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Title: Oysters and Fish
Author: Murrey, Thomas J. (Thomas Jefferson)
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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OYSTERS AND FISH

by

THOMAS J. MURREY

Author of “Fifty Soups,” “Fifty Salads,” “Breakfast
Dainties,” “Puddings and Dainty Desserts,” “The
Book of Entrées,” “Cookery for Invalids,”
“Practical Carving,” “Luncheon,” “Valuable
Cooking Recipes,” etc.



[Illustration]

New York
Copyright, 1888, by
Frederick A. Stokes & Brother
1888



                              DEDICATION.


                       _To the Inventor of the_

                     SHELDON CLOSE-TOP GAS-STOVE,

           _Who spent the best part of his life solving the
               perplexed problem of Economy in Fuel and
              Labor in our homes, and to those gentlemen
              connected with gas companies, who assisted
                and encouraged him, this little work is
                    most respectfully dedicated by_

                              THE AUTHOR.



CONTENTS.


                                                  PAGE

  INTRODUCTORY                                      11

  THE OYSTER                                        11

  THE OYSTER SEASON                                 11

  OYSTERS OUT OF SEASON                             12

  OYSTERS PRESERVED IN SHELL                        12

  THE FOOD OF THE OYSTER                            14

  FORMATION OF THE DEEP SHELL                       14

  COCK OYSTERS                                      15

  GREEN OYSTERS                                     15

  BANQUET OYSTERS                                   16

  ORDERING OYSTERS FOR THE FAMILY TABLE             17

  HOW OYSTERS SHOULD BE OPENED                      18

  HOW TO SERVE RAW OYSTERS                          18

  COLLATION SERVICE                                 19

  HOW TO EAT A RAW OYSTER                           19

  A BARREL OF OYSTERS                               20

  READ THIS!                                        20


  COOKED OYSTERS                                    21

  STEWED OYSTERS                                    21

  PHILADELPHIA FRIED OYSTERS                        22

  CURRY OF OYSTERS                                  24

  PICKLED-OYSTER OMELET                             24

  DEVILED OYSTERS ON TOAST                          24

  PICKLED OYSTERS                                   24

  SCALLOPED OYSTERS                                 25

  OYSTER SALAD                                      25

  PLAIN FRIED OYSTERS                               26

  MISS PARLOA’S “NEW COOK-BOOK”                     26

  OYSTER TOAST                                      26

  OYSTER OMELET                                     26

  OYSTERS, BROILED                                  27

  TRIPE WITH OYSTERS                                27

  OYSTERS EN BROCHETTE                              27

  FRIED OYSTERS                                     28

  OYSTER AND CANNED SALMON PIE                      28

  OYSTER PATTIES                                    28

  OYSTERS À LA POULETTE                             29

  PIE OF OYSTERS AND SCALLOPS                       29

  STEAMED OYSTERS                                   30

  TO SERVE STEAMED OYSTERS                          30

  ROAST OYSTERS                                     31

  BAKED OYSTERS                                     31


  CLAMS                                             31

  LITTLE-NECK CLAMS                                 31

  SOFT CLAMS IN CHAFING-DISH                        32

  STEWED LITTLE-NECK CLAMS                          33

  SOFT CLAMS                                        33

  SOFT-SHELL CLAMS SCALLOPED                        33

  CLAM TOAST                                        34

  CLAM BROTH                                        34

  CLAM FRITTERS                                     34

  FRIED SOFT CLAMS                                  35


  CRABS                                             35

  HARD-SHELL CRABS                                  35

  CRAB PATTIES, CREAM SAUCE                         36

  SOFT-SHELL CRABS                                  37

  THE CARE OF SOFT CRABS                            38

  CRABS, SOFT-SHELL                                 39

  CRAB CROQUETTES                                   39

  CRAB PATTIES, À LA BECHAMEL                       40

  CRABS, À L’AMÉRICAINE                             41

  CRABS, DEVILED                                    41


  SCALLOPS                                          42

  SCALLOP BROTH                                     42

  SMALL PATTIES OF SCALLOPS                         43

  FRIED SCALLOPS                                    43

  SCALLOPS EN BROCHETTE                             44

  STEWED SCALLOPS                                   44


  MUSSELS                                           44

  THE MUSSEL                                        44


  THE LOBSTER                                       45

  REMARKS ON THE LOBSTER                            45

  THE SEASON FOR LOBSTER                            45

  SOFT-SHELL LOBSTER NOT EDIBLE                     46

  SELECTING LOBSTERS                                46

  VALUE OF THE LOBSTER AS FOOD                      46

  BROILED LOBSTER                                   47

  LOBSTER CROQUETTES WITH PEASE                     48

  LOBSTERS EN BROCHETTE                             48

  DEVILED LOBSTER                                   49

  STEWED LOBSTER, À LA CRÉOLE                       49

  CURRY OF LOBSTER                                  50

  LOBSTER SALAD                                     50


  THE OYSTER CRAB                                   51

  TO SERVE OYSTER CRABS                             52

  OYSTER-CRAB OMELET                                52

  OYSTER-CRAB SAUCE                                 52

  ACKNOWLEDGMENT                                    53


  SHRIMPS                                           53

  MARKET PRICE OF SHRIMPS                           54

  SHRIMP OMELET                                     54

  SHRIMP SAUCE                                      54


  PRAWNS                                            54

  CURRY OF PRAWNS                                   55

  PRAWNS, DEVILED, EN COQUILLE                      55

  PRAWNS, SAUTÉ, À LA MARENGO                       55

  PRAWN SALAD                                       56


  CRAYFISH                                          56

  CRAYFISH OMELET                                   57


  SALMON                                            57

  SALMON STEAK                                      57

  CANNED SALMON                                     57

  SALMON PATTIES                                    58

  SALMON SURPRISE                                   59

  SALMON À LA CRÉOLE                                59

  SALMON PIE                                        60

  SALMON IN JELLY                                   60

  SALMON OMELET                                     61

  SALMON, GERMAN STYLE                              61

  SALMON À L’ITALIENNE                              61

  SALMON À LA HOLLANDAISE                           62

  SALMON, HUNTER’S STYLE                            62

  BOUILLABAISSE                                     63


  CODFISH                                           63

  BOILED CODFISH, OYSTER SAUCE                      63

  CODFISH TONGUES                                   64

  CODFISH STEAK                                     64

  NEW-ENGLAND CODFISH BALLS                         65

  BAKED COD                                         66

  SALT CODFISH WITH CREAM 66

  SCROD                                             67


  BROOK TROUT                                       67

  BROOK TROUT, SPORTSMAN STYLE                      68

  BROILED TROUT                                     69

  BROOK TROUT, BAKED                                69

  BROOK TROUT, BOILED                               70


  MISCELLANEOUS                                     70

  CATFISH, FRIED                                    70

  TENDERLOIN TROUT                                  71

  FRICASSEED EELS                                   71

  EEL PATTIES                                       72

  STEWED EELS, HOBOKEN TURTLE CLUB STYLE            72

  PAN BASS, ANCHOVY BUTTER                          73

  FILLET OF FLOUNDER, TARTAR SAUCE                  74

  FRIED TOMCODS                                     75

  BROILED SALT CODFISH                              75

  BROILED SALT MACKEREL                             76

  FRIED PORGIES WITH SALT PORK                      77

  FISH CURRIES                                      78

  A PLAIN FISH CURRY                                78

  CURRY OF SCALLOPS                                 78

  CURRY OF CRAYFISH                                 79

  CURRY OF EELS, WITH RICE                          79

  CURRY OF SHAD ROE                                 79

  CURRY OF FROGS’ LEGS                              80

  BROILED WEAKFISH                                  80

  BAKED WHITEFISH, BORDEAUX SAUCE                   81

  HALIBUT, EGG SAUCE                                82

  EGG SAUCE                                         82

  FRIED BUTTERFISH                                  82

  BROILED SHAD                                      82

  BAKED SHAD                                        83

  SHAD ROE À LA POULETTE                            83

  BROILED ROYANS                                    84

  BROILED SARDINES                                  84

  BROILED SMELTS, SAUCE TARTARE                     84

  SMELTS FRIED, SAUCE TARTARE                       85

  BROILED WHITEFISH                                 85

  SHEEP’S-HEAD WITH DRAWN BUTTER                    85

  DRAWN BUTTER                                      86

  BROILED SHEEP’S-HEAD                              86



INTRODUCTORY.


Would it not be beneficial, were the average American to substitute
fish for the everlasting steak and chop of the breakfast-table?

For the sake of variety, if for no other reason, we should eat more
fish; and it need not always be fried or broiled. A well-made fish stew
or a curry should be acceptable to the majority of us, and undoubtedly
would be if appetizingly prepared.

This little work does not by any means propose to exhaust the subject
of sea-food, for the subject is almost inexhaustible; but it places
within the reach of all a series of recipes and suggestions extremely
valuable to the average housewife.



THE OYSTER.


=The Oyster Season= opens in the city of New York on the first day
of September, and closes on the last day of April in each year. The
annual amount of business done in the oyster trade is close on to
$5,000,000. Each successive year witnesses an increase in the business.

Notwithstanding the R canon, there are thousands of persons who eat
oysters at the summer resorts along the seashore throughout hot weather.


=Oysters out of Season.=--The writer does not recommend the eating of
oysters out of their season, no matter how fresh they may be, or how
appetizing they may appear.

To supply the demands made upon them by summer resorts, oyster-planters
shift the oysters, during the spawning season, from warm shallow water
to cold deep water. This checks or prevents the oysters from spawning,
and to all appearance they are edible; but the writer firmly believes
that interfering with the laws of nature affects the health of the
oyster, and they cannot be as wholesome as planters would have us
believe.


=Oysters Preserved in Shell.=--So long as the oyster retains its
natural juices, it will live out of water, provided the changes in
the temperature are not too sudden. The moment the oyster opens its
shells, however, the juices run out, and in a short time afterward the
oyster dies. To prevent the oyster opening its stony overcoat, is
the object of oyster-shippers; and the Patent Office bears witness to
their many devices having this object in view. Some wire the shells,
others clasp or envelope the broad end of the shells with tin or
other metal. No doubt these devices aid in keeping the oyster alive
and fresh a little longer. Whether the nervous system of the oyster
is affected by the process, is a question. Scientists tell us that
oysters possess organs of sensation, and all who have handled oysters
learn in time that a sudden jar or shock will kill them. The jar of the
machinery of a steamboat will sometimes kill an oyster. When shipped
to Europe they are ordered to be stored as far away from the machinery
as possible. Some authorities claim that the oyster can hear. One
cannot noisily approach an oyster-bed at feeding time without their
hearing, and instantly every shell is closed. A cloud or a boat passing
over an oyster-bank will cause every shell to close with proverbial
tightness, and the sound of thunder will often kill them while they are
in transit,--conclusive evidence that the nervous system in an oyster,
while not highly developed, is of sufficient importance to merit
attention from those who roughly handle oysters.

=The Food of the Oyster= consists of minute animal and vegetable
organisms and small particles of organized matter. Ordinary sea-water
contains an abundance of this sort of food, which is drawn into the
gills with the water. As the water strains through the pores into
the water tubes, the food particles are caught on the surface of the
gills by a layer of adhesive slime. As soon as they are entangled,
the microscopic hair-like projections on the gills strike against
them in such a way as to slide them along the gills toward the mouth.
When they reach the anterior ends of the gills, they are pushed off,
and fall between the lips, which are also covered with thin hair-like
projections, which carry the particles forward until they slide into
the mouth. No wonder the intelligent tramp wished that he might become
an oyster. His food would then come to him in a sort of endless
progression.


