount of phosphorus is slightly
diminished.

The most valuable properties of phosphor bronze are its extraordinary
tenacity and strength. It can be rolled, hammered, and stretched cold,
and its strength is nearly double that of the best ordinary bronze.
It is principally used in cases where great strength and power of
resistance to outward influences are required, as, for instance, in
objects which are to be exposed to the action of sea water.

Phosphor bronze containing about 4 per cent of tin is excellently
well adapted for sheet bronze. With not more than 5 per cent of tin,
it can be used, forged, for firearms. Seven to 10 per cent of tin
gives the greatest hardness, and such bronze is especially suited to
the manufacture of axle bearings, cylinders for steam fire engines,
cogwheels, and, in general, for parts of machines where great strength
and hardness are required. Phosphor bronze, if exposed to the air,
soon becomes covered with a beautiful, closely adhering patina, and is
therefore well adapted to purposes of art. The amount of phosphorus
added varies from 0.25 to 2.5 per cent, according to the purpose of
the bronze. The composition of a number of kinds of phosphor bronze is
given below:

 ─────+──────+─────+─────+─────+────+───────
      │Copper│ Tin │ Zinc│ Lead│Iron│Phosp-
      │      │     │     │     │    │horus
 ─────+──────+─────+─────+─────+────+───────
    I.│ 85.55│ 9.85│ 3.77│ 0.62│trs.│ 0.05
   II.│  —   │ 4–15│  —  │ 4–15│ —  │ 0.5–3
  III.│  —   │ 4–15│ 8–20│ 4–15│ —  │ .25–2
   IV.│ 77.85│11.00│ 7.65│  —  │ —  │  —
    V.│ 72.50│ 8.00│17.00│  —  │ —  │  —
   VI.│ 73.50│ 6.00│19.00│  —  │ —  │  —
  VII.│ 74.50│11.00│11.00│  —  │ —  │  —
 VIII.│ 83.50│ 8.00│ 3.00│  —  │ —  │  —
   IX.│ 90.34│ 8.90│  —  │  —  │ —  │ 0.76
    X.│ 90.86│ 8.56│  —  │  —  │ —  │ 0.196
   XI.│ 94.71│ 4.39│  —  │  —  │ —  │ 0.053
 ─────+──────+─────+─────+─────+────+───────

I for axle bearings, II and III for harder and softer axle bearings, IV
to VIII for railroad purposes, IV especially for valves of locomotives,
V and VI axle bearings for wagons, VII for connecting rods, VIII for
piston rods in hydraulic presses.


«Steel Bronze».—Copper, 60; ferromanganese (containing 70 to 80 per
cent manganese), 40; zinc, 15.


«Silicon Bronze.»—Silicon, similarly to phosphorus, acts as a
deoxidizing agent, and the bronzes produced under its influence are
very ductile and elastic, do not rust, and are very strong. On account
of these qualities silicon bronze is much used for telegraph and
telephone wires. The process of manufacture is similar to that of
phosphor bronze; the silicon is used in the form of copper silicide.
Some good silicon bronzes are as follows:

                      I       II
 Copper             97.12    97.37
 Tin                 1.14     1.32
 Zinc                1.10     1.27
 Silicon             0.05     0.07


«Sun Bronze.»—The alloy called sun bronze contains 10 parts of
aluminum, 30 to 50 parts of copper, and 40 to 60 parts of cobalt. The
mixture known by the name of metalline has 25 per cent of aluminum, 30
of copper, 10 of iron, and 35 of cobalt. These alloys melt at a point
approaching the melting point of copper, are tenacious, ductile, and
very hard.


«Tobin Bronze.»—This alloy is nearly similar in composition and
properties to Delta metal.

              I       II    III     IV
 Copper     61.203  59.00  61.20  82.67
 Zinc       27.440  38.40  37.14   3.23
 Tin         0.906   2.16   0.90  12.40
 Iron        0.180   0.11   0.18   0.10
 Lead        0.359   0.31   0.35   2.14
 Silver        —      —      —     0.07
 Phosphorus    —      —      —     0.005

The alloy marked IV is sometimes called deoxidized bronze.

Violet-colored bronze is 50 parts copper and 50 parts antimony.


«CADMIUM ALLOYS:»

See also Fusible Alloys.


«Lipowitz’s Alloy.»—I.—This alloy is composed of cadmium, 3 parts; tin,
4; bismuth, 15; and lead, 8. The simplest method of preparation is to
heat the metals, in small pieces, in a crucible, stirring constantly,
as soon as fusion {62} begins, with a stick of hard wood. The stirring
is important, in order to prevent the metals, whose specific gravity
varies considerably, from being deposited in layers. The alloy softens
at 140° F. and melts completely at 158° F. The color is silvery
white, with a luster like polished silver, and the metal can be bent,
hammered, and turned. These properties would make it valuable for many
purposes where a beautiful appearance is of special importance, but
on account of the considerable amount of cadmium and bismuth which it
contains, it is rather expensive, and therefore limited in use. Casts
of small animals, insects, lizards, etc., have been prepared from it,
which were equal in sharpness to the best galvanoplastic work. Plaster
of Paris is poured over the animal to be cast, and after sharp drying,
the animal is removed and the mold filled up with Lipowitz’s metal.
The mold is placed in a vessel of water, and by heating to the boiling
point the metal is melted and deposited in the finest impressions of
the mold.

This alloy is most excellent for soldering tin, lead, Britannia metal,
and nickel, being especially adapted to the last two metals on account
of its silver-white color. But here again its costliness prevents its
general use, and cheaper alloys possessing the same properties have
been sought. In cases where the silver-white color and the low melting
point are not of the first importance, the alloys given below may very
well be used in the place of it.

II.—Cadmium alloy (melting point, 170° F.): Cadmium, 2 parts; tin, 3;
lead, 11; bismuth, 16.

III.—Cadmium alloy (melting point, 167° F.): Cadmium, 10 parts; tin, 3;
lead, 8; bismuth, 8.

Cadmium alloys (melting point, 203° F.):

                      IV  V  VI
 Cadmium               1  1  1  parts
 Tin                   2  3  1  parts
 Bismuth               3  5  2  parts

VII.—A very fusible alloy, melting at 150° F., is composed of tin, 1 or
2 parts; lead, 2 or 3; bismuth, 4 or 15; cadmium, 1 or 2.

VIII.—Wood’s alloy melts between 140° and 161.5° F. It is composed of
lead, 4 parts; tin, 2; bismuth, 5 to 8; cadmium, 1 to 2. In color it
resembles platinum, and is malleable to a certain extent.

IX.—Cadmium alloy (melting point, 179.5° F.): Cadmium, 1 part; lead, 6
parts; bismuth, 7. This, like the preceding, can be used for soldering
in hot water.

X.—Cadmium alloy (melting point, 300° F.): Cadmium, 2 parts; tin, 4;
lead, 2. This is an excellent soft solder, with a melting point about
86 degrees below that of lead and tin alone.


«Cadmium Alloys with Gold, Silver, and Copper.»—I.—Gold, 750 parts;
silver, 166 parts; cadmium, 84 parts. A malleable and ductile alloy of
green color.

II.—Gold, 750 parts; silver, 125 parts; and cadmium, 125 parts.
Malleable and ductile alloy of yellowish-green hue.

III.—Gold, 746 parts; silver, 114 parts; copper, 97 parts; and cadmium,
43 parts. Likewise a malleable and ductile alloy of a peculiar green
shade. All these alloys are suitable for plating. As regards their
production, each must be carefully melted together from its ingredients
in a covered crucible lined with coal dust, or in a graphite crucible.
Next, the alloy has to be remelted in a graphite crucible with charcoal
(or rosin powder) and borax. If, in spite thereof, a considerable
portion of the cadmium should have evaporated, the alloy must be
re-fused once more with an addition of cadmium.


«ALLOYS FOR CASTING COINS, MEDALLIONS, ETC.»

Alloys which fulfill the requirements of the medalist, and capable,
therefore, of reproducing all details, are the following:

                      I  II
 Tin                  3   6 parts
 Lead                13   8 parts
 Bismuth              6  14 parts

III.—A soft alloy suitable to take impressions of woodcuts, coins,
metals, engravings, etc., and which must melt at a low degree of heat,
is made out of bismuth, 3 parts; tin, 1 1/2 parts; lead, 2 1/2
parts; and worn-out type, 1 part.


«Acid-proof Alloy.»—This alloy is characterized by its power of
resisting the action of acids, and is therefore especially adapted
to making cocks, pipes, etc., which are to come in contact with acid
fluids. It is composed of copper, zinc, lead, tin, iron, nickel,
cobalt, and antimony, in the following proportions:

 Copper                74.75 parts
 Zinc                   0.61 parts
 Lead                  16.35 parts
 Tin                    0.91 parts
 Iron                   0.43 parts
 Nickel or Cobalt       0.24 parts
 Antimony               6.78 parts

{63}


«Albata Metal.»—Copper, 40 parts; zinc, 32 parts; and nickel, 8 parts.


«Alfenide Metal.»—Copper, 60 parts; zinc, 30; nickel, 10; traces of
iron.


«Bath Metal.»—This alloy is used especially in England for the
manufacture of teapots, and is very popular owing to the fine white
color it possesses. It takes a high polish, and articles made from
this alloy acquire in the course of time, upon only being rubbed with a
white cloth, a permanent silver luster. The composition of Bath metal
is copper, 55 parts; zinc, 45 parts.


«Baudoin Metal.»—This is composed of 72 parts of copper, 16.6 of
nickel, 1.8 of cobalt, 1 of zinc; 1/2 per cent of aluminum may be
added.


«CASTING COPPER:»


«Macht’s Yellow Metal.»—I.—This alloy consists of 33 parts of copper
and 25 of zinc. It has a dark golden-yellow color, great tenacity,
and can be forged at a red heat, properties which make it especially
suitable for fine castings.

II.—Yellow.—Copper, 67 to 70 parts; zinc, 33 to 30 parts.

III.—Red.—Copper, 82 parts; zinc, 18 parts.


«Copper Arsenic.»—Arsenic imparts to copper a very fine white color,
and makes it very hard and brittle. Before German silver was known,
these alloys were sometimes used for the manufacture of such cast
articles as were not to come in contact with iron. When exposed to the
air, they soon lose their whiteness and take on a brownish shade. On
account of this, as well as the poisonous character of the arsenic,
they are very little used at the present time. Alloys of copper and
arsenic are best prepared by pressing firmly into a crucible a mixture
of 70 parts of copper and 30 of arsenic (the copper to be used in the
form of fine shavings) and fusing this mixture in a furnace with a good
draught, under a cover of glass.


«Copper Iron.»—The alloys of copper and iron are little used in the
industries of the present day, but it would seem that in earlier times
they were frequently prepared for the purpose of giving a considerable
degree of hardness to copper; for in antique casts, consisting
principally of copper, we regularly find large quantities of iron,
which leads to the supposition that they were added intentionally.

These alloys, when of a certain composition, have considerable strength
and hardness. With an increase in the quantity of the iron the hardness
increases, but the solidity is lessened. A copper and iron alloy of
considerable strength, and at the same time very hard, is made of
copper, 66 parts; iron, 34. These alloys acquire, on exposure to air,
an ugly color inclining toward black, and are therefore not adapted for
articles of art.


«Copper Nickel.»—A. Morrell, of New York, has obtained a patent on
a nickel-copper alloy which he claims is valuable on account of its
noncorrosive qualities, therefore making it desirable for ships, boiler
tubes, and other uses where the metal comes much in contact with water.
The process of making the metal is by smelting ore containing sulphide
of nickel and copper, and besemerizing the resultant matter. This
is calcined in order to obtain the nickel and copper in the form of
oxides. The latter are reduced in reverberating furnace with carbon, or
the like, so as to produce an alloy which preferably contains 2 parts
of nickel and 1 part of copper.


«Delta Metal.»—An alloy widely used for making parts of machinery,
and also for artistic purposes, is the so-called Delta metal. This is
a variety of brass hardened with iron; some manufacturers add small
quantities of tin and lead; also, in some cases, nickel. The following
analysis of Delta metal (from the factory at Düsseldorf) will show its
usual composition:

 ──────────+───────+───────+───────+─────+─────
           │   I   │   II  │  III  │  IV │  V
 ──────────+───────+───────+───────+─────+─────
 Copper    │ 55.94 │  55.80│  55.82│54.22│58.65
 Zinc      │ 41.61 │  40.07│  41.41│42.25│38.95
 Lead      │  0.72 │   1.82│   0.76│ 1.10│ 0.67
 Iron      │  0.87 │   1.28│   0.86│ 0.99│ 1.62
 Manganese │  0.81 │   0.96│   1.38│ 1.09│  —
 Nickel    │traces.│traces.│   0.06│ 0.16│ 0.11
 Phosphorus│  0.013│  0.011│traces.│ 0.02│  —
 ──────────+───────+───────+───────+─────+─────

I is cast, II hammered, III rolled, and IV hot-stamped metal. Delta
metal is produced by heating zinc very strongly in crucibles (to about
1600° F.), and adding ferromanganese or “spiegeleisen,” producing an
alloy of 95 per cent zinc and 5 per cent of iron. Copper and brass and
a very small amount of copper phosphate are also added. {64}


«Gong Metal.»—A sonorous metal for cymbals, gongs, and tam-tams
consists of 100 parts of copper with 25 parts tin. Ignite the piece
after it is cast and plunge it into cold water immediately.


«Production of Minargent.»—This alloy consists of copper, 500 parts;
nickel, 350; tungsten, 25, and aluminum, 5. The metal obtained
possesses a handsome white color and greatly resembles silver.


«Minofor.»—The so-called Minofor metal is composed of copper, tin,
antimony, zinc, and iron in the following proportions:

                          I      II
 Copper                  3.26     4
 Tin                    67.53    66
 Antimony               17.00    20
 Zinc                    8.94     9
 Iron                     —       1

Minargent and Minofor are sometimes used in England for purposes in
which the ordinary Britannia metal, 2 parts tin and 1 part antimony,
might equally well be employed; the latter surpasses both of them in
beauty of color, but they are, on the other hand, harder.


«Retz Alloy.»—This alloy, which resists the corrosive action of
alkalies and acids, is composed of 15 parts of copper, 2.34 of tin,
1.82 of lead, and 1 of antimony. It can be utilized in the manufacture
of receivers, for which porcelain and ebonite are usually employed.


«Ruoltz Metal.»—This comprises 20 parts of silver, 50 of copper, 30 of
nickel. These proportions may, however, vary.


«Tissier’s Metal.»—This alloy contains arsenic, is of a beautiful
tombac red color, and very hard. Its composition varies a great deal,
but the peculiar alloy which gives the name is composed of copper, 97
parts; zinc, 2 parts; arsenic, 1 or 2. It may be considered a brass
with a very high percentage of copper, and hardened by the addition of
arsenic. It is sometimes used for axle bearings, but other alloys are
equally suitable for this purpose, and are to be preferred on account
of the absence of arsenic, which is always dangerous.


«FILE ALLOYS.»—Many copper-tin alloys are employed for the making
of files which, in distinction from the steel files, are designated
composition files. Such alloys have the following compositions:


«Geneva Composition Files.»—

                          I     II
 Copper                 64.4    62
 Tin                    18.0    20
 Zinc                   10.0    10
 Lead                    7.6     8


«Vogel’s Composition Files.»—

              III    IV    V
 Copper       57.0  61.5  73.0
 Tin          28.5  31.0  19.0
 Zinc         78.0   —     8.0
 Lead          7.0   8.5   8.0

VI.—Another alloy for composition files is copper, 8 parts; tin, 2;
zinc, 1, and lead, 1—fused under a cover of borax.


«EASILY FUSIBLE OR PLASTIC ALLOYS.»

(These have a fusing point usually below 300° F.)

(See also Solders.)

I. Rose’s Alloy.—Bismuth, 2 parts; lead, 1 part; tin, 1 part. Melting
point, 200° F.

II. Darcet Alloy.—This is composed of 8 parts of bismuth, 5 of lead,
and 3 of tin. It melts at 176° F. To impart greater fusibility, 1/16
part of mercury is added; the fusing is then lowered to 149° F.

III.—Newton alloy melts at 212° F., and is composed of 5 parts of
bismuth, 2 of lead, and 3 of tin.

IV.—Wood’s Metal.—

 Tin                 2 parts
 Lead                4 parts
 Bismuth        5 to 8 parts

This silvery, fine-grained alloy fuses between 151° and 162° F., and is
excellently adapted to soldering.

V.—Bismuth, 7 parts; lead, 6 parts; cadmium, 1 part. Melting point,
180° F.

VI.—Bismuth, 7 to 8 parts; lead, 4; tin, 2; cadmium, 1 to 2. Melting
point, 149° to 160° F.


«Other easily fusible alloys:»

                   VII     VIII   IX
 Lead               1        2     3
 Tin                1        2     3
 Bismuth            1        1     1
 Melting Point    258° F.  283°  311°


«Fusible Alloys for Electric Installations.»—These alloys are
employed in electric installations as current interrupters. Serving
as conductors on a short length of circuit, they melt as soon as the
current becomes too strong. Following is the composition of some of
these alloys.

 ────+───────────+──────+─────+─────────+────────
     │  Fusing   │      │     │         │
     │temperature│ Lead │ Tin │ Bismuth │Cadmium
 ────+───────────+──────+─────+─────────+────────
   I │  203° F.  │  250 │ 500 │   500   │    —
  II │  193° F.  │  397 │  —  │   532   │    71
 III │  168° F.  │  344 │  94 │   500   │    62
  IV │  153° F.  │  260 │ 148 │   522   │    70
   V │  150° F.  │  249 │ 142 │   501   │   108
  VI │  145° F.  │  267 │ 136 │   500   │   100
 ────+───────────+──────+─────+─────────+────────

{65}

These alloys are prepared by melting the lead in a stearine bath and
adding successively, and during the cooling, first, the cadmium;
second, the bismuth; third, the tin. It is absolutely necessary to
proceed in this manner, since these metals fuse at temperatures ranging
from 850° F. (for lead), to 551° F. (for tin).


«Fusible Safety Alloys for Steam Boilers.»—

 ───────+───────+────+────+────────+────────
        │       │    │    │ Melting│ Atmos.
        │Bismuth│Lead│Zinc│  point │pressure
 ───────+───────+────+────+────────+────────
    I.  │   8   │  5 │  3 │ 212° F.│  1
   II.  │   8   │  8 │  4 │ 235° F.│  1.5
  III.  │   8   │  8 │  3 │ 253° F.│  2
   IV.  │   8   │ 10 │  8 │ 266° F.│  2.5
    V.  │   8   │ 12 │  8 │ 270° F.│  3
   VI.  │   8   │ 16 │ 14 │ 280° F.│  3.5
  VII.  │   8   │ 16 │ 12 │ 285° F.│  4
 VIII.  │   8   │ 22 │ 24 │ 309° F.│  5
   IX.  │   8   │ 32 │ 36 │ 320° F.│  6
    X.  │   8   │ 32 │ 28 │ 330° F.│  7
   XI.  │   8   │ 30 │ 24 │ 340° F.│  8
 ───────+───────+────+────+────────+────────


«Lipowitz Metal.»—This amalgam is prepared as follows: Melt in a dish,
cadmium, 3 parts, by weight; tin, 4 parts; bismuth, 15 parts; and
lead, 8 parts, adding to the alloy, while still in fusion, 2 parts
of quicksilver previously heated to about 212° F. The amalgamation
proceeds easily and smoothly. The liquid mass in the dish, which
should be taken from the fire immediately upon the introduction of the
mercury, is stirred until the contents solidify. While Lipowitz alloy
softens already at 140° F. and fuses perfectly at 158°, the amalgam has
a still lower fusing point, which lies around 143 3/5° F.

This amalgam is excellently adapted for the production of impressions
of various objects of nature, direct impressions of leaves, and other
delicate parts of plants having been made with its aid which, in point
of sharpness, are equal to the best plaster casts and have a very
pleasing appearance. The amalgam has a silver-white color and a fine
gloss. It is perfectly constant to atmospheric influences. This amalgam
has also been used with good success for the making of small statuettes
and busts, which are hollow and can be readily gilt or bronzed by
electro-deposition. The production of small statues is successfully
carried out by making a hollow gypsum mold of the articles to be cast
and heating the mold evenly to about 140° F. A corresponding quantity
of the molten amalgam is then poured in and the mold moved rapidly to
and fro, so that the alloy is thrown against the sides all over. The
shaking should be continued until it is certain that the amalgam has
solidified. When the mold has cooled off it is taken apart and the
seams removed by means of a sharp knife. If the operation is carried on
correctly, a chasing of the cast mass becomes unnecessary, since the
alloy fills out the finest depressions of the mold with the greatest
sharpness.


«Amalgam for Plaster.»—Tin, 1 part; bismuth, 1 part; mercury, 1 part.
Melt the bismuth and the tin together, and when the two metals are in
fusion add the mercury while stirring. For use, rub up the amalgam with
a little white of egg and brush like a varnish on the plaster articles.


«Plastic Metal Composition.»—I. Copper oxide is reduced by means of
hydrogen or copper sulphate by boiling a solution of the same in water
with some zinc filings in order to obtain entirely pure copper. Of the
copper powder obtained in this manner, 20, 30, or 36 parts, by weight,
according to the degree of hardness desired for the composition (the
greater the quantity of copper used the harder will the composition
become), are thoroughly moistened in a cast-iron or porcelain mortar
with sulphuric acid of 1.85 specific gravity; 70 parts, by weight,
of mercury are then added to this paste, the whole being constantly
stirred. When all the copper has been thoroughly amalgamated with the
mercury, the sulphuric acid is washed out again with boiling water,
and in 12 hours after it has become cold the composition will be
so hard that it can be polished. It is impervious to the action of
dilute acids, alcohol, ether, and boiling water. It contains the same
specific gravity, alike in the soft or the hard condition. When used
as a cement, it can at any time be rendered soft and plastic in the
following manner: If applied while hot and plastic to the deoxidized
surfaces of two pieces of metal, these latter will unite so firmly that
in about 10 or 12 hours the metal may be subjected to any mechanical
process. The properties of this composition render it very useful for
various purposes, and it forms a most effective cement for fine metal
articles which cannot be soldered in fire.

II.—Bismuth, 5.5 parts; lead, 3; tin, 1.5.

III. Alloy d’Homburg.—Bismuth, {66} 3 parts; lead, 3; tin, 3. This
alloy is fusible at 251° F., and is of a silvery white. It is employed
for reproductions of medals.

IV. Alloy Valentine Rose.—Bismuth, 4 to 6 parts; lead, 2 parts; tin, 2
to 3 parts. This alloy fuses at 212° to 250° F.

V. Alloy Rose père.—Bismuth, 2 parts; lead, 2; tin, 2. This alloy fuses
at 199° F.

The remainder are plastic alloys for reproducing cuts, medals, coins,
etc.:

VI.—Bismuth, 4 parts; lead, 2 parts; tin, 1 part.

VII.—Bismuth, 3 parts; lead, 3 parts; tin, 2 parts.

VIII.—Bismuth, 4 parts; lead, 2 parts; tin, 2 parts.

IX.—Bismuth, 5 parts; lead, 2 parts; tin, 3 parts.

X.—Bismuth, 2 parts; lead, 2 parts; tin, 2 parts.


«Quick-Water.»—That the amalgam may easily take hold of bronze objects
and remain there, it is customary to cover the perfectly cleansed
and shining article with a thin coat of mercury, which is usually
accomplished by dipping it into a so-called quick-water bath.

In the form of minute globules the mercury immediately separates itself
from the solution and clings to the bronze object, which thereupon
presents the appearance of being plated with silver. After it has been
well rinsed in clean water, the amalgam may be evenly and without
difficulty applied with the scratch brush.

This quick-water (in reality a solution of mercurous nitrate), is made
in the simplest manner by taking 10 parts of mercury and pouring over
it 11 parts of nitric acid of a specific gravity equal to 1.33; now
let it stand until every part of the mercury is dissolved; then, while
stirring vigorously, add 540 parts of water. This solution must be kept
in closed flasks or bottles to prevent impurities, such as dust, etc.,
from falling into it.

The preparatory work on the object to be gilded consists mainly in
cleansing it from every trace of oxidation. First, it must be well
annealed by placing it in a bed of glowing coal, care being exercised
that the heating be uniform. When cooled, this piece is plunged into a
highly diluted sulphuric-acid bath in order to dissolve in a measure
the oxide. Next it is dipped in a 36° nitric-acid bath, of a specific
gravity equal to 1.33, and brushed off with a long brush; it is now
dipped into nitric acid into which a little lampblack and table salt
have been thrown. It is now ready for washing in clean water and drying
in unsoiled sawdust. It is of the greatest importance that the surface
to be gilded should appear of a pale yellow tint all over. If it be too
smooth the gold will not take hold easily, and if it be too dull it
will require too much gold to cover it.


«GOLD ALLOYS:»


«Colored Gold Alloys.»—The alloys of gold with copper have a reddish
tinge; those of gold with silver are whiter, and an alloy of gold,
silver, and copper together is distinguished by a greenish tone.
Manufacturers of gold ware make use of these different colors, one
piece being frequently composed of several pieces of varying color.
Below are given some of these alloys, with their colors:

 ──────+──────+──────+──────+─────+───────
       │ Gold │Silver│Copper│Steel│Cadmium
 ──────+──────+──────+──────+─────+───────
    I. │ 2.6  │  1.0 │  —   │ —   │  —
   II. │ 75.0 │ 16.6 │  —   │ —   │  8.4
  III. │ 74.6 │ 11.4 │  9.7 │ —   │  4.3
   IV. │ 75.0 │ 12.6 │  —   │ —   │ 12.5
    V. │  1.0 │  2.0 │  —   │ —   │  —
   VI. │  4.0 │  3.0 │  1.0 │ —   │  —
  VII. │ 14.7 │  7.0 │  6.0 │ —   │  —
 VIII. │ 14.7 │  9.0 │  4.0 │ —   │  —
   IX. │  3.0 │  1.0 │  1.0 │ —   │  —
    X. │ 10.0 │  1.0 │  4.0 │ —   │  —
   XI. │  1.0 │  —   │  1.0 │ —   │  —
  XII. │  1.0 │  —   │  2.0 │ —   │  —
 XIII. │ 30.0 │  3.0 │  —   │ 2.0 │  —
  XIV. │  4.0 │  —   │  —   │ 1.0 │  —
   XV. │ 29.0 │ 11.0 │  —   │ —   │  —
  XVI. │  1.3 │  —   │  —   │ 1.0 │  —
 ──────+──────+──────+──────+─────+───────

Nos. I, II, III, and IV are green gold; No. V is pale yellow; Nos.
VI, VII, and VIII bright yellow; Nos. IX and X pale red; Nos. XI and
XII bright red; Nos. XIII, XIV, and XV gray; while No. XVI exhibits a
bluish tint. The finished gold ware, before being put upon the market,
is subjected to a special treatment, consisting either in the simple
pickling or in the so-called coloring, which operation is conducted
especially with alloys of low degree of fineness, the object being to
give the layers a superficial layer of pure gold.

The presence of silver considerably modifies the color of gold, and the
jeweler makes use of this property to obtain alloys of various shades.
The following proportions are to be observed, viz.: {67}

                        Gold  Silver  Copper
      Color of Gold     per     per     per
                       1,000   1,000   1,000
    I. Green             750     250     —
   II. Dead leaves       700     300     —
  III. Sea green         600     400     —
   IV. Pink              750     200      50
    V. English yellow    750     125     125
   VI. English white     750     150     100
  VII. Whiter            750     170      80
 VIII. Less white        750     190      60
   IX. Red               750      —      250

Other colored gold alloys are the following:

X. Blue.—Fine gold, 75; iron, 25.

XI. Dark Gray.—Fine gold, 94; iron, 6.

XII. Pale Gray.—Fine gold, 191; iron, 9.

XIII. Cassel Yellow.—Fine gold, 75; fine silver, 12 1/2; rose copper,
12 1/2.

The above figures are understood to be by weight.

The gold solders, known in France under the names of _soudures au
quart_ (13 1/2 carat), _au tiers_ (12 carat), and _au deux_ (9
carat), are composed of 3, 2, or 1 part of gold respectively, with 1
part of an alloy consisting of two-thirds silver and one-third copper.
Gold also forms with aluminum a series of alloys of greatly varying
coloration, the most curious of them, composed of 22 parts of aluminum
for 88 parts of gold, possessing a pretty purple shade. But all these
alloys, of a highly crystalline base, are very brittle and cannot be
worked, for which reason their handsome colorings have not yet been
capable of being utilized.


«Enameling Alloys.»—I. Transparent.—This alloy should possess the
property of transmitting rays of light so as to give the highest
possible effect to the enamel. The alloy of gold for transparent green
should be pale; a red or copper alloy does not do for green enamel,
the copper has a tendency to darken the color and thus take away a
part of its brilliancy. The following alloy for transparent green
possesses about the nearest print, in color, to the enamel—which
should represent, as near as possible, the color and brilliancy of the
emerald—that can be arrived at:

                    ozs.  dwts.  grs.
 Fine gold           0     18      8
 Fine silver         0      1      6
 Fine copper         0      0     10

No borax must be used in the melting of this alloy, it being of a more
fusible nature than the ordinary alloy, and will not take so high a
heat in enameling.

II. Red Enamel.—The enamel which forms this color being of a higher
fusing point, if proper care be not taken, the gold will melt first,
and the work become ruined. In the preparation of red enamel, the
coloring matter is usually an oxide of gold, and this so raises the
temperature at which it melts that, in order to prevent any mishap, the
gold to be enameled on should be what is called a 22-carat red, that
is, it should contain a preponderance of copper in the alloying mixture
so as to raise the fusing point of the gold. The formula is:

                   ozs.  dwts.  grs.
 Fine gold          0     18      8
 Fine silver        0      0     10
 Fine copper        0      1      6


«Gold-leaf Alloys.»—All gold made into leaf is more or less alloyed.
The gold used by the goldbeater is alloyed according to the variety
of color required. Fine gold is commonly supposed to be incapable of
being reduced to thin leaves. This, however, is not the case, although
its use for ordinary purposes is undesirable on account of its greater
cost. It also adheres by contact of one leaf with another, thus causing
spoiled material and wasted labor; but for work exposed to the weather
it is much preferable, as it is more durable and does not tarnish or
change color.

The following is a list of the principal classes of leaf recognized
and ordinarily prepared by beaters with the proportion of alloy they
contain:

                       Gold   Silver  Copper
                       grs.    grs.    grs.
    I. Red gold      456–460    —     20–24
   II. Pale red        464      —        16
  III. Extra deep      456      12       12
   IV. Deep            444      24       12
    V. Citron          440      30       10
   VI. Yellow          408      72      —
  VII. Pale yellow     384      96      —
 VIII. Lemon           360     120      —
   IX. Green or pale   312     168      —
    X. White           240     240      —


«Gold-Plate Alloys.»—Gold, 92 parts; copper, 8 parts.

II.—Gold, 84 parts; copper, 16 parts.

III.—Gold, 75 parts; copper, 25 parts.


«IMITATION GOLD.»

I.—One hundred parts, by weight, of copper of the purest quality; 14
of zinc or tin; 6 of magnesia; 3/6 of sal ammoniac, limestone, and
cream of tartar. The copper is first melted, then the magnesia, sal
ammoniac, limestone, and cream of tartar in powder are added separately
and gradually. The whole mass is kept stirred for a half hour, the zinc
or tin being dropped in piece by piece, the {68} stirring being kept up
till they melt. Finally the crucible is covered and the mass is kept
in fusion 35 minutes and, the same being removed, the metal is poured
into molds, and is then ready for use. The alloy thus made is said to
be fine-grained, malleable, takes a high polish, and does not easily
oxidize.

II.—An invention, patented in Germany, covers a metallic alloy, to
take the place of gold, which, even if exposed for some time to the
action of ammoniacal and acid vapors, does not oxidize or lose its gold
color. It can be rolled and worked like gold and has the appearance of
genuine gold without containing the slightest admixture of that metal.
The alloy consists of copper and antimony in the approximate ratio of
100 to 6, and is produced by adding to molten copper, as soon as it has
reached a certain degree of heat, the said percentage of antimony. When
the antimony has likewise melted and entered into intimate union with
the copper, some charcoal ashes, magnesium, and lime spar are added to
the mass when the latter is still in the crucible.

III. Aluminum Gold.—This alloy, called Nuremberg gold, is used for
making cheap gold ware, and is excellent for this purpose, as its color
is exactly that of pure gold, and does not change in the air. Articles
made of Nuremberg gold need no gilding, and retain their color under
the hardest usage; even the fracture of this alloy shows the pure gold
color. The composition is usually 90 parts of copper, 2.5 of gold, and
7.5 of aluminum.

IV.—Imitation gold, capable of being worked and drawn into wire,
consists of 950 parts copper, 45 aluminum, and 2 to 5 of silver.

V.—Chrysochalk is similar in composition to Mannheim gold:

                    I    II
 Copper           90.5  58.68
 Zinc              7.9  40.22
 Lead              1.6   1.90

In color it resembles gold, but quickly loses its beauty if exposed to
the air, on account of the oxidation of the copper. It can, however, be
kept bright for a long time by a coating of colorless varnish, which
excludes the air and prevents oxidation. Chrysochalk is used for most
of the ordinary imitations of gold. Cheap watch chains and jewelry are
manufactured from it, and it is widely used by the manufacturers of
imitation bronze ornaments.


«Mannheim Gold or Similor.»—Mannheim gold is composed of copper, zinc,
and tin, in proportions about as follows:

                     I    II
 Copper            83.7  89.8
 Zinc               9.3   9.9
 Tin                7.0   0.6

It has a fine yellow color, and was formerly much used in making
buttons and pressed articles resembling gold. Later alloys, however,
surpass it in color, and it has fallen somewhat into disuse. One
variety of Mannheim gold, so called, contains 1.40 parts of brass
(composition 3 Cu_〈2〉 1 Zn) to 10 of copper and 0.1 of zinc.


«Mosaic Gold.»—This is an alloy composed—with slight deviations—of 100
parts of copper and 50 to 55 of zinc. It has a beautiful color, closely
resembling that of gold, and is distinguished by a very fine grain,
which makes it especially suitable for the manufacture of castings
which are afterwards to be gilded. The best method of obtaining a
thoroughly homogeneous mixture of the two metals is first to put into
the crucible one-half of the zinc to be used, place the cover upon it,
and fuse the mixture under a cover of borax at as low a temperature as
possible. Have ready the other half of the zinc, cut into small pieces
and heated almost to melting, and when the contents of the crucible are
liquid throw it in, a small portion at a time, stirring constantly to
effect as intimate a mixture of the metals as possible.


«Oreïde or Oroïde (French Gold).»—The so-called French gold, when
polished, so closely resembles genuine gold in color that it can
scarcely be distinguished from it. Besides its beautiful color, it
has the valuable properties of being very ductile and tenacious, so
that it can easily be stamped into any desired shape; it also takes
a high polish. It is frequently used for the manufacture of spoons,
forks, etc., but is unsuitable for this purpose on account of the large
amount of copper contained in it, rendering it injurious to health. The
directions for preparing this alloy vary greatly. The products of some
Paris factories show the following composition:

                            I   II    III
 Copper                    90  80.5  86.21
 Zinc                      10  14.5  31.52
 Tin                       —    —     0.48
 Iron                      —    —     0.24

A special receipt for oreïde is the following:

IV.—Melt 100 parts of copper and add, with constant stirring, 6 parts
of magnesia, 3.6 of sal ammoniac, 1.8 of lime, and 9 of crude tartar.
Stir again {69} thoroughly, and add 17 parts of granulated zinc, and
after mixing it with the copper by vigorous stirring keep the alloy
liquid for one hour. Then carefully remove the scum and pour off the
alloy.


«Pinchbeck.»—This was first manufactured in England. Its dark gold
color is the best imitation of gold alloyed with copper. Being very
ductile, it can easily be rolled out into thin plates, which can be
given any desired shape by stamping. It does not readily oxidize, and
thus fulfills all the requirements for making cheap jewelry, which is
its principal use.

 Copper                 88.8  93.6
 Zinc                   11.2   6.4

Or

 Copper                  2.1  1.28
 Zinc                     —   0.7
 Brass                   1.0  0.7


«Palladium Gold.»—Alloys of gold, copper, silver, and palladium have a
brownish-red color and are nearly as hard as iron. They are sometimes
(although rarely) used for the bearings for the axles of the wheels of
fine watches, as they invite little friction and do not rust in the
air. The composition used in the Swiss and English watch factories
consists usually of gold 18 parts, copper 13 parts, silver 11, and
palladium 6.


«Talmi Gold.»—The name of talmi gold was first applied to articles
of jewelry, chains, earrings, bracelets, etc., brought from Paris,
and distinguished by beautiful workmanship, a low price, and great
durability. Later, when this alloy had acquired a considerable
reputation, articles were introduced under the same name, but which
were really made of other metals, and which retained their beautiful
gold color only as long as they were not used. The fine varieties of
talmi gold are manufactured from brass, copper, or tombac, covered with
a thin plate of gold, combined with the base by rolling, under strong
pressure. The plates are then rolled out by passing through rollers,
and the coating not only acquires considerable density, but adheres so
closely to the base that the metal will keep its beautiful appearance
for years. Of late, many articles of talmi gold have been introduced
whose gold coating is produced by electroplating, and is in many cases
so thin that hard rubbing will bring through the color of the base.
Such articles, of course, are not durable. In genuine talmi gold, the
coating, even though it may be thin, adheres very closely to the base,
for the reason that the two metals are actually welded by the rolling,
and also because alloyed gold is always used, which is much harder
than pure gold. The pure gold of electroplating is very soft. The
composition of some varieties of talmi gold are here given. It will be
seen that the content of gold varies greatly, and the durability of the
alloy will, of course, correspond to this. The alloys I, II, III are
genuine Paris talmi gold; IV, V, and VI are electroplated imitations;
and VII is an alloy of a wrong composition, to which the gold does not
adhere firmly:

       Copper   Zinc     Tin  Iron  Gold
   I.    89.9    9.3     —     —     1.3

  II.    90.8    8.3     —     —     0.9

 III.    90.0    8.9     —     —     0.9

  IV.    90.7   89.0     —     —     0.5
         88.2   11.4

   V.    87.5   12.4     —     —     0.3
         83.1   17.0

  VI.    93.5    6.6     —     —     0.05
         84.5   15.8

 VII.    86.0   12.0     1.1   0.3    —


«Japanese Alloys.»—In Japan some specialties in metallic alloys are in
use of which the composition is as follows:

Shadke consists of copper with from 1 to 10 per cent of gold. Articles
made from this alloy are laid in a pickle of blue vitriol, alum, and
verdigris, until they acquire a bluish-black color.

Gui-shi-bu-ichi is an alloy of copper containing 30 to 50 per cent of
silver. It possesses a peculiar gray shade.

Mokume consists of several compositions. Thus, about 30 gold foils
(genuine) are welded together with shadke, copper, silver, and
gui-shi-bu-ichi and pierced. The pierced holes are, after firmly
hammering together the plates, filled up with the above-named pickle.

The finest Japanese brass consists of 10 parts copper and 8 parts zinc,
and is called siachu. The bell metal kara kane is composed of copper 10
parts, tin 10 parts, iron 0.5 part, and zinc 1.5 parts. The copper is
first fused, then the remaining metals are added in rotation.


«GERMAN SILVER OR ARGENTAN.»

The composition of this alloy varies considerably, but from the
adjoined figures an average may be found, which will represent,
approximately, the normal composition:

 Copper             50 to 66 parts
 Zinc               19 to 31 parts
 Nickel             13 to 18 parts

The properties of the different kinds, such as their color, ductility,
fusibility, {70} etc., vary with the proportions of the single metals.
For making spoons, forks, cups, candlesticks, etc., the most suitable
proportions are 50 parts of copper, 25 of zinc, and 25 of nickel. This
metal has a beautiful blue-white color, and does not tarnish easily.

German silver is sometimes so brittle that a spoon, if allowed to
fall upon the floor, will break; this, of course, indicates faulty
composition. But the following table will show how the character of the
alloy changes with the varying percentage of the metals composing it:

      Copper  Zinc  Nickel      Quality
   I.    8     3.5     4    Finest quality.
  II.    8     3.5     6    Beautiful, but refractory.
 III.    8     6.5     3    Ordinary, readily fusible.
  IV.   52    26.0    22    First quality.
   V.   59    30.0    11    Second quality.
  VI.   63    31.0     6    Third quality.

The following analyses give further particulars in regard to different
kinds of German silver:

 ───────────+──────+──────+──────+─────+──────
  For sheet │Copper│ Zinc │Nickel│ Lead│ Iron
 ───────────+──────+──────+──────+─────+──────
 (French)   │ 50.0 │ 31.3 │ 18.7 │  —  │  —
 (French)   │ 50.0 │ 30.0 │ 20.0 │  —  │  —
 (French)   │ 58.3 │ 25.0 │ 16.7 │  —  │  —
 Vienna     │ 50.0 │ 25.0 │ 25.0 │  —  │  —
 Vienna     │ 55.6 │ 22.0 │ 22.0 │  —  │  —
 Vienna     │ 60.0 │ 20.0 │ 20.0 │  —  │  —
 Berlin     │ 54.0 │ 28.0 │ 18.0 │  —  │  —
 Berlin     │ 55.5 │ 29.1 │ 17.5 │  —  │  —
 English    │ 63.34│ 17.01│ 19.13│  —  │  —
 English    │ 62.40│ 22.15│ 15.05│  —  │  —
 English    │ 62.63│ 26.05│ 10.85│  —  │  —
 English    │ 57.40│ 25.  │ 13.0 │  —  │ 3.0
 Chinese    │ 26.3 │ 36.8 │ 36.8 │  —  │  —
 Chinese    │ 43.8 │ 40.6 │ 15.6 │  —  │  —
 Chinese    │ 45.7 │ 36.9 │ 17.9 │  —  │  —
 Chinese    │ 40.4 │ 25.4 │ 31.6 │  —  │ 2.6
 Castings   │ 48.5 │ 24.3 │ 24.3 │ 2.9 │  —
 Castings   │ 54.5 │ 21.8 │ 21.8 │ 1.9 │  —
 Castings   │ 58.3 │ 19.4 │ 19.4 │ 2.9 │  —
 Castings   │ 57.8 │ 27.1 │ 14.3 │ 0.8 │  —
 Castings   │ 57.  │ 20.0 │ 20.0 │ 3.0 │  —
 ───────────+──────+──────+──────+─────+──────

In some kinds of German silver are found varying quantities of iron,
manganese, tin, and very frequently lead, added for the purpose
of changing the properties of the alloy or cheapening the cost of
production. But all these metals have a detrimental rather than
a beneficial effect upon the general character of the alloy, and
especially lessen its power of resistance to the action of dilute
acids, one of its most valuable properties. Lead makes it more fusible;
tin acts somewhat as in bronze, making it denser and more resonant, and
enabling it to take a higher polish. With iron or manganese the alloy
is whiter, but it becomes at the same time more refractory and its
tendency toward brittleness is increased.


«SUBSTITUTES FOR GERMAN SILVER.»

There are many formulas for alloys which claim to be substitutes for
German silver; but no one of them has yet become an article of general
commerce. It will be sufficient to note these materials briefly, giving
the composition of the most important.


«Nickel Bronze.»—This is prepared by fusing together very highly
purified nickel (99.5 per cent) with copper, tin, and zinc. A bronze is
produced containing 20 per cent of nickel, light-colored and very hard.


«Bismuth Bronze.»—

                    I    II    III   IV
 Copper           25.0  45.0  69.0  47.0
 Nickel           24.0  32.5  10.0  30.9
 Antimony         50.0    —     —     —
 Bismuth           1.0   1.0   1.0   0.1
 Tin                —   16.0  15.0   1.0
 Zinc               —   21.5  20.0  21.0
 Aluminum           —     —    1.0    —

I is hard and very lustrous, suitable for lamp reflectors and axle
bearings; II is hard, resonant, and not affected by sea water, for
parts of ships, pipes, telegraph wires, and piano strings; III and IV
are for cups, spoons, etc.


«Manganese Argentan.»—

 Copper               52 to 50 parts
 Nickel               17 to 15 parts
 Zinc                  5 to 10 parts
 Manganese             1 to  5 parts
 Copper, with 15 per
   cent phosphorus.    3 to  5 parts

Readily cast for objects of art.


«Aphtite.»—

 Iron                       66 parts
 Nickel                     23 parts
 Tungsten                    4 parts
 Copper                      5 parts


«Arguzoid.»—

 Copper              55.78  parts
 Zinc                23.198 parts
 Nickel              13.406 parts
 Tin                  4.035 parts
 Lead                 3.544 parts

Silver white, almost ductile, suited for artistic purposes. {71}


«Ferro-Argentan.»—

 Copper               70.0 parts
 Nickel               20.0 parts
 Zinc                  5.5 parts
 Cadmium               4.5 parts

Resembles silver; worked like German silver.


«Silver Bronze.»—Manganese, 18 per cent; aluminum, 1.2 per cent;
silicium, 5 per cent; zinc, 13 per cent; copper, 67.5 per cent. The
electric resistance of silver bronze is greater than that of German
silver, hence it ought to be highly suitable for rheostats.


«Instrument Alloys.»—The following are suitable for physical and
optical instruments, metallic mirrors, telescopes, etc.:

I.—Copper, 62 parts; tin, 33 parts; lead, 5 parts.

II.—Copper, 80; antimony, 11; lead, 9.

III.—Copper, 10; tin, 10; antimony, 10; lead, 40.

IV.—Copper, 30; tin, 50; silver, 2; arsenic, 1.

V.—Copper, 66; tin, 33.

VI.—Copper, 64; tin, 26.

VII.—Steel, 90; nickel, 10.

VIII.—Platinum, 60; copper, 40.

IX.—Platinum, 45; steel, 55.

X.—Platinum, 55; iron, 45.

XI.—Platinum, 15; steel, 85.

XII.—Platinum, 20; copper, 79; arsenic, 1.

XIII.—Platinum, 62; iron, 28; gold, 10.

XIV.—Gold, 48; zinc, 52.

XV.—Steel, 50; rhodium, 50.

XVI.—Platinum, 12; iridium, 88.

XVII.—Copper, 89.5; tin, 8.5; zinc, 2.


«LEAD ALLOYS.»

The following alloys, principally lead, are used for various purposes:


«Bibra Alloy.»—This contains 8 parts of bismuth, 9 of tin, and 38 to 40
of lead.


«Metallic Coffins.»—Tin, 40 parts; lead, 45 parts; copper, 15 parts.


«Plates for Engraving.»—I.—Lead, 84 parts; antimony, 16 parts.

II.—Lead, 86 parts; antimony, 14 parts.

III.—Lead, 87 parts; antimony, 12 parts; copper, 1 part.

IV.—Lead, 81 parts; antimony, 14 parts; tin, 5 parts.

V.—Lead, 73 parts; antimony, 17 parts; zinc, 10 parts.

VI.—Tin, 53 parts; lead, 43 parts; antimony, 4 parts.

Hard lead is made of lead, 84 parts; antimony, 16 parts.


«Sheet Metal Alloy.»—

 Tin                  35   parts
 Lead                250   parts
 Copper                2.5 parts
 Zinc                  0.5 part

This alloy has a fine white color, and can be readily rolled into thin
sheets. For that reason it is well adapted for lining tea chests
and for the production of tobacco and chocolate wrappers. The copper
and zinc are used in the form of fine shavings. The alloy should be
immediately cast into thin plates, which can then be passed through
rolls.


«MAGNETIC ALLOYS.»

Alloys which can be magnetized most strongly are composed of copper,
manganese, and aluminum, the quantities of manganese and aluminum being
proportional to their atomic weights (55.0 to 27.1, or about 2 to 1).
The maximum magnetization increases rapidly with increase of manganese,
but alloys containing much manganese are exceedingly brittle and cannot
be wrought. The highest practicable proportion of manganese at present
is 24 per cent.

These magnetic alloys were studied by Hensler, Haupt, and Starck, and
Gumlich has recently examined them at the Physikalisch—technische
Reichsanstalt, with very remarkable and interesting results.

The two alloys examined were composed as follows:

Alloy I.—Copper, 61.5 per cent; manganese, 23.5 per cent; aluminum, 15
per cent; lead, 0.1 per cent, with traces of iron and silicon.

Alloy II.—Copper, 67.7 per cent; manganese, 20.5 per cent; aluminum,
10.7 per cent; lead, 1.2 per cent, with traces of iron and silicon.

Alloy II could be worked without difficulty, but alloy I was so
brittle that it broke under the hammer. A bar 7 inches long and 1/4
inch thick was obtained by grinding. This broke in two during the
measurements, but, fortunately, without invalidating them. Such a
material is evidently unsuited to practical uses.

The behavior of magnetic alloys at high temperatures is very peculiar.
Alloy I is indifferent to temperature changes, which scarcely affect
its magnetic properties, but the behavior of alloy II is very
different. Prolonged heating to 230° F. produces a great increase in
its capability of magnetization, which, after 544 hours’ heating, rises
from 1.9 to 3.2 kilogauss, {72} approaching the strength of alloy I.
But when alloy II is heated to 329° F., its capability of magnetization
fails again and the material suffers permanent injury, which can be
partly, but not wholly, cured by prolonged heating.

Another singular phenomenon was exhibited by both of these alloys. When
a bar of iron is magnetized by an electric current, it acquires its
full magnetic strength almost instantaneously on the closure of the
circuit. The magnetic alloys, on the contrary, do not attain their full
magnetization for several minutes. In some of the experiments a gradual
increase was observed even after the current had been flowing five
minutes.

In magnetic strength alloy I proved far superior to alloy II, which
contained smaller proportions of manganese and aluminum. Alloy I showed
magnetic strengths up to 4.5 kilogauss, while the highest magnetization
obtained with alloy II was only 1.9 kilogauss. But even alloy II may
be called strongly magnetic, for its maximum magnetization is about
one-tenth that of good wrought iron (18 to 20 kilogauss), or one-sixth
that of cast iron (10 to 12 kilogauss). Alloy I is nearly equal in
magnetic properties to nickel, which can be magnetized up to about 5
kilogauss.


«MANGANESE ALLOYS:»


«Manganese bronze» is a bronze deprived of its oxide by an admixture of
manganese. The manganese is used as copper manganese containing 10 to
30 per cent manganese and added to the bronze to the amount of 0.5 to 2
per cent.


«Manganese Copper.»—The alloys of copper with manganese have a
beautiful silvery color, considerable ductility, great hardness and
tenacity, and are more readily fusible than ordinary bronze. A special
characteristic is that they exactly fill out the molds, without the
formation of blowholes, and present no difficulties in casting.

Cupromanganese is suitable for many purposes for which nothing else but
bronze can advantageously be used, and the cost of its production is no
greater than that of genuine bronze. In preparing the alloy, the copper
is used in the form of fine grains, obtained by pouring melted copper
into cold water. These copper grains are mixed with the dry oxide of
manganese, and the mixture put into a crucible holding about 66 pounds.
Enough space must be left in the crucible to allow a thick cover of
charcoal, as the manganese oxidizes easily. The crucible is placed in
a well-drawing wind furnace and subjected to a strong white heat. The
oxide of manganese is completely reduced to manganese, which at once
combines with the copper to form an alloy. In order to prevent, as far
as possible, the access of air to the fusing mass, it is advisable to
cover the crucible with a lid which has an aperture in the center for
the escape of the carbonic oxide formed during the reduction.

When the reduction is complete and the metals fused, the lid is removed
and the contents of the crucible stirred with an iron rod, in order
to make the alloy as homogeneous as possible. By repeated remelting
of the cupromanganese a considerable quantity of the manganese is
reconverted into oxide; it is, therefore, advisable to make the
casts directly from the crucible. When poured out, the alloy rapidly
solidifies, and resembles in appearance good German silver. Another
reason for avoiding remelting is that the crucible is strongly attacked
by the cupromanganese, and can be used but a few times.

The best kinds of cupromanganese contain between 10 and 30 per cent
of manganese. They have a beautiful white color, are hard, tougher
than copper, and can be worked under the hammer or with rolls. Some
varieties of cupromanganese which are especially valuable for technical
purposes are given below:

               I  II  III  IV
 Copper       75  60   65  60
 Manganese    25  25   20  20
 Zinc         —   15    5  —
 Tin          —   —    —   10
 Nickel       —   —    10  10


«Manganin.»—This is an alloy of copper, nickel, and manganese for
electric resistances.


«MIRROR ALLOYS:»


«Amalgams for Mirrors.»—I.—Tin, 70 parts; mercury, 30 parts.

II.—For curved mirrors. Tin, 1 part; lead, 1 part; bismuth, 1 part;
mercury, 9 parts.

III.—For glass balls. Tin, 80 parts; mercury, 20 parts.

IV.—Metallic cement. Copper, 30 parts; mercury, 70 parts.

V.—Mirror metal.—Copper, 100 parts; tin, 50 parts; Chinese copper, 8
parts; lead, 1 part; antimony, 1 part.


«Reflector Metals.»—I.—(Cooper’s.) Copper, 35 parts; platinum, 6;
zinc, 2; tin, 16.5; arsenic, 1. On account of the hardness of this
alloy, it takes a very high polish; it is impervious to the effects
of the weather, and is therefore remarkably {73} well adapted to the
manufacture of mirrors for fine optical instruments.

II.—(Duppler’s.) Zinc, 20 parts; silver, 80 parts.

III.—Copper, 66.22 parts; tin, 33.11 parts; arsenic, 0.67 part.

IV.—Copper, 64 parts; tin, 32 parts; arsenic, 4 parts.

V.—Copper, 82.18 parts; lead, 9.22 parts; antimony, 8.60 parts.

VI.—(Little’s.) Copper, 69.01 parts; tin, 30.82 parts; zinc, 2.44
parts; arsenic, 1.83 parts.


«Speculum Metal.»—Alloys consisting of 2 parts of copper and 1 of tin
can be very brilliantly polished, and will serve for mirrors. Good
speculum metal should have a very fine-grained fracture, should be
white and very hard, the highest degree of polish depending upon these
qualities. A composition to meet these requirements must contain at
least 35 to 36 per cent of copper. Attempts have frequently been made
to increase the hardness of speculum metal by additions of nickel,
antimony, and arsenic. With the exception of nickel, these substances
have the effect of causing the metal to lose its high luster easily,
any considerable quantity of arsenic in particular having this effect.

The real speculum metal seems to be a combination of the formula
Cu_〈4〉Sn, composed of copper 68.21 per cent, tin 31.7. An alloy of
this nature is sometimes separated from ordnance bronze by incorrect
treatment, causing the so-called tin spots; but this has not the pure
white color which distinguishes the speculum metal containing 31.5
per cent of tin. By increasing the percentage of copper the color
gradually shades into yellow; with a larger amount of tin into blue. It
is dangerous to increase the tin too much, as this changes the other
properties of the alloy, and it becomes too brittle to be worked.
Below is a table showing different compositions of speculum metal. The
standard alloy is undoubtedly the best.

                        Copper   Tin     Zinc   Arsenic   Silver
 Standard alloy          68.21   31.7     —        —        —
 Otto’s alloy            68.5    31.5     —        —        —
 Richardson’s alloy      65.3    30.0    0.7      2.        2.
 Sollit’s alloy          64.6    31.3    4.1     Nickel     —
 Chinese speculum metal  80.83    —       —       8.5    Antimony
 Old Roman               63.39   19.05    —      17.29     Lead


«PALLADIUM ALLOYS.»

I.—An alloy of palladium 24 parts, gold 80, is white, hard as steel,
unchangeable in the air, and can, like the other alloys of palladium,
be used for dental purposes.

II.—Palladium 6 parts, gold 18, silver 11, and copper 13, gives a
reddish-brown, hard, and very fine-grained alloy, suitable for the
bearings of pivots in clock works.

The alloys of most of the other platinum metals, so called, are little
used on account of their rarity and costliness. Iridium and rhodium
give great hardness to steel, but the commercial rhodium and iridium
steel, so called, frequently contains not a trace of either. The
alloy of iridium with osmium has great hardness and resistance and is
recommended for pivots, fine instruments, and points of ship compasses.


«Palladium Silver.»—This alloy, composed of 9 parts of palladium and 1
of silver, is used almost exclusively for dental purposes, and is well
suited to the manufacture of artificial teeth, as it does not oxidize.
An alloy even more frequently used than this consists of platinum 10
parts, palladium 8, and gold 6.


«Palladium Bearing Metal.»—This alloy is extremely hard, and is used
instead of jewel bearings in watches. It is composed of palladium 24
parts, gold 72, silver 44, copper 92.


«PLATINUM ALLOYS.»

Platinum has usually been alloyed with silver in goldsmith’s work,
2 parts silver to 1 of platinum being taken to form the favorite
“platinum silver.” The object has been to produce an alloy having a
white appearance, which can be polished, and at the same time has a low
melting point. In addition to this platinum alloy the following are
well known:

I.—A mixture of 7 parts platinum with 3 parts iridium. This gives to
platinum the hardness of steel, which can be still further increased by
taking 4 parts of iridium.

II.—An alloy of 9 parts platinum and 1 part iridium is used by the
French in the manufacture of measuring instruments of great resisting
power.

Compounds of copper, nickel, cadmium, and tungsten are also used in
the construction of parts of watches; the latter acquire considerable
hardness without becoming magnetic or rusting like steel.

III.—For this purpose a compound of {74} 62.75 parts platinum, 18 parts
copper, 1.25 parts cadmium, and 18 parts nickel is much recommended.

IV.—Very ductile platinum-copper alloys have also been made, e. g.,
the so-called Cooper gold, consisting of 3 parts platinum and 13 parts
copper, which is almost equal to 18-carat gold in regard to color,
finish, and ductility. If 4 per cent of platinum is taken, these
latter alloys acquire a rose-red color, while a golden-yellow color
can be produced by further adding from 1 to 2 per cent (in all 5 to 6
per cent) of platinum. The last-named alloy is extensively used for
ornaments, likewise alloy V.

V.—Ten parts platinum, 60 parts nickel, and 220 parts brass, or 2 parts
platinum, 1 part nickel and silver respectively, 2 parts brass, and 5
parts copper; this also gives a golden-yellow color.

VI.—For table utensils a favorite alloy is composed of 1 part platinum,
100 parts nickel, and 10 parts tin. Articles made of the latter alloy
are impervious to atmospheric action and keep their polish for a long
time. Pure white platinum alloys have for some time been used in dental
work, and they have also proved serviceable for jewelry.

VII.—A mixture of 30 parts platinum, 10 parts gold, and 3 parts silver,
or 7 parts platinum, 2 parts gold, and 3 parts silver.

VIII.—For enameled articles: Platinum, 35 parts; silver, 65 parts.
First fuse the silver, then add the platinum in the spongy form. A good
solder for this is platinum 80 parts, copper 20 parts.

IX.—For pens: Platinum, 4 parts; silver, 3 parts; copper, 1 part.


«Platinum Gold.»—Small quantities of platinum change the
characteristics of gold in many respects. With a small percentage the
color is noticeably lighter than that of pure gold, and the alloys are
extremely elastic; alloys containing more than 20 per cent of platinum,
however, almost entirely lose their elasticity. The melting point of
the platinum-gold alloy is high, and alloys containing 70 per cent
of platinum can be fused only in the flame of oxyhydrogen gas, like
platinum itself. Alloys with a smaller percentage of platinum can be
prepared in furnaces, but require the strongest white heat. In order
to avoid the chance of an imperfect alloy from too low a temperature,
it is always safer to fuse them with the oxyhydrogen flame. The alloys
of platinum and gold have a somewhat limited application. Those which
contain from 5 to 10 per cent of platinum are used for sheet and wire
in the manufacture of artificial teeth.


«Platinum-Gold Alloys for Dental Purposes.»—

                     I  II  III
 Platinum            6  14   10
 Gold                2   4    6
 Silver              1   6   —
 Palladium           —   —    8


«Platinum Silver.»—An addition of platinum to silver makes it harder,
but also more brittle, and changes the white color to gray. An alloy
which contains only a very small percentage of platinum is noticeably
darker in color than pure silver. Such alloys are prepared under the
name of _platine au titre_, containing between 17 and 35 per cent of
platinum. They are almost exclusively used for dental purposes.


«Imitation Platinum.»—I.—Brass, 100 parts; zinc, 65 parts.

II.—Brass, 120 parts; zinc, 75 parts.

III.—Copper, 5 parts; nickel, 4 parts; zinc, 1 1/2 parts; antimony, 1
part; lead, 1 part; iron, 1 part; tin, 1 part.


«Cooper’s Pen Metal.»—This alloy is especially well adapted to the
manufacture of pens, on account of its great hardness, elasticity, and
power of resistance to atmospheric influences, and would certainly have
superseded steel if it were possible to produce it more cheaply than
is the case. The compositions most frequently used for pen metal are
copper 1 part, platinum 4, and silver 3; or, copper 21, platinum 50,
and silver 36.

Pens have been manufactured, consisting of several sections, each of
a different alloy, suited to the special purpose of the part. Thus,
for instance, the sides of the pen are made of the elastic composition
just described; the upper part is of an alloy of silver and platinum;
and the point is made either of minute cut rubies or of an extremely
hard alloy of osmium and iridium, joined to the body of the pen by
melting in the flame of the oxyhydrogen blowpipe. The price of such
pens, made of expensive materials and at the cost of great labor, is of
course exceedingly high, but their excellent qualities repay the extra
expense. They are not in the least affected by any kind of ink, are
most durable, and can be used constantly for years without showing any
signs of wear.

The great hardness and resistance to the atmosphere of Cooper’s alloys
make them very suitable for manufacturing {75} mathematical instruments
where great precision is required. It can scarcely be calculated how
long a chronometer, for instance, whose wheels are constructed of this
alloy, will run before showing any irregularities due to wear. In the
construction of such instruments, the price of the material is not to
be taken into account, since the cost of the labor in their manufacture
so far exceeds this.


«PEWTER.»

This is an alloy of tin and lead only, or of tin with antimony and
copper. The first is properly called pewter. Three varieties are known
in trade:

I (Plate Pewter).—From tin, 79 per cent; antimony, 7 per cent; bismuth
and copper, of each 2 per cent; fused together. Used to make plates,
teapots, etc. Takes a fine polish.

II (Triple Pewter).—From tin, 79 per cent; antimony, 15 per cent; lead,
6 per cent; as the last. Used for minor articles, syringes, toys, etc.

III (Ley Pewter).—From tin, 80 per cent; lead, 20 per cent. Used for
measures, inkstands, etc.

According to the report of a French commission, pewter containing more
than 18 parts of lead to 82 parts of tin is unsafe for measures for
wine and similar liquors, and, indeed, for any other utensils exposed
to contact with food or beverages. The legal specific gravity of pewter
in France is 7.764; if it be greater, it contains an excess of lead,
and is liable to prove poisonous. The proportions of these metals may
be approximately determined from the specific gravity; but correctly
only by an assay for the purpose.


«SILVER ALLOYS:»


«Aluminum Silver.»—Aluminum and silver form beautiful white alloys
which are considerably harder than pure aluminum, and take a very high
polish. They have the advantage over copper alloys of being unchanged
by exposure to the air, and of retaining their white color.

The properties of aluminum and silver alloys vary considerably
according to the percentage of aluminum.

I.—An alloy of 100 parts of aluminum and 5 parts of silver is very
similar to pure aluminum, but is harder and takes a finer polish.

II.—One hundred and sixty-nine parts of aluminum and 5 of silver make
an elastic alloy, recommended for watch springs and dessert knives.

III.—An alloy of equal parts of silver and aluminum is as hard as
bronze.

IV.—Five parts of aluminum and 1 part of silver make an alloy that is
easily worked.

V.—Also aluminum, 3 parts, and silver, 1 part.

VI. Tiers-Argent.—This alloy is prepared chiefly in Paris, and used
for the manufacture of various utensils. As indicated by its name
(one-third silver), it consists of 33.33 parts of silver and 66.66
parts of aluminum. Its advantages over silver consist in its lower
price and greater hardness; it can also be stamped and engraved more
easily than the alloys of copper and silver.

VII.—This is a hard alloy which has been found very useful for the
operating levers of certain machines, such as the spacing lever of
a typewriter. The metal now generally used for this purpose by the
various typewriter companies is “aluminum silver,” or “silver metal.”
The proportions are given as follows:

 Copper                    57.00
 Nickel                    20.00
 Zinc                      20.00
 Aluminum                   3.00

This alloy when used on typewriting machines is nickel-plated for the
sake of the first appearance, but so far as corrosion is concerned,
nickeling is unnecessary. The alloy is stiff and strong and cannot be
bent to any extent without breaking, especially if the percentage of
aluminum is increased to 3.5 per cent; it casts free from pinholes and
blowholes; the liquid metal completely fills the mold, giving sharp,
clean castings, true to pattern; its cost is not greater than brass;
its color is silver white, and its hardness makes it susceptible to a
high polish.


«Arsenic.»—Alloys which contain small quantities of arsenic are
very ductile, have a beautiful white color, and were formerly used
in England in the manufacture of tableware. They are not, however,
suitable for this purpose, on account of the poisonous character of the
arsenic. They are composed usually of 49 parts of silver, 49 of copper,
and 2 of arsenic.


«China Silver.»—Copper, 65.24 per cent; tin, 19.52 per cent; nickel,
13.00 per cent; silver, 2.05 per cent.


«Copper-Silver.»—When silver is alloyed with copper only one proportion
is known which will give a uniform casting. The proportion is 72 per
cent silver to 28 per cent copper. With more silver than 72 per cent
the center of a cast bar will be {76} richer than the outside, which
chills first; while with a less percentage than 72 per cent the center
of the bar will be poorer and the outside richer than the average. This
characteristic of silver-copper alloys is known to metallurgists as
“segregation.”

When nickel is added to the silver and copper, several good alloys may
be formed, as the following French compositions:

                 I      II    III
 Silver          33     40    20
 Copper        37–42  30–40  45–55
 Nickel        25–30  20–30  25–35

The whitening of alloys of silver and copper is best accomplished by
annealing the alloy until it turns black on the surface. Cool in a
mixture of 20 parts, by weight, of concentrated sulphuric acid to 1,000
parts of distilled water and leave therein for some time. In place of
the sulphuric acid, 40 parts of potassium bisulphate may be used per
1,000 parts of liquid. Repeat the process if necessary.


«Copper, Silver, and Cadmium Alloys.»—Cadmium added to silver
alloys gives great flexibility and ductility, without affecting the
white color; these properties are valuable in the manufacture of
silver-plated ware and wire. The proportions of the metals vary in
these alloys. Some of the most important varieties are given below.

          Silver  Copper  Cadmium
   I.       980     15        5
  II.       950     15       35
 III.       900     18       82
  IV.       860     20      180
   V.       666     25      309
  VI.       667     50      284
 VII.       500     50      450

In preparing these alloys, the great volatility of cadmium must be
taken into account. It is customary to prepare first the alloy of
silver and copper, and add the cadmium, which, as in the case of the
alloys of silver and zinc, must be wrapped in paper. After putting it
in, the mass is quickly stirred, and the alloy poured immediately into
the molds. This is the surest way to prevent the volatilization of the
cadmium.


«Silver, Copper, Nickel, and Zinc Alloys.»—These alloys, from the
metals contained in them, may be characterized as argentan or German
silver with a certain percentage of silver. They have been used for
making small coins, as in the older coins of Switzerland. Being quite
hard, they have the advantage of wearing well, but soon lose their
beautiful white color and take on a disagreeable shade of yellow, like
poor brass. The silver contained in them can be regained only by a
laborious process, which is a great drawback to their use in coinage.
The composition of the Swiss fractional coins is as follows:

             20 centimes  10 centimes  5 centimes
 Silver           15           10            5
 Copper           50           55           60
 Nickel           25           25           25
 Zinc             10           10           10


«Mousset’s Alloy.»—Copper, 59.06; silver, 27.56; zinc, 9.57; nickel,
3.42. This alloy is yellowish with a reddish tinge, but white on
the fractured surface. It ranks next after Argent-Ruolz, which also
contains sometimes certain quantities of zinc, and in this case may be
classed together with the alloy just described. The following alloys
can be rolled into sheet or drawn into wire:

                  I    II   III
 Silver          33.3  34   40.0
 Copper          41.8  42   44.6
 Nickel           8.6   8    4.6
 Zinc            16.3  16   10.8


«Japanese (Gray) Silver.»—An alloy is prepared in Japan which consists
of equal parts of copper and silver, and which is given a beautiful
gray color by boiling in a solution of alum, to which copper sulphate
and verdigris are added. The so-called “mokum,” also a Japanese alloy,
is prepared by placing thin plates of gold, silver, copper, and the
alloy just described over each other and stretching them under the
hammer. The cross sections of the thin plates obtained in this way show
the colors of the different metals, which give them a peculiar striped
appearance. Mokum is principally used for decorations upon gold and
silver articles.


«Silver-Zinc.»—Silver and zinc have great affinity for each other, and
alloys of these two metals are therefore easily made. The required
quantity of zinc, wrapped in paper, is thrown into the melted and
strongly heated silver, the mass is thoroughly stirred with an iron
rod, and at once poured out into molds. Alloys of silver and zinc can
be obtained which are both ductile and flexible. An alloy consisting of
2 parts of zinc and 1 of silver closely resembles silver in color, and
is quite ductile. With a larger proportion of zinc the alloy becomes
brittle. In preparing the alloy, a somewhat larger quantity of zinc
must be taken than the {77} finished alloy is intended to contain, as a
small amount always volatilizes.


«Imitation Silver Alloys.»—There are a number of alloys, composed of
different metals, which resemble silver, and may be briefly mentioned
here.

I.—Warne’s metal is composed of tin 10 parts, bismuth 7, and cobalt 3.
It is white, fine-grained, but quite difficult to fuse.

II.—Tonca’s metal contains copper 5 parts, nickel 4, tin 1, lead 1,
iron 1, zinc 1, antimony 1. It is hard, difficult to fuse, not very
ductile, and cannot be recommended.

III.—Trabuk metal contains tin 87.5, nickel 5.5, antimony 5, bismuth 5.

IV.—Tourun-Leonard’s metal is composed of 500 parts of tin and 64 of
bell metal.

V.—Silveroid is an alloy of copper, nickel, tin, zinc, and lead.

VI.—Minargent. Copper, 100 parts; nickel, 70 parts; tungsten, 5 parts;
aluminum, 1 part.

VII.—Nickel, 23 parts; aluminum, 5 parts; copper, 5 parts; iron, 65
parts; tungsten, 4 parts.

VIII.—Argasoid. Tin, 4.035; lead, 3.544; copper, 55.780; nickel,
13.406; zinc, 23.198; iron, trace.

SOLDERS: See Solders.


«STEEL ALLOYS: See also Steel.»


«For Locomotive Cylinders.»—This mixture consists of 20 per cent steel
castings, old steel springs, etc.; 20 per cent No. 2 coke iron, and
60 per cent scrap. From this it is stated a good solid metal can be
obtained, the castings being free from honeycombing, and finishing
better than the ordinary cast-iron mixture, over which it has the
advantage of 24 per cent greater strength. Its constituents are:
Silicon, 1.51; manganese, 0.33; phosphorus, 0.65; sulphur, 0.068;
combined carbon, 0.62; graphite, 2.45.

Nickel steel is composed of nickel 36 per cent, steel 64 per cent.

Tungsten steel is crucible steel with 5 to 12 per cent tungsten.


«STEREOTYPE METAL.»

 Lead     2 parts
 Tin      3 parts
 Bismuth  5 parts

The melting point of this alloy is 196° F. The alloy is rather costly
because of the amount of bismuth which it contains. The following
mixtures are cheaper:

             I  II  III  IV
 Tin         1  3   1    2
 Lead        1  5   1.5  2
 Bismuth     2  8   3    5
 Antimony   —   —   —    1


«TIN ALLOYS:»


«Alloys for Dentists’ Molds and Dies.»—I.—Very hard. Tin, 16 parts;
antimony, 1 part; zinc, 1 part.

II.—Softer than the former. Tin, 8 parts; zinc, 1 part; antimony, 1
part.

III.—Very hard. Tin, 12 parts; antimony, 2 parts; copper, 1 part.


«Cadmium Alloy, about the Hardness of Zinc.»—Tin, 10 parts; antimony, 1
part; cadmium, 1 part.


«Tin-Lead.»—Tin is one of those metals which is not at all susceptible
to the action of acids, while lead, on the other hand, is very easily
attacked by them. In such alloys, consequently, used for cooking
utensils, the amount of lead must be limited, and should properly
not exceed 10 or 15 per cent; but cases have been known in which the
so-called tin contained a third part, by weight, of lead.

Alloys containing from 10 to 15 per cent of lead have a beautiful
white color, are considerably harder than pure tin, and much cheaper.
Many alloys of tin and lead are very lustrous, and are used for
stage jewelry and mirrors for reflecting the light of lamps, etc. An
especially brilliant alloy is called “Fahlun brilliants.” It is used
for stage jewelry, and consists of 29 parts of tin and 19 of lead. It
is poured into molds faceted in the same way as diamonds, and when seen
by artificial light, the effect is that of diamonds. Other alloys of
tin and lead are employed in the manufacture of toys. These must fill
the molds well, and must also be cheap, and therefore as much as 50 per
cent of lead is used. Toys can also be made from type metal, which is
even cheaper than the alloys of tin and lead, but has the disadvantage
of readily breaking if the articles are sharply bent. The alloys of tin
and lead give very good castings, if sharp iron or brass molds are used.

 Lead    19 parts
 Tin     29 parts

This alloy is very bright and possesses a permanent sheen. It is
well adapted for the making of artificial gems for stage use. It is
customary in carrying out the process to start with two parts of tin
and one part of lead. Tin is added until a sample drop which is allowed
to fall upon an iron plate forms a mirror. The artificial gems are
produced by {78} dipping into the molten alloy pieces of glass cut to
the proper shape. The tin coating of metal which adheres to the glass
cools rapidly and adheres tenaciously. Outwardly these artificial gems
appear rough and gray, but inwardly they are highly reflective and
quite deceptive when seen in artificial light.

If the reflective surfaces be coated with red, blue, or green aniline,
various colored effects can be obtained. Instead of fragile glass the
gems may be produced by means of well-polished pieces of steel or
bronze.


«Other Tin-Lead Alloys.»—Percentage of lead and specific gravity.

 P. C.     S. G.
   0      7.290
   1      7.316
   2      7.342
   3      7.369
   4      7.396
   5      7.423
   6      7.450
   7      7.477
   8      7.505
   9      7.533
  10      7.562
  11      7.590
  12      7.619
  13      7.648
  14      7.677
  15      7.706
  16      7.735
  17      7.764
  18      7.794
  19      7.824
  20      7.854
  21      7.885
  22      7.916
  23      7.947
  24      7.978
  25      8.009
  26      8.041
  27      8.073
  28      8.105
  29      8.137
  30      8.169
  31      8.202
  32      8.235
  33      8.268
  34      8.302
  35      8.336
  36      8.379
  37      8.405
  38      8.440
  39      8.476
  40      8.512
  41      8.548
  42      8.584
  43      8.621
  44      8.658
  45      8.695
  46      8.732
  47      8.770
  48      8.808
  49      8.846
  50      8.884
  60      9.299
  70      9.736
  80     10.225
  90     10.767
 100     11.370


«Tin Statuettes, Buttons, etc.»—

 I.—Tin     4 parts
     Lead    3 parts

This is a very soft solder which sharply reproduces all details.

Another easily fusible alloy but somewhat harder, is the following:

 II.—Tin.      8 parts
      Lead      6 parts
      Antimony  0.5 part


«Miscellaneous Tin Alloys.»—I.—Alger Metal.—Tin, 90 parts; antimony, 10
parts. This alloy is suitable as a protector.

II. Argentine Metal.—Tin, 85.5 per cent; antimony, 14.5 per cent.

III.—Ashberry metal is composed of 78 to 82 parts of tin, 16 to 20 of
antimony, 2 to 3 of copper.

IV. Quen’s Metal.—Tin, 9 parts; lead, 1 part; antimony, 1 part;
bismuth, 1 part.


«Type Metal.»—An alloy which is to serve for type metal must be readily
cast, fill out the molds sharply, and be as hard as possible. It is
difficult to satisfy all these requirements, but an alloy of antimony
and lead answers the purpose best. At the present day there are a great
many formulas for type metal in which other metals besides lead and
antimony are used, either to make the alloy more readily fusible, as
in the case of additions of bismuth, or to give it greater power of
resistance, the latter being of especial importance for types that are
subjected to constant use. Copper and iron have been recommended for
this purpose, but the fusibility of the alloys is greatly impaired by
these, and the manufacture of the types is consequently more difficult
than with an alloy of lead and antimony alone. In the following table
some alloys suitable for casting type are given:

       Lead  Antimony  Copper  Bismuth  Zinc  Tin  Nickel
    I    3      1        —       —       —     —     —
   II    5      1        —       —       —     —     —
  III   10      1        —       —       —     —     —
   IV   10      2        —        1      —     —     —
    V   70     18         2      —       —     10    —
   VI   60     20        —       —       —     20    —
  VII   55     25        —       —       —     20    —
 VIII   55     30        —       —       —     15    —
   IX  100     30         8       2      —     20     8
    X    6     —          4      —       90    —     —

The French and English types contain a certain amount of tin, as shown
by the following analyses:

              English Types    French Types
              I     II   III
 Lead        69.2  61.3  55.0   55
 Antimony    19.5  18.8  22.7   30
 Tin          9.1  20.2  22.1   15
 Copper       1.7   —     —     —

Ledebur gives the composition of type metal as follows:

             I    II   III   IV
 Lead        75   60   80   82
 Antimony    23   25   20   14.8
 Tin         22   15   —     3.2

WATCHMAKERS’ ALLOYS: See Watchmakers’ Formulas.


«WHITE METALS.»

The so-called white metals are employed almost exclusively for
bearings. (See Anti-friction Metals under Alloys.) In the technology of
mechanics an accurate distinction is made between the different kinds
of metals for bearings; and they may be classed in two groups, red
brass and white metal. The {79} red-brass bearings are characterized by
great hardness and power of resistance, and are principally used for
bearings of heavily loaded and rapidly revolving axles. For the axles
of large and heavy flywheels, revolving at great speed, bearings of red
brass are preferable to white metal, though more expensive.

In recent years many machinists have found it advantageous to
substitute for the soft alloys generally in use for bearings a
metal almost as hard as the axle itself. Phosphor bronze (q. v.) is
frequently employed for this purpose, as it can easily be made as hard
as wrought or cast steel. In this case the metal is used in a thin
layer, and serves only, as it were, to fill out the small interstices
caused by wear on the axle and bearing, the latter being usually made
of some rather easily fusible alloy of lead and tin. Such bearings are
very durable, but expensive, and can only be used for large machines.
For small machines, running gently and uniformly, white-metal bearings
are preferred, and do excellent work, if the axle is not too heavily
loaded. For axles which have a high rate of revolution, bearings made
of quite hard metals are chosen, and with proper care—which, indeed,
must be given to bearings of any material—they will last for a long
time without needing repair.

       WHITE METAL FOR BEARING.
 ──────+───────────────────────+──────+────────+──────+──────+──────+──────
       │                       │ Tin  │Antimony│ Zinc │ Iron │ Lead │Copper
 ──────+───────────────────────+──────+────────+──────+──────+──────+──────
     I │German, light loads    │ 85.00│  10.00 │ —  — │ —  — │ —  — │  5.00
    II │German, light loads    │ 82.00│  11.00 │ —  — │ —  — │ —  — │  7.00
   III │German, light loads    │ 80.00│  12.00 │ —  — │ —  — │ —  — │  8.00
    IV │German, light loads    │ 76.00│  17.00 │ —  — │ —  — │ —  — │  7.00
     V │German, light loads    │  3.00│   1.00 │  5.00│ —  — │  3.00│  1.00
    VI │German, heavy loads    │ 90.00│   8.00 │ —  — │ —  — │ —  — │  2.00
   VII │German, heavy loads    │ 86.81│   7.62 │ —  — │ —  — │ —  — │  5.57
  VIII │English, heavy loads   │ 17.47│  —  —  │ 76.14│ —  — │ —  — │  5.62
    IX │English, medium loads  │ 76.70│  15.50 │ —  — │ —  — │ —  — │  7.80
     X │English, medium loads  │ 72.00│  26.00 │ —  — │ —  — │ —  — │  2.00
    XI │For mills              │ 15.00│  —  —  │ 40.00│ —  — │ 42.00│  3.00
   XII │For mills              │ —  — │   1.00 │  5.00│ —  — │  5.00│ —  —
  XIII │For mills              │ —  — │   1.00 │ 10.00│ —  — │  2.00│ —  —
   XIV │Heavy axles            │ 72.70│  18.20 │ —  — │ —  — │ —  — │  9.10
    XV │Heavy axles            │ 38.00│   6.00 │ 47.00│ —  — │  4.00│  1.00
   XVI │Rapidly revolving axles│ 17.00│  77.00 │ —  — │ —  — │ —  — │  6.00
  XVII │Very hard metal        │ 55.00│  —  —  │ —  — │ 70.00│ —  — │  2.50
 XVIII │Very hard metal        │ 12.00│  82.00 │  2.00│ —  — │ —  — │  4.00
   XIX │Cheap metal            │  2.00│   2.00 │ 88.00│ —  — │ —  — │  8.00
    XX │Cheap metal            │  1.50│   1.50 │ 90.00│ —  — │ —  — │  7.00
 ──────+───────────────────────+──────+────────+──────+──────+──────+──────

Other white bearing metals are:

XXI.—Tin, 8.5; antimony, 10; copper, 5 parts.

XXII.—Tin, 42; antimony, 16; lead, 42 parts.

XXIII.—Tin, 72; antimony, 26; copper, 2 parts.

XXIV.—Tin, 81; antimony, 12.5; copper, 6.5 parts.


«White Metals Based on Copper.»—

I.—Copper, 65 parts; arsenic, 55 parts.

II.—Copper, 64 parts; arsenic, 50 parts.

III.—Copper, 10 parts; zinc, 20 parts; nickel, 30 parts.

IV.—Nickel, 70 parts; copper, 30 parts; zinc, 20 parts.

V.—Nickel, 60 parts; copper, 30 parts; zinc, 30 parts.

VI.—Copper, 8 parts; nickel, 4 parts; zinc, 4 parts.

VII.—Copper, 10 parts; nickel, 5 parts; zinc, 5 parts.

VIII.—Copper, 8 parts; nickel, 3 parts; zinc, 4 parts.

IX.—Copper, 50 parts; nickel, 25 parts; zinc, 25 parts.

X.—Copper, 55 parts; nickel, 24 parts; zinc, 21 parts.

XI.—Copper, 55 parts; nickel, 24 parts; zinc, 16 parts; iron, 2 parts;
tin, 3 parts.

IX, X, and XI are suitable for tableware.

XII.—Copper, 67 parts, and arsenic, 53 parts.

XIII.—Copper, 63 parts, and arsenic, 57 parts.

XII and XIII are bright gray, unaffected by the temperature of boiling
water; they are fusible at red heat.


«White Metals Based on Platinum.»—

I.—Platinum, 1 part; copper, 4 parts; or platinum, 1 1/2 parts;
copper, 3 1/2 parts.

II.—Platinum, 10 parts; tin, 90 parts; or platinum, 8 parts; tin, 92
parts.

III.—Platinum, 7 parts; copper, 13 parts; tin, 80 parts.

IV.—Platinum, 2 parts; steel, 98 parts.

V.—Platinum, 2.5 parts; steel, 97.5 parts.

IV and V are for gun metal.


«Miscellaneous White-Metal Alloys.»—

I.—For lining cross-head slides: Lead, 65 parts; antimony, 25 parts;
copper, 10 parts. Some object to white metal containing lead or zinc.
It has been found, however, that lead and zinc have properties of great
use in these alloys.

II.—Tin, 85 parts; antimony, 7 1/2 parts; copper, 7 1/2 parts.

III.—Tin, 90 parts; copper, 3 parts; antimony, 7 parts. {80}


«ZINC ALLOYS:»


«Bidery Metal.»—This is sometimes composed of 31 parts of zinc, 2
parts of copper, and 2 parts of lead; the whole is melted on a layer
of rosin or wax to avoid oxidation. This metal is very resistive; it
does not oxidize in air or moisture. It takes its name from the town of
Bider, near Hyderabad (India), where it was prepared for the first time
industrially for the manufacture of different utensils.

Other compositions of Indian Bidery metal (frequently imitated in
England) are about as follows:

                P.C.  P.C.   P.C.
 Copper         3.5   11.4    16
 Zinc          93.4   84.3   112
 Tin            —      1.4     2
 Lead           3.1    2.9     4

Erhardt recommends the following as being both ductile and hard:

 Zinc                   89 to 93
 Tin                     9 to  6
 Lead                    2 to  4
 Copper                  2 to  4

The tin is first melted, and the lead, zinc, and copper added
successively.


«Zinc-Nickel.»—Zinc, 90 parts; nickel, 10 parts. Used in powder form
for painting and cloth printing purposes.


«Platine for Dress Buttons.»—Copper, 43 parts; zinc, 57 parts.


«UNCLASSIFIED ALLOYS:»


«Alloys for Drawing Colors on Steel.»—Alloys of various composition are
successfully used for drawing colors on steel. To draw to a straw color
use 2 parts of lead and 1 part of tin, and melt in an iron ladle. Hold
the steel piece to be drawn in the alloy as it melts and it will turn
to straw color. This mixture melts at a temperature of about 437° F.
For darker yellow use 9 parts of lead to 4 parts of tin, which melts at
458° F. For purple, use 3 parts of lead to 1 part of tin, the melting
temperature being 482° F. For violet, use 9 parts of lead to 2 parts of
tin, which melts at 494° F. Lead without any alloy will draw steel to a
dark blue. The above apply to steel only since iron requires a somewhat
greater heat and is more or less uncertain in handling.


