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Title: The Author's Desk Book - Being a Reference Volume upon Questions of the Relations - of the Author to the Publisher, Copyright, The Relation - of the Contributor to the Magazine, Mechanics of the Book, - Arrangement of the Book, Making of the Index
Author: Orcutt, William Dana
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's Note.

A list of the changes made can be found at the end of the book.
Formatting and special characters are indicated as follows:

  _italic_
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THE AUTHOR'S DESK BOOK



OTHER BOOKS BY MR. ORCUTT

GOOD OLD DORCHESTER. _A Narrative History_

PRINCESS KALLISTO, _and other Tales of the Fairies_

ROBERT CAVELIER. _A Novel_

THE FLOWER OF DESTINY. _A Novel_

THE SPELL. _A Novel_

THE LEVER. _A Novel_

THE MOTH. _A Novel_

THE MADONNA OF SACRIFICE. _A Story of Florence_

THE WRITER'S DESK BOOK. _A Companion Volume to "The Author's Desk Book"_



                        The Author's Desk Book

_Being a reference volume upon questions of the_ RELATIONS OF THE
AUTHOR TO THE PUBLISHER · COPYRIGHT · THE RELATION OF THE CONTRIBUTOR
TO THE MAGAZINE · MECHANICS OF THE BOOK · ARRANGEMENT OF THE BOOK ·
MAKING OF THE INDEX · _Etc_

_By_ WILLIAM DANA ORCUTT _for many years Head of The University Press ·
Cambridge · Now associated with_ THE PLIMPTON PRESS · _Norwood Mass_

_New York_ · FREDERICK A STOKES COMPANY · _Publishers_ · MCMXIV



                         _Copyright, 1914, by_
                        FREDERICK A. STOKES CO.

                 [Illustration: FASCO _August, 1914_]


                          THE·PLIMPTON·PRESS
                          NORWOOD·MASS·U·S·A



CONTENTS


                                                                    PAGE

  RELATIONS OF THE AUTHOR TO THE PUBLISHER                             3
    Submitting the Manuscript--Publishing at the Author's
      Expense--Making the Contract--Contract Form--Moving-Picture
      Rights--Reports on Royalties.

  THE COPYRIGHT                                                       31
    How to Secure Copyright Registration in the United States--How
      to Secure Copyright Registration of Periodicals--How to Secure
      Copyright Registration of Motion-Pictures--_Ad Interim_
      Protection--Assignment of Copyright--Fees--The Duration of
      Copyright--The Protection of Titles--Application Forms--Practical
      Procedure--International Copyright.

  RELATIONS OF THE SHORT-STORY WRITER TO THE MAGAZINES                58
    Copyright--Practical Suggestions--Dealings with the Editor--The
      Literary Agent.

  MECHANICS OF THE BOOK                                               65
    Estimating the Manuscript--The Sample Page--The Typesetting--The
      Proofs--Proof Marks--The Plates--The Cover Design and the
      Illustrations--The Engraving--The Die Cutting--The Paper--The
      Presswork--The Binding.

  ARRANGEMENT OF THE BOOK                                             88
    The Layout--Bastard-Title--Advertising
      Card--Title-Page--Copyright--Dedication--Preface--Table of
      Contents--List of Illustrations--Introduction--Half-Title--Limit
      Notice--In General--Basic Sizes of Books--English Paper
      Sizes--Margins.

  MAKING THE INDEX                                                    98
    What to Index--Plan--Definition of
      Terms--Procedure--Arrangement--Adjective-Headings--Subject-
      Matter--Rules and Examples.

  GLOSSARY OF TERMS                                                  131

  INDEX                                                              153



THE AUTHOR'S DESK BOOK



RELATIONS OF THE AUTHOR TO THE PUBLISHER


THERE is much which is intangible in the relations between an author
and his publisher. While it is true that modern commercialism has
invaded this field as it has all others, there are probably no actual
business relations more dependent upon mutual confidence than those
which exist between the writer who produces a manuscript which he
wishes to have published, and a publisher who wishes to secure for
the purpose of publication a manuscript which he believes to contain
elements of probable success. This is due to many reasons, the first
and most important of all being that each is in a position to add
to his reputation and success by the efforts of the other. Many a
publisher has by legitimate and judicious business sagacity established
the reputation of a previously-unknown author; many an author has
placed a small publishing-house in a position of importance, or added
to the fame of a house already established.

Another reason for these closely-identified interests is the fact
that the average writer is not experienced in business matters,
but relies largely upon the integrity of the publisher to whom he
intrusts himself. For the same reason, the publisher feels an added
responsibility to protect the interests of the author, realizing the
fact that he has been placed in the position of agent, to conduct
affairs in the joint interests of both. Even if there have been cases
where this confidence has been misplaced, they are exceptions which do
not affect the general statement.

The fact that the average author is not versed in business detail has
brought into being the literary agent,[1] who offers to stand between
the author and his so-called natural enemy, the publisher. There is no
doubt that frequently the efforts of these literary agents result in
temporary pecuniary advantage to the author, but the common consensus
of opinion is that in the long run the author will best serve his own
ends by co-operating with his publisher, rather than by employing any
intermediary. Confidence begets confidence, and fair play invites a
personal interest which is an asset, the value of which cannot be
over-estimated. When a manuscript has been offered competitively, and
is finally secured by the highest-bidding publisher, it by no means
follows that the net returns from this contract will exceed or equal
what the author might have received through some other publisher,
better equipped to sell it, who would have taken a pride far beyond
mere commercial advantage in making it a successful venture.

Take, for example, the question of advertising. If a publisher issues
a volume written by an author whose later work is likely to be given
to another house, he realizes that whatever investment he makes must
be charged off against this particular book. On the other hand, if he
feels that the author's relations are such as to make it probable that
the present publisher will have an opportunity to share in his later
success, then it is good business for him to invest a larger sum in
advertising the _author_ than he could possibly afford to expend upon
any single _book_. Here again is the mutual interest. The author's
reputation rests in a large measure in the hands of his publisher, and
he shares equally in any advantage which accrues to the publisher from
the publicity which comes to both.

From still another standpoint, the author can secure material
assistance from intimate relations with his publisher. Many a novel
owes its success to the advice given by the editorial staff of the
publishing-house. Many a strong story would never have reached its
audience because of mechanical or structural defects, which the
publisher helped to overcome. There have been instances of unwise
editorial advice, and of undue pressure brought to bear upon the author
to the detriment of his literary production, but these cases are rare
compared with those of helpful assistance, which every successful
writer will gratefully acknowledge he has received from his publisher.
In general, the publisher is a wise person in his own field, and as the
ultimate success of a book depends upon its sale, his advice is usually
based upon a knowledge and an experience which the author cannot
possess. To make his business a success, the publisher, as well as the
author, must interject his own personality, this expression taking the
form of personal suggestions, of determining the physical aspect of the
volume, of selecting the artist, of arranging methods of publicity, and
of making plans for interesting the retail booksellers.

Few publishers depend upon the judgment of their "readers" to the
extent of accepting or declining manuscripts wholly upon their
opinions. It is inevitable that a large proportion of the manuscripts
submitted should be culled out and discarded by the professional
reader without ever reaching the final court of appeal. These readers
consider each story from two distinct standpoints: (1) Has the author
a real story to tell? and (2) How well has the story been told? If the
manuscript fails to stand the test of the first question, its doom is
sealed at that point; if it passes through this test, even though it
fails in the second, it will be referred to the publisher for a final
reading, with the critic's comments affixed to it.

It is remarkable how many manuscripts in this state are actually read
by the publisher himself, in view of the countless other details which
naturally devolve upon him; but here is where he recognizes the first
claim upon his personality. His viewpoint differs from that of his
reader only in that it has narrowed down to three main questions which
he demands of each manuscript: (1) Does it conform to the standards of
the house? (2) To what and how large an audience will it appeal? (3)
Will the probable returns warrant the initial investment?

Having settled these points in his mind, the publisher will further
consider the literary value of the story. If the plot is strong and
original but clumsily constructed, he will discuss the situation
frankly with the author, and will advise him to rewrite such portions
as demand revision. Many a successful author has learned how to tell
his story through his publisher's assistance, and owes his present
reputation to the fact that some publisher discovered in his early,
amateurish efforts the germs of strength and originality, almost
smothered by structural faults.

After the manuscript is ready for the printer, it is the publisher's
function to decide upon its physical aspect, combining business
judgment and personal taste in producing a volume in keeping with
its content, and in such a dress as to attract to it that class of
bookbuyers who are influenced by its attractiveness. Nowhere, perhaps,
is the fickleness of the public shown more than in the taste displayed
by this class of buyers, and styles obtain in this as much as in
millinery or in dress.

With the plan of the building of the book determined, the publisher
undertakes to create a demand, first from the booksellers and later
from the public. The traveling salesman is the usual means to
accomplish the first end. He makes his regular trips at stated seasons,
covering the entire country, carrying with him "traveler's dummies,"
which usually consist of a stamped cover of each book, inside of
which are fastened representative pages and proofs of illustrations.
From these samples, the salesmen take their "advance orders," and the
publisher usually awaits the tabulation of these before deciding upon
the size of his first edition.

Other methods are employed in addition to these, varying with the
ingenuity of each publisher: such as the sending out to the booksellers
of advance copies or sheets, writing special letters, giving synopses
of the stories, etc., all of which advance preparation requires time
and thought. Authors sometimes become impatient over what seems to them
to be unwarranted delays, when in reality the publisher is serving
their interests as well as his own by creating a market before actually
placing the book on sale.

To create a demand on the part of the public is as difficult in
marketing books as any other commodity. Advertising helps, of course,
but as to the amount, nature, and method of advertising, each
publisher has his own ideas. Each author naturally regards his own work
as deserving of the maximum publicity, but the publisher is obliged
to consider his list as a whole. If he thinks it wise to invest a
large sum in advertising a particular story, it is because he believes
that story to possess an appeal to the public sufficient to warrant
this investment. His judgment may be wrong, and often is. The book
he depends upon does not respond as he expects, and some other book,
in which he did not have as much confidence, for some unknown reason
suddenly shows unexpected strength. But the publisher has been honest
in his attempt, even though faulty in his judgment, and the author who
recognizes this in his attitude to his publisher will go far toward
cementing the bonds of co-operation which inevitably bring success to
those writers who actually possess, the genius to demand it.

The fact that one author's contract differs from another's cannot be
taken as evidence that the publisher has not fulfilled his entire
responsibility to both. An author without an established reputation has
no right to expect as attractive a contract as one whose name is of
known value to the publisher's list.


SUBMITTING THE MANUSCRIPT

The enormous number of manuscripts with which the publisher is deluged
makes it absolutely necessary, for self-interest, to submit typewritten
copy. Some houses make it a rule to return handwritten manuscripts
unread.

The manuscript should not be bound together in any way, but the pages
should be carefully numbered consecutively.

The best size of paper is the standard 8½ by 11, and the sheets should
be uniform in size.

The paper should not be shiny or slippery, as this affects the eyes of
the reader unpleasantly.

Each page should contain approximately the same number of lines, as
this assists the publisher in estimating the number of words, and in
determining the probable size of the printed volume.[2]

Always retain a duplicate copy of a manuscript, to prevent loss by
fire, theft or other accident. It is an undue responsibility for an
author to place upon a publisher to submit to him the only copy of a
manuscript in existence. If the manuscript be accepted, it is also an
advantage to have a copy for the use of the artist, etc.

Write on one side of the paper only.

Deliver the manuscript to the publisher flat rather than rolled or
folded.

Manuscript copy costs two cents an ounce for mailing; when mailed with
proof it costs one-half cent an ounce.

In fastening one piece of paper to another, or in fastening addenda
upon pages already written, use mucilage rather than pins or clips.

Be sure that the author's name and address are plainly marked upon the
manuscript. The usual location for this is the upper left-hand corner
of the first page.


PUBLISHING AT THE AUTHOR'S EXPENSE

It may be taken as a general statement that if a book possesses
sufficient merit to warrant its publication at all, a publisher can
be found who is willing to assume the entire risk of the expense of
publication. This statement does not apply to scientific, technical,
or special works which publishers are glad to have upon their lists,
but which must be subsidized from some source in order to make
publication financially possible. In the case of a novel, the statement
has no exceptions. No first-class publishing-house will issue with
its imprint, at the author's expense, a novel in which it cannot have
sufficient confidence to warrant it in assuming the entire expense.

Frequently the unknown author, eager to secure the publication of his
work, is willing to make any sacrifice, or any terms, with almost any
house which is willing to assist him in accomplishing the desired
result. In fact, there are publishing firms who confine their
operations to the publication of manuscripts to be paid for entirely by
the writer. The general proposition is that the author assumes the cost
of publication, the publisher places against this his expense of doing
business, and the value--such as it is--of his imprint; and then author
and publisher divide the profits.

Unfortunately, it is the rarest thing that there are any profits to
divide; and the part of the whole transaction which is deplorable is
that the publisher must know in advance that he has, to a certain
extent, played upon the vanity of the author,--not so much, perhaps, in
what he has actually said to him, as in the fact that he has shown an
enthusiasm which leads the author to think that he has really produced
a "best seller." There is a legitimate fee for privately-printed books
if the author goes into the transaction with his eyes open, and accepts
the services of the publisher as an agent, allowing the publisher's
profit to stand as a return for services rendered.

Authors should be particularly wary of heeding solicitations from
publishing-houses for manuscripts to be published in this way.


MAKING THE CONTRACT

There have been several new elements, in recent years, entering into
the contract between author and publisher, which have made it a more
complicated business-partnership than in the past. It was not so long
ago, for instance, that neither author nor publisher would spend much
time discussing the clause relating to dramatization; for few novels
were then dramatized, and the chance of having this clause become of
importance was remote. To-day, however, nearly every author considers
his work teeming with potential dramatic probabilities, and the fact
that so many plays have been produced, based upon successful novels,
naturally leads the publisher to wish, if possible, a share in this
supplementary reward. In considering this clause, therefore, the author
must take into account the part which his publisher is likely to play
in advancing the interests of both along these lines.

The present stock contract of most publishing houses assigns the
dramatic rights to the publisher, but provides that the author shall
share in such profits as may accrue from the dramatization.[3] Just
where the division shall occur is a subject for discussion. It seems
a fair contention on the publisher's part that any interest in
dramatization comes from the popularity which a novel attains, and that
this attainment results from his energy and ability in placing the book
before the public as much as from the merit of the story itself. If the
author feels this position to be warranted, he will undoubtedly accept
an equal division; if not, he will insist that the clause be stricken
out.

The moving-picture rights[4] add a still more recent factor to the
consideration of the contract. The development of the moving-picture
business has been so rapid that the demand found both publishers and
authors unprepared for the unexpected, but no less welcome market for
what must be considered a by-product. And the possibilities of its
further extension are so unlimited that the returns from this single
source alone may easily prove of greater value than the original right
to publish the novel. Here, then, is a point which could never have
appeared in the old-time contract, yet which now warrants the most
careful consideration.

The serial rights[4] have long formed a definite clause to be included
or omitted. Often the publisher's contract is not made until after the
serial publication of the story has been arranged, in which case it is
naturally an entirely independent business transaction. Frequently,
however, the publisher places the story serially for the author,
arranging his own date of publication to conform. Obviously, under
these conditions, the publisher is entitled to share in the returns
from the serialization.

The "second serial rights" represent still another phase. It is the
custom for publishers to sell these rights to newspapers, and to
receive their pay not in cash but in advertising space, since by so
doing they receive more than they could get for a fair equivalent
in cash. This second serialization does not ordinarily take place
until a story has had its sale, and its appearance in this cheaper
form is not supposed to affect the author's royalties one way or the
other. The advertising space thus secured is used not to advertise
the story so serialized, but other, later books issued by the same
house. The publisher usually credits the author's royalty account with
an arbitrary sum, equivalent in his estimation to the value of the
transaction. Few contracts contain any clause covering this point. The
publisher argues that the author, in all probability, could not have
disposed of these rights at any price, and that whatever amount he
receives is clear gain.

The contracts of various publishing-houses differ in their clauses
covering "author's alterations," which include all changes made from
the original manuscript as delivered to the printer. Some publishers
allow a flat sum of $25[5]; others allow 10% of the printer's bill for
composition and electrotyping. The average author cannot understand
the expense of making changes after the manuscript has been put in
type, and this point is one of the most disagreeable features which
creep into the relations between author and publisher. It is inevitable
that certain changes should be required when the author sees his work
reduced to the rigidity of type, but the publisher should certainly
not be expected to pay the penalty for elaborate changes which are the
results of the author's carelessness or change of heart.[6]

The rate of royalty depends upon the value of the author's name to the
publisher's list, but the normal rate is 10% of the retail price.[7]
Some publishers demand that the first thousand copies shall be exempt
from royalty, but this is looked upon to a certain extent as taking
advantage of the author's lack of reputation. The best houses, if they
are willing to publish a book at all, are willing to take the whole
risk, allowing the author returns on every copy sold.

On fiction, the rate goes up from 10% to 33⅓%, but at this latter rate
the publisher is giving the author more than he can afford, hoping to
make up for his plunge by the impetus which this fortunate author's
name will give to the balance of the list. Broadly speaking, 20% is the
maximum a publisher can afford to pay, and then only on a book which
is practically certain to win a place among the best sellers. A method
which seems fair to all concerned is what is called the "progressive
royalty." This gives the author say 10% on the first ten thousand
copies, 15% upon the next ten thousand, and 20% upon all copies sold
over twenty thousand. An arrangement such as this gives the publisher
an opportunity to charge off all his initial expenses of manufacture,
and to be liberal in his advertising appropriations in extending and
continuing the sale of the book.

The royalty upon common-and high-school textbooks is normally 7½% to
10%, but as the publisher frequently makes special prices to secure
large adoptions, the rate may be less. Special clauses are usually
inserted into contracts made with authors of books of this nature, to
cover these contingencies. College textbooks command 10% to 15%.

The clause relating to English rights[8] is unimportant to the average
American author, for American stories do not as a rule sell well in
England. As a leading English publisher once jocosely told the writer:
"The average American novel deals either with society or sport, and
we in England don't think you know much about either in America." If,
however, the author believes his book has a chance, in all probability
the publisher will strike out the clause, and give him a free hand to
make his arrangements direct. The question of Colonial rights should
not be overlooked, as these sometimes prove to be of greater value
than the English rights themselves.

The "option" clause,[9] giving the publisher the refusal of subsequent
books, is one which every publisher is glad to have, as it binds him
to nothing and may prove of value if the earlier story of the author
is successful. On general principles, it is the part of wisdom, in any
contract, to make no agreement which does not bind both parties. An
author should consider the probable advantage to himself in having the
publisher feel sufficiently certain of retaining him upon his list to
warrant the expenditure of larger sums, in advertising and in pushing
the book in hand, than would be safe if the author were free to take
his next manuscript to another publisher.

The present writer is a strong believer in the advantage to the author
of remaining on a single publisher's list, provided the publisher has
shown himself to be enterprising, and inclined to advance the author's
interests simultaneously with his own. There are unquestionably many
instances where an author can secure larger royalties by "shopping
around," but in the long run better results will come from a
consideration of the bonds between author and publisher in the light
of a business partnership, not to be broken while relations remain
amicable.

At present there is no uniform book contract used by all publishers.
The blank contract form here given is that used by a reputable
publishing-house. As a matter of fact, no present contract of any
publisher is wholly satisfactory, and it is interesting to note that
the subject of contract is one which the leading houses are taking up
seriously with a view to standardization and improvement.


=Contract form:=

MEMORANDUM OF AGREEMENT made this ... day of ..., 19..., between ...,
party of the first part (hereinafter called the Author), and ... of
..., party of the second part (hereinafter called the Publishers),
WITNESSETH: That

WHEREAS the said ... is the author and proprietor of a work entitled
... (hereinafter called "the Work"), and desires that the same be
published and put on the market by the said ...,

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and of One Dollar to
each in hand paid by other, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged,
the parties hereto do covenant and agree as follows:--

FIRST: The Author hereby bargains, sells, grants, conveys, transfers
and sets over unto the said ... the sole and exclusive[10] right
and privilege to print, publish and put on the market the said
Work, during the whole term of its copyright and all the renewals
thereof in the United States of America and in the Dominion of
Canada and elsewhere[10]; the Publishers shall also have all rights
of translation, abridgment, dramatization, moving-picture rights,
selection, and other rights of, in, or to said Work in the United
States of America and in the Dominion of Canada and elsewhere.[11]

SECOND: The Author hereby guarantees

I. That he is the legal author and sole proprietor of the said Work
hereinabove mentioned, and that he has the sole and exclusive right to
dispose of the same.

II. That the said Work has not heretofore been published, and that it
is in no way a violation of any existing copyright, either in whole or
in part, and that it contains nothing of a scandalous, an immoral or
libelous nature.

THIRD: The Author covenants and agrees

(_a_) That he will keep the Publishers safe, whole and harmless from
all damage, hurt and expense of every nature, kind, and description
whatsoever arising from any claims of infringement of copyright or from
any matter or thing contained in said Work.

(_b_) That he will deliver to the Publishers full and complete
manuscript of said Work, on or before the ... day of ..., and that
he will pay all expenses for corrections[12] in plates after last
proof from type, whether page or galley, has been corrected by him and
such corrections carried out by the compositors. The manuscript thus
given to the Publishers shall be final revised "copy." In this regard
it is understood that in case, because of danger of serious delay in
publication or of the loss of copyright, opportunity is not given
the Author to read proof as hereinbefore provided, the cost of plate
corrections not necessitated by typographical errors shall still be
borne by the Author, unless delay in sending proofs from type is due
to gross negligence on the part of the Publishers. If the Publishers
are required by the Author to make corrections or alterations in the
type (not necessitated by typographical errors) costing in excess of
twenty-five dollars, the Author agrees to pay the excess of cost.

(_c_) That he will give to the Publishers the first refusal of the
next[13] ... to be written by him, hereby granting to the said
Publishers, on the same terms as those of this contract, an option on
the publication thereof for ... days after the manuscript shall have
been delivered to them.

(_d_) That he will take or cause to be taken all necessary steps to
effect renewals of copyright as provided for by law.

FOURTH: The Publishers hereby covenant and agree

I. To copyright[14] the said Work in the United States of America
in the name of the Publishers, and to take all usual precautions to
protect the same.

II. To publish said Work and put the same on the market at their own
expense, in such style and manner as they shall deem expedient, and
at such time or times as they shall see fit, it being understood that
the advertising, the number and destination of free copies, and each
and every detail as to manufacture and publication shall be in the
exclusive control of the Publishers.

III. To pay to the Author[15] ... per cent. on the catalogue (retail)
price, regular cloth style, for all copies of said Work actually sold
by them, which shall be construed as not including copies given to the
Author, travelers' samples, damaged copies, copies given away for the
purpose of aiding the sale of the Work, copies sold at or below cost,
where falling off in profitable sales in any style of binding requires
this, or copies sold at a catalogue (retail) price of fifty cents or
less, or copies sold in foreign countries.[13]

IV. To pay upon all copies of the said Work sold and paid for at a
catalogue (retail) price of fifty cents or less, or copies sold in
foreign countries, one-half of the first above-mentioned royalty or
percentage on the foreign[16] catalogue (retail) price of the same.

V. To pay upon all copies of the said Work sold at "remainder" prices
(except when sold at or below cost) ten per cent. of the actual net
price received. Such "remainder" prices shall not exceed one-third of
the retail price of the Work.

VI. To pay to the Author the sum of ... on the ... day of ... in
advance and on account of the royalty or percentage to accrue to the
Author as hereinbefore specified.

VII. To give to the Author[17] ... copies of said Work, and to sell to
him further copies for his personal use at the trade[18] price.

VIII. No payment shall be made by the Publishers for permission
gratuitously given to publish extracts from said Work to benefit the
sale thereof; but if the Publishers receive any compensation for the
publication of extracts therefrom, or for serial use after publication
in book form, or for translations, or abridgments, such compensation
shall be equally divided between the parties hereto.

IX. If the publishers receive any compensation for rights of
dramatization, moving-picture rights,[19] or first serial rights, such
compensation shall be divided in the proportion of[20] ... to the
Author, and ... to the Publishers.

X. To submit statements of sales as of the second Monday in January
[and the first Monday in July],[21] on April 1st (and October 1st
respectively) in each and every year, and to settle for the same in
cash on the first of every May (and the first of every November),
respectively following.

FIFTH: It is further covenanted and agreed by and between the parties
hereto as follows:

_A._ If at any time during the continuance of this agreement the
Publishers wish permanently to discontinue the publication of
said Work, they shall notify the Author in writing, mailed to his
latest-known address, and for thirty days thereafter he shall have
the option or right to buy from the Publishers all copies on hand at
the cost of manufacture, and (should these not have been destroyed by
fire or otherwise) stamps and electrotype plates if any, at one-third
their cost to the Publishers, paying in addition for engravings of the
illustrations, if any, twenty-five cents per square inch of each plate,
and upon the failure of said Author to exercise this right or option,
by paying for the same in cash within said time, said Publishers shall
dispose of the same as they may see fit without any commission or
percentage whatsoever, and this contract shall forthwith cease and
determine.

_B._ If, after the publication of any edition of said Work, the plates
be rendered useless by fire or otherwise, the Publishers shall have
the option of reproducing them or not; and if they shall decline to
reproduce them, then, after the sale of all copies remaining on hand,
they shall, upon written request, reconvey to the Author the copyright
and all rights herein granted, and this contract shall terminate. No
insurance shall be effected by the Publishers for the Author.

_C._ The parties hereto hereby agree to settle all disputes and
differences under this contract by arbitration. One arbitrator shall be
chosen by each party to this agreement, and these two arbitrators shall
select a third, and the decision of a majority of the arbitrators shall
be final and shall be binding upon the parties hereto.

_D._ It is understood and agreed that the Publishers are not insurers
of manuscripts or drawings placed in their possession, and that they
shall be liable for gross negligence only in the care of the same.


It is understood and agreed that this instrument shall bind the parties
hereto, their heirs, executors, administrators, successor, successors
or assigns.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the parties hereto have hereunto interchangedly set
their hands and seals the day and year first above written.

IN THE PRESENCE OF

As to the Author

As to ...


MOVING-PICTURE RIGHTS

The tremendous development in the moving-picture business has
created a demand for dramatic films taken from long stories, or for
a reproduction entire of short stories, which offers an entirely new
and unexpected revenue to both publisher and author. Moving-pictures
have passed from the experimental period into an institution. The
reproduction entire of certain famous stories has given to the
enterprise a dignity which no one could have predicted, and the outlet
they offer for a by-product is considered perfectly legitimate.

All this produces new conditions in the relations between author and
publisher, and many new questions have arisen which neither one may
have anticipated at the time the contract was drawn. It is still
necessary to have interpretations of the laws governing dramatic
regulations, and of the rights involved.

It has been the practice of the moving-picture producer to buy his
plots outright, but with the new knowledge which has come to the
writers of scenarios and plots of the real value of these when once
assured of success, has also come a realization of the advantages of
making royalty arrangements instead of selling outright.

As far as the future is concerned, authors should familiarize
themselves with the various intricacies of this particular field before
signing contracts, making sure that the contract clearly defines
the exact basis of what they part with and what they retain, or the
percentage of ownership which the author holds in any one of the
various rights.