=Formation of the Deep Shell.=--Although the oyster lies upon the
bottom with one shell above and one below, the shells are not upon the
top and bottom of the body, but upon the right and left sides. The
two shells are symmetrical in the young oyster; but after it becomes
attached, the lower or attached side grows faster than the other, and
becomes deep and spoon-shaped, while the free valve remains nearly
flat. In nearly every case the lower or deep valve is the left.


=Cock Oysters.=--There is a belief among oyster-eaters, that the
dark-gray or black oysters are male oysters, and are therefore superior
to the female oyster. Such misinformation was evidently promulgated
by oyster-openers in anticipation of a tip for serving selected
oysters. There is no truth in the assertion, however, for there are
just as many black female oysters as there are black male oysters.
There is no characteristic color by which a male or cock oyster can
be distinguished from a female oyster. Microscopic examination, or a
scientific eye, is the means of discovering the sex of an oyster.

The black-oyster romance is of ancient origin. The Roman
oyster-smashers successfully “worked it” on Pliny, Horace, and other
ancient writers and epicures.


=Green Oysters.=--At least a million dollars worth of oysters are
annually destroyed in New-York waters by sludge acid from the oil
refineries and illegal dumpings. The acid kills the oysters the instant
it touches them, and turns them green. There is very little danger that
a poisoned oyster will reach the consumer, but the loss to the planter
is enormous.

The green tint of the oyster, or in fact any distinguished color the
oyster may possess, is due to the color of its food and to the nature
of the surrounding bottom. The bottom of the Shrewsbury River is mud;
the oysters take on a peculiar tawny color from their muddy bed.
Rockaway oysters exist on a hard sandy bottom. If the beds are covered
with sea-lettuce, as they often are, the oysters take on a delicate
green tint. When the lettuce is removed by a strong tide or high wind,
the oysters gradually assume their white, slightly grayish color. Their
shells are round, thin, and brittle. The shells from mud bottoms are
long, narrow, thick, and spongy. Intruded mud is enclosed by a thin
layer of pearly shell.

The oyster epicure may rest assured of one fact. No matter what the
color of an oyster may be, so long as it is alive and seasonable it is
wholesome. It cannot absorb enough foreign matter to injure the epicure
without committing suicide, and there is no possible danger of any one
_swallowing_ a dead oyster.


=Banquet Oysters.=--As served at the average public banquet, the
raw oyster is a thing of terror to appetite and to weak digestive
organs. When looking for one’s seat, where, through an oversight,
one is not furnished with a chart of the tables, one beholds six
very small emaciated oysters. The heat in the room has absorbed their
moisture, afterwards the bed of fine ice on which they were placed
has melted, and the water overflowed them, thereby finishing the work
of destruction. One must be under the influence of the sherry and
Vermouth of the reception-rooms, to be willing to begin the feast with
such an introductory course. No wonder fashionable society demands a
substitute for the oyster as the dinner season progresses. In the name
of humanity, order the oysters to table and announce the dinner at
the same time. Guests are willing to wait a few moments for toothsome
oysters, provided they are direct from the ice-box.


=Ordering Oysters for the Family Table.=--Send the servant to the
nearest dealer, a few minutes before the oysters are wanted, and let
her wait for them. In this way one is quite sure of procuring freshly
opened oysters. Many dealers begin opening oysters for their family
orders hours before they are to be served; and the result is, they have
lost much of their juices before being served.

Miss Parloa’s “New Cook Book” says, “Six large oysters are usually
allowed each person.” This error should be corrected in future
editions. Large raw oysters on the half-shell are only served at
oyster-counters to countrymen, and are not served at a dinner, no
matter how unpretentious or how elaborate the affair may be.


=How Oysters should be opened.=--In the author’s work on “Luncheon,”
reference is made to the great care which should be exercised in
opening oysters; and it will bear repeating. Reject all oysters opened
by the “smashing” process. The shells are not only broken and ragged,
but, should a person swallow a ragged splinter of oyster-shell, there
is great danger of its killing him. Insist on it that your oysters are
opened by the so-called “stabbing” process.


=How to serve Raw Oysters.=--If for a quiet family affair, where
“opened” oysters are used, keep the plates in ice-water, and dry them
before placing the oysters on them. For more pretentious affairs, but
where fancy oyster-plates are not a part of the dinner service, use
soup-plates. Fill them with fine cracked ice, place a dainty doily
over each, and set the oysters on top of the doily. The lemon should
be served on a side-dish, and not in the centre of the dish as though
one were dining in a restaurant. Four small Rockaways are sufficient
to serve at the ordinary course dinner. In nine cases are out of
ten, Rockaways are served instead of the Blue Points. It is therefore
advisable to order the former; the dealer might make a mistake if he
had them in stock, and send the latter.

It is quite English to serve raw oysters on the flat half-shell, but it
is quite American to serve them on the deep shell. The American way is
the best.


=Collation Service.=--At evening collations, the oysters are served in
the centre of a block of ice. A clear, square block of ice is selected,
and a cavity or receptacle is made in it by the aid of a hot flat-iron
held close to the ice. If one has patience, the cavity may be shaved
out with an ice shave; if a pick is used, one is likely to split the
cake of ice. An ice boat is easily formed by holding a hot flat-iron to
a long piece of ice. Holes may be made through the bottom of the block
of ice, and filled with brilliant flowers; and the outer sides and top
should be handsomely decorated with flowers and smilax. If electric
lights are used in the house, it is an easy matter to place them in the
cake of ice: the effect is striking. The wires are carried from the
room below the dining-room, or under the carpet.


=How to eat a Raw Oyster.=--Avoid as much as possible the use of
condiments, when eating oysters. They were never intended as an
accompaniment of the oyster, and are only used by country people.
A suspicion of lemon; a dash of salt when the dealer has kept them
covered with cracked ice, and the descending ice-water washed out all
sea flavor; and, for palates grown callous, a dash of cayenne. Such
abominations as ketchup, Worcestershire sauce, etc., should never be
used. Do not bolt the oyster, but masticate it; and one will soon learn
to tell the different oysters by their different flavors. By bolting
them, one will never know how to thoroughly appreciate them.


=A Barrel of Oysters.=--Persons living away from the city are advised
to purchase oysters by the barrel. If kept with the deep shell down,
and in a cool place, they will live a long time. The novice is likely
to bruise fingers in vain attempts to open them; but, like carving,
the opening of oysters should be part of a man’s education. Then there
is the charm of roasting the oysters in the old-fashioned fire-place.
Here the novice may burn a finger or two, but then it’s fun for the
youngsters.


=Read this!=--In W. Mattieu Williams’s “Chemistry of Cookery,” I
find the following: “More than half a century has elapsed since Dr.
Beaumont published the results of his experiments on Alexis St. Martin.
These showed that fresh raw oysters required two hours and fifty-five
minutes to digest, and stewed fresh oysters three and a half hours for
digestion; against one hour for boiled tripe, and three hours for roast
or boiled beef or mutton.”

The general impression among the people is, that raw oysters digest
almost as soon as they become of the same temperature of the stomach.



COOKED OYSTERS.


=Stewed Oysters.=--Boil half a pint of milk; add to it eleven
good-sized oysters, a walnut of butter, a dash of salt and of pepper.
Allow the milk to boil up just once, and serve.

The average cook puts the oysters on first, and after they boil cold
milk is added. When the milk boils, the stew is served. The result
of such treatment of the oyster causes it to shrivel so that it is
hardly recognizable, and a good-sized oyster becomes a mere sprat. From
this process of cooking originated the ancient moth-eaten jokes about
church-fair stews.

Cooked as in the foregoing recipe, the oyster retains its plump
characteristics.


=Philadelphia Fried Oysters.=--The author originally published this
recipe in the New York “Evening Sun” by request.

The average New Yorker may call the City of Brotherly Love a sleepy
sort of a place, but it is wide enough awake gastronomically. It has
within its city limits cooks who prepare fried oysters that fairly
melt in one’s mouth. They are so delicate that there is not a pang of
dyspepsia in a whole winter’s supply of the toothsome dainties. The
reputation of Finneli’s Philadelphia fried oysters extends from Maine
to California; and immense sums have been offered for the recipe, but
its owner would not sell his secret at any price.

Beat up three eggs thoroughly; add half a pint of oyster-juice,
a pepper-spoonful of cayenne, a saltspoonful of black pepper, a
tablespoonful of salt, and a teaspoonful of English mustard. Work
the mixture to a batter, and gradually add a gill of oil. Now comes
the more particular part of the formula. Cover a board or part of a
table with a layer of cracker-crumbs half an inch deep. Drain fifty
oysters free from liquid, place them on the cracker-crumbs, and
dredge over them more cracker-crumbs. See to it that one oyster is
not on top of another. Pick up each oyster by its beard, and dip it
in the batter. Have ready a quantity of bread-crumbs grated from the
white part of stale bread; spread this out on the table, and after
the oysters have been dipped in the batter lay them carefully on the
bread-crumbs two inches apart. After they are all spread out, turn them
over neatly, which will bread-crumb the other side. Dip them in the
batter again by taking hold of the beard, and again spread them out on
the bread-crumbs. Under no circumstances place one oyster on top of
another, or in any way press them together; this would make them heavy.
When the fat is so hot that the smoke from it would light a match, then
fry them by again taking hold of the beard, one at a time, and dropping
them into the fat. When they are dark brown, take them up, and strew
over them a quantity of salt.

The secret is in carefully handling the oyster after it has been
breaded. How differently New York restaurants serve fried oysters!
In almost every eating place in the city, one sees piles of oysters
covered with a batter that plainly shows the cook purposely pressed
them between his hands. When served they look more like liver-pads than
human food. Nothing short of a human ostrich could possibly digest
them. The Philadelphia oyster, however, is a culinary poem.


=Curry of Oysters.=--Put an ounce of butter in a pan; add to it a
teaspoon of curry-powder, and water enough to prevent burning. Put
fifteen oysters in just water enough to cover them, simmer three
minutes, and drain; thicken the broth with a teaspoonful of flour, salt
to taste, stir this into the curry; add the oysters, simmer a moment,
and serve with boiled rice.


=Pickled-Oyster Omelet.=--Rinse six spiced or pickled oysters in cold
water. Divide an ounce of butter into little balls, and roll them in
flour; put them in a saucepan, heat gradually, and whisk to a cream;
add a gill of hot water, salt and pepper. Cut the oysters in two,
and add to the butter. Prepare an omelet in the usual manner; before
folding, add the oysters; turn out on a hot dish, and serve.


=Deviled Oysters on Toast.=--Mix together a heaping saltspoonful of
mustard flour, half a saltspoonful each of white pepper and salt, and
the yolk of one egg. Dip six oysters in the paste, then in fine crumbs,
and broil over a moderate fire. When done, arrange on toast, and
squeeze over them the juice of half a lemon.


=Pickled Oysters.=--A few pickled oysters may be served instead of
clams during warm weather. Scald a quart of oysters a moment, drain,
and put them in jars. To a pint of oyster liquor, add half a pint of
hot water and half a pint of hot vinegar; pour over the oysters; add
three cloves, four whole peppers, a small bit of mace, and a slice of
lemon, to each jar. This will be sufficient for two ordinary fruit-jars.