«Alloy for Pattern Letters and Figures.»—A good alloy for casting
pattern letters and figures and similar small parts of brass, iron,
or plaster molds, is made of lead 80 parts, and antimony 20 parts. A
better alloy will be lead 70 parts, antimony and bismuth each 15 parts.
To insure perfect work the molds should be quite hot by placing them
over a Bunsen burner.


«Alloy for Caliper and Gage-Rod Castings.»—A mixture of 30 parts zinc
to 70 parts aluminum gives a light and durable alloy for gage rods and
caliper legs; the gage rods must be steel tipped, for the alloy is soft
and wears away too rapidly for gage points.


«Alloys for Small Casting Molds.»—Tin, 75 parts, and lead, 22 parts;
or 75 parts of zinc and 25 parts of tin; or 30 parts of tin and 70
parts of lead; or 60 parts of lead and 40 parts of bismuth.

ALLOYS FOR METAL FOIL: See Metal Foil.

ALMOND COLD CREAM: See Cosmetics.

ALMOND LIQUEURS: See Wines and Liquors.

ALTARS, TO CLEAN: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.


«ALUM:»


«Burnt Alum.»—I.—Heat the alum in a porcelain dish or other suitable
vessel till it liquefies, then raise and continue the heat, not
allowing it to exceed 400°, till aqueous vapor ceases to be disengaged,
and the salt has lost 47 per cent of its weight. Reduce the residue to
powder, and preserve it in a well-stoppered bottle.—_Cooley._

II.—Heat ordinary alum (alumina alum) with constant stirring in an iron
pan in which it will first melt quietly, and then commence to form
blisters. Continue heating until a dry white mass of a loose character
remains, which is powdered and kept in well-closed glasses.

ALUM BATH: See Photography.


«Aluminum and its Treatment»


«HOW TO COLOR ALUMINUM:»


«Blanching of Aluminum.»—Aluminum is one of the metals most inalterable
by air; nevertheless, the objects of aluminum tarnish quickly enough
without being {81} altered. They may be restored to their mat whiteness
in the following manner: Immerse the aluminum articles in a boiling
bath of caustic potash; next plunge them quickly into nitric acid,
rinse and let dry. It must be understood that this method is applicable
only to pieces entirely of aluminum.


«Decolorized Aluminum.»—Gray or unsightly aluminum may be restored
to its white color by washing with a mixture of 30 parts of borax
dissolved in 1,000 parts of water, with a few drops of ammonia added.


«Mat Aluminum.»—In order to impart to aluminum the appearance of mat
silver, plunge the article into a hot bath composed of a 10-per-cent
solution of caustic soda saturated with kitchen salt. Leave it in the
bath for 15 to 20 seconds, then wash and brush; put back into the bath
for half a minute, wash anew and dry in sawdust.


«To Blacken Aluminum.»—I.—The surface of the sheet to be colored is
polished with very fine emery powder or finest emery cloth. After
polishing pour a thin layer of olive oil over the surface and heat
slowly over an alcohol flame. Large sheets must, of course, be heated
in the drying oven. After a short while pour on oil again, in order
to obtain absolute uniformity of the coating, and heat the plate once
more. Under the action of the heat the plate turns first brown, then
black, according to the degrees of heat. When the desired coloration
has been attained, the plate is polished over again, after cooling,
with a woolen rag or soft leather.

 II.—White arsenic          1 ounce
      Sulphate of iron       1 ounce
      Hydrochloric acid     12 ounces
      Water                 12 ounces

When the arsenic and iron are dissolved by the acid add the water.
The aluminum to be blackened should be well cleaned with fine emery
powder and washed before immersing in the blackening solution. When the
deposit of black is deep enough dry off with fine sawdust and lacquer.


«Decorating Aluminum.»—A process for decorating aluminum, patented
in Germany, prescribes that the objects be first corroded, which is
usually done with caustic soda lye, or, better still, by a new method
which consists in heating 3 parts of sulphuric acid with 1 part of
water to 140° to 158° F., in an enameled vessel. Into this liquid dip
the aluminum articles, rinsing them off clean and then drying them
well. The corroded articles are now placed in a bath consisting of
1,000 parts of alcohol (90 per cent), 1.50 parts of antimony, 250 parts
of chemically pure hydrochloric acid, 100 parts of manganous nitrate,
and 20 parts of purified and finely elutriated graphite. In this bath,
which is heated to 86°–95° F., the objects are left until fumes develop
around them, which takes place in a few seconds. Now they are put over
a coal fire or similar arrangement until the alcohol is burned up
and there is no more smoke. After they are somewhat cooled off, they
are laid into cold water and worked with a brush, then rinsed with
water and well dried. The pieces are now provided with a gray metallic
coating, consisting mainly of antimony, manganese, and graphite. This
metallic layer renders them capable of receiving a lacquer which is
best prepared from 1,000 parts of alcohol (90 per cent), 50 parts of
sandarac, 100 parts of shellac, and 100 parts of nigrosine (black
aniline color). Then the articles are quickly but thoroughly rinsed
off, dried in warmed air for a few minutes, and baked in ovens or over
a moderate coal fire until they do not smoke any more and no more gloss
can be seen. Finally they are rubbed with a cotton rag saturated with
thin linseed-oil varnish, and the objects thus treated now appear dull
black, like velvet. The covering withstands all action of the weather,
so that cooking vessels coated with this varnish on the outside can
be placed on the fire without injury to the coating. If the articles
are engraved, the aluminum appears almost glossy white under the black
layer at the engraved places. When the pieces have been provided with
the gray metallic coating, colored lacquer may also be applied with the
brush. In this manner paintings, etc., may be done on aluminum, while
not possible on unprepared aluminum surfaces, which will not retain
them.


«Making Castings in Aluminum.»—The method adopted in preparing molds
and cores for aluminum work is necessarily somewhat the same as for
brass, but there are particular points which need attention to insure
successful work. Both in the sand and the making of the molds there
are some small differences which make considerable variation in
the results, and the temperature at which the metal is poured is a
consideration of some importance.

In selecting the sand, which should {82} not have been previously used,
that of a fine grain should be chosen, but it should not have any
excess of aluminous matter, or it will not permit of the free escape of
gases and air, this being an important matter. Besides this, the sand
must be used as dry as possible consistent with its holding against the
flow of the metal, and having only moderate compression in ramming.

In making the molds it is necessary to remember that aluminum has a
large contraction in cooling, and also that at certain temperatures
it is very weak and tears readily, while all metals shrink away from
the mold when this is wholly outside the casting, but they shrink on
to cores or portions of the mold partly inclosed by metal. Thus, if
casting a plate or bar of metal, it will shrink away from the mold in
all directions; but if casting a square frame, it shrinks away from
the outside only, while it shrinks on to the central part or core.
With brass, or iron, or such metals, this is not of much importance,
but with some others, including aluminum, it is of great importance,
because if the core or inclosed sand will not give somewhat with the
contraction of the metal, torn or fractured castings will be the
result. Both for outside and inside molds, and with cores used with
aluminum, the sand should be compressed as little as possible, and
hard ramming must in every case be avoided, particularly where the
metal surrounds the sand. The molds must be very freely vented, and
not only at the joint of the mold, but by using the vent wire freely
through the body of the mold itself; in fact, for brass the venting
would be considered excessive. With aluminum it is, however, necessary
to get the air off as rapidly as possible, because the metal soon gets
sluggish in the mold, and unless it runs up quickly it runs faint
at the edges. The ingates should be wide and of fair area, but need
careful making to prevent their drawing where they enter the casting,
the method of doing this being known to most molders.

If it is considered desirable to use a specially made-up facing sand
for the molds where the metal is of some thickness, the use of a little
pea or bean meal will be all that is necessary. To use this, first
dry as much sand as may be required and pass through a 20-mesh sieve,
and to each bushel of the fine sand rub in about 4 quarts of meal,
afterwards again passing through the sieve to insure regular mixing.
This sand should then be damped as required, being careful that all
parts are equally moist, rubbing on a board being a good way to get it
tough, and in good condition, with the minimum of moisture.

The molds should not be sleeked with tools, but they may be dusted
over with plumbago or steatite, smoothing with a camel’s-hair brush,
in cases in which a very smooth face is required on the castings.
Preferably, however, the use of the brush even should be avoided.
Patterns for aluminum should be kept smooth and well varnished.

In melting the metal it is necessary to use a plumbago crucible which
is clean and which has not been used for other metals. Clay or silica
crucibles are not good for this metal, especially silica, on account
of the metal absorbing silicon and becoming hard under some conditions
of melting. A steady fire is necessary, and the fuel should reach only
about halfway up the crucible, as it is not desirable to overheat the
crucible or metal. The metal absorbs heat for some time and then fuses
with some rapidity, hence the desirability of a steady heat; and as the
metal should be poured when of a claret color under the film of oxide
which forms on the surface, too rapid a heating is not advisable. The
molding should always be well in advance of the pouring, because the
metal should be used as soon as it is ready; for not only is waste
caused, but the metal loses condition if kept in a molten state for
long periods. The metal should be poured rapidly, but steadily, and
when cast up there should not be a large head of metal left on top of
the runner. In fact, it is rather a disadvantage to leave a large head,
as this tends to draw rather than to feed the casting.

With properly prepared molds, and careful melting, fluxes are not
required, but ground cryolite—a fluoride of sodium and aluminum—is
sometimes used to increase the fluidity of the metal. In using this, a
few ounces according to the bulk of metal to be treated is put into the
molten metal before it is taken from the furnace, and well stirred in,
and as soon as the reaction apparently ceases the pot is lifted and the
metal at once skimmed and poured. The use of sodium in any form with
aluminum is very undesirable, however, and should be avoided, and the
same remark applies to tin, but there is no objection to alloying with
zinc, when the metal thus produced is sold as an alloy.

Aluminum also casts very well in molds of plaster of Paris and crushed
bath brick when such molds are perfectly dry {83} and well vented,
smoothness being secured by brushing over with dry steatite or
plumbago. When casting in metal molds, these should be well brushed out
with steatite or plumbago, and made fairly hot before pouring, as in
cold molds the metal curdles and becomes sluggish, with the result that
the castings run up faint.


«To Increase the Toughness, Density, and Tenacity of Aluminum.»—For the
purpose of improving aluminum, without increasing its specific gravity,
the aluminum is mixed with 4 to 7 per cent of phosphorus, whereby the
density, tenacity, and especially the toughness are said to be enhanced.


«WORKING OF SHEET ALUMINUM:»

The great secret, if there is any, in working aluminum, either pure or
alloyed, consists in the proper lubricant and the shape of the tool.
Another great disadvantage in the proper working of the metal is that,
when a manufacturer desires to make up an article, he will procure the
pure metal in order to make his samples, which, of course, is harder to
work than the alloy. But the different grades of aluminum sheet which
are on the market are so numerous for different classes of work that it
might be advisable to consider them for a moment before passing to the
method of working them.

The pure metal, to begin with, can be purchased of all degrees of
hardness, from the annealed, or what is known as the “dead soft”
stock, to the pure aluminum hard rolled. Then comes a harder grade of
alloys, running from “dead soft” metal, which will draw up hard, to
the same metal hard rolled; and, still again, another set of alloys
which, perhaps, are a little harder still when hard rolled, and will,
when starting with the “dead soft,” spin up into a utensil which, when
finished, will probably be as stiff as brass. These latter alloys
are finding a large sale for replacing brass used in all classes of
manufactured articles.

To start with lathe work on aluminum, probably more difficulty has been
found here, especially in working pure metal, and more complaints are
heard from this source than from any other. As stated before, however,
these difficulties can all be readily overcome, if the proper tools
and the proper lubricants are used, as automatic screw machines are
now made so that they can be operated when working aluminum just as
readily as when they are working brass, and in some cases more readily.
To start with the question of the tool, this should be made as what is
known as a “shearing tool,” that is, instead of a short, stubby point,
such as would be used in turning brass, the point should be lengthened
out and a lot of clearance provided on the inside of the tool, so as
to give the chips of the metal a good chance to free themselves and
not cause a clogging around the point of the tool—a similar tool, for
instance, to what would be used for turning wood.

The best lubricant to be used would be coal oil or water, and plenty of
it. The latter is almost as good as coal oil if enough of it is used,
and with either of these lubricants and a tool properly made, there
should be no difficulty whatsoever in the rapid working of aluminum,
either on the lathe or on automatic screw machines.

To go from the lathe to the drawing press, the same tools here would
be used in drawing up shapes of aluminum as are used for drawing up
brass or other metals; the only precaution necessary in this instance
being to use a proper lubricant, which in this case is a cheap grade of
vaseline, or in some cases lard oil, but in the majority of instances
better results will be secured by the use of vaseline. Aluminum is
probably susceptible of deeper drawing with less occasion to anneal
than any of the other commercial metals. It requires but one-third or
one-fourth of as much annealing as brass or copper. For instance, an
article which is now manufactured in brass, requiring, say, three or
four operations before the article is finished, would probably have
to be annealed after every operation. With aluminum, however, if the
proper grade is used, it is generally possible to perform these three
operations without annealing the metal at all, and at the same time to
produce a finished article which, to all intents and purposes, is as
stiff as an article made of sheet brass.

Too much stress cannot be laid on the fact of starting with the proper
grade of metal, for either through ignorance or by not observing this
point is the foundation of the majority of the complaints that aluminum
“has been tried and found wanting.” If, however, it should be found
necessary to anneal aluminum, this can be readily accomplished by
heating it in an ordinary muffle, being careful that the temperature
shall not be too high—about 650° or 700° F. The best test as to when
the metal has reached the proper temperature is to take a soft pine
stick and draw it across the {84} metal. If it chars the stick and
leaves a black mark on the metal, it is sufficiently annealed and is in
a proper condition to proceed with further operation.

Next taking up the question of spinning aluminum, success again
depends particularly on starting with the proper metal. The most
satisfactory speed for articles from 5 to 8 inches in diameter is
about 2,600 revolutions a minute, and for larger or smaller diameters
the speed should be so regulated as to give the same velocity at the
circumference. Aluminum is a very easy metal to spin and no difficulty
should be found at all in spinning the proper grades of sheets.
Several factories that are using large quantities of aluminum now, both
for spinning and stamping, are paying their men by the piece the same
amount that they formerly paid on brass and tin work, and it is stated
that the men working on this basis make anywhere from 10 to 20 per cent
more wages by working aluminum.

After aluminum has been manufactured into the shape of an article, the
next process is the finishing of it. The best polish can be obtained
by first cutting down the metal with an ordinary rag buff on which
use tripoli, and then finish it with a dry red rouge which comes in
the lump form, or that which is known as “White Diamond Rouge.” One
point, however, that it is necessary to observe carefully is that both
the tripoli and the rouge should be procured ground as fine as it is
possible to grind them; for, if this is not done, the metal will have
little fine scratches all over it, and will not appear as bright and as
handsome as it otherwise would.

If it is desired to put on a frosted appearance, this can either
be done by scratch brushing or sand blasting. A brass wire scratch
brush, made of crimped wire of No. 32 to No. 36 B. & S. gage, with
three or four rows of bristles, will probably give the best results.
This work of scratch brushing can be somewhat lessened, however, if,
before applying the scratch brush to the surface of the aluminum, the
article is first cut down by the use of a porpoise-hide wheel and fine
Connecticut sand, placing the sand between the surface of the aluminum
and the wheel, so that the skin and the irregularities on the surface
are removed, and then putting the article on a buffing wheel before
attempting to scratch brush it. This method, however, is probably more
advantageous in the treating of aluminum castings than for articles
manufactured out of the sheet metal, as in the majority of cases it is
simply necessary before scratch brushing to cut down the article with
tripoli, and then polish it with rouge as already described, before
putting on the scratch brush; in this way the brush seems to take hold
quicker and better, and to produce a more uniform polish.

An effect similar to the scratch-brush finish can be got by sand
blasting, and by first sand blasting and then scratch brushing the
sheets, a good finish is obtained with very much less labor than by
scratch brushing alone. Another very pretty frosted effect is procured
by first sand blasting and then treated as hereinafter described
by “dipping” and “frosting,” and many variations in the finish of
aluminum can be got by varying the treatment, either by cutting
down with tripoli and polishing, scratch brushing, sand blasting,
dipping, and frosting, and by combinations of those treatments. A very
pretty mottled effect is secured on aluminum by first polishing and
then scratch brushing and then holding the aluminum against a soft
pine wheel, run at a high rate of speed on a lathe, and by careful
manipulation, quite regular forms of a mottled appearance can be
obtained.

The dipping and frosting of aluminum sheet is probably the cheapest way
of producing a nice finish. First remove all grease and dirt from the
article by dipping in benzine, then dip into water in order that the
benzine adhering to the article may be removed, so as not to affect
the strength of the solution into which it is next dipped. After they
have been taken out of the water and well shaken, the articles should
be plunged in a strong solution of caustic soda or caustic potash,
and left there a sufficient length of time until the aluminum starts
to turn black. Then they should be removed, dipped in water again,
and then into a solution of concentrated nitric and sulphuric acid,
composed of 24 parts of nitric acid to 1 part of sulphuric acid. After
being removed, the article should be washed thoroughly in water and
dried in hot sawdust in the usual way. This finish can also be varied
somewhat by making the solution of caustic soda of varying degrees of
strength, or by adding a small amount of common salt to the solution.

In burnishing the metal use a bloodstone or a steel burnisher. In
burnishing use a mixture of melted vaseline and coal oil, or a solution
composed of 2 tablespoonfuls of ground borax dissolved in about a quart
of hot water, with a few {85} drops of ammonia added. In engraving,
which adds materially to the appearance of finished castings, book
covers, picture frames, and similar articles made of sheet, probably
the best lubricant to use on an engraver’s tool in order to obtain a
clean cut, which is bright, is naphtha or coal oil, or a mixture of
coal oil and vaseline. The naphtha, however, is preferred, owing to the
fact that it does not destroy the satin finish in the neighborhood of
the cut, as the other lubricants are very apt to do. There is, however,
as much skill required in using and making a tool in order to give a
bright, clean cut as there is in the choice of the lubricant to be
used. The tool should be made somewhat on the same plan as the lathe
tools already outlined. That is, they should be brought to a sharp
point and be “cut back” rather far, so as to give plenty of clearance.

There has been one class of work in aluminum that has been developed
lately and only to a certain extent, in which there are great
possibilities, and that is in drop forging the metal. Some very
superior bicycle parts have been manufactured by drop forging. This can
be accomplished probably more readily with aluminum than with other
metals, for the reason that it is not necessary with all the alloys
to work them hot; consequently, they can be worked and handled more
rapidly.

ALUMINUM, TO CLEAN: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.

ALUMINUM ALLOYS: See Alloys.

ALUMINUM BRONZE: See Alloys under Bronzes.

ALUMINUM CASTINGS: See Casting.

ALUMINUM PAPER: See Paper.

ALUMINUM PLATING: See Plating.

ALUMINUM POLISHES: See Polishes.


«Amalgams»

See also Easily Fusible Alloys under Alloys.

The name amalgam is given to alloys of metals containing mercury. The
term comes to us from the alchemists. It signifies softening, because
an excess of mercury dissolves a large number of metals.


«Preparation of Amalgams.»—Mercury forms amalgams with most metals.
It unites directly and readily, either cold or hot, with potassium,
sodium, barium, strontium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, cadmium, tin,
antimony, lead, bismuth, silver, and gold; directly, but more
difficultly, with aluminum, copper, and palladium. This combination
takes place oftenest at the ordinary temperature; certain metals,
however, like aluminum and antimony, combine only when heated in
presence of quicksilver.

Quicksilver has no direct action on metals of high fusing points:
manganese, iron, nickel, cobalt, uranium, platinum, and their
congeners. Still, amalgams of these metals can be obtained of butyrous
consistency, either by electrolysis of their saline solutions,
employing quicksilver as the negative electrode, or by the action
of an alkaline amalgam (potassium or sodium), on their concentrated
and neutral saline solutions. These same refractory metals are also
amalgamated superficially when immersed in the amalgam of sodium or of
ammonium in presence of water.

Processes for preparing amalgams by double decomposition between an
alkaline amalgam and a metallic salt, or by electrolysis of saline
solutions, with employment of mercury as the negative electrode,
apply _a fortiori_ to metals capable of combining directly with the
quicksilver. The latter of these methods is especially utilized for the
preparation of alkaline earthy metals by electrolytic decomposition of
the solutions of their salts or hydrated oxides with quicksilver as a
cathode.


«General Properties of Amalgams.»—Amalgams are liquid when the
quicksilver is in great excess; solid, but readily fusible, when the
alloyed metal predominates.

They have a metallic luster, and a metallic structure which renders
them brittle. They even form crystallized metallic combinations of
constant proportions, dissolved in an excess of quicksilver, when the
excess is separated by compression in a chamois skin, or by filtration
in a glass funnel of slender stem, terminating with an orifice almost
capillary.

According as the fusing heat of a metal is less or greater than
its combination heat with quicksilver, the amalgamation of this
metal produces an elevation or a lowering of temperature. Thus {86}
potassium, sodium, and cadmium, in alloy with quicksilver, disengage
heat; while zinc, antimony, tin, bismuth, lead, and silver combine
with mercury with absorption of heat. The amalgamation of 162 parts of
quicksilver with 21 parts of lead, 12 parts of tin or of antimony, and
28.5 parts of bismuth, lowers the temperature of the mixture 79° F.

Amalgams formed with disengagement of heat are electro-negative with
reference to the metals alloyed with the quicksilver. The products with
absorption of heat are electro-negative with reference to the metals
combined with the quicksilver; consequently, in a battery of elements
of pure cadmium and amalgamated cadmium, the cadmium will be the
negative pole; in case of zinc and amalgamated zinc, the zinc will be
the positive pole.

Heat decomposes all amalgams, vaporizing the mercury and leaving the
metal alloys as a residue.

Water is decomposed by the amalgams of potassium and sodium, because
the heat of formation of these amalgams, although considerable, is even
less than the heat disengaged by potassium and sodium, on decomposing
water. The alkaline amalgams may, therefore, serve as a source of
nascent hydrogen in presence of water, giving rise to an action less
energetic, and often more advantageous, than that of the alkaline
metals alone. Thus is caused the frequent employment of sodium amalgam
for hydrogenizing a large number of bodies. As a consequence of their
action on water, the alkaline amalgams are changed by moist air, with
production of free alkali or alkaline carbonate.


«Applications of Potassium Amalgams.»—I.—They furnish a process for
preparing potassium by the decomposition of potash by the electric
current, by employing quicksilver as the cathode, and vaporizing the
quicksilver of the amalgam formed by heating this in a current of dry
hydrogen.

II.—They can serve for the preparation of the amalgams of the metals,
other than those of the alkaline group, by decomposing the salts of
these metals, with formation of a salt of potash and of the amalgam of
the metal corresponding to the original salt.

III.—They can be employed as a source of nascent hydrogen in presence
of water for hydrogenizing many substances.


«Applications of Sodium Amalgams.»—These are nearly the same as those
of the potassium amalgams, but the sodium amalgams are employed almost
exclusively, because sodium is easier to handle than potassium, and is
cheaper. These employments are the following:

I.—Sodium amalgam furnishes a process for the preparation of sodium
when soda is decomposed by means of the electric current, employing
quicksilver as the cathode, and afterwards vaporizing the quicksilver
of the amalgam formed by heating this in a current of dry hydrogen.

II.—Amalgams of sodium serve for the preparation of amalgams of the
other metals, particularly alkaline earthy metals and metals of high
fusing points, by decomposing the salts of these metals, with formation
of a salt of soda and of the amalgam of the metal corresponding to the
original salt.

III.—They serve for amalgamating superficially the metals of high
fusing point, called “refractory,” such as iron and platinum, when a
well-cleaned plate of these metals is immersed in sodium amalgam in
presence of water.

IV.—An amalgam of 2 or 3 per cent of sodium is employed in the
processes of extraction of gold by amalgamation. It has the property of
rendering quicksilver more brilliant, and consequently more energetic,
by acting as a deoxidant on the pellicle of oxide formed on its surface
in presence of certain ores, which, by keeping it separated from the
particles of gold, destroy its activity. Sodium amalgam of 3 per
cent is utilized with success for the amalgamated plates employed in
crushers and other apparatus for treating the ores of gold. If a few
drops of this amalgam are spread on a plate of copper, of tin, or of
zinc, a brilliant coating of an amalgam of tin, copper, or zinc is
immediately formed.

V.—Amalgams of from 2 to 8 per cent of sodium serve frequently in
laboratories for reducing or hydrogenizing organic combinations,
without running the risk of a partial destruction of these compounds by
too intense action, as may occur by employing free sodium instead of
its amalgam.


«Applications of Barium Amalgams.»—These can, by distillation, furnish
barium. It is one of the processes for preparing this metal, which,
when thus obtained, almost always retains a little sodium.


«Applications of Strontium Amalgams.»—These amalgams, washed and dried
rapidly immediately after their preparation, and then heated to a
nascent red {87} in a current of dry hydrogen, yield a fused mass of
strontium.


«Applications of Cadmium Amalgams.»—Amalgams of cadmium, formed of
equal weights of cadmium and quicksilver, have much power of cohesion
and are quite malleable; the case is the same with an amalgam formed of
1 part of cadmium and 2 parts of quicksilver. They are used as dental
cements for plugging teeth; for the same purpose an amalgam of 2 parts
of quicksilver, 1 part of cadmium, and 2 parts of tin may be used.


«Applications of Zinc Amalgams.»—The principal employment of zinc
amalgams is their use as a cathode or negative electrode in the
batteries of Munson, Daniels, and Lechanché. This combination is
designed to render the zinc non-attackable by the exciting liquid of
the battery with open circuit. The action of the mercury is to prevent
the zinc from forming a large number of small voltaic elements when
foreign bodies are mingled with the metal; in a word, the giving to
ordinary zinc the properties of pure zinc, and consequently of causing
a great saving in expense.

For amalgamating a zinc plate it is plunged for a few seconds into
water in which there is one-sixteenth in volume of sulphuric acid,
then rubbing with a copper-wire brush which has been dipped in the
quicksilver. The mercury takes more readily on the zinc when, after the
zinc has been cleaned with water sharpened with sulphuric acid, it is
moistened with a solution of corrosive sublimate, which is reduced and
furnishes a first very thin coat of amalgam, on which the quicksilver
is immediately fixed by simple immersion without rubbing.

The zinc of a battery may be amalgamated by putting at the bottom of
the compartment containing each element, a little quicksilver in such
a way that the zinc touches the liquid. The amalgamation is effected
under the influence of the current, but this process applies only
on condition that the zinc alone touches the bottom of the vessel
containing the quicksilver.


«Applications of Manganese Amalgams.»—These may serve for the
preparation of manganese. For this purpose it is sufficient to distill
in a current of pure hydrogen. The manganese remains in the form of a
grayish powder.


«Applications of Tin Amalgams.»—I.—Tinning of glass. This operation
is accomplished in the following manner: On a cast-iron table, quite
horizontal, a sheet of tin of the dimensions of the glass is spread
out and covered with a layer of quicksilver, 5 or 6 millimeters in
thickness. The glass is made to slide on the sheet of tin in such a
way as to drive off the excess of quicksilver; when the two surfaces
are covered without interposition of air, weights are placed on the
glass. In a few days, the glass may be removed, having been covered
with an adhering pellicle of amalgam of 4 parts of tin and 1 part of
quicksilver. (See also Mirrors.)

II.—An amalgam consisting of 2 parts of zinc and 1 part tin may be
used for covering the cushions of frictional electric machines. This
amalgam is prepared by first melting the zinc and tin in a crucible and
adding the quicksilver previously heated.

III.—Mention has been made of the cadmium amalgam employed for plugging
teeth, an amalgam of 2 parts of quicksilver, 2 parts of tin, and 1 part
of cadmium. For the same purpose an amalgam of tin, silver, and gold is
employed. (See also Cements, Dental.)


«Applications of Copper Amalgams.»—I.—An amalgam of 30 per cent of
copper has been employed for filling teeth. This use has been abandoned
on account of the inconvenience occasioned by the great changeableness
of the product.

II.—The amalgam of 30 per cent of copper, designated by the name of
“metallic mastic,” is an excellent cement for repairing objects and
utensils of porcelain. For this employment, the broken surfaces are
heated to 662° F., and a little of the amalgam, previously heated to
the consistency of melted wax, is applied.

III.—Copper amalgam, of 30 to 45 per cent of copper, rendered
plastic by heating and grinding, may serve for obtaining with slight
compression copies of delicate objects, which may, after hardening of
the amalgam, be reproduced, either in wax or by galvanic process.

IV.—According to Debray, when a medal, obtained with an amalgam of
45 per cent of copper, by compression in the soft state, in molds of
gutta percha, is heated progressively to redness in an atmosphere of
hydrogen, the quicksilver is volatilized gradually, and the particles
of copper come together without fusion in such a way as to produce a
faithful reproduction, formed exclusively of metallic copper, of the
original medal.

V.—In the metallurgy of gold, the crushers are furnished with
amalgamated plates of copper for retaining the gold. The preparation
of these plates, {88} which are at least 0.128 inches in thickness, is
delicate, requiring about two weeks. They are freed from greasy matter
by rubbing with ashes, or, better, with a little sand and caustic soda,
or if more rapid action is desired, with a cloth dipped in dilute
nitric acid; they are washed with water, then with a solution of
potassium cyanide, and finally brushed with a mixture of sal ammoniac
and a little quicksilver, until the surface is completely amalgamated.
They are finally made to absorb as much quicksilver as possible. But
the plates thus treated are useful for only a few days when they are
sufficiently covered with a layer of gold amalgam; in the meantime
they occasion loss of time and of gold. So it is preferable to cover
them artificially with a little gold amalgam, which is prepared by
dissolving gold in quicksilver. Sometimes the amalgam of gold is
replaced by an amalgam of silver, which is readily poured and more
economical.

Another method giving better results consists in silvering copper slabs
by electroplating and covering them with a layer of silver. Then it
is only necessary to apply a little quicksilver, which adheres quite
rapidly, so that they are ready for use almost immediately, and are
quite active at the outset.

These amalgamation slabs ought to be cleaned before each operation.
Potassium cyanide removes fatty matter, and sal ammoniac the oxides of
the low metals.


«Applications of Lead Amalgams.»—These meet with an interesting
employment for the autogenous soldering of lead. After the surfaces
to be soldered have been well cleaned, a layer of lead amalgam is
applied. It is afterwards sufficient to pass along the line of junction
a soldering iron heated to redness, in order that the heat should cause
the volatilization of the quicksilver, and that the lead, liberated in
a state of fine division, should be melted and cause the adherence of
the two surfaces. The only precaution necessary is to avoid breathing
the mercurial vapor, which is quite poisonous.


«Applications of Bismuth Amalgams.»—The amalgam formed of 1 per cent of
bismuth and 4 parts of quicksilver will cause the strong adherence of
glass. It is employed with advantage in the tinning of glass globes.
For this operation it is poured into a dry hot receiver, and then
passed over the whole surface of the glass; it solidifies on cooling.
For the purpose of economizing the bismuth, the price of which is high,
the preceding amalgam is replaced by another composed of 2 parts of
quicksilver, 1 part of bismuth, 1 part of lead, and 1 part of tin. The
bismuth, broken into small fragments, is added to the tin and lead,
previously melted in the crucible, and when the mixture of the three
metals becomes fluid, the quicksilver is poured in, while stirring with
an iron rod. The impurities floating on the surface are removed, and
when the temperature is sufficiently lowered this amalgam is slowly
poured into the vessels to be tinned, which have been previously
well cleaned and slightly heated. M. Ditte recommends for the same
employment, as a very strong adherent to the glass, an amalgam obtained
by dissolving hot 2 parts of bismuth and 1 part of lead in a solution
of 1 part of tin in 10 parts of quicksilver. By causing a quantity of
this amalgam to move around the inside of a receiver, clean, dry, and
slightly heated, the surface will be covered with a thin, brilliant
layer, which hardens quite rapidly.

For the injection of anatomical pieces an amalgam formed of 10 parts
of quicksilver, 50 parts of bismuth, 31 parts of lead, and 18 parts
of tin, fusible at 77.5° and solidifiable at 60° C., is made use of;
or, again, an amalgam composed of 9 parts of Darcet alloy and 1 part
of quicksilver fusible at 127 1/2° F., and pasty at a still lower
temperature. This last amalgam may also be used for filling carious
teeth. The Darcet alloy, as known, contains 2 parts of bismuth, 1 part
of lead, and 1 part of tin, and melts at 199 1/2° F. The addition of
1 part of quicksilver lowers the fusing point to 104° F.


«Applications of Silver Amalgams.»—I.—In the silvering of mirrors by
the Petitjean method, which has almost universally replaced tinning,
the property of silver in readily amalgamating is taken advantage of,
by substituting the glass after silvering to the action of a dilute
solution of double cyanide of mercury and potassium in such a manner
as to form an amalgam of white and brilliant silver adhering strongly
to the glass. To facilitate the operation and utilize all the silver,
while economizing the double cyanide, M. Lenoir has recommended the
following: Sprinkle the glass at the time when it is covered with the
mercurial solution with very fine zinc powder, which precipitates the
quicksilver and regulates the amalgamation.

II.—The metallurgy of silver also takes advantage of the property
of this {89} metal in combining cold with quicksilver; this for the
treatment of poor silver ores.

In the Saxon or Freiburg process for treating silver ores, recourse is
had to quicksilver in the case of amalgam in amalgamating casks, in
which the ore, after grinding, is shaken with disks of iron, and with
mercury and water. The amalgam, collected and filtered under strong
pressure, contains from 30 to 33 per cent of silver. It is distilled
either in cylindrical retorts of cast iron, furnished with an exit
tube immersed in the water for condensing the mercurial vapors, or on
plates of iron, arranged over each other along a vertical iron stem,
supported by a tripod at the bottom of a tank filled with water, and
covered with an iron receiver, which is itself surrounded with ignited
charcoal. It should be remarked that the last portions of quicksilver
in a silver amalgam submitted to distillation are volatilized only
under the action of a high and prolonged temperature.


«Applications of Gold Amalgams.»—I.—Gilding with quicksilver. This
process of gilding, much employed formerly, is now but little used.
It can be applied only to metals slightly fusible and capable of
amalgamation, like silver, copper, bronze, and brass. Iron can also be
gilded by this method, provided it is previously covered with a coating
of copper. To perform this gilding the surface is well cleaned, and the
gold amalgam, consisting of 2 parts of gold and 1 part of quicksilver,
prepared as mentioned before, is applied. The piece is afterwards
heated to about the red, so as to volatilize the mercury. The gold
remains, superficially alloyed with the metal, and forms an extremely
solid layer of deadened gold, which can be afterwards polished. The
volatilization should be effected under a chimney having strong
draught, in order to avoid the poisonous action of the mercurial vapors.

II.—The amalgamation of gold finds its principal applications in the
treatment of auriferous ores. The extraction of small spangles of gold
scattered in gold-bearing sands is based on the ready dissolution of
gold in quicksilver, and on the formation of an amalgam of solid gold
by compression and filtering through a chamois skin, in a state more or
less liquid. The spangles of gold are shaken with about their weight
of quicksilver, collected in the cavities of sluices and mixed with a
small quantity of sand. The gold is dissolved and the sand remains.
The amalgam thus obtained is compressed in a chamois skin, so as to
separate the excess of mercury which passes through the pores of the
skin; or, yet again, it is filtered through a glass funnel having a
very slender stem, with almost capillary termination. In both cases an
amalgam of solid gold remains, which is submitted to the action of heat
in a crucible or cast-iron retort, communicating with a bent-iron tube,
of which the extremity, surrounded with a cloth immersed in water,
is arranged above a receiver half full of water. The quicksilver is
vaporized and condensed in the water. The gold remains in the retort.

The property of gold of combining readily with quicksilver is also
used in many kinds of amalgamating apparatus for extraction and in the
metallurgy of gold.

In various operations it is essential to keep the quicksilver active
by preserving its limpidity. For this purpose potassium cyanide and
ammonium chloride are especially employed; sometimes wood ashes,
carbonate of soda, hyposulphite of soda, nitrate of potash, cupric
sulphate, sea salt, and lime; the latter for precipitating the soluble
sulphates proceeding from the decomposition of pyrites.

The amalgamation of gold is favored by a temperature of 38° to 45° C.
(100° to 113° F.), and still more by the employment of quicksilver
in the nascent state. This last property is the base of the Designol
process, which consists in treating auriferous or auro-argentiferous
ores, first ground with sea salt, in revolving cylinders of cast
iron, with iron and mercury bichloride, in such a way that the
mercury precipitated collects the gold and eventually the silver more
efficaciously.


«Gold Amalgam.»—Eight parts of gold and 1 of mercury are formed into an
amalgam for plating by rendering the gold into thin plates, making it
red hot, and then putting it into the mercury while the latter is also
heated to ebullition. The gold immediately disappears in combination
with the mercury, after which the mixture may be turned into water to
cool. It is then ready for use.


«Zinc Amalgam for Electric Batteries.»—Dissolve 2 parts of mercury in
1 part of aqua regia. This accomplished, add 5 parts of hydrochloric
acid. This solution is made warm. It suffices to dip the zinc to be
amalgamated into this liquid only for a few seconds. {90}


«Amalgam for Cementing Glass, Porcelain, Etc.»—Take tin 2 parts, and
cadmium 1 part. Fuse in an iron spoon or some vessel of the same
material. When the two materials are in fusion add a little mercury,
previously heated. Place all in an iron crucible and boil, agitating
the mass with a pestle. This amalgam is soft and can be kneaded between
the fingers. It may be employed for luting glass or porcelain vessels,
as well as for filling teeth. It hardens in a short while.


«Amalgam for Silvering Glass Balls.»—Lead, 25 parts; tin, 25 parts;
bismuth, 25 parts; mercury, 25 parts; or, lead, 20 parts; tin, 20
parts; bismuth, 20 parts; mercury, 40 parts. Melt the lead and the tin,
then add the bismuth; skim several times and add the mercury, stirring
the composition vigorously.

(See also Mirror-Silvering).


«Copper Amalgam.»—Copper amalgam, or so-called Viennese metal cement,
crystallizes with the greatest readiness and acquires such hardness on
solidifying that it can be polished like gold. The amalgam may also be
worked under the hammer or between rollers; it can also be stamped,
and retains its metallic luster for a long time in the air. In air
containing hydrogen sulphide, however, it quickly tarnishes and turns
black. A very special property of copper amalgam consists in that it
becomes very soft when laid in water, and attains such pliancy that
it can be employed for modeling the most delicate objects. After a
few hours the amalgam congeals again into a very fine-grained, rather
malleable mass. An important application of copper amalgam is that for
cementing metals. All that is necessary for this purpose is to heat the
metals, which must be bright, to 80–90° C. (176–194° F.), to apply the
amalgam and to press the metal pieces together. They will cohere as
firmly as though soldered together.

Copper amalgam may be prepared in the following manner:

Place strips of zinc in a solution of blue vitriol and agitate the
solution thoroughly. The copper thus obtained in the form of a very
fine powder is washed and, while still moist, treated in a mortar with
a solution of mercury nitrate. The copper powder thereby amalgamates
more readily with the quicksilver. Next, hot water is poured over the
copper, the mortar is kept hot, and the mercury added. Knead with the
pestle of the mortar until the copper, pulverulent in the beginning,
has united with the mercury into a very plastic mass. The longer the
kneading is continued the more uniform will be the mass. As soon as the
amalgam has acquired the suitable character—for its production 3 parts
of copper and 7 parts of mercury are used—the water is poured off and
the amalgam still soft is given the shape in which it is to be kept.

For cementing purposes, the amalgam is rolled out into small cylinders,
whose diameter is about 0.16 to 0.2 inches, with a length of a few
inches. In order to produce with this amalgam impressions of castings,
which are made after woodcuts, the amalgam is rolled out hot into a
thin plate and pressed firmly onto the likewise heated plaster cast.
After the amalgam has hardened the thin plate of it may be reinforced
by pouring on molten type metal.


«Silver Amalgam.»—Silver amalgam can easily be made with the help of
finely powdered silver. The mercury need only be heated to 250° to
300° C. (482° to 572° F.); silver powder is then sprinkled on it, and
mixed with it by stirring. The vessel is heated for several minutes
and then allowed to cool, the excess of mercury being removed from the
granulated crystalline amalgam by pressing in a leather bag. Silver
amalgam can also easily be made by dissolving silver in nitric acid,
evaporating the solution till the excess of free acid is eliminated,
diluting with distilled water, and adding mercury to the fluid in
the proportion of 4 parts, by weight, of mercury to 1 of the silver
originally used. The mercury precipitates the silver in a metallic
state, and immediately forms an amalgam with it; the fluid standing
above after a time contains no more silver, but consists of a solution
of mercury nitrate mixed with whatever copper was contained in the
dissolved silver in the form of copper nitrate. The absence of a
white precipitate, if a few drops of hydrochloric acid are added to a
sample of the fluid in a test tube, shows that all the silver has been
eliminated from the solution and is present in the form of amalgam.


«Amalgam for the Rubber of Electric Machines.»—Mercury, 100 parts;
zinc, 50 parts; tin, 50 parts. This amalgam reduced to powder and
incorporated with grease can be applied to the rubber of electric
machines.

AMALGAM GOLD PLATING: See Gilding under Plating.


«AMBER:»


«Imitation Amber.»—Melt carefully together pine rosin, 1; lacca in
tabulis, 2; white colophony, 15 parts. {91}

AMBER CEMENT: See Adhesives under Cements.

AMBER VARNISH: See Varnishes.

AMBROSIA POWDER: See Salts (Effervescent).

AMIDOL DEVELOPER: See Photography.

AMETHYST (IMITATION): See Gems, Artificial.

AMMON-CARBONITE: See Explosives.


«Ammonia»


«Household Ammonia.»—(See also Household Formulas.)—Household ammonia is
simply diluted ammonia water to which borax and soap have been added.
To make it cloudy add potassium nitrate or methylated spirit. The
following are good formulas:

 I.—Ammonia water                    16 parts
     Yellow soap                      64 parts
     Potassium nitrate                 1 part
     Soft water, sufficient to make  200 parts

Shave up the soap and dissolve it in the water by heating, add the
potassium nitrate and dissolve. Cool, strain, skim off any suds or
bubbles, add the ammonia, mix, and bottle at once.

 II.—Yellow soap               10 grains
      Borax                      1 drachm
      Lavender water            20 minims
      Stronger ammonia water     6 ounces
      Water, enough to make     20 ounces

Dissolve the soap and borax in 5 ounces of boiling water; when cold add
the lavender water and ammonia, and make up to a pint with water.

 III.—Methylated spirit         1 gallon
       Soft water                1 gallon
       Stronger ammonia water    1 gallon

  IV.—Ammonia water             5 pints
       Distilled water           5 pints
       Soap                    100 grains
       Olive oil                 5 drachms

Cut the soap in shavings, boil with the oil and water, cool, add the
ammonia water, and bottle. For use in laundries, baths, and for general
household purposes add one tablespoonful to one gallon of water.

V.—The best quality:

 Alcohol, 94 per cent     4 ounces
 Soft water               4 gallons
 Oil of rosemary          4 drachms
 Oil of citronella        3 drachms

Dissolve the oils in the alcohol and add to the water. To the mixture
add 4 ounces of talc (or fuller’s earth will answer), mix thoroughly,
strain through canvas, and to the colate add 1, 2, or 3 gallons of
ammonia water, according to the strength desired, in which has been
dissolved 1, 2, or 3 ounces of white curd, or soft soap.


«Liquor Ammonii Anisatus.»—

 Oil of anise, by weight           1 part
 Alcohol, by weight               24 parts
 Water of ammonia, by weight       5 parts

Dissolve the oil in the alcohol and add the water of ammonia.

It should be a clear, yellowish liquid.


«Violet Color for Ammonia.»—A purple-blue color may be given to ammonia
water by adding an aqueous solution of litmus. The shade, when pale
enough, will probably meet all views as to a violet color.


«Perfumed Ammonia Water.»—The following are typical formulas:

  I.—Stronger water of ammonia    6     ounces
      Lavender water               1     ounce
      Soft soap                   10     grains
      Water, enough to make       16     ounces

 II.—Soft soap                    1     ounce
      Borax                        2     drachms
      Cologne water                  1/2 ounce
      Stronger water of ammonia    5 1/2 ounces
      Water, enough to make       12     ounces

Rub up the soap and borax with water until dissolved, strain and add
the other ingredients. The perfumes may be varied to suit the price.

AMMONIA FOR FIXING PRINTS: See Photography.

ANGOSTURA BITTERS: See Wines and Liquors.

ANILINE: See Dyes.

ANILINE IN PIGMENTS, TESTS FOR: See Pigments.

ANILINE STAINS, TO REMOVE: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods. {92}

ANISE CORDIAL: See Wines and Liquors.

ANKARA: See Butter.

ANNEALING OF STEEL, TOOLS, WIRE, AND SPRINGS: See Steel.

ANODYNES: See Pain Killers.

ANT DESTROYERS: See Insecticides.


«Antidotes for Poisons»


«POISON, SYMPTOMS AND ANTIDOTES.»

When a person has taken poison the first thing to do is to compel the
patient to vomit, and for that purpose give any emetic that can be most
readily and quickly obtained, and which is prompt and energetic, but
safe in its action. For this purpose there is, perhaps, nothing better
than a large teaspoonful of ground mustard in a tumblerful of warm
water, and it has the advantage of being almost always at hand. If the
dry mustard is not to be had use mixed mustard from the mustard pot.
Its operation may generally be facilitated by the addition of a like
quantity of common table salt. If the mustard is not at hand, give two
or three teaspoonfuls of powdered alum in syrup or molasses, and give
freely of warm water to drink; or give 10 to 20 grains of sulphate of
zinc (white vitriol), or 20 to 30 grains of ipecac, with 1 or 2 grains
of tartar emetic, in a large cup of warm water, and repeat every ten
minutes until three or four doses are given, unless free vomiting is
sooner produced. After vomiting has taken place large draughts of warm
water should be given, so that the vomiting will continue until the
poisonous substances have been thoroughly evacuated, and then suitable
antidotes should be given. If vomiting cannot be produced the stomach
pump should be used. When it is known what particular kind of poison
has been swallowed, then the proper antidote for that poison should
be given; but when this cannot be ascertained, as is often the case,
give freely of equal parts of calcined magnesia, pulverized charcoal,
and sesquioxide of iron, in a sufficient quantity of water. This is
a very harmless mixture and is likely to be of great benefit, as the
ingredients, though very simple, are antidotes for the most common
and active poisons. In case this mixture cannot be obtained, the
stomach should be soothed and protected by the free administration of
demulcent, mucilaginous, or oleaginous drinks, such as the whites of
eggs, milk, mucilage of gum arabic, or slippery-elm bark, flaxseed tea,
starch, wheat flour, or arrowroot mixed in water, linseed or olive
oil, or melted butter or lard. Subsequently the bowels should be moved
by some gentle laxative, as a tablespoonful or two of castor oil, or
a teaspoonful of calcined magnesia; and pain or other evidence of
inflammation must be relieved by the administration of a few drops of
laudanum, and the repeated application of hot poultices, fomentations,
and mustard plasters.

The following are the names of the substances that may give rise to
poisoning, most commonly used, and their antidotes:


«Mineral Acids—Sulphuric Acid (Oil of Vitriol), Nitric Acid (Aqua
Fortis), Muriatic Acid (Spirits of Salts).»—Symptoms: Acid, burning
taste in the mouth, acute pain in the throat, stomach, and bowels;
frequent vomiting, generally bloody; mouth and lips excoriated,
shriveled, white or yellow; hiccough, copious stools, more or less
bloody, with great tenderness in the abdomen; difficult breathing,
irregular pulse, excessive thirst, while drink increases the pain and
rarely remains in the stomach; frequent but vain efforts to urinate;
cold sweats, altered countenance; convulsions, generally preceding
death. Nitric acid causes yellow stains; sulphuric acid, black ones.
Treatment: Mix calcined magnesia in milk or water to the consistence
of cream, and give freely to drink a glassful every couple of minutes,
if it can be swallowed. Common soap (hard or soft), chalk, whiting, or
even mortar from the wall mixed in water may be given, until magnesia
can be obtained. Promote vomiting by tickling the throat, if necessary,
and when the poison is got rid of, flaxseed or slippery-elm tea, gruel,
or other mild drinks. The inflammation which always follows needs good
treatment to save the patient’s life.


«Vegetable Acids—Acetic, Citric, Oxalic, Tartaric.»—Symptoms: Intense
burning pain of mouth, throat, and stomach; vomiting blood which is
highly acid, violent purging, collapse, stupor, death.

Oxalic acid is frequently taken in {93} mistake for Epsom salts, to
which in shops it often bears a strong resemblance. Treatment: Give
chalk or magnesia in a large quantity of water, or large draughts of
limewater. If these are not at hand, scrape the wall or ceiling, and
give the scrapings mixed with water.


«Prussic or Hydrocyanic Acid—Laurel Water, Cyanide of Potassium,
Bitter Almond Oil, Etc.»—Symptoms: In large doses almost invariably
instantaneously fatal; when not immediately fatal, sudden loss of sense
and control of the voluntary muscles. The odor of the poison generally
noticeable on the breath. Treatment: Chlorine, in the form of chlorine
water, in doses of from 1 to 4 fluidrachms, diluted. Weak solution of
chloride lime of soda; water of ammonia (spirits of hartshorn), largely
diluted, may be given, and the vapor of it cautiously inhaled. Cold
affusion, and chloroform in half to teaspoonful doses in glycerine
or mucilage, repeated every few minutes, until the symptoms are
ameliorated. Artificial respiration.


«Aconite—Monkshood, Wolfsbane.»—Symptoms: Numbness and tingling in the
mouth and throat, and afterwards in other portions of the body, with
sore throat, pain over the stomach, and vomiting; dimness of vision,
dizziness, great prostration, loss of sensibility, and delirium.
Treatment: An emetic and then brandy in tablespoonful doses, in ice
water, every half hour; spirits of ammonia in half-teaspoonful doses
in like manner; the cold douche over the head and chest, warmth to the
extremities, etc.


«Alkalis and Their Salts—Concentrated Lye, Wood-ash Lye, Caustic
Potash, Ammonia, Hartshorn.»—Symptoms: Caustic, acrid taste, excessive
heat in the throat, stomach, and intestines; vomiting of bloody matter,
cold sweats, hiccough, purging of bloody stools. Treatment: The
common vegetable acids. Common vinegar, being always at hand, is most
frequently used. The fixed oils, as castor, flaxseed, almond, and olive
oils form soaps with the alkalis and thus also destroy their caustic
effect. They should be given in large quantity.


«Antimony and Its Preparations—Tartar Emetic, Antimonial Wine, Kerme’s
Mineral.»—Symptoms: Faintness and nausea, soon followed by painful
and continued vomiting, severe diarrhea, constriction and burning
sensation in the throat, cramps, or spasmodic twitchings, with symptoms
of nervous derangement, and great prostration of strength, often
terminating in death. Treatment: If vomiting has not been produced, it
should be effected by tickling the fauces, and administering copious
draughts of warm water. Astringent infusions, such as of gall, oak
bark, Peruvian bark, act as antidotes, and should be given promptly.
Powdered yellow bark may be used until the infusion is prepared, or
very strong green tea should be given. To stop the vomiting, should it
continue, blister over the stomach by applying a cloth wet with strong
spirits of hartshorn, and then sprinkle on one-eighth to one-fourth of
a grain of morphia.


«Arsenic and Its Preparations—Ratsbane, Fowler’s Solution,
Etc.»—Symptoms: Generally within an hour pain and heat are felt in
the stomach, soon followed by vomiting, with a burning dryness of the
throat and great thirst; the matters vomited are generally colored
either green yellow, or brown, and are sometimes bloody. Diarrhea
or dysentery ensues, while the pulse becomes small and rapid, yet
irregular. Breathing much oppressed; difficulty in vomiting may occur,
while cramps, convulsions, or even paralysis often precede death,
which sometimes takes place within five or six hours after arsenic
has been taken. Treatment: Give a prompt emetic, and then hydrate of
peroxide of iron (recently prepared) in tablespoonful doses every 10 or
15 minutes until the urgent symptoms are relieved. In the absence of
this, or while it is being prepared, give large draughts of new milk
and raw eggs, limewater and oil, melted butter, magnesia in a large
quantity of water, or even if nothing else is at hand, flour and water,
always, however, giving an emetic the first thing, or causing vomiting
by tickling the throat with a feather, etc. The inflammation of the
stomach which follows must be treated by blisters, hot fomentations,
mucilaginous drinks, and the like.


«Belladonna, or Deadly Nightshade.»—Symptoms: Dryness of the mouth
and throat, great thirst, difficulty of swallowing, nausea, dimness,
confusion or loss of vision, great enlargement of the pupils,
dizziness, delirium, and coma. Treatment: There is no known antidote.
Give a prompt emetic and then reliance must be placed on continual
stimulation with brandy, whisky, etc., and to necessary artificial
respiration. Opium and its preparations, as morphia, laudanum, etc.,
are thought by some to {94} counteract the effect of belladonna, and
may be given in small and repeated doses, as also strong black coffee
and green tea.

Blue Vitriol, or Blue Stone.—See Copper.


«Cantharides (Spanish or Blistering Fly) and Modern Potato
Bug.»—Symptoms: Sickening odor of the breath, sour taste, with burning
heat in the throat, stomach, and bowels; frequent vomiting, often
bloody; copious bloody stools, great pain in the stomach, with burning
sensation in the bladder and difficulty to urinate followed with
terrible convulsions, delirium, and death. Treatment: Excite vomiting
by drinking plentifully of sweet oil or other wholesome oils, sugar and
water, milk, or slippery-elm tea; give injections of castor oil and
starch, or warm milk. The inflammatory symptoms which generally follow
must be treated by a physician. Camphorated oil or camphorated spirits
should be rubbed over the bowels, stomach, and thighs.

Caustic Potash.—See Alkalis under this title.


«Cobalt, or Fly Powder.»—Symptoms: Heat and pain in the throat and
stomach, violent retching and vomiting, cold and clammy skin, small
and feeble pulse, hurried and difficult breathing, diarrhea, etc.
Treatment: An emetic, followed by the free administration of milk,
eggs, wheat flour and water, and mucilaginous drinks.


«Copper—Blue Vitriol, Verdigris or Pickles or Food Cooked in Copper
Vessels.»—Symptoms: General inflammation of the alimentary canal,
suppression of urine; hiccough, a disagreeable metallic taste,
vomiting, violent colic, excessive thirst, sense of tightness of the
throat, anxiety; faintness, giddiness, and cramps and convulsions
generally precede death. Treatment: Large doses of simple syrup as warm
as can be swallowed, until the stomach rejects the amount it contains.
The whites of eggs and large quantities of milk. Hydrated peroxide of
iron.


«Creosote—Carbolic Acid.»—Symptoms: Burning pain, acrid, pungent taste,
thirst, vomiting, purging, etc. Treatment: An emetic and the free
administration of albumen, as the whites of eggs, or, in the absence of
these, milk, or flour and water.

Corrosive Sublimate.—See Mercury under this title.


«Deadly Nightshade.»—See Belladonna under this title.


«Foxglove, or Digitalis.»—Symptoms: Loss of strength, feeble,
fluttering pulse, faintness, nausea and vomiting and stupor; cold
perspiration, dilated pupils, sighing, irregular breathing, and
sometimes convulsions. Treatment: After vomiting, give brandy and
ammonia in frequently repeated doses, apply warmth to the extremities,
and if necessary resort to artificial respiration.


«Gases—Carbonic Acid, Chlorine, Cyanogen, Hydrosulphuric Acid,
Etc.»—Symptoms: Great drowsiness, difficult respiration, features
swollen, face blue as in strangulation. Treatment: Artificial
respiration, cold douche, friction with stimulating substances to the
surface of the body. Inhalation of steam containing preparations of
ammonia. Cupping from nape of neck. Internal use of chloroform.


«Hellebore, or Indian Poke.»—Symptoms: Violent vomiting and purging,
bloody stools, great anxiety, tremors, vertigo, fainting, sinking of
the pulse, cold sweats, and convulsions. Treatment: Excite speedy
vomiting by large draughts of warm water, molasses and water, tickling
the throat with the finger or a feather, and emetics; give oily and
mucilaginous drinks, oily purgatives, and clysters, acids, strong
coffee, camphor, and opium.


«Hemlock (Conium).»—Symptoms: Dryness of the throat, tremors,
dizziness, difficulty of swallowing, prostration, and faintness,
limbs powerless or paralyzed, pupils dilated, pulse rapid and feeble;
insensibility and convulsions sometimes precede death. Treatment:
Empty the stomach and give brandy in tablespoonful doses, with half
teaspoonful of spirits of ammonia, frequently repeated, and if much
pain and vomiting, give bromide of ammonium in 5-grain doses every half
hour. Artificial respiration may be required.


«Henbane, or Hyoscyamus.»—Symptoms: Muscular twitching, inability to
articulate plainly, dimness of vision and stupor; later, vomiting
and purging, small intermittent pulse, convulsive movement of the
extremities, and coma. Treatment: Similar to opium poisoning, which see.


«Iodine.»—Symptoms: Burning pain in throat, lacerating pain in the
stomach, fruitless effort to vomit, excessive tenderness of the
epigastrium. Treatment: {95} Free emesis, prompt administration of
starch, wheat flour, or arrowroot, beaten up in water.


«Lead—Acetate of Lead, Sugar of Lead, Dry White Lead, Red Lead,
Litharge, or Pickles, Wine, or Vinegar Sweetened by Lead.»—Symptoms:
When taken in large doses, a sweet but astringent metallic taste
exists, with constriction in the throat, pain in the region of
the stomach, painful, obstinate, and frequently bloody vomitings,
hiccough, convulsions or spasms, and death. When taken in small but
long-continued doses it produces colic, called painters’ colic; great
pain, obstinate constipation, and in extreme cases paralytic symptoms,
especially wrist-drop, with a blue line along the edge of the gums.
Treatment: To counteract the poison give alum in water 1 1/2 ounce
to a quart; or, better still, Epsom salts or Glauber’s salts, an ounce
of either in a quart of water; or dilute sulphuric acid, a teaspoonful
to a quart of water. If a large quantity of sugar of lead has been
recently taken, empty the stomach by an emetic of sulphate of zinc
(1 drachm in a quart of water), giving one-fourth to commence, and
repeating smaller doses until free vomiting is produced; castor oil
should be given to clear the bowels and injections of oil and starch
freely administered. If the body is cold use the warm bath.

Meadow Saffron.—See Belladonna.

Laudanum.—See Opium.


«Lobelia—Indian Poke.»—Symptoms: Excessive vomiting and purging,
pains in the bowels, contraction of the pupils, delirium, coma, and
convulsions. Treatment: Mustard over the stomach, and brandy and
ammonia.


«Mercury—Corrosive Sublimate» (bug poisons frequently contain this
poison), Red Precipitate, Chinese or English Vermilion.—Symptoms:
Acrid, metallic taste in the mouth, immediate constriction and burning
in the throat, with anxiety and tearing pains in both stomach and
bowels, sickness, and vomiting of various-colored fluids, and sometimes
bloody and profuse diarrhea, with difficulty and pain in urinating;
pulse quick, small, and hard; faint sensations, great debility,
difficult breathing, cramps, cold sweats, syncope, and convulsions.
Treatment: If vomiting does not already exist, emetics must be given
immediately—white of eggs in continuous large doses, and infusion
of catechu afterwards, sweet milk, mixtures of flour and water in
successive cupfuls, and to check excessive salivation put a half ounce
of chlorate of potash in a tumbler of water, and use freely as a
gargle, and swallow a tablespoonful every hour or two.

Morphine.—See Opium.


«Nitrate of Silver (Lunar Caustic).»—Symptoms: Intense pain and
vomiting, and purging of blood, mucus, and shreds of mucous membranes;
and if these stand they become dark. Treatment: Give freely of a
solution of common salt in water, which decomposes the poison, and
afterwards flaxseed or slippery-elm-bark tea, and after a while a dose
of castor oil.


«Opium and All Its Compounds—Morphine, Laudanum, Paregoric,
Etc.»—Symptoms: Giddiness, drowsiness, increasing to stupor, and
insensibility; pulse usually, at first, quick and irregular, and
breathing hurried, and afterwards pulse slow and feeble, and
respiration slow and noisy; the pupils are contracted and the eyes
and face congested, and later, as death approaches, the extremities
become cold, the surface is covered with cold, clammy perspiration,
and the sphincters relax. The effects of opium and its preparations,
in poisonous doses, appear in from a half to two hours from its
administration. Treatment: Empty the stomach immediately with an
emetic or with the stomach pump. Then give very strong coffee without
milk; put mustard plasters on the wrists and ankles; douche the head
and chest with cold water, and if the patient is cold and sinking,
give brandy, or whisky and ammonia. Belladonna is thought by many
to counteract the poisonous effects of opium, and may be given in
doses of half to a teaspoonful of the tincture, or 2 grains of the
extract, every 20 minutes, until some effect is observed in causing
the pupils to expand. Use warmth and friction, and if possible prevent
sleep for some hours, for which purpose the patient should be walked
about between two persons. Finally, as a last resort, use artificial
respiration, persistence in which will sometimes be rewarded with
success in apparently hopeless cases. Electricity should also be tried.

Cooley advises as follows: Vomiting must be induced as soon as
possible, by means of a strong emetic and tickling the fauces. If this
does not succeed, the stomach pump should be applied. The emetic may
consist of a half drachm of sulphate of zinc dissolved in a half pint
of warm water, of which one-third should {96} be taken at once, and the
remainder at the rate of a wineglassful every 5 or 10 minutes, until
vomiting commences. When there is much drowsiness or stupor 1 or 2
fluidrachms of tincture of capsicum will be found a useful addition; or
one of the formulas for emetic draughts may be taken instead. Infusion
of galls, cinchona, or oak bark should be freely administered before
the emetic, and water soured with vinegar and lemon juice, after the
stomach has been well cleared out. To rouse the system spirit and
water or strong coffee may be given. To keep the sufferer awake, rough
friction should be applied to the skin, an upright posture preserved,
and walking exercise enforced, if necessary. When this is ineffectual
cold water may be dashed over the chest, head, and spine, or mild
shocks of electricity may be had recourse to. To allow the sufferer to
sleep is to abandon him to destruction. Bleeding may be subsequently
necessary in plethoric habits, or in threatened congestion. The
costiveness that accompanies convalescence may be best met by aromatic
aperients; and the general tone of the habit restored by stimulating
tonics and the shower bath. The smallest fatal dose of opium in
the case of an adult within our recollection was 4 1/2 grains.
Children are much more susceptible to the action of opium than of
other medicines, and hence the dose of it for them must be diminished
considerably below that indicated by the common method of calculation
depending on the age.

Oxalic Acid.—See Acids.


«Phosphorus—Found in Lucifer Matches and Some Rat Poisons.»—Symptoms:
Symptoms of irritant poisoning; pain in the stomach and bowels;
vomiting, diarrhea; tenderness and tension of the abdomen. Treatment:
An emetic is to be promptly given; copious draughts containing magnesia
in suspension; mucilaginous drinks. General treatment for inflammatory
symptoms.


«Poisonous Mushrooms.»—Symptoms: Nausea, heat and pains in the stomach
and bowels; vomiting and purging, thirst, convulsions, and faintings;
pulse small and frequent, dilated pupil and stupor, cold sweats and
death. Treatment: The stomach and bowels are to be cleared by an emetic
of ground mustard or sulphate of zinc, followed by frequent doses of
Glauber’s or of Epsom salts, and large stimulating clysters. After
the poison is evacuated, either may be given with small quantities of
brandy and water. But if inflammatory symptoms manifest themselves such
stimuli should be avoided, and these symptoms appropriately treated.
A hypodermic injection of 1/62 grain of atropine is the latest
discovered antidote.

Potash.—See Alkali.

Prussic or Hydrocyanic Acid.—See Acids.


«Poison Ivy.»—Symptoms: Contact with, and with many persons the
near approach to, the vine gives rise to violent erysipelatous
inflammation, especially of the face and hands, attended with itching,
redness, burning, and swelling, with watery blisters. Treatment:
Give saline laxatives, and apply weak sugar of lead and laudanum, or
limewater and sweet oil, or bathe the parts freely with spirits of
niter. Anointing with oil will prevent poisoning from it.


«Saltpeter (Nitrate of Potash).»—Symptoms: Only poisonous in large
quantities, and then causes nausea, painful vomiting, purging,
convulsions, faintness, feeble pulse, cold feet and hands, with tearing
pains in stomach and bowels. Treatment: Treat as is directed for
arsenic, for there is no antidote known, and emptying the stomach and
bowels with mild drinks must be relied on.


«Savine.»—Symptoms: Sharp pains in the bowels, hot skin, rapid pulse,
violent vomiting and sometimes purging, with great prostration.
Treatment: Mustard and hot fomentations over the stomach and bowels
and ice allowed in the stomach only until the inflammation ceases. If
prostration comes on, food and stimulants must be given by injection.


«Stramonium, Thorn Apple, or Jamestown Weed.»—Symptoms: Vertigo,
headache, perversion of vision, slight delirium, sense of suffocation,
disposition to sleep, bowels relaxed, and all secretions augmented.
Treatment: Same as for belladonna.


«Snake Bites, Cure for.»—The Inspector of Police in the Bengal
Government reports that of 939 cases in which ammonia was freely
administered, 207 victims have recovered, and in the cured instances
the remedy was not administered till about 3 1/2 hours after the
attack; on the average of the fatal cases the corresponding duration of
time was 4 1/2 hours.


«Strychnine or Nux Vomica.»—The characteristic symptom is the special
influence exerted upon the nervous system, {97} which is manifested by
a general contraction of all the muscles of the body, with rigidity of
the spinal column. A profound calm soon succeeds, which is followed
by a new tetanic seizure, longer than the first, during which the
respiration is suspended. These symptoms then cease, the breathing
becomes easy, and there is stupor, followed by another general
contraction. In fatal cases these attacks are renewed, at intervals,
with increasing violence, until death ensues. One phenomenon which is
found only in poisonings by substances containing strychnine is that
touching any part of the body, or even threatening to do so, instantly
produces the tetanic spasm. Antidote: The stomach should be immediately
cleared by means of an emetic, tickling the fauces, etc. To counteract
the asphyxia from tetanus, etc., artificial respiration should be
practiced with diligence and care. “If the poison has been applied
externally, we ought immediately to cauterize the part, and apply a
ligature tightly above the wound. If the poison has been swallowed for
some time we should give a purgative clyster, and administer draughts
containing sulphuric ether or oil of turpentine, which in most cases
produce a salutary effect. Lastly, injections of chlorine and decoction
of tannin are of value.”

According to Ch. Gunther the greatest reliance may be placed on full
doses of opium, assisted by venesection, in cases of poisoning by
strychnia or nux vomica. His plan is to administer this drug in the
form of solution or mixture, in combination with a saline aperient.

Another treatment is to give, if obtainable, 1 ounce or more of bone
charcoal mixed with water, and follow with an active emetic; then to
give chloroform in teaspoonful doses, in flour and water or glycerine,
every few minutes while the spasms last, and afterwards brandy and
stimulants, and warmth of the extremities if necessary. Recoveries have
followed the free and prompt administration of oils or melted butter or
lard. In all cases empty the stomach if possible.

Sulphate of Zinc—White Vitriol.—See Zinc.


«Tin—Chloride of Tin, Solution of Tin (used by dyers), Oxide of Tin,
or Putty Powder.»—Symptoms: Vomiting, pains in the stomach, anxiety,
restlessness, frequent pulse, delirium, etc. Treatment: Empty the
stomach, and give whites of eggs in water, milk in large quantities, or
flour beaten up in water, with magnesia or chalk.

Tartar Emetic.—See Antimony.


«Tobacco.»—Symptoms: Vertigo, stupor, fainting, nausea, vomiting,
sudden nervous debility, cold sweat, tremors, and at times fatal
prostration. Treatment: After the stomach is empty apply mustard to the
abdomen and to the extremities, and give strong coffee, with brandy and
other stimulants, with warmth to the extremities.


«Zinc—Oxide of Zinc, Sulphate of Zinc, White Vitriol, Acetate of
Zinc.»—Symptoms: Violent vomiting, astringent taste, burning pain in
the stomach, pale countenance, cold extremities, dull eyes, fluttering
pulse. Death seldom ensues, in consequence of the emetic effect.
Treatment: The vomiting may be relieved by copious draughts of warm
water. Carbonate of soda, administered in solution, will decompose the
sulphate of zinc. Milk and albumen will also act as antidotes. General
principles to be observed in the subsequent treatment.


«Woorara.»—Symptoms: When taken into the stomach it is inert; when
absorbed through a wound it causes sudden stupor and insensibility,
frothing at the mouth, and speedy death. Treatment: Suck the wound
immediately, or cut it out and tie a cord around the limb between the
wound and the heart. Apply iodine, or iodide of potassium, and give it
internally, and try artificial respiration.


«ANTIFERMENTS.»

The following are tried and useful formulas:

I.—Sulphite (not sulphate) of lime, in fine powder, 1 part; marble
dust, ground oyster shells, or chalk, 7 parts; mix, and pack tight, so
as to exclude the air.

II.—Sulphite (not sulphate) of potassa, 1 part; new black-mustard seed
(ground in a pepper mill), 7 parts; mix, and pack so as to exclude air
and moisture perfectly. Dose (of either), 1/2 ounce to 1 1/2 ounces
per hogshead.

III.—Mustard seed, 14 pounds; cloves and capsicum, of each, 1 1/4
pounds; mix, and grind them to powder in a pepper mill. Dose, 1/4 to
1/2 pound per hogshead.

A portion of any one of these compounds added to cider, or the like,
soon allays fermentation, when excessive, or when it has been renewed.
The first formula is preferred when there is a tendency to acidity.
The second and third may be advantageously used for wine and beer, as
{98} well as for cider. The third compound greatly improves the flavor
and the apparent strength of the liquor, and also improves its keeping
qualities.


«Anchovy Preparations»


«Extemporaneous Anchovy Sauce.»—

 Anchovies, chopped small    3 or 4
 Butter                      3 ounces
 Water                       2 ounces
 Vinegar                     1 ounce
 Flour                       1 ounce

Mix, place over the fire, and stir until the mixture thickens. Then rub
through a coarse sieve.


«Essence of Anchovies.»—Remove the bones from 1 pound of anchovies,
reduce the remaining portions of the fish to a pulp in a Wedgewood
mortar, and pass through a clean hair or brass sieve. Boil the bones
and other portions which will not pass through the sieve in 1 pint of
water for 15 minutes, and strain. To the strained liquor add 2 1/2
ounces of salt and 2 1/2 ounces of flour, and the pulped anchovies.
Let the whole simmer over the fire for three or four minutes; remove
from the fire, and when the mixture has cooled a little add 4 ounces of
strong vinegar. The product (nearly 3 pounds) may be then bottled, and
the corks tied over with bladder, and either waxed or capsuled.


«Anchovy Paste.»—

 Anchovies            7     pounds
 Water                9     pints
 Salt                 1     pound
 Flour                1     pound
 Capsicum               1/4 ounce
 Grated lemon peel    1
 Mushroom catsup      4     ounces


«Anchovy Butter.»—

 Anchovies, boned and beaten to a paste   1 part
 Butter                                   2 parts
 Spice                                    enough

ANTIFOULING COMPOSITIONS: See Paints.

ANTIFREEZING SOLUTION: See Freezing Preventives.

ANTIFRICTION METAL: See Alloys, under Phosphor Bronze and Antifriction
Metals.


«ANTIQUES, TO PRESERVE.»

The best process for the preservation of antique metallic articles
consists in a retransformation of the metallic oxides into metal
by the electrolytic method. For this purpose a zinc strip is wound
around the article and the latter is laid in a soda-lye solution of 5
per cent, or suspended as the negative pole of a small battery in a
potassium cyanide solution of 2 per cent. Where this method does not
seem practicable it is advisable to edulcorate the objects in running
water, in which operation fragile or easily destroyed articles may be
protected by winding with gauze; next, they should be carefully dried,
first in the air, then with moderate heat, and finally protected from
further destruction by immersion in melted paraffine. A dry place is
required for storing the articles, since paraffine is not perfectly
impermeable to water in the shape of steam.

ANTIRUST COMPOSITIONS: See Rust Preventives.


«Antiseptics»


«Antiseptic Powders.»—

   I.—Borax                  3     ounces
       Dried alum             3     ounces
       Thymol                22     grains
       Eucalyptol            20     drops
       Menthol                1 1/2 grains
       Phenol                15     grains
       Oil of gaultheria      4     drops
       Carmine to give a pink tint.

  II.—Alum, powdered              50 parts by weight
       Borax, powdered             50 parts by weight
       Carbolic acid, crystals      5 parts by weight
       Oil of eucalyptus            5 parts by weight
       Oil of wintergreen           5 parts by weight
       Menthol                      5 parts by weight
       Thymol                       5 parts by weight

 III.—Boracic acid            10 ounces
       Sodium biborate          4 ounces
       Alum                     1 ounce
       Zinc sulphocarbolate     1 ounce
       Thymic acid              1 drachm.

Mix thoroughly. For an antiseptic wash dissolve 1 or 2 drachms in a
quart of warm water.

IV.—Ektogan is a new dusting powder which is a mixture of zinc
hydroxide and dioxide. It is equivalent to about 8 per cent of active
oxygen. It is a yellowish-white odorless and tasteless powder,
insoluble in water. It is used externally in wounds and in skin
diseases as a moist dressing mixed with citric, tartaric, or {99}
tannic acid, which causes the liberation of oxygen. With iodides it
liberates iodine. It is stated to be strongly antiseptic; it is used in
the form of a powder, a gauze, and a plaster.


«Antiseptic Pencils.»—

 I.—Tannin                q. s.
     Alcohol, q. s         1 part
     Ether, q. s           3 parts

Make into a mass, using as an excipient the alcohol and ether
previously mixed. Roll into pencils of the desired length and
thickness. Then coat with collodion, roll in pure silver leaf, and
finally coat with the following solution of gelatine and set aside to
dry:

 Gelatine    1 drachm
 Water       1 pint

Dissolve by the aid of a gentle heat.

When wanted for use, shave away a portion of the covering, dip the
pencil into tepid water and apply.

II.—Pencils for stopping bleeding are prepared by mixing:

 Purified alum     480     parts by weight
 Borax              24     parts by weight
 Oxide zinc          2 1/2 parts by weight
 Thymol              8     parts by weight
 Formalin            4     parts by weight

Melting carefully in a water bath, adding some perfume, and forming
mixture into pencils or cones.

A very convenient way to form into pencils where no mold need be made
is to take a small glass tube, roll a piece of oil paper around the
tube, remove the glass tube, crimp the paper tube thus formed on one
end and stand it on end or in a bottle, and pour the melted solution in
it and leave until cool, then remove the paper.


«Antiseptic Paste (Poison) for Organic Specimens.»—

 (_a_) Wheat flour                        16 ounces
       Beat to a batter with cold water   16 fluidounces
       Then pour into boiling water       32 fluidounces

 (_b_) Pulverized gum arabic               2 ounces
       Dissolve in boiling water           4 fluidounces

 (_c_) Pulverized alum                     2 ounces
       Dissolve in boiling water           4 fluidounces

 (_d_) Acetate of lead                     2 ounces
       Dissolve in boiling water           4 fluidounces

 (_e_) Corrosive sublimate                10 grains

Mix (_a_) and (_b_) while hot and continue to simmer; meanwhile stir in
(_c_) and mix thoroughly; then add (_d_). Stir briskly, and pour in the
dry corrosive sublimate. This paste is very poisonous. It is used for
anatomical work and for pasting organic tissue, labels on skeletons,
etc.


«Mouth Antiseptics.»—I.—Thymic acid, 25 centigrams (3 1/4 grains):
benzoic acid, 3 grams (45 grains); essence of peppermint, 75 centigrams
(10 minims); tincture of eucalyptus, 15 grams (4 1/2 drachms);
alcohol, 100 grams (3 ounces). Put sufficient in a glass of water to
render latter milky.

II.—Tannin, 12 grams (3 drachms); menthol, 8 grams (2 drachms); thymol,
1 gram (15 grains); tincture benzoin, 6 grams (90 minims); alcohol, 100
grams (3 ounces). Ten drops in a half-glassful of tepid water.

See also Dentifrices for Mouth Washes.


«Antiseptic Paste.»—Difficulty is often experienced in applying an
antiseptic dressing to moist surfaces, such as the lips after operation
for harelip. A paste for this purpose is described by its originator,
Socin. The composition is: Zinc oxide, 50 parts; zinc chloride, 5
parts; distilled water, 50 parts. The paste is applied to the wound,
previously dried by means of a brush or spatula, allowed to dry on, and
to remain in place five or six days. It may then be removed and a fresh
application made.

 Potassium bicarbonate         32.0 grams
 Sodium benzoate               32.0 grams
 Sodium borate                  8.0 grams
 Thymol                         0.2 gram
 Eucalyptol                     2.0 c. cent.
 Oil of peppermint              0.2 c. cent.
 Oil of wintergreen             0.4 c. cent.
 Tincture of cudbear           15.0 c. cent.
 Alcohol.                      60.0 c. cent.
 Glycerine                    250.0 c. cent.
 Water, enough to make      1,000.0 c. centimeters

Dissolve the salts in 650 cubic centimeters of water, and the thymol,
eucalyptol, and oils in the alcohol. Mix the alcoholic solution with
the glycerine and add the aqueous liquid, then the tincture of cudbear,
and lastly enough water to make 1,000 cubic centimeters. Allow to stand
a few days, then filter, adding a little magnesium carbonate to the
filter, if necessary, to get a brilliant filtrate.

This is from the Formulary of the Bournemouth Pharmaceutical
Association, as reported in the Canadian Pharmaceutical Association:
{100}


«Alkaline Glycerine of Thymol.»—

 Sodium bicarbonate    100 grains
 Sodium biborate       200 grains
 Sodium benzoate        80 grains
 Sodium salicylate      40 grains
 Menthol                 2 grains
 Pumilio pine oil        4 minims
 Wintergreen oil         2 minims
 Thymol                  4 grains
 Eucalyptol             12 minims


«Compound Solution of Thymol.»—

 A

 Benzoic acid       64 grains
 Borax              64 grains
 Boric acid        128 grains
 Distilled water     6 ounces

Dissolve.

 B

 Thymol                    20 grains
 Menthol                    6 grains
 Eucalyptol                 4 minims
 Oil of wintergreen         4 minims
 Oil of peppermint          2 minims
 Oil of thyme               1 minim
 Alcohol (90 per cent)      3 ounces

Dissolve.

Mix solutions A and B, make up to 20 fluidounces with distilled water,
and filter.


«Oil of Cinnamon as an Antiseptic.»—Oil of cinnamon in a 9-per-cent
emulsion, when used upon the hands, completely sterilizes them. A 7- to
8-per-cent emulsion is equal to a 1-per-cent solution of corrosive
sublimate and is certainly far more agreeable to use. Oil of thyme in
an 11-per-cent solution is equal to a 7-per-cent solution of cinnamon
oil.


«Green Coloring for Antiseptic Solutions.»—The safest coloring
substance for use in a preparation intended either for internal
administration or for application to the skin is the coloring matter
of leaves, chlorophyll. A tincture of spinach or of grass made by
macerating 2 ounces of the freshly cut leaves in a pint of alcohol for
five days will be found to give good results. If the pure coloring
substance is wanted the solvent should be evaporated off.


«Antiseptic Bromine Solution.»—

 Bromine            1 ounce
 Sodium chloride    8 ounces
 Water              8 pints

Dissolve the sodium chloride in the water and add the bromine. This
solution is to be diluted, when applied to broken skin surfaces, 1 part
with 15 parts of water.


«Substitute for Rubber Gloves.»—Murphy has found that a 4-, 6-, or
8-per-cent solution of gutta-percha in benzine, when applied to the
hands of the surgeon or the skin of the patient, will seal these
surfaces with an insoluble, impervious, and practically imperceptible
coating—a coating that will not allow the secretions of the skin to
escape, and will not admit secretions, blood, or pus into the crevices
of the skin. At the same time it does not impair the sense of touch nor
the pliability of the skin. A similar solution in acetone also meets
most of the requirements.

Murphy’s routine method of hand preparation is as follows: First, five
to seven minutes’ scrubbing with spirits of green soap and running
hot water; second, three minutes’ washing with alcohol; third, when
the hands are thoroughly dried, the gutta-percha solution is poured
over the hands and forearms, care being taken to fill in around and
beneath the nails. The hands must be kept exposed to the air with the
fingers separated until thoroughly dry. The coating is very thin and
can be recognized only by its glazed appearance. It will resist soap
and water, but is easily removed by washing in benzine. The hands can
be washed in bichloride or any of the antiseptic solutions without
interfering with the coating or affecting the skin. If the operations
be many, or prolonged, the coating wears away from the tips of the
fingers, but is easily renewed. For the remaining portion of the hands
one application is sufficient for a whole morning’s work.

The 4-per-cent solution of rubber wears better on the tips of the
fingers, in handling instruments, sponges, and tissues than the acetone
solution.

For the abdomen the acetone solution has the advantage, and it dries in
three to four seconds after its application, while the benzine solution
takes from three to four and a half minutes to make a dry, firm coating.

The preparation of the patient’s skin consists in five minutes’
scrubbing with spirits of green soap, washing with ether, followed by
alcohol. The surface is then swabbed over thoroughly with the benzine
or acetone solution.

The gutta-percha solution is prepared by dissolving the pure
gutta-percha chips in sterile benzine or acetone. These solutions do
not stand boiling, as this impairs the adhesiveness and elasticity of
the coating.

ANTISEPTICS FOR CAGED BIRDS: See Veterinary Formulas. {101}

APOLLINARIS: See Waters.

APPLE SYRUP: See Essences and Extracts.

AQUA FORTIS FOR BRIGHT LUSTER: See Castings.

AQUA FORTIS FOR THE TOUCHSTONE: See Gold.

AQUARIUM CEMENTS: See Adhesives.

AQUARIUM PUTTY: See Putty.

ARGENTAN: See Alloys.

ARMENIAN CEMENT: See Adhesives under Jewelers’ Cements.

ARMS, OIL FOR: See Lubricants.

ARNICA SALVE: See Ointments.

ARSENIC ALLOYS: See Alloys.

ASBESTOS CEMENT: See Adhesives.

ASBESTOS FABRIC: See Fireproofing.

ASPHALT AS AN INGREDIENT OF INDIA RUBBER: See Rubber.

ASPHALT IN PAINTING: See Paint.

ASPHALT VARNISHES: See Varnishes.

ASSAYING: See Gold.


«ASTHMA CURES.»—_Asthma Papers._—I.—Impregnate bibulous paper with the
following: Extract of stramonium, 10; potassium nitrate, 17; sugar, 20;
warm water, 200 parts. Dry.

II.—Blotting or gray filter paper, 120; potassium nitrate, 60; powdered
belladonna leaves, 5; powdered stramonium leaves, 5; powdered digitalis
leaves, 5; powdered lobelia, 5; myrrh, 10; olibanum, 10; phellandrium
fruits, 5 parts.

_Stramonium Candle._—Powdered stramonium leaves, 120; potassium
nitrate, 72; Peruvian balsam, 3; powdered sugar, 1; powdered
tragacanth, 4 parts. (Water, q. s. to mass; roll into suitable shapes
and dry.)

_Cleary’s Asthma Fumigating Powder._—Powdered stramonium, 15; powdered
belladonna leaves, 15; powdered opium, 2; potassium nitrate, 5.

_Asthma Fumigating Powders._—I.—Powdered stramonium leaves, 4; powdered
aniseed, 2; potassium nitrate, 2 parts.

II.—Powdered stramonium, 30; potassium nitrate, 5; powdered tea, 15;
powdered eucalyptus leaves, 15; powdered Indian hemp, 15; powdered
lobelia, 15; powdered aniseed, 2; distilled water, 45 parts. (All the
herbal ingredients in coarse powder; moisten with the water in which
the potassium nitrate has been previously dissolved, and dry.)

_Schiffmann’s Asthma Powder._—Potassium nitrate, 25; stramonium, 70;
belladonna leaves, 5 parts.

_Neumeyer’s Asthma Powder._—Potassium nitrate, 6 parts; sugar, 4;
stramonium, 6; powdered lobelia, 1.

_Fischer’s Asthma Powder._—Stramonium, 5 parts; potassium nitrate, 1;
powdered _Achillea millefolium_ leaves, 1.

_Vorlaender’s Asthma Powder._—Stramonium, 150; lobelia, 80; arnica
flowers, 80; potassium nitrate, 30; potassium iodide, 3; naphthol,
1,100 parts.


«Asthma Cigarettes.»—I.—Belladonna leaves, 5 parts; stramonium leaves,
5 parts; digitalis leaves, 5 parts; sage leaves, 5 parts; potassium
nitrate, 75 parts; tincture of benzoin, 40 parts; boiling water, 1,000
parts. Extract the leaves with the boiling water, filter, and in the
filtrate dissolve the salts. Immerse in the fluid sheets of bibulous
paper (Swedish filter paper will answer) and let remain for 24 hours.
At the end of this time remove, dry, cut into pieces about 2 3/4 by 4
inches, and roll into cigarettes.

II.—Sodium arseniate, 3 grains; extract of belladonna, 8 grains;
extract of stramonium, 8 grains. Dissolve the arseniate of sodium in a
small quantity of water, and rub it with the two extracts. Then soak up
the whole mixture with fine blotting paper, which is dried and cut into
24 equal parts. Each part is rolled up in a piece of cigarette paper.
Four or five inhalations are generally sufficient as a dose.

ASTHMA IN CANARIES: See Veterinary Formulas.

ASTRINGENT FOR HORSES: See Veterinary Formulas.

ATOMIC WEIGHTS: See Weights and Measures. {102}


«ATROPINE, ANTIDOTE TO.»