The following excellent summary is supplied by the "Authors' League" to
its members:

    "While the business of motion photography is by no means new, it
    is only within comparatively recent times that there has been a
    general demand for scenarios and plots. Within the last two or
    three years authors have found a new and unsuspected source of
    revenue in the sale of 'Cinema' rights to their short stories,
    and, although the returns were usually small, they formed a
    welcome addition to the writer's income. Prices frequently
    depended more upon the advertising value of the author's name
    than upon the character of the material, and ranged from $15 to
    $150; nevertheless, many persons not engaged in the usual forms of
    literary work have reaped a substantial harvest from that source.
    Until recently, subjects have been commonly confined to one reel
    of 1000 feet in length, but owing to the rapid development of
    the motion-picture business there has arisen a demand for more
    pretentious photoplays, for 'feature films' of multiple reel
    length, and, in consequence, many famous books and dramas have
    been, and are being, photographed.

    The demand is logical and promises to be permanent, hence the
    producer finds himself in need of good subjects, and the author is
    beginning to recognize his photoplay rights as something more than
    an insignificant by-product of his labor.

    It has been the picture-producer's practice to pay cash for his
    plots, but royalty arrangements covering 'feature films' are
    now being made. The latter method has its drawbacks, for, owing
    to the existence of a middle-man, it is more difficult for the
    photo-playwright to share in the full returns of his work than
    it is for the author of a book or play. The book-publisher or
    theatrical-producer distributes his goods directly to the public,
    and the author receives a royalty on the retail price of the book
    in the one instance, and on the box-office receipts in the other.
    The motion-picture manufacturer, on the contrary, does not sell
    his films to the theater or to the public, except in certain cases
    noted later, but to an 'exchange' or series of exchanges, which in
    turn leases to the exhibitor. Under this practice, therefore, the
    author receives a percentage only upon the rental or purchase price
    paid by the exchange to the manufacturer.

    The exceptions above referred to, under which the author may more
    nearly share in the full returns from his photoplay, is when state
    rights, foreign rights, etc., to 'feature films' are sold or leased
    for cash, without passing through the hands of the exchanges, or
    when the producer elects to exhibit his films in his own or leased
    theaters. It may be seen, therefore, that while a sale on a royalty
    basis is in some ways unsatisfactory from the author's standpoint,
    it is on the whole preferable to a cash sale.

    The exchanges are, in effect, circulating libraries, which
    distribute reels of film instead of books. The results are similar
    to those arising from the English library system, under which large
    book sales are almost impossible, and under which neither author
    nor publisher profits greatly from a book's popularity. There is
    this difference, however: the publishers of Great Britain do not
    own the libraries, while in this country the exchanges--at least to
    a great extent--are owned by the manufacturers.

    Since many writers are totally unfamiliar with the conditions
    of the trade, a word of explanation may be of value and avoid
    bewilderment. Broadly speaking, the motion-picture field is
    occupied by two factions--the 'licensed' manufacturers, with their
    own exchanges and exhibitors, and the 'independents.' The former
    are composed of ten producing firms, the patents and rights under
    which they operate being vested in a holding company--The General
    Film Company--which is the sales-agent for all regularly released
    films of the coalition, and has about fifty branches. These
    manufacturers make only 'licensed' films, and distribute their
    regular releases only through the general film company, which in
    turn leases exclusively to licensed theaters, of which there are
    about 10,000 in this country.

    The remaining producers, exchanges and exhibitors comprise the
    independents.

    When an ordinary film of 1000 feet is made, it is released for
    exhibition on a given date, and is then termed a 'first-run
    picture.' As it gradually wears out, this rental grows less, and
    in about six months it is called in and destroyed. If the subject
    is popular, reprints are made, and distributed as before. 'Feature
    films' comprising several reels are sometimes handled as previously
    noted. Foreign rights are most frequently sold outright."


    =Don'ts for Authors=

    "Don't give away your photoplay rights in selling a story for
    magazine or book publication.

    Don't include them in a dramatic contract without some clause
    similar to that governing stock rights.

    Don't sell them to the first bidder.

    Don't sell them for cash if you can secure a continuing interest in
    the film. It may be of value ten years hence.

    Don't decide that your story will not make a motion-picture. It may
    contain values which you do not see.

    Don't decide that your story will make a good photoplay until you
    understand something about the requirements and limitations of the
    business. Remember, every film must be passed by the National Board
    of Censors.

    Don't forget that your story must be told in pantomime.

    Don't turn your photoplay rights over to the stranger who offers to
    adapt and handle your stories for one-half the proceeds.

    Don't forget that you probably sold 'all rights' to your story when
    you signed that receipt.

    Don't sell the producer a right which you don't own, and make him
    buy it over again from the present owner. He won't like it."


REPORTS ON ROYALTIES

The methods employed by the various publishing-houses in keeping and
rendering their accounts with authors vary with each house, but all
publishers are alike to the extent of realizing that this end of the
business must be absolutely above suspicion. An unwarranted rumor, or a
clerical error, would raise a question which might affect the standing
of the house more than any other one thing. For this reason, the
royalty records of all reputable publishing firms are so kept that they
may be easily inspected if any question arises, and no objection would
ever be made to a request from an author to make an examination should
he feel that circumstances justified it.

The publisher recognizes that each author is, in a sense, his partner
in the production of a book, and as such is entitled to intimate
information regarding the progress of their joint enterprise.
Semi-annual statements are rendered, which are often verified by
certified reports from the publisher's printers and binders, covering
the number of copies manufactured and sold during each period. Some
publishers include a report of the number of copies distributed for
review or other advertising purposes; some do not. Some have these
reports checked by public accountants, who compare the statements of
sales with the bills for printing and binding and the inventories for
paper. But all these varying methods are based upon accurate, detailed
records, which are carried forward regularly to the author's account.

Payments upon these semi-annual statements are usually made four months
after they are rendered, making an average date of seven months which
the publisher takes upon his royalty account. On the face of it, this
seems too long a time, but those authors who are familiar with the
customs of the trade realize that the publisher is obliged to sell
to the jobbers and retailers on time, so that in this, as in other
portions of the undertaking, they are simply sharing the financial
necessities.



THE COPYRIGHT


THE matter of copyright is one which admittedly requires thorough
revision. No one seems able to explain why it is that in spite of
conferences and delegations, congresses and discussions, the product
of a man's brain is still at the mercy of regulations which even those
in authority are unable to define. As a matter of fact, the copyright
itself is merely a registration, which protects only in case the
claimant of the copyright possesses the rights he claims. The Copyright
Office does not undertake to pass upon his rights, leaving the question
to the courts in case of dispute. It simply records his claims, and
by this recording gives him certain rights provided his claims can be
substantiated. The statements here made, therefore, cannot be taken as
definitive, but are based upon information given out by the Copyright
Office, and upon the usage of the best publishing-houses.

When a publisher has accepted a manuscript, it becomes a part of his
duty to secure the copyright. Usually, this is taken out in the name
of the publisher rather than of the author, as the contract itself
is really a license to sell from the author to the publisher. It is
also the duty of the publisher to take all necessary steps to effect
renewals of copyright as provided for by law.[22]

For those who find it necessary to take out their own copyrights, the
following information is of value:

The copyright law provides that the application for registration of any
work "shall specify to which of the following classes the work in which
copyright is claimed belongs":

  (_a_) Books, including composite and cyclopaedic works, directories,
  gazetteers, and other compilations.
  (_b_) Periodicals, newspapers.
  (_c_) Lectures, sermons, addresses, prepared for oral delivery.
  (_d_) Dramatic or dramatico-musical compositions.
  (_e_) Musical compositions.
  (_f_) Maps.
  (_g_) Works of art; models or designs for works of art.
  (_h_) Reproductions of a work of art.
  (_i_) Drawings or plastic works of a scientific or technical
  character.
  (_j_) Photographs.
  (_k_) Prints and pictorial illustrations.

The Amendatory act, approved August 24, 1912, added the following two
new classes of works as subject to copyright:

  (_l_) Motion-picture photoplays.
  (_m_) Motion pictures other than photoplays.

A work is not entitled to registration unless it is reasonably possible
to classify it under one or the other of the above designations named
in the statute.

    ¶Compilations, abridgments, adaptations, dramatizations,
    translations or other versions of works produced with the consent
    of the proprietor of such works, or works republished with new
    matter, are regarded as new works subject to copyright.

An alien author or proprietor can be protected by our law only in case
he be domiciled within the United States at the time of the first
publication of his work; or when the foreign state or nation of which
he is a citizen or subject grants to citizens of the United States
the benefit of copyright on substantially the same basis as to its
own citizens; or when such foreign state or nation is a party to an
international agreement which provides for reciprocity in the granting
of copyright by the terms of which the United States may become a party
thereto.

    ¶Copyright protection is at present granted in the United States
    to works of authors who are citizens or subjects of the following
    countries: Belgium, France, Great Britain and her possessions,
    Switzerland, Germany, Italy, Denmark, Portugal, Spain, Mexico,
    Chile, Costa Rica, Netherlands and her possessions, Cuba, China,
    Norway, Japan (and Korea), Austria, Guatemala, Salvador, Honduras,
    Nicaragua, Luxemburg, Sweden, Tunis and Hungary.


HOW TO SECURE COPYRIGHT REGISTRATION IN THE UNITED STATES

=For works reproduced in copies for sale:=

1. Publish the work with the copyright notice. The notice may be in
the form "Copyright, 19... (year date of publication) by ... (name of
copyright proprietor)."[23] The date in the copyright notice should
agree with the year date of publication.

2. Promptly after publication, send to the Copyright Office two
copies of the best edition of the work, with an application for
registration and a money-order payable to the Register of Copyrights
for the statutory registration fee of $1.00. (As to special fee for
registration of photographs, see below.) The law provides "that of the
printed book or periodical the text shall be printed from type set
within the limits of the United States, either by hand or by the aid of
any kind of typesetting machine, or from plates made within the limits
of the United States from type set therein, or, if the text be produced
by lithographic process, or photo-engraving process, then by a process
wholly performed within the limits of the United States."

The law requires also that the postmaster to whom are delivered the
articles to be deposited in the Copyright Office shall, if requested,
give a receipt therefor, and shall mail them to their destination
without cost to the copyright claimant.

In the case of books, the copies deposited must be accompanied by
an affidavit, under the official seal of an officer authorized to
administer oaths, stating that the type-setting, printing, and binding
of the book have been performed within the United States. Affidavit and
application forms are supplied by the Copyright Office on request. This
affidavit is not required in the case of works in raised characters
for the use of the blind, or in the case of a book of foreign origin in
a language or languages other than English, or in the case of a printed
play in any language; as such works are not required to be manufactured
in the United States.

In the case of _contributions_ to periodicals, send one complete copy
of the periodical containing the contribution with application and fee.
No affidavit is required.[24]


=For works not reproduced in copies for sale:=

Copyright may also be had of certain classes of works (see _a_--_e_
below) of which copies are not reproduced for sale, by filing in the
Copyright Office an application for registration with the statutory fee
of $1.00, sending therewith:

(_a_) In the case of lectures or other oral addresses, or of dramatic
or musical compositions, one complete manuscript or typewritten copy of
the work.

(_b_) In the case of photographs not intended for general circulation,
one photographic print. (As to special fee, see next page.)

(_c_) In the case of works of art (paintings, drawings, sculpture), or
of drawings or plastic works of a scientific or technical character,
one photograph or other identifying reproduction of the work.

(_d_) In the case of motion-picture photoplays, a title and
description, with one print taken from each scene or act.

(_e_) In the case of motion-pictures other than photoplays, a title
and description, with not less than two prints taken from different
sections of a complete motion-picture.

In the case of each of the works above noted, not reproduced in copies
for sale, the law expressly requires that a second deposit of printed
copies for registration and the payment of a second fee must be made
upon publication.


=Fees:=

The statutory fee for registration of any work, except a photograph, is
$1.00, including a certificate of registration under seal. In the case
of a photograph, if a certificate is not demanded, the fee is fifty
cents. In the case of several volumes of the same _book_ deposited at
the same time, only one registration and one fee is required.


HOW TO SECURE COPYRIGHT REGISTRATION OF PERIODICALS

1. Publish the issue upon which copyright protection is desired,
printing therein the required copyright notice, before making any
application to the Copyright Office for registration. (As to the form
and position of the notice, see page 34.)

2. Promptly after the publication of each issue, send two copies
thereof to the Copyright Office, Washington, D.C., with an application
for registration (upon Form "B 1") and a remittance for the statutory
fee of $1.00, which sum includes the cost of a certificate under
seal. Such certificate "shall be admitted in any court as prima facie
evidence of the facts stated therein."

    ¶Publishers who desire to avoid the trouble of filling out a
    separate application form, and of making a separate remittance for
    each issue, may send in advance a sum to be placed to their credit,
    accompanied by a general application (upon Form "B 2"), requesting
    registrations to be made thereafter upon the prompt deposit in
    the Copyright Office of the copies of the successive issues, from
    time to time, as they are published. After this has been done,
    two copies of each issue should be mailed to the Copyright Office
    promptly after publication, with a slip (supplied in blank by the
    Copyright Office) giving the exact date of publication of the
    issue (i.e. "the earliest date when copies of the first authorized
    edition were placed on sale, or sold, or publicly distributed by
    the proprietor of the copyright or under his authority").

The statutory fee for the registration of any one issue of a periodical
is one dollar, including a certificate under seal as already explained.
Non-certificate, fifty-cent, entries are not permissible under the
present law. Each issue of a copyright periodical requires the payment
of its own registration fee of one dollar.


=Contributions to periodicals:=

Section 3 of the new law provides "that the copyright provided by this
Act shall protect all the copyrightable component parts of the work
copyrighted, and all matter therein in which copyright is already
subsisting, but without extending the duration or scope of such
copyright. The copyright upon composite works or periodicals shall give
to the proprietor thereof all the rights in respect thereto which he
would have if each part were individually copyrighted under this Act."
For regulations regarding _contributions_ to periodicals see page 36.


=Titles:=

The general title of a newspaper, magazine, or other periodical cannot
be recorded under the copyright law. The requirement of the former law,
that a printed title be deposited on or before the day of publication,
has been abrogated, and the deposit of the title in advance of
publication is no longer authorized. What the law now requires is that
there be deposited two complete copies of each issue, promptly after
publication.


=Remittances:=

All remittances to the Copyright Office should be made by money-order,
payable to the Register of Copyrights. No money (currency or coin)
should be placed in any letter or other matter sent to the Copyright
Office. Postage stamps should not be sent as fees. Private checks will
not be accepted unless certified.


HOW TO SECURE COPYRIGHT REGISTRATION OF MOTION-PICTURES

In order to secure registration of claims to copyright for such works
the following steps should be taken:


=Motion-picture photoplays:=

I. _Motion-picture photoplays not reproduced in copies for sale_:
Deposit in the Copyright Office, Washington, D.C., (1) the title of the
motion-picture photoplay; (2) a description of the work, preferably
either printed or typewritten; (3) a photograph taken from each scene
of every act. These deposits should be accompanied by an application
for recording the claim to copyright. For this purpose use Application
Form "L 2," which is furnished by the Copyright Office upon request.
Also send with the application the statutory registration fee of $1.00.

II. _Motion-picture photoplays reproduced in copies for sale_: When
the motion-picture photoplay has been published (i.e., placed on sale,
sold, or publicly distributed) with the required notice of copyright
upon each copy, promptly after such publication deposit in the
Copyright Office two complete copies of the work, accompanied by an
application for recording the claim to copyright in the published work.
For this purpose use Application Form "L 1," which is furnished by
the Copyright Office upon request. Also send with the application the
statutory registration fee of $1.00.


=Motion-pictures other than photoplays:=

I. _Motion-pictures other than photoplays not reproduced in copies
for sale_: Deposit in the Copyright Office, Washington, D.C., (1) the
title of the motion-picture; (2) a description of the work, preferably
either printed or typewritten; (3) two or more photographs taken from
different sections of the complete motion-picture. These deposits
should be accompanied by an application for recording the claim to
copyright. For this purpose use Application Form "M 2," which is
furnished by the Copyright Office upon request. Also send with the
application the statutory fee of $1.00.

II. _Motion-pictures other than photoplays reproduced in copies for
sale_: When the work has been published (i.e., placed on sale, sold,
or publicly distributed) with the required notice of copyright upon
each copy, promptly after such publication deposit in the Copyright
Office two complete copies of the work, accompanied by an application
for recording the claim to copyright in the published work. For this
purpose use Application Form "M 1," which is furnished by the Copyright
Office upon request. Also send with the application the statutory fee
of $1.00.

In all cases, the money order remitting the registration fee should
be made payable to the "Register of Copyrights." Send the title,
description, prints, copies, application and fee in one parcel,
addressed to the Register of Copyrights, Washington, D.C.

If any motion-picture has been registered as a work "not reproduced in
copies for sale," it must nevertheless be registered a second time if
it has been afterward published.


AD INTERIM PROTECTION

In the case of a book published abroad in the English language before
publication in the United States, the deposit in the Copyright Office
at Washington, not later than thirty days after its publication
abroad, of one complete copy of the foreign edition, with a request
for the reservation of the copyright, and a statement of the name
and nationality of the author and of the copyright proprietor, and
of the date of the publication of the book, secures to the author or
proprietor an _ad interim_ copyright, which has all the force and
effect given by copyright, and extends until the expiration of thirty
days after such deposit in the Copyright Office. Whenever, within
the period of this _ad interim_ publication, an authorized edition
of the book is published within the United States in accordance with
the manufacturing provisions specified in the American copyright law,
and when the provisions of the American law as to deposit of copies,
registration, filing of affidavit, and the printing of the copyright
notice have been duly complied with, the protection is then extended
over the full term.


ASSIGNMENT OF COPYRIGHT

A copyright may be assigned, granted, or mortgaged by an instrument in
writing signed by the proprietor of the copyright. No special blank
form for assignment is issued by the Copyright Office.


=Recording assignments:=

Every assignment of copyright should be recorded in the Copyright
Office within three calendar months after its execution in the United
States, or within six calendar months after its execution without
the limits of the United States, "in default of which it shall be
void as against any subsequent purchaser or mortgagee for a valuable
consideration, without notice, whose assignment has been duly recorded."

The original instrument of assignment should be sent to the Copyright
Office to be placed on record. A valuable document of this kind should
be forwarded by registered post.

After having been recorded, a certificate of record under seal of the
Copyright Office is attached, and it is then returned by post. If
the sender desires to have it returned by registered post, ten cents
postage for the post-office registry fee should be sent in addition to
the recording fees as stated below.


=Notice in assignee's name:=

When an assignment of the copyright in a specified book or other work
has been recorded, the assignee may substitute his name for that of
the assignor in the copyright notice. In order that this transfer of
proprietorship may properly appear upon the index of the Copyright
Office, a fee of ten cents (prescribed by law) for each title of a book
or other article transferred is required for indexing, and this fee
should be remitted in addition to the fee prescribed for recording the
instrument as explained below.


=Foreign assignments:=

Every assignment of copyright executed in a foreign country must be
acknowledged by the assignor before a consular officer or secretary of
legation of the United States, authorized by law to administer oaths
or perform notarial acts. The certificate of such acknowledgment under
the hand and official seal of such consular officer or secretary of
legation is prima facie evidence of the execution of the instrument.


FEES

The following schedule of fees, in addition to those already given, is
fixed by the statute:

1. For recording and certifying any instrument in writing for the
assignment of copyright, or any license to make use of copyright
material, or for any copy of such assignment or license, duly
certified, if not over three hundred words in length, one dollar; if
more than three hundred and less than one thousand words in length,
two dollars; if more than one thousand words in length, one dollar
additional for each additional one thousand words or fraction thereof
over three hundred words.

2. For comparing any copy of an assignment with the record of such
document in the Copyright Office and certifying the same under seal,
one dollar.

3. For recording the transfer of the proprietorship of copyrighted
articles, ten cents for each title of a book or other article, in
addition to the fee prescribed for recording the instrument of
assignment.


THE DURATION OF COPYRIGHT

The duration of the term of copyright is twenty-eight years. This term
may be extended for a further term of twenty-eight years by the author
of the work, if living, or by the widow, widower, or children, or, if
they be not living, then by the author's executors, or in absence of a
will, by his next of kin.

    ¶Application for this extension must be made to the Copyright
    Office and duly registered there within one year prior to the
    expiration of the original term.


THE PROTECTION OF TITLES

The cases which have thus far been settled in litigation indicate that
there is nothing at present in the copyright law which gives to the
author the exclusive right to the title of his particular work. There
may be any number of books or stories brought out by different authors
bearing the same title so long as each one is distinct and original.


APPLICATION FORMS

Applicants for copyright registration should use the application forms
furnished on request by the Copyright Office. A separate form should be
used for each work to be entered.

_Books_: For any new book printed and published for the first time in
the United States, use Application Form and Affidavit Form "A 1" if the
book is to be printed from type or plates made from type; if it is to
be produced by lithographic or photo-engraving process use Application
Form and Affidavit Form "A 2."

For a book reprinted in the United States, with new copyright matter,
use Application Form "A 2."

For a book of foreign origin in a language or languages other than
English, use Application Form "A 3."

For _ad interim_ copyright in a book published abroad in the English
language, use Application Form "A 4."

For the American edition of a book in the English language on which _ad
interim_ copyright has been previously secured, use Application Form
and Affidavit Form "A 1."

For a _contribution_ to a newspaper or periodical, use Application Form
"A 5."

_Periodicals_: For a periodical, if it is desired to make a separate
application and remittance as each issue appears, use Application Form
"B 1." If it is desired to file a general application in advance, and
to deposit therewith a sum to cover the fees for several issues, use
Application Form "B 2."

_Oral Works_: For a Lecture, Sermon, or Address for oral delivery, use
Application Form "C."

_Dramas_: For a published Dramatic Composition, use Application Form "D
1."

For a Dramatic Composition of which copies are not reproduced for sale,
use Application Form "D 2."

For a published Dramatico-Musical Composition, use Application Form "D
3."

_Music_: For a Musical Composition published for the first time, use
Application Form "E."

For a Musical Composition, republished with new copyright matter, use
Application Form "E 1."

For a Musical Composition of which copies are not reproduced for sale,
use Application Form "E 2."

_Maps_: For a published map, use Application Form "F."

_Works of Art_: For a Work of Art (Painting, Drawing, or Sculpture); or
for Model or Design for a Work of Art, use Application Form "G."

_Drawing or Plastic Work_: For a published Drawing or Plastic Work of a
scientific or technical character, use Application Form "I 1."

For an unpublished Drawing or Plastic Work of a scientific or technical
character, use Application Form "I 2."

_Photographs_: For a Photograph published for sale, use Application
Form "J 1."

For a Photograph of which copies are not reproduced for sale, use
Application Form "J 2."

_Prints or Pictorial Illustrations_: For the registration of any
"Print" or "Pictorial Illustration," which is a printed picture,
complete in itself and having artistic quality, use Application Form
"K."

_Motion-Pictures_: For the registration of a Motion-Picture Photoplay
reproduced in copies for sale, use Application Form "L 1."

For a Motion-Picture Photoplay of which copies are not reproduced for
sale, use Application Form "L 2."

For a Motion-Picture, not a Photoplay, reproduced in copies for sale,
use Application Form "M 1."

For a Motion-Picture, not a Photoplay, not reproduced in copies for
sale, use Application Form "M 2."


=Renewal or extension:=

For the renewal of copyright subsisting in any work for the new renewal
term of twenty-eight years as provided by the present law, use Renewal
Form "R 1."

For the extension of an existing renewal term from fourteen years
as provided under the old law, to twenty-eight years granted by the
present law, use Extension Form "R 2."

    ¶These renewal forms can only be used within a period of one year
    prior to the expiration of the existing term.


=Assignments:=

No forms are issued by the Copyright Office for assignments, or
licenses, nor for Postmaster's receipts for articles deposited.


PRACTICAL PROCEDURE

The methods of each publisher in the various steps toward registration
of copyright may vary in details, but the following method may
be taken as typical and sufficient for the average American book
copyrighted in the United States:

1. The type must be set up in the United States, and, if the book is
printed from plates, the plates be made therefrom;

2. The book must be printed and bound in the United States;

3. The book must bear the copyright notice.

4. On the date set for publication, copies are for the first time
offered to the public, sold or publicly distributed by the publisher
or his authorized agents. This constitutes the "act of publication,"
on which the registration of copyright depends. The sale of these
copies is recorded on the publisher's books in the same manner as the
sale of any of his books, and this dating of the sale on his books is
often deemed sufficient record of the first publication. In case books
are to be distributed for sale by various booksellers as well as by
the publisher himself, the booksellers must be notified in advance in
order that no copies may be sold previous to the date set for first
publication.

[Illustration: FACSIMILE (reduced) OF A COPYRIGHT APPLICATION BLANK]

5. Either on the same day as the book is first published or promptly
thereafter (but not before), blank Application and Affidavit Form "A 1"
is filled out and sworn to.[25] Two copies of the book for deposit
with the Copyright Office, together with this completed Application
Form and a post-office money-order for the required fee of $1.00 made
payable to the Register of Copyrights, are made up into one package,
and the package addressed to: _The Register of Copyrights, Washington,
D.C._ On the outside of the package is marked: "Books for Copyright
Registration." The package is then delivered to the post-office, and
the postmaster, if requested, will sign a receipt for the package which
the publisher makes out. This receipt should contain the name of the
book, the date, and the fact that the copies are to be transmitted to
the Register of Copyrights in Washington for purpose of registration of
copyright. The postmaster is required by law to forward these copies to
the Copyright Office without expense to the sender.

6. After a few days a receipt under seal will come from the Copyright
Office, certifying that the books have been received, with the
remittance and application, and that the copyright has been duly
recorded.

This is all that needs to be done for twenty-seven years, in case the
copyright has not in the meantime been assigned. In case of assignment
this fact should be recorded in the Copyright Office in accord with the
methods specified.[26]

After twenty-seven years have passed, and within one year of the
expiration of the copyright, the owner may renew it for twenty-eight
years more upon application to the Copyright Office.


INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT

In America, with the general lack of definite knowledge concerning all
matters relating to copyright, the so-called "International Copyright"
is equally shrouded in uncertainty. As the United States is not yet
a member of the International Copyright Union as established in the
convention of Berne, and cannot join this Union so long as the present
clause in the American copyright law exists requiring all books to be
completely manufactured within the United States in order to secure
copyright, it will be evident that registration at Washington does
not secure protection abroad. Mutual copyright protection has been
arranged, however, by special treaties with foreign nations. The
countries with which these treaty relations exist at present include:
Belgium, France, Great Britain and her possessions, Switzerland,
Germany, Italy, Denmark, Portugal, Spain, Mexico, Chile, Costa Rica,
Netherlands and her possessions, Cuba, China, Norway, Japan (and
Korea), Austria, Guatemala, Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Luxemburg,
Sweden, Tunis and Hungary. Inasmuch as we are not yet members of the
International Copyright Union it is, strictly speaking, impossible for
a citizen of the United States to secure "International Copyright" on
his book, though a book can be protected in most of the countries where
protection is desirable.[27] Many publishers secure copyright in Great
Britain and her dependencies by publishing in England simultaneously
with the American publication, and by conforming to the other
requirements of the British law. A few publishers are of the opinion
that protection in Great Britain and her colonies can be secured by
publishing simultaneously in Canada instead of in England. Whether or
not this is equally binding cannot be definitely determined, as no test
case has as yet been made to establish or dispute the fact.

Recent copyright legislation in England has been pointed in the
direction of more strict regulations regarding bona fide publication in
England of American books on which English copyright is desired. This
is a step in the right direction, and defines the issue somewhat more
clearly, but even now conditions are not as well defined as they should
be, or as they must ultimately be. The following statements may be made:

(_a_) Simultaneous publication is necessary in England and the United
States. The English agents, therefore, should be supplied with not
less than seven copies of the book at least one week before the date
fixed for American publication.