=Scalloped Oysters.=--Put in the bottom of a yellow dish two ounces of
sweet butter, divided into little pieces. Add a layer of raw oysters,
and cover them with cracker-dust or bread-crumbs, and add salt and
pepper to taste; another layer of oysters, and so on until the dish is
full, the last or top layer to be crumbs, and between each layer there
should be a small amount of butter. Moisten the ingredients with a
liberal quantity of oyster liquid, put small butter balls on top of the
dish, and bake a delicate brown color. Oysters were formerly baked in a
scalloped or shell-shaped dish, hence the name.


=Oyster Salad.=--Boil two dozen small oysters for five minutes in water
enough to cover them; add a little salt and a tablespoonful of vinegar;
drain and cool. Put into a salad-bowl the centre leaves of two heads of
cabbage lettuce, add the oysters whole, pour over them a mayonnaise;
garnish with oyster-crabs, hard-boiled eggs, and, if liked, a few
anchovies cut into fillets.


=Plain Fried Oysters.=--As a rule, fried oysters are not served as
a breakfast dish, owing to the coating with which they are usually
surrounded. Served plain, however, they are quite acceptable. Dry them
well in a napkin, and roll them in a little flour to insure that they
are quite dry, then cook them in a very little hot dripping.

Miss Parloa’s “New Cook-Book” says, “a quart of oysters is enough for a
party of ten” (p. 118). There are from twenty to twenty-five oysters in
a quart, rarely more than this.


=Oyster Toast.=--Select fifteen plump oysters; chop them fine, and add
salt, pepper, and a suspicion of nutmeg. Beat up the yolks of two eggs
with a gill of cream; whisk this into the simmering oysters. When set,
pour the whole over slices of buttered toast.


=Oyster Omelet.=--Stew six oysters in their own liquor for five
minutes; remove the oysters, and thicken the liquid with a walnut of
butter rolled in flour; season with salt and cayenne; whisk this to a
cream. Chop the oysters, and add them to the sauce; simmer until the
sauce thickens. Beat up four eggs lightly, and add a tablespoonful of
cream; turn out into a hot pan, and fry a light gold-color. Before
folding the omelet entirely, place the oysters with part of the sauce
within, and turn it over on a hot dish. The remainder of the sauce
should be poured round it.


=Oysters Broiled.=--Rub the bars of a wire broiler with a little sweet
butter; dry twelve large, plump oysters in a napkin, and place them on
the broiler; brush a little butter over them, and broil over a fire
free from flame and smoke. When done on both sides, arrange them neatly
on toast; pour a little well-seasoned melted butter over them, and
serve.

Do not bread-crumb oysters intend for broiling.


=Tripe with Oysters.=--Tripe, when properly prepared by a simple
process, is very nutritious and easily digested.

Cut up half a pound of well-washed tripe; simmer for three-quarters of
an hour in water slightly salted; take out the tripe; add to the broth
a little butter rolled in flour, salt and pepper; add a little more
flour if not thick enough. Return the tripe and a dozen oysters; simmer
for a few minutes longer, and serve.


=Oysters en Brochette.=--Select one dozen choice oysters; plunge them
into hot water a second to make them firm (this process is called
blanching), then drain, and dip them into melted butter; arrange them
on skewers with alternate layers of neatly sliced bacon; broil over a
moderate fire. When done, add maitre-d’hôtel butter to them, and serve
on the skewers.


=Fried Oysters.=--Beat up the yolks of four eggs with three
tablespoonfuls of sweet oil, and season them with a teaspoonful of
salt and a saltspoonful of cayenne pepper; beat up thoroughly. Dry
twelve fat oysters on a napkin; dip them in the egg batter, then in
cracker-dust; shake off the loose cracker-dust, dip them again in the
egg batter, and lastly roll them in fine _bread-crumbs_. Fry in very
hot fat, using fat enough to cover them. The oil gives them a nice
flavor.


=Oyster and Canned Salmon Pie.=--One pound of best canned salmon, one
pint of solid oysters, half a pint of oyster liquid; cover the bottom
of the dish with neat pieces of the salmon, season with salt and pepper
and an ounce of butter rolled in flour, add a few oysters, and so on
until the ingredients are used. Pour in the liquid of both, and cover
the top with paste. Bake in a moderate oven. There should be liquid
enough to have the ingredients moist when served.


=Oyster Patties.=--Roll out a pound of light puff-paste, half an inch
in thickness; cut it into rounds with a cake-cutter two inches in
diameter; press a small cutter one inch in diameter, on each round,
one-fourth of an inch deep. Place them on a buttered tin, brush a
little beaten egg over them, and bake in a quick oven. When done,
remove the centre and a little of the inside. Scald (or, as it is
called, blanch) three dozen oysters; drain. Put into a saucepan two
ounces of butter, whisk it to a cream; add a teaspoonful of flour,
stir free from lumps; add a heaping saltspoonful of salt, and a
pepperspoonful of white pepper; whisk into it half a pint each of hot
cream and the oyster liquor; allow it to simmer a few minutes and to
thicken; then add the oysters and a “squeeze” of lemon-juice; when hot
fill the shells, and serve. If nutmeg is not objected to, a little may
be used.


=Oysters à la Poulette.=--Blanch (scald) a dozen oysters in their own
liquor; drain them, and add to the liquor, salt, half an ounce of
butter, the juice of half a lemon, a gill of cream, and a teaspoonful
of dissolved flour. Beat the yolk of one egg, and add to the sauce.
Stir until the sauce thickens; place the oysters on a hot dish, pour
the sauce over them, add a very little chopped parsley, and serve.


=Pie of Oysters and Scallops.=--Take one pint of fresh scallops, and
wash them in cold water; drain, and dry them in a napkin. Cut a few
slices of fat bacon in strips small enough to insert the ends in a
larding-needle; lard the scallops with them, and dredge them slightly
with flour. Select one quart of fat oysters; line a baking-dish with
puff-paste; add the scallops and oysters in layers; season with salt,
pepper, and a dash of mace. Divide an ounce of butter into little
balls, roll them in flour, and put them between the layers; add the
oyster liquor. Cover with a top crust; bake forty minutes in a moderate
oven.


=Steamed Oysters.=--Wash and scrub the shells thoroughly, and rinse
them off in cold water. Put them in a steamer, large or deep shell
_down_. Put the steamer on top of a pot of boiling water; steam about
six minutes, or until the shells separate. Have ready a hot dish
containing melted butter seasoned with a dash of Worcestershire,
lemon-juice, salt and cayenne. Remove them from the steamer with gloved
hands, and pick out the oysters with a flat knife, saving all the juice
possible. Dip the oysters in the butter as you open them, and the
number one can eat is surprising.


=To serve Steamed Oysters.=--Steam them as in the foregoing recipe. At
each guest’s place at table have ready little saucers containing a
quantity of the hot melted butter. Remove the flat shell, and serve the
oyster in the lower shell; send about six oysters to each guest at a
time.


=Roast Oysters.=--Clean the shells thoroughly, and place them on the
coals in an open fire-place, or remove the top of range, and put them
on the live coals, until they snap open, which they will soon do. Care
must be exercised not to burn fingers.

At evening, young folks like the fun of roasting oysters in the furnace
below stairs, and eating them from the shell as fast as the host can
open them.


=Baked Oysters.=--Clean the shells thoroughly, and fill a dripping-pan
with them, deep shell down. Look at them after ten minutes. If the
shells are all opened, they are cooked enough. Melted butter, nicely
seasoned, is the only sauce to serve with them.



CLAMS.


=Little-Neck Clams.=--From the first of September until the first of
May in the following year, the clam--which is richer in nutrition
than the oyster--is as meek and as gentle as a clam can be. Yet it
submits to all sorts of indignities from the oyster, and has never
been known to talk back during the period mentioned. After the first
of May, however, its manner changes, and it assumes metropolitan airs.
It lords it over the oyster as a bantam struts around a helpless foe;
and it plainly intimates to the oyster that moving-day was invented to
celebrate its departure.

After May 1, the clam must be recognized as the _avant-coureur_ of
all dainty feasts. No summer dinner or supper of any pretensions
is considered complete without the small clam. All the small clams
in market are supposed to come from Little Neck, Long Island. Not
one-quarter of the supply comes from this locality.


=Soft Clams in Chafing-Dish.=--Select a dozen large Guilford clams,
wash them thoroughly, and plunge them into boiling water for a
moment. Drain and open them, and use the round plump part only. Put
in a chafing-dish a pat of butter, and when quite hot add a dash of
flour, and cayenne to suit the taste; add the clams, and when they are
slightly cooked add a gill of light sherry. Cover the dish, and allow
it to simmer five minutes. Have ready three slices of toast, put four
clams upon each slice, add a little of the hot sherry, and serve.


=Stewed Little-Neck Clams.=--Get two dozen freshly opened, _very_ small
clams. Boil a pint of milk, a dash of white pepper, and a small pat of
butter. Now add the clams. Let them come to a boil, and serve. Longer
boiling will make the clams almost indigestible.


=Soft Clams.=--Select a dozen soft-shell clams; wash them well; remove
the shells; trim off the tough neck; place each clam on a half-shell,
and add to each half a teaspoonful of finely-chopped bacon, a little
cayenne, a very small bit of onion, and a pat of butter rolled in
flour; strew over the top a little grated Parmesan cheese, and bake to
a delicate brown. Cracker-crumbs may be used instead of the cheese if
preferred.


=Soft-Shell Clams, Scalloped.=--Purchase a dozen large soft clams
in the shell, and three dozen opened clams. Ask the dealer to open
the first dozen, care being used not to injure the shells, which are
to be used in cooking the clams. Clean the shells well, and put two
soft clams on each half-shell; add to each a dash of white pepper and
half a teaspoonful of minced celery. Cut a slice of fat bacon into
the smallest dice, add four of these to each shell, strew over the
top a thin layer of cracker-dust, place a pat of table butter on top,
and bake in the oven until brown. They are delightful when properly
prepared.


=Clam Toast.=--Chop up two dozen small clams into fine pieces; simmer
for thirty minutes in hot water enough to cover them. Beat up the yolks
of two eggs; add a little cayenne and a gill of warmed milk; dissolve
half a teaspoonful of flour in a little cold milk; simmer all together;
pour over buttered toast, and serve.


=Clam Broth.=--Procure three dozen Little-Neck clams in the shell; wash
them well in cold water; put them in a saucepan, cover with a quart
of hot water; boil fifteen minutes; drain; remove the shells; chop up
the clams, and add them to the hot broth with a pat of butter; salt
if necessary, and add a little cayenne; boil ten minutes, pour into a
soup-tureen, add a slice of toast, and send to table. This is the mode
adopted when we do not have a clam-opener in the house.

Raw, freshly opened clams should be chopped fine and prepared in the
manner above described. The large clams are better for chowders than
for stews and broth.


=Clam Fritters.=--Chop medium fine twenty-five large quahaugs, or
seventy-five Little Necks. To a pint of flour add the beaten yolks of
three eggs, half a teaspoonful of salt, a teaspoonful of lemon-juice,
a dash of cayenne, and an ounce of melted butter. Mix well, and make a
batter by adding about a gill of milk. Add the clams, and if the batter
is too thick add a little of the clam broth. To make them light, beat
the mixture well; drop spoonfuls in hot fat, and fry brown, as you
would doughnuts.