The usual physiological antidotes to the mydriatic alkaloids from
belladonna, stramonium, and hyoscyamus are morphine or eserine. Strong
tea, coffee, or brandy are usually administered as stimulants. Chief
reliance has usually been placed upon a stomach siphon and plenty of
water to wash out the contents of the stomach. The best antidote ever
reported was that of muscarine extracted by alcohol from the mushroom,
_Amanita muscaria_, but the difficulty of securing the same has
caused it to be overlooked and almost forgotten. Experiments with this
antidote showed it to be an almost perfect opposite of atropine in its
effects upon the animal body and that it neutralized poisonous doses.


«AQUA AROMATICA.»—

 Cort. cinnam. chinens      3 parts
 Flor. lavandulæ            5 parts
 Fol. Menth. pip.           5 parts
 Fol. rosmarini             5 parts
 Fol. salviæ               10 parts
 Fruct. fœniculi            3 parts
 Spiritus                  70 parts
 Aqua                     300 parts

Macerate the drugs in the mixed alcohol and water for 24 hours and
distill 200 parts.


«AQUA REGIA.»—Aqua regia consists in principle of 2 parts of
hydrochloric acid and 1 part of nitric acid. But this quantity varies
according to the shop where it is used for gilding or jewelry, and
sometimes the proportion is brought to 4 parts of hydrochloric acid to
1 of nitric acid.

AUTOMOBILES, ANTIFREEZING SOLUTION FOR: See Freezing Preventives.

AXLE GREASE: See Lubricants.

BABBITT METAL: See Alloys.


«Baking Powders»

I.—Tartaric acid, 3 parts; sodium bicarbonate, 1 part; starch, 0.75
part. Of this baking powder the required amount for 500 parts of flour
is about 20 parts for rich cake, and 15 parts for lean cake.

The substances employed must be dry, each having been previously
sifted by itself, so that no coarse pieces are present; the starch
is mixed with the sodium bicarbonate before the acid is added. When
large quantities are prepared the mixing is done by machine; smaller
quantities are best mixed together in a spacious mortar, and then
passed repeatedly through a sieve. Instead of starch, flour may be
used, but starch is preferable, because it interferes with the action
of the acid on the alkali.

II.—A formula proposed by Crampton, of the United States Department of
Agriculture, as the result of an investigation of the leading baking
powders of the market, is:

 Potassium bitartrate  2 parts
 Sodium bicarbonate    1 part
 Cornstarch            1 part

The addition of the starch serves the double purpose of a “filler” to
increase the weight of the powder and as a preservative. A mixture of
the chemicals alone does not keep well.

The stability of the preparation is increased by drying each ingredient
separately by exposure to a gentle heat, mixing at once, and
immediately placing in bottles or cans and excluding access of air and
consequently of moisture.

This is not a cheap powder; but it is the best that can be made, as to
healthfulness.

 III.—Sodium acid phosphate        20 parts
       Calcium acid phosphate       20 parts
       Sodium bicarbonate           25 parts
       Starch                       35 parts

Caution as to drying the ingredients and keeping them dry must be
observed. Even the mixing should be done in a room free from excessive
humidity.

IV.—Alum Baking Powder.—

 Ammonium alum, anhydrous   15 parts
 Sodium bicarbonate         18 parts
 Cornstarch, q. s. to make  100 parts.

Mix. The available carbon dioxide yielded is 7 1/2 per cent or 8 per
cent.

BALANCE SPRING: See Watchmakers’ Formulas.

BALDNESS: See Hair Preparations.

BALL BLUE: See Laundry Preparations.


«BALSAMS:»

See also Ointments. {103}


«Wild-Cherry Balsam.»—

 Wild-cherry bark             1 ounce
 Licorice root                1 ounce
 Ipecac                       1 ounce
 Bloodroot                    1 drachm
 Sassafras                    1 drachm
 Compound tincture of opium   1 fluidounce
 Fluid extract of cubeb       4 fluidrachms

Moisten the ground drugs with the fluid extract and tincture and enough
menstruum consisting of 25 per cent alcohol, and after six or eight
hours pack in a percolator, and pour on menstruum until percolation
begins. Then cork the orifice, cover the percolator, and allow to
macerate for 24 hours. Then percolate to 10 fluidounces, pouring back
the first portion of percolate until it comes through clear. In the
percolate dissolve 1/2 ounce of ammonium chloride and 1/2 pound of
sugar by cold percolation, adding simple syrup to make 16 fluidounces.
Finally add 1 fluidrachm of chloroform.


«Balsam Spray Solution.»—

 Oil of Scotch pine                    30 minims
 Oil of eucalyptus                      1 drachm
 Oil of cinnamon                       30 minims
 Menthol crystals                      q. s.
 Fluid extract of balm-of-Gilead buds   1 drachm
 Tincture of benzoin, enough to make    4 ounces

This formula can, of course, be modified to suit your requirements. The
oils of eucalyptus and cinnamon can be omitted and such quantities of
tincture of tolu and tincture of myrrh incorporated as may be desired.


«Birch Balsam.»—

                       Parts by
                        weight
 Alcohol                30,000
 Birch juice             3,000
 Glycerine               1,000
 Bergamot oil               90
 Vanillin                   10
 Geranium oil               50
 Water                  14,000

BALSAM STAINS, TO REMOVE: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.

BANANA BRONZING SOLUTION: See Plating.

BANANA SYRUP: See Essences and Extracts.

BANANA TRICK, THE BURNING: See Pyrotechnics.

BANJO SOUR: See Beverages under Lemonade.

BAR POLISHES: See Polishes.

BARBERS’-ITCH CURE: See Ointments.

BARBERS’ POWDER: See Cosmetics.

BAROMETERS (PAPER): See Hygrometers and Hygroscopes.

BATH, AIR: See Air Bath.

BATH METAL: See Alloys.

BATH POWDER: See Cosmetics.


«BATH TABLETS, EFFERVESCENT.»

 Tartaric acid           10 parts
 Sodium bicarbonate       9 parts
 Rice flour               6 parts

A few spoonfuls of this, when stirred into a bathtubful of water,
causes a copious liberation of carbon dioxide, which is refreshing.
This mixture can be made into tablets by compression, moistening, if
necessary, with alcohol. Water, of course, cannot be used in making
them, as its presence causes the decomposition referred to. Perfume
may be added to this powder, essential oils being a good form. Oil
of lavender would be a suitable addition, in the proportion of a
fluidrachm or more to the pound of powder. A better but more expensive
perfume may be obtained by mixing 1 part of oil of rose geranium with 6
parts of oil of lavender. A perfume still more desirable may be had by
adding a mixture of the oils from which Cologne water is made. For an
ordinary quality the following will suffice:

 Oil of lavender          4 fluidrachms
 Oil of rosemary          4 fluidrachms
 Oil of bergamot          1 fluidounce
 Oil of lemon             2 fluidounces
 Oil of clove            30 minims

For the first quality the following may be taken:

 Oil of neroli            6 fluidrachms
 Oil of rosemary          3 fluidrachms
 Oil of bergamot          3 fluidrachms
 Oil of cedrat            7 fluidrachms
 Oil of orange peel       7 fluidrachms

A fluidrachm or more of either of these mixtures may be used to the
pound, as in the case of lavender.

These mixtures may also be used in the preparation of a bath powder
{104} (non-effervescent) made by mixing equal parts of powdered soap
and powdered borax.

BATH-TUB ENAMEL: See Varnishes.

BATH-TUB PAINTS: See Paint.


«BATTERY FILLERS AND SOLUTIONS.»

I.—In the so-called dry batteries the exciting substance is a paste
instead of a fluid; moisture is necessary to cause the reaction. These
pastes are generally secret preparations. One of the earlier “dry”
batteries is that of Gassner. The apparatus consists of a containing
vessel of zinc, which forms the positive element; the negative one is a
cylinder of carbon, and the space between is filled with a paste, the
recipe for which is:

 Oxide of zinc            1 part
 Sal ammoniac             1 part
 Plaster                  3 parts
 Chloride of zinc         1 part
 Water                    2 parts

The usual form of chloride-of-silver battery consists of a sealed cell
containing a zinc electrode, the two being generally separated by some
form of porous septum. Around the platinum or silver electrode is cast
a quantity of silver chloride. This is melted and generally poured into
molds surrounding the metallic electrode. The exciting fluid is either
a solution of ammonium chloride, caustic potassa, or soda, or zinc
sulphate. As ordinarily constructed, these cells contain a paste of the
electrolyte, and are sealed up hermetically in glass or hard-rubber
receptacles.

II.—The following formula is said to yield a serviceable filling for
dry batteries:

 Charcoal                                  3 ounces
 Graphite                                  1 ounce
 Manganese dioxide                         3 ounces
 Calcium hydrate                           1 ounce
 Arsenic acid                              1 ounce
 Glucose mixed with dextrine or starch     1 ounce

Intimately mix, and then work into a paste of proper consistency with
a saturated solution of sodium and ammonium chlorides containing
one-tenth of its volume of a mercury-bichloride solution and an equal
volume of hydrochloric acid. Add the fluid gradually, and well work up
the mass.

 III.—Calcium chloride, crystallized   30 parts
       Calcium chloride, granulated     30 parts
       Ammonium sulphate                15 parts
       Zinc sulphate                    25 parts


«Solutions for Batteries.»—The almost exclusively employed solution
of sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride) presents the drawback that the
zinc rods, glasses, etc., after a short use, become covered with a
fine, yellow, very difficultly soluble, basic zinc salt, whereby the
generation of the electric current is impaired, and finally arrested
altogether. This evil may be remedied by an admixture of cane sugar.
For a battery of ordinary size about 20 to 25 grams of sugar, dissolved
in warm water, is sufficient per 50 to 60 grams of sal ammoniac. After
prolonged use only large crystals (of a zinc saccharate) form, which,
however, become attached only to the zinc rod in a few places, having
very little disadvantageous effect upon the action of the batteries and
being easy to remove, owing to their ready solubility.

BAUDOIN METAL: See Alloys.


«BAY RUM.»

 I.—Oil of bay         1 drachm
     Alcohol           18 ounces
     Water             18 ounces

Mix and filter through magnesia.

 II.—Bay-leaf otto             1/2 ounce
      Magnesium carbonate       1/2 ounce
      Jamaica rum             2     pints
      Alcohol                 3     pints
      Water                   3     pints

Triturate the otto with the magnesium carbonate, gradually adding
the other ingredients, previously mixed, and filter. If the rum
employed contains sufficient sugar or mucilaginous matter to cause any
stickiness to be felt on the skin, rectification will be necessary.

BEAR FAT: See Fats.

BEARING LUBRICANT: See Lubricants.

BEARING METAL: See Babbitt Metal, Bearing Metal, and Phosphor Bronze,
under Alloys.

BEDBUG DESTROYERS: See Insecticides.


«BEEF, IRON, AND WINE.»

 Extract of beef               512 grains
 Detannated sherry wine         26 ounces
 Alcohol                         4 ounces
 Citrate of iron and ammonia   256 grains
 Simple sirup                   12 ounces {105}
 Tincture of orange              2 ounces
 Tincture of cardamom co.        1 ounce
 Citric acid                    10 grains
 Water, enough to make          4 pints

Let stand 24 hours, agitate frequently, and filter. See that the orange
is fresh.

BEEF PEPTONOIDS: See Peptonoids.

BEEF PRESERVATIVES: See Foods.

BEEF TEA: See Beverages.

BEERS, ALCOHOL IN: See Alcohol.

BEER, GINGER, HOP-BITTER, SCOTCH, AND SPRUCE: See Beverages.


«BEER, RESTORATION OF SPOILED.»

I.—Powdered chalk is poured into the cask and allowed to remain in the
beer until completely precipitated.

II.—The liquor of boiled raisins may be poured into the beer, with the
result that the sour taste of the beer is disguised.

III.—A small quantity of a solution of potash will remove the sour
taste of beer. Too much potash must not be added; otherwise the stomach
will suffer. Beer thus restored will not keep long.

IV.—If the beer is not completely spoiled it may be restored by the
addition of coarsely powdered charcoal.

V.—If the addition of any of the above-mentioned substances should
affect the taste of the beer, a little powdered zingiber may be used to
advantage. Syrup or molasses may also be employed.


«BEES, FOUL BROOD IN.»

“Foul brood” is a contagious disease to which bees are subject. It is
caused by bacteria and its presence may be known by the bees becoming
languid. Dark, stringy, and elastic masses are found in the bottom
of the cells, while the caps are sunken or irregularly punctured.
Frequently the disease is said to be accompanied by a peculiar
offensive odor. Prompt removal of diseased colonies, their transfer to
clean and thoroughly disinfected hives, and feeding on antiseptically
treated honey or syrup are the means taken for the prevention and cure
of the disease. The antiseptics used are salicylic acid, carbolic acid,
or formic acid. Spraying the brood with any one of these remedies in
a solution and feeding with a honey or syrup medicated with them will
usually be all that is required by way of treatment. It is also said
that access to salt water is important for the health of bees.

BEETLE POWDER: See Insecticides.

BELL METAL: See Alloys.

BELLADONNA, ANTIDOTES TO: See Antidotes and Atropine.


«BELT PASTES FOR INCREASING ADHESION.»

 I.—Tallow                 50 parts
     Caster oil, crude      20 parts
     Fish oil               20 parts
     Colophony              10 parts

Melt on a moderate fire and stir until the mass cools.

II.—Melt 250 parts of gum elastic with 250 parts of oil of turpentine
in an iron, well-closed crucible at 122° F. (caution!) and mix well
with 200 parts of colophony. After further melting add 200 parts of
yellow wax and stir carefully. Melt in 750 parts of heated train oil,
250 parts of tallow, and to this add, with constant stirring, the
first mixture when the latter is still warm, and let cool slowly with
stirring. This grease is intended for cotton belts.

 III.—Gutta-percha        40 parts
       Rosin               10 parts
       Asphalt             15 parts
       Petroleum           60 parts

Heat in a glass vessel on the water bath for a few hours, until a
uniform solution is obtained. Let cool and add 15 parts of carbon
disulphide and allow the mixture to stand, shaking it frequently.

_Directions for Use._—The leather belts to be cemented should first
be roughened at the joints, and after the cement has been applied
they should be subjected to a strong pressure between warm rollers,
whereupon they will adhere together with much tenacity.


«Preservation of Belts.»—In a well-covered iron vessel heat at a
temperature of 50° C. (152° F.) 1 part by weight of caoutchouc, cut in
small pieces, with 1 part by weight of rectified turpentine. When the
caoutchouc is dissolved add 0.8 part of colophony, stir until this is
dissolved, and add to the mixture 0.1 part of yellow wax. Into another
vessel of suitable size pour 3 parts of fish oil, add 1 part of tallow,
and heat the mixture until the tallow is melted; then pour on the
contents of the first vessel, constantly stirring—an operation to be
continued until the matter is cooled and congealed. This grease is to
be rubbed {106} on the inside of the belts from time to time, while
they are in use. The belts run easily and do not slip. The grease may
also serve for improving old belts. For this purpose the grease should
be rubbed on both sides in a warm place. A first layer is allowed to
soak in, and another applied.


«To Make a Belt Pull.»—Hold a piece of tar soap on the inside of the
belt while it is running.

BELT CEMENT: See Adhesives.

BELT GLUE: See Adhesives.

BELT LUBRICANT: See Lubricants.

BÉNÉDICTINE: See Wines and Liquors.


«Benzine»


«Benzine, to Color Green.»—Probably the simplest and cheapest as well
as the best method of coloring benzine green is to dissolve in it
sufficient oil soluble aniline green of the desired tint to give the
required shade.


«Purification of Benzine.»—Ill-smelling benzine, mixed with about 1 to
2 per cent of its weight of free fatty acid, will dissolve therein.
One-fourth per cent of tannin is added and all is mixed well. Enough
potash or soda lye, or even lime milk, is added until the fatty acids
are saponified, and the tannic acid is neutralized, shaking repeatedly.
After a while the milky liquid separates into two layers, viz., a
salty, soapy, mud-sediment and clear, colorless, and almost odorless
benzine above. This benzine, filtered, may be employed for many
technical purposes, but gives an excellent, pure product upon a second
distillation.

Fatty acid from tallow, olive oil, or other fats may be used, but care
should be taken that they have as slight an odor of rancid fat as
possible. The so-called elaine or olein—more correctly oleic acid—of
the candle factories may likewise be employed, but it should first
be agitated with a 1/10-per-cent soda solution to get rid of the
bad-smelling fatty acids, especially the butyric acid.


«The Prevention of the Inflammability of Benzine.»—A mixture of
9 volumes tetrachloride and 1 volume of benzine is practicably
inflammable. The flame is soon extinguished by itself.


«Substitute for Benzine as a Cleansing Agent.»—

 I.—Chloroform                       75 parts
     Ether                            75 parts
     Alcohol                         600 parts
     Decoction of quillaya bark   22,500 parts

Mix.

 II.—Acetic ether, technically pure   10 parts
      Amyl acetate                     10 parts
      Ammonia water                    10 parts
      Alcohol dilute                   70 parts

Mix.

 III.—Acetone                   1 part
       Ammonia water             1 part
       Alcohol dilute            1 part

Mix.


«Deodorizing Benzine.»—

 I.—Benzine                    20 ounces
     Oil of lavender             1 fluidrachm
     Potassium dichromate        1 ounce
     Sulphuric acid              1 fluidounce
     Water                      20 fluidounces

Dissolve the dichromate in the water, add the acid and, when the
solution is cold, the benzine. Shake every hour during the day, allow
to stand all night, decant the benzine, wash with a pint of water and
again decant, then add the oil of lavender.

II.—First add to the benzine 1 to 2 per cent of oleic acid, which
dissolves. Then about a quarter of 1 per cent of tannin is incorporated
by shaking. A sufficient quantity of caustic potassa solution, or
milk of lime, to combine with the acids is then well shaken into the
mixture, and the whole allowed to stand. The benzine rises to the
top of the watery fluid, sufficiently deodorized and decolorized for
practical purposes.

III.—To 1,750 parts of water add 250 parts of sulphuric acid, and
when it has cooled down add 30 parts of potassium permanganate and
let dissolve. Add this solution to 4,500 parts of benzine, stir well
together, and set aside for 24 hours. Now decant the benzine and to it
add a solution of 7 1/2 parts of potassium permanganate and 15 parts
of sodium hydrate in 1,000 parts of water, and agitate the substances
well together. Let stand until the benzine separates, then draw off.

IV.—Dissolve 3 parts of litharge and 18 parts of sodium hydrate in 40
parts of water. Add this to 200–250 parts of benzine and agitate well
together for two minutes, then let settle and draw off the benzine.
Rinse the latter by agitating {107} it with plenty of clear water, let
settle, draw off the benzine, and, if necessary, repeat the operation.

BENZINE, CLEANING WITH: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods, under
Miscellaneous Methods.

BENZOIC ACID IN FOOD: See Food.

BENZOIN SOAP: See Soap.


«BENZOPARAL:»

A neutral, bland, oily preparation of benzoin, useful for applying
various antiseptics by the aid of an atomizer, nebulizer, or
vaporizer. Can be used plain or in combination with other easily
dissolved medicinals.

 Paraffine, liquid              16 ounces
 Gum benzoin                     1 ounce

Digest on a sand bath for a half hour and filter.


«Beverages»


«GINGER ALE AND GINGER BEER:»


«Old-Fashioned Ginger Beer.»—

 Lemons, large and sound        6     only
 Ginger, bruised                3     ounces
 Sugar                          6     cups
 Yeast, compressed                1/4 cake
 Boiling water                  4     gallons
 Water                                enough

Slice the lemons into a large earthenware vessel, removing the seed.
Add the ginger, sugar, and water. When the mixture has cooled to
lukewarmness, add the yeast, first diffused in a little water. Cover
the vessel with a piece of cheese cloth, and let the beer stand 24
hours. At the end of that time strain and bottle it. Cork securely, but
not so tightly that the bottles would break before the corks would fly
out, and keep in a cool place.


«Ginger Beer.»—Honey gives the beverage a peculiar softness and, from
not having fermented with yeast, is the less violent in its action when
opened. Ingredients: White sugar, 1/4 pound; honey, 1/4 pound;
bruised ginger, 5 ounces; juice of sufficient lemons to suit the taste;
water, 4 1/2 gallons. Boil the ginger in 3 quarts of the water for
half an hour, then add the ginger, lemon juice, and honey, with the
remainder of the water; then strain through a cloth; when cold, add the
quarter of the white of an egg and a teaspoonful of essence of lemon.
Let the whole stand for four days before bottling. This quantity will
make a hundred bottles.


«Ginger Beer without Yeast.»—

 Ginger, bruised                1 1/2 pounds
 Sugar                         20     pounds
 Lemons                         1     dozen
 Honey                          1     pound
 Water                                enough

Boil the ginger in 3 gallons of water for half an hour; add the sugar,
the lemons (bruised and sliced), the honey, and 17 gallons of water.
Strain and, after three or four days, bottle.


«Package Pop.»—

 Cream of tartar                3 ounces
 Ginger, bruised                1 ounce
 Sugar                         24 ounces
 Citric acid                    2 drachms

Put up in a package, and direct that it be shaken in 1 1/2 gallons of
boiling water, strained when cooled, fermented with 1 ounce of yeast,
and bottled.


«Ginger-Ale Extract.»—

 I.—Jamaica ginger, coarse powder             4 ounces
     Mace, powder                            1/2 ounce
     Canada snakeroot, coarse powder          60 grains
     Oil of lemon                              1 fluidrachm
     Alcohol                                  12 fluidounces
     Water                                     4 fluidounces
     Magnesium carbonate or purified talcum    1 av. ounce

Mix the first four ingredients, and make 16 fluidounces of tincture
with the alcohol and water, by percolation. Dissolve the oil of lemon
in a small quantity of alcohol, rub with magnesia or talcum, add
gradually with constant trituration the tincture, and filter. The
extract may be fortified by adding 4 avoirdupois ounces of powdered
grains of paradise to the ginger, etc., of the above before extraction
with alcohol and water.

 II.—Capsicum, coarse powder    8 ounces
      Water                      6 pints
      Essence of ginger          8 fluidounces
      Diluted alcohol            7 fluidounces
      Vanilla extract            2 fluidounces
      Oil of lemon              20 drops
      Caramel                    1 fluidounce

Boil the capsicum with water for three hours, occasionally replacing
the water lost by evaporation; filter, concentrate the filtrate on a
hot water bath to the consistency of a thin extract, add the remaining
ingredients, and filter. {108}

 III.—Jamaica ginger, ground        12 ounces
       Lemon peel, fresh, cut fine    2 ounces
       Capsicum, powder               1 ounce
       Calcined magnesia              1 ounce
       Alcohol                        sufficient
       Water                          sufficient

Extract the mixed ginger and capsicum by percolation so as to obtain
16 fluidounces of water, set the mixture aside for 24 hours, shaking
vigorously from time to time, then filter, and pass through the filter
enough of a mixture of 2 volumes of alcohol and 1 of water to make the
filtrate measure 32 fluidounces. In the latter macerate the lemon peel
for 7 days, and again filter.


«Ginger Beer.»—

 Brown sugar              2 pounds
 Boiling water            2 gallons
 Cream of tartar          1 ounce
 Bruised ginger root      2 ounces

Infuse the ginger in the boiling water, add the sugar and cream of
tartar; when lukewarm strain; then add half pint good yeast. Let it
stand all night, then bottle; one lemon and the white of an egg may be
added to fine it.


«Lemon Beer.»—

 Boiling water            1 gallon
 Lemon, sliced            1
 Ginger, bruised          1 ounce
 Yeast                    1 teacupful
 Sugar                    1 pound

Let it stand 12 to 20 hours, and it is ready to be bottled.


«Hop Beer.»—

 Water                    5 quarts
 Hops                     6 ounces

Boil 3 hours, strain the liquor, add:

 Water                    5 quarts
 Bruised ginger           4 ounces

and boil a little longer, strain, and add 4 pounds of sugar, and when
milk-warm, 1 pint of yeast. Let it ferment; in 24 hours it is ready for
bottling.


«Œnanthic Ether as a Flavoring for Ginger Ale.»—A fruity, vinous
bouquet and delightful flavor are produced by the presence of œnanthic
ether or brandy flavor in ginger ale. This ether throws off a rich,
pungent, vinous odor, and gives a smoothness very agreeable to any
liquor or beverage of which it forms a part. It is a favorite with
“brandy sophisticators.” Add a few drops of the ether (previously
dissolved in eight times its bulk of Cologne spirit) to the ginger-ale
syrup just before bottling.


«Soluble Extract of Ginger Ale.»—Of the following three formulas the
first is intended for soda-fountain use, the second is a “cheap”
extract for the bottlers who want a one-ounce-to-the-gallon extract,
and the third is a bottlers’ extract to be used in the proportion of
three ounces to a gallon of syrup. This latter is a most satisfactory
extract and has been sold with most creditable results, both as to
clearness of the finished ginger ale and delicacy of flavor.

It will be noted that in these formulas oleoresin of ginger is used in
addition to the powdered root. Those who do not mind the additional
expense might use one-fourth of the same quantity of volatile oil of
ginger instead. This should develop an excellent flavor, since the oil
is approximately sixteen times as strong as the oleoresin, and has the
additional advantage of being free from resinous extractive.

The following are the formulas:

I.—(To be used in the proportion of 4 ounces of extract to 1 gallon of
syrup.)

 Jamaica ginger, in fine powder   8 pounds
 Capsicum, in fine powder         6 ounces
 Alcohol, a sufficient quantity.

Mix the powders intimately, moisten them with a sufficient quantity of
alcohol, and set aside for 4 hours. Pack in a cylindrical percolator
and percolate with alcohol until 10 pints of percolate have resulted.
Place the percolate in a bottle of the capacity of 16 pints, and add to
it 2 fluidrachms of oleoresin of ginger; shake, add 2 1/2 pounds of
finely powdered pumice stone, and agitate thoroughly at intervals of
one-half hour for 12 hours. Then add 14 pints of water in quantities
of 1 pint at each addition, shaking briskly meanwhile. This part of
the operation is most important. Set the mixture aside for 24 hours,
agitating it strongly every hour or so during that period. Then take

 Oil of lemon               1 1/2 fluidounces
 Oil of rose (or geranium)  3     fluidrachms
 Oil of bergamot            2     fluidrachms {109}
 Oil of cinnamon            3     fluidrachms
 Magnesium carbonate        3     fluidounces

Rub the oils with the magnesia in a large mortar and add 9 ounces of
the clear portion of the ginger mixture to which have been previously
added 2 ounces of alcohol, and continue trituration, rinsing out
the mortar with the ginger mixture. Pass the ginger mixture through
a double filter and add through the filter the mixture of oils and
magnesia; finally pass enough water through the filter to make the
resulting product measure 24 pints, or 3 gallons. If the operator
should desire an extract of more or less pungency, he may obtain his
desired effect by increasing or decreasing the quantity of powdered
capsicum in the formula.

II.—(To be used in the proportion of 1 ounce to 1 gallon of syrup.)

 Ginger, in moderately fine powder   6     pounds
 Capsicum, in fine powder            2 1/2 pounds
 Alcohol, a sufficient quantity.

Mix, moisten the powder with 3 pints of alcohol, and set aside in
a suitable vessel for 4 hours. Then pack the powder firmly in a
cylindrical percolator, and percolate until 6 pints of extract are
obtained. Set this mixture aside and label Percolate No. 1, and
continue the percolation with 1 1/2 pints of alcohol mixed with
1 1/2 pints of water. Set the resultant tincture aside, and label
Percolate No. 2.

Take oleoresin ginger 5 fluid ounces and add to Percolate No. 1. Then
take:

 Oil of lemon             1 1/2 fluidounces
 Oil of cinnamon          1     fluidounce
 Oil of geranium            1/2 fluidounce
 Magnesium carbonate      8     ounces

Triturate the oils with the magnesia, add gradually Percolate No.
2, and set aside. Then place Percolate No. 1 in a large bottle, add
3 1/4 pounds of finely powdered pumice stone, and shake at intervals
of half an hour for six hours. This being completed, add the mixture of
oils, and later 10 pints of water, in quantities of 1/2 a pint at a
time, shaking vigorously after each solution. Let the mixture stand for
24 hours, shaking it at intervals, and then pass it through a double
filter. Finally add enough water through the filter to make the product
measure 24 pints, or 3 gallons.

III.—(To be used in proportion of 3 ounces to 1 gallon of syrup.)

 Ginger, in moderately fine powder      8 pounds
 Capsicum, in moderately fine powder    2 pounds
 Alcohol, q. s.

Mix, moisten with alcohol, and set aside as in the preceding formula;
then percolate with alcohol until 10 pints of extract are obtained. To
this add oleoresin of ginger 3 drachms, and place in a large bottle.
Add 2 1/2 pounds of powdered pumice stone, and shake as directed for
formula No. 1. Then add 14 pints of water, in quantities of 1 pint at
a time, shaking vigorously after each addition. Set the mixture aside
for 24 hours, shaking at intervals. Then take:

 Oil of lemon              1 1/2 fluidounces
 Oil of geranium             1/2 fluidounce
 Oil of cinnamon           3     fluidrachms
 Magnesia carbonate        3     ounces

Rub these in a mortar with the magnesia, and add 9 ounces of the clear
portion of the ginger mixture mixed with 2 ounces of alcohol, rubbing
the mixture until it becomes smooth. Prepare a double filter, and
filter the ginger mixture, adding through the filter the mixture of
oils and magnesia. Finally add enough water through the filter to make
the final product measure 24 pints, or 3 gallons.

If these formulas are properly manipulated the extracts should keep
for a reasonable length of time without a precipitate. If, however, a
precipitate occur after the extract has stood for a week, it should be
refiltered.


«LEMONADES:»


«Lemonade Preparations for the Sick.»—I.—Strawberry Lemonade: Citric
acid, 6 parts; water, 100 parts; sugar, 450 parts; strawberry syrup,
600 parts; cherry syrup, 300 parts; claret, 450 parts; aromatic
tincture, ad lib.

II.—Lemonade Powder: Sodium bicarbonate, 65; tartaric acid, 60; sugar,
125; lemon oil, 12 drops.

III.—Lemonade juice: Sugar syrup, 200; tartaric acid, 15; distilled
water, 100; lemon oil, 3; tincture of vanilla, 6 drops.

IV.—Lemonade Lozenges: Tartaric acid, 10; sugar, 30; gum arabic, 2;
powdered starch, 0.5; lemon oil, 6 drops; tincture of vanilla, 25
drops; and sufficient diluted spirit of wine so that 30 lozenges can be
made with it.


«Lemonade for Diabetics.»—The following is said to be useful for
assuaging the thirst of diabetics: {110}

 Citric acid                1 part
 Glycerine                 50 parts
 Cognac                    50 parts
 Distilled water          500 parts


«Hot Lemonade.»—Take 2 large, fresh lemons, and wash them clean with
cold water. Roll them until soft; then divide each into halves, and
use a lemon-squeezer or reamer to express the juice into a small
pitcher. Remove all the seeds from the juice, to which add 4 or
more tablespoonfuls of white sugar, according to taste. A pint of
boiling water is now added, and the mixture stirred until the sugar is
dissolved. The beverage is very effective in producing perspiration,
and should be drunk while hot. The same formula may be used for making
cold lemonade, by substituting ice water for the hot water, and adding
a piece of lemon peel. If desired, a weaker lemonade may be made by
using more water.


«Lemonades, Lemon and Sour Drinks for Soda-Water Fountains.»—Plain
Lemonade.—Juice of 1 lemon; pulverized sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls; filtered
water, sufficient; shaved ice, sufficient.

Mix and shake well. Garnish with fruit, and serve with both spoon and
straws.

Huyler’s Lemonade.—Juice of 1 lemon; simple syrup, 2 ounces; soda
water, sufficient. Dress with sliced pineapple, and serve with straws.
In mixing, do not shake, but stir with a spoon.

Pineapple Lemonade.—Juice of 1 lemon; pineapple syrup, 2 ounces; soda
water, sufficient. Dress with fruit. Serve with straws.

Seltzer Lemonade.—Juice of 1 lemon; pulverized sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls.
Fill with seltzer. Dress with sliced lemon.

Apollinaris Lemonade.—The same as seltzer, substituting apollinaris
water for seltzer.

Limeade.—Juice of 1 lime; pulverized sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls; water,
sufficient. Where fresh limes are not obtainable, use bottled lime
juice.

Orangeade.—Juice of 1 orange; pulverized sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls; water,
sufficient; shaved ice, sufficient. Dress with sliced orange and
cherries. Serve with straws.

Seltzer and Lemon.—Juice of 1 lemon; seltzer, sufficient. Serve in a
small glass.

Claret Lemonade.—Juice of 1 lemon; pulverized sugar, 3 teaspoonfuls.
Make lemonade, pour into a glass containing shaved ice until the glass
lacks about one inch of being full. Pour in sufficient claret to fill
the glass. Dress with cherries and sliced pineapple.

Claret Punch.—Juice of 1 lemon; pulverized sugar, 3 teaspoonfuls;
claret wine, 2 ounces; shaved ice, sufficient. Serve in small glass.
Dress with sliced lemon, and fruit in season. Bright red cherries and
plums make attractive garnishings.

Raspberry Lemonade.—I.—Juice of 1 lemon; 3 teaspoonfuls powdered sugar;
1 tablespoonful raspberry juice; shaved ice; plain water; shake.

II.—Juice of 1 lemon; 2 teaspoonfuls powdered sugar; 1/2 ounce
raspberry syrup; shaved ice; water; shake.

Banjo Sour.—Pare a lemon, cut it in two, add a large tablespoonful of
sugar, then thoroughly muddle it; add the white of an egg; an ounce of
sloe gin; 3 or 4 dashes of abricotine; shake well; strain into a goblet
or fizz glass, and fill balance with soda; decorate with a slice of
pineapple and cherry.

Orgeat Punch.—Orgeat syrup, 12 drachms; brandy, 1 ounce; juice of 1
lemon.

Granola.—Orange syrup, 1 ounce; grape syrup, 1 ounce; juice of 1/2
lemon; shaved ice, q. s. Serve with straws. Dress with sliced lemon or
pineapple.

American Lemonade.—One ounce orange syrup; 1 ounce lemon syrup; 1
teaspoonful powdered sugar; 1 dash acid-phosphate solution; 1/3 glass
shaved ice. Fill with coarse stream. Add slice of orange, and run two
straws through it.

Old-Fashioned Lemonade.—Put in a freezer and freeze almost hard, then
add the fruits, and freeze very hard. Serve in a silver sherbet cup.

“Ping Pong” Frappé.—Grape juice, unfermented, 1 quart; port wine
(California), 1/2 pint; lemon syrup, 12 ounces; pineapple syrup, 2
ounces; orange syrup, 4 ounces; Bénédictine cordial, 4 ounces; sugar, 1
pound.

Dissolve sugar in grape juice and put in wine; add the syrup and
cordial; serve from a punch bowl, with ladle, into 12-ounce narrow
lemonade glass and fill with solid stream; garnish with slice of orange
and pineapple, and serve with straw.

Orange Frappé.—Glass half full of fine ice; tablespoonful powdered
sugar; 1/2 ounce orange syrup; 2 dashes lemon syrup; dash prepared
raspberry; 1/4 ounce {111} acid-phosphate solution. Fill with soda
and stir well; strain into a mineral glass and serve.


«Hot Lemonades.»—

 I.—Lemon essence                   4 fluidrachms
     Solution of citric acid         1 fluidounce
     Syrup, enough to make          32 fluidounces

In serving, draw 2 1/2 fluidounces of the syrup into an 8-ounce mug,
fill with hot water, and serve with a spoon.

 II.—Lemon                          1
      Alcohol                        1 fluidounce
      Solution of citric acid        2 fluidrachms
      Sugar                         20 av. ounces
      Water                         20 fluidounces
      White of                       1 egg

Grate the peel of the lemon, macerate with the alcohol for a day;
express; also express the lemon, mix the two, add the sugar and water,
dissolve by agitation, and add the solution of citric acid and the
white of egg, the latter first beaten to a froth. Serve like the
preceding.


«Egg Lemonade.»—I.—Break 1 egg into a soda glass, add 1 1/4 ounces
lemon syrup, a drachm of lemon juice, and a little shaved ice; then
draw carbonated water to fill the glass, stirring well.

 II.—Shaved ice                   1/2 tumblerful
      Powdered sugar                 4 tablespoonfuls
      Juice of                       1 lemon
      Yolk of                        1 egg

Shake well, and add carbonated water to fill the glass.


«HOT SODA-WATER DRINKS:»


«Chocolate.»—I.—This may be prepared in two ways, from the powdered
cocoa or from a syrup. To prepare the cocoa for use, dry mix with an
equal quantity of pulverized sugar and use a heaping teaspoonful to a
mug. To prepare a syrup, take 12 ounces of cocoa, 5 pints of water, and
4 pounds of sugar. Reduce the cocoa to a smooth paste with a little
warm water. Put on the fire. When the water becomes hot add the paste,
and then allow to boil for 3 or 4 minutes; remove from fire and add the
sugar; stir carefully while heating, to prevent scorching; when cold
add 3 drachms of vanilla; 1/2 to 3/4 ounce will suffice for a cup
of chocolate; top off with whipped cream.

 II.—Baker’s fountain chocolate     1 pound
      Syrup                          1 gallon
      Extract vanilla                enough

Shave the chocolate into a gallon porcelained evaporating dish and melt
with a gentle heat, stirring with a thin-bladed spatula. When melted
remove from the fire and add 1 ounce of cold water, mixing well. Add
gradually 1 gallon of hot syrup and strain; flavor to suit. Use 1 ounce
to a mug.

III.—Hot Egg Chocolate.—Break a fresh egg into a soda tumbler; add
1 1/2 ounces chocolate syrup and 1 ounce cream; shake thoroughly, add
hot soda slowly into the shaker, stirring meanwhile; strain carefully
into mug; top off with whipped cream and serve.

IV.—Hot Chocolate and Milk.—

 Chocolate syrup      1 ounce
 Hot milk             4 ounces

Stir well, fill mug with hot soda and serve.

V.—Hot Egg Chocolate.—One egg, 1 1/4 ounces chocolate syrup, 1
teaspoonful sweet cream; shake, strain, add 1 cup hot soda, and 1
tablespoonful whipped cream.


«Coffee.»—I.—Make an extract by macerating 1 pound of the best Mocha
and Java with 8 ounces of water for 20 minutes, then add hot water
enough to percolate 1 pint. One or 2 drachms of this extract will make
a delicious cup of coffee. Serve either with or without cream, and let
customer sweeten to taste.

II.—Pack 1/2 pound of pulverized coffee in a percolator. Percolate
with 2 quarts of boiling water, letting it run through twice. Add to
this 2 quarts of milk; keep hot in an urn and draw as a finished drink.
Add a lump of sugar and top off with whipped cream.

III.—Coffee syrup may be made by adding boiling water from the
apparatus to 1 pound of coffee, placed in a suitable filter or
coffeepot, until 2 quarts of the infusion are obtained. Add to this 3
pounds of sugar. In dispensing, first put sufficient cream in the cup,
add the coffee, then sweeten, if necessary, and mix with the stream
from the draught tube.

 IV.—Mocha coffee (ground fine)   4 ounces
      Java coffee (ground fine)    4 ounces
      Granulated sugar             6 pounds
      Hot water                    q. s.

Percolate the coffee with hot water until the percolate measures 72
ounces. Dissolve the sugar in the percolate by agitation without heat
and strain.


«Hot Egg Orangeade.»—One egg; juice {112} of 1/2 orange; 2
teaspoonfuls powdered sugar. Shake, strain, add 1 cup of hot water.
Stir, serve with nutmeg.


«Hot Egg Bouillon.»—One-half ounce liquid extract beef; 1 egg; salt and
pepper; hot water to fill 8-ounce mug. Stir extract, egg, and seasoning
together; add water, still stirring; strain and serve.


«Hot Celery Punch.»—One-quarter ounce of clam juice; 1/4 ounce beef
extract; 1 ounce of cream; 4 dashes of celery essence. Stir while
adding hot water, and serve with spices.


«Chicken Bouillon.»—Two ounces concentrated chicken; 1/2 ounce sweet
cream and spice. Stir while adding hot water.


«Ginger.»—

 Fluid extract of ginger             2 1/2 ounces
 Sugar                              40     ounces
 Water, to                           2 1/2 pints

Take 10 ounces of the sugar and mix with the fluid extract of ginger;
heat on the water bath until the alcohol is evaporated. Then mix with
20 ounces of water and shake till dissolved. Filter and add the balance
of the water and the sugar. Dissolve by agitation.


«Cocoa Syrup.»—

 I.—Cocoa, light, soluble            4 ounces
     Granulated sugar                 2 pounds
     Boiling hot water                1 quart
     Extract vanilla                  1 ounce

Dissolve the cocoa in the hot water, by stirring, then add the sugar
and dissolve. Strain, and when cold add the vanilla extract.

 II.—Cocoa syrup                     2 ounces
      Cream                           1 ounce

Turn on the hot water stream and stir while filling. Top off with
whipped cream.


«Hot Soda Toddy.»—

 Lemon juice                     2 fluidrachms
 Lemon syrup                     1 fluidounce
 Aromatic bitters                1 fluidrachm
 Hot water, enough to fill an 8-ounce mug.

Sprinkle with nutmeg or cinnamon.


«Hot Orange Phosphate.»—

 Orange syrup                     1 fluidounce
 Solution of acid phosphate       1 fluidrachm
 Hot water, enough to fill an 8-ounce mug.

It is prepared more acceptably by mixing the juice of half an orange
with acid phosphate, sugar, and hot water.


«Pepsin Phosphate.»—One teaspoonful of liquid pepsin; 2 dashes of acid
phosphate; 1 ounce of lemon syrup; 1 cup hot water.


«Cream Beef Tea.»—Use 1 teaspoonful of liquid beef extract in a mug of
hot water, season with salt and pepper, then stir in a tablespoonful of
rich cream. Put a teaspoonful of whipped cream on top and serve with
flakes.


«Cherry Phosphate.»—Cherry-phosphate syrup, 1 1/2 ounces; hot water
to make 8 ounces.

Cherry-phosphate syrup is made as follows: Cherry juice, 3 pints;
sugar, 6 pounds; water, 1 pint; acid phosphate, 4 ounces. Bring to a
boil, and when cool add the acid phosphate.


«Celery Clam Punch.»—Clam juice, 2 drachms; beef extract, 1 drachm;
cream, 1 ounce; essence of celery, 5 drops; hot water to make 8 ounces.


«Claret Punch.»—Claret wine, 2 ounces; sugar, 3 teaspoonfuls; juice of
1/2 lemon; hot water to make 8 ounces.


«Ginger.»—Extract of ginger, 2 drachms; sugar, 2 drachms; lemon juice,
2 dashes; hot water to make 8 ounces.


«Lemon Juice, Plain.»—Fresh lemon juice, 2 1/2 drachms; lemon syrup,
1 ounce; hot water, q. s. to make 8 ounces.


«Lime Juice.»—Lime juice, 3/4 drachm; lemon syrup, 1 ounce; hot water
to make 8 ounces. Mix. Eberle remarks that lemon juice or lime juice
enters into many combinations. In plain soda it may be combined with
ginger and other flavors, as, for instance, chocolate and coffee.


«Lemonade.»—Juice of 1 lemon; powdered sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls; hot water
to make 8 ounces. A small piece of fresh lemon peel twisted over the
cup lends an added flavor.


«Hot Malt.»—Extract of malt, 1 ounce; cherry syrup, 1 ounce; hot water,
sufficient to make 8 ounces. Mix.


«Malted Milk.»—Horlick’s malted milk, 2 tablespoonfuls; hot water,
quantity sufficient to make 8 ounces; flavoring to suit. Mix. Essence
of coffee, chocolate, etc., and many of the fruit syrups go well with
malted milk.


«Hot Malted Milk Coffee (or Chocolate).»—Malted milk, 2 teaspoonfuls;
coffee (or chocolate) syrup, 1 ounce; hot water, quantity sufficient to
make 8 ounces.


«Hot Beef Tea.»—I.—Best beef extract, 1 tablespoonful; sweet cream,
1 ounce; hot {113} water, 7 ounces; pepper, salt, etc., quantity
sufficient. Mix.

II.—Extract beef bouillon, 1 teaspoonful; extract aromatic soup herbs
(see Condiments), 10 drops; hot soda, 1 cupful. Mix.

 III.—Extract of beef                 1 teaspoonful
       Hot water                       q. s.
       Pepper, salt, and celery salt.

Mix.


«Hot Bouillon.»—

 Beef extract                   1 ounce
 Hot water, q. s. to make       8 ounces
 Pepper, salt, etc.             q. s.

Mix.


«Clam Bouillon.»—

 I.—Clam juice                      12 drachms
     Cream                            2 ounces
     Hot water, q. s. to make         8 ounces

Mix.

 II.—Extract clam bouillon           2 ounces
      Prepared milk                   2 drachms
      Extract of aromatic soup herbs  5 drops
      Extract white pepper            5 drops
      Hot soda                        1 cupful

Mix.

III.—Clam juice may be served with hot water, salt and pepper added.
Adding butter makes this bouillon a broth.

It may also be served with milk or cream, lemon juice, tomato catsup,
etc. Hot oyster juice may be served in the same way.


«Hot Tea.»—

  I.—Tea syrup                       sufficient
      Hot water, q. s. to make        1 cupful

 II.—Loaf sugar                      4 cubes
      Extract of Oolong tea, about    1 dessertsp’ful
      Prepared milk, about            1 dessertsp’ful
      Hot soda                        1 cupful
      Whipped cream                   1 tablespoonful

Mix the tea extract, sugar, and prepared milk, pour on water, and
dissolve. Top off with whipped cream.


«Hot Egg Drinks.»—I.—One-half to 1 ounce liquid extract of beef, 1 egg,
salt and pepper to season, hot water to fill an 8-ounce mug. Stir the
extract, egg, and seasoning together with a spoon, to get well mixed,
add the water, stirring briskly meanwhile; then strain, and serve.
Or shake the egg and extract in a shaker, add the water, and mix by
pouring back and forth several times, from shaker to mug.

II.—Hot Egg Chocolate.—One to 1 1/2 ounces chocolate syrup, 1 egg,
1/2 ounce cream, hot water sufficient to fill an 8-ounce mug.

Mix the syrup, egg, and cream together in an egg-shaker; shake as in
making cold drinks; add the hot water, and mix all by pouring back and
forth several times, from shaker to mug. Or, prepare by beating the egg
with a spoon, add the syrup and cream, mix all quickly with the spoon,
and add hot water, stirring constantly, and strain.

III.—Hot Egg Coffee.—One egg, 1 dessertspoonful extract of coffee, 1
teaspoonful sweet cream, 1 ounce syrup. Shake well, strain, and add 1
cupful hot water and top with whipped cream.

IV.—Hot Egg Lemonade.—One egg, juice of 1 lemon, 3 teaspoonfuls
powdered sugar. Beat the egg with lemon juice and sugar thoroughly. Mix
while adding the water. Serve grated nutmeg and cinnamon. The amount of
lemon juice and sugar may be varied to suit different tastes.

V.—Hot Egg Milk.—Two teaspoonfuls sugar, 1 ounce cream, 1 egg, hot
milk to fill an 8-ounce mug. Prepare as in hot egg chocolate, top with
whipped cream, and sprinkle with nutmeg. If there are no facilities for
keeping hot milk, use about 2 ounces of cream, and fill mug with hot
water.

VI.—Hot Egg Nogg.—Plain syrup, 3/4 ounce; brandy, 1/2 ounce;
Angostura bitters, 3 drops; 1 egg. Put in shaker and beat well. Strain
in 10-ounce mug, and fill with hot milk; finish with whipped cream and
nutmeg.

VII.—Hot Egg Phosphate.—Two ounces lemon syrup, 1 egg, 1/2 ounce
solution of acid phosphate. Mix in a glass, and shake together
thoroughly; pour into another glass, heated previously, and slowly draw
full of hot water; season with nutmeg.

VIII.—Hot Egg Phosphate.—Break fresh egg into shaker and add 1/2
ounce pineapple syrup, 1/2 ounce orange syrup, 1 dash phosphate.
Shake, without ice, and pour into bouillon cup. Draw cupful of hot
water, sprinkle a touch of cinnamon, and serve with wafers.


«FANCY SODA DRINKS:»


«Coffee Cream Soda.»—Serve in a 12-ounce glass. Draw 1 1/2 ounces of
syrup and 1 ounce of cream. Into the shaker draw 8 ounces of carbonated
water, pour into the glass sufficient to fill it to within {114} 1 inch
of the top; pour from glass to shaker and back, once or twice, to mix
thoroughly; give the drink a rich, creamy appearance, and make it cream
sufficiently to fill the glass.


«Iced Coffee.»—Serve in a 10-ounce glass. Draw 1 ounce into glass, fill
nearly full with ice-cold milk, and mix by stirring.


«Egg Malted Milk Coffee.»—Prepare same as malted milk coffee, with the
exception of adding the egg before shaking, and top off with a little
nutmeg, if desired. This drink is sometimes called coffee light lunch.


«Coffee Frappé.»—Serve in a 12-ounce glass. Coffee syrup, 1 1/2
ounces; white of 1 egg; 1 to 1 1/2 ounces of pure, rich, sweet cream;
a small portion of fine shaved ice; shake thoroughly to beat the white
of the egg light, and then remove the glass, leaving the contents in
the shaker. Now fill the shaker two-thirds full, using the fine stream
only. Draw as quickly as possible that the drink may be nice and light.
Now pour into glass and back, and then strain into a clean glass.
Serve at once, and without straws. This should be drunk at once, else
it will settle, and lose its lightness and richness.


«Coffee Nogg.»—

 Coffee syrup                   2 ounces
 Brandy                         4 drachms
 Cream                          2 ounces
 One egg.


«Coffee Cocktail.»—

 Coffee syrup                   1 ounce
 One egg.
 Port wine                      1 ounce
 Brandy                         2 drachms

Shake, strain into a small glass, and add soda. Mace on top.


«Chocolate and Milk.»—

 Chocolate syrup                2 ounces
 Sweet milk, sufficient.

Fill a glass half full of shaved ice, put in the syrup, and add
milk until the glass is almost full. Shake well, and serve without
straining. Put whipped cream on top and serve with straws.


«Chocolate Frappé.»—

 Frozen whipped cream, sufficient.
 Shaved ice, sufficient.

Fill a glass half full of frozen whipped cream, fill with shaved ice
nearly to the top, and pour in chocolate syrup. Other syrups may be
used, if desired.


«Royal Frappé.»—This drink consists of 3 parts black coffee and 1 part
of brandy, frozen in a cooler, and served while in a semifrozen state.


«Mint Julep.»—One-half tumbler shaved ice, teaspoonful powdered sugar,
dash lemon juice, 2 or 3 sprigs of fresh mint. Crush the mint against
side of the glass to get the flavor. Then add claret syrup, 1/2
ounce; raspberry syrup, 1 1/2 ounces; and draw carbonated water
nearly to fill glass. Insert bunch of mint and fill glass, leaving
full of shaved ice. Serve with straws, and decorate with fruits of the
season.


«Grape Glacé.»—Beat thoroughly the whites of 4 eggs and stir in 1 pound
of powdered sugar, then add 1 pint grape juice, 1 pint water, and 1
pound more of powdered sugar. Stir well until sugar is dissolved, and
serve from a pitcher or glass dish, with ladle.


«“Golf Goblet.”»—Serve in a 12-ounce glass; fill two-thirds full of
cracked ice, add 1/2 ounce pineapple juice, 1 teaspoonful lemon
juice, 1 teaspoonful raspberry vinegar. Put spoon in glass, and fill
to within one-half inch of top with carbonated water; add shaved ice,
heaping full. Put strawberry or cherry on top, and stick slice of
orange down side of glass. Serve with spoon and straws.


«Goldenade.»—Shaved ice, 1/2 tumblerful; powdered sugar; juice of 1
lemon; yolk of 1 egg. Shake well, add soda water from large stream,
turn from tumbler to shaker, and vice versa, several times, and strain
through julep strainer into a 12-ounce tumbler.


«Lunar Blend.»—Take two mixing glasses, break an egg, putting the
yolk in one glass, the white into the other; into the glass with the
yolk add 1 ounce cherry syrup and some cracked ice; shake, add small
quantity soda, and strain into a 12-ounce glass. Into the other mixing
glass add 1 ounce plain sweet cream, and beat with bar spoons until
well whipped; add 1/2 ounce lemon syrup, then transfer it into the
shaker, and add soda from fine stream only, and float on top of the one
containing the yolk and sherry. Serve with two straws.


«Egg Chocolate.»—

 Chocolate syrup                2 ounces
 Cream                          4 ounces
 White of one egg. {115}


«Egg Crême de Menthe.»—

 Mint syrup                  12 drachms
 Cream                        3 ounces
 White of one egg.
 Whisky                       4 drachms


«Egg Sherbet.»—

 Sherry syrup                 4 drachms
 Pineapple syrup              4 drachms
 Raspberry syrup              4 drachms
 One egg.
 Cream.


«Egg Claret.»—

 Claret syrup                 2 ounces
 Cream                        3 ounces
 One egg.


«Royal Mist.»—

 Orange syrup                 1 ounce
 Catawba syrup                1 ounce
 Cream                        2 ounces
 One egg.


«Banana Cream.»—

 Banana syrup                12 drachms
 Cream                        4 ounces
 One egg.


«Egg Coffee.»—

 Coffee syrup                 2 ounces
 Cream                        3 ounces
 One egg.
 Shaved ice.


«Cocoa Mint.»—

 Chocolate syrup              1 ounce
 Peppermint syrup             1 ounce
 White of one egg.
 Cream                        2 ounces

The peppermint syrup is made as follows:

 Oil of peppermint           30 minims
 Syrup simplex                1 gallon
 Soda foam                    1 ounce


«Egg Lemonade.»—

 Juice of one lemon.
 Pulverized sugar             3 teasp’fuls
 One egg.
 Water, q. s.

Shake well, using plenty of ice, and serve in a small glass.


«Nadjy.»—

 Raspberry juice              1 ounce
 Pineapple syrup              1 ounce
 One egg.
 Cream                        2 ounces


«Siberian Flip.»—

 Orange syrup                 1 ounce
 Pineapple syrup              1 ounce
 One egg.
 Cream                        2 ounces


«Egg Orgeat.»—

 Orgeat syrup                12 drachms
 Cream                        3 ounces
 One egg.


«Normona.»—

 Peach syrup                  1 ounce
 Grape syrup                  1 ounce
 Cream                        3 ounces
 Brandy                       2 drachms
 One egg.


«Silver Fizz.»—

 Catawba syrup                2 ounces
 Holland gin                  2 drachms
 Lemon juice                  8 dashes
 White of one egg.


«Golden Fizz.»—

 Claret syrup                 2     ounces
 Holland gin                    1/4 ounce
 Lemon juice                  8     dashes
 Yolk of one egg.


«Rose Cream.»—

 Rose syrup                  12 drachms
 Cream                        4 ounces
 White of one egg.


«Violet Cream.»—

 Violet syrup                12 drachms
 Cream                        4 ounces
 White of one egg.


«Rose Mint.»—

 Rose syrup                   6 drachms
 Mint syrup                   6 drachms
 Cream                        3 ounces
 White of one egg.


«Currant Cream.»—

 Red-currant syrup            2 ounces
 Cream                        3 ounces
 One egg.


«Quince Flip.»—

 Quince syrup                 2 ounces
 Cream                        3 ounces
 One egg.
 Shaved ice.


«Coffee Nogg.»—

 Coffee syrup                 2 ounces
 Brandy                       4 drachms
 Cream                        2 ounces
 One egg.


«Egg Sour.»—

 Juice of one lemon.
 Simple syrup                12 drachms
 One egg.

Shake, strain, and fill with soda. Mace on top. {116}


«Lemon Sour.»—

 Lemon syrup                 12 drachms
 Juice of one lemon.
 One egg.


«Raspberry Sour.»—

 Raspberry syrup             12 drachms
 One egg.
 Juice of one lemon.


«Yama.»—

 One egg.
 Cream                        2     ounces
 Sugar                        2     teaspoonfuls
 Jamaica rum                    1/2 ounce

Shake well, put into cup, and add hot water. Serve with whipped cream,
and sprinkle mace on top.


«Prairie Oyster.»—

 Cider vinegar                2 ounces
 One egg.

Put vinegar into glass, and break into it the egg. Season with salt and
pepper. Serve without mixing.


«Fruit Frappé.»—

 Granulated gelatin           1 ounce
 Juice of six lemons.
 Beaten whites of two eggs.
 Water                        5 quarts
 Syrup                        1 quart
 Maraschino cherries          8 ounces
 Sliced peach                 4 ounces
 Sliced pineapple             4 ounces
 Whole strawberries           4 ounces
 Sliced orange                4 ounces

Dissolve the gelatin in 1 quart boiling hot water; add the syrup and
the balance of the water; add the whites of the eggs and lemon juice.


«KOUMISS.»

The original koumiss is the Russian, made from mare’s milk, while that
produced in this country and other parts of Europe is usually, probably
always, made from cow’s milk. For this reason there is a difference in
the preparation which may or may not be of consequence. It has been
asserted that the ferment used in Russia differs from ordinary yeast,
but this has not been established.

In an article on this subject, contributed by D. H. Davies to the
_Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions_, it is pointed out that
mare’s milk contains less casein and fatty matter than cow’s milk, and
he states that it is “therefore far more easy of digestion.” He thinks
that cow’s milk yields a better preparation when diluted with water to
reduce the percentage of casein, etc. He proposes the following formula:

 Fresh milk                  12 ounces
 Water                        4 ounces
 Brown sugar                150 grains
 Compressed yeast            24 grains
 Milk sugar                   3 drachms

Dissolve the milk sugar in the water, add to the milk, rub the yeast
and brown sugar down in a mortar with a little of the mixture, then
strain into the other portion.

Strong bottles are very essential, champagne bottles being frequently
used, and the corks should fit tightly; in fact, it is almost necessary
to use a bottling machine for the purpose, and once the cork is
properly fixed it should be wired down. Many failures have resulted
because the corks did not fit properly, the result being that the
carbon dioxide escaped as formed and left a worthless preparation. It
is further necessary to keep the preparation at a moderate temperature,
and to be sure that the article is properly finished the operator
should gently shake the bottles each day for about 10 minutes to
prevent the clotting of the casein. It is well to take the precaution
of rolling a cloth around the bottle during the shaking process, as
the amount of gas generated is great, and should the bottle be weak it
might explode.

Kogelman says that if 1 volume of buttermilk be mixed with 1 or 2
volumes of sweet milk, in a short time lively fermentation sets in, and
in about 3 days the work is completed. This, according to the author,
produces a wine-scented fluid, rich in alcohol, carbon dioxide, lactic
acid, and casein, which, according to all investigations yet made, is
identical with koumiss. The following practical hints are given for
the production of a good article: The sweet milk used should not be
entirely freed from cream; the bottles should be of strong glass; the
fermenting milk must be industriously shaken by the operator at least
3 times a day, and then the cork put in firmly, so that the fluid will
become well charged with carbon-dioxide gas; the bottles must be daily
opened and at least twice each day brought nearly to a horizontal
position, in order to allow the carbon dioxide to escape and air to
enter; otherwise fermentation rapidly ceases. If a drink is desired
strong in carbonic acid, the bottles, toward the end of fermentation,
should be placed with the necks down. In order to ferment a fresh
quantity of milk, simply add 1/3 of its volume of either actively
fermenting or freshly fermented milk. The temperature should be from
50° to 60° F., about 60° being the most favorable. {117}

Here are some miscellaneous formulas:

I.—Fill a quart champagne bottle up to the neck with pure milk; add
2 tablespoonfuls of white sugar, after dissolving the same in a
little water over a hot fire; add also a quarter of a 2-cent cake
of compressed yeast. Then tie the cork in the bottle securely, and
shake the mixture well; place it in a room of the temperature of 50°
to 95° F. for 6 hours, and finally in the ice box over night. Handle
wrapped in a towel as protection if the bottle should burst. Be sure
that the milk is pure, that the bottle is sound, that the yeast is
fresh, to open the mixture in the morning with great care, on account
of its effervescent properties; and be sure not to drink it at all
if there is any curdle or thickening part resembling cheese, as this
indicates that the fermentation has been prolonged beyond the proper
time.

II.—Dilute the milk with 1/6 part of hot water, and while still tepid
add 1/8 of very sour (but otherwise good) buttermilk. Put it into a
wide jug, cover with a clean cloth, and let stand in a warmish place
(about 75° F.) for 24 hours; stir up well, and leave for another 24
hours. Then beat thoroughly together, and pour from jug to jug till
perfectly smooth and creamy. It is now “still” koumiss, and may be
drunk at once. To make it sparkling, which is generally preferred, put
it into champagne or soda-water bottles; do not quite fill them, secure
the corks well, and lay them in a cool cellar. It will then keep for
6 or 8 weeks, though it becomes increasingly acid. To mature some for
drinking quickly, it is as well to keep a bottle or two to start with
in some warmer place, and from time to time shake vigorously. With this
treatment it should, in about 3 days, become sufficiently effervescent
to spurt freely through a champagne tap, which must be used for drawing
it off as required. Later on, when very frothy and acid it is more
pleasant to drink if a little sweetened water (or milk and water) is
first put into the glass. Shake the bottle, and hold it inverted well
into the tumbler before turning the tap. Having made one lot of koumiss
as above you can use some of that instead of buttermilk as a ferment
for a second lot, and so on 5 or 6 times in succession; after which it
will be found advisable to begin again as at first. Mare’s milk is the
best for koumiss; then ass’s milk. Cow’s milk may be made more like
them by adding a little sugar of milk (or even loaf sugar) with the
hot water before fermenting. But perhaps the chief drawback to cow’s
milk is that the cream separates permanently, whereas that of mare’s
milk will remix. Hence use partially skimmed milk; for if there is much
cream it only forms little lumps of butter, which are apt to clog the
tap, or are left behind in the bottle.


«Kwass.»—Kwass is a popular drink among the Russian population of
Kunzews, prepared as follows: In a big kettle put from 13 to 15 quarts
of water, and bring to a boil, and when in active ebullition pour in
500 grams of malt. Let boil for 20 minutes, remove from the fire, let
cool down, and strain off. The liquid is now put into a clean keg or
barrel, 30 grams (about an ounce) of best compressed yeast added along
with about 600 grams (20 ounces) of sugar, and the cask is put in a
warm place to ferment. As soon as bubbles of carbonic gas are detected
on the surface of the liquid, it is a signal that the latter is ready
for bottling. In each of the bottles, which should be strong and clean,
put one big raisin, fill, cork, and wire down. The bottles should be
placed on the side, and in the coolest place available—best, on ice.
The liquor is ready for drinking in from 2 to 3 days, and is said to be
most palatable.


«“Braga.”»—Braga is a liquid of milky turbidity, resembling _café au
lait_ in color, and forming a considerable precipitate if left alone.
When shaken it sparkles and a little gas escapes. Its taste is more or
less acid, possessing a pleasant flavor.

About 35 parts of crushed millet, to which a little wheat flour is
added, are placed in a large kettle. On this about 400 parts of water
are poured. The mixture is stirred well and boiled for 3 hours. After
settling for 1 hour the lost water is renewed and the boiling continued
for another 10 hours. A viscous mass remains in the kettle, which
substance is spread upon large tables to cool. After it is perfectly
cool, it is stirred with water in a wooden trough and left to ferment
for 8 hours. This pulp is sifted, mixed with a little water, and after
an hour the braga is ready for sale. The taste is a little sweetish at
first, but becomes more and more sourish in time. Fermentation begins
only in the trough.


«WINTER BEVERAGES:»


«Campchello.»—Thoroughly beat the yolks of 12 fresh eggs with 2 1/4
pounds finely powdered, refined sugar, the juice {118} of 3 lemons and
2 oranges, and 3 bottles of Grâves or other white wine, over the fire,
until rising. Remove, and slowly beat 1 bottle of Jamaica rum with it.


«Egg Wine.»—Vigorously beat 4 whole eggs and the yolks of 4 with 1/2
pound of fine sugar; next add 2 quarts of white wine and beat over a
moderate fire until rising.


«Bavaroise au Cognac.»—Beat up the yolks of 8 eggs in 1 quart of good
milk over the fire, until boiling, then quickly add 5 ounces of sugar
and 1/8 quart of fine cognac.


«Bavaroise au Café.»—Heat 1 pint of strong coffee and 1 pint of milk,
5 ounces of sugar, and the yolks of 8 eggs, until boiling, then add
1/16 quart of Jamaica rum.


«Carbonated Pineapple Champagne.»—

 Plain syrup, 42°            10     gallons
 Essence of pineapple         8     drachms
 Tincture of lemon            5     ounces
 Carbonate of magnesia        1     ounce
 Liquid saffron               2 1/2 ounces
 Citric-acid solution        30     ounces
 Caramel                      2 1/2 ounces

Filter before adding the citric-acid solution and limejuice. Use 2
ounces to each bottle.


«A German Drink.»—To 100 parts of water add from 10 to 15 parts of
sugar, dissolve and add to the syrup thus formed an aqueous extract of
0.8 parts of green or black tea. Add fresh beer or brewers’ yeast, put
in a warm place and let ferment. When fermentation has progressed to a
certain point the liquid is cleared, and then bottled, corked, and the
corks tied down. The drink is said to be very pleasant.


«Limejuice Cordial.»—Limejuice cordial that will keep good for any
length of time may be made as follows: Sugar, 6 pounds; water, 4 pints;
citric acid, 4 ounces; boric acid, 1/2 ounce. Dissolve by the aid of
a gentle heat, and when cold add refined limejuice, 60 ounces; tincture
of lemon peel, 4 ounces; water to make up to 2 gallons, and color with
caramel.


«Summer Drink.»—

 Chopped ice                  2     tablespoonfuls
 Chocolate syrup              2     tablespoonfuls
 Whipped cream                3     tablespoonfuls
 Milk                           1/2 cup
 Carbonated water               1/4 cup

Shake or stir well before drinking. A tablespoonful of vanilla ice
cream is a desirable addition. A plainer drink is made by combining the
syrup, 3/4 cup of milk, and the ice, and shaking well.


«American Champagne.»—Good cider (crab-apple cider is the best), 7
gallons; best fourth-proof brandy, 1 quart; genuine champagne wine, 5
pints; milk, 1 gallon; bitartrate of potassa, 2 ounces. Mix, let stand
a short time; bottle while fermenting. An excellent imitation.


«British Champagne.»—Loaf sugar, 56 pounds; brown sugar (pale), 48
pounds; water (warm), 45 gallons; white tartar, 4 ounces; mix, and at
a proper temperature add yeast, 1 quart; and afterwards sweet cider,
5 gallons; bruised wild cherries, 14 or 15 ounces; pale spirits, 1
gallon; orris powder, 1/2 ounce. Bottle while fermenting.


«Champagne Cider.»—Good pale cider, 1 hogshead; spirits, 3 gallons;
sugar, 20 pounds; mix, and let it stand one fortnight; then fine with
skimmed milk, 1/2 gallon; this will be very pale, and a similar
article, when properly bottled and labeled, opens so briskly that even
good judges have mistaken it for genuine champagne.


«BEER:»


«Scotch Beer.»—Add 1 peck malt to 4 gallons of boiling water and let it
mash for 8 hours, and then strain, and in the strained liquor boil:

 Hops                         4 ounces
 Coriander seeds              1 ounce
 Honey                        1 pound
 Orange peel                  2 ounces
 Bruised ginger               1 ounce

Boil for half an hour, then strain and ferment in the usual way.


«Hop Bitter Beer.»—

 Coriander seeds              2 ounces
 Orange peel                  4 ounces
 Ginger                       1 ounce
 Gentian root               1/2 ounce

Boil in 5 gallons of water for half an hour, then strain and put into
the liquor 4 ounces hops and 3 pounds of sugar, and simmer for 15
minutes, then add sufficient yeast, and bottle when ready.


«Sarsaparilla Beer.»—I.—Compound extract of sarsaparilla, 1 1/2
ounces; hot water, 1 pint; dissolve, and when cold, add of good pale or
East India ale, 7 pints.

II.—Sarsaparilla (sliced), 1 pound; guaiacum bark (bruised small),
1/4 pound; guaiacum wood (rasped) and licorice root (sliced), of
each, 2 ounces; aniseed (bruised), 1 1/2 ounces; mezereon {119}
root-bark, 1 ounce; cloves (cut small), 1/4 ounce; moist sugar,
3 1/2 pounds; hot water (not boiling), 9 quarts; mix in a clean
stone jar, and keep it in a moderately warm room (shaking it twice or
thrice daily) until active fermentation sets in, then let it repose
for about a week, when it will be ready for use. This is said to be
superior to the other preparations of sarsaparilla as an alterative or
purifier of the blood, particularly in old affections. That usually
made has generally only 1/2 of the above quantity of sugar, for which
molasses is often substituted; but in either case it will not keep
well; whereas, with proper caution, the products of the above formulas
may be kept for 1 or even 2 years. No yeast must be used. Dose: A small
tumblerful 3 or 4 times a day, or oftener.


«Spruce Beer.»—I.—Sugar, 1 pound; essence of spruce, 1/2 ounce;
boiling water, 1 gallon; mix well, and when nearly cold add of yeast
1/2 wineglassful; and the next day bottle like ginger beer.

II.—Essence of spruce, 1/2 pint; pimento and ginger (bruised), of
each, 5 ounces; hops, 1/2 pound; water, 3 gallons; boil the whole for
10 minutes, then add of moist sugar, 12 pounds (or good molasses, 14
pounds); warm water, 11 gallons; mix well, and, when only lukewarm,
further add of yeast, 1 pint; after the liquid has fermented for about
24 hours, bottle it.

This is diuretic and antiscorbutic. It is regarded as an agreeable
summer drink, and often found useful during long sea voyages. When made
with lump sugar it is called White Spruce Beer; when with moist sugar
or treacle, Brown Spruce Beer. An inferior sort is made by using less
sugar or more water.


«Treacle Beer.»—I.—From treacle or molasses, 3/4 to 2 pounds per
gallon (according to the desired strength); hops, 1/4 to 3/4 ounce;
yeast, a tablespoonful; water, q. s.; treated as below.

II.—Hops, 1 1/2 pounds; corianders, 1 ounce; capsicum pods (cut
small), 1/2 ounce; water, 8 gallons; boil for 10 or 15 minutes, and
strain the liquor through a coarse sieve into a barrel containing
treacle, 28 pounds; then throw back the hops, etc., into the copper and
reboil them, for 10 minutes, with a second 8 gallons of water, which
must be strained into the barrel, as before; next “rummage” the whole
well with a stout stick, add of cold water 21 gallons (sufficient to
make the whole measure 37 gallons), and, again after mixing, stir in
1/2 pint of good fresh yeast; lastly, let it remain for 24 hours in a
moderately warm place, after which it may be put into the cellar, and
in 2 or 3 days bottled or tapped on draught. In a week it will be fit
to drink. For a stronger beer, 36 pounds, or even half a hundredweight
of molasses may be used. It will then keep good for a twelvemonth. This
is a wholesome drink, but apt to prove laxative when taken in large
quantities.


«Weiss Beer.»—This differs from the ordinary lager beer in that it
contains wheat malt. The proportions are 2/3 wheat to 1/3 barley
malt, 1 pound hops being used with a peck of the combined malt to each
20 gallons of water. A good deal depends on the yeast, which must be of
a special kind, the best grades being imported from Germany.


«Yellow Coloring for Beverages.»—The coloring agents employed are
fustic, saffron, turmeric, quercitron, and the various aniline dyes.
Here are some formulas:

 I.—Saffron                      1 ounce
     Deodorized alcohol           4 fluidounces
     Distilled water              4 fluidounces

Mix alcohol and water, and then add the saffron. Allow the mixture to
stand in a warm place for several days, shaking occasionally; then
filter. The tincture thus prepared has a deep orange color, and when
diluted or used in small quantities gives a beautiful yellow tint to
syrups, etc.

 II.—Ground fustic wood          1 1/2 ounces
      Deodorized alcohol          4     fluidounces
      Distilled water             4     fluidounces

This color may be made in the same manner as the liquid saffron, and is
a fine coloring for many purposes.

 III.—Turmeric powder            2 ounces
       Alcohol, dilute           16 ounces

Macerate for several days, agitating frequently, and filter. For some
beverages the addition of this tincture is not to be recommended, as it
possesses a very spicy taste.

The nonpoisonous aniline dyes recommended for coloring confectionery,
beverages, liquors, essences, etc., yellow are those known as acid
yellow R and tropæolin 000 (orange I).

BICYCLE-TIRE CEMENT: See Adhesives, under Rubber Cements.

BICYCLE VARNISHES: See Varnishes. {120}

BIDERY METAL: See Alloys.

BILLIARD BALLS: See Ivory and Casein.

BIRCH BALSAM: See Balsam.

BIRCH WATER: See Hair Preparations.

BIRD DISEASES AND THEIR REMEDIES: See Veterinary Formulas.


«BIRD FOODS:»

See also Veterinary Formulas.


«Mixed Birdseed.»—

 Canary seed                  6 parts
 Rape seed                    2 parts
 Maw seed                     1 part
 Millet seed                  2 parts


«Mocking-Bird Food.»—

 Cayenne pepper               2 ounces
 Rape seed                    8 ounces
 Hemp seed                   16 ounces
 Corn meal                    2 ounces
 Rice                         2 ounces
 Cracker                      8 ounces
 Lard oil                     2 ounces

Mix the solids, grinding to a coarse powder, and incorporate the oil.


«Food for Redbirds.»—

 Sunflower seed               8 ounces
 Hemp seed                   16 ounces
 Canary seed                 10 ounces
 Wheat                        8 ounces
 Rice                         6 ounces

Mix and grind to coarse powder.

BIRD LIME: See Lime.

BIRD PASTE: See Canary-Bird Paste.

BISCHOFF: See Wines and Liquors.

BISCUIT, DOG: See Dog Biscuit.

BISMUTH ALLOYS: See Alloys.

BISMUTH, PURIFICATION OF: See Gold.

BITTERS: See Wines and Liquors.

BITTER WATER: See Waters.

BLACKING FOR HARNESS: See Leather.

BLACKING FOR SHOES: See Shoedressings.

BLACKING, STOVE: See Stove Blackings and Polishes.

BLACKBERRY CORDIAL AND BLACKBERRY MIXTURE AS A CHOLERA REMEDY: See
Cholera Remedy.

BLACKBOARD PAINT AND VARNISH: See Paint and Varnish.

BLACKHEAD REMEDIES: See Cosmetics.

BLANKET WASHING: See Household Formulas.

BLASTING POWDER: See Explosives.


«Bleaching»


«Linen.»—Mix common bleaching powder in the proportion of 1 pound to
a gallon of water; stir it occasionally for 3 days, let it settle,
and pour it off clear. Then make a lye of 1 pound of soda to 1 gallon
of boiling water, in which soak the linen for 12 hours, and boil it
half an hour; next soak it in the bleaching liquor, made as above; and
lastly, wash it in the usual manner. Discolored linen or muslin may be
restored by putting a portion of bleaching liquor into the tub wherein
the articles are soaking.


«Straw.»—I.—Dip the straw in a solution of oxygenated muriatic acid,
saturated with potash. (Oxygenated muriate of lime is much cheaper.)
The straw is thus rendered very white, and its flexibility is increased.

II.—Straw is bleached by simply exposing it in a closed chamber to
the fumes of burning sulphur. An old flour barrel is the apparatus
most used for the purpose by milliners, a flat stone being laid on the
ground, the sulphur ignited thereon, and the barrel containing the
goods to be bleached turned over it. The goods should be previously
washed in pure water.


«Wool, Silk, or Straw.»—Mix together 4 pounds of oxalic acid, 4 pounds
of table salt, water 50 gallons. The goods are laid in this mixture
for 1 hour; they are then generally well bleached, and only require
to be thoroughly rinsed and worked. For bleaching straw it is best to
soak the goods in caustic soda, and afterwards to make use of chloride
of lime or Javelle water. The excess of {121} chlorine is afterwards
removed by hyposulphite of soda.


«Feathers.»—Place the feathers from 3 to 4 hours in a tepid dilute
solution of bichromate of potassa, to which, cautiously, some nitric
acid has been added (a small quantity only). To remove a greenish hue
induced by this solution, place them in a dilute solution of sulphuric
acid, in water, whereby the feathers become perfectly white and
bleached.


«Bleaching Solution.»—Aluminum hypochloride, or Wilson’s bleaching
liquid, is produced by adding to a clear solution of lime chloride a
solution of aluminum sulphate (alumina, alum) as long as a precipitate
keeps forming. By mutual decomposition aluminum chloride results, which
remains in solution, and lime sulphate (gypsum), which separates out in
the form of an insoluble salt.


«BLIGHT REMEDIES.»

   I.—Soft soap                  40 parts
       Amyl alcohol               50 parts
       Methylated spirit          20 parts
       Water                   1,000 parts
  II.—Soft soap                  30 parts
       Sulphureted potash          2 parts
       Amyl alcohol               32 parts
       Water                   1,000 parts
 III.—Soft soap                  15 parts
       Sulphureted potash         29 parts
       Water                   1,000 parts

BLEACHING SOLUTIONS FOR THE LAUNDRY: See Laundry Preparations.

BLEACHING SOLUTION FOR PHOTOGRAPHS: See Photography.

BLEEDING, LOCAL: See Styptics.

BLISTER CURE: See Turpentine.

BLISTERS, FOR HORSES: See Veterinary Formulas.

BLOCK, HOLLOW CONCRETE BUILDING: See Stone, Artificial.

BLOCK FOR SOLDERING: See Soldering.

BLOTTING PAPER: See Paper.


«BLUE FROM GREEN AT NIGHT, TO DISTINGUISH:»

To distinguish blue from green at night, use either the light of a
magnesium wire for this purpose or take a number of Swedish (parlor)
matches, light them, and as soon as they flash up, observe the 2
colors, when the difference can be easily told.

BLUE (BALL): See Dyes.

BLUING: See Laundry Preparations.

BLUING OF STEEL: See Steel.


«BLUE PRINTS, TO MAKE CHANGES AND CORRECTIONS ON:»

Use a solution of sodium carbonate and water, with a little red ink
mixed in. This gives a very pleasing pink color to the changes which,
at the same time, is very noticeable. The amount of sodium carbonate
used depends upon the surface of the blue-print paper, as some
coarse-grained papers will look better if less soda is used and _vice
versa_. However, the amount of powdered soda held on a small coin
dissolved in a bottle of water gives good results.

BLUE-PRINT PAPER MAKING: See Photography.

BLUE PRINTS, TO TURN BROWN: See Photography, under Toning.


«BOIL REMEDY.»

Take a piece of soft linen or borated gauze, rub some vaseline upon
one side of it, quickly pour upon it some chloroform, apply it to the
unopened boil or carbuncle, and place a bandage over all. It smarts
a little at first, but this is soon succeeded by a pleasing, cool
sensation. The patient is given a bottle of the remedy, and directed to
change the cloth often. In from 2 hours to 1 day the boil (no matter
how indurated) softens and opens.


«Boiler Compounds»

There are three chemicals which are known to attack boiler scale.
These are caustic soda, soda ash, and tannic-acid compounds, the last
being derived from sumac, catechu, and the exhausted bark liquor from
tanneries.

Caustic soda in large excess is injurious to boiler fittings, gaskets,
valves, {122} etc. That it is injurious, in reasonable excess, to the
boiler tubes themselves is yet to be proved. Foaming and priming may be
caused through excess of caustic soda or soda ash, as is well known by
every practical engineer. Tannic acid is to be condemned and the use
of its salts is not to be recommended. It may unite with the organic
matter, present in the form of albuminoids, and with calcium and
magnesium carbonates. That it removes scale is an assured fact; that it
removes iron with the scale is also assured, as tannic acid corrodes an
iron surface rapidly.

Compounds of vegetable origin are widely advertised, but they often
contain dextrine and gum, both of which are dangerous, as they coat
the tubes with a compact scale, not permitting the water to reach the
iron. Molasses is acid and should not be used in the boiler. Starch
substances generally should be avoided. Kerosene must be dangerous, as
it is very volatile and must soon leave the boiler and pass over and
through the engine.

There are two materials the use of which in boilers is not prohibited
through action upon the metal itself or on account of price. These are
soda ash and caustic soda. Sodium triphosphate and sodium fluoride
have both been used with success, but their cost is several hundred per
cent greater than soda ash. If prescribed as per analysis, in slight
excess, there should be no injurious results through the use of caustic
soda and soda ash. It would be practicable to manufacture an intimate
mixture of caustic soda and carbonate of soda, containing enough of
each to soften the average water of a given district.

There is a great deal of fraud in connection with boiler compounds
generally. The better class of venders advertise to prepare a special
compound for special water. This is expensive, save on a large scale,
in reference to a particular water, for it would mean a score or more
of tanks with men to make up the mixtures. The less honest of the
boiler-compound guild consign each sample of water to the sewer and
send the regular goods. Others have a stock analysis which is sent
to customers of a given locality, whether it contains iron, lime, or
magnesium sulphates or carbonates.

Any expense for softening water in excess of 3 cents per 1,000
gallons is for the privilege of using a ready-made softener. Every
superintendent in charge of a plant should insist that the compound
used be pronounced by competent authority free from injurious
materials, and that it be adapted to the water in use.

Boiler compounds should contain only such ingredients as will
neutralize the scale-forming salts present. They should be used only
by prescription, so many gallons per 1,000 gallons of feed water. A
properly proportioned mixture of soda ought to answer the demands of
all plants depending upon that method of softening water in limestone
and shale regions.

The honest boiler compounds are, however, useful for small isolated
plants, because of the simplicity of their action. For plants of from
75 to 150 horse power two 24-hour settling tanks will answer the
purpose of a softening system. Each of these, capable of holding a
day’s supply, provided with a soda tank in common, and with sludge
valves, has paddles for stirring the contents. Large plants are
operated on this principle, serving boilers of many thousand horse
power. Such a system has an advantage over a continuous system, in
that the exact amount of chemical solutions required for softening the
particular water can be applied. For some variations of such a system,
several companies have secured patents. The fundamental principles,
however, have been used for many years and are not patentable.


«Prevention of Boiler Scale.»—The lime contained in the feed water,
either as bicarbonate or as sulphate, is precipitated in the shape
of a light mud, but the walls of the boiler remain perfectly bright
without being attacked in any manner. While under ordinary atmospheric
pressure calcium chromate in solution is precipitated by soda or
Glauber’s salt as calcium carbonate or as calcium sulphate; the latter
is separated under higher pressure by chromates as calcium chromate. An
excess of chromates or chromic acid does not exercise any deleterious
action upon the metal, nor upon the materials used for packing. By the
slight admixture of chromates, two pounds are sufficient for a small
boiler for weeks; no injurious ingredients are carried in by the wet
steam, the injection water, on the contrary, having been found to be
chemically pure.


«Protecting Boiler Plates from Scale.»—

I.—For a 5-horse-power boiler, fed with water which contains calcic
sulphate, take catechu, 2 pounds; dextrine, 1 pound; crystallized soda,
2 pounds; potash, 1/2 pound; cane sugar, 1/2 pound; alum, 1/2
pound; gum arabic, 1/2 pound. {123}

II.—For a boiler of the same size, fed with water which contains lime:
Turmeric, 2 pounds; dextrine, 1 pound; sodium bicarbonate, 2 pounds;
potash, 1/2 pound; alum, 1/2 pound; molasses, 1/2 pound.

III.—For a boiler of the same size, fed with water which contains iron:
Gamboge, 2 pounds; soda, 2 pounds; dextrine, 1 pound; potash, 1/2
pound; sugar, 1/2 pound; alum, 1/2 pound; gum arabic, 1/2 pound.

IV.—For a boiler of the same size, fed with sea water: Catechu, 2
pounds; Glauber’s salt, 2 pounds; dextrine, 2 pounds; alum, 1/2
pound; gum arabic, 1/2 pound.

When these preparations are used add 1 quart of water, and in ordinary
cases charge the boiler every month; but if the incrustation is very
bad, charge every two weeks.

V.—Place within the boiler of 100 horse power 1 bucketful of washing
soda; put in 2 gallons of kerosene oil (after closing the blow-off
cock), and fill the boiler with water. Feed in at least 1 quart of
kerosene oil every day through a sight-feed oil cup attached to the
feed pipe near the boiler—i. e., between the heater and the boiler—so
that the oil is not entrapped within the heater. If it is inconvenient
to open the boiler, then dissolve the washing soda in hot water and
feed it in with the pump or through a tallow cock (attached between the
ejector and the valve in the suction pipe) when the ejector is working.

VI.—A paint for protecting boiler plates from scale, and patented
in Germany, is composed of 10 pounds each of train oil, horse fat,
paraffine, and of finely ground zinc white. To this mixture is added
40 pounds of graphite and 10 pounds of soot made together into a paste
with 1 1/2 gallons of water, and about a pound of carbolic acid.
The horse fat and the zinc oxide make a soap difficult to fuse, which
adheres strongly to the plates, and binds the graphite and the soot.
The paraffine prevents the water from penetrating the coats. The scale
which forms on this application can be detached, it is said, with a
wooden mallet, without injuring the paint.

VII.—M. E. Asselin, of Paris, recommends the use of glycerine as a
preventive. It increases the solubility of combinations of lime, and
especially of the sulphate. It forms with these combinations soluble
compounds. When the quantity of lime becomes so great that it can no
longer be dissolved, nor form soluble combinations, it is deposited
in a gelatinous substance, which never adheres to the surface of the
iron plates. The gelatinous substances thus formed are not carried
with the steam into the cylinder of the engine. M. Asselin advises the
employment of 1 pound of glycerine for every 300 pounds or 400 pounds
of coal burnt.


