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Title: The History of the Maritime Wars of the Turks - Chapters I. to IV.
Author: Çelebi, Kâtip
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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The work of which the following pages contain a translation was some
time since recommended to the notice of the Oriental Translation
Committee, by the venerable nobleman to whom this performance is
inscribed, as being calculated to throw considerable light on the naval
history of the Turkish nation.

It is entitled تحفة الكبار في اسفار البحار _A gift to the Great
concerning Naval Expeditions_. The author, Haji Khalifeh,[1] is known
to all Oriental scholars as a deliberate and impartial historian, and
a man of extensive learning. In the present work, however, he has
confined himself to a simple narration of events as they occurred,
leaving to his readers the task of philosophising on their influence on
the political affairs of the empire in general. Of his youthful days
nothing is known, except that he was the son of a Sipahi, and that at
an early age he was taught to read and write. In his twenty-fifth year
he entered as student into the office of the chief historiographer;
and while in this capacity, was present in the Persian campaigns of
Hamadan and Baghdad. On his return to Constantinople, he attended the
lectures of Kazi-Zadeh. Whilst the army was wintering at Aleppo he
made the pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina, whence his title of Haji,
or Pilgrim. He was also at the siege of Erivan. He now commenced
“the greater holy warfare,”—that against ignorance, by indefatigable
study. He attended the principal professors of the capital, and after
ten years application to the study of languages, the law, logic, and
rhetoric, and the interpretation of the Koran and the traditions, he
applied himself to the mathematics and geography, to which latter
science the Cretan war particularly attracted his attention. At length,
beginning to suffer from ill health, he devoted himself to the study of
medicine and the mysteries of religion. So ardent was he in the pursuit
of knowledge, that he frequently sat up whole nights reading some
favourite author; and when he first commenced his literary labours, he
expended the whole of his little patrimony in the purchase of books;
but some time afterwards a rich relation died, leaving him a legacy,
which enabled him to enjoy more of the comforts of life, and to make
some additions to his library.

The fruits of his thirty years study are the following excellent
works:—a translation of the “Minor Atlas”, under the title of “Rays
of Light,” which he translated from the Latin by the assistance of
Shaikh Mohammed, a renegade Frenchman; “The View of the World,”
which contains the geography of Asia; and a “Description of European
Turkey.” These are the three best geographical productions of the
Ottomans. They were succeeded by five historical works: two bearing
the title “Fezliké;” the one in Arabic being an universal history
from the creation of the world, till within three years of his death;
the other, a similar history, in Turkish, from the year 1000 of the
Hejirah (about which time he must have been born), also continued till
three years before his death, being a period of sixty-five years; the
“History of the Maritime Wars;” a “History of Constantinople;” and the
well-known “Chronological Tables.” Then, his great Bibliographical and
Encyclopædical Dictionary, which forms the groundwork of D’Herbelot’s
“Bibliotheque Orientale.” Besides these, he wrote several smaller
treatises, one of which, his last work, he entitled “True Scales
for the Detection of Truth.” This contains some curious essays on
smoking, dancing, singing, &c., and concludes with a short account of
himself.[2] He died at Constantinople in the month of Zilhijeh, A.H.
1068, (A.D. 1657.)

This work was the second which issued from the imperial
printing-office, established at Constantinople in the year 1726, under
the superintendence of Syed Effendi and Ibrahim Effendi; the latter a
Hungarian, who had embraced the Mohammedan faith, and on whom the more
immediate direction of the establishment seems to have devolved. The
types, which were cast by him at Constantinople, are very neat, and the
execution of the whole, considering that printing in Turkey was then
only in its infancy, is highly creditable to the ingenuity of Ibrahim.
Unfortunately, however, it abounds in typographical errors, which
have frequently occasioned the translator considerable difficulty.
In addition to a list of upwards of two hundred errata appended to
the work, he has detected as many more, which were not corrected in a
second impression which was subsequently printed.

The volume is a small folio, consisting of 149 pages, exclusive of the
table of contents, the list of errata, and the printers dedication,
and is accompanied by five neatly executed plates, the first of
which represents the two terrestrial hemispheres; the second, the
Mediterranean and Black Seas; the third, the islands subject to the
Ottoman empire; the fourth, the Adriatic; and the fifth, two mariners
compasses, one having the names of the winds in Turkish, the other
both in Turkish and Arabic.

The translator has endeavoured to render his version as literal as
possible. In some few instances, however, owing either to the errors
of the press, or to the use of obsolete nautical terms, of which the
most diligent inquiries made during a residence of some months in
the capital of Turkey, failed to obtain him the explication, he may
not have hit upon the precise signification: but these are few in
number, and of such a nature as not to affect the general sense of the

He takes this opportunity of acknowledging his obligations to Omer
Effendi, an officer of the pasha of Egypt, now in London, for the
valuable assistance he has rendered him during the progress of the work.

  August 12th, 1831.



  Author’s Preface                                           1

  Introduction                                               3

  Explanation of the Globe                                   4

  Explanation of the Map                                   ib.

  The Venetian Islands on the Coast of the Morea             5

  The Towns of the Arnaout Shores                          ib.

  The Hersek and Bosnia Shores                               7

  Description of the Christian Towns                         8

  Venice                                                    ib.

  The Italian, French, and Spanish Coasts                   10


  Of the Ottoman Capudans, and the Expeditions and Battles
    of several Sultans and Admirals, to the time
    of Khair-ad-din Pasha                                   12

  The Expedition to Enos                                    13

  The Expedition to Amassra, Sinope, and Trebisond          14

  The Expedition to Mitylene                                14

  The Expedition to the Negropont                           15

  The Expedition to Kafa and Azak                           16

  The Expedition to Puglia                                  17

  The Expedition to Mota                                    ib.

  The Fortifying of Boosja                                  18

  The Expedition to Rhodes                                  ib.

  The Expedition to Avlona                                  19

  The Expedition to Lepanto                                 ib.

  The Expedition to Metone and Corone                       21

  The Expedition to Mitylene                                23

  Preparation of a Fleet for Rhodes                         24

  The Expedition to Rhodes                                  25

  The Expedition of Salman Reis                             26

  The Expedition of Keman-Kesh                              27


  Respecting the Affairs of Khair-ad-din Pasha              28

  The Engagements of Oruj and Khair-ad-din                  29

  The Engagements of Khair-ad-din                           30

  The Expedition to Bejaia and the Capture of Sharshal      ib.

  Departure of Oruj Reis to Algiers                         31

  Attack of the French upon Tunis                           ib.

  Defeat of the Infidel Fleet and the Arab Tribes
    at Algiers                                              32

  The Capture of Tunis                                      33

  The Capture of Tilmisan                                   ib.

  Attack of the Infidels upon Algiers                       34

  The Capture of Tunis                                      35

  Execution of the Infidel Chiefs at Algiers                ib.

  The Government of Khair-ad-din at Algiers                 ib.

  Insurrection of the People of Tunis and Tilmisan          36

  The Capture of Mustaghanim                                36

  The second Capture of Tilmisan                            37

  Rebellion of Kazi-Zadeh                                   ib.

  Departure of Khair-ad-din Beg to Jijeli                   38

  Operations of Khair-ad-din at Jijeli                      39

  The Defeat of Kazi-Zadeh                                  ib.

  Return of Khair-ad-din Beg to Algiers                     40

  The Engagement with Abdullah                              ib.

  The Wars of Aidin Reis                                    41

  Appearance of Andrea Doria, and Attack of Khair-ad-din    42

  The Flight of Andrea                                      43

  Attack of Andrea Doria upon Corone, and Rebellion
    of the Governor  of Tilmisan                            44

  State of the Mudagils of Spain                            45

  The Stratagems of Andrea and of Khair-ad-din              ib.

  Execution of the Infidel Chiefs                           46

  Departure of Khair-ad-din for the Capital                 47

  Arrival of Khair-ad-din at the Sublime Porte              ib.

  Khair-ad-din goes to Aleppo                               48


  Respecting the Affairs of Khair-ad-din, from the time
    of his being made Capudan of the Fleet                  49

  The First Expedition of Khair-ad-din Pasha                ib.

  Khair-ad-din’s Expedition against Tunis, and the Attack
    of the Infidels upon that City                          50

  Khair-ad-din’s Return to Algiers                          52

  Capture of the Castle of Minorca                          53

  Cause of the Cowardice of the Infidels                    54

  Return of Khair-ad-din to the Porte                       ib.

  The Expedition to Puglia                                  55

  Sultan Soleiman’s Expedition to Corfu                     ib.

  Account of the Treachery of the Venetians                 56

  Siege of Corfu                                            57

  Attack of Khair-ad-din upon the Venetian Islands          58

  The Capudan Pasha’s Present to the Sultan                 59

  Third Expedition of Khair-ad-din Pasha                    ib.

  The Grand Battle of Khair-ad-din Pasha                    61

  The Number of the Infidel Ships                           62

  Attack and Flight of the Infidels                         63

  Capture of Castel Novo by the Infidels                    65

  Expedition of Soleiman Pasha to India                     ib.

  Expedition of Khair-ad-din to Castel Novo                 67

  Attack of the King of Spain upon Algiers                  ib.

  France craves Assistance of the Porte                     68

  Death of Khair-ad-din Pasha                               ib.


  Of the Expeditions of the Capudans, from the time
    of Khair-ad-din Pasha till that of Pialeh Pasha         70

  The Expeditions of Mohammed Pasha                         ib.

  The Capture of Tripoli by Senan Pasha                     ib.

  Expedition of Piri Reis to the Eastern Ocean              71

  Second Expedition of Piri Pasha to the Eastern Ocean      ib.

  Expedition of Murad Pasha to India                        72

  Account of Seidi Ali, Capudan                             ib.

  Expedition of Seidi Ali to the Eastern Ocean              73

  The Engagement between Seidi Ali and the Portuguese       74

  Second Expedition of Seidi Ali against the Capudan
    of Goa                                                  ib.

  The Result of Seidi Ali’s Expedition to the Indian Ocean  75

  Account of a Whirlpool                                    ib.

  The Expedition of Senan Pasha                             77

  The Appearance of Torghudjeh Beg                          ib.

  The Occurrence at Jarba                                   78

  Capture of Infidel Vessels                                79

  The Visit of Torghudjeh to Moghreb, &c.                   ib.

  The Expedition of Torghudjeh to Bastia                    80





_In the Name of the Compassionate and Merciful God,—and on him we rely._

In commencing the History of the Conqueror of the World, it is proper
that all due praise should be ascribed to the Lord of the Earth
and Time, who, according to the signification of the sacred verse,
“_Certainly my Hosts shall be victorious_,” hath strengthened the
armies of the Faithful: and having by his revealed decree and promise,
“_I will fill with awe the hearts of the Unbelievers_,” terrified the
enemies of the Faith: has also by his command, “_When ye meet them
be steady_,” rendered permanent the power and victory of the True

And salutations of joy and songs of peace be ascribed to our Prophet,
the Lord of Creation, Mohammed Mustaffa, (upon whom be the peace of
God!) who, by the divine Oracle, “_The cities shall be opened to
you_,” preached his glorious religion, which he has bequeathed as an
invaluable treasure to his illustrious household and posterity till
the day of the resurrection. Thus, in confirmation of his divine
prediction, in the year one thousand and fifty-five from the flight
of the Prophet (A.D. 1645), amongst other victories, he vanquished
the island of Candia; so that in the space of ten years its capital
and all the other forts and towns came, one by one, into the hands of
the Faithful. By these means several circumstances having transpired,
which on some occasions, through negligence and want of management,
tended to the advantage of the Infidels, the author of these pages,
Haji Khalifeh, according to the verse of Muttanabbi, the prince of
poets, “Thou hast no squadrons to bring forward, nor property to
present; if therefore thy state is not happy, let at least thy words
be acceptable,” in order to manifest a zeal for religion, and the
defence of the Faithful; and having in view the establishment of the
Ottoman power, and the destruction of the Unbelievers, has related how
the ancient kings spoke with maledictions on this subject, and the
reasons of their rage and hatred; the battles of celebrated admirals
and captains; the opinions and deliberations of the experienced and
wise; and several other matters pertaining to expeditions and fleets.
These he called, “A Gift to the Great respecting Naval Expeditions;”
and having completed it, he presented it at the feet of the Lord of
Munificence, the Illustrious of the World, the Sovereign of the Land
and Ocean, Attendant of the two Holy Cities (Mecca and Medina), Sultan
Mohammed Khan, son of Sultan Ibrahim Khan, (may God perpetuate his
kingdom, and continue his power to the end of time!) with the hope
that, considering its usefulness, he would be pleased to bestow his

This Epitome then consists of an Introduction, two parts, and a


Respecting the difficulties we have had in this work, the fixing of the
boundaries, and drawing the maps of places:

Be it known, that to those engaged in the affairs of state, no science
is so necessary as that of geography. If they are not acquainted with
the whole surface of the earth, they ought at least to know the figure
of the Turkish empire and the neighbouring states; that, when it may be
necessary to undertake a journey, or to send an army into any country,
they may be properly directed; and by this knowledge it will be easy to
enter the enemy’s territory, and defend their own frontiers. Persons
ignorant of this science are not competent to be counsellors, even
should they be natives; for there are many natives who are ignorant
even of the figure of their own country and its boundaries.

Of the necessity of this science the following will be a sufficient
proof; that the Infidels by application to it have discovered America,
and become masters of India: and even the despicable Venetians, a
nation the chief of which among the Christian kings is confined to the
title of Duke, and is known by the epithet of _the Fisherman_, coming
to the frontiers of the Ottoman empire, have opposed their power to
that of our august Monarch, who rules from east to west.

In order therefore to illustrate this history of voyages, we shall in
the first place give a map of the whole figure of the globe; then of
the Mediterranean and Black Seas; and then of the countries of Venice
and Germany. Thus, at first sight, a person may obtain a summary
knowledge of the figure of the globe and the Turkish dominions; and
being able to tell where the city of Venice, the castle of Zadra
(Zara), or the island of Corfu, is situated, he will find it useful
in commencing the perusal of travels and voyages. All the land and
water of the globe are, according to the map, contained in two
circles. The first circle represents half of the globe, and the
ancient four quarters; and the other circle is the other half, or more
recently-discovered part which they call the new world.


The different portions of land on the surface of the globe, which by
attraction or repulsion are found projecting through the element of
water, are, according to the rules of geography, marked by red and
yellow. The yellow represents the continent, the little red spots are
islands, and the white shows the water. The line drawn across the two
circles is the equator, and the double red line on each side of it
is the ecliptic, showing the sun’s extreme ascension and declension.
Besides these are the zones, and the lines of latitude and longitude,
by which the latitude and longitude of towns and the situation of
places are ascertained. These I have explained at full length in my
work called the _Jehan Nemah_,[3] which is the translation of an atlas.
Here it will be sufficient to know, that every line is divided into
three hundred and sixty degrees, and each degree into three stages
(munzil), so that the whole circumference of the globe is 1080 stages;
and a person going west and moving forward will return by the east.
This assertion has been corroborated by proof. To proceed: geographers
divide the whole earth into four regions. They draw an imaginary line
from the Mediterranean, the Strait of Constantinople, the Strait of
Jenicale, and the south of the river Don as far as the Northern Ocean,
and the region that remains on the west of this line they call Europe;
that on the east, Asia; and the districts of Ethiopia and Egypt, which
divide the Mediterranean and Red Seas, they call Africa. The new world
they call America. The Ottoman power, then, has a share in each of the
three regions. To exhibit these portions and their boundaries, I have
drawn a map of the European portion and the Mediterranean and Black
Seas, and described their boundaries. I have also marked the names of
the Christian towns, and the Bosnia shores. When necessary it will be
sufficient to show their situations.


The Mediterranean which is drawn on this map is, excepting the ocean,
the largest of the six seas in the four quarters. It extends over
ten degrees of latitude and thirty of longitude. From the Straits of
Gibraltar in the east to the Syrian coast, it is computed to be
seventy degrees. On its southern coast are, Fez, Tilimsan, Algiers,
Tunis, Mahdiah, Jarba, Tripoli West, Alexandria of Egypt, and Damietta.
Its western and Arabian coast terminates at Arish. On the east are,
Gaza, Acca, Bairut, Tripoli Sham, and Pias. On the north, Selfeka,
Anemur, Alanieh, Antakia, and proceeding by Cape Teker and Smyrna as
far as the Strait (of the Dardanelles) are the coasts of Anatolia.
It terminates at the island of Boosja. From within the Strait as far
as the Strait of Constantinople is a small sea (Marmora) of about
seven hundred miles in circumference. On the coasts of this sea are,
Kaputagh, Mikhalij, Moudania, Bay of Gemlik, Constantinople, Chekmejeh,
and Gallipoli. Within it are the islands of Marmara, Amar-Ali, and
Kuzil. Beyond the Straits on the Rumelian shores are, the plain of Aja,
Enos, Cavalla, Aianur, Zlonkur, Kesendreh, Gulf of Salonica, the Gulfs
of Koolur and Azdin, the Negropont; and in the Morea, Capes Napoli and
Menkesheh (or St. Angelo), which, as Cape Teker in Anatolia, form an
angle and passage (with Candia). Projecting from the land into the sea,
they extend nearly to the east and west points of Candia, and most of
the islands of the Mediterranean being within this centre, they call
it (Candia) the central island. All these islands have been taken from
the Venetians and Genoese, except Istandil (Tino) in the middle, which
remains in the hands of the Venetians. That also was formerly captured,
but for the sake of policy it was given in exchange for the castle of
Menkesheh (St. Angelo).

The names and situations of these islands are marked; but to avoid
prolixity, I do not enter into a minute account of them, for my purpose
is to explain the Bosnia and Arnaout (Albanian) coasts. Leaving Cape
Menkesheh and going round the Morea, we pass Capes Manieh (Matapan),
Modon, and Helomej. The coast terminates at Badra (Patras). The whole
of it is computed to be two hundred miles.


The principal islands near this coast, subject to the Venetians, are
these: Choka (Cerigo), fifteen miles south of Cape Menkesheh, and
sixty miles in circumference; it has a strong castle. Zaklisa (Zante),
fifteen miles west of Helomej, is a rocky island, and has a strong


In the Atlas this country is called Albania. Fifty-six miles from the
mouth of the Gulf of Lepanto is Prevesa; eighty miles from thence is
the posterior part of Delvino; sixty beyond that Avlona; a hundred
farther Duraj (Durazzo); and a hundred miles beyond that is Nuovo. On
these shores, turning round from Port Injeer, in the island of Aiamur
(Lefcathia) to the mouth of the Gulf of Narda (Arta), we first meet
the castle of Prevesa. Next Parga, which is a castle belonging to the
Venetians, situated on an elevated spot near the sea. Behind it is
Mount Mizarak: to the east the country is rocky, and is interspersed
with villages and water-mills.[4] Then, the port of Chinak, opposite
the island of Corfu, is a celebrated harbour. It has lately been
strengthened by having a fortress built in it. Next, passing a small
arm of the sea, is Lake Dalianli, at the mouth of which is a castle
belonging to the Venetians, rendered famous from its having been
lately captured by one of the princes of that nation. To the north of
Cape Durazzo are the castles of Lemesh, Eskanderieh, Oulkoun, Bar,
Boudou, and Nuovo. The latter, which is situated in the Bay of Coutour
(Cattaro), is called Castel Nuovo, which signifies a new castle.
Eighteen miles farther, at the extreme end of the bay, is the castle
of Cattaro, situated in the Ottoman dominions, but subject to Venice.
It is built at the foot of a mountain, and a river passes it on both
sides. Being a very strong castle, its capture has hitherto been found
impracticable. The islands near these are, the two islands of Kefalonia
(Cephalonia), situated opposite the mouth of the Gulf of Lepanto.
Great Cephalonia is one hundred and fifty miles in circumference,
and is a well-populated island. Its castle was once captured, but
after the taking of Modon the Venetians again took possession of it.
It is twenty miles east from Zante. Little Cephalonia (Theaki) is a
small island to the north: it has no castle. Port Injeer in Aiamura
(Lefcathia), is about six miles from Cephalonia. Then, opposite Parga
is Bahshilar (Paxu), a pleasant little island of about thirty miles
in circumference, and eighteen from the shore. We next come to the
island of Corfu, which extends from Delvino along the Mizarak shores.
It is about forty miles from Parga, and its castle is six miles from
Port Chinak. It is one hundred and ninety miles in circumference, is a
celebrated and well-populated island, and has a strong fortress built
in the sea, but connected on one side with the land. In former times
this island passed by right of inheritance from one of the Christian
princes who governed Albania into the hands of a woman, but in A. H.
803 (A. D. 1400), the Venetians becoming victorious, succeeded by
stratagem in wresting it from her, and having fortified the castle,
they made it a guard island for the Gulf, and a general rendezvous
for their army and navy. Near to it, in the mouth of the Gulf, is a
watch-tower, and Kemal Reis observing that the Venetians had their
eye upon it, repeatedly suggested to the late Sultan Soleiman Khan
the necessity of capturing it; in consequence of which, in 943 of the
Hejra (A. D. 1536), the illustrious emperor proceeded thither by sea
and land, and completely besieged it. What followed shall be related
in its proper place. The castle of Corfu, as described in the Bahria,
is nearly three miles in circumference, is a very strong fort, and has
within it and in the suburbs about eighteen thousand houses. Within the
walls the Venetians have built, upon two hills, two towers of stone,
with a subterraneous passage between them, so that when necessary they
are able to render assistance to each other. Its walls are surrounded
by the sea, and it has also a harbour, into which the smaller vessels
enter, but the galleys lie outside. Between this island and the coast
there is a small strait, by which when necessary an army may pass.
The above-mentioned islands are the principal ones belonging to the
Venetians, but there are besides them numerous little islands in the
Gulf. Sixty miles below Corfu is Avlona, which is opposite Kara Beroun
(in Anatolia) and Cape St. Maria (C. di Leuca) on the Polia shores, and
from this place the sea is called the Gulf of Venice. It extends as far
as the city of Venice in the north, is seven hundred miles in length,
and about one hundred and fifty in breadth. On its eastern coast are
the districts of Arnaout, Hersek (Herzegovinia), Bosnia, and Croatia.
On the west, Lombardia, Ancona, and Poliapiana.