=Fried Soft Clams.--=Select half a dozen of large Guilford clams.
Remove the shells, and trim off the dark tough parts. Cut into dice a
quarter of a pound of salt pork, and fry it. In the pork-fat fry the
clams, but first dredge them with flour. Serve with a slice of broiled
or fried fat pork.



CRABS.


=Hard-shell Crabs.=--The common blue crab is the species of the crab
family which we are most familiar with. We remember how rapidly they
darted away from us when we pointed the net towards them, when on our
summer vacation. We also have vivid recollections of their anxiety to
shake hands with us when in captivity.

Hard crabs are to be had during almost the entire season, and the
average price asked for them is $3.00 per hundred. Those found in
market in winter were raked out of the mud, where they had buried
themselves until the advent of warm weather.

Select a dozen hard crabs, and rinse them well in fresh water. Have
ready a kettle two-thirds full of boiling water, slightly salted;
plunge them into it, and boil them for about twelve minutes; drain, and
when cool put them in the ice-box to become cold.

After the theatre, return home for supper, instead of patronizing the
restaurant, and serve the crabs with sandwiches of buttered bread. A
light sauterne may be served with them, if not objected to.


=Crab Patties, Cream Sauce.=--Roll out a pound of light puff-paste,
half an inch in thickness. Cut it into rounds with a cake-cutter two
inches in diameter. Press a small cutter one inch in diameter, on each
round, one-fourth of an inch deep. Place them on a buttered tin, brush
a little beaten egg over them, and bake in a quick oven. When done,
remove the centre, and a little of the inside.

Put into a saucepan half an ounce of butter, half an onion minced,
half a pound of minced raw veal, and a small carrot shredded. Toss
about for two or three minutes to fry, but not to color; then add
two tablespoonfuls of flour. Mix it well with the other ingredients,
and add three pints of hot water, a pint of boiling cream, half a
teaspoonful of salt, and a saltspoonful of white pepper. Simmer one
hour, and strain into a saucepan. Add to each pint of it half a gill
of warm cream. Place back on range again, and simmer until reduced
enough to coat the spoon, then strain into a crock, and whisk until
it is cold. This is done to prevent the formation of a thick top. At
this season of the year this is an excellent sauce to have on hand
for patties, white fish sauces, and also for meat sauces. When wanted
for patties, melt an ounce of butter. While whisking it, gradually
add a pint of the sauce. Mix it with a quart of prepared crab-meat,
obtainable at the grocer’s. When hot, fill the shells with it.


=Soft-shell Crabs.=--When the blue crab is desirous of increasing
his growth, he sheds his shell, and for a short period is perfectly
helpless. The male usually retires to a secluded spot out of the reach
of eels and other enemies, but the female soft shell is protected by a
male companion whose shell is hard. At Sheepshead Bay these are called
elopers or double crabs. As the tide changes, the soft shell begins to
harden, when it is called “paper-shell,” shedder, or feeler. Before
reaching its normal condition, the crab is called a buckler, and is
only used as bait.


=The Care of Soft Crabs.=--Soft crabs require delicate handling and
much care. They deteriorate rapidly after leaving the water, and are
often killed in transit by the sudden jarring of the train. If a little
care is exercised, they may be kept alive from six to ten days. First
select vigorous crabs, remove them from the crate, and give them a
bath in water slightly salted. Clean the crate thoroughly, renew or
wash the seaweed which accompanies them. Strew over the bottom of
the crate a layer of the seaweed, and place the crabs in the crate
in layers, faces upward with side spines touching each other, and
alternated with layers of seaweed. When the crate is full, cover it
with more seaweed, sprinkle salt water over all, and set the crate in
a dark, cool place. Sprinkle salt water over them from day to day, and
renew the bath and fresh sea-tangle about every other day. Treated
this way, they will keep in the hottest weather. One of the principal
objects in covering them with seaweed is to keep the light from them.
Sudden flashes of lightning, if seen by them, would frighten them to
death. Their sensitive organization cannot even stand the rumbling
of thunder, and they should be stored away where they cannot hear it
distinctly. The only care required in cleaning them for the table is to
remove the feathery gill-like formations under the side spines, and the
sand-pouch. Soft crabs are too delicate morsels to cover with batter.


=Crabs, Soft-shell.=--These should be cooked as soon as possible after
being caught, as their flavor rapidly deteriorates after being exposed
to the air. Select crabs as lively as possible; remove the feathery
substance under the pointed sides of the shells; rinse them in cold
water; drain; season with salt and pepper; dredge them in flour, and
fry in hot fat.

Many serve them rolled in eggs and cracker-dust; but thus they are not
as good.


=Crab Croquettes.=--Take one pound of crab-meat; gently press out
the juice, and put it in a bowl with a tablespoonful of fine crumbs,
half a teaspoonful of salt, half a saltspoonful of pepper, a dash of
anchovy essence, the yolks of two eggs, and a very little cold water.
If the eggs are not enough to make it the proper consistency, bind the
ingredients together, and place on ice until wanted; then work into
corks or cone-shaped forms, dip them in beaten egg, then in crumbs, and
fry in hot fat.


=Crab Patties, à la Bechamel.=--Prepare the shells the same as for
oyster patties (which see). Put into a saucepan half an ounce of
butter, half a medium-sized onion minced, half a pound of minced raw
veal, one small carrot shredded; toss about for two minutes to fry,
but not to color; add two tablespoonfuls of flour, stir it about with
the vegetables; then add three pints of hot water, or if convenient
use hot soup-stock instead; add a pint of boiling cream. Season with
half a teaspoonful of salt and a saltspoonful of white pepper. Simmer
one hour, and strain into a saucepan. Add to each pint of sauce half
a wineglassful of cream. Simmer until reduced enough to coat a spoon;
strain it again into a crock, and whisk it until cold, to prevent a
thick top from forming. When wanted for patties, or any thing else,
boil one pint of it with an ounce of butter, whisking it thoroughly.
Prepare a quart of solid crab-meat, either picked from the shells or
purchased already prepared; add it to a pint of the sauce; strew in a
few shredded mushrooms: fill the crab-shells with this, and serve. On
fast-days, omit veal and stock from meats, and use milk instead.

[This very excellent sauce was named after the Marquis de Bechamel, a
worthless court-lounger and steward under Louis XIV. Why his unsavory
memory has been perpetuated by a gastronomic monument of worth, is
one of those inexplicable historical facts that students of the art
of cookery are continually stumbling upon. The close observer will
not fail, however, to discover that nearly all dishes named after old
French celebrities were stolen bodily from old Venetian and Provençal
books of cookery, and were re-baptized after some of the most notorious
profligates of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Many of these
old cook-books, like “Opusculum de Obsoniis de Honesta Voluptate,” a
volume printed at Venice, 1475 (the first cookery-book published), and
others, contain recipes almost identical with French cookery of the
past few centuries.]


=Crabs, à l’Américaine.=--Pick out the meat from the shells of four
dozen boiled hard-shell crabs; squeeze out the water gently; put the
meat in a bowl, and add the yolks of two raw eggs, salt, cayenne, and
a very little chopped parsley, and two tablespoonfuls of bread-crumbs;
roll the mixture into small balls or cakes; dip in egg batter, roll in
cracker-crumbs, and fry to a delicate brown. They may be served plain
or with tomato sauce.


=Crabs, Deviled.=--Pick out the meat of four dozen boiled hard-shell
crabs, put it into a bowl, and add a half-pint of mayonnaise. Mix
carefully with your hand; wash a dozen of the shells, put a little of
the mixture into each; grate a loaf of dry bread, season a pint of it
with salt and pepper, sprinkle it over the crabs evenly; make twelve
little balls of butter about the size of hickory-nuts; put one on top
of each crab, and bake in a quick oven.



SCALLOPS.


The scallop-shell is familiar to even the children who have visited the
seashore, and the novice wonders why so small a tidbit should require
so large a shell. The edible part of the scallop is only the powerful
central muscle by which the mollusk opens and closes its shell. The
medium-sized scallops are the best. The very large and very white
variety are more than likely to have been inflated and bleached by the
aid of saleratus.

Scallop-shells were extensively used in ancient cookery, and gave to
various dishes the prefix “scalloped.”


=Scallop Broth.=--The peculiar flavor of scallops is quite attractive
to the convalescent, and a broth made from them is nourishing; but
care should be exercised in selecting the shell-fish. To improve their
appearance, shippers add quantities of saleratus to the scallops, which
has the effect of bleaching them, and increasing their size: this
custom may please the dealers, but not consumers. Select medium-sized
scallops of a natural creamy color, wash them, and cut them into small
pieces. To half a pint of these, add half a pint of warm water and half
a pint of milk, a “pea” of butter, and a pinch of salt; simmer for
twenty minutes; strain and serve.

A pint of milk and no water may be used if the patient desires it.


=Small Patties of Scallops.=--Wash a pint of scallops, drain, cut
them up, and scald them; then put them in just milk enough to prevent
burning. Add salt and white pepper, simmer until quite tender, and
thicken with half a teaspoonful of flour dissolved in cold water. Pour
this mixture in small patty-shells (see recipe for oyster patties), and
serve after the soup and before the fish, or as an entrée.


=Fried Scallops.=--Rinse a pint of scallops in cold water slightly
salted, then dry them in a napkin, and dredge them slightly with flour.
Fry them in pork-fat. Egg batter and crumbs are not recommended.


=Scallops en Brochette.=--Drain twenty-four medium-sized scallops in a
napkin. Parboil them a moment. When cool arrange them on four skewers,
six on each, alternated with thin slices of bacon the size of the
scallops in width. Brush over the scallops a little melted butter, and
broil. When done, serve with tufts of watercresses and lemon.


=Stewed Scallops.=--Scald fifteen scallops, and put them into a stewpan
with half a pint of boiling milk, a dash of cayenne, and a saltspoonful
of salt. Just before serving, add very little table butter.



MUSSELS.


=The Mussel= is called the poor man’s oyster; but why the poor should
have a monopoly of this very useful shellfish, the writer is at a
loss to comprehend. During warm weather the spiced mussel is a treat:
it may have the honor of ushering in a family dinner instead of the
clam, and at collations and suppers it should be welcome. As they may
be purchased at from eighteen to twenty-five cents per quart, it is a
waste of time to pickle them at home, unless living at the seashore.



THE LOBSTER.


=Remarks on the Lobster.=--It takes a lobster about five years to
arrive at maturity, or over ten inches in length. The spawning season
depends upon the temperature of the water. Along the Sound, the season
begins in June, and ends in September.


=The Season for Lobster.=--Lobsters are at their best before the
spawning season. They are then filled with roe, or coral as the red
spawn is called by some. This is a great delicacy, and is highly
esteemed by epicures. After the spawning season, which is late in the
summer, they are in very poor condition, and should not be offered for
sale until cool weather.

The green part in the body of the lobster is called the tom-alley by
New-England folks. It is excellent eating.

The external spawn adhering to the tail of the female lobster, when
not highly developed, is edible, and is used in garnishing and making
lobster butter, paste, and cardinal-fish sauces.

It is a curious fact, that the lobster changes or re-makes a shell
from eight to ten times the first year, five to seven the second,
three to four the third, and from two to three the fourth year. So
says Professor G. O. Sars of Norway, about the European lobster, whose
habits agree more or less closely with those of the American lobster.