«Prevention of Electrolysis.»—In order to prevent the eating away of
the sheets and tubes by electrolytic action, it has long been the
practice of marine engineers to suspend slabs of zinc in their boilers.
The zinc, being more susceptible to the electrolytic action than the
iron, is eaten away, while the iron remains unimpaired. The use of
zinc in this way has been found also to reduce the trouble from boiler
scale. Whether it be due to the formation of hydrogen bubbles between
the heating surfaces and incipient scale, to the presence in the water
of the zinc salts resulting from the dissolution of the zinc, or to
whatever cause, it appears to be a general conclusion among those who
have used it that the zinc helps the scale, as well as the corrosion.
Nobody has ever claimed for it that it prevented the attachment of
scale altogether, but the consensus of opinion is that it “helps some.”


«BOILER PRESSURE.»

It hardly pays to reduce pressure on boilers, except in very extreme
cases, but if it can be done by throttling before the steam reaches
the cylinder of the engine it would be an advantage, because this
retains the heat units due to the higher pressure in the steam, and
the throttling has a slight superheating effect. As a matter of fact,
tests go to show that for light loads and high pressure a throttling
engine may do better than an automatic cut-off. The ideal arrangement
is to throttle the steam for light loads; for heavier loads, allow the
variable cut-off to come into play. This practice has been carried into
effect by the design of Mr. E. J. Armstrong, in which he arranges the
shaft governor so that there is negative lead up to nearly one-quarter
cut-off, after which the lead becomes positive, and this has the effect
of throttling the steam for the earlier loads and undoubtedly gives
better economy, in addition to making the engine run more quietly.


«BONE BLACK:»


«Bone or Ivory Black.»—All bones (and ivory is bone in a sense) consist
of a framework of crystallized matter or bone earth, in the interstices
of which organic matter is embedded. Hence if {124} bones are heated
red-hot in a closed vessel, the organic matter is destroyed, leaving
carbon, in a finely divided state, lodged in the bony framework. If
the heat is applied gradually the bone retains its shape, but is quite
black and of much less weight than at first. This bone black or animal
charcoal is a substance which has great power of absorbing coloring
matter from liquids, so that it is largely used for bleaching such
liquids. For example, in the vast industry of beet-sugar manufacture
the solutions first made are very dark in color, but after filtration
through animal charcoal will give colorless crystals on evaporation.
Chemical trades require such large quantities of bone charcoal that its
production is a large industry in itself. As in breaking up the charred
bones a considerable amount of waste is produced, in the form of dust
and small grains which cannot be used for bleaching purposes, this
waste should be worked up into a pigment. This is done by dissolving
out the mineral with hydrochloric acid, and then rinsing and drying the
carbon.

The mineral basis of bones consists mainly of the phosphates of lime
and magnesia, salts soluble in not too dilute hydrochloric acid. A vat
is half filled with the above-mentioned waste, which is then just
covered with a mixture of equal volumes of commercial hydrochloric acid
and water. As the mineral matter also contains carbonates, a lively
effervescence at once ensues, and small quantities of hydrofluoric
acid are also formed from the decomposition of calcium fluoride in the
bones. Now hydrofluoric acid is a very dangerous substance, as air
containing even traces of it is very injurious to the lungs. Hence
the addition of hydrochloric acid should be done in the open air, and
the vat should be left by itself until the evolution of fumes ceases.
A plug is then pulled out at the bottom and the carbon is thoroughly
drained. It is then stirred up with water and again drained, when
it has fully settled to the bottom. This rinsing with clear water
is repeated till all the hydrochloric acid is washed away and only
pure carbon remains in the vat. As for pigment-making purposes it is
essential that the carbon should be as finely divided as possible, it
is as well to grind the washed carbon in an ordinary color mill. Very
little power is required for this purpose, as when once the bone earth
is removed the carbon particles have little cohesion. The properly
ground mass forms a deep-black mud, which can be left to dry or be
dried by artificial heat. When dry, the purified bone black is of a
pure black and makes a most excellent pigment.

Bone black is put upon the market under all sorts of names, such as
ivory black, _ebur ustum_, Frankfort black, neutral black, etc. All
these consist of finely ground bone black purified from mineral matter.
If leather scraps or dried blood are to be worked up, iron tubes are
employed, closed at one end, and with a well-fitting lid with a small
hole in it at the other. As these bodies give off large volumes of
combustible gas during the charring, it is a good plan to lead the
vapors from the hole by a bent tube so that they can be burnt and help
to supply the heat required and so save fuel. Leather or blood gives
a charcoal which hardly requires treatment with hydrochloric acid,
for the amount of mineral salts present is so small that its removal
appears superfluous.


«BONES, A TEST FOR BROKEN.»

Place a stethoscope on one side of the supposed fracture, and a
tuning fork on the other. When the latter is vibrated, and there is
no breakage, the sound will be heard distinctly through bone and
stethoscope. Should any doubt exist, comparison should be made with
the same bone on the other side of the body. This test shows the
difference in the power of conducting sound possessed by bone and soft
tissue.

BONE BLEACHES: See Ivory.

BONE FAT: See Fats.

BONE FAT, PURIFICATION AND BLEACHING OF: See Soap.

BONE POLISHES: See Polishes.

BONE FERTILIZERS: See Fertilizers.

BONES, TREATMENT OF, IN MANUFACTURING GLUE: See Adhesives.

BONE, UNITING GLASS WITH: See Adhesives.


«BOOKS, THEIR HANDLING AND PRESERVATION:»


«The Preservation of Books in Hot Climates.»—Books in hot climates
quickly deteriorate unless carefully guarded. There are three
destructive agencies: (1) damp, (2) a small black insect, (3)
cockroaches. {125}

(1) Books which are kept in a damp atmosphere deteriorate on account of
molds and fungi that grow rapidly when the conditions are favorable.
Books are best kept on open, airy, well-lighted shelves. When there has
been a prolonged spell of moist weather their covers should be wiped,
and they should be placed in the sun or before a fire for a few hours.
Damp also causes the bindings and leaves of some books to separate.

(2) A small black insect, one-eighth of an inch long and a sixteenth
of an inch broad, somewhat resembling a beetle, is very destructive,
and books will be found, if left untouched, after a few months to have
numerous holes in the covers and leaves. If this insect be allowed
plenty of time for its ravages it will make so many holes that bindings
originally strong can be easily torn to pieces. All damage may be
prevented by coating the covers of books with the varnish described
under (3). When books are found to contain the insects they should be
well wrapped and placed in the sun before varnishing.

(3) The appearance of a fine binding may be destroyed in a single night
by cockroaches. The lettering of the binding may, in two or three
days, be completely obliterated.

The following varnishes have been found to prevent effectually the
ravages of cockroaches and of all insects that feed upon books:

 I.—Dammar resin         2     ounces
     Mastic               2     ounces
     Canada balsam        1     ounce
     Creosote               1/2 ounce
     Spirit of wine      20     fl. ounces

Macerate with occasional shaking for a few days if wanted at once, but
for a longer time when possible, as a better varnish will result after
a maceration of several months.

II.—Corrosive sublimate, 1 ounce; carbolic acid, 1 ounce; methylated or
rum spirit, 1 quart.

Where it is necessary to keep books or paper of any description in
boxes, cupboards, or closed bookcases, some naphthalene balls or
camphor should be always present with them. If camphor be used it is
best to wrap it in paper, otherwise it volatilizes more quickly than is
necessary. In dry weather the doors of closed bookcases should be left
open occasionally, as a damp, still atmosphere is most favorable for
deterioration.


«How to Open a Book.»—Never force the back of the book. Hold the book
with its back on a smooth or covered table; let the front board down,
then the other, holding the leaves in one hand while you open a few
leaves at the back, then a few at the front, and so on, alternately
opening back and front, gently pressing open the sections till you
reach the center of the volume. Do this two or three times and you will
obtain the best results. Open the volume violently or carelessly in any
one place and you will probably break the back or cause a start in the
leaves.

BOOK DISINFECTANT: See Disinfectants.

BOOKS, TO REMOVE FINGER-MARKS FROM: See Cleaning Preparations and
Methods.

BOOKBINDERS’ VARNISH: See Varnishes.

BOOKWORMS: See Insecticides.

BOOT DRESSINGS: See Shoe Dressings.

BOOT LUBRICANT: See Lubricant.

BOOTS, WATERPROOFING: See Waterproofing.


«BORAX FOR SPRINKLING.»

I.—Sprinkling borax is not only cheaper, but also dissolves less in
soldering than pure borax.

The borax is heated in a metal vessel until it has lost its water of
crystallization and mixed with calcined cooking salt and potash—borax,
8 parts; cooking salt, 3 parts; potash, 3 parts. Next it is pounded in
a mortar into a fine powder, constituting the sprinkling borax.

II.—Another kind of sprinkling borax is prepared by substituting
glass-gall for the potash. Glass-gall is the froth floating on the
melted glass, which can be skimmed off.

The borax is either dusted on in powder form from a sprinkling box or
stirred with water before use into a thin paste.

BORAX AND BORIC ACID IN FOOD: See Food.

BORDEAUX MIXTURE: See Insecticides.

BOROTONIC: See Dentifrices. {126}

BOTTLE-CAP LACQUER: See Lacquer.

BOTTLE CLEANERS: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods, under
Miscellaneous Methods.

BOTTLE STOPPERS: See Stoppers.

BOTTLE VARNISH: See Varnishes.

BOTTLE WAX: See Photography.

BOUILLON: See Beverages.

BOURBON METALS: See Alloys.

BOWLS OF FIRE TRICK: See Pyrotechnics.

BOX GLUE: See Adhesives.

BRAGA: See Beverages.


«BRAN, SAWDUST IN.»

For the detection of sawdust in bran use a solution of 1 part of
phloroglucin in 15 parts of alcohol, 15 parts of water, and 10 parts
of syrupy phosphoric acid. Place 2 parts of the solution in a small
porcelain dish, add a knifepointful of the bran and heat moderately.
Sawdust is dyed red while bran parts only seldom acquire a faint red
color. By a microscopic examination of the reddish parts, sawdust will
be readily recognized.


«Bottles»


«Magic Bottles.»—

The mystery of the “wonderful bottle,” from which can be poured in
succession port wine, sherry, claret, water, champagne, or ink, at the
will of the operator, is easily explained. The materials consist of an
ordinary dark-colored pint wine bottle, seven wine glasses of different
patterns, and the chemicals described below:

Solution A: A mixture of tincture of ferric chloride, drachms vi;
hydrochloric acid, drachms ii.

Solution B: Saturated solution of ammonium sulphocyanide, drachm i.

Solution C: Strong solution of ferric chloride, drachm i.

Solution D: A weak solution of ammonium sulphocyanide.

Solution E: Concentrated solution of lead acetate.

Solution F: Solution of ammonium sulphide, drachm i; or pyrogallic
acid, drachm i.

Package G: Pulverized potassium bicarbonate, drachm iss.

Having poured two teaspoonfuls of solution A into the wine bottle,
treat the wine glasses with the different solutions, noting and
remembering into which glasses the several solutions are placed. Into
No. 1 wine glass pour one or two drops of solution B; into No. 2 glass
pour one or two drops of solution C; into No. 3 one or two drops of
Solution D; leave No. 4 glass empty; into No. 5 glass pour a few drops
of Solution E; into No. 6 glass place a few grains of Package G; into
No. 7 glass pour a little of solution F.

Request some one to bring you some cold drinking water, and to
guarantee that it is pure show that your wine bottle is (practically)
empty. Fill it up from the carafe, and having asked the audience
whether you shall produce wine or water, milk or ink, etc., you may
obtain any of these by pouring a little of the water from the bottle
into the prepared glass. Thus No. 1 glass gives a port-wine color; No.
2 gives a sherry color; No. 3 gives a claret color; No. 4 is left
empty to prove that the solution in the bottle is colorless; No. 5
produces milk; No. 6, effervescing champagne; No. 7, ink.


«Bottle-Capping Mixtures.»—

I.—Soak 7 pounds of good gelatin in 10 ounces of glycerine and 60
ounces of water, and heat over a water bath until dissolved, and add
any desired color. Pigments may be used, and various tints can be
obtained by the use of aniline colors. The resulting compound should be
stored in jars. To apply liquefy the mass and dip the cork and portion
of the neck of the bottle into the liquid; it sets very quickly.

 II.—Gelatin                1 ounce
      Gum arabic             1 ounce
      Boric acid            20 grains
      Starch                 1 ounce
      Water                 16 fluidounces

Mix the gelatin, gum arabic, and boric acid with 14 fluidounces of cold
water, stir occasionally until the gum is dissolved, heat the mixture
to boiling, remove the scum, and strain. Also mix the starch intimately
with the remainder of the water, and stir this mixture into the hot
gelatin mixture until a uniform product results. As noted above, the
composition may be tinted with any suitable dye. Before using, it must
be softened by the application of heat. {127}

 III.—Shellac                    3     ounces
       Venice turpentine          1 1/2 ounces
       Boric acid                72     grains
       Powdered talcum            3     ounces
       Ether                      6     fluidrams
       Alcohol                   12 1/2 fluidounces

Dissolve the shellac, turpentine, and boric acid in the mixed alcohol
and ether, color with a spirit-soluble dye, and add the talcum. During
use the mixture must be agitated frequently.


«Show Bottles.»—

I.—Place in a cylindrical bottle the following liquids in the order
named:

First, sulphuric acid, tinted blue with indigo; second, chloroform;
third, glycerine, slightly tinted with caramel; fourth, castor oil,
colored with alkanet root; fifth, 40-per-cent alcohol, slightly tinted
with aniline green; sixth, cod-liver oil, containing 1 per cent of oil
of turpentine. The liquids are held in place by force of gravity, and
alternate with fluids which are not miscible, so that the strata of
layers are clearly defined and do not mingle by diffusion.

 II.—Chromic acid                1 drachm
      Commercial “muriatic” acid  2 ounces
      Nitric acid                 2 ounces
      Water, enough to make       3 gallons

The color is magenta.

The following makes a fine pink for show carboys:

 III.—Cobalt oxide               2 parts
       Nitric acid, c. p.         1 part
       Hydrochloric acid          1 part

Mix and dissolve, and to the solution add:

 Strongest water of ammonia            6 parts
 Sulphuric acid                        1 part
 Water, distilled, q. s. to make     400 parts

This should be left standing in a dark, cool place for at least a month
before putting in the window.

IV.—Green.—Copper sulphate, 300 parts, by weight; hydrochloric acid,
450 parts, by weight; distilled water, to 4,500 parts, by weight.

V.—Blue.—Copper sulphate, 480 parts, by weight; sulphuric acid, 60
parts, by weight; distilled water, to 450 parts, by weight.

VI.—Yellowish Brown.—Potassium dichromate, 120 parts, by weight; nitric
acid, 150 parts, by weight; distilled water, to 4,500 parts, by weight.

VII.—Yellow.—Potassium dichromate, 30 parts, by weight; sodium
bicarbonate, 225 parts, by weight; distilled water, to 4,500 parts, by
weight.

VIII.—Red.—Liquid ferric chloride, officinal, 60 parts, by weight;
concentrated ammonium-acetate solution, 120 parts, by weight; acetic
acid, 30 per cent, 30 parts, by weight; distilled water, to 9,000
parts, by weight.

IX.—Crimson.—Potassium iodide, 7.5 parts, by weight; iodine, 7.5 parts,
by weight; hydrochloric acid, 60 parts, by weight; distilled water, to
4,500 parts, by weight.

All the solutions IV to IX should be filtered. If distilled water be
used these solutions should keep for five to ten years. In order to
prevent them from freezing, either add 10 per cent of alcohol, or
reduce the quantity of water by 10 per cent.


«A Cheap and Excellent Warming Bottle.»—Mix sodium acetate and sodium
hyposulphate in the proportion of 1 part of the former to 9 parts of
the latter, and with the mixture fill an earthenware bottle about
three-quarters full. Close the vessel well with a cork and place it
either in hot water or in the oven, and let remain until the salts
within melt. For at least a half day the jug will radiate its heat,
and need only be well shaken from time to time to renew its heat-giving
energy.


«Bottle Deodorizer.»—Powdered black mustard seed is successfully
employed. Pour a little of it with some lukewarm water into the
receptacle, rinsing it afterwards with water. If necessary, repeat the
process.

BRANDY AND BRANDY BITTERS See Wines and Liquors.


«Brass»

Formulas for the making of Brass will be found under Alloys.


«Colors for Polished Brass.»—The brass objects are put into boiling
solutions composed of different salts, and the intensity of the shade
obtained is dependent upon the duration of the immersion. With a
solution composed of

 Sulphate of copper         120 grains
 Hydrochlorate of ammonia    30 grains
 Water                        1 quart

greenish shades are obtained. With the following solution all the
shades of brown from orange brown to cinnamon are obtained: {128}

 Chlorate of potash        150 grains
 Sulphate of copper        150 grains
 Water                       1 quart

The following solution gives the brass first a rosy tint and then
colors it violet and blue:

 Sulphate of copper        435 grains
 Hyposulphite of soda      300 grains
 Cream of tartar           150 grains
 Water                       1 pint

Upon adding to the last solution

 Ammoniacal sulphate of iron   300 grains
 Hyposulphite of soda          300 grains

there are obtained, according to the duration of the immersion,
yellowish, orange, rosy, then bluish shades. Upon polarizing the
ebullition the blue tint gives way to yellow, and finally to a pretty
gray. Silver, under the same circumstances, becomes very beautifully
colored. After a long ebullition in the following solution we obtain a
yellow-brown shade, and then a remarkable fire red:

 Chlorate of potash         75 grains
 Carbonate of nickel        30 grains
 Salt of nickel             75 grains
 Water                      16 ounces

The following solution gives a beautiful, dark-brown color:

 Chlorate of potash         75 grains
 Salt of nickel            150 grains
 Water                      10 ounces

The following gives, in the first place, a red, which passes to blue,
then to pale lilac, and finally to white:

 Orpiment                   75 grains
 Crystallized sal sodæ     150 grains
 Water                      10 ounces

The following gives a yellow brown:

 Salt of nickel             75 grains
 Sulphate of copper         75 grains
 Chlorate of potash         75 grains
 Water                      10 ounces

On mixing the following solutions, sulphur separates and the brass
becomes covered with iridescent crystallizations:

  I.—Cream of tartar            75 grains
      Sulphate of copper         75 grains
      Water                      10 ounces

 II.—Hyposulphite of soda      225 grains
      Water                       5 ounces

Upon leaving the brass objects immersed in the following mixture
contained in corked vessels they at length acquire a very beautiful
blue color:

 Hepar of sulphur           15 grains
 Ammonia                    75 grains
 Water                       4 ounces


«Miscellaneous Coloring of Brass.»—Yellow to bright red: Dissolve
2 parts native copper carbonate with 1 part caustic soda in 10
parts water. Dip for a few minutes into the liquor, the various
shades desired being obtained according to the length of time of
the immersion. Green: Dissolve 1 part copper acetate (verdigris), 1
part blue vitriol, and 1 part alum in 10 parts of water and boil the
articles therein. Black: For optical articles, photographic apparatus,
plates, rings, screws, etc., dissolve 45 parts of malachite (native
copper carbonate) in 1,000 parts of sal ammoniac. For use clean and
remove the grease from the article by pickling and dip it into the
bath until the coating is strong enough. The bath operates better and
quicker if heated. Should the oxidation be a failure it should be
removed by dipping into the brass pickle.

A verdigris color on brass is produced by treating the articles with
dilute acids, acetic acid, or sulphuric acid, and drying.

Brown in all varieties of shades is obtained by immersing the metal in
solutions of nitrates or ferric chloride after it has been corroded
with dilute nitric acid, cleaned with sand and water, and dried. The
strength of the solutions governs the deepness of the resulting color.

Violet is caused by immersing the thoroughly cleaned objects in a
solution of ammonium chloride.

Chocolate color results if red ferric oxide is strewn on and burned
off, followed by polishing with a small quantity of galena.

Olive green is produced by blackening the surface with a solution of
iron in hydrochloric acid, polishing with galena, and coating hot with
a lacquer composed of 1 part varnish, 4 parts cincuma, and 1 part
gamboge.

A steel-blue coloring is obtained by means of a dilute boiling solution
of chloride of arsenic, and a blue one by a treatment with strong
hyposulphite of soda. Another formula for bluing brass is: Dissolve 10
parts of antimony chloride in 200 parts of water, and add 30 parts of
pure hydrochloric acid. Dip the article until it is well blued, then
wash and dry in sawdust.

Black is much used for optical brass articles and is produced by
coating with a solution of platinum or auric chloride mixed with
nitrate of tin.


«Coloring Unpolished Brass.»—A yellow color of handsome effect is
obtained on {129} unpolished brass by means of antimony-chloride
solution. This is produced by finely powdering gray antimony and
boiling it with hydrochloric acid. With formation of hydrogen sulphide
a solution of antimony results, which must not be diluted with water,
since a white precipitate of antimony oxychloride is immediately
formed upon admixture of water. For dilution, completely saturated
cooking-salt solution is employed, using for 1 part of antimony
chloride 2 parts of salt solution.


«Coloring Fluid for Brass.»—Caustic soda, 33 parts; water, 24 parts;
hydrated carbonate of copper, 5.5 parts.

Dissolve the salt in water and dip the metal in the solution obtained.
The intensity of the color will be proportional to the time of
immersion. After removing the object from the liquid, rinse with water
and dry in sawdust.


«Black Color on Brass.»—A black or oxidized surface on brass is
produced by a solution of carbonate of copper in ammonia. The work is
immersed and allowed to remain until the required tint is observed. The
carbonate of copper is best used in a plastic condition, as it is then
much more easily dissolved. Plastic carbonate of copper may be mixed
as follows: Make a solution of blue vitriol (sulphate of copper) in
hot water, and add a strong solution of common washing soda to it as
long as any precipitate forms. The precipitate is allowed to settle,
and the clear liquid is poured off. Hot water is added, and the mass
stirred and again allowed to settle. This operation is repeated six or
eight times to remove the impurities. After the water has been removed
during the last pouring, and nothing is left but an emulsion of the
thick plastic carbonate in a small quantity of water, liquid ammonia
is added until everything is dissolved and a clear, deep-blue liquid
is produced. If too strong, water may be added, but a strong solution
is better than a weak one. If it is desired to make the solution from
commercial plastic carbonate of copper the following directions may
be followed: Dissolve 1 pound of the plastic carbonate of copper in 2
gallons of strong ammonia. This gives the required strength of solution.

The brass which it is desired to blacken is first boiled in a strong
potash solution to remove grease and oil, then well rinsed and dipped
in the copper solution, which has previously been heated to from 150°
to 175° F. This solution, if heated too hot, gives off all the ammonia.
The brass is left in the solution until the required tint is produced.
The color produced is uniform, black, and tenacious. The brass is
rinsed and dried in sawdust. A great variety of effects may be produced
by first finishing the brass before blackening, as the oxidizing
process does not injure the texture of the metal. A satisfactory finish
is produced by first rendering the surface of the brass matt, either
by scratch-brush or similar methods, as the black finish thus produced
by the copper solution is dead—one of the most pleasing effects of an
oxidized surface. Various effects may also be produced by coloring the
entire article and then buffing the exposed portions.

The best results in the use of this solution are obtained by the use of
the so-called red metals—i. e., those in which the copper predominates.
The reason for this is obvious. Ordinary sheet brass consists of about
2 parts of copper and 1 part of zinc, so that the large quantity of the
latter somewhat hinders the production of a deep-black surface. Yellow
brass is colored black by the solution, but it is well to use some
metal having a reddish tint, indicating the presence of a large amount
of copper. The varieties of sheet brass known as gilding or bronze work
well. Copper also gives excellent results. Where the best results are
desired on yellow brass a very light electroplate of copper before
the oxidizing works well and gives an excellent black. With the usual
articles made of yellow brass this is rarely done, but the oxidation
carried out directly.


«Black Finish for Brass.»—I.—A handsome black finish may be put on
brass by the following process: Dissolve in 1,000 parts of ammonia
water 45 parts of natural malachite, and in the solution put the object
to be blackened, after first having carefully and thoroughly cleaned
the same. After letting it stand a short time gradually warm the
mixture, examining the article from time to time to ascertain if the
color is deep enough. Rinse and let dry.

II.—The blacking of brass may be accomplished by immersing it in the
following solution and then heating over a Bunsen burner or a spirit
flame: Add a saturated solution of ammonium carbonate to a saturated
copper-sulphate solution, until the precipitate resulting in the
beginning has almost entirely dissolved. The immersion and heating are
repeated until the brass turns dark; then it is brushed and dipped in
negative varnish or dull varnish. {130}


«To Give a Brown Color to Brass.»—I.—In 1,000 parts of rain or
distilled water dissolve 5 parts each of verdigris (copper acetate)
and ammonium chloride. Let the solution stand 4 hours, then add 1,500
parts of water. Remove the brass to be browned from its attachment to
the fixtures and make the surface perfectly bright and smooth and free
from grease. Place it over a charcoal fire and heat until it “sizzes”
when touched with the dampened finger. The solution is then painted
over the surface with a brush or swabbed on with a rag. If one swabbing
does not produce a sufficient depth of color, repeat the heating and
the application of the liquid until a fine durable brown is produced.
For door plates, knobs, and ornamental fixtures generally, this is one
of the handsomest as well as the most durable surfaces, and is easily
applied.

II.—A very handsome brown may be produced on brass castings by
immersing the thoroughly cleaned and dried articles in a warm solution
of 15 parts of sodium hydrate and 5 parts of cupric carbonate in 100
parts of water. The metal turns dark yellow, light brown, and finally
dark brown, with a greenish shimmer, and, when the desired shade is
reached, is taken out of the bath, rinsed, and dried.

III.—Paint the cleaned and dried surface uniformly with a dilute
solution of ammonium sulphide. When this coating is dry, it is rubbed
over, and then painted with a dilute ammoniacal solution of arsenic
sulphide, until the required depth of color is attained. If the results
are not satisfactory the painting can be repeated after washing over
with ammonia. Prolonged immersion in the second solution produces a
grayish-green film, which looks well, and acquires luster when polished
with a cloth.


«Refinishing Gas Fixtures.»—Gas fixtures which have become dirty or
tarnished from use may be improved in appearance by painting with
bronze paint and then, if a still better finish is required, varnishing
after the paint is thoroughly dry with some light-colored varnish that
will give a hard and brilliant coating.

If the bronze paint is made up with ordinary varnish it is liable to
become discolored from acid which may be present in the varnish. One
method proposed for obviating this is to mix the varnish with about
five times its volume of spirit of turpentine, add to the mixture dried
slaked lime in the proportion of about 40 grains to the pint, agitate
well, repeating the agitation several times, and finally allowing the
suspended matter to settle and decanting the clear liquid. The object
of this is to neutralize any acid which may be present. To determine
how effectively this has been done the varnish may be chemically tested.


«Steel Blue and Old Silver on Brass.»—For the former dissolve 100
parts of carbonic carbonate in 750 parts of ammonia and dilute this
solution with distilled water, whereupon the cleaned articles are
dipped into the liquid by means of a brass wire. After two to three
minutes take them out, rinse in clean water, and dry in sawdust.
Old silver on brass is produced as follows: The articles are first
silvered and next painted with a thin paste consisting of graphite,
6 parts; pulverized hematite, 1 part; and turpentine. Use a soft
brush and dry well; then brush off the powder. Oxidized silver is
obtained by dipping the silvered goods into a heated solution of liver
of sulphur, 5 parts; ammonia carbonate, 10 parts; and water, 10,000
parts. Only substantially silvered objects are suited for oxidation,
as a weak silvering is taken off by this solution. Unsatisfactory
coloring is removed with potassium-cyanide solution. It is advisable
to lay the articles in hydrogen sulphide-ammonia solution diluted with
water,wherein they acquire a blue to a deep-black shade.


«Tombac Color on Brass.»—This is produced by immersion in a mixture of
copper carbonate, 10 parts; caustic soda, 30 parts; water, 200 parts.
This layer will only endure wiping with a cloth, not vigorous scouring
with sand.


«Graining of Brass.»—Brass parts of timepieces are frequently provided
with a dead grained surface. For this purpose they are fastened with
flat-headed pins on cork disks and brushed with a paste of water and
finest powdered pumice stone. Next they are thoroughly washed and
placed in a solution of 10 quarts of water, 30 grains of mercuric
nitrate, and 60 grains of sulphuric acid. In this amalgamating solution
the objects become at once covered with a layer of mercury, which forms
an amalgam with the copper, while the zinc passes into solution. After
the articles have again been washed they are treated with graining
powder, which consists of silver powder, tartar, and cooking salt.
These substances must be pure, dry, and very finely pulverized. The
mixing is done with moderate heat. According {131} to whether a coarser
or finer grain is desired, more cooking salt or more tartar must be
contained in the powder. The ordinary proportions are:

 Silver powder    28       28   28 parts
 Tartar          283  110–140   85 parts
 Cooking salt    900      370  900 parts

This powder is moistened with water and applied to the object. Place
the article with the cork support in a flat dish and rub on the paste
with a stiff brush while turning the dish incessantly. Gradually fresh
portions of graining powder are put on until the desired grain is
obtained. These turn out the rounder the more the dish and brush are
turned. When the right grain is attained, rinse off with water, and
treat the object with a scratch brush, with employment of a decoction
of saponaria. The brushes must be moved around in a circle in brushing
with the pumice stone, as well as in rubbing on the graining powder and
in using the scratch brush. The required silver powder is produced by
precipitating a diluted solution of silver nitrate with some strips of
sheet copper. The precipitated silver powder is washed out on a paper
filter and dried at moderate heat.


«The Dead, or Matt, Dip for Brass.»—The dead dip is used to impart a
satiny or crystalline finish to the surface. The bright dip gives a
smooth, shiny, and perfectly even surface, but the dead dip is the
most pleasing of any dip finish, and can be used as a base for many
secondary finishes.

The dead dip is a mixture of oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) and
aqua fortis (nitric acid) in which there is enough sulphate of zinc
(white vitriol) to saturate the solution. It is in the presence of the
sulphate of zinc that the essential difference between the bright and
the dead dip exists. Without it the dead or matt surface cannot be
obtained.

The method generally practiced is to add the sulphate of zinc to the
mixed acids (sulphuric and nitric), so that some remains undissolved in
the bottom of the vessel. It is found that the sulphate of zinc occurs
in small crystals having the appearance of very coarse granulated
sugar. These crystals readily settle to the bottom of the vessel and
do not do the work of matting properly. If they are finely pulverized
the dip is slightly improved, but it is impossible to pulverize such
material to a fineness that will do the desired work. The use of
sulphate of zinc, then, leaves much to be desired.

The most modern method of making up the dead dip is to produce the
sulphate of zinc directly in the solution and in the precipitated form.
It is well known that the most finely divided materials are those which
are produced by precipitation, and in the dead dip it is very important
that the sulphate of zinc shall be finely divided so that it will not
immediately settle to the bottom. Therefore it should be precipitated
so that when it is mixed with the acids it will not settle immediately.
The method of making the sulphate of zinc directly in the solution is
as follows:

Take 1 gallon of yellow aqua fortis (38° F.) and place in a stone crock
which is surrounded with cold water. The cold water is to keep the
heat, formed by the reaction, from evaporating the acid. Add metallic
zinc in small pieces until the acid will dissolve no more. The zinc
may be in any convenient form—sheet clippings, lumps, granulated,
etc., that may be added little by little. If all is added at once it
will boil over. When the acid will dissolve no more zinc it will be
found that some of the acid has evaporated by the heat, and it will be
necessary to add enough fresh acid to make up to the original gallon.
When this is done add 1 gallon of strong oil of vitriol. The mixture
should be stirred with a wooden paddle while the oil of vitriol is
being added.

As the sulphuric acid is being added the solution begins to grow milky,
and finally the whole has the consistency of thick cream. This is
caused by the sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) precipitating out the
sulphate of zinc. Thus the very finely divided precipitate of sulphate
of zinc is formed. If one desires to use known quantities of acid and
zinc the following amounts may be taken: Oil of vitriol, 1 gallon; aqua
fortis (38° F.), 1 gallon; metallic zinc, 6 ounces.

In dissolving the zinc in the aqua fortis it is necessary to be sure
that none remains undissolved in the bottom.

The dead or matt dip is used hot, and, therefore, is kept in a stone
crock surrounded with hot water. The articles to be matted are polished
and cleaned, and the dip thoroughly stirred with a wooden paddle, so
as to bring up the sulphate of zinc which has settled. Dip the work in
the solution and allow it to remain until the matt is obtained. This
is a point which can be learned only by experience. When the brass
article is first introduced there is a rapid action on the surface,
but in a few seconds this slows down. Remove the article and rinse and
immediately dip into the usual bright dip. This {132} is necessary for
the reason that the dead dip produces a dark coating upon the surface,
which, were it left on, would not show the real effect or the color of
the metal. The bright dip, however, removes this and exposes the true
dead surface.

The usual rule for making up the dead dip is to use equal parts of oil
of vitriol and aqua fortis; but these may be altered to suit the case.
More oil of vitriol gives a finer matt, while a larger quantity of
aqua fortis will give a coarser matt. When the dip becomes old it is
unnecessary to add more zinc, as a little goes into the solution each
time anything is dipped. After a while, however, the solution becomes
loaded with copper salts, and should be thrown away.

A new dip does not work well, and will not give good results when used
at once. It is usual to allow it to remain over night, when it will be
found to be in a better working condition in the morning. A new dip
will frequently refuse to work, and the addition of a little water will
often start it. The water must be used sparingly, however, and only
when necessary. Water, as a usual thing, spoils a dead dip, and must be
avoided. After a while it may be necessary to add a little more aqua
fortis, and this may be introduced as desired. Much care is needed in
working the dead dip, and it requires constant watching and experience.
The chief difficulty in working the dead dip is to match a given
article. The only way that it can be done is to “cut and try,” and add
aqua fortis or oil of vitriol as the case requires.

The dead or matt dip can be obtained only upon brass or German silver;
in other words, only on alloys which contain zinc. The best results are
obtained upon yellow brass high in zinc.


«To Improve Deadened Brass Parts.»—Clock parts matted with oilstone
and oil, such as the hour wheels, minute wheels, etc., obtain, by mere
grinding, a somewhat dull appearance, with a sensitive surface which
readily takes spots. This may be improved by preparing the following
powder, rubbing a little of it on a buff stick, and treating the
deadened parts, which have been cleansed with benzine, by rubbing with
slight pressure on cork. This imparts to the articles a handsome,
permanent, metallic matt luster. The smoothing powder consists of 2
parts of jewelers’ red and 8 parts of lime carbonate, levigated in
water, and well dried. Jewelers’ red alone may be employed, but this
requires some practice and care, especially in the treatment of wheels,
because rays are liable to form from the teeth toward the center.


«Pickle for Brass.»—Stir 10 parts (by weight) of shining soot or snuff,
10 parts of cooking salt, and 10 parts of red tartar with 250 parts
of nitric acid, and afterwards add 250 parts of sulphuric acid; or
else mix 7 parts of aqua fortis (nitric acid) with 10 parts of English
sulphuric acid. For the mixing ratio of the acid, the kind and alloy of
the metal should be the guidance, and it is best found out by practical
trials. The better the alloy and the less the percentage of zinc or
lead, the handsomer will be the color. Genuine bronze, for instance,
acquires a golden shade. In order to give brass the appearance of
handsome gilding it is often coated with gold varnish by applying same
thinly with a brush or sponge and immediately heating the metal over a
coal fire.


«Pickling Brass to Look Like Gold.»—To pickle brass so as to make it
resemble gold allow a mixture of 6 parts of chemically pure nitric
acid and 1 part of English sulphuric acid to act for some hours upon
the surface of the brass; then wash with a warm solution, 20 parts of
tartar in 50 parts of water, and rub off neatly with dry sawdust. Then
coat the article with the proper varnish.


«Pickle for Dipping Brass.»—To improve the appearance of brass, tombac,
and copper goods, they are usually dipped. For this purpose they are
first immersed in diluted oil of vitriol (brown sulphuric acid),
proportion, 1 to 10; next in a mixture of 10 parts of red tartar; 10
parts of cooking salt; 250 parts of English sulphuric acid, as well as
250 parts of aqua fortis (only for a moment), rinsing off well in water
and drying in sawdust. For obtaining a handsome matt gold color 1/20
part of zinc vitriol (zinc sulphate) is still added to the pickle.


«Restoration of Brass Articles.»—The brass articles are first freed
from adhering dirt by the use of hot soda lye; if bronzed they are
dipped in a highly dilute solution of sulphuric acid and rinsed in
clean water. Next they are yellowed in a mixture of nitric acid, 75
parts; sulphuric acid, 100 parts; shining lampblack, 2 parts; cooking
salt, 1 part; then rinsed and polished and, to prevent oxidation,
coated with a colorless spirit varnish, a celluloid varnish being best
for this purpose.


«Tempering Brass.»—If hammered too brittle brass can be tempered and
made {133} of a more even hardness throughout by warming it, as in
tempering steel; but the heat must not be nearly so great. Brass,
heated to the blue heat of steel, is almost soft again. To soften
brass, heat it nearly to a dull red and allow it to cool, or, if time
is an object, it may be cooled by plunging into water.


«Drawing Temper from Brass.»—Brass is rendered hard by hammering or
rolling, therefore when a brass object requires to be tempered the
material must be prepared before the article is shaped. Temper may be
drawn from brass by heating it to a cherry red and then simply plunging
it into water, the same as though steel were to be tempered.

BRASS, FASTENING PORCELAIN TO: See Adhesives.

BRASS POLISHES: See Polishes.

BRASS SOLDERS: See Solders.

BRASS BRONZING: See Plating.

BRASS CLEANERS: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.

BRASS PLATINIZING: See Plating.

BRASS, SAND HOLES IN: See Castings.

BRASSING: See Plating.

BREAD, DOG: See Dog Biscuit.


«BREATH PERFUMES:»

See also Dentifrices.


«Remedies for Fetid Breath.»—Fetid breath may be due to the expelled
air (i. e., to disease of the respirational tract), to gases thrown
off from the digestive tract, or to a diseased mouth. In the first two
cases medication must be directed to the causative diseases, with the
last, antisepsis principally and the neutralization of the saliva, also
the removal of all residual food of dental caries.

 I.—Potassium permanganate       1 part
     Distilled water             10 parts

Mix and dissolve. Add from 5 to 8 drops of this solution to a glass of
water and with it gargle the mouth.

 II.—Infusion of salvia        250 parts
      Glycerine                  30 parts
      Tincture of myrrh          12 parts
      Tincture of lavender       12 parts
      Labarraque’s solution      30 parts

Mix. Rinse the mouth frequently with this mixture.

 III.—Decoction of chamomile    30 parts
       Glycerine                 80 parts
       Chlorinated water         15 parts

Mix. Use as a gargle and mouth wash.

 IV.—Peppermint water          500 parts
      Cherry-laurel water        60 parts
      Borax                      25 parts

Mix and dissolve. Use as gargle and mouth wash.

 V.—Thymol                       3 parts
     Spirit of cochlearia       300 parts
     Tincture of rhatany        100 parts
     Oil of peppermint           15 parts
     Oil of cloves               10 parts

Mix. Gargle and wash mouth well with 10 drops in a glass of water.

 VI.—Salol                           5 parts
      Alcohol                     1,000 parts
      Tincture of white canella      30 parts
      Oil of peppermint               1 part

Mix. Use as a dentifrice.

 VII.—Hydrogen peroxide         25 parts
       Distilled water          100 parts

Mix. Gargle the mouth twice daily with 2 tablespoonfuls of the mixture
in a glass of water.

 VIII.—Sodium bicarbonate        2 parts
        Distilled water          70 parts
        Spirit of cochlearia     30 parts

Mix a half-teaspoonful in a wineglassful of water. Wash mouth two or
three times daily.


«BRICK STAIN.»

To stain brick flat the color of brownstone, add black to Venetian red
until the desired shade is obtained. If color ground in oil is used,
thin with turpentine, using a little japan as a drier. If necessary to
get the desired shade add yellow ocher to the mixture of red and black.
If the work is part old and part new, rub the wall down, using a brick
{134} for a rubber, until the surface is uniform, and keep it well wet
while rubbing with cement water, made by stirring Portland cement into
water until the water looks the color of the cement. This operation
fills the pores of the brick and makes a smooth, uniform surface to
paint on. Tinge the wash with a little dry Venetian red and lampblack.
This will help bring the brick to a uniform color, so that an even
color can be obtained with one coat of stain.

BRICKS: See Ceramics.

BRICKS OF SAND-LIME: See Stone, Artificial.

BRICK POLISHES: See Polishes.

BRICK WALLS, TO CLEAN: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods and
Household Formulas.

BRICK WATERPROOFING: See Waterproofing.

BRICKMAKERS’ NOTES: See Ceramics.

BRIDGE PAINT: See Paint.

BRILLIANTINE: See Hair Preparations.

BRIMSTONE (BURNING): See Pyrotechnics.

BRIONY ROOTS: THEIR PRESERVATION: See Roots.

BRITANNIA METAL: See Alloys.

BRITANNIA METAL, TO CLEAN: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.

BRITANNIA, SILVERPLATING: See Plating.

BROMINE, ANTISEPTIC: See Antiseptics.


«BROMOFORM.»

Bromoform is insoluble in dilute alcohol, but may be dissolved by the
aid of glycerine. The following formula has been devised:

 Bromoform                       1     part
 Alcohol                         2     parts
 Compound tincture of cardamon   2     parts
 Glycerine                       1 1/2 parts

Some other formulas are:


«Syrup of Bromoform.»—Bromoform, 5 parts; alcohol (95 per cent), 45
parts; glycerine, 150 parts; syrup, 800 parts. Mix in the order given
and place the container in warm water until the syrup becomes perfectly
clear.


«Emulsion of Bromoform.»—Add 3 parts of bromoform to 20 parts of
expressed oil of almond; emulsify this mixture in the usual manner
with 2 parts of powdered tragacanth, 4 parts of powdered acacia, and
sufficient water, using for the completed emulsion a total of 120 parts
of water, and add, finally, 4 parts of cherry-laurel water.


«Bromoform Rum.»—Bromoform, 1.2 parts; chloroform, 0.8 parts; rum,
sufficient to make 120 parts. Claimed to be an effective remedy in the
treatment of whooping cough.

BRONZES: See Alloys.

BRONZE CASTING: See Casting.

BRONZE, IMITATION: See Plaster.

BRONZE POLISHES: See Polishes.

BRONZE, RENOVATION OF: See Cleaning Compounds.


«Bronze Powders, Liquid Bronzes, Bronze Substitutes, and Bronzing»


«BRONZE POWDERS.»

Gold bronze is a mixture of equal parts of oxide of tin and sulphur,
which are heated for some time in an earthen retort. Silver bronze is
a mixture of equal parts of bismuth, tin, and mercury, which are fused
in a crucible, adding the mercury only when the tin and the bismuth are
in fusion. Next reduce to a very fine powder. To apply these bronzes,
white of egg, gum arabic, or varnish is used. It is preferable to apply
them dry upon one of the above-named mediums serving as size, than to
mix them with the liquids themselves, for in the latter case their
luster is impaired.


«Simple Coloring of Bronze Powder.»—In order to impart different
colors to {135} bronze powders, such as pale yellow, dark yellow to
copper red, the powder is heated with constant stirring in flat iron
pans until through the oxidation of the copper—the bronzes consist of
the brass powder of an alloy from which the so-called Dutch gold is
produced—the desired shade of color is reached. As a rule a very small
quantity of fat, wax, or even paraffine is added in this operation. The
bronze powders are employed to produce coatings or certain finishes on
metals themselves or to give articles of wood, stone, pasteboard, etc.,
a metallic appearance.


«General Directions for Bronzing.»—The choice of bronze powders is
determined by the degree of brilliancy to be obtained. The powder is
mixed with strong gum water or isinglass, and laid on with a brush or
pencil, almost but not absolutely dry. A piece of soft leather, wrapped
around the finger, is dipped into the powder and rubbed over the work;
when all this has been covered with the bronze it must be left to dry,
and the loose powder is then cleared away with a hair pencil.


«LIQUID BRONZES.»


«Liquid Bronzes.»—I.—For the production of liquid bronze, acid-free
varnish should be used, as bronze ground with ordinary varnish will
form verdigris. For the deacidification of dammar rosin pour 1,000
parts of petroleum benzine over 350 parts of finely ground dammar
rosin, and dissolve by repeated shaking. Next add to the solution 250
parts of a 10-per-cent aqueous solution of caustic soda and shake up
well for 10 minutes. After standing for a short time two strata will
have formed, the upper one consisting of benzine-rosin solution and
the lower, aqueous one containing the resinic acid dissolved as soda
salts. Pour off the benzine layers and agitate again assiduously with
250 parts of the 10-per-cent caustic-soda solution. Now set aside for a
complete classification and separation of the two liquids. The dammar
solution siphoned off will be perfectly free from acid. To obtain
gold-bronze varnish add to the deacidified dammar solution about 250
parts of bronze or brocade per liter.

II.—Or else carefully mix 100 parts of finely ground dammar rosin
with 30 parts of calcined soda and heat to fusion, in which state it
is maintained 2 or 3 hours with frequent stirring. Let cool, grind
the turbid mass obtained, and pour a little coal benzine or petroleum
benzine over it in a flask. By repeated shaking of the flask the
soluble portion of the molten mass is dissolved; filter after allowing
to settle; into the filtrate put 300 to 400 parts of bronze powder of
any desired shade, the brocades being especially well adapted for this
purpose. If the metallic powder remains distributed over the mass for a
long time it is of the right consistency; if it deposits quickly it is
too thin and a part of the solvent must be evaporated before stirring
in the bronze powder.

III.—A liquid bronze, which, while it contains no metallic constituent,
yet possesses a metallic luster and a bronze appearance, and answers
excellently for many purposes, is made as follows: Dissolve by the aid
of gentle heat 10 parts of aniline red and 5 parts of aniline purple in
100 parts of alcohol. When solution is complete, add 5 parts of benzoic
acid, raise the heat, and let boil from 5 to 10 minutes, or until the
greenish color of the mixture passes over to a clear bronze brown. For
“marbling” or bronzing paper articles, this answers particularly well.


«Incombustible Bronze Tincture.»—Finely pulverize 5 parts, by weight,
of prime Dammar rosin and 1.5 parts of ammonia soda. Heat gently,
and stir frequently, until no more carbonic acid bubbles up. Cool and
pulverize again. Put the powder into a glass carboy, and pour over it
50 parts of carbon tetrachloride; let this stand for 2 days, stirring
frequently. Then filter. Ten parts of the fluid are mixed with 5 parts
of metallic bronze of any desired shade, and put into bottles. Shake
well before using.


«General Formulas for Bronzing Preparations.»—I.—Take 240 parts
subacetate of copper, 120 parts oxide of zinc in powder form, 60 parts
borax, 60 parts saltpeter, and 3.5 parts corrosive sublimate. Prepare a
paste from it with oil, stir together, and continue working with boiled
linseed oil and turpentine.

II.—Dissolve 120 parts sulphate of copper and add 120 parts chipping
of tin; stir well and gather the precipitating copper. After complete
drying, grind very finely in boiled linseed oil and turpentine.

III.—Melt in a crucible 60 parts sulphur and 60 parts stannic acid;
stir with a clay tube until the mixture takes on the appearance of
Dutch gold and pour out. When cold mix the color with boiled linseed
oil and turpentine, adding a small quantity of drier. These three
bronzes must be covered with a pale, resistant {136} lacquer, otherwise
they will soon tarnish in rooms where gas is burned.


«Florentine Bronzes.»—I.—To produce a Florentine bronzing, apply to the
articles, which must have previously been dipped, a varnish composed
of cherry gum lac dissolved in alcohol. This varnish is put on with a
brush, and after that the bronzed piece is passed through the stove.

II.—If the article is of brass it must be given a coat of copper by
means of the battery. Next dip a brush in olive oil and brush the piece
uniformly; let dry for 5 or 6 hours and place in sawdust. Then heat the
article on a moderate charcoal dust fire.


«Preparation of French Bronze.»—French bronze may be prepared by
reducing to a powder hematite, 5 parts, and plumbago, 8 parts, and
mixing into a paste with spirit of wine. Apply the composition with
a soft brush to the article to be bronzed and set it aside for some
hours. By polishing with a tolerably hard brush the article will assume
the beautiful appearance of real bronze. The desired tint may be
regulated by the proportions of the ingredients.


«How to Bronze Metals.»—Prepare a solution of 1 1/2 ounces of sodium
hyposulphite in 1 pint of water and add to the same a solution of
1 1/2 ounces of lead acetate dissolved in 1 pint of water.

If, instead of lead acetate, an equal weight of sulphuric acid (1 1/2
ounces) is added to the sodium hyposulphite and the process carried on
as before, the brass becomes coated with a very beautiful red, which
changes to green, and finally a splendid brown with a green and red
iridescence. This last is a very durable coating and may be especially
recommended. It is very difficult to obtain exact shades by this
process without some experience. The thorough cleansing of all articles
from grease by boiling in potash is absolutely necessary to success.
By substituting other metal salts for the lead acetate many changes in
tints and quality of the coatings can also be effected.

When this mixture is heated to a temperature a little below the boiling
point it precipitates sulphide of lead in a state of fine division.
If some metal is present some of the lead is precipitated on the
surface and, according to the thickness of the layer, different colors
are produced. To produce an even color the articles must be evenly
heated. By immersion of brass articles for 5 minutes the same may be
coated with colors varying from gold to copper red, then to carmine,
dark red, and from light blue to blue white, and at last a reddish
white, depending on the time the metal remains in the solution and
the temperature used. Iron objects treated in this solution take a
steel-blue color, zinc a brown color. In the case of copper objects a
golden yellow cannot be obtained.


«New Bronzing Liquid.»—Dissolve 10 parts of fuchsine and 5 parts of
aniline purple in 100 parts of alcohol (95 per cent) and add to the
solution 5 parts of benzoic acid. Boil the whole for 10 minutes until
the color turns bronze brown. This liquid can be applied to all metals
and dries quickly.


«A Bronze for Brass.»—Immerse the articles, freed from dirt and grease,
in a cold solution of 10 parts of potassium permanganate, 50 parts of
iron sulphate, 5 parts of hydrochloric acid in 1,000 parts of water.
Let remain 30 seconds, then withdraw, rinse, and let dry in fine, soft
sawdust. If the articles have become too dark, or if a reddish-brown
color be desired, immerse for about 1 minute in a warm (140° F.)
solution of chromic acid, 10 parts; hydrochloric acid, 10 parts;
potassium permanganate, 10 parts; iron sulphate, 50 parts; water,
1,000 parts. Treat as before. If the latter solution alone be used
the product will be a brighter dark-yellow or reddish-brown color. By
heating in a drying oven the tone of the colors is improved.


«To Bronze Copper.»—This process is analogous to the one practiced at
the Mint of Paris for bronzing medals.

Spread on the copper object a solution composed of:

 Acetate or chlorhydrate of ammonia    30 parts
 Sea salt                              10 parts
 Cream of tartar                       10 parts
 Acetate of copper                     10 parts
 Diluted acetic acid                  100 parts

Let dry for 24 to 48 hours at an ordinary temperature. The surface of
the metal will become covered with a series of varying tints. Brush
with a waxed brush. The green portions soaked with chlorhydrate of
ammonia will assume a blue coloring, and those treated with carbonate
will be thick and darkened.


«Bronzing and Patinizing of Small Zinc Articles.»—Coatings of bronze
tones and patina shades may be produced on zinc by means of various
liquids, but the {137} articles, before being worked upon, should be
rubbed down with very fine glass or emery paper, to make them not only
perfectly metallic, but also somewhat rough, as a consequence of which
the bronze or patina coatings will adhere much better. The best bronze
or patina effects on bronze are obtained by electroplating the article
with a fairly thick deposit of brass rich in copper and then treating
it like genuine bronze. The solutions used, however, must always be
highly diluted, otherwise they may eat entirely through the thin
metallic coating.


«Bronzing of Zinc.»—Mix thoroughly 30 parts of sal ammoniac, 10 parts
of oxalate of potash, and 1,000 parts of vinegar. Apply with a brush or
a rag several times, until the desired tint is produced.


«Bronze Gilding on Smooth Moldings.»—A perfect substitute for dead
gilding cannot be obtained by bronzing, because of the radically
different reflection of the light, for the matt gilding presents to the
light a perfectly smooth surface, while in bronzing every little scale
of bronze reflects the light in a different direction. In consequence
of this diffusion of light, all bronzing, even the best executed,
is somewhat darker and dimmer than leaf gilding. This dimness, it is
true, extends over the whole surface, and therefore is not perceptible
to the layman, and cannot be called an evil, as the genuine leaf gold
is so spotted that a bronzed surface is cleaner than a gilt one. The
following process is the best known at present: Choose only the best
bronze, which is first prepared thick with pure spirit. Next add a
quantity of water and stir again. After the precipitation, which occurs
promptly, the water is poured off and renewed repeatedly by fresh
water. When the spirit has been washed out again in this manner, the
remaining deposit, i. e., the bronze, is thinned with clean, good gold
size. The bronze must be thin enough just to cover. The moldings are
coated twice, the second time commencing at the opposite end. Under no
circumstances should the dry, dead gilding give off color when grasping
it firmly. If it does that, either the size is inferior or the solution
too weak or the mixture too thick.


«Incombustible Bronze Tincture.»—Five parts of prime dammar rosin and
1.5 parts of ammonia soda, very finely pulverized. Heat gently, with
frequent stirring, until the evolution of carbonic acid ceases. Then
take from the fire, and when cool pulverize again. Put the powder into
a glass carboy, and pour over it 50 parts of carbon tetrachloride; let
this stand for 2 days, stirring frequently, then filter. Ten parts of
the fluid are to be mixed with each 5 parts of metallic bronze of any
desired shade, and put into bottles. Shake the tincture well before
using.


«Bronzing Engraved Ornaments.»—Take bronze and stir with it pale copal
varnish diluted one-half with turpentine. With this paint the ornaments
neatly. In 1/2 hour the bronze will have dried. The places from which
the bronze is to be removed, i. e., where the bronze has overrun the
polished surface, are dabbed with a small rag soaked with kerosene,
taking care that it is not too wet, so as to prevent the kerosene
from running into the ornament. After a short while the bronze will
have dissolved and can be wiped off with a soft rag. If this does not
remove it entirely, dab and wipe again. Finally finish wiping with
an especially soft, clean rag. Kerosene does not attack polish on
wood. The bronze must become dull and yet adhere firmly, under which
condition it has a hardened color. If it does not become dull the
varnish is too strong and should be diluted with turpentine.


«Durable Bronze on Banners.»—To render bronzes durable on banners,
etc., the ground must be primed with gum arabic and a little glycerine.
Then apply the bronze solution, prepared with dammar and one-tenth
varnish. Instead of gum arabic with glycerine, gelatine glue may also
be employed as an underlay.


«BRONZE SUBSTITUTES.»

The following recipe is used in making imitation gold bronzes:

 Sandarac                           50 parts
 Mastic                             10 parts
 Venice turpentine                   5 parts
 Alcohol                           135 parts

In the above dissolve:

 Metanil yellow and gold orange    0.4 parts

and add

 Aluminum, finely powdered          20 parts

and shake.

If a deeper shade is desired it is well to use ethyl orange and gold
orange in the same proportion, instead of the dyes.

For the production of imitation copper bronze take the above-mentioned
rosin mixture and dissolve therein only gold {138} orange 0.8 parts,
and add aluminum 20 parts, whereby a handsome copper color is produced.
Metanil yellow 0.4 parts without gold orange gives with the same amount
of lacquer a greenish tone of bronze. The pigments must not be made use
of in larger quantities, because the luster of the bronze is materially
affected. Only pigments of certain properties, such as solubility
in alcohol, relative constancy to reductive agents, are suitable;
unsuitable are, for instance, naphthol yellow, phenylene-diamin,
etc. Likewise only a lacquer of certain composition is fit for use,
other lacquers of commerce, such as zapon (celluloid) lacquer being
unsuitable. The bronzes prepared in this manner excel in luster and
color effect; the cost is very low. They are suitable for bronzing
low-priced articles, as tinware, toys, etc. Under the action of sun
and moisture the articles lose some of their luster, but objects kept
indoors such as figures of plaster of Paris, inkstands, wooden boxes,
etc., retain their brilliancy for years.

Some use powdered aluminum and yellow organic dyestuffs, such as
gold orange. These are employed together with a varnish of certain
composition, which imparts the necessary gloss to the mixture.


«BRONZE COLORING:»


«To Color Bronze.»—Bronze articles acquire handsome tempering colors by
heating. In order to impart an old appearance to new objects of bronze,
they may be heated over a flame and rubbed with a woolen rag dipped in
finely powdered graphite, until the desired shade is attained. Or else
a paste is applied on the article, consisting of graphite 5 parts and
bloodstone 15 parts, with a sufficient quantity of alcohol. After 24
hours brush off the dry powder. A hot solution composed of sal ammoniac
4 parts, sorrel salt 1 part, vinegar 200 parts, may also be brushed
on. Another way is to dip the pieces into a boiling solution of cupric
acetate 20 parts, and sal ammoniac 10 parts, dissolved in 60 to 100
parts of vinegar.

Patent bronzes (products colored by means of aniline dyes) have
hitherto been used in the manufacture of toys and _de luxe_ or fancy
paper, but makers of wall or stained paper have recently given their
attention to these products. Wall—or _moiré_—paper prepared with
these dyes furnishes covers or prints of silken gloss with a peculiar
double-color effect in which the metallic brilliancy characteristic
of bronze combines with the shades of the tar pigments used. Very
beautiful reliefs, giving rise to the most charming play of colors in
perpendicular or laterally reflected light, are produced by pressing
the paper lengths or web painted with aniline-bronze dyes. The brass
brocade and tin bronzes serve as bases for the aniline dyes; of the
tar pigments only basic aniline dyes soluble in alcohol are used. In
coloring the pulverized bronze care must be taken that the latter is
as free as possible from organic fats. Tar dyes should be dissolved
in as concentrated a form as possible in alcohol and stirred with the
bronze, the pigment being then fixed on the vehicle with an alcoholic
solution of tannin. The patent bronze is then dried by allowing the
alcohol to evaporate. This method of coloring is purely mechanical,
as the tar dyes do not combine with the metallic bronze, as is the
case with pigments in which hydrate of alumina is used. A coating of
aniline bronze of this kind is therefore very sensitive to moisture,
unless spread over the paper surface with a suitable protective binding
medium, or protected by a transparent coat of varnish, which of course
must not interfere with the special color effect.


«Pickle for Bronzes.»—Sulphuric acid, 1,000 parts; nitric acid, 500
parts; soot, 10 parts; sea salt, 5 parts.


«Imitation Japanese Bronze.»—When the copper or coppered article is
perfectly dry and the copper or copper coating made brilliant, which
is produced by rubbing with a soft brush, put graphite over the piece
to be bronzed so that the copper is simply dyed. Wipe off the raised
portions with a damp cloth, so that the copper makes its appearance.
Next put on a thin coat of Japanese varnish; wipe the relief again and
let dry. Apply 1 or 2 coats after the first is perfectly dry. Handsome
smoked hues may be obtained by holding the bronze either over the dust
of lighted peat or powdered rosin thrown on lighted coal, so as to
obtain a smoke which will change the color of the varnish employed. The
varnish must be liquid enough to be worked easily, for this style of
bronzing is only applicable to brass.


«Green Bronze on Iron.»—Abietate of silver, 1 part; essence of
lavender, 19 parts. Dissolve the abietate of silver in the essence
of lavender. After the articles have been well pickled apply the
abietate-of-silver solution with a brush; next place the objects in a
stove and let the temperature attain about 150° C.


«Blue Bronze.»—Blue bronze is {139} produced by the wet process by
coloring white bronze (silver composition) with aniline blue. A
blue-bronze color can be produced in the ordinary way from white-bronze
color, the product of pure English tin, and with an alum solution
consisting of 20 parts of alum in 4,500 parts of water boiled for 5
hours and washed clean and dried. The bronze prepared in this manner
is placed in a porcelain dish, mixed with a solution of 15 parts of
aniline blue in 1,500 parts of alcohol, stirring the bronze powder and
liquid until the alcohol has evaporated entirely and the bronze color
becomes dry. This manipulation must be repeated 6 or 8 times, until the
desired blue shade is reached. When the bronze is dark enough it is
washed out in warm water, and before entirely dry 1 tablespoonful of
petroleum is poured on 2 pounds of bronze, which is intimately mixed
and spread out into a thin layer, exposed to the air, whereby the smell
is caused to disappear in a few days.


«Bronzing with Soluble Glass.»—To bronze wood, porcelain, glass, and
metal by means of a water-glass solution, coat the article with potash
water-glass of 30° Bé. and sprinkle on the respective bronze powder.


«Brown Oxidation on Bronze.»—Genuine bronze can be beautifully oxidized
by painting it with a solution of 4 parts of sal ammoniac and 1 part
of oxalium (oxalate of potash) in 200 parts of vinegar, allowing it
to dry, and repeating the operation several times. These articles,
protected against rain, soon lose the unpleasant glaring metallic
luster and assume instead a soft brown tint, which bronze articles
otherwise acquire only after several years’ exposure to the atmosphere.
A beautiful bronze color which will remain unaffected by heat can be
imparted to bronze articles by the following process: The object is
first washed in a solution of 1 part of crystallized verdigris and 2
parts of sal ammoniac in 260 parts of water, and then dried before an
open fire till the green color begins to disappear. The operation is
repeated 10 to 20 times, but with a solution of 1 part of verdigris
crystals and 2 parts of sal ammoniac in 600 parts of water. The color
of the article, olive green at first, gradually turns to brown, which
will remain unaltered even when exposed to strong heat.


«BRONZE POWDERS:»

See also Plating for general methods of bronzing, and Varnishes.


«Gold and Silver Bronze Powders.»—Genuine gold bronze is produced from
the waste and parings obtained in gold beating. The parings, etc., are
ground with honey or a gum solution, upon a glass plate or under hard
granite stones, into a very fine powder, which is repeatedly washed out
with water and dried. There are various shades of gold bronze, viz.,
red, reddish, deep yellow, pale yellow, as well as greenish. These
tints are caused by the various percentages of gold or the various
mixtures of the gold with silver and copper.

By the use of various salt solutions or acidulated substances other
shades can be imparted to bronze. In water containing sulphuric acid,
nitric acid, or hydrochloric acid, it turns a bright yellow; by
treatment with a solution of crystallized verdigris or blue vitriol in
water it assumes more of a reddish hue; other tints are obtained with
the aid of cooking salt, tartar, green vitriol, or saltpeter in water.

Gold bronze is also obtained by dissolving gold in aqua regia and
mixing with a solution of green vitriol in water, whereupon the gold
falls down as a metallic powder which may be treated in different
ways. The green vitriol, however, must be dissolved in boiling water
and mixed in a glass, drop by drop, with sulphuric acid and stirred
until the basic iron sulphate separating in flakes has redissolved.
Another way of producing gold bronze is by dissolving gold in aqua
regia and evaporating the solution in a porcelain dish. When it is
almost dry add a little pure hydrochloric acid and repeat this to
drive out all the free chlorine and to produce a pure hydrochlorate
of gold. The gold salt is dissolved in distilled water, taking 1/2
liter per ducat (3 1/2 grams fine gold); into this solution drop,
while stirring by means of a glass rod, an 8° solution (by Beaumé) of
antimony chloride, as long as a precipitate forms. This deposit is gold
bronze, which, dried after removal of all liquids, is chiefly employed
in painting, for bronzing, and for china and glass decoration.

Metallic gold powder is, furthermore, obtained by dissolving pure
and alloyed gold in aqua regia and precipitating it again by an
electro-positive metal, such as iron or zinc, which is placed in the
liquid in the form of rods. The gold is completely separated thereby.
The rods must be perfectly clean and polished bright. The color of
the gold bronze depends upon the proportions of the gold. In order
to further increase the brilliancy the dried substance may still be
ground. {140}


«Mosaic Gold.»—Mosaic gold, generally a compound of tin, 64.63 parts,
and sulphur, 35.37 parts, is odorless and tasteless, and dissolves
only in chlorine solution, aqua regia, and boiling potash lye. It is
employed principally for bronzing plaster-of-Paris figures, copper,
and brass, by mixing it with 6 parts of bone ashes, rubbing it on wet,
or applying it with varnish or white of egg in the preparation of gold
paper or for gilding cardboard and wood. Mosaic gold of golden-yellow
color is produced by heating 6 parts of sulphur and 16 parts of tin
amalgam with equal parts of mercury and 4 parts of sulphur; 8 parts of
precipitate from stannic muriate (stannic acid) and 4 parts of sulphur
also give a handsome mosaic gold.

The handsomest, purest, and most gold-like mosaic gold is obtained by
melting 12 parts of pure tin, free from lead, and mixing with 6 parts
of mercury to an amalgam. This is mixed with 7 parts of flowers of
sulphur and 6 parts of sal ammoniac, whereupon the mass is subjected
for several hours to a heat which at first does not attain redness, but
eventually when no more fumes are generated is increased to dark-red
heat. This operation is conducted either in a glass retort or in an
earthenware crucible. The sal ammoniac escapes first on heating, next
vermilion sublimates and some stannic chloride, while the mosaic gold
remains on the bottom, the upper layer, consisting of lustrous, golden,
delicately translucent leaflets, being the handsomest mosaic gold.


«Genuine Silver Bronze.»—This is obtained by the finely ground waste
from beating leaf silver or by dissolving silver in aqua fortis. This
solution is then diluted with water and brightly scoured copper plates
are put in, whereby the silver precipitates as a metallic powder.


«Imitation Silver Bronze.»—This is obtained through the waste in
beating imitation leaf silver, which, finely ground, is then washed
and dried. In order to increase the luster it is ground again in a dry
condition.


«Mosaic Silver.»—Mosaic silver is an amalgam of equal parts of mercury,
bismuth, and tin. One may also melt 50 parts of good tin in a crucible,
and as soon as it becomes liquid add 50 parts of bismuth, stirring all
with an iron wire until the bismuth is fused as well. As soon as this
occurs the crucible must be removed from the fire; then stir in, as
long as the contents are still liquid, 25 parts of mercury and mix the
whole mass evenly until it can be ground on a stone slab.

BRONZE VARNISHES: See Varnishes.

BRONZING SOLUTIONS FOR PAINTS: See Paints.

BRONZING OF WOOD: See Wood.

BROOCHES, PHOTOGRAPHS ON: See Photography.

BROWN OINTMENT: See Ointments.

BROWNING OF STEEL: See Plating.

BROWNSTONE, IMITATION: See Brick Stain.

BRUNETTE POWDER: See Cosmetics.


«Brushes»


«HOW TO TAKE CARE OF PAINT AND VARNISH BRUSHES.»

It is a good plan to fill the varnish brush before putting it in the
keeper.

Whitewash or kalsomine brushes should not be put into newly slaked lime
or hot kalsomine.

Cement-set brushes should never be put in any alcohol mixture, such as
shelacs and spirit stains.

Varnish brushes should be selected with a view to their possessing the
following qualities: 1st, excellence of material; 2d, excellence of
make, which includes fullness of hair or bristles and permanency of
binding; 3d, life and spring, or elasticity sufficient to enable the
varnisher to spread the varnish without reducing it with turpentine;
and 4th, springing, when in use, to a true chisel edge.


«Temperature for Brushes.»—The bristles of every brush are held in
place by the handle. It passes through the shank of the brush and
is kiln-dried to fit perfectly. If it shrinks, however, its outward
tension is lost and the bristles loosened. For this reason the first
principle in brush care is to keep the tool, when it is new or not
soaking, in a cool place, out of hot rooms, and any temperature that
would tend to shrink the wood of the handle.


«Cleaning Paint Brushes.»—No new brush should be dipped in the paint
and put to work without first being {141} cleaned. By working it with
a brisk movement back and forth through the hand most of the dust and
loose hairs will be taken out. A paint brush, when thus thoroughly dry
cleaned, should be placed in water for a few minutes, not long enough
to soak or swell it, but only until wet through, and then swung and
shaken dry. It is then ready to dip in the paint, and although some of
the hairs may still be loose, most of them will come out in the first
few minutes’ working and can be easily picked from the surface.


«Cleaning Varnish Brushes.»—Varnish brushes, and brushes used in
varnish stain, buggy paint, and all color in varnish require different
handling than paint brushes. They should be more thoroughly dry
cleaned, in order that all loose hairs may be worked out. After working
them through the hand it is a good thing to pass the brush back and
forth over a sheet of sandpaper. This rough surface will pull out the
loose bristles and smooth down the rough ends of the chisel point. The
brush should then be washed by working it for a few minutes in clean
turpentine and swinging it dry. It should never be put in water. For
carriage work and fine varnishing the brush should be broken in on the
rubbing coat in order to work out all the dust particles before it is
used on the finishing coats.


«Setting the Paint-Brush Bristles.»—For the first 2 or 3 days new
brushes require special care while at rest. They should be dipped in
raw oil or the paint itself and smoothed out carefully, then laid on
their sides over night. The chisel-pointed brushes should be set at an
incline, the handle supported just enough to allow the brush to lie
along the point. This is done to prevent twisting of the bristles, and
to keep the shape of the brush. It is necessary to do this only 2 or 3
times before the shape becomes set.


«Paint Brushes at Rest.»—An important principle in brush care is never
to leave the brush on end while at rest. Even for temporary rest during
a job the brush should never stand on end. At night it should always
be placed in a “brush-keeper”—a water-tight box, or a paint keg, with
nails driven through the sides on which the brushes can be suspended in
water. Holes are bored in the handles so the brush will hang free of
the bottom, but with the bristles entirely under water. Before placing
them in water the brushes should be wiped so as not to be too full of
paint, but not cleaned.


«Varnish Brushes at Rest.»—Varnish brushes should be kept at rest in
turpentine and varnish, or better, in some of the varnish that the
brush is used for. They should preferably not be kept in turpentine, as
that makes the brush “lousy”—roughening the bristles.


«Washing Brushes.»—All brushes should be washed in benzine or
turpentine and shaken dry—not whipped—when it is desired to change from
one color to another, or from one varnish to another.


«To Restore Brushes.»—A good remedy to restore lettering brushes which
have lost their elasticity and do not keep a point, is as follows:

Put the pencil in oil and brush it several times over a hot iron in
such a manner that the hairs touch the iron from each side; then dip
the pencil quickly in cold water.


«A Removable Binding.»—The bristle bunch of brushes is bound with rope
so as to keep them together for use. Instead of the twine, a covering
of rubber may be employed, which is easily slipped over the bristles
and can be conveniently removed again. The cleaning of the brush is
much facilitated thereby, and the breadth of the stripe to be drawn
with the brush can be accurately regulated, according to how far the
covering is slipped over the brush.

See also Cleaning Preparations and Methods.

BUBBLES IN GELATIN: See Gelatin.

BUBBLE (SOAP) LIQUID: See Soap Bubble Liquid.


«BUBBLES.»

Bubbles of air often adhere to molds immersed in depositing solutions.
They may be prevented by previously dipping the object into spirits
of wine, or be removed by the aid of a soft brush, or by directing a
powerful current of the liquid against them by means of a vulcanized
india-rubber bladder, with a long and curved glass tube attached to it;
but the liquid should be free from sediment.

BUG KILLERS: See Insecticides.

BUNIONS: See Corn Cures. {142}


«BURNS:»

See also Ointments and Turpentine.


«Mixture for Burns.»—I.—A mixture of castor oil with the white of egg
is recommended for burns. The eggs are broken into a bowl and the
castor oil slowly poured in while the eggs are beaten. Enough oil is
added to make a thick, creamy paste, which is applied to the burn. The
applications are repeated often enough to prevent their becoming dry or
sticky. Leave the surface uncovered.

II.—Put 27 parts, by measure, of menthol into 44 parts, by measure, of
witch hazel (distillate) and apply freely. A good plan is to bandage
the parts and wet the wrappings with this mixture.

III.—A very efficacious remedy for burns is a solution of cooking
salt in water. It is best to immerse fingers, hands, and arms in the
solution, which must be tolerably strong. For burns in the face and
other parts of the body, salt water poultices are applied.


«Butter»

(See also Foods.)


«Butter Color.»—Orlean, 80 parts, by weight; curcuma root (turmeric),
80 parts, by weight; olive oil, 240 parts, by weight; saffron, 1 part,
by weight; alcohol, 5 parts, by weight. The orlean and turmeric are
macerated with olive oil and expressed. The weight of the filtered
liquid is made up again to 240 parts, by weight, with olive oil, next
the filtered saffron-alcohol extract is added, and the alcohol is
expelled again by heating the mixture.


«Artificial Butter.»—I.—Carefully washed beef suet furnishes a basis
for the manufactures of an edible substitute for natural butter. The
thoroughly washed and finely chopped suet is rendered in a steam-heated
tank; 1,000 parts of fat, 300 parts of water, 1 part of potassium
carbonate, and 2 stomachs of pigs or sheep, are taken. The temperature
of the mixture is raised to 113° F. After 2 hours, under the influence
of the pepsin in the stomachs, the membranes are dissolved and the fat
is melted and rises to the top of the mixture. After the addition of a
little salt the melted fat is drawn off, stood to cool so as to allow
the stearine and palmitin to separate, and then pressed in bags in a
hydraulic press. Forty to 50 per cent of solid stearine remains, while
50 to 60 per cent of fluid oleopalmitin (so-called “oleomargarine”)
is pressed out. The “oleo oil” is then mixed with 10 per cent of its
weight of milk and a little butter color and churned. The product is
then worked, salted, and constituted the “oleomargarine,” or butter
substitute. Leaf lard can be worked in the same way as beef suet, and
will yield an oleopalmitin suitable for churning up into a butter
substitute.

II.—Fat from freshly slaughtered cattle after thorough washing is
placed in clean water and surrounded with ice, where it is allowed to
remain until all animal heat has been removed. It is then cut into
small pieces by machinery and cooked at a temperature of about 150° F.
(65.6° C.) until the fat in liquid form has separated from the tissue,
then settled until it is perfectly clear. Then it is drawn into the
graining vats and allowed to stand for a day, when it is ready for
the presses. The pressing extracts the stearine, leaving a product
commercially known as oleo oil which, when churned with cream or milk,
or both, and with usually a proportion of creamery butter, the whole
being properly salted, gives the new food product, oleomargarine.

III.—In making butterine use neutral lard, which is made from selected
leaf lard in a very similar manner to oleo oil, excepting that no
stearine is extracted. This neutral lard is cured in salt brine for
from 48 to 70 hours at an ice-water temperature. It is then taken and,
with the desired proportion of oleo oil and fine butter, is churned
with cream and milk, producing an article which when properly salted
and packed is ready for the market. In both cases coloring matter is
used, which is the same as that used by dairymen to color their butter.
At certain seasons of the year—viz., in cold weather, a small quantity
of sesame oil or salad oil made from cottonseed oil is used to soften
the texture of the product.

IV.—“Ankara” is a substance which in general appearance resembles a
good article of butter, being rather firmer at ordinary temperatures
than that substance, approaching the consistency of cocoa butter. It
is quite odorless, but in taste it resembles that of a fair article of
butter and, what is more, its behavior under heat is very similar to
that of butter—it browns and forms a sort of spume like that of fat.
Ankara consists of a base of cocoa butter, carrying about 10 per cent
of milk, colored with yolk of egg. While not derived from milk, on the
one hand, nor does it come from a single vegetable or animal fat on the
other, {143} ankara may be considered as belonging to the category of
the margarines. Ankara is obtained in the market in the form of cakes
or tablets of 2 pounds in weight.

V.—Fresh butter, 150 parts, by weight; animal fat, 80 parts, by weight;
sunflower oil, 40 parts, by weight; cocoanut oil, 30 parts, by weight.

VI.—Fresh butter, 100 parts, by weight; animal fat, 100 parts, by
weight; sunflower oil, 80 parts, by weight; cocoanut oil, 20 parts, by
weight.

VII.—Fresh butter, 50 parts, by weight; animal fat, 150 parts, by
weight; sunflower oil, 80 parts, by weight; cocoanut oil, 20 parts, by
weight.

It is seen that these three varieties contain respectively 50, 33, and
about 16 per cent of cow’s butter. The appearance of the mixture is
nearly perfect.

Formulas V to VII are for a Russian artificial butter called “Perepusk.”


«To Impart the Aroma and Taste of Natural Butter to Margarine.»—In
order to give margarine the aroma and flavor of cow butter, add to it
a fatty acid product, which is obtained by saponification of butter,
decomposition of the soap, and distillation in the vacuum at about 140°
F. The addition of the product is made upon emulsification of the fats
with milk. The margarine will keep for months.


«Harmless Butter Color.»—Alum, pulverized finely, 30 parts; extract
of turmeric, 1 part. With the extract dampen the powder as evenly as
possible, then spread out and dry over some hot surface. When dry,
again pulverize thoroughly. Protect the product from the light. As much
of the powder as will lie on the point of a penknife is added to a
churnful of milk, or cream, before churning, and it gives a beautiful
golden color, entirely harmless. To make the extract of turmeric add
1 part of powdered turmeric to 5 parts of alcohol, and let macerate
together for fully a week.


«To Sweeten Rancid Butter.»—I.—Wash the butter first with fresh milk
and afterwards with spring water, carefully working out the residual
water.

II.—Add 25 to 30 drops of lime chloride to every 2 pounds of butter,
work the mass up thoroughly, then wash in plenty of fresh, cold water,
and work out the residual water.

III.—Melt the butter in a water bath, along with some freshly burned
animal charcoal, coarsely powdered and carefully sifted to free it
from dust. After this has remained in contact for a few minutes, the
butter is strained through a clean flannel. If the rancid odor is not
completely removed, complete the process.


«An English Margarine.»—A mixture of edible fats of suitable
consistency, e. g., oleo oil, 5 parts; neutral lard, 7 parts; and
butter, 1 part; is mixed with albuminous “batter,” 4 parts, with
the addition of 1 part of salt as a preservative. If the albuminous
constituent be composed of the whites and yolks of eggs beaten to a
foam the product will have the consistency and color of butter. The
molten fats are added to the egg batter and the whole is stirred
at a temperature sufficient to produce coagulation of the albumen
(150–200° F.). The mass is then cooled gradually with continuous
stirring, and the salt is worked in.


«Olive-Oil Paste.»—If an ounce of peeled garlic be rubbed up into a
pulp, in a clean Wedgwood mortar, and to this be added from 3 to 4
ounces of good olive oil, with constant rubbing up with the pestle, the
oil becomes converted into a pasty mass, like butter. It is possible
that the mucilage obtainable from other bulbs of the _Lilium_ tribe
would prove equally efficient in conferring semi-solidity on the oil,
without imparting any strong smell. The above composition is largely
used by the Spanish peasantry, instead of butter, which runs liquid in
the Spanish summer. It is known as “aleoli.” The more easily solidified
portion of olive oil is stearine, and this may be cheaply prepared from
mutton fat. If added, in certain proportions, to olive oil, it would
certainly raise its melting point.


«BUTTERMILK, ARTIFICIAL.»

Buttermilk powder, 10 parts; vinegar, 1 part; syrup of buckthorn, 1
part. Dissolve the powder in the water and add the vinegar and syrup.
The powder is prepared as follows: Sodium chloride, 50 parts; milk
sugar, 100 parts; potassium nitrate, 5 parts; alum, 5 parts. Mix.

BUTTER, ARTIFICIAL: TESTS FOR: See Foods.

BUTTER COLORANT: See Foods.

BUTTONS OF ARTIFICIAL AGATE: See Agate.

CADMIUM ALLOYS: See Alloys. {144}


«CALCIUM CARBIDE:»


«Preservation and Use of Calcium Carbide.»—Calcium carbide is readily
attacked by the air and the moisture contained in the generators and
consequently decomposes during the storing, with formation of acetylene
gas. Aside from the loss, this decomposition is also attended with
dangers. One of the oldest methods of preservation is the saturation of
the carbide with petroleum. In using such carbide a layer of petroleum
forms on the surface of the water in the generator, which prevents the
water from evaporating, thus limiting the subsequent generation of
acetylene from the remaining carbide. Instead of petroleum many other
substances have been proposed which answer the purpose equally well, e.
g., toluol, oils, solid bodies, which previously have to be liquefied,
such as stearine, paraffine, rosin, etc.

Of a different nature is a medium offered by Létang of Paris. He
employs sugar or saccharine bodies to which he adds, if necessary, a
little petroleum, turpentine, vaseline, or varnish of any kind, as well
as chalk, limestone, talc, sulphur, or sand. The carbide is coated
with this mixture. The saccharine substances dissolve in the generating
water, and also have a dissolving action on the slaked lime, which is
formed by the decomposition of the carbide which admits of its easy
removal.

According to another process carbide is put on the market in such a
shape that, without weighing, merely by counting or measuring one is
in a position to use equivalent quantities for every charge. Gearing
casts molten carbide in the shape of bars, and pours a layer of
gelatin, glue, and water soluble varnish over the carbide bars. Others
make shells containing a certain quantity of reduced carbide. For this
ordinary and varnished pasteboard, wax paper, tinfoil, thin sheet zinc,
and similar substances may be used which ward off atmospheric moisture,
thus protecting the carbide from premature decomposition. Before use,
the cartridge-like shell is pierced or cut open, so that the water can
get at the contents. The more or less reduced carbide is filled in the
shell, either without any admixture or united into a compact mass by a
binding agent, such as colophony, pitch, tar, sand, etc.


«Deodorization of Calcium Carbide.»—Calcium carbide is known to possess
a very unpleasant odor because it constantly develops small quantities
of impure acetylene in contact with the moisture of the air. Le Roy,
of Rouen, proposes for portable—especially bicycle—lamps, in which
the evil is more noticeable than in large plants, simply to pour some
petroleum over the carbide and to pour off the remainder not absorbed.
The petroleum, to which it is well to add some nitro-benzol (mirbane
essence), prevents the access of air to the carbide, but permits a very
satisfactory generation of gas on admission of water.

CALCIUM SULPHIDE (LUMINOUS): See Paints.

CALFSKIN: See Leather.

CAMERA RENOVATION: See Photography.


«CAMPHOR PREPARATIONS:»


«Fragrant Naphthalene Camphor.»—

 Naphthalene white, in scales   3,000 parts
 Camphor                        1,000 parts

Melt on the steam bath and add to the hot mass:

 Coumarin                           2 parts
 Mirbane oil                       10 parts

Cast in plates or compressed tablets. The preparation is employed as a
moth preventive.


«Powdered Camphor in Permanent Form.»—I.—Powder the camphor in the
usual manner, with the addition of a little alcohol. When it is nearly
reduced to the proper degree of fineness add a few drops of fluid
petrolatum and immediately triturate again. In this manner a powder as
fine as flour is obtained, which does not cake together. This powdered
camphor may be used for all purposes except for solution in alcohol,
as it will impart to the latter a faint opalescence, owing to the
insolubility of the petrolatum.

II.—Take equal parts of strong ether and alcohol to reduce the camphor
to powder. It is claimed for this method that it only takes one-half
of the time required when alcohol alone is used, and that the camphor
dries more quickly. Before sifting add 1 per cent of white vaseline and
5 per cent of sugar of milk. Triturate fairly dry, spread out in the
air, say 15 minutes, then pass through a moderately fine wire sieve,
using a stubby shaving brush to assist in working it through. {145}


«Camphor Pomade»—

 Oil of bitter almonds     1     drachm
 Oil of cloves            20     drops
 Camphor                   1 1/2 ounces
 White wax                 4 ounces
 Lard, prepared            1 pound

Melt the wax and lard together, then add the camphor in saturated
solution in spirit; put in the oils when nearly cold.


«Camphor Ice.»—

 I.—White wax                    16 parts
     Benzoated suet               48 parts
     Camphor, powdered             8 parts
     Essential oil, to perfume.

Melt the wax and suet together. When nearly cold, add the camphor and
perfume, mix well, and pour into molds.

 II.—Oil of almond                    16 parts
      White wax                         4 parts
      Spermaceti                        4 parts
      Paraffine                         8 parts
      Camphor, powdered                 1 part
      Perfume, quantity sufficient.

Dissolve the camphor in the oil by the aid of a gentle heat. Melt the
solids together, remove, and let cool, but before the mixture begins to
set add the camphorated oil and the perfume, mix, and pour into molds.

 III.—Stearine (stearic acid)   8 pounds
       Lard                     10 pounds
       White wax                 5 pounds
       Spermaceti                5 pounds

Melt on a water bath in an earthen or porcelain dish; strain into a
similar vessel; add a solution of 2 ounces powdered borax in 1 pound
of glycerine, previously warmed, to the melted substance when at the
point of cooling; stir well; add camphor, 2 pounds, powdered by means
of alcohol, 3 ounces; stir well and pour into molds.

CAMPHOR SUBSTITUTES IN THE PREPARATION OF CELLULOID: See Celluloid.

CAMPHOR AND RHUBARB AS A REMEDY FOR CHOLERA: See Cholera Remedies.

CAN VARNISH: See Varnishes.


«CANARY-BIRD PASTE.»

The following is a formula much used by German canary-bird raisers:

 Sweet almonds, blanched    16 parts
 Pea meal                   32 parts
 Butter, fresh (unsalted)    3 parts
 Honey, quantity sufficient to make a stiff paste.

The ingredients are worked into a stiff paste, which is pressed through
a colander or large sieve to granulate the mass. Some add to every 5
pounds, 10 or 15 grains of saffron and the yolks of 2 eggs.

CANARY BIRDS AND THEIR DISEASES: See Veterinary Formulas.


«CANDLES:»


«Coloring Ceresine Candles for the Christmas Tree.»—For coloring these
candles only dye stuffs soluble in oil can be employed. Blue: 23–24
lavender blue, pale or dark, 100–120 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine.
Violet: 26 fast violet R, 150 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine. Silver
gray: 29 silver gray, 150 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine. Yellow and
orange: 30 wax yellow, medium, 200 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine;
61 old gold, 200 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine. Pink and red: 27
peach-pink, or 29 chamois, about 100 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine.
Green: 16–17 brilliant green, 33 May green, 41 May green, 200–250
parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine. The above-named colors should be
ground in oil and the ceresine tinted with them afterwards.


