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Title: Design and Tradition
Author: Fenn, Amor
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                         DESIGN AND TRADITION

“They are the elect to whom beautiful things mean only Beauty.”--_Oscar
                                Wilde._

[Illustration: Sketch Design for Equestrian Statue, by E. A. Rickards,
                              F.R.I.B.A.

 This drawing is remarkable as an anticipation of eventual appearance.
   Thoroughly impressionistic in treatment, all irrelevant detail is
                               omitted.]



                         UNIVERSAL ART SERIES
                     EDITED BY FREDERICK MARRIOTT

                              DESIGN AND
                               TRADITION

                        A SHORT ACCOUNT OF THE
                        PRINCIPLES AND HISTORIC
                      DEVELOPMENT OF ARCHITECTURE
                            AND THE APPLIED
                                 ARTS

                                  BY
                               AMOR FENN

                       [Illustration: colophon]

                                LONDON
                        CHAPMAN AND HALL, LTD.
                                 1920



                            [Illustration]

                         THE WESTMINSTER PRESS
                              HARROW ROAD
                                LONDON



AUTHOR’S PREFACE


It may be urged with some reasonable basis of truth that much of the
modern art work fails to attain the level of that of the past. It must
be conceded, however, that demand and appreciation is more general and
widely diffused. As social conditions have developed, interest in
environment has been stimulated. Improved processes resulting in more
economic production have rendered possible an indulgence by those of
moderate means, attainable only at earlier periods by the wealthier
class.

As a result of this more general appreciation the professional services
of the artist are necessarily in greater request, thus affording a
sphere of work not only lucrative but temperamentally attractive.

At the present time the facilities available to the prospective artist
are considerably greater than at any previous period. In every district
and important centre, there are schools specialising in the Arts and
Crafts, giving opportunities for training at fees that are purely
nominal. Most of these deal with the various phases of artistic
expression on logical and sound lines, but the knowledge and experience
essential to a successful artistic career is invariably acquired in
professional work to which the art school training is preparatory.

To those specialising in design, the study of Historic Style is of
paramount importance. Intelligent investigation will show that in all
the varying phases, the underlying factors are much the same, and
appreciation of these will be found invaluable in personal work.

Necessarily brief, this book has been prompted by the memory of early
bewilderment and difficulties, when a guiding hand would have saved much
valuable time and mis-directed energy.

A considerable amount of the available space is devoted to Architectural
features, with the conviction that a knowledge of these will be found
helpful in the formation of methods, logical and constructive.

Attention is directed to the frontispiece, a typical example of the
extraordinary genius of E. A. Rickards, F.R.I.B.A., the original of
which is in the possession of Philip Connard, A.R.A., to whom
indebtedness for its use is acknowledged.

The author’s thanks are also due to Miss Dora Bard and Mr. C. E. Bernard
for the reproduction of drawings made by them during their tenure in
successive years of the “Travelling Studentship” of the Society of
British Decorators.

For the use of the following photographs the author desires to make
acknowledgment to the Authorities of the Victoria and Albert Museum,
South Kensington, as holders of the Crown copyright:

Nos. 257.
     258.
     259.
     265.
     271.
     272.
     273.
     274.
     275.
     281A.



CONTENTS


CHAPTER.....PAGE

I Introductory.....1

Human Limitations, p. 1--Inspiration--Process and Material, p. 2--Early
Training, p. 4--Art and Existence, p. 5--Natural Taste--Commercial
Production, p. 6--“Ornaments,” p. 7--Modern Development--Public Apathy,
p. 8--Elementary Pattern, p. 9--Early Impressionism--Personal
Production, p. 10--Early Social Conditions, p. 11--Influence--Commercial
Intercourse, p. 12--Effect on Design, p. 13--Ethical side of Art, p.
14--Desire for Novelty, p. 15.

II Historic Review.....16

Style, p. 16--Intercommunication--Climate and Material, p. 17--Phases in
Style, p. 18--The Lintel, p. 19--The Arch, p. 20--Egyptian Art, p.
22--Chaldean Art, p. 25--Greek Art, p. 28--Roman Art, p. 35--Vaulting,
p. 36--Greek Influence, p. 37--Roman Development of Ornament, p.
38--Græco-Roman Painted Decoration, p. 39--Byzantine Dome, p. 43--Early
Christian Art, p. 46--Byzantine Metal Work, and Enamel, p. 47--Roman
Influence Abroad--Romanesque Style, p. 49--Church Development, p.
50--Dark Ages, p. 53--Crusades, p. 56--Origin of the Pointed Arch, p.
58--Gothic Style, p. 59--Phases of Gothic--Early Pointed, p.
60--Decorated Gothic, p. 64--Perpendicular Gothic--Glass Windows, p.
67--Civic Influences, p. 70--Effect of Commerce--Classic Tradition in
Italy, p. 71--Foreign Influence in England--The Dwelling House, p.
72--The Reformation, p. 74--The Renaissance, p. 75--Early Florentine
Exponents, p. 76--Rome, p. 78--Venice, p. 80--Venetian Influence, p.
81--Painted Decoration, p. 82--Græco-Roman Influence, p. 83--Early
French Renaissance, p. 85--Native Exploitation, p. 87--English
Renaissance, p. 88--Italians in England, p. 89--Study of Classic
Style--Thomas Thorpe, p. 91--Flemish Influence, p. 92--Jacobean Work, p.
93--Development in Dwellings, p. 98--Evolution of Professional Designer,
p. 101--Inigo Jones, p. 102--Louis XIII, p. 103--Louis XIV, p.
106--“Boule” Work--Mirrors, p. 109--Louis XV, p. 110--Régence--Rococo,
p. 111--Lacquer “Vernis Martin”--Later English Renaissance, p. 113--Sir
Christopher Wren, p. 114--Classic Treatment of the Spire, p. 116--Dutch
and French Influences, p. 118--Queen Anne Period--Early Georgian, p.
120--Furniture Design, Chippendale, p. 121--Mayhew--Robert Adam, p.
123--Hepplewhite, p. 126--Sheraton--Louis XVI, p. 127--Riesener and
Gouthière, p. 133--Empire--Empire in England--Later English
Architecture, p. 135--French Influence on Europe, p. 136.

III Mouldings.....138

Purpose--The Fillet--Sheltering Mouldings--The Cavetto, p. 139--Cyma
Recta--Bracketing Mouldings--The Ovolo, p. 140--Cyma Reversa--Binding
Mouldings, p. 141--The Torus--The Scotia--The Facia, p. 142--Decoration
of Mouldings, p. 143--Orthodox Details--Angle Leaf, p. 145--Dentils, p.
146--Employment of Mouldings, p. 147--Attitude, p. 148--Panel
Mouldings--Woodwork, p. 149--Applied Mouldings, p. 151--Bolection
Moulding, p. 152--Mouldings in Plaster Work--Wood Turning, p. 153--Metal
Turning--Pottery, p. 154--Mechanically produced Metal Mouldings--Wrought
Iron, p. 155--Silver Work, p. 156--Sheet Metal, Spinning, and Repoussé,
p. 157.

IV Architectural Proportions.....158

Introduction, p. 158--System of Proportion, p. 159--The Order, p.
160--Doric Order, p. 161--Ionic Order--Corinthian Order, p. 163--Doric
Entablatures--Mutules, p. 164--Ionic Entablature, p. 169--Corinthian
Entablature, p. 171--The Column, p. 172--The Capital--Doric Capital, p.
173--Ionic Capital--Ionic Volute, p. 175--Corinthian Capital, p.
178--The Base, p. 180--Doric Base, p. 181--Ionic Base, p.
182--Corinthian Base--The Arch, p. 184--Doric Impost, p. 185--Doric
Archivolt--Ionic Impost, p. 186--Ionic Archivolt--Corinthian
Impost--Corinthian Archivolt--The Keystone, p. 187--The Pedestal, p.
188--Doric Pedestal, p. 189--Ionic Pedestal--Corinthian Pedestal, p.
190--The Baluster, p. 191--Spacing of Balusters--Balustrading, p.
193--Use of Columns, p. 194--Disposition and Spacing in Colonnades, p.
195--Orders above Orders, p. 197--The Pilaster, p. 199--Arcades, p.
200--The Subsidiary Order, p. 202--Treatment of Superimposed Orders, p.
204--Rustication, p. 205--The Basement, p. 207--The Attic, p. 208--The
Pediment, p. 209--Doors, p. 211--Windows, p. 213.

V Division of Surface.....216

Wall Treatment, p. 216--Ceilings, p. 218--Jacobean--Carolean and
Georgian, p. 221--Adam Ceilings, p. 222--Vaults and Domes, p. 224--The
Cove, p. 225--The Frieze, p. 226--Borders, p. 227--Geometric
Elements--The Undulate Line, p. 230--Repetition and Alternation, p.
233--Treatment of Angles, p. 234--Pilaster Treatment--Panelled
Pilasters, p. 235--Capitals and Bases--Treatment of Panels, p.
236--Juxtaposition, p. 238--The Growth Line in Composition, p.
241--Grouping and Massing of Detail--Division of Area, p. 242--Human and
Animal Life in Composition, p. 244--Forms in the Round, p. 245 Supports
and Balusters--Standards, p. 246--Proportion, p. 247--Vase Forms and
Treatment, p. 248--Working Drawings, p. 249--The Segment or Stretch out,
p. 250.

VI Development of Conventional Ornament.....254

Outline Drawing, p. 254--Undesirable Realism, p. 255--Craft
Restrictions, p. 256--Materialistic Influence, p. 258--Early Renderings,
p. 261--The Anthemion, p. 262--Greek Sculptured Ornament, p. 263--The
Acanthus Leaf, p. 264--Roman Development--The Scroll, p.
266--Græco-Roman--Byzantine, p. 267--Romanesque--Gothic--Italian
Renaissance, p. 268--The Husk Leaf, p. 269--The Rosette, p.
270--Tendrils, p. 271--Nature Influence--Inconsistent employment of
Symbolic Elements, p. 272--Consistency in Growth--Branching, p.
273--Treatment and Employment of Leaves, p. 275--The start in Ornament,
p. 276--Italian Renaissance Influence--Jacobean, p. 280--French
Renaissance--Henry II, p. 281--Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Régence--Louis
XV, p. 283--Rococo--Louis XVI, p. 284--Grinling Gibbons School of
Carving--Adam Style, p. 285--Empire--System of the Acanthus Leaf, p.
286.

VII Treatment in Design.....288

Natural Attraction, p. 288--Decorative Materials, p. 289--Justification
of Treatment, p. 290--Undesirable Imitation, p. 291--Technical
Considerations--Methods of Expression, p. 292--Treatment of Leaves, p.
293--Surface Interest--Painted Decoration, p. 294--Stencilled Work, p.
295--Mechanical Production--Printed and Woven
Fabrics--Needlework--Appliqué, p. 296--Lace-Wood Inlay--Intarsia, p.
297--Veneer--Marquetry--“Boule” Work, p. 298--Mosaic, p. 299--Byzantine
use of Marble--Book Decoration, p. 300--Bindings--Relief Work--Economic
Result of Method--Desirable Treatment in Carving, p. 301--Backgrounds,
p. 303--Reproduction Processes--Metal Repoussé, p. 304--Cast Metal, p.
306--Character of Cast Work, p. 307.

VII Mythology and Symbolism.....310

Early Symbolic Ornament, p. 310--Customs, p. 311--Origin of
Mythology--Nature Myths, p. 312--Light and Darkness--Melanesian Legend,
p. 313--Darkness as a Devouring Monster--Season Myths, p. 314--Sun
Myths--Belief in Natural Phenomena, p. 315--Greek and Roman Deities, p.
316--Scandinavian Mythology, p. 317--Rising and Setting Symbolised, p.
318--Winds Personified--Predestination, p. 319--The Fates--Propitiation
and Sacrifice, p. 320--Early Burial Customs--Taboo--Roman Lares, p.
322--Mediæval Legend--Early Spiritual Belief, p. 323--Prehistoric
Treatment of Epileptics--Prohibition, p. 324--Belief in Magical
Qualities, p. 325--The Shirt of Nessus--Swords, p. 326--Invulnerability,
p. 327--Belief in Numbers--The Muses, p. 328--Sacred Trees and Flowers,
p. 329--Sacred Animals--Evangelist Symbols, p. 331--The Serpent--The
Dragon, p. 332--Poetic License in Tradition, p. 333--Animals in
Christian Art, p. 334--Association of Human and Animal
Qualities--Totemism--Cannibalism, p. 336--The Sphinx--Assyrian Winged
Monsters, p. 337--Pegasus--The Harpy--Sirens, p. 338--Pan--The
Nymphs--The Centaur, p. 339--Symbolism of the Circle, p. 340--Symbols of
the Trinity--The Wand, a Symbol of Authority--The Hand, p. 341--The
Caduceus--The Thyrsus, p. 342--The Trident--The Cross, p. 343--The
Pastoral Staff, p. 344--Symbols of Martyrdom--Symbolism of Gems and
Colours, p. 345--Masks--Symbols of Time, p. 346--Secular
Symbols--Trophies, p. 347--Heraldry--Interest and Meaning in Modern Art,
p. 348.

IX Ways and Means.....350

Perception, p. 350--Accepted Conventions, p. 351--Influence of
Fashion--Harmonious Consistency, p. 352--Natural Suggestion--Colour
Scheme, p. 353--Early Training--Nature Study, p. 355--Aspect and
Attitude, p. 356--Treatment of Studies, p. 358--Drawings for
Reproduction, p. 359--Opaque Colour--Method of Enlarging or Reducing
Drawings, p. 360--Textile Designs, p. 361--Wall Papers, p.
362--Architectural Drawings--Structural Design, p. 363--Lucid
Arrangement of Details, p. 364--Mathematical Equipment, p. 365--Use of
the Ruling Pen--Proportional Compasses, p. 367--Tracings--Conclusion, p.
368.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


Sketch Design for Equestrian Statue, by E. A. RICKARDS,
F.R.I.B.A.                                                   _Frontispiece_

ARCHITECTURE, HISTORIC                                       No.      Page

Egyptian Temple, Section and Plan of                         10         23

Temple, Entrance Façade                                      11         24

Capital from Philæ                                           12         24

Persian Capitals from Persepolis                             16         27

Greek Doric Temple, The Parthenon                            21         30

Ionic, The Erectheum                                         22         31

Corinthian, The Choragic Monument                            23         32

Vase paintings of Doric and Ionic Orders                     19         29

House about 100 A.D. Bas-relief in British Museum            20         29

Roman, The Pantheon, Rome                                    26         36

The Coliseum, Rome                                           27         37

The Arch of Titus, Rome                                      28         38

Byzantine St. Vitali Ravenna, Section and Plan               35         44

Capitals                                                     36    (Plate)

Interior, Ravenna                                            39    (Plate)

Romanesque Capitals                                          42         50

Tower                                                        43         50

Plan, Cathedral at Worms                                     44         51

Bay of Cathedral at Worms                                    45         52

Window, St. Alban’s Abbey                                    46         52

Church Interior with Triforium                               47         52

Doorway, Kilpeck Church                                      49         54

Gothic Buttresses                                            53         58

Early Pointed Pier                                           54         60

Early Pointed Bay of Church                                  55         61

Early Lancet Windows                                         56         62

Early Pointed Windows, Plate Tracery                         57         62

Early Pointed Arch Mouldings                                 58         62

Early Pointed Capital                                        59         63

Early Pointed Tracery Windows                                60         63

Early Pointed Spire                                          61         64

Decorated, Tracery Windows                                   62         64

Decorated, Carving                                           63         65

Decorated, Arch Mouldings                                    64         65

Decorated, Capital                                           65         66

Decorated, Capital                                           66         66

Decorated, Spire                                             67         66

Perpendicular, Bay of Church showing Development
  of Clerestory                                              68         67

Perpendicular, Windows                                       69         68

Perpendicular, Fan Vaulting                                  70         69

Perpendicular, Tower                                         71         69

Domestic Tudor, Window                                       75         74

Renaissance, Italian, Strozzi Palace                         76         76

Italian, Pandolfini Palace                                   77         77

Italian, St. Peter’s, Rome                                   78         79

Italian, Farnese Palace                                      79         80

Italian, Vendramini Palace                                   80         81

Italian, Library of St. Mark                                 81         82

English, Banqueting House, Whitehall                         05       1031

French, Louis XIII. Luxembourg                               06       1041

French, Louis XIII. Barocco Detail, Ste.   Marie, Nevers     07       1051

French, Louis XIV. Louvre                                    09       1061

French, Louis XV. Pantheon                                   12       1101

English, St. Paul’s Cathedral                                18       1151

English, Spire, St. Mary le Strand                           19       1161

Tomb of Tantalus in Lydia                                     5         19

Tomb of Beni Hassan                                          17         28

Tomb at Kyanea-Jaghu                                         18         28

ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES

Arch, The Principle of the                                    6         20

Balusters, Details of                                       170        192

Cornice, Treatment where Order is not employed              180        209

Doors, General Proportion of                                182        211

Treatment of                                                183        212

Frieze, Roman                                               198        226

Frieze, Roman                                               199        227

Gothic Vault, Section of                                       7        20

Vaulting                                                       9        21

Cross Vaulting                                                48        53

Lintel, The                                                    4        19

Lintel, The, Joggled Joints                                    8        21

Orders, General Proportions of the                           154       162

Order, The Doric                                             153       160

The Doric Entablature, Vignola                               155       165

The Doric Entablature, Mutular                               156       166

Order, The Doric Capital                                     159       173

The Doric Base                                               165       181

The Doric Pedestal                                           169       189

The Doric Archivolt                                          168       186

The Doric Impost                                             168       186

The Doric Arcading                                           174       201

The Doric Arcading with Pedestal                             175       202

The Doric Column and Pilaster                                173       200

The Ionic Entablature                                        157       168

The Ionic Capital                                            160       174

The Ionic Capital (Angular Volutes)                          161       176

The Ionic, Detail of Angular Volute                          162       177

The Ionic Base                                               166       182

The Ionic Pedestal                                           169       189

The Ionic Archivolt                                          168       186

The Ionic Impost                                             168       186

The Corinthian Entablature                                   158       170

The Corinthian Capital                                       163       179

The Corinthian Capital                                       164       180

The Corinthian Base                                          167       183

The Corinthian Pedestal                                      169       189

The Corinthian Archivolt                                     168       186

The Corinthian Impost                                        168       186

The Superimposed                                             172       198

The Subsidiary                                               176       203

The Subsidiary, Detail of Entablature                        180       209

Pediment, The                                                181       210

Pilaster The, Capital                                        209       236

The, French Renaissance                                      208       236

Rustication, Types of                                        178       206

In Arcades                                                   179       207

Spacing of Columns                                           171       196

Windows                                                      184       214

Three-Light                                                  185       215

DECORATIVE FEATURES

Acanthus Leaf, Brush Work                                    235       264

Development                                                  251       281

Development                                                  252       282

Construction of                                              253       287

Anthemion, Greek, Relief Treatment                           232       262

Greek, Vase Painting                                         231       261

Border, The Geometric, Key or Labyrinth                      200       228

Border, The Geometric, Interlacing                           201       229

The Scroll                                                   204       232

The Evolute Scroll                                           207       234

The Vertebrate                                               244       274

Branching, Types of                                          243       274

Inlay, Wood, Geometric                                       260       297

Wood Borders                                                 261       297

Wood Panel                                                   262       297

Wood Panel                                                   263       298

Wood, Italian Intarsia                                       264       298

Metal “Boule” Work                                           266       299

Metal “Boule” Work                                           267       299

Inlaid Floor, Italian Renaissance                            188       219

Lace                                                         259   (Plate)

Marquetry                                                    265   (Plate)

Mosaic Work, Spandril, Byzantine                              40   (Plate)

Borders                                                      268   (Plate)

Border, Roman                                                269   (Plate)

Border, Roman                                                270   (Plate)

Panel, Roman                                                 271   (Plate)

Needlework                                                   257   (Plate)

Appliqué                                                     258   (Plate)

Relief Ornament, Prehistoric                                   2   (Plate)

Greek Stone Carving                                          218   (Plate)

Roman Stone Carving                                          237   (Plate)

Roman Stone Carving                                           29        39

Byzantine Stone Carving                                       37        46

Byzantine Stone Carving                                       38        47

Byzantine Stone Carving                                      216       244

Romanesque Stone Carving                                     217       244

Gothic Stone Carving                                         238       268

Gothic Stone Carving                                         239       269

Gothic Stone Carving                                         219   (Plate)

Renaissance, Italian                                         248       278

Renaissance, Italian                                         249       279

Renaissance, French                                           88        86

Renaissance, French                                          250       280

Renaissance, French                                           90        88

Jacobean Gouge Work                                          276       302

Jacobean Wood Carving                                        277       303

Jacobean Wood Carving                                         95        94

Louis XIV. Wood Carving                                      275   (Plate)

English Wood Carving                                         274   (Plate)

Relief Ornament, French Wood Carving                         113       111

French Wood Carving                                          279       306

French Wood Carving                                          212       239

French Wood Carving                                          211       238

French, Part of Ceiling                                      210       237

French Wood Carving                                          133       134

Icelandic Wood Carving                                       280       306

English 18th Century                                         273   (Plate)

English, Modern                                              213       240

Analysis of Composing Lines                                  214       241

Rosettes, Types of                                           241       270

Scroll, The, Greek Stone Carving                             233       262

The Evolute, Archaic                                         229       259

The Evolute, Savage Art                                      230       260

Scroll, The, Wrought Iron                                    234       263

Brush Work                                                   236       265

As a Growth Line                                             202       230

Italian Renaissance                                          240       270

Start, The, Nest or Cup Leaf                                 246       277

Half Figure                                                  247       277

Tendril, Roman                                               242       272

Terminals, Branch and Scroll                                 245       275

Textiles, 14th Century Woven Fabric                            3        13

14th Century Woven Fabric                                     51        56

Sicilian Tapestry                                             52        57

14th Century Tapestry                                        205       232

Turkish Brocade                                              203       231

French Brocade                                               206       233

Details of Inhabited Pattern                                 256       295

Tooled Book Binding                                          272   (Plate)

FURNITURE

Egyptian                                                      13        25

Egyptian                                                      14        26

Assyrian Seat                                                 15        27

Greek                                                         24        33

Roman Couch                                                   30        39

Roman Sella or Seat                                           31        39

Romanesque Chair                                              50        55

Gothic Chair                                                  72        70

Gothic Bedstead                                               73        71

Italian Renaissance                                           86        84

Italian Renaissance                                           87        85

Italian Renaissance                                           92        89

French Renaissance                                            91        88

English 17th Century                                          99        98

English 17th Century                                         100        99

English 17th Century                                         101       100

English 17th Century                                         102       100

English 17th Century. Baluster                               221       246

French Louis XIII                                            108       105

French Louis XIV                                             111       108

French Louis XV                                              265   (Plate)

English late 17th Century                                    116       113

English late 17th Century                                    117       114

Dutch and Queen Anne Chairs                                  121       119

English 18th Century                                         122       122

French Louis XVI                                             132       133

INTERIOR FEATURES

Ceilings, Italian Renaissance                                187       218

Italian, General Plan                                        189       220

Italian Renaissance, Painted,                                 83   (Plate)

Italian Renaissance, Painted,                                 85   (Plate)

Tudor                                                        190       221

Jacobean                                                     191       222

Jacobean                                                     192       223

Carolean                                                     193       224

Robert Adam                                                  194       225

Chimney Pieces, Gothic 13th Century                           74        71

Italian Renaissance                                           93        90

French Renaissance                                            89        87

Jacobean                                                      96        95

Domes and Vaults, Italian Renaissance:

St. Peter’s, Rome                                            197   (Plate)

Villa Madama                                                 196   (Plate)

Ducal Palace, Venice                                         195   (Plate)

Doors, Jacobean                                               97        96

Jacobean                                                      98        97

French Renaissance                                           278       305

French Renaissance, Louis XV                                 114       112

English Renaissance                                          120       117

French Renaissance, Louis XVI                                130       132

Frieze, The Jacobean, Carved Wood                             94        93

French, Louis XVI                                            131       133

Interior Decoration, Græco-Roman                              32        40

Interior Decoration, Wall Division                           186       217

Italian Renaissance                                           84   (Plate)

French Renaissance, Louis XIV                                110       107

English “Adam”                                               123       124

English “Adam”                                               124       125

French Louis XVI                                             126       128

French Louis XVI                                             127       129

French Louis XVI                                             128       130

French Louis XVI                                             129       131

METAL WORK

Græco-Roman                                                   33        41

Græco-Roman                                                   34        42

Byzantine Tradition                                           41        48

Wrought Iron                                                 282       307

Wrought Iron, Venetian                                       283       307

Repoussé                                                     103       101

Repoussé                                                     281   (Plate)

Cast                                                         104       102

Cast, Louis XV                                               115       113

Sheffield Plate                                              125       126

Filagree Jewellery                                           228       257

Cast Iron (Modern)                                           222       247

Surface Decoration of                                        284       308

METHOD

Of Enlarging and Reducing Drawings                           286       361

MOULDINGS

Profiles of                                                  134       138

Enrichment of                                                135       144

Detail of the Dentil                                         136       147

Aspect of                                                    137       148

Stone, Panel Effect                                          138       149

Wood Panels                                                  139       150

Wood Panels, Applied                                         140       151

Wood Panels, Applied                                         141       152

The Bolection                                                142       152

Table Top                                                    143       153

Turned Wood                                                  144       153

Pottery                                                      145       154

Pottery                                                      146       154

Rolled Metal                                                 147       155

Drawn Metal                                                  148       155

Wrought Iron, Swaged                                         149       156

Wrought Iron, Built up                                       150       156

Wrought Iron, Built up                                       151       156

Spun Metal                                                   152       157

VASE FORMS

Primitive Pottery                                              1   (Plate)

Greek Pottery                                                 25        34

Greek Pottery, Painted Details                                19        29

Effect of Perspective                                        220       245

Segments of Contoured Surfaces                               226       251

Segments of Contoured Surfaces                               227       252

Stretch-out of the Cylinder                                  224       249

Stretch-out of the Cone                                      225       250

Types of Vase Decoration                                     223       248



CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTORY


It is an article of faith that to design entails the possession of the
creative faculty, which may be taken for granted with the proviso, that
the creative faculty is concerned rather with the association of
elements common to all than with invention pure and simple.


_Human Limitations_

To be more explicit, the human imagination is limited to personal or
acquired experience. At no period has any form been created that is not
traceable to some process of production, or natural suggestion; for
instance, the artistic conception of an angel is merely a combination of
human and bird form, and is in no sense an original creation.

The term originality is indeed generally misunderstood, and for the
reasons already advanced it is impossible to be original. The real
interest in artistic production of any kind is the expression of
personality, in other words, the individual point of view of the artist;
which is more or less interesting, as it is more or less personal in
idea and expression.

In the training of the designer it is essential that the imagination be
carefully cultivated and trained to accept suggestion from any possible
source.

Design is distinct from any phase of realistic expression inasmuch as
the subject does not exist in any concrete form, but has to be mentally
visualised.


“_Inspiration_”

Too much importance is attached to what is believed to be inspiration,
but obviously if inspired, design is rather in the nature of an accident
than of the deliberate intention it should be and cannot be credited to
the individual exponent. What at first sight suggests inspired thought
may be accounted for by sub-consciousness, which is really responsible
for the evolution of an idea or the solution of some problem.

It would be beneficial to reject once and for all the idea of
inspiration with its tendency to encourage the “artistic temperament” in
the belief that it “does not feel like it.”

The designer must be ready to respond at any time, and this implies a
logical and balanced mind, capable of grasping essentials, and
conditions, and of evolving some desirable solution.

Another superstition is that a design is a drawing, and it only requires
a facility in this form of expression to produce a design. This is a
fallacy, as though many designs are for convenience expressed through
this medium, any such drawing must be made with a knowledge of the
technical details of the final method of production, to be a practical
design.


_Process and Material_

Design is therefore inseparable from consideration of material and
process, with which the designer must be acquainted; without this
technical knowledge it is impossible to take full advantage of the
method of production either in the direction of economy or effect.

Other considerations are utilitarian and æsthetic, the former having
regard to purpose, the latter to appearance.

That mere utility is not in itself sufficient is evident; the common
enamelled saucepan and the medicine bottle are certainly utilitarian,
but no one would assert that they are satisfying from the æsthetic point
of view.

An important consideration in design is the “market” which is governed
by popular or individual demand.

Those who pay the piper call the tune, and the designer has often to
work to prescribed conditions.

This apparently implies restriction of individuality, but the designer
who refuses to conform will probably find the market even more
restricted.

It also implies that he must be well versed in the various styles or
historic tradition, so that his work, if desirable, may be in harmony
with existing environment; but in these circumstances it is quite
possible to produce work that is individual and distinctive.

Designers, craftsmen and manufacturers are all dependent upon public
demand, which must be taken into account, and their business is as far
as possible to raise the general standard of taste, by producing of
their best. Any attempt on their part to insist on what shall or shall
not be done would undoubtedly result in failure.

To sum up, the designer must not only be an accomplished draughtsman
well versed in traditional ornament and style, but it is necessary that
he should cultivate the imaginative and perceptive faculties; and, in
addition, the commercial qualities of promptness and business insight.


_Early Training_

The question is often raised, can design be taught? If by this it is
understood, can the designing faculty be created in the ordinary
student, the answer is distinctly in the negative; but undoubtedly
students can be directed through a course of training that will enable
them to produce at least work that is good, though it may not be
personally distinctive.

An intelligent study of the elements and basis of pattern and of
traditional styles should result in the ability to produce work on safe
traditional lines that will be in harmony with environment. Such work it
may be claimed would only attain the level of mediocrity; how much
farther the student will go depends largely upon application and natural
faculty.

Natural faculty is fairly common, while genius is rare and can look
after itself. The teacher is concerned with the rank and file, and the
training and development of the natural faculty should be the aim.

Where this exists it should be carefully nursed, involving great
responsibility in the choice and direction of the courses of study.

The able exponent does not always make the best teacher, as students are
apt to be influenced by a strong personality and to be imitative.

Influence in the early stages is quite natural, and to some extent
beneficial, but if permanent, the student becomes one of the crowd in
failing to develop the personality, which is the sole interest, and is
the teacher’s responsibility to preserve as far as possible.

Negative criticism is not teaching, and in any suggested modifications
reasons should be given, so that the teaching be constructive; to which
end it is desirable that the teacher be capable of analysis and
possessed of method.

Popular taste as a factor that has to be considered has already been
suggested, but it is evident that the average member of the public has
little knowledge of Art, and still less of design.


_Art and Existence_

That Art is necessary to existence may be questioned, as life would be
possible--if not very interesting--if regulated only by considerations
of utility. In a less cultivated state we are satisfied with the
gratification of merely physical wants; so in a more cultivated state
Art becomes one of the mind’s necessities.

The dictionary definition of Art is “practical skill guided by rules,”
and that of an artist as “one who practises an Art.”

Possibly the former might be better expressed by the statement that “Art
is an appeal to the emotions by colour, form, rhythm and sound.”

Art exists not only in that which appeals to the vision, but also in
that which is transmitted to the aural sense, as in declamation, oratory
and music.

The dictionary particularises the fine arts of Painting, Sculpture and
Architecture, but to what extent is the possession of examples of these
possible to the public at large except in the most general sense?

What is invariably lost sight of is that the personal environment, the
furniture and domestic surroundings of the individual constitute the
actual field for artistic expression.

It is questionable whether our present system of Art instruction is
sufficiently far-reaching, devoted to the training of would-be artistic
exponents rather than in the cultivation of the public at large.


“_Natural Taste_”

There is still a superstitious belief in “natural taste,” and whereas
the individual member of the public would immediately, in the ordinary
affairs of life, consult a specialist, yet in a matter of artistic
selection there is profound confidence in personal exercise of judgment.

It is not contended that taste may not be inherited, but taste may be
good or bad.

Good taste is invariably our own; bad, the selection of others, but it
is surely irrational to assume that we all naturally possess a knowledge
which indisputably takes many years to acquire and cultivate.


_Commercial Production_

It is often stated that the common inartistic environment is the result
of commercial output, and it is true that the ordinary member of the
public is restricted in choice to what is on the market; but it can be
urged that the object of the manufacturer is to sell, and that he makes
it his business to study and supply existing demand. The manufacturer’s
standard is therefore regulated by the evidence of public taste, and as
this is improved so will the artistic quality of production be raised.

The buying public is influenced by what it believes to be the fashion of
the moment rather than any conscious appreciation of fitness and
purpose, or perception based on artistic education.


“_Ornaments_”

This is evidenced by a casual survey of the contents of shop windows in
any neighbourhood, and it will be noticed that preponderance is given to
the class of objects generally known as ornaments; objects that have no
possible utility and intended solely for display.

It is conceded that many objects fall into this category, and the
display of old brass candlesticks and Italian drug pots, for instance,
may be excused as examples of a period when such utensils, strictly
utilitarian, were incidentally made beautiful.

Modern furniture frequently offends--being too often constructed with
less regard to utility than to external effect.

The present tendency is to hide in cupboards and remote regions the
actual things we use, and to display objects that are only moved at the
perennial spring-cleaning; one honest piece of furniture remains in the
modern house--the kitchen dresser, of which we are apparently ashamed,
as also of the dinner service with which it is occupied. To some extent
the reason may be found in short tenancies, and the three years’ lease
may have much to answer for. It is usually felt to be more convenient to
move than to put up with the nuisance of re-decorating; and consequent
on frequent change of environment, is a lack of interest in furniture
and other personal belongings.


_Modern Development_

The advent of the motor car is also to some extent a factor, resulting
in the town flat and country cottage, which means the abandonment of the
large house and its interests and responsibilities; bringing about a
change in domestic life, with the growing tendency to entertain at
hotels and restaurants.

This tendency to more public life naturally results in even less
interest in personal possession and environment; still further fostered
by the hire-furnish system which enables its patrons to indulge in
frequent change of style and locality.


_Public Apathy_

Lamentable as it may seem from the artistic point of view, it certainly
appears that the general public are at least apathetic, and that Art
appeals less to them than the facilities for change and personal
indulgence; still there is plenty of scope for the designer and producer
if they adapt themselves to the everchanging conditions and
requirements.

The earliest design was probably due to materialistic causes, imperfect
implements and difficulties and accidents turned to account.

It is conceivable that primitive man in his early essays in pottery
found extreme difficulty in obtaining a smooth surface, which,
notwithstanding all endeavours, would be, in the unbaked state,
sensitive to scratches and other damage. This difficulty may have
suggested intentionally covering the surface with such scratches, etc.,
more or less arranged, thus making a virtue of necessity.


_Elementary Pattern_

Examination of early pottery will reveal simple patterns scratched or
incised, consisting mainly of straight lines arranged in zigzag or
herringbone form; in some instances the pattern is apparently the result
of pressure of some simple implement, resembling what is known in
plastering as trowel point.

Such details are simply those that could be produced by means of some
form of point, stone, stick or finger nail, and are not representative
of any known form; and it is not till a much later period that any
indication occurs suggestive of a growth line or natural type.

Curves seldom occur, certainly not in the scroll form, though rings
singly or concentric are among the early details; but these could easily
be the result of pressure by the ends of hollow reeds.

The evolute wave and scroll that figures so largely in later ornament
was presumably in imitation of wire-work, forms which the material would
readily suggest, particularly the continuous line of the evolute.

Development in the direction of relief ornament in primitive pottery is
indicated in the decoration consisting of incrusted pellets and slithers
of clay.

There is ample evidence that human appreciation and desire for
expression in art is natural and instinctive, as is demonstrated by the
marvellous work of the Paleolithic etchers and bone carvers, who may
well be considered the first impressionists.


_Early Impressionism_

They could have only studied many of their subjects at a respectful
distance, and this adds to the merit of the successful embodiment of
characteristics.

The work is invariably realistic, that is, imitative of natural form,
and is evidence of insight and appreciation that for the time and
working condition is quite extraordinary, and is in distinct contrast
with the earlier ornament, which is not in any way imitative of, or
traceable to, any natural suggestion.

On investigation it will be found that artistic expression has generally
three phases; the first where purely inorganic details are employed such
as directly arise from the process and material involved.

The second phase is realistic or imitative of natural form, and the
third--conventional, where the details are probably derived from natural
suggestion but are treated with restraint; the last being the result of
cultured appreciation of process and æsthetic considerations.


_Personal Production_

It is essential to assume that originally it was customary to personally
produce whatever was considered necessary in the way of pottery or
weapons, but that eventually certain workers would devote themselves
more or less exclusively to producing for the community, being
compensated by immunity from other labour, and that this developed in
course of time into patronage, and the producer being entirely supported
by his craft.

Appreciation from would-be possessors stimulated

[Illustration:

ANCIENT POTTERY

No. 1.

     A. Cup, Barrow, Denzell, Cornwall.

     B. Cinerary Urn, Barrow, Stanlake, Oxon.

     C. Sepulchral remains, Nilgiri Hills, Sth. India.

     D. Jug, German sepulchral mounds, Bronze Age.

     E. Sepulchral remains, Nilgiri Hills, Sth. India.

     F. Early English puzzle jug.

     G. Cinerary Urn, Barrow, Bloxworth Down, Dorset.

     H. Food Vessel, sepulchral mounds, earliest Bronze Age, Ireland.
]

[Illustration:

No. 2. A. B. Palaeolithic Bone Carvings.
           C.             Etching on Bone.
]

the primitive craftsmen who, in proportion to their individual skill,
would be rewarded, and this naturally led to the establishment of the
professional worker and artist.

To appreciate the evolution of art it is necessary to consider the early
social conditions.

The primitive life was insular and nomadic, the family or tribe staying
in any locality only so long as food was available for themselves and
herds; such communities were necessarily pastoral and predatory.

The simple requirements under these conditions would be vessels for
storage, conveyance, or cooking, probably pottery; weapons, and
doubtless jewellery or objects of personal adornment.

Later by necessity and under favourable conditions they would develop
agriculture, which would result in fixity of abode; and this would
entail precautionary measures for protection from predatory tribes.

The original camp or stockade for this purpose in time led to the
fortress or castle for the protection of the town, and the more
substantial nature of these gave rise to architecture.

With comparative security more pacific conditions would prevail, and the
simple communal life develop into more complex social distinctions.


_Early Social Conditions_

The military class established for protective reasons would be dependent
upon the general community for their upkeep, thus imposing taxation on
the various workers, and necessitating a system of government and of
officials for effective collection and distribution. Social
distinctions would be drawn between the various classes, governing,
administrative, military, and non-combatant; the latter would furnish
the bulk of the workers and be further divided into craftsmen,
agriculturists and traders.

In process of time from the executive class would develop the nobility,
priestly and legal classes.


_Influence_

Art was originally local, that is, confined to the community, but later
was subjected to various influences--Political, Religious, and
Commercial.

Political, by treaty or intermarriage, when imported taste or
interchange would result, or by conquest.