=Soft-shell Lobster not edible.=--After the fifth year the change of
shell is only annual. A soft-shell or shedder lobster, unlike the
soft-shell crab, is not edible, and if eaten is likely to produce
ill effects. In a soft condition the lobster itself is sick, and is
therefore unfit for food.


=Selecting Lobsters.=--Always select a firm shell, of a deep dark-green
color. Light-colored, thin-shelled lobsters are likely to be lean and
poor. When plunged into the boiling water, the joints contract, and
the tail draws under, provided the lobster was alive at the time of
immersion. If dead when boiled, the tendons are relaxed, the claws
hang loosely, the tail will not possess a spring-like tenacity when
straightened out. Select the former, and reject the latter.


=Value of the Lobster as Food.=--According to Professor Atwater of
Middletown, Conn., the nutritive value of the flesh of the lobster,
compared with beef as a standard and reckoned at 100, is 61 to 97.
Forty per cent of the lobster is edible, the remainder is shell and
waste.


Buckland says, “That phosphorus exists in large quantities, may be
easily proved. A lobster in hot weather, when it ceases to be fresh,
assumes a highly phosphorescent appearance when seen in the dark,
equal if not superior to that of a glow-worm or luminous centipede.
This light increases by friction.... The presence of phosphorus in the
lobster is of great importance to the consumers of these sea luxuries.
There is no substance which conveys phosphorus so readily into the
human system in an agreeable form, and which the system so readily and
quickly assimilates, as the flesh of crabs and lobsters.”


=Broiled Lobster.=--Select alive and active lobster not less than ten
and a half inches long. (If below this measurement, the dealer should
be arrested for breaking the law which protects the lobster.) Split it
in two lengthwise, which instantly kills it. Remove the entrail through
the fleshy part of the tail, and the crop or stomach near the head.
This done, there are two ways of preparing it for table. One is as
follows:--

Remove the flesh from the tail, and brush over it a little melted
butter or olive-oil; broil it gently, but not too well done. Heat the
shell, put the meat back in the shell again, add more butter, salt,
pepper, and serve on hot plates. The body parts may be boiled, and
furnish dainty pickings for a late meal.

The other way is that which is generally adopted by restaurants. Brush
a little butter over the entire half of the green lobster; broil the
shell side thoroughly first, then turn, and broil the other. Serve with
maitre-d’hôtel sauce.

A lobster that has once been boiled and then broiled is so thoroughly
over-cooked as to be very indigestible.


=Lobster Croquettes, with Pease.=--Boil one-half pint of milk, thicken
it with a tablespoonful of flour, and let it become cold. Mince the
meat of a one-pound can of lobster, or one pound of fresh lobster;
when very fine, add a saltspoonful of salt and half a saltspoonful of
white pepper. Moisten the lobster mince with the thickened milk, and
work the whole to a paste; add very little bread-crumb if too thin; let
it become amalgamated over the range, and place in the ice-box until
wanted; then shape it into neat rolls or cones; dip them in egg and
crumbs, and fry in plenty of hot fat. Arrange the forms neatly on a
dish, put round them a border of pease, and serve.


=Lobsters en Brochette.=--Instead of boiling the lobster-tails, cut
them in pieces, and arrange these on small skewers, alternated with
small pieces of bacon; brush melted butter over them, and either broil
or bake them; serve with sauce tartare (which see on p. 84).


=Deviled Lobster.=--Take two live lobsters, remove the tails, split
them in two, and make several incisions in them crosswise. Mix together
half a teaspoonful of salt, a saltspoonful each of dry mustard and
curry, and half a saltspoonful of white pepper, add a tablespoonful
of oil; mix, spread it over the lobsters, and broil them. When done,
return to the shells, which should have been kept hot for the purpose;
pour a little melted butter over them, and serve.


=Stewed Lobster, à la Créole.=--Remove the tail part of the meat
from three green lobsters; split them in two lengthwise; remove the
thread-like intestine. Melt an ounce of butter in a deep frying-pan;
add the lobster; toss it for a few minutes in the butter; add salt and
pepper and half a pint of hot water; cover, and simmer three-quarters
of an hour; drain, and reduce the water one-half by rapid boiling. Put
in a saucepan half an ounce of butter and a tablespoonful of minced
onion; fry brown, and add three peeled and sliced tomatoes, one sweet
pepper, four okra pods cut small, and half a teaspoonful of salt. Allow
these to cook fifteen minutes, add the broth, and simmer until reduced
to a pulp; rub through a sieve; put this _puree_ on a hot dish, place
the lobster on top, add a little lemon-juice, and serve.


=Curry of Lobster.=--Remove the meat from two boiled lobsters, cut it
into neat pieces; take all green fat and coral, and set them aside;
mix the green fat with a heaping spoonful of curry-powder. Squeeze
out the juice of three limes, and add to it half a teaspoonful of
powdered sugar. Put into a frying-pan an ounce of butter; when creamed
add a teaspoonful of minced onion browned a little; now add the mixed
curry-powder; dissolve a teaspoonful of rice-flour in cold water, add
this to a pint of hot water or soup-stock, simmer until thick; now add
the lobster, and simmer twenty minutes longer. Wash and dry the coral,
separate it. Prepare a border of rice on a dish, and over it sprinkle
the coral and eggs (if any); pour the curry in the centre, and serve.


=Lobster Salad.=--Take two live hen (female) lobsters; boil them
thirty minutes; drain. When cold, break them apart; crack the claws,
and if the tail-fins are covered with eggs remove them carefully.
Take out the sand-pouch found near the head; split the fleshy part
of the tail in two lengthwise, remove the small long entrail found
therein. Adhering to the body-shell may be found a layer of creamy fat;
save this, and also the green fat in the body of the lobster (called
tom-alley by New-Englanders), and the coral. If celery is used, tear
the lobster into shreds with forks; if lettuce, cut the lobster into
half-inch pieces. Place the salad herb in a bowl, add the lobster and
the fat, and pour over it a rich mayonnaise; garnish with the claws
and heads, tufts of green, hard-boiled eggs, etc. The lobster eggs may
be separated, and sprinkled over the mayonnaise. The coral is used for
coloring mayonnaise, and also butter, which is then used in decorating
salmon and other dark fish used in salads.



THE OYSTER CRAB.


The little crab found in the oyster is not, as commonly supposed by
two-thirds of the oyster-eating community to be, the young of the
blue crab; but it is a distinct species. It is a messmate of and
caterer to the wants of the oyster, being therefore a benefit instead
of a detriment to the latter. In return for the oyster’s kindness in
protecting it against its enemies, the little crab catches and crushes
food which in its entire state could not be taken by the oyster. A
singular thing in connection with them is, that all found inside of
the oyster are females. The male of the same variety is found in the
neighborhood, but its shell is firm.

Oyster-crabs are found at the grocer’s, put up in half-pint bottles,
which retail from 60 to 75 cents each. At the markets they are sold at
$2.50 per quart.


=To Serve Oyster Crabs.=--Put on a small saucer a crisp but dry leaf of
lettuce, and put in the centre of each leaf a scant tablespoonful of
the oyster crabs. Add a scant teaspoonful of mayonnaise to each, and
serve as a whet before a ladies’ collation, or at an afternoon luncheon.


=Oyster-Crab Omelet.=--This is a most tempting dish. Roll an ounce of
butter into little balls, dredge these with flour, put them in a pan,
and when they begin to melt whisk them; do not let it brown; add a gill
of hot water, and simmer until thick; now add half a pint of oyster
crabs, salt, and a pinch of cayenne. Beat up four eggs thoroughly, and
make them into an omelet; just before folding, add the crabs, and serve.


=Oyster-Crab Sauce.=--Add a tablespoonful of oyster-crabs to half a
pint of drawn butter, sauce hollandaise, or in fact any white or cream
fish-sauce, and serve with boiled fish.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT.

The writer is deeply indebted to Prof. George Brown Goode’s compilation
and reports of the “Fishery Industries of the United States,” for much
of the natural history of fish and shell embodied in this work.



SHRIMPS.


The common shrimp, which is caught in immense quantities along our
coast all summer, and used for bait, is a dainty which summer residents
should not neglect. When a shrimp salad is wanted, however, the servant
is sent to the nearest grocer for a can of Southern shrimp, and the
delicious morsel at their very door is used to feed the fishes. The
trouble seems to be, that servants dislike the trouble of picking them
out of their transparent shells.

Summer hotels would buy the native shrimp if fishermen would take the
trouble of offering them. No more appetizing or appropriate garnish for
lobster salads and for portions of boiled fish can be imagined than
the little home shrimp properly boiled. A plunge into the hot water is
about all the cooking they need.


=Market Price of Shrimps.=--Cooked and shelled shrimps are to be had
in our markets during warm weather, for from thirty to fifty cents per
quart. Canned shrimps retail for from thirty to forty cents per can,
and $3.50 per dozen. Rinse them in fresh water before using them.


=Shrimp Omelet.=--Toss half a pint of canned or fresh shrimps in a
little hot butter for a moment; add a little salt and pepper and a
tablespoonful of tomato sauce. Prepare the omelet, and just before
folding add the shrimps, and serve.


=Shrimp Sauce.=--Cut up the shrimps into halves, add them to a creamy
fish sauce of any kind; mix and serve.



PRAWNS.


Scientifically there is a difference between the prawn and the shrimp;
but it need not be considered by the housewife, except that the prawn,
that comes to this market from the South already cooked and shelled, is
larger than the shrimp, and a little stronger flavored.

The shrimps and prawns are found in salt and brackish water, while the
crayfish are inhabitants of fresh water.


=Curry of Prawns.=--Prawns are at their best served as a curry. Boil
two quarts of live prawns thirty minutes, drain when slightly cooled,
break away the shells, and set them aside. Put two ounces of butter
in a frying-pan; when very hot add a clove of garlic and one sliced
apple; brown slightly, remove the garlic, and add a dessertspoonful of
curry-powder mixed with a gill of water; stir, and add half a pint of
soup-stock and half a teaspoonful of flour; now add the prawns, and the
juice of half a lemon in which a lump of sugar has been dissolved. Pour
out on a hot dish, and send to table with rice croquettes.


=Prawns, Deviled, en Coquille.=--Simmer a quart of prawns fifteen
minutes in water flavored with a little sharp vinegar; drain, and cut
them very fine. Add two ounces of butter, a gill of water, salt and
pepper, the yolks of two eggs, and bread-crumbs to absorb the moisture.
Mix to a paste. Partly fill the shells, cover with crumbs, add a small
pat of butter to each, and bake to a delicate brown.


=Prawns, Sauté, à la Marengo.=--Wash one pint of “shelled” prawns,
simmer them twenty minutes, drain, and toss them a moment in a little
hot olive-oil; remove them, add a sprig of parsley, half a dozen button
mushrooms, a gill of hot water, salt and pepper, and thicken with a
little flour. Put the prawns on a dish, pour the sauce over them,
garnish with fried eggs and slices of tomatoes fried.


=Prawn Salad.=--Take one quart of prawns and one quart and a pint of
cut celery; put the celery in a bowl; add the prawns; garnish neatly,
and serve with a mayonnaise.



CRAYFISH.