«Manufacture of Composite Paraffine Candles.»—Three parts of
hydroxy-stearic acid are dissolved in 1 part of a suitable solvent (e.
g., stearic acid), and the solution is mixed with paraffine wax to form
a stock for the manufacture of composite candles.


«Transparent Candles.»—The following are two recipes given in a German
patent specification. The figures denote parts by weight:

I.—Paraffine wax, 70; stearine, 15; petroleum, 15.

II.—Paraffine wax, 90; stearine, 5; petroleum, 5. Recipe I of course
gives candles more transparent than does recipe II. The 15 per cent may
be regarded as the extreme limit consistent with proper solidity of the
candles.


«To Prevent the Trickling of Burning Candles.»—Dip the candles in the
following mixture:

 Magnesium sulphate    15 parts
 Dextrin               15 parts
 Water                100 parts

The solution dries quickly and does not affect the burning of the
candle. {146}


«Candle Coloring.»—Candles are colored either throughout or they
sometimes consist of a white body that is covered with a colored layer
of paraffine wax. According to the material from which candles are made
(stearine, paraffine, or ozokerite), the process of coloring varies.

Stearine, owing to its acid character, dissolves the coal-tar colors
much more readily than do the perfectly neutral paraffine and ozokerite
waxes. For coloring stearine the necessary quantity of the color is
added to the melted mass and well stirred in; if the solution effected
happens to be incomplete, a small addition of alcohol will prove an
effective remedy. It is also an advantage to dissolve the colors
previously in alcohol and add the concentrated solution to the melted
stearine. The alcohol soon evaporates, and has no injurious effect on
the quality of the stearine.

For a number of years there have been on the market so-called “fat
colors,” formed by making concentrated solutions of the color, and also
special preparations of the colors in stearine. They are more easily
applied, and are, therefore, preferred to the powdered aniline colors,
which are apt to cause trouble by being accidentally distributed
in soluble particles, where they are not wanted. Since paraffine
and ozokerite dissolve comparatively little, they will not become
colored, and so must be colored indirectly. One way is to dissolve the
color in oleic acid or in stearine acid and add the solution to the
wax to be colored. Turpentine may be employed for the same purpose.
Concerning the colors suitable for candles, there are the eosine colors
previously mentioned, and also chroline yellow, auramine, taniline
blue, tartrazine, brilliant green, etc. The latter, however, bleaches
so rapidly that it can hardly be recommended. An interesting phenomenon
is the change some colors undergo in a warm temperature; for instance,
some blues turn red at a moderate degree of heat (120° F.) and return
to blue only when completely cooled off; this will be noticed while the
candle mixture is being melted previous to molding into candles.

CANDLES (FUMIGATING): See Fumigants.

CANDY COLORS AND FLAVORS: See Confectionery.

CANDY: See Confectionery.

CANVAS WATERPROOFING: See Waterproofing.

CAOUTCHOUC: See Rubber.

CAOUTCHOUC SOLUTION FOR PAINTS: See Paint.

CAPPING MIXTURES FOR BOTTLES: See Bottle-Capping Mixtures.

CAPSULE VARNISH: See Varnishes.


«CARAMEL:»


«Cloudless Caramel Coloring.»—I.—When it is perfectly understood that
in the manufacture of caramel, sugar is to be deprived of the one
molecule of its water of constitution, it will be apparent that heat
must not be carried on to the point of carbonization. Cloudy caramel is
due to the fact that part of the sugar has been dissociated and reduced
to carbon, which is insoluble in water. Hence the cloudiness. Caramel
may be made on a small scale in the following manner: Place 4 or 5
ounces of granulated sugar in a shallow porcelain-lined evaporating
dish and apply either a direct heat or that of an oil bath, continuing
the heat until caramelization takes place or until tumescence ceases
and the mass has assumed a dark-brown color. Then carefully add
sufficient water to bring the viscid mass to the consistence of a heavy
syrup. Extreme _care_ must be taken and the face and hands protected
during the addition of the water, owing to the intensity of the heat of
the mass, and consequent sputtering.

II.—The ordinary sugar coloring material is made from sugar or glucose
by heating it, while being constantly stirred, up to a temperature of
about 405° F. A metal pan capable of holding nearly ten times as much
as the sugar used, is necessary so as to retain the mass in its swollen
condition. As soon as it froths up so as nearly to fill the pan, an
action which occurs suddenly, the fire must instantly be extinguished
or removed. The finished product will be insoluble if more than about
15 per cent of its weight is driven off by the heat.

CARAMEL IN FOOD: See Food.

CARAMELS: See Confectionery. {147}


«CARBOLIC ACID.»


«Perfumed Carbolic Acid.»—

 I.—Carbolic acid (cryst.)    1 ounce
     Alcohol                   1 ounce
     Oil bergamot             10 minims
     Oil eucalyptus           10 minims
     Oil citronella            3 minims
     Tincture cudbear         10 minims
     Water, to make           10 ounces

Set aside for several days, and then filter through fuller’s earth.

 II.—Carbolic acid (cryst.)    4 drachms
      Cologne water             4 drachms
      Dilute acetic acid        9 ounces

Keep in a cool place for a few days, and filter.


«Treatment of Carbolic-Acid Burns.»—Thoroughly wash the hands with
alcohol, and the burning and tingling will almost immediately cease.
Unless employed immediately, however, the alcohol has no effect. When
the time elapsed since the burning is too great for alcohol to be of
value, brush the burns with a saturated solution of picric acid in
water.


«Decolorization of Carbolic Acid.»—To decolorize the acid the following
simple method is recommended. For purifying carbolic acid which has
already become quite brown-red on account of having been kept in a tin
vessel, the receptacle is exposed for a short time to a temperature of
25° C. (77° F.), thus causing only a part of the contents to melt. In
this state the acid is put into glass funnels and left to stand for 10
to 12 days in a room which is likewise kept at the above temperature.
Clear white crystals form from the drippings, which remained unchanged,
protected from air and light, while by repeating the same process more
clear crystals are obtained from the solidified dark colored mother
lye. In this manner 75 to 80 per cent of clear product is obtained
altogether.


«Disguising Odor of Carbolic Acid.»—Any stronger smelling substance
will disguise the odor of carbolic acid, to an extent at least, but it
is a difficult odor to disguise on account of its persistence. Camphor
and some of the volatile oils, such as peppermint, cajeput, caraway,
clove, and wintergreen may be used.


«To Restore Reddened Carbolic Acid.»—Demont’s method consists in
melting the acid on the water bath, adding 12 per cent of alcohol of
95 per cent, letting cool down and, after the greater part of the
substance has crystallized out, decanting the liquid residue. The
crystals obtained in this manner are snowy white, and on being melted
yield a nearly colorless liquid. The alcohol may be recovered by
redistillation at a low temperature. This is a rather costly procedure.

CARBOLIC SOAP: See Soap.


«CARBOLINEUM:»

See also Paints and Wood.


«Preparation of Carbolineum.»—I.—Melt together 50 parts of American
rosin (F) and 150 parts of pale paraffine oil (yellow oil), and add,
with stirring, 20 parts of rosin oil (rectified).

II.—Sixty parts, by weight, of black coal tar oil of a specific gravity
higher than 1.10; 25 parts, by weight, of creosote oil; 25 parts, by
weight, of beechwood tar oil of a higher specific weight than 0.9. Mix
together and heat to about 347° F., or until the fumes given off begin
to deposit soot. The resulting carbolineum is brown, and of somewhat
thick consistency; when cool it is ready for use and is packed in
casks. This improved carbolineum is applied to wood or masonry with
a brush; the surfaces treated dry quickly, very soon loose the odor
of the carbolineum, and are effectively protected from dampness and
formation of fungi.

CARBON PRINTING: See Photography.

CARBON PROCESS IN PHOTOGRAPHY: See Photography.

CARBONYLE: See Wood.

CARBUNCLE REMEDIES: See Boil Remedy.

CARDS (PLAYING), TO CLEAN: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.

CARDBOARD, WATERPROOF GLUE FOR: See Adhesives under Cements and
Waterproof Glues.

CARDBOARD, WATERPROOFING: See Waterproofing.

CARMINATIVES: See Pain Killers.

CARPET PRESERVATION: See Household Formulas.

CARPET SOAP: See Soap. {148}

CARRIAGE-TOP DRESSING: See Leather.

CARRON OIL: See Cosmetics.

CASE HARDENING: See Steel.


«Casein»


«Dried Casein, its Manufacture and Uses.»—For the production of casein,
skimmed milk or buttermilk is used, articles of slight value, as they
cannot be employed for feeding hogs or for making cheese, except of a
very inferior sort, of little or no alimentive qualities. This milk
is heated to from 70° to 90° C. (175°–195° F.), and sulphuric or
hydrochloric acid is added until it no longer causes precipitation. The
precipitate is washed to free it from residual lactose, redissolved
in a sodium carbonate solution, and again precipitated, this time by
lactic acid. It is again washed, dried, and pulverized. It takes 8
gallons of skimmed milk to make 1 pound of dry casein.

In the manufacture of fancy papers, or papers that are made to imitate
the appearance of various cloths, laces, and silks, casein is very
widely used. It is also largely used in waterproofing tissues, for
preparation of waterproof products, and various articles prepared
from agglomeration of cork (packing boards, etc.). With lime water
casein makes a glue that resists heat, steam, etc. It also enters into
the manufacture of the various articles made from artificial ivory
(billiard balls, combs, toilet boxes, etc.), imitation of celluloid,
meerschaum, etc., and is finding new uses every day.

Casein, as known, may act the part of an acid and combine with bases
to form caseinates or caseates; among these compounds, caseinates of
potash, of soda, and of ammonia are the only ones soluble in water;
all the others are insoluble and may be readily prepared by double
decomposition. Thus, for example, to obtain caseinate of alumina
it is sufficient to add to a solution of casein in caustic soda, a
solution of sulphate of alumina; an insoluble precipitate of casein, or
caseinate of alumina, is instantly formed.

This precipitate ought to be freed from the sulphate of soda (formed by
double decomposition), by means of prolonged washing. Pure, ordinary
cellulose may be incorporated with it by this process, producing a new
compound, cheaper than pure cellulose, although possessing the same
properties, and capable of replacing it in all its applications.

According to the results desired, in transparency, color, hardness,
etc., the most suitable caseinate should be selected. Thus, if a
translucent compound is to be obtained, the caseinate of alumina yields
the best. If a white compound is desired, the caseinate of zinc, or of
magnesia, should be chosen; and for colored products the caseinates of
iron, copper, and nickel will give varied tints.

The process employed for the new products, with a base of celluloid and
caseinate, is as follows: On one hand casein is dissolved in a solution
of caustic soda (100 parts of water for 10 to 25 parts of soda), and
this liquid is filtered to separate the matters not dissolved and
the impurities. On the other hand, a salt of the base of which the
caseinate is desired is dissolved, and the solution filtered. It is
well not to operate on too concentrated a solution. The two solutions
are mixed in a receptacle provided with a mechanical stirrer, in order
to obtain the insoluble caseinate precipitate in as finely divided a
state as possible. This precipitate should be washed thoroughly, so
as to free it from the soda salt formed by double decomposition, but
on account of its gummy or pasty state, this washing presents certain
difficulties, and should be done carefully. After the washing the
mass is freed from the greater part of water contained, by draining,
followed by drying, or energetic pressing; then it is washed in
alcohol, dried or pressed again, and is ready to be incorporated in the
plastic mass of the celluloid.

For the latter immersion and washing it has been found that an
addition of 1 to 5 per cent of borax is advantageous, for it renders
the mass more plastic, and facilitates the operation of mixing. This
may be conducted in a mixing apparatus; but, in practice, it is found
preferable to effect it with a rolling mill, operating as follows:

The nitro-cellulose is introduced in the plastic state, and moistened
with a solution of camphor in alcohol (40 to 50 parts of camphor in
50 to 70 of alcohol for 100 of nitro-cellulose) as it is practiced in
celluloid factories.

This plastic mass of nitro-cellulose is placed in a rolling mill,
the cylinders of which are slightly heated at the same time as the
caseinate, prepared as above; then the whole mass is worked by the
cylinders until the mixture of the two {149} is perfectly homogeneous,
and the final mass is sufficiently hard to be drawn out in leaves in
the same way as practiced for pure celluloid.

These leaves are placed in hydraulic presses, where they are
compressed, first hot, then cold, and the block thus formed is
afterwards cut into leaves of the thickness desired. These leaves
are dried in an apparatus in the same way as ordinary celluloid. The
product resembles celluloid, and has all its properties. At 90° to
100° C. (194° to 212° F.), it becomes quite plastic, and is easily
molded. It may be sawed, filed, turned, and carved without difficulty,
and takes on a superb polish. It burns less readily than celluloid,
and its combustibility diminishes in proportion as the percentage of
caseinate increases; finally, the cost price is less than that of
celluloid, and by using a large proportion of caseinate, products may
be manufactured at an extremely low cost.


«Phosphate of Casein and its Production.»—The process is designed
to produce a strongly acid compound of phosphoric acid and casein,
practically stable and not hydroscopic, which may be employed as an
acid ingredient in bakers’ yeast and for other purposes.

The phosphoric acid may be obtained by any convenient method; for
example, by decomposing dicalcic or monocalcic phosphate with sulphuric
acid. The commercial phosphoric acid may also be employed.

The casein may be precipitated from the skimmed milk by means of
a suitable acid, and should be washed with cold water to remove
impurities. A caseinate may also be employed, such as a compound of
casein and an alkali or an alkaline earth.

The new compound is produced in the following way: A sufficient
quantity of phosphoric acid is incorporated with the casein or a
caseinate in such a way as to insure sufficient acidity in the
resulting compound. The employment of 23 to 25 parts by weight of
phosphoric acid with 75 to 77 parts of casein constitutes a good
proportion.

An aqueous solution of phosphoric acid is made, and the casein
introduced in the proportion of 25 to 50 per cent of the weight of
the phosphoric acid present. The mixture is then heated till the
curdled form of the casein disappears, and it assumes a uniform fluid
form. Then the mixture is concentrated to a syrupy consistency. The
remainder of the casein or of the caseinate is added and mixed with
the solution until it is intimately incorporated and the mass becomes
uniform. The compound is dried in a current of hot air, or in any other
way that will not discolor it, and it is ground to a fine powder. The
intimate union of the phosphoric acid and casein during the gradual
concentration of the mixture and during the grinding and drying,
removes the hydroscopic property of the phosphoric acid, and produces
a dry and stable product, which may be regarded as a hyperphosphate of
casein. When it is mixed with water, it swells and dissolves slowly.
When this compound is mingled with its equivalent of sodium bicarbonate
it yields about 17 per cent of gas.

CASEIN CEMENTS: See Adhesives.

CASEIN VARNISH: See Varnishes.


«CASKS:»


«To Render Shrunken Wooden Casks Watertight.»—When a wooden receptacle
has dried up it naturally cannot hold the water poured into it for the
purpose of swelling it, and the pouring has to be repeated many times
before the desired end is reached. A much quicker way is to stuff the
receptacle full of straw or bad hay, laying a stone on top and then
filling the vessel with water. Although the water runs off again, the
moistened straw remains behind and greatly assists the swelling up of
the wood.

CASSIUS, PURPLE OF: See Gold.

CASKET TRIMMINGS: See Castings.

CASTS (PLASTER), PRESERVATION OF: See Plaster.

CASTS, REPAIRING OF BROKEN: See Adhesives and Lutes.

CASTS FROM WAX MODELS: See Modeling.


«Casting»


«Castings Out of Various Metals.»—Until recent years metal castings
were all made in sand molds; that is, the patterns were used for the
impressions in the sand, the same as iron castings are produced to-day.
Nearly all of the softer metals are now cast in brass, copper, zinc,
or iron molds, and only the silver {150} and German silver articles,
like wire real bronze, are cast the old way, in sand. Aluminum can
be readily cast in iron molds, especially if the molds have been
previously heated to nearly the same temperature as the molten
aluminum, and after the molds are full the metal is cooled gradually
and the casting taken out as soon as cooled enough to prevent breaking
from the shrinkage. Large bicycle frames have been successfully cast in
this manner.

The French bronzes, which are imitations, are cast in copper or brass
molds. The material used is principally zinc and tin, and an unlimited
number of castings can be made in the mold, but if a real bronze piece
is to be produced it must be out of copper and the mold made in sand.
To make the castings hollow, with sand, a core is required. This fills
the inside of the figure so that the molten copper runs around it, and
as the core is made out of sand, the same can be afterwards washed out.
If the casting is to be hollow and is to be cast in a metal mold, then
the process is very simple. The mold is filled with molten metal, and
when the operator thinks the desired thickness has cooled next to the
walls, he pours out the balance. An experienced man can make hollow
castings in this way, and make the walls of any thickness.

Casket hardware trimmings, which are so extensively used on coffins,
especially the handles, are nearly all cast out of tin and antimony,
and in brass molds. The metal used is brittle, and requires
strengthening at the weak portions, and this is mostly done with wood
filling or with iron rods, which are secured in the molds before the
metal is poured in.

Aluminum castings, which one has procured at the foundries, are usually
alloyed with zinc. This has a close affinity with aluminum, and alloys
readily; but this mixture is a detriment and causes much trouble
afterwards. While this alloy assists the molder to produce his castings
easily, on the other hand it will not polish well and will corrode in a
short time. Those difficulties may be avoided if pure aluminum is used.

Plaster of Paris molds are the easiest made for pieces where only a few
castings are wanted. The only difficulty is that it requires a few days
to dry the plaster thoroughly, and that is absolutely necessary to use
them successfully. Not only can the softer metals be run into plaster
molds, but gold and silver can be run into them. A plaster mold should
be well smoked over a gaslight, or until well covered with a layer of
soot, and the metal should be poured in as cool a state as it will run.


«To Prevent the Adhesion of Modeling Sand to Castings.»—Use a mixture
of finely ground coke and graphite. Although the former material is
highly porous, possessing this quality even as a fine powder, and
the fine pulverization is a difficult operation, still the invention
attains its purpose of producing an absolutely smooth surface. This is
accomplished by mixing both substances intimately and adding melted
rosin, whereupon the whole mass is exposed to heat, so that the rosin
decomposes, its carbon residue filling up the finest pores of the
coke. The rosin, in melting, carries the fine graphite particles along
into the pores. After cooling the mass is first ground in edge mills,
then again in a suitable manner and sifted. Surprising results are
obtained with this material. It is advisable to take proportionately
little graphite, as the different co-efficients of expansion of the
two substances may easily exercise a disturbing action. One-fifth of
graphite, in respect to the whole mass, gives the best results, but it
is advisable to add plenty of rosin. The liquid mixture must, before
burning, possess the consistency of mortar.


«Sand Holes in Cast-Brass Work.»—Cast-brass work, when it presents
numerous and deep sand holes, should be well dipped into the dipping
acid before being polished, in order thoroughly to clean these
objectionable cavities; and the polishing should be pushed to an extent
sufficient to obliterate the smaller sand holes, if possible, as this
class of work looks very unsightly, when plated and finished, if
pitted all over with minute hollows. The larger holes cannot, without
considerable labor, be obliterated; indeed, it not infrequently happens
that in endeavoring to work out such cavities they become enlarged, as
they often extend deep into the body of the metal. An experienced hand
knows how far he dare go in polishing work of this awkward character.


«Black Wash for Casting Molds.»—Gumlac, 1 part; wood spirit, 2 parts;
lampblack, in sufficient quantity to color.


«How to Make a Plaster Cast of a Coin or Medal.»—The most exact
observance of any written or printed directions is no guarantee of
success. Practice alone can give expertness in this work. {151} The
composition of the mold is of the most varied, but the materials most
generally used are plaster of Paris and brick dust, in the proportion
of 2 parts of the first to 1 of the second, stirred in water, with the
addition of a little sal ammoniac. The best quality of plaster for
this purpose is the so-called alabaster, and the brick dust should
be as finely powdered as possible. The addition of clay, dried and
very finely powdered, is recommended. With very delicate objects the
proportion of plaster may be slightly increased. The dry material
should be thoroughly mixed before the addition of water.

As the geometrically exact contour of the coin or medal is often the
cause of breaking of the edges, the operator sometimes uses wax to
make the edges appear half round and it also allows the casting to be
more easily removed from the second half of the mold. Each half of the
mold should be about the thickness of the finger. The keys, so called,
of every plaster casting must not be forgotten. In the first casting
some little half-spherical cavities should be scooped out, which will
appear in the second half-round knobs, and which, by engaging with the
depressions, will ensure exactness in the finished mold.

After the plaster has set, cut a canal for the flow of the molten
casting material, then dry the mold thoroughly in an oven strongly
heated. The halves are now ready to be bound together with a light
wire. When bound heat the mold gradually and slowly and let the mouth
of the canal remain underneath while the heating is in progress,
in order to prevent the possible entry of dirt or foreign matter.
The heating should be continued as long as there is a suspicion of
remaining moisture. When finally assured of this fact, take out the
mold, open it, and blow it out, to make sure of absolute cleanness.
Close and bind again and place on a hearth of fine, hot sand. The mold
should still be glowing when the casting is made. The ladle should
contain plenty of metal, so as to hold the heat while the casting is
being made. The presence of a little zinc in the metal ensures a sharp
casting. Finally, to ensure success, it is always better to provide two
molds in case of accident. Even the most practiced metal molders take
this precaution, especially when casting delicate objects.


«How to Make Castings of Insects.»—The object—a dead beetle, for
example—is first arranged in a natural position, and the feet are
connected with an oval rim of wax. It is then fixed in the center of
a paper or wooden box by means of pieces of fine wire, so that it is
perfectly free, and thicker wires are run from the sides of the box
to the object, which subsequently serve to form air channels in the
mold by their removal. A wooden stick, tapering toward the bottom, is
placed upon the back of the insect to produce a runner for casting.
The box is then filled up with a paste with 3 parts of plaster of
Paris and 1 of brick dust, made up with a solution of alum and sal
ammoniac. It is also well first to brush the object with this paste
to prevent the formation of air bubbles. After the mold thus formed
has set, the object is removed from the interior by first reducing it
to ashes. It is, therefore, allowed to dry, very slowly at first, by
leaving in the shade at a normal temperature (as in India this is much
higher than in our zone, it will be necessary to place the mold in a
moderately warm place), and afterwards heating gradually to a red heat.
This incinerates the object, and melts the waxen base upon which it
is placed. The latter escapes, and is burned as it does so, and the
object, reduced to fine ashes, is removed through the wire holes as
suggested above. The casting is then made in the ordinary manner.


«Casting of Soft Metal Castings.»—I.—It is often difficult to form flat
back or half castings out of the softer metals so that they will run
full, owing mostly to the thin edges and frail connections. Instead of
using solid metal backs for the molds it is better to use cardboard,
or heavy, smooth paper, fastened to a wooden board fitted to the back
of the other half of the mold. By this means very thin castings may be
produced that would be more difficult with a solid metal back.

II.—To obtain a full casting in brass molds for soft metal two
important points should be observed. One is to have the deep recesses
vented so the air will escape, and the other is to have the mold
properly blued. The bluing is best done by dipping the mold in
sulphuric acid, then placing it on a gas stove until the mold is a dark
color. Unless this bluing is done it will be impossible to obtain a
sharp casting.


«Drosses.»—All the softer grades of metal throw off considerable dross,
which is usually skimmed off; especially with tin and its composition.
Should much of this gather on the top of the molten {152} metal, the
drosses should all be saved, and melted down when there is enough for
a kettle full. Dross may be remelted five or six times before all the
good metal is out.


«Fuel.»—Where a good soft coal can be had at a low price, as in the
middle West, this is perhaps the cheapest and easiest fuel to use;
and, besides, it has some advantages over gas, which is so much used
in the East. A soft-coal fire can be regulated to keep the metal at
an even temperature, and it is especially handy to keep the metal in
a molten state during the noon hour. This refers particularly to the
gas furnaces that are operated from the power plant in the shop; when
this power shuts down during the noon hour the metal becomes chilled,
and much time is lost by the remelting after one o’clock, or at the
beginning in the morning.


«Molds.»—I.—Brass molds for the casting of soft metal ornaments out
of britannia, pewter, spelter, etc., should be made out of brass that
contains enough zinc to produce a light-colored brass. While this hard
brass is more difficult for the mold maker to cut, the superiority
over the dark red copper-colored brass is that it will stand more heat
and rougher usage and thereby offset the extra labor of cutting the
hard brass. The mold should be heavy enough to retain sufficient heat
while the worker is removing a finished casting from the mold so that
the next pouring will come full. If the mold is too light it cools more
quickly, and consequently the castings are chilled and will not run
full. Where the molds are heavy enough they will admit the use of a
swab and water after each pouring. This chills the casting so that it
can be removed easily with the plyers.

II.—Molds for the use of soft metal castings may be made out of soft
metal. This is done with articles that are not numerous, or not often
used; and may be looked upon as temporary. The molds are made in
part the same as when of brass, and out of tin that contains as much
hardening as possible. The hardening consists of antimony and copper.
This metal mold must be painted over several times with Spanish red,
which tends to prevent the metal from melting. The metal must not be
used too hot, otherwise it will melt the mold. By a little careful
manipulation many pieces can be cast with these molds.

III.—New iron or brass molds must be blued before they can be used for
casting purposes. This is done by placing the mold face downward on a
charcoal fire, or by swabbing with sulphuric acid, then placing over a
gas flame or charcoal fire until the mold is perfectly oxidized.

IV.—A good substantial mold for small castings of soft metal is made of
brass. The expense of making the cast mold is considerable, however,
and, on that account, some manufacturers are making their molds by
electro-deposition. This produces a much cheaper mold, which can be
made very quickly. The electro-deposited mold, however, is very frail
in comparison with a brass casting, and consequently must be handled
very carefully to keep its shape. The electro-deposited ones are made
out of copper, and the backs filled in with a softer metal. The handles
are secured with screws.


«Plaster Molds.»—Castings of any metal can be done in a plaster mold,
provided the mold has dried, at a moderate heat, for several days.
Smoke the mold well with a brand of rosin to insure a full cast. Where
there are only one or two ornaments or figures to cast, it may be done
in a mold made out of dental plaster. After the mold is made and set
enough so that it can be taken apart, it should be placed in a warm
place and left to dry for a day or two. When ready to use the inside
should be well smoked over a gaslight; the mold should be well warmed
and the metal must not be too hot. Very good castings may be obtained
this way; the only objection being the length of time needed for a
thorough drying of the mold.


«Temperature of Metal.»—Metals for casting purposes should not be
overheated. If any of the softer metals show blue colors after cooling
it is an indication that the metal is too hot. The metal should be
heated enough so that it can be poured, and the finished casting have
a bright, clean appearance. The mold may be very warm, then the metal
need not be so hot for bright, clean castings. Some of the metals will
not stand reheating too often, as this will cause them to run sluggish.
Britannia metal should not be skimmed or stirred too much, otherwise
there will be too much loss in the dross.

CASTING IN WAX: See Modeling.

CASTINGS, TO SOFTEN IRON: See Iron. {153}


«CASTOR OIL:»


«Purifying Rancid Castor Oil.»—To clean rancid castor oil mix 100
parts of the oil at 95° F. with a mixture of 1 part of alcohol (96 per
cent) and 1 part of sulphuric acid. Allow to settle for 24 hours and
then carefully decant from the precipitate. Now wash with warm water,
boiling for 1/2 hour; allow to settle for 24 hours in well closed
vessels, after which time the purified oil may be taken off.


«How to Pour Out Castor Oil.»—Any one who has tried to pour castor
oil from a square, 5-gallon can, when it is full, knows how difficult
it is to avoid a mess. This, however, may be avoided by having a hole
punched in the cap which screws onto the can, and a tube, 2 inches
long and 3/4 of an inch in diameter, soldered on. With a wire nail
a hole is punched in the top of the can between the screw cap and the
edge of the can. This will admit air while pouring. Resting the can
on a table, with the screw-cap tube to the rear, the can is carefully
tilted forward with one hand and the shop bottle held in the other.
In this way the bottle may be filled without spilling any of the oil
and that, too, without a funnel. It is preferable to rest the can on
a table when pouring from a 1- or 2-gallon square varnish can, when
filling shop bottles. With the opening to the rear, the can is likewise
tilted forward slowly so as to allow the surface of the liquid to
become “at rest.” Even mobile liquids, such as spirits of turpentine,
may be poured into shop bottles without a funnel. Of course, the main
thing is that the can be lowered slowly, otherwise the first portion
may spurt out over the bottle. With 5-gallon round cans it is possible
to fill shop bottles in the same manner by resting the can on a box or
counter. When a funnel is used for non-greasy liquids, the funnel may
be slightly raised with the thumb and little finger from the neck of
the bottle, while holding the bottle by the neck between the middle and
ring fingers, to allow egress of air.


«Tasteless Castor Oil.»—

 I.—Pure castor oil      1 pint
     Cologne spirit       3 fluidounces
     Oil of wintergreen  40 minims
     Oil of sassafras    20 minims
     Oil of anise        15 minims
     Saccharine           5 grains
     Hot water, a sufficient quantity.

Place the castor oil in a gallon bottle. Add a pint of hot water and
shake vigorously for about 15 minutes. Then pour the mixture into a
vessel with a stopcock at its base, and allow the mixture to stand for
12 hours. Draw off the oil, excepting the last portion, which must be
rejected. Dissolve the essential oils and saccharine in the cologne
spirit and add to the washed castor oil.

II.—First prepare an aromatic solution of saccharine as follows:

 Refined saccharine   25 parts
 Vanillin              5 parts
 Absolute alcohol    950 parts
 Oil of cinnamon      20 parts

Dissolve the saccharine and vanillin in the alcohol, then add the
cinnamon oil, agitate well and filter. Of this liquid add 20 parts
to 980 parts of castor oil and mix by agitation. Castor oil, like
cod-liver oil, may be rendered nearly tasteless, it is claimed, by
treating it as follows: Into a matrass of suitable size put 50 parts
of freshly roasted coffee, ground as fine as possible, and 25 parts of
purified and freshly prepared bone or ivory black. Pour over the mass
1,000 parts of the oil to be deodorized and rendered tasteless, and
mix. Cork the container tightly, put on a water bath, and raise the
temperature to about 140° F. Keep at this heat from 15 to 20 minutes,
then let cool down, slowly, to 90°, at which temperature let stand for
3 hours. Finally filter, and put up in small, well-stoppered bottles.

 III.—Vanillin                                    3 grains
       Garantose                                   4 grains
       Ol. menth. pip.                             8 minims
       Alcoholis                                   3 drachms
       Ol. ricinus                                12 ounces
       Ol. olivæ (imported), quantity sufficient   1 pint

M. ft. sol.

Mix vanillin, garantose, ol. menth. pip. with alcohol and add castor
oil and olive oil.

Dose: One drachm to 2 fluidounces.

IV.—The following keeps well:

 Castor oil                      24 parts
 Glycerine                       24 parts
 Tincture of orange peel          8 parts
 Tincture of senega               2 parts
 Cinnamon water enough to make  100 parts

Mix and make an emulsion. Dose is 1 tablespoonful.

V.—One part of common cooking molasses to 2 of castor oil is the best
{154} disguise for the taste of the oil that can be used.

 VI.—Castor oil            1 1/2 ounces
      Powdered acacia       2     drachms
      Sugar                 2     drachms
      Peppermint water      4     ounces

Triturate the sugar and acacia, adding the oil gradually; when these
have been thoroughly incorporated add the peppermint water in small
portions, triturating the mixture until an emulsion is formed.

VII.—This formula for an emulsion is said to yield a fairly
satisfactory product:

 Castor oil                   500 c.c.
 Mucilage of acacia           125 c.c.
 Spirit of gaultheria          10 grams
 Sugar                          1 gram
 Sodium bicarbonate             1 gram

 VIII.—Castor oil                     1 ounce
        Compound tincture of cardamom  4 drachms
        Oil of wintergreen             3 drops
        Powdered acacia                3 drachms
        Sugar                          2 drachms
        Cinnamon water enough to make 4 ounces.
   IX.—Castor oil                    12 ounces
        Vanillin                       3 grains
        Saccharine                     4 grains
        Oil of peppermint              8 minims
        Alcohol                        3 drachms
        Olive oil enough to make 1 pint.

In any case, use only a fresh oil.


«How to Take Castor Oil.»—The disgust for castor oil is due to the
odor, not to the taste. If the patient grips the nostrils firmly before
pouring out the dose, drinks the oil complacently, and then thoroughly
cleanses the mouth, lips, larynx, etc., with water, removing the last
vestige of the oil before removing the fingers, he will not get the
least taste from the oil, which is bland and tasteless. It all depends
upon preventing any oil from entering the nose during the time while
there is any oil present.


«Castor-Oil Chocolate Lozenges.»—

 Cacao, free from oil      250 parts
 Castor oil                250 parts
 Sugar, pulverized         500 parts
 Vanillin sugar              5 parts

Mix the chocolate and oil and heat in the water, both under constant
stirring. Have the sugar well dried and add, stirring constantly, to
the molten mass. Continue the heat for 30 minutes, then pour out and
divide into lozenges in the usual way.

CAT DISEASES AND THEIR REMEDIES: See Insecticides and Veterinary
Formulas.


«CATATYPY.»

It is a well-known fact that the reactions of the compounds of silver,
platinum, and chromium in photographic processes are generally
voluntary ones and that the light really acts only as an accelerator,
that is to say the chemical properties of the preparations also change
in the dark, though a longer time is required. When these preparations
are exposed to the light under a negative, the modification of their
chemical properties is accelerated in such a way that, through the
gradations of the tone-values in the negative, the positive print is
formed. Now it has been found that we also have such accelerators in
material substances that can be used in the light, the process being
termed catalysis. It is remarkable that these substances, called
catalyzers, apparently do not take part in the process, but bring about
merely by their presence, decomposition or combination of other bodies
during or upon contact. Hence, catalysis may be defined, in short, as
the act of changing or accelerating the speed of a chemical reaction
by means of agents which appear to remain stable.

Professor Ostwald and Dr. O. Gros, of the Leipsic University, have
given the name of “catatypy” to the new copying process. The use
of light is entirely done away with, except that for the sake of
convenience the manipulations are executed in the light. All that
is necessary is to bring paper and negative into contact, no matter
whether in the light or in the dark. Hence the negative (if necessary
a positive may also be employed) need not even be transparent, for the
ascending and descending action of the tone values in the positive
picture is produced only by the quantity in the varying density of the
silver powder contained in the negative. Hence no photographic (light)
picture, but a catatypic picture (produced by contact) is created, but
the final result is the same.

Catatypy is carried out as follows: Pour dioxide of hydrogen over the
negative, which can be done without any damage to the latter, and lay a
piece of paper on (sized or unsized, rough or smooth, according to the
effect desired); by a contact lasting a few seconds the paper receives
the picture, dioxide of hydrogen being destroyed. From a single
application several prints can be made. The acquired picture—still
{155} invisible—may now in the further course of the process, have
a reducing or oxydizing action. As picture-producing bodies, the
large group of iron salts are above all eminently adapted, but other
substances, such as chromium, manganese, etc., as well as pigments with
glue solutions may also be employed. The development takes place as
follows: When the paper which has been in contact with the negative is
drawn through a solution of ferrous oxide, the protoxide is transformed
into oxide by the peroxide, hence a yellow positive picture, consisting
of iron oxide, results, which can be readily changed into other
compounds, so that the most varying tones of color can be obtained.
With the use of pigments, in conjunction with a glue solution, the
action is as follows: In the places where the picture is, the layer
with the pigments becomes insoluble and all other dye stuffs can be
washed off with water.

The chemical inks and reductions, as well as color pigments, of which
the pictures consist, have been carefully tested and are composed of
such as are known to possess unlimited durability.

After a short contact, simply immerse the picture in the respective
solution, wash out, and a permanent picture is obtained.

CATERPILLAR DESTROYERS: See Insecticides.


«CATGUT:»


«Preparation of Catgut Sutures.»—The catgut is stretched tightly
over a glass plate tanned in 5 per cent watery extract of quebracho,
washed for a short time in water, subjected to the action of a 4 per
cent formalin solution for 24 to 48 hours, washed in running water
for 24 hours, boiled in water for 10 to 15 minutes, and stored in a
mixture of absolute alcohol with 5 per cent glycerine and 4 per cent
carbolic acid. In experiments on dogs, this suture material in aseptic
wounds remained intact for 65 days, and was absorbed after 83 days. In
infected wounds it was absorbed after 32 days.

CATSUP (ADULTERATED): See Foods.

CATTLE DIPS AND APPLICATIONS: See Disinfectants and Insecticides.

CEILING CLEANERS: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods, and also
Household Formulas.


«CELERY COMPOUND.»

 Celery (seed ground)          25     parts
 Coca leaves (ground)          25     parts
 Black haw (ground)            25     parts
 Hyoscyamus leaves (ground)    12 1/2 parts
 Podophyllum (powdered)        10     parts
 Orange peel (ground)           6     parts
 Sugar (granulated)           100     parts
 Alcohol                      150     parts
 Water, q. s. ad.             400     parts

Mix the alcohol with 150 parts of water and macerate drugs for 24
hours; pack in percolator and pour on menstruum till 340 parts is
obtained; dissolve sugar in it and strain.

CELLS, SOLUTIONS AND FILLERS FOR BATTERY: See Battery Solutions and
Fillers.

CELLARS, WATERPROOF: See Household Formulas.

CELLOIDIN PAPER: See Paper.


«Celluloid»


«New Celluloid.»—M. Ortmann has ascertained that turpentine produced
by the _Pinus larix_, generally denominated Venice turpentine,
in combination with acetone (dimethyl ketone), yields the best
results; but other turpentines, such as the American from the _Pinus
australis_, the Canada turpentine from the _Pinus balsamea_, the
French turpentine from the _Pinus maritima_, and ketones, such as
the ketone of methyl-ethyl, the ketone of dinaphthyl, the ketone of
methyl-oxynaphthyl, and the ketone of dioxy-naphthyl, may be employed.

To put this process in practice, 1,000 parts of pyroxyline is prepared
in the usual manner, and mixed with 65 parts of turpentine, or 250
parts of ketone and 250 parts of ether; 500 parts or 750 parts of
methyl alcohol is added, and a colorant, such as desired. Instead of
turpentine, rosins derived from it may be employed. If the employment
of camphor is desired to a certain extent, it may be added to the
mixture. The whole is shaken and left at rest for about 12 hours. It is
then passed between hot rollers, and finally pressed, cut, and dried,
like ordinary celluloid. {156}

The product thus obtained is without odor, when camphor is not
employed; and in appearance and properties it cannot be distinguished
from ordinary celluloid, while the expense of production is
considerably reduced.


«Formol Albumen for Preparation of Celluloid.»—Formol has the property
of forming combinations with most albuminoid substances. These are
not identical with reference to plasticity, and the use which may be
derived from them for the manufacture of plastic substances. This
difference explains why albumen should not be confounded with gelatin
or casein. With this in view, the Société Anonyme l’Oyonnaxienne has
originated the following processes:

I.—The albumen may be that of the egg or that of the blood, which are
readily found in trade. The formolizing may be effected in the moist
state or in the dry state. The dry or moist albumen is brought into
contact with the solution of commercial formol diluted to 5 or 10 per
cent for an hour. Care must be taken to pulverize the albumen, if it
is dry. The formol penetrates rapidly into the albuminoid matter, and
is filtered or decanted and washed with water until all the formol
in excess has completely disappeared; this it is easy to ascertain by
means of aniline water, which produces a turbid white as long as a
trace of formic aldehyde remains.

The formol albumen is afterwards dried at low temperature by submitting
it to the action of a current of dry air at a temperature not
exceeding 107° F. Thus obtained, the product appears as a transparent
corneous substance. On pulverizing, it becomes opaque and loses its
transparency. It is completely insoluble in water, but swells in this
liquid.

II.—The formol albumen is reduced to a perfectly homogeneous powder,
and mixed intimately with the plastic matter before rolling. This
cannot be considered an adequate means for effecting the mixture. It
is necessary to introduce the formol albumen, in the course of the
moistening, either by making an emulsion with camphor alcohol, or by
mixing it thoroughly with nitro-cellulose, or by making simultaneously
a thorough mixture of the three substances. When the mixture is
accomplished, the paste is rolled according to the usual operation.
The quantity of formol albumen to add is variable, being diminished
according to the quantity of camphor.

Instead of adding the desiccated formol albumen, it may previously be
swollen in water in order to render it more malleable.

Instead of simple water, alkalinized or acidified water may be taken
for this purpose, or even alcoholized water. The albumen, then, should
be pressed between paper or cloth, in order to remove the excess of
moisture.


«Plastic Substances of Nitro-Cellulose Base.»—To manufacture plastic
substances the Compagnie Française du Celluloid commences by submitting
casein to a special operation. It is soaked with a solution of acetate
of urea in alcohol; for 100 parts of casein 5 parts of acetate of
urea and 50 parts of alcohol are employed. The mass swells, and in
48 hours the casein is thoroughly penetrated. It is then ready to be
incorporated with the camphored nitro-cellulose. The nitro-cellulose,
having received the addition of camphor, is soaked in the alcohol, and
the mass is well mixed. The casein prepared as described is introduced
into the mass. The whole is mixed and left at rest for 2 days.

The plastic pulp thus obtained is rolled, cut, and dried like ordinary
cellulose, and by the same processes and apparatus. The pulp may also
be converted into tubes and other forms, like ordinary celluloid.

It is advisable to subject the improved plastic pulp to a treatment
with formaldehyde for the purpose of rendering insoluble the casein
incorporated in the celluloid. The plastic product of nitro-cellulose
base, thus obtained, presents in employment the same general properties
as ordinary celluloid. It may be applied to the various manufacturing
processes in use for the preparation of articles of all kinds, and
its cost price diminishes more or less according to the proportion of
casein associated with the ordinary celluloid. In this plastic product
various colorants may be incorporated, and the appearance of shell,
pearl, wood, marble, or ivory may also be imparted.


«Improved Celluloid.»—This product is obtained by mingling with
celluloid, under suitable conditions, gelatin or strong glue of gelatin
base. It is clear that the replacement of part of the celluloid by the
gelatin, of which the cost is much less, lowers materially the cost
of the final product. The result is obtained without detriment to the
qualities of the objects. These are said to be of superior properties,
having more firmness than those of celluloid. And the new material
{157} is worked more readily than the celluloid employed alone.

The new product may be prepared in open air or in a closed vessel under
pressure. When operated in the air, the gelatin is first immersed cold
(in any form, and in a state more or less pure) in alcohol marking
about 140° F., with the addition of a certain quantity (for example,
5 to 10 per cent) of crystallizable acetic acid. In a few hours the
material has swollen considerably, and it is then introduced in alcohol
of about 90 per cent, and at the same time the celluloid pulp (camphor
and gun cotton), taking care to add a little acetone. The proportion of
celluloid in the mixture may be 50 to 75 per cent of the weight of the
gelatin, more or less, according to the result desired. After heating
the mixture slightly, it is worked, cold, by the rollers ordinarily
employed for celluloid and other similar pastes, or by any other
suitable methods.

The preparation in a closed vessel does not differ from that which
has been described, except for the introduction of the mixture of
gelatin, celluloid, alcohol, and acetone, at the moment when the
heating is to be accomplished in an autoclave heated with steam,
capable of supporting a pressure of 2 to 5 pounds, and furnished with
a mechanical agitator. This method of proceeding abridges the operation
considerably; the paste comes from the autoclave well mingled, and is
then submitted to the action of rollers. There is but little work in
distilling the alcohol and acetic acid in the autoclave. These may be
recovered, and on account of their evaporation the mass presents the
desired consistency when it reaches the rollers. Whichever of the two
methods of preparation may be employed, the substance may be rolled as
in the ordinary process, if a boiler with agitator is made use of; the
mass may be produced in any form.


«Preparation of Uninflammable Celluloid.»—The operation of this process
by Woodward is the following: In a receiver of glass or porcelain,
liquefied fish glue and gum arabic are introduced and allowed to swell
for 24 hours in a very dry position, allowing the air to circulate
freely. The receiver is not covered. Afterwards it is heated on a water
bath, and the contents stirred (for example, by means of a porcelain
spatula) until the gum is completely liquefied. The heating of the mass
should not exceed 77° F. Then the gelatin is added in such a way that
there are no solid pieces. The receiver is removed from the water bath
and colza oil added, while agitating anew. When the mixture is complete
it is left to repose for 24 hours.

Before cooling, the mixture is passed through a sieve in order to
retain the pieces which may not have been dissolved. After swelling,
and the dissolution and purification by means of the sieve, it is
allowed to rest still in the same position, with access of air. The
films formed while cooling may be removed. The treatment of celluloid
necessitates employing a solution completely colorless and clear. The
celluloid to be treated while it is still in the pasty state should be
in a receiver of glass, porcelain, or similar material.

The mass containing the fish glue is poured in, drop by drop, while
stirring carefully, taking care to pour it in the middle of the
celluloid and to increase the surface of contact.

When the mixture is complete, the celluloid is ready to be employed and
does not produce flame when exposed.

The solution of fish glue may be prepared by allowing 200 parts of it
to swell for 48 hours in 1,000 parts of cold distilled water. It is
then passed through the sieve, and the pieces which may remain are
broken up, in order to mingle them thoroughly with the water. Ten parts
of kitchen salt are then added, and the whole mass passed through the
sieve.

This product may be utilized for the preparation of photographic films
or for those used for cinematographs, or for replacing hard caoutchouc
for the insulation of electric conductors, and for the preparation of
plastic objects.


«Substitute for Camphor in the Preparation of Celluloid and Applicable
to Other Purposes.»—In this process commercial oil of turpentine, after
being rectified by distillation over caustic soda, is subjected to
the action of gaseous chlorhydric acid, in order to produce the solid
monochlorhydrate of turpentine. After having, by means of the press,
extracted the liquid monochlorhydrate, and after several washings with
cold water, the solid matter is desiccated and introduced into an
autoclave apparatus capable of resisting a pressure of 6 atmospheres.
Fifty per cent of caustic soda, calculated on the weight of the
monochlorhydrate, and mingled with an equal quantity of alcohol, is
added in the form of a thick solution. The apparatus is closed and
heated for several hours at the {158} temperature of 284° to 302° F.
The material is washed several times for freeing it from the mingled
sodium chloride and sodium hydrate, and the camphor resulting from this
operation is treated in the following manner:

In an autoclave constructed for the purpose, camphene and water
strongly mixed with sulphuric acid are introduced and heated so as
to attain 9 pounds of pressure. Then an electric current is applied,
capable of producing the decomposition of water. The mass is constantly
stirred, either mechanically or more simply by allowing a little of the
steam to escape by a tap. In an hour, at least, the material is drawn
from the apparatus, washed and dried, sublimed according to need, and
is then suitable for replacing camphor in its industrial employments,
for the camphene is converted entirely or in greater part into camphor,
either right-hand camphor, or a product optically inactive, according
to the origin of the oil of turpentine made use of.

In the electrolytic oxidation of the camphene, instead of using
acidulated water, whatever is capable of furnishing, under the
influence of the electric current, the oxygen necessary for the
reaction, such as oxygenized water, barium bioxide, and the
permanganates, may be employed.


«Plastic and Elastic Composition.»—Formaldehyde has the property, as
known, of removing from gelatin its solubility and its fusibility, but
it has also another property, prejudicial in certain applications, of
rendering the composition hard and friable. In order to remedy this
prejudicial action M. Deborda adds to the gelatin treated by means of
formaldehyde, oil of turpentine, or a mixture of oil of turpentine and
German turpentine or Venice turpentine. The addition removes from the
composition its friability and hardness, imparting to it great softness
and elasticity. The effect is accomplished by a slight proportion, 5 to
10 per cent.


«Production of Substances Resembling Celluloid.»—Most of the
substitutes for camphor in the preparation of celluloid are attended
with inconveniences limiting their employment and sometimes causing
their rejection. Thus, in one case the celluloid does not allow of the
preparation of transparent bodies; in another it occasions too much
softness in the products manufactured; and in still another it does not
allow of pressing, folding, or other operations, because the mass is
too brittle; in still others combinations are produced which in time
are affected unfavorably by the coloring substances employed.

Callenberg has found that the halogenous derivatives of etherized oils,
principally oil of turpentine, and especially the solid chloride of
turpentine, which is of a snowy and brilliant white, and of agreeable
odor, are suitable for yielding, either alone or mixed with camphor or
one of its substitutes, and combined by ordinary means with nitrated
cellulose, or other ethers of cellulose, treated with acetic ether, a
celluloidic product, which, it is said, is not inferior to ordinary
celluloid and has the advantage of reduced cost.


«Elastic Substitute for Celluloid.»—Acetic cellulose, like
nitro-cellulose, can be converted into an elastic corneous compound.
The substances particularly suitable for the operation are organic
substances containing one or more hydroxy, aldehydic, amide, or
ketonic groups, as well as the acid amides. Probably a bond is formed
when these combinations act on the acetate of cellulose, but the bond
cannot well be defined, considering the complex nature of the molecule
of cellulose. According to the mode of preparation, the substances
obtained form a hard mass, more or less flexible. In the soft state,
copies of engraved designs can be reproduced in their finest details.
When hardened, they can be cut and polished. In certain respects
they resemble celluloid, without its inflammability, and they can be
employed in the same manner. They can be produced by the following
methods—the Lederer process:

I.—Melt together 1 part of acetate of cellulose and 1 1/2 parts
of phenol at about the temperature of 104° to 122° F. When a clear
solution is obtained place the mass of reaction on plates of glass or
metal slightly heated and allow it to cool gradually. After a rest of
several days the mass, which at the outset is similar to caoutchouc, is
hard and forms flexible plates, which can be worked like celluloid.

II.—Compress an intimate mixture of equal parts of acetic cellulose and
hydrate of chloride or of aniline, at a temperature of 122° to 140° F.,
and proceed as in the previous case.

In the same way a ketone may be employed, as acetophenone, or an acid
amide, as acetamide.

III.—A transparent, celluloid-like substance which is useful for the
{159} production of plates, tubes, and other articles, but especially
as an underlay for sensitive films in photography, is produced by
dissolving 1.8 parts, by weight, of nitro-cellulose in 16 parts of
glacial acetic acid, with heating and stirring and addition of 5 parts
of gelatin. After this has swelled up, add 7.5 parts, by weight, of
alcohol (96 per cent), stirring constantly. The syrupy product may be
pressed into molds or poured, after further dilution with the said
solvents in the stated proportion, upon glass plates to form thin
layers. The dried articles are well washed with water, which may
contain a trace of soda lye, and dried again. Photographic foundations
produced in this manner do not change, nor attack the layers sensitive
to light, nor do they become electric, and in developing they remain
flat.

IV.—Viscose is the name of a new product of the class of substances
like celluloid, pegamoid, etc., substances having most varied and
valuable applications. It is obtained directly from cellulose by
mascerating this substance in a 1 per cent dilution of hydrochloric
acid. The maceration is allowed to continue for several hours, and at
its close the liquid is decanted and the residue is pressed off and
washed thoroughly. The mass (of which we will suppose there is 100
grams) is then treated with a 20 per cent aqueous solution of sodium
hydrate, which dissolves it. The solution is allowed to stand for 3
days in a tightly closed vessel; 100 grams carbon disulphide are then
added, the vessel closed and allowed to stand for 12 hours longer, when
it is ready for purification. Viscose thus formed is soluble in water,
cold or tepid, and yields a solution of a pale brownish color, from
which it is precipitated by alcohol and sodium chloride, which purifies
it, but at the expense of much of its solubility. A solution of the
precipitated article is colorless, or of a slightly pale yellow. Under
the action of heat, long continued, viscose is decomposed, yielding
cellulose, caustic soda, and carbon disulphide.

See also Casein for Celluloid Substitutes.


«Celluloid of Reduced Inflammability.»—I.—A practicable method consists
in incorporating silica, which does not harm the essential properties
of the celluloid. The material is divided by the usual methods, and
dissolved by means of the usual solvents, to which silica has been
added, either in the state of amylic, ethylic, or methylic silicate,
or in the state of any ether derivative of silicic acid. The suitable
proportions vary according to the degree of inflammability desired, and
according to the proportion of silica in the ether derivative employed;
but sufficient freedom from inflammability for practical purposes is
attained by the following proportions: Fifty-five to 65 parts in volume
of the solvent of the celluloid, and 35 to 45 parts of the derivative
of silicic acid.

When the ether derivative is in the solid form, such, for instance,
as ethyl disilicate, it is brought to the liquid state by means of
any of the solvents. The union of the solvent and of the derivative
is accomplished by mixing the two liquids and shaking out the air as
much as possible. The incorporation of this mixture with the celluloid,
previously divided or reduced to the state of chips, is effected by
pouring the mixture on the chips, or inversely, shaking or stirring
as free from the air as possible. The usual methods are employed for
the desiccation of the mass. A good result is obtained by drying very
slowly, preferably at a temperature not above 10° C. (50° F.). The
resulting residue is a new product scarcely distinguished from ordinary
celluloid, except that the inherent inflammability is considerably
reduced. It is not important to employ any individual silicate or
derivative. A mixture of the silicates or derivatives mentioned will
accomplish the same results.

II.—Any ignited body is extinguished in a gaseous medium which is
unsuitable for combustion; the attempt has therefore been made to find
products capable of producing an uninflammable gas; and products have
been selected that yield chlorine, and others producing bromine; it
is also necessary that these bodies should be soluble in a solvent of
celluloid; therefore, among chlorated products, ferric chloride has
been taken; this is soluble in the ether-alcohol mixture.

This is the process: An ether-alcohol solution of celluloid is
made; then an ether-alcohol solution of ferric perchloride. The two
solutions are mingled, and a clear, syrupy liquid of yellow color,
yielding no precipitate, is obtained. The liquid is poured into a
cup or any suitable vessel; it is left for spontaneous evaporation,
and a substance of shell-color is produced, which, after washing and
drying, effects the desired result. The celluloid thus treated loses
none of its properties in pliability and transparency, and is not only
uninflammable, but also incombustible. {160}

Of bromated compounds, calcium bromide has been selected, which
produces nearly the same result; the product obtained fuses in the
flame; outside, it is extinguished, without the power of ignition.

It may be objected that ferric perchloride and calcium bromide, being
soluble in water, may present to the celluloid a surface capable of
being affected by moist air; but the mass of celluloid, not being
liable to penetration by water, fixes the chlorinated or brominated
product. Still, as the celluloid undergoes a slight decomposition,
on exposure to the light, allowing small quantities of camphor to
evaporate, the surface of the perchlorinated celluloid may be fixed by
immersion in albuminous water, after previous treatment with a solution
of oxalic acid, if a light yellow product is desired.

For preventing the calcium bromide from eventually oozing on the
surface of the celluloid, by reason of its deliquescence, it may be
fixed by immersing the celluloid in water acidulated with sulphuric
acid. For industrial products, such as toilet articles, celluloid with
ferric perchloride may be employed.

Another method of preparing an uninflammable celluloid, based on the
principle above mentioned, consists in mixing bromide of camphor with
cotton powder, adding castor oil to soften the product, in order that
it may be less brittle. The latter product is not incombustible, but
it is uninflammable, and its facility of preparation reduces at least
one-half the apparatus ordinarily made use of in the manufacture of
celluloid. The manufacture of this product is not at all dangerous,
for the camphor bromide is strictly uninflammable, and may be melted
without any danger of dissolving the gun cotton.

III.—Dissolve 25 parts of ordinary celluloidin in 250 parts of acetone
and add a solution of 50 parts of magnesium chloride in 150 parts of
alcohol, until a paste results, which occurs with a proportion of about
100 parts of the former solution to 20 parts of the latter solution.
This paste is carefully mixed and worked through, then dried, and gives
an absolutely incombustible material.

IV.—Glass-like plates which are impervious to acids, salts, and
alkalies, flexible, odorless, and infrangible, and still possess a
transparency similar to ordinary glass, are said to be obtained by
dissolving 4 to 8 per cent of collodion wool (soluble pyroxylin) in
1 per cent of ether or alcohol and mixing the solution with 2 to 4
per cent of castor oil, or a similar non-resinifying oil, and with 4
to 6 per cent of Canada balsam. The inflammability of these plates
is claimed to be much less than with others of collodion, and may
be almost entirely obviated by admixture of magnesium chloride. An
addition of zinc white produces the appearance of ivory.


«Solvents for Celluloid.»—Celluloid dissolves in acetone, sulphuric
ether, alcohol, oil of turpentine, benzine, amyl acetate, etc., alone,
or in various combinations of these agents. The following are some
proportions for solutions of celluloid:

   I.—Celluloid            5 parts
       Amyl acetate        10 parts
       Acetone             16 parts
       Sulphuric ether     16 parts

  II.—Celluloid           10 parts
       Sulphuric ether     30 parts
       Acetone             30 parts
       Amyl acetate        30 parts
       Camphor              3 parts

 III.—Celluloid            5 parts
       Alcohol             50 parts
       Camphor              5 parts

  IV.—Celluloid            5 parts
       Amyl acetate        50 parts

   V.—Celluloid            5 parts
       Amyl acetate        25 parts
       Acetone             25 parts


«Softening and Cementing Celluloid.»—If celluloid is to be warmed
only sufficiently to be able to bend it, a bath in boiling water will
answer. In steam at 120° C. (248° F.), however, it becomes so soft that
it may be easily kneaded like dough, so that one may even imbed in it
metal, wood, or any similar material. If it be intended to soften it
to solubility, the celluloid must then be scraped fine and macerated
in 90 per cent alcohol, whereupon it takes on the character of cement
and may be used to join broken pieces of celluloid together. Solutions
of celluloid may be prepared: 1. With 5 parts, by weight, of celluloid
in 16 parts, by weight, each of amyl acetate, acetone, and sulphuric
ether. 2. With 10 parts, by weight, of celluloid in 30 parts, by
weight, each of sulphuric ether, acetone, amyl acetate, and 4 parts,
by weight, camphor. 3. With 5 parts, by weight, celluloid in 50 parts,
by weight, alcohol and 5 parts, by weight, camphor. 4. With 5 parts,
by weight, celluloid in 50 parts, by weight, amyl acetate. 5. With 5
parts, by weight, celluloid in 25 parts, by weight, amyl acetate and 25
parts, by weight, acetone. {161}

It is often desirable to soften celluloid so that it will not break
when hammered. Dipping it in water warmed to 40° C. (104° F.) will
suffice for this.


«Mending Celluloid.»—Celluloid dishes which show cracks are easily
repaired by brushing the surface repeatedly with alcohol, 3 parts, and
ether, 4 parts, until the mass turns soft and can be readily squeezed
together. The pressure must be maintained for about one day. By putting
only 1 part of ether in 3 parts of alcohol and adding a little shellac,
a cement for celluloid is obtained, which, applied warm, produces
quicker results. Another very useful gluing agent for celluloid
receptacles is concentrated acetic acid. The celluloid fragments dabbed
with it stick together almost instantaneously.

See also Adhesives for Methods of Mending Celluloid.


«Printing on Celluloid.»—Printing on celluloid may be done in the
usual way. Make ready the form so as to be perfectly level on the
impression—that is, uniform to impressional touch on the face. The
tympan should be hard. Bring up the form squarely, allowing for about
a 3- or 4-sheet cardboard to be withdrawn from the tympan when about
to proceed with printing on the celluloid; this is to allow for the
thickness of the sheet of celluloid. Use live but dry and well-seasoned
rollers. Special inks of different colors are made for this kind of
presswork; in black a good card-job quality will be found about right,
if a few drops of copal varnish are mixed with the ink before beginning
to print.


«Colored Celluloid.»—

Black: First dip into pure water, then into a solution of nitrate of
silver; let dry in the light.

Yellow: First immerse in a solution of nitrate of lead, then in a
concentrated solution of chromate of potash.

Brown: Dip into a solution of permanganate of potash made strongly
alkaline by the addition of soda.

Blue: Dip into a solution of indigo neutralized by the addition of soda.

Red: First dip into a diluted bath of nitric acid; then into an
ammoniacal solution of carmine.

Green: Dip into a solution of verdigris.

Aniline colors may also be employed but they are less permanent.


«Bleaching Celluloid.»—If the celluloid has become discolored
throughout, its whiteness can hardly be restored, but if merely
superficially discolored, wipe with a woolen rag wet with absolute
alcohol and ether mixed in equal proportions. This dissolves and
removes a minute superficial layer and lays bare a new surface. To
restore the polish rub briskly first with a woolen cloth and finish
with silk or fine chamois. A little jeweler’s rouge or putzpomade
greatly facilitates matters. Ink marks may be removed in the same
manner. Printer’s ink may be removed from celluloid by rubbing first
with oil of turpentine and afterwards with alcohol and ether.


«Process of Impregnating Fabrics with Celluloid.»—The fabric is first
saturated with a dilute celluloid solution of the consistency of olive
oil, which solution penetrates deeply into the tissue; dry quickly
in a heating chamber and saturate with a more concentrated celluloid
solution, about as viscous as molasses. If oil be added to the
celluloid solution, the quantity should be small in the first solution,
e. g., 1 to 2 per cent, in the following ones 5 to 8 per cent, while
the outer layer contains very little or no oil. A fabric impregnated in
this manner possesses a very flexible surface, because the outer layer
may be very thin, while the interior consists of many flexible fibers
surrounded by celluloid.

CELLULOID CEMENTS AND GLUES: See Adhesives.

CELLULOID LACQUER: See Lacquer.

CELLULOID PUTTY: See Cements.


«Cements»

(See also Putties.)

For Adhesive Cements intended for repairing broken articles, see
Adhesives.


«Putty for Celluloid.»—To fasten celluloid to wood, tin, etc., use a
compound of 2 parts shellac, 3 parts spirit of camphor, and 4 parts
strong alcohol.


«Plumbers’ Cement.»—A plumbers’ cement consists of 1 part black rosin,
melted, and 2 parts of brickdust, thoroughly powdered and dried.


«Cement for Steam and Water Pipes.»—A cement for pipe joints is made as
follows: Ten pounds fine yellow ocher; 4 pounds {162} ground litharge;
4 pounds whiting, and 1/2 pound of hemp, cut up fine. Mix together
thoroughly with linseed oil to about the consistency of putty.


«Gutter Cement.»—Stir sand and fine lime into boiled paint skins while
hot and thick. Use hot.


«Cement for Pipe Joints.»—A good cement for making tight joints in
pumps, pipes, etc., is made of a mixture of 15 parts of slaked lime, 30
parts of graphite, and 40 parts of barium sulphate. The ingredients are
powdered, well mixed together, and stirred up with 15 parts of boiled
oil. A stiffer preparation can be made by increasing the proportions
of graphite and barium sulphate to 30 and 40 parts respectively, and
omitting the lime. Another cement for the same purpose consists of 15
parts of chalk and 50 of graphite, ground, washed, mixed, and reground
to fine powder. To this mixture is added 20 parts of ground litharge,
and the whole mixed to a stiff paste with about 15 parts of boiled oil.
This last preparation possesses the advantage of remaining plastic for
a long time when stored in a cool place. Finally, a good and simple
mixture for tightening screw connections is made from powdered shellac
dissolved in 10 per cent ammonia. The mucinous mass is painted over the
screw threads, after the latter have been thoroughly cleaned, and the
fitting is screwed home. The ammonia soon volatilizes, leaving behind a
mass which hardens quickly, makes a tight joint, and is impervious to
hot and cold water.


«Protection for Cement Work.»—A coating of soluble glass will impart to
cement surfaces exposed to ammonia not only a protective covering, but
also increased solidness.

Cemented surfaces can be protected from the action of the weather by
repeated coats of a green vitriol solution consisting of 1 part of
green vitriol and 3 parts of water. Two coatings of 5 per cent soap
water are said to render the cement waterproof; after drying and
rubbing with a cloth or brush, this coating will become glossy like
oil paint. This application is especially recommended for sick rooms,
since the walls can be readily cleaned by washing with soapy water.
The coating is rendered more and more waterproof thereby. The green
vitriol solution is likewise commendable for application on old and new
plastering, since it produces thereon waterproof coatings. From old
plastering the loose particles have first to be removed by washing.


«Puncture Cement.»—A patented preparation for automatically repairing
punctures in bicycle tires consists of glycerine holding gelatinous
silica or aluminum hydrate in suspension. Three volumes of glycerine
are mixed with 1 volume of liquid water glass, and an acid is stirred
in. The resulting jelly is diluted with 3 additional volumes of
glycerine, and from 4 to 6 ounces of this fluid are placed in each
tire. In case of puncture, the internal pressure of the air forces the
fluid into the hole, which it closes.


«To Fix Iron in Stone.»—Of the quickly hardening cements, lead and
sulphur, the latter is popularly employed. It can be rendered still
more suitable for purposes of pouring by the admixture of Portland
cement, which is stirred into the molten sulphur in the ratio of 1 to
3 parts by weight. The strength of the latter is increased by this
addition, since the formation of so coarse a crystalline structure as
that of solidifying pure sulphur is disturbed by the powder added.


«White Portland Cement.»—Mix together feldspar, 40–100 parts, by
weight; kaolin, 100 parts; limestone, 700 parts; magnesite, 20–40
parts; and sodium chloride, 2.5–5 parts, all as pure as possible, and
heat to 1430° to 1500° C. (2606° to 2732° F.), until the whole has
become sintered together, and forms a nice, white cement-like mass.


«Cement for Closing Cracks in Stoves.»—Make a putty of reduced iron
(iron by hydrogen) and a solution of sodium or potassium silicate, and
force it into the crack. If the crack be a very narrow one, make the
iron and silicate into paste instead of putty. This material grows
firmer and harder the longer the mended article is used.


«Cement for Waterpipe.»—I.—Mix together 11 parts, by weight, Portland
cement; 4 parts, by weight, lead white; 1 part, by weight, litharge;
and make to a paste with boiled oil in which 3 per cent of its weight
of colophony has been dissolved.

II.—Mix 1 part, by weight, torn-up wadding; 1 part, by weight, of
quicklime, and 3 parts, by weight, of boiled oil. This cement must be
used as soon as made.


«Cement for Pallet Stones.»—Place small pieces of shellac around the
stone when in position and subject it to heat. Often the lac spreads
unevenly or swells up; and this, in addition to being unsightly, is apt
to displace the stone. This can be avoided as follows: The pallets are
{163} held in long sliding tongs. Take a piece of shellac, heat it and
roll it into a cylinder between the fingers; again heat the extremity
and draw it out into a fine thread. This thread will break off, leaving
a point at the end of the lac. Now heat the tongs at a little distance
from the pallets, testing the degree of heat by touching the tongs with
the shellac. When it melts easily, lightly touch the two sides of the
notch with it; a very thin layer can thus be spread over them, and the
pallet stone can then be placed in position and held until cold enough.
The tongs will not lose the heat suddenly, so that the stone can easily
be raised or lowered as required. The projecting particles of cement
can be removed by a brass wire filed to an angle and forming a scraper.
To cement a ruby pin, or the like, one may also use shellac dissolved
in spirit, applied in the consistency of syrup, and liquefied again by
means of a hot pincette, by seizing the stone with it.


«DENTAL CEMENTS:»


«Fairthorne’s Cement.»—Powdered glass, 5 parts; powdered borax, 4
parts; silicic acid, 8 parts; zinc oxide, 200 parts. Powder very
finely and mix; then tint with a small quantity of golden ocher or
manganese. The compound, mixed before use with concentrated syrupy
zinc-chloride solution, soon becomes as hard as marble and constitutes
a very durable tooth cement.


«Huebner’s Cement.»—Zinc oxide, 500.0 parts; powdered manganese, 1.5
parts; yellow ocher, powdered, 1.5–4.0 parts; powdered borax, 10.0
parts; powdered glass, 100.0 parts.

As a binding liquid it is well to use acid-free zinc chloride,
which can be prepared by dissolving pure zinc, free from iron, in
concentrated, pure, hydrochloric acid, in such a manner that zinc is
always in excess. When no more hydrogen is evolved the zinc in excess
is still left in the solution for some time. The latter is filtered and
boiled down to the consistency of syrup.

Commercial zinc oxide cannot be employed without previous treatment,
because it is too loose; the denser it is the better is it adapted for
dental cements, and the harder the latter will be. For this reason it
is well, in order to obtain a dense product, to stir the commercial
pure zinc oxide into a stiff paste with water to which 2 per cent of
nitric acid has been added; the paste is dried and heated for some time
at white heat in a Hessian crucible.

After cooling, the zinc oxide, thus obtained, is very finely powdered
and kept in hermetically sealed vessels, so that it cannot absorb
carbonic acid. The dental cement prepared with such zinc oxide turns
very hard and solidifies with the concentrated zinc-chloride solution
in a few minutes.


«Phosphate Cement.»—Concentrate pure phosphoric acid till semi-solid,
and mix aluminum phosphate with it by heating. For use, mix with zinc
oxide to the consistency of putty. The cement is said to set in 2
minutes.


«Zinc Amalgam, or Dentists’ Zinc.»—This consists of pure zinc filings
combined with twice their weight of mercury, a gentle heat being
employed to render the union more complete. It is best applied as soon
as made. Its color is gray, and it is said to be effective and durable.


«Sorel’s Cement.»—Mix zinc oxide with half its bulk of fine sand, add a
solution of zinc chloride of 1.260 specific gravity, and rub the whole
thoroughly together in a mortar. The mixture must be applied at once,
as it hardens very quickly.


«Metallic Cement.»—Pure tin, with a small proportion of cadmium and
sufficient mercury, forms the most lasting and, for all practical
purposes, the least objectionable amalgam. Melt 2 parts of tin with 1
of cadmium, run it into ingots, and reduce it to filings. Form these
into a fluid amalgam with mercury, and squeeze out the excess of the
latter through leather. Work up the solid residue in the hand, and
press it into the tooth. Or melt some beeswax in a pipkin, throw in
5 parts of cadmium, and when melted add 7 or 8 parts of tin in small
pieces. Pour the melted metals into an iron or wooden box, and shake
them until cold, so as to obtain the alloy in a powder. This is mixed
with 2 1/2 to 3 times its weight of mercury in the palm of the hand,
and used as above described.

CEMENT COLORS: See Stone.

CEMENT, MORDANT FOR: See Mordants.

CEMENT, PAINTS FOR: See Paint.

CEMENT, PROTECTION OF, AGAINST ACID: See Acid-Proofing. {164}

CHAIN OF FIRE: See Pyrotechnics.

CHAINS (WATCH), TO CLEAN: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.


«CHALK FOR TAILORS.»

Knead together ordinary pipe clay, moistened with ultramarine blue for
blue, finely ground ocher for yellow, etc., until they are uniformly
mixed, roll out into thin sheets, cut and press into wooden or metallic
molds, well oiled to prevent sticking, and allow to dry slowly at
ordinary temperature or at a very gentle heat.

CHAPPED HANDS: See Cosmetics.

CHARTA SINAPIS: See Mustard Paper.

CHARTREUSE: See Wines and Liquors.


«Ceramics»

GROUND CERAMICS—LAYING OIL FOR: See Oil.


«Notes for Potters, Glass-, and Brick-makers.»—It is of the highest
importance in selecting oxides, minerals, etc., for manufacturing
different articles, for potters’ use, to secure pure goods, especially
in the purchase of the following: Lead, manganese, oxide of zinc,
borax, whiting, oxide of iron, and oxide of cobalt. The different
ingredients comprising any given color or glaze should be thoroughly
mixed before being calcined, otherwise the mass will be of a streaky
or variegated kind. Calcination requires care, especially in the
manufacture of enamel colors. Over-firing, particularly of colors or
enamels composed in part of lead, borax, antimony, or litharge, causes
a dullness of shade, or film, that reduces their value for decorative
purposes, where clearness and brilliancy are of the first importance.

To arrest the unsightly defect of “crazing,” the following have been
the most successful methods employed, in the order given:

I.—Flux made of 10 parts tincal; 4 parts oxide of zinc; 1 part soda.

II.—A calcination of 5 parts oxide of zinc; 1 part pearl ash.

III.—Addition of raw oxide of zinc, 6 pounds to each hundredweight of
glaze.

To glazed brick and tile makers, whose chief difficulty appears to
be the production of a slip to suit the contraction of their clay,
and adhere strongly to either a clay or a burnt brick or tile, the
following method may be recommended:

Mix together:

 Ball clay          10     parts
 Cornwall stone     10     parts
 China clay          7     parts
 Flint               6 1/2 parts

To be mixed and lawned one week before use.


«To Cut Pottery.»—Pottery or any soft or even hard stone substance
can be cut without chipping by a disk of soft iron, the edge of which
has been charged with emery, diamond, or other grinding powder, that
can be obtained at any tool agency. The cutting has to be done with a
liberal supply of water fed continually to the revolving disk and the
substance to be cut.


«BRICK AND TILEMAKERS’ GLAZED BRICKS:»


«White.»—When the brick or tile leaves the press, with a very soft
brush cover the part to be glazed with No. 1 Slip; afterwards dip the
face in the same mixture.


«No. 1 Slip.»—

 Same clay as brick     9 parts
 Flint                  1 part
 Ball clay              5 parts
 China                  4 parts

Allow the brick to remain slowly drying for 8 to 10 hours, then when
moist dip in the white body.


«White Body.»—

 China clay      24 parts
 Ball clay        8 parts
 Feldspar         8 parts
 Flint            4 parts

The brick should now be dried slowly but thoroughly, and when perfectly
dry dip the face in clean cold water, and immediately afterwards in
glaze.


«Hard Glaze.»—

 Feldspar             18     parts
 Cornwall stone        3 1/2 parts
 Whiting               1 1/2 parts
 Oxide of zinc         1 1/2 parts
 Plaster of Paris        3/4 part

{165}


«Soft Glaze.»—

 White lead        13     parts
 Feldspar          20     parts
 Oxide of zinc      3     parts
 Plaster of Paris   1     part
 Flint glass       13     parts
 Cornwall stone     3 1/2 parts
 Paris white        1 1/4 parts

Where clay is used that will stand a very high fire, the white lead and
glass may be left out. A wire brush should now be used to remove all
superfluous glaze, etc., from the sides and ends of the brick, which
is then ready for the kiln. In placing, set the bricks face to face,
about an inch space being left between the two glazed faces. All the
mixtures, after being mixed with water to the consistency of cream,
must be passed 2 or 3 times through a very fine lawn. The kiln must not
be opened till perfectly cold.


«Process for Colored Glazes.»—Use color, 1 part, to white body, 7
parts. Use color, 1 part, to glaze, 9 parts.


«Preparation of Colors.»—The specified ingredients should all be
obtained finely ground, and after being mixed in the proportions given
should, in a saggar or some clay vessel, be fired in the brick kiln and
afterwards ground for use. In firing the ingredients the highest heat
attainable is necessary.


«Turquoise.»—

 Oxide of zinc     8     parts
 Oxide of cobalt   1 1/4 parts


«Grass Green.»—

 Oxide of chrome    6     parts
 Flint              1     part
 Oxide of copper      1/2 part


«Royal Blue.»—

 Pure alumina       20 parts
 Oxide of zinc       8 parts
 Oxide of cobalt     4 parts


«Mazarine Blue.»—

 Oxide of cobalt      10 parts
 Paris white           9 parts
 Sulphate barytes      1 part


«Red Brown.»—

 Oxide of zinc         40 parts
 Crocus of martis       6 parts
 Oxide of chrome        6 parts
 Red lead               5 parts
 Boracic acid           5 parts
 Red oxide of iron      1 part


«Orange.»—

 Pure alumina             5     parts
 Oxide of zinc            2     parts
 Bichromate of potash     1     part
 Iron scale                 1/2 part


«Claret Brown.»—

 Bichromate of potash    2 parts
 Flint                   2 parts
 Oxide of zinc           1 part
 Iron scale              1 part


«Blue Green.»—

 Oxide of chrome     6     parts
 Flint               2     parts
 Oxide of cobalt       3/4 part


«Sky Blue.»—

 Flint               9     parts
 Oxide of zinc      13     parts
 Cobalt              2 1/2 parts
 Phosphate soda      1     part


«Chrome Green.»—

 Oxide of chrome        3 parts
 Oxide of copper        1 part
 Carbonate of cobalt    1 part
 Oxide of cobalt        2 parts


«Olive.»—

 Oxide of chrome     3 parts
 Oxide of zinc       2 parts
 Flint               5 parts
 Oxide of cobalt     1 part


«Blood Red.»—

 Oxide of zinc        30 parts
 Crocus martis         7 parts
 Oxide of chrome       7 parts
 Litharge              5 parts
 Borax                 5 parts
 Red oxide of iron     2 parts


«Black.»—

 Chromate of iron   24 parts
 Oxide of nickel     2 parts
 Oxide of tin        2 parts
 Oxide of cobalt     5 parts


«Imperial Blue.»—

 Oxide of cobalt     10     parts
 Black color          1 1/2 parts
 Paris white          7 1/2 parts
 Flint                2 1/2 parts
 Carbonate of soda    1     part


«Mahogany.»—

 Chromate of iron      30 parts
 Oxide of manganese    20 parts
 Oxide of zinc         12 parts
 Oxide of tin           4 parts
 Crocus martis          2 parts


«Gordon Green.»—

 Oxide of chrome        12     parts
 Paris white             8     parts
 Bichromate of potash    4 1/2 parts
 Oxide of cobalt           3/4 part


«Violet.»—

 Oxide of cobalt       2 1/2 parts
 Oxide of manganese    4     parts
 Oxide of zinc         8     parts
 Cornwall stone        8     parts

{166}


«Lavender.»—

 Calcined oxide of zinc    5     parts
 Carbonate of cobalt         3/4 part
 Oxide of nickel             1/4 part
 Paris white               1     part


«Brown.»—

 Manganese            4 parts
 Oxide of chrome      2 parts
 Oxide of zinc        4 parts
 Sulphate barytes     2 parts


«Dove.»—

 Oxide of nickel     7 parts
 Oxide of cobalt     2 parts
 Oxide of chrome     1 part
 Oxide of flint     18 parts
 Paris white         3 parts


«Yellow Green.»—

 Flint                   6     parts
 Paris white             4     parts
 Bichromate of potash    4 1/2 parts
 Red lead                2     parts
 Fluorspar               2     parts
 Plaster of Paris        1 1/2 parts
 Oxide of copper           1/2 part


«BODIES REQUIRING NO STAIN:»


«Ivory.»—

 Cane marl    16 parts
 Ball clay    12 parts
 Feldspar      8 parts
 China clay    6 parts
 Flint         4 parts


«Cream.»—

 Ball clay    22     parts
 China clay    5 1/2 parts
 Flint         5     parts
 Feldspar      3 1/2 parts
 Cane marl    12     parts


«Black.»—

 Ball clay          120 parts
 Ground ocher       120 parts
 Ground manganese    35 parts


«Buff.»—

 Ball clay         12 parts
 China clay        10 parts
 Feldspar           8 parts
 Bull fire clay    16 parts
 Yellow ocher       3 parts


«Drab.»—

 Cane marl    30 parts
 Ball clay    10 parts
 Stone         7 parts
 Feldspar      4 parts


«Brown.»—

 Red marl            50 parts
 China clay           7 parts
 Ground manganese     6 parts
 Feldspar             3 parts

In making mazarine blue glazed bricks use the white body and stain the
glaze only.

 Mazarine blue          1 part
 Glaze                  7 parts

For royal blue use 1 part stain to 6 parts white body, and glaze
unstained.


«Blood-Red Stain.»—Numerous brick manufacturers possess beds of clay
from which good and sound bricks or tiles can be made, the only
drawback being that the clay does not burn a good color. In many cases
this arises from the fact that the clay contains more or less sulphur
or other impurity, which spoils the external appearance of the finished
article. The following stain will convert clay of any color into a
rich, deep red, mixed in proportions of stain, 1 part, to clay, 60
parts.


«Stain.»—

 Crocus martis         20 parts
 Yellow ocher           4 parts
 Sulphate of iron      10 parts
 Red oxide of iron      2 parts

A still cheaper method is to put a slip or external coating upon the
goods. The slip being quite opaque, effectively hides the natural color
of the brick or tile upon which it may be used.

The process is to mix:

 Blood-red stain        1 part
 Good red clay          6 parts

Add water until the mixture becomes about the consistency of cream,
then with a sponge force the liquid two or three times through a very
fine brass wire lawn, No. 80, and dip the goods in the liquid as soon
as they are pressed or molded.


«Blue Paviors.»—Blue paving bricks may be produced with almost any kind
of clay that will stand a fair amount of heat, by adopting the same
methods as in the former case of blood-red bricks, that is, the clay
may be stained throughout, or an outside coating may be applied.


«Stain for Blue Paviors.»—

 Ground ironstone      20 parts
 Chromate of iron       5 parts
 Manganese              6 parts
 Oxide of nickel        1 part

Use 1 part clay and 1 part stain for coating, and 50 or 60 parts clay
and 1 part stain for staining through.

Fire blue paviors very hard.


«Buff Terra-Cotta Slip.»—

 Buff fire clay        16 parts
 China clay             6 parts {167}
 Yellow ocher           3 parts
 Ball clay             10 parts
 Flint                  4 parts

Add water to the materials after mixing well, pass through the fine
lawn, and dip the goods when soft in the liquid.


«Transparent Glaze.»—

 Ground flint glass     4     parts
 Ground white lead      4     parts
 Ground oxide of zinc     1/4 part

This glaze is suitable for bricks or tiles made of very good red clay,
the natural color of the clay showing through the glaze. The goods
must first be fired sufficiently hard to make them durable, afterwards
glazed, and fired again. The glaze being comparatively soft will fuse
at about half the heat required for the first burning. The glaze may
be stained, if desired, with any of the colors given in glazed-brick
recipes, in the following proportions: Stain, 1 part; glaze, 1 part.


«SPECIAL RECIPES FOR POTTERY AND BRICK AND TILE WORKS:»


«Vitrifiable Bodies.»—The following mixtures will flux only at a very
high heat. They require no glaze when a proper heat is attained, and
they are admirably adapted for stoneware glazes.

   I.—Cornwall stone             20     parts
       Feldspar                   12     parts
       China clay                  3     parts
       Whiting                     2     parts
       Plaster of Paris            1 1/2 parts

  II.—Feldspar                   30     parts
       Flint                       9     parts
       Stone                       8     parts
       China clay                  3     parts

 III.—Feldspar                   20     parts
       Stone                       5     parts
       Oxide of zinc               3     parts
       Whiting                     2     parts
       Plaster of Paris            1     part
       Soda crystals, dissolved    1     part


«Special Glazes for Bricks or Pottery at One Burning.»—To run these
glazes intense heat is required.

  I.—Cornwall stone         40     parts
      Flint                   7     parts
      Paris white             4     parts
      Ball clay              15     parts
      Oxide of zinc           6     parts
      White lead             15     parts

 II.—Feldspar               20     parts
      Cornwall stone          5     parts
      Oxide of zinc           3     parts
      Flint                   3     parts
      Lynn sand               1 1/2 parts
      Sulphate barytes        1 1/2 parts

 III.—Feldspar             25      parts
       Cornwall stone        6      parts
       Oxide of zinc         2      parts
       China clay            2      parts

  IV.—Cornwall stone      118      parts
       Feldspar             40      parts
       Paris white          28      parts
       Flint                 4      parts

   V.—Feldspar             16      parts
       China clay            4      parts
       Stone                 4      parts
       Oxide of zinc         2      parts
       Plaster of Paris      1      part

  VI.—Feldspar             10      parts
       Stone                 5      parts
       Flint                 2      parts
       Plaster                  1/2 part

The following glaze is excellent for bricks in the biscuit and pottery,
which require an easy firing:


«White.»—

 White lead            20 parts
 Stone                  9 parts
 Flint                  9 parts
 Borax                  4 parts
 Oxide of zinc          2 parts
 Feldspar               3 parts

These materials should be procured finely ground, and after being
thoroughly mixed should be placed in a fire-clay crucible, and be
fired for 5 or 6 hours, sharply, or until the material runs down into
a liquid, then with a pair of iron tongs draw the crucible from the
kiln and pour the liquid into a bucket of cold water, grind the flux
to an extremely fine powder, and spread a coating upon the plate to be
enameled, previously brushing a little gum thereon. The plate must then
be fired until a sufficient heat is attained to run or fuse the powder.


«POTTERY BODIES AND GLAZES:»


«Ordinary.»—

   I.—China clay          2 1/2 parts
       Stone               1 1/2 parts
       Bone                3     parts

  II.—China clay          5     parts
       Stone               2 1/2 parts
       Bone                7     parts
       Barytes             3     parts

 III.—Chain clay          5     parts
       Stone               3     parts
       Flint                 1/4 part
       Barytes             8     parts


«Superior.»—

 I.—China clay             35 parts
     Cornwall stone         23 parts
     Bone                   40 parts
     Flint                   2 parts {168}

  II.—China clay            35 parts
       Cornwall stone         8 parts
       Bone                  50 parts
       Flint                  3 parts
       Blue clay              4 parts

 III.—China clay             8 parts
       Cornwall stone        40 parts
       Bone                  29 parts
       Flint                  5 parts
       Blue clay             18 parts

  IV.—China clay            32 parts
       Cornwall stone        23 parts
       Bone                  34 parts
       Flint                  6 parts
       Blue clay              5 parts

   V.—China clay             7 parts
       Stone                 40 parts
       Bone                  28 parts
       Flint                  5 parts
       Blue clay             20 parts


«Finest China Bodies.»—

   I.—China clay           20 parts
       Bone                 60 parts
       Feldspar             20 parts

  II.—China clay           30 parts
       Bone                 40 parts
       Feldspar             30 parts

 III.—China clay           25 parts
       Stone                10 parts
       Bone                 45 parts
       Feldspar             20 parts

  IV.—China clay           30 parts
       Stone                15 parts
       Bone                 35 parts
       Feldspar             20 parts


«Earthenware Bodies.»—

   I.—Ball clay         13     parts
       China clay         9 1/2 parts
       Flint              5 1/2 parts
       Cornwall stone     4     parts

  II.—Ball clay         12 1/2 parts
       China clay         8     parts
       Flint              5 1/2 parts
       Cornwall stone     2 1/2 parts
       One pint of cobalt stain to 1 ton of glaze.