Judging by the past, the conquered have invariably imposed their taste
on their conquerors, as instanced in the Greek conquest of Persia; that
of the Romans of the Greeks, and later the perpetuation of the Roman
influence after their subjugation at the hands of the Goths.

The Crusades resulted in the importation of fabrics of Eastern and
Sicilian origin, and may be classed as a religious influence; an earlier
example of which may be cited in the edict of Pope Leo III in A.D. 726
in response to the iconoclastic movement, by reason of which the
Byzantine art workers, deprived of their living, emigrated to the Rhine
district.


_Commercial Intercourse._

The establishment of commercial intercourse had great influence on the
arts, and did much to modify local character, as it was found necessary
to study market conditions in order to secure sales; and goods were
therefore made to suit foreign requirements and taste, thereby resulting
in confusion and difficulty in defining the original source.

[Illustration: No. 3. 14th Century Textile showing Heraldic influence.]

Notable, for instance, were the Sicilian weavers, who, contrary to their
local traditions, introduced heraldry into the patterns of their
fabrics, so as to conform to the taste of the crusaders.

The Phœnicians were the early merchant adventurers, and traded in
work of Tyrian and Sidonian production with remote parts of Europe,
taking back local produce in exchange. Later on, through the medium of
the Hanseatic league, brass work from Flanders and cast-iron fire-backs
from Sussex were distributed through-out the area of their operations;
of which surviving examples demonstrate that local taste and requirement
were considered and embodied.


_Effect on Design_

Apart from this cause of loss in local character, Art production was
further influenced by the rise in social position of the worker.

When the craftsman remained the sole factor, his design and work was
invariably true to materialistic conditions; but with increasing
emolument incidental to appreciation and patronage, the designer emerged
as a professional.

In the early times the craftsman was independent to a great extent of
architectural influence, but later he was compelled to study the
architectural environment and adapt his designs in accordance.

Even then he was true to his craft conditions until the designing was
taken out of his hands by the newly evolved professional who, in many
instances had little knowledge of, or was indifferent to the technical
side of the craft.

Possibly the greatest offender in this respect was the French designer
of the Rococo period, whose woodwork design is regardless of
constructive detail, and it is to the everlasting credit of the workmen
that they overcame the difficulties thrown in their way, and that so
much of this work is still in existence.


_Ethical Side of Art_

Art is also reflective of the ethics and morals of the time; compare,
for instance, the robust character of Gothic work with the lack of
meaning and insincerity of the later Renaissance, degenerating into the
license of the Rococo.

Much that is commonly regarded as ornament in traditional work was
originally invested with symbolic meaning, in later times lost sight of,
with resultant loss of character and interest.

The study of traditional work is essential to the designer, not merely
for reproduction but on account of its value as reflective of the
experience and point of view of past exploiters.


_Desire for Novelty_

The present is marked by a feverish anxiety to be new, but the old
worker had a more humble spirit and was content to carry on a tradition
a little further if possible.

Much that appears to be new will on investigation prove to be an old
friend in disguise, and in venturing on what is apparently a new idea it
may be well to reflect as to whether it may not have occurred to others,
and whether it is worth doing.

“Novelty,” a detestable word, should have no place in artistic
considerations. That which is really good should be good for all time;
but the sporadic outbreaks that occur from time to time in so-called new
phases, have their little day and relapse into the limbo of the
forgotten. In the meantime tradition still goes on, sometimes
progressing, now and then retrogressing, but at all times unbroken.

History as written is misleading, dealing as it does with personalities
and conquests; the real history of the world can be read in its artistic
development.



CHAPTER II

HISTORIC REVIEW


Some of the factors in the evolution of Art have already been briefly
suggested, but to thoroughly appreciate artistic production a passing
acquaintance, at least, with the various phases of historic developments
is essential. The scope of the present work obviously renders it
impossible to deal with the subject in detail, but libraries are
accessible to those who are desirous of extending their knowledge.

It has already been stated that the earlier crafts were independent of
any influence other than that of material and process, and this has
continued in some of the crafts to the present time; but those more
closely allied to building, particularly those associated with furniture
and decoration, eventually became subject to the architectural phase or
style of the period, which dominated form and detail.


_Style._

Style may be described as manner of expression, either individual or
local, and for convenience is defined by nationality and period. It is
usual to speak of Greek, Roman, Gothic, etc., of such a century; in the
case of the Renaissance, it is customary to particularise the variants,
as Italian, French, English, etc., also with the period or century.

The development of style, intimately involved as it is in the social,
religious and political history of nations, must ever be powerful in its
interest and far-reaching in its appeal.

The first idea in the mind of man is undoubtedly that of utility, but in
succeeding stages of culture there comes a natural craving for something
more than this. And so with the progress of a race we can trace the
progress of its decorative art.


_Inter-Communication_

Then there is the consideration of the effect that one race or community
inevitably has on another with which it comes in contact--either through
conquest or through the establishment of commercial relations. Naturally
the market is captured by the workmanship displaying the finest
qualities, æsthetic and practical, and these qualities advance with the
development of society and with progress in mechanical skill. As a
result of conquest the civilisation of either conqueror or conquered
must become the dominant influence, and the possible fusion and
interchange of ideas may modify style to a considerable extent.


_Climate and Material_

Locality has always been a determining factor, particularly in
architecture where the material available is of necessity utilised, and
in most cases is the one best suited to the climatic conditions; for
instance, where wood abounds we find it successfully employed.

Climate is also largely responsible for architectural form. In the
North, owing to heavy snows, the roofs are high-pitched. The early
Egyptian buildings were of mud and wattle, the readiest material to
hand, and form ample protection from the sun in a practically rainless
district. It is interesting to note that the character of these
structures was imparted to their later work in stone. This was used in
the most important buildings, and was readily obtainable from the Nubian
quarries and transported down the Nile on rafts.


_Phases in Style_

It must be remembered that although broad classifications can be made in
styles, yet there are intermediate stages which are transitional, and
which are usually due to the importation of some foreign influence. The
phases of a transitional period can usually be defined; at first the new
style is slavishly imitated or else executed by the foreign worker
exploiting it. This is followed by its being used in conjunction with
the native construction, and lastly, the native interpretation of the
foreign style is possibly grafted on to older forms.

It should be understood that at no time was there any great immediate
change in style, but that there are phases which can be described as
typical, connected by periods of gradual change or transition; due,
doubtless, to individual expression of taste, either on the part of
exponent or patron, or as previously suggested, by influences political,
religious or commercial.

Careful study will show that the change in the majority of instances was
due to reaction from a florid to a more severe treatment, which in its
turn became redundant in character and detail. Apart from the artistic
point of view, these changes are interesting as reflective of the
character of the times.

From the constructive point of view there are two distinct principles to
be appreciated, the Lintel and the Arch. The Lintel, which is the
earlier, may be described as a large stone style, and consists of the
bridging of apertures by means of horizontal slabs, supported by
vertical columns or piers. This is a method of construction with
distinct limitations, as it was impossible to bridge large areas or
spaces without frequent support.


_The Lintel_

[Illustration: No. 4. The Lintel.]

The joints of the Lintel necessarily occur over the centres of the
supporting columns, and the space between was controlled by the size of
the obtainable material and the imposed weight it could bear; the result
being, as in the great hall at Karnak, a forest of closely spaced
columns. It was not until the principle of the Arch was developed into
vaulting that interiors of any considerable dimension with clear floor
spaces were possible.

Lintel construction was employed in the Egyptian, Chaldean and Greek
styles.

The Arch, as a constructive form, did not appear until a later period,
and possibly was due to some extent to the employment of brick and
stones of small size.

[Illustration: No. 5. Tomb of Tantalus in Lydia. Vault form, but not
vault construction.]

Form or shape is not involved, as it is quite possible to so shape the
Lintel as to give the appearance of the Arch by cutting the underside
to the required curve. In the early Greek architecture examples have
been found of both Arch and vault appearance, but these are the result
of horizontal courses, successively projecting; that is, built in the
form of inverted steps, the underside being cut to the arch curve, and
is a form of construction restricted to bridging relatively small areas.


_The Arch_

[Illustration: No. 6. A. Structural Arch. B. Arch appearance, result of
cutting away.]

The principle of the Arch depends upon the separate pieces of material
being formed to a wedge shape, the joints corresponding to radial lines
drawn through the centre from which the Arch curve is struck.

The weak part of the Lintel is the centre of the span which may have a
tendency to give way under pressure, but the wedged construction of the
Arch renders the centre strong enough to bear the imposed weight.

In contrast with the Lintel, material of small size could be employed,
not only stone, but brick being used in Arch construction.

[Illustration: No. 7. Section of Gothic Vault showing courses of stone
and centering.]

The Lintel, in relatively small spans, is sometimes composed of separate
small stones, shaped to fit each other in the form of Joggled joints.

[Illustration: No. 8.

A. Lintel in one piece.

B. C. D. Various forms of Joggled joints.]

[Illustration: No. 9. Gothic Vaulting showing intersecting ribs forming
framework of structure.]

The outward and manifest appearance suggests to the lay observer a
striking divergence in the style known as Gothic from the Roman manner
of building; but the main difference is in proportion and treatment of
detail, the underlying principle being much the same. The use of the
Arch and vaulting was common to both, but in the Gothic development
greater strength was obtained, with even greater economy of material.
The archivolts and intersecting ribs of vaults, with their supports,
literally formed the bones of the building, constituting a framework to
which the bays of walls and roofing were only a matter of filling in.

In the words of Mr. C. H. Moore, in his work on “Development and
Character of Gothic Architecture”--“the Gothic style developed into a
system where stability depends not upon any inert massiveness except in
the outermost abutments, but upon a logical adjustment of active parts
whose opposing forces produce a perfect equilibrium. It is thus a system
of balanced thrusts, as opposed to the former system of inert
stability.”


_Egyptian_

The Egyptian buildings, in common with those of Palestine, were
frequently of mud, strengthened by wattle or reeds interwoven, evidence
of which is apparent in later incised decoration. Buildings were also of
sun-baked bricks, those of an important character being faced with
stone; the exteriors of these latter were simple and severe, the walls
being slightly tapered and surmounted by a simple cove cornice, with
gateways and entrances of massive form.

The internal effect was of mystery, doubtless due to the comparative
absence of light, and to the many columns necessary to carry the
roofings. The columns which were mostly employed in the interiors, were
squat and stunted in proportion, being from four to seven diameters in
height, with capitals of the Lotus, Papyrus or Hathor variety. Mouldings
were of the simplest character and sparsely used, and the decoration
included renderings of the Lotus and Papyrus plants, either painted or
incised in stone with the addition of colour.

[Illustration: No. 10. Longitudinal section and half plan of Egyptian
Temple.]

Egyptian architecture may be generally described as monumental, while
the ornament was apparently inspired by religious feeling and desire for
symbolic expression, rather than by more æsthetic considerations.

In Egyptian Art ornament is subordinated to the architecture, and the
employment of wall pictures and of inscriptions in the hieroglyphic
character, added considerably to the decorative effect. In the wall
pictures the figures were depicted in silhouette, in conventional
attitudes, the head and limbs being displayed in severe profile, while
the torso is represented in full front view. The methods of expression
were painting, or incised in outline on stone, invariably filled in with
colour, the effect in both being of flatness, with little suggestion of
modelling or rotundity, the various features being defined by local
colour.

[Illustration: No. 11. Entrance Façade of Egyptian Temple.]

Though much of the Egyptian work was in the round, and evident of great
sculptural ability and appreciation of form, yet generally their
decorative work may be described as a colour style, rather than one in
which light and shade were important factors.

[Illustration: No. 12. Egyptian Capital from Philae.]

With regard to the domestic life, the examples of furniture in the
British Museum convey some idea, and these bear a remarkable similarity
to forms with which we are familiar at the present day, both in detail
and construction, which is simple and direct, with mortise and tenon
joints. Turning was frequently employed, and, in the decoration of
furniture, inlays of ivory, ebony and glass, the Egyptians being expert
workers in both glass and enamels.

[Illustration:

     No. 13. Egyptian Furniture.

A.  Stand Inlaid.
B.  Ebony seat inlaid with ivory.
C.  Folding stool.
D.  Ebony box inlaid with porcelain and ivory.
]

Illustrations taken from bas reliefs and wall painting give a good idea
of the furniture, which is often depicted as gilded.

The Egyptian couch was straight like an ottoman. Sometimes the couch
took the form of an animal with the head and tail at either end, and the
legs and feet carved to complete the effect.


_Chaldean_

Chaldean art in character had much in common with that of Egypt, the
difference being more that of expression than in idea, probably due to
intercourse and mutual influence. The buildings, which were mostly in
brick, often faced with a form of terra-cotta, stamped with relief or
ornament, were pyramidal in general form, raised on terraces forming a
succession of platforms, approached by steps or inclined planes. Columns
were employed, but the capitals were distinctive in the use of volutes
culminating in the Persian renderings at Persepolis.

[Illustration:

     No. 14. Egyptian Chairs.

A.  Wall painting in British Museum, B.C. 1500-1400.
B.              at Thebes.
]

Compound animal and human forms, analagous to the Egyptian sphinx, were
employed, such as the winged lion and bull with human heads, generally
to flank the gateways. Wall pictures in low relief formed part of the
interior decoration, these being arranged in successive rows and
representing historic episodes were, like the Egyptian decoration,
probably coloured. A prominent detail in the decoration is that of the
date palm which, symbolical in meaning, was the prototype of the Greek
anthemion; the volute also occurs in much of the decoration in the form
of the evolute scroll.

Our conclusions regarding Assyrian woodwork are drawn from the
sculptured bas-reliefs of stone or alabaster with which the Assyrians
faced their brick structures internally and externally. The examples in
the British Museum are about 888 B.C.

Furniture, such as tables, thrones and couches, was evidently made of
wood, and was probably inlaid with ivory and other precious materials.

[Illustration: No. 15. Assyrian Seat.]

On the monuments of Khorsabad representations have been discovered of
chairs, supported by animals and human figures. The intention in the use
of figures was probably to depict prisoners taken in war.

Chairs, thrones, stools and tables were square in shape. The ends of the
rails and legs were carved, and the ornamentation employed for these and
similar positions included the heads of lions, bulls and rams, the
sacred palm and pine cone.

[Illustration: No. 16. Capitals from Persepolis.]

The seats of chairs and thrones were much higher than is now customary,
and necessitated the use of foot-stools. In some cases both chairs and
tables were made to fold on a central pivot.

In some cases metal was used either for part or for the complete
structure.

Exact chronology is a matter of surmise, but at an early period, about
4000 B.C., in the valley of the Nile and in Mesopotamia, civilization
had attained a very high level, extremely favourable to the development
of architecture and the artistic crafts.

The early Greeks, as a result of the peculiar formation of their coast
line, like the later Scandinavians, were adventurers on the sea,
piratical and trading, and were thus brought into communication with,
and influenced by, the arts of Egypt and Chaldea.


_Greek_

[Illustration: No. 17. Early Treatment of Doric Order. Tomb of Beni
Hassan.]

Though, in their architecture, the Greeks progressed no further than the
Lintel, yet they must be credited with the development of the system of
the orders, which formed the basis of subsequent styles.

The two prominent orders were the Doric and the Ionic; the former has
its prototype in the tomb of Beni Hasan, the date of which is 1740 B.C.,
while the latter is evidently derived as to the voluted form of the
capital, from Assyrian and Persian originals.

[Illustration: No. 18. Early anticipation of Ionic Order. Tomb at
Kyanea-Jaghu.]

The capital of the Corinthian order may be considered to be a
development of the Egyptian Papyrus form, the earliest features of both
consisting of an inverted bell-shape decorated with leaf-like detail.

[Illustration: No. 19. Greek Vase Paintings. A. Doric columns. B. Wall
fountain. C. Ionic columns with pediment.]

Characteristic Greek details, such as the Anthemion and wave scroll, are
traceable to the same sources.

Their architectural work, which was monumental in character, was mostly
manifested in the temples, the domestic buildings being relatively
unimportant.

[Illustration: No. 20. Greek house about 100 A.D. Bas-relief in British
Museum, Bacchus visiting Icarius.]

Some idea as to these may be gathered from the vase paintings in the
British Museum, on which they appear simple in form, mostly Doric in
character, and probably of wood construction, the metopes in the frieze
being open spaces for purpose of interior lighting.

Though the Greeks invested many of their creations with Epic and
Symbolic meaning, much of their ornament was purely æsthetic.

The sculptured metopes of the Parthenon, representing the conflict
between the Lapithae and the Centaurs, are an example of the Epic
treatment.

The Sphinx, borrowed from Egyptian art, was, however, invested with a
different meaning, and is an example of the Symbolic class, which formed
so large a part in Greek art.

Greek architecture differs from preceding styles in the development of
mouldings, and the exterior columnar effect. The mouldings in the Ionic
and Corinthian phases were enriched with carved details, probably
developed from or suggested by earlier painted decoration.

[Illustration: No. 21. Front elevation and plan of Parthenon, Athens]

[Illustration: No. 22. Greek Ionic Erectheum, Athens.]

The Doric style was presumably so decorated, with painted details on the
ovolo and abacus of the capital, and the corona and other members of the
cornice.

Colour was employed on the backgrounds of the metopes, mostly blue and
red, resulting in an alternation of colour with plain stone areas; the
colour decoration forming horizontal bands.

One important development, due to climatic conditions, was the pitched
roof, which entailed the end walls being carried up in triangular form
(literally gables), which were framed by the upper members of the
entablature.

This feature, technically known as the Pediment, was in buildings of
importance invariably filled by sculpture, Mythological or Epic in
subject, designed to occupy the shape.

The styles mostly employed were the Doric and Ionic, and these were
exploited contemporaneously, the Parthenon, 430 B.C., representing the
culmination of the former.

Of the Corinthian style--comparatively little used by the Greeks, though
much employed and developed later--the Choragic monument at Athens, 330
B.C., is the most complete example, though the leaf capital was
anticipated in a simpler form in the earlier Tower of the Winds.

The earliest representations of Greek furniture are to be found in the
Syrian Room at the British Museum. These are the chairs dated about 6
B.C., in which the antique figures are seated. The backs are
perpendicular, and the frame pieces of the seats are mortised into the
legs.

[Illustration: No. 23. Greek Corinthian, Choragic Monument, Athens.]

The Greek couch was not unlike the modern sofa. It was used for sleeping
and resting. Chairs and stools were sometimes made of metal, and were
often of a folding type.

Tables were constructed in various shapes--sometimes the supports were
fashioned as heads and legs of lions and leopards, and sometimes as
sphinxes with lifted wings. In common with other pieces of furniture,
they were made in wood, metal and marble.

[Illustration: No. 24. Greek Furniture.

A.   Couch or bed, Archaic Etruscan.
B.     “       “    Vase painting.
C.   Archaic chair, 580-520 B.C.
D.   Chair from Hydria.
E. }
F. } Archaic chairs, Harpy Tomb, 500 B.C.
]

The vase rooms of the British Museum provide considerable matter for
study with regard to the details of Greek furniture, couches especially
are frequently depicted.

The Greeks were expert workers in cast bronze, as is evidenced, not only
by their statuary, but in many utensils of domestic life, notably the
oil lamps, which were also in many instances modelled in terra cotta.

[Illustration: No. 25. Greek Pottery.

A. Kelebe (mixing bowl), 6th century B.C.
B. Lekythos (oil bottle), Athenian (about) 450 B.C.
C. Mastos, coloured black, red and white.
D. Hydria (pitcher), 350-250 B.C.
E. Kylix (goblet), 520 B.C.
]

Soon after the sack of Corinth in 140 B.C., Greece became a Roman
province, and the Greek art workers eventually found more encouragement
from Roman patronage than in local requirement.

They therefore went where their work was appreciated and rewarded,
thereby effecting a potential influence in the art and work of their
conquerors.


_Roman_

Originally there were no special native characteristics by which Roman
work could be distinguished, as the Romans absorbed various influences
from the races that they conquered. Their conquests extended East and
West, and from these widely differing outside influences the Roman style
developed.

The Romans, who by temperament, were great soldiers, organisers and
engineers, rather than artistic, in their early essays in architecture
were influenced by Etruscan work.

Etruria (now Tuscany) is presumed to have been a Greek colony, and the
local style, a form of debased Doric, was adopted by the first Tarquin
(who was of Etruscan origin) and introduced to Rome about 610 B.C.

With the growth of the Roman Empire, and its consequent wealth and
development of luxury, great impetus was given to building and the arts
generally.

The orders based on the Greek originals were developed in detail and
proportion, particularly in the latter respect. Whereas in the Greek
Doric the height of the column varied from about four, to six and a half
diameters, the Roman version became more slender, being about eight
diameters in height.

The Corinthian order, perhaps, underwent the greatest change, a change
that has practically remained unaltered to the present day.


_Vaulting_

The most significant development in building was the Arch and subsequent
vaulting, by means of which extensive covered areas were rendered
possible. The Pantheon at Rome is covered with a hemispherical vault or
dome 139 feet in diameter.

[Illustration: No. 26. Section and interior elevation of Pantheon,
Rome.]

The dome, which is interiorally occupied by radiating and horizontal
ribs, resulting in five horizontal rows of cassons, or coffers, is
really a casting in cement; and in principle is identical with the
present method of building, in which concrete or cement forms a
considerable part in construction.

Apart from other reasons, the Arch was necessitated by small material,
which, in the case of the Lintel, could not be employed without the
device of joggelled joints. In the absence of suitable material to
cover spans, it became necessary to devise some means to the desired
result. This was achieved by bridging the span with separate pieces of
material cut to the necessary wedge form.

The Arch was first applied to such useful and necessary buildings as the
Cloaca Maxima, to aqueducts, bridges, and viaducts, from which its firm
construction and power of resistance were found to be applicable to
buildings of many storeys.

[Illustration: No. 27. Coliseum, Rome. Section and part elevation
showing arch and vault construction.]


_Greek Influence_

Apart from the early employment and development of the Arch, the Romans
were content to borrow their architecture from outside sources, and also
were indebted to the Greeks for their ideal expressions in poetry, art,
even to religion, whose gods they invested with different names.

Notwithstanding, the Roman development in architecture was undoubtedly
dignified and grand in manner, particularly in their treatment of the
Corinthian order.

With regard to detail, much of the delicacy and refinement of the Greek
character was lost, yet this was compensated by greater variety and
freedom of treatment, especially in the development of the Acanthus type
of foliage.

[Illustration: No. 28. Arch of Titus, Rome.]


_Development of Ornament_

Decoration was more generally used, pilaster and other panels being
occupied with ornament arranged on growth lines, mostly composed of
undulate stems, with scrolling branches, clothed with conventional
leaves and flowers.

There was also a tendency to employ occasionally natural types in
foliage, and further variety was obtained by the introduction of human
and animal form, which, though originally significant, were used for
their æsthetic value.

The Roman domestic life was materially different from the Greek, and
while they had their Temples, they also had their palaces, public halls
and baths, besides the amphitheatre and the circus.

[Illustration: No. 29. Typical Roman Ornament.]

Excavations at Herculaneum and Pompeii have thrown considerable light on
the domestic life of the Romans--their dwellings, decorations and
furniture.

[Illustration: No. 30. Roman couch. Sepulchral urn, British Museum.]

[Illustration: No. 31. Roman Sella.]


_Græco-Roman Painted Decoration_

In the luxurious life of the Romans colour

[Illustration: No. 32. Graeco-Roman Hall in house of Sallust, Pompeii.]

decoration played a conspicuous part, as is evidenced in the painted
work of Herculaneum and Pompeii. In this, which is generally known as
the Græco-Roman period, the interiors were decorated with paintings, the
general scheme being based on an architectural setting, the wall areas
being divided into bays by slender columns, sometimes by pilaster
panels, with plinth, or dado, frieze, and cornice, the prevailing
colours being red, buff and black.

[Illustration:

     Græco-Roman Hanging Lamp Bronze

No. 33.]

The decoration of the frieze in many instances suggested openings,
through which distant vistas could be seen. The bays or spaces between
the apparent dividing supports were further decorated with small panel
pictures with frames; generally the supports were united by festoons or
scrolling detail, the whole expressed by painting in colour without
actual relief.

The use of glass for glazing windows was employed in the later period;
that the Romans were expert workers in glass can be verified by the
examples in the National collections.

[Illustration:

Græco-Roman
Hand Lamp
and Stand.
Bronze

No. 34.]

For artificial lighting of interiors oil lamps were customary, which
were boat shape in form, sometimes used in groups or clusters suspended
from branching stems or supported on tripod standards. These were
invariably in cast bronze, though terra-cotta was also used, but in
either material were extremely beautiful in form and detail.

In any attempt to review the past, it is difficult to visualise the
actual life at the back of the pageantry, with which we are naturally
prone to be obsessed, in history as written; but the exhibits of the
various domestic appliances of the Roman period at the British Museum
are of considerable interest, and a scrutiny of these cannot fail to
bring the individual to a closer understanding of the times and people.

At Byzantium or Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire,
a distinct style developed out of a curious mingling of the
characteristics of East and West; and it was marked particularly by a
grafting of earlier Greek detail on to simplified Roman forms.

The establishment in 330 A.D. of Byzantium or Constantinople as the
Eastern capital of the Roman Empire and the recognition by the state of
Christianity resulted in a great change in architecture and the
associated crafts. Prior to this the early Christians had been compelled
to hold their meetings secretly, and when this was no longer necessary
they at first utilised for their public worship the existing Basilicas
or public halls. Later on churches were built, the plan being arranged
in the form of a Greek cross (_e.g._, with equal arms), surmounted by a
central dome.


_Domes_

The dome was supported on four piers, united by arches, and the change
in plan from these piers to the dome necessitated vaultings from the
inner angles to reconcile the diagonal dimension to the diameter of the
imposed circle. These vaultings spreading from the angles are
technically known as Pendentives. The

[Illustration: No. 35. Byzantine. Section and plan of St. Vitali,
Ravenna.]

[Illustration: No. 36. Byzantine Capitals from Ravenna.]

four arms of the cross constituting transepts, nave and chancel were
also surmounted by either complete or semi-domes.

The Byzantine dome differs from the Roman type in matters of detail,
thus the interior surface is plain instead of the intersecting ribs with
resulting coffers as in that of the Pantheon. In this latter the
lighting of the interior is accomplished by a central opening or eye,
but in some Byzantine examples, notably St. Sophia (built for Justinian
by Anthemius) the lighting is the result of windows ranged round the
base, constituting what is known as the ariel type of dome.

The dome of St. Sophia is segmental instead of hemispherical as in the
Pantheon, being only one-sixth of the diameter in height, the diameter
being 106 ft. 7½ ins.

The architectural features generally were considerably modified,
particularly with regard to mouldings, which were almost eliminated. The
entablature was also at times dispensed with, and arches springing
direct from the capitals of supporting columns were general; a feature
which is characteristic of the later Romanesque. The capitals became
simple in form, being mostly inverted pyramidal or cushion shapes, in
which the abacus is considerably enlarged and as a rule unmoulded.

The carved details reveal simplicity of execution, being merely cut back
from the surface, the relief being uniform and greatly in contrast to
the plastic feeling of the Roman work. Though the leaves employed were
of the acanthus type, they were quite devoid of modelling, being merely
channelled with V-shaped grooves; the eyes between the lobes being
round and suggestive of the use of the drill, the execution being a
reversion to the archaic Greek.

[Illustration: No. 37. Byzantine Panels. St. Appollinare, Nuovo,
Ravenna.]


_Early Christian Art_

A notable feature in the Byzantine detail is the prevalence of the
circle, frequently grouped in three, four and five, with the respective
significance of the Trinity, the Evangelists and the Cross, or Five
Wounds. The grotesques of the Pagan detail are conspicuously absent,
giving place to forms more in keeping with the new religion, such, for
instance, as the cross and the vine.

It is questionable if the polytheism of the average cultured Roman was
taken very seriously, but incidental to the religious observances were
certain rites and symbolic forms, with which the Christians were
familiar, and the early preachers evidently found it a matter of policy
to invest some of these with a new meaning. During the period of
intolerance and persecution, signs and symbols grew in importance as a

[Illustration: No. 39. Byzantine Interior, Ravenna.]

[Illustration: No. 40. 5th Century Mosaic Work in the Baptistery at
Ravenna.

From a Drawing by Miss Dora Bard.]

means of secret communication; and in the later period when secrecy was
no longer necessary, these became a corporate part of the ornament and
decoration.

[Illustration: No. 38. Byzantine Panel from the sarcophagus of St.
Theodore. St. Appollinare in Classe, Ravenna.]

In contrast to the Roman ornament, in which the effect depended mostly
on light and shade, the Byzantine was a colour style, and it became
customary to line the walls of the principal buildings with marble slabs
quartered and placed reciprocally, so that the figurings formed
symmetrical patterns. Mosaic work, either of marble or glass,
constituted the decoration in such suitable positions as the floors,
spandrils, lunettes and domes, gold being largely employed in the
backgrounds. Windows, at times large in area, were glazed as in Roman
times with cast slabs of glass, set in metal frames, usually bronze; and
thin slabs of translucent marble and onyx were also used for glazing
purposes.


_Metal Work and Enamel_

The Byzantines were also expert carvers of ivory and workers in metal,
decorated in repoussé and with wire filigree; the metal work was
invariably set with jewels and precious stones, in conjunction with
champleve enamel, the whole being gilt.

As a result of the Iconoclastic movement, and the decree of Pope Leo III
in 726 A.D., the art workers, deprived of local patronage and compelled
to pursue their crafts elsewhere, migrated to the Rhine district, where
for some centuries the Byzantine traditions were preserved and largely
influenced Western art, particularly with regard to the working in metal
and enamels. The attraction of the centre of the Eastern Empire for
northern adventurers had its effect in the introduction of the Byzantine
style into the detail of the different phases of the Romanesque.

[Illustration: No. 41. Champleve enamel Byzantine tradition.]

The tradition thus becoming widely known was finally absorbed by local
craftsmen and modified according to local conditions, with the result
that both in expression and in execution, the style tended to become
more and more crude, until the original forms and details were almost
entirely lost. But in spite of changes the classic feeling never
completely died out.


_Roman Influence Abroad_

Under the Roman system, in colonizing, their architecture, customs and
laws were imposed on the conquered population. When later, under stress
of events, the governing bodies and military forces had to be withdrawn,
these left behind them universal traces of their occupation and
influence. The inhabitants of the provinces thus abandoned and thrown on
their own resources, were immediately menaced by invasions, which had
been hitherto kept in check by the armies of occupation, and for some
protracted period ensued a condition of unrest and conflict, under which
the arts naturally suffered. Eventually, from the chaos emerged a native
manner of building, which, though rude and coarse in execution, was
based on the Roman tradition.


_Romanesque Style_

The transition thus brought about is known for convenience as
Romanesque. Its most typical exponents were possibly the Scandinavians,
whose Christianised descendants, the Normans, preserved the same
tradition. The work of the Saxons in England, although stimulated by the
same influences, was much cruder in execution.

This period was not remarkable for great artistic development, and
luxury in any form was practically non-existent.

Notwithstanding local character, the prevailing features are similar, in
that the round arch is employed, supported by columns or piers, from
which the arches spring direct, the entablature being eliminated.

The columns are squat in proportion, and surmounted by capitals of
truncated cone or cushion shape, the abacus being deep and square in
plan.

Mouldings were little used, and the archivolts were formed in a series
of recessed bands, either plain or decorated. Distinct from the
Byzantine style, the Romanesque depended for effect upon contrast of
light and shade.

[Illustration: No. 42. Romanesque Capitals from Cloister, St. Guillem du
Desert, Herault. Reminiscent of Roman Corinthian.]

Details were carved, and rude in execution, preserving to some extent
the Byzantine feeling, the prevailing ornament being the undulate stem,
with scroll branches, clothed with leafage, simply channelled or
grooved, but less spikey in form.


_Church Development_

Of the buildings of importance of this period the churches form the most
interesting examples of development. The usual plan consisted of an
oblong nave with side aisles half its width and height.

[Illustration: No. 43. Romanesque Tower, Thaon, Normandy.]

At the end of the nave, projecting transepts separated it from the
chancel (which is generally raised in level), continuing the line of
nave, the whole taking the shape of the Latin cross in contrast to the
Byzantine plan; the chancel end facing East, the nave West, and the
transepts respectively North and South.

A feature of this period is the Apse, a semi-circular extension of the
choir or chancel; when the side aisles were extended to the latter they
formed what is known as an ambulatory, or passage way, round the choir,
within which was the altar, and the stalls for monks and clergy.

The Narthex or atrium, of the basilicas, utilised by the early
Christians for their public worship (to which were admitted those
outside the community) was abandoned, its place being taken by the West
entrance or porch, enclosed between two towers.

[Illustration: No. 44. Romanesque plan of Cathedral, Worms.]

The upper walls of the nave were carried on arches supported by columns,
which constituted the division of the side aisles; these latter being
formed by vaultings from the nave columns to the outer walls, the
vaulting being roofed over.

The upper part of the nave was pierced by windows, small and
comparatively narrow, with semi-circular heads forming the Clerestory.
Similar windows in some instances occur in the aisles, the jambs of
these windows being bevelled both inside and out for the freer admission
of light.

The nave was roofed in with timber, but as the result of frequent
destruction by fire, the roof was eventually vaulted; in early examples
by the barrel or tunnel vault, but later this developed into
cross-vaulting, which was also introduced into the side aisles.

[Illustration: No. 45. Romanesque, bay of interior, Worms Cathedral.]

[Illustration: No. 47. Romanesque Church interior with Triforium.]

[Illustration: No. 46. Romanesque Window, St. Alban’s Abbey.]

In the early churches of this period the walls of the nave were unbroken
except for the upper windows. With the development of vaulting, the
space above the aisle vaults and the covering roof was used as a
gallery known as the Triforium. This was not lighted from without, and
was a distinguishing characteristic of the Romanesque and early Gothic
styles.

The introduction of vaulting in the roof of the nave entailed supports
for the arch bands or vaulting ribs, which were carried on pilasters or
half columns, dividing the interior façade into bays.

[Illustration: No. 48. Construction of intersecting vaults.]


_Dark Ages_

The unsettled condition of Europe, both before and after the final
subjugation of the Roman Empire by Charlemagne in 774 A.D., was
necessarily detrimental to artistic progress, and the period to the
fifteenth century may be truly described as the dark ages as regards the
arts and culture in general.

Such literary knowledge as survived was mostly confined to the priests,
and under the monastic and feudal systems that prevailed the bulk of the
people were kept in ignorance and subjection.

Building was devoted almost exclusively to fortresses and churches, the
domestic conditions being extremely crude as compared with earlier
periods, though Eastern luxury must have been known and experienced by
the alien adventurers to the Byzantine courts.

This was a period of reversion to comparative barbaric taste by people
indifferent to refinement and luxurious environment, to whom, however,
personal adornment would appeal in the form of jewellery and sumptuous
attire.

[Illustration: No. 49. Romanesque, south door Kilpeck Church,
Herefordshire.]

Domestic arrangements were simple in the extreme. The dwellings of the
well-to-do in England, similarly to those of the Scandinavians,
consisted principally of a barn-like hall. The centre of the hall was
occupied by a long table, and at one end raised on a platform or dais
another table was placed in the opposite direction. At the latter sat
the most important members of the household, while the lower part was
reserved for retainers and servants. Heavy chairs and settles were used
at the upper table, and benches or forms at the lower.

Walls, when covered at all, were adorned with hangings, but then only at
the dais end of the hall. Fireplaces in the modern sense were not known.
The fire was built on the floor, and the smoke allowed to escape as best
it might.

Arrangements for sleeping were no more complex than those for dining.
Beds were provided only for persons of distinction, and were placed in
recesses screened off from the hall by curtains or shutters. They were,
in fact, little more than wooden boxes, with sacks of straw to serve as
mattresses.

Later, bedsteads were used of massive construction, which on occasions
of journeying were placed on wheels, forming a sort of coach or carriage
ironically termed whirlicots, in which the aged and infirm were
transported.

[Illustration: No. 50. Chair of Dagobert, French 7th century, bronze.]

For some time after the Norman Conquest the unsettled state of the
country rendered it necessary that household effects and valuables
should be few in number and of such a nature as to be easily
transportable. Thus chests in which belongings could be stored came into
general use. They were simple in construction, and without carving, but
were strengthened and decorated by hinges and scroll strappings in iron.
Such chests served a double purpose, as they could be used as tables and
seats.

[Illustration: No. 51. 14th Century Textile Sicilian tradition.]

For convenience of transport, chairs and stools were made with
projecting tenons secured by pins or wedges so as to be easily taken
apart.


_Crusades_

That the Crusades were incidental to the importation of examples of
Eastern art, is evidenced by the celebrated cup of Eden Hall, on the
safe preservation of which depended the worldly welfare of the owners,
according to the couplet:

“If that cup either break or fall,
Farewell the luck of Eden Hall.”

This cup is of Saracenic origin, and is of glass, painted in enamels,
similar in character to the mosque lamps in the British Museum.

Tapestries of Sicilian manufacture were also introduced through the
medium of the Crusades, and led to the employment of painted wall
decoration, evidently in imitation, even in some instances to indicating
the folds of the material.

[Illustration: No. 52. Sicilian Textile.]

A precept exists in the twentieth year of the reign of Henry III
directing “that the King’s great chamber at Westminster be painted a
good green colour like a curtain,” and “that the King’s little wardrobe
should also be painted of a green colour to imitate a curtain.”

This was undoubtedly suggested by the custom abroad of draping the walls
with tapestries, though carpets were unknown. Probably the first time
these were seen in England was in the apartments in the Temple occupied
by the suite of the infant Don Sancho, archbishop elect of Toledo, who
with Don Garcias Madinez, officiated as _avant-courriers_ to Eleanor of
Castile in the autumn of 1255.


_Pointed Arch_

[Illustration: No. 53. Types of Buttress.]

The origin of the pointed Arch, which is the chief characteristic of the
Gothic style, is much disputed, but there is ample evidence that the new
departure appeared almost simultaneously in different parts of Europe
soon after the First Crusade. It is reasonable to assume that this
particular form was suggested by examples in Syria, where arches
elliptic and even ogival in shape were employed.

Though not common in Roman work, the pointed Arch was employed in the
Aqueduct built to supply Constantinople with water, completed under
Valens, 364-378 A.D., by which it is probable that the Saracenic work
was inspired.

Whatever the origin, the innovation was found to be economic, and more
sound in construction than the older prevailing method. It was also more
flexible in design, as apertures of varying dimensions could be spanned
with arches equal in height, which is not possible with the
semi-circular form, except by the expedient of stepping.

Further strength was imparted by the employment of buttresses on the
outer walls, as well as at the angles of the building.


_Gothic Style_

In France, England and Germany the Gothic style superseded the
Romanesque with varying phases of transition, and with local development
of character. In Spain the Moors had established a system of
architecture thoroughly Eastern that was but little affected by the
Gothic style, the influence of which is apparent in the later Spanish
rendering of the Renaissance.

In Italy the Gothic attained but slight development in comparison with
more northern and western treatments, at least from a structural point
of view. The Italian phase known as Lombardic is conspicuous for the
evidence of Eastern and Byzantine traditions.