Having passed Castel Nuovo, situated as before described on the Bay
of Cattaro, and proceeding eighteen miles to the north, we come to
the castle of Dobra-Venedik (Ragusa), situated in a district the
inhabitants of which are an independent people, and whose territory
extends from Hersek to Ghabla and Mostar. From this castle, Sebeneco
is distant two hundred miles, and between them on the river Mostar is
Ghabla, a harbour which has its Capudan. On the opposite side are two
long islands belonging to the Venetians which are called Braj (Brazza),
and Lesina. Beyond Ghabla is Ispalat (Spalatra), which also belongs
to the Venetians, and is a well-known port and harbour. Near that, on
an elevated spot on the land, is Kelis, a strong citadel, which has
lately been taken by the Venetians; but means must be used to recover
it. Beyond this, on the coast, is Shebenic (Sebenico), a strong castle,
with a spacious harbour, into which falls a great river that flows from
the north. Near this castle is a rocky eminence where Tekeli Pasha was
once routed. Zadra (Zara), twenty miles beyond Sebenico, is a strong
fortress, almost entirely surrounded by the sea, being only on one
side slightly connected with the land. Between these two castles, at
the place where the river Darmah falls into the sea, is the fort of
Iskaradin. The above river divides the districts of Kerka and Kelis,
all the forts of which have been taken by the Venetians. Here the
Bosnia shore terminates.


Along the coast beyond Zara are the forts of Nodi and Sein (Zeng),
belonging to the Germans. Behind them, on the land, are Abrutisa,
Bahka, Todornoi, Bamaluka, and Kostanitza. These are the frontiers of
Croatia. Then, between Zara and Venice, which is a space of one hundred
and fifty miles, lies the country of Istria. It is in the form of a
square, and three sides of it are surrounded by the sea. It has in it,
and on the shores, many towns and forts, some of which are governed
by the Venetians, and some by the German princes. Farther on is the
district of Friuli, called also Forum Julii, which signifies the market
of Julius Cæsar. It is a very large district, and part of it borders on
the city of Venice. The sources of the rivers Save and Drave are in it,
and it contains numerous towns and forts, most of which are governed
by the Venetians, though they are all tributary to the Emperor (of
Germany). In travelling to Venice we go through this country. All its
towns and forts are marked in my translation of the Atlas Minor.


Venedik, as described in the Atlas, has various significations: it
is also called Venechia and Venetia. It is a large city, built upon
sixty small islands in a corner of the sea like a lake. Its waters
ebb and flow every six hours; and some of the isles are raised like
ramparts to prevent the water from overflowing. This city has three or
four passages to the sea; and although it is not guarded by walls and
towers, its being so completely surrounded by water renders it quite
safe and free from all danger. Between the houses there are roads and
passages by which passengers and boats may pass from house to house.
Over these waters there are about four hundred and fifty bridges,
both of stone and wood. The largest of these roads they call a canal;
it divides the city into two parts, and over it there is a wonderful
bridge. Eight thousand vessels are constantly in motion, some of
which are ornamented with covers, and these they call gondolas. The
circumference of the city is nearly eight miles; and its principal
streets are sixty-four in number. The public and private buildings are
excessively grand and ornamental, especially the church dedicated to
the Four Evangelists, which is called St. Marco, and is an astonishing
building. It is adorned with the most valuable and expensive stones,
and its interior is gilt with pure gold. In the treasury, which they
say is a sacred deposit, there are kept the most costly and precious
articles; and affirming that the city with all its castles and ships
belongs to it, the priests have shackled these fools, and by this
artifice have brought under their power all the Christians, small and
great. The city has three fine market-places, all adjoining each other:
in the square of the principal one is the above-mentioned church; and
close to the quay there are two massy columns; upon one of which is
set up the standard of St. Marco, and upon the other the image of St.
Theodorus. On the flag is represented a lion with wings; by which,
and on their coins also, they celebrate the valour of St. Marco, who
is said to have been a brave and valiant person. The space between
the two columns is the Hall of Justice. The centre of the city they
call the Arsenal; which has a spacious building, and being two miles
in circumference, it forms a strong castle. Here naval armaments and
cannons are daily manufactured and repaired; and the wrecks of fleets,
the arms taken from pirates, old vessels, and colours, being deposited
in this place, are exhibited to visitors.

The population of Venice is estimated to be three hundred thousand,
and it is divided into three classes. Those of the first are called
Patricii, and correspond to our _Meshaiékh_. To these belong the
management of the state, and the affairs of government. Their principal
is called _Doge_, which signifies Duke. He enters into all questions
of law, but has not power to act until he has the voice of the people.
Amongst the Christians a Duke corresponds to the _Begler Beg_ of the
Mussulmans, except that the former has his own coin. Those constituting
the second order are called _Istadinū_,[5] and to them are committed
civil affairs, customs, and education. The third class is composed of
merchants and artisans. In former times the power of this people was
vested in a consul, but in the year 555 from the birth of Christ (upon
whom be peace!) it was committed to a tribune or chief of a tribe; and
this government continued two hundred and fifty-two years, till, in
A. D. 707, it became a dukedom: so that from the commencement of the
dukedom to the time of the writing of this book, which is A. H. 1067
(A. D. 1656), is a period of nine hundred and fifty years. To proceed:
Mercator, the author of the Atlas, describing this city, speaks very
highly of it, and says that it is the most celebrated city in the
world; and being the common port of the universe, merchants of all
sorts, and from the most distant countries, trade in it. The number of
its inhabitants, and the extent of their wealth, are beyond
conception. On this account the Christians call it the Paradise of
the Earth: for although during a period of one thousand years it
suffered much, yet it never was under a foreign power. For this reason
the Venetians represent their city by the figure of a virgin holding
a sword; and this figure they place in all their offices: for they
state that her still holding the sword, signifies her having continued
a virgin down to the present time. The above-mentioned book, which
is an European work, in describing this city, gives the following
statement: “that the first founding of Venice was, according to several
historians, in A. D. 421, when the inhabitants of Patavia, being
attacked by the Hungarians, left that town, and settling on these
islands, commenced the building of Venice.” Several rivers from the
territory of Lombardy fall into the Gulf near it; and the greatest part
of the provisions consumed in the city are brought down these rivers.
Here terminates the description as given in European books; but Piri
Reis in his Bahria says, that ships bound for Venice first touch at
Parenza, which is a fort in the territory of Istria, and distant about
one hundred miles from Venice. They cannot proceed without a pilot on
account of the shallows; they therefore engage one to conduct them from
this place. They then proceed till they come in sight of Iskandil and
Marco-chaklik: the latter is a high castle, which appears first, and
then when they can see the city they cast anchor. Soon after another
pilot comes from the city with a small boat, which takes the vessel in
tow; and thus they proceed to the harbour. It is forbidden to pilot
foreign vessels. The quays are always kept open on account of the
tides. In the city there are also water-boats; these they fill with
water, and going about the streets they sell it by measure. Fish is
plentiful here. The fishermen have boats like skimmers, in which they
keep the fish alive; and carrying them through the streets, sell them.
On the east side of the city is an island, which they call Muran, where
crystal vessels and other glass articles are manufactured.


Having passed the city of Venice, we come to Ancona, Bashtia,
Manfredonia, Brindisi, Cape Otranto, and Cape St. Maria, where the Gulf
of Venice terminates. Turning thence to the west, we pass Taranto,
Rossano, Cape Cotrone, Spartivento, and Cape Reggio: opposite which, in
the island of Chichlia (Sicily), is Cape Messina; and the space between
forms the Strait of Messina, which, like the Strait of Constantinople,
is very narrow. Beyond these are Naples, Cape Gaeta, the river Rooma
(Tiber), upon which a little farther in the land is the city (of Rome),
Pantan, Leghorn, which is in the district of Florence, an independent
dukedom bordering on the pope’s dominions. Farther on is the state of
Genoa, which is also an independent government, bordering on Milan.
In the French dominions are, Savona, Nice, Afwamort, and Marseilles.
Perpignan, Davina, Barcelona, Tortosa, Cape Carthagena, Malaga, and
Jabl-al-Fat’h (Gibraltar), on the Strait of Sabta, are on the Spanish
coast. In the Atlas they are called Catalonia, Aragonia, Valencia,
and Andalusia. According to computations in several histories, the
Rumelian and European coasts are reckoned to be 8047 miles in length;
and the Anatolian, Arabian, and western coasts, 5010 miles: in all
13,057 miles. The principal islands are Sardinia, Corsica, Minorca,
Miorca, Ivica, Malta, Crete (or Candia), Cyprus, and Rhodes. In former
times all these, except Rhodes, were captured; and how this was done,
I have fully explained in my works called the Fezliket Tarikh and the
Jehan Nemah. At present they are all, except Cyprus and Rhodes, in the
possession of the Infidels; and even the subjugation of Candia has not
yet been fully accomplished. God grant that it may soon be effected!
Here our Introduction ends: we shall now proceed to our First Part.


  Concerning the ancient fleets, victories, and naval wars;
  accounts of which have, for the sake of example, been
  arranged and collected from historical books. This Part
  consists of several Chapters.


_Of the Ottoman Capudans, and the expeditions and battles of several
Sultans and Admirals, to the time of Kheir al Deen Pasha._

Be it known that before the time of the late illustrious and
victorious Sultan Mohammed, the Ottomans had not ventured to undertake
naval expeditions, or to engage with the European nations. It is
indeed related that in the time of Sultan Murad the Second, they
occasionally made excursions to the neighbouring shores and islands;
but these expeditions are not worth enumerating. After the taking of
Constantinople, when they spread their conquests over land and sea, it
became necessary to build ships and make armaments, in order to subdue
the fortresses and castles on the Rumelian and Anatolian shores, and in
the islands of the Mediterranean.

When they first besieged Constantinople on the land side, and saw the
little success they had, they found the necessity of raising a proper
fleet in order to attack the city by sea; and to the management of this
affair, Soleiman Beg, son of Balta, was appointed. According to one
account he built the vessels behind Sūdlūja; but, according to the Tāj
al Tuarikh, behind the castle of Rumeili.

This Soleiman Beg then, it appears, was the first Capudan of this
nation, for before the capture of Constantinople no mention is made in
any history of the harbour of Gallipoli, or its capudan, whereas there
is at present, near that castle, a port named after this Soleiman Beg.

It is related in the above-mentioned work, that a chain being drawn
across the bay which separates Galata from Constantinople, it was found
utterly impossible to bring up the vessels to attack the city on that
side; but orders being given to move from Galata, they conducted the
ships to Iengi Hissar, where, by a novel and surprising contrivance of
raising weights, they lifted them out of the water, and placing them on
oiled rollers, thus carried them over the land, and again lowered them
into the sea. These vessels were filled with the most valiant warriors;
and parapets being erected, they fought bravely, completely discomfited
the Infidels, and at last vanquished the city.

The various expeditions that succeeded this distinguished victory, and
the account of their leaders, shall now follow in order.


Soon after the capture of Constantinople, the cazy and inhabitants of
Ferra having represented that they were much annoyed by the wickedness
of the Infidels of Enos, his Majesty (Sultan Mohammed) instantly
resolved on subjugating those rebels; in consequence of which, Khass
Ionas was summoned to the Sublime Porte, and his Majesty having
communicated his design, ordered him to collect all the troops that
were at hand; to fit out ten triremes, and sail with all possible
haste to the appointed place. He further charged him not to disclose
the place of their destination to any one, till they reached it;
whilst he himself would lead on his victorious army by land. Ionas
Beg, in conformity with his instructions, put out to sea, and with
favourable winds, in a short time arrived at the castle, to which he
laid siege. The imperial banners of victory, being equally expeditious,
were also raised; and the Infidels, being filled with terror, offered
stipulations, and surrendered the fortress. Ionas Beg after this, by
the sultans command, attacked another castle on the island of Tashūz
(Tasse), opposite Enos, which he reduced, and returned.


In the year of the Hejra 864 (A. D. 1459), the victorious sultan,
Mohammed Khan, proceeded by land to reduce Amassero, a castle on the
shores of the Black Sea; and at the same time sent forward other
forces by sea. Being again crowned with success, he turned his
attention to Sinope, then occupied by Ismael Beg, son of Isfendiar;
and the grand vizier, Mohammed Pasha, having fitted up a fleet of one
hundred vessels, manned by warlike heroes, set sail, and on his way to
Trebisond touched at Sinope, where the land forces having also arrived,
they besieged the castle both by sea and land. The helpless Emir Ismael
surrendered without resistance, and delivered the castle to the Sublime
Porte. Having, besides this, subjugated Kastamouni, the victorious
fleet proceeded towards Sinope, whither the imperial forces also
marched; and after a short siege, the enemy stipulated, and surrendered
the city.

In the European history, which I translated from the Latin into
Turkish, I have mentioned that at this time Ismael Beg built a very
large ship of nine hundred tons. This vessel the Emperor sent to
Constantinople. About the same time Alfonso, the king of Aragonia,
built a vessel which held four thousand tons; and soon after built two
others, which in point of size had never been equalled, but they could
not use them; and striking against each other in the harbour, they were
dashed to pieces.

The Venetians also at this period, having made peace with the Genoese,
began to build immense vessels. Sultan Mahommed at the same time built
one of three thousand tons, but, as they were launching it, it sunk in
the harbour, and the builders were obliged to fly. _Ton_ (_fouchi_) is
a phrase peculiar to ships of the ocean, and is used to designate their


In the year of the Hejra 866 (A. D. 1461), the emperor having returned
from an expedition to Wallachia, he made preparations for the
capture of Meddeli (Metylini); for which purpose he proceeded to the
neighbourhood of Gallipoli, and there gave orders for the preparing
of the fleet. When the Constantinople ships had also arrived, they
set sail; whilst his Majesty, with the Imperial and Anatolian troops,
having passed the Strait at Gallipoli, proceeded to Ayazmend; and the
ships, tall as mountains, anchored opposite Metylini. When the forces
were about to commence an attack, the governor of the island came
out, offered stipulations, and surrendered the garrison. His private
property they returned to him, and sent him to his own country. Having
established laws, and divided the island, they left the natives as
subjects, registered the houses, and returned.


In the year 872 (A. D. 1467), the army having returned from an
expedition into Caramania, a complaint was made that the Venetian
general with upwards of sixty vessels had made an attack upon Enos;
taken prisoners the cazy, the khatib (priest), and several Mussulmans;
and had plundered the neighbouring district. In consequence of this,
Mahmood Pasha was ordered to proceed to Gallipoli to collect the fleet;
and on this occasion all the vessels on the Ottoman coasts were given
in charge to him. Among the Greek islands, the Negropont still remained
in the hands of the Christians; and from its channel the Mussulmans
received much harm; whereas the general, from his avarice, exacted a
great revenue from the inhabitants of the island.

In 873, therefore, the victorious forces proceeded both by land and
water towards the island; and the pasha having made all preparations
for its attack, besieged it with upwards of one hundred ships. The
bridges, which had been cut down, were supplied by suspending temporary
ones from the vessels, by means of which the soldiers ascended the
castle and mounted the battlements. Just at this time the general,
with eighty vessels, arrived, to give assistance to the besieged; but
when he saw the Mussulman forces, he cast anchor and looked on with
despair. His intention was, that whilst the Mussulman vessels were
cruising about the island, he also would approach it on one side, and
thus prevent its capture; and for this purpose he sent out several
caicks to endeavour to take some one from whom they might learn the
day of the intended attack. One of the Mahommedan men who had deserted
went over to the ships of the Infidels, and being found by the spies
was immediately taken before the general, who ascertained from him that
the criers had announced that the attack was to take place in three
days. The general anxiously waited for that day, and began to make
preparations for the combat; but those on the other side having learned
that the enemy was informed of their designs, resolved to attack the
castle without further delay; and the same night the criers raising
their voices to the stars, proclaimed that the morrow should be the
day of plunder, and admonished the soldiers to be in readiness. As
soon as it was morning, and long before the Infidels had opened their
eyes, the soldiers, in the hope of plunder, assaulted the castle, and
entered it by the breaches they had made. Those who were considered
fit for service were made captives, and the rest were killed; whilst
the victors were enriched with money and property beyond compute. In
the forenoon the colours hoisted on the tower caught the eyes of the
Infidels, who were so mortified that they spread their sails, and
turned their helms. After this fine fortification was reduced, the
victors proceeded to the small fort called Kuzil Hissar, situated on
the banks of the island, and in which the treasury of the Infidels was
deposited. This they also subjugated, and the property they found in it
they transferred to the royal treasury; and with cheerfulness of mind
returned to the seat of dominion.


The territory of Kafa, lying on the shores of the Black Sea, having for
many ages been in the possession of the Genoese, the Turkish and Tartar
princes, though united by their proximity to each other, had never,
as yet, on account of its strong fortifications, been able to reduce
it. In 880 (A. D. 1475), the victorious sultan Mohammed Khan, having
resolved upon its subjugation, gave orders to Keduk Ahmed Pasha to
prepare the fleet. The pasha immediately collected a number of galleys,
triremes, &c., amounting in all to three hundred vessels, and having
prepared his Janissaries and Azabs,[6] kissed his hand, and according
to custom bowed to the princes and nobles; after which he left the
divan, went down to the harbour and embarked. With favourable winds
he arrived in a short time on the shores of Kafa, where he landed and
laid siege to the castle.[7] The Christians not daring to stand against
the arms of the Faithful, delivered up the castle with stipulations,
and left it. The castle being taken, they proceeded to subjugate
its dependencies; and Azak, which is the boundary of the Sakalaba
kingdoms,[8] being also reduced, by proper management they subjugated
all the disaffected. The people of Kafa had their rights restored to
them, and the place became subject to the Ottoman power. The date of
this victory was called _A Favour_.[9]


Keduk Ahmed Pasha, having been dismissed from the office of grand
vezier and imprisoned, was by some circumstance brought before the
Sultan Mohammed Khan on his return from an expedition to Eskenderia.
On this occasion the Sultan was pleased to bestow the _sanjak_ of
Avlona on the pasha. In 884 he came to court, and having represented
the facility with which Puglia, a district of Italy opposite Avlona,
might be conquered, he petitioned for forces, and accordingly orders
were issued to prepare a fleet. The necessary provisions were given
him, and having collected a select troop of the bravest men of Roumelia
and Anatolia, and some thousands of janissaries and Azabs, the pasha
sailed for the coast of Puglia. In his first attack he took the castle
of Taranto, and reduced by force of arms several other places in the
neighbourhood, in each of which he stationed troops. But the governor
of Puglia, an infidel called Raika, represented his case to the king
of Spain, who immediately sent assistance to him. Of this the pasha
had information, and Sultan Mohammed Khan[10] dying at that time, he
embarked for the Porte under the pretence of paying his respects to the
new Sultan. In 886 the infidel, having arrived with forty vessels and
an army, retook the whole of the fortresses, and put to the sword most
of the troops that were stationed in them. Elated by this success, he
resolved on overtaking the pasha, and for this purpose pursued him at
sea for some time; but the pasha had reached the Porte in safety.


In 884 the illustrious Emperor, returning from a journey to Eskenderia,
sent the beg of Koja-eili with thirty _brak kadargas_,[11] to take
Mota, a castle situated on the sea of Azoph, in the neighbourhood of
Kaffa, and which still remained in the possession of the infidels. On a
former occasion, Keduk Ahmed Pasha, being pressed with more important
affairs, did not attempt to take it; but at this time, as soon as it
was blockaded by the noble troops, it was surrendered and evacuated by
the infidel its governor.


The island Boosja (Tenedos), near the Straits (of the Dardanelles),
being destitute of a fortress, and as the levend[12] were in the habit
of taking up their quarters there, a royal order was issued the same
year, that a fortress should be erected near the shore of the island,
and that those who were willing might reside in the neighbourhood
exempt from taxes. The island of Lemnos, also, which they call _Lemni_,
was fortified about the same time.