 III.—Ball clay          13 1/4 parts
       China clay         11     parts
       Flint               4     parts
       Cornwall stone      5     parts
       Feldspar            4     parts
       Stain as required.

  IV.—Ball clay          18 1/2 parts
       China clay         13 1/2 parts
       Flint               8 1/2 parts
       Stone               4     parts
       Blue stain, 2 pints to ton.

  V.—Ball clay             15 parts
      China clay            12 parts
      Flint                  6 parts
      Stone                  4 parts
      Feldspar               4 parts
      Blue stain, 2 pints to ton.

 VI. (Parian).—
      Stone                 11 parts
      Feldspar              10 parts
      China clay             8 parts


«COLORED BODIES:»


«Ivory Body.»—

 Ball clay         22     parts
 China              5 1/2 parts
 Flint              5     parts
 Stone              3 1/2 parts


«Dark Drab Body.»—

 Cane marl             30 parts
 Ball clay             10 parts
 Cornwall stone         7 parts
 Feldspar               4 parts


«Black Body.»—

 Ball clay            120 parts
 Ocher                120 parts
 Manganese             35 parts
 Cobalt carbonate       2 parts

Grind the three last mentioned ingredients first.


«Caledonia Body.»—

 Yellow clay           32 parts
 China clay            10 parts
 Flint                  4 parts


«Brown Body.»—

 Red clay          50     parts
 Common clay        7 1/2 parts
 Manganese          1     part
 Flint              1     part


«Jasper Body.»—

 Cawk clay             10     parts
 Blue clay             10     parts
 Bone                   5     parts
 Flint                  2     parts
 Cobalt                   1/4 part


«Stone Body.»—

 Stone                 48 parts
 Blue clay             25 parts
 China clay            24 parts
 Cobalt                10 parts


«Egyptian Black.»—

 Blue clay            235 parts
 Calcined ocher       225 parts
 Manganese             45 parts
 China clay            15 parts


«Ironstone Body.»—

 Stone                200 parts
 Cornwall clay        150 parts {169}
 Blue clay            200 parts
 Flint                100 parts
 Calx                   1 part


«Cream Body.»—

 Blue clay          1 1/2 parts
 Brown clay         1 1/2 parts
 Black clay         1     part
 Cornish clay       1     part
 Common ball clay     1/4 part
 Buff color           1/4 part


«Light Drab.»—

 Cane marl             30 parts
 Ball clay             24 parts
 Feldspar               7 parts


«Sage Body.»—

 Cane marl             15 parts
 Ball clay             15 parts
 China clay             5 parts
 Stained with turquoise stain.


«COLORED GLAZES FOR POTTERY:»


«Blue.»—

 White glaze          100 parts
 Oxide of cobalt        3 parts
 Red lead              10 parts
 Flowing blue           3 parts
 Enamel blue            3 parts

Grind.


«Pink.»—

 White glaze          100 parts
 Red lead               8 parts
 Marone pink U. G.      8 parts
 Enamel red             3 parts

Grind.


«Buff.»—

 White glaze          100 parts
 Red lead              10 parts
 Buff color             8 parts

Grind.


«Ivory.»—

 White glaze          100 parts
 Red lead               8 parts
 Enamel amber           8 parts
 Yellow underglaze      2 parts

Grind.


«Turquoise.»—

 White glaze          100 parts
 Red lead              10 parts
 Carbonate of soda      5 parts
 Enamel blue            4 parts
 Malachite, 110         4 parts

Grind.


«Yellow.»—

 I.—White glaze           100 parts
     Red lead               10 parts
     Oxide of uranium        8 parts

Grind.

 II.—Dried flint            5 parts
      Cornwall stone        15 parts
      Litharge              50 parts
      Yellow underglaze      4 parts

 Grind.


 «Green.»—

 I.—Oxide of copper         8 parts
     Flint of glass          3 parts
     Flint                   1 part
     Red lead                6 parts

 Grind, then take:

 Of above               1 part
 White glaze            6 parts

 Or stronger as required.

 II.—Red lead                  60     parts
      Stone                     24     parts
      Flint                     12     parts
      Flint glass               12     parts
      China clay                 3     parts
      Calcined oxide of copper  14     parts
      Oxide of cobalt              1/4 part

 Grind only.


 «Green Glaze, Best.»—

 III.—Stone            80     parts
       Flint             8     parts
       Soda crystals     4     parts
       Borax             3 1/2 parts
       Niter             2     parts
       Whiting           2     parts
       Oxide of cobalt     1/4 part

 Glost fire, then take:

 Above frit                60     parts
 Red lead                  57     parts
 Calcined oxide of copper   5 1/4 parts


 «Black.»—

 Red lead              24 parts
 Raddle                 4 parts
 Manganese              4 parts
 Flint                  2 parts
 Oxide of cobalt        2 parts
 Carbonate of cobalt    2 parts

 Glost fire.


 «WHITE GLAZES:»


 «China.»—Frit:

 I.—Stone                   6 parts
     Niter                   2 parts
     Borax                  12 parts
     Flint                   4 parts
     Pearl ash               2 parts

 To mill:

 Frit              24     parts
 Stone             15 1/2 parts
 Flint              6 1/2 parts
 White lead        31     parts

{170}

II.—Frit:

 Stone                 24 parts
 Borax                 53 parts
 Lynn sand             40 parts
 Feldspar              32 parts
 Paris white           16 parts

To mill:

 Frit                  90 parts
 Stone                 30 parts
 White lead            90 parts
 Flint                  4 parts
 Glass                  2 parts

III.—Frit:

 Stone                 50 parts
 Borax                 40 parts
 Flint                 30 parts
 Flint glass           30 parts
 Pearl barytes         10 parts

To mill:

 Frit                 160     parts
 Red lead              30     parts
 Enamel blue              1/2 part
 Flint glass            2     parts

IV.—Frit:

 Borax                100 parts
 China clay            55 parts
 Whiting               60 parts
 Feldspar              75 parts

To mill:

 Frit                 200     parts
 China clay            16     parts
 White clay             3 1/2 parts
 Stone                  3     parts
 Flint                  2     parts

V.—Frit:

 Stone                 40 parts
 Flint                 25 parts
 Niter                 10 parts
 Borax                 20 parts
 White lead            10 parts
 Flint glass           40 parts

To mill:

 Frit                 145 parts
 Stone                 56 parts
 Borax                 16 parts
 Flint                 15 parts
 Red lead              60 parts
 Flint glass            8 parts


«Earthenware.»—Frit:

 I.—Flint                 108 parts
     China clay             45 parts
     Paris white            60 parts
     Borax                  80 parts
     Soda crystals          30 parts

To mill:

 Frit                 270 parts
 Flint                 20 parts
 Paris white           15 parts
 Stone                 80 parts
 White lead            65 parts

II.—Frit:

 Flint                 62 parts
 China clay            30 parts
 Paris white           38 parts
 Boracic acid          48 parts
 Soda crystals         26 parts

To mill:

 Frit                 230 parts
 Stone                160 parts
 Flint                 60 parts
 Lead                 120 parts

III.—Frit:

 Stone                 56 parts
 Paris white           55 parts
 Flint                 60 parts
 China clay            20 parts
 Borax                120 parts
 Soda crystals         15 parts

To mill:

 Frit                 212 parts
 Stone                130 parts
 Flint                 50 parts
 Lead                 110 parts

Stain as required.

IV.—Frit:

 Stone                100 parts
 Flint                 44 parts
 Paris white           46 parts
 Borax                 70 parts
 Niter                 10 parts

To mill:

 Frit                 200 parts
 Stone                 60 parts
 Lead                  80 parts


«Pearl White Glaze.»—Frit:

 Flint                 50 parts
 Stone                100 parts
 Paris white           20 parts
 Borax                 60 parts
 Soda crystals         20 parts

To mill:

 Frit                 178 pounds
 Lead                  55 pounds
 Stain                  3 ounces


«Opaque Glaze.»—Frit:

 Borax                 74     parts
 Stone                 94     parts
 Flint                 30     parts
 China clay            22     parts
 Pearl ash              5 1/2 parts

To mill:

 Frit                 175 parts
 Lead                  46 parts {171}
 Flint                 10 parts
 Oxide of tin          12 parts
 Flint glass           12 parts


«Glaze for Granite.»—Frit:

 I.—Stone                 100 parts
     Flint                  80 parts
     China clay             30 parts
     Paris white            30 parts
     Feldspar               40 parts
     Soda crystals          40 parts
     Borax                  80 parts

To mill:

 Frit                 360 parts
 Flint                 50 parts
 Stone                 50 parts
 Lead                  80 parts

II.—Frit:

 Borax                100 parts
 Stone                 50 parts
 Flint                 50 parts
 Paris white           40 parts
 China clay            20 parts

To mill:

 Frit                 210 parts
 Stone                104 parts
 Flint                 64 parts
 Lead                  95 parts


«Raw Glazes.»—White:

 I.—White lead            160 parts
     Borax                  32 parts
     Stone                  48 parts
     Flint                  52 parts

Stain with blue and grind.

 II.—White lead            80 parts
      Litharge              60 parts
      Boracic acid          40 parts
      Stone                 45 parts
      Flint                 50 parts

Treat as foregoing.

 III.—White lead          100 parts
       Borax                 4 parts
       Flint                11 parts
       Cornwall stone       50 parts

  IV.—Red lead             80 parts
       Litharge             60 parts
       Tincal               40 parts
       Stone                40 parts
       Flint                52 parts


«ROCKINGHAM GLAZES.»

  I.—Litharge              50     parts
      Stone                  7 1/2 parts
      Red marl               3     parts
      Oxide of manganese     5     parts
      Red oxide of iron      1     part

 II.—White lead            30     parts
      Stone                  3     parts
      Flint                  9     parts
      Red marl               3     parts
      Manganese              5     parts

 III.—Red lead             20 parts
       Stone                 3 parts
       Flint                 2 parts
       China clay            2 parts
       Manganese             3 parts
       Red oxide of iron     1 part


«Stoneware Bodies.»—

 Ball clay             14 parts
 China clay            10 parts
 Stone                  8 parts

 Ball clay              8 parts
 China clay             5 parts
 Flint                  3 parts
 Stone                  4 parts

 Ball clay             14 parts
 China clay            11 parts
 Flint                  4 parts
 Stone                  5 parts
 Feldspar               4 parts

 Cane marl             16 parts
 China clay            10 parts
 Stone                  9 parts
 Flint                  5 parts


«Glazes.»—Hard glaze:

 Stone                 10     parts
 Flint                  5     parts
 Whiting                1 1/2 parts
 Red lead              10     parts

Hard glaze:

 Feldspar              25 parts
 Flint                  5 parts
 Red lead              15 parts
 Plaster                1 part

Softer:

 White lead            13     parts
 Flint glass           10     parts
 Feldspar              18     parts
 Stone                  3     parts
 Whiting                1 1/2 parts

Best:

 Feldspar              20 parts
 Flint glass           14     parts
 White lead            14     parts
 Stone                  3     parts
 Oxide of zinc          3     parts
 Whiting                1 1/2 parts
 Plaster                1     part


«Rockingham Bodies.»—

 Ball clay             20 parts
 China clay            13 parts
 Flint                  7 parts
 Stone                  1 part

 Cane marl             22 parts
 China clay            15 parts
 Flint                  8 parts
 Feldspar               1 part {172}


«Glazes.»—

   I.—Red lead           60 parts
       Stone               8 parts
       Red clay            3 parts
       Best manganese      5 parts

  II.—White lead         60 parts
       Feldspar            6 parts
       Flint              16 parts
       Red clay            6 parts
       Manganese          12 parts

 III.—Red lead          100 parts
       Stone              15 parts
       Flint              10 parts
       China clay         10 parts
       Manganese          40 parts
       Crocus martis       2 parts

  IV.—Litharge          100 parts
       Feldspar           14 parts
       China clay         20 parts
       Manganese          40 parts
       Oxide of iron       2 parts


«Jet.»—Procure some first-class red marl, add water, and, by passing
through a fine lawn, make it into a slip, and dip the ware therein.

When fired use the following:

Glaze.—

 Stone            60     parts
 Flint            30     parts
 Paris white       7 1/2 parts
 Red lead        140     parts

One part mazarine blue stain to 10 parts glaze.

Mazarine Blue Stain.—

 Oxide of cobalt     10 parts
 Paris white          9 parts
 Sulphate barytes     1 part

Calcine.

Another Process Body.—

 Ball clay       16 parts
 China clay      12 parts
 Flint clay       9 parts
 Stone clay       6 parts
 Black stain      7 parts

Glaze.—

 Litharge        70 parts
 Paris white      3 parts
 Flint           12 parts
 Stone           30 parts
 Black stain     20 parts

Black Stain.—

 Chromate of iron        12 parts
 Oxide of nickel          2 parts
 Oxide of tin             2 parts
 Carbonate of cobalt      5 parts
 Oxide of manganese       2 parts

Calcine and grind.

Blue Stains.—

 I.—Oxide of cobalt     2 1/2 parts
     Oxide of zinc       7 1/2 parts
     Stone               7 1/2 parts

Fire this very hard.

 II.—Zinc               6 pounds
      Flint              4 pounds
      China clay         4 pounds
      Oxide of cobalt    5 ounces

Hard fire.

 III.—Whiting             3 3/4 parts
       Flint               3 3/4 parts
       Oxide of cobalt     2 1/2 parts

Glost fire.

Turquoise Stain.—

 Prepared cobalt         1 1/2 parts
 Oxide of zinc           6     parts
 China clay              6     parts
 Carbonate of soda.      1     part

Hard fire.


«MATERIALS:»


«Tin Ash.»—

 Old lead       4 parts
 Grain tin      2 parts

Melt in an iron ladle, and pour out in water, then spread on a dish,
and calcine in glost oven with plenty of air.


«Oxide of Tin.»—

 Granulated tin    5     pounds
 Niter               1/2 pound

Put on saucers and fire in glost oven.


«Oxide of Chrome» is made by mixing powdered bichromate of potash with
sulphur as follows:

 Potash              6 parts
 Flowers of sulphur  1 part

Put in saggar, inside kiln, so that fumes are carried away, and place 4
or 5 pieces of red-hot iron on the top so as to ignite it. Leave about
12 hours, then pound very fine, and put in saggar again. Calcine in
hard place of biscuit oven. Wash this until the water is quite clear,
and dry for use.


«Production of Luster Colors on Porcelain and Glazed Pottery.»—The
luster colors are readily decomposed by acids and atmospheric
influences, because they do not contain, in consequence of the low
baking temperature, enough silicic acid to form resistive compounds.
In order to attain this, G. Alefeld has patented a process according
to which such compounds are added to the luster preparations as
leave behind after the burning an acid which transforms the luster
preparation into more resisting {173} compounds. In this connection
the admixture of such bodies has been found advantageous, as they form
phosphides with the metallic oxides of the lusters after the burning.
These phosphides are especially fitted for the production of saturated
resisting compounds, not only on account of their insolubility in
water, but also on account of their colorings. Similarly titanic,
molybdic, tungstic, and vanadic compounds may be produced. The metallic
phosphates produced by the burning give a luster coating which, as
regards gloss, is not inferior to the non-saturated metallic oxides,
while it materially excels them in power of resistance. Since the
lusters to be applied are used dissolved in essential oils, it is
necessary to make the admixture of phosphoric substance also in a form
soluble in essential oils. For the production of this admixture the
respective chlorides, preeminently phosphoric chloride, are suitable.
They are mixed with oil of lavender in the ratio of 1 to 5, and the
resulting reaction product is added to the commercial metallic oxide
luster, singly or in conjunction with precious metal preparations
(glossy gold, silver, platinum, etc.) in the approximate proportion
of 5 to 1. Then proceed as usual. Instead of the chlorides, nitrates
and acetates, as well as any readily destructible organic compounds,
may also be employed, which are entered into fusing rosin or rosinous
liquids.


«Metallic Luster on Pottery.»—According to a process patented in
Germany, a mixture is prepared from various natural or artificial
varieties of ocher, to which 25–50 per cent of finely powdered more or
less metalliferous or sulphurous coal is added. The mass treated in
this manner is brought together in saggars with finely divided organic
substances, such as sawdust, shavings, wood-wool, cut straw, etc., and
subjected to feeble red heat. After the heating the material is taken
out. The glazings now exhibit that thin but stable metallic color which
is governed by the substances used. Besides coal, salts and oxides of
silver, cobalt, cadmium, chrome iron, nickel, manganese, copper, or
zinc may be employed. The color-giving layer is removed by washing or
brushing, while the desired color is burned in and remains. In this
manner handsome shades can be produced.


«Metallic Glazes on Enamels.»—The formulas used by the Arabs and their
Italian successors are partly disclosed in manuscripts in the British
and South Kensington Museums; two are given below:

                        Arab  Italian
 Copper sulphide       26.87    24.74
 Silver sulphide        1.15     1.03
 Mercury sulphide        —      24.74
 Red ocher             71.98    49.49

These were ground with vinegar and applied with the brush to the
already baked enamel. A great variety of iridescent and metallic tones
can be obtained by one or the other, or a mixture of the following
formulas:

                      I  II  III  IV   V   VI
 Copper carbonate    30  —    —   28  —    95
 Copper oxalate      —   —    —   —    5   —
 Copper sulphide     —   20   —   —   —    —
 Silver carbonate    —    3   —    2   1    5
 Bismuth subnitrate  —   12   —   —   10   —
 Stannous oxide      —   —    25  —   —    —
 Red ocher           70  85   55  70  84   —

Silver chloride and yellow ocher may be respectively substituted for
silver carbonate and red ocher. The ingredients, ground with a little
gum tragacanth and water, are applied with a brush to enamels melting
about 1814° F., and are furnaced at 1202° F. in a reducing atmosphere.
After cooling the ferruginous deposit is rubbed off, and the colors
thus brought out.

Sulphur, free or combined, is not necessary, cinnabar has no action,
ocher may be dispensed with, and any organic gummy matter may be
used instead of vinegar, and broom is not needed in the furnace. The
intensity and tone of the iridescence depend on the duration of the
reduction, and the nature of the enamel. Enamels containing a coloring
base—copper, iron, antimony, nickel—especially in presence of tin, give
the best results.


«To Toughen China.»—To toughen china or glass place the new article
in cold water, bring to boil gradually, boil for 4 hours, and leave
standing in the water till cool. Glass or china toughened in this way
will never crack with hot water.


«How to Tell Pottery and Porcelain.»—The following simple test
will serve: Hold the piece up to the light, and if it can be seen
through—that is, if it is translucent—it is porcelain. Pottery is
opaque, and not so hard and white as porcelain. The main differences in
the manufacture of stoneware, earthenware, and porcelain are due to the
ingredients used, to the way they are mixed, and to the degree of heat
to which they are {174} subjected in firing. Most of the old English
wares found in this country are pottery or semichina, although the term
china is commonly applied to them all.


«Cheese»


«Manufacture.»—The process of cheese making is one which is eminently
interesting and scientific, and which, in every gradation, depends
on principles which chemistry has developed and illustrated. When
a vegetable or mineral acid is added to milk, and heat applied, a
coagulum is formed, which, when separated from the liquid portion,
constitutes cheese. Neutral salts, earthy and metallic salts, sugar,
and gum arabic, as well as some other substances, also produce the same
effect; but that which answers the purpose best, and which is almost
exclusively used by dairy farmers, is rennet, or the mucous membrane of
the last stomach of the calf. Alkalies dissolve this curd at a boiling
heat, and acids again precipitate it. The solubility of casein in milk
is occasioned by the presence of the phosphates and other salts of the
alkalies. In fresh milk these substances may be readily detected by the
property it possesses of restoring the color of reddened litmus paper.
The addition of an acid neutralizes the alkali, and so precipitates
the curd in an insoluble state. The philosophy of cheese making is
thus expounded by Liebig:

“The acid indispensable to the coagulation of milk is not added to the
milk in the preparation of cheese, but it is formed in the milk at the
expense of the milk-sugar present. A small quantity of water is left
in contact with a small quantity of a calf’s stomach for a few hours,
or for a night; the water absorbs so minute a portion of the mucous
membrane as to be scarcely ponderable; this is mixed with milk; its
state of transformation is communicated (and this is a most important
circumstance) not to the cheese, but to the milk-sugar, the elements
of which transpose themselves into lactic acid, which neutralizes
the alkalies, and thus causes the separation of the cheese. By means
of litmus paper the process may be followed and observed through all
its stages; the alkaline reaction of the milk ceases as soon as the
coagulation begins. If the cheese is not immediately separated from the
whey, the formation of lactic acid continues, the fluid turns acid, and
the cheese itself passes into a state of decomposition.

“When cheese-curd is kept in a cool place a series of transformation
takes place, in consequence of which it assumes entirely new
properties; it gradually becomes semi-transparent, and more or less
soft, throughout the whole mass; it exhibits a feebly acid reaction,
and develops the characteristic caseous odor. Fresh cheese is very
sparingly soluble in water, but after having been left to itself for
two or three years it becomes (especially if all the fat be previously
removed) almost completely soluble in cold water, forming with it a
solution which, like milk, is coagulated by the addition of the acetic
or any mineral acid. The cheese, which whilst fresh is insoluble,
returns during the maturation, or ripening, as it is called, to a state
similar to that in which it originally existed in the milk. In those
English, Dutch, and Swiss cheeses which are nearly inodorous, and in
the superior kinds of French cheese, the casein of the milk is present
in its unaltered state.

“The odor and flavor of the cheese is due to the decomposition of the
butter; the non-volatile acids, the margaric and oleic acids, and
the volatile butyric acid, capric and caproic acids are liberated in
consequence of the decomposition of glycerine. Butyric acid imparts
to cheese its characteristic caseous odor, and the differences in
its pungency or aromatic flavor depend upon the proportion of free
butyric, capric, and caproic acids present. In the cheese of certain
dairies and districts, valerianic acid has been detected along with the
other acids just referred to. Messrs Jljenjo and Laskowski found this
acid in the cheese of Limbourg, and M. Bolard in that of Roquefort.

“The transition of the insoluble into soluble casein depends upon
the decomposition of the phosphate of lime by the margaric acid of
the butter; margarate of lime is formed, whilst the phosphoric acid
combines with the casein, forming a compound soluble in water.

“The bad smell of inferior kinds of cheese, especially those called
meager or poor cheeses, is caused by certain fetid products containing
sulphur, and which are formed by the decomposition or putrefaction of
the casein. The alteration which the butter undergoes (that is, in
becoming rancid), or which occurs in the milk-sugar still present,
being transmitted to the casein, changes both the composition of the
latter substance and its nutritive qualities.

“The principal conditions for the preparation of the superior kinds
of cheese {175} (other obvious circumstances being of course duly
regarded) are a careful removal of the whey, which holds the milk-sugar
in solution, and a low temperature during the maturation or ripening of
the cheese.”

Cheese differs vastly in quality and flavor according to the method
employed in its manufacture and the richness of the milk of which it
is made. Much depends upon the quantity of cream it contains, and,
consequently, when a superior quality of cheese is desired cream is
frequently added to the curd. This plan is adopted in the manufacture
of Stilton cheese and others of a like description. The addition of
a pound or two of butter to the curd for a middling size cheese also
vastly improves the quality of the product. To insure the richness of
the milk, not only should the cows be properly fed, but certain breeds
chosen. Those of Alderney, Cheddar, Cheshire, etc., have been widely
preferred.

The materials employed in making cheese are milk and rennet. Rennet is
used either fresh or salted and dried; generally in the latter state.
The milk may be of any kind, according to the quality of the cheese
required. Cows’ milk is that generally employed, but occasionally ewes’
milk is used; and sometimes, though more rarely, that from goats.

In preparing his cheese the dairy farmer puts the greater portion of
the milk into a large tub, to which he adds the remainder, sufficiently
heated to raise the temperature to that of new milk. The whole is
then whisked together, the rennet or rennet liquor added, and the tub
covered over. It is now allowed to stand until completely “turned,”
when the curd is gently struck down several times with the skimming
dish, after which it is allowed to subside. The vat, covered with
cheese cloth, is next placed on a “horse” or “ladder” over the tub,
and filled with curd by means of the skimmer, care being taken to
allow as little as possible of the oily particles or butter to run
back with the whey. The curd is pressed down with the hands, and more
added as it sinks. This process is repeated until the curd rises
to about two inches above the edge. The newly formed cheese, thus
partially separated from the whey, is now placed in a clean tub, and
a proper quantity of salt, as well as of annotta, added when that
coloring is used, after which a board is placed over and under it, and
pressure applied for about 2 or 3 hours. The cheese is next turned
out and surrounded by a fresh cheese cloth, and then again submitted
to pressure in the cheese press for 8 or 10 hours, after which it is
commonly removed from the press, salted all over, and again pressed
for 15 to 20 hours. The quality of the cheese especially depends on
this part of the process, as if any of the whey is left in the cheese
it rapidly becomes bad-flavored. Before placing it in the press the
last time the common practice is to pare the edges smooth and sightly.
It now only remains to wash the outside of the cheese in warm whey or
water, to wipe it dry, and to color it with annotta or reddle, as is
usually done.

The storing of the newly made cheese is the next point that engages the
attention of the maker and wholesale dealer. The same principles which
influence the maturation or ripening of fermented liquors also operate
here. A cool cellar, neither damp nor dry, and which is uninfluenced by
change of weather or season, is commonly regarded as the best for the
purpose. If possible, the temperature should on no account be permitted
to exceed 50° or 52° F. at any portion of the year. An average of
about 45° F. is preferable when it can be procured. A place exposed to
sudden changes of temperature is as unfit for storing cheese as it is
for storing beer. “The quality of Roquefort cheese, which is prepared
from sheep’s milk, and is very excellent, depends exclusively upon the
places where the cheeses are kept after pressing and during maturation.
These are cellars, communicating with mountain grottoes and caverns
which are kept constantly cool, at about 41° to 42° F., by currents
of air from clefts in the mountains. The value of these cellars as
storehouses varies with their property of maintaining an equable and
low temperature.”

It will thus be seen that very slight differences in the materials,
in the preparation, or in storing of the cheese, materially influence
the quality and flavor of this article. The richness of the milk; the
addition to or subtraction of cream from the milk; the separation of
the curd from the whey with or without compression; the salting of
the curd; the collection of the curd, either whole or broken, before
pressing; the addition of coloring matter, as annotta or saffron, or
of flavoring; the place and method of storing; and the length of time
allowed for maturation, all tend to alter the taste and odor of the
cheese in some or other particular, and that in a way readily {176}
perceptible to the palate of the connoisseur. No other alimentary
substance appears to be so seriously affected by slight variations
in the quality of the materials from which it is made, or by such
apparently trifling differences in the methods of preparing.

The varieties of cheese met with in commerce are very numerous, and
differ greatly from each other in richness, color, and flavor. These
are commonly distinguished by names indicative of the places in which
they have been manufactured, or of the quality of the materials from
which they have been prepared. Thus we have Dutch, Gloucester, Stilton,
skimmed milk, raw milk, cream, and other cheeses; names which explain
themselves. The following are the principal varieties:


«American Factory.»—Same as Cheddar.


«Brickbat.»—Named from its form; made, in Wiltshire, of new milk and
cream.


«Brie.»—A soft, white, cream cheese of French origin.


«Cheddar.»—A fine, spongy kind of cheese, the eyes or vesicles
of which contain a rich oil; made up into round, thick cheeses of
considerable size (150 to 200 pounds).


«Cheshire.»—From new milk, without skimming, the morning’s milk being
mixed with that of the preceding evening’s, previously warmed, so that
the whole may be brought to the heat of new milk. To this the rennet
is added, in less quantity than is commonly used for other kinds of
cheese. On this point much of the flavor and mildness of the cheese is
said to depend. A piece of dried rennet, of the size of a half-dollar
put into a pint of water over night, and allowed to stand until the
next morning, is sufficient for 18 or 20 gallons of milk; in large,
round, thick cheeses (100 to 200 pounds each). They are generally
solid, homogeneous, and dry, and friable rather than viscid.


«Cottenham.»—A rich kind of cheese, in flavor and consistence not
unlike Stilton, from which, however, it differs in shape, being flatter
and broader than the latter.


«Cream.»—From the “strippings” (the last of the milk drawn from the cow
at each milking), from a mixture of milk and cream, or from raw cream
only, according to the quality desired. It is usually made in small
oblong, square, or rounded cakes, a general pressure only (that of a
2- or 4-pound weight) being applied to press out the whey. After 12
hours it is placed upon a board or wooden trencher, and turned every
day until dry. It ripens in about 3 weeks. A little salt is generally
added, and frequently a little powdered lump sugar.


«Damson.»—Prepared from damsons boiled with a little water, the pulp
passed through a sieve, and then boiled with about one-fourth the
weight of sugar, until the mixture solidifies on cooling; it is next
poured into small tin molds previously dusted out with sugar. Cherry
cheese, gooseberry cheese, plum cheese, etc., are prepared in the same
way, using the respective kinds of fruit. They are all very agreeable
candies or confections.


«Derbyshire.»—A small, white, rich variety, very similar to Dunlop
cheese.


«Dunlop.»—Rich, white, and buttery; in round forms, weighing from 30 to
60 pounds.


«Dutch (Holland).»—Of a globular form, 5 to 14 pounds each. Those from
Edam are very highly salted; those from Gouda less so.


«Emmenthaler.»—Same as Gruyère.


«Gloucester.»—Single Gloucester, from milk deprived of part of its
cream; double Gloucester, from milk retaining the whole of the cream.
Mild tasted, semi-buttery consistence, without being friable; in large,
round, flattish forms.


«Green or Sage.»—From milk mixed with the juice of an infusion or
decoction of sage leaves, to which marigold flowers and parsley are
frequently added.


«Gruyère.»—A fine kind of cheese made in Switzerland, and largely
consumed on the Continent. It is firm and dry, and exhibits numerous
cells of considerable magnitude.


«Holland.»—Same as Dutch.


«Leguminous.»—The Chinese prepare an actual cheese from peas, called
tao-foo, which they sell in the streets of Canton. The paste from
steeped ground peas is boiled, which causes the starch to dissolve with
the casein; after straining the liquid it is coagulated by a solution
of gypsum; this coagulum is worked up like sour milk, salted, and
pressed into molds.


«Limburger.»—A strong variety of cheese, soft and well ripened.


«Lincoln.»—From new milk and cream; in pieces about 2 inches thick.
Soft, and will not keep over 2 or 3 months. {177}


«Neufchâtel.»—A much-esteemed variety of Swiss cheese; made of cream,
and weighs about 5 or 6 ounces.


«Norfolk.»—Dyed yellow with annotta or saffron; good, but not superior;
in cheeses of 30 to 50 pounds.


«Parmesan.»—From the curd of skimmed milk, hardened by a gentle heat.
The rennet is added at about 120°, and an hour afterwards the curdling
milk is set on a slow fire until heated to about 150° F., during which
the curd separates in small lumps. A few pinches of saffron are then
thrown in. About a fortnight after making the outer crust is cut off,
and the new surface varnished with linseed oil, and one side colored
red.


«Roquefort.»—From ewes’ milk; the best prepared in France. It greatly
resembles Stilton, but is scarcely of equal richness or quality, and
possesses a peculiar pungency and flavor.


«Roquefort, Imitation.»—The gluten of wheat is kneaded with a little
salt and a small portion of a solution of starch, and made up into
cheeses. It is said that this mixture soon acquires the taste, smell,
and unctuosity of cheese, and when kept a certain time is not to
be distinguished from the celebrated Roquefort cheese, of which it
possesses all the peculiar pungency. By slightly varying the process
other kinds of cheese may be imitated.


«Sage.»—Same as green cheese.


«Slipcoat or Soft.»—A very rich, white cheese, somewhat resembling
butter; for present use only.


«Stilton.»—The richest and finest cheese made in England. From raw
milk to which cream taken from other milk is added; in cheeses
generally twice as high as they are broad. Like wine, this cheese is
vastly improved by age, and is therefore seldom eaten before it is 2
years old. A spurious appearance of age is sometimes given to it by
placing it in a warm, damp cellar, or by surrounding it with masses of
fermenting straw or dung.


«Suffolk.»—From skimmed milk; in round, flat forms, from 24 to 30
pounds each. Very hard and horny.


«Swiss.»—The principal cheeses made in Switzerland are the Gruyère, the
Neufchâtel, and the Schabzieger or green cheese. The latter is flavored
with melitot.


«Westphalian.»—Made in small balls or rolls of about 1 pound each.
It derives its peculiar flavor from the curd being allowed to become
partially putrid before being pressed. In small balls or rolls of about
1 pound each.


«Wiltshire.»—Resembles Cheshire or Gloucester. The outside is painted
with reddle or red ocher or whey.


«York.»—From cream. It will not keep.

We give below the composition of some of the principal varieties of
cheese:

                               Double
                   Cheddar   Gloucester   Skim
 Water              36.64      35.61      43.64
 Casein             23.38      21.76      45.64
 Fatty matter       35.44      38.16       5.76
 Mineral matter      4.54       4.47       4.96
                   ──────      ──────    ──────
                   100.00      100.00    100.00

                                       Stilton     Cotherstone
 Water                                  32.18         38.28
 Butter                                 37.36         30.89
 Casein                                 24.31         23.93
 Milk, sugar, and extractive matters     2.22          3.70
 Mineral matter                          3.93          3.20
                                       ──────        ──────
                                       100.00        100.00

                                            Gruyère   Ordinary
                                            (Swiss)    Dutch
 Water                                       40.00     36.10
 Casein                                      31.50     29.40
 Fatty matter                                24.00     27.50
 Salts                                        3.00       .90
 Non─nitrogenous organic matter and loss.     1.50      6.10
                                            ──────    ──────
                                            100.00    100.00

When a whole cheese is cut, and the consumption small, it is generally
found to become unpleasantly dry, and to lose flavor before it is
consumed. This is best prevented by cutting a sufficient quantity for a
few days’ consumption from the cheese, and keeping the remainder in a
cool place, rather damp than dry, spreading a thin film of butter over
the fresh surface, and covering it with a cloth or pan to keep off the
dirt. This removes the objection existing in small families against
purchasing a whole cheese at a time. The common practice of buying
small quantities of cheese should be avoided, as not only a higher
price is paid for any given quality, but there is little likelihood of
obtaining exactly the same flavor twice running. Should cheese become
too dry to be {178} agreeable, it may be used for stewing, or for
making grated cheese, or Welsh rarebits.


«Goats’ Milk Cheese.»—Goats’ milk cheese is made as follows: Warm 20
quarts of milk and coagulate it with rennet, either the powder or
extract. Separate the curds from the whey in a colander. After a few
days the dry curd may be shaped into larger or smaller cheeses, the
former only salted, the latter containing salt and caraway seed. The
cheeses must be turned every day, and sprinkled with salt, and any mold
removed. After a few days they may be put away on shelves to ripen,
and left for several weeks. Pure goat’s milk cheese should be firm and
solid all the way through. Twenty quarts of milk will make about 4
pounds of cheese.

CHEESE COLORANT: See Food.

CHEMICAL GARDENS: See Gardens, Chemical.

CHERRY BALSAM: See Balsam.

CHERRY CORDIAL: See Wines and Liquors.


«Chewing Gums»


«Manufacture.»—The making of chewing gum is by no means the simple
operation which it seems to be. Much experience in manipulation is
necessary to succeed, and the published formulas can at best serve as a
guide rather than as something to be absolutely and blindly followed.
Thus, if the mass is either too hard or soft, change the proportions
until it is right; often it will be found that different purchases of
the same article will vary in their characteristics when worked up. But
given a basis, the manufacturer can flavor and alter to suit himself.
The most successful manufacturers attribute their success to the
employment of the most approved machinery and the greatest attention to
details. The working formulas and the processes of these manufacturers
are guarded as trade secrets, and aside from publishing general
formulas, little information can be given.

Chicle gum is purified by boiling with water and separating the foreign
matter. Flavorings, pepsin, sugar, etc., are worked in under pressure
by suitable machinery. Formula:

 I.—Gum chicle        1 pound
     Sugar             2 pounds
     Glucose           1 pound
     Caramel butter    1 pound

First mash and soften the gum at a gentle heat. Place the sugar and
glucose in a small copper pan; add enough water to dissolve the sugar;
set on a fire and cook to 244° F.; lift off the fire; add the caramel
butter and lastly the gum; mix well into a smooth paste; roll out on a
smooth marble, dusting with finely powdered sugar, run through sizing
machine to the proper thickness, cut into strips, and again into thin
slices.

 II.—Chicle               6 ounces
      Paraffine            2 ounces
      Balsam of Tolu       2 drachms
      Balsam of Peru       1 drachm
      Sugar               20 ounces
      Glucose              8 ounces
      Water                6 ounces
      Flavoring, enough.

Triturate the chicle and balsams in water, take out and add the
paraffine, first heated. Boil the sugar, glucose, and water together to
what is known to confectioners as “crack” heat, pour the syrup over
the oil slab and turn into it the gum mixture, which will make it tough
and plastic. Add any desired flavor.

 III.—Gum chicle.       122 parts
       Paraffine          42 parts
       Balsam of Tolu.     4 parts
       Sugar             384 parts
       Water              48 parts

Dissolve the sugar in the water by the aid of heat and pour the
resultant syrup on an oiled slab. Melt the gum, balsam, and paraffine
together and pour on top of the syrup, and work the whole up together.

 IV.—Gum chicle        240 parts
      White wax          64 parts
      Sugar             640 parts
      Glucose           128 parts
      Water             192 parts
      Balsam of Peru      4 parts
      Flavoring matter, enough.

Proceed as indicated in II.

 V.—Balsam of Tolu    4 parts
     Benzoin           1 part
     White wax         1 part
     Paraffine         1 part
     Powdered sugar    1 part

Melt together, mix well, and roll into sticks of the usual dimensions.

Mix, and, when sufficiently cool, roll out into sticks or any other
desirable form. {179}

Spruce Chewing Gum.—

 Spruce gum         20 parts
 Chicle             20 parts
 Sugar, powdered    60 parts

Melt the gums separately, mix while hot, and immediately add the sugar,
a small portion at a time, kneading it thoroughly on a hot slab. When
completely incorporated remove to a cold slab, previously dusted with
powdered sugar, roll out at once into sheets, and cut into sticks. Any
desired flavor or color may be added to or incorporated with the sugar.

CHICKEN-COOP APPLICATION: See Insecticides.

CHICKEN DISEASES AND THEIR REMEDIES: See Veterinary Formulas.

CHICORY, TESTS FOR: See Foods.

CHILBLAINS: See Ointments.

CHILBLAIN SOAP: See Soap.

CHILDREN, DOSES FOR: See Doses.

CHILLS, BITTERS FOR: See Wines and Liquors.

CHINA CEMENTS: See Adhesives and Lutes.

CHINA: See Ceramics.

CHINA, TO REMOVE BURNED LETTERS FROM: See Cleaning Preparations and
Methods, under Miscellaneous Methods.

CHINA REPAIRING: See Porcelain.


«CHINA RIVETING.»

China riveting is best left to practical men, but it can be done with a
drill made from a splinter of a diamond fixed on a handle. If this is
not to be had, get a small three-cornered file, harden it by placing
it in the fire till red hot, and then plunging it in cold water. Next
grind the point on a grindstone and finish on an oilstone. With the
point pick out the place to be bored, taking care to do it gently for
fear of breaking the article. In a little while a piece will break off,
then the hole can easily be made by working the point round. The wire
may then be passed through and fastened. A good cement may be made from
1 ounce of grated cheese, 1/2 ounce of finely powdered quicklime, and
white of egg sufficient to make a paste. The less cement applied the
better, using a feather to spread it over the broken edge.

CHLORIDES, PLATT’S: See Disinfectants.

CHLORINE-PROOFING: See Acid-Proofing.


«CHOCOLATE.»

Prepare 1,000 parts of finished cacao and 30 parts of fresh cacao oil,
in a warmed, polished, iron mortar, into a liquid substance, add to it
800 parts of finely powdered sugar, and, after a good consistency has
been reached, 60 parts of powdered iron lactate and 60 parts of sugar
syrup, finely rubbed together. Scent with 40 parts of vanilla sugar. Of
this mass weigh out tablets of 125 parts into the molds.


«Coating Tablets with Chocolate.»—If a chocolate which is free from
sugar be placed in a dish over a water bath, it will melt into a fluid
of proper consistence for coating tablets. No water must be added. The
coating is formed by dipping the tablets. When they are sufficiently
hardened they are laid on oiled paper to dry.

CHOCOLATE CASTOR-OIL LOZENGES: See Castor Oil.

CHOCOLATE CORDIAL: See Wines and Liquors.

CHOCOLATE EXTRACTS: See Essences and Extracts.

CHOCOLATE SODA WATER: See Beverages.

CHOKING IN CATTLE: See Veterinary Formulas.


«CHOLERA REMEDIES:»


«Sun Cholera Mixture.»—

 Tincture of opium       1 part
 Tincture of capsicum    1 part
 Tincture of rhubarb     1 part
 Spirit of camphor       1 part
 Spirit of peppermint    1 part


«Squibb’s Diarrhea Mixture.»—

 Tincture opium       40 parts
 Tincture capsicum    40 parts
 Spirit camphor       40 parts
 Chloroform           15 parts
 Alcohol              65 parts {180}


«Aromatic Rhubarb.—»

 Cinnamon, ground        8 parts
 Rhubarb                 8 parts
 Calumba                 4 parts
 Saffron                 1 part
 Powdered opium          2 parts
 Oil peppermint          5 parts
 Alcohol, q. s. ad.    100 parts

Macerate the ground drugs with 75 parts alcohol in a closely covered
percolator for several days, then allow percolation to proceed, using
sufficient alcohol to obtain 95 parts of percolate. In percolate
dissolve the oil of peppermint.


«Rhubarb and Camphor.—»

 Tincture capsicum      2 ounces
 Tincture opium         2 ounces
 Tincture camphor       3 ounces
 Tincture catechu       4 ounces
 Tincture rhubarb       4 ounces
 Spirit peppermint      4 ounces


«Blackberry Mixture.—»

 Fluid extract blackberry root         2 pints
 Fluid ginger, soluble             5 1/3 ounces
 Fluid catechu                     5 1/3 ounces
 Fluid opium for tincture            160 minims
 Brandy                                8 ounces
 Sugar                                 4 pounds
 Essence cloves                      256 minims
 Essence cinnamon                    256 minims
 Chloroform                          128 minims
 Alcohol (25 per cent), q. s. ad.      1 gallon

CHOWCHOW: See Condiments.

CHROME YELLOW, TEST FOR: See Pigments.

CHROMIUM GLUE: See Adhesives.


«CHROMO MAKING.»

The production of chromo pictures requires a little skill. Practice is
necessary. The glass plate to be used should be washed off with warm
water, and then laid in a 10 per cent solution of nitric acid. After
one hour, wash with clean, cold water, dry with a towel, and polish the
plate with good alcohol on the inside—hollow side—until no finger marks
or streaks are visible. This is best ascertained by breathing on the
glass; the breath should show an even blue surface on the glass.

Coat the unmounted photograph to be colored with benzine by means of
wadding, but without pressure, so that the retouching of the picture
is not disturbed. Place 2 tablets of ordinary kitchen gelatin in
8 3/4 ounces of distilled or pure rain water, soak for an hour,
and then heat until the gelatin has completely dissolved. Pour this
warm solution over the polished side of the glass, so that the liquid
is evenly distributed. The best way is to pour the solution on the
upper right-hand corner, allowing it to flow into the left-hand
corner, from there to the left below and right below, finally letting
the superfluous liquid run off. Take the photograph, which has been
previously slightly moistened on the back, lay it with the picture side
on the gelatin-covered plate, centering it nicely, and squeeze out
the excess gelatin solution gently, preferably by means of a rubber
squeegee. Care must be taken, however, not to displace the picture in
this manipulation, as it is easily spoiled.

The solution must never be allowed to boil, since this would render
the gelatin brittle and would result in the picture, after having been
finished, cracking off from the glass in a short time. When the picture
has been attached to the glass plate without blisters (which is best
observed from the back), the edge of the glass is cleansed of gelatin,
preferably by means of a small sponge and lukewarm water, and the plate
is allowed to dry over night.

When the picture and the gelatin are perfectly dry, coat the back
of the picture a few times with castor oil until it is perfectly
transparent; carefully remove the oil without rubbing, and proceed with
the painting, which is best accomplished with good, not over-thick oil
colors. The coloring must be observed from the glass side, and for this
reason the small details, such as eyes, lips, beard, and hair, should
first be sketched in. When the first coat is dry the dress and the
flesh tints are painted. The whole surface may be painted over, and it
is not necessary to paint shadows, as these are already present in the
picture, and consequently show the color through in varying strength.

When the coloring has dried, a second glass plate should be laid on for
protection, pasting the two edges together with narrow strips of linen.


«Cider»


«To Make Cider.»—Pick the apples off the tree by hand. Every apple
before going into the press should be carefully {181} wiped. As soon as
a charge of apples is ground, remove the pomace and put in a cask with
a false bottom and a strainer beneath it, and a vessel to catch the
drainage from pomace. As fast as the juice runs from the press place it
in clean, sweet, open tubs or casks with the heads out and provide with
a faucet, put in about two inches above bottom. The juice should be
closely watched and as soon as the least sign of fermentation appears
(bubbles on top, etc.) it should be run off into casks prepared for
this purpose and placed in a moderately cool room. The barrels should
be entirely filled, or as near to the bunghole as possible. After
fermentation is well under way the spume or foam should be scraped off
with a spoon several times a day. When fermentation has ceased the
cider is racked off into clean casks, filled to the bunghole, and the
bung driven in tightly. It is now ready for use or for bottling.


«Champagne Cider.»—I.—To convert ordinary cider into champagne cider,
proceed as follows: To 100 gallons of good cider add 3 gallons of
strained honey (or 24 pounds of white sugar will answer), stir in
well, tightly bung, and let alone for a week. Clarify the cider by
adding a half gallon of skimmed milk, or 4 ounces of gelatin dissolved
in sufficient hot water and add 4 gallons of proof spirit. Let
stand 3 days longer, then syphon off, bottle, cork, and tie or wire
down. Bunging the cask tightly is done in order to induce a slow
fermentation, and thus retain in the cider as much carbonic acid as
possible.

II.—Put 10 gallons of old and clean cider in a strong and iron-bound
cask, pitched within (a sound beer cask is the very thing), and add and
stir in well 40 ounces of simple syrup. Add 5 ounces of tartaric acid,
let dissolve, then add 7 1/2 ounces sodium bicarbonate in powder.
Have the bung ready and the moment the soda is added put it in and
drive it home. The cider will be ready for use in a few hours.


«Cider Preservative.»—I.—The addition of 154 grains of bismuth
subnitrate to 22 gallons of cider prevents, or materially retards, the
hardening of the beverage on exposure to air; moreover, the bismuth
salt renders alcoholic fermentation more complete.

II.—Calcium sulphite (sulphite of lime) is largely used to prevent
fermentation in cider. About 1/8 to 1/4 of an ounce of the sulphite
is required for 1 gallon of cider. It should first be dissolved in a
small quantity of cider, then added to the bulk, and the whole agitated
until thoroughly mixed. The barrel should then be bunged and allowed to
stand for several days, until the action of the sulphite is exerted.
It will preserve the sweetness of cider perfectly, but care should be
taken not to add too much, as that would impart a slight sulphurous
taste.


«Artificial Ciders.»—To 25 gallons of soft water add 2 pounds of
tartaric acid, 25 or 30 pounds of sugar, and a pint of yeast; put in a
warm place, and let ferment for 15 days, then add the flavoring matter
to suit taste. The various fruit ethers are for sale at any wholesale
drug house.


«Bottling Sweet Cider.»—Champagne quarts are generally used for
bottling cider, as they are strong and will stand pressure, besides
being a convenient size for consumers. In making cider champagne the
liquor should be clarified and bottled in the sweet condition, that is
to say, before the greater part of the sugar which it contains has been
converted into alcohol by fermentation. The fermentation continues, to
a certain extent, in the bottle, transforming more of the sugar into
alcohol, and the carbonic acid, being unable to escape, is dissolved
in the cider and produces the sparkling.

The greater the quantity of sugar contained in the liquor, when it is
bottled, the more complete is its carbonation by the carbonic-acid gas,
and consequently the more sparkling it is when poured out. But this is
true only within certain limits, for if the production of sugar is too
high the fermentation will be arrested.

To make the most sparkling cider the liquor is allowed to stand for
three, four, five, or six weeks, during which fermentation proceeds.
The time varies according to the nature of the apples, and also to the
temperature; when it is very warm the first fermentation is usually
completed in 7 days.

Before bottling, the liquid must be fined, and this is best done with
catechu dissolved in cold cider, 2 ounces of catechu to the barrel of
cider. This is well stirred and left to settle for a few days.

The cider at this stage is still sweet, and it is a point of
considerable nicety not to carry the first fermentation too far. The
bottle should not be quite filled, so as to allow more freedom for the
carbonic-acid gas which forms.

When the bottles have been filled, {182} corked, and wired down, they
should be placed in a good cellar, which should be dry, or else the
cider will taste of the cork. The bottles should not be laid for four
or five weeks, or breakage will ensue. When they are being laid they
should be placed on laths of wood or on dry sand; they should never be
allowed on cold or damp floors.

Should the cider be relatively poor in sugar, or if it has been
fermented too far, about 1 ounce of powdered loaf sugar can be added
to each bottle, or else a measure of sugar syrup before pouring in the
cider.


«Imitation Cider.»—

I.—A formula for an imitation cider is as follows:

 Rain water                  100 gallons
 Honey, unstrained             6 gallons
 Catechu, powdered             3 ounces
 Alum, powdered                5 ounces
 Yeast (brewer’s preferably)   2 pints

Mix and put in a warm place to ferment. Let ferment for about 15 days;
then add the following, stirring well in:

 Bitter almonds, crushed    8 ounces
 Cloves                     8 ounces

Let stand 24 hours, add two or three gallons of good whiskey, and rack
off into clean casks. Bung tightly, let stand 48 hours, then bottle. If
a higher color is desired use caramel sufficient to produce the correct
tinge. If honey is not obtainable, use sugar-house molasses instead,
but honey is preferable.

II.—The following, when properly prepared, makes a passable substitute
for cider, and a very pleasant drink:

 Catechu, powdered    3 parts
 Alum, powdered       5 parts
 Honey              640 parts
 Water           12,800 parts
 Yeast               32 parts

Dissolve the catechu, alum, and honey in the water, add the yeast,
and put in some warm place to ferment. The container should be filled
to the square opening, made by sawing out five or six inches of the
center of a stave, and the spume skimmed off daily as it arises. In
cooler weather from 2 weeks to 18 days will be required for thorough
fermentation. In warmer weather from 12 to 13 days will be sufficient.
When fermentation is complete add the following solution:

 Oil of bitter almonds  1 part
 Oil of clover          1 part
 Caramel               32 parts
 Alcohol              192 parts

The alcohol may be replaced by twice its volume of good bourbon
whiskey. A much cheaper, but correspondingly poor substitute for the
above may be made as follows:

Twenty-five gallons of soft water, 2 pounds tartaric acid, 25 pounds of
brown sugar, and 1 pint of yeast are allowed to stand in a warm place,
in a clean cask with the bung out, for 24 hours. Then bung up the cask,
after adding 3 gallons of whiskey, and let stand for 48 hours, after
which the liquor is ready for use.

CIDER VINEGAR: See Vinegar.


«Cigars»


«Cigar Sizes and Colors.»—Cigars are named according to their color
and shape. A dead-black cigar, for instance, is an “Oscuro,” a very
dark-brown one is a “Colorado,” a medium brown is a “Colorado Claro,”
and a yellowish light brown is a “Claro.” Most smokers know the names
of the shades from “Claro” to “Colorado,” and that is as far as most
of them need to know. As to the shapes, a “Napoleon” is the biggest of
all cigars—being 7 inches long; a “Perfecto” swells in the middle and
tapers down to a very small head at the lighting end; a “Panatela”
is a thin, straight, up-and-down cigar without the graceful curve of
the “Perfecto”; a “Conchas” is very short and fat, and a “Londres” is
shaped like a “Perfecto” except that it does not taper to so small a
head at the lighting end. A “Reina Victoria” is a “Londres” that comes
packed in a ribbon-tied bundle of 50 pieces, instead of in the usual
four layers of 13, 12, 13 and 12.


«How to Keep Cigars.»—Cigars kept in a case are influenced every time
the case is opened. Whatever of taint there may be in the atmosphere
rushes into the case, and is finally taken up by the cigars. Even
though the cigars have the appearance of freshness, it is not the
original freshness in which they were received from the factory. They
have been dry, or comparatively so, and have absorbed more moisture
than has been put in the case, and it matters not what that moisture
may be, it can never restore the flavor that was lost during the
drying-out process.

After all, it is a comparatively simple matter to take good care of
cigars. All that is necessary is a comparatively air-tight, zinc-lined
chest. This should be {183} behind the counter in a place where the
temperature is even. When a customer calls for a cigar the dealer
takes the box out of the chest, serves his customer, and then puts the
box back again. The box being opened for a moment the cigars are not
perceptibly affected. The cigars in the close, heavy chest are always
safe from atmospheric influences, as the boxes are closed, and the
chest is open but a moment, while the dealer is taking out a box from
which to serve his customer.

Some of the best dealers have either a large chest or a cool vault in
which they keep their stock, taking out from time to time whatever they
need for use. Some have a number of small chests, in which they keep
different brands, so as to avoid opening and closing one particular
chest so often.

It may be said that it is only the higher priced cigars that need
special care in handling, although the cheaper grades are not to be
handled carelessly. The Havana cigars are more susceptible to change,
for there is a delicacy of flavor to be preserved that is never present
in the cheaper grades of cigars.

Every dealer must, of course, make a display in his show case, but he
need not serve his patrons with these cigars. The shrinkage in value of
the cigars in the case is merely a business proposition of profit and
loss.


«Cigar Flavoring.»—I.—Macerate 2 ounces of cinnamon and 4 ounces of
tonka beans, ground fine, in 1 quart of rum.

II.—Moisten ordinary cigars with a strong tincture of cascarilla, to
which a little gum benzoin and storax may be added. Some persons add a
small quantity of camphor or oil of cloves or cassia.

 III.—Tincture of valerian     4 drachms
       Butyric aldehyde         4 drachms
       Nitrous ether            1 drachm
       Tincture vanilla         2 drachms
       Alcohol                  5 ounces
       Water enough to make    16 ounces

 IV.—Extract vanilla          4 ounces
      Alcohol                1/2 gallon
      Jamaica rum            1/2 gallon
      Tincture valerian        8 ounces
      Caraway seed             2 ounces
      English valerian root    2 ounces
      Bitter orange peel       2 ounces
      Tonka beans              4 drachms
      Myrrh                   16 ounces

Soak the myrrh for 3 days in 6 quarts of water, add the alcohol,
tincture valerian, and extract of vanilla, and after grinding the other
ingredients to a coarse powder, put all together in a jug and macerate
for 2 weeks, occasionally shaking; lastly, strain.

V.—Into a bottle filled with 1/2 pint of French brandy put 1 1/4
ounces of cascarilla bark and 1 1/4 ounces of vanilla previously
ground with 1/2 pound of sugar; carefully close up the flask and
distil in a warm place. After 3 days pour off the liquid, and add 1/4
pint of mastic extract. The finished cigars are moistened with this
liquid, packed in boxes, and preserved from air by a well-closed lid.
They are said to acquire a pleasant flavor and mild strength through
this treatment.


«Cigar Spots.»—The speckled appearance of certain wrappers is due to
the work of a species of fungus that attacks the growing tobacco. In
a certain district of Sumatra, which produces an exceptionally fine
tobacco for wrappers, the leaves of the plant are commonly speckled in
this way. Several patents have been obtained for methods of spotting
tobacco leaves artificially. A St. Louis firm uses a solution composed
of:

 Sodium carbonate        3 parts
 Calx chlorinata         1 part
 Hot water               8 parts

Dissolve the washing soda in the hot water, add the chlorinated lime,
and heat the mixture to a boiling temperature for 3 minutes. When cool,
decant into earthenware or stoneware jugs, cork tightly, and keep in a
cool place. The corks of jugs not intended for immediate use should be
covered with a piece of bladder or strong parchment paper, and tightly
tied down to prevent the escape of gas, and consequent weakening of the
bleaching power of the fluid. The prepared liquor is sprinkled on the
tobacco, the latter being then exposed to light and air, when, it is
said, the disagreeable odor produced soon disappears.

CINCHONA: See Wines and Liquors.

CINNAMON ESSENCE: See Essences and Extracts.

CINNAMON OIL AS AN ANTISEPTIC: See Antiseptics.

CITRATE OF MAGNESIUM: See Magnesium Citrate.

CLARET LEMONADE AND CLARET PUNCH: See Beverages, under Lemonades. {184}

CLARIFICATION OF GELATIN AND GLUE: See Gelatin.


«CLARIFYING.»

Clarification is the process by which any solid particles suspended in
a liquid are either caused to coalesce together or to adhere to the
medium used for clarifying, that they may be removed by filtration
(which would previously have been impossible), so as to render the
liquid clear.

One of the best agents for this purpose is albumen. When clarifying
vegetable extracts, the albumen which is naturally present in most
plants accomplishes this purpose easily, provided the vegetable matter
is extracted in the cold, so as to get as much albumen as possible in
solution.

Egg albumen may also be used. The effect of albumen may be increased
by the addition of cellulose, in the form of a fine magma of filtering
paper. This has the further advantage that the subsequent filtration is
much facilitated.

Suspended particles of gum or pectin may be removed by cautious
precipitation with tannin, of which only an exceedingly small amount is
usually necessary. It combines with the gelatinous substances better
with the aid of heat than in the cold. There must be no excess of
tannin used.

Another method of clarifying liquids turbid from particles of gum,
albumen, pectin, etc., is to add to them a definite quantity of
alcohol. This causes the former substances to separate in more or less
large flakes. The quantity of alcohol required varies greatly according
to the nature of the liquid. It should be determined in each case by an
experiment on a small scale.

Resinous or waxy substances, such as are occasionally met with in
honey, etc., may be removed by the addition of bole, pulped filtering
paper, and heating to boiling.

In each case the clarifying process may be hastened by making the
separating particles specifically heavier; that is, by incorporating
some heavier substance, such as talcum, etc., which may cause the
flocculi to sink more rapidly, and to form a compact sediment.

Clarifying powder for alcoholic liquids:

 Egg albumen, dry       40 parts
 Sugar of milk          40 parts
 Starch                 20 parts

Reduce them to very fine powder, and mix thoroughly.

For clarifying liquors, wines, essences, etc., take for every quart of
liquid 75 grains of the above mixture, shake repeatedly in the course
of a few days, the mixture being kept in a warm room, then filter.

Powdered talcum renders the same service, and has the additional
advantage of being entirely insoluble. However, the above mixture acts
more energetically.


«CLAY:»


«Claying Mixture for Forges.»—Twenty parts fire clay; 20 parts
cast-iron turnings; 1 part common salt; 1/2 part sal ammoniac; all by
measure.

The materials should be thoroughly mixed dry and then wet down to the
consistency of common mortar, constantly stirring the mass as the
wetting proceeds. A rough mold shaped to fit the tuyère opening, a
trowel, and a few minutes’ time are all that are needed to complete
the successful claying of the forge. This mixture dries hard and when
glazed by the fire will last.


«Plastic Modeling Clay.»—A permanently plastic clay can be obtained
by first mixing it with glycerine, turpentine, or similar bodies,
and then adding vaseline or petroleum residues rich in vaseline. The
proportion of clay to the vaseline varies according to the desired
consistency of the product, the admixture of vaseline varying from
10 to 50 per cent. It is obvious that the hardness of the material
decreases with the amount of vaseline added, so that the one richest in
vaseline will be the softest. By the use of various varieties of clay
and the suitable choice of admixtures, the plasticity, as well as the
color of the mass, may be varied.


«Cleaning Preparations and Methods»

(See also Soaps, Polishes, and Household Formulas).


«TO REMOVE STAINS FROM THE HANDS:»


«Removal of Aniline-Dye Stains from the Skin.»—Rub the stained skin
with a pinch of slightly moistened red crystals of chromic trioxide
until a distinct sensation of warmth announces the destruction of the
dye stuff by oxidation and an incipient irritation of the skin. Then
rinse with soap and water. A single application usually suffices to
remove {185} the stain. It is hardly necessary to call attention to the
poisonousness and strong caustic action of chromic trioxide; but only
moderate caution is required to avoid evil effects.


«Pyrogallic-Acid Stains on the Fingers» (see also Photography).—Pyro
stains may be prevented fairly well by rubbing in a little wool fat
before beginning work. A very effective way of eliminating developer
stains is to dip the finger tips occasionally during development
into the clearing bath. It is best to use the clearing bath, with
ample friction, before resorting to soap, as the latter seems to have
a fixing effect upon the stain. Lemon peel is useful for removing
pyro stains, and so are the ammonium persulphate reducer and the
thiocarbamide clearer.


«To Clean Very Soiled Hands.»—In the morning wash in warm water, using
a stiff brush, and apply glycerine. Repeat the application two or three
times during the day, washing and brushing an hour or so afterwards,
or apply a warm solution of soda or potash, and wash in warm water,
using a stiff brush as before. Finally, rub the hands with pumice or
infusorial earth. There are soaps made especially for this purpose,
similar to those for use on woodwork, etc., in which infusorial earth
or similar matter is incorporated.


«To Remove Nitric-Acid Stains.»—One plan to avoid stains is to use
rubber finger stalls, or rubber gloves. Nitric-acid stains can be
removed from the hands by painting the stains with a solution of
permanganate of potash, and washing off the permanganate with a 5 per
cent solution of hydrochloric (muriatic) acid. After this wash the
hands with pure castile soap. Any soap that roughens the skin should be
avoided at all times. Castile soap is the best to keep the skin in good
condition.


«CLEANING GILDED ARTICLES:»


«To Clean Gilt Frames and Gilded Surfaces Generally.»—Dip a soft brush
in alcohol to which a few drops of ammonia water has been added, and
with it go over the surface. Do not rub—at least, not roughly, or
harshly. In the course of five minutes the dirt will have become soft,
and easy of removal. Then go over the surface again gently with the
same or a similar brush dipped in rain water. Now lay the damp article
in the sunlight to dry. If there is no sunlight, place it near a warm
(but not _hot_) stove, and let dry completely. In order to avoid
streaks, take care that the position of the article, during the drying,
is not exactly vertical.


«To Clean Fire-Gilt Articles.»—Fire-gilt articles are cleaned,
according to their condition, with water, diluted hydrochloric acid,
ammonia, or potash solution. If hydrochloric acid is employed thorough
dilution with water is especially necessary. The acidity should hardly
be noticeable on the tongue.

To clean gilt articles, such as gold moldings, etc., when they have
become tarnished or covered with flyspecks, etc., rub them slowly with
an onion cut in half and dipped in rectified alcohol, and wash off
lightly with a moist soft sponge after about 2 hours.


«Cleaning Gilded and Polychromed Work on Altars.»—To clean bright
gold a fine little sponge is used which is moistened but lightly with
tartaric acid and passed over the gilding. Next go over the gilt work
with a small sponge saturated with alcohol to remove all dirt. For matt
gilding, use only a white flannel dipped in lye, and carefully wipe
off the dead gold with this, drying next with a fine linen rag. To
clean polychromed work sponge with a lye of rain water, 1,000 parts,
and calcined potash, 68 parts, and immediately wash off with a clean
sponge and water, so that the lye does not attack the paint too much.


«SPOT AND STAIN REMOVERS:»


«To Remove Aniline Stains.»—

 I.—Sodium nitrate            7 grains
     Diluted sulphuric acid   15 grains
     Water                     1 ounce

Let the mixture stand a day or two before using. Apply to the spot with
a sponge, and rinse the goods with plenty of water.

II.—An excellent medium for the removal of aniline stains, which are
often very stubborn, has been found to be liquid opodeldoc. After its
use the stains are said to disappear at once and entirely.


«Cleansing Fluids.»—A spot remover is made as follows:

 I.—Saponine             7 parts
     Water              130 parts
     Alcohol             70 parts
     Benzine          1,788 parts
     Oil mirbane          5 parts

 II.—Benzene (benzol)    89 parts
      Ascetic ether       10 parts
      Pear oil             1 part

This yields an effective grease eradicator, of an agreeable odor. {186}

III.—To Remove Stains of Sulphate of copper, or of salts of mercury,
silver, or gold from the hands, etc., wash them first with a dilute
solution either of ammonia, iodide, bromide, or cyanide of potassium,
and then with plenty of water; if the stains are old ones they should
first be rubbed with the strongest acetic acid and then treated as
above.


«Removal of Picric-Acid Stains.»—I.—Recent stains of picric acid may
be removed readily if the stain is covered with a layer of magnesium
carbonate, the carbonate moistened with a little water to form a paste,
and the paste then rubbed over the spot.

 II.—Apply a solution of
      Boric acid           4 parts
      Sodium benzoate      1 part
      Water              100 parts

III.—Dr. Prieur, of Besançon, recommends lithium carbonate for the
removal of picric-acid stains from the skin or from linen. The method
of using it is simply to lay a small pinch on the stain, and moisten
the latter with water. Fresh stains disappear almost instantly, and old
ones in a minute or two.


«To Remove Finger Marks from Books, etc.»—I.—Pour benzol (not benzine
or gasoline, but Merck’s “c. p.” crystallizable) on calcined magnesia
until it becomes a crumbling mass, and apply this to the spot, rubbing
it in lightly, with the tip of the finger. When the benzol evaporates,
brush off. Any dirt that remains can be removed by using a piece of
soft rubber.

II.—If the foregoing fails (which it sometimes, though rarely, does),
try the following: Make a hot solution of sodium hydrate in distilled
water, of strength of from 3 per cent to 5 per cent, according to the
age, etc., of the stain. Have prepared some bits of heavy blotting
paper somewhat larger than the spot to be removed; also, a blotting
pad, or several pieces of heavy blotting paper. Lay the soiled page
face downward on the blotting pad, then, saturating one of the bits
of blotter with the hot sodium hydrate solution, put it on the stain
and go over it with a hot smoothing iron. If one application does not
remove all the grease or stain, repeat the operation. Then saturate
another bit of blotting paper with a 4 per cent or 5 per cent solution
of hydrochloric acid in distilled water, apply it to the place, and
pass the iron over it to neutralize the strong alkali. This process
will instantly restore any faded writing or printing, and make the
paper bright and fresh again.


«Glycerine as a Detergent.»—For certain kinds of obstinate spots (such
as coffee and chocolate, for instance) there is no better detergent
than glycerine, especially for fabrics with delicate colors. Apply the
glycerine to the spot, with a sponge or otherwise, let stand a minute
or so, then wash off with water or alcohol. Hot glycerine is even more
efficient than cold.


«CLEANING SKINS AND LEATHER»: See also Leather.


«To Clean Colored Leather.»—Pour carbon bisulphide on non-vulcanized
gutta-percha, and allow it to stand about 24 hours. After shaking
actively add more gutta-percha gradually until the solution becomes of
gelatinous consistency. This mixture is applied in suitable quantity
to oil-stained, colored leather and allowed to dry two or three hours.
The subsequent operation consists merely in removing the coat of
gutta-percha from the surface of the leather—that is, rubbing it with
the fingers, and rolling it off the surface.

The color is not injured in the least by the sulphuret of carbon; only
those leathers on which a dressing containing starch has been used look
a little lighter in color, but the better class of leathers are not so
dressed. The dry gutta-percha can be redissolved in sulphuret of carbon
and used over again.


«To Clean Skins Used for Polishing Purposes.»—First beat them
thoroughly to get rid of dust, then go over the surface on both sides
with a piece of good white soap and lay them in warm water in which
has been put a little soda. Let them lie here for 2 hours, then wash
them in plenty of tepid water, rubbing them vigorously until perfectly
clean. This bath should also be made alkaline with soda. The skins are
finally rinsed in warm water, and dried quickly. Cold water must be
avoided at all stages of the cleansing process, as it has a tendency to
shrink and harden the skins.

The best way to clean a chamois skin is to wash and rinse it out in
clean water immediately after use, but this practice is apt to be
neglected so that the skin becomes saturated with dirt and grime. To
clean it, first thoroughly soak in clean, soft water. Then, after
soaping it and rolling it into a compact wad, beat with a small round
stick—a buggy spoke, say—turning the wad over repeatedly, and keeping
it well wet and soaped. This should suffice to loosen the dirt. Then
rinse in clean water until the skin {187} is clean. As wringing by
hand is apt to injure the chamois skin, it is advisable to use a small
clothes wringer. Before using the skin again rinse it in clear water to
which a little pulverized alum has been added.


«STRAW-HAT RENOVATION:»


«To Renovate Straw Hats.»—I.—Hats made of natural (uncolored) straw,
which have become soiled by wear, may be cleaned by thoroughly sponging
with a weak solution of tartaric acid in water, followed by water
alone. The hat after being so treated should be fastened by the rim to
a board by means of pins, so that it will keep its shape in drying.

II.—Sponge the straw with a solution of

                         By weight
 Sodium hyposulphite     10 parts
 Glycerine                5 parts
 Alcohol                 10 parts
 Water                   75 parts

Lay aside in a damp place for 24 hours and then apply

                         By weight
 Citric acid              2 parts
 Alcohol                 10 parts
 Water                   90 parts

Press with a moderately hot iron, after stiffening with weak gum water,
if necessary.

III.—If the hat has become much darkened in tint by wear the fumes of
burning sulphur may be employed. The material should be first cleaned
by thoroughly sponging with an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate,
followed by a similar application of water, and it is then suspended
over the sulphur fumes. These are generated by placing in a metal or
earthen dish, so mounted as to keep the heat from setting fire to
anything beneath, some brimstone (roll sulphur), and sprinkling over
it some live coals to start combustion. The operation is conducted in
a deep box or barrel, the dish of burning sulphur being placed at the
bottom, and the article to be bleached being suspended from a string
stretched across the top. A cover not fitting so tightly as to exclude
all air is placed over it, and the apparatus allowed to stand for a few
hours.

Hats so treated will require to be stiffened by the application of a
little gum water, and pressed on a block with a hot iron to bring them
back into shape.


«Waterproof Stiffening for Straw Hats.»—If a waterproof stiffening is
required use one of the varnishes for which formulas follow:

 I.—Copal              450 parts
     Sandarac            75 parts
     Venice turpentine   40 parts
     Castor oil           5 parts
     Alcohol            800 parts

 II.—Shellac            500 parts
      Sandarac           175 parts
      Venice turpentine   50 parts
      Castor oil          15 parts
      Alcohol          2,000 parts

 III.—Shellac            750 parts
       Rosin              150 parts
       Venice turpentine  150 parts
       Castor oil          20 parts
       Alcohol          2,500 parts


«How to Clean a Panama Hat.»—Scrub with castile soap and warm water, a
nail brush being used as an aid to get the dirt away. The hat is then
placed in the hot sun to dry and in the course of two or three hours is
ready for use. It will not only be as clean as when new, but it will
retain its shape admirably. The cleaned hat will be a trifle stiff at
first, but will soon grow supple under wear.

A little glycerine added to the rinsing water entirely prevents the
stiffness and brittleness acquired by some hats in drying, while a
little ammonia in the washing water materially assists in the scrubbing
process. Ivory, or, in fact, any good white soap, will answer as well
as castile for the purpose. It is well to rinse a second time, adding
the glycerine to the water used the second time. Immerse the hat
completely in the rinse water, moving it about to get rid of traces of
the dirty water. When the hat has been thoroughly rinsed, press out the
surplus water, using a Turkish bath towel for the purpose, and let it
rest on the towel when drying.


«PAINT, VARNISH, AND ENAMEL REMOVERS:»


«To Remove Old Oil, Paint, or Varnish Coats.»—I.—Apply a mixture of
about 5 parts of potassium silicate (water glass, 36 per cent), about 1
part of soda lye (40 per cent), and 1 part of ammonia. The composition
dissolves the old varnish coat, as well as the paint, down to the
bottom. The varnish coatings which are to be removed may be brushed off
or left for days in a hardened state. Upon being thoroughly moistened
with water the old varnish may be readily washed off, the lacquer as
well as the oil paint coming off completely. The ammonia otherwise
employed dissolves the varnish, but not the paint. {188}

II.—Apply a mixture of 1 part oil of turpentine and 2 parts of ammonia.
This is effective, even if the coatings withstand the strongest lye.
The two liquids are shaken in a bottle until they mix like milk. The
mixture is applied to the coating with a little oakum; after a few
minutes the old paint can be wiped off.


«To Clean Brushes and Vessels of Dry Paint» (see also Brushes and
Paints).—The cleaning of the brushes and vessels in which the varnish
or oil paint had dried is usually done by boiling with soda solution.
This frequently spoils the brushes or cracks the vessels if of glass;
besides, the process is rather slow and dirty. A much more suitable
remedy is amyl acetate, which is a liquid with a pleasant odor of
fruit drops, used mainly for dissolving and cementing celluloid. If
amyl acetate is poured over a paint brush the varnish or hardened
paint dissolves almost immediately and the brush is again rendered
serviceable at once. If necessary, the process is repeated. For
cleaning vessels shake the liquid about in them, which softens the
paint so that it can be readily removed with paper. In this manner much
labor can be saved. The amyl acetate can be easily removed from the
brushes, etc., by alcohol or oil of turpentine.


«Varnish and Paint Remover.»—Dissolve 20 parts of caustic soda (98 per
cent) in 100 parts of water, mix the solution with 20 parts of mineral
oil, and stir in a kettle provided with a mechanical stirrer, until the
emulsion is complete. Now add, with stirring, 20 parts of sawdust and
pass the whole through a paint mill to obtain a uniform intermixture.
Apply the paste moist.


«To Remove Varnish from Metal.»—To remove old varnish from metals, it
suffices to dip the articles in equal parts of ammonia and alcohol (95
per cent).


«To Remove Water Stains from Varnished Furniture.»—Pour olive oil into
a dish and scrape a little white wax into it. This mixture should be
heated until the wax melts and rubbed sparingly on the stains. Finally,
rub the surface with a linen rag until it is restored to brilliancy.


«To Remove Paint, Varnish, etc., from Wood.»—Varnish, paint, etc., no
matter how old and hard, may be softened in a few minutes so that they
can be easily scraped off, by applying the following mixture:

 Water glass                       5 parts
 Soda lye, 40° B. (27 per cent)    1 part
 Ammonia water                     1 part

Mix.


«Removing Varnish, etc.»—A patent has been taken out in England for a
liquid for removing varnish, lacquer, tar, and paint. The composition
is made by mixing 4 ounces of benzol, 3 ounces of fusel oil, and 1
ounce of alcohol. It is stated by the inventor that this mixture, if
applied to a painted or varnished surface, will make the surface quite
clean in less than 10 minutes, and that a paint-soaked brush “as hard
as iron” can be made as soft and pliable as new by simply soaking for
an hour or so in the mixture.


«To Remove Enamel and Tin Solder.»—Pour enough of oil of vitriol
(concentrated sulphuric acid) over powdered fluorspar in an earthen or
lead vessel, so as just to cover the parts whereby hydrofluoric acid is
generated. For use, dip the article suspended on a wire into the liquid
until the enamel or the tin is eaten away or dissolved, which does
not injure the articles in any way. If heated, the liquid acts more
rapidly. The work should always be conducted in the open air, and care
should be taken not to inhale the fumes, which are highly injurious to
the health, and not to get any liquid on the skin, as hydrofluoric acid
is one of the most dangerous poisons. Hydrofluoric acid must be kept in
earthen or leaden vessels, as it destroys glass.


«Removing Paint and Varnish from Wood.»—The following compound is given
as one which will clean paint or varnish from wood or stone without
injuring the material:

 Flour or wood pulp     385 parts
 Hydrochloric acid      450 parts
 Bleaching powder       160 parts
 Turpentine               5 parts

This mixture is applied to the surface and left on for some time. It
is then brushed off, and brings the paint away with it. It keeps moist
quite long enough to be easily removed after it has acted.


«Paste for Removing Old Paint or Varnish Coats.»—

 I.—Sodium hydrate          5 parts
     Soluble soda glass      3 parts
     Flour paste             6 parts
     Water                   4 parts

 II.—Soap                   10 parts
      Potassium hydrate       7 parts
      Potassium silicate      2 parts

{189}


«To Remove Old Enamel.»—Lay the articles horizontally in a vessel
containing a concentrated solution of alum and boil them. The solution
should be just sufficient to cover the pieces. In 20 or 25 minutes the
old enamel will fall into dust, and the article can be polished with
emery. If narrow and deep vessels are used the operation will require
more time.


«INK ERADICATORS:»


«Two-Solution Ink Remover.»—

 I.—(_a_) Citric acid                         1 part
           Concentrated solution of borax      2 parts
           Distilled water                    16 parts

Dissolve the acid in the water, add the borax solution, and mix by
agitation.

 (_b_) Chloride of lime                    3 parts
       Water                              16 parts
       Concentrated borax solution         2 part

Add the chloride of lime to the water, shake well and set aside for a
week, then decant the clear liquid and to it add the borax solution.

For use, saturate the spot with solution (_a_), apply a blotter to take
off the excess of liquid, then apply solution (_b_). When the stain
has disappeared, apply the blotter and wet the spot with clean water;
finally dry between two sheets of blotting paper.

II.—(_a_) Mix, in equal parts, potassium chloride, potassium
hypochlorite, and oil of peppermint. (_b_) Sodium chloride,
hydrochloric acid and water, in equal parts.

Wet the spot with (_a_), let dry, then brush it over lightly with
(_b_), and rinse in clear water.

A good single mixture which will answer for most inks is made by mixing
citric acid and alum in equal parts. If desired to vend in a liquid
form add an equal part of water. In use, the powder is spread well over
the spot and (if on cloth or woven fabrics) well rubbed in with the
fingers. A few drops of water are then added, and also rubbed in. A
final rinsing with water completes the process.


«Ink Erasers.»—I.—Inks made with nutgalls and copperas can be removed
by using a moderately concentrated solution of oxalic acid, followed by
use of pure water and frequent drying with clean blotting paper. Most
other black inks are erased by use of a weak solution of chlorinated
lime, followed by dilute acetic acid and water, with frequent drying
with blotters. Malachite green ink is bleached by ammonia water; silver
inks by potassium cyanide or sodium hyposulphite. Some aniline colors
are easily removed by alcohol, and nearly all by chlorinated lime,
followed by diluted acetic acid or vinegar. In all cases apply the
substances with camel’s-hair brushes or feathers, and allow them to
remain no longer than necessary, after which rinse well with water and
dry with blotting paper.

 II.—Citric acid                      1 part
      Water, distilled                10 parts
      Concentrated solution of borax   2 parts

Dissolve the citric acid in the water and add the borax. Apply to the
paper with a delicate camel’s-hair pencil, removing any excess of water
with a blotter. A mixture of oxalic, citric, and tartaric acids, in
equal parts, dissolved in just enough water to give a clean solution,
acts energetically on most inks.


«Erasing Powder or Pounce.»—Alum, 1 part; amber, 1 part; sulphur, 1
part; saltpeter, 1 part. Mix well together and keep in a glass bottle.
If a little of this powder is placed on an ink spot or fresh writing,
rubbing very lightly with a clean linen rag, the spot or the writing
will disappear at once.


«Removing Ink Stains.»—I.—The material requiring treatment should first
be soaked in clean, warm water, the superfluous moisture removed, and
the fabric spread over a clean cloth. Now allow a few minims of liquor
ammoniæ fortis, specific gravity 0.891, to drop on the ink spot, then
saturate a tiny tuft of absorbent cotton-wool with acidum phosphoricum
dilutum, B. P., and apply repeatedly and with firm pressure over the
stain; repeat the procedure two or three times, and finally rinse well
in warm water, afterwards drying in the sun, when every trace of ink
will have vanished. This method is equally reliable for old and fresh
ink stains, is rapid in action, and will not injure the most delicate
fabric.

II.—To remove ink spots the fabric is soaked in warm water, then it is
squeezed out and spread upon a clean piece of linen. Now apply a few
drops of liquid ammonia of a specific gravity of 0.891 to the spot,
and dab it next with a wad of cotton which has been saturated with
dilute phosphoric acid. After repeating the process several times and
drying the piece in the sun, the ink spot will have disappeared without
leaving the slightest trace. {190}

III.—Ink spots may be removed by the following mixture:

 Oxalic acid          10 parts
 Stannic chloride      2 parts
 Acetic acid           5 parts
 Water to make       500 parts

Mix.

IV.—The customary method of cleansing ink spots is to use oxalic acid.
Thick blotting paper is soaked in a concentrated solution and dried.
It is then laid immediately on the blot, and in many instances will
take the latter out without leaving a trace behind. In more stubborn
cases the cloth is dipped in boiling water and rubbed with crystals of
oxalic acid, after which it is soaked in a weak solution of chloride
of lime—say 1 ounce to a quart of water. Under such circumstances the
linen should be thoroughly rinsed in several waters afterwards. Oxalic
acid is undesirable for certain fabrics because it removes the color.

V.—Here is a more harmless method: Equal parts of cream of tartar and
citric acid, powdered fine, and mixed together. This forms the “salts
of lemon” sold by druggists. Procure a hot dinner plate, lay the part
stained in the plate, and moisten with hot water; next rub in the
above powder with the bowl of a spoon until the stains disappear; then
rinse in clean water and dry.


«To Remove Red (Aniline) Ink.»—Stains of red anilines, except eosine,
are at once removed by moistening with alcohol of 94 per cent,
acidulated with acetic acid. Eosine does not disappear so easily. The
amount of acetic acid to be used is ascertained by adding it, drop by
drop, to the alcohol, testing the mixture from time to time, until when
dropped on the stain, the latter at once disappears.


«CLEANING OF WALLS, CEILINGS, AND WALL PAPER:»

See also Household Formulas.


«To Renovate Brick Walls.»—Dissolve glue in water in the proportion of
1 ounce of glue to every gallon of water; add, while hot, a piece of
alum the size of a hen’s egg, 1/2 pound Venetian red, and 1 pound
Spanish brown. Add more water if too dark; more red and brown if too
light.


«Cleaning Painted Doors, Walls, etc.»—The following recipe is designed
for painted objects that are much soiled. Simmer gently on the fire,
stirring constantly, 30 parts, by weight, of pulverized borax, and 450
parts of brown soap of good quality, cut in small pieces, in 3,000
parts of water. The liquid is applied by means of flannel and rinsed
off at once with pure water.


«To Remove Aniline Stains from Ceilings, etc.»—In renewing ceilings,
the old aniline color stains are often very annoying, as they penetrate
the new coating. Painting over with shellac or oil paint will bring
relief, but other drawbacks appear. A very practical remedy is to
place a tin vessel on the floor of the room, and to burn a quantity of
sulphur in it after the doors and windows of the room have been closed.
The sulphur vapors destroy the aniline stains, which disappear entirely.


«Old Ceilings.»—In dealing with old ceilings the distemper must be
washed off down to the plaster face, all cracks raked out and stopped
with putty (plaster of Paris and distemper mixed), and the whole rubbed
smooth with pumice stone and water; stained parts should be painted
with oil color, and the whole distempered. If old ceilings are in bad
condition it is desirable that they should be lined with paper, which
should have a coat of weak size before being distempered.


«Oil Stains on Wall Paper.»—Make a medium thick paste of pipe clay and
water, applying it carefully flat upon the oil stain, but avoiding all
friction. The paste is allowed to remain 10 to 12 hours, after which
time it is very carefully removed with a soft rag. In many cases a
repeated action will be necessary until the purpose desired is fully
reached. Finally, however, this will be obtained without blurring or
destroying the design of the wall paper, unless it be of the cheapest
variety. In the case of a light, delicate paper, the paste should be
composed of magnesia and benzine.


«To Clean Painted Walls.»—A simple method is to put a little aqua
ammonia in moderately warm water, dampen a flannel with it, and gently
wipe over the painted surface. No scrubbing is necessary.


«Treatment of Whitewashed Walls.»—It is suggested that whitewashed
walls which it is desired to paper, with a view to preventing peeling,
should be treated with water, after which the scraper should be
vigorously used. If the whitewash has been thoroughly soaked it can
easily be removed with the scraper. Care should be taken that every
part of the wall is well scraped. {191}


«Cleaning Wall Paper.»—I.—To clean wall paper the dust should first
be removed by lightly brushing, preferably with a feather duster, and
the surface then gently rubbed with slices of moderately stale bread,
the discolored surface of the bread being removed from time to time,
so as to expose a fresh portion for use. Care should be taken to avoid
scratching the paper with the crust of the bread, and the rubbing
should be in one direction, the surface being systematically gone over,
as in painting, to avoid the production of streaks.

II.—Mix 4 ounces of powdered pumice with 1 quart of flour, and with the
aid of water make a stiff dough. Form the dough into rolls 2 inches in
diameter and 6 inches long; sew each roll separately in a cotton cloth,
then boil for 40 or 50 minutes, so as to render the mass firm. Allow to
stand for several hours, remove the crust, and they are ready for use.

III.—Bread will clean paper; but unless it is properly used the job
will be a very tedious one. Select a “tin” loaf at least two days old.
Cut off the crust at one end, and rub down the paper, commencing at
the top. Do not rub the bread backwards and forwards, but in single
strokes. When the end gets dirty take a very sharp knife and pare off a
thin layer; then proceed as before.

It is well to make sure that the walls are quite dry before using the
bread, or it may smear the pattern. If the room is furnished it will,
of course, be necessary to place cloths around the room to catch the
crumbs.

IV.—A preparation for cleansing wall paper that often proves much more
effectual than ordinary bread, especially when the paper is very dirty,
is made by mixing 2/3 dough and 1/3 plaster of Paris. This should
be made a day before it is needed for use, and should be very gently
baked.