The crayfish are inhabitants of fresh-water streams; and they bear a
striking resemblance to the lobster in appearance, spawning habits,
shedding their shell, etc. Their season begins early in the spring, and
lasts until cold weather. During a bountiful supply of these delicious
shell-fish, large quantities are packed away in ice-houses for winter
use, when there is a big demand for them from caterers who use them
as garnishment, and for salads and sauces. They cost from three to
four dollars per hundred in the New-York markets. Those that come from
Milwaukee are highly esteemed; and, as they are already cooked, they
may be used at luncheon, and on fast-days as salads. A crayfish salad
is an enjoyable dish.


=Crayfish Omelet.=--Rinse half a pint of crayfish tails in salted
water, and drain them; then split each tail in two lengthwise, and
remove the thread-like intestine found therein. Toss them about a
moment in a little butter and tablespoonful of broth or gravy; season
with a dash of cayenne. Make a four-egg omelet, and just before folding
add the crayfish.



SALMON.


=Salmon Steak.=--Put into fast boiling water, salted, a slice of fresh
salmon, and boil for five minutes quite rapidly; then set on back of
the range where it will simmer for fifteen minutes longer. Drain, and
place it on a napkin surrounded with a border of parsley. On the two
ends of the platter place slices of lemon. Serve with a sauce in a
sauce-boat. Drawn butter with a few prawns or shrimps cut up in it is a
nice sauce for salmon.


=Canned Salmon.=--The canning of salmon at the source of supply has
been of lasting benefit to mankind, for we are now able to procure
a pound of salmon in any quarter of the globe for a reasonable sum.
Canned salmon has one advantage over the fresh fish: it does not
deteriorate, and lose its flavor. Those who have tried it say they
do not get surfeited with canned salmon, although many of the same
individuals dislike the fresh salmon owing to its richness, and on this
account rarely eat it.


=Salmon Patties.=--This is a very nice way of serving salmon at
luncheon. Open a pound can of salmon, drain, add to the small amount of
salmon liquid sufficient water to make a gill, season it with salt and
pepper, and, if on hand, add a little anchovy paste. Beat up the yolks
of two eggs with half a teaspoonful of flour dissolved in a little cold
water or milk: add the gill of water, place it on the range to become
hot and thick, whisking it meanwhile; break the salmon into pieces,
and add to the sauce. When quite hot, fill the patty shells with it,
and serve. A very rich sauce may be made by the addition of butter and
cream.

The patty shells are made as follows: Roll out some very light
puff-paste, half an inch thick; stamp it in rounds with a three-inch
cutter, press a small cutter in the middle of each round to the depth
of quarter of an inch; put the rounds on a buttered tin, brush a little
beaten egg over them, and bake in a quick oven. When done, remove the
centre, scoop out a little of the inside, and the shells are ready for
the mixture.


=Salmon Surprise.=--Boil two quarts of potatoes with their jackets on.
When done, peel and mash them with butter and warm milk. Arrange a
border of potatoes on a flat, oval dish. In the centre of this put a
pound of canned or cold salmon separated into neat-sized pieces, salt,
pepper, a very little mace, and a teaspoonful of chopped parsley; cover
the salmon with a layer of raw oysters; add a little oyster-liquor,
cover the oysters with a thin smooth layer of mashed potato, and brush
the beaten yolk of egg over all. Then make a small hole in the centre,
and place the dish in an oven hot enough to brown the outside quickly.


=Salmon à la Créole.=--Scald and put three large tomatoes to simmer
in very little water, until tender: chop up very fine a sweet Spanish
pepper and quarter of an onion; fry these in a little bacon fat; add
the tomato, salt, and little white pepper. Simmer until reduced to a
pulp. Open a pound can of salmon; set the can in a saucepan half full
of hot water, turn the salmon out on a dish. When it is quite hot, pour
the pulp over it, and serve. Canned tomatoes may be used instead of
fresh tomatoes.


=Salmon Pie.=--Cut up four boiled potatoes into neat pieces; cut half
a pound of boiled salt pork into dice; divide a pound of canned salmon
into symmetrical pieces; roll out quarter of a pound of puff-paste, cut
it into squares, and roll each of these into a little ball. Arrange
these ingredients alternately in a deep yellow dish, season with salt
and pepper, add hot water or gravy to prevent burning, cover the top
with paste, make a hole in the centre, and bake in a moderate oven.


=Salmon in Jelly.=--Take one gallon of clear soup, and boil it down to
a quart. Soak a teaspoonful of gelatine in cold water, and add to the
reduced soup to make sure that it will be stiff when cold.

Take a two-quart tin mould, set it on ice, and pour enough of the
liquid in it to cover the bottom. Let this become firm. Cut into
slices, and then into diamonds, boiled beets, white turnips, and cold
boiled tongue; dip each into the liquid, and place them in the mould
in a very neat and artistic manner; when they become firm, spread over
them a layer an inch thick, of cream-mashed potato; now add a pound of
canned salmon, and pour round the edges and on top the remainder of the
reduced soup, and set the mould in a very cold place to become firm.
When wanted, dip the mould into hot water quickly, and turn it out.
This is an excellent dish for collations, wedding breakfasts, etc. The
potato must be made rich with butter and milk, and beaten to a light
consistency before being placed in the mould. Any other kind of cold
fish will answer quite as well as salmon for this and other dishes
herein mentioned.


=Salmon Omelet.=--Separate half a pound of canned salmon into flakes,
season with salt and pepper, a little lemon-juice, and add a little of
the liquid; heat it a little, whip up the eggs for an omelet, prepare
it as usual, and just before completing the fold add the salmon; then
turn it out on a hot dish.


=Salmon, German Style.=--Boil two quarts of sauerkraut; drain it, and
pile it on a hot dish; have ready a pound of canned salmon hot; make a
hole in the centre of the kraut, insert the fish, simmer and season the
salmon liquid, pour it over the dish, and serve.


=Salmon à l’Italienne.=--Boil half a pound of macaroni in water
slightly salted; drain. Heat a can of salmon in hot water; turn it out
on a dish; arrange the macaroni round it; pour over the macaroni the
contents of a pound can of tomato-pulp (hot), sprinkle over this a
little grated Parmesan cheese, and serve.


=Salmon à la Hollandaise.=--Heat a pound of canned salmon in the
original can; turn it out on a hot dish, garnish neatly, and pour over
it the following sauce: Cream two ounces of butter, whisk into it the
yolks of two beaten eggs, add a little salt and white pepper, and half
a teaspoonful of strong vinegar; put the pan in a larger one containing
hot water, whisk it until it thickens, and just before serving add a
little lemon-juice.


=Salmon, Hunter’s Style.=--One of the best dishes I have ever eaten
while hunting was prepared as follows: Take three one-pound cans of
salmon (save the liquid), and divide into neat pieces; make a dough
as for milk biscuits: divide half of it into little balls; take one
box of sardines; put a layer of sliced bacon in the bottom of a gallon
crock; add a layer of salmon, a few dough balls, two sardines, salt,
cayenne. Continue arranging in alternate layers until the ingredients
are all used; add a wineglassful of vinegar to the salmon liquid, and
if there is not enough add a little water; cover the top with the
remainder of the dough, and tie one or two thicknesses of white cloth
over all. Dig a hole deep enough to be lined with mud or stones and to
receive the crock; build a fire in and over it (the smoke will keep off
the mosquitoes). When reduced to coals, scoop out the ashes and coals
from the hole, cover the cloth with mud, set the crock in the hole,
and cover up with the hot ashes; let it remain three hours, and a more
satisfactory dish cannot be imagined.


=Bouillabaisse.=--This celebrated dish was immortalized by Thackeray.
Put into a frying-pan a gill of olive-oil, a clove of garlic minced,
a tablespoonful of chopped onion, two cloves, six peppercorns; when
slightly brown, add one pound of canned salmon and the salmon liquid in
the can; add a little salt, a bit of bay leaf, three slices of lemon,
a pint of tomato pulp, a pinch of curry-powder or saffron, a gill of
Rhine wine, with water enough to cover the fish: simmer twenty minutes.
Line a deep dish with toast, remove from the pan all seasoning in
sight, pour the contents of the pan on the toast, and serve.



CODFISH.


=Boiled Codfish, Oyster Sauce.=--The only thing that can be urged
against this most excellent fish is its homely name. Were it not so
cheap, its good qualities would rapidly find favor at all gastronomic
entertainments where palate-pleasing dishes are appreciated. Put the
fish into boiling water, slightly salted; add a few whole cloves and
peppers, and a bit of lemon-peel; pull gently on the fins, and when
they come out easily the fish is done. Arrange neatly on a folded
napkin, garnish, and serve with oyster sauce. Take six oysters to every
pound of fish, and scald them in a half-pint of hot oyster liquor; take
out the oysters, and add to the liquor, salt, pepper, a bit of mace,
and an ounce of butter; whip into it a gill of milk, containing half of
a teaspoonful of flour. Simmer a moment; add the oysters, and send to
table in a sauce-boat.

A four-pound fish should cook in about forty minutes.


=Codfish Tongues.=--Wash four codfish tongues thoroughly in cold water;
put them on the range in hot water, slightly salted, and boil thirty
minutes; drain; arrange neatly on a folded napkin placed upon a hot
dish; garnish with parsley and slices of lemon, and send to table with
cream sauce.


=Codfish Steak.=--Select a medium-sized fresh codfish, cut it in steaks
crosswise of the fish about an inch and a half thick; sprinkle a little
salt over them, and let them stand two hours. Cut into dice a pound of
salt fat pork, fry out all the fat from them, and remove the crisp bits
of pork; put the codfish steaks in a pan of corn-meal, dredge them with
it, and, when the pork-fat is smoking hot, fry the steaks in it to a
dark brown color on both sides. Squeeze over them a little lemon-juice,
add a dash of freshly ground pepper, and serve with hot, old-fashioned,
well buttered johnny-cake.


=New-England Codfish Balls.=--Shred the codfish the night before, and
soak it over night; drain quite dry on towel next day. Mash fine one
pound of hot boiled potatoes. Take an equal amount of codfish, and
divide it very fine. Mix both together, and add the beaten yolks of two
eggs, two ounces of melted butter, and a saltspoonful of white pepper.
Now beat the mixture until it is very light, for upon this process
depends the success or failure of the dish. In shaping them together,
do not press them any more than is absolutely necessary. Most cooks
press them into cakes so hard that it is next to an impossibility to
eat them. Dredge them lightly with a little flour, and fry them like
doughnuts in smoking hot fat. When properly prepared and cooked they
should fairly melt in the mouth, which they will do if thoroughly
beaten and lightly handled.


=Baked Cod.=--When purchasing a four-pound cod, ask your fish-dealer
to send you three “codfish-heads;” and as soon as the basket comes
into the house, rub a little salt on the fish, chop the heads into six
pieces each, and sprinkle a little salt over them. Place them in the
centre of the baking-pan (to be used as supports for the fish), with a
gill of water. Set the pan in the oven while you prepare the cod.

Soak in cold water until soft a sufficiency of bread to fill the fish;
drain off the water, and pound the bread to a paste; mix with it two
tablepoonsfuls of melted butter, two raw eggs, a tablespoonful of
Worcestershire sauce, with salt and pepper to taste. Put this stuffing
inside the fish, and sew it up; place the cod in the pan with two or
three pieces of butter on the upper side of the fish, and baste it
frequently; when it is cooked, lay the fish on a hot platter, and
garnish with fried oysters if convenient. Add a tablespoonful of brown
flour to the pan, a wineglass of claret; mix, and strain the gravy into
a sauce-boat. Time to cook, one hour.