The Moslems who resided in the island of Rhodes being much molested by
the infidels, the chief commander, Vezier Messih Pasha, was in the year
885 ordered to proceed thither with three thousand janissaries and four
thousand Azabs. Besides the vessels from Constantinople, sixty others
had been built at Gallipoli. With these they set sail, and arrived at
the island of Rhodes. They blockaded the castle both by sea and land,
but first attacked the tower on the west towards the water, because
from this tower the troops had been much annoyed. They made a bridge
from the water, so as to reach the tower; but during a fierce attack
upon the latter, the bridge, owing to the immense crowd, gave way,
and upwards of a thousand men perished in the water. They again took
courage, once more made a brave assault upon the castle, and had even
raised their standard on the walls, which were covered with troops.
These fierce warriors having also whetted the teeth of avarice with
the hope of plunder, were rushing on to seize their prey, when Messih
Pasha, unwilling that the riches of a fortified place like Rhodes
should fall a prey to the soldiery, gave orders that as the treasury
of the place belonged exclusively to the Sultan, no one should dare to
touch it. As soon as this unwelcome intelligence was spread amongst
the soldiers, those on the outside would proceed no farther, whilst
those in the interior remained motionless; and the enemy, having made a
violent rush from one quarter, put to the sword all they met. Soleiman
Pasha Beg of Costamoni likewise shared the fate of martyrdom. Thus the
avarice of Messih Pasha and the selfishness of the troops were the
cause of this ill fortune. At last he withdrew from the castle, and
amidst loud complaints directed his course towards the capital. On his
way he attacked the castle of Bodrun; but being unsuccessful here
also, he returned to the Porte. When he landed at Beshektash the sanjak
of Gallipoli was given to him, and to this district he immediately


In the year 889 the Sultan Bayezid Khan, having sent forward his fleet
by the Black sea and proceeded thither himself by land, completely
reduced Kili[13] and Ak-Kerman. In 897 the beg of Semendreh sent
information that the king of Hungary being dead, the governor of
Belgrade had promised allegiance to the Sultan. In consequence of this
message his majesty directed his course to that quarter; but fearing
it might only be a false promise, and that he might not return empty
handed, he gave orders to Gubegu Senan Pasha to sail for Avlona with
three hundred vessels; so that in case he should not succeed in the
capture of Belgrade, he might as it were turn his forces to that
quarter, and plunder the Arnaout shores. When the preparations for the
expedition were completed, and his majesty was marching towards Sofia,
the new king sent an apology and asked forgiveness: he therefore turned
towards the Arnaout shores, and passed on by Monaster to Dipa-diln,
whilst Davud Pasha laid waste a great part of that district and
returned. The fleet also attacked several places along the coasts, and
plundered the rebels.


The Sultan Bayezid Khan, contemplating an expedition in order to subdue
the districts of the Morea and Enabekht (Lepanto), began about this
time to build large ships. He appointed Davud Pasha, then a capudan,
his serasker (commander-in-chief). He built two immense _kokas_, the
length of each being seventy cubits and the breadth thirty cubits. The
masts were of several trees joined together, and in the middle measured
four cubits in circumference. The maintop was capable of holding forty
men in armour, who might thence discharge their arrows and muskets. The
builders and other labourers employed were servants of the Sultan; and
the building materials being all the productions of the Ottoman empire,
were valued at twenty thousand florins. According to the statements of
several respectable historians, the builder of these vessels was one
Iani, who having seen ship-building at Venice, had there learned the
art. These vessels had two decks, the one like that of a galleon,
and the other like that of a _mavuna_ (_trireme_); and on the side
of each of these, according to custom, were two port-holes, in which
immense guns were placed. Along the upper deck was a netting, under
which on both sides were four-and-twenty oars, each pulled by nine
men. The sterns were like those of a galleon, and from them boats were
suspended. Each of these ships contained two thousand soldiers and
sailors. The command of the one was given to Kemal Reis, and that of
the other to Brak Reis. The whole fleet consisted of three hundred
vessels of various sorts; and these being filled with the most intrepid
warriors, were sent towards Enabekht. The illustrious Emperor also,
about the end of the month Sheval, in the year 904, (A.D. 1498,)
leaving Constantinople, proceeded to Adrianople, and sent Mustaffa
Pasha, the begler-beg of Roumelia, to besiege Enabekht. When the pasha
arrived at this place, the infidel who had charge of it sent out a
message to say he was ordered not to give up the garrison until the
Moslem fleet had entered the gulf of Lepanto. Upon this Mustaffa Pasha
turned aside into the country to wait the arrival of the fleet, which
by contrary winds had been kept at sea for three months. At last, when
they touched on the shores of the Morea, another contrary gale arose,
and with difficulty they made into the harbour of an island opposite
Motone, in which they remained twenty days. After this they began to
be pressed by the failure of their provisions and water: when they
attempted to go on shore the infidels prevented them, and on the other
side they were continually harassed by the enemy’s ships. At last the
beg of the Morea, Khalil Pasha, made known their situation by sending a
courier to the Sultan Bayezid Khan, who at that time had arrived at the
plain of Chatalaja, in the vicinity of Enabekht. The Sultan immediately
issued orders that Hersek Oghli Ahmed Pasha with the Anatolian forces
should enter the Morea and render assistance to the fleet. Ahmed Pasha
accordingly set out with haste, but before he reached Motone they had
left the harbour, and were on their way to Navarin. The pasha soon
after joined the vessels at Helomej.

The royal fleet having passed Navarin and arrived at Brak island, were
again met by the abject infidels, who sailed directly against them.
On a former occasion the enemy had been much annoyed by Kemal Reis,
and now the enmity in their breasts was without bounds. The beg of
Jeni-sheher, Kemal Beg, being on board the vessel of Brak Reis, they
supposed it to be that of Kemal Reis, attacked it furiously, and many
on both sides fell into the whirlpool of destruction. Two _kokas_, each
containing a thousand men, and a trireme and barge with five hundred
men, succeeded in placing the vessel of Brak Reis in the centre; but in
this position, the two smaller vessels not being able to sustain the
fire of Brak Reis, they both sunk, and most of the infidels on board
were drowned; a few were however taken up by hooks into the other boats
and made prisoners. The two _kokas_ then bore down on Brak Reis, and
the engagement being extended, Brak Reis threw burning pitch into them,
and thus burnt up the rascals with their ships. But all his exertions
to detach his own vessel were fruitless, and at last that also caught
fire. Kemal Beg, Brak Reis, and Kara Hassan, with about five hundred
brave men, perished by this catastrophe. The other heroes who fell into
the sea were taken up into boats, by which means about seven hundred
were saved. The two _kokas_ were also burnt, and of those that were
swimming, besides the drowned and burnt, seven hundred of the enemy
were killed. A galleon which had come to their assistance was also
taken, and the infidels on board were made prisoners. The island near
which this engagement took place was hence called _Brak-atasi_ (the
island of Brak).

After this, one hundred and fifty Venetian vessels having shut up the
entrance of the gulf of Lepanto, and cannons being placed at the mouth
of it, the commanders stood prepared for an engagement. The Moslem
ships then came up, and in attempting to enter the gulf received the
enemy’s fire. Here also a fierce engagement took place, and several
brave men fell. At last the Divine Ruler favoured the armies of
Islamism, so that they completely destroyed the enemy’s fleet. In
short, in the neighbourhood of Motone, after they had left the harbour,
at the island of Brak, and on their entering the gulf of Lepanto, they
had sharp battles with the enemy. At length they passed the strait, and
proceeded towards Lepanto, notwithstanding the great number of cannons
and ships, and although the current was against them. When they reached
the fortress the heroes went out to blockade it; but the besieged,
according to their former promise, sent out the keys to Mustaffa Pasha,
and in the following year evacuated it. The capture of the fortress
being reported to his majesty, Ahmed Pasha left his ship, and the royal
fleet was ordered to winter in the liman of Amar Beg, near Kirma. His
majesty then returned to Adrianople.


Although the greater part of the Morea had been subjugated in the time
of Abul-Fat’h (Mohammed II.), the fortresses of Motone and Corone
on the coast still remained in the hands of the infidels. For the
subjugation of these, the beg of Prevesa, Mustaffa Beg, was directed
to prepare before the approaching spring forty vessels, which were to
be added to the fleet. During the summer he built twenty vessels, and
was just finishing them, when one dark night the infidels came and set
fire to them all. Mustaffa Beg now began to finish the other vessels,
and about this time the combination of the infidel tribes to attack
the Ottoman territory by sea was made known to the Sublime Porte; in
consequence of which Iacub Pasha, and several noble begs, with ten
thousand infantry and twenty thousand cavalry, were sent to assist in
repairing the fleet then wintering at Enabekht, whence they had orders
to sail with the fleet in the spring for Motone. The Khoonkar[14]
also, in the month of Ramazan 905,[15] (A.D. 1499) left Adrianople and
proceeded to the Morea. When the arrival of Iacub Pasha and his fleet
at Motone was announced to his majesty, after having rested twenty
days at Londar, he proceeded to the neighbourhood of the castle of
Motone. The troops then surrounded the castle by land and sea, and with
their cannon razed its walls to the ground. They were on the point of
taking it when the enemy’s fleet arrived, and made preparations for
an engagement. The Moslem troops took two of the enemy’s ships, and
punished the infidels found in them opposite the castle. They also
sunk one of their triremes, and burnt several of their other ships.
While they were thus on the point of victory, four galleys arrived
from Venice, carrying ammunition, and some thousands of artillery-men,
passed through the fleet at a time when the Moslems were off their
guard, and as soon as they had landed their cargo within the castle,
set fire to the four galleys. This being reported to the Sultan, his
majesty in a rage gave orders that as soon as the enemy began to remove
the ammunition that had been taken in, they should make a general
attack. Upon this Senan Pasha, the begler-beg of Anatolia, entered the
castle by a ladder, through a breach which he had made, and the whole
army attacking it furiously, they continued to fight from mid-day till
sunset in a manner that baffles description. At this time fire broke
out in the castle, and the infidels being terrified, the Moslems took
possession of the castle and put the enemy to the sword. This victory
happened on the fourteenth of Moharrem 906.

For the subjugation of Corone Ali Pasha was sent by land, and the
capudan with his fleet by sea. Ali Pasha having announced his intention
of besieging Navarin, the inhabitants gave up the castle on condition
that they should be permitted to go out of it. When the troops arrived
at Corone, the inhabitants of that place also surrendered, and with
their families and property departed to Frankestan.

The Sultan having returned to the capital, Ali Pasha turned his
attention to the capture of Astaffa; but in the mean time the infidels,
by some means or other, retook the castle of Navarin. When the pasha
was informed of this, he reported it to the Divan, and immediately
returned to Navarin. He also sent thither Kemal Reis with thirty
vessels. When they arrived at the castle they attacked the fleet lying
in the harbour, and in their first attack took eight of the enemy’s
ships, and killed the infidels that were in them. Several brave men who
had come with the pasha then scaled the walls, bound the chiefs, and
made about three thousand infidels food for the sword.


The Venetians, in order to revenge themselves for the loss of Enabekht,
Motone and Corone, sent to beg assistance from the king of France,[16]
who, having equipped some vessels and appointed his nephew commander,
sent them to join the Venetian fleet. The whole, amounting to two
hundred vessels, set sail, and in the month of Rabia-al-Avul 907 (A.D.
1501) came upon Mitylene. The Prince Korkud, being informed of this,
sent one of his agas with eight hundred men to Ayazmend, whence one
dark night they sailed for Mitylene, and with the assistance of Krassi
Beg and his troops, massacring the infidel tribes, they entered the
castle; in doing which the aga was killed. When this unpleasant news
reached the Sultan, his majesty without loss of time filled the vessels
that were at hand with troops, of which Hersek Oghli Ahmed Pasha was
commander; and Senan Pasha, the governor of Anatolia, was also ordered
to join the fleet with the forces of his district. When Ahmed Pasha
arrived in the neighbourhood of Mitylene the infidels had blockaded the
castle; but as the French general was about to enter it he was killed;
and all the troops that had been stationed about the castle seeing this
betook themselves to flight. The Venetians also took refuge in their
ships and went off. The protection of the fortress being left to the
begler-beg of Anatolia, Ahmed Pasha returned to the Porte.

This Ahmed Pasha, after being made grand vezier, was dismissed. In 912
he was made a capudan, which office he held for five years, and in 917
he again became grand vezier.

It is recorded that this expedition gave rise to the levying of taxes
and enlisting galley-men. Formerly these impositions were not made on the
subjects; but from that time to the present they have been authorised
by law, and are raised annually.

As the Venetian and Moslem fleets did not come to an engagement, after
the former were driven from Mitylene, the necessity of silence and of
refraining from their intended revenge, on their part, and various
causes on the part of the latter, induced them to consider an armistice
desirable. After this no attacks were made on any of their districts
either by land or sea, and the fleet was employed only in protecting
the Ottoman dominions. When however the power of the Persian kings in
the East began to increase, the disturbances of the _Rafezis_,[17]
and the retirement of Sultan Bayezid Khan on account of his great
age, produced negligence in the ministers, and tended to injure the
prosperity of the state; and Sultan Selim, after his ascension to the
throne, being occupied in matters that demanded immediate attention,—in
punishing the Persians,[18] and subjugating the countries of Egypt
and Syria,—the possessions of the infidels thus remained unmolested.
The Venetians and Hungarians also, duly appreciating this peace, did
not make the least stir. On the decease of Sultan Selim, Soleiman
Khan coming to the throne, began to subjugate all those places which
he thought proper should be annexed to the Ottoman dominions; and
opening both by land and sea the gates of war, he terminated that
armistice which from necessity had been adopted during the reign of
his illustrious father, and in his second expedition succeeded in the
capture of Rhodes.


In the year 923 (A. D. 1517), during the reign of Sultan Selim the
First, the countries of Egypt having been subdued and added to the
Ottoman dominions, in 925 it was considered necessary to open a road
for the importation of the productions of that country. For this
purpose the capture of Rhodes, the seat of pirates, was suggested to
the victorious Sultan, who immediately began to prepare a fleet; but
although for a long time reports of an intended expedition were heard
from the ministers and nobles, yet from the movements of the Sultan
nothing to that effect could be perceived, till one day with his nobles
and attendants he went out to visit the tomb of Abi Aiub Ansari, and
standing on his usual spot beside the high dome near his nurse’s tomb,
he read the _Fatihat_.[19] Looking towards the channel, he saw one of
the newly built vessels cruising about, and in a rage demanded to know
by whose authority they had put it to sea, before an expedition had
been determined upon; at the same time giving orders for the execution
of the Capudan Jafar Aga. Piri Pasha with some difficulty satisfied
him, by saying that the vessel had been put to sea merely to try it.
On his majesty’s return he severely reprimanded the veziers, saying,
“Whilst I am accustomed to subdue kingdoms, you waste the means in
taking a single castle, the requisite for which is ammunition. How
many months will your ammunition last? and are the necessary stores
in readiness?” The veziers informed him of what stores they had, but
declined giving any account of their ammunition till the next day, and
thus they departed with many reproaches. The next morning they reported
to his majesty that their ammunition was sufficient for four months.
His majesty in a scornful manner replied, that whilst his grandfather
Sultan Mohammed Khan’s disgrace with respect to Rhodes was not yet
forgotten, they wished to double it on him, especially as four months
ammunition was by no means sufficient for the reduction of a fortress
like Rhodes, which, if it were taken in double that time, would be
highly creditable: that he was determined to undertake no expedition
on such vain counsel, nor by the advice of any one; and concluded by
saying, that for himself he had no voyage in view, except the one to
eternity. According to his prediction, the fortress was with difficulty
taken in the time he specified; and about six months after this
conversation he departed to the world of spirits.


Sultan Soleiman Khan, of happy memory, ascended the throne in 926 (A.D.
1519); and the violence and oppression of Capudan Jafar Beg having been
discovered, he was hanged, and his office was given to Iilak Mustaffa
Pasha. After the capture of Belgrade, the subjugation of Rhodes
being considered most important, the emperor, in the month of Rajab
928, came to the capital and issued orders for the preparation of an
immense fleet; and a great number of sailors and azabs being collected,
the second vezier, Mustaffa Pasha, was appointed commander. On an
auspicious day they set out, and with about seven hundred vessels
of various sorts sailed for the Mediterranean. The Capudan Pasha also
joined them with the ships he had prepared at Gallipoli; and in the
month of Rajab 928 the illustrious emperor passed over to Skutari,
whence he pursued his journey by land. The Roumeili troops, having
marched by different routes, joined the royal camp in the vales of
Moghala; and on the third of Rajab his majesty crossed over to a
small island opposite Marmaross. Previously to this, the fleet having
arrived in the vicinity of Rhodes, the commander, Kara Mahmūd Reis,
sent a few vessels to an island called Herka, and reduced its fortress.
After this the fleet touched opposite Jem-Baghche. The heavy vessels
were stationed to guard the channel; whilst the pasha, with three
hundred galleys, proceeded to the fortress of Rhodes, and entered the
harbour of Cape Oghuz. Having arranged their cannon, on the fifth of
Ramazan they blockaded the fortress: a week after, Bali Beg, one of the
Egyptian begs, arrived, and with twenty-four galleys, which had sailed
before him, brought additional ammunition and stores. They continued
to have sharp battles, and to make brave assaults, till the end of
_Sheval_; and the _Arab_ tower being the occasion of much molestation
to the troops, orders were given to attack it. In doing this, although
they succeeded in passing the trench, and raised their flag on the
walls and towers, yet the enemy bore down and repelled them; and
Bâli Beg, the beg of Seké, and Ali Beg, the beg of Avlona, fell as
martyrs. As they could not thus effect any thing, they began, with the
approbation of the experienced among them to raise a mound, and after
five months of continued warfare they raised it to a level with the
walls. The infidels within the castle, helpless and confounded, and
not being able to screen themselves from the cannons and muskets, on
the fifth of Seffer 929, they surrendered the fortress. Its governor,
Mighali Masturi,[20] was permitted to go out, and accordingly he went
over to Malta. The islands subject to Rhodes, such as Takhtalu, Londas,
Istanco, and Bodrum, being also subdued and all necessary arrangements
completed, the victorious emperor, on the fourteenth of the same month,
with honor and dignity proceeded to Mantesha, whence by hasty marches
he returned to the capital.


Before this period the Ottoman Sultans had not sent their victorious
arms to the Indian Ocean. In the year 932, (A. D. 1525,) the Sultan
Soleiman appointed the Corsair Salman Reis a capudan and commander, and
sent him with twenty galleys to that quarter. He proceeded along
the coasts of Aden and Yemen, and plundered the habitations of the
rebellious and such as were not well affected to the Porte; in
consequence of which, the sheikhs and Arabs of those districts came
out to him with numerous presents, offered their services, and bound
themselves to transmit their taxes.


About this time the office of capudan was held by Keman-Kesh Ahmed
Beg, who in 940 sailed with eighty galleys, on an expedition to the
Mediterranean, and having pillaged several of the infidels coasts,
returned and was employed in the royal arsenal. This capudan was famous
for his great strength, for he could hold an enraged ram with one hand.
He was also a good archer.[21] He held the office of capudan till the
arrival of Khair-ad-din Pasha from Algiers, about which time he died.


_Respecting the Affairs of Khair-ad-din Pasha._

This pasha, who arrived at the highest honours of his country, was a
brave and valiant soldier, and altogether an astonishing person. When
he was brought before the Sultan Soleiman Khan, he was treated with
the greatest attention, and was requested to write an account of his
adventures. In compliance with this request he selected, from the
writings of those who had been with him, accounts of his principal
adventures; and having formed them into a book, he forwarded it to the
Sultan of happy memory.

The greater part of these adventures we have extracted from that work,
and shall here insert them in order.

The pasha’s name was Hezr. His father Iacub was a soldier’s son at
Aja Ava, and at the capture of Metylini enlisted in the volunteers,
and remained in that island. He had four sons, Is’hak, Oruj, Hezr,
and Elias, each of whom carried on a trade at sea. Is’hak afterwards
settled at Metylini; Oruj continued his voyages to Egypt and Trabalos
Sham; and Hezr to Saros and Salonica. Whilst Oruj and his brother
Elias were sailing to Trabalos, they were attacked by some infidels of
Rhodes, and Elias fell in the struggle. Hezr was also made a prisoner,
and remained some time in the island. When he regained his liberty, he
petitioned Sultan Corcud, who was then in Anatolia, for permission to
go out as a corsair; which being granted, he sailed with a galley of
eighteen benches. He first plundered the infidels’ ships about Rhodes,
and then passed over to the coasts of Italy, where he attacked some
boats, and after several engagements, in which he took considerable
booty, returned and wintered at Eskenderia. Thence he went to the
island of Jarba, where he left his cargo, and made preparations for a
voyage to the infidel countries. On the accession of Sultan Selim to
the throne, his brother, Corcud Khan, was obliged to conceal himself,
and the Mediterranean ships were prohibited from sailing. Khair-ad-din
therefore took ship at Metylini, and sailed to Maghreb; whilst his
brother Oruj proceeded to the island of Jarba. Here the two brothers
met, and formed an agreement to carry on their wars together; after
which they repaired to Tunis, and requested some place of abode from
the governor. At that time Tunis was held by Beni Hefs, who appointed
for their use the castle of Halk-al-vad, upon condition that he should
receive a fifth part of all their plunder.


After the winter had passed, and the season for sailing had returned,
the two corsairs fitted up two vessels, and left Halk-al-vad. They
first came in contact with a large Genoese vessel, with a cargo of
corn, which they seized without any ceremony. Shortly afterwards they
met a huge merchant ship laden with cloth: this they also took without
any loss of time; and returned to Tunis, where they gave up a fifth
part of their plunder, and divided the remainder. They then once more
made for the infidel coasts, and soon met a Spanish vessel in full
sail, to which they made up; but there being on board of her an infidel
beg, they had to fight sharply for some time. At last however they took
the ship.