_Phases of Gothic_

The phases and dates of the Gothic style in England are as follow, and
lasted well into the sixteenth century, with periods of transition:

     Early English or Pointed, 1189 to 1272. Transition 1272 to 1307.

     Middle period or Decorated, 1307 to 1377. Transition 1377 to 1407.

     Late or ... Perpendicular, 1407 to 1547.

[Illustration: No. 54. Early pointed Gothic Pier, elevation and plan.]

In church architecture the general plan and essential features of the
Romanesque style were preserved; but there was a complete change in the
details, as well as a general lightening of the whole structure.

The heavy columns or piers gave place to clusters of slender shafts,
which supported the archivolts and vaulting ribs, these shafts being
bound together at bases and capitals.

The Triforium was retained, the openings being arched and similar in
detail to the windows.


_Early Pointed_

In the early variety of the Pointed Gothic the arches were acutely
pointed, technically known as “lancet,” but later became more
equilateral. The windows were narrow in proportion, and were single, or
in groups.

[Illustration: No. 55. Early pointed bay with Triforium. Window of Aisle
is of later date.]

Later they were divided into compartments, and the triangular head
filled in with stonework, pierced with simple geometrical openings,
known as plate tracery, thus forming a transition between the simple
open lancet and the intersecting ribs, which constituted the true
tracery of the later periods.

Commonly shafts of circular section, with caps and bases, were employed
in the windows, both internally and externally.

Roofs were high pitched, and the ceilings vaulted, the vaulting ribs
being moulded and decorated at the intersections with carved bosses.

Mouldings were rich in effect, being composed of a succession of hollows
or flutings, contrasted and divided by rounded ribs in relief.

[Illustration: No. 56. Early Lancet Windows. A. Canterbury Cathedral. B.
Lincoln Cathedral. C. Salisbury Cathedral.]

[Illustration: No. 57. Early pointed Gothic Windows. Plate tracery.]

Carved detail occurs in the capitals of shafts, sometimes in leaf-like
forms in the bases and in the mouldings, also in the crockets, and
finials of the gables, and pinnacles of the buttresses.

[Illustration: No. 58. Early pointed Arch Mouldings.]

The ornament was extremely conventional, that on capitals, crockets and
other free positions consisting of crisply curling trefoil or
cinquefoil groups of lobes having little resemblance to natural type.

The later windows became more elaborate in the tracery, which was
essentially geometric, and further elaborated by cusping. Triforium
arches and canopy heads being similar in design.

[Illustration: No. 59. Early pointed Gothic Capital.]

[Illustration: No. 60. Pointed Gothic tracery Windows. A. Ely Cathedral.
B. Meophan Church, Kent.]

The central tower, which was common in the Romanesque, developed into
the spire, which was carried to a great height; the lower part
occasionally pierced with openings for purpose of interior lighting,
forming the lantern.


_Decorated Gothic_

The principal characteristics of the Decorated period are the form of
the Arch, the elimination of detached shafts and the enlarged clerestory
with increased lighting area.

The Arch, when used structurally, was still of the simple pointed form,
but in small windows, niches and canopies, the shape at the head became
ogival and the tracery displays considerable license as compared with
that of the preceding phase.

[Illustration: No. 61. Early pointed Gothic Spire, Warmington.]

[Illustration: No. 62. Decorated Gothic Windows. A. Merton College,
Oxford. B. Cathedral, Oxford.]

Mouldings were shallower as contrasted with the undercut hollows of the
earlier period; in many instances the arch mouldings were merely a
continuation of those of the supporting piers, which took the place of
the earlier detached shafts.

The greatest innovation occurs in the foliage, in which natural
suggestion is evident, adapted with considerable freedom, and skilful in
execution.

[Illustration: No. 63. Decorated Gothic Carving, Chancel screen,
Southwell Minster.]

In the preceding style the foliage of the capitals invariably sprung
from the necking, in simple firm curves, revealing the underlying
bell-shape. In the Decorated period the foliage generally wreaths round
the structural form, the detail being frequently deeply pierced and cut
away at the back till it was almost detached, giving an extremely rich
effect.

Diaper detail of pateræ, or foliage arranged in squares, occurs in the
spandrils between arches.

[Illustration: No. 64. Decorated Gothic Mouldings.]

[Illustration: Nos. 65 & 66. Decorated Gothic Capitals, leaves deeply
undercut and wreathed round bell.]

A distinct feature of this period and of the succeeding Perpendicular
style, is the battlement, which was used in all suitable positions
either as a parapet or as a cresting. The Decorated variety differs from
the later, in that the moulded edges only appear horizontally, whereas
in the Perpendicular period the moulded edge is continuous, being
carried round the angles of the battlement.

Externally the spire gave place to the tower with culminating lantern.

During the period of the style known as Decorated Gothic, furniture was
framed and panelled, and the details closely resembled those used in
architectural decoration in stone.

[Illustration: No. 67. Decorated Gothic Spire, Whittlesea.]

The general effect of Decorated is a tendency to horizontal banding, in
contrast to the vertical effect of the earlier period, to which
eventually the later Perpendicular reverted.


_Perpendicular Gothic_

In the succeeding phase the Triforium which had gradually become less
important, entirely disappeared and the clerestory windows enlarged, to
the extent that this part of the structure became merely a frame for the
increased glass areas.

It will be apparent from the foregoing that whereas in the early
churches of the Romanesque period the interior effect was mysterious
owing to inadequate openings for light, the later and growing tendency
was to increase the lighting capacity by enlarging the windows of the
clerestory.


_Glass Windows_

Doubtless the development in the size of windows was due to some extent
to the growing use of glass, which, though rare, was employed during the
later Romanesque through Byzantine tradition.

[Illustration: No. 68. Perpendicular Gothic Bay shewing development of
Clerestory.]

These early windows were geometric in design, consisting of medallions,
oval, circular or quatrefoil in shape, containing figure subjects set in
a diapered background, the whole being executed in small pieces of
coloured glass united by lead framings.

While the windows were single openings, this form of glazing necessarily
restricted the size, though more adequate lighting was achieved by
grouping two or more windows together.

With the development of tracery the technical difficulties were to some
extent overcome; a window divided into comparatively small compartments
could be more easily glazed than single openings of large size; thus
glazed windows of greater dimensions were rendered possible.

[Illustration: No. 69. Perpendicular Gothic Windows.

A. Aylsham Church, Norfolk.

B. King’s College Chapel, Cambridge.]

In the Decorated windows the lower lights were devoted to the subject,
which in many instances was carried through the area, regardless of the
dividing bars or mullions. In the Perpendicular each light or opening
had usually its own subject or figure, surmounted by canopies, the upper
spaces formed by intersection of the tracery bars were occupied by
various details suitable to the different shapes.

The Arch of the Perpendicular style is materially different, being
composed of elliptic curves struck from four centres.

Mouldings became even more shallow in section, and the tracery less
florid than formerly, though extremely rich in appearance when used in
the profusion that developed in the fan vaulting of this period.

[Illustration: No. 70. Perpendicular Gothic Fan Vaulting. St. Mary,
Aldermary.]

The foliation reverted to a more conventional character, and became
lifeless and monotonous in comparison with the Decorated work.

It must not be assumed that examples in every instance will be found
complete in any of these phases; on the contrary, the various styles
are to be found side by side in the same building, the result of later
additions or rebuilding.

[Illustration: No. 71. Perpendicular Gothic Tower, All Saints, Derby.]

Painted decoration and sculpture were also employed during the various
periods; wood-work where necessary was used, and in detail was in
harmony with the architectural character of the period.


_Civic Influences_

[Illustration: No. 72. Coronation Chair, Westminster Abbey, 13th
century.]

The feudal period was not favourable to the development of domestic
conditions, though considerable advance had been made by the fourteenth
century, chiefly by the Italian states and in the principal cities. The
importance of the latter is evidenced particularly in the City of
London, with its merchant class and civic authorities, who, by reason
of their wealth, attained potential political influence, the prevailing
contentious conditions necessitating the continual raising of large sums
of money.

Such conditions were favourable to the merchants, who, acting as
bankers, supplied the means, and thus a class was established and
apparently lived in profusion and some pretention to sumptuous
environment.

[Illustration: No. 73. Bedstead and Cradle from M.S. in Bodleian
Library, 14th century.]


_Effect of Commerce_

Similar conditions to those in England prevailed on the Continent with
certain local variations. A big stride was made with the development of
commerce, mainly through the agency of Venetian and Flemish merchants.
The effect of increasing opulence as signalised by the appearance in the
home of such comfort and refinement as had formerly been possible only
for princes and great nobles.

Among the luxuries imported were Oriental silks, carpets and pottery.

[Illustration: No. 74. Fireplace, 13th century.]


_Italy_

Whereas, throughout Europe generally, the Gothic character in furniture
and woodwork developed on similar lines, in Italy alone its appeal to
the national sympathies was not strong enough for it to become
thoroughly assimilated, and there the Byzantine style persisted.

The woods most in use were oak and chestnut. In Italy walnut and cypress
were used--the latter being considered especially valuable for chests.

Early examples of Italian chests are decorated with closely spaced
incised ornament, filled in with colour.

The Venetians derived from Persia and India a form of marquetry or inlay
of ivory, metal and various woods, generally geometric in design. The
wood used was stained in order to vary the colour.


_Foreign Influence in England_

Through the policy of seeking foreign princesses as brides for the
English kings, foreign influences crept in, and had a marked effect on
the development of style. Moreover, increasing commercial intercourse
with the Continent paved the way for the introduction of the new ideas
of the Renaissance then beginning to dawn in Italy.

The Wars of the Roses checked progress in many ways, but this was but
the more rapid when peace was restored with the advent of Henry VII.


_The House_

There was a great change in the character of the dwelling-house, which
though still built on defensive lines, was also arranged with a view to
domestic comfort and convenience. The commonest form of plan was that
in which the buildings were grouped round a central court and surrounded
by a moat. These buildings consisted of hall, parlour, kitchen and
domestic offices. The hall itself was lofty, had an open-timbered roof,
and was usually lighted from both sides. One end of the hall was
invariably screened off, and as the screen did not reach to the roof the
musicians’ gallery was placed above it. The fireplace was set in one of
the side walls. The windows, as a rule, had few lights, and these had
pointed and cusped heads. The upper rooms were accessible by staircases.

A not uncommon feature on the upper floor was the long gallery, which
generally traversed the whole length of the building immediately under
the roof.

The rooms were panelled most often to about two-thirds the height of the
wall, while the remaining third was of plaster.

The ceiling also was of plaster, which was moulded into intersecting
ribs arranged geometrically, sometimes with stalactite pendants at the
intersections.

Fireplaces were made of stone, and chimney-pieces sometimes of wood.

Furniture was beginning to assume some of its modern forms, as shown by
the chairs, which were railed, and copied from Italian models.

Buffets or sideboards with closed cupboards were in use. Table legs were
carved or turned, and connected by stretchers.

Windows were now glazed with leaded panes, and when made to open were of
the casement type, with iron frames which were hinged and furnished with
turnbuckle fastenings.

Doors seldom had locks, but usually shut with latches of wrought iron.
The hinges also were of wrought iron, and though simple in form were
often quite ornamental.

Henry VII and his successor were responsible for various country
residences, an example which was followed by the nobility.

During the latter monarch’s reign it became the fashion to arrange the
plan of the mansion in the form of the letter H; that is, in two
parallel wings connected at a right angle. In the reign of Elizabeth
this was modified into a plan resembling the letter E, otherwise a
façade, with wings bent at right angles, with a central projection
forming the main entrance.

In the domestic Tudor style the Arch was in vogue for window openings,
etc., but much flattened in form.

The windows were divided into a number of lights, by vertical mullions,
with arch headings, occasionally cusped. If of tall proportions, they
were further divided by horizontal bars or transoms, and were glazed
with small panes of glass set in lead frames, arranged in some cases to
open in iron casements.

[Illustration: No. 75. Tudor Window with leaded lights.]


_The Reformation_

An important factor in the development of this period was the
Reformation, with the resultant liberty of thought. Before this,
architecture and the associated arts were entirely dominated by the
Church, at the sacrifice of the individuality of the artist and
craftsman, who after this emancipation were enabled to exploit their
work untrammelled by clerical restriction.

In some respects this was not productive of the best results, as it
removed the various co-ordinated branches of work from the restraint of
architectural dominance, with some loss to the unities. It also opened
the way to the professional designer as distinct from the craftsman (who
hitherto had been responsible for his share of the work) resulting in
occasional loss of character.


_Renaissance_

The Renaissance, which had its origin it Italy, was the next factor in
the evolution of architecture and the arts. As early as 1422 there were
indications of the coming change, though the medieval system of
construction was still adhered to.

Impetus was given to this revival by the taking of Constantinople by the
Turks in 1453 A.D., resulting in the dispersion of the Greek scholars,
who found refuge in Italy.

Gothic, essentially a Northern style, scarcely affected Italy, where
Byzantine tradition persisted until the Revival of Learning in the
latter half of the fifteenth century brought a fresh impulse into all
branches of Art and Literature.

An awakened interest in classical remains was an integral part of the
vitality with which the great change known in its culmination as the
Renaissance was imbued; and the commercial prosperity of the times was
favourable to its encouragement and development.


_Early Exponents_

An active agent in this revival was Brunelleschi, a native of Florence,
who in company with Donatello, visited Rome to study the remains of
classical antiquity. His principal successor, Leo Battista Alberti,
contributed largely to the new style. Ultimately the Roman Orders and
their details were appropriated and adapted to local requirements.

The most prominent artists of the day turned their attention to the
designing and making of wood-work, and the decoration of rooms.

[Illustration: No. 76. Strozzi Palace, Florence.]

The earlier work is severely architectural in character, being closely
based on the antique, with all the usual features of columns, pilasters,
cornices and pediments.

The greatest achievement of the architects of the Renaissance was
perhaps their adaptation of the antique Roman style to the modified
needs of secular buildings, of which the Palazzo Pitti at Florence by
Brunelleschi is an early and notable example. This creating a form of
architecture which perhaps reached its noblest expression in the Palazzo
Strozzi, begun in 1489 A.D. by Benedetto da Majano.

As previously suggested, climate and local material are essential agents
in the formation of style, and from Tuscany stone of large size was
easily obtainable.

[Illustration: No. 77. Pandolfini Palace, Florence.]

The contentious conditions existing in many of the Italian cities,
entailing necessity for defence, must also be taken into account, and in
connection with the foregoing were responsible for the massive and
fortress-like construction of the principal dwellings of this period.

In the best examples of these, though columns and pilasters were not
employed in the façade, the stories are proportioned as if the orders
were used. The crowning cornice, however, is proportioned to the whole,
varying in height between one fourteenth to one fifteenth.

From Florence the movement spread to Rome and other cities, but Venetian
Renaissance indicates undoubted evidence of Lombardic influence.

Until the end of the fifteenth century the period was one of experiment,
but from 1500 to about 1560 the style may be said to have attained a
phase distinct and local.

At first the various features, structural and decorative, were frank
reproductions from the antique, which were studied and measured, and
from which systems of proportion were deduced by various exponents,
among whom the names of Vignola, Palladio and Serlio are conspicuous.


_Rome_

The Roman version of the Renaissance, as distinct from that of Florence,
was less massive, Rome being comparatively free from insurrectionary
troubles. Columns and pilasters were used to divide the façade into
bays, or in the inner courts, which were frequently arcaded, and the
principal entrance became a prominent feature.

The founder of the Roman school was Bramante, born in 1444 A.D.,
originally a painter, who was responsible for the original design of St.
Peter’s, at the instigation of Pope Julius II.

The partly executed work was found to be too weak to bear the
superstructure, and Bramante in the meanwhile dying, Raffaelle, Giocondo
and Giuliano di San Gallo, and afterwards Baldazzare Peruzzi and Antonio
San Gallo were engaged on the edifice.

[Illustration: No. 78. St. Peter’s, Rome.]

Finally Michael Angelo was entrusted with the sole conduct, and St.
Peter’s in its present form must be credited to him, with the exception
of the nave, which was added by Carlo Maderno.

Of the secular buildings, the Farnese Palace, the work of San Gallo, is
typical of the Roman adaptation of the antique architecture to the
altered conditions.

To the above list of architects of the Roman Renaissance may be added
the names of Sansovino, Vignola and Bernini, the last-named being the
author of designs for the Louvre at Paris.

[Illustration: No. 79. Farnese Palace, Rome.]


_Venice_

The Venetian States, since the twelfth century, had been growing in
power, and the Republic’s rise in importance was favourable to the arts,
particularly to architecture.

Local influence is evident in the comparatively restricted ground areas,
entailing the maximum accommodation possible.

The Venetian school is distinguished by the profuse use of columns and
arcading; also for the employment of circular-headed windows, frequently
subdivided by tracery of smaller arched and circular forms, and by
general lightness of effect.

The founder of the Venetian school was San Micheli, born in 1484 A.D.,
who spent many years studying the ancient Roman monuments, and who was
responsible for the Grimani Palace.

Jacopo Tatti, a Florentine, more usually known as Sansovino, though
mentioned in the Roman group of architects, was however more associated
with Venice, his adopted city.

[Illustration: No. 80. Vendramini Palace, Venice.]

Prominent among his works is the Library of St. Mark, which consists of
two orders, an upper of the Ionic, supported by an arcade in which the
Doric is employed, the whole surmounted by a balustrade with statues on
the piers.


_Venetian Influence_

In the Venetian school must be included the name of Andrea Palladio, who
possibly had a greater influence on the architecture of the time than
any of his contemporaries; an influence that may be traced in the work
of Inigo Jones, and in that of Sir Christopher Wren and his immediate
school.

Vincenzo Scamozzi, who died in 1616 A.D., like Palladio and others, was
influenced by the antique, and was perhaps the last architect of the
Venetian school to attain celebrity.

[Illustration: No. 81. Library of St. Mark by Sansovino, Venice.]


_Painted Decoration_

A conspicuous feature of the Italian Renaissance was the development of
painted decoration, which had in Italy succeeded the Byzantine mosaic.

As in this method of decoration, mouldings in relief were ineffective,
and were replaced by decorative bands or borders, so in the succeeding
painted work similar framings were adopted.

[Illustration: No. 82. Painted Decoration. Palazzo Publico, Sienna, from
a drawing by C. E. Bernard, Goldsmiths’ College School of Art.]

[Illustration: No. 83. Painted Ceiling in the Castello San Angelo, Rome,
by Giulio Romano, from a drawing by Miss Dora Bard, Goldsmiths’ College
School of Art.]

[Illustration: No. 84. Painted Decoration in the collonade of the Villa
Papa Giulio, Rome, showing Pompeian influence, from a drawing by C. E.
Bernard, Goldsmiths’ College School of Art.]

[Illustration: No. 85. Ceiling-Painting from the Castello San Angelo,
Rome, reminiscent of Graeco-Roman work, from a drawing by C. E. Bernard,
Goldsmiths’ College School of Art.]

Mosaics were in vogue in Italy to the twelfth century, when painted
decoration came into favour, and notable in the exploitation of this
latter phase was the school of Giotto in the early part of the
fourteenth century.

Vaultings and spandrils were covered with painted subjects, strongly
framed by ornamental borders, which served to strengthen the sense of
construction in reinforcing the dividing ribs.

With the advent of the Renaissance, these divisional bands became more
architectural in treatment, and large areas, such as ceilings, were
subdivided, the sub-divisions being based on a logical sense of
construction.

The name of Pinturrichio is associated with the Renaissance, among his
works being the decorations of the Appartamenti Borgia in the Vatican,
the Choir in Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome, and in Santa Maria Maggiore
at Spello; contemporaneous was Perugino; another celebrated name is that
of Gian Antonio Bazzi of Sienna, generally known as Sodoma.


_Græco-Roman Influence_

Later exploiters of painted decoration, Raffaelle at the Vatican, Giulio
Romano, Pierino del Vaga and Giovanni da Udine, were evidently
influenced by the then recent discovery of late Græco-Roman decorations
in the remains of the Baths of Titus.

The same influence is found also in minor details--in the decoration of
rooms and in the various pieces of furniture.

Walls were panelled, sometimes enriched with carving, with inlaid
patterns in intarsia, or with inlay of different woods in imitation of
marble mosaic. Hangings of Genoese velvet or stamped and gilded leather
were often used.

Chairs were at first simple in form, having straight backs and legs,
with broad, elaborately carved rails at the head of the back and between
the front legs.

Chests or cassone, called also marriage coffers, because it was
customary to give them as wedding presents, generally took the form of
the sarcophagus, supported on claw feet. In many instances they were
decorated with gilt gesso, or were covered with exuberant carving.

With the development of inlay, which degenerated into picture making,
some later examples show attempts at perspectives, in which arches,
doors, balustrades and paved floors were depicted. Cabinets were
invariably raised on open supports and furnished with doors enclosing
compartments and sets of drawers, the fronts of which were frequently
decorated.

[Illustration: No. 86. Venetian Table.]

Tables were inlaid, carved and gilded. The prevailing form was a
rectangular top, sometimes of marble, with wide, richly carved supports
consisting of human and animal forms at either end; these were connected
by a central stretcher at the base, from which sprang a series of arched
forms reaching to the underside of the top.

Walnut was commonly employed for constructive purposes, and ebony and
many other woods were used both for veneers and inlay, as also were
such materials as ivory, tortoiseshell and mother-of-pearl.

It is not easy to form an idea of the furniture in ordinary use, as the
examples which survive and which can generally be seen in museums are
misleading, being typical rather of that belonging to the nobility and
wealthy classes.

Probably owing to the rougher usage to which it was subjected, and
possibly also to its being but little esteemed by its owners, and
consequently no effort being made to preserve it, the domestic furniture
of the middle classes seems to have disappeared.

[Illustration: No. 87. Carved Walnut Chair. Italian, 16th century.]


_Early French Renaissance_

France had been brought into contact with the new architecture through
the Italian wars under Charles VIII, Louis XII, and Francis I.

The chief characteristic of the early French Renaissance is that the
details of the new school were imposed on structures which were Gothic
in general form.

Italian architects were employed by Francis I, and although in the many
important buildings erected for him he preferred native workmen,
Italians were retained to furnish designs and lead the new style.
Leonardo da Vinci and Andrea del Sarto were both employed in the
decoration of Fontainebleau.

[Illustration: No. 88. Wood Panelling. Early French Renaissance.]

Fontainebleau, Chateau de Chambord, Chenonceaux sur Loire, Chateau de
Madrid and the commencement of the Louvre were all due to Francis I, and
the Italian influence was strengthened by the marriage of Henry II with
Catharine di Medici.

[Illustration: No. 89. Stone Chimney-piece, Fontainbleau, Henry II
Salon.]


_Native Exploitation_

Under the influence of Vignola and Serlio, the Italian style became more
popular, and finally extinguished the lingering Gothic tradition; and
eventually the assimilated style became local, the first prominent
native exploiter being Philibert Delorme, the architect of the
Tuileries, for Queen Catharine of Medicis.

Strapwork was a pronounced feature of this period, carved panels being
subdivided by framings of straight and curved forms interlaced with
cornucopæ and scroll work. Scrolling straps with I shaped incisions were
also used.

[Illustration: No. 90. Wood Panel. Early French Renaissance.]

Masks are of frequent occurrence, and sometimes form scroll centres.

Medallions were often employed, and were occupied by profile heads, and
surrounded by foliated wreaths.

Pilasters were narrow, and had sunk and moulded panels, lozenge shaped
in the centre.

In England great impetus was given to building, consequent on the
suppression of the religious houses during the reign of Henry VIII, and
mansions were erected in various parts of the country with some
pretension to both external effect and domestic comfort, not merely by
the nobility, but also by the wealthy merchant class.


_English Renaissance_

From the rise of the Italian Renaissance a century elapsed before the
new style began to affect English work.

[Illustration: No. 91. French Chair. Period Henry II.]

In Italy classic tradition had never died, and consequently Gothic
gained no real hold there, the best examples of Italian Gothic being
inferior to those of France and England. In the early days of the
Revival of Learning, when interest in architecture was at its height,
Italians set out to emulate the style of building and decoration which
prevailed in ancient Rome. Gradually the same spirit spread to other
parts of Europe. Students were attracted to the birth-place of the
Revival, and workers and designers from Italy were eagerly welcomed by
her neighbours.

Naturally enough each country interpreted the new style in a different
way, and as it reached England chiefly through France and the
Netherlands, the French and Flemish interpretations in turn influenced
the development of the English style.

[Illustration: No. 92. Walnut Chair upholstered in Appliqué. Italian,
about 1600.]


_Italians in England_

Before either French or Flemish influence had been felt, however, there
were Italian workers settled in England carrying out designs purely
Italian in character. The earliest example is the tomb of Henry VII in
Westminster Abbey, by Torrigiano. Many tombs and monuments were made
entirely by Italians. Holbein, who was employed by Henry VIII, was
distinctly a Renaissance painter and designer and encouraged the new
movement.

As the style became more widely disseminated it lost much of its
original purity, and classical details were used in conjunction with
Gothic forms and methods of construction, due, doubtless, to the
apparent difficulty with which the native workers grasped the essentials
of the new style; indeed, there is more intermixing of styles in England
than in any other part of Europe with the exception of Flanders.

[Illustration: No. 93. Stone Chimney-piece. Sala Borgia, Rome. 16th
Century.]

The purely Italian phase was followed by a rendering which was largely
borrowed from French work, and this in turn was supplanted by the
influence of the Flemish interpretation. The delicately modelled
foliage, dolphins, candelabra, vases and cherubs, so characteristic of
Italian and French work, were replaced by such typically Flemish details
as interlacing strapwork with curved and scrolled ends, frequently
cartouche-like in form, festoons of fruit and foliage, and terminal
figures used as pilasters.


_Study of Classic Style_

In the late Jacobean and succeeding phases the classic manner was more
thoroughly understood, and a more scholarly handling was the result,
until the culmination was reached in the work of Inigo Jones and Wren.

The Elizabethan phase indicates an imperfectly understood, and in many
instances meaningless, employment and adaptation of Italian forms to the
requirements of the times.

A notable example if this is the central feature of the Public Schools
at Oxford, the work of Thomas Holt, a native of York, in which the
orders appear ranged one above the other.


_Thomas Thorpe_

The most prominent name associated with the architecture of the period
is Thomas Thorpe, who was concerned in many of the principal edifices
erected during the reign of Elizabeth and of her successor, James I.

The general arrangement of woodwork consisted of architectural façades,
and the orders and pediments were utilised wherever possible.

Doorways and chimney-pieces offered the principal opportunities for
display in interior work.

Panelling was retained for the large halls and most of the rooms. The
walls were frequently divided into bays by means of pilasters and
surmounted by friezes and cornices more or less determined by
traditional forms.


_Flemish Influence_

The style degenerated in the same reign into a coarser rendering, and
was followed by a period of strong Flemish influence. There is, in fact,
such a marked similarity between the later Elizabethan and Flemish
furniture and wood-work that it is not easy to distinguish the
nationality of examples of this period. In cases where figure sculpture
is employed, however, it is not difficult to decide, as a considerably
higher standard was attained by the Flemish school of figure carvers
than is found in English work.

Tapered pilaster-like supports, surmounted by half figures or Ionic
caps, were often employed in the framing of doors and chimney-pieces,
and sometimes on furniture. Table supports and newels of stairs
increased in size. The heavy acorn-shaped baluster is a feature. Inlay
came into use for panelling as well as for furniture.

Synchronously with the changes in detail, there was a more classical
tendency displayed in moulded features such as strings and cornices.

In the early seventeenth century the scale of the details of Flemish
work increased. Diamond-shaped panels were superimposed on square ones;
turned work was split and the two halves applied; drop ornaments were
used below tables and from the centres of panels under arches--all these
being additions to the general structure.


_Jacobean_

English work developed in much the same way as Flemish, probably owing
to the commerce in wood-work between England and Flanders at this time.

In the earlier work, where the orders were employed, there was some
regard to proportion and detail, probably direct translation of Italian
designs, but in the later Jacobean work there was considerable
falling-off, presumably due to native exploitation and experiment.

[Illustration: No. 94. Jacobean Wood Carving. Palace of Bromley-by-Bow.]

Architectural feeling was prominent in the treatment of interiors, which
were invariably panelled as in the earlier period. The characteristic
“linen fold” variety of the late Tudor giving place to plain panelling,
framed by stiles and rails closely spaced.

Walls were occasionally divided into bays by means of pilasters, often
supported on pedestals.

The panels in the later development were invariably plain, but a
decorated frieze, carved in relief, was carried round immediately under
the cornice. Coats of arms at intervals sometimes supplied the
decoration. The carved frieze gave place to a simple form of patterning,
which was produced by sinking the ground to practically one level and
leaving the ornament which had little or no modelling, flush with the
face of the panel. This led to fretting out the pattern and applying it
to the surface. The idea of planting ornament evidently spread, and may
be seen in such obviously applied details as studs and half-balusters.

A typical room of the period would be treated with plain panelling,
perhaps divided into bays by pilasters, and all elaboration was confined
to the doorways and chimney-piece.

[Illustration: No. 95. Jacobean Wood Carving. Palace of Bromley-by-Bow.]

The chimney-piece might be in wood, stone or marble, and while there
were many varieties of treatment, the designs readily fall under one
general type. Columns or pilasters flanked the opening,

[Illustration: No. 96. Jacobean Chimney-piece. Palace of
Bromley-by-Bow.]

carrying an entablature consisting of architrave frieze and cornice, the
latter forming a shelf. Above this there was a similar arrangement, but
on a smaller scale and with finer proportions. The space between the
columns above the shelf was usually filled with carving, which sometimes
took the form of armorial bearings. In many examples the upper part is
divided into two panels, which were generally filled with carved
ornament such as strapwork or shields charged with heraldic devices.

Where the chimney-piece was of wood, the fireplace opening was
surrounded by a stone lining, which had moulded splays on the upright
jambs. In earlier examples the jambs were connected by a flattened arch
with carved spandrils. In later work a horizontal panel was employed or
a frieze of carved detail.

The opening itself was wide, and was lined with brick or stone. The
interior was occupied by a fire-back of cast-iron and a movable grate or
basket supported on dogs.

[Illustration: No. 97. Jacobean Door, shewing absense of architrave.]

Doors were at first merely a part of the panelling without hanging
frames, but later they were treated as important features of the rooms.
They were often framed with columns and pilasters, surmounted by
entablatures, with or without pediments. Obelisks were sometimes placed
over the pilasters. The frieze was fluted or carved. In many cases the
tympanum of the pediment or even one of the door panels bore the owner’s
coat of arms.

In the earlier phases the mouldings framing the panels were simple in
form, and worked on the stiles and rails. But later they were applied,
being wider in display and more elaborate in section. These applied
mouldings, evidently the result of mechanical appliances, later led to
extreme license in broken angles and panellings of complicated form.

[Illustration: No. 98. Jacobean Doors.]

Ceilings, and occasionally the frieze, were in plaster, decorated with
intersecting ribs, or bands dividing the surface into compartments
geometric in shape, and further enriched with stamped or modelled
ornament.

Windows were relatively small as to individual openings, large lighting
areas being obtained by grouping a number of these side by side, and
also in tiers, the dividing bars or mullions being either in wood or
stone.

Glazing took the form of small pieces of glass united by lead frames,
commonly arranged in trellis form, resulting in diamond-shaped pieces.
Occasionally painted or coloured glass was used, generally in heraldic
devices in the upper portions of the windows.

The windows themselves were frequently deeply embayed.


_Development in Dwellings_

The growing appreciation of domestic comfort, evident in the general
arrangement of the buildings of this period, is also apparent in the
furniture, which from this time approximates somewhat to the modern
forms, though still crude, and leaving much to be desired in the way of
personal comfort.

[Illustration: No. 99. Oak Table, English. 17th century.]

Tables, which had hitherto been mere portable boards laid on trestles,
or, if fixed, were on heavy legs with rails below, developed into more
useful forms. These were the draw-inge table which could be extended by
drawing out two flaps worked on runners from beneath the normal top,
and the gate-leg table, which in principle resembled the modern folding
type. Large tables were formed by putting a number of gate-leg tables
together, and when not so in use they could be placed in different parts
of the room.

[Illustration: No. 100. English Chairs, early 17th century.]

Legs and the under rails of chairs and tables were turned in the lathe,
and the carved details were invariably simple and direct in execution,
similar in character to much of the work in the early French
Renaissance, in contrast to the Italian carving, which was in high
relief and plastic in character.

The majority of examples in our national collection of this period are
of Court furniture, and cannot be taken as typical of what was in common
use. The over-ornamented Italian work compares unfavourably with the
English Jacobean furniture, in which utility is obvious and the
decoration subordinate and to the purpose.

Oak was chiefly employed in England, but in Italy, and later in France,
walnut was much used.

[Illustration: No. 101. English Chair, middle of 17th century,
influenced by Italian design.]

Panelling was prevalent for interiors in the Italian and French
Renaissance. In Italy, where the art of weaving had been preserved at
Lucca, and other places, tapestry was also frequently employed as wall
hangings, also as coverings for upholstered work.

[Illustration: No. 102. Oak Chair, English, 17th century.]

Compared with the earlier period, this was a time of luxury and display,
favourable to the arts generally.

Painting, freed from the restrictions of the church, broke away from the
Byzantine traditions, and revelling in realism, lost to some extent its
decorative character.

[Illustration: Dutch Wall sconce 17th Centy Brass

No. 103.]


_Evolution of Professional Designer_

Under patronage, the individual artist and craftsman was allowed to
develop on his own lines, and no longer worked under the dominance of
the architect. Demand, owing to growing appreciation of artistic
production, eventuated in the evolution of the professional designer.


_Inigo Jones_

[Illustration: Dutch Wall Bracket 17th Centy Brass.

No. 104.]

Although the Renaissance had come to stay, the manner of its
interpretation in England by the native workers was very far removed
from the Italian school which had supplied the first impulse, until the
advent of Inigo Jones in the reign of James I. This artist, who had
visited Italy and studied principally the architecture of Palladio and
his school, was appointed King’s Surveyor of Works. Under his influence
proportions and details were used, which conformed more nearly to
classic types.

Born about 1572 A.D., he studied in Italy, where he became acquainted
with the work of Palladio, and was a follower of the Venetian school.

Dying in 1652, he left a tradition which would have had a more immediate
effect but for the internecine troubles of the later period of his life.

[Illustration: No. 105. Banqueting House, Whitehall. Inigo Jones.]

A typical example of his work in London is the Banqueting House in
Whitehall, the only part built of the projected palace for James I, now
used as a museum by the United Service Institution. Also the Church of
St. Paul, Covent Garden.


_Louis XIII_

By the time of Louis XIII the principles of the Renaissance had become
thoroughly assimilated in France, and a native school of architecture
had arisen of marked distinction. France from then onward took the
initiative, though strongly influenced by the Venetian school.

The orders were used consistently as to proportion and detail, but in
the decoration considerable development in character is manifest.

The general construction and details developed on

[Illustration: No. 106. Louis XIII. Luxembourg Pavilion Entrance, by
Salamon de Brose, 1615-24.]

more architectural lines, and shew a better appreciation of the Italian
originals. Pilasters were used to divide the wall surfaces, these and
the entablatures closely following in detail the classic types. Panels
were much wider than in the preceding style, generally occupying the
whole space between the pilasters. The usual arrangement for these
panels was to have them in two tiers--the shallow ones confined to the
lower portions of walls and those of deeper proportions above.
Fireplaces and doors were surrounded by boldly moulded architraves, and
surmounted by panels occupied by carved details of scroll-work and
foliage.

[Illustration: No. 107. Ste. Marie, Nevers. Louis XIII. Example of
Barocco (Flemish influence).]

[Illustration: No. 108. Upholstered Chair. Louis XIII.]

Ceilings were modelled in stucco and sub-divided into compartments,
which were richly moulded, and in some cases decorated with paintings.

During the reign of Louis XIII, chairs were made more comfortable by
being upholstered in velvet, tapestry or needlework, instead of being
smothered with carving. The frames were covered by velvet or other
material, leaving only the legs and arms visible, and these were but
slightly carved.


_Louis XIV_

In France the Renaissance reached its highest degree of splendour in the
reign of Louis XIV.

[Illustration: No. 109. Louis XIV. Louvre, Paris, by Perrault.]

The palace of Versailles, designed by Jules Hardouin Mansart, was
completed, and French designers were many and famous. Amongst the most
prominent were Lebrun, who was responsible for much of the interior work
at Versailles, Jean and Claude Berain, Lepautre, Daniel Marot and André
Charles Boule, the inventor of the particular class of inlay which bears
his name.

The style of Louis XIV is characteristic of its time. Love of display
was manifested in every direction, but nowhere did it give rise to
greater magnificence than in furniture and decoration.

The employment of architectural features, with a close approximation to
accepted proportions, had been the keynote of the preceding style, but
the work of this period broke away from all tradition. As a departure
it was quite original, and constituted a phase in the development of the
Renaissance that was purely and typically French, and this particularly
in its massiveness and grandeur.

[Illustration: No. 110. The King’s Bedchamber, Versailles. Louis XIV.]

Panelling became more varied in proportion, and heavily framed with
mouldings of the Bolection type. Glass was also used in panels as at
Versailles in the Hall of Mirrors, where the windows on one side of the
gallery are repeated in form by mirrors in reciprocal positions.

Important rooms were panelled and divided by pilasters, surmounted by
entablatures. The Corinthian order was the one most frequently used.

Panel mouldings were heavily and richly carved. Curved sections and
facias were fluted, or carved with guilloche or leaf detail. Figures and
_amorini_, heavy festoons, wreaths, cartouches and shields were among
the decorative motifs. Strapwork, a survival of the preceding styles,
was moulded and clothed with foliage of the acanthus variety.

Ceilings were modelled in stucco and were divided into bold geometrical
compartments by strongly moulded ribs. The compartments were sometimes
occupied by paintings. In some cases the cornice was not taken up to the
height of the ceiling, but the ceiling line was continued in form of a
curve to meet the top of the cornice, forming what is known as a cove.

[Illustration: No. 111. Upholstered Chair. Louis XIV.]

Chairs were massive, the frames were carved and gilt, and the seats and
backs upholstered in tapestry. In the latter part of the reign of Louis
XIV metal was used in the construction of furniture in the form of
mounts--as framing and protecting pieces to angles, and was gilt by the
mercury process. The introduction of veneer probably led to this use of
metal.


_"Boule” Work_

A method of decorating furniture with inlays of brass or tin and
tortoiseshell originated by André Charles Boule, came into vogue. The
sheets of metal and shell were placed together and cut simultaneously,
with the result that the patterns produced were interchangeable--thus
the metal pattern could be fitted with a tortoiseshell background and
vice versa. There was a tendency for this style of work to become more
ornate and showy, and later, instead of the transparent shell being used
in its natural colour, either vermilion or gold leaf was placed
underneath.


_Mirrors_

Mirrors, in the sixteenth century, had been imported from Italy, and
those of considerable size were first made in Venice.