If there are any grease spots they should be removed by holding a hot
flatiron against a piece of blotting paper placed over them. If this
fails, a little fuller’s earth or pipe clay should be made into a paste
with water, and this should then be carefully plastered over the grease
spots and allowed to remain till quite dry, when it will be found to
have absorbed the grease.

V.—Mix together 1 pound each of rye flour and white flour into a dough,
which is partially cooked and the crust removed. To this 1 ounce common
salt and 1/2 ounce of powdered naphthaline are added, and finally 1
ounce of corn meal, and 1/8 ounce of burnt umber. The composition
is formed into a mass, of the proper size to be grasped in the hand,
and in use it should be drawn in one direction over the surface to be
cleaned.

VI.—Procure a soft, flat sponge, being careful that there are no
hard or gritty places in it, then get a bucket of new, clean, dry,
wheat bran. Hold the sponge flat side up, and put a handful of bran
on it, then quickly turn against the wall, and rub the wall gently
and carefully with it; then repeat the operation. Hold a large pan or
spread down a drip cloth to catch the bran as it falls, but never use
the same bran twice. Still another way is to use Canton flannel in
strips a foot wide and about 3 yards long. Roll a strip around a stick
1 inch thick and 10 inches long, so as to have the ends of the stick
covered, with the nap of the cloth outside. As the cloth gets soiled,
unroll the soiled part and roll it up with the soiled face inside.

In this way one can change places on the cloth when soiled and use
the whole face of the cloth. To take out a grease spot requires care.
First, take several thicknesses of brown wrapping paper and make a pad,
place it against the grease spot, and hold a hot flatiron against it to
draw out the grease, which will soak into the brown paper. Be careful
to have enough layers of brown paper to keep the iron from scorching
or discoloring the wall paper. If the first application does not take
out nearly all the grease, repeat with clean brown paper or a blotting
pad. Then take an ounce vial of washed sulphuric ether and a soft,
fine, clean sponge and sponge the spot carefully until all the grease
disappears. Do not wipe the place with the sponge and ether, but dab
the sponge carefully against the place. A small quantity of ether is
advised, as it is very inflammable.


«CLOTHES AND FABRIC CLEANERS:»


«Soaps for Clothing and Fabrics.»—When the fabric is washable and the
color fast, ordinary soap and water are sufficient for removing grease
and the ordinarily attendant dirt; but special soaps are made which may
possibly be more effectual.

 I.—Powdered borax         30 parts
     Extract of soap bark   30 parts
     Ox gall (fresh)       120 parts
     Castile soap          450 parts

First make the soap-bark extract by boiling the crushed bark in water
until it has assumed a dark color, then strain the liquid into an
evaporating dish, and {192} by the aid of heat evaporate it to a solid
extract; then powder and mix it with the borax and the ox gall. Melt
the castile soap by adding a small quantity of water and warming, then
add the other ingredients and mix well.

About 100 parts of soap bark make 20 parts of extract.

 II.—Castile soap            2   pounds
      Potassium carbonate     1/2 pound
      Camphor                 1/2 ounce
      Alcohol                 1/2 ounce
      Ammonia water           1/2 ounce
      Hot water, 1/2 pint, or sufficient.

Dissolve the potassium carbonate in the water, add the soap previously
reduced to thin shavings, keep warm over a water bath, stirring
occasionally, until dissolved, adding more water if necessary, and
finally, when of a consistence to become semisolid on cooling,
remove from the fire. When nearly ready to set, stir in the camphor,
previously dissolved in the alcohol and the ammonia.

The soap will apparently be quite as efficacious without the camphor
and ammonia.

If a paste is desired, a potash soap should be used instead of the
castile in the foregoing formula, and a portion or all of the water
omitted. Soaps made from potash remain soft, while soda soaps harden on
the evaporation of the water which they contain when first made.

A liquid preparation may be obtained, of course, by the addition of
sufficient water, and some more alcohol would probably improve it.


«Clothes-Cleaning Fluids:»

See also Household Formulas.

 I.—Borax                1 ounce
     Castile soap         1 ounce
     Sodium carbonate     3 drachms
     Ammonia water        5 ounces
     Alcohol              4 ounces
     Acetone              4 ounces
     Hot water to make    4 pints

Dissolve the borax, sodium bicarbonate, and soap in the hot water, mix
the acetone and alcohol together, unite the two solutions, and then add
the ammonia water. The addition of a couple of ounces of rose water
will render it somewhat fragrant.

II.—A strong decoction of soap bark, preserved by the addition of
alcohol, forms a good liquid cleanser for fabrics of the more delicate
sort.

 III.—Chloroform                              15 parts
       Ether                                   15 parts
       Alcohol                                120 parts
       Decoction of quillaia bark of 30°    4,500 parts

 IV.—Acetic ether      10 parts
      Amyl acetate      10 parts
      Liquid ammonia    10 parts
      Dilute alcohol    70 parts

V.—Another good non-inflammable spot remover consists of equal parts
of acetone, ammonia, and diluted alcohol. For use in large quantities
carbon tetrachloride is suggested.

 VI.—Castile soap       4 av. ounces
      Water, boiling    32 fluidounces

 Dissolve and add:

 Water      1 gallon
 Ammonia    8 fluidounces
 Ether      2 fluidounces
 Alcohol    4 fluidounces


«To Remove Spots from Tracing Cloth.»—It is best to use benzine,
which is applied by means of a cotton rag. The benzine also takes
off lead-pencil marks, but does not attack India and other inks. The
places treated with benzine should subsequently be rubbed with a little
talcum, otherwise it would not be possible to use the pen on them.


«Removal of Paint from Clothing.»—Before paint becomes “dry” it can be
removed from cloth by the liberal application of turpentine or benzine.
If the spot is not large, it may be immersed in the liquid; otherwise,
a thick, folded, absorbent cloth should be placed under the fabric
which has been spotted, and the liquid sponged on freely enough that
it may soak through, carrying the greasy matter with it. Some skill
in manipulation is requisite to avoid simply spreading the stain and
leaving a “ring” to show how far it has extended.

When benzine is used the operator must be careful to apply it only in
the absence of light or fire, on account of the extremely inflammable
character of the vapor.

Varnish stains, when fresh, are treated in the same way, but the action
of the solvent may possibly not be so complete on account of the gum
rosins present.

When either paint or varnish has dried, its removal becomes more
difficult. In such case soaking in strong ammonia water may answer. An
emulsion, formed by shaking together 2 parts of ammonia water and 1 of
spirits of turpentine, has been recommended.


«To Remove Vaseline Stains from Clothing.»—Moisten the spots with a
mixture of 1 part of aniline oil, 1 of {193} powdered soap, and 10 of
water. After allowing the cloth to lie for 5 or 10 minutes, wash with
water.


«To Remove Grease Spots from Plush.»—Place fresh bread rolls in the
oven, break them apart as soon as they have become very hot, and rub
the spots with the crumbs, continuing the work by using new rolls until
all traces of fat have disappeared from the fabric. Purified benzine,
which does not alter even the most delicate colors, is also useful for
this purpose.


«To Remove Iron Rust from Muslin and Linen.»—Wet with lemon juice and
salt and expose to the sun. If one application does not remove the
spots, a second rarely fails to do so.


«Keroclean.»—This non-inflammable cleanser removes grease spots from
delicate fabrics without injury, cleans all kinds of jewelry and
tableware by removing fats and tarnish, kills moths, insects, and
household pests by suffocation and extermination, and cleans ironware
by removing rust, brassware by removing grease, copperware by removing
verdigris. It is as clear as water and will stand any fire test.

 Kerosene.                             1 ounce
 Carbon tetrachloride (commercial).    3 ounces
 Oil of citronella                     2 drachms

Mix, and filter if necessary. If a strong odor of carbon bisulphide is
detected in the carbon tetrachloride first shake with powdered charcoal
and filter.


«To Clean Gold and Silver Lace.»—I.—Alkaline liquids sometimes used for
cleaning gold lace are unsuitable, for they generally corrode or change
the color of the silk. A solution of soap also interferes with certain
colors, and should therefore not be employed. Alcohol is an effectual
remedy for restoring the luster of gold, and it may be used without any
danger to the silk, but where the gold is worn off, and the base metal
exposed, it is not so successful in accomplishing its purpose, as by
removing the tarnish the base metal becomes more distinguishable from
the fine gold.

II.—To clean silver lace take alabaster in very fine powder, lay the
lace upon a cloth, and with a soft brush take up some of the powder,
and rub both sides with it till it becomes bright and clean, afterwards
polish with another brush until all remnants of the powder are removed,
and it exhibits a lustrous surface.

III.—Silver laces are put in curdled milk for 24 hours. A piece of
Venetian soap, or any other good soap, is scraped and stirred into 2
quarts of rain water. To this a quantity of honey and fresh ox gall
is added, and the whole is stirred for some time. If it becomes too
thick, more water is added. This mass is allowed to stand for half a
day, and the wet laces are painted with it. Wrap a wet cloth around the
roller of a mangle, wind the laces over this, put another wet cloth on
top, and press, wetting and repeating the application several times.
Next, dip the laces in a clear solution of equal parts of sugar and gum
arabic, pass them again through the mangle, between two clean pieces of
cloth, and hang them up to dry thoroughly, attaching a weight to the
lower end.

IV.—Soak gold laces over night in cheap white wine and then proceed as
with silver laces. If the gold is worn off, put 771 grains of shellac,
31 grains of dragon’s blood, 31 grains of turmeric in strong alcohol
and pour off the ruby-colored fluid. Dip a fine hair pencil in this,
paint the pieces to be renewed, and hold a hot flatiron a few inches
above them, so that only the laces receive the heat.

V.—Silver embroideries may also be cleaned by dusting them with Vienna
lime, and brushing off with a velvet brush.

For gildings the stuff is dipped in a solution of gold chloride, and
this is reduced by means of hydrogen in another vessel.

For silvering, one of the following two processes may be employed:
(_a_) Painting with a solution of 1 part of phosphorus in 15 parts
bisulphide of carbon and dipping in a solution of nitrate of silver;
(_b_) dipping for 2 hours in a solution of nitrate of silver, mixed
with ammonia, then exposing to a current of pure hydrogen.


«To Remove Silver Stains from White Fabrics.»—Moisten the fabric
for two or three minutes with a solution of 5 parts of bromine and
500 parts of water. Then rinse in clear water. If a yellowish stain
remains, immerse in a solution of 150 parts of sodium hyposulphite in
500 parts of water, and again rinse in clear water.


«Rust-Spot Remover.»—Dissolve potassium bioxalate, 200 parts, in
distilled water, 8,800 parts; add glycerine, 1,000 parts, and filter.
Moisten the rust or ink spots with this solution; let the linen, etc.,
lie for 3 hours, rubbing the moistened spots frequently, and then wash
well with water. {194}


«To Clean Quilts.»—Quilts are cleaned by first washing them in lukewarm
soapsuds, then laying them in cold, soft (rain) water over night. The
next day they are pressed as dry as possible and hung up; the ends, in
which the moisture remains for a long time, must be wrung out from time
to time.

It is very essential to beat the drying quilts frequently with a smooth
stick or board. This will have the effect of swelling up the wadding,
and preventing it from felting. Furthermore, the quilts should be
repeatedly turned during the drying from right to left and also from
top to bottom. In this manner streaks are avoided.


«Removal of Peruvian-Balsam Stains.»—The fabric is spread out, a piece
of filter paper being placed beneath the stain, and the latter is then
copiously moistened with chloroform, applied by means of a tuft of
cotton wool. Rubbing is to be avoided.


«Solution for Removing Nitrate of Silver Spots.»—

 Bichloride of mercury    5 parts
 Ammonium chloride        5 parts
 Distilled water         40 parts

Apply the mixture to the spots with a cloth, then rub. This removes,
almost instantaneously, even old stains on linen, cotton, or wool.
Stains on the skin thus treated become whitish yellow and soon
disappear.


«Cleaning Tracings.»—Tracing cloth can be very quickly and easily
cleaned, and pencil marks removed by the use of benzine, which is
applied with a cotton swab. It may be rubbed freely over the tracing
without injury to lines drawn in ink, or even in water color, but the
pencil marks and dirt will quickly disappear. The benzine evaporates
almost immediately, leaving the tracing unharmed. The surface, however,
has been softened and must be rubbed down with talc, or some similar
substance, before drawing any more ink lines.

The glaze may be restored to tracing cloth after using the eraser by
rubbing the roughened surface with a piece of hard wax from an old
phonograph cylinder. The surface thus produced is superior to that of
the original glaze, as it is absolutely oil- and water-proof.


«Rags for Cleaning and Polishing.»—Immerse flannel rags in a solution
of 20 parts of dextrine and 30 parts of oxalic acid in 20 parts of
logwood decoction; gently wring them out, and sift over them a mixture
of finely powdered tripoli and pumice stone. Pile the moist rags one
upon another, placing a layer of the powder between each two. Then
press, separate, and dry.


«Cleaning Powder.»—

 Bole                  500 parts
 Magnesium carbonate    50 parts

Mix and make into a paste with a small quantity of benzine or water;
apply to stains made by fats or oils on the clothing and when dry
remove with a brush.


«CLEANING PAINTED AND VARNISHED SURFACES:»


«Cleaning and Preserving Polished Woodwork.»—Rub down all the polished
work with a very weak alcoholic solution of shellac (1 to 20 or even
1 to 30) and linseed oil, spread on a linen cloth. The rubbing should
be firm and hard. Spots on the polished surface, made by alcohol,
tinctures, water, etc., should be removed as far as possible and as
soon as possible after they are made, by the use of boiled linseed
oil. Afterwards they should be rubbed with the shellac and linseed oil
solution on a soft linen rag. If the spots are due to acids go over
them with a little dilute ammonia water. Ink spots may be removed with
dilute or (if necessary) concentrated hydrochloric acid, following its
use with dilute ammonia water. In extreme cases it may be necessary to
use the scraper or sandpaper, or both.

Oak as a general thing is not polished, but has a matt surface which
can be washed with water and soap. First all stains and spots should be
gone over with a sponge or a soft brush and very weak ammonia water.
The carved work should be freed of dust, etc., by the use of a stiff
brush, and finally washed with dilute ammonia water. When dry it should
be gone over very thinly and evenly with brunoline applied with a soft
pencil. If it is desired to give an especially handsome finish, after
the surface is entirely dry, give it a preliminary coat of brunoline
and follow this on the day after with a second. Brunoline may be
purchased of any dealer in paints. To make it, put 70 parts of linseed
oil in a very capacious vessel (on account of the foam that ensues) and
add to it 20 parts of powdered litharge, 20 parts of powdered minium,
and 10 parts of lead acetate, also powdered. Boil until the oil is
completely oxidized, stirring constantly. When completely oxidized the
oil is no longer red, but is of a dark brown color. When it acquires
{195} this color, remove from the fire, and add 160 parts of turpentine
oil, and stir well. This brunoline serves splendidly for polishing
furniture or other polished wood.


«To Clean Lacquered Goods.»—Papier-maché and lacquered goods may
be cleaned perfectly by rubbing thoroughly with a paste made of
wheat flour and olive oil. Apply with a bit of soft flannel or old
linen, rubbing hard; wipe off and polish by rubbing with an old silk
handkerchief.


«Polish for Varnished Work.»—To renovate varnished work make a polish
of 1 quart good vinegar, 2 ounces butter of antimony, 2 ounces alcohol,
and 1 quart oil. Shake well before using.


«To Clean Paintings.»—To clean an oil painting, take it out of its
frame, lay a piece of cloth moistened with rain water on it, and
leave it for a while to take up the dirt from the picture. Several
applications may be required to secure a perfect result. Then wipe the
picture very gently with a tuft of cotton wool damped with absolutely
pure linseed oil. Gold frames may be cleaned with a freshly cut onion;
they should be wiped with a soft sponge wet with rain water a few
hours after the application of the onion, and finally wiped with a soft
rag.


«Removing and Preventing Match Marks.»—The unsightly marks made on a
painted surface by striking matches on it can sometimes be removed by
scrubbing with soapsuds and a stiff brush. To prevent match marks dip a
bit of flannel in alboline (liquid vaseline), and with it go over the
surface, rubbing it hard. A second rubbing with a dry bit of flannel
completes the job. A man may “strike” a match there all day, and
neither get a light nor make a mark.


«GLOVE CLEANERS:»


«Powder for Cleaning Gloves.»—

 I.—White bole or pipe clay    60.0 parts
     Orris root (powdered)      30.0 parts
     Powdered grain soap         7.5 parts
     Powdered borax             15.0 parts
     Ammonium chloride           2.5 parts

Mix the above ingredients. Moisten the gloves with a damp cloth, rub on
the powder, and brush off after drying.

II.—Four pounds powdered pipe clay, 2 pounds powdered white soap, 1
ounce lemon oil, thoroughly rubbed together. To use, make powder into a
thin cream with water and rub on the gloves while on the hands. This is
a cheaply produced compound, and does its work effectually.


«Soaps and Pastes for Cleaning Gloves.»—

 I.—Soft soap.               1 ounce
     Water.                   4 ounces
     Oil of lemon           1/2 drachm
     Precipitated chalk, a
       sufficient quantity.

Dissolve the soap in the water, add the oil, and make into a stiff
paste with a sufficient quantity of chalk.

 II.—White hard soap.    1 part
      Talcum.             1 part
      Water               4 parts

Shave the soap into ribbons, dissolve in the water by the aid of heat,
and incorporate the talcum.

 III.—Curd soap          1 av. ounce
       Water              4 fluidounces
       Oil of lemon.    1/2 fluidrachm
       French chalk, a sufficient quantity.

Shred the soap and melt it in the water by heat, add the oil of lemon,
and make into a stiff paste with French chalk.

 IV.—White castile soap, old and dry    15 parts
      Water                              15 parts
      Solution of chlorinated soda       16 parts
      Ammonia water                       1 part

Cut or shave up the soap, add the water, and heat on the water bath to
a smooth paste. Remove, let cool, and add the other ingredients and mix
thoroughly.

 V.—Castile soap, white, old, and dry    100 parts
     Water                                 75 parts
     Tincture of quillaia                  10 parts
     Ether, sulphuric                      10 parts
     Ammonia water, FF                      5 parts
     Benzine, deodorized                   75 parts

Melt the soap, previously finely shaved, in the water, bring to a
boil and remove from the fire. Let cool down, then add the other
ingredients, incorporating them thoroughly. This should be put up in
collapsible tubes or tightly closed metallic boxes. This is also useful
for clothing.


«Liquid Cloth and Glove Cleaner.»—

 Gasoline.               1 gallon
 Chloroform.             1 ounce
 Carbon disulphide       1 ounce {196}
 Essential oil almond    5 drops
 Oil bergamot            1 drachm
 Oil cloves              5 drops

Mix. To be applied with a sponge or soft cloth.


«STONE CLEANING:»


«Cleaning and Polishing Marble.»—I.—Marble that has become dirty by
ordinary use or exposure may be cleaned by a simple bath of soap and
water.

If this does not remove stains, a weak solution of oxalic acid should
be applied with a sponge or rag, washing quickly and thoroughly with
water to minimize injury to the surface.

Rubbing well after this with chalk moistened with water will, in a
measure, restore the luster. Another method of finishing is to apply a
solution of white wax in turpentine (about 1 in 10), rubbing thoroughly
with a piece of flannel or soft leather.

If the marble has been much exposed, so that its luster has been
seriously impaired, it may be necessary to repolish it in a more
thorough manner. This may be accomplished by rubbing it first with
sand, beginning with a moderately coarse-grained article and changing
this twice for finer kinds, after which tripoli or pumice is used.
The final polish is given by the so-called putty powder. A plate of
iron is generally used in applying the coarse sand; with the fine sand
a leaden plate is used; and the pumice is employed in the form of a
smooth-surfaced piece of convenient size. For the final polishing
coarse linen or bagging is used, wedged tightly into an iron planing
tool. During all these applications water is allowed to trickle over
the face of the stone.

The putty powder referred to is binoxide of tin, obtained by treating
metallic tin with nitric acid, which converts the metal into hydrated
metastannic acid. This, when heated, becomes anhydrous. In this
condition it is known as putty powder. In practice putty powder is
mixed with alum, sulphur, and other substances, the mixture used being
dependent upon the nature of the stone to be polished.

According to Warwick, colored marble should not be treated with soap
and water, but only with the solution of beeswax above mentioned.

II.—Take 2 parts of sodium bicarbonate, 1 part of powdered pumice
stone, and 1 part of finely pulverized chalk. Pass through a fine
sieve to screen out all particles capable of scratching the marble,
and add sufficient water to form a pasty mass. Rub the marble with it
vigorously, and end the cleaning with soap and water.

 III.—Ox gall                                   1 part
       Saturated solution of sodium carbonate    4 parts
       Oil of turpentine                         1 part
       Pipe clay enough to form a paste.

 IV.—Sodium carbonate     2 ounces
      Chlorinated lime.    1 ounce
      Water 14 ounces

Mix well and apply the magma to the marble with a cloth, rubbing
well in, and finally rubbing dry. It may be necessary to repeat this
operation.

V.—Wash the surface with a mixture of finely powdered pumice stone and
vinegar, and leave it for several hours; then brush it hard and wash it
clean. When dry, rub with whiting and wash leather.

 VI.—Soft soap.            4 parts
      Whiting               4 parts
      Sodium bicarbonate    1 part
      Copper sulphate       2 parts

Mix thoroughly and rub over the marble with a piece of flannel, and
leave it on for 24 hours, then wash it off with clean water, and
polish the marble with a piece of flannel or an old piece of felt.

VII.—A strong solution of oxalic acid effectually takes out ink
stains. In handling it the poisonous nature of this acid should not be
forgotten.

VIII.—Iron mold or ink spots may be taken out in the following manner:
Take 1/2 ounce of butter of antimony and 1 ounce of oxalic acid and
dissolve them in 1 pint of rain water; add enough flour to bring the
mixture to a proper consistency. Lay it evenly on the stained part with
a brush, and, after it has remained for a few days, wash it off and
repeat the process if the stain is not wholly removed.

IX.—To remove oil stains apply common clay saturated with benzine. If
the grease has remained in long the polish will be injured, but the
stain will be removed.

X.—The following method for removing rust from iron depends upon
the solubility of the sulphide of iron in a solution of cyanide of
potassium. Clay is made into a thin paste with ammonium sulphide, and
the rust spot smeared with the mixture, care being taken that the
spot is only just covered. After ten minutes this paste is washed off
and replaced by one consisting of white bole mixed with a solution of
potassium cyanide (1 to 4), which is in its turn {197} washed off after
about 2 1/2 hours. Should a reddish spot remain after washing off the
first paste, a second layer may be applied for about 5 minutes.

 XI.—Soft soap           4 ounces
      Whiting             4 ounces
      Sodium carbonate    1 ounce
      Water, a sufficient quantity.
Make into a thin paste, apply on the soiled surface, and wash off after
24 hours.

XII.—In a spacious tub place a tall vessel upside down. On this set the
article to be cleaned so that it will not stand in the water, which
would loosen the cemented parts. Into this tub pour a few inches of
cold water—hot water renders marble dull—take a soft brush and a piece
of Venetian soap, dip the former in the water and rub on the latter
carefully, brushing off the article from top to bottom. When in this
manner dust and dirt have been dissolved, wash off all soap particles
by means of a watering pot and cold water, dab the object with a clean
sponge, which absorbs the moisture, place it upon a cloth and carefully
dry with a very clean, soft cloth, rubbing gently. This treatment will
restore the former gloss to the marble.

XIII.—Mix and shake thoroughly in a bottle equal quantities of
sulphuric acid and lemon juice. Moisten the spots and rub them lightly
with a linen cloth and they will disappear.

XIV.—Ink spots are treated with acid oxalate of potassium; blood stains
by brushing with alabaster dust and distilled water, then bleaching
with chlorine solution. Alizarine ink and aniline ink spots can be
moderated by laying on rags saturated with Javelle water, chlorine
water, or chloride of lime paste. Old oil stains can only be effaced
by placing the whole piece of marble for hours in benzine. Fresh oil
or grease spots are obliterated by repeated applications of a little
damp, white clay and subsequent brushing with soap water or weak soda
solution. For many other spots an application of benzine and magnesia
is useful.

XV.—Marble slabs keep well and do not lose their fresh color if they
are cleaned with hot water only, without the addition of soap, which is
injurious to the color. Care must be taken that no liquid dries on the
marble. If spots of wine, coffee, beer, etc., have already appeared,
they are cleaned with diluted spirit of sal ammoniac, highly diluted
oxalic acid, Javelle water, ox gall, or, take a quantity of newly
slaked lime, mix it with water into a paste-like consistency, apply the
paste uniformly on the spot with a brush, and leave the coating alone
for two to three days before it is washed off. If the spots are not
removed by a single application, repeat the latter. In using Javelle
water 1 or 2 drops should be carefully poured on each spot, rinsing off
with water.


«To Remove Grease Spots from Marble.»—If the spots are fresh, rub them
over with a piece of cloth that has been dipped into pulverized china
clay, repeating the operation several times, and then brush with soap
and water. When the spots are old brush with distilled water and finest
French plaster energetically, then bleach with chloride of lime that is
put on a piece of white cloth. If the piece of marble is small enough
to permit it, soak it for a few hours in refined benzine.


«Preparation for Cleaning Marble, Furniture, and Metals, Especially
Copper.»—This preparation is claimed to give very quickly perfect
brilliancy, persisting without soiling either the hand or the
articles, and without leaving any odor of copper. The following is
the composition for 100 parts of the product: Wax, 2.4 parts; oil of
turpentine, 9.4 parts; acetic acid, 42 parts; citric acid, 42 parts;
white soap, 42 parts.


«Removing Oil Stains from Marble.»—Saturate fuller’s earth with a
solution of equal parts of soap liniment, ammonia, and water; apply
to the greasy part of the marble; keep there for some hours, pressed
down with a smoothing iron sufficiently hot to warm the mass, and as
it evaporates occasionally renew the solution. When wiped off dry the
stain will have nearly disappeared. Some days later, when more oil
works toward the surface repeat the operation. A few such treatments
should suffice.


«Cleaning Terra Cotta.»—After having carefully removed all dust, paint
the terra cotta, by means of a brush, with a mixture of slightly gummed
water and finely powdered terra cotta.


«Renovation of Polished and Varnished Surfaces of Wood, Stone,
etc.»—This is composed of the following ingredients, though the
proportions may be varied: Cereal flour or wood pulp, 38 1/2 parts;
hydrochloric acid, 45 parts; chloride of lime, 16 parts; turpentine,
1/2 part. After mixing the ingredients thoroughly in order to form
a homogeneous paste, the object to be treated is smeared with it and
allowed to stand for some time. The paste on the surface is then
removed by passing over it quickly a piece of soft {198} leather
or a brush, which will remove dirt, grease, and other deleterious
substances. By rubbing gently with a cloth or piece of leather a
polished surface will be imparted to wood, and objects of metal will be
rendered lustrous.

The addition of chloride of lime tends to keep the paste moist, thus
allowing the ready removal of the paste without damaging the varnish or
polish, while the turpentine serves as a disinfectant and renders the
odor less disagreeable during the operation.

The preparation is rapid in its action, and does not affect the
varnished or polished surfaces of wood or marble. While energetic
in its cleansing action on brass and other metallic objects, it is
attended with no corrosive effect.


«Nitrate of Silver Spots.»—To remove these spots from white marble,
they should be painted with Javelle water, and after having been
washed, passed over a concentrated solution of thiosulphate of soda
(hyposulphite).


«To Remove Oil-Paint Spots from Sandstones.»—This may be done by
washing the spots with pure turpentine oil, then covering the place
with white argillaceous earth (pipe clay), leaving it to dry, and
finally rubbing with sharp soda lye, using a brush. Caustic ammonia
also removes oil-paint spots from sandstones.


«RUST REMOVERS:»


«To Remove Rust from Iron or Steel Utensils.»—

I.—Apply the following solution by means of a brush, after having
removed any grease by rubbing with a clean, dry cloth: 100 parts of
stannic chloride are dissolved in 1,000 parts of water; this solution
is added to one containing 2 parts tartaric acid dissolved in 1,000
parts of water, and finally 20 cubic centimeters indigo solution,
diluted with 2,000 parts of water, are added. After allowing the
solution to act upon the stain for a few seconds, it is rubbed clean,
first with a moist cloth, then with a dry cloth; to restore the polish
use is made of silver sand and jewelers’ rouge.

II.—When the rust is recent it is removed by rubbing the metal with a
cork charged with oil. In this manner a perfect polish is obtained.
To take off old rust, mix equal parts of fine tripoli and flowers of
sulphur, mingling this mixture with olive oil, so as to form a paste.
Rub the iron with this preparation by means of a skin.

III.—The rusty piece is connected with a piece of zinc and placed in
water containing a little sulphuric acid. After the articles have been
in the liquid for several days or a week, the rust will have completely
disappeared. The length of time will depend upon the depth to which the
rust has penetrated. A little sulphuric acid may be added from time to
time, but the chief point is that the zinc always has good electric
contact with the iron. To insure this an iron wire may be firmly wound
around the iron object and connected with the zinc. The iron is not
attacked in the least, as long as the zinc is kept in good electric
contact with it. When the articles are taken from the liquid they
assume a dark gray or black color and are then washed and oiled.

IV.—The rust on iron and steel objects, especially large pieces, is
readily removed by rubbing the pieces with oil of tartar, or with very
fine emery and a little oil, or by putting powdered alum in strong
vinegar and rubbing with this alumed vinegar.

V.—Take cyanide of calcium, 25 parts; white soap, powdered, 25 parts;
Spanish white, 50 parts; and water, 200 parts. Triturate all well and
rub the piece with this paste. The effect will be quicker if before
using this paste the rusty object has been soaked for 5 to 10 minutes
in a solution of cyanide of potassium in the ratio of 1 part of cyanide
to 2 parts of water.

VI.—To remove rust from polished steel cyanide of potassium is
excellent. If possible, soak the instrument to be cleaned in a solution
of cyanide of potassium in the proportion of 1 ounce of cyanide to 4
ounces of water. Allow this to act till all loose rust is removed, and
then polish with cyanide soap. The latter is made as follows: Potassium
cyanide, precipitated chalk, white castile soap. Make a saturated
solution of the cyanide and add chalk sufficient to make a creamy
paste. Add the soap cut in fine shavings and thoroughly incorporate in
a mortar. When the mixture is stiff cease to add the soap. It should be
remembered that potassium cyanide is a virulent poison.

VII.—Apply turpentine or kerosene oil, and after letting it stand over
night, clean with finest emery cloth.

VIII.—To free articles of iron and steel from rust and imbedded grains
of sand the articles are treated with fluorhydric acid (about 2 per
cent) 1 to 2 hours, whereby the impurities but not the metal are
dissolved. This is followed by a washing with lime milk, to neutralize
any fluorhydric acid remaining. {199}


«To Remove Rust from Nickel.»—First grease the articles well; then,
after a few days, rub them with a rag charged with ammonia. If the rust
spots persist, add a few drops of hydrochloric acid to the ammonia,
rub and wipe off at once. Next rinse with water, dry, and polish with
tripoli.


«Removal of Rust.»—To take off the rust from small articles which glass
or emery paper would bite too deeply, the ink-erasing rubber used in
business offices may be employed. By beveling it, or cutting it to a
point as needful, it can be introduced into the smallest cavities and
windings, and a perfect cleaning be effected.


«To Remove Rust from Instruments.»—I.—Lay the instruments over night in
a saturated solution of chloride of tin. The rust spots will disappear
through reduction. Upon withdrawal from the solution the instruments
are rinsed with water, placed in a hot soda-soap solution, and dried.
Cleaning with absolute alcohol and polishing chalk may also follow.

II.—Make a solution of 1 part of kerosene in 200 parts of benzine or
carbon tetrachloride, and dip the instruments, which have been dried
by leaving them in heated air, in this, moving their parts, if movable,
as in forceps and scissors, about under the liquid, so that it may
enter all the crevices. Next lay the instruments on a plate in a dry
room, so that the benzine can evaporate. Needles are simply thrown in
the paraffine solution, and taken out with tongs or tweezers, after
which they are allowed to dry on a plate.

III.—Pour olive oil on the rust spots and leave for several days;
then rub with emery or tripoli, without wiping off the oil as far as
possible, or always bringing it back on the spot. Afterwards remove the
emery and the oil with a rag, rub again with emery soaked with vinegar,
and finally with fine plumbago on a piece of chamois skin.


«To Preserve Steel from Rust.»—To preserve steel from rust dissolve 1
part caoutchouc and 16 parts turpentine with a gentle heat, then add
8 parts boiled oil, and mix by bringing them to the heat of boiling
water. Apply to the steel with a brush, the same as varnish. It can be
removed again with a cloth soaked in turpentine.


«METAL CLEANING:»


«Cleaning and Preserving Medals, Coins, and Small Iron Articles.»—The
coating of silver chloride may be reduced with molten potassium
cyanide. Then boil the article in water, displace the water with
alcohol, and dry in a drying closet. When dry brush with a soft brush
and cover with “zaponlack” (any good transparent lacquer or varnish
will answer).

Instead of potassium cyanide alone, a mixture of that and potassium
carbonate may be used. After treatment in this way, delicate objects of
silver become less brittle. Another way is to put the article in molten
sodium carbonate and remove the silver carbonate thus formed, by acetic
acid of 50 per cent strength. This process produces the finest possible
polish.

The potassium-cyanide process may be used with all small iron objects.
For larger ones molten potassium rhodanide is recommended. This
converts the iron oxide into iron sulphide that is easily washed off
and leaves the surface of a fine black color.

Old coins may be cleansed by first immersing them in strong nitric acid
and then washing them in clean water. Wipe them dry before putting away.


«To Clean Old Medals.»—Immerse in lemon juice until the coating of
oxide has completely disappeared; 24 hours is generally sufficient,
but a longer time is not harmful.


«Steel Cleaner.»—Smear the object with oil, preferably petroleum, and
allow some days for penetration of the surface of the metal. Then rub
vigorously with a piece of flannel or willow wood. Or, with a paste
composed of olive oil, sulphur flowers, and tripoli, or of rotten
stone and oil. Finally, a coating may be employed, made of 10 parts
of potassium cyanide and 1 part of cream of tartar; or 25 parts of
potassium cyanide, with the addition of 55 parts of carbonate of lime
and 20 parts of white soap.


«Restoring Tarnished Gold.»—

 Sodium bicarbonate    20 ounces
 Chlorinated lime       1 ounce
 Common salt            1 ounce
 Water                 16 ounces

Mix well and apply with a soft brush.

A very small quantity of the solution is sufficient, and it may be used
either cold or lukewarm. Plain articles may be brightened by putting a
drop or two of the liquid upon them and lightly brushing the surface
with fine tissue paper. {200}


«Cleaning Copper.»—

I.—Use Armenian bole mixed into a paste with oleic acid.

 II.—Rotten stone            1 part
      Iron subcarbonate       3 parts
      Lard oil, a sufficient quantity.

 III.—Iron oxide             10 parts
       Pumice stone           32 parts
       Oleic acid, a sufficient quantity.

 IV.—Soap, cut fine         16 parts
      Precipitated chalk      2 parts
      Jewelers’ rouge         1 part
      Cream of tartar         1 part
      Magnesium carbonate     1 part
      Water, a sufficient quantity.

Dissolve the soap in the smallest quantity of water that will effect
solution over a water bath. Add the other ingredients to the solution
while still hot, stirring constantly.


«To Remove Hard Grease, Paint, etc., from Machinery.»—To remove grease,
paint, etc., from machinery add half a pound of caustic soda to 2
gallons of water and boil the parts to be cleaned in the fluid. It is
possible to use it several times before its strength is exhausted.


«Solutions for Cleaning Metals.»—

 I.—Water              20 parts
     Alum                2 parts
     Tripoli             2 parts
     Nitric acid         1 part

 II.—Water                40 parts
      Oxalic acid           2 parts
      Tripoli               7 parts


«To Cleanse Nickel.»—I.—Fifty parts of rectified alcohol; 1 part of
sulphuric acid; 1 part of nitric acid. Plunge the piece in the bath
for 10 to 15 seconds, rinse it off in cold water, and dip it next into
rectified alcohol. Dry with a fine linen rag or with sawdust.

 II.—Stearine oil         1 part
      Ammonia water       25 parts
      Benzine             50 parts
      Alcohol             75 parts

Rub up the stearine with the ammonia, add the benzine and then the
alcohol, and agitate until homogeneous. Put in wide-mouthed vessels and
close carefully.


«To Clean Petroleum Lamp Burners.»—Dissolve in a quart of soft water an
ounce or an ounce and a half of washing soda, using an old half-gallon
tomato can. Into this put the burner after removing the wick, set it on
the stove, and let it boil strongly for 5 or 6 minutes, then take out,
rinse under the tap, and dry. Every particle of carbonaceous matter
will thus be got rid of, and the burner be as clean and serviceable as
new. This ought to be done at least every month, but the light would be
better if it were done every 2 weeks.


«Gold-Ware Cleaner.»—

 Acetic acid           2 parts
 Sulphuric acid        2 parts
 Oxalic acid           1 part
 Jewelers’ rouge       2 parts
 Distilled water     200 parts

Mix the acids and water and stir in the rouge, after first rubbing it
up with a portion of the liquid. With a clean cloth, wet with this
mixture, go well over the article. Rinse off with hot water and dry.


«Silverware Cleaner.»—Make a thin paste of levigated (not precipitated)
chalk and sodium hyposulphite, in equal parts, rubbed up in distilled
water. Apply this paste to the surface, rubbing well with a soft brush.
Rinse in clear water and dry in sawdust. Some authorities advise the
cleaner to let the paste dry on the ware, and then to rub off and rinse
with hot water.


«Silver-Coin Cleaner.»—Make a bath of 10 parts of sulphuric acid and 90
parts of water, and let the coin lie in this until the crust of silver
sulphide is dissolved. From 5 to 10 minutes usually suffice. Rinse
in running water, then rub with a soft brush and castile soap, rinse
again, dry with a soft cloth, and then carefully rub with chamois.


«Cleaning Silver-Plated Ware.»—Into a wide-mouthed bottle provided with
a good cork put the following mixture:

 Cream of tartar       2 parts
 Levigated chalk       2 parts
 Alum                  1 part

Powder the alum and rub up with the other ingredients, and cork
tightly. When required for use wet sufficient of the powder and
with soft linen rags rub the article, being careful not to use much
pressure, as otherwise the thin layer of plating may be cut through.
Rinse in hot suds, and afterwards in clear water, and dry in sawdust.
When badly blackened with silver sulphide, if small, the article may be
dipped for an instant in hydrochloric acid and immediately rinsed in
running water. Larger articles may be treated as coins are—immersed for
2 or 3 minutes in a 10 per cent aqueous solution of sulphuric acid, or
the surface may be rapidly wiped {201} with a swab carrying nitric acid
and instantly rinsed in running water.


«Cleaning Gilt Bronze Ware.»—If greasy, wash carefully in suds, or,
better, dip into a hot solution of caustic potash, and then wash in
suds with a soft rag, and rinse in running water. If not then clean and
bright, dip into the following mixture:

 Nitric acid          10 parts
 Aluminum sulphate     1 part
 Water                40 parts

Mix. Rinse in running water.


«Britannia Metal Cleaner.»—Rub first with jewelers’ rouge made into a
paste with oil; wash in suds, rinse, dry, and finish with chamois or
wash leather.


«To Remove Ink Stains on Silver.»—Silver articles in domestic use, and
especially silver or plated inkstands, frequently become badly stained
with ink. These stains cannot be removed by ordinary processes, but
readily yield to a paste of chloride of lime and water. Javelle water
may be also used.


«Removing Egg Stains.»—A pinch of table salt taken between the thumb
and finger and rubbed on the spot with the end of the finger will
usually remove the darkest egg stain from silver.


«To Clean Silver Ornaments.»—Make a strong solution of soft soap and
water, and in this boil the articles for a few minutes—five will
usually be enough. Take out, pour the soap solution into a basin, and
as soon as the liquid has cooled down sufficiently to be borne by the
hand, with a soft brush scrub the articles with it. Rinse in boiling
water and place on a porous substance (a bit of tiling, a brick, or
unglazed earthenware) to dry. Finally give a light rubbing with a
chamois. Articles thus treated look as bright as new.


«Solvent for Iron Rust.»—Articles attacked by rust may be conveniently
cleaned by dipping them into a well-saturated solution of stannic
chloride. The length of time of the action must be regulated according
to the thickness of the rust. As a rule 12 to 24 hours will suffice,
but it is essential to prevent an excess of acid in the bath, as this
is liable to attack the iron itself. After the objects have been
removed from the bath they must be rinsed with water, and subsequently
with ammonia, and then quickly dried. Greasing with vaseline seems to
prevent new formation of rust. Objects treated in this manner are said
to resemble dead silver.

Professor Weber proposed a diluted alkali, and it has been found that
after employing this remedy the dirt layer is loosened and the green
platina reappears. Potash has been found to be an efficacious remedy,
even in the case of statues that had apparently turned completely black.


«To Clean Polished Parts of Machines.»—Put in a flask 1,000 parts of
petroleum; add 20 parts of paraffine, shaved fine; cork the bottle
and stand aside for a couple of days, giving it an occasional shake.
The mixture is now ready for use. To use, shake the bottle, pour a
little of the liquid upon a woolen rag and rub evenly over the part
to be cleaned; or apply with a brush. Set the article aside and, next
day, rub it well with a dry, woolen rag. Every particle of rust,
resinified grease, etc., will disappear provided the article has not
been neglected too long. In this case a further application of the oil
will be necessary. If too great pressure has not been made, or the
rubbing continued too long, the residual oil finally leaves the surface
protected by a delicate layer of paraffine that will prevent rusting
for a long time.


«To Clean Articles of Nickel.»—Lay them for a few seconds in alcohol
containing 2 per cent of sulphuric acid; remove, wash in running water,
rinse in alcohol, and rub dry with a linen cloth. This process gives a
brilliant polish and is especially useful with plated articles on the
plating of which the usual polishing materials act very destructively.
The yellowest and brownest nickeled articles are restored to pristine
brilliancy by leaving them in the alcohol and acid for 15 seconds. Five
seconds suffice ordinarily.


«How to Renovate Bronzes.»—For gilt work, first remove all grease,
dirt, wax, etc., with a solution in water of potassium or sodium
hydrate, then dry, and with a soft rag apply the following:

 Sodium carbonate         7 parts
 Spanish whiting         15 parts
 Alcohol, 85 per cent    50 parts
 Water                  125 parts

Go over every part carefully, using a brush to get into the minute
crevices. When this dries on, brush off with a fine linen cloth or a
supple chamois skin.

Or the following plan may be used: Remove grease, etc., as directed
above, dry and go over the spots where the gilt surface is discolored
with a brush dipped in a solution of two parts of alum in 250 parts of
water and 65 parts of nitric acid. As soon as the gilding reappears
or the {202} surface becomes bright, wash off, and dry in the direct
sunlight.

Still another cleaner is made of nitric acid, 30 parts; aluminum
sulphate, 4 parts; distilled or rain water, 125 parts. Clean of grease,
etc., as above, and apply the solution with a camel’s-hair pencil.
Rinse off and dry in sawdust. Finally, some articles are best cleaned
by immersing in hot soap suds and rubbing with a soft brush. Rinse in
clear, hot water, using a soft brush to get the residual suds out of
crevices. Let dry, then finish by rubbing the gilt spots or places with
a soft, linen rag, or a bit of chamois.

There are some bronzes gilt with imitation gold and varnished. Where
the work is well done and the gilding has not been on too long, they
will deceive even the practiced eye. The deception, however, may easily
be detected by touching a spot on the gilt surface with a glass rod
dipped in a solution of corrosive sublimate. If the gilding is true no
discoloration will occur, but if false a brown spot will be produced.


«To Clean a Gas Stove.»—An easy method of removing grease spots
consists in immersing the separable parts for several hours in a warm
lye, heated to about 70° C. (158° F.), said lye to be made of 9 parts
of caustic soda and 180 parts of water. These pieces, together with
the fixed parts of the stove, may be well brushed with this lye and
afterwards rinsed in clean, warm water. The grease will be dissolved,
and the stove restored almost to its original state.


«Cleaning Copper Sinks.»—Make rotten stone into a stiff paste with soft
soap and water. Rub on with a woolen rag, and polish with dry whiting
and rotten stone. Finish with a leather and dry whiting. Many of the
substances and mixtures used to clean brass will effectively clean
copper. Oxalic acid is said to be the best medium for cleaning copper,
but after using it the surface of the copper must be well washed,
dried, and then rubbed with sweet oil and tripoli, or some other
polishing agent. Otherwise the metal will soon tarnish again.


«Treatment of Cast-Iron Grave Crosses.»—The rust must first be
thoroughly removed with a steel-wire brush. When this is done apply
one or two coats of red lead or graphite paint. After this priming has
become hard, paint with double-burnt lampblack and equal parts of oil
of turpentine and varnish. This coating is followed by one of lampblack
ground with coach varnish. Now paint the single portions with “mixtion”
(gilding oil) and gild as usual. Such crosses look better when they
are not altogether black. Ornaments may be very well treated in colors
with oil paint and then varnished. The crosses treated in this manner
are preserved for many years, but it is essential to use good exterior
or coach varnish for varnishing, and not the so-called black varnish,
which is mostly composed of asphalt or tar.


«Cleaning Inferior Gold Articles.»—The brown film which forms
on low-quality gold articles is removed by coating with fuming
hydrochloric acid, whereupon they are brushed off with Vienna lime and
petroleum. Finally, clean the objects with benzine, rinse again in pure
benzine, and dry in sawdust.


«To Clean Bronze.»—Clean the bronze with soft soap; next wash it in
plenty of water; wipe, let dry, and apply light encaustic mixture
composed of spirit of turpentine in which a small quantity of yellow
wax has been dissolved. The encaustic is spread by means of a linen or
woolen wad. For gilt bronze, add 1 spoonful of alkali to 3 spoonfuls of
water and rub the article with this by means of a ball of wadding. Next
wipe with a clean chamois, similar to that employed in silvering.


«How to Clean Brass and Steel.»—To clean brasses quickly and
economically, rub them with vinegar and salt or with oxalic acid.
Wash immediately after the rubbing, and polish with tripoli and sweet
oil. Unless the acid is washed off the article will tarnish quickly.
Copper kettles and saucepans, brass andirons, fenders, and candlesticks
and trays are best cleaned with vinegar and salt. Cooking vessels
in constant use need only to be well washed afterwards. Things for
show—even pots and pans—need the oil polishing, which gives a deep,
rich, yellow luster, good for six months. Oxalic acid and salt should
be employed for furniture brasses—if it touches the wood it only
improves the tone. Wipe the brasses well with a wet cloth, and polish
thoroughly with oil and tripoli. Sometimes powdered rotten stone does
better than the tripoli. Rub, after using, either with a dry cloth
or leather, until there is no trace of oil. The brass to be cleaned
must be freed completely from grease, caked dirt, and grime. Wash with
strong ammonia suds and rinse dry before beginning with the acid and
salt.

The best treatment for wrought steel is to wash it very clean with a
stiff brush {203} and ammonia soapsuds, rinse well, dry by heat, oil
plentifully with sweet oil, and dust thickly with powdered quicklime.
Let the lime stay on 2 days, then brush it off with a clean, very stiff
brush. Polish with a softer brush, and rub with cloths until the luster
comes out. By leaving the lime on, iron and steel may be kept from rust
almost indefinitely.

Before wetting any sort of bric-a-brac, and especially bronzes, remove
all the dust possible. After dusting, wash well in strong white
soapsuds and ammonia, rinse clean, polish with just a suspicion of oil
and rotten stone, and rub off afterwards every trace of the oil. Never
let acid touch a bronze surface, unless to eat and pit it for antique
effects.


«Composition for Cleaning Copper, Nickel, and other Metals.»—Wool
grease, 46 parts, by weight; fire clay, 30 parts, by weight; paraffine,
5 parts, by weight; Canova wax, 5 parts, by weight; cocoanut oil, 10
parts, by weight; oil of mirbane, 1 part, by weight. After mixing these
different ingredients, which constitute a paste, this is molded in
order to give a cylindrical form, and introduced into a case so that it
can be used like a stick of cosmetic.


«Putz Pomade.»—I.—Oxalic acid, 1 part; caput mortuum, 15 parts (or,
if white pomade is desired, tripoli, 12 parts); powdered pumice stone,
best grade, 20 parts; palm oil, 60 parts; petroleum or oleine, 4 parts.
Perfume with mirbane oil.

 II.—Oxalic acid                            1 part
      Peroxide of iron (jewelers’ rouge)    15 parts
      Rotten stone                          20 parts
      Palm oil                              60 parts
      Petrolatum                             5 parts

Pulverize the acid and the rotten stone and mix thoroughly with the
rouge. Sift to remove all grit, then make into a paste with the oil and
petrolatum. A little nitro-benzol may be added to scent the mixture.

 III.—Oleine                         40 parts
       Ceresine                        5 parts
       Tripoli                        40 parts
       Light mineral oil (0.870)      20 parts

Melt the oleine, ceresine, and mineral oil together, and stir in the
tripoli; next, grind evenly in a paint mill.


«To Clean Gummed Parts of Machinery.»—Boil about 10 to 15 parts of
caustic soda or 100 parts of soda in 1,000 parts of water, immerse
the parts to be cleaned in this for some time, or, better, boil them
with it. Then rinse and dry. For small shops this mode of cleaning is
doubtless the best.


«To Remove Silver Plating.»—I.—Put sulphuric acid 100 parts and
potassium nitrate (saltpeter) 10 parts in a vessel of stoneware or
porcelain, heated on the water bath. When the silver has left the
copper, rinse the objects several times. This silver stripping bath may
be used several times, if it is kept in a well-closed bottle. When it
is saturated with silver, decant the liquid, boil it to dryness, then
add the residue to the deposit, and melt in the crucible to obtain the
metal.

II.—Stripping silvered articles of the silvering may be accomplished
by the following mixture: Sulphuric acid, 60° B., 3 parts; nitric
acid, 40° B., 1 part; heat the mixture to about 166° F., and immerse
the articles by means of a copper wire. In a few seconds the acid
mixture will have done the work. A thorough rinsing off is, of course,
necessary.


«To Clean Zinc Articles.»—In order to clean articles of zinc, stir
rye bran into a paste with boiling water, and add a handful of silver
sand and a little vitriol. Rub the article with this paste, rinse with
water, dry, and polish with a cloth.


«To Remove Rust from Nickel.»—Smear the rusted parts well with grease
(ordinary animal fat will do), and allow the article to stand several
days. If the rust is not thick the grease and rust may be rubbed off
with a cloth dipped in ammonia. If the rust is very deep, apply a
diluted solution of hydrochloric acid, taking care that the acid does
not touch the metal, and the rust may be easily rubbed off. Then wash
the article and polish in the usual way.


«Compound for Cleaning Brass.»—To make a brass cleaning compound use
oxalic acid, 1 ounce; rotten stone, 6 ounces; enough whale oil and
spirits of turpentine of equal parts, to mix, and make a paste.


«To Clean Gilt Objects.»—I.—Into an ordinary drinking glass pour about
20 drops of ammonia, immerse the piece to be cleaned repeatedly in
this, and brush with a soft brush. Treat the article with pure water,
then with alcohol, and wipe with a soft rag.

II.—Boil common alum in soft, pure water, and immerse the article in
the solution, or rub the spot with it, and dry with sawdust.

III.—For cleaning picture frames, {204} moldings, and, in fact, all
kinds of gilded work, the best medium is liquor potassæ, diluted with
about 5 volumes of water. Dilute alcohol is also excellent. Methylated
wood spirit, if the odor is not objectionable, answers admirably.


«To Scale Cast Iron.»—To remove the scale from cast iron use a solution
of 1 part vitriol and 2 parts water; after mixing, apply to the scale
with a cloth rolled in the form of a brush, using enough to wet the
surface well. After 8 or 10 hours wash off with water, when the hard,
scaly surface will be completely removed.


«Cleaning Funnels and Measures.»—Funnels and measures used for
measuring varnishes, oils, etc., may be cleaned by soaking them in
a strong solution of lye or pearlash. Another mixture for the same
purpose consists of pearlash with quicklime in aqueous solution. The
measures are allowed to soak in the solution for a short time, when
the resinous matter of the paint or varnish is easily removed. A thin
coating of petroleum lubricating oils may be removed, it is said, by
the use of naphtha or petroleum benzine.


«To Clean Aluminum.»—I.—Aluminum articles are very hard to clean so
they will have a bright, new appearance. This is especially the case
with the matted or frosted pieces. To restore the pieces to brilliancy
place them for some time in water that has been slightly acidulated
with sulphuric acid.

II.—Wash the aluminum with coal-oil, gasoline or benzine, then put it
in a concentrated solution of caustic potash, and after washing it with
plenty of water, dip it in the bath composed of 2/3 nitric acid and
1/3 water. Next, subject it to a bath of concentrated nitric acid,
and finally to a mixture of rum and olive oil. To render aluminum
capable of being worked like pure copper, 2/3 of oil of turpentine
and 1/3 stearic acid are used. For polishing by hand, take a solution
of 30 parts of borax and 1,000 parts of water, to which a few drops of
spirits of ammonia have been added.


«How to Clean Tarnished Silver.»—I.—If the articles are only slightly
tarnished, mix 3 parts of best washed and purified chalk and 1 part of
white soap, adding water, till a thin paste is formed, which should
be rubbed on the silver with a dry brush, till the articles are quite
bright. As a substitute, whiting, mixed with caustic ammonia to form a
paste, may be used. This mixture is very effective, but it irritates
the eyes and nose.

II.—An efficacious preparation is obtained by mixing beech-wood ashes,
2 parts; Venetian soap, 4/100 part; cooking salt, 2 parts; rain
water, 8 parts. Brush the silver with this lye, using a somewhat stiff
brush.

III.—A solution of crystallized potassium permanganate has been
recommended.

IV.—A grayish violet film which silverware acquires from perspiration,
can be readily removed by means of ammonia.

V.—To remove spots from silver lay it for 4 hours in soapmakers’ lye,
then throw on fine powdered gypsum, moisten the latter with vinegar
to cause it to adhere, dry near the fire, and wipe off. Next rub the
spot with dry bran. This not only causes it to disappear, but gives
extraordinary gloss to the silver.

VI.—Cleaning with the usual fine powders is attended with some
difficulty and inconvenience. An excellent result is obtained without
injury to the silver by employing a saturated solution of hyposulphite
of soda, which is put on with a brush or rag. The article is then
washed with plenty of water.

VII.—Never use soap on silverware, as it dulls the luster, giving the
article more the appearance of pewter than silver. When it wants
cleaning, rub it with a piece of soft leather and prepared chalk, made
into a paste with pure water, entirely free from grit.


«To Clean Dull Gold.»—I.—Take 80 parts, by weight, of chloride of lime,
and rub it up with gradual addition of water in a porcelain mortar
into a thin, even paste, which is put into a solution of 80 parts, by
weight, of bicarbonate of soda, and 20 parts, by weight, of salt, in
3,000 parts, by weight, of water. Shake it, and let stand a few days
before using. If the preparation is to be kept for any length of time
the bottle should be placed, well corked, in the cellar. For use, lay
the tarnished articles in a dish, pour the liquid, which has previously
been well shaken, over them so as just to cover them, and leave them
therein for a few days.

 II.—Bicarbonate of soda.  31   parts
      Chloride of lime      15.5 parts
      Cooking salt          15   parts
      Water                240   parts

Grind the chloride of lime with a little water to a thin paste, in a
porcelain vessel, and add the remaining chemicals. Wash the objects
with the aid of a soft brush with the solution, rinse several times in
water, and dry in fine sawdust. {205}


«Cleaning Bronze Objects.»—Employ powdered chicory mixed with water,
so as to obtain a paste, which is applied with a brush. After the
brushing, rinse off and dry in the sun or near a stove.


«Cleaning Gilded Bronzes.»—I.—Commence by removing the spots of grease
and wax with a little potash or soda dissolved in water. Let dry, and
apply the following mixture with a rag: Carbonate of soda, 7 parts;
whiting, 15 parts; alcohol (85°), 50 parts; water, 125 parts. When this
coating is dry pass a fine linen cloth or a piece of supple skin over
it. The hollow parts are cleaned with a brush.

II.—After removing the grease spots, let dry and pass over all the
damaged parts a pencil dipped in the following mixture: Alum, 2 parts;
nitric acid, 65; water, 250 parts. When the gilding becomes bright,
wipe, and dry in the sun or near a fire.

III.—Wash in hot water containing a little soda, dry, and pass over
the gilding a pencil soaked in a liquid made of 30 parts nitric acid,
4 parts of aluminum phosphate, and 125 parts of pure water. Dry in
sawdust.

IV.—Immerse the objects in boiling soap water, and facilitate the
action of the soap by rubbing with a soft brush; put the objects in hot
water, brush them carefully, and let them dry in the air; when they are
quite dry rub the shining parts only with an old linen cloth or a soft
leather, without touching the others.


«Stripping Gilt Articles.»—Degilding or stripping gilt articles may
be done by attaching the object to the positive pole of a battery and
immersing it in a solution composed of 1 pound of cyanide dissolved in
about 1 gallon of water. Desilvering may be effected in the same manner.


«To Clean Tarnished Zinc.»—Apply with a rag a mixture of 1 part
sulphuric acid with 12 parts of water. Rinse the zinc with clear water.


«Cleaning Pewter Articles.»—Pour hot lye of wood ashes upon the tin,
throw on sand, and rub with a hard, woolen rag, hat felt, or whisk
until all particles of dirt have been dissolved. To polish pewter
plates it is well to have the turner make similar wooden forms fitting
the plates, and to rub them clean this way. Next they are rinsed with
clean water and placed on a table with a clean linen cover on which
they are left to dry without being touched, otherwise spots will
appear. This scouring is not necessary so often if the pewter is rubbed
with wheat bran after use and cleaned perfectly. New pewter is polished
with a paste of whiting and brandy, rubbing the dishes with it until
the mass becomes dry.


«To Clean Files.»—Files which have become clogged with tin or lead are
cleaned by dipping for a few seconds into concentrated nitric acid.
To remove iron filings from the file cuts, a bath of blue vitriol is
employed. After the files have been rinsed in water they are likewise
dipped in nitric acid. File-ridges closed up by zinc are cleaned by
immersing the files in diluted sulphuric acid. Such as have become
filled with copper or brass are also treated with nitric acid, but here
the process has to be repeated several times. The files should always
be rinsed in water after the treatment, brushed with a stiff brush, and
dried in sawdust or by pouring alcohol over them, and letting it burn
off on the file.


«Scale Pan Cleaner.»—About the quickest cleaner for brass scale pans
is a solution of potassium bichromate in dilute sulphuric acid, using
about 1 part of chromate, in powder, to 3 parts of acid and 6 parts of
water. In this imbibe a cloth wrapped around a stick (to protect the
hands), and with it rub the pans. Do this at tap or hydrant, so that no
time is lost in placing the pan in running water after having rubbed
it with the acid solution. For pans not very badly soiled rubbing with
ammonia water and rinsing is sufficient.


«Tarnish on Electro-Plate Goods.»—This tarnish can be removed by
dipping the article for from 1 to 15 minutes—that is, until the tarnish
shall have been removed—in a pickle of the following composition: Rain
water 2 gallons and potassium cyanide 1/2 pound. Dissolve together,
and fill into a stone jug or jar, and close tightly. The article,
after having been immersed, must be taken out and thoroughly rinsed in
several waters, then dried with fine, clean sawdust. Tarnish on jewelry
can be speedily removed by this process; but if the cyanide is not
completely removed it will corrode the goods.


«OIL-, GREASE-, PAINT-SPOT ERADICATORS:»


«Grease- and Paint-Spot Eradicators.»—

 I.—Benzol                      500 parts
     Benzine                     500 parts
     Soap, best white, shaved      5 parts
     Water, warm, sufficient.

{206}

Dissolve the soap in the warm water, using from 50 to 60 parts. Mix
the benzol and benzine, and add the soap solution, a little at a
time, shaking up well after each addition. If the mixture is slow in
emulsifying, add at one time from 50 to 100 parts of warm water, and
shake violently. Set the emulsion aside for a few days, or until it
separates, then decant the superfluous water, and pour the residual
pasty mass, after stirring it up well, into suitable boxes.

 II.—Soap spirit                      100 parts
      Ammonia solution, 10 per cent     25 parts
      Acetic ether                      15 parts

 III.—Extract of quillaia   1 part
       Borax                 1 part
       Ox gall, fresh        6 parts
       Tallow soap          15 parts

Triturate the quillaia and borax together, incorporate the ox gall,
and, finally, add the tallow soap and mix thoroughly by kneading. The
product is a plastic mass, which may be rolled into sticks or put up
into boxes.


«Removing Oil Spots from Leather.»—To remove oil stains from leather,
dab the spot carefully with spirits of sal ammoniac, and after allowing
it to act for a while, wash with clean water. This treatment may have
to be repeated a few times, taking care, however, not to injure the
color of the leather. Sometimes the spot may be removed very simply by
spreading the place rather thickly with butter and letting this act for
a few hours. Next scrape off the butter with the point of a knife, and
rinse the stain with soap and lukewarm water.


«To Clean Linoleum.»—Rust spots and other stains can be removed from
linoleum by rubbing with steel chips.


«To Remove Putty, Grease, etc., from Plate Glass.»—To remove all
kinds of greasy materials from glass, and to leave the latter bright
and clean, use a paste made of benzine and burnt magnesia of such
consistence that when the mass is pressed between the fingers a drop of
benzine will exude. With this mixture and a wad of cotton, go over the
entire surface of the glass, rubbing it well. One rubbing is usually
sufficient. After drying, any of the substance left in the corners,
etc., is easily removed by brushing with a suitable brush. The same
preparation is very useful for cleaning mirrors and removing grease
stains from books, papers, etc.


«Removing Spots from Furniture.»—White spots on polished tables are
removed in the following manner: Coat the spot with oil and pour on a
rag a few drops of “mixtura balsamica oleosa,” which can be bought in
every drug store, and rub on the spot, which will disappear immediately.


«To Remove Spots from Drawings, etc.»—Place soapstone, fine meerschaum
shavings, amianthus, or powdered magnesia on the spot, and, if
necessary, lay on white filtering paper, saturating it with peroxide of
hydrogen. Allow this to act for a few hours, and remove the application
with a brush. If necessary, repeat the operation. In this manner black
coffee spots were removed from a valuable diagram without erasure by
knife or rubber.


«WATCHMAKERS’ AND JEWELERS’ CLEANING PREPARATIONS:»


«To Clean the Tops of Clocks in Repairing.»—Sprinkle whiting on the
top. Pour good vinegar over this and rub vigorously. Rinse in clean
water and dry slowly in the sun or at the fire. A good polish will be
obtained.


«To Clean Watch Chains.»—Gold or silver watch chains can be cleaned with
a very excellent result, no matter whether they be matt or polished,
by laying them for a few seconds in pure aqua ammonia; they are then
rinsed in alcohol, and finally shaken in clean sawdust, free from
sand. Imitation gold and plated chains are first cleaned in benzine,
then rinsed in alcohol, and afterwards shaken in dry sawdust. Ordinary
chains are first dipped in the following pickle: Pure nitric acid is
mixed with concentrated sulphuric acid in the proportion of 10 parts of
the former to 2 parts of the latter; a little table salt is added. The
chains are boiled in this mixture, then rinsed several times in water,
afterwards in alcohol, and finally dried in sawdust.


«Cleaning Brass Mountings on Clock Cases, etc.»—The brass mountings are
first cleaned of dirt by dipping them for a short time into boiling
soda lye, and next are pickled, still warm, if possible, in a mixture
consisting of nitric acid, 60 parts; sulphuric acid, 40 parts; cooking
salt, 1 part; and shining soot (lampblack), 1/2 part, whereby they
acquire a handsome golden-yellow coloring. The pickling mixture,
however, must not be employed immediately after pouring together the
acids, which causes a strong generation of heat, but should settle
for at least {207} 1 day. This makes the articles handsomer and more
uniform. After the dipping the objects are rinsed in plenty of clean
water and dried on a hot, iron plate, and at the same time warmed for
lacquering. Since the pieces would be lacquered too thick and unevenly
in pure gold varnish, this is diluted with alcohol, 1 part of gold
varnish sufficing for 10 parts of alcohol. Into this liquid dip the
mountings previously warmed and dry them again on the hot plate.


«Gilt Zinc Clocks.»—It frequently happens that clocks of gilt zinc
become covered with green spots. To remove such spots the following
process is used: Soak a small wad of cotton in alkali and rub it on the
spot. The green color will disappear at once, but the gilding being
gone, a black spot will remain. Wipe off well to remove all traces
of the alkali. To replace the gilding, put on, by means of liquid
gum arabic, a little bronze powder of the color of the gilding. The
powdered bronze is applied dry with the aid of a brush or cotton wad.
When the gilding of the clock has become black or dull from age, it
may be revived by immersion in a bath of cyanide of potassium, but
frequently it suffices to wash it with a soft brush in soap and water,
in which a little carbonate of soda has been dissolved. Brush the piece
in the lather, rinse in clean water, and dry in rather hot sawdust.
The piece should be dried well inside and outside, as moisture will
cause it to turn black.


«To Clean Gummed Up Springs.»—Dissolve caustic soda in warm water,
place the spring in the solution and leave it there for about one half
hour. Any oil still adhering may now easily be taken off with a hard
brush; next, dry the spring with a clean cloth. In this manner gummed
up parts of tower clocks, locks, etc., may be quickly and thoroughly
cleaned, and oil paint may be removed from metal or wood. The lye is
sharp, but free from danger, nor are the steel parts attacked by it.


«To Clean Soldered Watch Cases.»—Gold, silver, and other metallic watch
cases which in soldering have been exposed to heat, are laid in diluted
sulphuric acid (1 part acid to 10 to 15 parts water), to free them from
oxide. Heating the acid accelerates the cleaning process. The articles
are then well rinsed in water and dried. Gold cases are next brushed
with powdered tripoli moistened with oil, to remove the pale spots
caused by the heat and boiling, and to restore the original color.
After that they are cleaned with soap water and finally polished with
rouge. Silver cases are polished after boiling, with a scratch brush
dipped in beer.


«A Simple Way to Clean a Clock.»—Take a bit of cotton the size of a
hen’s egg, dip it in kerosene and place it on the floor of the clock,
in the corner; shut the door of the clock, and wait 3 or 4 days. The
clock will be like a new one—and if you look inside you will find
the cotton batting black with dust. The fumes of the oil loosen the
particles of dust, and they fall, thus cleaning the clock.


«To Restore the Color of a Gold or Gilt Dial.»—Dip the dial for a few
seconds in the following mixture: Half an ounce of cyanide of potassium
is dissolved in a quart of hot water, and 2 ounces of strong ammonia,
mixed with 1/2 an ounce of alcohol, are added to the solution. On
removal from this bath, the dial should immediately be immersed in warm
water, then brushed with soap, rinsed, and dried in hot boxwood dust.
Or it may simply be immersed in dilute nitric acid; but in this case
any painted figures will be destroyed.


«A Bath for Cleaning Clocks.»—In an enameled iron or terra-cotta
vessel pour 2,000 parts of water, add 50 parts of scraped Marseilles
soap, 80 to 100 parts of whiting, and a small cup of spirits of
ammonia. To hasten the process of solution, warm, but do not allow to
boil.

If the clock is very dirty or much oxidized, immerse the pieces in the
bath while warm, and as long as necessary. Take them out with a skimmer
or strainer, and pour over them some benzine, letting the liquid fall
into an empty vessel. This being decanted and bottled can be used
indefinitely for rinsing.

If the bath has too much alkali or is used when too hot, it may affect
the polish and render it dull. This may be obviated by trying different
strengths of the alkali. Pieces of blued steel are not injured by the
alkali, even when pure.


«To Remove a Figure or Name from a Dial.»—Oil of spike lavender may
be employed for erasing a letter or number. Enamel powder made into a
paste with water, oil, or turpentine is also used for this purpose.
It should be previously levigated so as to obtain several degrees
of fineness. The powder used for repolishing the surface, where an
impression has been removed, must be extremely fine. It is applied with
a piece of {208} pegwood or ivory. The best method is to employ diamond
powder. Take a little of the powder, make into a paste with fine oil,
on the end of a copper polisher the surface of which has been freshly
filed and slightly rounded. The marks will rapidly disappear when
rubbed with this. The surface is left a little dull; it may be rendered
bright by rubbing with the same powder mixed with a greater quantity of
oil, and applied with a stick of pegwood. Watchmakers will do well to
try on disused dials several degrees of fineness of the diamond powder.


«Cleaning Pearls.»—Pearls turn yellow in the course of time by
absorbing perspiration on account of being worn in the hair, at the
throat, and on the arms. There are several ways of rendering them white
again.

I.—The best process is said to be to put the pearls into a bag with
wheat bran and to heat the bag over a coal fire, with constant motion.

II.—Another method is to bring 8 parts each of well-calcined, finely
powdered lime and wood charcoal, which has been strained through a
gauze sieve, to a boil with 500 parts of pure rain water, suspend
the pearls over the steam of the boiling water until they are warmed
through, and then boil them in the liquid for 5 minutes, turning
frequently. Let them cool in the liquid, take them out, and wash off
well with clean water.

III.—Place the pearls in a piece of fine linen, throw salt on them, and
tie them up. Next rinse the tied-up pearls in lukewarm water until all
the salt has been extracted, and dry them at an ordinary temperature.

IV.—The pearls may also be boiled about 1/4 hour in cow’s milk into
which a little cheese or soap has been scraped; take them out, rinse
off in fresh water, and dry them with a clean, white cloth.

V.—Another method is to have the pearls, strung on a silk thread or
wrapped up in thin gauze, mixed in a loaf of bread of barley flour and
to have the loaf baked well in an oven, but not too brown. When cool
remove the pearls.

VI.—Hang the pearls for a couple of minutes in hot, strong, wine
vinegar or highly diluted sulphuric acid, remove, and rinse them in
water. Do not leave them too long in the acid, otherwise they will be
injured by it.


«GLASS CLEANING:»


«Cleaning Preparation for Glass with Metal Decorations.»—Mix 1,000
parts of denaturized spirit (96 per cent) with 150 parts, by weight, of
ammonia; 20 parts of acetic ether; 15 parts of ethylic ether; 200 parts
of Vienna lime; 950 parts of bolus; and 550 parts of oleine. With this
mixture both glass and metal can be quickly and thoroughly cleaned. It
is particularly recommended for show windows ornamented with metal.


«Paste for Cleaning Glass.»—

 Prepared chalk               6 pounds
 Powdered French chalk    1 1/2 pounds
 Phosphate calcium        2 1/4 pounds
 Quillaia bark            2 1/4 pounds
 Carbonate ammonia           18 ounces
 Rose pink                    6 ounces

Mix the ingredients, in fine powder, and sift through muslin. Then mix
with soft water to the consistency of cream, and apply to the glass
by means of a soft rag or sponge; allow it to dry on, wipe off with a
cloth, and polish with chamois.


«Cleaning Optical Lenses.»—For this purpose a German contemporary
recommends vegetable pith. The medulla of rushes, elders, or sunflowers
is cut out, the pieces are dried and pasted singly alongside of one
another upon a piece of cork, whereby a brush-like apparatus is
obtained, which is passed over the surface of the lens. For very small
lenses pointed pieces of elder pith are employed. To dip dirty and
greasy lenses into oil of turpentine or ether and rub them with a linen
rag, as has been proposed, seems hazardous, because the Canada balsam
with which the lenses are cemented might dissolve.


«To Remove Glue from Glass.»—If glue has simply dried upon the glass
hot water ought to remove it. If, however, the spots are due to size
(the gelatinous wash used by painters) when dried they become very
refractory and recourse must be had to chemical means for their
removal. The commonest size being a solution of gelatin, alum, and
rosin dissolved in a solution of soda and combined with starch, hot
solutions of caustic soda or of potash may be used. If that fails
to remove them, try diluted hydrochloric, sulphuric, or any of the
stronger acids. If the spots still remain some abrasive powder (flour
of emery) must be used and the glass repolished with jewelers’ rouge
applied by means of a chamois skin. Owing to the varied nature of sizes
used the above are only suggestions.


«Cleaning Window Panes.»—Take diluted nitric acid about as strong as
strong {209} vinegar and pass it over the glass pane, leave it to act
a minute and throw on pulverized whiting, but just enough to give off
a hissing sound. Now rub both with the hand over the whole pane and
polish with a dry rag. Rinse off with clean water and a little alcohol
and polish dry and clear. Repeat the process on the other side. The
nitric acid removes all impurities which have remained on the glass at
the factory, and even with inferior panes a good appearance is obtained.


«To Clean Store Windows.»—For cleaning the large panes of glass of
store windows, and also ordinary show cases, a semiliquid paste may be
employed, made of calcined magnesia and purified benzine. The glass
should be rubbed with a cotton rag until it is brilliant.


«Cleaning Lamp Globes.»—Pour 2 spoonfuls of a slightly heated solution
of potash into the globe, moisten the whole surface with it, and rub
the stains with a fine linen rag; rinse the globe with clean water and
carefully dry it with a fine, soft cloth.


«To Clean Mirrors.»—Rub the mirror with a ball of soft paper slightly
dampened with methylated spirits, then with a duster on which a little
whiting has been sprinkled, and finally polish with clean paper or a
wash leather. This treatment will make the glass beautifully bright.


«To Clean Milk Glass.»—To remove oil spots from milk glass panes and
lamp globes, knead burnt magnesia with benzine to a plastic mass, which
must be kept in a tight-closing bottle. A little of this substance
rubbed on the spot with a linen rag will make it disappear.


«To Remove Oil-Paint Spots from Glass.»—If the window panes have been
bespattered with oil paint in painting walls, the spots are, of course,
easily removed while wet. When they have become dry the operation is
more difficult and alcohol and turpentine in equal parts, or spirit of
sal ammoniac should be used to soften the paint. After that go over
it with chalk. Polishing with salt will also remove paint spots. The
salt grates somewhat, but it is not hard enough to cause scratches in
the glass; a subsequent polishing with chalk is also advisable, as the
drying of the salt might injure the glass. For scratching off soft
paint spots sheet zinc must be used, as it cannot damage the glass on
account of its softness. In the case of silicate paints (the so-called
weather-proof coatings) the panes must be especially protected, because
these paints destroy the polish of the glass. Rubbing the spots with
brown soap is also a good way of removing the spots, but care must be
taken in rinsing off that the window frames are not acted upon.


«Removing Silver Stains.»—The following solution will remove silver
stains from the hands, and also from woolen, linen, or cotton goods:

 Mercuric chloride     1 part
 Ammonia muriate       1 part
 Water                 8 parts

The compound is poisonous.


«MISCELLANEOUS CLEANING METHODS AND PROCESSES:»


«Universal Cleaner.»—

 Green soap                  20 to 25 parts
 Boiling water                    750 parts
 Liquid ammonia, caustic     30 to 40 parts
 Acetic ether                20 to 30 parts

Mix.


«To Clean Playing Cards.»—Slightly soiled playing cards may be made
clean by rubbing them with a soft rag dipped in a solution of camphor.
Very little of the latter is necessary.


«To Remove Vegetable Growth from Buildings.»—To remove moss and lichen
from stone and masonry, apply water in which 1 per cent of carbolic
acid has been dissolved. After a few hours the plants can be washed off
with water.


«Solid Cleansing Compound.»—The basis of most of the solid grease
eradicators is benzine and the simplest form is a benzine jelly made
by shaking 3 ounces of tincture of quillaia (soap bark) with enough
benzine to make 16 fluidounces. Benzine may also be solidified by the
use of a soap with addition of an excess of alkali. Formulas in which
soaps are used in this way follow:

 I.—Cocoanut-oil soap.        2 av. ounces
     Ammonia water             3 fluidounces
     Solution of potassium     1 1/2 fluidounces
     Water enough to make     12 fluidounces

Dissolve the soap with the aid of heat in 4 fluidounces of water, add
the ammonia and potassa and the remainder of the water.

If the benzine is added in small portions, and thoroughly agitated,
2 1/2 fluidounces of the above will be found sufficient to solidify
32 fluidounces of benzine. {210}

 II.—Castile soap, white      3 1/2 av. ounces
      Water, boiling           3 1/2 fluidounces
      Water of ammonia             5 fluidrachms
      Benzine enough to make      16 fluidounces

Dissolve the soap in the water, and when cold, add the other
ingredients.


«To Clean Oily Bottles.»—Use 2 heaped tablespoonfuls (for every quart
of capacity) of fine sawdust or wheat bran, and shake well to cover the
interior surface thoroughly; let stand a few minutes and then add about
a gill of cold water. If the bottle be then rotated in a horizontal
position, it will usually be found clean after a single treatment. In
the case of drying oils, especially when old, the bottles should be
moistened inside with a little ether, and left standing a few hours
before the introduction of sawdust. This method is claimed to be more
rapid and convenient than the customary one of using strips of paper,
soap solution, etc.


«Cork Cleaner.»—Wash in 10 per cent solution of hydrochloric acid, then
immerse in a solution of sodium hyposulphite and hydrochloric acid.
Finally the corks are washed with a solution of soda and pure water.
Corks containing oil or fat cannot be cleaned by this method.


«To Clean Sponges.»—Rinse well first in very weak, warm, caustic-soda
lye, then with clean water, and finally leave the sponges in a solution
of bromine in water until clean. They will whiten sooner if exposed
to the sun in the bromine water. Then repeat the rinsings in weak
lye and clean water, using the latter till all smell of bromine has
disappeared. Dry quickly and in the sun if possible.

CLEARING BATHS: See Photography.

CLICHÉ METALS: See Alloys.

CLOCK-DIAL LETTERING: See Watchmakers’ Formulas.

CLOCK-HAND COLORING: See Metals.

CLOCK OIL: See Oil.

CLOCK REPAIRING: See Watchmaking.

CLOCKMAKERS’ CLEANING PROCESSES: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.

CLOTH TO IRON, GLUEING: See Adhesives.

CLOTHES CLEANERS: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods; also,
Household Formulas.

CLOTHS FOR POLISHING: See Polishes.

CLOTH, WATERPROOFING: See Waterproofing.

CLOTHING, CARE OF: See Household Formulas.

COACH VARNISH: See Varnishes.

COALS, TO EAT BURNING: See Pyrotechnics.

COAL OIL: See Oil.

COBALTIZING: See Plating.

COCOAS: See Beverages.

COCOA CORDIAL: See Wines and Liquors.

COCOANUT CAKE: See Household Formulas and Recipes.

COCHINEAL INSECT REMEDY: See Insecticides.

COD-LIVER OIL AND ITS EMULSION: See Oil, Cod-Liver.


«COFFEE, SUBSTITUTES FOR.»

I.—Acorn.—From acorns deprived of their shells, husked, dried, and
roasted.

II.—Bean.—Horse beans roasted along with a little honey or sugar.

III.—Beet Root.—From the yellow beet root, sliced, dried in a kiln or
oven, and ground with a little coffee.

IV.—Dandelion.—From dandelion roots, sliced, dried, roasted, and ground
with a little caramel.

All the above are roasted, before grinding them, with a little fat or
lard. Those which are larger than coffee berries are cut into small
slices before being roasted. They possess none of the exhilarating
properties or medicinal virtues of the genuine coffee.

V.—Chicory.—This is a common adulterant. The roasted root is prepared
by cutting the full-grown root into slices, and exposing it to heat
in iron cylinders, along with about 1 1/2 per cent or 2 per cent
of lard, in a similar way to that adopted for coffee. When ground to
powder in a mill it constitutes the {211} chicory coffee so generally
employed both as a substitute for coffee and as an adulterant. The
addition of 1 part of good, fresh, roasted chicory to 10 or 12 parts
of coffee forms a mixture which yields a beverage of a fuller flavor,
and of a deeper color than that furnished by an equal quantity of
pure or unmixed coffee. In this way a less quantity of coffee may be
used, but it should be remembered that the article substituted for it
does not possess in any degree the peculiar exciting, soothing, and
hunger-staying properties of that valuable product. The use, however,
of a larger proportion of chicory than that just named imparts to
the beverage an insipid flavor, intermediate between that of treacle
and licorice; while the continual use of roasted chicory, or highly
chicorized coffee, seldom fails to weaken the powers of digestion and
derange the bowels.

COFFEE CORDIAL: See Wines and Liquors.

COFFEE EXTRACTS: See Essences and Extracts.

COFFEE SYRUPS: See Syrups.

COFFEE FOR THE SODA FOUNTAIN: See Beverages.

COIL SPRING: See Steel.

COIN CLEANING: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.

COINS, IMPRESSIONS OF: See Matrix Mass.

COIN METAL: See Alloys.

COLAS: See Veterinary Formulas.


«Cold and Cough Mixtures»


«Cough Syrup.»—The simplest form of cough syrup of good keeping quality
is syrup of wild cherry containing ammonium chloride in the dose of
2 1/2 grains to each teaspoonful. Most of the other compounds contain
ingredients that are prone to undergo fermentation.

 I.—Ipecacuanha wine                   1 fluidounce
     Spirit of anise                    1 fluidrachm
     Syrup                             16 fluidounces
     Syrup of squill                    8 fluidounces
     Tincture of Tolu                   4 fluidrachms
     Distilled water enough to make    30 fluidounces

 II.—Heroin                                    6 grains
      Aromatic sulphuric acid               1 1/2 fluidounces
      Concentrated acid infusion of roses       4 fluidounces
      Distilled water                           5 fluidounces
      Glycerine                                 5 fluidounces
      Oxymel of squill                         10 fluidounces

 III.—Glycerine                       2 fluidounces
       Fluid extract of wild cherry    4 fluidounces
       Oxymel                         10 fluidounces
       Syrup                          10 fluidounces
       Cochineal, a sufficient quantity.


«Benzoic-Acid Pastilles.»—

 Benzoic acid       105 parts
 Rhatany extract    525 parts
 Tragacanth          35 parts
 Sugar              140 parts

The materials, in the shape of powders, are mixed well and sufficient
fruit paste added to bring the mass up to 4,500 parts. Roll out and
divide into lozenges weighing 20 grains each.


«Cough Balsam with Iceland Moss.»—

 Solution of morphine acetate    12 parts
 Sulphuric acid, dilute          12 parts
 Cherry-laurel water             12 parts
 Orange-flower water, triple     24 parts
 Syrup, simple                  128 parts
 Glycerine                       48 parts
 Tincture of saffron              8 parts
 Decoction of Iceland moss      112 parts

Mix. Dose: One teaspoonful.


«Balsamic Cough Syrup.»—

 Balsam of Peru                                  2 drachms
 Tincture of Tolu                                4 drachms
 Camphorated tincture of opium                   4 ounces
 Powdered extract licorice                       1 ounce
 Syrup squill                                    4 ounces
 Syrup dextrine (glucose) sufficient to make    16 ounces

Add the balsam of Peru to the tinctures, and in a mortar rub up the
extract of licorice with the syrups. Mix together and direct to be
taken in teaspoonful doses.


«Whooping-Cough Remedies.»—The following mixture is a spray to be used
{212} in the sick room in cases of whooping cough:

 Thymol                      1.0
 Tincture of eucalyptus     30.0
 Tincture of benzoin        30.0
 Alcohol                   100.0
 Water enough to make     1000.0

Mix. Pour some of the mixture on a cloth and hold to mouth so that the
mixture is inhaled, thereby giving relief.


«Expectorant Mixtures.»—

 I.—Ammon. chloride                    1 drachm
     Potass. chlorate                  30 grains
     Paregoric                          2 fluidrachms
     Syrup of ipecac                    2 fluidrachms
     Syrup wild cherry enough to make   2 fluidounces

Dose: One teaspoonful.

 II.—Potass. chlorate                        1 drachm
      Tincture guaiac                     3 1/2 drachms
      Tincture rhubarb                    1 1/2 drachms
      Syrup wild cherry enough to make        3 fluidounces

Dose: One teaspoonful.


«Eucalyptus Bonbons for Coughs.»—

 Eucalyptus oil          5 parts
 Tartaric acid          15 parts
 Extract of malt        24 parts
 Cacao                 100 parts
 Peppermint oil        1.4 parts
 Bonbon mass         2,203 parts

Mix and make into bonbons weighing 30 grains each.

COLD CREAM: See Cosmetics.

COLIC IN CATTLE: See Veterinary Formulas.


«COLLODION.»

 Turpentine           5 parts
 Ether and alcohol   10 parts
 Collodion           94 parts
 Castor oil           1 part

Dissolve the turpentine in the ether and alcohol mixture (in equal
parts) and filter, then add to the mixture of collodion and castor oil.
This makes a good elastic collodion.

See also Court Plaster, Liquid.

COLOGNE: See Perfumes.

COLOGNE FOR HEADACHES: See Headaches.

COLORS: See Dyes and Pigments.

COLORS, FUSIBLE ENAMEL: See Enameling.

COLORS FOR PAINTS: See Paint.

COLOR PHOTOGRAPHY: See Photography.

COLORS FOR SYRUPS: See Syrups.

CONCRETE: See Stone, Artificial.


«Condiments»


«Chowchow.»—

 Curry powder           4 ounces
 Mustard powder         6 ounces
 Ginger                 3 ounces
 Turmeric               2 ounces
 Cayenne                2 drachms
 Black pepper powder    2 drachms
 Coriander              1 drachm
 Allspice               1 drachm
 Mace                  30 grains
 Thyme                 30 grains
 Savory                30 grains
 Celery seed            2 drachms
 Cider vinegar          2 gallons

Mix all the powders with the vinegar, and steep the mixture over a very
gentle fire for 3 hours. The pickles are to be parboiled with salt, and
drained, and the spiced vinegar, prepared as above, is to be poured
over them while it is still warm. The chowchow keeps best in small
jars, tightly covered.