The fame of these two men now began to be very conspicuous, and their
valour was celebrated along the shores of the Mediterranean. On one
occasion they went out with four ships, and proceeded to a castle
called Bajaia (Bujia), in the vicinity of Trabalos (Tripoli), of which
they had obtained possession. Here they were opposed by the Spanish
fleet, which gave them battle; but they bravely resisted them, and
by the favour of God were victorious. They took two of the ships,
and dispersed the rest, except one which Oruj Reis sunk. After the
engagement Oruj Reis went out, and whilst he was surveying the castle,
the enemy made an attempt to recover their vessels. Whilst Oruj Reis
was employed in repelling them, a shot from the castle wounded his left
arm. His brother took him on board, and had his arm dressed; but, as
the wound seemed incurable, they were obliged to amputate it. In the
mean time they took a barge and several small vessels, which they sent
to Tunis. Khair-ad-din himself sailed to the island of Majorca, which
he attacked, reduced several of the fortresses, and enriched himself
with the plunder of the villages. Whilst he continued his cruise, the
capudan of Corsica came out with eight galleys, and made preparations
for an engagement. Khair-ad-din turned upon the capudan’s galley and
attacked it; but the contest was long, and many men fell on both sides.
At last the infidels were beaten, and began to retreat. The two vessels
which they had taken Khair-ad-din obliged them to give up. He then
returned to Tunis, where he left Oruj Reis on account of his wound.


During the winter the warrior again went to sea, and became exceedingly
rich, having taken in one month three thousand eight hundred prisoners
and twenty ships. The captives he retained for himself, but all the
booty he divided among his men. In the spring he again took the command
of seven private vessels, and went to sea. On this occasion he attacked
a town on the infidel coast, and having taken about one thousand eight
hundred prisoners, he sold them for two thousand florins, and returned.
Whilst his vessels were dispersed in search of plunder, one night after
he had lighted his lantern, he was followed by four barges, which he
did not observe till the next morning, when he turned upon them and
took all the four. These were laden with cloth; and when he carried
them to Tunis, he took out of them eight thousand pastas and bales
of cloth. Previously to this, on the same night, he had given chase
to another barge, which however contrived to escape from him, but it
was taken by the other ships, and being a French vessel, and fully
laden, he entrusted it to his nephew, Mohi-ad-din Reis, and sent it
with presents to the Porte; in return for which, the Porte sent him
two galleys and a robe of honour. After this no ship could venture to
withstand Khair-ad-din.


The warrior and his brother once more prepared ten vessels, and
went out on an expedition to Bajaia. On their way they attacked a
small fortress called Sharshal or Jajl, which they took without any
difficulty; and putting into chains a hundred infidels whom they found
in it, they left three ships with fifty men to guard it.

After this they went on to the castle of Bajaia, where they landed
their men and took out their cannon. Having closely blockaded it, they
took it by assault on the fourth day. Besides those who fell, they took
five thousand prisoners; and the plunder of the castle they allotted to
the twenty thousand Arabs who had come to their assistance. They then
laid siege to the second castle, which they surrounded for twenty days;
but at last, their ammunition falling short, they sent for assistance
to the Sultan of Tunis, who however denied it them. In the mean time,
an infidel fleet of two hundred vessels arrived, and placed more than
ten thousand soldiers in the castle. Thus the Moslem troops were driven
desperate and obliged to withdraw. Previously to this they had run
their ships into the river; and the water having subsided, they were
left on the land; and not being able to put them to sea again, they
were obliged to fire them.

They then went overland to Jajl, taking with them the prisoners
they had taken from the fortress. The distance was sixty miles. At
this place were stationed Oruj’s ship and Khair-ad-din’s galley of
twenty-four benches. Oruj Reis remained at Jajl, whilst Khair-ad-din
with three ships proceeded to Tunis, where he bought four others, and
with seven volunteer ships, making in all fourteen, he put out to
sea. Soon after he was joined by Kurd Oghli Mussaleh-ad-din Reis with
fourteen ships; and his fleet now consisting of twenty-eight sail, he
proceeded to the infidel coasts. Near Genoa he saw eight barges laden
with corn, and having made himself known, they suffered themselves to
be taken without any resistance. On his return he met twelve more, all
which he also took. These were laden with cloth. The twenty barges he
sent by Kurd Oghli to Tunis, whilst he himself went to join his brother.


At this time there was in the harbour opposite the castle of Jezaier
(Algiers) a small fortress on an island about an arrow-shot from the
city. The Spanish infidels had by some means obtained possession of
this castle, and had thus in a manner shut in the inhabitants of the
town. The unfortunate Algerines were therefore obliged to submit to
them and pay tribute; till at last the oppression of the infidels
became insupportable, and they wrote a letter of invitation to Oruj
Reis. This letter Oruj received at Jajl, and having perused it, made
preparations for his departure. The castle of Jajl he gave in charge to
his brother, and came to Algiers. There being here no regular governor,
he entered the town and took up his abode in it. Khair-ad-din also sent
nearly three hundred men to Jajl, whilst he himself returned to Tunis;
and as he was engaged with Kurd Oghli in dividing the plunder, he met
his brother Is’hak, who had just arrived at that place with the two
ships from the emperor and another from Gallipoli.


The proceedings of Khair-ad-din Reis having surprised and alarmed
the infidel nations, the French became enraged, and sent a fleet of
thirty-three triremes against Tunis. On their arrival they landed at
Benzarta; and Kurd Oghli being there at the time, he left his ships and
went into the castle. The infidels having made an assault, took four of
the ships; but as they were about to attack the fortress, the troops
of Tunis came out against them, fought bravely, and repelled them. The
infidels in haste betook themselves to their ships, leaving six in
the harbour, and proceeded to Halk-al-vad. Here also Khair-ad-din was
in readiness; and valiantly repulsed them, not even suffering them to
land; so that they were obliged to return disappointed. About this time
Sultan Selim having conquered Egypt, Kurd Oghli went to meet him with
magnificent presents; and having paid his respects to him, reported
their engagement with the French. Khair-ad-din on the other hand fitted
up four ships with five hundred men and cannons, which he sent with his
eldest brother to Algiers, whilst he wintered at Tunis.


When the Arab tribes and the infidels heard that Oruj Reis had obtained
possession of Algiers, the latter prepared to attack that place with
a fleet of forty galleys and one hundred and forty barges, containing
fifteen thousand men. The Arab troops likewise, having marched by land,
arrived before the infidels in the neighbourhood of Algiers. Oruj Reis
with his followers being prepared for battle, first attacked the Arab
troops on the land side, and killed great numbers of them. By the
favour of God he was victorious, and the Arabs were routed and obliged
to fly, leaving behind them nearly twelve thousand camels. After this
the infidel fleet arrived, and having anchored near the castle, they
began to land their men and take out their cannon. The castle being
in a dilapidated state, Oruj Reis was repairing the breaches when
the enemy made a sudden assault, and erected their standard on the
fortifications. Oruj Reis now led on his heroes against them, and a hot
engagement ensued. By the favour of God they were again crowned with
victory, and succeeded in taking the standard of the infidels, whom
they pursued and killed whilst flying to their ships. Only one thousand
of them escaped, who, entering their ships, set sail and departed.
After this Oruj Reis settled in Algiers, and the infidels were
constantly harassed and routed. He then sent information of his victory
to Khair-ad-din, to whom he offered the charge of the castle, as also
that of Jajl. Khair-ad-din accordingly went to Jajl, and securing the
sheikh-al-balad, made him engage to pay the annual tribute which he was
in the habit of transmitting to the infidels. After this he departed
and joined his brother.


Previously to the above affair, the beg of Tilmisan’s brother had
gone to Spain, and returning with assistance, had taken Tunis. The
inhabitants of that place having sought redress from Oruj Reis, he
sent his brother Khair-ad-din to their assistance. On the arrival of
Khair-ad-din the infidels had left their ships, and taken possession of
the castle. He then secured their ships, landed his men, and after a
siege of two days, the enemy capitulated, and gave up the castle. Hefs
Zadeh also fled, and Khair-ad-din, not being able to find him, enriched
himself with plunder, and returned to Algiers. The two brothers then
divided the castles belonging to Algiers and Bajaia. These were ten in
number; five on the east side of Algiers, and five on the west. Those
on the east were assigned to Khair-ad-din Beg, and the others to Oruj
Beg; a census being taken of the population of each division.


The governor of Tilmisan was at this time tributary to the king of
Spain, and was obliged to transmit his tribute annually. Being alarmed
by hearing that Oruj Beg and his brother had become masters of Algiers,
he entered into negotiations with Spain to assist him in removing
them from that place. But just as the Spanish fleet and his own land
forces were preparing for the expedition, Oruj Beg was apprised of
it, and leaving his brother at Algiers, went off with a few troops to
Tilmisan. The inhabitants of this latter place having united with the
infidels, and disobeyed their magistrates, the Ulemas had pronounced
fatvas or decrees of death against them; but on the approach of Oruj,
the commercial intercourse between the principal men and the other
inhabitants was resumed. The governor being detected, was obliged to
fly; and his two brothers, who were in confinement, availing themselves
of the opportunity, made their escape, and fled to Fez. The governor,
however, went to the port of Tilmisan called Vehran (Oran), and craved
assistance of the Spaniards, who were then in the possession of that
port. They forthwith gave him large supplies both of money and forces;
and in addition to these, he collected by land about fifteen thousand
Arabs, with whom, and fifteen hundred infidel matchlock men, he left
Vehran, and came to Kalat-al-kala. Khair-ad-din being informed of this,
sent his brother Is´hak Reis, with a few troops, to defend it. As soon
as Is´hak had entered the castle the infidel troops arrived, and laid
siege to it. One night Oruj Reis made a sally, in which he killed about
seven hundred infidels, and took a hundred prisoners; but shortly after
the enemy were reinforced by the arrival of ten thousand infidels and
twenty thousand Arabs, an event which served to protract the siege
for six months, during which time several battles were fought with
equal fierceness and desperation on both sides. At length the towers
fell, and the besieged, now become desperate, rushed out, and commenced
plundering the enemy’s camp: a massacre ensued, and Is’hak, the brother
of Oruj, and his followers fell. Having taken Kalat-al-kala, the
infidels proceeded to Tilmisan, which they blockaded. Oruj Reis with
his attendants betook himself to the inner citadel, and there remained
shut up for seven months; during which period fierce encounters
occasionally took place: but at length Oruj with his troops evacuated
the citadel, and commenced a general attack upon the infidels. In the
engagement which ensued he and his followers suffered martyrdom, and
necessity compelled the inhabitants to yield.


In the spring the infidels fitted out a fleet of one hundred and
seventy ships, which they manned with twenty thousand soldiers, and
sailed to Vehran, where they were joined by three or four thousand
troops who were stationed in that place. These, under the command of
the beg of Tilmisan, proceeded by land to Algiers. Khair-ad-din, on
his part, assembled his followers, and having encouraged them, desired
the natives to go out to meet the beg of Tilmisan. When they met him
they behaved respectfully to him, and abstained from offering any
affront to his army: The troops of Khair-ad-din amounted to only six
thousand, besides about twenty thousand Arabs whom he had subjugated.
When the infidel fleet arrived, they anchored opposite the island, and
sent a message demanding the surrender of Algiers. Khair-ad-din Beg
thereupon took his station in the field; and when the infidels bore
down upon him, they were repulsed with such bravery, that many of them
fell; and by the help of God he was completely victorious, and the
enemy fled in confusion to their ships. When the evening came on both
parties withdrew. The next day they again fought from morning till
evening, and on the third day the infidels drew off their field-pieces,
and being thrown into the utmost fear and confusion, most of them
were routed. Not more than about five or six thousand reached their
ships, and escaped. Of the spoil .which Khair-ad-din took, he gave
a part with a few horses to Hassan, the serasker of Tilmisan, and
giving him the command of two thousand Arabs and seven hundred regular
troops, sent him back to Tilmisan; but before he could reach it twenty
thousand Arabs had risen in arms, and the governor had fled; and when
he arrived, of nearly four thousand infidels, about seven hundred had
made their escape, and fled to Tunis, the rest having perished in the


In the spring Khair-ad-din Beg being desirous to take this castle, its
governor solicited assistance from Spain. Accordingly fifteen barges
were sent to defend it; whilst Khair-ad-din sent eighteen ships, and
himself proceeded against it by land. When he arrived at the castle
he took it by storm, but with difficulty saved the ships which he had
sent, five of which were taken. He then returned to Algiers.


About this time, when Khair-ad-din’s ships were lying in the harbour,
the Admiral Ferdinand from Spain entered it with a fleet of one hundred
and ten ships. Khair-ad-din immediately came into the harbour, and
after a hot engagement entirely routed the infidels. The admirals ship
struck on the sand, when, in despair, he and six hundred infidels
jumped overboard, and, with thirty-six captains, in all about three
thousand men, were made prisoners. Two prisons underground were filled
with them, and the city was crowded with those assigned to the natives.
Some of them formed a conspiracy, and had made arrangements for their
escape, but were detected. Soon after a messenger arrived from Spain
offering 100,000 ducats for the ransom of the thirty-six officers. To
this the Ulemas would not give their consent; saying, that the captains
being expert in naval matters, and every one of them brave fellows, the
sum ought to be doubled: this however was not effected. Khair-ad-din
then sought some pretence for having them killed; and when he heard
of their attempt to escape, ordered a general execution. For the body
of the Admiral Ferdinand seven thousand florins were offered; but the
Moslems considering it improper to deal in carcases, threw it into a
deep well.


During these transactions Khair-ad-din assembled the citizens of
Algiers, and addressed them in these words:—“Hitherto I have given
you every assistance, and I have fortified your castle by placing
in it four hundred pieces of cannon; now appoint whom you please as
your governor, and I will proceed by sea to some other place.” All
of them simultaneously began to cry out and beseech him not to leave
them. Khair-ad-din answered that the begs of Tunis and Tilmisan were
opposed to him; but that if the khotba[22] and the coinage were made
in the name of the Ottoman Sultan, he would consent to remain with
them. To this they agreed; and Khair-ad-din having fitted out four
vessels, and loaded them with spoils, arms, and various presents, as
also forty valiant youths selected from among the prisoners, sent
them as a present to Sultan Selim. The illustrious emperor graciously
accepted them, and in return sent him a splendid sabre and a dress
of honour, with a sanjak[23], which he gave in charge to one Haji
Hussein, a servant of the Sublime Court. But on their way to Algiers
eight Venetian galleys attacked them, and killed all the servants of
Khair-ad-din Beg. Haji Hussein with three others escaped, and landed
at Motone, whence he returned to the capital. On application to the
Venetian governor, the ships were restored, and they once more set
out for Algiers. On their arrival Khair-ad-din came out to meet them,
and received with profound reverence the horse and sanjak, which the
emperor had sent him. He then assembled his divan, and ordered the
criers to proclaim the authority of the sultan. After having given a
splendid entertainment to the messenger, and treated him with proper
courtesy, he sent him back to the Porte.


On account of the above proceedings, the begs of Tunis and Tilmisan
became jealous, and concerted measures to corrupt Mohammed Beg and Ibn
Kazi, two of Khair-ad-din’s most powerful begs. They at last gained
them over to their party, and by giving money to the Arabs, would have
conquered Algiers; but Khair-ad-din maintained a defensive position,
and did not submit to them.


As was previously mentioned, the two brothers of the beg of Tilmisan
had fled to the king of Fez, and he having supplied them with forces,
they marched against Tilmisan, and besieged it; but being deserted by
their Arabs, Massoud (one of them) came over to Khair-ad-din, whilst
his brother fled to Vehran. Khair-ad-din treated Massoud with kindness,
and persuaded his Arabs to return to him: whereupon he again set out
against Tilmisan with what forces he could collect, and having put his
brother to flight, took the castle. But not long after this he broke
his faith with Khair-ad-din, and joined the infidels; in consequence
of which, Khair-ad-din sent assistance to his brother (Abdullah) at
Vehran, whence the allies sent an army by land, and twenty-eight ships
by sea, to a castle called Mustaghanim, which they reduced. They then
sailed to the infidel coasts, which they plundered extensively, and
taking on board all the Moslems they could find in Andalusia, returned
to Algiers.


When Abdullah, the brother of Massoud, had left Vehran and come to
Tilmisan, with the troops of Khair-ad-din, Massoud came out against
him, but was routed in an engagement, and driven into the castle,
where he was shut up twenty days. One night, however, two hundred men
scaled the castle walls and threw open the outer gates; but Massoud,
who was in the inner castle, made his escape with two hundred horsemen.
The criers then proclaimed Sultan Selim sovereign of the place; and
as soon as order was restored Abdullah was duly installed governor
by Khair-ad-din. The khotba was read, and coinage was issued in the
name of the emperor; and a garrison of an hundred and fifty men was
left in the castle. On the departure of Khair-ad-din, Massoud returned
and besieged it for three months; but the former hastened back to
its defence, routed Massoud in an engagement, in which he made him
prisoner; and he died in confinement.


About this time Kazi-Zadeh, the governor of Tunis, revolted, and
having excited the Arab tribes against Khair-ad-din, came and besieged
Algiers. The infidels inhabiting a small island near Algiers also
effected a passage, and attacked the city on one side. For six months
Khair-ad-din was engaged in various battles with the besiegers, but
still remained unconquered. At length, on the approach of winter,
Kazi-Zadeh was under the necessity of begging a truce, and returned
to Tunis. Shortly afterwards, however, he again sent an army against
Algiers, under the command of his brother; but Khair-ad-din came out,
and having completely routed them, sent in pursuit of the fugitives
Kara Hassan, one of his attendants, who reduced all the fortresses
belonging to Tunis. But Kazi-Zadeh corrupted him also, and induced
him to come over to his own party. Khair-ad-din had now nothing left
him but the city of Algiers; and even here the inhabitants began to
be disaffected. Having discovered that it was the intention of the
Arab sheikhs to leave the city, he assembled his followers, who, as
about two hundred of the sheikhs were rushing towards the palace, the
gate of which opened into three roads, attacked and dispersed them,
taking several, whom they put in prison. The followers of Khair-ad-din
recommended a general massacre in the city; but this he prevented.
In the morning he assembled the citizens at the mosque, and reasoned
with them. One hundred and fifty of the insurgents he sent to prison,
and dismissed the others; whilst the twenty-five persons who had been
the original conspirators met the fate they deserved. Peace was thus
restored, which continued for two years.


A misunderstanding afterwards arose between the inhabitants of Algiers
and Khair-ad-din Beg, whose troops quarrelled with the natives; and
the intercourse between Algiers and the neighbouring places was
interrupted. In this state of affairs, Khair-ad-din, being little
better than a prisoner, determined on leaving the place; but was
undecided as to taking his property with him. While he was perplexed
about this matter, and was praying for direction, the Prophet (upon
whom be the blessing of God!) appeared to him in a dream, and seemed
to him to be commencing in person the operation of placing the
warrior’s effects in a ship. At this time information had been received
of the apprehension of Kara Hassan, with offers to deliver him up.
Khair-ad-din, therefore, under the pretence of going to secure him,
emptied his house, and in the morning loaded nine vessels with his
property, and put on board his family and servants. He then called for
the principal men of the town, and the men of Ibn Kazi, who wished to
make peace with him, and throwing them the keys of the city, exclaimed,
“The troubles of Islamism be upon your shoulders, ye wretches!” mounted
his horse, and went down to his ship. That night he lay in the harbour,
whilst the Algerines raised a great lamentation, and great and small
came to bid him farewell, and entreated him for advice. Khair-ad-din
recommended them to God, and telling them to wait three years, and that
they might then go where they pleased, he weighed anchor, and sailed
for Jijeli.


On his arrival at the castle of Jijeli, which is situated on the coast
of Moghreb, and in which he fixed his residence, a great scarcity of
provisions arose; to remedy which inconvenience, he went out to sea
with seven ships. On the infidels’ coast he came up with nine barges
laden with provisions, one of which he sunk, and took the remaining
eight. With these he returned and produced plenty, for which the people
gave thanks. Seven hundred infidels were taken out of these barges. He
then built for himself a galley of twenty-seven benches, with which and
nine other vessels he began to plunder on the coasts of Tunis, taking
prisoners all who had been opposed to him, and burning their ships.
Shortly afterwards he met six barges laden with corn in the Gulf of
Genoa. When the people on board saw Khair-ad-din, they immediately
surrendered their vessels, which he took, and went to Jarba. He now
began to recover the favour of the people, and Aidin Reis, Shaaban
Reis, and twelve other reises, having heard of his invitation, joined
him with forty ships, and sailed on an expedition to the coasts of
the infidels, all the towns along which they attacked and plundered;
and having taken many prisoners, and acquired considerable wealth,
returned, and most of them wintered at Jijeli.


As the power of Khair-ad-din now began to increase, Ibn Kazi, from
fear of him, sent him presents; but as he was not very peaceably
disposed, Khair-ad-din evinced no friendship towards him. About this
time some of the ships of the former arrived from Spain with Moslems;
but when they touched at Algiers Kazi-Zadeh would not permit them to
land; in consequence of which they came to Jijeli, and laid their
complaints before Khair-ad-din. Khair-ad-din, who had been directed
in a dream to return to Algiers, rose up and addressed a letter to
the sheikhs of that place, inviting them to join him. This invitation
they accepted, and came over to him. Kazi-Zadeh, being informed of
this, collected an army of twenty thousand men, and came out to meet
Khair-ad-din, prepared to give him battle. He was defended on one side
by a mountain, at the foot of which he raised a mound; but when the two
armies engaged, he was put to the rout, and four thousand of his Arabs
were killed. He then took refuge in a fastness of the mountain; but
Khair-ad-din coming upon him, killed him, and put to flight part of his
army. The number of his matchlock men did not exceed eighteen hundred.
After this event, the Arab sheikhs from all quarters came and joined
Khair-ad-din, who, by proper management recovered all his former
possessions. When these transactions reached the ear of Kara Hassan, he
fled with five hundred men to Sharshal; but Khair-ad-din pursued him
with speed, attacked the rebel, took him prisoner, and put him to death.