Later glass manufactories were established in England--near
Battersea--and in France, where larger mirrors and plates of glass were
produced than hitherto.

Rooms lined with mirrors became popular, in some cases even the ceiling
being made of glass.

Console tables, which were frequently gilt, were often placed under the
large wall mirrors.

Hanging bands of material were employed to drape the heads of windows
and the tops of bedsteads. Beds were important pieces of furniture, and
had elaborately carved head and foot boards. The overhanging Tester was
also ornamented, and besides the valances already mentioned, was
surmounted by groups of plumes.

[Illustration: No. 112. Pantheon, Paris. Soufflet. Louis XV.]


_Louis XV_

Little advance was made in architecture during the reign of Louis XV, to
which period belongs the Pantheon at Paris, originally the Church of St.
Geneviéve, the work of Soufflet, born in 1713.


_Régence_

The style passed through two stages. The earlier, known as the
Régence--the principal exponents of which were Charles Cressent, Gilles
Marie Oppenord, and Nicholas Pineau--is distinguished by a certain
reserve and moderation which were entirely abandoned in the later Rococo
period.


_Rococo_

The term “Rococo” is derived from a French word meaning rockwork, and is
applied to the style in which rock and shell forms are used as details.

[Illustration: No. 113. Detail of Wood-carving, Regency Period.]

Ornament became extravagant and meaningless, and was wrongly used to
serve the purpose of construction, the actual constructive elements
being at times completely ignored. It cannot be denied, however, that
powerful draughtsmanship and inventiveness were displayed, but without
the consideration of practical execution, which is essential to all good
design.

Evidently the artist or designer dominated the craftsman, who, however,
grappled with difficulties in an admirable manner, often achieving
results which would appear from the constructional point of view almost
impossible of attainment.

The work of the latter part of the period expresses the enervated and
frivolous spirit of the time.

Walls were panelled and often divided by pilasters, which, however, lost
all structural significance.

Cornices and friezes were dispensed with, the frieze being replaced by a
cove curving into the ceiling.

Mouldings were broken at angles and intersections into curves, scrolls
and foliage.

Carved details of the curiously twisted leafage peculiar to the style
were employed wherever possible.

Painted panels were fashionable, and were used particularly over
doorheads. They were surrounded or framed by curved and enriched
mouldings.

[Illustration: No. 114. Carved Wood Door. Louis XV.]

Interiors of this later period were invariably painted white, and partly
gilt, the wall panels decorated with tapestry or paintings with which
are associated the names of Bouchier, Watteau, and Fragonard.

Ceilings were also painted, wall mirrors were employed and furniture (at
this period at times extremely costly) was veneered and decorated with
metal mounts in gilt ormolu.

Chair and table legs were of the cabriole type.

Bureaux fronts were swelled into curves both horizontally and
vertically.

Veneer and marqueterie were much used.

Chased and gilt brass was employed to protect angles, as feet, handles,
escutcheons and other ornamental details.

[Illustration: French Louis XV

No. 115.]

[Illustration: No. 116. Chair with cane back English, later half 17th
century.]


_Lacquer “Vernis Martin"_

Furniture was also decorated in imitation of Chinese lacquer. The
principal worker in it was Robert Martin, who introduced a varnish of
fine transparent quality.


_Later English Renaissances_

Artistic progress was hindered in England by the disturbed conditions
at the time of the Civil War, and in consequence little change in style
took place in this and the Commonwealth period.

With the Restoration came the influence of the French Court, and foreign
furniture was imported, thus giving fresh models for the English
workers.

One result of the Great Fire in 1666 was that a great impetus was given
to architecture and to the crafts associated with it, and the influence
of Wren and Grinling Gibbons produced a school of most efficient carvers
and craftsmen.


_Sir Christopher Wren_

Wren was a worthy successor to Inigo Jones, and the general destruction
wrought by the fire in the city gave him a fine field for his activity.
He was employed not only to rebuild the churches, eighty-nine of which
had been burnt, but also many of the city halls; and was commissioned by
William and Mary to build the state-rooms at Hampton Court Palace.

[Illustration: No. 117. English Chair, period of Charles II.]

The style of Wren, which, like that of Inigo Jones, was based rather
upon the Venetian school, was perpetuated and found individual exponents
in the works of his pupils and immediate successors. Among whom may be
mentioned James Gibbs (1720 to 1754), architect of St. Martin’s in the
Fields (1726) and St. Mary le Strand, and Nicholas Hawksmoor, who was
responsible for the churches of St. George’s, Bloomsbury, and St. Mary,
Woolnoth, the latter commenced in 1716 was finished in 1718.

[Illustration: No. 118. St. Paul’s Cathedral. Wren.]

Notable among Wren’s churches is that of St. Stephen’s, Walbrook, in the
City of London; of his secular work an example may be cited in the
library of Trinity College, Cambridge.


_Classic Spires_

A characteristic of the period in the churches of Wren and his school is
the spire, which, though tapering like the Gothic variety, is invested
with features quite Renaissance in form, arranged in successive tiers.

The architecture of the period is in excellent proportion, and all the
details of mouldings, capitals, etc., were executed in a masterly
manner.

Panelling was still employed, mostly in oak, and was now carried up to
the ceiling. The panels were very wide, frequently bevelled at the
edges--the stiles and rails forming the framings being much wider than
hitherto. The framing mouldings were sometimes carved.

[Illustration: No. 119. Spire of St. Mary le Strand.]

Doorways and chimneypieces were surrounded by well-designed architraves,
with carved mouldings, and were surmounted by pediments, above which it
was not unusual to have carved festoons and pendants of fruit and
foliage.

[Illustration: No. 120. English Interior Wood-work. Late 17th and early
18th century.]

Pilasters were decorated with cherubs’ heads used as caps, and pendant
drops of the usual type.

Carving was profusely used, the details consisted mainly of interlacing
scrollwork of acanthus-like foliage, heavy fruit and flower festoons and
drops, trophies and cherubs’ heads. The relief was high, the work
occasionally being detached, and the manner of execution was sharp and
crisp, implying no hesitation on the part of the carver.

The high relief necessitated building up thicknesses of wood, and formed
a great contrast to the earlier work in which the ground was slightly
set back, leaving the original panel face as the highest part of the
pattern.

The woods commonly used were oak for wainscotting and cedar for doors.
Where it was intended that the woodwork should be painted or gilt it was
made in deal. Some of the carving was in oak, but the favorite material
was limewood, and pear; cedar or lime was used when small fine detail
was required. Elm was employed for various articles such as dressers:
ash, beech, birch, poplar, sycamore, English and Italian walnut were
also used.


_Dutch and French Influences_

With William III and his Dutch court the influence of the Netherlands
became once more apparent. It was coloured by the French style of the
Louis XIV period, probably through an immigration of French workmen
after the Edict of Nantes in 1685. This influence can be traced in some
of the furniture at Hampton Court, particularly in the carved and gilt
tables of French design and English workmanship.

[Illustration: No. 121. A. Walnut Chair, period of Queen Anne. B. Dutch
Chair, 17th century. C. Inlaid Chair, period of Queen Anne. D. Carved
Chair, period of Queen Anne.]

The chairs and settees of the period have shaped backs, generally with
delicately carved central vertical panels of vase-like form; and
cabriole legs with a carved shell ornament on the knee.

Bureaux and corner cupboards were introduced. They were decorated with
marqueterie or with inlay of boxwood or holly on a walnut ground.


_Queen Anne Period_

Flemish or Dutch influence prevailed during the period known as Queen
Anne.

The typical Queen Anne chair in common with all the furniture of the
period was made of walnut. The seat was wide, the front legs cabriole
shaped, ending, as a rule, in club or claw-and-ball feet. The back was
high and curved at the top, and this was connected centrally with the
seat by a long vase or fiddle-shaped splat. Carving was not much used,
but the splat was sometimes ornamented with floral and other designs in
marqueterie after the Dutch fashion.

During this period an appreciation for Oriental china and lacquer work
had an important effect on furniture and decoration.

The later fashion of inlay and marquetry work of Sheraton was perhaps as
much the outcome of the Dutch practice of this form of decoration, as it
was due to the discovery of the possibilities of mahogany as a suitable
wood for furniture.


_Early Georgian_

The eighteenth century in England was the age of the connoisseur and
dilettante, and the struggling professional, literary or artistic, had
little opportunity except by the favour of a patron. As for instance,
Lord Burlington, who is reported to have practised architecture in
conjunction with his _protégé_ Kent.

William Kent, born in 1685, died 1748, a painter as well as an
architect, was responsible for many designs, among which may be
mentioned the Horse Guards in Whitehall, and Holkham in Norfolk for the
Earl of Leicester.

Georgian work shows more evidence of French influence, but is invariably
stiff and heavy in feeling.

In panelling rooms a surbase or dado was employed. The bolection
moulding was universally used round panels.

Doorways and chimneypieces were made up of architraves, surmounted by
pediments, and were formal in design and detail. The Greek key was often
most unsatisfactorily used in their decoration.


_Chippendale_

Among others, Chippendale’s name is associated with the furniture of
this period, and his book of designs, published about the middle of the
eighteenth century, contained, besides furniture, suggestions for the
complete decoration of rooms. Chippendale was undoubtedly influenced by
the Louis XV style, and at one period he attempted to exploit Chinese
forms and details.

The chairs designed by him were based on the earlier Queen Anne type,
but the vase-shaped back was replaced by pierced and carved interlacing
bands and ribbons. For a time the cabriole leg was retained, but

[Illustration:

No. 122. A. Transitional Chair, 18th century.
         B. Mahogany                       Sheraton.
         C.    “                           Chippendale.
         D. Walnut                         Hepplewhite.
]

later examples have straight square legs. The chairs were fitted with
loose upholstered seats covered with morocco leather.

Furniture was generally in mahogany, which had been introduced a little
earlier from the West Indies, and had become popular on account of the
colour and figure developed by polishing. Mahogany lends itself to fine
mouldings and detail, and this was evidently appreciated, as relief
decoration on furniture in this wood received a more restrained
treatment, while plain surfaces were made more extensive.


_Mayhew_

Contemporary workers were Mainwaring and Mayhew. Mayhew was responsible
for a form of fretwork decoration which is often ascribed to
Chippendale.


_Adam Style_

Prominent among his contemporaries, more perhaps for his influence on
interior decoration, was Robert Adam, who died at the age of ninety-four
in 1792.

A student of the later antique Roman work, and inspired by the remains
of Diocletian’s Palace at Spalatro, he evolved a style which bears his
name, that was personal and distinctive. A style that had many
followers, and which largely influenced the work of Sheraton.

Simple as to structural form, and delicate in detail, it carried on the
tradition of the later Graeco-Roman work on which it was founded,
avoiding absolute reproduction.

[Illustration: No. 123. Interior Decoration. “Adam.”]

[Illustration: No. 124. Interior Decoration. “Adam.”]

The Adam influence is evident also in the pottery of this period, and in
the details of Sheffield plate.

Examples of Robert Adam’s architectural design may be seen in London at
the Adelphi, which was built as a speculation, in the Admiralty screen
in Whitehall, and houses in Portland Place, W.

[Illustration:

     Sheffield Plate

18th Centy

No. 125. Adam influence.]


_Hepplewhite_

Hepplewhite also was designing and manufacturing about this time, and is
noted principally for his japanned or painted furniture. In this process
the wood was first coated with a preparation after the manner of Chinese
or Japanese lacquer, and then decorated with fruit and flowers in gold
on a background. Subsequently, furniture of this character, instead of
being japanned, was merely painted white. Hepplewhite’s chair-backs
differ in form from Chippendale’s, being shield or oval shaped.

Satinwood came into use, and much of the work ascribed to Sheraton was
made of it.

Painted decoration of a delicate character, the details including
ribbons, borders and medallions, was applied to table-tops, harpsichord
cases, chair-backs and other objects. The names of Angelica Kauffmann
and Cipriani are associated with this form of decoration.

Hepplewhite and Sheraton were apparently influenced by the work of the
brothers Adam, which was a distinct departure from the earlier style.
The cabriole leg was rarely used, its place being taken by gracefully
tapered forms.


_Sheraton_

Although some of Sheraton’s furniture had painted detail, he more often
used marqueterie and inlay of fine design.

Panels were treated in marqueterie, with ovals or other simple shapes
surrounded by narrow bands or lines of contrasting colour.

Sheraton sideboards were usually without backs, and were sometimes
furnished with brass rails on top.

Bookcases had glass doors with well designed and finely worked sash
bars.

The general tendency was towards elegance and refinement, and led to
simplicity of treatment rather than over enrichment.

Indeed this may be taken as the culminating period for the finest
production of furniture, not only with regard to design and exquisite
workmanship, but in carefully studied utility. This consideration may be
seen in the dressing-tables and secretaires, which were full of
ingenious devices, and secret drawers and contrivances for hiding papers
and valuables were quite a feature of the work.


_Louis XVI_

Towards the end of the reign of Louis XV there was a distinct change in
taste, and consequently in style. This was manifested by a return to
simplicity of line,

[Illustration: No. 126. Painted Interior Decoration. Marie Antoinette
Boudoir. Louis XVI.]

[Illustration: No. 127. Interior Treatment. Louis XVI.]

[Illustration: No. 128. Chimney-piece with Mirror. Louis XVI.]

[Illustration: No. 129. Library with fitted Book-cases. Louis XVI.]

a more sparing use of enrichments and greater refinement of detail.

[Illustration: No. 130. Door Treatment. Louis XVI.]

Probably the same influence that inspired Adam was at work in France,
when the license that marked the Rococo gave place to a more severe and
restrained expression in the succeeding Louis XVI style, in which the
curvilinear and plastic forms became once more structural in feeling and
refined in detail.

Associated with this change was Jacques Gondouin, who died at Paris in
1818 at the age of eighty-one, whose most celebrated work is the Ecole
de Médécine. He was also entrusted with the erection of the column in
the Place Vendôme.


_Riesener and Gouthière_

[Illustration: No. 131. Detail of Cornice. Louis XVI.]

The most familiar names associated with the wood-work at the Louis XVI
period are Riesener and Gouthière. Riesener is famous for his furniture,
and Gouthière for the highly finished chased mounts with which this
furniture was decorated.

[Illustration: No. 132. Arm-chair covered with Beauvais Tapestry. Louis
XVI.]

Interior woodwork was generally of oak, painted white. Pilasters were
used, and were either carved or painted in colours. Mouldings were
frequently gilt.

Chairs and sofas were, in many instances, painted white and partly
gilt. They were upholstered in silk or Beauvais tapestry, the designs of
which were in panel form specially made for the purpose.

Cabinets, tables and other pieces of furniture were often exquisitely
inlaid with various woods, tulip, rosewood, pear, holly and ebony were
the most common, and Sèvres porcelain placques and gilt metal mounts
were also used to embellish them.

[Illustration: No. 133. Carved Oak Panel. Louis XVI.]

Furniture supports, such as table and chair legs, were straight, tapered
and fluted, with husks in the hollows of the flutes.

Among the decorative details were torches, quivers and other emblems,
trophies, musical instruments, bouquets and festoons of flowers, and
ribbons with peculiarly square and crisp folds. The laurel leaf was much
used in borders, festoons and wreaths.

The style of the Louis XVI period was more severe than the preceding
one, and was, in fact, a reaction from the flippancy which
characterised the reign of Louis XV. There was a tendency to return to
more classic forms, which prepared the way for the still more austere
Empire phase which was deliberately based on the Roman and Greek styles.


_Empire_

Furniture was made in mahogany, rosewood and ebony, and was decorated
with brass mounts or with carved ornaments, which were gilded.

Furniture legs and supports were fashioned after Greek and Roman forms,
human figures and sphinxes being often employed.

Inlay was used of ivory and metal, and this class of work attained a
very high degree of excellence.

Metal-work was unquestionably good, except that the details were
somewhat hard in character.

The most striking decorative features were sphinxes, winged figures of
Liberty, masks, the thyrsus of Bacchus, laurel wreaths and festoons,
which were all severe in treatment and delicate in execution.


_Empire in England_

The Empire style spread to other parts of Europe, and was closely
imitated in England, where it was chiefly remarkable for the extreme
nicety and finish of the metal-work, metal being extensively used for
the enrichment of furniture, for clocks, vases, candlesticks, inkstands
and other objects.


_Later English Architecture_

Probably the most important name associated with English architecture
towards the end of the eighteenth century is that of Sir William
Chambers, who died in 1796.

Chambers, who at one time held the position of Surveyor General in the
Board of Works, was one of those concerned in the establishment of the
Royal Academy of Arts in 1768. During his professional career he
executed commissions in various parts of the country, his principal work
being Somerset House, which was commenced in 1776.

Another name associated with this period is that of George Dance, who
designed the Mansion House of the City of London, which was built during
the years 1739-53. Dance died in 1768, and was succeeded by his son, who
was the architect of Newgate Prison, the site of which is now occupied
by a modern building.

A pupil of Sir William Chambers, James Gandon, had the distinction of
carrying off the first gold medal given for architecture by the
newly-founded Royal Academy of Arts in 1768.

He designed, among other works, the Customs House, the Four Courts, and
the building which is now the Bank of Ireland, all at Dublin.


_French Influence on Europe_

Throughout this necessarily brief summary it will be noted that
attention is mainly given to the architectural development in France and
England. The rest of Europe was similarly affected more or less, both in
the Gothic period and in the revival known as the Renaissance, in which
the initiative was taken by France early in the seventeenth century.
From which period may be dated the decline in Italian taste.

French feeling, both as to form and detail, is apparent in not only
Dutch and Flemish work, but in the more southern parts of Europe,
particularly the phase known as Rococo.

Even in England, though the architectural traditions of Inigo Jones and
Sir Christopher Wren became national in character, French feeling is
evident in much of the decorative work, as in the designs of Chippendale
and his contemporaries; with the exception of the brilliant period of
Grinling Gibbons, whose distinctive manner and robust treatment
survived, and constituted a school of carving typically English and
unique in its artistry and craftsmanship.



CHAPTER III

MOULDINGS


In Architecture the edges of projecting courses are softened into curved
profiles, sometimes enriched with details, which are technically known
as mouldings. These are invariably a stumbling-block to the beginner,
presumably due to want of appreciation of their purpose, which properly
understood, is indicative of their desirable employment.

[Illustration: No. 134. Forms of Mouldings.]

Mouldings are an important factor in effect, not only in Architecture,
but in structural form generally. In flat decoration they have to some
extent their corollary in borders, the proportionate widths of which are
governed by similar rules.

Of mouldings with curved profiles there are only six distinct forms,
though the individual character of these curves is subject to great
variation in treatment.


_Purpose_

As suggested, mouldings have a distinct purpose, are, in fact,
functional features, and may be defined as Sheltering or Crowning,
Bracketing or Supporting, and Binding.

In any composition where they may be necessary these functions should be
taken into consideration.

The profiles should always be concise whether the character of the curve
be refined or robust.

In classic architecture the relative proportions of the mouldings to the
other features are defined, and these proportions will be found useful
in other than purely architectural design.


_The Fillet_

Mouldings are divided from each other by narrow vertical bands or
Fillets, the employment of which is universal.

The Fillet in projection is equal to its height, and though strictly
divisional in its employment, is shown in conjunction with the curved
profiles to indicate relative proportion.


_Sheltering Mouldings_

There are two mouldings of curved profile in each category, the
Sheltering being the Cavetto and the Cyma Recta.


_The Cavetto_

The Cavetto is the culminating moulding of the Italian Doric cornice,
and is a concave curve, which may be the result of a quarter circle.

The Cavetto profile is used in other positions, which would appear to
challenge the previous statement, but reflection will confirm the
contention.

For instance, the vertical face of the Frieze in some instances
terminates with a cavetto curve which, though surmounted by the cornice,
is yet at the top of the frieze. The upper extremity of the column shaft
is similarly treated, and, it may be urged, so is the lower, but this,
though an exception to the rule, is at least an æsthetic necessity.

The projection of the Cavetto is equal to the height of the curve, and
the crowning Fillet may be from one-third to one-fourth the total
height, preferably the latter.


_Cyma Recta_

The other sheltering moulding, the Cyma Recta, is a curve of double
flexure with upper fillet. Its proper employment is as the crowning
member of the cornice, though, like the Cavetto, it is employed in other
positions, notably as a plinth moulding, when it appears in a reversed
position.

The projection is about equal to the height of the curved profile, the
height of the crowning fillet being from one-fourth to one-fifth of the
whole.


_Bracketing Mouldings_

The supporting mouldings are the Ovolo and the Cyma Reversa.


_The Ovolo_

The Ovolo is composed of a full convex curve, either a quarter circle or
slightly elliptic, which in height is equal to projection; and a fillet
at base one-fifth the total height. Frequently this lower member is in
the form of a half round bead of the same dimension as the fillet.

As a Bracketing moulding the Ovolo occurs in the capital of the Doric
column, and in the Ionic and Corinthian cornices under the corona or
facia, and is employed in other positions, where the sense of support is
justified.


_Cyma Reversa_

The Cyma Reversa, like the Cyma Recta, is a curve of double flexure, and
is headed with a fillet one-third to one-fourth the total height. The
projection is equal to the height of curved profile.

The Cyma Reversa is employed in the cornice of the Doric order as a
supporting moulding to the dentil course and below the culminating
Cavetto. It also occurs in the Capital of the column, where it forms the
upper member of the abacus. An apparent contradiction of the theory of
employment, which however is justified by the circumstance that the
column forms the support for the entablature.

It also occurs as a supporting moulding under the capping of the
pedestal, and is used in similar positions in the other orders.


_Binding Mouldings_

The Binding mouldings, the Torus and the Scotia, appear chiefly on
columns and pilasters, particularly the Scotia, which is essentially a
base moulding.


_The Torus_

The Torus is a convex curve composed of a full half circle, with upper
fillet one-fifth to one-sixth the total height. The projection is
decided by the curvature, which is based on a semi-circle with centre
slightly in advance of the vertical line of fillet.

The Torus varies in size according to position. For instance, in the
base of the Ionic column two are employed, the lower being the larger.
It is also invariably used on a smaller scale as a necking moulding
beneath the Capitals; in the small form it is commonly known as a bead
or astragal.

This employment of the Torus is distinctly appropriate and suggestive in
the sense of imparting strength by binding. When used in other positions
its purpose should be equally evident.


_The Scotia_

The Scotia in section is a deeply recessed concave curve with upper
fillet, and is generally used between the upper and lower Torii of the
base.

The upper fillet is of less projection than the lower extremity of
curved profile. The extreme projection being merely equal to the height
of curve and that of the upper fillet about one-half, the fillet being
about one-fifth the total height.


_The Facia_

The foregoing constitute the range of mouldings with curved profiles,
but there is another member, the Facia, that is an important feature in
composition.

The Facia, which is rectilinear in form with external face vertical or
slightly inclined, may be classed with the binding mouldings.

With regard to proportion, the height of the Facia should either exceed
or be less than that of the curved moulding with which it is invariably
surmounted. The projection being either considerably less or more than
its height.

When used in the cornice or in the capping of pedestals its under face
is generally recessed, this recess being equal to the height of the top
fillet of supporting moulding.

Only occasionally the Facia is furnished with an upper fillet (for
instance, when it occurs immediately below the Cyma Recta) to which it
is reconciled by a Cavetto curve.

The Facia is a divisional feature between the mouldings of curved
profile to which it is in valuable contrast.


_Decoration of Mouldings_

Mouldings may be plain or decorated, usually by carving, the details
probably being derived from the painted decoration of an early period.

When thus enriched the moulding is formed as to its profile, and the
details carved back from the face, leaving the highest parts in the
original surface. The carving being deeper and more sharply defined in
the case of mouldings that are in shadow. Such, for example, as the
Ovolo, and in lighter relief on those more exposed to direct light.

The decoration of mouldings ordinarily consists of the repetition of a
unit, composed on a central axis, in which curves are contrasted with
vertical features.

[Illustration: ENRICHMENT OF THE CYMA RECTA

ENRICHMENT OF THE FACIA

ENRICHMENT OF THE OVOLO

ENRICHMENT OF THE CYMA REVERSA

ENRICHMENT OF THE TORUS

No. 135.]

The principle involved is to base the detail on the sectional curvature
or profile line.


_Orthodox Details_

Thus the orthodox detail of the Ovolo, technically known as the “Egg and
Tongue,” consists of a framing curve, which is obtained by repeating the
profile on a centre line enclosing an ovoid shape. The angles between
the outer curves being occupied by a tongue or dart.

As previously stated, this moulding is deeply carved, the ovoid being
bold and well-rounded; the edges of the framing curves (in some
instances grooved or channelled) being left sharp and precise.

Frequently the “Bead and Reel” enrichment occurs at the base of the
Ovolo instead of the Fillet, this being the characteristic detail of the
Bead or Astragal.

The treatment of the Cyma Reversa is identical and results in the detail
known as the “Leaf and Dart”; but the carving is not so deep and the
relief, in consequence, comparatively slight.


_Angle Leaf_

When mouldings meet at mitral angles it is customary to employ a
covering leaf the midrib of which forms the angle.

The same principle is applicable to the Cyma Recta and the Cavetto,
though these mouldings are more often left plain; when decorated the
relief is comparatively slight.

The Scotia needs no decoration, the cast shadow resulting from its form
being sufficiently effective.

The Torus, though frequently left plain, can be decorated in various
ways.

The Guilloche is perhaps the most characteristic, but as suggestive of
its function, the Torus is at times carved in the form of a rope or
cable. Leaves suggestive of a wreath are used, also a reed band crossed
at intervals with ribbons, quite in keeping with the suggestion of
binding.

The Facia is generally plain, but the decoration, if used should,
following the principle, be rectilinear in character; such as vertical
flutings, or the key detail, both of which are used.


_Dentils_

Dentils, which form a distinctive feature in cornices, are a series of
rectilinear blocks, attached to a Facia, and may be placed in the
category of supporting members.

In their formation they are carved back from a facia of the requisite
projection.

In proportion they should be from one and a half to one and three
quarters their width in height, the intervals between being about half
the width.

The first Dentil at the angle, lines flush with the return face of
supporting Facia leaving a right angular interval between the two end
Dentils. This space is sometimes occupied by a pendant knob, acorn-like
in shape. The heads of intervals are often sloped backwards and
downwards, or occupied by a narrow fillet set back from face. Below the
Dentils the supporting Facia is displayed to about the height of a
fillet.

Considerable license prevailed in the later developments of the
Renaissance in the decoration of mouldings, license which is
permissible providing the general principle be borne in mind. The
concensus of opinion is in favour of repetition of a simple unit and
absence of variety. The vertical tendency resulting from the
bi-symmetrical character of the unit is desirable, and in happy contrast
to the horizontal direction of the moulding, while it also emphasises
the sense of structural support.

[Illustration: DETAIL OF THE DENTIL

No. 136.]

The profiles also are amenable to considerable variation, the curves
being the direct result of Geometry, or Freehand, either treatment being
a matter of attitude and discretion.


_Employment_

When employed in Architecture the forms and proportions given will be
found most suitable. In interior decoration and structural work, as in
furniture, considerable latitude is permissible.

It must be understood that the profiles of mouldings should not be
designed merely for the play of line, but for the effect resulting from
light and shade. In those close to the eye and in fair light, elliptic
curves will be more effective than more rounded sections, which are most
suitable to remote positions.

In composition, mouldings of curved profile should always be separated
by fillets or occasionally a facia, and the various members associated
with regard to their functional purpose. Obvious repetition of the same
dimension is to be avoided, and contrast should exist not only in the
shapes of profiles, but also in their respective heights.

[Illustration: MODIFIED PROPORTION DUE TO PERSPECTIVE

No. 137.]


_Attitude_

Attitude must be taken into account, as, for instance, in a cornice
which is above the eye level it is apparent that the mouldings will not
appear in elevation but in perspective; and not only the respective
heights will be visible, but also the projections.

When mouldings are decorated the details ranging above each other should
be so distributed as to fall in vertical alignment. This is particularly
necessary when the Ovolo enrichment occurs below dentils, or where it is
surmounted by Modillions as in the Corinthian cornice.

Panel mouldings cannot legitimately be considered as functional in the
foregoing sense, though in wood-work they are directly incidental to the
construction. Regarded as frames, their general purpose may be
considered as to bind or enclose.

In stone-work it may be at times desirable to introduce panel effects,
which may be obtained by boasting out or recessing parts, possible only
on a large scale. A comparatively simple and justifiable treatment is to
sink channels of moulded profiles framing the enclosed area, which is
left in the original plane. A treatment that is effective and
comparatively economical.

[Illustration: CHANNELLED MOULDING IN STONE

No. 138.]


_Wood Panelling_

Panelling in wood-work is not only legitimate, but structurally
necessary, as it is not practical to cover large areas except by some
method of building up.

Therefore, not only panelling, but doors and structural wood-work
generally are constructed of stiles

[Illustration: No. 139. Panel Mouldings in Wood.

     A. Late Linen-fold Panel, with scribed mouldings on stiles and
     rails.

     B. C. Panels of Settleback and Chest, with framing with simple
     moulded edges.

     D. Early Jacobean Panelling, with stopped mouldings on stiles and
     rails.

     E. Later Jacobean Panelling.

     F. Later Jacobean Section of applied mouldings of the Bolection
     type.
]

and rails, forming framings; the spaces enclosed being occupied by the
panels.

The edges of the stiles and rails are moulded. In the late Gothic and
Tudor periods the mouldings were often simply scribed; but later the
profiles became more distinct in contour.

These early mouldings were narrow and simple in form, arrived at mainly
by softening or rounding the square edges of the frame.


_Applied Mouldings_

Applied mouldings were apparently employed in the Jacobean period, and
the sections became more elaborate. Worked independently, they were
frequently higher in relief than the framings. The facility with which
they could be worked and applied resulted at this period in a fashion
for complicated mitreing hardly justifiable from a constructional point
of view, though effective if not overdone.

[Illustration: No. 140. Applied Mouldings.]

In the composition of such mouldings it is desirable that the sizes and
contours employed should be contrasting, and that all curved sections be
divided by fillets.

As the width of the moulding throughout is uniform, it is obvious that
mitral angles must be perfect bi-sections of the meeting lines.

With regard to proportion, the width of mouldings may generally be
one-fourth to one-eighth that of the panel according to desired effect,
robust or refined.

[Illustration: No. 141. Part of Dresser.

Applied mouldings on drawer fronts.]


_Bolection Moulding_

When boldness in appearance is required the type known as the Bolection
Moulding may be used. This, in its orthodox form, is a species of inner
frame between the main framing of the stiles and rails, and the panels,
but was more commonly an applied moulding.

[Illustration: No. 142. Bolection Moulding.]

In any case, it is worked independently, and its outer edges lap the
framing, on which it is in relief, resulting in strong effect of light
and shade.

Panel mouldings may be decorated by carving with the orthodox
enrichments or variants based on them, but should always be in contrast
to the panels they enclose.

In furniture, mouldings play an important part, and in many positions
can be regulated by functional considerations. In horizontal positions,
such as in tables and sideboards, where personal contact is possible,
any moulded edges should be of softly rounded character for obvious
reasons.

[Illustration: TABLE TOP MOULDINGS

No. 143.]


_Plaster_

In plaster-work mouldings may be cast in a mould or run by the strigil.
When decorated, the former only is possible, and as such work is
originally modelled, it is permissible to introduce details of a plastic
nature, such as interrupting the run by imposed and enveloping floral or
other forms.

Mechanically produced mouldings cannot be undercut, though this is
practicable in plaster where the jelly mould is employed.

[Illustration: TURNED WOOD

No. 144.]

Mouldings are used for decorative and divisional purposes in various
materials, and to some extent their character is affected by the
formative process involved.


_Wood-turning_

Thus in wood-turning the general profiles are kept fairly soft, taking
usually, as in the case of stair rails and furniture legs, the baluster
form. As a rule there is little variation between the maximum and
minimum diameters.

The baluster shafts have bases and capitals of curved profiles, with
intervening fillets, which latter may be fairly sharp, as they are by
their position protected from damage.


_Metal Turning_

Turning is also employed in metal work, the stems and bodies of Dutch
candelabra, both standard and hanging, being originally cast as to
general form and finished in the lathe.

[Illustration: THROWN

MOULDED

THROWN & TURNED

POTTERY

No. 145.]

The general treatment is similar to that of wood-turning, except that
the material being much harder, the mouldings can be more sharply
defined and delicate in detail.


_Pottery_

The throwing of pottery is analagous to turning, but by this method
little more can be accomplished than thickened edges. The Greek vases
show some precision of profile, the result of turning on a lathe after
the vessel had been formed on the wheel.

[Illustration: No. 146. Moulded Vase in Terra-cotta.]

In moulded pottery more definition is possible than in thrown variety,
but the profiles are comparatively blunt and never attain the precision
due to turning.


_Metal Mouldings_

In metal, mouldings may be rolled or drawn. In the first they are formed
in the solid, but drawn mouldings are formed in plate or sheet metal and
are therefore hollow and of uniform thickness.

[Illustration: ROLLED METAL MOULDINGS

No. 147.]

By either method mouldings of any required section are obtainable
provided they are not undercut.

Both varieties are ordinarily obtainable in various sections and sizes
in iron, brass, bronze, and silver.

Where special sections are required, the cost of the tools necessary for
their production would have to be taken into account.

[Illustration: DRAWN METAL MOULDINGS

No. 148.]


_Wrought Iron_

Though the employment of rolled or drawn mouldings is usual in wrought
iron-work, the effect is somewhat mechanical and lacking in character.
Preferably only such forms as are attained by either swaging or building
up should be employed as being more characteristic of the material and
method of working.

[Illustration: No. 149. Wrought Iron Swaged Moulding.]

[Illustration: No. 150. Wrought Iron Built-up Mouldings.]


_Silver-work_

In silver-work drawn mouldings are usually formed by hand, the necessary
draw plates being made by the workman.

[Illustration: No. 151. Wrought Iron Built-up Mouldings.]


_Spinning_

Mouldings in metal are also formed by the process of spinning, in which
undercutting is not permissible.

[Illustration: SPUN METAL

No. 152.]


_Repoussé_

They are also possible in Repoussé work, but are soft in character, and
lack the precision that marks the mechanical production.



CHAPTER IV

ARCHITECTURAL PROPORTIONS


_Introduction_

In architectural drawing concise draughtsmanship is essential, the
profiles of mouldings in particular should be well defined.

Architectural designs, which should always be drawn to scale, are
expressed geometrically, that is in plan, elevation and section. The
actual effect is therefore a matter of conjecture only to be grasped by
those familiar with the arbitrary form of expression. Perspectives are
generally made with a view to depicting the appearance to the
uninitiated, but are practically useless as working drawings.

The student is advised to take advantage of every opportunity of
studying existing examples in museums and elsewhere. This study should
not be confined to geometric drawings, but these should be supplemented
by sketches and careful observation. Attention should also be paid to
the profiles of mouldings.

A practice should be made also of making freehand sketches of the
various features, indicating broadly the effects of light and shade.

The study of architectural proportions should be methodical, and the
general divisions given here might advantageously be committed to
memory. When this is accomplished attention may be devoted to individual
features.


_System of Proportion_

It is customary, when any of the orders of Architecture are employed, to
adopt a system of proportions which has been evolved from the best
traditions of the past, and is generally accepted as the most
satisfactory.

Naturally these proportions are subject to modification to suit special
conditions or personal treatment. According to the academic method, the
diameter of the column is divided into two parts, which are called
Modules, and each of these is again subdivided into thirty divisions
called parts. This gives a scale by means of which all dimensions of
height and projection are obtained. Since the diameter of the column
forms the standard of measurement, the proportions of the relative parts
are constant and in no way influenced by the size of the structure.

This method, although very complete, is--owing to its multiplicity of
dimensions--somewhat laborious in practice, and the method here proposed
in its stead, though not claimed to be exact, will yet be found to be
sufficiently accurate for ordinary requirements.

It is proposed to deal here with the orders commonly employed in
Renaissance architecture. These were based by the early exponents of the
style on Roman examples. The Doric selected is that of Vignola, and is a
refined version of the order used in the Theatre of Marcellus at Rome.
The Ionic closely resembles the Roman Ionic order in the same building.
The Corinthian is the Roman example from the Pantheon.


_The Order_

An Order consists of a vertical column and a horizontal entablature,
while in some instances the column rests on a pedestal.

It is desirable before dealing with proportions to enumerate the various
parts of which an order is composed.

The column consists of a shaft, base and capital.

The shaft is circular on plan and invariably tapered.

The base is composed of mouldings, which are circular on plan, and a
rectangular block or plinth.

The capital is circular on plan, and in the Doric and Corinthian orders
is divided from the shaft by a necking moulding. The capital is
surmounted by a feature known as the abacus, which is rectangular on
plan, but varies in detail in the different orders.

Columns may be isolated or engaged, that is, built into walls so that
they form projections from the surface.

[Illustration: No. 153. Doric Order with Pedestal.]

The pilaster is always engaged, and is rectangular on plan, but
otherwise it has the same general features and proportions as the
column.

The entablature is the superstructure supported by the columns. It
consists of an architrave, which is the lowest part, a frieze, the
intermediate part, and a series of projecting mouldings known as the
cornice.

The pedestal, which occasionally forms a support for the columns,
consists of a plinth, die and capping. The lower part or plinth is
separated from the die by mouldings, and the capping is a projecting
course of mouldings forming a simple cornice.

To sum up a simple classification, which may be termed the triology of
the orders, will be found to assist the memory.

The Orders commonly employed are three--the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian.
(There are two others which are less used, and are really derived from
the other three: they are the Tuscan, which is a form of debased Doric,
and the Composite, which is made up of the Ionic and Corinthian).

The Order may be divided into three parts:

                   Pedestal, Column and Entablature.

These may again be sub-divided.

The Pedestal into Plinth, Die and Capping.

The Column into Base, Shaft and Capital.

The Entablature into Architrave, Frieze and Cornice.

The method of arriving at the proportions of the order is as follows. In
this division the pedestal is not taken into account, but is reserved
for later consideration.


_Doric Order_

Divide the total height into five equal parts. Then the upper fifth will
give the height of the entablature and an eighth of the remaining
four-fifths the diameter of the column. From this it will be seen that
the column is eight diameters high and the entablature two diameters. In
using the term diameter it must be understood that it is always the
lower diameter of the column that is referred to.

[Illustration: No. 154. General Proportions of the Orders.]

The capital is half a diameter high exclusive of the necking moulding,
and the base also is half a diameter. In all the orders the column is
tapered; the upper diameter is in each case five-sixths of the lower or
major diameter. The taper is not in a straight line, but a slight
curve, which is known as entasis. It is obtained by drawing the lower
third of the shaft vertical and from these lines springing a curve to
the upper diameter, which may readily be done by slightly altering the
angle of the pencil in ruling them.

The entablature is divided as follows: the architrave is half a
diameter, the frieze and cornice each three-quarters of a diameter.


_Ionic Order_

The total height should be divided into six parts. Then the upper sixth
will be the entablature, and one ninth of the remainder the diameter of
the column, hence the column will be nine diameters high.