=Salt Codfish with Cream.=--Soak one pound and a half of salt codfish
over night. Next morning set the fish to simmer for about two hours;
drain off the water, and strip the fish into shreds; place it in
a saucepan with a quart of milk and two ounces of butter; mix a
tablespoonful of flour with two tablespoonfuls of cold milk, and add to
the fish. Let the whole come to a boil; remove the dish from the fire,
beat up one egg to a froth, add it to the fish, stir, and serve.


=Scrod.=--Small codfish no larger than our tomcod are called scrod in
Eastern Massachusetts. After they have been corned over night, they are
broiled and fried.



BROOK TROUT.


Cultivated trout may be purchased at from sixty to seventy-five cents
per pound, and wild trout from twenty-five to thirty-five cents per
pound, after April first. There are many house-keepers who will not
purchase the latter, thinking that as they are cheaper, they cannot be
so good as the more expensive trout. Cultivated trout are only trout
in name and outside appearance, and no more compare in flavor with the
wild trout than chalk does with cheese. They are fattened (not allowed
to feed naturally) on cheap animal food that destroys all trout flavor;
and they live in artificial streams or ponds, acquiring a peculiar
swampy flavor which is decidedly objectionable.

The wild trout lives in clear running streams, fed from never-ending
springs; here he finds a beautiful supply of food furnished by nature’s
generous hand, instead of the refuse of the butcher furnished to his
more aristocratic brother. Besides being superior in every way, the
wild trout is always cheaper.

Shippers of trout often pack their speckled beauties in moss, which
injures their flavor materially; and the housekeeper is obliged to let
them stand in cold water, slightly salted, to extract the flavor of the
moss. This is a good plan to follow, by the way, when the trout are
frozen, as nearly all wild trout are in the early spring.


=Brook Trout, Sportsman Style.=--Clean and rinse a quarter-of-a-pound
trout in cold spring water; dry it in a towel. Cut half a pound of salt
pork into small pieces; put these into a thoroughly clean frying-pan;
fry out the clear fat, and remove the small pieces of pork. Rub a
little fine table-salt in the inside of the fish, and when the pork-fat
is smoking hot, add the fish to it; turn it three times before it is
done. When nicely browned, serve it on a hot dish, and send it to the
table without adding condiments of any kind. Should you be able to
procure fresh butter, a little may be put on the fish before it is
served, but it must be of the very best quality.


=Broiled Trout.=--The foregoing is a recipe for cooking trout
immediately after catching them. After they are brought to our city
markets from distant mountain streams, however, they are most toothsome
when broiled over a declining fire, and require a seasoning of salt,
pepper, and a little lemon-juice mixed with the sweetest of sweet
butter. Serve with hot plates.


=Brook Trout, Baked.=--Trout weighing a pound or over are best
when served baked, though many sportsmen will not listen to this
proposition. The outside of a large trout is almost ruined in broiling
before the centre of the fish is cooked. Do not split the fish down the
back. Take half a pint of fine grated bread-crumbs, and soak them in
a little milk; squeeze out the milk; add two ounces of table butter,
a saltspoonful of salt, half a saltspoonful of white pepper, the
juice of a quarter of a lemon, and the slightest sprig of thyme; add
the yolk of one raw egg; mix; open the trout just enough to clean it
properly; remove the gills (leave the heads on), fill the cavity with
the stuffing, and sew it up carefully. Put the fish in a tin, on top
of it place small bits of butter previously rolled in flour, place it
in a good oven, and bake with the back toward the hottest part of the
oven. The length of time it will take to cook properly is from twenty
to thirty minutes, very often a little longer, for much depends on the
temperature of the oven.


=Brook Trout, Boiled.=--To boil trout seems an outrage; but when
one receives a large quantity of them, and there is danger of their
spoiling if not immediately used, put four small trout properly cleaned
into a saucepan, cover them with claret, add a slice of lemon, two
cloves, four whole peppers, the least bit of mace, and a heaping
saltspoonful of salt. Simmer slowly three-quarters of an hour; remove
the saucepan from the range, and when cold take out the fish, put them
in a dish, and pour the boiled wine over them. Serve at luncheon or
collations.

The head, tail, and fins of trout should not be removed before cooking.



MISCELLANEOUS.


=Catfish, Fried.=--Catfish and waffles is a combination dear to the
hearts of Philadelphians, and the road-houses near that city are
celebrated for cooking them. Select the fish already cleaned, as it
is a troublesome job to clean them, and pick out the white instead of
the red catfish; rub a little salt along the backbone on the inside,
and let the fish stand over night. Next day dredge them with corn-meal
or flour, and fry in a little fat; sprinkle salt and pepper over them
before serving.


=The Tenderloin Trout.=--Large catfish are caught in Southern rivers;
and while they are fair eating, they are not popular with the whites in
the vicinity of New Orleans. The restaurant people, however, cut the
fish into pieces an inch square and about four inches long; these are
dipped in egg, rolled in crumbs, and fried and served as tenderloin
trout.


=Fricasseed Eels.=--Cut up three pounds of eels into pieces of three
inches in length; put them into a stewpan, and cover them with Rhine
wine (or two-thirds water and one-third vinegar); add fifteen oysters,
two pieces of lemon, a bouquet of herbs, one onion quartered, six
cloves, three stalks celery, a pinch of cayenne, pepper and salt to
taste. Stew the eels one hour; remove them from the dish; strain the
liquor. Put it back into the stewpan with a gill of cream and an ounce
of butter rolled in flour; simmer gently a few minutes, pour over the
fish, and serve.


=Eel Patties.=--Take three medium-sized eels, and cut them up into
inch pieces. Put them in a stewpan, add salt, and cover them with cold
water. When the water comes to a boil, take them off the fire, wash
them in cold water, scrape off any fat that may adhere, return them to
the stewpan with just enough hot water to cover them, and add a blade
of mace, a bay leaf, a few whole peppers, a few sprigs of parsley, and
one lemon cut into slices. Stew gently until the fish will separate
from the bone; remove the fish from the broth, pick it into small
pieces, and set them aside; reduce the broth a little, strain, and
thicken with flour and butter. Return the fish to the broth, simmer a
moment, fill your patties, and serve; make patty-shells as directed for
oyster patties.


=Stewed Eels, Hoboken Turtle Club Style.=--Cut into three-inch pieces
two pounds of medium-sized cleaned eels. Rub the inside of each piece
with salt. Let stand half an hour, then parboil them. Boil an onion in
a quart of milk, and remove the onion. Drain the eels from the water,
and add them to the milk. Season with half a teaspoonful of chopped
parsley, salt and pepper, and the slightest suspicion of mace. Simmer
until the flesh falls from the bones.

Fried eels should be slightly salted before cooking them. Do not cover
them with batter, but dredge them with just flour enough to absorb all
moisture, then cover them with boiling fat, as for doughnut cooking.
Many New England families use corn-meal to dredge them with instead of
flour.

Eels _en matelotte_, or sailor fashion, are appreciated by many. Cut
them into three-inch pieces, and salt them. Fry an onion brown in a
little dripping; add half a pint of broth to the brown onion, part
of a bay leaf, six broken peppercorns, four whole cloves, and a gill
of claret. Add the eels to this, and simmer until thoroughly cooked.
Remove the eels, put them on a hot dish, add a teaspoonful of browned
flour to the sauce, strain, and pour over the eels.


=Pan Bass, Anchovy Butter.=--During February, March, and the first part
of April, there may be found in market a variety of bass which much
resembles the Oswego bass. They come from the Carolinas and Virginia,
and are excellent eating. Let them stand an hour in salt water, then
drain and wipe dry, and fry them in tried-out salt-pork fat. Serve them
with a butter made as follows: Mix together a teaspoonful of anchovy
paste with a tablespoonful of sweet butter, and, if not objected to,
add a few blades of chopped chives.

The chive has the flavor peculiar to the onion family, but in a mild
form. It is cultivated by truck gardeners, and may be found on the New
York vegetable stands as early as January. The retail price at the
first of the season is ten cents a tuft; as it becomes more plentiful,
it is offered at five cents.

Placed in the kitchen, it grows luxuriantly,--in fact, it grows faster
than it can be used by a small family. This very useful herb should be
in the kitchen window of every home where soups and salads are rightly
appreciated.

The chive grows wild in nearly all of the Middle and Eastern States,
and the first green spot seen in our parks is more than likely to be
chives. Cows eat it, and their milk has a slight garlic flavor. The
garlic flavor in milk is decidedly objectionable; yet the early Dutch
settlers planted the chives in the pastures for the cows to eat,
thereby imparting to the milk this peculiar flavor.


=Fillet of Flounder, Tartar Sauce.=--Cut the flesh from the bone
lengthwise, and then cut each piece into strips an inch wide. Dip them
in beaten egg. Roll them in cracker-crumbs, and fry in hot fat enough
to cover them. This dish appears on our French bills-of-fare as _filet
de sole_. Serve with _sauce tartare_.


=Fried Tomcods.=--These delicate, sweet-flavored pan-fish are called
frost-fish by dealers, but the fishermen along the Hudson call them
“Tommies.” Whatever name they are known by, they are delicious morsels
when fresh caught. Clean them without removing the heads, dry them in
a napkin, and salt their insides, dredge them with a little flour,
and fry them crisp in hot smoking fat. Put the clean fish into a
baking-tin. Over each fish place a thin slice of bacon, add salt and
pepper, and bake them twenty minutes in a hot oven.


=Broiled Salt Codfish.=--Cut half of a small codfish into medium-sized
square pieces; split them in two, and soak them over night in cold
water. Drain, and dry them in a napkin, next morning. Rub a little
butter over each piece, and broil them. Place them on a hot platter,
and pour a little melted butter over them.

Drawn butter is sometimes served with this dish. It should be very
smooth looking, and have a starchy appearance. Divide three ounces
of butter into little balls. Dredge them with flour. Put one-fourth
of them into a saucepan, and when they begin to melt, whisk to a
smooth consistency. Now add one more of the floured balls, and whisk
thoroughly until incorporated with the first. Repeat this process
until all are used. When smooth and thick, stir in a teaspoonful of
lemon-juice, and, if liked, a little chopped parsley.


=Broiled Salt Mackerel.=--“I like salt mackerel, but it does not
agree with me,” is a remark often heard in nearly all classes of
society. Many imagine they can eat cured fish with the same degree of
recklessness and lack of regard for dietetic laws which they often
show in eating more digestible food. They soon discover, however, that
something is radically wrong; just where the blame rests, is a matter
they settle to their own satisfaction by declaring that salt mackerel
was not intended for civilized people, because they are unable to eat
it without experiencing disagreeable after-effects.

Salt mackerel is really wholesome food, but, like all cured food, is
not so digestible as when fresh: it is therefore necessary to restore
it as near as possible to its original freshness. This is done by a
thorough soaking in a liberal quantity of fresh water. There is no
danger of the fish becoming too fresh; if it does, it is an easy matter
to add fresh salt, which is much more acceptable than condensed brine.

In selecting salt mackerel, examine them carefully. If rusty in
appearance reject them, “for rust in fish, if I am not mistaken, is
as bad as rust in steel or rust in bacon.” Large fish are likely to
be poor and coarse; a medium-sized or No. 2 is the most profitable
provided the white or under part of the fish is fat. After soaking
thoroughly, rub a little melted butter or olive-oil over them, and
broil not too close to the fire; do not cook them enough to dry up all
moisture, as they would then be unpalatable. After broiling, plunge
them into boiling water for a moment to swell them,--this treatment
gives the fish the appearance of being fat,--place on a hot plate, add
a little melted butter, a dash of pepper, and finally the juice of half
a lemon.