Khair-ad-din when he left Algiers promised to return in three years;
and that period having now expired, he fulfilled his promise, and
once more entered that city. This hero was in the habit of seeking
Divine guidance in all his affairs, and foresaw in visions most of the
circumstances attending the battles he fought. The Arabs now attached
themselves to him, and the people enjoyed security and ease. Abdullah,
the beg of Tilmisan, having for six years refused to transmit his
annual tribute of ten thousand ducats, and having joined himself with
the infidels, and issued the khotba and the coinage in his own name,
Khair-ad-din sent him an admonitory epistle; to which however he paid
no attention, and preparations for hostilities were commenced on both


Abdullah drew out his Arab troops, whilst Khair-ad-din marched against
him from Algiers, and his efforts being crowned with success, he routed
Abdullah, who fled, leaving behind him only eight thousand camels,
which fell into the hands of the victorious troops. Abdullah then sent
a messenger to sue for peace; and having read the khotba and issued the
coinage in the name of the sultan, a peace was concluded, on condition
that he should pay an indemnity of twenty thousand ducats, and an
annual sum of ten thousand ducats for six years. His brother Ibn Kazi
having also rebelled, Khair-ad-din marched against him, and compelled
him to pay thirty _yūks_[24] of silver. Having now overcome most of the
difficulties with which he had been surrounded, Khair-ad-din began to
think of reducing the island opposite Algiers. On this island, which is
about a bow-shot from the city, there was formerly a small fortress,
of which the infidels by some means or other had obtained possession;
and when Khair-ad-din took Algiers they filled it with ammunition, and
strongly fortified it. Previously to that event these infidels exacted
a tribute from the citizens; and whilst the Moslems were calling to
prayers from the minarets, were accustomed to discharge the artillery,
and thus did considerable injury. On the arrival of Khair-ad-din Beg
at Algiers, they petitioned him to allow them to remain unmolested in
their fortress, promising at the same time never to set foot within the
city. Khair-ad-din however would not consent to a peace, but continued
to annoy them. This state of things had now continued, fourteen years,
when Khair-ad-din Beg blockaded the castle; and hearing that the king
of Spain had resolved to send to its succour, he continued his attacks
night and day for a whole week. The besieged then begged for quarter;
but this he refused, and took the castle, sword in hand. Besides those
who were killed, about five hundred men were taken prisoners. He then
ordered that the castle should be rased, and the passage filled up,
so that the centre might form a harbour; and it accordingly forms the
present harbour of Algiers. He next made the infidels repair those
parts of the town which they had destroyed with their cannon, and put
their chiefs to death. Nine barges which had come to their assistance
from Spain, not being able to find the castle, were about to return,
when Khair-ad-din pursued them with fifteen galleys; took them all by
force of arms, and returned to Algiers. Besides those who fell in the
engagement, one thousand seven hundred men were made prisoners.

The moral this event teaches is, that a barge may be taken by a galley
provided the commander of the latter be an experienced person.


The admiral who had been taken in the above-mentioned expedition
having informed them that the king of Spain had gone to Genoa,
Khair-ad-din Beg appointed Aidin Reis to the command of his fleet, and
sent him towards that quarter. The reis, sailing towards the infidel
territories, plundered the coast about Marseilles, and took many
Mudagils.[25] Fifteen vessels that had been sent from Spain to protect
these parts were now cruising about; and Aidin Reis being desirous
of attacking them, commenced a vigorous pursuit, and at length came
up with them whilst they were lying off a barren island. A fierce
engagement ensued, in which Aidin Reis took the admiral’s ship,
and the others were voluntarily surrendered. Three of these ships he
emptied and sunk, three he burned, and the rest he brought to Algiers.
Khair-ad-din then reported this victory to the Porte.


When the infidel nations could no longer navigate the seas, and there
was no safety along their coasts, the king of Spain called a council
to determine what measures were to be adopted against Barbarossa.[26]
(Barbarossa in Italian signifies one with a red beard.) Andrea Doria,
one of the most valiant admirals of Spain, taking his hat in his hand,
said, if the king of France would give him twenty of his galleys he
would venture to attack Barbarossa. Spain had at this time concluded
peace with France, and accordingly sent thither an ambassador to
request the galleys. France, in order to preserve the peace, complied,
and the galleys, together with the Spanish fleet, were given to Andrea,
who with a complete army on board, sailed for Algiers. Khair-ad-din,
on the other hand, equipped thirty-five ships at Algiers, and invited
Senan Reis from Jarba, who fitted out seven vessels, and joined
him. Khair-ad-din Beg had hoped to meet Andrea at Majorca; and in
anticipation of this had fortified the castle of Sharshal, which he
filled with Mudagils. But Andrea suddenly changed his course, and early
one morning came upon Sharshal with forty ships, and landed his men.
As they were about to commence their work of destruction, the Moslems
came out of the castle, and after a fierce engagement, put the infidels
to flight. Before they could reach their ships four hundred fell by
the sword, and six hundred and forty were made prisoners. The rest got
on board, and made their escape. When Khair-ad-din arrived he put all
the captives in chains. Among these was Andrea’s steward, from whom
they ascertained that his master was bound for Genoa, there to obtain
a reinforcement of troops. Khair-ad-din therefore immediately sailed
for that quarter; and having ascertained in the vicinity of Marseilles
that Andrea had on his way passed near to that place, he went to an
island about thirty miles from thence, and lay off there ten days. Here
they took a vessel that was passing by laden with cheeses from Majorca,
which had previously been taken near Toulon, a celebrated French port
not far from Marseilles; but through the negligence of the warriors on
board the goletta stationed there as a guard-ship by Khair-ad-din, the
captain made his escape with his own ship and four others, and gave
information respecting Khair-ad-din. The captain then returned to the
fortress, whilst Khair-ad-din turned towards the Genoese coasts, and
early next morning attacked a castle on the coast, which he succeeded
in capturing, and took the inhabitants prisoners. In the harbour he
found twenty-two ships; all of which he burnt, and demolished the
castle. He then directed his course towards Genoa; but was driven back
by a storm to the island off which he had formerly been lying; and here
he remained until the storm had subsided.


Andrea not being able to reach Genoa from Sharshal, entered a large
river in Spain, and thence demanded from Genoa three thousand men,
and a supply of gunpowder and arms. These the Genoese had already
forwarded in two large ships to the place where he was lying. The
storm however drove them to Khair-ad-din’s place of rendezvous, and
one morning one of them passed near his fleet, which, immediately the
sail appeared, weighed anchor, and ten vessels proceeded to attack
her; when, after a fierce combat, she was taken and brought into port.
A few hours afterwards the other ship also made her appearance; but
owing to the approach of evening was too late to enter the harbour,
and remained out at sea. That night therefore they did not molest
her; but the next morning, as she was preparing to enter the harbour,
Khair-ad-din gave orders to commence an attack upon her from a
distance. Senan Reis however disobeyed these orders, and going too
near, had a musket-ball aimed at him, and was obliged to return into
the harbour; but Khair-ad-din, keeping up a distant fire upon the
ship, gradually weakened her; and the infidels on board perceiving she
began to leak, threw themselves into the sea, and were immediately
made prisoners. The warriors then towed the ship to the shore, where
they plundered her, and then sunk the hulk. They then dressed their
wounded and buried their dead; first reading over them the prayers
appropriated for the funerals of martyrs. This being done, they put all
the infidels in chains, and set fire to the ship which they had first
taken. Khair-ad-din having obtained from those on board these vessels
information respecting Andrea, returned to the Arab shores. Andrea then
left the river, and passing through the Strait of Gibraltar, went and
lay in the harbour of Seville; whilst Khair-ad-din on his part returned
to Algiers.

Some time previous to this the Sultan Soleiman Khan had sent out
Mustaffa, one of the _chiaoush_[27] of the Sublime Court, to obtain
information respecting a peace that had been concluded with the king
of France, and several other affairs. Khair-ad-din therefore wrote down
all the particulars he had been able to obtain, and transmitted them by
Mustaffa to the Porte. About this time also the son of Khair-ad-din,
Hassan Beg, (who by his mother’s side was descended from the Prophet,)
with some other reises, made two expeditions to Teiomlek, and took
immense booty.


The Sultan Soleiman Khan having in the year 938 (A. D. 1531-2) gone on
an expedition into Germany, Charles V., king of Spain, came to Genoa,
and suggested to the Genoese government that as the Grand Toork (i. e.
the Great Turk) was engaged in war, a favourable opportunity offered
to plunder the Roumelian coasts: but his brother Ferdinand, emperor of
Germany, despatched a letter to him, intimating that there would be
no great merit in attacking two or three castles, and requesting that
he would rather come to his assistance by land. With this request he
complied; and at the same time resolved to send his fleet, under the
command of Andrea, to Motone. In order also to divert the attention
of Barbarossa, he sent men to excite the beg of Tilmisan to revolt;
and for this purpose he sent fourteen vessels to aid him in an
expedition against Algiers. Khair-ad-din was at this time preparing
for a voyage to the Sublime Porte; but immediately left his fleet at
sea, and marched to meet the enemy by land. The two armies met in a
desert, where a battle took place, and Abdullah, the beg of Tilmisan,
was routed, and fled back to Tilmisan. At the intercession of certain
persons, peace was restored, on the beg’s paying thirty thousand pieces
of gold; and Khair-ad-din returned to Algiers. Andrea now, finding the
sea clear, sailed towards the coast of the Morea, and attacked and took
the fortress of Corone; the Capudan Ahmed Pasha, who had this year gone
to sea with eighty vessels, arriving too late to save it.

In the Moghreb districts, Khair-ad-din having reduced the land side,
sent his chiefs with fifteen vessels to the Spanish coast, where they
burnt and destroyed the towns. Fifteen ships which had formerly been
taken by the Spaniards were now found at an island called Kïounlugé,
where an engagement took place, in which the Spaniards saved only one
of them, and the remaining fourteen were brought to Algiers, where the
immense booty they contained was divided.


Charles V. having gone by land to the assistance of Germany, was
obliged to return disappointed and mortified. Before his time the
Moslems who remained in the Andalusian towns, though they paid taxes,
were allowed to call publicly to prayers, and to exercise their
religious ceremonies. But when Charles became king, he issued a
proclamation forbidding any one to worship according to the forms of
Islamism, and commenced the work of immolation among the faithful. The
Moslems, being able to endure this no longer, began to form themselves
into societies, and at length convened a general meeting, and took up
their position behind a mountain, whence they sent to beg assistance
from Khair-ad-din, who immediately sent over thirty-six golettas.
On their arrival they bravely withstood the troops that came out to
prevent the embarkation of the Moslems. A thousand men were stationed
on the field, whilst seven voyages were performed; and all the Moslems
were thus conveyed to the opposite shore, and delivered from the power
of the infidels. On their passage they captured several vessels, and
enriched themselves with plunder. On this occasion about seventy
thousand Mudagils were brought over, who settled in Algiers and other
places. This is the reason why most of the Algerines are Andalusians.


When Sultan Soleiman Khan returned from his expedition into Germany,
he sent a letter by Senan Chiaoush to Khair-ad-din Beg, saying that
he intended to undertake an expedition against Spain; and requesting
him to appoint some trusty person to govern Algiers in his stead, and
proceed forthwith to the Sublime Porte; and that if he could find no
such person, he would inform his highness. When it became known that
Khair-ad-din was about to set out for the Porte, Andrea left Seville,
and came to Genoa; and in order to prevent him from going, had recourse
to the stratagem of sending to Algiers a barge laden with a quantity
of merchandise, worth six thousand pieces of gold, and seventy of
the prisoners he had taken at Corone, with instructions to inform
Khair-ad-din that the king of Spain intended to come against Algiers.
Khair-ad-din perceiving the trick, made a feint of unmanning his fleet,
and casting trenches; and having emptied the barge of its cargo,
allowed the men to depart; who, on their arrival at Genoa, gave out
that Barbarossa had abandoned his intention of going to the Porte. This
intelligence pleased Andrea, who immediately proceeded towards Corone.


Among the infidel chiefs who were taken in the two ships before
mentioned[28] there were twenty men of rank, and captains, and one
hundred and twenty brave infidels, who wore golden chains about
their necks. One of the captains was the son of the grand-master,
(μεγα μαγιστωρμεγα μαγιστωρ,) who had been sent out from Rhodes; and
when the agents of the Genoese government arrived to treat for their
ransom, they offered large sums (amounting in the whole to 20,000
pieces of gold) for him and several of the captains. This offer the
begs were disposed to accept; but the _ulema_ (priests) prevented
them, saying, “That as these were powerful enemies, it would be
imprudent to give them their liberty.” The unfortunate prisoners were
thus left to despair. To keep them prisoners at Algiers was deemed
impolitic; and to put them to death seemed scarcely more advisable;
for, in either case, it was certain that the infidels would employ
the money intended for their ransom in purchasing Moslem captives
for the purpose of putting out their eyes, since they had previously
to this cut off the noses and ears of several Moslem chiefs, cutting
the cartilages, and otherwise maiming them; upon which Khair-ad-din
had sent a remonstrance to them, which had the effect of making them
desist from torturing their captives. Thus it was that Saleh Reis and
Torghudjeh, who were captives, escaped the torture. Khair-ad-din
however anticipated the consequences of retaining his prisoners; for
having seen in a dream that the captains had murdered the jailer, with
a view to effect their escape, he, by way of experiment, instructed the
latter, who was one of his relations, to ingratiate himself with the
prisoners, and endeavour to discover their secret. This he effected;
and so entirely did he possess their confidence, that they intrusted
him with a letter to the governor of Bajaiah, requesting him to send
them a ship, and informing him that it was their intention to murder
the guard of the prison, and thus make their escape; that there were
seven thousand prisoners in Algiers; and that if they did not succeed
in taking the city, they should at all events escape from prison.
Having first showed this letter to Khair-ad-din, the jailer proceeded
to Bajaiah to deliver it. On his arrival there he delivered the letter;
and a vessel was immediately prepared and sent off, so as to reach the
prisoners that night. The jailer, having been treated with the greatest
respect, returned, and related all that had passed to Khair-ad-din, who
immediately sent out a vessel to seize the one sent from Bajaiah, which
had just arrived; when the infidels on board, about 120 in number,
together with the captains in the prison, were put to death, on the
above accusation. Their letters he sent to the Genoese, who recognised
the handwriting, and necessarily kept silence.


Khair-ad-din having thus disposed of most of the captives, appointed
Hassan Beg, one of his most faithful servants, governor in his stead,
and with several vessels fully equipped sailed for the Sublime Porte,
in order to pay his respects.[29] Passing by Sardinia and Sicily, he
went on to Genoa, near which place he one morning suddenly attacked and
plundered a castle. Before this was made generally known he left Genoa,
and proceeded towards Messina. On his passage thither he met eighteen
barges, all of which he took, and made the infidels on board prisoners;
and on approaching the town set fire to the barges. Being informed
that Andrea with twenty-four galleys and twenty-six barges had gone to
Corone, he sailed to Prevesa, whence the infidels sent intelligence
to Andrea that Barbarossa was seeking him, and cautioned him to be on
his guard: and in consequence of this information he went and secured
himself in Brindisi. Khair-ad-din, hearing this, sent twenty-five
vessels in pursuit of him. These overtook seven Anapolitan ships that
were following Andrea, five of which made their escape to Anapoli; and
the other two they took, and returned to Khair-ad-din. At this time
Khair-ad-din and his fleet had arrived at Navarin, where he had an
interview with the Capudan Ahmed Beg. He then proceeded to Corone, and
there liberated a few of his captives. On his arrival at the Straits he
received a pressing invitation from the emperor (whose glory is like
that of Jemshid) to enter Constantinople, which he did, amid the firing
of numerous salutes.


On that day, which was about the middle of the year 940 (A. D. 1533),
the vessels were moored opposite Galata; and on the morning following
Khair-ad-din entered the house of the Capudan Ahmed Beg, in the At
Meidan, which had been appointed for his reception. On the divan day,
he went to the divan, taking with him eighteen reises, his companions,
and rich presents, where he had the honour of kissing the royal hand,
and had innumerable favours conferred upon him. The reises were also
admitted into the august presence; and having kissed the royal hand,
each received a dress of honour and had a stipend allotted him; and his
majesty commanded that they should be sent to the royal arsenal, and
there exercise their skill in constructing vessels.


The illustrious emperor being prepared to set out on his sixth
expedition, (which was to be to the Irakin,[30]) in the above-mentioned
year (940), in the month Rabi-al-Akher, (Oct. or Nov. 1533,) sent
forward the Grand Vezier Ibrahim Pasha to winter at Aleppo. This
general now sent a letter of invitation to Khair-ad-din, with a request
that the emperor would allow him to depart. The emperor having at
this time directed all his forces, both military and naval, to that
quarter, expressed in an interview with Khair-ad-din his consent to
his departure. Khair-ad-din then set out by land; and on his arrival
at Aleppo, the vezier called a divan, and performing the ceremonies
of the istakbal,[31] showed him great respect. Khair-ad-din, having
according to custom kissed hands, had a place assigned him under all
the begs and pashas. Next day, however, when he came to the assembly,
he was clothed, according to the custom of the Osmanlis, with the robe
of the begler-beg of Algiers, and took his seat above all the other
begler-begs. After two or three days spent in feasting and transacting
unimportant business, he was sent back to the Porte, where he arrived
in twenty-four days, and resumed his affairs.


_Respecting the affairs of Khair-ad-din, from the time of his being
made Capudan of the fleet_.

The pasha, on his return from Aleppo, built sixty-one _bashderdés_[32]
and galleys, with which and eighteen vessels which he brought with him
from Algiers and five private ones, in all eighty-four, he was ordered
out to sea.


On a propitious day Khair-ad-din Pasha sailed with the above-mentioned
eighty-four vessels, and went towards Messina, where he demolished the
castle of Reggio, which had been evacuated by the infidels. That night
he lay with lantern lights, and prayed for success in an expedition he
contemplated against Malta. Having had a favourable dream, he arose
and set sail during the night, and by morning reached a castle called
Santalohso, which he took and plundered. Seven thousand eight hundred
prisoners were taken, and the fortress rased. In the evening he again
sailed, and reached a fortress called Giatros, where he landed his men,
took it by the sword, and made the people prisoners. Here he found
eighteen full-built vessels, which, with the castle and houses, he
entirely destroyed. After this he went again to sea, and took another
castle in the neighbourhood of Anapoli, the people of which he also
took captive. Passing thence, he sailed a day and a night, and attacked
the castle of Sperlonca, where he took ten thousand prisoners, and
levelled the fortress with the ground. He then proceeded onwards,
attacked the island of Sardinia, and having plundered it, turned his
course towards Algiers; but the weather driving him to the Arab shores,
he was about to proceed to the castle of Bekerzet, when the governor
abandoned it, and went to acquaint Hefs, the king of Tunis.


At this period the kingdom of Tunis was held by the Beni Hefs, Sultan
Hassan, the twentieth king of that branch, being the reigning monarch.
His brother Rashid had some time before this gone with Khair-ad-din to
the Porte, where a provision had been made for him.[33] Khair-ad-din
was exceedingly anxious to add to the possessions of the Sublime
Power the city of Tunis, and particularly the castle of Halk-al-vad
(Goletta), on account of the conveniences it afforded for the wintering
of a fleet, and its being a well secured place; and on representing
to his majesty the expediency of his project, he was charged with the
reduction of the place.