The capital is half a diameter high; the base also is half a diameter.

The total height of the entablature is divided into ten parts, three of
these should be taken as the height of the architrave, three that of the
frieze and the remaining four that of the cornice.


_Corinthian Order_

The total height should be divided into six parts. Then the upper sixth
is the height of the entablature. A tenth of the remainder will be the
diameter of the column.

The capital is one diameter and one-sixth in height exclusive of the
necking moulding, and the base is half a diameter high, exclusive of the
top fillet.

The division of the entablature is the same as that of the Ionic, and
the mouldings, although more elaborate, are similar in character. The
architrave and frieze are each three-tenths of the height and the
cornice four-tenths.

It will be seen from the foregoing that the diameters of the three
orders are respectively one-eighth, one-ninth and one-tenth the heights
of the columns, and that the entablature is, in the Doric, two diameters
high or one fourth the height of the column; in the Corinthian also two
diameters or one-fifth the height of the column. The Ionic is
intermediate between the two.


_Doric Entablatures_

The Doric cornice is three-quarters of a diameter in height and one
diameter in projection from the face of the frieze, which should always
be in vertical alignment with the architrave.

It is convenient to divide the cornice height into three. The upper
third consists of a crowning cavetto moulding, supported by a cyma
reversa, under which is a facia or corona, in turn supported by a dentil
course. The lower third should be taken as the centre of the dentil
course, and if the height from the top of the cavetto to the underside
of the corona be bisected, the point of bisection should fall in the
centre of the intervening reversa.


_Mutules_

In orthodox examples of the order the underside or soffit of the corona
is decorated with a series of sunk panels. Those immediately over the
triglyphs of the frieze are occupied by rows of conical drops. A
variation of this and a treatment frequently employed is a series of
brackets known as mutules. They consist of a facia and a reversa, which
is carried round the upper edge to support the corona. When mutules are
used the dentil course is omitted.

[Illustration: No. 155. Doric Entablature, Vignola.]

The dentils are rectilinear blocks on a flat projecting band, and they
are supported by a cyma reversa moulding. A fillet beneath this moulding
completes the cornice. The reversa is about the same height as the
fillet, and the dentil course is about twice this height, but owing to
the soffit of the corona sloping slightly upward and inwards the full
height of the dentil facia is not apparent when drawn in elevation.

[Illustration: No. 156. Doric Entablature, with Mutules.]

Above the dentil facia is a small cavetto moulding and a fillet. These
are directly beneath the corona, and are carried round to form the
panels on its soffit.

The Doric frieze is three-quarters of a diameter high. It is divided
into panels technically known as metopes, by projecting features half a
diameter in width which are called triglyphs.

The metopes should be square, and one of the triglyphs is always placed
immediately over each column, having the same central axis, hence the
spacing of the columns apart is regulated by the triglyphs and metopes.
Examples of various spacings of columns will be given later.

The frieze is bounded above and below by rectilinear projecting bands or
fillets; that at the top breaks round or follows the projection of the
triglyphs.

The triglyphs are so named because they are channelled vertically with
grooves or glyphs, V shaped in section, with intervening spaces or
inter-glyphs. The width of the triglyph should be divided into twelve
parts--then the half glyphs which are placed at the angles will each be
one of these parts, and the remaining two glyphs and three inter-glyphs
are each two of them. The glyphs terminate at the base on the fillet
band, but at the top are cut off a little below the upper fillet,
invariably in a straight line, thus forming a triangular heading with
the apex of the triangle sloping backwards and downwards in conformity
with the V shaped section of the glyphs.

Under the lower fillet band, and immediately below the triglyph, is a
small fillet and six pendant drops of conical form known as guttae.

[Illustration: No. 157. Ionic Entablature.]

The architrave is half a diameter high, inclusive of the fillet band,
which is roughly a sixth of this height. The small fillet and guttae are
together equal in height to the fillet band.

It may be taken as an invariable rule that whatever order is used, the
face of the architrave must be in vertical alignment with the upper part
of the shaft of the column.


_Ionic Entablature_

The total height of the entablature is divided into ten parts; three of
these should be taken as the height of the architrave, three that of the
frieze, and the remaining four that of the cornice.

To find the projection of the cornice a line should be drawn at an angle
of 45 degrees from the top of the frieze, and the profiles of the
mouldings composing the cornice will fall within this line.

The lowest member is a small reversa moulding, with a fillet supporting
a dentil course, above which is an ovolo; these occupy half the height
of the cornice. The remaining half is composed of the facia, surmounted
by a reversa and the crowning cyma moulding, rather more than half of
the height being allotted to these two.

The frieze of the Ionic order has no characteristic detail as the Doric,
and may be plain or decorated according to conditions, and should be in
vertical alignment with the lowest member of the architrave. In some of
the later Renaissance examples the profile of the Ionic frieze is a
segmental curve of about a third of a circle.

The architrave is usually formed of three facias, which may be either
vertical or slightly inclined.

[Illustration: No. 158. Corinthian Entablature.]

A fifth of the total height is taken for the upper moulding, which is a
reversa with its accompanying fillet.

A point bisecting the underside of the fillet and bottom of architrave
will give the line of the lower edge of the top facia. The other two
facias should be taken in a decreasing ratio, the lower being the
shorter.


_Corinthian Entablature_

The division of the entablature is the same as that of the Ionic. The
total height is divided into ten. Three of these parts form the
architrave, three the frieze and four the cornice.

An angle of 45 degrees set off from the top of the frieze will determine
the general contour and projection of the cornice.

The cornice is more complex than in the other styles, but a division of
eleven will help to determine, three being the height to underside of
bead moulding and seven that of the main facia. The lowest moulding of
the cornice is a cyma reversa supporting a dentil course with a bead
moulding above it. Above the bead there is an ovolo, which forms the bed
of a series of brackets known as modillions. The height of the
modillions is about one-fifth including the reversa moulding, which,
besides completing the modillions, is carried round between them as a
support for the upper facia.

The modillions have a profile of ogee form. They are about a sixth of a
diameter in width and project about twice their width, and are so spaced
as to leave squares between them on the soffit or underside of the
corona. The frieze, which may or may not be decorated, is in vertical
alignment with the lowest member of the architrave.

The architrave is made up of three facias with intervening mouldings. If
the height be divided into two, the upper half is devoted to the first
facia and reversa moulding, which latter occupies rather more than
one-third; the remaining half is taken up by the other two facias in a
diminishing ratio.


_The Column--The Shaft_

The general proportions of the column have already been given. The shaft
is invariably tapered for two-thirds of its height, the lower third
being cylindrical, and the taper terminates at the necking moulding. In
all three orders the difference between the upper and lower diameters is
the same, that is, the upper is five-sixths of the lower, but although
the amount of taper is numerically the same, the different ratios of the
diameters to the heights produce naturally very different results.

The shaft of the Doric column may be plain or channelled with vertical
grooves called flutes. There are twenty of these flutes round the
circumference. On plan they are shallow, and may be formed of arcs of a
third of a circle. The curves meet without intervening fillets. The
flutes are finished off in segmental curves at the top and bottom,
leaving a small plain space below the necking and above the base.

The Ionic and Corinthian columns may have plain or decorated shafts. If
decorated they have twenty-four flutes round the circumference. These
are semi-circular on plan, and are spaced with fillets between them.


_The Capital_

The Capital is the culminating feature of the column in which horizontal
lines predominate in æsthetic contrast to the vertical lines of the
shaft. In all the orders there is some form of crowning block or
moulding known as the abacus.[A]

 [A] Though the proportions given are approximately accurate for
 general division, it will be found necessary in detailing to adopt a
 more intimate system of measurement. In the following diagrams the
 diameter is divided into 36 parts, which are expressed in figures,
 giving heights, etc., of the various features.


_Doric Capital_

The Doric abacus consists of a rectangular slab, square on plan, which
in detail consists of a fillet and reversa moulding surmounting a facia.
Its extreme width is one and a half times the upper diameter. The square
abacus is supported by an ovolo, which is circular on plan, and is
connected with the necking by three small fillets.

[Illustration: No. 159. Doric Capital.]

The capital is half a diameter in height, exclusive of the mouldings
between the necking and the shaft, and the upper part to the underside
of the ovolo occupies rather more than half.

[Illustration: No. 160. Ionic Capital.]

The necking is a vertical extension of the upper diameter of the column,
and is separated from the shaft by a boldly projecting moulding, which
in height should be about equal to the three small fillets below the
ovolo. The moulding consists of a torus and a fillet, and a cavetto
curve is carried from the underside of the fillet and dies into the line
of the shaft of the column.

Sometimes the ovolo is decorated with its characteristic egg and tongue
detail, and occasionally the reversa of the abacus is also enriched.
The necking is sometimes ornamented with four rosettes, which are placed
centrally under the square faces of the abacus.


_Ionic Capital_

The Ionic capital is half a diameter high, and is readily distinguished
by its bolster-like form with voluted ends. This bolster is rectangular
on plan, and measures laterally rather more than one and a half
diameters, while from back to front it is slightly less than a diameter.

The shaft terminates in a cavetto curve, and is surmounted by a fillet,
a small torus and an ovolo moulding, which is invariably decorated with
egg and tongue detail. These mouldings all conform to the circular plan
of the shaft. On the ovolo rests the voluted bolster.

The abacus, which is square on plan, consists of a reversa moulding and
fillet.

From the top of the abacus to the base of the ovolo the height is about
a third of a diameter, and one-fourth of this height will give the
height of the abacus.

The centre or eye of the volute can readily be found by dropping a
perpendicular from the lower edge of the reversa to intersect the
horizontal line defining the base of the ovolo. This point of
intersection is the required centre.


_To Draw the Volute_

From this as centre and one part as radius describe a circle. Within
this circle draw a square, having for a diagonal the diameter of the
circle. Bisect the sides of the square and draw the diameters by joining
the points of bi-section. Divide these diameters of the square into six
and these points will be the centres for the segments of circles which
form the volute. Vertical and horizontal lines drawn from the centres
will define the extent of each segment.

[Illustration: No. 161. Ionic Capital, with angular volutes.]

For small scale drawings the volutes are drawn free-hand, but for larger
working drawings it is necessary to use some method such as that given
here.

The angle formed by the meeting of the ovolo and the volute is masked by
a detail of anthemion form.

The ends of the bolster between the volutes consist of concave or ogee
curves, which are symmetrically arranged from a centre line; moulded
ridges or conventional leaf detail decorate the centre.

The form of the Ionic capital, while suitable for a façade, requires
some modification if it is to be carried round the side of a building,
owing to the great dissimilarity in the front and side views. In this
case the end volute of the capital at the angle of the building is
projected forward at an angle of 45 degrees, and the side is then
treated in the same way as the front.

In late Renaissance buildings this difficulty was overcome by making all
the volutes project at angles of 45 degrees, so that the four faces of
the capital were uniform. This entails the bolster being dispensed with,
and the volutes, no longer connected laterally, spring directly from the
top of the ovolo moulding, and the space between the springing lines is
occupied by a husk.

[Illustration: No. 162. Ionic Capital. Detail of Angular Volute.]

As the volutes make equal angles they conform more or less to a square
plan. The plan of the abacus is composed of four concave curves with
small straight intervals at the meeting angles. The general proportions
for this form of capital are the same as for the bolster type.


_Corinthian Capital_

The Corinthian capital differs widely from those of the preceding orders
in proportion and detail.

Its general form may be described as a bell, which is circular on plan.
It springs from the upper extremity of the shaft, from which it is
separated by a necking moulding.

Under the abacus it terminates in a fillet.

The bell is one diameter high. The height of the abacus is one-sixth of
a diameter in addition; on plan the abacus falls within a square, having
four concave faces with short straight lines at the angles. The distance
across the diagonal is two diameters. The bell is clothed with leaves of
acanthus type, which are arranged in two tiers of eight leaves each.
Between the upper leaves are eight stems with husks and branching
scrolls, which terminate in volutes at the angles and centres.

The necking moulding consists of a small torus and fillet.

Although the arrangement of the principal features of the Corinthian
capital is horizontal, yet owing to the channelling of the leaves and
the firmly springing scrolls the vertical direction appears to
predominate.

This verticality emphasises the function of the capital as a supporting
feature, and is æsthetically satisfactory, being in harmony with the
flutings of the shaft.

[Illustration: No. 163. Corinthian Capital.]

The effect produced by the capitals of the other two orders is
horizontal, and suggests the idea of binding. They are equally
satisfactory as giving contrast of direction.

[Illustration: No. 164. Corinthian Capital.

Detail giving divisions of height, and profiles.]


_The Base_

In all the orders a square plinth is the lowest member of the base of
the column. On this plinth rests a series of mouldings which follow the
circular plan of the shaft. The shaft invariably terminates in a
fillet, the diameter of which exceeds that of the column, and on to
which the line of the shaft is carried by means of a curve.

[Illustration: No. 165. Doric Base.]


_Doric Base_

The Doric base is extremely simple. It consists of the square plinth on
which rests a torus moulding surmounted by a smaller moulding of the
same section and a fillet above.

The width of the plinth is one and a third the diameter of the column,
and its height a quarter diameter or half the total height of the base.
The other half is made up of the large torus, the small torus and
fillet. The torus moulding should be bold in projection, practically
semi-circular and at the fullest part of its curvature in vertical
alignment with the centres of the horizontal faces of the plinth block.
The small torus and fillet are about equal in height.


_Ionic Base_

[Illustration: No. 166. Ionic Base.]

The Ionic base differs from the Doric in the introduction of a hollow or
scotia moulding between the two torus mouldings. Æsthetically it may be
considered more satisfactory in that the strong shadow obtained by the
use of the scotia produces an effect of binding which adds to the
impression of strength. The type is technically known as the Attic base.

The total width is one and a third diameter.

The height of half a diameter may be divided into three. One of these
divisions will give the height of the plinth, one the large torus and
the fillet above it, and the other the scotia and small torus with the
fillets above and below. The fillets either side of the upper torus may
be in the same vertical alignment.

[Illustration: No. 167. Corinthian Base.]

The smallest diameter of the base, which will be in the hollow of the
scotia, should exceed the diameter of the shaft, or an effect of
weakness will be imparted.

As in the Doric base a curve of a quarter circle connects the shaft with
the upper fillet.


_Corinthian Base_

The orthodox base of the Corinthian order is similar to that of the
Ionic, with an additional scotia and small torus with its accompanying
fillets.

The width of the plinth is one and a third diameter.

The height of half a diameter does not include the top fillet. The
proportions may be approximated by dividing the height into four. One of
these parts will be the height of the plinth, another that of the large
torus and its fillet, the third--the upper edge of fillet of top scotia,
and the fourth that of the upper scotia and torus with the intervening
fillet. Vertically the uppermost fillet is in alignment with that of the
upper scotia, and the extremity of the upper torus with the small bead
mouldings dividing this from the lower scotia.

Although this is the orthodox Corinthian base, it is not used as
frequently as the Ionic type, but when the order is on a large scale the
more elaborate version is justified.


_The Arch_

When the arch is used in conjunction with the column it is supported on
pilasters which are attached to the columns. The columns and pilasters
thus form piers.

In the Doric order the columns are placed five diameters apart from
centre to centre, in the Ionic five and a quarter, and in the Corinthian
five and a half.

The necking moulding of the capital is generally carried through above
the arch, the outer line of which is struck so as to nearly touch the
underside.

The projection of the pilasters which carry the arch is half a diameter
from the outer lines of the column, and is measured on the same level as
the springing point of the arch.

The centre from which the arch is struck is sometimes in the same
horizontal line as the springing points, but more frequently a little
above the line and thereby a rather better effect is produced.

The arch-band or archivolt is the same width as the pilaster supporting
it, and a series of mouldings known as the impost is placed at the top
of the pilaster. The base of the pilaster consists of a plain plinth of
slight projection equal in height to the base of the column.

From the spacing of the columns and the proportions here given it will
be seen that the height and width of the aperture made by the arch and
pilasters are arrived at automatically, but if measured, the height will
be found to be about twice the width and the top of the impost about
two-thirds the height of the column. These proportions may be accepted
as giving satisfactory results under ordinary conditions.

As a general rule, in all the orders the impost is half a diameter high,
and so is the same as the projection of the pilaster and the width of
the archivolt.

This rule is not always adhered to, however, but in any case the width
of the archivolt should never be more than one-eighth or less than
one-tenth of the diameter of the arch, and should always be the same as
the width of the pilaster.


_Doric Impost_

The mouldings of the Doric Impost are as follows:

At the top there is a fillet and a bold ovolo, below which there is a
bead-moulding or small torus with fillet and two facias. The lower
facia, which is of slight projection is one-fourth of the total height.
The upper facia and fillet are half the remainder.

[Illustration: No. 168. Detail of Archivolts and Imposts.]


_Archivolt_

The archivolt mouldings are in the Doric order, the same as those of the
impost.


_Ionic Impost_

The total height of half a diameter may be divided into two, and the
upper half sub-divided into three. Then the upper division will be the
height of the top fillet and a reversa moulding; the second the height
of a facia and the third an ovolo and small torus.

The lower half of the impost consists of two facias, the upper of which
is broader than the lower.


_Ionic Archivolt_

The archivolt, commencing at the outer rim, consists of a fillet and
bold reversa moulding which occupies rather less than a fourth of the
total width, and two facias of unequal widths. The width of the inner
facia is nearly one-third more than that of the reversa moulding.


_Corinthian Impost_

The Corinthian impost differs from those of the other two orders in
having a necking and necking moulding in place of the two unequal
facias.

The total height should be divided into two, and the upper half divided
into four. Then the top fillet and reversa moulding will be one of these
divisions, the facia two, and the supporting ovolo will occupy the
remaining one.

The lower half of the impost consists of a small torus and fillet
beneath the ovolo, the necking, and the torus and fillet which form the
necking moulding.


_Corinthian Archivolt_

The archivolt, commencing at the outer rim, consists of a fillet and
reversa and three unequal facias.

If the total width is divided into two, the point of bisection will be
the centre of a small reversa moulding between the two outer facias. The
outer reversa and the inner facia are each about one-sixth of the total
width and the small reversa is about two-thirds of the inner facia.


_The Keystone_

A projecting block, or keystone, is sometimes used at the centre of the
arch. The face width of its lowest edge should not be less than the
width of the archivolt. Its height is not often less than one and a half
times or more than twice this width.

It may be decorated in various ways, and is frequently in the shape of a
console. This form is especially suitable when the keystone comes in
contact with the architrave of the entablature, in which case it is
capped with a moulded abacus.


_The Pedestal_

The height of the pedestal is a fourth that of the column and
entablature together, though this proportion may be varied to suit
different conditions. For instance, when the pedestal forms part of the
structure of a balcony or balustrading the height must be modified to
suit the special requirements of the position.

The pedestal is composed of plinth, die and capping.

The width of the die is the same as the plinth of the base of the column
above it, that is, one and one-third diameter. The projection of the
capping, which is the same for all three orders is obtained by drawing a
line at an angle of 30 degrees with the vertical from the top of the
die.

The width of the plinth corresponds to the projection of the capping,
and is determined by dropping perpendiculars from the top fillet.

The height of the mouldings between the die and plinth is determined by
a line drawn from the bottom of the die at an angle of 45 degrees to
intersect the vertical face of the plinth. The angle is the same for all
the orders.


_Doric Pedestal_

In the Doric order the height of the capping is one-third diameter. The
face of the die is square, and this determines the height of the plinth.

[Illustration: No. 169. Detail of Pedestals.]

The capping mouldings consist of a fillet, facia, ovolo, fillet and
cavetto. The facia is carried to the underside of the fillet in a curve,
and its height is half the total height of the capping. The facia is
supported by the ovolo, and a fillet and cavetto complete the capping.

The height of the course of mouldings at the top of the plinth should be
divided into three, then the upper third will contain a cavetto moulding
and fillet, and the remaining two-thirds an ogee and final fillet.


_Ionic Pedestal_

In the Ionic pedestal the plinth with its mouldings should occupy
one-third the height and the capping one-fifth the remainder.

The mouldings are similar to those of the Doric pedestal, but a little
more elaborate. In the capping a reversa is used under the top fillet
and a small torus or bead is placed between the ovolo and the cavetto.
In the mouldings of the plinth a similar bead is introduced above the
ogee moulding.


_Corinthian Pedestal_

The same general divisions as the Ionic will give the proportions of the
Corinthian pedestal, the difference being that of the scale and the
detail of the mouldings.

The capping may be divided into two. The top half consists of a fillet,
reversa and facia, and the lower half a supporting cyma recta, a bead
and a cavetto curve. The plinth mouldings are the same as those of the
Ionic pedestal with the addition of a torus beneath the ogee. The height
of this torus is one-fourth the total height and is about equal to that
of the cavetto and bead together.

When the pedestal is employed the arch becomes proportionately larger.
In the Doric order the columns are then spaced seven and a half
diameters apart; in the Ionic seven and three quarters, and in the
Corinthian eight diameters centre to centre.

The archivolt, the radius of which is determined by the above spacing,
is supported as before by an impost and pilaster. The base of the
pilaster consists of a slightly projecting block equal in height to the
plinth block of the pedestal.

The height of the arch varies slightly, inasmuch as the inner curve may
be about a diameter from the architrave, but in the Corinthian order
should not fall below the level of the necking moulding of the capital.


_The Baluster_

As already stated, the pedestal may be used as a part of a balustrading
associated with balusters, and must conform to the proportions
necessitated by the conditions. The usual height for balustradings,
whether to steps, balconies, or before windows, is three feet two
inches, though in special cases it may be slightly more.

The baluster is a species of small column. Its usual form is bulbous or
vase-shaped, and it is furnished with a capital and base. A series of
balusters is technically known as a balustrade.

The balusters are raised on a plinth, which corresponds to the plinth of
the pedestal, and surmounted by a rail of horizontal mouldings, which
correspond to the capping of the pedestal; hence the baluster is of the
same height as the die.

The height of the baluster should be divided into five, then one-fifth
will be the height of the base, and the capital exclusive of the necking
will be another fifth. The extreme diameter of the bulbous shaft is
one-third the total height of the baluster, and the diameter of the
necking and the top of the shaft is about one-sixth. The capital has a
square abacus slightly less in width than the plinth of the base. Below
the abacus is

[Illustration: No. 170. Detail of Balusters.]

an ovolo and fillet, which are circular on plan. The necking is
separated from the shaft by a small torus and fillet. The base has for
its lowest member a square plinth, which occupies rather less than half
the height and is equal in width to the extreme diameter of the bulbous
shaft. Above the plinth is a scotia and a necking moulding, which are
circular on plan.


_Spacing of Balusters_

The balusters should be spaced with not more than half their diameters
or less than a third between their bases, except when employed on the
rake of steps, when they may be slightly closer.


_Balustrading_

In a balustrading an unequal number of balusters should always be used,
and not less than five in one group exclusive of the half balusters
which are attached to the flanking or dividing dies. Seven and nine form
very satisfactory groups, but if more than nine are necessary for the
space to be filled, intermediate dies must be interposed, and these may
vary from two-thirds to three-quarters the width of the principal dies.

In some cases, when a large number of balusters are to be grouped, the
dies are flanked by half dies, which are less in projection than the
dies themselves.

Balustrades are sometimes used above the cornice of a building, and
their height should not be more than four-fifths or less than two-thirds
the height of the entablature. This height would be exclusive of the
plinth on which the balusters are raised. The height of the plinth is
determined by the height of the building, and the projection of the
cornice, as its purpose is to raise the balusters so that they may be
seen from the ordinary point of view. The principal dies may be placed
over columns or pilasters and should be equal in width to the upper
diameters of these, though flanking half dies may be used in addition to
avoid an appearance of thinness. The plinth and capping mouldings always
follow the plan of the principal dies, and are carried in unbroken lines
across each interval.

When the height of the balustrade does not conform to the orthodox
proportions the method of determining the relative proportions is as
follows:--The height is divided into seven parts; of these one part
gives the height of the capping, four the baluster and two the plinth.

The mouldings in character and detail are the same as those of the
pedestal, and should be in harmony with the order used.

When balustrading forms part of a stair, the height on landings should
be three feet two inches. On the rake two feet ten inches from the step
at a line vertical with the face of the riser. The plinth is invariably
used as a string enclosing the ends of the steps and following the rake
or angle in a straight line, and carried to the levels by means of
curving ramps.

In interior work the bulbous shafts of balusters are often decorated
with carved detail, and the mouldings also may be enriched.


_Use of Columns_

Columns were originally used in the porticos and courts of temples and
other buildings, and sometimes to form supports for vaulted roofs.
Wherever employed their function was directly structural, but this was
not the case at the time of the Renaissance. The requirements demanded
by widely different social conditions led to their being used more as
decorative than structural features.

The use of engaged columns and pilasters in a façade can be justified to
some extent. Although such columns and pilasters may not be absolutely
essential for support, yet they act as buttresses and add to the
strength of the structure with a certain economy of material. Also they
are æsthetically satisfactory in their effect of light and shade.


_Disposition and Spacing in Colonnades_

The disposition of columns either in a façade or a colonnade is
controlled by proportions which have been found to be desirable or are
necessitated by special features of the order itself. The latter is the
case with the Doric order, the spacing being determined by the trigylphs
and metopes. If the triglyphs are placed centrally over the columns or
pilasters the spacing of these apart will be two and a half diameters
centre to centre, three and three-quarters, or five diameters, with two,
three or four metopes respectively between them in the frieze. With the
wider spacing of five diameters it is usual to employ coupled columns to
add to the appearance of strength. As the triglyphs are one and a
quarter diameters apart centre to centre, the coupled columns are
brought very close together, entailing a slight modification of the
bases. Since the ordinary projection of the plinth of a sixth of a
diameter beyond the line of the shaft is not possible between the two
columns, the plinth-blocks are united, and the torus moulding made
slightly less in projection.

[Illustration: No. 171. Spacing of Columns.]

The capitals being less in width are not affected, a small interval is
left between the crowning reversa mouldings.

In the Ionic order the columns are spaced three and a quarter, three and
three-quarters and four and a quarter diameters centre to centre. The
coupled columns used with the wide spacing are one and a half diameters
centre to centre or half a diameter apart at the lower extremity of the
shafts.

The Corinthian spacing is slightly wider, three and a half diameters,
four diameters, or with coupled columns four and a half diameters centre
to centre. The coupled columns are placed as in the Ionic order one and
a half diameters centre to centre.

It is desirable that attention should be given to the vertical alignment
of the principal features. Dentils and modillions and indeed all
strongly marked features should centre with the columns, and be equally
spaced in the intervals.


_Orders Above Orders_

Occasionally in façades orders are used above one another. The Colosseum
is an antique Roman example of this, and it was a treatment often
adopted by the architects of the early Renaissance. It is desirable that
the simpler order should be the lower one. Ionic may be used over Doric,
or Corinthian over Ionic.

It is obvious that the central axes of the columns or pilasters of each
order used should be in vertical alignment, not only when seen from the
front, but in the case of detached columns, from the side view also.

When engaged columns or pilasters are employed, the upper tier may be
set back slightly from the face of the lower order which supports it; an
example of this is to be found in the Theatre of Marcellus at Rome.

The proportions of the upper order are obtained by making the lower
diameter of the upper tier of columns or pilasters equal to the upper
diameter of those

[Illustration: No. 172. Order above Order.]

of the supporting order, and an effect of continuous tapering is
produced.

It is usual to place above the entablature of the lower order a plinth
on which the bases of the upper columns rest. The height of the plinth
is regulated by the point of view, as its purpose is to display the
bases of the imposed order above the projecting cornice. Generally this
height will be about half a diameter.

In many historical examples the upper columns are placed on pedestals,
but this treatment, although useful when a balcony is desired, is not to
be recommended as the extra width and projection which the use of the
pedestal entails, gives an appearance of undue weight to be borne by the
supporting columns. If balconies are necessary they may terminate with
their own pedestals, which can be kept clear of the columns and should
not exceed them in projection.


_The Pilaster_

It may be as well to deal here with the treatment of pilasters, which
may be defined as columns in bas-relief. Their projection may vary from
one-half to about one-sixth their face width, though in antique examples
it is sometimes much less than this. In the pilasters of the Pantheon at
Rome it is one-tenth.

The projection is, however, partly determined by the order with which
the pilaster is used, as an appearance of mutilation might easily be
produced in the capitals of the Ionic and Corinthian orders. The Doric
capital, being composed of moulded profiles, is not in any way affected
by the amount of projection. Nor does the Ionic capital suffer when the
volutes are in one plane except when used on an angle. But if the later
Renaissance type with the volutes arranged at angles of 45 degrees is
employed, the projection of the pilaster must not be less than half its
upper diameter, so that the volute on the return face may be complete.

The Corinthian capital would be affected in the same way, and should
also be not less than half a diameter in projection in order to obtain a
satisfactory result.

The pilaster is usually tapered, and when associated with columns and
supporting the same entablature it is essential to preserve universal
alignment in the upper extremities and the architrave, but when used by
itself the pilaster is often not tapered. At the angle of buildings,
where both faces are displayed, it is an invariable rule that pilasters
should be straight.

The details of capitals and bases are the same as those of the columns.
When fluting is employed an odd number of channels should be used,
usually seven on the front face.

[Illustration: No. 173. Doric Order. Treatment of coupled Column and
Pilaster.]


_Arcades_

Arcades, as already suggested, may be composed of a series of arches,
supported on pilasters which flank the columns. The backs of the piers
thus formed may be treated with pilasters, which can be repeated on the
opposite wall, with the architrave frieze and cornice above.

There are several alternative treatments for the ceilings of arcades.
They may be flat and panelled by beams carried across in a line with the
pilasters and with a cornice moulding carried round the sides of the
beams.

[Illustration: No. 174. Doric Arcading.]

The interior can also be vaulted by means of archivolts springing from
the line of the imposts. The archivolts should be supported by pilasters
at the back of the piers and on the opposite wall, and a cornice may be
carried round between the vaults. Cross vaulting also may be employed,
and in this case the entablature is no longer necessary.

The proportions already given determine the width of piers when an order
is used, but when an order is not used some further general rules for
proportions are necessary.

The height of the opening formed by arches, which may spring from
piers--with or without an impost--should be about twice the width. The
supporting piers should not be less than a third or more than
two-thirds the width of the aperture. In any form of arcading, piers
must be employed at the angles, and these should be wider than the
intermediate ones by a half, a third, or a fourth.

[Illustration: No. 175. Doric Arch, with pedestal.]


_Subsidiary Order_

A secondary or subsidiary order is sometimes used in an arcading. The
height of the arch should then be twice its width, and the height of the
small order two-thirds the height of the column of the principal order.

This height of two-thirds the column should be sub-divided into nine
parts, of which eight will give the height of the column and the
remaining one that of the entablature. The entablature consists of
architrave and cornice, the frieze being omitted, and a division into
five will give the relative proportions. Two-fifths may be taken as the
height of the architrave and three that of the cornice.

[Illustration: No. 176. Employment of the Subsidiary Order.]

Pilasters are used with the columns of the subsidiary order with a space
of half a diameter between them and the columns.

[Illustration: No. 177. Subsidiary Order. Division of Entablature.]

The archivolt should be equal in width to the upper diameter of the
column, and the width of the lower edge of the keystone should also be
of the same dimension.

The subsidiary order may be the same as the principal order, but more
often the Ionic is used in conjunction with the Doric, or the Corinthian
with the Ionic.

As regards the treatment of the bases, the horizontal alignment must be
maintained. It is obvious that if the height of the base of the large
column is adopted for the subsidiary one it will be very much out of
proportion. This can be obviated by carrying through the plinth of the
larger column to form a step on which the base of the smaller rests, and
always the top line of the smaller bases should agree with that of the
larger.


_Superimposed Orders_

When arcades are used one above the other, the lower order is usually
mounted on a plinth, and the upper furnished with a pedestal. The height
of the pedestal is determined by the balustrading or balcony, the height
of which is governed by its use.

If the Doric is taken as the lower order the centres of the columns are
six and a quarter diameters apart, which gives a frieze of five metopes
with intervening triglyphs. The plinth on which the order stands is
three-quarters of a diameter high. The pilaster supporting the archivolt
projects half a diameter, and the height of the arch is determined by
the impost, which is two-thirds the height of the column inclusive of
the plinth. The base of the pilaster may be moulded, but the top line
should coincide with the top of the plinth.

Above the Doric an Ionic order might be placed, and the die and plinth
of the superimposed order should be kept as narrow as possible so as to
reduce the impression of weight. The pilasters carrying the arch rest on
the plinth of the pedestal, and the plinth mouldings are carried round
the bases. The plinth and rail of the balustrading should not project
but be kept between the pilasters.

The centres of the arches of both tiers are in a line with the tops of
the imposts, and the outer edges of the archivolts may nearly reach the
lower lines of the architraves.

When the Ionic is used as the lower order it may be surmounted by the
Corinthian. The distance between the centres of the lower columns should
then be six and a half diameters. The other proportions can be obtained
in the same way as the preceding.

If a subsidiary order is employed the columns of the principal order are
placed further apart. In the case of the Doric the distance is seven and
a half diameters, and the other orders are increased in proportion.


_Rustication_

The joints of the material used must necessarily be considered, and when
plain piers or plain wall surfaces occur the joints may readily be
accentuated and so turned to decorative account. The edges of the stones
forming the separate courses may be chamfered or moulded. The joints may
also be worked so as to form a square recess.

[Illustration: No. 178. Rustication.]

The surface of the stone is sometimes roughly tooled or frosted, or
worked in an arbitrary pattern, which is termed “vermiculated.” This
treatment probably gave rise to the word rustication.

When rusticated work is used with an order the height of each course of
stone should not be less than half a diameter, and when square recessed
joints are used they can be one-eighth or one-tenth the height of the
course.

Occasionally only the horizontal courses are thus marked, and this has
been objected to as producing a boarded appearance, though undoubtedly
the horizontal effect is at times agreeably in contrast to the vertical
features. A much more usual treatment in Renaissance examples was to
emphasise the vertical joints also.

The length of each stone should be from one and a half to three times
the height.

Rustication may be used in the formation of the arch, which frequently
has at its springing line a slightly projecting course, in which the
vertical joints are not emphasised.

[Illustration: No. 179. Rusticated Arcade.]

Rustication is also used in columns, either square on plan or conforming
to the plan of the column.

Its most legitimate employment is in basements and to emphasise the
angles of buildings.


_Basement_

A basement is really a continuous pedestal on which an order rests. It
necessarily varies in height according to conditions, thus if its
purpose is merely to raise the ground floor it may be no more than three
to six feet high, but if it is required to form a storey, it should not
exceed the height of the order employed or be less than one half.

The joints of the work in basements are generally accentuated by some
form of rustication, and the heights of the horizontal courses should
not be less than half a diameter of the column of the order above.

When a high basement is used it is sometimes crowned with a cornice, or
more frequently with a slightly projecting facia technically known as a
plat-band. In either case, the height should be equal to that of the
courses exclusive of moulded edges or chamfers. Also a plinth is placed
at the base of the same height as the plat-band or a little more. When a
cornice is used the plinth should be moulded and may then exceed the
height of the courses.


_Attic_

An attic storey is sometimes used instead of a second order, and this
may vary from one-third to one-tenth the height of the order beneath it.

The attic may be quite plain, but it often has breakings or projections
on its face corresponding to the vertical features of the supporting
order.

It usually forms a storey in a building, and then is of necessity
pierced with windows.

In architectural design the character and requirements of the building
must, of course, be the first consideration, but the basement may
constitute the ground floor, the height occupied by the order may
contain two stories and the attic may be an upper floor.

When an order is not employed the divisions and proportions already
stated may still be applied, the heights and widths should govern each
other as would be the case if the façade were divided into bays by
columns or pilasters.

In the absence of the order a cornice is substituted for the
entablature, and this, according to different authorities, may be from
one-twelfth to one-sixteenth the total height from the ground, but
one-fourteenth or one-fifteenth will be found a safe mean.


_The Pediment_

The pediment in its original and orthodox employment was a gable
conforming to the pitch of the roof. It is framed with mouldings, and
the enclosed space is technically known as the tympanum.

[Illustration: No. 180. Cornice where order is not employed.]

The use made of the pediment by the architects of the Renaissance was
not always justified in the strictest sense. It was often used to vary
the sky line, and to form door and window heads. Although the latter use
can be to some extent justified in exterior work, a similar employment
in interiors may be open to question.

The sloping lines of the pediment are not always straight, sometimes
they are in the form of a curve composed of a segment of a circle. The
triangular and curved forms are often used alternately in a row of
windows with good effect.

The lines of the pediment mouldings are not always continuous; sometimes
the sloping or the horizontal lines or both are broken. This is a
treatment that cannot readily be justified as the pediment is a feature
that implies shelter.

Sometimes ogee curves take the place of the straight sloping lines, and
these terminate towards the centre, with scroll ends, leaving an
interval between them.

[Illustration: DETAIL OF PEDIMENT

No. 181.]

The mouldings of the pediment are the same as those of the cornice, the
crowning moulding of which is carried round and omitted in the
horizontal course forming the base of the pediment.

Beneath the cyma the mouldings of the cornice are repeated in their
proper order, detailing at the lower angles on the top of the horizontal
cornice, which terminates with the fillet above the facia.

When dentils and modillions are introduced in the cornice they are
invariably repeated in the mouldings of the pediment.

The tympanum or face of the pediment should be in vertical alignment
with the face of the frieze. When this space is small it is best left
plain, but on a large scale the tympanum affords a very suitable
position in which to place sculpture.

The height of the pediment varies according to the width. Thus where the
base is short, as in door and window heads, it will be comparatively
higher than when used in a façade. The height may vary from a fourth to
a fifth of the width of the base.


_Doors_

Obviously door openings should be of sufficient size to admit the free
passage of a tall person. The minimum height for ordinary doors in
domestic buildings should be six feet nine inches, and the width two
feet nine inches. For entrance doors under similar conditions the width
may be three feet six, but when it is more than this the door should be
in two halves.

[Illustration: No. 182. General proportions of doors and windows.]

The size of doors should be proportioned to the building, and should be
designed to meet probable requirements, thus in public buildings door
openings should not be less than six feet wide.

Generally a satisfactory proportion may be obtained by making the height
twice the width, and the framing architrave one-sixth the width of the
opening.

If a frieze and cornice are carried over the door the height inclusive
of architrave should be half the width of the opening.

[Illustration: No. 183. Door Treatment.

     A. Architrave with simple pilasters and consoles.

     B. Ionic order rusticated, with pediment.

     C. Doric order with pediment.

     D. Doric order rusticated.
]

In addition to the framing architrave narrow pilasters bearing consoles
supporting the cornice are sometimes used. The total width of architrave
and pilaster may be about one-third the width, and the entire
entablature one-third the height of the opening.

The mouldings and decorations used should be in harmony with the general
structure and in character with the order if one is used.

Occasionally columns or pilasters are introduced, with or without the
arch, but the same general proportions apply, the aperture being two
squares.