    ¶Great care should be taken that the date selected for publication
    is not Saturday, Sunday or a public holiday in England. These
    public holidays are: Easter Monday, Monday in Whitsun-week, first
    Monday in August, December 26 (or, if Sunday, December 27), Good
    Friday and Christmas Day.

    In Canada the public holidays are: New Year's, Good Friday, Easter
    Monday, Empire Day (May 24), Dominion Day (July 1), first Mondays
    in August and September (Labor Day), Thanksgiving and Christmas Day.

The publication is accepted in England as being simultaneous if the
time between publication in England and in America does not exceed
fourteen days. It is important to note that when the case is reversed
the "simultaneous" publication of an American book in England must be
made on the exact day of its publication in America.

(_b_) The so-called English agent must be an English publisher. On the
day appointed for publication, the English agent must make formal sale
of at least one copy of the volume, and the entry of such sale must
appear upon his books. Six copies are delivered by the agent to the
following libraries:

  _British Museum_
  _Bodleian Library, Oxford_
  _University Library, Cambridge_
  _Library of the Faculty of Advocates, Edinburgh_
  _Library of Trinity College, Dublin_
  _National Library of Wales_

    ¶It is not obligatory that five of these six copies be delivered
    unless demand is formally made within twelve months after
    publication, but if the books are not in stock for delivery then
    the agent may be fined £5 plus the cost of the volume. The copy
    for the British Museum must be delivered within one month after
    publication.

    If an edition de luxe is issued, the copy sent to the British
    Museum must be of this edition.

Points which are still to be settled in the new English copyright law
are, whether or not, in order to make a bona fide publication, copies
should be sent out for review, and advertised or offered for sale by
the traveling salesmen of the English publisher. It is probable that
these points will be definitely determined within the next few months.
The English act requires a genuine publication to satisfy public
demand, and not merely a "colourable" formality. What "public demand"
may be has not yet been defined.

There is no necessity for printing any notice of English copyright, as
the English law does not require it; but it is customary, on American
books copyrighted in England, to use the words, "Copyright in England,"
to give warning that copyright is claimed on the book. It is not
considered necessary to have the English publisher's imprint on the
title-page of such books.

The expression sometimes seen on the copyright page, "All rights
reserved including that of translation into foreign languages including
the Scandinavian," is now valueless. The American and English
copyrights protect the book in all countries with which the United
States has copyright relations, and the notice would not prevent
appropriation in any country with which the United States has no
copyright relations. The expression came into use during the years
preceding our present reciprocal copyright arrangements, and is now
discontinued by those familiar with its original significance.



RELATIONS OF THE SHORT-STORY WRITER TO THE MAGAZINES


THE contributor to the magazines stands in a relation entirely
different from that of the novelist to his publisher. In this case,
the author has no joint interest with the publisher, being but one of
many contributors to the magazine as a whole. In an article in their
"Bulletin," the Authors' League refers to these dealings as follows:

    "In his relations with the magazine publisher, the short-story
    writer may be considered either as an independent merchant,
    peddling his wares, or as an employee,--on the same plane with the
    ink-dealer and the paper-house, say, or on the same plane with the
    sub-editor and the cashier. The magazine publisher, for selfish
    reasons, generally prefers to consider him as a merchant. Your
    committee, for reasons equally selfish but perhaps better founded,
    considers him rather in the light of an employee. First, and most
    importantly, the ink-dealer and the paper-house have capital; the
    magazine writer brings nothing to his business but his brain and
    his two hands. In the second place, a great deal of the writing for
    our periodicals is done by men and women employed on salary, and
    economically in the same category as the cashier or the sub-editor.
    The man or woman who writes 'on the outside,' either on speculation
    or on order, it seems to us, is no less a temporary employee of the
    magazine.

    This consideration enters into the first grievance which has been
    urged by many of our members against certain of our magazines,--the
    deferring of payments after the acceptance of the article or story.
    As every one knows, the custom of our leading periodicals varies
    greatly in this regard. Some pay upon acceptance, not nominally
    but really. Certain others pay within the month. Still others pay
    just about when the author can get it. The staff writer receives
    his regular salary every week; the free-lance writer, working on
    order, temporarily just as much a part of the magazine staff as
    any regular employee, often has to wait for weeks and months.
    Certain of the magazine publishers interviewed by your committee
    have their ready-made answer to this: 'The ink maker and the paper
    manufacturer give us time: they wait one, two, or three months for
    their money; why should we be any more prompt with the author?'
    This position, on the theory that the magazine writer is only an
    outside employee, is of course untenable."


COPYRIGHT

From the same source comes most valuable comment regarding the
importance of a fuller knowledge on the part of the short-story writer
of the exact bearing of the copyright law upon his work, being the
statements upon recent opinions handed down as a result of litigation.
Briefly, these opinions are to the effect that a magazine copyright
covers the matter contained in each number only to the extent to which
such matter is the property of the magazine. It therefore follows
that in the case of a story, of which only the magazine rights have
been sold by the author, the magazine copyright leaves him absolutely
unprotected in his dramatic and, theoretically at least, in his book
rights. To save whatever he reserves, he must take copyright, also,
in his own name, fulfilling the necessary formalities, such as paying
a separate fee, depositing two copies of the book in the Library of
Congress, and seeing that his notice of copyright appears upon the
story when published in the magazine.[28] The attorney for the Authors'
League advises as follows:

    "So long as this and similar matters remain in doubt, both authors
    and publishers should, for their own protection, agree on some
    system whereby the dramatic and all other rights are thoroughly
    safeguarded. This can be accomplished in either of two ways:

    (_a_) The editor can copyright each story or article separately in
    the author's name, printing at the bottom of the first page thereof
    a proper copyright notice, as follows:

                    'Copyright, 1913, by John Doe'

    The author should then, immediately on publication, mail one copy
    of the magazine to the Register of Copyrights in Washington, in
    conformity with the requirements of the present Act, enclosing the
    fee of One Dollar. This is perhaps the simplest way, although it
    involves a separate registration of the magazine for each story or
    article so copyrighted.

    (_b_) Or the author can sell his story outright to the editor
    or publisher, and safely reserve his equitable interests in the
    dramatic or other rights thereto by attaching to his manuscript a
    'rider' or slip somewhat as follows:

    'This manuscript is submitted with the understanding that, if
    accepted for publication, the same shall be copyrighted by the
    publishers, and all rights under said copyright (except that of
    magazine publication) shall be held in trust for the benefit of the
    writer or his assigns, and will be reassigned to him upon demand.'"


PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS

The general advice under "Submitting the Manuscript"[29] applies with
added force to the manuscripts of short stories, as the number of such
manuscripts submitted to editors is naturally greater than in the case
of novels and publishers. In a word, make the reading of your story as
attractive and as easy for the editor as possible. In addition, these
points are of importance in submitting manuscripts of short stories:

Use double space in typewriting.

Be sure that your typewriting machine is in good order. Typewritten
manuscript possesses an individuality as well as hand-script, and
inaccurate or slovenly pages prejudice the reader.

Always enclose a stamped, addressed envelope, and be sure that the
postage is not underpaid. Manuscript copy costs two cents an ounce;
when mailed with proof, it costs one-half cent an ounce.

Write your name and address in the upper, left-hand corner of the first
page; in the upper, right-hand corner write the approximate number of
words.[30]

A short story is usually supposed to contain from 3000 to 6000 words.

Number your pages consecutively.

The manuscript may be folded, not more than twice, but should never be
rolled.


DEALINGS WITH THE EDITOR

The letter accompanying the manuscript should be brief, business-like,
and to the point. The editor is too busy to concern himself with
anything in connection with the writer or the story except the story
itself.

Don't call upon the editor, or send him a letter of introduction; let
the merit of your story be your only sponsor.

Don't ask the editor to criticize your work; place the manuscript in
the hands of a professional reader if that is what you desire.

Be patient. It is reasonable to expect a decision upon your manuscript
within three months' time, but not sooner.

Don't be offended by the receipt of a printed rejection slip. Personal
letters are not to be expected.

Accept the editor's judgment cheerfully. Nothing is ever gained, and
much is usually lost, by personal pique.

Study the spirit and policy which lie behind each publication. Just as
a merchant offers his wares only in the market where the demand exists,
make sure in your own mind that your story fits the magazine to which
you send it.

Look upon the return of a manuscript as an opportunity for revision and
improvement before sending it out again. Study it, and try yourself to
discover why it did not succeed.

Keep a careful record of the peregrinations of your various manuscripts.

Be timely, remembering that "seasonable" stories should be received by
the magazines four to six months before the season arrives.

The best magazines have a regular rate of payment, so it is needless to
discuss terms in submitting your manuscript.

Never give a story away. If it is worth publishing it is worth being
paid for, and to part with it for nothing injures the literary market
for your fellow-writers as well as for yourself.

There is much difference of opinion regarding the ethics of submitting
the same manuscript to more than one magazine at a time. In this matter
each writer must settle the question for himself. There is no general
custom, but good taste would seem to argue against the practice.

It is seldom wise to submit more than one story at a time to the same
magazine.


THE LITERARY AGENT

Enlarging upon what has been said in an earlier chapter,[31] the
literary agent may be found much more useful in the marketing of short
stories than in novels. The relations of the author to the publisher
are much closer than those existing between the short-story writer
and the magazine editor, and the personality of the author is a less
important factor. If the writer of short-stories makes a study of
the market, and possesses ordinary business ability, he has no more
occasion for an "agent" than a man engaged in any other profession. On
the other hand, it is a fact that the average writer does not develop
himself along these lines, so that the advice and co-operation of one
who makes a business of acting as a go-between can be made exceedingly
valuable.

In placing oneself in the hands of a literary agent, great care should
be exercised to select one with a reputation for the successful placing
of manuscripts and for prompt financial dealings.

The ordinary commission of the literary agent is 10 per cent. upon all
sums received on account of the author, and it is customary for him
to handle the financial as well as the literary relations between the
writer and the magazines.



THE MECHANICS OF THE BOOK


SOME authors have a general idea of how a book is manufactured,
but more have none. Even in the case of experienced writers, every
printing-office could tell surprising stories to illustrate the
unreasonableness born of a lack of knowledge of the ordinary mechanics
of manufacture, or of a confidence born of too little knowledge. And
unreasonableness on the part of the author means extra and unnecessary
expense either to the printer or to the publisher. One of the most
unfortunate features of the publishing business is that the exact cost
of manufacturing a book can rarely be estimated in advance: typography,
electrotyping, engraving, designing, presswork, paper, and binding
can be figured closely, but the "extras," resulting from the author's
carelessness, lack of knowledge of the book's mechanics, or change of
heart as the manuscript goes into type, in many cases so increase the
cost beyond the publisher's expectations that the publication can only
show a loss instead of a profit.

These "extras" result from different causes: the manuscript may be
carelessly prepared, with poor punctuation and clumsy expressions,
which the author corrects in the proof. The author frequently boasts,
"I know nothing about punctuation," but would an artist admit that
he was ignorant of how to mix his colors? There is no question that
authors sometimes take advantage of their "temperament," and lie down
upon it in a manner most unfair to their co-partners in the enterprise.

Changes in the manuscript cost nothing, changes in the type cost one
dollar per hour. To correct vital points after the book is in type is
warranted; to correct blunders in punctuation or expression is needless
expense, and is a reflection upon the intelligence of the author.
Genius may be erratic, but it is more respected when it is not made
to carry the responsibility of ordinary carelessness or ignorance.
The writer recalls a case where the author of a story changed the
name of one of the characters after the book was in type; it cost
the publishers over eighty dollars. Frequently an author changes the
name of his story, necessitating resetting the running-heads, the
title-page, and recutting the brass dies, all of which adds expense
beyond the publisher's original estimate. Countless other examples
might be cited, but the main point is that all vital details should be
discussed and settled while the story is still in manuscript, and after
it has been placed in the printer's hands further changes should be
only those which are of serious moment.

Other "extra" expenses include the cost of proofs. The publisher
usually receives from the printer two sets of galley-proof, two sets of
page-proof, and two sets of foundry-proof. All proofs beyond these six
sets are charged for as "extra," the usual rate being one cent per page.

If the author retains his proof longer than is necessary to read and
correct it, this delay frequently forces the printer to work over-time
to meet publication-day; this over-time work is charged for at double
price.

An author would never have any difficulty in securing a letter of
introduction from his publisher to some large printing-house, and the
printer would gladly give him every opportunity to familiarize himself
with the mechanical processes. This knowledge, together with a study of
those elements which go into the manufacture of a book, would enable
the author to avoid needless cost, or to incur intelligently such extra
expense as became vitally necessary.

The following suggestions are important regarding the relations between
the author and the printer:

It is always wiser to leave all questions of typography for the
publisher to settle with the printer, unless there is some specific
reason why the author wishes to accomplish a particular result by using
certain type effects.

Copy should be typewritten, and revised carefully by the author,
before sending it to the printer, to correct typewriter's errors.
Interlineations and erasures which make the reading difficult should be
avoided. It is always a simple matter to rewrite such portions without
rewriting the entire chapter.

If the author has decided preferences regarding spelling or
punctuation, this fact should be clearly stated on the manuscript;
otherwise the printer follows his office style, which may or may not
conform with the author's ideas.

In the preparation of copy, consistency of spelling and punctuation is
strongly urged, as it not only simplifies the problem for the printer,
but also prevents possible misunderstanding of copy and consequent
necessity for resetting.

All paragraphs should be clearly indicated in the copy.

All directions written upon the manuscript, which are not intended as
"copy," should be enclosed in a circle.

The author should punctuate each sentence as he writes it, for in this
way the marks are indicative of the natural pauses, and better express
his meaning.

Foot-notes should always be clearly indicated.

Unusual words, proper names, and figures should be written out with the
greatest care and distinctness by the author.

It is for the common advantage of the author, the publisher, and the
printer that the author or the editor read all proofs promptly.


ESTIMATING THE MANUSCRIPT

The usual procedure in making a book is as follows: When the publisher
sends the manuscript to the printer, a request goes with it for a
sample page, set to a size and in a type which will make a volume of
the desired number of pages. A novel is supposed to run from 320 pages
to 400 pages. The first thing to be done is to estimate the number of
words in the manuscript, and this is accomplished by averaging the
number of words in say thirty lines, and then multiplying by the number
of lines on a page. No allowance is made for fractional lines, as these
also occur in the printed page. If the manuscript is carefully written,
each page will contain the same number of lines, so the total number
of words may be found by multiplying the number of words on the page,
as arrived at above, by the total number of pages in the manuscript.
This explains the importance of having a standard number of lines on
each page.[32] No allowance is made for fractional pages at the end of
chapters, as there are also fractional pages in the printed book, and
it averages up.

The front matter has to be estimated separately, with allowance for
the blanks on the reverse of bastard-title, dedication, etc.,[33] but
the usual number of pages is eight. Then, again, an allowance of half
a page for each chapter sinkage[34] has to be made. Suppose we have a
manuscript of 90,000 words, with 24 chapters: A type page of 280 words
gives us 322 pages, to which we add 8 pages for front and 12 pages
for chapter sinkages, giving us a volume of about 344 pages. As the
presswork is usually done in forms of 32 pages, an effort is always
made not to exceed even forms by a small number of pages. Striking out
the bastard-title will often save a form of press-work.

Various short-cuts have been suggested for estimating the number of
words in a printed page, but the old-fashioned method of counting is
the safest. Here is a table which is as accurate as any short-cut can
be:

                                  Words in
                                   sq. in.

  18-Point (Great Primer), solid     7
  14-Point (English), solid         10
  12-Point (Pica), solid            14
  12-Point (Pica), leaded[35]       11
  11-Point (Small Pica), solid      17
  11-Point (Small Pica), leaded     14
  10-Point (Long Primer), solid     21
  10-Point (Long Primer), leaded    16
  9-Point (Bourgeois), solid        26
  9-Point (Bourgeois), leaded       20
  8-Point (Brevier), solid          30
  8-Point (Brevier), leaded         21
  7-Point (Minion), solid           38
  7-Point (Minion), leaded          27
  6-Point (Nonpareil), solid        47
  6-Point (Nonpareil), leaded       33
  5-Point (Pearl), solid            69
  5-Point (Pearl), leaded           50

In cases where the number of lines to the inch of certain sizes of type
is desired, the following table may be employed up to 18-point body:

                                        No. lines
                       No. lines       leaded with
  Size of type         set solid      2-point leads

   5-pt.                  14               10
   5½-pt. (agate)         13+               9+
   6-pt.                  12                9
   8 "                     9                7+
  10 "                     7+               6
  12 "                     6+               5+
  14 "                     5+               4+
  18 "                     4                3+


THE SAMPLE PAGE

With these details settled, the sample page is next in order. Knowing
that the book is to be a 12mo (size of leaf 5⅛ × 7⅝) or a 10mo (size
of leaf 5½ × 8¼), the printer must "lay out" the page so as to leave
margins of proper size and proportion. A 12mo type page may vary from
3 × 5¼ inches to 4 × 6¾ inches. Somewhere within this area, in the
given example, the page must contain about 280 words. If the manuscript
is long, then the type page must be large, the type itself small (never
smaller than long primer[36] nor larger than pica[36]), the leads[36]
reduced or omitted altogether. This is where the printer's taste and
skill is given an opportunity for expression: he is the architect
of the book, and must not combine types or decorations which are
inharmonious, and his proportions must be kept correct.

For his sample page for the given novel, the printer would select from
these standard faces:

[Illustration: PICA OR 12-POINT OLD STYLE

  abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890
  ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP ABCDEFGHIJKLM
  _ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP abcdefghijklmno_]

[Illustration: PICA OR 12-POINT CASLON OLD STYLE

  abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwx 1234567890
  ABCDEFGHIJKLM ABCDEFGHIJKLMN
  _abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890_
  _ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW_]

[Illustration: PICA OR 12-POINT SCOTCH

  abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwx 1234567890
  ABCDEFGHIJKLM ABCDEFGHIJKLMN
  _abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890_
  _ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVW_]

[Illustration: PICA OR 12-POINT MODERN

  abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwx 1234567890
  ABCDEFGHIJKLM ABCDEFGHIJKLMN
  _ABCDEFGHIJKLM abcdefghijklmnop_]

[Illustration: SMALL PICA OR 11-POINT OLD STYLE

  abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzabc 1234567890
  ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO
  _ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP abcdefghijklmnopq_]

[Illustration: SMALL PICA OR 11-POINT CASLON OLD STYLE

  abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890
  ABCDEFGHIJKLMN ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO
  _abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890&_
  _ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXY_]

[Illustration: SMALL PICA OR 11-POINT SCOTCH

  abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890
  ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP ABCDEFGHIJKL
  _ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO abcdefghijklmnop_]

[Illustration: SMALL PICA OR 11-POINT MODERN

  abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwyz 1234567890
  ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO ABCDEFGHIJKLM
  _ABCDEFGHIJKLMN abcdefghijklmnopq_]

[Illustration: LONG PRIMER OR 10-POINT OLD STYLE

  abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890 abcde
  ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQ ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP
  _ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP abcdefghijklmnopqrstu_]

[Illustration: LONG PRIMER OR 10-POINT CASLON OLD STYLE

  abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890 abc
  ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP
  _abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890 & abc_
  _ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZIS_]

[Illustration: LONG PRIMER OR 10-POINT SCOTCH

  abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890 abc
  ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO
  _ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO& abcdefghijklmnopqr_]

[Illustration: LONG PRIMER OR 10-POINT MODERN

  abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890 abc
  ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO
  _ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP abcdefghijklmnopqr_]

Type sizes in the present day are determined by the point system, the
fundamental unit of which is the point. This is obtained by dividing
a length of 13⅘ inches into 996 equal parts, each one being called a
point. One point is therefore .0138 of an inch or 72.46 points are
equal to 1 inch.

For purposes of convenience, a point is expressed as being 1/72 of an
inch. Thus 6-point type occupies 6/72 of an inch of space, 12-point
12/72 and so on. This does not mean, however, that the actual printed
face occupies six points on the paper, but that it is six points from
the base to the top of the body carrying the face.

In other words, one may say that it is 12 points from the bottom of
one line of 12-point type to the _bottom_ of the next line of 12-point
type, etc.

The pica is the standard of measurement of the old system, and is equal
to 12 points of the new system; thus six picas are equal to 1 inch or
72 points. Printers still estimate the length and width of a page or a
column by the pica; thus a page 4 inches wide is 24 picas.

The "em" is the square of a type body. Thus a "12-point em" is 12
points wide and 12 points long, or 1 pica long and 1 pica wide. A
"10-point em" is a 10 point square, etc. The em used in measuring
newspaper column widths, magazine columns, etc., is known as the em
pica, which is 12 points square.

In using larger faces for headings and display, or smaller faces for
footnotes or quoted matter, the printer will select from the same
family to which the type belongs, or from some family which combines
with it harmoniously. Old-style faces should not be used with modern
faces, but the Scotch face, which is a cross between old-style and
modern, combines well with either.

As to leading, this volume is leaded with a 1-point lead; between the
first and second lines of the preceding paragraph there is no leading
(technically, "set solid"); between the second and third, a 2-point
lead, and between the third and fourth, a 3-point lead.

In technical volumes and schoolbooks the Old Style Antique type is
largely used for subject-headings and side-notes:

[Illustration: LONG PRIMER OR 10-POINT OLD STYLE ANTIQUE

  =abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz 1234567890 abc
  ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ&AJ=]


THE TYPESETTING

With the sample page accepted by the publisher or author, or both,
the printer is authorized to proceed with the typesetting. Setting
type by hand is now almost entirely superseded by machine-composition,
except for the display pages (such as the title) and where the type
itself runs larger than the English (14-point) size, this being the
limit of the machines. Linotype[37] composition is cheaper than
monotype,[37] but as the type is cast all in one line, instead of in
separate characters, the cost of corrections is much higher. To change
even a mark of punctuation requires recasting the entire line. If the
manuscript is reasonably final in its form, the publisher is likely to
order linotype composition; otherwise, monotype will be selected. Both
machines carry the standard faces and sizes of type.


THE PROOFS

The first proofs sent out by the printer are called "galley-slips,"
or "galleys."[38] These are supposed to give the author opportunity
to make such changes as are absolutely necessary. When returned to
the printer, these galleys are made up into "page-proofs,"[38] and
frequently go again to the author, or the type may be "cast" (made
into electrotype plates) at this point. When page-proofs are submitted
to the author, the publisher expects him to revise them, making sure
that all his galley corrections have been properly made, rather than
to make further corrections, as changes in the pages are still more
expensive than in the galleys. If changes must be made, the author
should endeavor to have the correction occupy exactly the same space as
the matter cut out, or to cut out further matter to make room for the
addition. Otherwise, the page so corrected will contain more than the
standard number of lines, which must be thrown forward, and the make-up
of each page changed to the end of the chapter.

Competent proofreaders in the best offices frequently call the
attention of the author to errors in dates, figures, or proper names,
but this should always be regarded by the author as a courtesy
rather than as something which the printer is expected to do. The
proofreader, on the other hand, is supposed to have corrected every
typographical error, and for the author to mark corrections which have
been overlooked is a courtesy on the part of the author. The fact that
the author or editor has passed over typographical errors in no way
relieves the proofreader of his responsibility.

The proofreader is expected to correct any obvious error without
hesitation, but to make no other changes. If he thinks a change should
be made, it will take the form of a query in the margin to the author.
The author should carefully note all such queries, and answer them
or strike them out, bearing in mind that if he accepts the query the
change necessitated in the type becomes an author's correction, the
expense of which falls upon the publisher.

Any marks on the proofs for correction should be made distinct by
drawing a short line through the letter to be changed, etc., placing in
the margin the recognized sign indicating the change, _exactly opposite
the line in which the change is to be made, and in the order in which
the necessary alterations occur_. In doing this be sure to write
legibly, and do not cover the proof with lines and counter-lines.

The author should familiarize himself with the standard proofreading
marks, and employ these in marking all corrections upon the proofs
which are sent him. These marks are as follows:

[Illustration: PROOF MARKS

THE above marks are the ones most generally used in proofreading. There
are many others that are required in different classes of work, but
these are in the main self-explanatory. This display of proof marks and
their meanings has been prepared for THE GRAPHIC ARTS and endorsed by
the Boston Proofreaders Association.

    THE GRAPHIC ARTS, Boston]

When the page-proofs are returned to the printer, they are carefully
"read for foundry" by the proofreader, and all final changes in the
type are then made. "Bearers"[39] are placed around pages, which are
imposed[39] in chases[39] and sent to foundry.[39] Foundry-proofs are
taken at this point.


THE PLATES

The process of electrotyping is one of the most interesting steps in
the making of a book, and authors will find it well worth while to
brave the grime of the black-lead in order to become familiar with the
detail. In brief, the type form is pressed down into a tablet made of
wax or similar substance, in which it leaves an impression. This wax
tablet is then allowed to remain in a galvanic bath, through which it
becomes covered with a coating of copper. When separated from the wax,
the thin, copper replica of the composed type is backed up by an alloy,
and, after passing through various stages in finishing, finally becomes
an electrotype plate.[39]


COVER DESIGN AND ILLUSTRATIONS

While the printer has been engaged in putting the manuscript into
type, the publisher has had a designer at work upon a cover sketch,
and an artist upon such illustrations as the book requires. All this
has to fall in with the publisher's general scheme for the book as a
whole. The designer must know what limits are placed upon him as to
the number of inks or foils, or the amount of gold-leaf which he may
employ. The artist must know whether his pictures are to be drawn for
full color, two-color or one-color plates. In deciding these questions,
the publisher is influenced by what he believes the book to require in
its appeal to the public, and how great an expense is warranted by the
probability of its success.


ENGRAVING

The illustrations in all except the most pretentious volumes are either
halftone or lineplate photo-engravings. In making a halftone plate, the
picture or object to be reproduced is photographed through a screen
consisting of a glass plate, diagonally ruled at right angles in two
directions with lines numbering from fifty to four hundred to the
inch. This screen is placed inside of the camera and in front of, and
very near, the chemically sensitized plate. The light reflected from
the object to be photographed, varying in intensity according to the
lights and shadows of the object, is focused on the sensitized plate
through the intervening line screen, and affects the sensitized film
more or less according to its intensity. This causes a chemical change
of such nature that the next following operations, the development
and the intensification of the picture, result in producing it in the
form of dots and stipples varying in size, and consequently in the
respective light and shade effects, according to the varying lights
and shadows of the original. Inasmuch as the lights show dark and the
darks light, the picture on the glass makes a negative of the subject.
This negative is placed in a printing frame, in close contact with a
polished copper plate prepared with a film sensitive to the light. A
few minutes' exposure to the light renders insoluble in water those
parts of the film which the light has reached through the negative, and
when the other parts of the film, which remain soluble in water, are
washed away, the picture appears clear on the surface of the plate. The
dots and the stipples forming the picture are then further treated to
enable them to resist the action of the solution of iron perchloride to
which the plate is next subjected, which etches out the spaces between
the dots, and leaves the latter in relief. As the etching on the
copper must be in reverse as regards right and left, in order that it
may appear in proper relation when printed on the paper, the negative
must be produced through a reflecting prism, or the finished negative,
properly toughened, must be stripped from the glass on which it has
been produced, and turned over. In ordinary practice, a number of such
turned negatives are placed together on a single large glass, and
exposed together on a large copper plate, to be cut apart afterwards
and mounted separately. The primary etching is usually supplemented by
further processes, such as re-etching, vignetting, hand-tooling and
routing. The finished plate is finally mounted on a wooden block to the
height of type.