The Tunisians at this time were discontented with Sultan Hassan,
and Khair-ad-din coming against them ostensibly in the company of
Rashid, who however remained at Constantinople, was directed to
Halk-al-vad. Hassan now took to flight, whereupon Khair-ad-din left
the castle of Halk-al-vad, and entered the city of Tunis, which was
nine miles distant. The partisans of the Hefsi now held out the hand
of submission to Khair-ad-din, who collected and imprisoned them in
the castle, executing a few of the sheikhs. Hassan then commenced an
attack from the outside, and Khair-ad-din going without the gates, a
fierce battle ensued. Three hundred Arabs fell, and Hassan was routed
and fled. Khair-ad-din having thus subdued Tunis, wrote letters to
all the Arab Meshaïekh, and adopted measures for the apprehension of
Hassan. He also brought a few troops from Algiers, and registered the
subjects. The Tunisians having at length discovered that Rashid was not
with Khair-ad-din, became discontented and rebellious: but order was
speedily restored by putting to death some of the insurgents. Hassan,
on the other hand, collected a force at Kairavan, (Cyrene,) whilst
Khair-ad-din with his Arab troops, consisting of ten thousand men, and
thirty cannons, the carriages of which were propelled by sails, marched
from Tunis into the desert. The battle was commenced by the firing of
the artillery, and the enemy, unable to maintain their ground against
cannon and musketry, fled in confusion. Hassan being thus again routed,
the Arab sheikhs came over and submitted themselves to Khair-ad-din. At
this time a brother of Hassan, Abdul-momin, considering the absence of
the Sultan Soleiman Khan in Persia afforded a favourable opportunity
for his enterprise, went over to Tripoli. Charles, king of Spain,
also, excited by the Pope, united with Portugal, embarked twenty-four
thousand troops on board three hundred barges and galleys, and made
preparations for sailing. Just at this time Hassan sent a message to
the latter, informing them that he had besieged Barbarossa with his
Arab army in Tunis, and inviting them to come and take him prisoner.
They thereupon immediately resolved to go and take Tunis, and then to
resume their intended course. On the seventh day they arrived, and
entered the harbour by the left tower, near the castle of Halk-al-vad,
where they landed their men. When the Tunisians saw the infidels
they joined Khair-ad-din; and the castle of Halk-al-vad being rather
confined, the besieged cast a trench about it, raised tabors,[34] and
disposed their artillery. The infidel forces having fixed their camps,
for several days fierce engagements were fought, and more than six
thousand of the enemy were slain; but as they constantly received fresh
assistance from their rear, they kept their ground, and continued the
assault: they also raised mounds, and strengthened themselves with
one hundred and twenty pieces of cannon, which they landed from their
ships. For thirty-two days and nights they kept up an incessant attack
upon the castle, which exhausted their stock of ammunition. Thrice did
the Moslems force their mound, on each occasion killing great numbers
of the infidels; but the attack of the latter was so violent, that,
finding it impossible to hold out any longer, they were obliged to
evacuate the castle and secure themselves in Tunis.—The infidels then
took possession of it, when Sultan Hassan, coming up with a few Arabs,
mixed his own troops with the infidels, and sent letters, holding
forth great promises, to his friends in Tunis. The Tunisians were at
this time divided into four parties; one of them consisting of the
people of the castle, and the other three of Mar’esh. Khair-ad-din
having assembled these parties, thus addressed them: “You have received
letters from the infidels: what is _your_ intention? _I_ shall go
out and fight, but _you_ may remain in the city.” They cried out,
“God forbid!” and swore they would accompany him. Nine thousand seven
hundred men accordingly went out with him, the party that had seemed
favourable to the enemy joining them, though against their inclination.
When the infidels approached the castle, Khair-ad-din attacked them,
and fought bravely. A few Algerines having made their appearance in the
rear, the infidels turned back, and the Algerines pursued and killed
many of them. The enemy being now on the point of making a retreat,
the party that had been standing neutral fled towards the castle,
Khair-ad-din sent men to induce them to return; but failing in his
object, the others too began to fly, and he then removed his artillery
to the castle. The infidels supposing that the Turks had fled, began to
return, but after some slight skirmishing, as the evening drew on they
retired to their tents. Next morning Khair-ad-din having raised a mound
about the fortress, and sent his Algerines forward, leaving a person
called Giafer Agha in charge of the city, shortly afterwards followed
them himself. The infidels, being now greatly distressed by reason
of the great heat and the scarcity of water, were about to retreat,
when the Tunisians evacuated the city and fled. There were only four
thousand captives, who immediately freed themselves and shut the gates.
According to one account, the above-mentioned Giafer Beg had joined the
opposite party of Tunis, and had persuaded them to leave the place.
The infidels having taken to flight, when it was over Khair-ad-din,
with about two hundred men who had stood by him, pursued the fugitive
Tunisians, and turning them from the direction which Hassan’s army had
taken, brought them into the road leading to Bajaiah. The infidels
in the mean time came back, took possession of the city, and placed
Hassan on the throne. At his request they repaired the fortress of
Halk-al-vad, and garrisoned it with four thousand soldiers. The vile
race who had been the cause of the insurrection, and who remained in
the castle, were accused of adherence to Rashid, and the greater part
of them publicly executed.


About this time Khair-ad-din had given the fortress of Beled-al-enab in
charge to a certain capudan, whom he sent thither with fifteen small
vessels. On his arrival there, hearing of the attack of the infidels
upon Tunis, he sunk the vessels by order of the pasha. On the fifth
day after the above events Khair-ad-din went to Bajaiah, and thence to
Beled-al-enab, where he gave orders that each reis should bring out his
vessel, and placing several pieces of cannon at the mouth of the river,
he repulsed the infidel ships that attempted to approach. Having fully
equipped the vessels, he sailed for Algiers, the inhabitants of which
came out to meet him. After having had an interview with his family,
the pasha began to equip the nine vessels which were lying there under
the command of Murad Agha, with which and eight private Algerine
ones, after a stay of fifteen days, he went out to sea, having in all
thirty-two vessels under his command. He first anchored at a place
about thirty miles from Majorca, and early the next morning a salute of
fifty-six guns was fired from the castle. The pasha, telling his people
they should learn the cause of all this afterwards, then made sail, and
on his way took two barges, in which were some Tunisian captives. These
he set free; but put the infidels into chains, and burnt their ships.
From Minorca he sailed to a castle called Milota, into the harbour of
which he entered with infidel colours. The infidel fleet had put into
this port on its way to Tunis, and now when Khair-ad-din approached the
castle, the infidels, supposing it to be Andrea’s fleet on its return,
fired a salute. Two Portuguese barges that were coming in with a fair
wind, when they saw Khair-ad-din’s fleet tacked and were about to fly,
but on hearing the salute returned and anchored. Several infidels then
came from the castle to learn the news about Tunis; these Khair-ad-din
seized and put into chains. He also sent two boats to the barges with
the intimation, “Come along—Barbarossa wants you:” a mandate which the
terrified infidels obeyed; and ninety prisoners found on board were

When Khair-ad-din came to these islands,[35] a report had been spread
that his intention was to plunder them, and the inhabitants were in
consequence greatly alarmed. The governor, in order to comfort them,
sent them a prisoner dressed like the pasha, with a message that the
king, having taken Barbarossa, had sent him to them that they might
burn him. The captive was accordingly burnt, and this gave occasion to
the salute. When however the capture of Minorca was made known, the
circumstance afforded a source of ridicule to the captives.


Khair-ad-din having landed his men, laid siege to this castle; and when
the attack had lasted four days, the governor of the island came out
with six thousand infidels, when, after a furious engagement, he was
routed, and his horse being hamstrung, he fell, and was killed on the
spot. The infidels, seeing this, surrendered the castle. Khair-ad-din
then abandoned the wealth of the place to the plunder of his warriors.
Five thousand seven hundred prisoners were taken, and eight hundred
were killed: and on the sixth day Khair-ad-din rased the fortress and
returned to Algiers.


At the last-mentioned siege the Moslems had to resist the infidel begs
for some days, on account of their superior numbers: for had they not
possessed this advantage, they would not have fought in the position
which Khair-ad-din had taken; since it is written in their books that
it is lawful to fall alive into the enemy’s hand, and that they who
fall in battle do not enter paradise; their learned men also teach this
doctrine. It is related that Andrea Doria once asked a learned captive
the reason why our race were so brave in battle. The captive replied
that it was a miracle performed by our prophet, because that whoever
received his faith became brave, and would draw his sword even against
his own relatives. Andrea asked a farther reason, but the captive could
not give him any other, and said he knew no more on the subject. Andrea
then said, “Is it not written in your books that whoever flies from
battle goes to hell, and that if a person flies from two infidels he
cannot enter paradise? These are the words that make the Moslems so
brave. Now in our books it is written, that if a thousand men should
be attacked by one Moslem, and they know they are to be killed by him,
they need not fight him, because those who die in battle do not enter
paradise. This it is that makes us so cowardly.” This doctrine is also
taught by the Pope; the infidel soldiers however fight till they die,
caring little about a future state. The author has questioned several
learned men among the Christians on this subject, and has ascertained
that the case is not as stated by Andrea, who being an ignorant fellow
and unacquainted with books, spoke only his own ideas of the matter.
The Christians do not consider it lawful to turn from battle.


Whilst the king of Spain was on a visit to the Pope, and was boasting
that he had killed Barbarossa and taken Tunis, the account of the
capture of Minorca reached him, disclosed his falsehood, and obliged
him to return with shame to his own country. Andrea having also heard
of the fate of Minorca, resolved on going against Barbarossa. The
latter had just left Algiers, and on his way came in sight of Andrea’s
fleet, but not being observed himself, he took no notice of the fleet.
The pasha next touched at Jarba, and thence continued his course to
the Porte. The emperor at that time had just returned from Bagdad, and
Khair-ad-din having paid his respects,[37] was ordered to build two
hundred vessels for an expedition against Puglia, to the completion of
which he accordingly applied himself.


The warlike pasha in the month Rabia-al-akher 943 (Sept. 1536) left
the royal arsenal with thirty light vessels, and sailing into the
Mediterranean, directed his course to a strong fortress called Castel,
which he captured after a hot engagement. Having secured the prisoners,
he plundered the fortress, and the winter season having set in,
returned to the Porte to repair and refit his fleet.


The cause of this expedition was this. In the time of Sultan Mohammed
Khan, the conqueror, the kingdom of Puglia had been subdued, but when
Keduk Ahmed Pasha succeeded to it, Spain demanded its restoration.
The warlike emperor therefore determined to send a large fleet to
that quarter; for the Grand Vizier Eias Pasha represented that the
sanjaks of Avlona and Delvina, situated opposite to Puglia, being now
subject to the Porte, the reduction of this territory ought to be
considered a matter of importance to the state. Kemal Reis, however,
having recommended the capture of Corfu in the first place, the Sultan
resolved upon going thither in person, and on a Friday, in the middle
of Zilhijé 943 (May 1537), Lutfi Pasha being then commander of the
fleet, Khair-ad-din sailed for the Mediterranean with one hundred and
thirty-five galleys and other vessels, amounting in all to two hundred
and eighty. Never before had so large a fleet sailed. Thirty thousand
sailors had been collected from all parts of the Ottoman dominions. On
the 7th of Zilhijé (17th May) the illustrious emperor with his two sons
left the capital, and set out on his journey, taking Smako on the way.
About the end of Moharrem, 944 (A. D. 1533), they passed Albassan, and
on the fifth of Seffer entered the plains of Avlona, where they had a
sight of the royal fleet, which had arrived and lay off that coast.

The Vezier Mustaffa Pasha, having been charged with the subjugation of
that part of Albania which was in rebellion, proceeded thither, and
subdued it, plundering the inhabitants. Avlona being bounded on the
west by the sea, and on the east by rebellious Albania, the natives
of which held intercourse with the infidel ships, by the advice of
Eias Pasha the whole of that line of country was subjugated; and the
rebels of Delvina having also submitted, territory to the extent of two
sanjaks was thus added to the Sublime Porte.

When the whole fleet was collected opposite Avlona, sixty vessels
were consigned to Khair-ad-din to conduct those that were bringing
provisions from Egypt. The chief commander, Lutfi Pasha, taking charge
of the remaining vessels, went over to the Puglia coasts, and attacked
a few castles, which he rased, first securing the prisoners and their

As Khair-ad-din was passing the island of Corfu, about forty Venetian
galleys that were lying in the neighbourhood, seeing his fleet, and
supposing that he was leaving altogether, resolved to join the rest
of their fleet, which was then in the Gulf of Venice. On their way to
the rendezvous they were met by Lutfi Pasha on his return from Puglia,
who gave them battle, sunk two of their ships, took two, and the rest
escaped to Corfu. Khair-ad-din then brought his provision-ships to
Prevesa, and thence sailed to Avlona, where the sultans fleet had again


The Venetian infidels are a people famous for their great wealth,
their extensive commerce, and their deceit and perfidy in all their
transactions. Having by treachery taken most of the islands in their
possession from the Hungarian princes, and these islands being on
the borders of the Ottoman dominions, and deriving their subsistence
and trade from them, the Venetians from necessity maintain a show of
friendship, but are in reality the most inveterate of all the enemies
of the faith. During the above expedition, they being unmolested, the
governor of Gallipoli harbour, Ali Ketkhoda, happened to touch at Corfu
with two galleys on his way to join the Moslem fleet, when Andrea
Doria, who was there at the time, came out with the Corfiote vessels,
and attacked him. A fierce engagement ensued, in which the superior
numbers of the infidels overcame the warriors, and the battle having
lasted from morning till afternoon,[38] most of the Gallipoli vessels
were burnt or sunk, and the survivors were made prisoners.

On another occasion, another governor of Gallipoli, Boustan Ketkhoda,
was sailing to Corfu with dispatches from Lutfi Pasha, when four of the
Venetian ships gave him chase, and captured him. It was of no avail
that he declared he was only going on an embassy. Fearing however
that the affair might become known, they sunk the vessel and cruelly
murdered all that were on board, except a youth who threw himself into
the sea, and floated on a board till he was taken up by one of the
ships of the fleet, which conveyed him to Lutfi Pasha. Lutfi Pasha laid
the matter before the Sultan, who, on account of these two outrages,
commanded that Corfu should be besieged.


Accordingly, the expedition to Puglia having been abandoned, the
imperial fleet was ordered to lay siege to and plunder the castle
of Corfu, whilst the emperor left Avlona, and took up his quarters
over-against the island. According to one account, a bridge of boats
was constructed across the channel where its width did not exceed half
a mile, by means of which the armies of the faithful passed over to
the island. One hundred and forty villages in the neighbourhood of the
town were all pillaged, so that the town alone remained, against which
the artillery was drawn up, and the siege was regularly commenced.
But it being almost entirely surrounded by sea, they attacked it on
the land side for full forty-three days and nights. When however they
had opened the sally ports, and had several fierce engagements, they
found their time for warlike operations was exhausted, the setting in
of winter having commenced, and heavy rains falling, accompanied with
extreme cold,—added to which, the sailing season was past. The emperor
therefore, out of compassion for the army, sent Eias Pasha over to the
island with orders to raise the siege. Lutfi Pasha and Khair-ad-din
Pasha, however, remonstrated against this step, saying that so much
labour ought not to be thrown away, and endeavoured to make the matter
appear feasible: but there is an adage, “What is ordained must come to
pass,” and therefore their counsel did not meet the royal approbation.
One history relates that when it was reported to his majesty that
a cannon ball had killed four of his men, he declared he would not
exchange one of his brave warriors for a thousand such castles, and
immediately gave orders to raise the siege. In short, the reduction
of this place having been so long attempted without success, a divan
was held about the end of the month Rabi-al-akher, and after robes of
honor had been given to the nobles, presents to the naval capudans and
reises, two pieces of money to each of the cavalry, and one piece to
each of the infantry, on the 24th of the same month the troops retired
from the siege, and his majesty, passing through Perpol, Kortsha,
Prespa, Monaster, Florina, and Salonica, after a journey of twenty
days, arrived at Adrianople.

Lutfi Pasha and Khair-ad-din Pasha on their return landed at
Cephalonia, which they attacked and plundered, taking immense booty.


The royal fleet leaving Cephalonia proceeded to Motone, where
Khair-ad-din chose sixty vessels, with which he remained at sea, Lutfi
Pasha returning with the rest to the Porte. Khair-ad-din first touched
at Cerigo, whence he went to an island called Egina, which was a strong
fortress. To this, having prepared his artillery, he laid siege, and
after three days’ fighting, succeeded in capturing it on the fourth
day, when he took four thousand eight hundred prisoners, besides
considerable booty. He then went to an island called Merted,[39]
which he also took, and carried off twelve hundred prisoners. He
next proceeded to the island of Bara (Paros), which the infidels
defended with great obstinacy for some time: but it was at length
taken at the point of the sword, and yielded much plunder. On his
going against Naksha (Naxia), the infidels came out and agreed to an
impost. Khair-ad-Din’s men with his permission then went and plundered
an island in the neighbourhood, and returned with great spoils. The
victorious pasha then attacked another island, and in fourteen days
took three of its castles and made eleven thousand prisoners. Having
done this, he bound down these six islands to pay an annual tribute
of five thousand pieces of gold. In the course of this expedition
Khair-ad-din collected cloth, money, a thousand girls, and fifteen
hundred boys—plunder amounting in all to the value of four hundred
thousand pieces of gold: such at least was the calculation of his
wealth. He then returned to Constantinople.


The morning after his arrival the pasha dressed two hundred boys in
scarlet, bearing in their hands flasks and goblets of gold and silver.
Behind them followed thirty others, each carrying on his shoulders
a purse of gold; after these came two hundred men, each carrying a
purse of money; and lastly, two hundred infidels wearing collars, each
bearing a roll of cloth on his back. These he took as a present to the
emperor, and having kissed the royal hand, was presented with robes of
the most splendid kind, and received the highest marks of honour; for
never at any period had any capudan done such signal service.


The winter season being nearly over, Sultan Soleiman gave orders to his
veziers to equip a hundred and fifty vessels, and to send Khair-ad-din
to sea. Accordingly, although the ships were not ready, the veziers
pressed Khair-ad-din to sail; and he not consenting, they had recourse
to stratagem, saying that Andrea Doria had gone with forty vessels
to Candia, where he was waiting to intercept Saleh Reis, who with
twenty vessels had gone to bring the Indian merchandise from Egypt.
Khair-ad-din therefore with the forty ships that were in readiness (the
other ninety being ordered to follow) sailed on the ninth of Moharrem,
945, (June 8th, 1538,) accompanied by three thousand janissaries; and
Ali Beg, the beg of Koga-eili, Khorrem Beg, the beg of Tekké, Ali Beg,
the beg of Seida, and Mustaffa Beg, the beg of Alanieh, having joined
him, they proceeded to Imbro, where some time previously a vessel
containing seventeen pieces of cannon had been wrecked, and having
possessed themselves of these, they sailed to an island called Ishkatos
(Skiathos), which had a strong castle and harbour. In consequence of
the complaint of the governor of Negropont that the pirates were in
the habit of lying there and carrying on their depredations in the
vicinity, they conveyed their artillery from a distance of seven miles,
and blockaded the castle for six days and nights, taking it by assault
on the seventh day. A great number of the infidels were slain, and
three thousand eight hundred taken prisoners.

The ninety vessels from Constantinople, and Saleh Reis, with the
twenty under his command, had now arrived; so that, according to
the royal command, the fleet now consisted of a hundred and fifty
vessels; but the equipment and manning of the ninety from the Porte
not being quite complete, Khair-ad-din emptied and sent back twelve
of them to Gallipoli; the rest he despatched to the Negropont. The
fleet then touched at Eskeri (Skyro), which they left the same night.
In the forenoon of the following day, which was very foggy, they met
seventy of the Mediterranean pirate boats which had but the day before
attempted in vain to take Skyro. On the approach of Khair-ad-din,
however, the infidels of the castle surrendered, crying for quarter;
and he accordingly spared them, on the condition that they should pay
an annual sum of one thousand pieces of gold. At this place he remained
a short time, and oiled his vessels. With the plunder he took he filled
seven vessels, and sent them to Constantinople. Two cannoniers had
been sent from Candia to Skyro; but not arriving till the afternoon,
when the castle had surrendered, they were seized and brought before
the pasha, who having obtained from them the information he needed
respecting the enemy’s movements, divided his fleet into seven
squadrons, which he sent in different directions,—one cruising about
the islands to levy the tribute. He then sailed to Istandil (Tino), the
governor of which was a Frank, and the people Greeks. These immediately
surrendered, and the pasha agreed to molest them no further if they
would deliver up their chiefs, which they accordingly did. He then
appointed one of the principal inhabitants governor, and stipulated for
an annual tribute of five thousand pieces of gold. He next sailed to
Andro, the people of which also submitted. On this and a neighbouring
island he imposed an annual tribute of one thousand pieces of gold.
From Andro the squadron proceeded to Naxia, and received the tribute
from that island, the inhabitants firing a salute. In the afternoon
of the third day from this time, as they were sailing to Candia, they
perceived before them a huge barge, which seemed like a black mountain
rising out of the sea. They immediately bore down upon her; but she
received their fire for a considerable time without striking her
colours. At length, however, she was weakened by several balls striking
her prow, when the Capudan Ibrahim went in and took her in tow. On the
fifteenth of Seffer the fleet arrived at Candia, first touching at the
castle of Miloietimo, where they landed their men. They then plundered
twenty of the neighbouring villages, which had been abandoned by the
infidels, and proceeding thence to Bakorna, took the natives prisoners,
and plundered sixty of the adjacent villages. On the 17th they sailed
towards a very strong castle called Khania (Canea), and as the infidels
had fled into the fortress, took in a supply of water, and made
preparations to attack it. But several of the more experienced capudans
were of opinion that to attack this castle would be a most difficult
matter; because, being on the side next the sea strongly fortified, and
on the land side protected by a wall of three miles in extent, besides
being well stored with arms and ammunition, and strongly garrisoned,
to effect its reduction would require an armament of no ordinary
strength. For these reasons they desisted from their attack, but fired
the houses on the outside, demolished all the strong buildings in
the neighbourhood, and in the course of three days plundered three
hundred villages. They then came upon Menolilo and Retimo, the villages
of which they plundered. Thence they went to Ista (Setia), where
the inhabitants seemed disposed to resist: but finding themselves
unable to hold out, speedily took to flight. Most of them were taken
prisoners, and the rest were devoured by the sword. Two castles,
called Isklaria and Istilo, were next reduced, and eighty villages in
their neighbourhood plundered. In one short week the whole of Candia
was overrun and pillaged. More than fifteen thousand prisoners were
taken, of whom a few were sent in barges to Constantinople. The fleet
afterwards proceeded to the island of Kirpé, which had three forts.
Here they remained ten days, during which they took all the three, and
laid them under tribute.