When doors are placed under arches the top line of the entablature
should agree with that of the impost.

When a pediment is used, the height should be one-fourth the width of
the base.


_Windows_

The general proportions and treatments of doors apply also to windows,
and if doors and windows are placed in the same line the heads of the
openings should be in horizontal alignment. If this is not possible the
top of the cornice may agree with the inner line of the window openings.

Windows terminate below in a sill, or sometimes in a balcony, and as a
general rule those on the same level should be similar in treatment, but
an alternation such as already suggested with curved and straight lined
pediments is quite satisfactory.

The frieze and consoles of doors and windows are often decorated with
relief ornament.

When a façade is divided by columns or pilasters the bays are pierced
with windows ranged above each

[Illustration: No. 184. Windows.

     A. Rusticated Architrave.

     B. Rusticated Ionic Columns.

     C. & D. Rustication with Horizontal and Vertical Joints Defined.
]

other, the heights varying with the different floors. Those on the first
storey are usually of full height, and those above less in height and
simpler in treatment. The width of apertures should be the same for the
different levels, except in the case of basements, where they may be
narrower.

When an order is not employed in a façade variety may be obtained by
grouping the windows; or three-light windows may be introduced. The
centre light, which may be treated with an arched head, should be twice
the width of the side lights.

[Illustration: No. 185. Three-Light Window.]

The number of windows in a façade should be odd, so that there may be a
centre one, and the end windows of a range should be kept well clear of
the angles of the building.



CHAPTER V

DIVISION OF SURFACE


In interior decoration surfaces such as walls and ceilings may be
divided into panels of various shapes by a system of framing. The form
of the framing may be rectangular, square, polygonal, circular or oval;
and the panel is generally recessed from the dividing stiles and rails
or ribs, while the latter are frequently supplemented by mouldings.


_Wall Treatment_

In dealing with walls the division can be planned in accordance with
architectural proportions, but the orthodox features are not necessarily
employed.

In some phases of traditional decoration much use has been made of
pilasters--the spacing and distribution of which, while conforming to
the conditions of the interior, are similar to the usual employment of
pilasters in exterior architecture, with the difference that the spaces
between them are occupied by panels or other features.

Except in apartments of unusual height, pilasters should not be mounted
on a pedestal; though a pedestal-like feature is often introduced in the
form of a Dado or surbase.

In such a scheme the entablature also should be used so that the cornice
forms a bed moulding for the ceiling.

Coupled pilasters may also be employed, and in

[Illustration: No. 186. Wall Division.

     A. & B. Pilaster Treatment.

     C. & D. Alternation of wide and narrow panels.
]

some well-known instances are placed wider apart than is ordinarily the
case, and the space between is then occupied by a narrow panel.

[Illustration: No. 187. Detail of Ceiling. Library of S. Lorenzo,
Florence. M. Angelo.]

In smaller apartments the pilaster may be dispensed with, but the
division of the wall surface can conform to the same general plan both
vertically and horizontally. In the absence of pilasters the spaces may
be divided into panels alternately narrow and wide.


_Ceilings_

When the ceiling is divided the dividing ribs or beams should bear some
relation to the general construction, though in the past this rule has
not always been strictly adhered to. For example, the ceiling may very
desirably be divided into equal squares or rectangles by means of wooden
or plaster mouldings, leaving the enclosed spaces plain or decorated.
When mouldings are used these may be enriched, but contrast should be
maintained between the framing ribs and the panels.

[Illustration: No. 188. Detail of Inlaid Floor. Library of S. Lorenzo,
Florence. Repeating general pattern of ceiling.]

The Late Tudor decorated ceiling often had narrow moulded ribs
geometrically arranged with pateræ in between and fleur-de-lys details
on the outer angles where the ribs met.

[Illustration: No. 189. Ceiling of Library of S. Lorenzo, Florence. Plan
of general arrangement.]

[Illustration: No. 190. Late Tudor Ceiling. Littlecotes Hall, Wilts.]


_Jacobean_

In the later Jacobean style the rib was replaced by floral bands
projecting comparatively slightly and enclosed by narrow borders. These
bands were disposed in various ways--sometimes intersecting at right
angles and enclosing rectangular or square panels, sometimes forming
geometric curves occasionally interrupted by straight lines.

If any of these methods of breaking up the surface be employed, it is
obvious that the general proportions must be taken into account.


_Carolean and Georgian_

In the Carolean and Georgian periods it was customary to decorate the
ceiling with a heavily modelled band of foliated detail, circular or
oval in form--the whole in harmony with the plan of the room. Sometimes
the angles were occupied by other detail, but the centre was invariably
left plain.


_Adam Ceilings_

[Illustration: No. 191. Jacobean Ceiling. Sizergh Hall, Westmorland.]

The ceilings of the Adam period were similarly treated. The oval or
circular band would sometimes consist of a series of festoons--an
arrangement which, though graceful enough in effect, cannot be defended

[Illustration: No. 192. Jacobean Ceiling. Reindeer Inn, Banbury.]

as consistent. The angles of the Adam ceiling were generally decorated
with the characteristic fan detail.

[Illustration: No. 193. Carolean Ceiling.]


_Vaults and Domes_

In vaulted ceilings or domes the division may be effected by horizontal
or vertical bands, in which case the spaces between diminish in size
towards the centre. If the division of the dome is vertical, or more
properly speaking, by radial lines, it is desirable to divide further
the spaces thus formed by introducing intermediate shapes, such as
circles, unless the diameter be relatively small.

[Illustration: No. 194. Adam Ceiling.]


_The Cove_

In some cases the walls meet the ceiling in an arch, which is
technically known as a Cove. The arch generally springs from the top of
the cornice and forms a vaulted frieze, which may or may not be
decorated.

When the ceiling is divided by means of heavy beams there should be
obvious support for these, such as brackets or consoles, which are
themselves to be supported by pilasters. The brackets in this case make
a break in the frieze or cove.

It may be objected that architectural features serve no purpose in
interior decoration, but on the other hand, in extenuation of their use
it may be urged that, though considerations of actual weight and
structure are not involved, yet the appearance of support has to be
maintained, and it is essential that the scheme as a whole should
realise the effect of stability.


_The Frieze_

[Illustration: No. 198. Festoon Frieze. Continuous treatment with
vertical contrast. Temple of Vesta, Tivoli]

In considering the decoration of the various parts, the two principal
questions to be asked are--what is the purpose? and, what is the
attitude? The purpose of the Frieze may be said to be to bind, and the
attitude of the Frieze is certainly a horizontal one--therefore the
usual continuous treatment is justified. This is not the only way in
which the Frieze can be treated, however, for the continuous horizontal
treatment may be varied by vertical effects such as occur in the Doric
order. The employment of Festoons with intermediate

[Illustration:

     Photo]

No. 195. Vault Treatment. Ducal Palace, Venice, Sansovino.

[Alinari
]

[Illustration:

     Photo]

No. 196. Dome Treatment. Vertical and horizontal division, resulting in
panels. Villa Madama, Rome.

[Alinari
]

[Illustration:

     Photo]

No. 197. Dome, St. Peter’s, Rome. Example of radial division.

[Alinari
]

pendants is really a continuous horizontal treatment in which the
vertical direction is emphasised by way of contrast. The same principle
is involved in the decoration of mouldings. Vertical features should be
in alignment with adjacent and dominant details.

[Illustration: No. 199. Frieze. Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, Rome.
Horizontal direction suggested by Gryffons, with vertical contrast by
Candelabra.]

All kinds of elements can be employed in Frieze decoration, and as much
interest and liveliness imparted as is compatible with the necessary
repetition.


_Borders_

Borders, with or without mouldings, may be considered as frames to the
spaces they separate or enclose; in the latter case they are invariably
uniform in width (except when used in Typography and illuminations,
where some license is permissible).

As borders are structural in suggestion, the elements employed should be
simple and without that interest which is desirable in other positions.

The detail to be used is largely determined by scale and position. When
on a small scale, borders may be mainly composed of a series of lines
spaced so as to suggest the various features of a moulded band, in which
case it is essential that the same width be maintained throughout the
length, while the lines are returned at the corners at mitral angles.
This treatment can be elaborated by the introduction of other lines
between those most widely spaced at right angles with the direction, and
these can again be broken at intervals by rosettes or other simple
forms.

[Illustration: No. 200. Key-Pattern Borders.]

[Illustration: No. 201. Interlacing Borders.]

The well-known key-border is a continuous narrow band or line which
traces out a labyrinth pattern by bending inwards at right angles and
then returning to the original direction. This, in its simplest form, is
an elaboration of adjacent squares in which a top and bottom line is
alternately dispensed with.


_Geometric Elements_

The simplest elements in border decoration are geometric in character.
The border may be divided by straight lines intersecting at various
angles, or by curves struck from equidistant centres, or by a
combination of straight lines and curves.


_The Undulate Line_

[Illustration: No. 202. Growth Line based on Geometric Curves.]

Intersecting straight lines form the basis of the different chequered
patterns in conjunction with the simple device of alternating light and
dark masses. Interlacing patterns are also based on intersecting
straight lines. When segmental curves are employed either the chequered
or interlacing effect may be obtained. Such patterns are essentially
geometric and mechanical, but some idea of the growth line is suggested
by the undulating stems formed out of the arcs of circles struck from
either side of the border. This effect may be used with purely
artificial detail, such as arises naturally from the spaces left, or
with the introduction of floral detail. It is evident that the curve of
the undulating stem will vary according to the position of the centres
from which the arcs are struck.

[Illustration: No. 203. Brocade composed of Undulate Borders.]

A fuller effect, giving more space for branching and other detail, will
be obtained by basing the stem upon

[Illustration: No. 204. Scroll Border based on Adjacent Circles.]

[Illustration: No. 205. 14th Century Textile composed of Undulate
Borders arranged obliquely.]

a series of complete adjacent circles struck within the border. The
latter device is the basis of the wave line, which, after all, is only
the key or labyrinth with the square angles rounded.

[Illustration: No. 206. French Brocade, 18th Century, composed of
Borders.]

Border decoration can also consist of leaves or other details
symmetrically arranged on a central axis, with perhaps occasional
flowers or rosettes to break the monotony.


_Repetition and Alternation_

Generally speaking, the detail should preferably be of a formal
character, and should consist of the repetition of units with no
interest beyond that imparted by alternation.

The detail must, moreover, be designed with due regard to the space to
be filled, and, in any border which encloses any space, a common divisor
of height and width should be found in accordance with which the unit
can be designed.


_Treatment of Angles_

[Illustration: No. 207. The Evolute Scroll as a Border.

A. Continuous. B. Reciprocal]

The meeting angles or corners of borders invariably require special
treatment, and in those positions the detail should be compact and
stronger in appearance than the general pattern. The simplest expedient
is some form of patera or rosette, but, whatever the detail, it should
always be in strong contrast to that of the run of the border. The only
forms that can be continuous without any marked change in the angles,
are the undulating stem, the wave, and its square form the key or
labyrinth; but even with these the proportion of width to height at
times needs modification. If a common divisor is not possible, the
difficulty can to some extent be overcome by making the form reciprocal
and letting the two sides meet in the centre of the border, so that any
slight disparity in treatment and dimensions will not be noticeable.


_Pilaster Treatment_

As the Pilaster is used structurally in order to give support, so its
treatment in interior decoration must conform to architectural
requirements, and the decoration should be symmetrical on a central axis
and vertical in direction.

When flutes are employed to decorate the pilasters, they should be
unequal in number--seven being a favourite number. The flutes may be
further decorated by cabling, though this should extend to only
one-third of the height. The cabling can be elaborated into a series of
husks which may arise from the base or be pendant from the top of the
pilaster. In either case the general rule must be observed that the
cabling shall occupy only a third of the total height.


_Panelled Pilasters_

Sunk panels are also used for decorating pilasters. They cover about
half the width, and are moulded at the edges. In some instances, notably
in pilasters of the Early French Renaissance, the panel is broken in the
centre by the introduction of a smaller circular or lozenge-shaped
panel. Sometimes the panel is adorned with floral or other detail, and
this should be symmetrically arranged on a central axis. For this
purpose the undulate stem should never be employed. Such detail requires
a start at the base and a definite finish at the top of the pilaster,
but for the rest, it may consist of the same unit repeated, or of two
alternating units.

In order to emphasise the structural character of the pilaster it was
customary to introduce features in the form of mouldings, vases and
labels.


_Capitals and Bases_

The capitals and bases of pilasters should be in harmony with the other
decorations used. The usual capital of the Italian Renaissance is a
modified Corinthian type, and this is quite suitable when the pilaster
has plain or decorated panels, but when flutes are employed on the
pilaster a more ornate capital is desirable. In the latter case a
composite form in which the Doric abacus and enriched ovolo figure
together with a row of stiffly-arranged vertical leaves, could fitly be
used. The Ionic type would also be suitable; when the base of the
pilaster is decorated, the lowest detail of reeds of the principal torus
may be bound with cross ribbons.

[Illustration: No. 208. Pilaster Treatment. French Renaissance.]

[Illustration: No. 209. Treatment of Pilaster Capital, with Vertical
Emphasis.]


_Treatment of Panels_

Panels and enclosed spaces have no structural significance, and
therefore in the treatment of them attitude alone has to be
considered--that is to say, the only question is, as to whether the
surface to be decorated is in a vertical or a horizontal plane. In the
decoration of a panel in a horizontal plane, since it is not desirable
to mark any one direction, the detail may radiate diagonally or
diametrically from a centre. If, however, in the case of a ceiling,
details are employed in the angles formed by the walls, these should
grow towards the centre of the ceiling.

[Illustration: No. 210. Ceiling Decoration. Growth from Angle.]

When panels or enclosed spaces are used on walls or on furniture of any
height the vertical direction should be emphasised as a general rule;
but if the height is less than the width, the decoration, though it
should remain vertical in tendency, should also spread so as to conform
to the width.

The design of a panel or enclosed space, whatever the shape or attitude,
should be complete in itself, having its proper start and appropriate
terminals. If the enclosing border were removed the detail should, by
its general disposition maintain the shape, even though the whole
surface may not be occupied.

Rich ornamentation is thoroughly in keeping with the nature of the
panel--certainly more interest should be centred on panel decoration
than on adornment in more subordinate positions.

The decoration may either completely fill the space or only partially do
so. In the latter case, the shapes of the unoccupied parts must be
carefully considered.

[Illustration: No. 211. Semi-Lunette Panel. Central Feature based on
Circle.]

Whether the design is a unit repeated on a central axis or is a balanced
one, is largely a matter to be settled by individual taste and the
position of the panel. Both treatments are admissible in a range of
panels; greater variety can be obtained by symmetrically disposed
designs being flanked on either side by balanced designs.


_Juxtaposition_

When panels occur together, either side by side or ranged one above the
other, they may exert influence on one another. For example, vertical
features close to the framing stiles should be repeated in the adjacent
panel even though the width of each panel may differ. When the panels
are one above the other, central features should be avoided and the
interest should be kept close to the opposing margins; otherwise the
effect will be spotty and lacking in repose.

[Illustration: No. 212. Panels in Juxtaposition.]

As panels present the best opportunity for display, on account of their
treatment being comparatively untrammelled by the considerations to
which the more structural features must submit, there is open to them

[Illustration: No. 213. Design for Panel based on Treatment of Celery.
By C. A. Sheehan, Bristol.]

a proportionately large field of possible decoration. In the first
place, the panel may be treated pictorially, with due regard to the
requirements of surface and reciprocal effect which must be insisted on
in mural decoration. If not treated pictorially, ornament of a
traditional character, or designs derived more directly from natural
forms can be made use of. In either case the ornament must complete
itself within the given area.


_The Growth Line_

[Illustration: No. 214. Analysis of Composing Lines of Panel.]

In traditional ornament, composing or strongly marked lines are used,
but in types more nearly allied to natural forms, it is necessary for
the lines to bear some relation to the character of the selected
growth. The disposition of leaves and other elements must also be
characteristic, and natural terminals must be taken advantage of near
enclosing lines so as to avoid any appearance of mutilation. When such
forms as branches or leaves approach or cross, they should always do so
at decided angles; their points or extremities should never be directly
opposed to other details or to margins. The main growth should be
clearly discernible, and the direction of the stem lines evident even
when clothed with foliage.


_Grouping and Massing_

It must be borne in mind when designs are based on natural forms that
the mere rendering of a natural attitude does not in itself constitute a
design. In the case of plant forms, flowers and leaves should be grouped
and massed, primarily with a view to the composition of a harmonious
whole. Sometimes interest may be added by introducing animal forms in
keeping with the general environment.

Interest in design depends on the massing and emphasis of detail,
because, if a plain or uniform surface be completely covered with detail
equally distributed, with no regard to mass or emphasis of parts, it is
obvious that the result will again be uniform--the only difference being
that a certain texture is imparted to the surface, and this, though not
undesirable in a wallpaper, is not consonant with the nature of a panel.


_Division of Area_

The massing of detail should be as simple as possible and to some extent
should be guided by the scale. One expedient in panel designing is to
draw within the area, whether it be square, rectangular or any other
shape, a circle or oval to control the predominant detail in contrast to
that which is to be less conspicuous.

[Illustration: No. 215. Phases of Elaboration of Simple Shape.]

Large areas may be sub-divided into several masses, but the grouping of
these must be controlled by the general shape. When dealing with borders
a suggestion was made that the undulate stem could follow the lines of
adjacent circles, and this device is the basis of most of the scrolling
growth lines that are characteristic of Renaissance ornament.

[Illustration: No. 216. Byzantine Panel. Composition based on Circles.]

[Illustration: No. 217. Romanesque Lunette Panel. Composition based on
Circular Shapes.]


_Human and Animal Life_

Decoration, when the human figure or any form of animal life is
employed, is bounded with the same conditions with regard to
composition, inasmuch that they

[Illustration: No. 218. Figure Composition. Recognition of Framing
Lines.]

[Illustration: No. 219. Figure Composition. Spandril Treatment.]

must be so arranged as to occupy the area and be in harmony with the
boundaries or framing lines.

The license that is permissible in ornament, particularly of the purely
conventional type, when it may be compelled in any direction and fitted
into any space that is desirable from a decorative point of view, is not
possible where the human or animal form is concerned. This adds to the
consideration, as natural attitude and proportions are obligatory if
consistency has to be observed.

The problem in certain shaped areas affords little latitude, in
particular the triangular spandril where the invariable device of wings
or floating drapery is as insistent as the head of King Charles in the
memorial of Mr. Dick.


_Forms in the Round_

Forms in the round--such that can be seen from any point of view--need
special treatment. Height may appear normal, but the details round the
surface will be materially affected by the rotundity. Thus a vase of
varying contour might have its surface divided by a series of vertical
lines, any one of which, seen from a point of view exactly opposite,
would appear straight, whereas those approaching the profiles would
appear curved proportionately to the sectional curvature.

[Illustration: No. 220. Effect of Perspective of Vertical Division.]

Perspective also affects the vertical appearance more or less according
to the profile curvature, and in decoration, for bodies that are
bulbous in form, the foreshortening and its effect on details must be
taken into consideration so as to avoid undesirable distortion.


_Supports and Balusters_

Other forms in the round that may be considered are supports for
furniture, balusters and lamp-post standards. Furniture supports and
balusters are invariably in the form of tapered or vase-shaped shafts,
and the divisions may be in accordance with the proportions previously
suggested. Appropriate mouldings are used to decorate the shaft. When in
wood, these forms are either partly or wholly turned, and in this case
may be further decorated by carved work. In supports, the general
tendency of the details should be in the vertical direction so as to
enhance the structural suggestion.

[Illustration: No. 221. Jacobean Baluster, Carved Wood, showing Vertical
and Horizontal Contrast.]


_Standards_

In the treatment of standards it is not so necessary to emphasise the
element of support, and the diameter or lateral dimensions can vary to a
greater degree. Whether the standards are fixtures or movable, as in
interior fittings, there must be a base that will not only be adequate
but will convey the idea of stability. In the case of portable standards
the tripod form of base is possibly the most suitable, but when the
standard is small the base can be circular, square or polygonal. The
commonest form is a shaft, which is frequently tapered. This is
supported on a bulbous or vase-shaped form arising out of the base. At
the upper end of the shaft is a capital of some kind. These different
parts are held together by appropriate mouldings.

The decoration of a standard, which is largely dependent on its size,
should, generally speaking, be applied in the vertical direction with
occasional horizontal features by way of contrast. The treatment must
also vary according to material.

[Illustration: No. 222. Cast Iron Lamp Standard.]


_Proportion_

Apart from considerations of use and material, the design of this kind
of round form is based on inequalities of proportion in height and
diameter. Obvious repetitions of the same dimension are to be avoided.
The profiles should be carefully composed with a view to effecting
harmony or contrast--the curves either approaching one another in a
flexible line or being deliberately contrasting. Mouldings may be used
at intervals to mark the various stages.

[Illustration: No. 223. Types of Vase Decoration.

A. Horizontal Banding with vertical Contrast.

B. Oblique or Spiral Treatment. C. Panel Treatment.]

Vase forms vary considerably. When the profile is formed by straight
lines they may be cylindrical or cone-shaped. Of course profiles may
take other forms--they may be ovoid or trace an ogee curve. When the
diameter varies the bulk should preponderate at some one point. When
unity of line is desired, the curves of the profile should flow easily
into each other, even if broken at intervals by mouldings. In
contrasting curves the lines should intersect at right angles in order
to avoid indecision of form.


_Positions for Decoration_

The areas capable of being decorated on vase forms are those bounded by
mouldings. The nature and direction of the decoration will be
determined by the profile curves on the sectional form. The direction of
the ornament may be horizontal as in the form of a band, but to avoid
distortion such detail should only be applied to surfaces of uniform
curvature.

If the vertical direction be chosen the decoration may take the form of
flutes, of leaves or of panels decorated with detail. A variation of the
vertical treatment is obtained by employing similar details in an
oblique direction, thus giving the appearance of ornament twisting or
twining round the shape.

[Illustration: No. 224. Stretch Out and Segments of the Cylinder.]

In the vertical panel treatment, as in mouldings, the sectional or
profile curve may be used to determine the general framing lines, with
contrasting details between the panels. In order to give variety it may
be desirable to combine two treatments--for instance, the horizontal
band may be contrasted with vertical flutes and leaves.


_Working Drawings_

For a practical drawing the form must be shown in elevation and not in
perspective. All the horizontal divisions must be drawn in parallel
lines. It is obvious that except for profiles and general height,
further details must be given for a working drawing.


_The Segment or Stretch Out_

[Illustration: No. 225. Stretch Out of the Cone.]

In designing for forms in the round it is necessary to detail the
ornament on a segment or a stretching-out of the area. This is easily
done in the case of a cylinder of which the height is evident, and the
extreme width and circumference easily obtainable. If the object is not
in existence for direct measurement the width can be determined from the
diameter as expressed in the drawing. As this diameter is about
one-third of the circumference a parallelogram three times the width of
the diameter will provide, in the flat, the complete area on which
detail has to be drawn.

Should the shape of the object be that of a truncated cone--that is,
with straight inclined sides and a circular plan, the procedure must
necessarily be different. In this case the lines of the sides should be
extended till they intersect. This intersection forms a centre from
which arcs may be struck coinciding with the lines of top and base. The
greatest diameter should be set off on each side of the elevation on the
larger radius and the points joined up with the centres from which the
arcs were struck. The result is a fan-shaped figure bounded by these
outer lines and the two arcs. This figure gives the entire area of the
surface of the truncated cone.

In either of the figures thus obtained for designing detail on, the
surfaces can be sub-divided. For instance, if the decoration consists of
a unit repeated three or six times round the form, it will not be
necessary to reproduce the whole area, provided always that the profiles
are straight or tapered.

[Illustration: No. 226. Method of obtaining a Segment of one-sixth of
Vase.]

As the diameter is about one-third of the circumference the elevational
drawing of the cylinder gives one-third of the area and half a diameter
gives one-sixth.

In the truncated cone shape the widths are similarly determined, but it
will be found that the height, when measured on the centre line, is less
than the lengths of the profile lines which constitute the actual
height.

When the profiles are curved, the procedure is more complicated. As in
the case of the cone shape, there is naturally some discrepancy between
the height of the elevation and the profile, the actual dimension of
which is affected by perspective (as also in plan curvature).

To obtain the actual height of the area the profile must be measured
vertically with some flexible material, such as thin lead wire, which
will readily embrace the curvature.

If a division of a third or a sixth is required the diameter or half
diameter can be taken, but the segment of the area should be set off on
a fresh centre line quite independent of the elevational drawing.

In order to obtain the true shape of the segment the elevation should be
divided by horizontal lines drawn at the points of marked change in
curvature, and these can be lettered or numbered for identification. The
distance between each of these lines should be measured and set off on
the new centre line, and then these can be used for drawing the
parallels through.

The various diameters can be determined from the corresponding lines on
the elevation. Lines drawn through the points thus obtained will give
the required segment or area on the flat.

[Illustration: No. 227. Method of obtaining a Segment of one-fifth of
Vase.]

If other divisions than those deducible from three or six are required,
it will be necessary to draw also the plan curves from which the
division can be obtained. Assuming that the elevation has been
vertically divided as before, and the plan to be circular, a circle
should be struck which is to represent the largest diameter and its
circumference divided into the required number of parts. Lines are then
drawn through to the centre. On the same centre other circles are
struck with radii equal to the remaining horizontals, and each
identified with the corresponding number or letter. The heights are
obtained as before, and the diameters of the variations in the curvature
can be ascertained by measuring round each of the plan curves in
succession.

In the case of the plan being other than circular, the same rules apply,
but the different plans would have to be drawn in each individual
example.

Owing to the effect of perspective on rounded shapes, it is undesirable
to employ the human figure, unless in bold relief, and then only on
straight or slightly curved profiles.



CHAPTER VI

DEVELOPMENT OF CONVENTIONAL ORNAMENT


The term Convention is applied to decoration in which there is distinct
evidence of artistic restraint, which may be purely æsthetic or due to
technical conditions.


_Outline Drawing_

The rendering of any form in outline is probably the simplest form of
convention, which is generally accepted through tradition as
representation. Though the objects so depicted really depend on light,
shade, and local colour for their appearance.

Such outline drawings may be in other respects realistic, but a further
degree of convention is the desirable elimination of perspective where
it is unsuitable to the effect desired. For instance, in silhouette,
profile renderings only are intelligible, and in delicate bas-relief
modelling any foreshortening should be avoided if confusing to the
effect.

In direct personal work, such as drawing or painting, when craft
conditions other than that of the medium employed are not involved,
convention is purely a matter of discretion and consideration of the
nature and object of the work; but it is essential in design when the
material and method of production have to be considered. In painting the
artist may employ the full resources of his palette and be as realistic
in his effect as is in his power, but if the purpose be mural
decoration restraint is at once imposed.


_Undesirable Realism_

Under certain conditions realism would be out of place, and any attempt
at illusion would fail to convince. The one time fashion of painting
ceilings with sprawling deities of either sex, which cannot be seen
without a painful crick in the neck, or worse still to suggest sky with
floating amorini, occasionally framed by marble balustrading in
wonderful perspective is deplorable.

Such decoration, if it can be so termed, is not only stagey but is
foredoomed to failure in effect, as the ordinary interior lighting is
not adequate. Furthermore, it displays a lack of appreciation of
fitness, and that the purpose of a ceiling is to convey a sense of
shelter.

Realism, though desirable in portraiture, either of individuals, places
or events, is not necessarily of the greatest interest except to those
concerned. In mural decoration realism should give place to convention,
and the whole considered as a design with regard to balance of form and
colour, and recognition of the surface to which the decoration is
applied.

The first attempts at decoration were the direct results of material and
the manner of working, in which there was no attempt at representation.
This was succeeded when the early artists attained more skill by a phase
of realism, later still with acquired culture there was a deliberate
return to convention.

The dignified conception of the Egyptian rendering of the Lion, though
thoroughly conventional, reveals technical skill and anatomical
knowledge of a high order; also appreciation for desirable treatment,
and may be contrasted favourably with those by Sir Edwin Landseer round
the pedestal of the Nelson Column in Trafalgar Square, in which realism
is not subordinated to the decorative and symbolic conditions.


_Craft Restrictions_

When any craft process is involved the design is only a means to the
end, and convention is then imposed by the technical conditions of the
craft in question. The designer has to keep these conditions in view,
the desirable object being to make the greatest economic use of the
process compatible with a good result. It would be a waste of both time
and energy to depict effects that could not be realised.

In woven or printed fabrics it is impossible to produce natural effects;
even if that were possible the inevitable repetition of the unit would
be not merely unnatural but a gross absurdity. The great bulk of the
public do not understand convention, hence the popularity of textiles
and wall-papers in which the designs consist of flowers treated (however
inconsistently) in natural aspect as far as possible; in particular the
Rose which, like the poor, is ever with us.

Traditional ornament at its best has generally been conventional, the
various details of foliage being æsthetic creations, with at times,
perhaps, some suggestion derived from natural types. The scroll in the
form of volutes as employed in the Ionic capital may have been suggested
by the fossil known as the Ammonite

[Illustration: No. 228. Filagree Jewellery.

     A. Hook for Jacket in Silver. Swedish, Mid. 18th Century.

     B. Pendant Cross. Gold set with Garnets. Modern Italian.

     C. Ear-ring. Gold. Modern French.

     D. Ear-ring. Gold. Modern Italian.

     E. Ear-ring. Gold. Modern Italian.

     F. Pendant. Northern Portuguese. 17th or early 18th Century.

     G. Ear-ring. Gold. Modern Italian.

     H. Pendant. Gold. As worn by peasants in Etruria.
]

shell, so called because it resembles the ram’s horn of Jupiter Ammon.
Its traditional employment in conjunction with the undulate stem, is
certainly far from any natural suggestion in the way of growth, while
the variety known as the evolute scroll is distinctly artificial.


_Materialistic Influence_

It is probable that it had its origin in the facility with which wire
could be bent, and in early jewellery such scroll forms are conspicuous.

A reasonable conjecture is that the similar forms in early repoussé
work, such as that of the gold ornaments found at Enkomi, Cyprus and the
painted decoration of the Greek vases, were inspired by the treatment
which was the outcome of the use of metal in the form of thin wire.
Similar details occur in Peruvian and New Guinea work, which is
certainly coincidental as it is difficult to imagine these people having
any communication with the Old World.

Scandinavian and Keltic art was to a certain extent influenced by
Eastern tradition through the medium of the Phœnician merchant
adventurers; but no such conjecture is feasible in the Maori incised
work and tattooing in which similar details occur.

The scrolling line alone may be used, generally in decoration of small
scale, as in the Greek vases. In this form it frequently occurs in
pottery, either incised or painted, and in filagree jewellery. Wrought
iron partakes largely of the scrolling character, but this, as in
filagree, is the direct result of the material employed.

Scandinavian and Keltic ornament consisted mainly

[Illustration: No. 229. The Evolute Scroll.

     A. Pottery (painted) Archaic Greek.

     B. Pottery (painted) Cyprus, 800 B.C.

     C. D. F. Gold Ornaments from Tombs at Enkomi, Cyprus.

     E. Pottery (painted) Ancient Mexico.

     G. Early Greek Stone Carving. Treasury of Minyas at Orchomenos,
     Boeotia.

     H. Assyrian Stone Carving. Sacred Hom or Palm.
]

[Illustration: No. 230. The Evolute Scroll in Savage Art.

     A. B. C. Spatula Handles, Carved Wood, New Guinea.

     D. Detail on Paddle, Carved Wood, New Guinea.

     E. Maori Chief’s Staff Handle, Carved Wood.

     F. Detail from Tattooed Maori Head.

     G. Engraved Bamboo, Borneo.

     H. Carved Wood Detail, New Guinea.
]

of a series of scrolling forms, as also did much of the ornament of the
illuminated Gothic work and mural decoration. The desire for variety and
mass lead eventually to the employment of diverse elements, arising in
many instances from different treatment of existing details; thus,
during the Renaissance, the side view of a poppy-like flower suggested
and became a profile mask, and the husk leaf was frequently elaborated
into the form of a dolphin.

[Illustration: No. 231. Scroll & Anthemion Ornament from Greek Vase
Paintings.]


_Early Renderings_

The evolute scroll which plays so conspicuous a part in Greek art, was
employed at earlier periods by the Egyptians and Chaldeans, and the
widespread appreciation and use of this form of detail is plainly
indicative that it was not disseminated from any one centre.

In the early employment of these curved forms there is no evidence of
natural suggestion, but later, leaves and floral details were added
conveying the idea of growth. In Egyptian and Assyrian art certain
natural types occur, such as the Lotus, Papyrus and the Palm, but these
were utterly denaturalised, all realism being eliminated.

These conventions, though incidentally decorative, were invested with
symbolic meaning with which their employment was concerned rather than
with the imitation of natural form.


_The Anthemion_

[Illustration: No. 232. Greek Anthemion. Relief Treatment.]

The Anthemion alone or in conjunction with the scroll or evolute line,
appears in a painted form in the Greek vase decoration. Examination of
these will reveal evidence of brush-work, the separate details being the
result of direct flexion. In sculptured form it appears in the Antefixe,
also as a cresting or finial to the stele heads, the separate radial
features being channelled with sunken grooves or with ridges in relief.

[Illustration: No. 233. Greek Scroll from Choragic Monument of
Lysikrates, Athens. Carved Stone.]

It is conceivable that the attenuated effect of the mere scrolling line
suggested the desirability of the occasional mass and variety that would
be obtained by employing leaves.


_Greek Sculptured Ornament_

[Illustration: No. 234. Wrought Iron Scroll. Detail of Hinge, Notre
Dame, Paris. Early French Gothic.]

Greek sculptural ornament is comparatively devoid of natural suggestion,
the branching scrolls with sheath leaves being æsthetic rather than
imitative. The leaves employed bear little resemblance to those of the
later Roman period, and consist generally of a succession of radial
grooves with undulating or prickly edges, and are obviously adapted from
the anthemion detail.

In the scrolls employed on the Choragic monument at Athens the desire
was evidently play of line and silhouette.

The flexible and open form, though possible in bent metal or in painted
work, is unsuitable to carving in stone. Adequate support being
essential, the scrolls had to be united by the leaves, which were
necessarily massed in form and decorated by channellings or grooves to
give further detail and interest.

A development of the leaf treatment was the division into lobes, each
lobe being channelled with a group of radial grooves ending in
serrations. The lobes were divided by holes, or, as they are generally
termed, eyes, more or less circular in shape, and these were connected
with the base of the leaf by pipes or Tines in relief, conforming with
the general radial distribution.


_Acanthus Leaf_

[Illustration: No. 235. Acanthus Leaf. Composed of groups of Anthemions.
Brush-work.]

Leaves of this type are known as Acanthus, and it is a tradition that
the leaf in its original employment was derived from a natural source.
The anthemion, too, is often mis-called the honeysuckle owing to the
supposed resemblance; but it is much more probable that both were purely
artistic creations developing as previously suggested from the painted
anthemion details. Elaboration and relief expression were the natural
outcome of material, and desire for surface interest. The honeysuckle
origin is completely confuted by comparison of the Greek anthemion with
the Assyrian treatment of the Palm, by which it was evidently inspired.

In Greek ornament such flowers as occur are mostly of the rosette type,
quite conventional in character, though in the painted decoration such
natural forms as the ivy and vine are evident; but these were always
conventional in treatment and symbolic in interest.

[Illustration: No. 236. Acanthus Scroll. Brush-work.]

The Greeks were not creative in art either in their architecture or
ornament, and were evidently indebted to the earlier culture of
Mesopotamia for many of their details. As they based the anthemion on
the Assyrian treatment of the Palm, so they borrowed the Ionic capital
from Persia and the Corinthian variety had its prototype in the Egyptian
Papyrus capital. Even their architecture was no advance in principle on
that which previously existed.

Their treatment, however, was extremely artistic, and they invested all
their work with great refinement and delicacy of detail. At a later
period under subjugation the Roman art development was practically in
the hands of Greek designers and craftsmen, and acquired great freedom
of expression marked by exquisite workmanship in the Græco-Roman period.


_Roman Development_

The details and treatment of ornament developed rapidly in the Roman
period, in the variety and forms of the elements employed. The principal
exponents were Greek, but the original austere character of expression
underwent considerable modification.


_The Scroll_

In Roman art the scroll, which constituted the chief decoration of the
friezes and panels, was greatly developed and rendered with more freedom
and variety of treatment; assuming the form of a growing or climbing
stem, bearing flowers and clothed with leaves. A treatment which is
fairly consistent with such types as the Vine and other climbing growths
in nature.

The undulating stem with branching scrolls is prominent, both in friezes
and panels; the character of the foliage became more varied, the stiff
and formal acanthus leaf being only used in the capitals of columns and
in structural features.

The version employed in more decorative positions

[Illustration:

     Photo]

No. 237. Detail of Roman Frieze, in Carved Stone.

[E. Richter.
]

exhibited greater freedom in form, attitude and section. Natural types
for the sake of variety were used, generally in subordinated positions,
and there is occasional evidence of the influence of these in the
treatment of the acanthus detail.


_Græco-Roman_

The development of art during this period cannot be attributed to native
talent, the Romans being content to borrow their art as they did their
religion. It was rather due to the opulence of the times, though the
practical character of the race resulted in a great advance in
architecture.

The later Roman, generally termed Græco-Roman, varied from the more
robust treatment and reverted somewhat to the earlier Greek manner;
tending to delicacy and refinement, but retaining the variety of
character and detail.


_Byzantine_

The State recognition of Christianity had a great influence on art in
that there was a return to symbolism. Various pagan elements associated
with the earlier decoration that were unsuitable to the feeling of the
time were eliminated. Eastern influence is evident, in not only the
architecture but in the treatment which is known as Byzantine, of the
foliage, which resembles that of the archaic Greek, the leaves being
more stiffly lobed, and severely channelled with V-shaped grooves, in
place of the subtle modelling of those of the Roman period.

The stem or growth line is comparatively absent, and the prevalence of
the circle as a shape or in the arrangement of details is evident.
Decoration displays more regard to profile than to variety of relief,
which was practically uniform.

[Illustration: No. 238. Gothic Spandril. Carved Stone. Geometric basis
obvious in central circle uniting angular shape with minor circular
forms occupying angles.]

The Byzantine influence is evident in the succeeding Romanesque.


_Romanesque_

Early Gothic detail, the closely curled foliage of which is suggestive
of lobes though without serrations, is reminiscent of debased Roman
tradition, evident also in the general shape and disposition of leaves
in the capitals of columns. The floral ornament of the Middle or
Decorated period, though freely adapted from natural types, shows traces
at times of the earlier tradition in the treatment of lobed and serrated
leaves.


_Italian Renaissance_

The Italian Renaissance was not merely a revival of Classic architecture
adapted to more modern conditions, but was in its earlier stages a frank
reproduction of the Roman ornament in design and rendering. In later
development in Italy and other parts of Europe it acquired local
character differing materially from the original. Fresh elements were
adopted and details originally significant were introduced for purely
decorative reasons.