Illustrations in full color are reproduced from corresponding
originals, usually paintings in oil or water-color, by means of the
three-[40] or four-color[40] process of reproduction. The plates for
this purpose are usually all halftone, but are sometimes a combination
of halftones and Benday[40] plates. Two-color halftones have either
a tint background, or secondary plate in tint, the latter forming
the underground upon which the keyplate is printed in black. In the
three-color process, the respective plates are printed in yellow, red
and blue successively over one another. In the four-color process a
fourth plate is used to emphasize the blacks of the picture, the plate
being virtually a keyplate, combining all the features of the subject,
printed on top of the other three colors, usually in black or dark gray.

It is of particular importance that the engraver who is to make the
halftone plates should be informed as to the kind of paper they are to
be printed on. A 50-line halftone plate will print on almost anything,
but is too coarse to render the details of the picture, and is usually
applied only for newspaper use. It would be entirely too coarse for the
purpose of book illustration. On the other hand, a halftone plate made
through a screen of 400 lines to the inch can be printed satisfactorily
only upon paper of the highest surface, and with correspondingly
careful presswork. For super-calendered or English-finish paper, plates
made through a 133-line screen are most advisable, while the average
coated or enameled paper will take 150-line halftones to best advantage.

Lineplates are etchings in relief on plates of zinc or copper,
reproduced from pen-and-ink-drawings, or diagrams, by photo-mechanical
process. The method in general is the same as that for halftone work,
but without the intervention of the screen. In lineplates, the light
and shade effects are produced by gradations of thick and thin lines,
in distinction from the effects of wash-drawings and photographs, which
are produced by gradations of tone. The latter require the intervention
of the screen to convert the full tone gradations into the halftone
of the dots and stipples, while the former may, as already noted, be
reproduced directly.

Other classes of engravings, of a more costly kind, and which are
therefore used only in books of more expensive character, are the
various forms of engraving in intaglio; that is to say, in effects
produced by cutting or etching the design into and below the surface
of the plate, instead of cutting or etching away the ground, and
leaving the design in relief. Examples of this order are the old-time
copperplate engraving, the more modern steel-engraving,[41] in the
form of line or mezzotint effects,[41] photogravure,[41] and the yet
more recent photo-intaglio process known as rotogravure,[41] and
photo-mezzotint.


DIE CUTTING

Dies,[41] generally required for stamping the covers of books in gilt
letters and designs, are cut in brass by hand or by finely adjusted
routing-machines, the design being drawn upon the metal by an artist,
or transferred to it by photography. In the case of very elaborate
designs, the dies are first etched by nitric acid or iron perchloride,
and the more open or less intricate spaces then deepened by hand, or by
the routing-machines.


THE PAPER

In selecting the paper for the book, the publisher must consider the
surface required by his plates, the weight necessary to give a proper
bulk in proportion to the size of his volume, and the quality as
regulated by the price. The average book, with no text illustrations,
is printed on wove[42] paper of antique finish, which is a fairly rough
surface, giving a maximum bulk. A 12mo[42] book should bulk 1 to 1⅛
inches, a 10mo[42] book, 1⅛ to 1¼ inches. If the book runs more than an
average length, a medium-or a plate-finish paper may be used, and the
weight per ream is regulated by the number of pages in each volume and
the bulk required.

Lineplates print satisfactorily on medium-finish paper, and even
on antique-finish if the lines are not too fine. Halftones require
English-finish,[42] super-calendered[42] or coated[42] paper.
Inserts[42] are almost always printed upon coated paper.

Laid[42] paper is used in more expensive books, as, from its nature,
better and more costly stock is required in its making.


THE PRESSWORK

Books are printed in forms[42] of 4 pages and multiples of 4 pages,
depending upon the size of the paper leaf. The usual form is 32 pages,
so the publisher tries to plan his volume to make approximately even
forms. To print any number of pages over an even form is as expensive
as to print the complete 32 pages.[43]


THE BINDING

In binding, the questions to be settled include the style of
back,--flat, half-round, or round; plain or gilt-top; headband[45]
or not; trimmed or uncut edges;[44] kind of cloth,--T pattern,[45]
silk,[45] vellum,[45] etc.; color and shade of cloth; location of dies;
stamping,--ink, foil, gold or Oriental tissue, etc.; jacket,--glassine,
manila, or printed.



THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE BOOK


THE proper layout for an ordinary volume, arranged in accord with the
best usage, is as follows:

  Bastard-Title (_right hand_).
  Blank Page or Advertising Card (_left hand_).
  Title-Page (_right hand_).
  Copyright Page and the Printer's Imprint (_left hand_).
  Dedication (_right hand_).
  Blank Page (_left hand_).
  Preface (_begins on right hand_).
  Table of Contents (_begins on right hand_).
  List of Illustrations (_begins on right hand_).
  Introduction (_begins on right hand_).
  Half-Title (_right hand_).
  Blank Page (_left hand_).
  First Page of Text (_begins on right hand_).

In limited editions, the limit notice is placed upon the reverse of the
bastard-title, or on a left-hand page facing the bastard-title.

Following the text may be:

  Appendix (_begins on right hand_).
  Glossary (_begins on right hand_).
  Bibliography (_begins on right hand_).
  Index (_begins on right hand_).

Considering these various divisions more at length:


BASTARD-TITLE

The bastard-title, which is often wrongly called the half-title,
is a modern evolution in its present application. Originally, this
single-line title was the only title which existed, but as time went
on the demand of the public, on the one hand, for a decorated page at
the beginning of the book, together with the printer's desire, on the
other hand, to advertise himself, developed the bastard-title into the
dimensions of the title-page which we now know, containing the name
of the book, the name of the author, the publisher's device, and the
publisher's name and address. At the present time the bastard-title is
used more to add elegance to the appearance of the volume than for any
practical purpose, it being pleasanter for the eye to rest first upon
this page rather than at once upon the title-page, which extends over
the full dimensions of the type area.


ADVERTISING CARD

If an advertising card or limit notice is required, this page of
display should be set up with careful consideration of the page it is
to face, and of the typography of the book of which it is to be a part.
Too frequently advertising cards are looked upon as separate jobs, and
are set in types which do not harmonize with the typography of the rest
of the book.


TITLE-PAGE

The title-page offers the printer and the publisher a tempting
opportunity for display and for artistic typography, and too few
realize the value of restraint. Cobden-Sanderson once remarked, as
explaining the high prices which he secures for his work, that he
always charges more for what he leaves out than for what he puts in.

The earliest volumes lacked the title-page, because vellum and
linen paper were held so high that the expense of an extra leaf was
considered an unnecessary luxury. In these books that which took the
place of the title was at the end, the colophon being in evidence,
indicating the name of the illuminator, if not always that of the
printer. As was the case with the manuscript book, the volume began
with the phrase, "Here beginneth...." Later came piratical reprints,
which resulted in making the critical reader insist upon having each
volume stamped with the printer's name or mark, as a guarantee of
reliable workmanship.

The first definite step in the direction of the title-page is marked
by bibliographers in a little volume printed by Arnold Ther Hoernen,
of Cologne, in 1470. It consisted of an introduction at the head of
a page, the major part of which was left blank. Whether the printer
forgot to place the usual introduction at the head of the first page,
and took this way to remedy his error, is not known.

In general, different faces of type should never be combined upon the
title-page, the variations being secured by using smaller sizes of the
same face, or harmonizing fonts. Capitals and lower-case letters can be
successfully combined on the title-page only as a result of care and
thought, the best title-pages usually being all in lower-case or all in
caps and small caps. A two-color title-page is rarely a success unless
it was originally composed with two colors in mind, instead of being
set up in black and arbitrarily split up for colors.

The decoration should never overbalance the type, and this applies
as well to the question of borders on decorated books. No matter how
beautiful, if the decoration overbalances the type, the volume or the
title-page ceases to be an example of typography and becomes something
answerable only to itself.


COPYRIGHT

On the reverse of the title-page is ordinarily placed the copyright
notice of the volume,[46] usually a little above the center, set in
caps and small caps, or in small caps alone. At the foot of this same
page the printer usually places his imprint.[47]


DEDICATION

The dedication is a page set in the monumental style, generally in
small capitals. This must always be a right-hand page, and the reverse
must always be blank.


PREFACE

Ordinarily the preface is set in the same size of type as the body. If
it is written by some one other than the author, it is frequently set
in italic to mark the distinction. This is particularly true in case
the book contains an introduction as well. If the preface is of unusual
importance, it is sometimes customary to have it set in type one size
larger than the body, or double-leaded.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

After the preface and before the list of illustrations comes the
contents, occupying whatever number of pages may be necessary. The
style of its composition is dependent entirely upon the subject-matter
and the typographical arrangement of the volume.


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

This follows the contents, and is always set in a style conforming to
the contents page or pages.


INTRODUCTION

See remarks under "Preface."


HALF-TITLE

The half-title ordinarily consists of a single line, standing by
itself on the first page of the leaf immediately preceding the first
page of the text, and carries the title of the book as at the top of
the first page of text. It is frequently confused with the bastard or
false-title, which always precedes the title-page. Half-titles may also
run through the book before various divisions, but the bastard-title
never moves from its one position at the beginning of the volume.


LIMIT NOTICE

If an edition be limited in number, the notice of such limit should be
placed either on the page facing the bastard-title or on the reverse of
the bastard-title.


IN GENERAL

The front matter is often put into type after the composition of
the body has been completed, so that the number of pages is rarely
definitely determined at the beginning of the work. For this reason,
publishers have favored the expedient of numbering the preliminary
pages with roman folios, using the arabic folios for the text itself.
The front matter and the chapter pages running through the book
offer opportunities for embellishment and distinctive typographical
treatment, and therefore should be kept in exact accord, whether
elaborate decorations are used or the severest form of typographical
simplicity.


BASIC SIZES OF BOOKS

The following list gives the size of leaf to which the various standard
names and proportions naturally fold:

  ========+============+=====================+==============
  No. pp. |   Size of  |        Name         | Size of leaf
  to form |    sheet   |                     |
  --------+------------+---------------------+--------------
     32   |    19 × 25 |Thirty-two mo (32mo) | 3⅛ × 4¾
     32   |    22 × 29 |Twenty-four mo (24mo)| 3⅝ × 5½
     32   |    24 × 32 |Eighteen mo (18mo)   | 4  × 6
     32   |    27 × 34 |Sixteen mo (16mo)    | 4½ × 6¾
     32   |    30½ × 41|Duodecimo (12mo)     | 5⅛ × 7⅝
     32   |    33 × 44 |Decimo (10mo)        | 5½ × 8¼
     16   |    24 × 36 |Octavo (8vo)         | 6  × 9
      4   |    18 × 24 |Quarto (4to)         | 9  × 12
      2   |    18 × 24 |Folio                |12  × 18
  --------+------------+---------------------+--------------


ENGLISH PAPER SIZES

  =====================================================
                    | Abbreviated | Pages  | Watermarks
        Name        |     to      | to one |     in
                    |             | sheet  | hand-made
  ------------------+-------------+--------+-----------
  Folio             |    Fo.      |    4   | Vertical
  Quarto            |    4to      |    8   | Horizontal
  Octavo            |    8vo      |   16   | Vertical
  Duodecimo         |    12mo     |   24   | Horizontal
  Sextodecimo       |    16mo     |   32   | Horizontal
  Octodecimo        |    18mo     |   36   | Vertical
  Vigesimo-quarto   |    24mo     |   48   | Vertical
  Trigesimo-secundo |    32mo     |   64   | Vertical
  ------------------+-------------+--------+-----------

OCTAVOS

  Foolscap 6¾ × 4¼ may become Crown 7½ × 5 inches
  Crown 7½ × 5      "     "   Demy 8¾ × 5⅝
  Post 8 × 5        "     "   Medium 9½ × 6
  Demy 8¾ × 5⅝      "     "   Royal 10 × 6¼
  Medium 9½ × 6     "     "   Super Royal 10¼ × 6⅞
  Royal 10 × 6¼     "     "   Imperial 11 × 7½

QUARTOS

  Foolscap 8½ × 6¾ may become Crown 10 × 7½ inches
  Crown 10 × 7½     "     "   Demy 11¼ × 8¾
  Post 10 × 8       "     "   Medium 12 × 9½
  Demy 11¼ × 8¾     "     "   Royal 12½ × 10
  Medium 12 × 9½    "     "   Super Royal 13¾ × 10¼
  Royal 12½ × 10    "     "   Imperial 15 × 11

  Pott              15½ × 12½
  Foolscap          17  × 13½
  Crown             20  × 15
  Post              20  × 16
  Demy              22½ × 17½
  Medium            24  × 19
  Double Pott       25  × 15½
  Royal             25  × 20
  Double Foolscap   27  × 17
  Super Royal       27½ × 20½
  Double Crown      30  × 20
  Imperial          30  × 22
  Double Post       32  × 20
  Columbia          34½ × 23½
  Atlas             36  × 26

                 Octavo      Quarto
  Pott           6¼ × 3⅞     7¾ ×  6¼
  Foolscap       6¾ × 4¼     8½ ×  6¾
  Crown          7½ × 5     10  ×  7½
  Post           8  × 5     10  ×  8
  Demy           8¾ × 5⅝    11¼ ×  8¾
  Medium         9½ × 6     12  ×  9½
  Royal         10  × 6¼    12¼ × 10
  Super Royal   10¼ × 6⅞    13¾ × 10¼
  Imperial      11  × 7½    15  × 11


MARGINS

A feature not to be overlooked in the appearance of a well-printed
book is that of the margins. The perfect type-page is supposed to be
proportioned in such a way that its diagonal is twice its width. With
this page as a basis, the location of the type upon the paper leaf is
to be studied carefully. In general, the two pages, right and left,
should be considered as a unit, and the top margin and the inside
margin of each page should be approximately the same. Doing this, the
total blank between the two pages is supposed approximately to equal
the outside and the bottom margins.

The proportion of margin is, to a certain extent, dependent upon the
size of the book, the margins becoming greater as the volume increases
from the thirty-two mo size up to the folio. A student of typography
has ingeniously estimated that, taking the height of the paper leaf
as 100 units, the height of the type page of the ordinary trade book
should be from 72% to 75%; that of a library edition, from 66% to 71%;
that of a de luxe volume, from 60% to 65%.



MAKING THE INDEX


EVERY book of a permanent nature, or intended as a work of reference,
requires an index. The length of the Index, or its minuteness, depends
upon the nature of the subject treated, and the importance of making it
easily available to the reader. The Index belongs to the same family
as the Table of Contents, and the Topical Analyses often placed at the
beginning of each chapter: the Contents gives a general idea of the
divisions into which the author has separated his subject; the Topical
Analyses still further divide each chapter; and the Index is ordinarily
still more minute, with the further advantage of having its references
arranged in alphabetical order.

The proper person to make an index is, first of all, the author of the
book, provided that he possesses the natural characteristics. It does
not at all naturally follow, however, that all authors are competent to
do this, for the art of indexing is not as simple as many superficially
suppose. The author should be the one best fitted, because he knows
better than any reader the exact meaning each of his sentences is
intended to convey,--and this meaning should be expressed in the
index. The ideal index is that which gives every topic, thought, or
reference contained in the book itself, without a single superfluous
word, and with no description or comment.

To make an index requires a quick grasp of the idea contained in each
sentence or paragraph, an immediate discernment of the main thought,
an instinctive classification, absolute accuracy in translating this
thought into its briefest expression, ability to condense, and a
sensing of the reader's needs in adequate cross-references. All this
demands a mind more logical and more sensitive to codified detail
than is possessed by many able writers. Under these circumstances,
it is desirable to place the making of the index in the hands of one
possessing these qualifications, either instinctively or as a result of
experience.

Every publishing-house and most printing establishments of any
consequence are in a position to have indexes prepared when required,
but the danger is always present that the indexer, approaching his
subject from the outside, will fail to place himself sufficiently in
the author's attitude, and thus lessen the value of his work. It is
most desirable, in order to prevent this, that the author carefully
inspect the index while in manuscript. He can thus detect possible
departures in the indexer's condensed expression of his own thought.

The following rules and suggestions are given with a twofold object
in mind: _first_, to prevent those authors who possess the necessary
qualifications from avoiding the preparation of their own indexes
because of unfamiliarity with the technical details; _second_, to
enable authors intelligently to criticize the form as well as the
matter of those indexes which are prepared for their volumes by other
hands.


WHAT TO INDEX

The closeness with which a book is to be indexed depends partly upon
the nature of its contents and partly upon the ideas of the author
or publisher. Some indexes contain only the page references; some
are so analytical that a reader can gain an excellent idea of the
subject-matter itself. These, however, represent the two extremes. The
ordinary index aims to give every reference necessary to enable the
reader to locate easily the subject-matter for which he searches, but
not a synopsis of that subject-matter. The entries should cover, then,
with more or less minuteness, as desired, the following:

  (_a_) Proper names, whether of persons, places, religious or political
  bodies, etc.
  (_b_) Events and periods.
  (_c_) Titles of books to which reference is made.
  (_d_) Specific topics or subjects.
  (_e_) Definitions.
  (_f_) Vital statements.


PLAN

The indexer should decide definitely in his mind just what his
procedure is to be before actually beginning work. At first, it is well
to make the index too full rather than the reverse, as it is easier to
cut out than to fill in. Most important of all, he must be sure that
the matter to be indexed is clearly understood before he attempts to
transcribe the idea. The character of the book to be indexed must be
carefully considered, taking into account the class of people who will
probably consult it, and the lines on which they will probably seek
information.

Judgment is required in deciding whether it is wise to choose the
exact words of the author or to condense the idea into other words.
In technical books, the exact wording is sometimes essential, but
otherwise it is more important to express the _idea_ than the exact
terms in which it is expressed.

Always prefer simple words and expressions to those which are unusual
and cumbersome.

Omit every unessential word.

When the book being indexed is one written upon a specific subject,
this main subject should not be indexed unless necessary to indicate
some reference for which a searcher would look. Ordinarily, the
Contents covers this point rather than the Index.

Bear in mind particularly the two extremes: the importance of
including every reference necessary to enable the searcher to find what
he wishes without delay or confusion, the mistake of overloading the
index with useless entries.

Use ink, as pencil entries often become illegible.

Write plainly, and do not try to economize space in preparing the copy.


DEFINITION OF TERMS

=Subject=: includes events, places, persons, facts, definitions or
topics: e.g., _Boston, 7_; _Bonnet, Father, 155_; _Huron Mission,
plans for, 129_; _Onontio, meaning of, 102_; _Absolutism, contest with
liberty, 274._

=Heading=: the word or words used by the indexer to express the subject
or idea. In the examples above, the headings are _Boston_, _Bonnet_,
_Father_, _Onontio_, etc.

=Entry=: the amplification of the Heading, with the addition of the
supplementary phrase. In the example above, the entry is _Absolutism,
contest with liberty_, the supplementary phrase being _contest with
liberty_.

=Cross-reference=: a heading referring to an entry: e.g., _Michabou._
See _Manabozho_.


PROCEDURE

Having settled upon a definite plan, the indexer seats himself at a
good-sized table, and lays out his materials in front of him. After
testing every possible method, the present writer strongly urges the
use of individual slips of paper, about 2½ inches by 4 inches. Arranged
within easy reach in front of the indexer, but leaving room for the
proof-sheets, should be twenty small pasteboard boxes,[48] a little
larger than the slips themselves.[48] On the inside bottom of each
box mark a letter of the alphabet, combining O and Q, U and V, and X
Y Z. As soon as a slip is written, throw it into its proper box, and
continue throughout the work. It is a false economy to search out the
slips for subsequent entries, unless they can be easily found, as it is
a simple matter at the end to combine the several slips which belong to
the same heading.

Here are sample slips, showing a heading which requires full entries
and one to which the text contains fewer references. The first shows a
slip on which the various entries have been combined:

  +-------------------------------------------------------+
  | Andastes, the, 5; location and characteristics of,    |
  |   36; synonyms of, 36; plans for converting, 130;     |
  |   war with Mohawks, 147; Hurons ask aid from,         |
  |   162; mortal quarrel with Mohawks, 163; promise      |
  |   to aid Hurons, 163; Huron fugitives try to reach,   |
  |   240, 250; Mohawks first to bear brunt of war        |
  |   with, 268; receive aid from Swedish colonists, 268; |
  |   attack Senecas, 269; courage their only strength    |
  |   270; finally overborne by Senecas, 270.             |
  +-------------------------------------------------------+

This slip shows the method of indexing a work in more than one volume:

  +-------------------------------------------------+
  | James, Edwin, gives account of Nanabush, i. 67; |
  |   on Indian ideas of another life, ii. 79.      |
  |                                                 |
  |                                                 |
  +-------------------------------------------------+

In the rules which follow, the basis adopted is "Cutter's Rules for
a Dictionary Catalogue,"[49] prepared for library cataloguing. Such
portion as applies to book indexing has been freely drawn upon, adapted
and added to from the present writer's experience.


ARRANGEMENT

When, under a single entry, there are both subject-references and
references by folios only, place the folio-references together at the
end of the entry, following the subject-references.

Arrange entries according to the English alphabet, whatever the order
of the alphabet in which a foreign name might have been entered in its
original language.

Arrange German names spelled with the vowels ä, ö, ü as if spelled ae,
oe, ue, but retain the form employed by the author.

When the same word serves for several kinds of entries, the order
should be as follows: person, place, subject, title: e.g., (1) _Brown,
G. F._ (person). (2) _Brown Village_ (place). (3) _Brown-tail Moth_
(subject). (4) _Brown Family, the_ (title).

Forenames precede surnames: e.g., _Francis I_ precedes _Francis,
Charles_.


ADJECTIVE-HEADINGS

In general, a noun or a substantive phrase should be selected for the
heading, but when an adjective forms part of a name or well-known
term, the entry should include it: e.g., _Alimentary canal, hereditary
genius, perpetual motion_, etc.


SUBJECT-MATTER

It is not possible to formulate rules for indexing subject-matter
as definitely as has already been done with names, places, etc. The
judgment of the indexer and his analytical skill will be called fully
into play. The effort should be to express in the index, in the
clearest yet briefest form, the _idea_ which the author has amplified
in his text. As an aid to the nature and form of the entries, a page of
text is shown on the opposite page, and the entries which would appear
in the index from this page, are given below. This is what would be
considered as a medium full index:

    Bressani, Joseph, tortured by Iroquois, 73; life spared by Iroquois,
  73; sent to Fort Orange, 73; ransomed by Dutch, 73; sent to Rochelle,
  73.

  Dutch, the, ransom Bressani, 73.

  Indian Torture, See _Torture, Indian_.

     Iroquois Indians, the, torture Bressani, 73; spare Bressani's
  life, 73.

  Jogues, Isaac, referred to, 73.

  Orange, Fort, Bressani sent to, 73.

  Rochelle, Bressani sent to, 73.

  Torture, Indian, Bressani by the Iroquois, 73.

                      ESCAPE OF BRESSANI                           73

    march of several days,--during which Bressani, in wading a rocky
    stream, fell from exhaustion and was nearly drowned,--they reached
    an Iroquois town. It is needless to follow the revolting details
    of the new torments that succeeded. They hung him by the feet
    with chains; placed food for their dogs on his naked body, that
    they might lacerate him as they ate; and at last had reduced his
    emaciated frame to such a condition that even they themselves stood
    in horror of him. "I could not have believed," he writes to his
    Superior, "that a man was so hard to kill." He found among them
    those who, from compassion or from a refinement of cruelty, fed
    him, for he could not feed himself. They told him jestingly that
    they wished to fatten him before putting him to death.

    The council that was to decide his fate met on the nineteenth of
    June, when to the prisoner's amazement, and, as it seemed, to their
    own surprise, they resolved to spare his life. He was given, with
    due ceremony, to an old woman, to take the place of a deceased
    relative; but since he was as repulsive, in his mangled condition
    as, by the Indian standard, he was useless, she sent her son
    with him to Fort Orange, to sell him to the Dutch. With the same
    humanity which they had shown in the case of Jogues, they gave a
    generous ransom for him, supplied him with clothing, kept him until
    his strength was in some degree recruited, and then placed him on
    board a vessel bound for Rochelle. Here he

    PAGE FROM PARKMAN'S WORKS. BY PERMISSION LITTLE, BROWN, & CO.


RULES AND EXAMPLES

=Names:=

Index under the Christian name or forename:

(_a_) Sovereigns, popes, queens, princes and princesses. _Exceptions_:
Greek or Roman sovereigns, princes of the French Empire.

(_b_) Persons canonized: e.g., _Thomas a Becket, Saint_.

Also make cross-reference: e.g., _Becket, Thomas a._ See _Thomas a
Becket_.

(_c_) Friars required by the constitution of their order to relinquish
their surname: e.g., _Paolino da S. Bartolomeo_.

Also make cross-reference under family name: e.g., _Wesdin, J.P._ See
_Paolino da S. Bartolomeo_.

(_d_) Persons known only by their first names, whether or not their
profession, rank or native place be added: e.g., _Michelangelo
Buonarroti_, _Rembrandt van Rhijn_.

Cross-reference under family name is optional, dependent upon closeness
of indexing.

(_e_) Oriental authors, including Jewish rabbis: e.g., _Abu Bakr ibn
Badr_.

This rule has many exceptions. Some Oriental writers are known and
should be entered under other parts of their name than the first, as
"_Abu-l-Kasim, Khalaf ibn Abbas_," _Firdusi, Abul Kasim_, etc., _known
as_, or under some appellation as "_al-Masudi_," "_at-Tabari_."

In Arabic names, the words of relationship _Abu_ (father), _Umm_
(mother), _Ibn_, _Bin_ (son), _Ahu_ (brother), though not to be treated
as names by themselves, are yet not to be disregarded. They form a
name in conjunction with the word following (e.g., _Abu Bakr_), and
determine the alphabetical place of the entry. But the article _al_
(changed by assonance to _ad_-, _ar_-, _as_-, _at_-, _az_-, according
to the letter it precedes) is neglected (al- _Masudi_).

In all Oriental names, the indexer must be careful not to take titles,
as _Emir, Bey, Pasha, Sri, Babu, Pundit_, for names.

In regard to East Indian names, Dr. Feigl gives the rule: If there are
two names, enter under the first, which is the individual name, with
a cross-reference from the second; if there are three or more, enter
under the third, which is the family name, with a cross-reference under
the first or individual name; the second may be neglected.


Index under the surname:

(_a_) In general, all persons not included under previous rules.

In a few cases, chiefly of artists, a universally-used sobriquet
is to be taken in place of the family or forename, as _Tintoretto_
(whose real name was Giacomo _Robusti_). Similar cases are _Canaletto_
(Antonio _Canale_ and also B. _Belotto_), _Correggio_ (Ant. _Allegri_),
_Garofalo_ (Benvenuto Piero _Tisi_), Il _Sodoma_ (Giov. Ant. _Bazzi_),
_Spagnoletto_ (Jusepe _Ribera_, now however oftener called _Ribera_),
_Uccello_ (Paolo _Doni_). Always cross-reference from the family name.

(_b_) In particular, ecclesiastical dignitaries: e.g., _Kaye_, John,
Bishop of Lincoln. _Lincoln_, John, Bishop of. See _Kaye_.

Bishops usually omit their family name, canons their forename: e.g.,
_Canon Liddon_, _Bishop of Ripon, Henry Edward_, _Archbishop of
Westminster_, i.e., _H. E. Manning_. Care must be taken not to treat
Canon as a forename or Edward as a family name.