The heat at this time became very oppressive, and hot winds like the
Sam[40] beginning to blow, and the sailors suffering much, the fleet
went over to the island of Ilki (Piscopia), where they rested for some
time. Sailing thence to Stanko, they broke up the levend frigates, and
manned the galleys with the sailors they found on board. Besides these,
they also took in a great number of infidel sailors from the islands
and the Anatolian coasts. They then reduced an island called Stanpalia,
which the pasha left to be plundered by the volunteer ships. This year
the Venetians possessed twenty-five islands, each having one, two, or
three castles; all of which were taken; twelve of the islands being
laid under tribute, and the remaining thirteen plundered.

After this the fleet sailed towards Roumelia, and having broken up
the heavy sailing vessels at Kuzil Hissar, put into the harbour of
Negropont. They then took over the light sailing vessels by night to
Kara-Ata, where they oiled their sides, and returned to Negropont to
take in provisions. At this time Saleh Reis, who was a most valiant
commander, arrived at Negropont with thirty vessels; on which occasion
numerous salutes were fired.


About this time information was received that the Spanish, Papal,
and Venetian fleets had assembled at Corfu, and attacked Prevesa;
whereupon Khair-ad-din sent twenty small privateers to that quarter,
which, on reaching Zante, came in sight of forty guard ships. These
latter immediately returned to their fleet and gave information that
Barbarossa was in the neighbourhood. The enemy then left Prevesa; which
circumstance being made known to Khair-ad-din, when he was near Motone,
he took in water at Helomej, and proceeded thence to Cephalonia, where
he landed his men and plundered the surrounding villages. Crossing
thence to Prevesa, the castle of which had been much injured by the
enemy’s cannon, he was preparing to besiege it, when he received
reinforcements during the night from Santa Maura. With this assistance
he entered the fortress, many of the infidels being slain in the
assault: and having planted his great guns, the infidels, exhausted
and terrified, left the place.[41] The pasha then ordered his troops
to repair the fortress; and in the mean time sent over a few private
vessels to the infidel coasts to obtain information. These on their
return reported that the Spanish, Papal, Portuguese and Venetian fleets
had assembled at Corfu. This intelligence was immediately forwarded
to the sultan, who was then on an expedition into Boghdan (Moldavia).
About the middle of the month Jemazi-al-avul the fleets of these
accursed infidels arrived and anchored about two miles from Prevesa.


Andrea Doria had fifty-two galleys; the Venetian general, seventy;
the Popes admiral, thirty; and the lieutenant of the Grand-Master of
Rhodes, ten. The Spaniards and Portuguese had eighty barges, and the
Venetians ten krakas, each of which contained two thousand arms of
different sorts, and was equal to fifty galleys. Andrea Doria’s own
ship was a huge galleon, with arms and ammunition beyond computation.
Besides these there were a few barges from different places; the
whole amounting to one hundred and sixty-two galleys, one hundred and
forty barges, and three hundred other ships, which, with the small
privateers, formed a fleet of upwards of six hundred sail.

The Moslem fleet consisted of only one hundred and twenty-two light
galleys. Khair-ad-din having held a consultation, and encouraged his
troops, began to make preparations for an engagement. He then lowered
the masts, giving strict injunctions to his officers to keep a constant
eye upon his movements. The private vessels he ordered to take a
position by themselves out of the line, and when
they came in contact with the enemy’s ships to fire their bow-guns. The
begs, seeing the number of the infidel ships, recommended the landing
of the men and artillery. Khair-ad-din however did not consider this
advisable; but having afterwards ascertained that the plan of the
enemy was to enter the bay of Prevesa by night, he landed his men and
stationed his artillery on the shore. The infidels shortly afterwards
landed, when he commenced a fire upon them, whilst Mourad Agha, of the
line of privateers, Tourghoudjé, Kouzloujé Mohammed, Sadek Reis, and
several others, attacked them in the rear, and filled them with terror.
Two days after several of the enemy’s light vessels came up to the
strait of Prevesa, where the arrogant wretches opened a fire upon the
Moslem vessels. The brave and experienced pasha, unable to bear this
insolence any longer, beat his drum and cymbals, hoisted his flags, and
sailed out of the bay, with the intention of there meeting the fleet
of the despicable infidels. Casting anchor about six miles from land,
he waited until the rest of the Moslem vessels should join him; and
when they were all assembled, and had taken their proper positions,
gave a signal, at which each of the hundred and twenty-two ships fired
three guns, and coming forward to the attack, the brave Moslems filled
the air with their shouts. This struck dismay into the hearts of the
infidels, who, as evening approached, weighed anchor and fled towards
Corfu. The pasha then returned to his former position. That night,
whilst praying for direction, he saw in a dream great numbers of fishes
issuing out of the harbour; and rising up at midnight, he sailed in
that direction.


On the third of Jemazi-al-avul, as Andrea Doria was preparing to
enter the Gulf of Lepanto, Khair-ad-din sailed to Bahshiler, and
having reached that place, he sent men to the mast-heads, who descried
masts in the neighbourhood of Santa Maura and the harbour of Ingir.
He therefore immediately weighed anchor, and sailed, prepared for an
engagement. The infidels observing them, came out to meet them; and
the wind being in their favour, the Moslems were overwhelmed with
fear, for galleys are not able to compete with barges under such
circumstances. Khair-ad-din however wrote two verses of the Koran, and
threw one on each side of his vessel; when the wind immediately fell,
and the barges lay motionless. This occurrence teaches that commanders,
however celebrated, ought not to trust in human means alone, but also
to pay all possible regard to spiritual means for ensuring success.
The unfortunate infidels, stationing themselves in regular lines, now
began to discharge their artillery; which, however, wanted strength to
make it efficient. A galleon first came out and opened a heavy fire,
but was driven back by the fire of the fleet. Khair-ad-din succeeded
in taking several of the barges by attacking them from a distance, and
thus gradually weakening them. Andrea Doria and the general having now
come up with their galleys, were about to commence an attack, when the
brave pasha bore down upon them, and commenced a heavy fire, which
obliged them to bring round their barges. The balls from the barges
now fell like rain, and the two fleets were so enveloped in smoke,
that they could not see each other. The enemy’s galleys several times
attempted to take the Moslem vessels in the rear, that so they might
take up a position between them and the other ships and barges. The
latter, which, from their size resembled floating castles, were dashing
against each other with great violence; nor was it possible to separate
them. At length, after nine of the barges had been driven back by
the strength of the Moslem vessels, the pasha (of lion-like courage)
redoubled his exertions, and keeping up a brisk fire, sunk several,
and clearing a way through them, passed on to the galleys, strictly
prohibiting his men from plundering a single barge. The infidels were
astonished, and overwhelmed with terror at the impetus of the warriors:
and their small galleys being unable any longer to maintain the fight,
they turned their faces to flight. The slaughter continued during the
whole of the interval between the two hours of prayer, and most of
the barges were either destroyed or sunk by the cannon. Andrea Doria
seeing this tore his beard, and took to flight, all the smaller galleys
following him. The Moslems, supposing the barges were of less value
than the galleys, pursued the latter, and succeeded in capturing two of

In the evening the wind fell, which obliged them to remain on the scene
of action; whilst the unfortunate infidels set fire to the remaining
barges, which continued to burn till morning. Such wonderful battles
as those fought between the forenoon and sunset of that day were never
before seen at sea.

Next morning the pasha went to Santa Maura, where he gave his son
charge of two captains he had taken, and despatched him to the sultan
with the news of the victory. He then proceeded to Prevesa, where the
begs kissed his hand and congratulated him. Sultan Soleiman Khan was
at this time hunting at Ianboli, where the pashas son on his arrival
was received with the greatest honors; and a divan being assembled,
the proclamation of the victory was read, all present standing, and
thanksgiving and praise were offered to the Divine Being. The Capudan
Pasha then received orders to make an advance of one hundred thousand
pieces of money to the principal officers, to send the proclamation of
the victory to all parts of the country, and to order public rejoicings
in all the towns.

Andrea Doria after his flight made Corfu his place of rendezvous;
whilst the pasha on the 14th of the same month started from Prevesa by
night, and on the evening of the following day arrived at Bahshiler;
but finding no traces of the infidels there, he returned to Prevesa.
The privateers having obtained his permission to plunder Cephalonia,
proceeded thither, and left nothing behind them but the bare fortress.
On the other hand, whilst the pasha was engaged in repairing the
fortress of Prevesa, information was brought him that the infidels had
attacked Durazzo; upon which he cleared his galleys, and stood out to
sea the same night. Next morning he attacked the fort of Parga, put the
inhabitants to flight, took four hundred prisoners, and plundered and
set fire to the castle. On his way to Bahshiler he took two barges; and
after resting there two days, on the morning of the third, he again
sailed to the channel of Corfu, where he was overtaken by a violent
storm, which obliged him to put into Avlona, where he was detained
for ten days till the weather cleared up. During this time the army
suffered greatly. While there the pasha received orders either to
winter there, or to return to Constantinople, as he might think most
advisable. He chose the latter alternative, and immediately sailed
for Constantinople. On their way the fleet had to encounter another
dreadful storm at the strait of Beberjek, but succeeded in reaching
Gallipoli, and thence proceeded to Constantinople, which they entered
amidst the firing of numerous salutes.


Andrea, taking advantage of the storm which detained Khair-ad-din at
Avlona, returned and attacked Novo; and the governor being a weak man,
he with the most consummate assurance took possession of it, garrisoned
it with six thousand soldiers, and left it.


Spain had just completed the conquest of the New World; and so early as
the year 900 (A. D. 1494.) the Portuguese, emboldened by her success,
proceeded from the Western to the Eastern Ocean, and passing along the
Mountains of the Moon, (where the blessed Nile has its source,) and
the coasts of Abyssinia and Zanguebar, penetrated into India, and took
possession of the fortresses of Sind. The kings of that country being
too weak to resist them, the king of Guzerat applied for assistance to
Sultan Soleiman Khan. This zealous monarch, with the view of driving
the oppressive infidels from the coasts of Yemen and India, equipped a
fleet of thirty galleys in the road of Suez, and gave the command of
them to Khadem Soleiman Pasha, chief of the emirs of Egypt, who left
the port of Suez about the end of Moharrem (940 A.D. 1533), and arrived
on the seventh of Rabi-al-avul at the city of Aden, on the coast of
Yemen, the fortresses of which, under the command of Amar Ben Davud,
he took possession of, and having considerably strengthened them, gave
them in charge to Behram Beg. He then proceeded towards Div, an Indian
port in the possession of the Portuguese, which was the principal
object of his efforts. The winds being favourable, he arrived in the
beginning of Rabi-al-avul at the citadels of Goa and Kari, situate in
the neighbourhood of Div, and also in the possession of the Portuguese,
where he landed his men and artillery, and took both these fortresses;
a thousand infidels falling by the sword. He next laid siege to Div,
the citadel of which was defended on three sides by the sea, and on the
land side by very strong fortifications; on which account he deemed it
advisable to land twenty thousand men, and a considerable quantity of
ammunition. The siege had how lasted a month, and the king of Guzerat
had in vain expected the ammunition and provisions he had demanded from
Prince Mahmoud. This prince, frightened at the murder of Amar, the emir
of Aden, would neither come himself nor send succours. The besieged
infidels then, as a last resource, persuaded Mahmoud that the murder
was committed by Soleiman Pasha, and that any good the latter might do
him would be dictated by treachery. Deceived by these insinuations of
the infidels, he decidedly refused the succours. This refusal, together
with his open opposition to them in other matters, and the peace he had
made with the infidels, obliged the Moslems to raise the siege of the
citadel: and they accordingly reimbarked their artillery and departed
for Shedjer, where they arrived safely in twenty days. The governor of
this city having surrendered, the fleet departed for Aden and Zebid.
Emir Ahmed, having taken possession of the country, was then its
governor. On the approach of Soleiman, the emir shut himself up in a
fortress, which was subsequently taken, and the command of the province
of Yemen was given to Mustafa Beg, son of Mohammed Pasha Bikli.[42]
Soleiman Pasha, after remaining a month at these places for the defence
of Yemen, sailed for Jidda, where he arrived on the twentieth of
Sheval. Immediately on his arrival there he undertook the pilgrimage
(to Mecca), and whilst the fleet continued its voyage, accompanying
the caravan, he proceeded by land to Egypt, and at length reached
Constantinople, where he obtained a seat in the divan.


The recovery of Castel Novo, which some time before had fallen into the
hands of the infidels, being considered a matter of importance both
to religion and the state, on the return of spring Khosrow Pasha, the
begler-beg of Roumelia, who had remained at Sophia, was sent thither by
land. Khair-ad-din also, on the eighth of Rabi-al-akher, sailed with
one hundred and fifty vessels, and with thirty-seven pieces of cannon
besieged the fortress. After a discharge of eight thousand two hundred
shots, on the twenty-second day the walls of one of the fortresses were
reduced and the fortress itself taken. Novo had two large fortresses;
they therefore proceeded to the other one, which they also took by
assault, making the infidels prisoners. The pasha then rebuilt the
castle, and placed twenty-six pieces of cannon in it. He then sent
his troops to plunder the country of the infidels, and returned to
Constantinople with immense riches.


In the year 948 (A.D. 1541) the emperor went with his army on an
expedition into Hungary, and sent Khair-ad-din at the same time with
seventy galleys to guard the Mediterranean. At this time too, the king
of Spain, in order to assist the emperor Ferdinand, and to plunder the
Moslem territories, sailed with his fleet towards the Venetian coasts.
When he heard that Khair-ad-din was at sea, ashamed to return to his
own country, he proceeded to Algiers. For some time previous to this
Khadem Hassan Agha, to whose care the pasha had confided Algiers,
having equipped thirty galleys and golettas, had been carrying on a
system of plunder on the Spanish coasts. The king of Spain therefore
embarked troops to the number of fifty thousand, four thousand of which
were cavalry, on board a hundred galleys, and sailed for Algiers, where
he arrived on the twenty-eighth day of Jemazi II., A.H. 948. Hassan
thereupon immediately held a divan, and encouraged his men. Meantime
the infidels had pitched their camp, and were attempting a trench, when
Hassan Beg, with six hundred Turkish and two thousand Arab horsemen,
sallied out and attacked them by night. In the confusion which ensued
and the darkness of the night the infidels fell upon each other,
and three thousand of them were killed; and the warriors returned in
safety to the castle. By the decree of God, on the fifth day there
was a violent storm of wind and rain, which drove most of the enemys
heavy barges ashore, and sunk several; their ammunition too was wet,
and their cannon and musketry unfit for service. Hassan Beg therefore
made an attack upon them, and after a hot engagement of two hours,
returned to the castle. In this storm a hundred and six of the infidels
ships were driven ashore, and four galleys into the harbour. In these
were one thousand four hundred Moslem prisoners, who were immediately
liberated. The infidels, mortified and disappointed, now retired and
assembled at a cape called Tementos, whence they set out on their
return to their own country. They were pursued by the Moslems, who slew
great numbers of them: whilst the Algerines, observing the violence
of the stream of dissension which was strongly agitated among them,
plunged into it, and sunk or destroyed many of their ships. Those who
escaped embarked on board the remaining vessels, and on the 26th of
Rajab again put out to sea, but were again overtaken by a storm, which
drove them to Bajaiah, and at length with great difficulty made their
way to Spain. Not long after this memorable defeat by the storm, which
is recorded in the Spanish histories, Charles V. entered a monastery
and became a recluse; and his kingdom passed to his son.


In the year 949 Francis king of France sent an ambassador to the
Sublime Porte, to request the aid of a naval force and other
assistance, in consequence of a terrible feud that existed between
him and Spain. Orders having been given this winter to fit out a
considerable number of vessels, Khair-ad-din, in compliance with this
request, equipped a hundred galleys, and in the spring of the year 950
sailed with a complete fleet for France. Several historical accounts
agree in this statement. On this occasion victory deserted the arms of
the pasha.


The pasha, after remaining at sea two years longer, to protect its
navigation, returned to the Porte, where he died on the sixth of
Jemazi-al-avul, 953 (A.D. August 1546), upwards of eighty years old,
and was buried in his tomb at Beshektash. The period of his death is
chronogrammatically expressed in the sentence,[43] “The chief of the
sea is dead.” May the mercy of God be extended to him!


_Of the Expeditions of the Capudans from the time of Khair-ad-din Pasha
till that of Pialeh Pasha._


After the death of Khair-ad-din Pasha, the vezier Mohammed Pasha was
made capudan, and held that office for two or three years, when he
was presented with the governorship of Roumelia. He was afterwards
appointed grand vezier, and performed the functions of that office at


On Mohammed Pashas being made capudan he went on an expedition against
Tripoli (West), which was formerly in the possession of the Tunisian
kings, the Beni Hefs: but about A.H. 916 (A.D. 1510) the Spaniards,
taking advantage of the supineness of the reigning monarch, Mohammed
Ben Hassan, the nineteenth king of that dynasty, who was immersed in
pleasure, captured the castles of Vahran, Bajaiah and Tripoli. The
last of these places had now been forty-two years in their possession,
when his majesty, wishing to reduce it, invited Tourghoudjé Beg, (who
formerly had the sanjak of Karli-Eili [Acarnania], but had now on some
account gone to Moghreb, where he remained two years,) under whose
direction Senan Pasha, A.H. 958 (A.D. 1551) sailed with twenty galleys,
and besieged and took the castle. Tourghoudjé Beg had been promised
the governorship of it for his life, but Senan Pasha gave it to Khadem
Mourad Agha. Tourghoudjé Beg, however, subsequently received it from
the emperor in person, and held it till he was murdered it Malta eleven
years afterwards.


Notwithstanding Soleiman Pasha had, when he reduced Aden, left a
garrison in that city, the people joined the Portuguese, the masters of
India, turned away their faces from submission, and delivered up the
fortress to the infidels. To recover it, Piri Pasha, the capudan of
Egypt, (son of the sister of Kemal Reis, and author of the Bahria,[44])
was sent from Suez with a fleet; and leaving the Red Sea, proceeded
by the straits of Babelmandel to Aden, against the fortress of which
he planted his artillery, and having taken it by storm, left in it a
considerable garrison provided with the necessary means of defence.
Davoud Pasha, the governor of Egypt, having represented to the sultan
the importance of the service rendered by Piri Reis, the latter
received in recompense lands to the value of one hundred thousand


Piri Pasha, the capudan of Egypt, left Suez A.H. 959 with a fleet of
thirty sail, consisting of galleys, bashderdés, golettas, and galleons;
and proceeding to Aden by Jedda and Babelmandel, sailed thence towards
Ras-al-had, passing Zaffar and Shedjer. On his route he was overtaken
near Shedjer by a storm, in which several of his barges were destroyed.
With the remains of his fleet he attacked Muscat, a fortress in the
Persian Gulf, in the country of Oman, which he took, and made the
inhabitants prisoners. He then laid waste the islands of Ormuz and
Barkhet. On his arrival at Bassora he heard that the fleet of the
vile infidels was advancing towards him; a report which was confirmed
by the infidel capudan whom he took at Muscat, and who now advised
him to remain no longer in his present situation, on account of the
impossibility of escaping by the strait of Ormuz. The pasha, being
unable to clear the whole of his fleet, departed before the arrival of
the infidels, with three galleys, his private property. One of these he
lost near Bahrein, and with the remaining two returned to Egypt. Of the
vessels left at Bassora, Kobad Pasha, the governor of that city,
offered the command to Ali Beg, a beg of Egypt, and a commander in
the army; who, however, refused it, and returned by land to Egypt:
and the vessels, thus abandoned, were soon destroyed. The pasha of
Egypt, apprised of these events, seized and imprisoned Piri Reis on
his arrival at Cairo, and sent information of the circumstance to
the Sublime Porte, whence he immediately received an order to put
to death the admiral, who was beheaded accordingly in the divan of
Cairo. He left immense riches, which were confiscated to the treasury.
The inhabitants of Ormuz, from whom he had extorted large sums of
money, came to complain of his exactions and crave an indemnity; but
no attention was paid to their demands, and the gold was put into
gilt vases and sent to Constantinople. Piri Reis composed a work on
navigation, in which he has given a description of the Mediterranean.
This is the only work of the kind of any authority amongst the Moslems.


The Sublime Porte now entrusted the command of the fleet to Murad Beg
formerly governor of the sanjak of Katif, and ordered him to remain at
Bassora, with the vessels already in his command, consisting of five
galleys and one goletta. Shortly after, he quitted Bassora, at the
head of a fleet of fifteen galleys and two barges, (one of his galleys
having sunk,) and directed his course towards Egypt. Near Ormuz he met
the infidels’ fleet, which he immediately attacked, and a desperate
engagement ensued, in which Soleiman Reis, (the Capudan Reis,) Rajab
Reis, with a great number of men, obtained the palm of martyrdom, and
many others were wounded. The infidels did considerable damage to the
Moslem ships, which, unable to sustain the continual fire of the enemy,
escaped by night. One of their vessels, which was left behind, was
driven ashore near Lar, and captured by the infidels, part of the crew
escaping and the rest being made prisoners. The remainder of the fleet
returned to Bassora, whence tidings of the sad event were immediately
communicated to the Sublime Porte.