[Illustration: No. 239. Early Pointed Gothic Stone Carving. Ely
Cathedral.]


_The Husk Leaf_

A feature of the foliated scroll is the Husk Leaf, either Acanthus, that
is--lobed and serrated, or compounded of water leaves with smooth and
undulating edges somewhat similar to the hart’s tongue fern.

The Husk either grows tangentially from the stem which it sometimes
envelopes in the sheath form, or has at its base a floral-like feature
known as the Bract; this, however, was seldom employed in Greek
ornament, a boss-like annulet being more general. The Husk is largely
employed to mask or cover branching, and either, as previously stated,
grows tangentially from the stem, or takes a bulbous form with a broad
and rounded base when it appears to be threaded on, rather than
articulated to, the stem.


_The Rosette_

[Illustration: No. 240. Italian Renaissance Scroll, shewing Acanthus
husks with bracts, sheath leaves and floral terminals.]

[Illustration: No. 241. Types of Rosettes.]

Such flowers as were employed in the earlier ornament displayed little
regard to nature, being mostly of the rosette form with petals radiating
from the centre; as a rule these were composed of simple leaf-shaped
petals in one, two or more tiers arranged concentrically; in this form
of rosette the petals are symmetrical in shape. The number of petals is
a matter of scale and taste, but an unequal number will invariably be
found more interesting. Arrangements of five or seven in preference to
four, six and eight. Frequently the spaces between the outer tier are
occupied by narrow leaves suggestive of the sepals in natural flowers,
and these serve the double purpose of giving variety and preserving the
circular shape.

Further variety can be imparted by the arrangements of the petals on a
revolving instead of a straight axis, either consistently in one
direction or symmetrically disposed from a centre in a palmate form.

The Rosette in ornament is useful as a pause point, giving repose, but
where it is desirable to continue the flow of line, other floral forms
can be employed, such as the tulip or the lily, which are displayed to
the best advantage in profile or perspective.

In conventional ornament the flower petals should be in contrast to the
leaves employed on the scrolling stem.

The Pistil in nature is reflected in the various sprouting forms which
emerge from the conventional flowers of the Renaissance, and at times
develop into further stem growth. On æsthetic grounds this may be
excused in cases where flow of line is of greater importance than
consistency. The Pistil takes many forms, being frequently composed of a
series of diminutive husks. Flower buds of similar husk form occur, the
petals being similar to those of the flowers employed.


_Tendrils_

Tendrils serve a useful purpose in giving unity to the design, for which
there is ample suggestion in such natural growths as the Vine, Pea, etc.
Too often in traditional ornament they are employed to merely occupy
obviously awkward spaces. In Roman ornament flowers articulated on
tendril-like stems were often used apparently to occupy the
spandril-like spaces resulting from the branching scrolls.

[Illustration: No. 242. Ornamental Treatment of Tendril from Roman
Frieze.]


_Nature Influence_

During the Roman development greater variety was introduced in the
treatment of leaves and flowers which in many instances display evidence
of natural suggestion. The main stems are sometimes twisted, a
characteristic of some strongly growing natural types, but this was only
a variant of the earlier treatment of decorating the scrolling stem with
channels or hollow flutes.

Birds and animals were also used in antique ornament--grotesque
combinations of foliage with human and animal forms, and such symbolic
monsters as the Gryphon and the Sphinx, were employed with little regard
to the original significance. Other symbolic elements, such as wreaths,
garlands, festoons, altars, tripods, and urns were also introduced
merely for their decorative value and to afford variety.


_Symbolic Employment_

The modern mind is naturally out of sympathy with forms that have no
direct appeal, but it should be considered that these elements were
originally not merely the expression of the art of the period, but were
also invested in many instances with symbolic meaning. The Roman citizen
saw nothing incongruous in decorating a triumphal arch with the chaplet
of the victor and trophies of arms.

The later misuse of symbolic elements can only be defended on æsthetic
grounds, and is probably undesirable. Without these there is still left
sufficient material for beautiful effects. Dull slavish reproduction is
not only without interest, but displays lack of inventiveness. It is
possible in good hands to utilise the past tradition so as to appeal to
modern appreciation.


_Consistency in Growth_

However arbitrary traditional ornament may appear, there is consistency
in the best examples, which display in many details some general
observance of the principle of natural growth. There may be no attempt
to exploit any known type, the creation being purely artificial; still
the association of stem, leaves and flowers is suggestive of natural
growth.

The arrangement is generally progressive, as in nature a plant develops
outwards and onwards from the root, and the orthodox scroll ornament may
be considered as a stem of undulate form (constituting the growth line)
with branches, elaborated with leaves and flowers which are arranged
successively.


_Branching_

In traditional ornament the most general form of branching is
tangential, the scrolls and leaves emerging radially from the main
stem, with slight divergence; but in nature many varieties of branching
may be observed and applied with advantage in design.

[Illustration: No. 243. Types of Branching. A. Tangential. B.
Acute-angular. C. Right-angular.]

Generally natural branching may be classified into Tangential, typical
of grass growth and water-plants; Acute and Right-angular. The latter is
sometimes usefully employed in ornament, as it conveys a sense of
strength and vigour, though as a concession to the rhythmic flow of line
it should follow for a short distance the curve of the main stem.

[Illustration: No. 244. Formal Opposite Branching suitable for Vertical
Borders & Pilasters.]

Independent of the angle, branches may occur opposite, that is, grow
simultaneously each side of the stem, Alternate, or spirally round the
stem. The distances between the branches may be equal, or, as in some
instances, in alternate long and short distances. The opposite
arrangement of branches is most suitable where rigidity of effect is
required, but the alternate branching is susceptible of greater freedom
and license.

The stem, as it throws out each branch, may gradually diminish in
diameter, each branch being less than the parent stem; the length of
each successive branch may also diminish and the leaves on these be
subordinate in size to those of the main stem.

[Illustration: No. 245. Branch and Scroll Terminations.]


_Leaves_

The detail of these smaller leaves may be less complex as they approach
the terminals, a characteristic in natural growth where the necessary
energy to produce the flowers results in restricted development of the
leaves on the flower stalk.

Equally consistent from the nature point of view is the employment of
the large husk leaves which generally cover the points of branch
emergence. As already stated, these are not articulated, but either
spring tangentially from or are threaded on the main stem in contrast to
the smaller leaves, which are often provided with individual stems.
Occasionally the scroll terminals are not furnished with flowers but
develop into sprays of small leaves radially disposed.


_The Start_

An essential condition in panel ornament is the Start or commencement,
which should at least be consistent. The natural root is not in every
case sufficient, though at times it may be employed with effect.

The start point of the growth line or lines varies in position according
to attitude. In panels in a horizontal plane, the start is frequently
central and the traditional treatment is usually some form of rosette
from which the other details radiate.

In some positions, particularly pilaster panels, the ornament is
suspended, which is consistently rendered by the employment of knobs and
ribbons. Ribbons are not only logical, but interesting on account of the
variety afforded and are also of service in giving unity to a
composition. Extremely amenable to harmonious arrangement and
susceptible of great variation, the ribbon can be twisted, folded or
arranged in groups of pleatings, the ends being occasionally scrolled or
split.

The start mostly in evidence in ornament is that known as the Cup or
Nest, which is composed of leaves arranged somewhat in the form of a
tulip, with generally an inverted cup leaf below. It is composed of
leaves either of the Acanthus or water type, but for the sake of variety
one of these may appear in the upper part of the cup and the contrasting
form in the lower. The proportion between the two parts as to height and
width should also be varied, and when the cup leaf is used in pilaster
panels it generally occupies the whole width of the base.

[Illustration: No. 246. The Nest or Cup-leaf Start.]

[Illustration: No. 247. Italian Renaissance Foliated Figure Start.]

Such artificial objects as vases and baskets form fairly consistent base
starts for floral detail, others as Altars and Tripods are not quite so
logical, though useful in conveying a sense of support. Shields and
Labels, generally employed centrally in wide panels where the ornament
is displayed laterally, are effective in the contrast they afford to the
floral details.

[Illustration: No. 248. Italian Renaissance Panel, Choir Stalls, St.
Pietro, Perugia. Stefano Martelli, 1535.]

The employment of half figures as starts cannot be defended; the
illogical association of life, either human or animal, with foliage as
employed by the designers of the later Italian Renaissance, is too
incongruous to be excused on æsthetic grounds. Such were due to change
in taste and desire for variety, and probably were suggested by the much
earlier employment of compound animal forms as furniture supports.

[Illustration: No. 249. Italian Renaissance Panel, Choir Stalls, St.
Pietro, Perugia. Stefano Martelli, 1535.]

The Acanthus leaf prominent in Renaissance detail, was at first
deliberately reproduced from Roman examples, and its architectural
employment as in the capitals of the Corinthian order, has survived to
modern times as the most suitable rendering for such structural
features. In more decorative positions marked changes are evident in the
later phases, the Cinque Cento renderings being perhaps the high water
mark of the Italian designer. In these the lobes were angular in general
outline, with beautifully balanced minor lobations and the surface
contours delicate and subtle in modelling.


_Renaissance Influence_

The early examples of Italian Renaissance in France and England are
generally pure in style, being in most instances of Italian design and
execution. Later work by native exploiters in emulation of the style is
invariably quite different, until the new style was better understood
and assimilated; eventuating in versions that were distinctive and
local.

[Illustration: No. 250. Early French Renaissance Carving. Francis I.]

In the early French Renaissance the acanthus leaf was generally
displayed in profile, the lobe being elliptic and pointed in shape, with
clearly defined minor divisions; the sectional form was comparatively
simple. Similar treatment, without the precision and grace of line
characterised the Jacobean work in England; the relief work of which,
being rather in the category of flat carving, consisting mainly of
incised lines and grooves by which leaf form was expressed in profile or
silhouette. These were invariably archaic and crude, though in view of
the direct and simple execution not without individuality and interest.


_Jacobean._

A characteristic feature of the Jacobean style is the ornamental
interlacing strapwork, with foliated or

[Illustration: No. 251. Development of the Acanthus Leaf.

A. Greek. B. Roman. C. Byzantine. D. Romanesque. E. Decorated Gothic. F.
G. Italian Renaissance. H. French Renaissance, Period of Francis I.]

scrolling ends. This doubtless was in emulation of the French work of
the period of Henry II, when strapping composed of straight and curved
lines entered largely into ornamental detail. In the period of Louis
XIII

[Illustration: No. 252. Development of the Acanthus Leaf.

I. French, Louis XIV. J. English, Grinling Gibbons. K. French, Louis XV.
L. English, Adam. M. French, Louis XVI. N. Louis XVI (Salombier). O.
English, Late 18th Century.]

shield and cartouche shapes were much in vogue, on account probably of
their mass value and the contrast afforded with the subordinate detail,
which developed into the foliated strap frame of the Louis XIV style.

The details of this latter period were expressed in bold relief, the
decorated areas being well filled, in contrast to the earlier Italian
style in which the background frequently predominated over the ornament.
The sectioning or modelling of the leaves, which by this time were
typically French, was elaborate but well considered as to harmonious
play of line. Shell forms were employed and were effective, both as mass
shapes and for the radial elaboration of their surfaces.

In conjunction with artificial details, natural foliage was employed in
the form of wreaths and festoons, composed of leaves and appropriate
flowers; the conventional stem was little used, the foliated strap being
more often evident.


_Régence_

The immediate successor of the style of the Grand Monarch was the phase
known as Régence, in which the strap frame was moulded in section, and
the whole detail became much lighter, resulting in more open or plain
spaces.

In the period of Louis XV restraint was thrown overboard, panels and
enclosed areas were framed with mouldings irresponsible in curvature,
and without regard to structural conditions. The growth line
disappeared, the leafage and other details being arbitrarily disposed on
the framing mouldings, which were generally in flattened and elongated
curves opposed to each other in flexured lines. In comparison with the
preceding Louis XIV style the ornament is thin and liney in character,
the leaf, still of the acanthus type, is greatly modified both in form
and detail, the ends of the lobes being curled and twisted spirally.


_Rococo_

In minor floral details natural types were employed, also such
artificial features as canopies or hammercloths; rock and shell forms,
and stalactite details suggestive of icicles are comprised in the later
phase to which the term Rococo is applied.


_Louis XVI_

As a natural revulsion from the license of this period in the succeeding
Louis XVI style there was a distinct reversion. The curved framings were
abandoned and panels and other areas were enclosed by mouldings with
regard both to structural and materialistic conditions. Great refinement
is evident, not only in the mouldings but in the details throughout.

In contrast to those of the Louis XIV period, panels were occupied
rather than filled, the dominant details being placed at the upper and
lower extremities and connected by vertical features either centrally or
at the sides, steadily arranged as to alignment both horizontal and
vertical. Familiar details thus employed are such amorous emblems as
quivers, torches, trophies of musical instruments and bouquets and
festoons of natural flowers.

The artificial leaf reverted somewhat to the earlier Italian type, and
was mostly displayed in profile with the lobes and serrations carefully
composed. The detail though comparatively low in relief, was boldly
modelled, and the direction and emphasis of the lobes and veinings of
the leaves considered with regard to the composing lines.


_Grinling Gibbons School of Carving_

In England the work of the school of Grinling Gibbons was productive of
a phase of ornamental expression distinctive for its artistry and
technical skill. Conventional details were combined with natural forms
of all kinds, the conspicuous arrangement being interlacing scrolls, and
festoons and pendant swags.

In the artificial leaf, with its boldly grooved surface and accentuated
lobes, the evidence of the tool is manifest throughout.

The tradition established by the Grinling Gibbons school had a lasting
effect upon the native carving, which endured throughout the Georgian
period, though largely influenced in detail by French taste--Rococo in
particular.


_Adam Style_

The designs of the brothers Adam, which were in vogue in the reign of
George III, though peculiarly individual and distinctive, were based
upon the study of Græco-Roman details. In the Adam style the ornament is
delicate in relief, and mostly displayed in profile. Panels and enclosed
spaces are occupied, the decorative elements being carefully disposed
with regard to balance and stability, with large areas of plain
surface.

The characteristic and prevailing details are the fan and delicate
festoons of leaves or husks, at times of beads.

The anthemion is much used on friezes and borders, and compound animal
forms, such as the Sphinx, were borrowed from the antique, the same
source doubtless inspiring the employment of vases, altars, and tripods.

Medallions occur occupied by figures after the manner of the Greek
vases. In some instances these were in pottery, the work of Wedgwood.

The general structural form was architectural, the mouldings slight in
projection and refined in their profiles being decorated by orthodox
enrichments.

The foliage is mostly artificial in character, the leaf lobes in those
of the acanthus type being orderly in arrangement with regard to profile
and radial display, with comparatively little modelling.


_Empire_

A similar revival of the Antique succeeded the Revolution in France, in
the Empire style, which, more literal in reproduction than the Adam
work, is characterised with, at times, undesirable severity and
precision of detail, particularly in the treatment of the human figure.


_System of the Acanthus Leaf_

The system of the acanthus leaf is based entirely on radiation, the
tines and veinings being arranged in consistently diverging directions
from a common base or start-point. Whether the whole leaf be displayed
or merely the half leaf used, the shape should be bounded by general
lines controlling the lobes and their serrations--the mass shape forming
a satisfactory silhouette.

The length of the lobes should be relative to the breadth of the leaf,
the maximum length agreeing with the maximum width, and the others in
proportion.

The edges or outlines of serrations and lobes should also be controlled
by radial lines from the base.

[Illustration: No. 253. Construction of the Acanthus Leaf.]

In turn-overs and curling or twisting lobes the silhouette shape and
composing line must be considered.

The apex of leaf terminates with a central lobe balanced by side lobes
repeated throughout. In treatment these may be displayed clear of each
other, or they may overlap, but care must be taken to avoid confusion in
effect.



CHAPTER VII

TREATMENT IN DESIGN


Appreciation of design by the individual is largely a matter of
temperament, though it may be due to some extent to acquired knowledge.
Generally, few are conscious of any guiding principle, and selection in
their case is mostly the result of fashion or custom. To others certain
colours and forms have an appeal, though they may be quite unconscious
of, or unable to explain the attraction other than it suits their taste.

In the last few years it has been recognised that colour may be employed
beneficially in curative treatment, but the normal healthy individual is
often indifferent to environment other than that of material
gratification.

When any artistic work creates pleasurable emotion, it is purely a
matter of cause and effect. To design successfully involves some
understanding of the causes or factors which constitute the appeal.


_Natural Attraction_

The attraction of colour and form is undoubtedly universal, and may be
generally understood, though there are delicate degrees of proportion
and association in both that may only be appreciated by the cultivated
eye. Early essays in drawing generally exhibit an undesirable redundancy
in curves, and in many instances the student is slow to realise that
those that approximate to the elliptic form are proportionately of more
interest than those obviously composed of segments of circles.
Undoubtedly this subtlety of line is one of the predominant factors in
appreciation of form.

A factor in pattern that is largely responsible for the charm is the
presence of small detail in juxtaposition with larger forms. This is
entailed in instances by technical conditions, such, for instance, as in
some tapestries where inhabited pattern is essential to the process of
production.


_Decorative Materials_

Some materials are employed partly for their decorative effect, such as
naturally figured woods and certain varieties of stone; and design
mainly consists of judicious selection, use and treatment. Oak and
walnut being woods extremely suitable for structural work and furniture
have always been in request when obtainable.

Polishing is to some extent a preservative, but work in oak or walnut,
especially when carved, should be kept comparatively dull, otherwise
confusion between the relief and the natural figuring would result. In
mahogany or satinwood, where the chief interest exists in the figuring
and colour, carving is undesirable and the best effects are obtained by
high polish. It may be urged that in the Chippendale period the work was
invariably carved, but the detail was always in very low relief, and the
finishing dark in colour, in which the figuring was subdued. Mahogany in
its more general employment owes its chief beauty to the development of
figuring and colour.

Certain marbles are used for their decorative effect, and the natural
colour and figuring developed by polish. Statuary marble that is
sometimes employed, is more suitable for carved details, and appears at
its best when unpolished, though in this state it is extremely subject
to discolouration owing to its absorbent nature.

Granite, so popular in our cemeteries, is often polished, when the
natural figuring is unpleasantly aggressive. An extremely hard stone and
laborious to work, it is not suitable for carving, and is best left
roughly tooled or frosted, when the natural chrystaline formation
appears to the best advantage.


_Justification of Treatment_

The softer woods used in interior structural work are generally painted,
partly as a preservative and largely because they do not possess any
figuring of particular interest.

Graining in imitation of more precious woods is often condemned as
inartistic, but it may be urged in extenuation that it is the most
economic treatment, as it helps to minimise the effect of wear and
incidental damage.

The use of pattern wall-papers and floor coverings can be justified on
the same grounds, as in those with plain surfaces any disfigurement is
readily seen. Wallpaper, however, is quite a legitimate form of
decoration and not necessarily imitative, though to some extent it is
reminiscent of the early custom of employing tapestries as wall
coverings. A more durable and artistic treatment of interiors is that of
the wainscotting of the Georgian period, but the initial cost is
proportionately great, though probably when maintenance is taken into
consideration it would be cheaper in the long run. Apart from the
question of cost, the modern tendency is favourable to change of effect
and environment, due partly to the facility afforded by the comparative
cheapness of wall-paper, but even more to the prevalent short tenancies.


_Undesirable Imitation_

Many excellent designs are produced in wall-papers, though there is a
tendency at times to reproduce textural effects which can only be
justified on æsthetic grounds. Those of the frankly imitative kind
cannot be condoned. It is still possible to have the hall and stairs
papered and varnished to resemble slabs of precious marble, or patterns
in mosaic, which were undreamt of in Byzantine times; and the orthodox
design for the bathroom is still that of tiles with the joints neatly
printed. Similar imitation is also apparent in linoleum, when the
pattern simulates the appearance of either wood parquet or mosaic, or
even worse--that of a Turkey or Axminster carpet.

There is an element of priggishness in such cheap art in which, as
though ashamed of poverty of material, there is an assumption of
something better; and it is lamentable that there is not merely a market
for these shams and imitations but curiously enough they also find
appreciation.

There are phases of work where simulation may to some extent be
justified, for instance, silver is sometimes gilt. For this there is the
excuse that silver, although a beautiful metal, is subject to oxidation
and requires constant attention to keep bright. Gilding acts as a
preservative, and is therefore justified in certain forms of silver
work, which it is not convenient to clean in the ordinary way.


_Technical Considerations_

It has already been suggested that Design is not merely a question of
idea and draughtsmanship, but is also dependent upon materialistic
conditions, which, in practical work, must be understood and properly
considered.

Whether the intended design be for some form of flat pattern, such as
weaving, etc., or for any particular craft expression, it is essential
that the limitations of the process and material involved be clearly
kept in view, and that suitable elements for expression be chosen.

Convention, to a large extent, exists in the adaptation of forms,
natural or otherwise, to the exigencies of production, a proper
understanding of which will not only tend to economy in cost, but also
to more effective results, if full advantage be taken of the craft or
mechanical conditions, which should always be foreseen in design.


_Methods of Expression_

Methods of expression vary, according to position and material, and may
be Flat--either silhouette, or with appearance of relief, or in actual
relief.

[Illustration: No. 254. A. B. C. Flat Treatment, Silhouette important.
D. Relief Treatment of C.]

[Illustration: No. 255. A. Flat Treatment. B. Relief of Husk Leaf.]

Contrast exists always, thus in the Flat with or without outline the
contrast is in Light and Dark, whether colour is involved or not.

In Relief the contrast is in Light and Shade. Contrast exists also in
both treatments in lines straight and curved--in the variety of the
latter, in lines with mass forms, and in dominant forms with smaller
detail.

In the treatment of Flat Ornament the most important considerations are
play of line and silhouette, and forms should be displayed in
interesting profile; perspective and foreshortening being eliminated
whenever they would result in distorted or inharmonious shapes.

In Relief treatment the designer is concerned with the effect of Light
and Shade in harmonious arrangement of mass and line.

Perspective and foreshortening are permissible to some extent, but are
largely dependent upon the work, greater license being allowable in high
than in low relief.


_Treatment of Leaves_

In Flat ornament, leaves are invariably in profile, but in Relief
expression they may be folded, that is, wrapped round the stem. Greater
freedom is possible in the turn-overs.

Relief ornament should recognise ground by details being occasionally
displayed in lower relief.

Whether expressed in Flat or Relief, the composing lines should always
be emphatic, and their direction traceable through the details, floral
or otherwise.


_Surface Interest_

In addition to the foregoing, a further consideration is that of
interest of surface, which may consist of contrast in textures of rough
surface with smooth, of patterning on form, veining and striation of
leaves and flowers, and of the employment of trellis or imbricated
pattern. The latter in conjunction with other details, occur in the
decorative work of the later French Renaissance.


_Painted Decoration_

The technical means of obtaining the interest of surfaces is, of course,
incidental to the process involved. If the decoration be the result of
painting, the design is free and untrammelled by any other than purely
æsthetic conditions. Such, for instance, as the desirable recognition of
surface, and the pattern sense suggested by recurrence, if a decorative
rather than a pictorial effect is desired.

When the decorations consist of ornament, wholly or partly, they are
occasionally rendered in a conventional manner, based upon the
appearance of Relief, as in the Pompeian wall decorations and the
painted work of the Italian Renaissance. There is ample precedent for
this treatment in traditional painted decoration, but deliberate
attempts at realistic effects are not only undesirable but to be
deplored.

The interest in Painted Decoration, apart from colour, design or
subject, would be that of the individual manifestation of the designer
and painter.


_Stencilled Work_

Stencilled decoration is a compromise between painting and mechanical
printing, and is restricted by the unit. The repetition of this is
practically mechanical, though considerable license is possible in the
treatment of colour, which has to be personally applied and is therefore
amenable to controlled variation.

[Illustration: No. 256. Inhabited Details from Woven Fabrics. Interest
imparted by patterning on forms.]

The design in stencilled work is not limited to one unit, and is not
subject to hard and fast rules, the plates being of a size convenient to
handle. Alternate units, or a series can be employed, the interest,
apart from colour and subject consisting mainly of contrast in detail,
and in the individualism expressed.


_Mechanical Production, Printed and Woven_

In textiles, where such mechanical processes as printing and weaving are
involved, the design is restricted to the unit, the repetition of which
is infallible both as to form and colour.

Apart from colour, the surface interest consists of suggested or actual
contrasts of texture, the result of veining and striating leaves and
flowers or of patterning forms or backgrounds with smaller details.


_Needlework_

Needlework, being a personal performance, has no such mechanical
restriction; the design can, and should be, complete within the area,
and the expression perfectly free. Beside Design and Colour, the surface
interest is that of contrast in the different textures resulting from
the various stitches, and the employment of darning, knots, laid-work,
etc.


_Appliqué_

In Appliqué work, interest is imparted by the mass effects enriched by
embroidery, the large shapes entailing detail of the inhabited variety
to keep them from puckering. In all needlework the effect is due to some
extent to light and shade, particularly in Appliqué, where a corded edge
is employed.

[Illustration: No. 257. Needlework, contrasting effect of various
stitches.

(Photo: V & A Museum).]

[Illustration: No. 258. Needlework Appliqué. Interest due to contrast of
material, effect of relief imparted by corded edges, and to embroidery
on applied details. (Photo: V & A Museum).]

[Illustration: No. 259. Lace. Surface interest due to contrast of
various fillings. (Photo: V & A Museum).]


_Lace_

In Lace, the interest consists solely of textural contrast, not only in
the treatment of the various details, but in the patterning of intervals
due to the necessary fillings. Design may be complete, or a repeated
unit, according to the purpose and variety of lace.


_Wood Inlay_

[Illustration: No. 260. Wood Inlay. Geometric arrangement.]

Design for Inlays in Wood-work may be free in expression, or a unit, at
discretion. The latter variety frequently takes the form of lines spaced
with regard to good proportion, forming borders, chequers and geometric
shapes of various kinds. Floral or other forms simple in character and
profile may be used, the design being expressed in silhouette.

[Illustration: No. 261. Wood Inlay.]

[Illustration: No. 262. Wood Inlay. Simple silhouette depending on
natural colour.]


_Intarsia_

In the Intarsia detail of the Italian Renaissance, the inlaid forms were
elaborated by surface markings and graduated effects were obtained by
means of hot sand; but the natural contrast in the varied colour and
fibres of the material employed probably form the more legitimate
interest in all inlaid work.

[Illustration: No. 263. Wood Inlay. Simple silhouette.]


_Veneer, Marquetry_

In Veneer work and in Marquetry, where the work is quartered and
juxtaposed, the interest consists in the patterning of the figured
woods, particularly when these are arranged to form reciprocal shapes.


_Boule Work_

The interest of Buhl or Boule work, an inlay of metal employed in the
French Renaissance in the decoration of furniture, often in conjunction
with tortoiseshell, is that of contrast of texture.

[Illustration: No. 264. Italian Intarsia. Forms elaborated by incised
lines.]

In the design, profile or silhouette is the primary consideration, being
used:

1.  As a form of framing,
2.  In angles or centres on table-tops,
3.  In panels in furniture:

[Illustration: No. 265. Louis XV Cabinet with Ormolu Mounts.

Marquetry, veneer quartered and inlaid with floral detail. (Photo: V & A
Museum).]

[Illustration: No. 266. Boule Work. Period of Louis XVI.]

The design can invariably be complete within the area. Coloured grounds
are employed as well as tortoiseshell.


_Mosaic_

Mosaic designs may be complete in themselves or be the result of
repetition, according to attitude and purpose, and with regard to
variety and colour, only restricted by æsthetic considerations.

[Illustration: No. 267. Boule Work. Period of Louis XVI.]

Owing to technical limitations, modelling can only be broadly suggested;
therefore forms should be generally in silhouette except when on a large
scale.

When employed on walls and vaults, gold is frequently used in the
backgrounds. This not only serves to define detail, but affords contrast
to the general surface, the inevitable joints in the tessaræ adding also
to the interest.


_Byzantine Use of Marble_

Associated with Mosaic decoration in the Byzantine Period was the
employment of marble in shafts of columns and for lining walls by
banding or slabbing, frequently quartered, so as to display the markings
in reciprocal forms. Such marbles were chosen for figuring and colour,
the former in its variety being an important factor in the surface
interest.

Similar employment of slabs occurs in the treatment of floors, where
contrast in colour is the chief consideration. It is sometimes
associated with Mosaic of small tesseræ, also in marble, whereas that
used on walls and in vaults was frequently of glass.

The foregoing is a broad summary of ornamental expression in the Flat,
with the exception of Book Decoration.


_Book Decoration_

In Black and White, which is chiefly employed, the designs may be in
tone or line with suggestion of rotundity or relief; or line
decoratively employed, according to subject, or purely decorative.

The same applies to renderings in colour. Designs for covers are
controlled by the processes involved, whether printed, stamped or
tooled.

[Illustration: No. 268. Mosaic Borders.

A. From Carthage.

B. & C. Withington, Gloucester.]

[Illustration: No. 269. Mosaic Border, Roman.]

[Illustration: No. 270. Roman Mosaic. Woodchester, Gloucester.]

[Illustration: No. 271. Roman Mosaic. Treatment in Light and Shade
suggestive of relief. (Photo: V & A Museum).]

[Illustration: No. 272. Tooled Bookbinding in Leather. Repetition due to
tools or stamps. (Photo: V & A Museum).]

[Illustration: No. 273. Modelled Plaster, shewing relatively large
ground area. (Photo: V & A Museum).]

[Illustration: No. 274. Wood Carving. Grinling Gibbons. Attention
devoted to detail with elimination of ground. (Photo: V & A Museum).]

[Illustration: No. 275. Wood Carving. French, Louis XIV. (Photo: V & A
Museum).]


_Bindings_

In the two latter the ornament should be in profile or silhouette. In
tooled bindings, repetition of unit or motif is essential, the design
being the direct result of available tools.

In such bindings further interest may be imparted by gilding either the
detail or by introducing gold as powdering on shapes or backgrounds, or
by the so-called inlaying of other colours.


_Relief--Economic Result of Method_

In Relief ornament, design and character should be the result of
technical expression. If considered from an economic point of view, the
tendency would naturally be to obtain the maximum effect with the
minimum of labour; and this would invariably result, when the decoration
is built up or applied to an existing ground as in modelled work, in
slight occupation, with comparatively large intervals.

In carving, where the original surface forms the highest relief, and has
to be cut back to form the ground, the result would be reversed, the
individual worker being more attracted to the treatment of detail than
to clearing away uninteresting spaces. Carving, whether in wood or
stone, is employed in various decorative positions, and except in the
enrichment of friezes or mouldings--when the repeating unit is
desirable--the design should be complete in itself.


_Desirable Treatment in Carving_

The treatment should evidence the direct employment of the tool, any
attempt to efface or soften will result in loss of character and
suggest the plastic effect incidental to modelling.

For convenience, and possibly in the absence of more desirable examples,
students are often allowed in their early attempts at carving to
reproduce casts of plastic origin. This is undoubtedly pernicious, as
the model is probably unsuitable, and the student is thereby biassed.
Examples should be selected in which the characteristic treatment is
sufficiently evident if a true and thorough appreciation of the craft is
to be instilled.

[Illustration: No. 276. Simple Jacobean Wood Carving. Direct gouge
work.]

In the design--which may occupy or fill the shape and can be
symmetrically arranged on a central axis, or balanced--the effect is due
mainly to Light and Shade. Further interest may be imparted by the
sectional form or modelling of the details, groovings, striations or
other textural suggestions.


_Backgrounds_

The employment of punched grounds in carved work is to be deprecated as
mechanical in effect. Sufficient interest is obtainable by the process
of cutting back, in the perfect levelling of which the carver need not
be too concerned. Suspiciously uniform grounds are suggestive of work
fret-sawed and applied.

[Illustration: No. 277. Wood Carving. English. Late Elizabethan or Early
Jacobean.]

When carving in wood is in very high relief, it is occasionally, as in
the Grinling Gibbons work, built up. This may not be a matter of great
objection if properly attached, and the grain of fibre matched, but is,
however, better avoided.


_Reproduction Processes_

Modelled ornament is generally employed in reproduction processes, such
as moulding of Terra-cotta, plaster, etc. The design can be free in
expression, or a unit of repetition according to requirement.

The detail which is applied to an existing surface is invariably more
open, with a resulting display in the background.

The surface interest consists of contrasts in texture, the result of
veining, striating and patterning forms. The relief is not, as in carved
work, controlled by an original surface, but, being built up, is
susceptible to greater variation. Mouldings may be broken by lapping and
overlapping details, and though in some traditional work similar
treatment occurs in wood-carving, it must be remembered that such
details are too suggestive of, and more proper to, plastic renderings.

In economic moulded work undercutting of details should be avoided as
this is only possible in piece or elastic moulds. In wood-carving,
however, there is no restriction.


_Metal Repoussé_

Freedom and variety in detail are possible in Metal Repoussé, but as the
light and shade is considerably modified by the nature of the surface,
the design which is plastic in character incidental to method of
working, should have regard for silhouette or profile display, and not
be dependent upon surface modelling. The principal factor in effect is
Light, both direct and reflected. Surface interest is the result of
imparting by chasing various textures in striations or matt.

[Illustration: No. 278. Wood Carving from Fontainbleau. Early French
Renaissance.]

Excellent effect can be obtained by outlining with the tracing tool,
leaving the surface of detail plain and uniform in height, and imparting
texture with the matt tools in the intervals for the sake of contrast.

[Illustration: No. 279. Economic Wood Carving.]

The method of working is simple, entailing manipulation from the face of
the metal only, and the detail is left in slight relief by the ground
being set back in the texturing. This treatment is only suitable where
the ornamented area is enclosed. When the design is freely displayed on
a ground without enclosing lines, it should appear in relief, the result
of raising from the back; and texturing should be employed only on the
details in contrast to the smooth ground. As in all applied work, the
economic result is slight occupation.

[Illustration: No. 280. Oak Box decorated with flat carving. Icelandic.
18th Century.]


_Metal, Cast_

Cast metal is produced in sand moulds, a model or pattern being employed
of which the casting is a reproduction. The

[Illustration: No. 281. Repoussé Work.

A. Pattern defined by tracing tool and interest imparted by different
textures of ground.

B. Pattern raised from back, and defined and enriched by tracing and
matt tools on face, affording textural contrast with plain ground.

(Photo of A. V & A Museum).]

pattern may be originally modelled or carved, and this determines the
character of the metal result, though it is a matter of indifference
when the necessary finishing is by turning or filing.

Castings in iron are left as they leave the mould, but in bronze, except
in Cire Perdu casting, the surface has to be entirely worked down. In
common work, however, this is accomplished by means of small files or
riffles and by chasing the more elaborate details.

[Illustration: No. 282. Wrought Iron, simple form enriched by use of
punches.]


_Character of Cast Work_

[Illustration: No. 283. Gondola Prow. Wrought Iron, comparative flat
surface enriched by chiselled work.]

As a matter of opinion it is consistent that the

[Illustration: No. 284. Surface Interest in Metal.

A. Blade of State Battle-axe, damascened with silver, Indian.

B. Blade of Khyber Knife, engraved, Indian.

C. Hilt of Tulwar, damascened with gold, Indian.

D. Vase, Bidri Ware, pewter inlaid with silver, Indian.

E. Scabbard End, gold inlay, Indian.

F. Ornament on Gauntled Sword, damascened with gold, Indian.]

character of cast work should be plastic, and if the original pattern is
the result of carving, care should be taken to impart the desired
feeling, the pattern being merely a means to the end.

Much depends upon the final finish; if this is to be bright, surface
modelling should be a secondary consideration to surface interest
resulting from contrast of textures. It, however, becomes of
proportionate importance as the work is dull or toned, and therefore is
subject to the ordinary conditions of Light and Shade.



CHAPTER VIII

MYTHOLOGY AND SYMBOLISM


Traditional ornament is replete with forms and details that were
originally invested with meaning, though in the later employment this
was disregarded, being used for the sake of variety and their æsthetic
value.

Such details as the festoons, wreaths, tripods and altars as appear in
the Renaissance ornament were originally associated with victory,
sacrifice and religious observance.


_Early Symbolic Ornament_

It has previously been suggested that the early employment of natural
types was symbolic in the Egyptian treatment of the Lotus and Papyrus,
which, providing material for woven fabrics and for manuscripts, were
therefore esteemed.

These details associated as they frequently are with the zigzag line,
are symbolic of the fertilizing of the land resulting from the
periodical inundation of the Nile.

The date-palm on account of its value as food was symbolised by the
Assyrians as the tree of life in the fronding Anthemion form, which
undoubtedly influenced the later ornament.

The Palm-tree was said to grow faster for being weighted down, hence it
was the symbol of Resolution overcoming Calamity. The oriental belief
was that it sprang from the residue clay from which Adam was formed.

Symbolism, universally understood as it undoubtedly was in early times,
implied a universal interest on the part of the individual and the
general community. The absence of this interest in more modern work is
to be deplored.

A common example of the employment of such symbols, which however is
fast disappearing, is the barber’s pole, the gilt knob of which
represents the basin, and the pole the staff held by the patients in the
operation of venesection. The painted spiral stripes are to indicate the
respective bandages, one for twisting round the arm previous to
blood-letting, the other for final bindings.


_Customs_

The modern custom in salutation of shaking hands or raising the hat is a
survival--the former of the ancient custom of adversaries in treating of
a truce taking hold of the weapon hand to ensure against treachery--the
latter of the removal of the helmet when no danger is nigh, to show that
one can stand unprotected.

The custom in Courts-martial of placing the sword hilt or point towards
the accused, according to judgment, is also a survival. In ancient
times, if a stranger on arrival held the point of a spear forward, it
denoted a declaration of war; but if carried with the point behind, he
came in friendship and peace.

There are opportunities where the decorative element could be such as
to, embody or vindicate local character or purpose, but with the
decadence of symbolism much of our modern ornament fails to interest,
because it has no meaning that is understood or can be appreciated.


_Origin of Mythology_

Mythology had its origin in the superstitions of primitive man, to whom
the gods were forces of Nature improperly understood, and to whom Light
and Darkness would appeal as beneficent or malignant forces according to
how they affected his personal comfort.

The uncontrollable nature and effects of these in the absence of more
modern conditions would naturally tend toward belief in Fatalism and
Destiny, which eventuated in mythological expression.


_Nature Myths_

Early myths had their origin in processes of Nature, or aspects of
natural phenomena which, to the primitive mind, appeared supernatural.
Inducing a belief in powers invisible, infinite and divine, and in
future existence. With this belief these aspects were eventually
invested with personality.

An example is the Greek tradition of Kronos, a native myth accounting
for the separation of Heaven and Earth. Uranus (Heaven) husband to Gæa
(Earth) kept his progeny Oceanus (sea) Hyperion (Sun) and Kronos (Light
and Dark, or Time) in the hollows of the earth, in darkness. Kronos
revolted, and forcing Uranus away, kept him for ever at a distance.

A New Zealand parallel is the Maori Tree or Forest god Tani, who
effected a similar severance by lying down on the earth and pushing the
Heavens away with his feet. The native belief being that man was a tree
upside down, his hair forming the roots and his legs the branches.