To avoid the unpleasantness referred to, drink all liquids first,
before eating a mouthful of the fish; masticate the food thoroughly
and slowly, and the result will be surprising. Those who eat salt fish
alternated with mouthfuls of liquid must expect the oily particles to
rise up, and create a gastronomic disturbance.


=Fried Porgies with Salt Pork.=--The much-abused porgy is one of the
sweetest of pan-fish. Select four good-sized porgies, and clean them,
but do not remove the heads. Cut into small dice a quarter of a pound
of fat salt pork, fry out the fat, and when it is very hot fry the fish
in it. While they are cooking, broil four small thin slices of the
pork, and serve by placing them on top of the fish. Pork gives a more
delicate flavor to the fish than bacon.


=Fish Curries.=--Cold boiled or baked fish is simply a luxury when
warmed up in a delicious curry sauce. This dish may be served at
breakfast or luncheon. Americans are fast learning the usefulness of
curry-powders; as yet they demand a mild form of curry, and a little
flour is added to the sauce to tone down the pungency of the curry.


=A Plain Fish Curry.=--Fry an onion quite brown in a little butter or
oil, add a teaspoonful of curry-powder and half a pint of hot water.
Dissolve a teaspoonful of flour in a little cold water; when free from
lumps add it to the sauce, then strain; divide the cold fish into
flakes, and warm it up in the sauce.


=Curry of Scallops.=--Wash a quart of scallops in cold water, drain,
put them in a saucepan, and let them simmer gently one hour. Blanch two
ounces of sweet almonds, remove husks, and fry a delicate brown; drain
from the hot butter, and pound to a paste with a clove of garlic, the
grated rind of a lemon. Mix two teaspoonfuls of curry, a little sauce,
and an ounce of butter, put it in the frying-pan, and add gradually
one half-pint of the scallop broth and the almond paste. Now add a
pint of hot milk; simmer until the liquid is reduced one-third, add the
scallops, and serve.


=Curry of Crayfish.=--These may be purchased by the quart at all
seasons. They are already boiled. Prepare the curry sauce as above
described, add the crayfish, and serve with rice; over all squeeze the
juice of a sweet orange.


=Curry of Eels, with Rice.=--Cut into two-inch pieces one medium-sized
eel or two small ones; put them in a saucepan, and cover with boiling
water; add a little salt, a piece of lemon-peel, and a tablespoonful
of vinegar; boil slowly one hour, and drain. Cut up a small onion, and
fry it brown in a little butter; add a pint of the water in which the
fish was boiled, and a teaspoonful of walnut catsup. Mix together a
teaspoonful of flour with a gill of cold water, rub it smooth, and add
a teaspoonful of dry curry-powder. Mix, and add it to the pan, strain,
and return to the pan; then add the eels; simmer fifteen minutes, and
serve surrounded by a border of boiled rice.


=Curry of Shad Roe.=--Fry half an onion very brown in a heaping
teaspoonful of dripping; add a teaspoonful of curry-powder, and a few
moments later add a gill of hot water; simmer five minutes, and add
a teaspoonful of flour dissolved in a little water. When it begins to
thicken, strain. While preparing the sauce, boil two roes in water well
salted. When done, place them on a hot platter, and pour the sauce over
them.


=Curry of Frogs’ Legs.=--This is an excellent dish. Wash one pound
of frogs’ legs in cold water; brown one-fourth of an onion in oil or
butter; add a teaspoonful of curry and a pint of hot water; pour this
in a saucepan, and add the frogs; simmer an hour and a half, and drain.
Mix a teaspoonful each of rice-flour and curry to a paste, with the
broth; add salt to taste, and half a pint of milk. Place on the range,
and when hot add the frogs. Blanch two dozen sweet almonds; rub off
the skins, split them, and toss them about in hot butter; season with
pepper and salt; when done squeeze a little lemon-juice over them, and
send to table on separate dish with the curry.


=Broiled Weakfish.=--When freshly caught, this is an excellent fish
and well flavored; but it loses its flavor when kept on ice more than
a day, and the flesh becomes soft and spongy. In color the weakfish is
of a bluish-gray, with faint speckled back and sides, belly white, the
fins yellow. It is in season from May to October, and is best-flavored
in the latest two months of that time. Select a medium-sized fish for
broiling; see that the flesh is firm, the eyes bright, and the gills
a bright red, and free from a soft, flabby appearance. Place the
well-cleaned whole fish on the table or fish-board, back towards you;
make an incision close to the head, down to the bone; hold the head
firmly with the left hand, and cut the fish in two lengthwise, keeping
the knife close to the bone the whole length of the fish; remove the
bone. (The bone and head may be boiled a few hours, seasoned, and
the broth used in fast-day soups.) Cut each piece of fish in two,
crosswise; rub on a little sweet oil or melted butter; broil the outer
side first, then the inner side, and serve with this side upwards on
the hot dish; pour over the fish well-made drawn butter (which see).


=Baked Whitefish, Bordeaux Sauce.=--Clean and stuff the fish. Put it in
a baking-pan, and add a liberal quantity of butter, previously rolled
in flour, to the fish. Put in the pan half a pint of claret, and bake
for an hour. Remove the fish, and strain the gravy; add to the latter
a gill more of claret, a teaspoonful of brown flour, and a pinch of
cayenne, and serve with the fish.


=Halibut, Egg Sauce.=--Select a three-pound piece of white halibut,
cover it with a cloth, and place it in a steamer; set the steamer over
a pot of fast boiling water, and steam two hours; place it on a hot
dish, surrounded with a border of parsley; and serve with egg-sauce,
which is made as follows:--


=Egg Sauce.=--Cream an ounce of butter; add to it one tablespoonful of
dry flour, a saltspoonful of salt, and half a saltspoonful of white
pepper (black pepper spoils its color). Stir it briskly, and add half
a pint of hot water. Divide an ounce of butter into little balls, roll
them in flour, and add them one at a time; stir constantly, and care
should be exercised not to allow the sauce to brown or discolor. Chop
three cold hard-boiled eggs, and add them to the sauce; let it heat
thoroughly, and serve in a boat.


=Fried Butterfish.=--These flat, slate-colored little fish are
excellent when quite fresh; and as they are easily cleaned, they are
recommended to house-keepers. Fry them in tried-out salt-pork fat,
which gives them a very nice flavor.


=Broiled Shad.=--The secret of having the fish juicy, and at the same
time properly cooked, is to rub a little olive-oil over it before
broiling, and broil it over a fire free from smoke or flame. Charcoal
affords the best fire. The sulphurous fumes of hard coal injure the
flavor of the fish. When done, have ready a little sweet butter melted
and mixed with salt, white pepper (black pepper spoils the looks of the
fish), half a teaspoonful of chopped parsley to two ounces of butter,
and the juice of half a lemon. Place the fish on a hot dish, pour the
hot sauce over it, and serve with hot plates.


=Baked Shad.=--Broiling is, next to planking, the best way of cooking
this excellent fish; but a baked shad is not to be despised. Prepare it
as follows:--

Make a stuffing of soaked bread-crumbs, butter, pepper, and salt; place
it lengthwise in a pan; roll walnuts of butter in flour, and put four
to six of them on top of the fish; fill the space around the fish with
inch slices of raw potato, and bake forty minutes. When done, serve
potatoes and fish together.


=Shad Roe à la Poulette.=--Cover a pair of roes with water slightly
salted; add a tablespoonful of vinegar and a slice of lemon; simmer
twenty minutes, and drain; put into a saucepan an ounce of butter; when
it begins to melt, whisk it, and add the juice of half a lemon.

Beat up the yolk of one egg with a gill of cream containing half a
teaspoonful of flour rubbed free from lumps; whisk this gently into the
warm butter; keep it quite warm until it thickens, but do not boil, or
it will curdle. Pour it over the shad roes, strew over the top a trifle
of chopped parsley, and serve.


=Broiled Royans.=--These delicate little fish are excellent as whet at
dinner-parties, and may be served _au naturel_, or broiled, or served
on toast. Procure them from the nearest grocer, open the can carefully
to prevent breaking the fish, remove the skin, and broil them over a
slow fire; arrange them on toast, squeeze a little lemon-juice over
them, and serve.


=Broiled Sardines.=--When neatly prepared, this forms an excellent
breakfast or luncheon dish.

Remove the sardines from the can without breaking them; scrape off the
skin, place them between double wire broilers, and broil to a delicate
brown; arrange neatly in a hot dish, squeeze a little lemon-juice over
them, and serve. Orange-juice is very nice with the above dish.


=Broiled Smelts, Sauce Tartare.=--Thoroughly clean half a dozen smelts,
split them in two, place them on a double wire broiler, and broil. Send
to table with _sauce tartare_, which is made as follows: Chop together
a few sprigs of parsley, six capers, one small pickle, a piece of
onion as large as a bean. Add these to half a pint of mayonnaise, mix,
and add a teaspoonful of French mustard, mix again, and serve.


=Smelts Fried, Sauce Tartare.=--Clean six small smelts, leave on the
heads, dip them in beaten egg, roll them in fine cracker-dust, and fry
in very hot fat. Serve with sauce tartare.


=Broiled Whitefish.=--The whitefish is one of the best of summer fish,
but does not stand long transportation very well. See that the flesh is
firm, and free from flabbiness. Cut the fish in two lengthwise, remove
the backbone, divide each piece in two; brush over it a little sweet
butter or olive-oil, and broil over a moderate fire for ten minutes.
Place it in a hot dish, squeeze the juice of a lemon over it, add salt
and pepper and a tablespoonful of melted butter. Garnish with tufts of
parsley and thin slices of lemon, and serve.


=Sheeps-head with Drawn Butter.=--The Englishman who wrote the
extraordinary statement that sheeps-head sometimes sold for “four or
five pounds sterling in New York” may be pleased to learn that the
price for this excellent fish is fifteen to eighteen cents per pound
on an average, and that the best mode of preparing it for table is to
boil or steam it, although broiled sheeps-head is very good.

Procure a medium-sized fish, clean it thoroughly, and rub a little salt
over it; wrap it in a cloth, and put it in a steamer; place this over a
pot of fast boiling water, and steam one hour; then lay it whole upon a
hot side-dish, garnish with tufts of parsley and slices of lemon, and
serve with drawn butter prepared as follows:--


=Drawn Butter.=--Take four ounces of butter, and roll it into small
balls; dredge these with flour; put one-fourth of them in a saucepan,
and as they begin to melt whisk them; add the remainder, one at a
time, until thoroughly smooth; while stirring add a tablespoonful of
lemon-juice and half a teaspoonful of chopped parsley; pour into a hot
sauce-boat, and serve.


=Broiled Sheeps-head.=--Split the fish in two lengthwise, and remove
the head and bone, brush over the fish a liberal quantity of melted
butter or oil, then broil over a fire free from flame or smoke. When
done, squeeze the juice of a lemon over the fish, then add salt,
pepper, and a pat of the choicest table butter.



       *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber's note:

Obvious typographical errors have been silently corrected. Other
variations in hyphenation, spelling and punctuation remain unchanged.





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