(_c_) Married women, using the known form:

Wives often continue writing, and are known in literature only under
their maiden names (as _Miss Freer_ or _Fanny Lewald_), or after a
second marriage retain for literary purposes the first husband's name.
Enclose the maiden name in parenthesis: e.g., _Ward, Mrs. Elizabeth
(Phelps)_. Use the form _White, Mrs. Julia Charlotte, wife of J. C._,
when the husband's name is used: e.g., _Hopkins, Mrs Sarah (Drake)
Garretson_. _Stowe, Mrs. Emily Howard (Jennings)_. _Soyaux, Frau Frieda
(Schanz)_. _Gasparin, Valérie (Boissier) Comtesse de_.

Women known under their husbands' names are to be entered as follows:
_Hinkson, Mrs. Katherine (Tynan), Mrs. H. A. Hinkson_. Cross-reference
to be made from the latter form.


Index under the highest title:

British and foreign noblemen, with cross-reference from earlier titles
by which they have been known, and, in the case of British noblemen,
from the family name: e.g., _Chesterfield, 4th Earl of (Philip
Dormer Stanhope)_. _Chesterfield, 5th Earl of (Philip Stanhope)_.
Cross-reference from _Stanhope_. _Saint-Simon, Louis de Rouvroi, Duc
de_.

Authors should be put under their names. The definition of a name is
"that by which a person or thing is known." Noblemen are known by their
titles, not by their family names.

  In the few cases in which the family name[50] or a lower title is
    decidedly better known, index under that and cross-reference from
    the title: e.g., _Francis Bacon, Baron Verulam_; _Robert Curzon,
    14th Baron Zouche_; _John Napier, Baron of Merchiston_; _Horace
    Walpole, 4th Earl of Oxford_; likewise the military nobles and
    princes of the French Empire: e.g., _Lucien Bonaparte, Prince de
    Canino_; _McMahon, Duc de Magenta_.

  Englishwomen's titles-of-honor are to be treated by the following
    rules. In the matter of titles an Englishwoman in marrying has
    everything to gain and nothing to lose. If she marries above her
    own rank she takes her husband's title in exchange for her own,
    if below her own rank she keeps her own title.

(_a_) The wife of a peer takes her husband's style.

That is, she is Baroness, Viscountess, Marchioness, etc. In indexing,
say _Brassey, Annie (Allnutt), Baroness_; not _Brassey, Annie
(Allnutt), Lady_.

(_b_) The wife of a knight or baronet is _Lady_. Whether this title
precedes or follows her forename depends upon whether she had a title
before her marriage.

That is, if Lady Mary Smith marries Sir John Brown (either knight or
baronet), she is _Lady Mary Brown_, also if Hon. Mary Smith marries
Sir John Brown (knight or baronet) she is _Lady Mary Brown_; but if
Miss Mary Smith marries Sir John Brown (knight or baronet), she becomes
_Mary, Lady Brown_.

(_c_) A maid of honor retains her _Hon._ after marriage, unless, of
course, it is merged into a higher title.

Thus, if she marries a baronet she is the _Honᵇˡᵉ Lady Brown_; if a
peer, the _Lady So and So_. In either case as though she had been a
peer's daughter.

(_d_) The wife of an earl's (or higher peer's) younger son is never the
_Honᵇˡᵉ Lady_; if she used the _Lady_ before marriage in her own right
she does not, of course, add anything by such marriage, but the wife
of a younger son of a lower peer than an earl is _Honᵇˡᵉ Mrs._ (not
_Lady_)--the younger children of all peers using, of course, the family
name, with or without their forenames, according to their rank.

(_e_) If the lady to whom the title _Hon._ belongs in virtue of her
father's rank marries a commoner, she retains her title, becoming
_Hon. Lady_ if she marries a knight or baronet, and _Hon. Mrs._ if her
husband has no title.

None of these courtesy titles is inherited by the children of those who
bear them, the third generation of even the highest peer being simply
commoners unless raised in rank by marriage or merit.

(_f_) The title _Lady_ belongs to daughters of all noblemen not lower
than earl.

(_g_) The title _Hon._ belongs to daughters of viscounts and barons;
also to an untitled woman who becomes a maid-of-honor to the Queen,
and this title is retained after she leaves the service. If a woman who
has the title _Lady_ becomes maid-of-honor she does not acquire the
title _Hon._


  Index compound names according to the usage of the author's
    fatherland, though if it is known that his practice differs from
    this usage, his preference should be followed. Compound names
    then go:

(_a_) If English, under the last part of the name, when the first has
not been used alone by the author: e.g., _Gould, Sabine Baring-_;
but _Halliwell (afterwards Halliwell-Phillipps), J. O._, and _Locker
(afterwards Locker-Lampson)_, because they are well-known under the
first names.

(_b_) If foreign, under the first part.

Both such compound names as _Gentil-Bernard_ and such as _Gentil de
Chavagnac_. There are various exceptions, when a name has been more
known under the last part, as _Fénelon_, not _Salignac de Lamothe
Fénelon_; _Voltaire_, not _Arouet de Voltaire_; _Sternberg_, not
_Ungern-Sternberg_. Moreover, it is not always easy to determine
what is a compound surname in French. Cross-references are necessary
whichever way one decides each case, especially when the second part
of a foreign compound name has been used alone, as _Merle d'Aubigné_
(index under _Merle_ with a cross-reference from _Aubigné_).

In French, a forename is sometimes joined to a surname by a hyphen. In
such cases make the entry under the family name, with a cross-reference
from the forename: e.g., entry, _Rochette, Désiré Raoul_;
cross-reference, _Raoul-Rochette, Désiré_. See _Rochette_.

(_c_) In foreign compound names of women also, although the first part
is usually the maiden name and the second the husband's name, the entry
should generally be under the first, with a cross-reference from the
second[51]: e.g., _Rivé-King_, with cross-reference from _King, born
Rivé_.


Index surnames preceded by prefixes:

(_a_) In French and Belgian, under the prefix when it is or contains
an article, _Le, La, L', Du, Des_; under the word following when the
prefix is a preposition, _de, d'_: e.g., _Des Essarts, Du Cange,
La Fontaine, Le Sage, L'Estoille_; but _Charlevoix, P. F. X. de_;
_Estrées, Mme d'_.

_La_ and _Le_ are often, _Des_ is usually, and _Les_ is almost without
exception printed as one word with the name following, as _Lafontaine,
Lesage, Lesdiguières_; _de_ and _d'_ are sometimes so printed; when
they are, enter under the _D_: e.g., _Debucourt, Decamps, Delisle_; but
_Bucourt, A. de_, _Camps, C. de_, _Lisle, J. de_.

(_b_) In English, under the prefix, no matter from what language the
name is derived, with cross-references when necessary: e.g., _De
Quincey_, _Van Buren_.

(_c_) In all other languages, under the name following the prefix, with
cross-references whenever the name has been commonly used in English
with the prefix, as _Del Rio_, _Vandyck, Van Ess_: e.g. _Gama, Vasco
da_, _Goethe, J. W. von_.

But when the name is printed as one word, entry is made under the
prefix, as _Vanderhaeghen_.

(_d_) Naturalized names with prefixes are to be treated by the rules of
the nation adopting them.

Thus German names preceded by _von_, when belonging to Russians, are to
be entered under _Von_, as this is the Russian custom. So when Dutch
names compounded with _van_ are adopted into French or English (as _Van
Laun_) the _Van_ is treated as part of the family name.

Prefixes are _d', de, de La_ (the name goes under _La_ not _de_),
_Des, Du, L', La, Le, Les, St, Ste_ (to be arranged as if written
_Saint, Sainte_), _da, dal, dalla, dalle, dai, dagli, del, della,
delle, dei_ (_dé_ or _de_), _degli, da, dos_, _das, ten, ter, thor,
Van, vander, van't, ver, am, auf, auf'm, aus, aus'm, in, im, von, vom,
zu, zum, zur, A', Ap, O', Fitz, Mac_ (which is to be printed as it is
in the title, whether _M'_, or _Mc_, or _Mac_, but to be arranged as if
written _Mac_).


  Index names of capes, lakes, mountains, rivers, forts, etc.,
    beginning with _Cape_, _Lake_, _Mt._, etc., under the word
    following the prefix, but when the name is itself used as a
    prefix, do not transpose _Cape_, etc., nor in such names as _Isle
    of the Woods_, _Isles of Shoals_; but there is more reason for
    writing _France, Isle de_; _Man, Isle of_; _Wight, Isle of_:
    e.g., _Cod, Cape_; _George, Lake_; _Washington, Mt._; _Moultrie,
    Fort_; but _Cape Breton Island_. When the name of a fort becomes
    the name of a city, of course the inversion must be abandoned, as
    _Fort Wayne_.

  Forenames are to be used in the form employed by their owners,
    however unusual, as _Will Carleton, Sally (Pratt) McLean, Hans
    Droysen, Fritz Reuter_.

  Give names of places in the English form. (Cross-reference from
    the vernacular, if necessary): e.g., _Munich_ not _Muenchen_ or
    _München_, _Vienna_ not _Wien_, _Austria_ not _Oesterreich_.

  But if both the English and the foreign forms are used by English
    writers, prefer the foreign form: e.g., _Dauphiné_ rather than
    _Dauphiny_.

  Use the modern name of a city and cross-reference to it from the
    ancient, provided its existence has been continuous and there is
    no doubt as to the identity.

  Distinctive epithets are to be in the same language as the name:
    e.g.,

_Kniaz, fürst von, Freiherr zu, duc de Magenta, Bishop of Lincoln,
évêque de Meaux_; but _Emperor of Germany, King of France_, not
_kaiser_ and _roi_, when names of sovereign princes are given in
English. Treat in the same way patronymics habitually joined with a
person's name; as, _Clemens Alexandrinus_.


  Prefixes (i.e., titles which in speaking come before the name), as
    _Hon., Mrs., Rev._, etc., should in the heading be placed before
    the Christian name (as _Smith, Capt. John_), and suffixes as
    _Jr., D.D., LL.D._, after it (as _Channing, James Ellery, D.D._).

Hereditary titles generally follow the Christian name, as _Derby,
Thomas Stanley, 1st earl of_; but British courtesy titles (i.e.,
those given to the younger sons of dukes and marquesses) precede,
as _Wellesley, Lord Charles (2d son of the Duke of Wellington)_. In
other languages than English, French, and German the title usually
precedes the forename; as, _Alfieri, Conte Vittorio_. Occasionally a
French nobleman uniformly places his title before his forenames; as,
_Gasparin, Comte Agénor de_.

_Lord_ should be replaced by the exact title in the names of English
noblemen: e.g., Lord Macaulay should be entered as _Macaulay, 1st
baron_. _Lord_ in the title of Scotch judges follows the family name;
as, _Kames, H. Home, afterwards Lord_.

The title Baronet is given in the form _Scott, Sir Walter, bart._

Patronymic phrases, as _of Dedham_, follow all the names; but they must
immediately follow the family name when they are always used in close
connection with it, as _Girault de St. Farjeau, Eusèbe_; similarly
_aîné_, _fils_, _jeune_, as _Dumas fils, Alexandre_; _Didot fils,
Ambroise_. Latin appellatives should not in general be separated from
their nouns by a comma; as, _Caesar Heisterbacensis_.

The name of a king's wife should be written thus: _Charlotte, Queen,
consort of George III of England_. _Anne Boleyn Queen, 2d consort of
Henry VIII of England._


=Countries and places:=

  Index under countries or places important events relating to them:
    e.g., _Montreal, Cartier's description of houses at_. Also make
    reference under name: e.g., _Cartier, description of houses at
    Montreal_.

  Enter congresses of several nations under the name of the place
    of meeting (as that usually gives them their name), with
    cross-references from the nations taking part in them, and from
    any name by which they are popularly known: e.g., the _Congress
    of London, of Paris, of Verona, International Peace Congress
    at the Hague_.

  Enter treaties under the name of each of the contracting parties,
    with a cross-reference from the name of the place of negotiation,
    when the treaty is commonly called by that name, and from any
    other usual appellation: e.g., treaty of _Versailles_, _Barrier_
    treaty, _Jay's_ treaty.


=Parties and sects:=

  Enter the official publications of any political party or
    religious denomination or order, under the name of the party, or
    denomination, or order: e.g.,

Platforms, manifestoes, addresses, etc., go under _Democratic Party,
Republican Party_, etc.

Confessions of faith, creeds, catechisms, liturgies, breviaries,
missals, hours, offices, prayer books, etc., go under _Baptists,
Benedictines, Catholic Church, Church of England, Friends_, etc.

That part of a body which belongs to any place should be entered
under the name of the body, not the place: e.g., _Congregationalists
in New England_, _Congregationalists in Massachusetts_, not _New
England Congregationalists_, _Massachusetts Congregationalists_. But
cross-references must be made from the place (indeed in cases like
_Massachusetts Convention_, _Essex Conference_, it may be doubted
whether those well-known names should not be the headings).

  Enter corporations and quasi corporations, both English and
    foreign, under their names as they read, neglecting an initial
    article or serial number when there is one.

  Enter orders of knighthood, both those of medieval times and their
    honorary modern equivalents, under the significant word of the
    English title: e.g., _Garter, Order of the_; _Malta, Knights
    of_; _Templars, Knights_; _Teutonic Order_; _Freemasons_. But
    the American Knights Templars, being merely a division of the
    Freemasons, belong under _Freemasons_; so of other regular
    masonic bodies.

  The colleges of an English university and the unnamed professional
    schools of an American university go under the university's
    name. Such professional schools, if they have a distinctive
    name, particularly if at a distance from the university, or for
    any other reason less closely connected with it, go under their
    own name: e.g., _Oxford University, Magdalen College_; _Harvard
    University, Veterinary School_; but _Barnard College, Columbia
    University_; _Radcliffe College, Harvard University_; _Sheffield
    Scientific School of Yale University_.

  College libraries go under the name of the college: e.g., _Harvard
    College, University Library_. But the Bodleian Library may be put
    under _Bodleian_.

  Local college societies go under the name of the college;
    intercollegiate societies and Greek letter fraternities under
    their own names: e.g., Φ B K _A, of Harvard_.

  Alumni and Alumnæ associations go under the name of the school or
    college: e.g., _Harvard Alumni Association of New York_.

  Schools supported by public taxation go under the name of the city
    or town maintaining them, whether they have an individual name or
    not.

  When a corporation is much less known by the first words of its
    name than by a later part, enter under the later part: e.g.,
    _Christian Endeavor, Young People's Society of_.

  Enter guilds under the name of the trade: e.g., _Stationers
    Company_, not _Master and Keepers or Wardens and Commonality of
    the Mystery and Art of Stationers of the City of London_, which
    is the corporate title.

  Enter bodies whose legal name begins with such words as _Board_,
    _Corporation_, _Trustees_ under that part of the name by
    which they are usually known: e.g., Trustees of the _Eastern
    Dispensary_; President and Fellows of _Harvard College_;
    Proprietors of the _Boston Athenæum_; Contributors to the
    _Asylum for the Relief of Persons Deprived of their Reason_.
    Cross-reference from the first word of the legal name.

  Enter the name of a firm under the family name rather than the
    forename, and do not fill out the forenames: e.g., _Friedlander
    und Sohn, Raphael_, not under _Raphael_; _Stokes, F. A. Co._, not
    _Stokes, Frederick A. Co._

The consulter is much more likely to remember the family than the
Christian name. Whether the Christian name is written at the end
or thus, _Town (John)_ and _Bowers (Henry)_, all firms should be
arranged after all the other entries of the first family name, i.e.,
_Friedlander und Sohn_ after all the _Friedlanders_.

This rule might be extended to include corporations, colleges,
libraries, etc., whose legal names include forenames. Entry under a
forename, as _Silas Bronson Library_, and especially under initials, as
_T. B. Scott Public Library_, is awkward. But the public habit is not
yet sufficiently settled to justify an exception.

  Enter the universities of the European continent and of Central and
    South America under the name of the place; all other societies
    under _Königliche_, _Herzogliche_, etc.

Cross-reference from the first word in the university names and from
the place of societies.

A few learned academies, commonly called by the names of the cities
where they are established, may be entered under the place with a
cross-reference from the name. These are _Berlin, Göttingen, Leipzig,
Lisbon, Madrid, Munich, St. Petersburg, Vienna_.

  Enter national libraries, museums, and galleries, as well as
    libraries, museums, and galleries instituted or supported by a
    city, under the place, provided they have not a distinctive name.

Example of place: _Paris Bibliothèque Nationale_. _Boston Public
Library._

Example of name: _Berkshire Athenæum_; _Boston Athenæum_; _British
Museum_; _Forbes Library_; _Marucceliana, Biblioteca_; _Reuben Hoar
Public Library_.

  Enter observatories under the name of the place: e.g., _Greenwich,
    Observatory_. _Pulkowa, Sternwarte_; except that:

(_a_) University observatories go under the university: e.g., _Harvard
College. Astronomical Observatory, at Cambridge._ (Cross-reference from
_Cambridge_.)

(_b_) Any observatory having an individual name may go under that:
e.g., _Lick Observatory_, _Yerkes Observatory_.

  Enter expositions under the place where they were held: e.g.,

_Buffalo, Pan-American Exposition, 1901_; _Chicago, World's Columbian
Exposition, 1893_; _New Orleans, World's Industrial and Cotton
Centennial Exhibition, 1884-85_; _Philadelphia, Centennial Exhibition,
1876_.

Cross-reference from an individual name.

  Enter American State universities and State historical,
    agricultural and medical societies, whether supported by the
    State or not, under the name of the State, unless they are better
    known by a distinctive name. The State's name usually enters into
    the name of these societies and they are known outside of the
    State by its name. Cross-reference when necessary.

  Enter churches under the name of the place.

Single churches have usually been entered under the place, a practice
which arose in American indexes from our way of naming churches "The
First Church in----," "The Second Church of----," etc., and applies
very well to a majority of English churches, whose name generally
includes the name of the parish. It is more in accordance with indexing
principles to limit the local entry of churches to _First Church_,
etc., and those which have only the name of the town or parish, and to
put all others (as _St. Sepulchre's_, _St. Mary Aldermansbury_) under
their names, as they read, and to treat convents and monasteries in the
same way; but the convenience of having a single definite rule has been
held to outweigh in this case the claims of consistency.

The parishes of London (as _Kensington_, _Marylebone_, _Southwark_),
like the parts of Boston (_Dorchester_, _Roxbury_, etc.), or of any
other composite city, would be put under their own names, not under the
name of the city.

  A few cathedrals generally known by some other name may be entered
    under it: e.g., _St. Paul's, London; Notre Dame, Paris; St.
    Peter's, Rome; St. Sophia, Constantinople_.

  Put monasteries and convents, like churches, under the place,
    unless better known by the name.

  National banks designated merely by number (as _First National Bank
    of Boston_) go under the name of the place.

  Young men's Christian associations, mercantile library
    associations, and the like, should have local entry.

  Private schools having no distinctive name go under the name of the
    proprietor.

  Private libraries, galleries and museums go under the name of the
    proprietor.

  Buildings are for the most part provided for in the above rules, as
    museums, galleries, libraries, churches, etc. Any others should
    be entered under their names, with a cross-reference from the
    city.

  Headings like _Charles_, _George_, _Henry_, when very numerous,
    must be divided into classes, in this order: Saints, Popes,
    Emperors, Kings, Princes, and Noblemen, others. The Saints are
    sub-arranged by their usual appellatives, the Popes by their
    number, Sovereigns and Sovereign princes in alphabetical order
    of countries, and under countries numerically. Other persons
    are sub-arranged by their usual appellatives, neglecting the
    prepositions:[52] e.g.,

  _Peter_, Saint.
  _Peter_, Pope.
  _Peter_, the Great, Emperor of Russia.
  _Peter II_, of Aragon.
  _Peter III_, of Aragon.
  _Peter I_, of Portugal.
  _Peter_, Duke of Newcastle.
  _Peter_, of Groningen, enthusiast. See _Pieter_.
  _Peter_, John Henry.
  _Peter, Lake._
  _Peter, Mt._
  _Peter-Hansen_, Erik.
  _Peter_ Lewis, a true tale.

When there are two appellatives coming in different parts of
the alphabet, cross-reference from the rejected one, as _Thomas
Cantuariensis_. See _Thomas Becket_.

  Arrange in two alphabets names that differ slightly in spelling and
    come close together in the alphabet: e.g.,

_Brown_ and _Browne_, and the French names beginning with _Saint_ and
_Sainte_. As readers may not always know the spelling of the author's
name, cross-references should be made: e.g., _Brown_. See also _Browne_.

  Arrange by the forename headings in which the family name is the
    same.

No attention is to be paid to prefixes, as _Bp., Capt., Dr., Hon., Sir,
Fräulein, Miss, Mlle., Mme., Mrs._, or to suffixes, as _D.D., F.R.S.,
LL.D._, etc.

  When the forenames are the same, arrange chronologically.

No attention is to be paid to the titles _Sir_, etc.: e.g., _Bart, T.
L._, comes before _Bart, Thomas_, for the same reason that _Bart_ comes
before _Barta_.

  Forenames not generally used should be neglected in the arrangement.

When an author is generally known by one of several forenames he will
be looked for by that alone, and that alone should determine the
arrangement. The form should be _Harte, Bret_ (in full _Francis Bret_),
or _Harte, Bret_ (i.e., _Francis Bret_).

Make cross-references whenever the omission of a name will change the
alphabetical arrangement, as from _Müller, F. Max_, to _Müller, Max_.

  When there are two names exactly the same, add dates if available:
    e.g., _Franklin, John (d. 1759)_; _Franklin, John (d. 1863)_.

  If an author uses both the shorter and the longer forms in
    different works, and yet is decidedly better known by the
    shorter, arrange by that.

  Arrange a nobleman's title, under which entry is made, and the name
    of a bishop's see, from which reference is made to the family
    name, among the personal names, not with the places: e.g.,

      _London_, Alfred.
      _London_, David, bp. of.
      _London_, John.
      _London_, Conn.
      _London_, Eng.
  not _London_, John.
      _London_, David, bp. of.
      _London_, Conn.
  nor _London_, John.
      _London_, Conn.
      _London_, David, bp. of.
      _London_, Eng.

      _Danby_, John.
      _Danby_, Thomas _Osborne_, earl of.
      _Danby_, Wm.
      _Danby_, Eng.
      _Holland_, C.
      _Holland_, 3d baron (H: R. Vassal Fox).
      _Holland_, 4th baron (H: E. Vassal Fox).
      _Holland_ (the country).

  The possessive case singular should be arranged with the plural: e.g.,

  _Bride_ of Lammermoor.
  _Brides_ and bridals.
  _Bride's_ choice.
  _Boys'_ and girls' book.
  _Boy's_ King Arthur.
  _Boys_ of '76.

  Arrange Greek and Latin personal names by their patronymics or other
    appellatives: e.g.,

  _Dionysius._
  _Dionysius_ Areopagita.
  _Dionysius_ Chalcidensis.
  _Dionysius_ Genuensis.

  Arrange English personal and place names compounded with prefixes as
    single words; also those foreign names in which the prefix is not
    transposed: e.g.,

  _Demonstration._
  _De Montfort._
  _Demophilus._
  _De Morgan._
  _Demosthenes._

Other such names are _Ap Thomas, Des Barres, Du Chaillu, Fitz Allen, La
Motte Fouqué, Le Sage, Mac Fingal, O'Neal, Saint-Réal, Sainte-Beuve,
Van Buren_.

This is the universal custom, founded on the fact that the prefixes are
often not separated in printing from the following part of the name.
It would, of course, be wrong to have _Demorgan_ in one place and _De
Morgan_ in another.

  Arrange proper names beginning with _M', Mc, St., Ste._ as if spelled
    _Mac, Saint, Sainte_.

Because they are so pronounced. But _L'_ is not arranged as _La_
or _Le_, nor _O'_ as if it stood for _Of_, because they are not so
pronounced.

  Arrange compound names of places as separate words, except those
    beginning with prefixes: e.g.,

      _New_, John.
      _New Hampshire._
      _New_ legion of Satan.
      _New Sydenham Society._
      _New York._
      _Newark._
      _Newfoundland._
      _Newspapers._
  not _New_, John.
      _New_ legion of Satan.
      _Newark._
      _Newfoundland._
      _New Hampshire._
      _Newspapers._
      _New Sydenham Society._
      _New York._

  Arrange personal names compounded of two names with or without a
    hyphen after the first name, but before the next longer word: e.g.,

  _Fonte_, Bart. de.
  _Fonte Resbecq_, Auguste.
  _Fontenay_, Louis.
  _Fontenay Mareuil_, François.

  Arrange names of societies as separate words.

See _New Sydenham Society_ in the list above.

  Arrange hyphened words as if separate: e.g.,

  _Happy_ home.
  _Happy-Thought_ Hall.
  _Happy_ thoughts.
  _Home_ and hearth.
  _Home_ rule.
  _Homely_ traits.
  _Homer._
  _Sing_, pseud.
  _Sing_, James.
  _Sing_, James, pseud.
  _Sing-Sing Prison._
  _Singapore._
  _Singing._
  _Grave and Reverend Club._
  _Grave County._
  _Grave Creek._
  _Grave-digger._
  _Grave-mounds._
  _Grave_ objections.
  _Grave de Mézeray_, Antoine.
  _Gravel._
  _Gravestone._
  _Graveyard._
  _Out_ and about.
  _Out_ in the cold, a song.
  _Out-of-door_ Parliament.
  _Outer_ darkness, The.

  Arrange pseudonyms after the corresponding real name: e.g.,

  _Andrew_, pseud.
  _Andrew_, St.
  _Andrew_, St., pseud.
  _Andrew_, John.
  _Andrew_, John, pseud.
  _Andrew_, John Albion.

  Arrange incomplete names by the letters. When the same letters
    are followed by different signs, if there are no forenames,
    arrange in the order of the complexity of signs; but if there
    are forenames, arrange by them: i.e., put a dot before a line, a
    line before a star (three lines crossing), etc.: e.g.,

  _Far_ from the world.
  _Far_ ...
  _Far_ ***
  _Far_, *** B. F.
  _Far_ ..., J. B.
  _Farr_, John.

  The arrangement of title-entries is first by the heading words; if
    they are the same, then by the next word; if that is the same,
    by the next; and so on. Every word, articles and prepositions
    included, is to be regarded, but not a transposed article: e.g.,

  _Uncovenanted_ Mercies.
  _Under_ a Cloud.
  _Under_ the Ban.
  _Under_ the Greenwood Tree; a novel.
  _Under_ the Greenwood Tree; a poem.
  _Under_ Which King.
  _Undone_ Task, The.
  _Undone_ Task Done.[53]

It makes no difference whether the words are connected with one another
in sense or not; the searcher should not be compelled to think of that.
Let the arrangement be by words as ordinarily printed. Thus _Home Rule_
is one idea but it is two words, and its place must be determined
primarily by its first word _Home_, which brings it before _Homeless_.
If it were printed _Homerule_ it would come after _Homeless_. Similarly
_Art Amateur_ is one phrase, but as the first word _Art_ is followed by
a word beginning with _am_, it must come before _Art_ and _Artists_,
although its parts are more closely connected than the parts of the
latter phrase.