«Essence of Extract of Soup Herbs.»—Thyme, 4 ounces; winter savory, 4
ounces; sweet marjoram, 4 ounces; sweet basil, 4 ounces; grated lemon
peel, 1 ounce; eschalots, 2 ounces; bruised celery seed, 1 ounce;
alcohol (50 per cent), 64 ounces. Mix the vegetables, properly bruised,
add the alcohol, close the container and set aside in a moderately warm
place to digest for 15 days. Filter and press out. Preserve in 4-ounce
bottles, well corked.


«Tomato Bouillon Extract.»—Tomatoes, 1 quart; arrowroot, 2 ounces;
extract of beef, 1 ounce; bay leaves, 1 ounce; cloves, 2 ounces; red
pepper, 4 drachms; Worcestershire sauce, quantity sufficient to flavor.
Mix.


«Mock Turtle Extract.»—Extract of beef, 2 ounces; concentrated chicken,
2 ounces; clam juice, 8 ounces; tincture of black pepper, 1 ounce;
extract of celery, 3 drachms; extract of orange peel, soluble, 1
drachm; hot water enough to make 2 quarts. {213}


«RELISHES:»


«Digestive Relish.»—

I.—Two ounces Jamaica ginger; 2 ounces black peppercorns; 1 ounce
mustard seed; 1 ounce coriander fruit (seed); 1 ounce pimento
(allspice); 1/2 ounce mace; 1/2 ounce cloves; 1/2 ounce nutmegs;
1/2 ounce chili pods; 3 drachms cardamom seeds; 4 ounces garlic; 4
ounces eschalots; 4 pints malt vinegar.

Bruise spices, garlic, etc., and boil in vinegar for 15 minutes and
strain. To this add 2 1/2 pints mushroom ketchup; 1 1/2 pints India
soy.

Again simmer for 15 minutes and strain through muslin.

II.—One pound soy; 50 ounces best vinegar; 4 ounces ketchup; 4 ounces
garlic; 4 ounces eschalots; 4 ounces capsicum; 1/2 ounce cloves;
1/2 ounce mace; 1/4 ounce cinnamon; 1 drachm cardamom seeds. Boil
well and strain.


«Lincolnshire Relish.»—Two ounces garlic; 2 ounces Jamaica ginger;
3 ounces black peppercorns; 3/4 ounce cayenne pepper; 1/4 ounce
ossein; 3/4 ounce nutmeg; 2 ounces salt; 1 1/2 pints India soy.
Enough malt vinegar to make 1 gallon. Bruise spices, garlic, etc., and
simmer in 1/2 a gallon of vinegar for 20 minutes, strain and add soy
and sufficient vinegar to make 1 gallon, then boil for 5 minutes. Keep
in bulk as long as possible.


«Curry Powder.»—

 I.—Coriander seed       6 drachms
     Turmeric             5 scruples
     Fresh ginger     4 1/2 drachms
     Cumin seed          18 grains
     Black pepper        54 grains
     Poppy seed          94 grains
     Garlic               2 heads
     Cinnamon             1 scruple
     Cardamom             5 seeds
     Cloves               8 only
     Chillies        1 or 2 pods
     Grated cocoanut    1/2 nut

 II.—Coriander seed    1/4 pound
      Turmeric          1/4 pound
      Cinnamon seed       2 ounces
      Cayenne           1/2 ounce
      Mustard             1 ounce
      Ground ginger       1 ounce
      Allspice          1/2 ounce
      Fenugreek seed      2 ounces


«TABLE SAUCES:»


«Worcestershire Sauce.»—

 Pimento                2 drachms
 Clove                  1 drachm
 Black pepper           1 drachm
 Ginger                 1 drachm
 Curry powder           1 ounce
 Capsicum               1 drachm
 Mustard                2 ounces
 Shallots, bruised      2 ounces
 Salt                   2 ounces
 Brown sugar            8 ounces
 Tamarinds              4 ounces
 Sherry wine            1 pint
 Wine vinegar           2 pints

The spices must be freshly bruised. The ingredients are to simmer
together with the vinegar for an hour, adding more of the vinegar as it
is lost by evaporation; then add the wine, and if desired some caramel
coloring. Set aside for a week, strain, and bottle.


«Table Sauce.»—Brown sugar, 16 parts; tamarinds, 16 parts; onions,
4 parts; powdered ginger, 4 parts; salt, 4 parts; garlic, 2 parts;
cayenne, 2 parts; soy, 2 parts; ripe apples, 64 parts; mustard powder,
2 parts; curry powder, 1 part; vinegar, quantity sufficient. Pare and
core the apples, boil them in sufficient vinegar with the tamarinds and
raisins until soft, then pulp through a fine sieve. Pound the onions
and garlic in a mortar and add the pulp to that of the apples. Then add
the other ingredients and vinegar, 60 parts; heat to boiling, cool, and
add sherry wine, 10 parts, and enough vinegar to make the sauce just
pourable. If a sweet sauce is desired add sufficient treacle before
the final boiling.


«Epicure’s Sauce.»—Eight ounces tamarinds; 12 ounces sultana raisins; 2
ounces garlic; 4 ounces eschalots; 4 ounces horse-radish root; 2 ounces
black pepper; 1/2 ounce chili pods; 3 ounces raw Jamaica ginger;
1 1/2 pounds golden syrup; 1 pound burnt sugar (caramel); 1 ounce
powdered cloves; 1 pint India soy; 1 gallon malt vinegar. Bruise roots,
spices, etc., and boil in vinegar for 15 minutes, then strain. To the
strained liquor add golden syrup, soy, and burnt sugar, then simmer for
10 minutes.


«Piccalilli Sauce.»—One drachm chili pods; 1 1/2 ounces black
peppercorns; 1/2 ounce pimento; 3/4 ounce garlic; 1/2 gallon malt
vinegar. Bruise spices and garlic, boil in the vinegar for 10 minutes,
and strain.

One ounce ground Jamaica ginger; 1 ounce turmeric; 2 ounces flower of
mustard; 2 ounces powdered natal arrowroot; 8 ounces strong acetic
acid. Rub powders in a mortar with acetic acid and add to above, then
boil for 5 minutes, or until it thickens.


«FLAVORING SPICES.»

I.—Five ounces powdered cinnamon bark; 2 1/2 ounces powdered cloves;
2 1/2 {214} ounces powdered nutmegs; 1 1/4 ounces powdered caraway
seeds; 1 1/4 ounces powdered coriander seeds; 1 ounce powdered
Jamaica ginger; 1/2 ounce powdered allspice. Let all be dry and in
fine powder. Mix and pass through a sieve.

II.—Pickling Spice.—Ten pounds small Jamaica ginger; 2 1/2 pounds
black peppercorns; 1 1/2 pounds white peppercorns; 1 1/2 pounds
allspice; 3/4 pound long pepper; 1 1/4 pounds mustard seed; 1/2
pound chili pods. Cut up ginger and long pepper into small pieces, and
mix all the other ingredients intimately.

One ounce to each pint of boiling vinegar is sufficient, but it may be
made stronger if desired hot.


«Essence of Savory Spices.»—Two and one-half ounces black peppercorns;
1 ounce pimento; 3/4 ounce nutmeg; 1/2 ounce mace; 1/2 ounce
cloves; 1/4 ounce cinnamon bark; 1/4 ounce caraway seeds; 20 grains
cayenne pepper; 15 ounces spirit of wine; 5 ounces distilled water.
Bruise all the spices and having mixed spirit and water, digest in
mixture 14 days, shaking frequently, then filter.


«MUSTARD:»


«The Prepared Mustards of Commerce.»—The mustard, i. e., the flower
or powdered seed, used in preparing the different condiments, is
derived from three varieties of Brassica (_Cruciferæ_)—_Brassica alba
L., Brassica nigra_, and _Brassica juncea_. The first yields the
“white” seed of commerce, which produces a mild mustard; the second the
“black” seed, yielding the more pungent powder; and the latter a very
pungent and oily mustard, much employed by Russians. The pungency of
the condiment is also affected by the method of preparing the paste,
excessive heat destroying the sharpness completely. The pungency
is further controlled and tempered, in the cold processes, by the
addition of wheat or rye flour, which also has the advantage of serving
as a binder of the mustard. The mustard flour is prepared by first
decorticating the seed, then grinding to a fine powder, the expression
of the fixed oil from which completes the process. This oil, unlike the
volatile, is of a mild, pleasant taste, and of a greenish color, which,
it is said, makes it valuable in the sophistication and imitation of
“olive” oils, refined, cottonseed, or peanut oil being thus converted
into _huile vierge de_ Lucca, Florence, or some other noted brand of
olive oil. It is also extensively used for illuminating purposes,
especially in southern Russia.

The flavors, other than that of the mustard itself, of the various
preparations are imparted by the judicious use of spices—cinnamon,
nutmeg, cloves, pimento, etc.—aromatic herbs, such as thyme, sage,
chervil, parsley, mint, marjoram, tarragon, etc., and finally chives,
onions, shallots, leeks, garlic, etc.

In preparing the mustards on a large scale, the mustard flower and
wheat or rye flour are mixed and ground to a smooth paste with vinegar,
must (unfermented grape juice), wine, or whatever is used in the
preparation, a mill similar to a drug or paint mill being used for the
purpose. This dough immediately becomes spongy, and in this condition,
technically called “cake,” is used as the basis of the various mustards
of commerce.


«Mustard Cakes.»—In the mixture, the amount of flour used depends
on the pungency of the mustard flower, and the flavor desired to be
imparted to the finished product. The cakes are broadly divided into
the yellow and the brown. A general formula for the yellow cake is:

Yellow mustard, from 20 to 30 per cent; salt, from 1 to 3 per cent;
spices, from 1/4 to 1/2 of 1 per cent; wheat flour, from 8 to 12
per cent.

Vinegar, must, or wine, complete the mixture.

The brown cake is made with black mustard, and contains about the
following proportions:

Black mustard, from 20 to 30 per cent; salt, from 1 to 3 per cent;
spices, from 1/4 to 1/2 of 1 per cent; wheat or rye flour, from 10
to 15 per cent.

The variations are so wide, however, that it is impossible to give
exact proportions. In the manufacture of table mustards, in fact,
as in every other kind of manufacture, excellence is attained only
by practice and the exercise of sound judgment and taste by the
manufacturer.


«Moutarde des Jesuittes.»—Twelve sardels and 280 capers are crushed
into a paste and stirred into 3 pints of boiling wine vinegar. Add 4
ounces of brown cake and 8 ounces of yellow cake and mix well.


«Kirschner Wine Mustard.»—Reduce 30 quarts of freshly expressed grape
juice to half that quantity, by boiling over a moderate fire, on a
water bath. Dissolve in the boiling liquid 5 pounds of sugar, and pour
the syrup through a colander containing 2 or 3 large horse-radishes cut
{215} into very thin slices and laid on a coarse towel spread over the
bottom and sides of the colander. To the colate add the following, all
in a state of fine powder:

 Cardamom seeds     2 1/2 drachms
 Nutmeg             2 1/2 drachms
 Cloves             4 1/2 drachms
 Cinnamon               1 ounce
 Ginger                 1 ounce
 Brown mustard cake     6 pounds
 Yellow mustard cake    9 pounds

Grind all together to a perfectly smooth paste, and strain several
times through muslin.


«Duesseldorff Mustard.»—

 Brown mustard cake     10 ounces
 Yellow mustard cake    48 ounces
 Boiling water          96 ounces
 Wine vinegar           64 ounces
 Cinnamon                5 drachms
 Cloves                 15 drachms
 Sugar                  64 ounces
 Wine, good white       64 ounces

Mix after the general directions given above.


«German Table Mustard.»—

 Laurel leaves      8 ounces
 Cinnamon           5 drachms
 Cardamom seeds     2 drachms
 Sugar             64 ounces
 Wine vinegar      96 ounces
 Brown cake        10 ounces
 Yellow cake       48 ounces

Mix after general directions as given above.


«Krems Mustard, Sweet.»—

 Yellow cake           10 pounds
 Brown cake            20 pounds
 Fresh grape juice      6 pints

Mix and boil down to the proper consistency.


«Krems Mustard, Sour.»—

 Brown mustard flour     30 parts
 Yellow mustard flour    10 parts
 Grape juice, fresh       8 parts

Mix and boil down to a paste and then stir in 8 parts of wine vinegar.


«Tarragon Mustard.»—

 Brown mustard flour     40 parts
 Yellow mustard flour    20 parts
 Vinegar                  6 parts
 Tarragon vinegar         6 parts

Boil the mustard in the vinegar and add the tarragon vinegar.


«Tarragon Mustard, Sharp.»—This is prepared by adding to every 100
pounds of the above 21 ounces of white pepper, 5 ounces of pimento, and
2 1/2 ounces of cloves, mixing thoroughly by grinding together in a
mill, then put in a warm spot and let stand for 10 days or 2 weeks.
Finally strain.


«Moutarde aux Epices.»—

 Mustard flour, yellow   10 pounds
 Mustard flour, brown    40 pounds
 Tarragon                 1 pound
 Basil, herb              5 ounces
 Laurel leaves           12 drachms
 White pepper             3 ounces
 Cloves                  12 drachms
 Mace                     2 drachms
 Vinegar                  1 gallon

Mix the herbs and macerate them in the vinegar to exhaustion, then add
to the mustards, and grind together. Set aside for a week or ten days,
then strain through muslin.

In all the foregoing formulas where the amount of salt is not
specified, it is to be added according to the taste or discretion of
the manufacturer.


«Mustard Vinegar.»—

 Celery, chopped fine                32 parts
 Tarragon, the fresh herb             6 parts
 Cloves, coarsely powdered            6 parts
 Onions, chopped fine                 6 parts
 Lemon peel, fresh, chopped fine      3 parts
 White-wine vinegar                 575 parts
 White wine                         515 parts
 Mustard seed, crushed              100 parts

Mix and macerate together for a week or 10 days in a warm place, then
strain off.


«Ravigotte Mustard.»—

 Parsley                 2 parts
 Chervil                 2 parts
 Chives                  2 parts
 Cloves                  1 part
 Garlic                  1 part
 Thyme                   1 part
 Tarragon                1 part
 Salt                    8 parts
 Olive oil               4 parts
 White-wine vinegar    128 parts
 Mustard flower, sufficient

Cut or bruise the plants and spices, and macerate them in the vinegar
for 15 or 20 days. Strain the liquid through a cloth and add the salt.
Rub up mustard with the olive oil in a vessel set in ice, adding a
little of the spiced vinegar from time to time, until the whole is
incorporated and the complete mixture makes 384 parts. {216}

CONDIMENTS, TESTS FOR ADULTERATED: See Foods.

CONDITION POWDERS FOR CATTLE: See Veterinary Formulas.

CONDUCTIVITY OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS: See Alloys.


«Confectionery»


«Cream Bonbons for Hoarseness.»—Stir into 500 parts of cream 500 parts
of white sugar. Put in a pan and cook, with continuous stirring, until
it becomes brown and viscid. Now put in a baking tin and smooth out, as
neatly as possible, to the thickness of, say, twice that of the back of
a table knife and let it harden. Before it gets completely hard draw
lines with a knife across the surface in such manner that when it is
quite hard it will break along them, easily, into bits the size of a
lozenge.


«Nut Candy Sticks.»—Cook to 320° F. 8 pounds best sugar in 2 pints
water, with 4 pounds glucose added. Pour out on an oiled slab and
add 5 pounds almonds, previously blanched, cut in small pieces, and
dried in the drying room. Mix up well together to incorporate the nuts
thoroughly with the sugar. When it has cooled enough to be handled,
form into a round mass on the slab and spin out in long, thin sticks.


«Fig Squares.»—Place 5 pounds of sugar and 5 pounds of glucose in a
copper pan, with water enough to dissolve the sugar. Set on the fire,
and when it starts to boil add 5 pounds of ground figs. Stir and cook
to 240° on the thermometer. Set off the fire, and then add 5 pounds of
fine cocoanuts; mix well and pour out on greased marble, roll smooth,
and cut like caramels.


«Caramels.»—Heat 10 pounds sugar and 8 pounds glucose in a copper
kettle until dissolved. Add cream to the mixture, at intervals, until
2 1/2 quarts are used. Add 2 1/4 pounds caramel butter and 12
ounces paraffine wax to the mixture. Cook to a rather stiff ball,
add nuts, pour out between iron bars and, when cool enough, cut into
strips. For the white ones flavor with vanilla, and add 2 pounds melted
chocolate liquor for the chocolate caramel when nearly cooked.


«Candy Orange Drops.»—It is comparatively easy to make a hard candy,
but to put the material into “drop” form apparently requires experience
and a machine. To make the candy itself, put, say, a pint of water
into a suitable pan or kettle, heat to boiling, and add gradually to
it 2 pounds or more of sugar, stirring well so as to avoid the risk of
burning the sugar. Continue boiling the syrup so formed until a little
of it poured on a cold slab forms a mass of the required hardness. If
the candy is to be of orange flavor, a little fresh oil of orange is
added just before the mass is ready to set and the taste is improved
according to the general view at least by adding, also, say, 2 drachms
of citric acid dissolved in a very little water. As a coloring an
infusion of safflower or tincture of turmeric is used.

To make such a mass into tablets, it is necessary only to pour out on
a well-greased slab, turning the edges back if inclined to run, until
the candy is firm, and then scoring with a knife so that it can easily
be broken into pieces when cold. To make “drops” a suitable mold is
necessary.

Experiment as to the sufficiency of the boiling in making candy may be
saved and greater certainty of a good result secured by the use of a
chemical thermometer. As the syrup is boiled and the water evaporates
the temperature of the liquid rises. When it reaches 220° F., the
sugar is then in a condition to yield the “thread” form; at 240° “soft
ball” is formed; at 245°, “hard ball”; at 252°, “crack”; and at 290°,
“hard crack.” By simply suspending the thermometer in the liquid and
observing it from time to time, one may know exactly when to end the
boiling.


«Gum Drops.»—Grind 25 pounds of Arabian or Senegal gum, place it in a
copper pan or in a steam jacket kettle, and pour 3 gallons of boiling
water over it; stir it up well. Now set the pan with the gum into
another pan containing boiling water and stir the gum slowly until
dissolved, then strain it through a No. 40 sieve. Cook 19 pounds of
sugar with sufficient water, 2 pounds of glucose, and a teaspoonful of
cream of tartar to a stiff ball, pour it over the gum, mix well, set
the pan on the kettle with the hot water, and let it steam for 1 1/2
hours, taking care that the water in the kettle does not run dry; then
open the door of the stove and cover the fire with ashes, and let the
gum settle for nearly an hour, then remove the scum which has settled
on top, flavor and run out with the {217} funnel dropper into the
starch impressions, and place the trays in the drying room for 2 days,
or until dry; then take the drops out of the starch, clean them off
well and place them in crystal pans, one or two layers. Cook sugar and
water to 34 1/2° on the syrup gauge and pour over the drops lukewarm.
Let stand in a moderately warm place over night, then drain the syrup
off, and about an hour afterwards knock the gum drops out on a clean
table, pick them apart, and place on trays until dry, when they are
ready for sale.


«A Good Summer Taffy.»—Place in a kettle 4 pounds of sugar, 3 pounds
of glucose, and 1 1/2 pints of water; when it boils drop in a piece
of butter half the size of an egg and about 2 ounces of paraffine wax.
Cook to 262°, pour on a slab, and when cool enough, pull, flavor, and
color if you wish. Pull until light, then spin out on the table in
strips about 3 inches wide and cut into 4- or 4 1/2-inch lengths.
Then wrap in wax paper for the counter. This taffy keeps long without
being grained by the heat.


«Chewing Candy.»—Place 20 pounds of sugar in a copper pan, add 20
pounds of glucose, and enough water to easily dissolve the sugar. Set
on the fire or cook in the steam pan in 2 quarts of water. Have a
pound of egg albumen soaked in 2 quarts of water. Beat this like eggs
into a very stiff froth, add gradually the sugar and glucose; when well
beaten up, add 5 pounds of powdered sugar, and beat at very little heat
either in the steam beater or on a pan of boiling water until light,
and does not stick to the back of the hand, flavor with vanilla, and
put in trays dusted with fine sugar. When cold it may be cut, or else
it may be stretched out on a sugar-dusted table, cut, and wrapped in
wax paper. This chewing candy has to be kept in a very dry place, or
else it will run and get sticky.


«Montpelier Cough Drops.»—

 Brown sugar           10 pounds
 Tartaric acid          2 ounces
 Cream of tartar      1/2 ounce
 Water              1 1/2 quarts
 Anise-seed flavoring, quantity sufficient

Melt the sugar in the water, and when at a sharp boil add the cream of
tartar. Cover the pan for 5 minutes. Remove the lid and let the sugar
boil up to crack degree. Turn out the batch on an oiled slab, and when
cool enough to handle mold in the acid and flavoring. Pass it through
the acid drop rollers, and when the drops are chipped up, and before
sifting, rub some icing with them.


«Medicated Cough Drops.»—

 Light-brown sugar     14 pounds
 Tartaric acid      1 1/2 ounces
 Cream of tartar      1/2 ounce
 Water                  2 quarts
 Anise-seed, cayenne, clove, and peppermint
   flavoring, a few drops of each.

Proceed as before prescribed, but when sufficiently cool pass the batch
through the acid tablet rollers and dust with sugar.


«Horehound Candy.»—

 Dutch crushed sugar       10 pounds
 Dried horehound leaves     2 ounces
 Cream of tartar          3/4 ounce
 Water                      2 quarts
 Anise-seed flavoring, quantity sufficient.

Pour the water on the leaves and let it gently simmer till reduced to
3 pints; then strain the infusion through muslin, and add the liquid
to the sugar. Put the pan containing the syrup on the fire, and when
at a sharp boil add the cream of tartar. Put the lid on the pan for 5
minutes; then remove it, and let the sugar boil to stiff boil degree.
Take the pan off the fire and rub portions of the sugar against the
side until it produces a creamy appearance; then add the flavoring.
Stir all well, and pour into square tin frames, previously well oiled.


«Menthol Cough Drops.»—

 Gelatin                      1 ounce
 Glycerine (by weight)    2 1/2 ounces
 Orange-flower water      2 1/2 ounces
 Menthol                      5 grains
 Rectified spirits            1 drachm

Soak the gelatin in the water for 2 hours, then heat on a water bath
until dissolved, and add 1 1/2 ounces of glycerine. Dissolve the
menthol in the spirit, mix with the remainder of the glycerine, add
to the glyco-gelatin mass, and pour into an oiled tin tray (such as
the lid of a biscuit box). When the mass is cold divide into 10 dozen
pastilles.

Menthol pastilles are said to be an excellent remedy for tickling cough
as well as laryngitis. They should be freshly prepared, and cut oblong,
so that the patient may take half of one, or less, as may be necessary.


«Violet Flavor for Candy.»—Violet flavors, like violet perfumes, are
very complex mixtures, and their imitation is a {218} correspondingly
difficult undertaking. The basis is vanilla (or vanillin), rose, and
orris, with a very little of some pungent oil to bring up the flavor.
The following will give a basis upon which a satisfactory flavor may be
built:

 Oil of orris     1 drachm
 Oil of rose      1 drachm
 Vanillin         2 drachms
 Cumarin         30 grains
 Oil of clove    30 minims
 Alcohol         11 ounces
 Water            5 ounces

Make a solution, adding the water last.


«CONFECTIONERY COLORS.»—The following are excellent and entirely
harmless coloring agents for the purposes named:


«Red.»—Cochineal syrup prepared as follows:

 Cochineal, in coarse powder      6 parts
 Potassium carbonate              2 parts
 Distilled water                 15 parts
 Alcohol                         12 parts
 Simple syrup enough to make    500 parts

Rub up the potassium carbonate and the cochineal together, adding the
water and alcohol, little by little, under constant trituration. Set
aside over night, then add the syrup and filter.


«Pink.»—

 Carmine                        1 part
 Liquor potassæ                 6 parts
 Rose water, enough to make    48 parts

Mix. Should the color be too high, dilute with water until the
requisite tint is acquired.


«Orange.»—Tincture of red sandalwood, 1 part; ethereal tincture
of orlean, quantity sufficient. Add the tincture of orlean to the
sandalwood tincture until the desired shade of orange is obtained.

A red added to any of the yellows gives an orange color.

The aniline colors made by the “Aktiengesellschaft für
Anilin-Fabrikation,” of Berlin, are absolutely non-toxic, and can be
used for the purposes recommended, i. e., the coloration of syrups,
cakes, candies, etc., with perfect confidence in their innocuity.


«Pastille Yellow.»—

 Citron yellow II              7 parts
 Grape sugar, first quality    1 part
 White dextrine                2 parts


«Sap-Blue Paste.»—

 Dark blue      3 parts
 Grape sugar    1 part
 Water          6 parts


«Sugar-Black Paste.»—

 Carbon black    3 parts
 Grape sugar     1 part
 Water           6 parts


«Cinnabar Red.»*—

 Scarlet           65 parts
 White dextrine    30 parts
 Potato flour       5 parts


«Bluish Rose.»*—

 Grenadine         65 parts
 White dextrine    30 parts
 Potato flour       5 parts


«Yellowish Rose.»—

 Rosa II           60 parts
 Citron yellow      5 parts
 White dextrine    30 parts
 Potato flour       5 parts


«Violet.»—

 Red violet        65 parts
 White dextrine    30 parts
 Potato flour       5 parts


«Carmine Green.»—

 Woodruff (Waldmeister) green    55 parts
 Rosa II                          5 parts
 Dextrine                        35 parts
 Potato flour                     5 parts

To the colors marked with an asterisk (*) add, for every 4 pounds,
4 1/2 ounces, a grain and a half each of potassium iodide and sodium
nitrate. Colors given in form of powders should be dissolved in hot
water for use.


«Yellow.»—Various shades of yellow may be obtained by the maceration of
Besiello saffron, or turmeric, or grains d’Avignon in alcohol until a
strong tincture is obtained. Dilute with water until the desired shade
is obtained. An aqueous solution of quercitrine also gives an excellent
yellow.


«Blue.»—

 Indigo carmine   1 part
 Water            2 parts

Mix.

Indigo carmine is a beautiful, powerful, and harmless agent. It may
usually be bought commercially, but if it cannot be readily obtained,
proceed as follows:

Into a capsule put 30 grains of indigo in powder, place on a water
bath, and heat to dryness. When entirely dry put {219} into a large
porcelain mortar (the substance swells enormously under subsequent
treatment—hence the necessity for a large, or comparatively large,
mortar) and cautiously add, drop by drop, 120 grains, by weight, of
sulphuric acid, C. P., stirring continuously during the addition.
Cover the swollen mass closely, and set aside for 24 hours. Now add
3 fluidounces of distilled water, a few drops at a time, rubbing or
stirring continuously. Transfer the liquid thus obtained to a tall,
narrow, glass cylinder or beaker, cover and let stand for 4 days,
giving the liquid an occasional stirring. Make a strong solution of
sodium carbonate or bicarbonate, and at the end of the time named
cautiously neutralize the liquid, adding the carbonate a little at a
time, stirring the indigo solution and testing it after each addition,
as the least excess of alkali will cause the indigo to separate out,
and fall in a doughy mass. Stop when the test shows the near approach
of neutrality, as the slight remaining acidity will not affect the
taste or the properties of the liquid. Filter, and evaporate in the
water bath to dryness. The resultant matter is sulphindigotate of
potassium, or the “indigo carmine” of commerce.

Tincture of indigo may also be used as a harmless blue.


«Green.»—The addition of the solution indigo carmine to an infusion
of any of the matters given under “yellow” will produce a green color.
Tincture of crocus and glycerine in equal parts, with the addition
of indigo-carmine solution, also gives a fine green. A solution of
commercial chlorophyll gives grass-green, in shades varying according
to the concentration of the solution.


«Voice and Throat Lozenges.»—

 Catechu                191 grains
 Tannic acid            273 grains
 Tartaric acid          273 grains
 Capsicin                30 minims
 Black-currant paste      7 ounces
 Refined sugar, Mucilage of acacia, of each a sufficient quantity.

Mix to produce 7 pounds of lozenges.

CONSTIPATION IN BIRDS: See Veterinary Formulas.

COOKING TABLE: See Tables.

COOLING SCREEN: See Refrigeration.


«Copper»


«Annealing Copper.»—

Copper is almost universally annealed in muffles, in which it is
raised to the desired temperature, and subsequently allowed to cool
either in the air or in water. A muffle is nothing more or less than a
reverberatory furnace. It is necessary to watch the copper carefully,
so that when it has reached the right temperature it may be drawn from
the muffle and allowed to cool. This is important, for if the copper is
heated too high, or is left in the muffle at the ordinary temperature
of annealing too long, it is burnt, as the workmen say. Copper that has
been burnt is yellow, coarsely granular, and exceedingly brittle—even
more brittle at a red heat than when cold.

In the case of coarse wire it is found that only the surface is burnt,
while the interior is damaged less. This causes the exterior to split
loose from the interior when bent or rolled, thus giving the appearance
of a brittle copper tube with a copper wire snugly fitted into it.
Cracks a half inch in depth have been observed on the surface of an
ingot on its first pass through the rolls, all due to this exterior
burning. It is apparent that copper that has been thus overheated in
the muffle is entirely unfit for rolling. It is found that the purer
forms of copper are less liable to be harmed by overheating than
samples containing even a small amount of impurities. Even the ordinary
heating in a muffle will often suffice to burn in this manner the
surface of some specimens of copper, rendering them unfit for further
working. Copper that has been thus ruined is of use only to be refined
again.

As may be inferred only the highest grades of refined copper are used
for drawing or for rolling. This is not because the lower grades, when
refined, cannot stand sufficiently high tests, but because methods
of working are not adequate to prevent these grades of copper from
experiencing the deterioration due to overheating.

The process of refining copper consists in an oxidizing action followed
by a reducing action which, since it is performed by the aid of gases
generated by stirring the melted copper with a pole, is called poling.
The object of the oxidation is to oxidize and either volatilize or turn
to slag all the impurities contained in the copper. This procedure
is materially aided by the fact that the {220} suboxide of copper is
freely soluble in metallic copper and thus penetrates to all parts of
the copper, and parting with its oxygen, oxidizes the impurities. The
object of the reducing part of the refining process is to change the
excess of the suboxide of copper to metallic copper. Copper containing
even less than 1 per cent of the suboxide of copper shows decreased
malleability and ductility, and is both cold-short and red-short. If
the copper to be refined contains any impurities, such as arsenic
or antimony, it is well not to remove too much of the oxygen in the
refining process. If this is done, overpoled copper is produced. In
this condition it is brittle, granular, of a shining yellow color, and
more red-short than cold-short. When the refining has been properly
done, and neither too much nor too little oxygen is present, the copper
is in the condition of “tough pitch,” and is in a fit state to be
worked.

Copper is said to be “tough pitch” when it requires frequent bending
to break it, and when, after it is broken, the color is pale red, the
fracture has a silky luster, and is fibrous like a tuft of silk. On
hammering a piece to a thin plate it should show no cracks at the edge.
At tough pitch copper offers the highest degree of malleability and
ductility of which a given specimen is capable. This is the condition
in which refined copper is (or should be) placed on the market, and
if it could be worked without changing this tough pitch, any specimen
of copper that could be brought to this condition would be suitable
for rolling or drawing. But tough pitch is changed if oxygen is either
added or taken from refined copper.

By far the more important of these is the removal of oxygen, especially
from those specimens that contain more than a mere trace of impurities.
This is shown by the absolutely worthless condition of overpoled
copper. The addition of carbon also plays a very important part in the
production of overpoled copper.

That the addition of oxygen to refined copper is not so damaging
is shown by the fact that at present nearly all the copper that is
worked is considerably oxidized at some stage of the process, and not
especially to its detriment.

Burnt copper is nothing more or less than copper in the overpoled
condition. This is brought about by the action of reducing gases in
the muffle. By this means the small amount of oxygen necessary to give
the copper its tough pitch is removed. This oxygen is combined with
impurities in the copper, and thus renders them inert. For example,
the oxide of arsenic or antimony is incapable of combining more than
mechanically with the copper, but when its oxygen is removed the
arsenic or antimony is left free to combine with the copper. This
forms a brittle alloy, and one that corresponds almost exactly in
its properties with overpoled copper. To be sure overpoled copper is
supposed to contain carbon, but that this is not the essential ruling
principle in case of annealing is shown by the fact that pure copper
does not undergo this change under conditions that ruin impure copper,
and also by the fact that the same state may be produced by annealing
in pure hydrogen and thus removing the oxygen that renders the arsenic
or antimony inert. No attempt is made to deny the well-known fact that
carbon does combine with copper to the extent of 0.2 per cent and cause
it to become exceedingly brittle. It is simply claimed that this is
probably not what occurs in the production of so-called burnt copper
during annealing. The amount of impurities capable of rendering copper
easily burnt is exceedingly small. This may be better appreciated when
it is considered that from 0.01 to 0.2 per cent expresses the amount of
oxygen necessary to render the impurities inert. The removal of this
very small amount of oxygen, which is often so small as to be almost
within the limits of the errors of analysis, will suffice to render
copper overpoled and ruin it for any use.

There are methods of avoiding the numerous accidents that may occur in
the annealing of copper, due to a change of pitch. As already pointed
out, the quality of refined copper is lowered if oxygen be either added
to or taken from it. It is quite apparent, therefore, that a really
good method of annealing copper will prevent any change in the state
of oxidation. It is necessary to prevent access to the heated copper
both of atmospheric air, which would oxidize it, and of the reducing
gases used in heating the muffle, which would take oxygen away from it.
Obviously the only way of accomplishing this is to inclose the copper
when heated and till cool in an atmosphere that can neither oxidize
nor deoxidize copper. By so doing copper may be heated to the melting
point and allowed to cool again without suffering as regards its pitch.
There are comparatively few gases that can be used for this purpose,
but, fortunately, one which is exceedingly cheap and universally {221}
prevalent fulfills all requirements, viz., steam. In order to apply
the principles enunciated it is necessary only to anneal copper in the
ordinary annealing pots such as are used for iron, care being taken to
inclose the copper while heating and while cooling in an atmosphere
of steam. This will effectually exclude air and prevent the ingress
of gases used in heating the annealer. Twenty-four hours may be used
in the process, as in the annealing of iron wire, with no detriment
to the wire. This may seem incredible to those manufacturers who have
tried to anneal copper wire after the manner of annealing iron wire.
By this method perfectly bright annealed wire may be produced. Such a
process of annealing copper offers many advantages. It allows the use
of a grade of copper that has hitherto been worked only at a great
disadvantage, owing to its tendency to get out of pitch. It allows the
use of annealers such as are ordinarily employed for annealing iron,
and thus cheapens the annealing considerably as compared with the
present use of muffles. There is no chance of producing the overpoled
condition from the action of reducing gases used in heating the
muffles. There is no chance of producing the underpoled condition due
to the absorption of suboxide of copper. None of the metal is lost as
scale, and the saving that is thus effected amounts to a considerable
percentage of the total value of the copper. The expense and time
of cleaning are wholly saved. Incidentally bright annealed copper is
produced by a process which is applicable to copper of any shape,
size, or condition—a product that has hitherto been obtained only by
processes (mostly secret) which are too cumbersome and too expensive
for extensive use; and, as is the case with at least one process, with
the danger of producing the overpoled condition, often in only a small
section of the wire, but thus ruining the whole piece.


«COPPER COLORING:»


«Blacking Copper.»—To give a copper article a black covering, clean it
with emery paper, heat gently in a Bunsen or a spirit flame, immerse
for 10 seconds in solution of copper filings in dilute nitric acid, and
heat again.


«Red Coloring of Copper.»—A fine red color may be given to copper
by gradually heating it in an air bath. Prolonged heating at a
comparatively low temperature, or rapid heating at a high temperature,
produces the same result. As soon as the desired color is attained the
metal should be rapidly cooled by quenching in water. The metal thus
colored may be varnished.


«To Dye Copper Parts Violet and Orange.»—Polished copper acquires an
orange-like color leaning to gold, when dipped for a few seconds into a
solution of crystallized copper acetate. A handsome violet is obtained
by placing the metal for a few minutes in a solution of antimony
chloride and rubbing it afterwards with a piece of wood covered with
cotton. During this operation the copper must be heated to a degree
bearable to the hand. A crystalline appearance is produced by boiling
the article in copper sulphate.


«Pickle for Copper.»—Take nitric acid, 100 parts; kitchen salt, 2
parts; calcined soot, 2 parts; or nitric acid, 10 parts; sulphuric
acid, 10 parts; hydrochloric acid, 1 part. As these bleaching baths
attack the copper quickly, the objects must be left in only for a few
seconds, washing them afterwards in plenty of water, and drying in
sawdust, bran, or spent tan.


«Preparations of Copper Water.»—I.—Water, 1,000 parts; oxalic acid, 30
parts; spirit of wine, 100 parts; essence of turpentine, 50 parts;
fine tripoli, 100 parts.

II.—Water, 1,000 parts; oxalic acid, 30 parts; alcohol, 50 parts;
essence of turpentine, 40 parts; fine tripoli, 50 parts.

III.—Sulphuric acid, 300 parts; sulphate of alumina, 80 parts; water,
520 parts.


«Tempered Copper.»—Objects made of copper may be satisfactorily
tempered by subjecting them to a certain degree of heat for a
determined period of time and bestrewing them with powdered sulphur
during the heating. While hot the objects are plunged into a bath of
blue vitriol; after the bath they may be heated again.

COPPER ALLOYS: See Alloys.

COPPER CLEANING: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.

COPPER ETCHING: See Etching.

COPPER IN FOOD: See Food.

COPPER LACQUERS: See Lacquers. {222}

COPPER PAPER: See Paper, Metallic.

COPPER PATINIZING AND PLATING: See Plating.

COPPER POLISHES: See Polishes.

COPPER, SEPARATION OF GOLD FROM: See Gold.

COPPER SOLDER: See Solders.

COPPER VARNISHES: See Varnishes.


«COPYING PRINTED PICTURES.»

The so-called “metallic” paper used for steam-engine indicator cards
has a smooth surface, chemically prepared so that black lines can be
drawn upon it with pencils made of brass, copper, silver, aluminum, or
any of the softer metals. When used on the indicator it receives the
faint line drawn by a brass point at one end of the pencil arm, and
its special advantage over ordinary paper is that the metallic pencil
slides over its surface with very little friction, and keeps its point
much longer than a graphite pencil.

This paper can be used as a transfer paper for copying engravings or
sketches, or anything printed or written in ink or drawn in pencil.

The best copies can be obtained by following the directions below:
Lay the metallic transfer paper, face up, upon at least a dozen sheets
of blank paper, and lay the print face down upon it. On the back of
the print place a sheet of heavy paper, or thin cardboard, and run
the rubbing tool over this protecting sheet. In this manner it is
comparatively easy to prevent slipping, and prints 8 or 10 inches on a
side may be copied satisfactorily.

Line drawings printed from relief plates, or pictures with sharp
contrast of black and white, without any half-tones, give the best
copies. Very few half-tones can be transferred satisfactorily; almost
all give streaked, indistinct copies, and many of the results are
worthless.

The transfer taken off as described is a reverse of the original print.
If the question of right and left is not important this reversal will
seldom be objectionable, for it is easy to read backward what few
letters generally occur. However, if desired, the paper may be held
up to the light and examined from the back, or placed before a mirror
and viewed by means of its reflected image, when the true relations of
right and left will be seen. Moreover, if sufficiently important, an
exact counterpart of the original may be taken from the reversed copy
by laying another sheet face downward upon it, and rubbing on the back
of the fresh sheet just as was done in making the reversed copy. The
impression thus produced will be fainter than the first, but almost
always it can be made dark enough to show a distinct outline which may
afterwards be retouched with a lead pencil.

For indicator cards the paper is prepared by coating one surface with
a suitable compound, usually zinc oxide mixed with a little starch
and enough glue to make it adhere. After drying it is passed between
calendar rolls under great pressure. The various brands manufactured
for the trade, though perhaps equally good for indicator diagrams, are
not equally well suited for copying. If paper of firmer texture could
be prepared with the same surface finish, probably much larger copies
could be produced.

Other kinds of paper, notably the heavy plate papers used for some of
the best trade catalogues, possess this transfer property to a slight
degree, though they will not receive marks from a metallic pencil. The
latter feature would seem to recommend them for transfer purposes,
making them less likely to become soiled by contact with metallic
objects, but so far no kind has been found which will remove enough ink
to give copies anywhere near as dark as the indicator paper.

Fairly good transfers can be made from almost any common printers’ ink,
but some inks copy much better than others, and some yield only the
faintest impressions. The length of time since a picture was printed
does not seem to determine its copying quality. Some very old prints
can be copied better than new ones; in fact, it was by accidental
transfer to an indicator card from a book nearly a hundred years old
that the peculiar property of this “metallic” paper was discovered.


«Copying Process on Wood.»—If wood surfaces are exposed to direct
sunlight the wood will exhibit, after 2 weeks action, a browning of
dark tone in the exposed places. Certain parts of the surface being
covered up during the entire exposure to the sun, they retain their
original shade and are set off clearly and sharply against the parts
browned by the sunlight. Based on this property of the {223} wood is a
sun-copying process on wood. The method is used for producing tarsia
in imitation on wood. A pierced stencil of tin, wood, or paper is laid
on a freshly planed plate of wood, pasting it on in places to avoid
shifting, and put into a common copying frame. To prevent the wood from
warping a stretcher is employed, whereupon expose to the sun for from 8
to 14 days. After the brown shade has appeared the design obtained is
partly fixed by polishing or by a coating of varnish, lacquer, or wax.
Best suited for such works are the pine woods, especially the 5-year
fir and the cembra pine, which, after the exposure, show a yellowish
brown tone of handsome golden gloss, that stands out boldly, especially
after subsequent polishing, and cannot be replaced by any stain or by
pyrography. The design is sharper and clearer than that produced by
painting. In short, the total effect is pleasing.


«How to Reproduce Old Prints.»—Prepare a bath as follows: Sulphuric
acid, 3 to 5 parts (according to the antiquity of print, thickness of
paper, etc.); alcohol, 3 to 5 parts; water, 100 parts. In this soak
the print from 5 to 15 minutes (the time depending on age, etc., as
above), remove, spread face downward on a glass or ebonite plate, and
wash thoroughly in a gentle stream of running water. If the paper is
heavy, reverse the sides, and let the water flow over the face of the
print. Remove carefully and place on a heavy sheet of blotting paper,
cover with another, and press out every drop of water possible. Where
a wringing machine is convenient and sufficiently wide, passing the
blotters and print through the rollers is better than mere pressing
with the hands. The print, still moist, is then laid face upward on
a heavy glass plate (a marble slab or a lithographers’ stone answers
equally well), and smoothed out. With a very soft sponge go over the
surface with a thin coating of gum-arabic water. The print is now
ready for inking, which is done exactly as in lithographing, with a
roller and printers’ or lithographers’ ink, cut with oil of turpentine.
Suitable paper is then laid on and rolled with a dry roller. This gives
a reverse image of the print, which is then applied to a zinc plate or
a lithographers’ stone, and as many prints as desired pulled off in the
usual lithographing method. When carefully done and the right kind of
paper used, it is said that the imitation of the original is perfect in
every detail.


«To Copy Old Letters, Manuscripts, etc.»—If written in the commercial
ink of the period from 1860 to 1864, which was almost universally an
iron and tannin or gallic-acid ink, the following process may succeed:
Make a thin solution of glucose, or honey, in water, and with this
wet the paper in the usually observed way in copying recent documents
in the letter book, put in the press, and screw down tightly. Let it
remain in the press somewhat longer than in copying recent documents.
When removed, before attempting to separate the papers, expose to the
fumes of strong water of ammonia, copy side downward.


«CORDAGE»:

See also Ropes.


«Strong Twine.»—An extraordinarily strong pack thread or cord, stronger
even than the so-called “Zuckerschnur,” may be obtained by laying the
thread of fibers in a strong solution of alum, and then carefully
drying them.


«Preservation of Fishing Nets.»—The following recipe for the
preservation of fishing nets is also applicable to ropes, etc., in
contact with water. Some have been subjected to long test.

For 40 parts of cord, hemp, or cotton, 3 parts of kutch, 1 part of blue
vitriol, 1/2 part of potassium chromate, and 2 1/2 parts of wood
tar are required. The kutch is boiled with 150 parts of water until
dissolved, and then the blue vitriol is added. Next, the net is entered
and the tar added. The whole should be stirred well, and the cordage
must boil 5 to 8 minutes. Now take out the netting, lay it in another
vessel, cover up well, and leave alone for 12 hours. After that it is
dried well, spread out in a clean place, and coated with linseed oil.
Not before 6 hours have elapsed should it be folded together and put
into the water. The treatment with linseed oil may be omitted.

CORDAGE LUBRICANT: See Lubricants.

CORDAGE WATERPROOFING: See Waterproofing.

CORDIALS: See Wines and Liquors.


«CORKS:»


«Impervious Corks.»—Corks which have been steeped in petrolatum are
said to be an excellent substitute for glass stoppers. Acid in no way
affects them and chemical fumes do not cause decay in them, neither do
they become fixed by a blow or long disuse. {224}


«Non-Porous Corks.»—For benzine, turpentine, and varnish cans, immerse
the corks in hot melted paraffine. Keep them under about 5 minutes;
hold them down with a piece of wire screen cut to fit the dish in which
you melt the paraffine. When taken out lay them on a screen till cool.
Cheap corks can in this way be made gas- and air-tight, and can be cut
and bored with ease.


«Substitute for Cork.»—Wood pulp or other ligneous material may be
treated to imitate cork. For the success of the composition it is
necessary that the constituents be mingled and treated under special
conditions. The volumetric proportions in which these constituents
combine with the best results are the following: Wood pulp, 3
parts; cornstalk pith, 1 part; gelatin, 1 part; glycerine, 1 part;
water, 4 parts; 20 per cent formic-aldehyde solution, 1 part; but
the proportions may be varied. After disintegrating the ligneous
substances, and while these are in a moist and hot condition they are
mingled with the solution of gelatin, glycerine, and water. The mass is
stirred thoroughly so as to obtain a homogeneous mixture. The excess
of moisture is removed. As a last operation the formic aldehyde is
introduced, and the mass is left to coagulate in this solution. The
formic aldehyde renders the product insoluble in nearly all liquids.
So it is in this last operation that it is necessary to be careful in
producing the composition properly. When the operation is terminated
the substance is submitted to pressure during its coagulation, either
by molding it at once into a desired form, or into a mass which is
afterwards converted into the finished product.

CORKS, TO CLEAN: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods, under
Miscellaneous Methods.

CORK TO METAL, FASTENING: See Adhesives, under Pastes.

CORK AS A PRESERVATIVE: See Preserving.

CORKS, WATERPROOFING: See Waterproofing.


«CORN CURES:»

I.—Salicylic-Acid Corn Cure.—Extract cannabis indica, 1 part, by
measure; salicylic acid, 10 parts, by measure; oil of turpentine, 5
parts, by measure; acetic acid, glacial, 2 parts, by measure; cocaine,
alkaloidal, 2 parts, by measure; collodion, elastic, sufficient to
make 100 parts. Apply a thin coating every night, putting each layer
directly on the preceding one. After a few applications, the mass drops
off, bringing the indurated portion, and frequently the whole of the
corn, off with it.

II.—Compound Salicylated Collodion Corn Cure.—Salicylic acid, 11 parts,
by weight; extract of Indian hemp, 2 parts, by weight; alcohol, 10
parts, by weight; flexible collodion, U. S. P., a sufficient quantity
to make 100 parts, by weight.

The extract is dissolved in the alcohol and the acid in about 50 parts,
by weight, of collodion, the solutions mixed, and the liquid made up to
the required amount. The Indian hemp is presumably intended to prevent
pain; whether it serves this or any other useful purpose seems a matter
of doubt. The acid is frequently used without this addition.

III.—Extract of cannabis indica, 90 grains; salicylic acid, 1 ounce;
alcohol, 1 ounce; collodion enough to make 10 ounces. Soften the
extract with the alcohol, then add the collodion, and lastly the acid.

IV.—Resorcin, 1 part, by weight; salicylic acid, 1 part, by weight;
lactic acid, 1 part, by weight; collodion elasticum, 10 parts, by
weight. Paint the corn daily for 5 or 6 days with the above solution
and take a foot bath in very hot water. The corn will readily come off.



«Corn Plaster.»—Yellow wax, 24 parts, by weight; Venice turpentine, 3
parts, by weight; rosin, 2 parts, by weight; salicylic acid, 2 parts,
by weight; balsam of Peru, 2 parts, by weight; lanolin, 4 parts, by
weight.


«Corn Cure.»—Melt soap plaster, 85 parts, by weight, and yellow wax,
5 parts by weight, in a vapor bath, and stir finely ground salicylic
acid, 10 parts, by weight, into it.


«Removal of Corns.»—The liquid used by chiropodists with pumice stone
for the removal of corns and callosities is usually nothing more than a
solution of potassa or concentrated lye, the pumice stone being dipped
into the solution by the operator just before using.


«Treatment of Bunions.»—Wear right and left stockings and shoes, the
inner edges of the sole of which are perfectly straight. The bunion is
bathed night and morning in a 4 per cent solution of carbolic acid for
a few minutes, followed by plain water. If, after several weeks, the
bursa is still distended with fluid, it is aspirated. If the bunion
is due to flatfoot, the arch of the foot must be restored by a plate.
When the joints are enlarged because of gout or {225} rheumatism, the
constitutional conditions must be treated. In other cases, osteotomy
and tenotomy are required.


«The Treatment of Corns.»—Any corn may be speedily and permanently
cured. The treatment is of three kinds—preventive, palliative, and
curative.

I.—The preventive treatment lies in adopting such measures as will
secure freedom from pressure and friction for the parts most liable to
corns. To this end a well-fitting shoe is essential. The shoes should
be of well-seasoned leather, soft and elastic, and should be cut to a
proper model.

II.—The palliative treatment is generally carried out with chemical
substances. The best method, is, briefly, as follows: A ring of
glycerine jelly is painted around the circumference of the corn, to
form a raised rampart. A piece of salicylic plaster mull is then cut
to the size and shape of the central depression, and applied to the
surface of the corn. This is then covered with a layer of glycerine
jelly, and before it sets a pad of cotton wool is applied to the
surface. This process is repeated as often as is necessary, until the
horny layer separates and is cast off.

If the point of a sharp, thin-bladed knife be introduced at the groove
which runs around the margin of the corn, and be made to penetrate
toward its central axis, by the exercise of a little manual dexterity
the horny part of the corn can be easily made to separate from the
parts beneath.

III.—Any method of treatment to be curative must secure the removal of
the entire corn, together with the underlying bursa. It is mainly in
connection with the latter structure that complications, which alone
make a corn a matter of serious import, are likely to arise. Freeland
confidently advises the full and complete excision of corns, on the
basis of his experience in upward of 60 cases.

Every precaution having been taken to render the operation aseptic,
a spot is selected for the injection of the anæsthetic solution. The
skin is rendered insensitive with ethyl chloride, and 5 minims of
a 4 per cent solution of cocaine is injected into the subcutaneous
tissue beneath the corn. After a wait of a few minutes the superficial
parts of the site of the incision are rendered insensitive with ethyl
chloride. Anæsthesia is now complete.

Two semielliptical incisions meeting at their extremities are made
through the skin abound the circumference of the growth, care being
taken that they penetrate well into the subcutaneous tissue. Seizing
the parts included in the incision with a pair of dissecting forceps,
a wedge-shaped piece of tissue—including the corn, a layer of skin and
subcutaneous tissue, and the bursa if present—is dissected out. The
oozing is pretty free, and it is sometimes necessary to torsion a small
vessel; but the hemorrhage is never severe. The edges of the wound are
brought together by one or two fine sutures; an antiseptic dressing
is applied, and the wound is left to heal—primary union in a few days
being the rule. The rapidity of the healing is often phenomenal. There
is produced a scar tissue at the site of the corn, but this leads to no
untoward results.


«Cosmetics»


«COLD CREAM.»

 I.—Oil of almonds    425   parts
     Lanolin           185   parts
     White wax          62   parts
     Spermaceti         62   parts
     Borax               4.5 parts
     Rose water        300   part

Melt together the first four ingredients, then incorporate the
solution of borax in the rose water.

 II.—Tragacanth                  125   parts
      Boric acid                  100   parts
      Glycerine                   140   parts
      Expressed oil of almonds     50   parts
      Glyconine                    50   parts
      Oil of lavender               0.5 parts
      Water enough to make      1,000   parts

Mix the tragacanth and the boric acid with the glycerine; add the
almond oil, lavender oil, and egg glycerite, which have been previously
well incorporated, and, lastly, add the water in divided portions until
a clear jelly of the desired consistency is obtained.

 III.—Oil of almonds                         26 ounces
       Castor oil (odorless)                   6 ounces
       Lard (benzoated)                        8 ounces
       White wax                               8 ounces
       Rose water (in winter less, in
         summer more, than quantity named)    12 ounces
       Orange-flower water                     8 ounces
       Oil of rose                            15 minims
       Extract of jasmine                      6 drachms
       Extract of cassia                       4 drachms
       Borax                                   2 ounces
       Glycerine                               4 ounces

{226}

Melt the oil of sweet almonds, wax, and lard together, and stir in the
castor oil; make a solution of the borax in the glycerine and rose
and orange-flower waters; add this solution, a little at a time, to
the melted fat, stirring constantly to insure thorough incorporation;
finally add the oil of rose dissolved in the extracts, and beat the
ointment until cold.

IV.—Spermaceti (pure), 1/4 ounce; white wax (pure), 1/4 ounce;
almond oil, 1/4 pound; butter of cocoa, 1/4 pound; lanolin, 2
ounces.

Melt and stir in 1 drachm of balsam of Peru. After settling, pour off
the clear portion and add 2 fluidrachms of orange-flower water and stir
briskly until it concretes.


«Camphorated Cold Cream.»—

 Oil of sweet almonds       8 fluidounces
 White wax                  1 ounce
 Spermaceti                 1 ounce
 Camphor                    1 ounce
 Rose water                 5 fluidounces
 Borax (in fine powder)     4 drachms
 Oil of rose               10 drops

Melt the wax and spermaceti, add the oil of sweet almonds, in which
the camphor has been dissolved with very gentle heat; then gradually
add the rose water, in which the borax has previously been dissolved,
beating or agitating constantly with a wooden spatula until cold.
Lastly add the oil of rose.


«Petrolatum Cold Cream.»—

 Petrolatum (white)      7 ounces
 Paraffine             1/2 ounce
 Lanolin                 2 ounces
 Water                   3 ounces
 Oil of rose             3 drops
 Alcohol                 1 drachm

A small quantity of borax may be added, if desirable, and the perfume
may be varied to suit the taste.


«LIP SALVES:»


«Pomades for the Lips.»—Lip pomatum which is said always to retain a
handsome red color and never to grow rancid is prepared as follows:

 I.—Paraffine       80.0 parts
     Vaseline        80.0 parts
     Anchusine        0.5 parts
     Bergamot oil     1.0 part
     Lemon peel       1.0 part

 II.—Vaseline Pomade.—

 Vaseline oil, white    1,000 parts
 Wax, white               300 part
 Geranium oil, African.    40 parts
 Lemon oil.                20 parts

 III.—Rose Pomade.—

 Almond oil      1,000 parts
 Wax, white        300 parts
 Alkannin            3 parts
 Geranium oil       20 parts

 IV.—Yellow Pomade.—

 Vaseline oil, white.    1,000 parts
 Wax, white                200 parts
 Spermaceti                200 parts
 Saffron surrogate.         10 parts
 Clove oil.                 20 parts

 V.—White Pomade.—

 Vaseline oil, white            1,000 parts
 Wax, white.                      300 parts
 Bitter almond oil, genuine.       10 parts
 Lemon oil                          2 parts

 VI.—Paraffine        49.0 parts
      Vaseline.        49.0 parts
      Oil of lemon.    0.75 parts
      Oil of violet    0.75 parts
      Carmine, quantity sufficient.


«Lipol.»—For treating sore, rough, or inflamed lips, apply the
following night and morning, rubbing in well with the finger tips:
Camphor, 1/2 ounce; menthol, 1/2 ounce; eucalyptol, 1 drachm;
petrolatum (white), 1 pound; paraffine, 1/2 pound; alkanet root,
1/2 ounce; oil of bitter almonds, 15 drops; oil of cloves, 10 drops;
oil of cassia, 5 drops. Digest the root in the melted paraffine and
petrolatum, strain, add the other ingredients and pour into lip jars,
hot.


«MANICURE PREPARATIONS:»


«Powdered Nail Polishes.»—

 I.—Tin oxide      8 drachms
     Carmine      1/4 drachm
     Rose oil.      6 drops
     Neroli oil.    5 drops

 II.—Cinnabar.            1 drachm
      Infusorial earth.    8 drachms

 III.—Putty powder (fine).    4 drachms
       Carmine.                2 grains
       Oil of rose.            1 drop

 IV.—White castile soap.     1 part
      Hot water              16 parts
      Zinc chloride solution, 10 per cent, quantity sufficient.

Dissolve the soap in the water and to the solution add the
zinc-chloride solution until no further precipitation occurs. Let stand
over night; pour off the supernatant fluid, wash the precipitate {227}
well with water, and dry at the ordinary temperature. Carmine may be
added if desired.


«Polishing Pastes for the Nails.»—

 I.—Talcum.                5 drachms
     Stannous oxide.        3 drachms
     Powdered tragacanth    5 grains
     Glycerine              1 drachm
     Rose water, quantity sufficient.
     Solution of carmine sufficient to tint.

Make paste.

For softening the nails, curing hangnails, etc., an ointment is
sometimes used consisting of white petrolatum, 8 parts; powdered
castile soap, 1 part; and perfume to suit.

 II.—Eosine           10 grains
      White wax       1/2 drachm
      Spermaceti      1/2 drachm
      Soft paraffine    1 ounce
      Alcohol, a sufficient quantity.

Dissolve the eosine in as little alcohol as will suffice, melt the
other ingredients together, add the solution, and stir until cool.


«Nail-Cleaning Washes.»—

 I.—Tartaric acid        1 drachm
     Tincture of myrrh    1 drachm
     Cologne water        2 drachms
     Water                3 ounces

Dissolve the acid in the water; mix the tincture of myrrh and cologne,
and add to the acid solution.

Dip the nails in this solution, wipe, and polish with chamois skin.

 II.—Oxalic acid    30 grains
      Rose water      1 ounce


«Nail Varnish.»—

 Paraffine wax    60 grains
 Chloroform        2 ounces
 Oil of rose       3 drops


«POMADES:»

I.—Beef-Marrow Pomade.—

 Vaseline oil, yellow    20,000 parts
 Ceresine, yellow         3,000 parts
 Beef marrow              2,000 parts
 Saffron substitute          15 parts
 Lemon oil                   50 parts
 Bergamot oil                20 parts
 Clove oil                    5 parts
 Lavender oil.               10 parts

 II.—China Pomade.—

 Vaseline oil, yellow    20,000 parts
 Ceresine, yellow         5,000 parts
 Brilliant, brown            12 parts
 Peru balsam                 50 parts
 Lemon oil                    5 parts
 Bergamot oil                 5 parts
 Clove oil                    5 parts
 Lavender oil                 5 parts

III.—Crystalline Honey Pomade.—Nut oil, 125 drachms; spermaceti, 15
drachms; gamboge, 2 drachms; vervain oil, 10 drops; cinnamon oil, 20
drops; bergamot oil, 30 drops; rose oil, 3 drops. The spermaceti is
melted in the nut oil on a water bath and digested with the gamboge for
20 minutes; it is next strained, scented, and poured into cans which
are standing in water. The cooling must take place very slowly. Instead
of gamboge, butter color may be used. Any desired scent mixture may be
employed.

IV.—Herb Pomade.—

 Vaseline oil, yellow    20,000 parts
 Ceresine, yellow         5,000 parts
 Chlorophyll                 20 parts
 Lemon oil                   50 parts
 Clove oil                   20 parts
 Geranium oil, African       12 parts
 Curled mint oil.             4 parts

V.—Rose Pomade.—

 Vaseline oil, white    20,000 parts
 Ceresine, white         5,000 parts
 Alkannin                   15 parts
 Geranium oil, African      50 parts
 Palmarosa oil              30 parts
 Lemon oil                  20 parts

VI.—Strawberry Pomade.—When the strawberry season is on, and berries
are plenty and cheap, the following is timely:

 Strawberries, ripe and fresh    4 parts
 Lard, sweet and fresh          25 parts
 Tallow, fresh                   5 parts
 Alkanet tincture, quantity sufficient.
 Essential oil, quantity sufficient to perfume.

Melt lard and tallow together on the water bath at the temperature of
boiling water. Have the strawberries arranged on a straining cloth. Add
the alkanet tincture to the melted grease, stir in, and then pour the
mixture over the berries. Stir the strained fats until the mass {228}
begins to set, then add the perfume and stir in. A little artificial
essence of strawberries may be added. The odor usually employed is
rose, about 1 drop to every 2 pounds.

VII.—Stick Pomade.—

 Tallow                   500 parts
 Ceresine                 150 parts
 Wax, yellow               50 parts
 Rosin, light             200 parts
 Paraffine oil (thick)    300 parts
 Oil of cassia.             5 parts
 Oil of bergamot            5 parts
 Oil of clove               2 parts

VIII.—Vaseline Pomade.—Melt 250 parts of freshly rendered lard and 25
parts of white wax at moderate heat and mix well with 200 parts of
vaseline. Add 15 parts of bergamot oil, 3 parts of lavender oil, 2
parts of geranium oil, and 2 parts of lemon oil, mixing well.

IX.—Witch-Hazel Jelly.—

 Oil of sweet almonds             256 parts
 Extract of witch-hazel fluid      10 parts
 Glycerine                         32 parts
 oft soap                          20 parts
 Tincture of musk, quantity sufficient to perfume.

Mix in a large mortar the glycerine and soft soap and stir until
incorporated. Add and rub in the witch-hazel, and then add the oil,
slowly, letting it fall in a very thin, small stream, under constant
agitation; add the perfume, keeping up the agitation until complete
incorporation is attained. Ten drops of musk to a quart of jelly is
sufficient. Any other perfume may be used.


«Colors for Pomade.»—Pomade may be colored red by infusing alkanet in
the grease; yellow may be obtained by using annotto in the same way; an
oil-soluble chlorophyll will give a green color by admixture.

In coloring grease by means of alkanet or annotto it is best to tie
the drug up in a piece of coarse cloth, place in a small portion of
the grease, heat gently, squeezing well with a rod from time to time;
and then adding this strongly colored grease to the remainder. This
procedure obviates exposing the entire mass to heat, and neither
decantation nor straining is needed.


«Brocq’s Pomade for Itching.»—

 Acid phenic                    1 part
 Acid salicylic                 2 parts
 Acid tartaric                  3 parts
 Glycerole of starch    60 to 100 parts

Mix and make a pomade.


«White Cosmetique.»—

 Jasmine pomade     2 ounces
 Tuberose pomade    2 ounces
 White wax          2 ounces
 Refined suet       4 ounces
 Rose oil          15 minims

Melt the wax and suet over a water bath, then add the pomades, and
finally the otto.


«Glycerine and Cucumber Jelly.»—

 Gelatin     160 to 240 grains
 Boric acid         240 grains
 Glycerine            6 fluidounces
 Water               10 fluidounces

Perfume to suit. The perfume must be one that mixes without
opalescence, otherwise it mars the beauty of the preparation.
Orange-flower water or rose water could be substituted for the water
if desired, or another perfume consisting of

 Spirit of vanillin (15 grains per ounce)    2 fluidrachms
 Spirit of coumarin (15 grains per ounce)    2 fluidrachms
 Spirit of bitter almonds (1/8)              8 minims

to the quantities given above would prove agreeable.


«Cucumber Pomade.»—

 Cucumber pomade             2 ounces
 Powdered white soap       1/2 ounce
 Powdered borax              2 drachms
 Cherry-laurel water         3 ounces
 Rectified spirit            3 ounces
 Distilled water to make    48 ounces

Rub the pomade with the soap and borax until intimately mixed, then
add the distilled water (which may be warmed to blood heat), ounce by
ounce, to form a smooth and uniform cream. When 40 ounces of water have
been so incorporated, dissolve any essential oils desired as perfume
in the spirit, and add the cherry-laurel water, making up to 48 ounces
with plain water.


«ROUGES AND PAINTS:»


«Grease Paints.»—Theatrical face paints are sold in sticks, and there
are many varieties of color. Yellows are obtained with ocher; browns
with burnt umber; and blue is made with ultramarine. These colors
should in each case be levigated finely along with their own weight
{229} of equal parts of precipitated chalk and oxide of zinc and
diluted with the same to the tint required, then made into sticks with
mutton suet (or vaseline or paraffine, equal parts) well perfumed. By
blending these colors, other tints may thus be obtained.


«White Grease Paints.»—

 I.—Prepared chalk                 4 av. ounces
     Zinc oxide                     4 av. ounces
     Bismuth subnitrate             4 av. ounces
     Asbestos powder                4 av. ounces
     Sweet almond oil, about    2 1/2 fluidounces
     Camphor                       40 grains
     Oil peppermint                 3 fluidrachms
     Esobouquet extract             3 fluidrachms

Sufficient almond oil should be used to form a mass of proper
consistence.

 II.—Zinc oxide.             8 parts
      Bismuth subnitrate      8 parts
      Aluminum oxychloride    8 parts
      Almond oil, quantity sufficient, or 5–6 parts.
      Perfume, quantity sufficient.

Mix the zinc, bismuth, and aluminum oxychloride thoroughly; make into a
paste with the oil. Any perfume may be added, but that generally used
is composed of 1 drachm of essence of bouquet, 12 grains of camphor,
and 12 minims of oil of peppermint for every 3 1/2 ounces of paste.


«Bright Red.»—

 Zinc oxide              10 parts
 Bismuth subnitrate      10 parts
 Aluminum oxychloride    10 parts
 Almond oil, quantity sufficient.

Mix the zinc, bismuth, and aluminum salts, and to every 4 ounces of the
mixture add 2 1/4 grains of eosine dissolved in a drachm of essence
of bouquet, 12 minims oil of peppermint, and 12 grains of camphor. Make
the whole into a paste with almond oil.


«Red.»—

 Cacao butter       4 av. ounces
 White wax          4 av. ounces
 Olive oil          2 fluidounces
 Oil of rose        8 drops
 Oil of bergamot    3 drops
 Oil of neroli      2 drops
 Tincture musk      2 drops
 Carmine           90 grains
 Ammonia water      3 fluidrachms


«Deep, or Bordeaux, Red.»—

 Zinc oxide              30 parts
 Bismuth subnitrate      30 parts
 Aluminum oxychloride    30 parts
 Carmine                  1 part
 Ammonia water            5 parts
 Essence bouquet          3 parts
 Peppermint, camphor, etc., quantity sufficient.

Mix the zinc, bismuth, and aluminum salts. Dissolve the carmine in the
ammonia and add solution to the mixture. Add 24 grains of camphor, and
24 minims of oil of peppermint dissolved in the essence bouquet, and
make the whole into a paste with oil of sweet almonds.


«Vermilion.»—

 Vermilion                18 parts
 Tincture of saffron      12 parts
 Orris root, powdered     30 parts
 Chalk, precipitated     120 parts
 Zinc oxide              120 parts
 Camphor                   2 parts
 Essence bouquet           9 parts
 Oil of peppermint         2 parts
 Almond oil, quantity sufficient.

Mix as before.


«Pink.»—

 Zinc carbonate              250 parts
 Bismuth subnitrate          250 parts
 Asbestos                    250 parts
 Expressed oil of almonds    100 parts
 Camphor                      55 parts
 Oil of peppermint            55 parts
 Perfume                      25 parts
 Eosine                        1 part


«Dark Red.»—Like the preceding, but colored with a solution of carmine.


«Rouge.»—

 Zinc oxide.           2 1/2 ounces
 Bismuth subnitrate    2 1/2 ounces
 Aluminum plumbate     2 1/2 ounces
 Eosine                    1 drachm
 Essence bouquet           2 drachms
 Camphor                   6 drachms
 Oil of peppermint        20 minims
 Almond oil, quantity sufficient.

Dissolve the eosine in the essence bouquet, and mix with the camphor
and peppermint; add the powder and make into a paste with almond oil.


«Black Grease Paints.»—

 I.—Soot                2 av. ounces
     Sweet almond oil    2 fluidounces
     Cacao butter        6 av. ounces
     Perfume, sufficient.

{230}

The soot should be derived from burning camphor and repeatedly washed
with alcohol. It should be triturated to a smooth mixture with the oil;
then add to the melted cacao butter; add the perfume, and form into
sticks.

Brown or other colors may be obtained by adding appropriate pigments,
such as finely levigated burned umber, sienna, ocher, jeweler’s rouge,
etc., to the foregoing base instead of lampblack.

 II.—Best lampblack    1 drachm
      Cacao butter      3 drachms
      Olive oil         3 drachms
      Oil of neroli     2 drops

Melt the cacao butter and oil, add the lampblack, and stir constantly
as the mixture cools, adding the perfume toward the end.

 III.—Lampblack       1 part
       Cacao butter    6 parts
       Oil neroli, sufficient.

Melt the cacao butter and the lampblack, and while cooling make an
intimate mixture, adding the perfume toward the last.

 IV.—Lampblack.                  1 part
      Expressed oil of almonds    1 part
      Oil cocoanut                1 part
      Perfume, sufficient.

Beat the lampblack into a stiff paste with glycerine. Apply with a
sponge; if necessary, mix a little water with it when using.

V.—Beat the finest lampblack into a stiff paste with glycerine and
apply with a sponge; if necessary, add a little water to the mixture
when using. Or you can make a grease paint as follows: Drop black, 2
drachms; almond oil, 2 drachms; cocoanut oil, 6 drachms; oil of lemon,
5 minims; oil of neroli, 1 minim. Mix.


«Fatty Face Powders.»—These have a small percentage of fat mixed with
them in order to make the powder adhere to the skin.

Dissolve 1 drachm anhydrous lanolin in 2 drachms of ether in a mortar.
Add 3 drachms of light magnesia. Mix well, dry, and then add the
following: French chalk, 2 ounces; powdered starch, 1 1/2 ounces;
boric acid, 1 drachm; perfume, a sufficient quantity. A good perfume is
coumarin, 2 grains, and attar of rose, 2 minims.


«Nose Putty.»—I.—Mix 1 ounce wheat flour with 2 drachms of powdered
tragacanth and tint with carmine. Take as much of the powder as
necessary, knead into a stiff paste with a little water and apply to
the nose, having previously painted it with spirit gum.

II.—White wax, 8 parts; rosin, white, 8 parts; mutton suet, 4 parts;
color to suit. Melt together.


«Rose Powder.»—As a base take 200 parts of powdered iris root, add 600
parts of rose petals, 100 parts of sandalwood, 100 parts of patchouli,
3 parts of oil of geranium, and 2 parts of true rose oil.


«Rouge Tablets.»—There are two distinct classes of these tablets: those
in which the coloring matter is carmine, and those in which the aniline
colors are used. The best are those prepared with carmine, or ammonium
carminate, to speak more correctly. The following is an excellent
formula:

 Ammonium carminate    10 parts
 Talc, in powder       25 parts
 Dextrin                8 parts
 Simple syrup, sufficient.
 Perfume, to taste, sufficient.

Mix the talc and dextrin and add the perfume, preferably in the
shape of an essential oil (attar of rose, synthetic oil of jasmine,
or violet, etc.), using 6 to 8 drops to every 4 ounces of other
ingredients. Incorporate the ammonium carminate and add just enough
simple syrup to make a mass easily rolled out. Cut into tablets of
the desired size. The ammonium carminate is made by adding 1 part
of carmine to 2 1/2 parts of strong ammonia water. Mix in a vial,
cork tightly, and set aside until a solution is formed, shaking
occasionally. The ammonium carminate is made by dissolving carmine in
ammonia water to saturation.


«Rouge Palettes.»—To prepare rouge palettes rub up together:

 Carmine          9 parts
 French chalk    50 parts
 Almond oil      12 parts

Add enough tragacanth mucilage to make the mass adhere and spread the
whole evenly on the porcelain palette.


«Liquid Rouge.»—

 I.—Carmine                     4 parts
     Stronger ammonia water      4 parts
     Essence of rose            16 parts
     Rose water to make.       500 parts

Mix. A very delightful violet odor, if this is preferred, is obtained
by using ionone in place of rose essence. A cheaper preparation may be
made as follows: {231}

 II.—Eosine              1 part
      Distilled water    20 parts
      Glycerine           5 parts
      Cologne water      75 parts
      Alcohol           100 parts

Mix.

Rub together with 10 parts of almond oil and add sufficient mucilage of
tragacanth to make the mass adhere to the porcelain palette.

 III.—Carmine                     1 part
       Stronger ammonia water      1 part
       Attar of rose               4 parts
       Rose water                125 parts

Mix. Any other color may be used in place of rose, violet (ionone),
for instance, or heliotrope. A cheaper preparation may be made by
substituting eosine for the carmine, as follows:

 IV.—Eosine               1 part
      Distilled water     20 parts
      Glycerine            5 parts
      Cologne water       75 parts
      Alcohol            100 parts

Mix.


«Peach Tint.»—

 _a._—Buffalo eosine      4 drachms
       Distilled water    16 fluidounces

Mix.

 _b._—Pure hydrochloric acid    2 1/2 drachms
       Distilled water              64 fluidounces

Mix.

Pour _a_ into _b_, shake, and set aside for a few hours; then pour
off the clear portion and collect the precipitate on a filter. Wash
with the same amount of _b_ and immediately throw the precipitate
into a glass measure, stirring in with a glass rod sufficient of _b_
to measure 16 ounces in all. Pass through a hair sieve to get out any
filtering paper. To every 16 ounces add 8 ounces of glycerine.


«Theater Rouge.»—Base:

 Cornstarch               4 drachms
 Powdered white talcum    6 drachms

Mix.

 _a._—Carminoline    10 grains
       Base            6 drachms
       Water           4 drachms

Dissolve the carminoline in the water, mix with the base and dry.

 _b._—Geranium red    10 grains
       Base             6 drachms
       Water            4 drachms

Mix as above and dry.


«SKIN FOODS.»

Wrinkles on the face yield to a wash consisting of 50 parts milk of
almonds (made with rose water) and 4 parts aluminum sulphate. Use
morning and night.

Rough skin is to be washed constantly in Vichy water. Besides this,
rough places are to have the following application twice daily—either a
few drops of:

 I.—Rose water    100 parts
     Glycerine      25 parts
     Tannin        3/4 part

Mix. Or use:

 II.—Orange-flower water    100 parts
      Glycerine               10 parts
      Borax                    2 parts

Mix. Sig.: Apply twice daily.


«“Beauty Cream.”»—This formula gives the skin a beautiful, smooth, and
fresh appearance, and, at the same time, serves to protect and preserve
it:

 Alum, powdered         10 grams
 Whites of               2 eggs
 Boric acid              3 grams
 Tincture of benzoin    40 drops
 Olive oil              40 drops
 Mucilage of acacia      5 drops
 Rice flour, quantity sufficient.
 Perfume, quantity sufficient.

Mix the alum and the white of eggs, without any addition of water
whatever, in an earthen vessel, and dissolve the alum by the aid of
very gentle heat (derived from a lamp, or gaslight, regulated to a very
small flame), and constant, even, stirring. This must continue until
the aqueous content of the albumen is completely driven off. Care must
be taken to avoid coagulation of the albumen (which occurs very easily,
as all know). Let the mass obtained in this manner get completely cold,
then throw into a Wedgwood mortar, add the boric acid, tincture of
benzoin, oil, mucilage (instead of which a solution of fine gelatin may
be used), etc., and rub up together, thickening it with the addition of
sufficient rice flour to give the desired consistence, and perfuming
at will. Instead of olive oil any pure fat, or fatty oil, may be used,
even vaseline or glycerine.


«Face Bleach or Beautifier.»—

 Syrupy lactic acid    40 ounces
 Glycerine             80 ounces
 Distilled water        5 gallons

Mix. Gradually add

 Tincture of benzoin    3 ounces

Color by adding {232}

 Carmine No. 40       40 grains
 Glycerine             1 ounce
 Ammonia solution    1/2 ounce
 Water to              3 ounces

Heat this to drive off the ammonia, and mix all. Shake, set aside; then
filter, and add

 Solution of ionone    1 drachm

Add a few drachms of kaolin and filter until bright.


«BLACKHEAD REMEDIES.»

 I.—Lactic acid             1 drachm
     Boric acid              1 drachm
     Ceresine                1 drachm
     Paraffine oil           6 drachms
     Hydrous wool fat    1 1/2 ounces
     Castor oil              6 drachms

II.—Unna advises hydrogen dioxide in the treatment of blackheads, his
prescription being:

 Hydrogen dioxide    20 to 40 parts
 Hydrous wool fat          10 parts
 Petrolatum                30 parts

 III.—Thymol                             1 part
       Boric acid                         2 parts
       Tincture of witch-hazel           18 parts
       Rose water sufficient to make    200 parts

Mix. Apply to the face night and morning with a sponge, first washing
the face with hot water and castile soap, and drying it with a coarse
towel, using force enough to start the dried secretions. An excellent
plan is to steam the face by holding it over a basin of hot water,
keeping the head covered with a cloth.

 IV.—Ichthyol      1 drachm
      Zinc oxide    2 drachms
      Starch        2 drachms
      Petrolatum    3 drachms

This paste should be applied at night. The face should first be
thoroughly steamed or washed in water as hot as can be comfortably
borne. All pustules should then be opened and blackheads emptied with
as little violence as possible. After careful drying the paste should
be thoroughly rubbed into the affected areas. In the morning, after
removing the paste with a bland soap, bathe with cool water and dry
with little friction.


«HAND CREAMS AND LOTIONS:»


«Chapped Skin.»—

 I.—Glycerine        8 parts
     Bay rum          4 parts
     Ammonia water    4 parts
     Rose water       4 parts

Mix the bay rum and glycerine, add the ammonia water, and finally the
rose water. It is especially efficacious after shaving.

II.—As glycerine is bad for the skin of many people, here is a recipe
which will be found more generally satisfactory as it contains less
glycerine: Bay rum, 3 ounces; glycerine, 1 ounce; carbolic acid, 1/2
drachm (30 drops). Wash the hands well and apply while hands are soft,
preferably just before going to bed. Rub in thoroughly. This rarely
fails to cure the worst “chaps” in two nights.

III.—A sure remedy for chapped hands consists in keeping them carefully
dry and greasing them now and then with an anhydrous fat (not cold
cream). The best substances for the purpose are unguentum cereum or
oleum olivarum.

If the skin of the hands is already cracked the following preparation
will heal it:

Finely ground zinc oxide, 5.0 parts; bismuth oxychloride, 2.0 parts;
with fat oil, 12.0 parts; next add glycerine, 5.0 parts; lanolin, 30.0
parts; and scent with rose water, 10.0 parts.

IV.—Wax salve (olive oil 7 parts, and yellow wax 3 parts), or pure
olive oil.


«Hand-Cleaning Paste.»—Cleaning pastes are composed of soap and grit,
either with or without some free alkali. Any soap may be used, but a
white soap is preferred. Castile soap does not make as firm a paste
as soap made from animal fats, and the latter also lather better. For
grit, anything may be used, from powdered pumice to fine sand.

A good paste may be made by dissolving soap in the least possible
quantity of hot water, and as it cools and sets stirring in the grit. A
good formula is:

 White soap    2 1/2 pounds
 Fine sand         1 pound
 Water         5 1/2 pints


«Lotion for the Hands.»—

 Boric acid    1 drachm
 Glycerine     6 drachms

Dissolve by heat and mix with

 Lanolin     6 drachms
 Vaseline    1 ounce

Add any perfume desired. The borated glycerine should be cooled before
mixing it with the lanolin.


«Cosmetic Jelly.»—

 Tragacanth (white ribbon)    60 grains
 Rose water                   14 ounces

Macerate for two days and strain forcibly through coarse muslin or
cheese {233} cloth. Add glycerine and alcohol, of each 1 ounce. Perfume
to suit. Use immediately after bathing, rubbing in well until dry.


«Perspiring Hands.»—I.—Take rectified eau de cologne, 50 parts (by
weight); belladonna dye, 8 parts; glycerine, 3 parts; rub gently twice
or three times a day with half a tablespoonful of this mixture. One
may also employ chalk, carbonate of magnesia, rice starch, hot and
cold baths of the hands (as hot and as cold as can be borne), during 6
minutes, followed by a solution of 4 parts of tannin in 32 of glycerine.

II.—Rub the hands several times per day with the following mixture:

               By weight
 Rose water    125 parts
 Borax          10 parts
 Glycerine       8 parts


«Hand Bleach.»—Lanolin, 30 parts; glycerine, 20 parts; borax, 10 parts;
eucalyptol, 2 parts; essential oil of almonds, 1 part. After rubbing
the hands with this mixture, cover them with gloves during the night.

For the removal of developing stains, see Photography.


«MASSAGE CREAMS:»


«Massage Application.»—

White potash soap, shaved 20 parts Glycerine 30 parts Water 30 parts
Alcohol (90 per cent) 10 parts

Dissolve the soap by heating it with the glycerine and water, mixed.
Add the alcohol, and for every 30 ounces of the solution add 5 or 6
drops of the mistura oleoso balsamica, German Pharmacopœia. Filter
while hot.


«Medicated Massage Balls.»—They are the balls of paraffine wax
molded with a smooth or rough surface with menthol, camphor, oil of
wintergreen, oil of peppermint, etc., added before shaping. Specially
useful in headaches, neuralgias, and rheumatic affections, and many
other afflictions of the skin and bones. The method of using them is
to roll the ball over the affected part by the aid of the palm of the
hand with pressure. Continue until relief is obtained or a sensation
of warmth. The only external method for the treatment of all kinds of
headaches is the menthol medicated massage ball. This may be made with
smooth or corrugated surfaces. Keep wrapped in foil in cool places.


«Casein Massage Cream.»—The basis of the modern massage cream is
casein. Casein is now produced very cheaply in the powdered form, and
by treatment with glycerine and perfumes it is possible to turn out a
satisfactory cream. The following formula is suggested:

 Skimmed milk            1 gallon
 Water of ammonia        1 ounce
 Acetic acid             1 ounce
 Oil of rose geranium    1 drachm
 Oil of bitter almond    1 drachm
 Oil of anise            2 drachms
 Cold cream (see below), enough.
 Carmine enough to color.

Add the water of ammonia to the milk and let it stand 24 hours. Then
add the acetic acid and let it stand another 24 hours. Then strain
through cheese cloth and add the oils. Work this thoroughly in a
Wedgwood mortar, adding enough carmine to color it a delicate pink. To
the product thus obtained add an equal amount of cold cream made by the
formula herewith given:

 White wax            4 ounces
 Spermaceti           4 ounces
 White petrolatum    12 ounces
 Rose water          14 ounces
 Borax               80 grains

Melt the wax, spermaceti, and petrolatum together over a water bath;
dissolve the borax in the rose water and add to the melted mass at one
time. Agitate violently. Presumably the borax solution should be of the
same temperature as the melted mass.


«Massage Skin Foods.»—

This preparation is used in massage for removing wrinkles:

 I.—White wax             1/2 ounce
     Spermaceti            1/2 ounce
     Cocoanut oil            1 ounce
     Lanolin                 1 ounce
     Oil of sweet almonds    2 ounces

Melt in a porcelain dish, remove from the fire, and add

 Orange-flower water    1 ounce
 Tincture of benzoin    3 drops

Beat briskly until creamy.

 II.—Snow-white cold cream    4 ounces
      Lanolin                  4 ounces
      Oil of Theobroma         4 ounces
      White petrolatum oil     4 ounces
      Distilled water          4 ounces

In hot weather add

 Spermaceti    1 1/2 drachms
 White wax     2 1/2 drachms

{234}

In winter the two latter are left out and the proportion of cocoa
butter is modified. Prepared and perfumed in proportion same as cold
cream.

 III.—White petrolatum    7 av. ounces
       Paraffine wax     1/2 ounce
       Lanolin             2 av. ounces
       Water               3 fluidounces
       Oil of rose         3 drops
       Vanillin            2 grains
       Alcohol             1 fluidrachm

Melt the paraffine, add the lanolin and petrolatum, and when these
have melted pour the mixture into a warm mortar, and, with constant
stirring, incorporate the water. When nearly cold add the oil and
vanillin, dissolved in the alcohol.

Preparations of this kind should be rubbed into the skin vigorously, as
friction assists the absorbed fat in developing the muscles, and also
imparts softness and fullness to the skin.


«SKIN BLEACHES, BALMS, LOTIONS, ETC.:»

See also Cleaning Methods and Photography for removal of stains caused
by photographic developers.


«Astringent Wash for Flabby Skin.»—This is used to correct coarse
pores, and to remedy an oily or flabby skin. Apply with sponge night
and morning:

 Cucumber juice        1 1/2 ounces
 Tincture of benzoin     1/2 ounce
 Cologne                   1 ounce
 Elder-flower water        5 ounces

Put the tincture of benzoin in an 8-ounce bottle, add the other
ingredients, previously mixed, and shake slightly. There will be some
precipitation of benzoin in this mixture, but it will settle out, or it
may be strained out through cheese cloth.


«Bleaching Skin Salves.»—A skin-bleaching action, due to the presence
of hydrogen peroxide, is possessed by the following mixtures:

 I.—Lanolin              30 parts
     Bitter almond oil    10 parts

Mix and stir with this salve base a solution of

 Borax                1 part
 Glycerine            15 parts
 Hydrogen peroxide    15 parts

For impure skin the following composition is recommended:

 II.—White mercurial ointment    5 grams
      Zinc ointment               5 grams
      Lanolin                    30 grams
      Bitter almond oil          10 grams

And gradually stir into this a solution of

 Borax                        2 grams
 Glycerine                   30 grams
 Rose water                  10 grams
 Concentrated nitric acid     5 drops

 III.