Seidi Ali Ibn Hosein, whose poetical appellation was Katebi, besides
being famed for his poetical productions, was celebrated for his works
on navigation and astronomy, as well in prose as in verse. He was
author of a work called _Mohit_, (the Ocean,) on the Indian Ocean,
and of another called the _Merat al Kainat_, (the Mirror of Creation,)
treating of the science of the astrolabe, of squares, circles, and
sines. He was moreover the translator of a work called the Fat’hia.
There has never been his equal in the arsenal. He served with the
late sultan, Soleiman Khan, at the capture of Rhodes, and afterwards
in Moghreb, and other places with Khair-ad-din Pasha, Senan Pasha,
and many others. His father and grandfather having held the office of
governor of the arsenal ever since the capture of Constantinople, the
science of navigation descended to him as a legacy; and it was on this
account that Sultan Soleiman Khan, about the end of the year 960 (A. D.
1553), rewarded him with the post of capudan of Egypt, and ordered him
to bring to Cairo the vessels which were lying at Bassora.


In the month of Moharrem (December), A. H. 961 (A. D. 1553), the
Capudan Seidi Ali, following the orders he had received, left Aleppo
and proceeded to Bassora by way of Mousul and Baghdad. Favourable winds
now began to blow, and the capudan, in order to avail himself of them,
hastened to equip the five[45] barges that were lying there. Mustapha
Pasha, the governor of Bassora, and a distinguished seaman, was absent
from the city when Seidi Ali arrived; having been ordered by the Porte
to sail with a frigate to Ormuz, and was at this moment on his way
thither. Being informed that the infidels had only four ships, he
immediately communicated the intelligence to Seidi Ali, who thereupon
embarked his troops and quitted Bassora early in the month of Shaban
(July), and joined Mustapha Pasha near Ormuz. Passing Abadan, Desboul,
and Shutar, and coasting Harek and Katif in the neighbourhood of Lahsa,
they arrived at Bahrein, where they had an interview with the governor,
Murad Reis. Here the sailors, by sinking leathern bottles about eight
fathoms into the sea obtained fresh water. They sailed hence to old
Ormuz, Barkhet and Ormuz; after which the sherif Mustapha returned to
the Porte. Seidi Ali then passed the coast of Zaffar, and early on the
morning of the fortieth day, which was the tenth of Ramazan, met the
infidels near the city of Khourfekan. Their fleet consisted of four
immense barges, three large galleons, six Portuguese guard-ships, and
twelve golettas.


The Moslems immediately hoisted their colours, weighed anchor, and got
in readiness all their warlike machines. With flags hoisted and sails
spread, and looking in confidence to the Supreme Being, they set up
Mohammedan shouts, and commenced an attack, the fierceness of which
baffles description. By the favour of God, their fire struck one of the
Portuguese galleons, which was wrecked on the island of Fak-al-asad.
They fought bravely till night-fall, when the capudan hoisted the
lights. The infidels however fired a gun as the signal of retreat, and
fled to Ormuz. Thus, by the favour of God, the victory was left to the
Moslems, who, favoured by the winds, departed next day for the city of
Khourfekan, where the troops took in a supply of fresh water, and
after seventeen days’ sailing, arrived in the neighbourhood of Muscat
and Kalat.


On the morning of the 26th of Ramazan the captain of Goa, the son
of the governor, left the harbour of Muscat, and with his barges,
guard-ships, and galleons, with their mainsails spread and colours
flying, sailed against the Moslems, who, still trusting in God,
remained near the shore prepared for battle.

The enemy’s barges first came up, and attacked the galleys, when a
sharp fire was opened on both sides, and a furious engagement ensued.
The infidels then began to shower down their hand-grenades from the
maintops upon the galleys, one of which and a barge which was near it
they burnt by throwing a bomb into the galley. Five barges and as many
galleys were driven ashore and lost. Another barge was driven ashore
by the violence with which the wind beat against it, and was lost.
At length the sailors and the troops on both sides were exhausted,
the former being unable to pull at the oars, and the latter to work
the guns any longer; they were therefore obliged to cast anchor: but
even in this position they fought for some time with springs to their
cables. They were finally obliged to abandon their boats. Elmshah Reis,
Kara Mustaffa, and Kalfat Mumi, the commanders of the lost galleys, and
Durzi Mustaffa Beg, the Commander of the volunteers, with about two
hundred Egyptian soldiers, reached the shore in safety, and afterwards
returned to the fleet, bringing with them many Arabs to the assistance
of the Moslems. The infidels also recovered the men who were in their
barges which had been driven ashore. This battle was even greater than
that between Khair-ad-din and Andrea Doria. Few soldiers are known to
have ever been engaged in such a fight. At last, when night approached,
a strong gale began to blow, and each of the barges threw out two
stream anchors; but the men on board were so overcome with fatigue,
that they were obliged to stand out from the shore, and sail before the
wind. In this way they came to the coast of Barjash, where, finding
plenty of sea, they succeeded in reaching Bender Shehbar in Mekran.
Here they took in water, and by the direction of a pilot, reached
Bender Goader; the governor of which, Malek Dinar Oghli Jelal-ad-din,
came to examine the state of their fleet, and represented to the sultan
the necessity of sending supplies: in consequence of which, fifty or
sixty vessels with provisions were sent out, and joined them before
they reached Ormuz.


From Bender Goader the capudan again sailed with nine vessels for the
Indian Ocean, and directed his course towards Yemen. For a few days
the weather was favourable, and they had arrived in the neighbourhood
of Zaffar and Shedjer, when the westerly winds began to blow, and they
were overtaken by the storm called _the Elephant_, before which they
scudded, being unable even to carry the foresail. Compared with this,
a storm in the Mediterranean is as insignificant as a grain of sand:
day could not be distinguished from night, and the waves rose like
huge mountains. Their vessels were thus greatly injured, and they were
obliged to throw overboard a great part of their ammunition and stores.
In this way they drifted before the wind for ten days, during which
time it rained incessantly, and there was no appearance of daylight.
The sailors here saw immense fishes, of the length of two galleys; at
which their spirits rose, because they consider them animals of good
omen. They also saw sea-horses, huge serpents, tortoises as large as
millstones, and sea-weed. After having been detained a long time, they
at last approached the bay of Chekd.


Suddenly the colour of the sea became changed to a whitish hue, and
the sailors began to cry out. The cause of their alarm was what in the
Indian Ocean is called a whirlpool, a thing very common about Gerdefoon
on the Ethiopian coast, and in the bay of Chekd near Sind. It is stated
in maritime works that ships getting into one of these must inevitably
perish. Having sounded, and found they had only five fathoms water,
they took in their sails. Towards morning the wind fell a little, and
they sent up an able seaman to the mast-head, who descried a temple
on the land. Soon after they passed Kormian, Mangalore, and Somnat,
and came very near Div; but the latter place being in the hands of the
infidels, they did not show their sail that day, but made the best
of their way. Again the wind increased, and the helms became quite
unmanageable: the boatswain’s whistle could not be distinguished from
the whistling of the wind, and no one could walk the decks. They were
also obliged to shut up most of the troops in the holds. In short, the
horrors of this day were comparable only to those of the resurrection.
At length they reached the coast of Guzerat, in India, when the sailors
suddenly cried out that a hurricane was before them; upon which they
dropped anchor; but the sea was so heavy that the ships were nearly
upset. The galley-slaves broke their chains, and all the men, stripping
themselves naked, began to provide themselves with barrels and leathern
bottles for their escape. Some of the anchors, however, broke; and thus
the vessels escaped the hurricane. This occurred at a place between
Div and Daman. Towards afternoon the weather became somewhat fairer,
which enabled them to proceed to the port of Daman in the district
of Guzerat, where they anchored about two miles from the shore. For
five days the hurricane continued to blow with great violence, and was
accompanied with incessant rains. The vessels had now shipped much
water; and three of them, losing their anchorage, drifted ashore; but
all on board landed in safety. When the storm had somewhat abated, they
succeeded in gaining the harbour of Daman, where they gave the guns and
ammunition, of the wrecked vessels in charge to Malek Asad, governor
of Daman, and one of the emirs of Sultan Ahmed, the king of Guzerat.
Malek Asad then cautioned them not to go to the castle of Sert, as the
fleet of the infidels was about to attack it. Hearing this, most of the
men, who had already suffered such hardships, landed, and entered the
service of Malek Asad; whilst others of them, after heaping reproaches
on the capudan, seized the boats, in which they reached the shore,
and proceeded overland to Sert. Seidi Ali, with the remaining vessels
and men, directed his course to Sert, which, sometimes sailing, and
sometimes availing himself of the assistance of the oars, he reached in
five days: a period of three months, in which he underwent thousands
of difficulties, having elapsed since he left Bassora. The Moslems at
this place were rejoiced to see them, for the country of Guzerat was
at this time in a very disturbed state. Here also several untoward
events befell them: the supplies for the troops were exhausted; the
ammunition and stores of the vessels were consumed; the vessels
themselves were much injured; and their return to Egypt was considered
quite impossible. Under these circumstances, most of the men entered
the service of the king of Guzerat, and the ships were left empty. The
capudan, having received from the governor of Sert, an undertaking that
the value of the arms and other effects which were left with him should
be sent to the Sublime Porte, set out by land for Constantinople on the
first of Moharrem, A.H. 962 (A. D. 26th November, 1554), accompanied
by fifty attendants. Having travelled through India and Persia, after
an absence of four years, he arrived at Constantinople in the month of
Rajab, 964 (A. D. May, 1557). Shortly afterwards he was admitted to the
royal presence at Adrianople, and had an addition of eighty aspres made
to his salary; whilst all his companions were promoted in Egypt; and
the royal order was issued that they should be paid their four years
salary which was in arrear. The capudan then wrote an account of his
voyages and travels, which he entitled, “The Adventures of Seidi Ali.”
From this work the foregoing particulars are extracted.


In 959 the Capudan Senan Pasha went to sea with one hundred and twenty
vessels, the command of which he held till the end of 960. He died in
961, and was buried at Scutari. The poet Sahari has thus commemorated
the period of his death:

Fate at last gives up the body to decay, even should it be that of Noah
the pilot.

Whenever the huge leviathan Death draws a breath, the ocean seems but a
drop to him.

To his friends Senan was another Joseph; to his enemies he was a dart.

Come, Sahari, let us offer up a prayer for him; “May God make glad his
pure spirit!”

The invisible Spirit has revealed the time of his death. “The capudan
has joined the Divine Mercy.”


Torghudjeh was the son of a rayah called Veli, and was born at a
village in the neighbourhood of Seroloz, of the sanjak of Mantesheh.
Being of a brave spirit, at an early age he excelled in archery and
wrestling. He afterwards applied himself to navigation, in which he
acquired considerable fame, and was made capudan of a privateer. On
one occasion, as he was oiling his vessel, Oghlan, an infidel captain,
fell upon him, and carried him prisoner to Genoa. On this account
Khair-ad-din Pasha sailed against the Genoese with a fleet, threatening
that if they did not give up Torghudjeh he would spoil all their
villages: whereupon they immediately released him. The pasha also in
a divan spoke so highly of him, saying, Torghudjeh was braver than
himself, that they gave him a galley. After this he was in numerous
engagements with Khair-ad-din Pasha in the south, by which he became
rich, and increased the number of his ships to twenty-five, with which
he began to cruise about. Having obtained information of the position
of Senan Pasha, who was then at sea, he came out to meet him from
the south. On their approach they saluted each other; but the salute
from Torghudjeh’s ships being much louder than that of Senan Pasha,
the latter suspected him; and artfully representing to the Porte that
his not joining him was a proof of disaffection, and that to subdue
him would be a difficult matter, recommended that he should be called
to the capital. Thither Torghudjeh immediately proceeded with eight
vessels, and made offers of submission. With him also came his brave
companions in arms, Ghazi Mustaffa, Oluj Ali, Hassan Keleh, Mohammed
Reis, Sanjakdar Reis, Deli Jafar, and Kara Kazi, to each of whom a
fanar,[46] and a stipend of seventy or eighty aspres were allotted.
Both before and after his journey to the Sublime Porte, Torghudjeh was
engaged in several memorable battles; a few of which we shall mention.


Whilst Torghudjeh was a capudan of the volunteers, he was on one
occasion lying in a harbour called Kantar, in the island of Jarba,
where he intended to oil his ships, amounting to eighteen, when
Jeghaleh, a Venetian commander, came down upon him with a hundred and
fifty vessels, blocked up the entrance to the harbour, threw overboard
their ballast, and sat down to enjoy themselves; conceiving, that when
Torghudjeh had exhausted his stock of provisions, they could take him
and his ships without any effort. They even wrote to Genoa, saying
they had secured the pirate Torghudjeh and his ships; and several of
their gentlemen fitted out a vessel, and with the intention of taking
a voyage of pleasure, sailed towards Jarba. Torghudjeh, on his part,
trusted in God, by whose providence there was in the neighbourhood a
small river, navigable by boats, which

emptied itself into the sea. He therefore set his men to work, and cut
a canal two miles in length, by which he conveyed his vessels to sea.
He left a tent which he had pitched on the shore, and the infidels
supposed he was safe in it. He then proceeded to a place about sixty
miles distant, where he completed the oiling of his vessels, and again
put out to sea. On his way he met the gentlemen on their voyage of
pleasure, and took them prisoners. When the infidels found out that
Torghudjeh had made his escape, thinking he had carried his ships
overland, they were confounded, and declared that he must be a magician.


Torghudjeh now became the drawn sword of Islamism, and a brave and
famous corsair. He frequently attacked the infidels ships, and
destroyed their barges. He once met, at Mania, two barges, laden with
corn from Salonica, bound to Venice, which he seized, showing no
quarter to those on board. But his feats of this sort are numerous.


On one occasion, when this chief was beg of Carli-Eili (Acarnania), he
met a Venetian barge, the captain of which, not supposing Torghudjeh
to be the principal capudan, and desirous of availing himself as much
as possible of the wind, which was then in his favour, neglected to
lower his sails, (a mark of respect always shown to great capudans,) or
offer any presents. At this, Torghudjeh Beg took umbrage, and began to
fire upon the barge from the three ships that were with him. The wind
having fallen, she was soon taken; but the capudan having lost one of
his brave companions in the conflict, put every one of the infidels to
the sword, and burnt the barge. The Venetian ambassador at the Porte,
on hearing of this circumstance, went to Rustam Pasha, and lodged a
complaint against Torghudjeh. Rustam Pasha, considering Torghudjeh
as the enemy of his brother, bore him great hatred, and obtained
permission to send a chiaoush to have him summoned to the Porte.
Torghudjeh, however, aware of his purpose, sailed with all his vessels
to Moghreb, where he remained two years an outlaw. When the capture
of Western Trabalos became necessary, the late Sultan Soleiman Khan,
whom he had offended, from motives of policy promised him safety, and
sent him a copy of the holy book (the Koran) and a golden sword, with
a promise that if he should succeed in reducing Trabalos, he should
enjoy the begler-begship of that place during his life. The Capudan
Senan Pasha was sent with a fleet, and by the direction of Torghudjeh,
Trabalos was taken; but its government was given to Senan Pasha; which
offended Torghudjeh, who immediately weighed anchor, and directed his
course towards Moghreb. He was followed by all the capudans, whose
orders were to obey his commands. Senan Pasha being thus left alone,
Torghudjeh directed them to return, and some of them with great
difficulty reached the Porte.


In some historical works it is recorded that, in A. H. 960, Torghudjeh
took the command of one hundred and twenty galleys, and sailed to
Novocacia. Afterwards, in the month of Rajab, 961, he sailed up the
gulf, and besieged Bastia, a Spanish castle on the Italian coast.
After many attempts, he was on the point of taking it, when four
thousand horse and three thousand infantry came to the assistance of
the besieged, and repulsed the Moslems several times. At length, by
the favour of God, on the seventh of Ramazan, the abject wretches
outside the walls were defeated, and the infidels inside were obliged
to fly and abandon the castle. The Moslems allowed forty or fifty of
the principal inhabitants their liberty, but put all the others into
chains. With the wealth which they found in the castle, and about seven
thousand prisoners, they then sailed to Avlona, in the neighbourhood
of which the Albanian rebels, by the aid of the governor Ahmed Beg,
were vanquished both by sea and land, and rewarded according to their
demerits. The Moslems now returned to the Porte with riches far
exceeding what they had anticipated. The emperor, who duly appreciated
merit, offered Torghudjeh, in addition to his office of capudan,
the begler-begship of Algiers. Rustam Pasha, however, prevented his
obtaining the latter post, insinuating that Torghudjeh having acquired
wealth abroad, had no wish to be employed in the service of the
Sublime Porte; and in consequence the sanjak of Carli-Eili (Acarnania)
was given to him; but this he declined to accept. The emperor then
determined to go out against him, and had actually taken horse for that
purpose, when Torghudjeh came out to meet his sovereign, and in person
petitioned for the governorship of Trabalos. This was granted him, and
he immediately proceeded to Trabalos west, and held his office till he
was slain at Malta.


[1] His entire name is مصطفي بن عبد الله حاجي خليفه Mustaffa Ben
Abdullah Haji Khalifeh. He was also called كاتب چلبي Katib Chelebi.

[2] To this work, and more especially to the invaluable “History of
the Ottoman Empire,” by J. Von Hammer, the translator is principally
indebted for this biographical notice of the author.

[3] A compendious work on Geography, published at Constantinople, A. D.

[4] _Aker sū dekermenler_: mills moved by running water.

[5] Probably Citadini.

[6] Azabs are the militia of Turkey.

[7] The name of the castle is not given, but it is probable it was Kafa.

[8] _Sakalaba._ The countries to the north of the Black Sea, as Poland,
Russia, &c.

[9] This is a chronogram. The letters of the word _shafakat_, a favour,
make up the number 880.

[10] Sultan Mohammed Khan, the conqueror of Constantinople, died at
Mal-dipa, A. H. 886, A. D. 1481.

[11] A species of light-sailing vessels.

[12] Levend; a sort of volunteers who serve in the Turkish navy.

[13] Kili, the ancient Lycostomos, a town on the northern mouth of the

[14] One of the Sultan’s titles.

[15] In the original the date is 970; but this is evidently a mistake,
as may be seen below; or by consulting the author’s chronological

[16] Cantemir in giving an account of this expedition doubts whether
it was the king of France who assisted the Venetians on this occasion,
because the Turks call all the European nations Franks; but our author
generally distinguishes France by the name of _Fransa_.

[17] _Rafezi_, the Mohammedan sect of the Shiites, or followers of Ali,
which chiefly prevails in Persia. The Turks consider them heretics.

[18] In the original _surkh ser_, red heads, a term of contempt applied
by the Turks to the Persians.

[19] The first chapter of the Koran.

[20] The Grand-master.

[21] His name _Keman-Kesh_ signifies an archer.

[22] _Khotba_ is an harangue read by the mullahs in the mosques, in
which the reigning prince is mentioned and prayed for.

[23] _Sanjak_, the standard given to governors of districts under begs.

[24] A _yūk_ is one hundred thousand aspres, or a thousand dollars.

[25] مدجل This name is frequently given throughout the work to the
Andalusian Moors; but I have never seen it used by any other author,
nor can I discover its origin. The only instance in which a similar
word occurs is in the following passage in Don Quixote: “The Moors of
Arragon are in Barbary called Tagarins; and those of Grenada go by the
name of _Mudajares_.”—Story of the Captive.

[26] The name by which Khair-ad-din is generally called in European

[27] _Chiaoush_, a messenger of the Porte.

[28] See p. 43.

[29] Literally, _to rub his face on the threshold_.

[30] _Irakin_, the name given to two countries, one of which, generally
called Irak Arabi, is Babylonia; and the other, Irak Adgemi, or Persian
Irak, is a large province of Persia.

[31] _Istakbal_, a ceremonious procession to meet any great man.

[32] _Bashderdé_, a commanders galley.

[33] Rashid had been supplanted by his brother Hassan, and applied to
Khair-ad-din for assistance in regaining his kingdom. Khair-ad-din,
eager to add Tunis to his other possessions, induced Rashid to
accompany him to Constantinople, under the pretence of obtaining
the aid of the Ottoman arms. On their arrival there, Khair-ad-din
communicated his designs to the sultan, who immediately gave orders for
the preparation of a fleet. Rashid already considered himself restored
to his kingdom; but just as the fleet was about to sail, he was seized
by the command of the sultan, and was never after heard of. Such was
the _provision_ made for him at the Sublime Porte!

[34] _Tabor_, a Polish word, signifying a wall or fence made with the
baggage, carriages, &c.

[35] _These islands._ In the text the word is جزاير by which also
Algiers is called; but it being also the form of the Arabic plural
of جزيره an island, and the Turkish plural, جزيره لر occurring
a little after, I am inclined to think that the islands of Majorca,
Minorca, &c. are meant.

[36] In the original it is Majorca, but from the context this appears
to be a mistake, which indeed might easily be made, the difference
between [Arabic:] and [Arabic:] being small. Hammer in his “_Geschichte
des Osmanischen Reichs_,” in a note on this event makes it Minorca.

[37] Literally “_rubbed his face against the royal stirrup_.”

[38] Literally, “_the battle market having been kept hot from morning
till afternoon_.”

[39] _Merted_, probably Zea.

[40] _Sam_, a sort of Simmoom.

[41] According to Rycaut, Prevesa had just been taken by the Patriarch
Grimmanus, who had the command of the Pope’s galleys. The grand fleet
had left this place before Khair-ad-din’s arrival.

[42] _Bikli_, “the moustached.”

[43] The numerical value of مات رئس البحر is 953.

[44] A work on navigation, of which further mention is made below, p.

[45] If these are the barges mentioned at p. 72, this should of course
be read _fifteen_.

[46] _Fanar_, a small vessel.

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