The French _d'_ and _l'_ are not to be treated as part of the following
word: e.g.,

      _Art d'économiser._
      _Art d'être grandpère._
      _Art d'instruire._
      _Art de faire._
      _Art de l'instruction._
      _Art de linguistique._
      _Art des mines._
      _Art digne._
  not _Art de faire._
      _Art de linguistique._
      _Art de l'instruction._
      _Art d'économiser._
      _Art des mines._
      _Art d'être grandpère._
      _Art digne._
      _Art d'instruire._

  Arrange titles beginning with numeral figures as if the figures
    were written out in the language of the rest of the title: e.g.,

100 deutscher Männer--Ein hundert deutsche Männer; 1812--Mil huit cent
douze.

  Arrange abbreviations as if spelled in full, but elisions as they
    are printed: e.g.,

_Dr., M., Mlle., Mme., Mr., Mrs., St., as Doctor, Monsieur,
Mademoiselle, Madame, Mister, Mistress, Saint_.

  But _Who'd be a king?_
      _Who killed Cock Robin?_
      _Who's to blame?_

  Care must be taken not to mix two subjects together because their
    names are spelled in the same way.

Thus _Grace_ before meals, _Grace_ of body, _Grace_ the musical term,
and _Grace_ the theological term, must be four distinct headings.



GLOSSARY OF TERMS


NOTE.--_(b) Signifies terms used in connection with binding only. (c)
Terms usually employed in connection with the composing-room. (e) Terms
used in engraving. (el) Terms used in electrotyping. (g) Terms used
with general significance. (p) Terms used in connection with presswork._

=Accents= (_g_).--Small marks placed over, under, or through particular
letters, used to indicate pronunciation.

=Adams Press= (_p_).--A large platen printing-machine, used for
bookwork.

=Agate= (_c_).--A small size of type equal to 5½ points. See _Point_.

=Alignment= (_c_).--The arrangement of type in straight lines, also
the adjustment of the lines of type so that their ends appear in line,
vertically.

=All-along= (_b_).--In sewing a book, when the thread is passed from
kettle-stitch to kettle-stitch, or from end to end in each sheet, it is
sewed all-along.

=Alley= (_c_).--The floor space between stands where compositors work.

=American Russia= (_b_).--See _Cowhide_.

=Antique Type= (_c_).--Fonts of type of an old or medieval character.
The lines of all the characters are nearly uniform as to thickness; the
corners square and bold.

=Aquatint= (_e_).--A peculiar style of etching on copper or steel in
imitation of drawings in sepia or India ink.

=Arabic Numbers= (_c_).--The numeral figures as distinguished from
Roman characters.

=Art Canvas= (_b_).--A book cloth known both as Art Canvas and Buckram.

=Art Work= (_e_).--See _Retouching_.

=Ascending Letters= (_c_).--Letters that ascend to the upper shoulder
of the type body; as, _b_, _d_, _f_, _h_, _l_, etc.

=Author's Proof= (_c_).--Proof sent to the author for inspection and
approval.

=Azure Tools= (_b_).--Used in binding, where the heavy and wide marks,
instead of being a solid mass, are made with horizontal lines.


=Backing= (_b_).--The process of forming the back in preparing the
book for the cover or case, commonly called Rounding and Backing.
It is done in three ways; viz. (1) by hand with a hammer, (2) by a
hand rounding-and-backing machine, (3) by a steam- or electric-driven
machine.

=Backing Up= (_p_).--Printing the second side of a sheet.

=Band Driver and Nippers= (_b_).--Tools used in forwarding, to correct
irregularities in the bands of flexible backs.

=Bands= (_b_).--The cords on which the sheets of a volume are sewed.
When sewed "flexible," the bands show on the back of the book; when
bands are let in the back by sawing grooves, narrow strips of leather
are glued across the back to look like raised bands.

=Bank= (_c_).--A high table or bench with a sloping top; when used for
type only it is called a _standing galley_.

=Basket Cloth= (_b_).--This is a fancy weave of cloth, of construction
similar to the weaving of wickerwork baskets. It is a novelty binding.

=Bastard-Title= (_c_).--The title of a book printed upon a page by
itself and preceding the regular title-page.

=Battered= (_c_).--Type, electrotype, or engraving accidentally injured.

=Bead= (_b_).--An old-time term meaning the head-band, _q. v._

=Bearers= (_p_).--Strips of metal or wood, type-high, made up with type
to sustain impression while proving, or to bear off the impression on
light parts, and to carry the rollers evenly over a form in printing.

    (_c_).--Type-high pieces of metal placed around pages or forms to
    be electrotyped, to prevent injury to the face of the type or the
    plates in the subsequent processes, and cut away from the plates
    before printing.

=Bed= (_p_).--The flat part of a press upon which the type or form is
placed. The part on which the sheet is placed is called the platen, or
the cylinder.

=Benday Plates= (_e_).--Plates made by laying shaded tints on copper or
zinc, and etching them to produce colors or combination of colors when
printed.

=Beveled Sticks= (_c_).--Strips of furniture wider at one end than the
other; they are used with wooden quoins in locking up on galleys and in
chases.

=Bible India Paper= (_g_).--The thinnest paper made for books, formerly
only made in England and Italy; now made in America. A very high-grade
stock. See _Oxford Bible Paper_.

=Binder= (_b_).--A temporary cover for periodicals and pamphlets,
usually arranged so that it may be taken off and attached to subsequent
copies of a publication. A bookbinder.

=Black Letters= (_c_).--A style of letter or type characterized by
black face and angular outlines. It was designed by the early printers
from a current form of manuscript letter.

=Blank= (_g_).--A page upon which no printing appears.

=Blank Books= (_b_).--Applied to a large variety of books which are
bound with blank leaves, or leaves having ruled lines and little or no
printing: account books, memorandum books, ledgers, etc.

=Blanking= (_b_).--Term employed in reference to stamping. Impression
made on cloth or leather by heated brass die.

=Bleed= (_b_).--When the margins of a book or a pad of printed sheets
have been trimmed so as to cut into the printing, they are said to
bleed.

=Blind Tooling or Stamping= (_b_).--Impressions of finisher's tools or
book-dies without ink or gold-leaf. Sometimes called _antique_.

=Blocking Press= (_b_).--A stamping press for impressing blocks or dies
on covers.

=Blocks= (_c_).--The wood or metal bases on which electrotypes and
engravings are mounted.

    (_p_).--Mechanical devices used on printing-presses for the purpose
    of holding plates in their proper positions in the form.

=Board Papers= (_b_).--The part of the end-papers pasted on the board
covers.

=Boards= (_b_).--Applied generally to many kinds of heavy cardboard.
A book with stiff sides covered with paper of any color is said to be
bound in paper boards.

=Bock Morocco= (_b_).--A term given to a leather made of Persian
sheepskin, finished in imitation of morocco.

=Bodkin= (_c_).--A sharp tool, like an awl, used for picking out
letters from a body of set type, when making corrections.

=Body= (_c_).--The shank of a type as determining its size.

=Bold-face= (_c_).--A heavy-faced type, used for contrast. It is also
known as _Full-face_.

=Bolt= (_b_).--The closed ends of leaves of an uncut book which
presents a double or quadruple fold.

=Book Cloth= (_b_).--Cloth used for making covers or cases for books.
It is made by special processes and in many different grades and
patterns. See also _Cloths_.

=Borders= (_c_).--Ornamental characters cast in type, the pieces being
adjustable in lines, or designs to surround pages, panels, etc.

=Bourgeois= (_c_).--The old-style name of a size of type equal to
9-point.

=Boxes= (_c_).--The small compartments of a type case.

=Box-head= (_c_).--A column heading in a ruled table. Any heading
enclosed in rules.

=Brass Rule= (_c_).--Thin strips of brass, type-high, of different
thicknesses and many styles of face--used for straight lines, column
rules, etc.

=Brasses or Brass Boards= (_b_).--Boards made for pressing books,
called by these names because of the narrow brass strips on the edges
by which the grooves are formed at the joints or hinges of the cases.

=Brayer Roller= (_c_).--A small hand roller for distributing ink.

=Break-line= (_c_).--A short line--the last line of a paragraph.

=Brevier= (_c_).--The old-style name of a size of type equal to 8-point.

=Brochure= (_b_).--A pamphlet, an unbound book of which the sheets are
held together by sewing only.

=Buckrams= (_b_).--These are the heavier weaves of cloth finished like
Linens. They should be used whenever the books will receive more than
ordinary wear.

=Buffing= (_b_).--The layer of cowhide taken off in buffing or
splitting the hide.

=Bulk= (_g_).--The thickness of a book before the covers are put on.

=Bundling= (_b_).--The process of pressing and tying together
signatures or folded-and-gathered books for the purpose of (1) ejecting
air and making them solid, (2) for convenience in handling.

=Burnished Edges= (_b_).--Edges which, after being colored, are made
smooth and bright by a tool especially made for polishing the surface.

=C Pattern= (_b_).--Embossing on book cloth of small, pebble-shaped
figures, scarcely larger than the head of a pin.

=Cabinet= (_c_).--A frame for holding type cases.

=Calendered Paper= (_g_).--See _Super-calendered Paper_.

=Calf= (_b_).--Leather made of the skin of a calf. It has a smooth,
uniform surface.

=Cameo Paper= (_p_).--A dull-surface coated paper on which most
artistic effects may be secured in printing from halftone plates.

=Canceled Matter= (_c_).--Set-up type or plates which have been
suppressed or _killed_.

=Cancels= (_b_).--Printed leaves containing errors, which have to be
cut out and replaced with corrected pages.

=Cap= (_c_).--An abbreviation of Capital. Caps and Small Caps are
contained in the upper case, and are called upper-case letters.

=Caps= (_b_).--Paper coverings used to protect the edges while a book
is being covered and finished. Also the leather covering the headband.

=Caption= (_g_).--The title-line placed below an illustration.

=Caret= (_c_).--A sign or mark used in proofreading and writing to show
that a letter or word has been omitted.

=Case= (_b_).--The cover of a cloth-bound book.

    (_c_).--A shallow, open wooden tray, divided into small
    compartments, in which the types are placed.

=Case Binding= (_b_).--A method of binding books in which the case or
cover is made separately and afterwards fastened upon the book.

=Cast Proof= (_c_).--See _Foundry Proof_.

=Catch Word= (_c_).--A word placed under the end of the last line on
the page of some old-time books, the word being the same as the first
word on the next page; a "carry over" or direction word.

=Center Tools= (_b_).--Tools cut for ornamentation of center of panels
and sides of book covers.

=Chase= (_c_).--The iron frame in which type and other matter is locked
up for the press, or for sending to foundry.

=Chased Edges= (_b_).--See _Goffered Edges_.

=Circuit Edges= (_b_).--Bibles and prayer-books are sometimes bound
with projecting covers turned over to protect the edges. These are
circuit or divinity edges.

=Clarendon Type= (_c_).--A bold-faced, condensed antique with a bold
bracketed serif, used in display work.

=Clasp= (_b_).--A hook or catch for fastening the covers of a book
together, usually at the fore-edge.

=Cloth= (_b_).--A stiffly sized and glazed variety of cotton or linen
cloth--usually colored and decoratively embossed.

=Cloth Boards= (_b_).--Stiff cloth covers.

=Coated Paper= (_p_).--An art paper coated or covered with some mineral
substance such as china clay, etc., on which halftone cuts are printed.

=Collating= (_b_).--Examining the signatures after a book is gathered,
to see that they are arranged in correct order.

=Colophon= (_g_).--An emblematic device, or a note, especially one
relating to the circumstances of production, as the printer's or
scribe's name, place, and date, put at the conclusion of a book or
manuscript.

=Column Rules= (_c_).--Strips of brass rule used to divide columns of
type.

=Combination Plates= (_e_).--_Black only_--Plates made by the use of
two or more halftone or line negatives, the films stripped together and
printed and etched on one copper or zinc plate. _Color_--Plates made by
the use of a key-plate and color plates, either halftone or line, to be
printed in two or more colors.

=Combs= (_b_).--Instruments with wire teeth used in marbling. The
colors being upon the surface, the comb is drawn across a portion in
such a way that a new pattern is developed.

=Common Cloths= (_b_).--Before receiving the final coat of color
this cloth is dyed. The thready appearance so noticeable in the
linen-finished cloths is less apparent in Commons on account of the dye
and extra coloring.

=Composing Stick= (_c_).--A flat, oblong tool, made of polished steel,
in which the compositor places the type as he takes it from the case.

=Composition= (_c_).--That part of the work of printing which relates
to typesetting, and making up.

=Compositor= (_c_).--One who sets type.

=Copper-thin Spaces= (_c_).--Very thin spaces made of copper, used in
the spacing and the justification of type.

=Copy= (_c_).--The matter or manuscript to be set up in type by the
printer.

    (_e_).--Subjects to be reproduced by the engraver.

=Corners= (_b_).--(1) The material covering the corners of "half-bound"
books, (2) the triangular tools used in gold- or blind-tooling.

=Correcting= (_c_).--Changing wrong words, letters, types, etc., or
adding new matter in type that has been set.

=Cowhide= (_b_).--A thick, coarse leather made from the skin of a cow,
commonly known as "American Russia" or "imitation Russia." It has a
slight grain, and is tough and strong.

=Cropped= (_b_).--When a book has been trimmed down too much, it is
said to be cropped.

=Cross-bars= (_c_).--The bars which divide a large chase into sections.


=Crushed Levant= (_b_).--Levant morocco with the grain crushed down
till the surface is smooth and polished.

=Cut= (_g_).--An obsolete term for an engraving. See _Engraving_.

=Cut-in Side Note= (_c_).--A note set into the side of a page of
printed matter.

=Cylinder Press= (_p_).--A printing-machine which gives the impression
by means of a cylinder instead of a platen.


=Dandy= (_g_).--A roller affixed to paper-making machines. The wet web
of paper carried on the endless wire of the machine passes under this
roller and is pressed by it. It gives the laid or wove appearance to
the sheet, and when letters, figures, or other devices are worked in
fine wire on its surface it produces the effect known as water-marking.

=De Luxe= (_g_).--A term applied to books manufactured with superior
materials, and with unusual care and expense.

=Dead Matter= (_g_).--Type or plates for which there is no further use.

=Deckle-edges= (_g_).--The rough, natural edges of hand-made paper.
Deckle-edges are also formed on two edges of machine-made paper. They
are poorly imitated by cutting or tearing paper.

=Dedication= (_g_).--An address prefixed to a literary composition,
inscribed to a patron or a friend as a mark of respect or affection.

=Deep Etching= (_e_).--Additional etching made necessary to secure
proper printing depth where this cannot be accomplished by routing, and
usually caused by the use of dense black lines, or line negatives and
halftone negatives being combined in one plate.

=Dentelle= (_b_).--A fine, tooled border resembling lacework.

=Descending Letters= (_c_).--Letters that descend below the type body,
as _g, p, q_, etc.

=Devil= (_g_).--The printer's errand boy or apprentice.

=Dies= (_b_).--Brass, zinc, or heavy electro plates used for embossing
or stamping on covers the lettering and ornamental designs.

=Display= (_c_).--Composition in which different styles or sizes of
type are used, such as on a title-page.

=Distributing= (_c_).--Returning types to their respective boxes.

=Divinity Calf= (_b_).--A dark-brown calf binding, decorated with
blind-stamping and without gilding.

=Divinity Edges= (_b_).--See _Circuit Edges_.

=Doublé= (_b_).--The ornamented inside of the cover of a book, made
with tooled leather, silk, or other material. Also termed _doublure_.

=Doubletone Ink= (_p_).--An ink in which the linseed oil medium,
ordinarily transparent, is tinted with a lighter shade of the color.
When this sinks into the paper, it automatically prints a second shade.

=Drop-folio= (_c_).--A page number, placed at the bottom of a page.

=Duck= (_b_).--Often called Canvas. A heavy cotton cloth, firmly woven
and smooth. It is a desirable cloth for heavy books.

=Dummy= (_g_).--Pages of a book put together so as to show the general
format of the finished book.

=Duodecimo= (_g_).--When a sheet of book paper is folded in twelve
leaves it is called a duodecimo or 12mo.

=Duograph= (_e_).--Two halftone plates made from one copy, and usually
printed in black and one tint, or two shades of the same color, the two
plates made with different screen angles.

=Duotype= (_e_).--Two halftone plates made from one copy, both from the
same negative and etched differently.


=Edition Work= (_b_).--Books bound in large numbers, as distinguished
from single books or jobbing.

=Electrotype= (_el_).--A replica of composed type, plates, etc.,
forming a printing surface. This is produced by covering an impression
made from the set type, etc., in wax or similar substance, with a
galvanic coating of copper which is afterwards backed up by an alloy.

=Em= (_c_).--The square of any type body.

=Embossing= (_g_).--The process of stamping leather, cloth, or paper
with a plate for the purpose of producing a raised or relief effect.

=Embossing Plate= (_e_).--A plate cut or etched below the surface for
the purpose of raising the image of the printed surface.

=En= (_c_).--One half the width of an em body.

=Enameled Paper= (_g_).--See _Super-calendered Paper_.

=End-papers= (_b_).--Usually known to the public as _fly-leaves_. The
white or colored sheets placed by the binder at the beginning and end
of a volume, one-half being pasted down upon the inside of the cover.

=English= (_c_).--The old-style name of a size of type equal to
14-point.

=English Finish Paper= (_g_).--A finished-surface paper, with a duller
surface than super-calendered.

=English Linen or Low Buckram= (_b_).--A linen cloth, highly polished,
well colored and durable.

=Engraving= (_g_).--A picture or design cut or etched on metal or wood.

=Etching= (_e_).--A process of engraving in which the plate after being
varnished is smoked, and the design or drawing is then cut through the
varnish, afterwards being treated with acid which eats into the exposed
parts of the metal.

=Extra Binding= (_b_).--A trade name for the hand-sewed and hand-bound
book.

=Extra Cloths= (_b_).--These in the plain finish and the various
patterns are largely used for binding works of fiction, and are among
the most expensive grades of book cloth. The fabric is heavily coated
with color, entirely concealing the weave, producing a solid color
surface.

=Extract= (_g_).--A passage taken from a book or work; a quotation,
excerpt, citation.


=Fanfare= (_b_).--A style of binding in which there is great profusion
and repetition of flowers, foliage, and other small ornaments.

=Figure= (_b_).--A cut or diagram inserted in printed text.

=Fillet= (_b_).--A cylindrical instrument upon which simple lines are
engraved, used in finishing.

    (_c_).--A rule with broad or broad and narrow lines.

=Finisher= (_el_).--A workman who performs the final operations in
plate-making.

    (_b_).--The workman who does hand-tooling, and performs the final
    operation or finishing on extra-bound books.

=Finishing= (_b_).--The part of a binder's work which consists in
lettering and ornamenting the cover.

=FL Pattern= (_b_).--Embossing known as Fancy Line. A special design
and very popular for diaries, blank books, and other similar lines.

=Flexible= (_b_).--When a book is sewed on raised bands and the sewing
thread passed entirely around each band. A term applied also to the
covers of the book, as for example, _full flexible_ or entirely _limp_
or _semi-flexible_, when a thin board or heavy paper is used in making
the cover.

=Floret= (_c_).--A flower or leaf-shaped ornament.

=Fly-Leaves= (_b_).--The leaves at the beginning and end of a book. See
_End-papers_.

=Foil= (_b_).--A special product, neither gold nor ink, used in
stamping the lettering and ornamentation on covers.

=Folder= (_b_).--A mechanism for folding book and periodical sheets. A
small flat piece of bone or ivory used in folding and in other ways.
The first is more properly called a folding machine.

=Folio= (_g_).--A sheet of book paper of approximately 18 × 24 inches
size when folded in two leaves is called a folio.

    (_c_).--A page number.

=Follow Copy= (_c_).--Means that the compositor should follow exactly
the copy supplied by the author or publisher as regards punctuation,
capitals, etc.

=Font= (_c_).--A complete assortment of types of one size.

=Footnote= (_g_).--A reference or explanation at the bottom of a page.
As a rule this is set in type several sizes smaller than that of the
text.

=Fore-Edge= (_b_).--The outer side of a book.

=Form= (_g_).--A page or number of pages or plates locked up in a chase
ready for the press.

=Format= (_g_).--The bibliographical term for the physical size, shape,
and appearance of a book.

=Forwarding= (_b_)--An expression covering the operations performed in
binding a book by hand up to the time when it is sent to the finisher
for tooling, etc.

=Foul Case= (_c_).--When the type is badly mixed up in the case by
distributing, the case is called _foul_ or _dirty_.

=Foul Proof= (_c_).--A proof-sheet containing the author's corrections.

=Foundry= (_el_).--The department where the electrotypes are made from
the types set in page form.

=Foundry Proof= (_c_).--A proof of the type page after it has been
corrected and is ready for an electrotype cast to be made from it.
Sometimes called _Cast Proof_.

=Four-color Process Plates= (_e_).--Same as the three-color process
(_q.v._), with the addition of a gray or black plate.

=Frame= (_c_).--A stand to support the type cases when used by the
compositor.

=French Morocco= (_b_).--A quality of Levant Morocco, having usually a
less prominent grain.

=Front Matter= (_g_).--That which precedes the main text of a printed
book; e.g., Bastard-title, title-page, contents, preface, etc.

=Full Binding= (_b_).--A book which is entirely covered with leather is
said to be full-bound.

=Full Face= (_c_).--See _Bold Face_.

=Full Gilt= (_b_).--A book having the edges of the leaves gilded on
head, front, and tail is said to be _full gilt_.

=Furniture= (_g_).--Pieces of wood and metal for filling blank spaces
in pages, and between and around pages in a form, etc.


=Galley= (_c_).--The shallow tray, either all brass, or wood, brass, or
zinc, made in many sizes, used to hold type after the lines have been
taken from the composing stick; usually has a thin brass bottom with
three perpendicular sides a little more than half an inch high.

=Galley Press= (_c_).--A roller apparatus for taking proofs of type
while on the galley.

=Galley Proof= (_c_).--An impression from the type while still in the
galley.

=Galley Rack= (_c_).--A receptacle for galleys when filled with set
type.

=Gathering= (_b_).--Collecting the folded sheets of a book according to
the order of the signatures and pagination.

=Gauge= (_c_).--A piece of wood or metal to determine the length of
pages. Also a piece of wood, card, or metal (usually a quad) pasted to
the tympan sheet as a guide to feed sheets to; a feed-guide.

=Get In= (_c_).--To take a word or syllable into the line by
thin-spacing.

=Glair= (_b_).--The whites of eggs beaten up and used in finishing and
gilding the edges of the leaves.

=Goffered Edge= (_b_).--An indented, decorative design on the edges of
a book. An old fashion in bookbinding, applied to gilded or silvered
edges.

=Gordon Press= (_p_).--A small, platen printing-machine used for job
printing.

=Gothic= (_c_).--The simplest of all styles of type. It is without
serif and evidently an imitation of the old lapidary characters of the
Greeks and Romans.

=Grain= (_b_).--The outer side of a piece of leather from which the
hair has been removed.

=Great Primer= (_c_).--The old-style name of a size of type equal to
18-point.

=Grippers= (_p_).--On a job press, the iron fingers attached to the
platen which take the sheet off the form after each impression; on
printing cylinders, the apparatus which catches and carries the sheet
around to the impression.

=Guarded Signatures= (_b_).--Signatures with cambric pasted around
the outside back edge for the purpose of strengthening the paper and
binding. Often done on the first and last signatures of a book because
of the extra strain at those points.

=Guard-line Proof= (_c_).--See _Foundry Proof_.

=Guinea Edge= (_b_).--The edge of a book rolled with a pattern similar
to the milled edge of an old guinea coin.

=Gutters= (_p_).--The inside back margin of a book; opposite of front
margin.


=H Pattern= (_b_).--Embossing on book cloth of small diamond-shaped
figures.

=Hair-space= (_c_).--Any space thinner than one-fifth of an em.

=Half-binding= (_b_).--When a book is covered with leather on the back
and corners, and the sides covered with cloth or paper, it is said to
be half-bound, half-morocco, half-russia, half-calf, etc.

=Half-leather Binding=.--A binding which consists of leather back and
paper sides.

=Half-title= (_g_).--The title of a volume, appearing above the text on
the first page, or on a separate leaf immediately preceding the first
page of text. Sometimes wrongly used synonymously with _Bastard-title_
(_q.v._).

=Half-tone= (_e_).--A style of engraving, made by etching a plate of
polished copper.

=Halftone, Direct= (_e_).--A halftone to produce which the screen
negative is made by direct exposure from the article itself, and not
from a photograph or drawing.

=Halftone, Highlight= (_e_).--A halftone plate in which the elimination
of the dots in the highlights is accomplished by a photo-chemical
process instead of by cutting them out with a tool.

=Halftone, Outlined= (_e_).--A halftone with the background outside of
the object entirely cut away, leaving a definite edge without shading
or vignetting.

=Halftone, Outlined and Vignetted= (_e_).--A halftone in which part of
the background is cut away and part vignetted.

=Halftone, Square Plate= (_e_).--A halftone in which the outside edges
are rectangular and parallel, may be with or without single black line
border.

=Halftone, Two-color= (_e_).--Two halftone plates, either or both
plates an etched plate containing parts or all of the design, to be
printed in two contrasting colors.

=Halftone, Vignetted= (_e_).--A halftone in which one or more of the
edges of the object are shaded from dark tones to pure white.

=Hand Letters= (_b_).--Letters made usually of brass, so that they may
be heated, and affixed singly in a handle, for lettering covers, etc.

=Hand-Tooling= (_e_).--Any work done by use of a tool upon the plate to
increase the contrast of the etched plate.

=Hanging Indention= (_c_).--Where the first line of the matter is the
full width of the measure, and indents one or more ems on the left all
the lines following. Sometimes called "Reverse Indention."

=Head and Tail= (_b_).--Top and bottom of a book.

=Head-band= (_b_).--A small ornamental accessory fixed to the head and
tail of a volume inside the back to give it greater strength and a more
finished appearance. It was originally part of the sewing.

=Head-piece= (_g_).--A decorative engraving placed at the top of the
first page of text in a book, or at beginning of each chapter.

=Height to Paper= (_c_).--The extreme length of a type from its face to
its foot.

=Hub= (_b_).--A thick band on the back of a large blank book.


=Imitation Russia= (_b_).--See _Cowhide_.

=Imposing Stone= (_c_).--The flat surface upon which forms are locked
up for the press; usually of polished stone, but now often made of iron.

=Imposition= (_c_).--Arranging pages in a chase and preparing them in a
form for the press.

=Imprint= (_g_).--The name of the printer or publisher affixed to his
work.

=In Boards= (_b_).--When a book is cut after the boards are in place to
form the sides, it is cut _in boards_. When cut before the boards are
affixed it is _out of boards_, with projecting covers. Most books are
bound in the latter manner.

=Indent= (_c_).--To put a quad at the beginning of a line, as at the
first line of a paragraph.

=Indention= (_c_).--Indention is the leaving of a blank space at the
beginning of a line to mark a change in the subject, or the importance
of a particular portion of the matter, thus forming a paragraph.

=India Paper= (_g_).--A thin, soft, absorbent paper, made in China and
Japan, and imitated in England and the United States, used for the
finest impressions of engravings. See also _Bible India Paper_.

=India Proof= (_e_).--An early choice impression of an engraving taken
on India Paper.

=Inferior Letters or Figures= (_c_).--Small characters cast on the
bottom of the line or for footnote references.

=Ink Fountain= (_p_).--A reservoir for holding ink, and attached to the
press.

=Inlay= (_b_).--Cloth, paper, or leather set into the cover of a book
flush with the surface.

=Insert= (_g_).--An illustration or map, printed separately from the
text, but pasted in the book.

=Inset= (_b_).--When one sheet is placed inside of another, both being
folded, the first sheet is said to be inset. Also, a picture set into
the front cover of a book is said to be an _inset_.

=Intaglio= (_g_).--A word adapted from the Italian, signifying an image
engraved into and sunken below the surface containing it; for example,
a seal, having its design cut into its surface so that, when impressed
in wax, the design will be in relief.

=Italic= (_c_).--A style of type, designed by Aldus Manutius, said to
be in imitation of the handwriting of Petrarch.


=J Pattern= (_b_).--Embossing on book cloth of pebble design larger
than C pattern. The figure is slightly elongated.

=Jackets= (_g_).--The printed or unprinted wrappers folded around a
bound book for protection.

=Jansen= (_b_).--Without line or ornament in blank or gold.
Ornamentation is allowed on the inside of the cover, but absolute
plainness is demanded on the outside, except lettering.

=Japan Paper= (_g_).--Paper made in Japan from the bark of the
paper-mulberry.

=Jogger= (_p_).--An attachment to the delivery table of a press to
straighten up sheets as they are printed. To jog up sheets is to
straighten them up in an even pile.

=Joints= (_b_).--The part of the cover where it joins the back on the
inside, forming a kind of hinge.

=Justify= (_c_).--To space out lines to the proper length and tightness.


=Keratol or Buffinette= (_b_).--A water-proof cloth made in imitation
of leather. It is excellent for the sides of books when there is much
wear, as it does not show water or finger marks. It outwears the
majority of cloths.

=Kerned Letters= (_c_).--Those which have part of the face projecting
over the body.

=Kettle-stitch= (_b_).--The stitch made at the head and tail of a book,
a chain-stitch.

=Kip Calf= (_b_).--Made from the skin of a heifer, and stronger than
ordinary calf.


=L Pattern= (_b_).--Embossing on book cloth known as Levant and
somewhat resembling Leather.

=Laced In= (_b_).--When the boards are fastened in a book by means of
the bands being passed through holes in the boards, they are laced in.

=Laid Paper= (_g_).--A book paper having lines water-marked or running
through it at equal distances, the lines being made by the pressure of
the wire screen during manufacture.

=Law Binding= (_b_).--A plain style of leather binding used for law
books; also called law calf.

=Law Calf= (_b_).--Calf leather that is uncolored, in the natural
state, pale brown.

=Law Sheep= (_b_).--Sheepskin left wholly uncolored, used for binding
law books.

=Leaders= (_c_).--Dots or short dashes set at intervals in lines to
guide the eye across to figures, etc., as in a table of contents.

=Leads= (_c_).--Thin strips of metal, cast in various thicknesses
(2-point is most common) and less than the height of type, to separate
lines, etc.

=Leatherette= (_b_).--Cloth or paper prepared in imitation of leather.

=Legend= (_g_).--See _Caption_.

=Letterpress Printing= (_p_).--That done from type, as distinguished
from presswork from plates, engravings, etc.

=Levant Morocco= (_b_).--Morocco leather made from the skin of the
Levant goat, having a larger grain than Turkish morocco leather. See
_Morocco_.

=Library Buckram= (_b_).--Is a special heavy weave suitable for law
book and library bookbinding. It is dyed and covered with a light coat
of color.

=Ligatures= (_c_).--Two letters tied together and cast on one body, fi,
fl, ff, etc.

=Limit Page= (_g_).--A special page to indicate that the edition is
limited.

=Limp= (_b_).--Leather or cloth bindings which are flexible and bend
easily, in distinction from boards or stiff covers.

=Line-plates= (_g_).--Etchings in relief on plates of zinc or copper,
reproduced from pen-and-ink drawings by photo-mechanical process.

=Linen Cloths= (_b_).--Styles X and B are known as Linens. The fabric
receives a light coat of color, not enough to conceal the weave. Their
popularity is largely due to the thready appearance.

=Lining= (_b_).--A term applied to cased books to indicate the
re-enforcement of head-band, super or crash, and paper which are
applied with glue and paste to the back of books before they are put
into covers.

=Linotype= (_c_).--A machine for setting type, casting it in lines
instead of single characters.

=Lithograph= (_c_).--A print from a lithographic stone.

=Live Matter= (_c_).--Type or other matter in preparation or ready for
printing.

=Locking Up= (_c_) (_p_).--Tightening, by means of quoins, the type and
material in a form, so that it will lift in a solid mass.

=Logotypes= (_c_).--Two or more separate letters or a complete word
cast as one piece.

=Long Primer= (_c_).--The old-style name of a size of type equal to
10-point.

=Lower Case= (_c_).--The case that contains the small letters, figures,
points, and spaces.


=Maiole= (_b_).--A binding generally composed of a framework of shields
or medallions with a scroll design flowing through it.

=Make-up= (_g_).--(1) The quantity of signatures or illustrations or
books needed to complete an order or edition. (2) The layout of the
book showing the order of pages and illustrations.

    (_c_).--To arrange lines of type into pages of proper length, with
    page numbers, head-lines, etc.

=Making Margins= (_p_).--Putting furniture and other material around
and between pages in a form, so that when printed they will be properly
imposed upon the sheet.

=Making Ready= (_p_).--Preparing a form on the press for printing,
by giving each part the proper impression, making overlays, setting
gauges, etc.

=Marbled Calf= (_b_).--Calfskin so treated with acid that it resembles
marble.

=Marbling= (_b_).--A process of decorating sheets of paper and edges of
books with variegated colors in irregular patterns.

=Matrix= (_c_).--A plate of metal, usually of copper, suitably formed
to mold the face of a type.

=Matter= (_c_).--Composed type. Open matter is wide-leaded, or has many
break-lines; when set by piecework it is _fat_. Solid matter is without
leads; with few or no break-lines is _lean_ in piecework.

=Measure= (_c_).--The length of the type line; the width to which the
composing stick is set.

=Metzograph= (_e_).--A halftone made by the use of a grained screen
instead of a cross-line screen.

=Mezzotint= (_g_).--A copperplate engraving in which the entire
surface of the plate is slightly roughened, after which the drawing
is traced, and then the portions intended to show the high-lights
and middle-lights are scraped and burnished, while the shadows are
strengthened.

=Mill Board= (_b_).--A thick, heavy card, used for making book covers.

=Minion=.--The old-style name of a size of type equal to 7-point.

=Miter= (_c_).--To chamfer or bevel the ends of rules in order that
they may join closely in forming a border.

=Mitered= (_b_).--When the cover of a book is ornamented with straight
lines which meet each other without overrunning, it is said to be
mitered.

=Modern Type= (_c_).--A class of Roman type, of which the leading forms
are: broad-face, Scotch-face, French-face, thin-face, bold-face.

=Molders= (_p_).--The set of electrotype plates kept in reserve, from
which to mold new plates as the _workers_ become worn on press.

=Monotype Caster= (_c_).--A machine for automatically casting type in
single characters.

=Monotype Keyboard= (_c_).--A machine for setting type.

=Morocco= (_b_).--A leather made from goatskins; it is tanned with
sumac. The texture is very firm though flexible. The grain, of which
there are many varieties, is produced by rolling and folding; this
process is called _graining_; genuine morocco makes the most durable
bookbinding.

=Mosaic= (_b_).--A design inlaid with different colors.

=Mottled Calf= (_b_).--A light-brown calfskin, mottled by treatment
with acid.


=Negative Etching= (_e_).--A plate from which the blacks of the
original copy will print white and the whites will print black.

=News-tone= (_e_).--A name sometimes given to coarse-screen halftones,
always etched on zinc and used mostly for newspaper work. Also known as
"quartertone."

=Nonpareil= (_c_).--The old-style name of a size of type equal to
6-point.


=Octavo= (_g_).--A sheet of book paper about 18 × 24 when folded in
eight leaves is an octavo or 8vo.

=Off= (_p_).--Signifies that all the sheets for a form have been
printed.

=Off its Feet= (_c_).--When type does not stand squarely on its base.

=Offset= (_g_).--A transfer of ink or color to another page or sheet of
paper.

=Offset Printing= (_g_).--A method of putting ink on paper through
the process of chemical or surface printing, rather than through
the process of relief or impressional printing. It is based, like
lithography, upon the principle that oil and water will not mix. The
design is transferred to a thin zinc or aluminum plate, which takes
the place of the stone in lithography. The transfer ink is of a greasy
consistency, having an affinity for zinc or aluminum, and a repellent
attitude toward water. In the operation of the press, the plate is
clamped around the cylinder, and two sets of rollers pass over it.
The first set is moistened with water, and its function is to dampen
the entire surface of the plate except where the design appears, the
greasy consistency of which repels the water. Inking rollers pass over
the plate immediately following the water rollers. The dampness on
all parts of the plate except at the design points repels the greasy
consistency of the ink, and allows a deposit of surplus ink upon the
design, due to the similar consistency of the two ingredients. The
design is then printed onto a rubber blanket, which is clamped around
a second cylinder, and is reprinted or "offset" onto the paper, which
passes between this second cylinder and a third cylinder.

=Old-style Type= (_c_).--Reproductions of the styles of early printers:
the Caslon, Baskerville, French, Elzevir and Basle.

=Out= (_c_).--A word or more omitted by mistake in composing.

=Out of Boards= (_b_).--See _In Boards_.

=Out Page= (_b_).--The first or signature page of a sheet.

=Outset= (_b_).--A four-page sheet folded round a signature.

=Overlay= (_p_).--A piece of paper put on the tympan to give more
impression to a letter, line, or part of an engraving.

=Overrun= (_c_).--To take words backward or forward from one line to
another in correcting.

    (_p_).--To print beyond the number ordered.

=Oversheets= (_g_).--The signatures or sheets remaining after an
edition is completely bound.

=Oxford Bible Paper= (_g_).--A thin, strong, opaque printing paper,
made in England, on which Bibles and other large volumes are printed
when a small bulk is desired. See also _Bible India Paper_.


=Packing= (_p_).--The sheets of paper, card, etc., used to make the
tympan; this term is applied to the covering for cylinders.

=Page= (_g_).--One side of a written or printed leaf.

    (_c_).--Type, or type and illustration properly arranged for
    printing on one side of the leaf of a book.

=Page-cord= (_c_).--Twine used to tie up pages.

=Page-Proof= (_c_).--An impression of the type after it has been made
up into page form.

=Parchment= (_g_).--A paper-like sheet made from the skins of sheep or
goat. The skins are first soaked in lime to remove the hair, and then
are shaved, washed, dried, stretched, and ground with fine chalk, or
lime and pumice-stone. Paper parchment, or vegetable parchment, is made
by chemically treating ordinary paper. See also _Vellum_.

=Persian Morocco= (_b_).--A kind of morocco made from the skins of
hairy sheep called Persian goats.

=Photo-engraving= (_g_).--The reproduction of engraved plates by means
of photography, for use in printing.

=Photogravure= (_g_).--Intaglio plates on copper for the reproduction
of paintings, etc., in monochrome. "Photo-Intaglio" and "Photogravure"
are essentially synonymous terms, the latter being the French
equivalent of the former. Technically, however, "photo-intaglio" means
a halftone engraving, the design of which is etched into the plate,
leaving the ground (i.e., the whites) of the picture on the surface,
instead of in relief with the whites etched down below the surface.
The term "photogravure" is applied to a similar engraving in which
the effects of light and shade are produced not by dots and stipples
produced through a halftone screen, but by variations in depth of the
depressions in the form of grain. In printing these plates the ink is
run into the depressions, and the surface then wiped clean before being
impressed upon the paper.

=Pi= (_c_).--Type mixed up and in confusion.

=Pica= (_c_).--A size of type equal to 12-point. It is the standard of
measurement for leads, rules, furniture, and also for width and length
of pages. Six picas equal, approximately, one inch.

=Picking for Sorts= (_c_).--Taking type out of one page to use in
another, when type is scarce.

=Pigskin= (_b_).--Leather made from the skin of the pig. It is very
tough and wears well.

=Planer= (_p_).--The smooth-faced block used to level down the face of
a form.

=Planogravure= (_e_).--A form of engraving printed from a flat surface.

=Plate= (_b_).--Any full-page illustration printed on paper different
from the book is termed a plate.

    (_el_).--An electrotype.

=Platen Press= (_p_).--That style of press which gives the impression
from a flat surface--the hand press, Adams press, and nearly all small
job presses; distinctive from the cylinder machine.

=Point= (_c_).--The unit of measurement of type, approximately 1/72 of
an inch.

=Point Folder= (_b_).--A machine for folding sheets. The accuracy of
the register is obtained by placing the perforated point holder of the
printed sheet on the projecting pins of the folding machine.

=Points= (_p_).--Small holes made in the sheets by the printer, which
serve as guides in registering and folding.

    (_p_).--Sharp metal pins placed in the form when it is imposed, to
    pierce the sheets as they are printed so that they can be folded on
    the point-folding machine.

=Polished Buckram= (_b_).--Its special qualities are uniformity of
color, finish, and fabric, tensile strength and easy application of
decoration.

=Press Proof= (_p_).--The final proof passed for press.

=Publisher's Binding= (_b_).--Commonly understood as ordinary cloth
binding.


=Quadruple Imposition= (_p_).--The imposition of the plates for
printing so that when folded on the Quadruple Folding Machine the pages
will follow in rotation.

=Quads= (_c_).--Brief form of _quadrat_; large metal blanks used to
fill lines and other spaces.

=Quarter-binding= (_b_).--A binding in leather or cloth backs, with
board sides cut flush.

=Quarto= (_g_).--A sheet of book paper approximately 18 × 24 inches in
size, when folded in four leaves, is called a quarto or 4to.

=Quoins= (_c_) (_p_).--Wedges used in locking up forms; formerly made
of wood and used with beveled sidesticks, but now made of iron in
several styles.

=Quotations= (_c_).--Large hollow quads for filling blank spaces;
hollow metal furniture.


=Recto= (_b_).--The right-hand page of a book. The _recto_ of a cover
is the front.

=Register= (_p_).--To adjust the form, feed-guides, etc., so that the
printing will be properly located on the sheet; to strike the different
forms of a colored job; to make pages on both sides of a sheet back
each other.

    (_c_).--The exact imposition of the type pages of a book so that
    when printed they back one another precisely, and are truly square.

    (_b_).--When two or more adjacent colors meet without infringing,
    they are said to be _in register_, otherwise _out of register_.

=Reglet= (_c_).--Thin strips of wood similar to leads, 6-point and
thicker, used as substitute for leads and slugs in large spaces.

=Relief= (_e_).--Processes of engraving in which the dots or lines of
the design are made to stand out so that it can be used for printing as
if from type.

=Retouching= (_e_).--(1) The act of going over a plate with a graver,
deepening the lines which have become worn. (2) The correcting of
defects on a photographic negative or print by means of a pencil or
fine camel's-hair brush.

=Reverse Indention= (_c_).--See _Hanging Indention_.

=Revise= (_c_).--A proof taken after corrections have been made; to
compare a proof so taken to see that the marked errors have been
corrected.

=Ribbon Marker= (_b_).--A small ribbon placed in a book as a marker.

=Roan= (_b_).--Unsplit sheepskin.

=Roller= (_p_).--An iron rod covered with an elastic composition, to
spread ink on the type or other printing surface.

=Roman= (_c_).--The class of type in general use as distinguished from
_italic_ or _fancy_ types.

=Roman Figures= (_g_).--Numerals expressed by letters as distinguished
from those expressed by Arabic characters, e.g., I, II, III, etc.

=Rotary Press= (_p_).--A printing press in which the types or plates
are fastened on a rotating cylinder, and are impressed on a continuous
roll of paper.

=Rotogravure= (_g_).--A recent photo-intaglio process, now coming into
use for illustrations in newspaper magazines. It is a combination of
the intaglio and the gravure processes, producing sunken engravings on
copper rollers, which are then printed from on the principle of calico
printing.

=Rounding= (_b_).--See _Backing_.

=Routing= (_e_).--The operation of gouging out from an electrotype
plate that portion of the metal which is not required.

=Roxburgh Binding= (_b_) (_pronounced Roxboro_).--A book bound with
leather back, cloth or paper sides, no leather corners, with gold
stamping on the shelf back, with gilt top, is said to be bound in
Roxburgh binding.

=Rule= (_c_).--A plain strip of metal type-high, used for printing
rules and lines.

=Running Head or Title= (_g_).--The title of a book or subject placed
at top of each page.

=Russia Leather= (_b_).--A fine leather prepared in Russia. Its
preparation consists in carefully tanning with willow-bark, dyeing with
sandal wood, and soaking in birch oil. It is of a brownish red color
and has a characteristic odor.


=S Pattern= (_b_).--Embossing of small diagonal lines finer than T
pattern, giving the cloth a silky appearance, commonly known as Silk
Pattern.

=Score= (_g_).--To crease cardboard or heavy paper so that it will fold
neatly at the desired place. This is often done with rules locked in
the form, or put on afterward, running the sheets through the press
without ink.

=Script= (_c_).--A style of type in imitation of handwriting.

=Sheepskin= (_b_).--Leather made from the skin of a sheep.

=Sheet= (_g_).--A separate piece of paper of definite size; a
twenty-fourth part of a quire. In printing, a _sheet_ is defined by
its size; in binding, by its fold.

=Sheet-wise= (_p_).--Presswork in which the two sides of the sheets are
printed from different forms.

=Shooting Stick= (_c_).--An implement made of wood, steel, or other
hard material, used with a mallet, to tighten up the wooden quoins.

=Shoulder= (_c_).--The blank space above and below the face of a letter
on the end of a type.

=Signature= (_b_).--A sheet after it has been folded and is ready to be
gathered. It usually consists of 16 pages, but may comprise 4, 8, 16,
32, or 64 pages.

=Silk Pattern= (_b_).--See _S Pattern_.

=Skiver= (_b_).--The outer or grainside of sheepskin which has been
split; much used for binding.

=Slug= (_c_).--A thick lead.

=Slur= (_p_).--A blurred impression.

=Small Caps= (_c_).--Capitals of a smaller size than the regular
capitals of a font.

=Small Pica= (_c_).--The old name of a size of type equal to 11-point.

=Smooth Calf= (_b_).--Plain or undecorated calf.

=Sorts= (_c_).--The letters in the boxes of a case; _out of sorts_, to
be out of any needed letter or character; _runs on sorts_, when copy
calls for more than the usual number of any particular letter.

=Spaces= (_c_).--The small blanks used to separate words, etc.

=Split Leather= (_b_).--Leather split by machinery.

=Sprinkled Calf= (_b_).--Calfskin treated with acid so as to look as if
it had been sprinkled with a dye.

=Sprinkled Edges= (_b_).--Edges of books that are decorated with small
dots or specks of color, sprinkled on from a brush.

=Stained Edges= (_b_).--Edges which are colored by a process of coating
or covering which combines with the paper to be colored.

=Stamping Die= (_e_).--A relief plate engraved on brass or zinc for
stamping book covers or similar surfaces.

=Stand= (_c_).--The common wooden frame with sloping top upon which
type cases are placed; the lower part usually has a rack for holding
extra cases.

=Steel or Copperplate Engraving= (_c_).--A method of making plates for
printing by cutting, scratching or corroding a plate.

=Stereotype= (_g_).--The duplicate, cast in one piece of type metal,
of the face of types or cuts composed for printing. There are three
processes: (_a_) The plaster process; (_b_) the clay process; (_c_) the
papier-maché process.

=Stipple= (_e_).--A method of engraving by which dots or punctures are
used instead of lines.

=Stone Hand= (_c_).--One who is chiefly employed in imposing, and other
work done on the stone.

=Stone Proof= (_e_).--(1) An impression taken from an engraved plate
or lithographic stone, to prove the condition and progress of the
engraving. (2) An impression taken from types or cuts, made up for
electrotyping.

=Super= (_b_).--A thin, loosely woven cotton cloth, glued and starched,
which is used for gluing onto the backs of books, to hold the
signatures by extending over to the inside of the cover, to hold the
book and cover together.

=Super-calendered Paper= (_g_).--A class of paper to which a glazed
surface is given by rolling or calendering.

=Superior Letters or Figures= (_c_).--Small characters cast on the top
of the line, used for footnote references, etc.

=Swash Letters= (_c_).--The name given to a style of italic capital
letters with tails and flourishes, much used in the seventeenth century.


=T Pattern= (_b_).--Embossing of transverse parallel lines. This is a
favorite pattern, and is used more than any other.

=Tail-piece= (_c_).--An ornament placed in a short page at the end of a
chapter, article, or volume.

=Take= (_c_).--When copy is divided among several compositors, each
part is a _take_.

=Tapes= (_b_).--Strips of tape extending over the back and onto the
boards to strengthen the binding. (2) Strips of cloth placed between
the covers and ends of a stitched book to strengthen the book and give
it flexibility.

=Text= (_c_).--The type used in the main part of a page; also applied
to some kinds of black-letter. The main body of matter in a book or
manuscript in distinction from notes or other matter associated with it.

=Three-color Process Plates= (_e_).--Printing plates, produced from
colored copy or objects, to reproduce the picture or object in its
original colors by a photo-chemical separation of the primary colors,
and etched halftone plates to reproduce each separate color, usually
printed in yellow, red, and blue. An approximate result may be obtained
from one-color copy by using the skill of the workman in securing the
color-values on the etched plates.

=Three-quarter Leather Binding= (_b_).--A binding which consists of a
leather back of extra width, with leather corners and paper or cloth
sides.

=Three to Em= (_c_).--A space one-third of an em in thickness.

=Token= (_p_).--A measure or unit of presswork. The New York token is
250 impressions of one form; the Boston token is 500 impressions.

=Tooled Edges= (_b_).--See _Goffered Edges_.

=Tooling= (_b_).--To ornament or give a final shape by means of a
special tool, especially when the mark of the tool is intentionally
left visible.

=Tree Calf= (_b_).--Calfskin so treated as to resemble the trunk and
branches of a tree.

=Turkey Morocco= (_b_).--Made of goatskin from Turkey. Strong, durable,
and expensive.

=Turn for Sorts= (_c_).--To put another type of the same size face
downward (so that its foot will show a black spot on proof) in the
place of a character that is missing.

=Two to Em= (_c_).--The half of an em quad, known as the en quad.

=Tympan= (_p_).--The sheets, cards, etc., that cover the platen or
cylinder, on which the paper is placed for printing. The cloth-covered
frame attached to the bed of a hand-press.

=Type-high= (_e_).--Type of the standard of height.

=Type-high to Paper= (_c_).--Type above the standard of height.


=Underlay= (_p_).--A piece of paper or card placed under the type,
electro, or engraved block, to increase the impression.

=Upper Case= (_c_).--The case in which the capitals, small capitals,
signs, and "peculiars" are placed.

=Uterine Vellum= (_g_).--A vellum made from the very thin skins of
still-born or unborn calves.


=Vellum= (_g_).--The skins of calves prepared by long exposure in
a lime-bath and by repeated rubbings with a burnisher. See also
_Parchment_.

=Vellum Finish= (_b_).--The smooth natural surface of an unembossed
cloth.

=Verso= (_b_).--The left-hand page of a book. Of a cover, the back or
reverse side.

=Vignette= (_g_).--(1) In old manuscripts an initial letter decorated
with leaves. (2) A head-or tail-piece of a book. (3) (_e_).--A drawing
or other illustration having a background that gradually shades off and
merges into the ground on which the print is made.


=Water-mark= (_p_).--See _Dandy_.

=Web Machine= (_p_).--(1) A cylindrical printing-press in which the
paper is carried forward to the impression cylinder by means of tapes.
(2) A printing-machine in which the paper is carried forward in a
continuous roll or _web_.

=Whipstitch= (_b_).--To sew with an over-and-over stitch.

=Work-and-Turn= (_p_).--When all the pages on a sheet are imposed in
one form, or half-sheetwise, the sheet is turned and printed on the
second side, thus giving two copies of the work when the sheet is cut.

=Workers= (_p_).--The set of electrotype plates from which editions are
printed.

=Wove Paper= (_g_).--Paper which does not show the wire mark as in
_laid paper_. The screen is woven in like cloth.

=Wrappers= (_g_).--See _Jackets_.

=Wrong-font= (_c_).--A letter or character of wrong size or style used
in composition; in proofreading written _w.f._


=Zinc Plate= (_g_).--A style of engraving etched with strong acid on a
sheet of polished zinc.



INDEX


[_In this index no reference is entered from the_ Glossary of Terms,
_the alphabetical arrangement of which renders such reference
superfluous_.]

_A'_, rule for indexing, 115.

Abbreviations, rule for indexing, 130.

_Abu_, (Arabic), rule for indexing, 108.

Academies, learned, rule for indexing, 121.

Addenda, method of attaching to manuscript, 11.

Addresses: subject to copyright, 32, 36; copyright application form
for, 47; rule for indexing, 118.

_Ad Interim_ Copyright: 42, 43; application form for, 47.

Advance orders, publisher's dependence upon, 8.

Advertising: its amount dependent on continued relations of author and
publisher, 5, 18; its part in selling books, 8, 9; exchanged for second
serial rights, 15; in exclusive control of publisher, 21.

Advertising card, 88, 89.

Affidavit: required for copyright of books, 35; not required for
copyright of periodicals, 36.

_Ahu_, (Arabic), rule for indexing, 108.

Alphabetical arrangement, of index, 124-130.

Alterations, author's. See _Author's Alterations_.

Alumni associations, rule for indexing, 119.

_Am_, rule for indexing, 115.

_Ap_, rules for indexing, 115, 127.

Appellatives, Latin, rule for indexing, 117.

Appendix, 88.

Application forms for copyright, 8, 40, 41, 46-49, 51.

Arabic names, rules for indexing, 108.

Arbitration, between author and publisher, 23.

Art, works of: subject to copyright, 32; must bear notice of copyright,
34; copyright application form for, 48.

Assignment, of copyright, 43-45, 52.

Atlas, English paper size, 96.

_Auf_, (_Auf'm_), rule for indexing, 115.

_Aus_, (_Aus'm_), rule for indexing, 115.

Austria, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.

Author, the: relations to publisher of, 3; relations to literary
agents of, 4, 63, 64; value of publisher's advice to, 5; advantage
of remaining with one publisher, 5, 18; value of reputation, 5, 9,
16; advised against publishing fiction at own expense, 11; making
contract with publisher, 12-24; retention of rights: dramatic, 13,
moving-picture, 14, serial, 14, English and Colonial, 16, 17; rates of
royalty paid to, 16; gives option on subsequent books to publisher,
18; form of contract with publisher, 19-24; guarantees his authorship,
20; must pay for excessive alterations, 20; agrees to effect renewals
of copyright, 21; terms for purchase of copies of his own books, 22;
division of profits from sale of rights, 22; terms for dissolution
of contract, 23; agrees to arbitrate differences with publisher, 23;
rendering of royalty accounts by publisher to, 22, 23, 28-30; "don'ts"
for moving-picture writers, 28; copyright protection for alien, 33;
relation to magazines of, 58-63; importance of copyright notice on
magazine articles to, 58-61; commission paid to literary agent by,
64; advantage of knowledge of printing to, 65; expense of author's
alterations to, 65, 66, 68, 76, 77; reading proofs by, 67, 69, 77-80;
preparation of manuscript by, 67, 68; index should be made by, 98, or
examined in manuscript by, 99.

Author's alterations: clause in contract about, 15, 20; expense of, 65,
66, 76; way to avoid, 66, 68, 77.

Authors' League, the: advice to authors on moving-pictures, 25-27; on
magazine contributions, 58-61.


_Babu_, rule for indexing, 109.

Banks, rule for indexing, 123.

Baroness, rule for indexing, 112.

Bastard-title: may be omitted, 70; place in volume, 88; described, 89,
93.

Belgium, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.

Berne, the convention of, 53.

_Bey_, rule for indexing, 109.

Bibliography, 88.

_Bin_, (Arabic), rule for indexing, 108.

Binding, 87.

Bishops, rules for indexing, 109, 125, 126.

Blind, works for the, 36.

Bodleian Library, Oxford: British copyright depository, 55; rule for
indexing, 119.

Book, the: requirements for acceptance by "reader," 6; by publisher, 7;
published at author's expense, 11, 12; subject to copyright, 32; must
bear notice of copyright, 34; copyright application form for, 46, 47;
mechanics of, 65-87; arrangement of, 88-97; layout of, 88-93; basic
sizes of, 94; margins of, 96, 97; titles of, to be indexed, 100.

Breviaries, rule for indexing, 118.

British Museum, the: British copyright depository, 55, 56; rules of,
for indexing noblemen, 110 _n_.

Buildings, rule for indexing, 123.


Cambridge, Eng., University Library of, British copyright depository,
55.

Canada: copyright in, 54; public holidays in, 55.

Canons, rule for indexing, 109.

Capes, rule for indexing, 115.

Catechisms, rule for indexing, 118.

Cathedrals, rule for indexing, 123.

Chile, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.

China, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.

Churches, rule for indexing, 122.

Cinemetograph. See _Moving-pictures_.

Cities, rule for indexing ancient and modern names of, 116.

Cobden-Sanderson, T. J., quoted, 90.

College textbooks, rate of royalty paid on, 17.

Colleges: rules for indexing, 119, 121; local societies of, rule for
indexing, 119.

Colophon, 90.

Columbia, English paper size, 96.

Common-school books: rate of royalty paid on, 17.

Compilations, subject to copyright, 32, 33.

Composite works, subject to copyright, 32.

Composition, of type, 76.

Compound names, rules for indexing, 113, 114, 127, 128.

Confessions of faith, rule for indexing, 118.

Congresses, of nations, rule for indexing, 117.

Contents, table of: place in volume, 88; described, 92; compared with
index, 98.

Contract (between author and publisher): difference in terms, 9; new
elements in making, 12-14; blank form of, 19-24; clauses in, relating
to: dramatic rights, 13, 20, moving-picture rights, 14, first serial
rights, 14, second serial rights, 15, author's alterations, 15, 16,
20, 21, rates of royalty, 16, British and Colonial rights, 17, "option
clause," 18, 21; payment of royalty, 21, 22, account of royalties, 22,
23, terms for dissolution of, 23, arbitration clause, 23.

Contributions, to periodicals: subject to copyright, 36; copyright
application form for, 47.

Contributor. See _Author_.

Convents, rule for indexing, 123.

"Copy." See _Manuscript_.

Copyright: mentioned in contract between author and publisher,
19-21, 23; author agrees to effect renewal of, 21; duty of publisher
to secure protection of, 21, 31; duty of publisher to effect renewals
of, 31; definition of, 31; usually taken out in name of publisher,
31; work must belong to certain classes to secure, 32, 33; relations
with foreign countries regarding, 33, 53; notice of, as required
by U. S. law, 34, 88, 91; notice of, not required in England, 56;
how to secure in U. S., 34-42; deposit of copies required for, 35;
manufacturing requirements to secure, 35, 36, 43; fees for, 35, 37,
38, 40, 41; remittances of fees for, 39; _ad interim_ protection, 42,
43; assignment of 43-45; duration of, 45, 46; application forms for,
38, 40, 41, 46-49; renewal of, 45, 46, 49; practical procedure to
effect, 49-53; international, 53, 54; in Great Britain, 53-56; special
registration in foreign countries, not required for, 54 _n._; avoid
publication on public holidays, 55; deposit of copies of work to secure
British, 55, 56; publication in England must be bona fide, 56; of
magazine articles, 59-61.

Copyright office, only for registration, 31.

Copyright notice: must appear on American books, 34, 37, 44, 50;
location of, 34, 60, 88, 91; not necessary on English books, 56.

Corporations, rule for indexing, 118, 120, 121.

Costa Rica, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.

Countries, rule for indexing, 117.

Creeds, rule for indexing, 118.

Cross-reference, to be indexed in case of: saints and friars, 108;
East Indian names, 109; married women, 110; noblemen, 110; foreign
compound names, 113, 114; places in foreign languages or vernacular,
115; events, 117; congresses of nations, 117; treaties, 117, 118; local
religious bodies, 118; university names and societies, 121; learned
societies, 121; observatories, 122; expositions, 122; state societies,
122; buildings, 123; similar headings, 124, 125.

Crown, English paper size, 95, 96.

Cuba, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.

Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalogue, mentioned, 104.

Cyclopaedic works, subject to copyright, 32.


_Da_, (_Dagli, Dai, Dal, Dalla, Dalle_), rules for indexing, 114, 115.

_Das_, rule for indexing, 115.

_De_, (_D', Des_), rules for indexing, 114, 115, 127, 129.

_De La_, rule for indexing, 114.

Dedication: place of, in book, 88; described, 92.

Definitions, to be indexed, 100.

Degrees, collegiate, place in indexed heading, 116.

_Del_, (_Degli, Dei, Dé, Della, Delle_), rules for indexing, 114, 115.

Demy, English paper size, 95, 96.

Denmark, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.

Deposit, of works for copyright: in the U. S., 35, 36, 38-42, 52, 60;
in England, 55, 56.

Designs: subject to copyright, 32; must bear notice of copyright, 34;
copyright application form for, 48; for book covers, 80.

Dies, for stamping book covers, 85.

Directories, subject to copyright, 32.

_Dr._, rule for indexing, 130.

_Dos_, rule for indexing, 115.

Double Crown, English paper size, 96.

Double Foolscap, English paper size, 96.

Double Post, English paper size, 96.

Double Pott, English paper size, 96.

Dramatic rights: reservation of, by author, 13; division of profits
from, 13.

Dramatic works: subject to copyright, 32, 33, 36; copyright application
form for, 47.

Dramatization, of novels, 13.

Drawings: subject to copyright, 32, 36; must bear notice of copyright,
34; copyright application form for, 48.

_Du_, rules for indexing, 114, 115, 127.

Dummies, traveler's, 8.

Duration, of copyright, 45, 46, 52, 53.

Dutch prefixes to surnames, rules for indexing, 114, 115.


East Indian names, rules for indexing, 109.

Ecclesiastical dignitaries, rules for indexing, 109.

Edinburgh, Library of the Faculty of Advocates, British copyright
depository, 56.

Edition de luxe, must be deposited for British copyright, 56.

Editor the: advice to author from, 5; dealings with, 62, 63.

Elisions, rule for indexing, 130.

_Emir_, rule for indexing, 109.

Emperors, rules for indexing, 108, 124.

England: sale of American books in, 17; copyright of American books in,
54-56; recent copyright legislation in, 54-56; public holidays in, 55;
printed sheets shipped from U. S. to, 91 _n._; paper sizes in, 95, 96.
See also _Great Britain_.

English rights, 17.

Englishwomen, indexing titles of honor of, 111-113.

Engraving, methods and processes explained, 81-85.

Epithets, distinctive, rule for indexing, 116.

Estimating, number of words in manuscript, 10, 69-71.

Events, rules for indexing, 100, 117.

Expositions, rule for indexing, 122.

Extension, of copyright, application form for, 49.


False-title. See _Bastard-title_.

Family name. See _Surname_.

"Feature films," 26, 27.

Fees, for copyright, 35, 37, 38-41, 45, 52, 60.

Feigl, Dr., quoted, 109.

Fiction, rates of royalty on, 16.

Figures, rule for indexing, 130.

Firms, business, rules for indexing names of, 120.

_Fitz_, rules for indexing, 115, 127.

Foolscap, English paper size, 95, 96.

Forename, rules for indexing, 108, 109, 115, 120, 121, 125.

Forts, rule for indexing, 115.

Foundry proofs. See _Proofs_.

France, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.

Franking, of copies for copyright, 35, 52.

Fraternities, Greek letter, rule for indexing, 119.

Freemasons, rule for indexing, 119.

French names, rules for indexing, 113, 114, 115.

French prefixes to surnames, rules for indexing, 114, 115.

Friars, rule for indexing, 108.

Front matter, of book: estimating, 69; described, 88-94.


Galleries, rules for indexing: national or local, 121; private, 123.

Galleys. See _Proofs_.

Gazetteers, subject to copyright, 32.

German prefixes to surnames, rules for indexing, 114, 115.

Germany, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.

Glossary, 88.

Göttingen, Academy of, rule for indexing, 121.

Great Britain: copyright relations with U. S., 33, 53-57; public
holidays in, 55. See also _England_.

Greek, personal names, arrangement of in index, 126.

Guatemala, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.

Guilds, rule for indexing, 120.


Half-title: place in volume, 88; described, 93. See also
_Bastard-title_.

High-school books, rate of royalty paid on, 17.

Historical Societies, state, rule for indexing, 122.

Hoernen, Arnold Ther, first use of title-page by, 90.

Holiday, publication must not take place on public, 55. See _Canada_
and _England_.

Honduras, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.

Hours, religious, rule for indexing, 118.

Hungary, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.

Hyphened words, rule for indexing, 128.


_Ibn_, (Arabic), rule for indexing, 108.

Illustrations: for book, usually made for publisher, 80, 81; place in
book for list of, 88, 92.

Imperial, English paper size, 96.

_In_ (_Im_), rule for indexing, 115.

Incomplete names, rule for indexing, 128.

Index: place in book of, 88; importance of, 98; author should prepare
or examine manuscript of, 98, 99; qualifications of indexer, 98, 99;
what to index, 100; plan of work to be made before starting to make,
101, 102; procedure, 102, 103; arrangement of references under entries,
104; arrangement of entries, 104, 105; specimens of, 106, 107; rules
for indexing adjective headings, 105; Christian names, 108; surnames,
109-113; titles, 110-113; compound names, 113; surnames preceded by
prefixes, 114, 115; geographical names, 115-117; epithets, 116; titles
and degrees, 116, 117; parties and sects, 118; corporations, 118,
120; orders of knighthood, 118; colleges and professional schools,
119; libraries, 119; societies, 119, 128; alumni associations, 119;
schools, 119, 120, 123; universities, 121, 122; libraries, museums, and
galleries, 121-123; observatories, 121, 122; expositions, 122; state
societies, 122; churches and religious bodies, 122, 123; monasteries
and convents, 123; cathedrals, 123; banks, 123; associations, 123;
buildings, 123; pseudonyms, 128; incomplete names, 128; numerals, 130;
abbreviations, 130; arrangement of numerous similar headings, 124-130;
alphabetical arrangement, 124-130.

International copyright, 53-57.

Introduction, place in book of, 88, 93.

Islands, rule for indexing, 115.

Isle, rule for indexing, 115.

Irish prefixes to surnames, rule for indexing, 115.

Italian prefixes to surnames, rules for indexing, 114, 115.

Italy, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.


Japan, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.


Kings, rules for indexing: names of, 108, 124; consorts of, 117.

Knight, rule for indexing wife of, 112.

Knighthood, orders of, rules for indexing, 118, 119.

Korea, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.


Lakes, rule for indexing, 115.

_La_, rules for indexing, 114, 115, 127.

Latin, personal names, arrangement of in index, 126.

_Le_, (_L'_, _Les_), rules for indexing, 114, 115, 127, 129.

League, the Authors'. See _Authors' League, the_.

Lectures: subject to copyright, 32, 36; copyright application form for,
47.

Leipzig, Academy of, rule for indexing, 121.

Libraries, rules for indexing: of colleges, 119, 121; national or
local, 121; private, 123.

Library of the Faculty of Advocates, Edinburgh, British copyright
depository, 55.

Limit notice: place in volume of, 88; described, 93.

Lisbon, Academy of, rule for indexing, 121.

Literary agent, the, value of services to author, 4, 63, 64.

Liturgies, rule for indexing, 118.

Luxemburg, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.


  _Mac_, (_M'_, _Mc_), rules for indexing, 115, 127.

_Mme._, rule for indexing, 130.

_Mlle._, rule for indexing, 130.

Madrid, Academy of, rule for indexing, 121.

Magazine, the, relations with contributors, 58-63.

Maid of honor, rule for indexing, 112.

Manifestoes, rule for indexing, 118.

Manuscript: offered competitively, 4; decision of "readers" upon, 6;
requirements of publisher, 7; advice about submitting, 10, 61, 62;
estimating number of words in, 10, 61, 67; postage rates on, 11, 61;
delivery of, mentioned in contract, 20; preparation by author of, 67,
68.

Maps: subject to copyright, 32; must bear notice of copyright, 34;
copyright application form for, 48.

Marchioness, rule for indexing, 112.

Margins, of book, comments on, 71, 72, 96, 97.

Masonic orders, rule for indexing, 119.

Medium, English paper size, 95, 96.

Mexico, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.

Missals, rule for indexing, 118.

_Mr._, rule for indexing, 130.

_Mrs._, rule for indexing, 130.

Models: subject to copyright, 32; must bear notice of copyright, 34;
copyright application form for, 48.

Monasteries, rule for indexing, 123.

_M._, rule for indexing, 130.

Motion-pictures. See _Moving-pictures_.

Moving-pictures: add new problems for publisher and author, 14, 24;
rights, 14, 22, 24-28; returns from, 25; royalty basis advised for, 25,
26, 28; exchanges, 26, 27; trade conditions, 27; subject to copyright,
32, 37; how to secure copyright of, 40-42; copyright application form
for, 48.

Mountains, rule for indexing, 115.

Museums, rules for indexing: national or local, 121; private, 123.

Munich, Academy of, rule for indexing, 121.

Musical compositions: subject to copyright, 32, 36; must bear notice of
copyright, 34; copyright application form for, 48.


Netherlands, the, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.

Newspapers: secure second serial rights, 15; subject to copyright, 32;
must bear notice of copyright, 34; copyright application form for, 37.

Nicaragua, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.

Noblemen, rules for indexing: British, 110-113, 116, 117; foreign, 116;
in general, 124, 125.

Norway, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.

Numeral figures, rule for indexing, 130.


_O'_, rules for indexing, 115, 127.

Observatories, rule for indexing, 121, 122.

Offices, religious, rule for indexing, 118.

"Option clause" in contract, 18.

Oriental names, rules for indexing, 108, 109.

Oxford, Bodleian Library, British copyright depository, 55.


Page proofs. See _Proofs_.

Paintings: subject to copyright, 36; copyright application form for, 48.

Paper: comments on, 85, 86; English sizes of, 95, 96.

Parishes, rule for indexing, 122, 123.

Parties, rules for indexing, 118.

_Pasha_, rule for indexing, 109.

Patronymics, rule for indexing, 116, 117, 126.

Periodicals: subject to copyright, 32; must bear notice of copyright,
34; contributions to, 36, 39; how to secure registration of copyright
of, 37-39; copyright application form for, 47.

Photographs: subject to copyright, 32, 36, 37; must bear notice of
copyright, 34; copyright application form for, 48.

Photoplays, motion-picture, subject to copyright, 32, 37; copyright
application form for, 48.

Pictorial illustrations: subject to copyright, 32; must bear notice of
copyright, 34; copyright application form for, 48.

Places, rule for indexing, 117.

Plastic works: subject to copyright, 32, 36; must bear notice of
copyright, 34; copyright application form for, 48.

Plates, electrotype, described, 80.

Platforms, political, rule for indexing, 118.

Popes, rules for indexing, 108, 124.

Portugal, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.

Portuguese prefixes to surnames, rules for indexing, 114, 115.

Possessive case, rule for arrangement in index of, 126.

Post, English paper size, 95, 96.

Pott, English paper size, 95, 96.

Prayer-books, rule for indexing, 118.

Preface: place in book of, 88; described, 92.

Prefixes, to surnames, rules for indexing, 114, 115, 125-127.

Presswork, comments on, 70, 86.

Princes, and Princesses, rules for indexing, 108, 124.

Prints: subject to copyright, 32; must bear notice of copyright, 34;
copyright application form for, 48.

Professional schools, rule for indexing, 119.

Progressive royalty. See _Royalty_.

Proofreader, duties of, 77, 78, 80.

Proofs: mentioned in contract, 20; number usually furnished by printer,
67, 77-80; proof marks, 79.

Proper names, rule for indexing, 100.

Pseudonyms, rule for indexing, 128.

Publication: act of, 50; simultaneous, necessary in Great Britain, 54,
55; must avoid public holidays, 55; in England must be bona fide, 56.

Publications, rule for indexing, 118.

Publisher: relations with author, 3; personality of, 6; decision on
merits of manuscript, 7; creates advance demand for book, 8; handling
of subsidized books, 11, 12; making contract with author, 12-24;
reservation of rights by: dramatic, 13, moving-picture, 14, serial,
14, 15, English and Colonial, 16, 17; securing option on author's
subsequent work, 18; form of contract with author, 19-24; protected
against infringement, 20; division of profits from sale of rights, 22;
rendering account of royalties, 22, 23, 28-30; terms for dissolution of
contract, 23; agreement to arbitrate differences with author, 23; duty
of, to secure copyright protection, 21, 31.

Publishing: at author's expense, 11, 12; subsidized, 11.

_Pundit_, rule for indexing, 109.


Queens, rules for indexing, 108, 117


Rabbis, Jewish, rules for indexing, 108.

Raised characters, works in, 36.

"Readers": judgment of, on manuscripts of books, 6; may be prejudiced
by poor copy, 10.

Refusal, on subsequent books given to publisher, 18.

Register of Copyrights, mentioned, 39, 42, 52, 60.

Registration, of copyright not required in foreign countries, 54 _n._

Religious denominations, rule for indexing, 118.

Renewal, of copyright, 45, 46, 52, 53; copyright application form for,
49.

Retail price, of book, basis of royalty, 16, 17, 21.

Rights: dramatic, 13, 20, 22; moving-picture, 14, 20, 22, 24-28; first
serial, 14, 22; second serial, 14; English and Colonial, 17; given to
publisher by contract, 19, 20; of translation, 19, 22; notice regarding
reservation of, 57; magazine, 59-61.

Rivers, rule for indexing, 115.

Royal, English paper size, 95, 96.

Royalty: effect of sale of serial rights upon, 15; rates of, on
fiction, 16; rates of, on text-books, 17; "progressive," 17; terms of,
in contract, 21, 22; advance payment of, 22; basis of, advised for
moving-picture writers, 25, 26; reports on, 22, 23, 28-30.


_St._ and _Ste._, rules for indexing, 115, 127, 130.

St. Petersburg, Academy of, rule for indexing, 121.

Saints, rules for indexing, 108, 124.

Salvador, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.

Sample page, preliminary to setting book in type, 69, 71.

Schoolbooks, rates of royalty on, 17.

Schools, rules for indexing: public, 119, 120; professional, 119;
private, 123.

Scotch prefixes to surnames, rules for indexing, 115.

Sculpture: subject to copyright, 32; must bear notice of copyright, 34;
copyright application form for, 48.

Sects, rules for indexing, 118.

Serial rights, first, 14, 22; second, 14, 15.

Sermons: subject to copyright,

32; copyright application form for, 47.

Short-story writer, the, relation to magazine of, 58-63.

Sobriquet, rule for indexing, 109.

Societies, rules for indexing: local college, 119; inter-collegiate,
119; alphabetical arrangement of, 128.

Sovereigns, rules for indexing, 108, 124.

Spain, copyright relations between U. S. and 33, 53.

_Sri_, rule for indexing, 109.

Subsidized publications, 11, 12.

Suffixes (titles), to names, place in indexed heading, 116.

Super Royal, English paper size, 96.

Surnames, rules for indexing: in general, 109, 110, 120, 121; of
noblemen, 110, 111; preceded by prefix, 114, 115, 126, 127.

Sweden, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.

Switzerland, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.


_Ten_, rule for indexing, 115.

_Ter_, rule for indexing, 115.

Textbooks, rates of royalty on, 17.

_The_, rule for arrangement of, in index, 129.

_Thor_, rule for indexing, 115.

Title-entries, rules for arrangement of, in index, 129.

Title-page, 88, 90, 91; first used by Arnold Ther Hoernen, 90.

Titles: of nobility, rules for indexing, 110-113, 116, 117, 125;
prefixes to names, place in indexed headings, 116, 125.

Titles, of books, stories, and periodicals, not subject to copyright
protection, 39, 46.

Translation: right of, retained, 19, 22; notice of reservation, 57.

Traveling salesmen, method of selling books by, 8.

Treaties, rule for indexing, 117, 118.

Trinity College, Dublin, Library of, British copyright depository, 56.

Tunis, copyright relations between U. S. and, 33, 53.

Type: names and samples of, 72-76; number of words in different sizes
of, 70, 71; setting of, 76.


_Umm_, (Arabic), rule for indexing, 108.

Union, International Copyright, 53, 54.

United States, the: reciprocal copyright relations with foreign
nations, 33, 53; not a member of International Copyright Union, 53,
54; simultaneous publication in, 54, 55.

Universities, rules for indexing: of Europe, and Central and South
America, 121; of the United States, 122.


_Van_, rules for indexing, 114, 115, 127.

_Vander_, rule for indexing, 115.

_Van't_, rule for indexing, 115.

_Ver_, rule for indexing, 115.

Vienna, Academy of, rule for indexing, 121.

Viscountess, rule for indexing, 112.

_Von_, (_Vom_), rules for indexing, 114, 115.


Wales, National Library of, British copyright depository, 56.

Welsh prefixes to surnames, rule for indexing, 115.

Women, married, rules for indexing, 109, 110.

Words, number of, in different sizes of type, 70, 71.


Young Men's Christian Associations, rule for indexing, 123.


_Zu_ (_Zum_, _Zur_), rule for indexing, 115.


FOOTNOTES:

[1] See page 63.

[2] See page 69.

[3] See Contract Form, page 22.

[4] See Contract Form, page 22.

[5] See Contract Form, page 20.

[6] See comments on page 65.

[7] See Contract Form, page 21.

[8] See Contract Form, page 22.

[9] See Contract Form, page 21.

[10] See qualifications later.

[11] See comments on page 17.

[12] See comments on page 15.

[13] See comments on page 18.

[14] See comments on page 31.

[15] See comments on page 16.

[16] See comments on page 17.

[17] This varies from five to twelve copies.

[18] Usually one-third discount from retail price.

[19] See comments on pages 13-14.

[20] See comments on page 13.

[21] The bracketed words show the alternative arrangement on basis of
semi-annual royalty accounting. See comments on page 29.

[22] See Contract Form, page 21, §4, I.

[23] The notice of copyright must consist either of the word
"Copyright" or the abbreviation "Copr." accompanied by the name of the
copyright proprietor, and if the work be a printed literary, musical,
or dramatic work, the notice shall include also the year in which the
copyright was secured by publication. In case, however, of copies of
(_f_) Maps; (_g_) Works of art; models or designs for works of art;
(_h_) Reproductions of a work of art; (_i_) Drawings or plastic works
of a scientific or technical character; (_j_) Photographs; (_k_) Prints
and pictorial illustrations, the notice may consist of the letter
C inclosed within a circle, thus: ©, accompanied by the initials,
monogram, mark or symbol of the copyright proprietor: _Provided_, that
on some accessible portion of such copies or of the margin, back,
permanent base or pedestal, or of the substance on which such copies
shall be mounted, his name shall appear.

The notice of copyright must be applied in the case of a book or other
printed publication, upon its title-page or the page immediately
following [the back of the title-page], or if a periodical either
upon the title-page or upon the first page of text of each separate
number or under the title heading, or if a musical work either upon its
title-page or the first page of music; but one notice of copyright in
each volume or in each number of a newspaper or periodical published is
sufficient.

[24] See page 38 for advice about procedure in case of periodicals
themselves.

[25] On the following page is given a reduced facsimile of both sides
of the Application Blank filled out ready to be sworn to.

[26] See page 43.

[27] No special registration beyond that to secure the American and the
English copyright is required in countries with whom the United States
has copyright treaties.

[28] See page 34.

[29] See page 10.

[30] For estimating, see page 69.

[31] See page 4.

[32] See page 10.

[33] See page 88.

[34] A chapter usually begins with a sinkage of one-quarter page from
the top, and the last page of a chapter is usually but partially filled
with printed matter.

[35] The word "leaded" is used here to indicate a six-to-pica or
2-point lead. See page 62.

[36] See Glossary of Terms.

[37] See Glossary of Terms.

[38] See Glossary of Terms.

[39] See Glossary of Terms.

[40] See Glossary of Terms.

[41] See Glossary of Terms.

[42] See Glossary of Terms.

[43] See page 70.

[44] When a volume is left with uncut edges it is to be assumed that
its binding is of a temporary nature, and that the purchaser will
rebind it to suit his taste.

[45] See Glossary of Terms.

[46] For the form and location of this notice as required by law see
page 34.

[47] This is often an important matter in the case of unbound sheets
shipped to England, as the "country of origin" must be printed on all
such sheets, and the printer's imprint must contain the letters "U.S.A."

[48] These can be purchased at such stores as the Dennison Mfg. Co. at
a small price.

[49] This pamphlet is issued by the Government, and copies may be
secured from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C., at twenty cents a copy.

[50] The British Museum enters British noblemen under the family
name. The reasons for entry under the title are that British noblemen
are always so spoken of, and always sign by their titles only. The
reasons against it are that the founders of noble families are often
as well known--sometimes even better--by their family name as by
their titles (e.g., _Charles Jenkinson_ afterwards _Lord Liverpool_,
_Sir Robert Walpole_, afterwards _Earl of Oxford_); that the same man
bears different titles in different parts of his life thus Philip
Stanhope published his "History of England from the Peace of Utrecht"
as Lord Mahon, and his "Reign of Queen Anne" as Earl Stanhope; that it
separates members of the same family (Lord Chancellor Eldon would be
under _Eldon_ and his father and all his brothers and sisters under the
family name _Scott_), and brings together members of different families
(thus the earldom of Bath has been held by members of the families of
Shaunde, Bourchier, Granville, and Pulteney, and the family name of the
present Marquis of Bath is Thynne), which last argument would be more
to the point in planning a family history. The same objections apply to
the entry of French noblemen under their titles, about which there can
be no hesitation. The strongest argument in favor of the Museum rule is
that it is well-established, and that it is desirable that there should
be some uniform rule.

[51] See page 109.

[52] So that _Thomas de Insula_ and _Thomas Insulanus_ may not be
separated.

[53] Here the transposed _The_ is non-existent for the arranger.



Transcriber's Note:


Variable spelling and hyphenation have been retained. Minor punctuation
inconsistencies have been silently repaired.

Corrections.

The first line indicates the original, the second the correction.

p. 19:

  the the parties hereto do covenant and agree as follows
  the parties hereto do covenant and agree as follows

  thereof in the United States of America and in the Dominion of Canada
  and elsewhere[11]
  thereof in the United States of America and in the Dominion of Canada
  and elsewhere[10]

p. 162:

  to secure coypright protection, 21, 31
  to secure copyright protection, 21, 31


Errata.

The first line indicates the original, the second how it should read.

p. 140:

  =Half-leather Binding=.--A binding which consists of leather back and
  paper sides.
  =Half-leather Binding= (_b_).--A binding which consists of leather
  back and paper sides.

p. 144:

  =Minion=.--The old-style name of a size of type equal to 7-point.
  =Minion=(_c_).--The old-style name of a size of type equal to 7-point.

p. 150:

  =Tapes= (_b_).--Strips of tape extending
  =Tapes= (_b_).--(1)Strips of tape extending





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