_Light and Darkness_

Some myths appear in many forms, associated with rising and setting. The
Greek rendering is that Kronos (Time) married Rhea and devoured all his
children at birth except Zeus (Air), Poseidon (Water), and Hades (the
Grave), which three Time cannot consume.

An earlier tradition is that Kronos devoured all his progeny except
Zeus, for whom a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes was substituted and
promptly swallowed, the child Zeus being secreted.

On arriving at adult age, Zeus compelled Kronos to disgorge, first the
stone, then the other children in succession. The literal meaning being
that of night covering up or swallowing the world, the disgorging being
the sunrise.


_Melanesian Myth_

An interesting variant is the tradition of the Melanesian hero Qat and
his brothers, who lived in perpetual day. Qat heard of Night, and
setting forth in search, was successful in his quest. On his return he
told his brothers to sit quite still, and when they felt something in
their eyes to take no notice but keep quiet; thereon they fell asleep.
When Night had lasted long enough, Qat took a slab of red obsidian and
cut the darkness and Dawn came out. A tradition reminiscent of the
“dustman” or the “sand-man” of the nursery, though the slab of red
obsidian is a touch both poetic and symbolic in its suggestion.


_Darkness as a Devouring Monster_

In the early myths, Night or Darkness is invariably a malignant
influence or a devouring monster threatening the earth or the sun,
_e.g._, the Scandinavian Wolf Fenrir or Fenris, the Python slain by
Apollo, and in Oannes the Chaldean sea-god devoured or destroyed by
darkness.

Oannes, who is represented in composite fish and man form, according to
tradition lived with mankind during the day to instruct them in the Arts
and Sciences; being immolated at night and re-incarnated at dawn.


_Season Myths_

In the Scandinavian tradition of Baldur, the god of Peace, which bears
some resemblance in respect to immolation and re-incarnation, the god
was killed by the blind Hoder at the instigation of Loki. By order of
Odin, everything that sprung from earth, air, fire and water was
forbidden to injure Baldur, but the mistletoe, not being included, was
made into an arrow and shot at random. It effected his death, but by
general request of the gods, he was restored to life.

Baldur is really a season myth, symbolizing the death of the sun at the
end of the year, with the resuscitation in the Spring. So also is the
tradition of Persephone abducted by Pluto, and allowed to revisit her
mother, Demeter, at the dawn of Summer. Another parallel is the story of
Orpheus and Eurydice.


_Sun Myths_

Of myths associated with the Dawn there is the tradition of Apollo and
Daphne, where the story of the nymph being chased by the god and
transformed into the tree symbolised the early dawn dispersed by the
Sun, or the effect of the growing power of the Sun on vegetation.

Similar in idea is the tradition of Wabun, son of Mudjekee-Wee, the
North American Indian Apollo, who chased Darkness with his arrows over
hill and valley, waking the villagers, calling the Thunder and bringing
the morning. He married Wabung Annung, whom he transplanted to the
Heavens, where she became the Morning Star.

Associated also with the sun is the myth of Clytie, a water nymph, who
for unrequited love of Apollo, was changed into a sun-flower, which
traditionally still turns towards the sun, following him through his
daily course.


_Belief in Natural Phenomena_

It has already been suggested that in primitive times intentional and
conscious life was ascribed to a host of natural objects and phenomena,
indications of which survive in the common speech of the present day.
Thus we speak of inanimate things as if they had consciousness and
intelligence. We say the Weather is good or bad, the Wind furious, the
Sea treacherous, the Seasons inconstant or the Earth thirsty. It is also
customary to speak of the “head” or “foot” of a mountain, and “arm” of
the sea and the “mouth” of a river or a cave.

Conscious action is suggested by such statement as the wind “whistles,”
“howls” or “moans”; the torrent or river “murmurs”; the fields “smile”
or the sky “threatens.”

These afford undoubted evidence of early belief in personality and
consciousness--a belief originally simple, but later becoming more
complex, monotheistic in the earlier form, developing into polytheism in
assigning different deities to the various elements.


_Greek and Roman Deities_

In Greek and Roman mythology there are twelve deities, six gods and six
goddesses.

_Greek._                _Gods._                _Roman._

Zeus.             The air or the           Jupiter.
                      living one (king)

Apōllon.       Sun God.             Apollo.

Ares.            War                 Mars.

Hermes.              Messenger.           Mercury.

Poseidon.            Sea God.             Neptune.

Hephaistos.          Smith.               Vulcan.


                    _Goddesses._

Hera.               Queen.                 Juno.

Demeter.            Tillage.               Ceres.

Artemis.            Moon-Hunting.       Diana.

Athenē.       Wisdom.                Minerva.

Aphrodite.          Love and Beauty.       Venus.

Hestĭa.       Home life.             Vesta.

These are the original twelve, but four others are referred to as
follows:

Dionȳsus.  The God of Wine.         Bacchus.

Eros.            The love lad.            Cupid.

Plutōn.    God of the Inferno.      Pluto.

Kronos.            Time.                  Saturn.


_Scandinavian Mythology_

In the Scandinavian mythology Ymir the personification of Chaos or first
created being, was produced by the antagonism of heat and cold,
nourished by the four milky streams from the cow Audhumla. While he
slept a man and woman grew out of his left arm, and sons from his feet,
from whom was formed the race of Frost Giants.

Odin and his two brothers slew Ymir and threw the carcase into the
Ginnungagap, or abyss of abysses. The blood formed the waters of the
Earth; the bones the Mountains, the skull the Heavens; the teeth, Rocks;
the brains, Clouds; the hair, plants of every kind; and the eyebrows, a
wall of defence against the Giants.

As in the Greek and Roman mythology, the Celestials or Æsir of the
Scandinavians were twelve in number, the chief being Odin. Each god
dwelt in his mansion in Asgard (God’s Ward), situated on the heavenly
hills between the Earth and the Rainbow.

The other gods or Asa were:

Thor.           God of Thunder and War.

Tyr.                Wisdom.

Baldur.             Sun.

Bragi.              Eloquence.

Vidar.              Silence.

Hodar.           The Blind.

Harnod.        The Messenger
                (divine intelligence)

Odur.

Loki.          God of Mischief.

All these were sons of Odin--the youngest being Vale. The mansion of
Odin was Gladsheim--that of Frigga, his wife Fensalir. Baldur’s was
Broadblink or “Vast Splendour.”

The Refectory, or Hall of the Æsir, was Valhalla, in which the spirits
of warriors were entertained by the twelve Valkyries (armed and mounted
nymphs), who in battle selected those destined for death.

Supreme were the “Mysterious Three” called Har the Mighty, the Like
Mighty and the third person, who sat on the throne above the Rainbow.

The Scandinavian Fates or Nornir, representing the Past, Present and
Future, sat spinning the web of events of human life beneath the ash
tree Yggdrasil, whose roots ran in three directions, one to Asgard, one
to the Frost Giants, and the third to the underworld. Beneath each was a
fountain of wonderful virtue.

In the tree from which drops honey sit an eagle, a squirrel and four
stags; lying at and gnawing the root is the serpent Nithhöggr, while the
squirrel Ratatösker runs up and down endeavouring to cause strife
between the serpent and the eagle at the top.


_Rising and Setting Symbolised_

The Egyptian Horus, the hawk-headed son of Osiris and Isis, symbolised
the sun’s path, or the rising sun; Ra the noon-day and Osiris the
setting.

Osiris, the husband of Isis, is represented by the moon, and by an eye
at the top of fourteen steps and symbolises any waning luminary, as the
setting sun or waning moon. Isis, to whose worship the sacred cow was
dedicated, symbolises rising, becoming visible, and is represented with
two horns on a stem rising from her head.

The ancient Egyptian indulged in the supposition that the swelling of
the Nile at the annual innundation occurred on the anniversary of the
death of Osiris, and was due to the tears of the lamenting Isis.

Endymion in the Greek tradition is the setting sun, with whom the moon
is in love. He was visited and kissed every night by Selene on the
Latmian Hills, where he was condemned to sleep, and eternal youth.


_Winds Personified_

That the Winds as natural forces should become personified is easy to
imagine, as in the Roman Æolus, father of Zephyr, the West wind. Aquilo
or Boreas, son of Astræus a Titan, and Eos (morning) was the North Wind,
and lived in a cave on Mount Hermus in Thrace. The other winds were
Notus, (South), Eurus (East), Corus (North-West), Argestës (North-East),
Volturnus (South-East), and Aferventus (South-West).

The natural phenomenon of the Echo is embodied in the poetic tradition
of a nymph, who, on account of unrequited love for Narcissus, pined away
till only her voice remained.


_Predestination_

To the primitive mind disaster or affliction from quite natural causes
would be attributed to the wrath of some deity, even though there was
no personal offence. This superstition would find expression in a belief
in predestination or fatalism, as is evidenced in the tragedies of
Orestes and Œdipus, and to a certain extent in the protracted return
of Ulysses from Troy.


_The Fates_

The Greeks and Romans believed that birth, events and death were
arbitrarily controlled by the Parcæ or Fates, of which there were
three--Clotho, who held the distaff--Lachesis, who spun the thread of
life and Atropos who bore the shears and cut the thread when life was
ended.

Thus Clotho presided over birth and drew the thread of life from the
distaff, while Atropos presided over death, Lachesis spinning the thread
between life and death.

The Harpies and Furies were also responsible agents in disaster. The
former were vultures with female heads and breasts, living in an
atmosphere of filth and stench and contaminating everything they came
near. Their names Ocypeta (rapid), Celeno (blackness), and Aello (storm)
indicate that they were the personification of tumult and whirlwind.
Equally arbitrary were the reputed acts of the Furies, of whom there
were likewise three, their names being Tisiphone (avenger of blood),
Alectro (implacable), and Megæra (disputatious).


_Propitiation and Sacrifice_

Propitiation and sacrifice, to avoid such visitation would be the
natural outcome, and the various traditions are probably records of
actual occurrences, embroidered by poetic imagery and miraculous
conditions.

In later tradition, cause or justification is indicated as in the story
of Iphigenia, daughter of Clytemnestra and Agamemnon. The latter having
offended Artemis by killing her favourite stag, vowed to sacrifice the
most beautiful thing that came into his possession during the next
twelve months. This was an infant daughter, but the sacrifice was
deferred till she reached womanhood, when the combined Greek fleet
arrived at Aulis on its way to Troy. Calchas declared this would be
wind-bound as long as the vow remained unfulfilled, but Artemis
interposed at the last moment by spiriting Iphigenia away from the altar
and leaving a hind to suffer in her stead.

A similar story is that of Andromeda, rescued by Perseus from the sea
monster sent by Poseidon to devastate the land. The reputed cause was
Cassiopeia, mother of Andromeda, boasting of her daughter’s beauty, and
on appeal to the oracle the sacrifice was declared necessary to save the
country and to appease the offended deity.

Similar instances in Bible history are the vows of sacrifice made by
Abraham and Jephthah. The latter has a parallel in the Greek tradition
of Idomeneus, King of Crete, who vowed to sacrifice the first being he
encountered if the gods granted him a safe return after the burning of
Troy. The first person met on landing was his son, who was sacrificed,
and in consequence Idomeneus was banished as a murderer.


_Early Burial Customs_

The ancient burial customs are evidence of an early belief in future
existence, and that not only human beings but inanimate objects have
souls.

It was considered necessary that the departed should be accompanied not
only by his weapons and personal belongings, but also by attendants or
slaves, who were immolated so that they could continue their
ministrations in the future life.


_Taboo_

The reverence with which burial places were regarded gave rise to the
belief in the spirits of the dead as guardians, and this survives at the
present day in the mysterious custom of “Taboo,” a Polynesian term which
means “consecrated” or “set apart.”

It really has a double meaning: to consecrate, and to insure penalty,
whereby dwellings are abandoned after the death of their owners in the
supposition that they are sacred to the spirits of the departed.


_Roman Lares_

The Lares of the Romans were domestic or public, the domestic Lares were
the souls of the virtuous ancestors exalted to the rank of protectors.
They took the form of images like dogs set behind the Entrance, or in
the Lararium or shrine.

There were also public Lares, whose province was the protection of
streets and roads.

This belief in the dead as guardian spirits accounts for a form of
sacrifice in which the victims were buried under foundations, a custom
modified in later times to the sacrifice of animals. It survives at the
present day in burying current coins at the ceremony of laying the
foundation-stone in public buildings.


_Typical Legend_

Many of the legends of the Middle Ages associated with Architecture are
reminiscent of the early customs of sacrifice in the oft-repeated
traditions of demoniacal aid. The story generally deals with some
difficult problem in design or construction for the solution of which
the architect or builder enters into the usual compact with the evil
one, the terms being that the latter party to the contract shall take
possession of the first living being that enters into or crosses the
structure.

Invariably the enemy of mankind is outwitted, a dog or some other animal
being the first to enter, the builder’s sense of caution being in every
instance greater than his vanity.

Similar in idea was the Hebrew custom of the scapegoat, which also
anticipated and symbolised the Atonement.

With the Greeks the cock was not sacrificed, it being sacred to the Sun
and Moon, as it announced the hours.

The cock was also sacred to the Goddess of Wisdom and to Æsculapius.
Therefore it represented Time, Wisdom and Health, none of which should
be sacrificed.


_Early Spiritual Belief_

Experience due to the involuntary action of the brain in dreaming, when
the ordinary laws of time and space are modified could hardly fail to
impress the primitive imagination and suggest the duality of
being--physical and spiritual.

In some savage communities at the present day there is a belief that the
soul or spirit is absent during sleep and that it would be dangerous to
wake the sleeper, as, should he close his mouth, the soul would be
unable to return. This belief that the soul should be free to go and
come is evidenced in the aperture that has been found in Kist-vaens and
other forms of tombs.


_Prehistoric Treatment of Epileptics_

Prehistoric skulls have been found bearing evidence of the operation of
trepanning, arising from the belief that the patient was possessed by
devils which would be released by making a hole in the head. This
treatment was apparently applied to epileptics. With the primitive
instruments and ignorance of anæsthetics in that remote period it could
hardly have been a pleasant experience.

The Greeks and Romans believed that the souls escaped with life through
the aperture of the death wound, and the Moslems had a superstition that
it was necessary in strangling a victim to relax the cord before death
occurred, so as to allow the soul to escape.

Even to modern times it is customary to open a window of a death
chamber.


_Prohibition_

A form of taboo in legend and tradition is prohibition either as to act
or question.

The Biblical instance of Lot’s wife has its parallel in Eurydice, wife
of Orpheus, who, killed on her wedding night, was redeemed on condition
that Orpheus should not look back till she had reached the upper world.
Forgetting the prohibition, he turned to see if she were following, and
Eurydice was instantly caught back into Hades.

The story is a poetical rendering of the capture of Eurydice by
Aëdonius, King of Thresprotia, called Pluto, on account of his cruelty.
Orpheus obtained her return on conditions that were not fulfilled;
therefore he lost her a second time.

The prohibition of Persephone to Psyche to look at the casket of Divine
beauty until she reached the upper world and the consequence, is similar
in idea, though the sequel is the result of feminine curiosity and
devotion.

As examples of the forbidden question, the stories of Cupid and Psyche
and Lohengrin may be quoted; in both instances curiosity as to name and
origin was interdicted. Disregard of the command resulted in
abandonment.

A more modern tradition is that of Melusina, who for her sins was
condemned to become every Saturday a serpent from her waist downwards.
She married Raymond, Count of Lusignan, and made him vow never to visit
her on that day.

Excited by jealousy, he hid himself on one of the prohibited days and
saw her in her transformed state, whereupon she was obliged to quit, and
wander about as a spirit till the day of doom.


_Belief in Magical Qualities._

The ancient belief in the supernatural was not confined to the spiritual
world, but also extended to inanimate objects which were sometimes
invested with magical qualities, as for instance, the Helms of Perseus
and Pluto, which rendered their wearers invisible. The same virtue was
possessed by Albric’s cloak, Tarnkappe, which also invested the wearer
with the strength of twelve men; by means of which, and the invisibility
conferred, Siegfried was able to overcome Brunhild, the martial queen of
Iceland.


_The Shirt of Nessus_

More malignant in character was the Shirt of Nessus as the source of
misfortune from which there was no escape. According to tradition,
Nessus the Centaur, while conveying Dejanira across a river, was shot by
Hercules for his rudeness. The dying Centaur bequeathed his tunic to
Dejanira, assuring her that to whomsoever she gave it, they would love
her exclusively. Believing this, she presented it to Hercules, who on
wearing it was subjected to such torture that, being unable to remove
the garment, he immolated himself on a funeral pyre.

Similarly malignant was the poison-cloak sent as a present to Arthur by
Queen Morgan la Fay.


_Swords_

Swords at all times have been possessed of magical qualities, but the
belief possibly indicates stages of development. The description of the
sword of Perseus as a form of diamond, suggests that the story had its
origin in the Stone Age. It is reasonable to presume that the later
improvements were such an advance that they suggested supernatural
origin; _e.g._, the sword of Siegfried, the name of which was Balmung
or Gram (literally “grief”).

The sword was reputed to be made by Wieland Smith, the Vulcan of the
Scandinavians. To test the blade he tried it on Amilias, a brother
smith, cleaving him through helm and armour down to the waist, but the
cut was so fine that Amilias was not aware that he was wounded until he
attempted to move, when he fell in two pieces.

Arthur’s sword Excalibur (liberated from the stone) is a later
development, as the magical property was in the sheath, which rendered
the wearer immune from injury. Arthur’s undoing was the result of losing
the sheath, though he retained the sword.


_Invulnerability_

Associated with this is invulnerability, variously bestowed or acquired.
In the tradition of Achilles, he was immersed in the river Styx by his
mother Thetis, but the immersion did not extend to his heel, in which he
received his mortal wound from the arrow of Paris.

Jason was rendered invulnerable in his battle with the giants that
sprang from the sowing of the Cadmean teeth by being anointed by Medæa
with the Promethean unguent.

Siegfried, the horny, made himself similarly proof from injury by
bathing in the dragon’s blood, but one spot on his back, where a linden
leaf had stuck, escaped. Through this only vulnerable spot he met his
death, being killed by Hagan the Dane while drinking in a pool.

This probably is a poetic allusion to early employment of defensive
armour, in which the back, as compared to the front, would be
unprotected.


_Belief in Numbers_

Certain numbers have at all times been invested with mystic
significance, _e.g._, “Three” the “perfect” number, expressive of
Beginning, Middle and End; also symbol of Deity. An earlier term of
Trinity is Triad, and almost every mythology has a three-fold deity.

That of the ancient Greeks consisted of Zeus, Apollo and Aphrodite, the
Egyptian being Osiris, Isis and Horus. The Romans believed the world to
be under the rule of three gods--Jupiter (Heaven), Neptune (Ocean), and
Pluto (Hades). The first has three thunderbolts--Neptune, the Trident,
and Pluto, Cerberus, the triple-headed dog.

Three in number also were the Fates, Furies, Graces, Harpies and
Sibylline Books. In the underworld the three judges of hell were
Rhadamanthos, Minos and Æacos.


_Muses_

The Muses were three times three as follows:

Calliope.              Epic Poetry.

Clio.                  History.

Melpomene.             Tragedy.

Euterpe.               Lyric Poetry.

Urania.                Astronomy.

Terpsichore.           Dancing.

Polyhegmnia.           Religious service.

Erato.                 Erotic Poetry--Geometry.

Thalia.                Comedy.

The world is compounded of three elements--Earth, Water and Air.

Man also is three--Body, Soul and Spirit; and the kingdom of
Nature--Mineral, Animal and Vegetable.

There are three Christian Graces--Faith, Hope and Charity, and three
enemies of mankind, the World, Flesh and Devil.

The number “Four” symbolises the quarters of the World--the Winds--the
Gospels--the Evangelists and the four sacred Rivers.

“Five” signifies the Cross and the Five Wounds.

“Seven” has also been regarded as a mystic number, as in the Days of
Creation, the days of the week, the Spirits before the Throne, the Ages
in the life of man, the seven-armed candlesticks of the Hebrews; the
sleepers of Ephesus; the champions of Christendom and the Wonders of the
world.


_Sacred Trees and Flowers, etc._

Certain flowers and trees were in ancient times dedicated to the
Deities.

The cornel cherry tree and the laurel were sacred to Apollo; the Cypress
and Maidenhair to Pluto; the Dittany to the Moon; the Lily to Juno; the
Myrtle to Venus; the Narcissus and Poppy to Ceres; the Oak to Jupiter;
the Olive to Minerva; and the Vine to Bacchus. The Laurel wreath was
given to the victor in the Pythian games. The victor in the Olympic
games had a wreath of wild olive--of green parsley in the Nemean games,
and of dried parsley or green pine in the Isthmian games.

The Ancients believed that the laurel communicated the spirit of
prophecy and poetry; hence the custom of crowning the Pythoness and
poets. In modern times the laurel is a symbol of Victory and Peace.

The Olive, sacred to Pallas Athenē, was anciently a symbol of peace,
an olive twig in the hands of kings, as represented on medals indicating
a peaceful reign. The Palm also symbolised Victory, and in Christian Art
is generally borne by the martyr--indicating victory over Death. The
Lily--which, according to tradition, sprang from the repentant tears of
Eve as she went forth from Paradise--is the emblem of Chastity,
Innocence and Purity and is associated with representations of the
Virgin. The Daffodil or Lenten Lily, which it was customary to plant on
graves, was once white, the tradition being that Persephone, daughter of
Demeter, delighted to wander about the flowering meads of Sicily. One
springtime she tripped over the meadows, wreathed her head with wild
lilies and, throwing herself on the leaves, fell asleep. Pluto, god of
the infernal regions, fell in love with her and carried her to the
nether world. At his touch the white flowers changed to a golden yellow.

In Christian Art the apple is symbolical of the fall of man, and
represents original sin; the rose symbolises Christian ecstacy, the
Pomegranate (generally burst open with the seeds displayed) is the
symbol of the future life and immortality. The vine and ears of corn are
symbols of Christ, and the Wine-press an emblem of the Passion.

The Passion-flower is emblematical of the Crucifixion--the leaf
symbolising the spear; the anthers, the five wounds; the tendrils, cords
or whips; the column or oviary, the hammer; the three styles, nails;
the fleshy threads within the flower the crown of thorns, and the calyx,
the nimbus. The white tint indicates “purity,” the blue “Heaven,” and
the flower keeping open three days symbolises the three years’ ministry.


_Sacred Animals_

Animals were also dedicated to special deities, the wolf, gryffon and
crow being sacred to Apollo; the dragon and panther to Bacchus; the stag
to Diana; the serpent to Æsculapius; the deer to Hercules; the heifer to
Isis; the eagle to Jupiter; the peacock and lamb to Juno; the dog to the
Lares; the horse and vulture to Mars; the cock to Mercury; the owl to
Minerva; the bull to Neptune; the dove, swan and sparrow to Venus; and
the lion to Vulcan.

The lion also is the emblem of the tribe of Judah and is symbolical of
the Resurrection. According to tradition the lion whelp is born dead,
and so remains for three days, when the father breathes on it and it
receives life.


_Evangelist Symbols_

Mark, the Evangelist, is symbolised by a lion, because he begins his
gospel with the scene of John the Baptist and Jesus in the Wilderness.

Matthew, whose gospel commences with the humanity of Jesus as a
descendant of David, is the only one of the Evangelists represented as a
man.

Luke is symbolised by a bull or calf, and John by an eagle--the former
because his gospel opens with the priests sacrificing in the Temple,
and the latter because he soars high and begins his gospel with the
divinity of the Logos.

In Greek and Roman art the lion’s head is used particularly on
fountains. The Egyptians employed the lion, to symbolise the annual
inundations of the Nile, which happens when the sun is in Leo.


_The Serpent_

The serpent in ancient times was symbolical of wisdom and subtlety, and,
considered as a guardian spirit, is depicted on altars. It was also the
symbol of Hygeia, the goddess of Health, from the tradition that
Æsculapius assumed the form of a serpent during a pestilence in Rome.

In later art the serpent appears as a tempter. The Brazen Serpent of the
Hebrews that gave newness of life to those who, bitten by the fiery
dragon, raised their eyes to it, is an anticipation of the Crucifixion.


_The Dragon_

The mythical dragon is a Middle Age symbol of sin in general and
Paganism in particular. The Celtic use of the word for “a chief” is the
source of the legendary dragon slayer, as a knight killing a chief
thereby slew a dragon.

The dragon, which appears as a guardian, as in the garden of the
Hesperides, watching the tree bearing the golden apples of Hera, is also
a poetic allusion to flood or inundation.

The tradition of the Python and Apollo is an instance of poetic allusion
to the power of the sun drying up the overflow, as also the deliverance
of the city of Rouen by St. Romanus from the dragon Gargouille
(waterspout) which lived in the Seine.


_Poetic License in Tradition_

In Art and Literature traditions and legends dealing with probable
occurrences have been handed down--in many cases completely
transformed--by reason of this poetic license; _e.g._, the legend of
Marsyas the Phrygian flute-player, who, challenging Apollo to a contest
of skill and being beaten, was flayed alive for his presumption.

The story is not without its moral, as the flute on which he played was
one thrown away by Athenē, and, filled with the breath of that
goddess, still discoursed sweet music. The story is based upon the
respective superiority of the instruments--the Dorian mode in the
worship of Apollo employing the lute or lyre, and the Phrygian mode in
the worship of Cebele the flute, the reeds of which grew on the banks of
the river Marsyas.

Another example is the tradition of the Danaides, daughters of Danaos,
King of Argos, who, fifty in number, married the fifty sons of Ægytos.
All but one murdered their husbands on the wedding night, and were
punished in the infernal regions by having to draw water everlastingly
in sieves from a deep well.

The literal explanation is that the followers of Danaos taught the
Argives to dig wells and irrigate the land in the Egyptian manner. The
soil of Argos, being dry and porous, resembling a sieve.

The extreme of poetic license is perhaps reached in the tradition of
Geryon, a human monster with three bodies and three heads, whose oxen
fed on human flesh and were guarded by a two-headed dog--both slain by
Hercules. This is a fanciful account of the defeat of Geryon, who
reigned over three kingdoms and had an ally who was at the head of two
tribes.

Another fantastic tradition relates that Xerxes inflicted three hundred
lashes on the sea, and bound it in chains--a Greek myth based on the
peculiar construction of the second pontoon Xerxes employed to cross the
Dardanelles. This consisted of three hundred boats, secured by chains to
two ships which acted as supporters.

A more modern instance is Cleopatra’s pearl, which she is reputed to
have dissolved in wine at the banquet, the costliness of which excited
the wonder of Antony. It is probable that the pearl was sold either to
defray the cost or to provide a bribe for Antony.


_Animals in Christian Art_

The Dog in Mediæval Art symbolises Fidelity and appears on monuments at
the feet of women, signifying affection and faithfulness; and at the
feet of men, signifying courage and magnanimity. When the dog appears on
the tombs of Crusaders, it is to indicate that they followed the
standard of the Lord as a dog follows its master.

Other animals in Christian Art symbolise respectively:

The Ant.               Prudence.
 “  Ape.               Malice, lust and cunning.
 “  Ass.               Sobriety.
 “  Asp.               Christ, or Christian Faith.
 “  Bee.                 Industry.
 “  Camel.               Submission.
 “  Cock.                Vigilance.
 “  Fox.                 Fraud and cunning.
 “  Hog.                 Impurity.
 “  Lamb.                Innocence.
 “  Leopard.             Sin.
 “  Ox.                  Pride.

 “  Dragon, Serpent,  }  Satan and his crew.
 “  Swine.            }

 “  Lamb.             }
 “  Pelican.          } Symbols of Christ.
 “  Unicorn.          }

The Lamb, which is reminiscent of the Paschal Lamb of the Exodus,
appears on Church plate and decorations, and is usually depicted
carrying a banner bearing the Cross, sometimes with blood issuing from
its breast caught in a chalice.

The Pelican is the symbol of Charity and the emblem of the Atonement. It
is generally represented on the nest feeding its young from the flesh of
its breast.

The Phœnix, owing to its traditional rejuvenation every hundred
years, is the symbol of the Resurrection.

The Dove is an emblem of Peace, Fidelity and of the Holy Spirit.

The Fish was adopted by the early Christians as the symbol of Purity and
Faith. It conveys a comparison of the Christian passage through life
with the fish passing through salt water still remaining fresh, and is
occasionally suggested in the Vesica Piscis, which it resembles in
general shape.


_Association of Human and Animal Qualities_

Such arbitrary creatures as the Sphinx, the Winged and Man-headed Bull
and Lion, and the Griffin, were invested with symbolic meaning in the
association of qualities--animal and human; and probably had their
origin in an early belief in Totemism.


_Totemism_

Most primitive communities have superstitious regard for certain
animals, as the mythical origin of personal or tribal descent, and
appreciation for animal qualities is evidenced, for example, in the
belief that to eat hare or any timorous animal would be disastrous,
resulting in the transference of timidity to the consumer.


_Cannibalism_

The underlying idea of Cannibalism is the belief that in consuming part
of an adversary his virtues will also be acquired.

The practice in, that sense is really a tribute to his superior courage
or mentality.

The Lion and Bull were associated with courage and strength, either for
protection or menace.

The Serpent, with wisdom, subtilty and cunning. The Eagle typifies
alertness and watchfulness as well as speed.

Wings may symbolise rapidity and mobility, or ever-present, as hovering,
the bat’s wing being potential in darkness. The human element denotes
Intelligence, and bird claws--Ferocity.


_The Sphinx_

The Sphinx in Egyptian Art, always represented in a crouching position,
is a combination of Lion body with human head and bust (generally
female) and symbolises Intelligence and Power.

The Greek Sphinx, borrowed from the Egyptian, is generally represented
in a seated attitude, and invested with wings. It had a different
meaning, that of Malignity and Mystery. Probably in allusion to the
tradition of the Theban sphinx that menaced the town, until her
destruction was accomplished by Œdipus, who solved the riddle that
had resulted fatally for his predecessors.


_Assyrian Winged Monsters_

The Assyrian combination of Winged Lion or Bull with human head, is
symbolic of association of strength with courage and intelligence, the
wings suggesting mobility or ever-present.

The Gryffon, a Greek creation, was composed of a lion body, with eagle
head and wings, typifying not only swiftness, strength and courage, but
alertness or watchfulness. It was employed on the Acroteria of the
pediments; alertness being indicated by the forward position of the
ears.

The Chimeræ as an emblem of terror and devastation, is in the form of a
lion body, the tail being a serpent, the lion mouth belching forth
flames. From the centre of the back protrudes a goat’s head.

The whole is presumed to embody the idea of a volcanic mountain, the
head being the crater, the goat representing the mountain slopes, and
the snake tail the morass at the foot.

The Dragon, compounded of a lizard head and body, bat wings and serpent
tail, is a product of mediæval times, probably suggested by the
mythological Gryffon. Sometimes the dragon is invested with the legs of
a lion, and to testify to its potency for evil, flames are depicted
issuing from the mouth.


_Pegasus_

Pegasus, the winged horse on which Bellerophon rode against the Chimeræ,
also used by Perseus in the rescue of Andromeda, is typical of poetic
inspiration. Another form of horse is Hippocampus, associated with the
chariot of Poseidon or Neptune, in which the fore-legs develop into fins
and the hinder part into a fish-tail in harmony with its element.


_The Harpy_

In all such associations the character is indicated by the various parts
employed. The Harpy of the Greeks being a combination of female head,
with bird body, wings, and claws, was suggestive of swiftness and
ferocity, and was the personification of sudden events.


_Sirens_

Equally disastrous, but more alluring, were the Sirens (or entanglers)
of whom there were three, Parthenope, Ligea, and Leucosia. They
symbolised the dangers of treacherous coasts, and were reputed to lure
their victims by their beauty and wonderful singing. Failing to
entrance Ulysses, they were doomed to destroy themselves.

The siren is represented in the form of a beautiful woman, but the lower
limbs terminate with bird claws, typical of their ferocity. In allusion
to their musical attraction, they are occasionally depicted as bearing
harps or lutes.

The representation of Triton, the son and trumpeter of Neptune (in which
capacity he bears the conch or shell trumpet) as a man with the lower
extremities terminating into fish tails, is to embody the idea of ocean.
The Dolphin has the same significance.


_Pan_

A similar combination of human and animal, that of Pan, depicted as a
man with the horns and legs of a goat, is the personification of Deity
displayed in creation and pervading all things.

Flocks and herds, being the chief property of the pastoral age, were
under his divine protection; therefore Pan was a rural or rustic god.


_The Nymphs_

To the pastoral age also belong the Hamadryads, the nymphs of the forest
trees, in which they lived, dying when the tree died. The leopard skin
with which they are often partly draped, is poetically suggestive of
such chequered sunlight as would penetrate woodland growth.


_Centaur_

The Centaur, a combination of male bust with Horse body and legs, was an
embodiment of the Thessalonian horsemen. The Epic sculptures of the
Metopes of the Parthenon are illustrative of the conflict between the
Centaurs, and the Lapithæ, caused by the rudeness of the former when
entertained as guests.


_The Circle_

The Circle, originally a sun sign, has been invested with symbolic
meaning from the earliest antiquity, the general significance being that
of Power, or Sovereignty; a significance which also applies to its
employment as the crown, orb and nimbus.

In Egyptian art, the circular disc, orb or globe, is accompanied by two
asps, and spread wings as a symbol of ever-present sovereignty with the
power of life and death. The same meaning being expressed in the
Assyrian version, which is similar in form, but with the bow-string
substituted for the asps.

The Nimbus, Aureole, or Halo originally symbolised Power and Authority,
not Sanctity, and its employment in Christian art was anticipated in
pagan times.

It was adopted by the early Christians to express Divinity, or as an
indication of holiness, and is usually in the form of a disc. That of
the three persons of the Deity has three rays issuing from the centre,
and sometimes is triangular in form.

The Nimbus of the Virgin Mary is circular, nearly always elaborated, but
not tri-radiated. Those of saints and apostles are circular, more or
less ornamented. The Aureole in the form of the Vesica Piscis is
sometimes used to envelop the whole figure.


_Symbols of the Trinity_

Three circles interlacing or in the form of a trefoil are employed as
emblems of the Trinity, as is also the equilateral triangle.

The circle is also the symbol of Eternity, as having neither beginning
nor end; in Scandinavian art it is represented as a serpent.

The orb as a symbol of power may possibly have its origin in the stone
or weight, which in ancient times was kept by the tribal chief. To lift
this was the test of the youth aspiring to manhood, a custom which is
preserved in the Highland games when “putting the stone” is one of the
tests of strength.


_The Wand a Symbol of Authority_

Another symbol of authority is the wand in its various forms of sceptre,
mace or baton. This probably had its origin in the strong man’s club, a
form which is still retained in the official mace.

The sceptre has various forms of terminals, as the Dove, and the open
hand, the significance of the latter being authority with power to
reward or punish.


_The Hand_

The hand was a symbol of fortitude in Egypt and of fidelity in Rome--two
joined hands signifying concord.

Previous to the twelfth century the supreme being was often represented
by a hand extended from the clouds, sometimes open with rays extending
from the fingers in token of divine Grace.

The red hand is generally connected with some traditional tale of
violence, and is so expressed on the shield of Ulster. An allusion to
the tradition that the adventurer O’Neile vowed to be the first to land
in Ireland, and finding his boat outstripped, cut off his hand and flung
it ashore.

The Hand is also an emblem of handicraft, when generally an eye is
represented in the palm, as significant of eye and hand being in
harmonious accord.


_The Caduceus_

The Caduceus was originally an official wand, and, adorned by the
Egyptians with two serpents, became the symbol of eloquence. In Greek
mythology wings were added, and it became the attribute of Hermes or
Mercury. The tradition being that the god one day came upon two serpents
quarrelling, whereon he threw down the staff of authority, round which
the serpents twined in peaceful amity.

The symbolism of the caduceus is therefore power, associated with
wisdom, the wings meaning rapidity or dispatch, and, as such, is
employed as an emblem of commerce.


_Thyrsus_

A variant of the wand or staff is the Thyrsus of Bacchus, which takes
different forms, the early examples being a plain staff entwined with
ivy leaves, though later vine leaves were substituted. It also appears
in the form of a pine cone impaled on a spear, which may be in allusion
to the Greek custom of mixing the juice of the pine or fir (turpentine)
with the new wine to make it keep.

It has also been attributed to a strategy of war, when Bacchus made a
successful advance by the ruse of concealing his followers with
branches, as in the example of Shakespeare’s Macduff. The pine cone
being suggestive of a night attack or that the Bacchanalian festivities
took place at night.


_The Trident_

The Trident of Neptune, and the Paddle or Rudder of Triton are also
variants of the wand as symbols of authority, and in their separate use,
are sufficient to indicate Sea or Ocean.


_The Cross_

Though the Cross was adopted by the early Christians, like the nimbus it
was employed in more remote times. In Carthage it was used for
ornamental purposes, but with the Egyptians, it was regarded as a sacred
symbol. It also occurred in Greek sculpture on a circle, when it
symbolised the four cardinal points.

Surmounted by a circle in the form known as the Crux Ansata, it was
sacred to Isis, and stood as an emblem of immortality and life
generally.

There are various forms of the cross in Christian art, the Greek cross
with four equal arms, signifies the blessing which the great Sacrifice
extends equally over the four quarters of the world.

The Latin cross, in which the shaft is longer than the upper arm,
sometimes has three steps which signify the triple foundations of Faith,
Hope and Charity; the last being the lowest as the foundation of all
Christian virtues.

The Latin cross is sometimes furnished with two transverse arms, when
it is known as the Ecclesiastical cross, used by Cardinals and Bishops
at Rome. The cross of the Pope has three transverse arms.

The Cross of St. Andrew, or cross saltire, is in the shape of the letter
X, and is used as a symbol of martyrdom.

The Tau Cross in the shape of the letter T--frequently used in Byzantine
representations of the Crucifixion, is that on which the Brazen Serpent
was uplifted; and was also the sign marked on the door-posts at the
sacrifice of the Paschal Lamb of the Exodus.

The Cross with the arms bearing leaves or blossom, is symbolical of the
triumph of Christianity over sin and persecution. Occasionally it takes
the form of a spreading tree. When five red marks or jewels are placed
in the centre and extremities they are emblematic of the five wounds.

In Christian art the cross is the symbol of Christ, either in the simple
form, or as a crucifix, which in the early renderings was more
suggestive of voluntary sacrifice. The realistic treatment of physical
suffering belongs to a later period.

It is also in its various forms an emblem of martyrdom that of St.
Peter’s being in a reversed position in reference to the manner of his
execution.


_The Pastoral Staff_

The cross, invariably with foliated ends, mounted on a staff, is the
Crozier of an Archbishop. The staff of a Bishop terminates with a
curving head in the form of a shepherd’s crook which it symbolises; both
being indicative of authority.


_Symbols of Martyrdom_

Martyrdom is symbolised not only by the palm, and the crown, as
indicative of Victory over death and reward, but by the banner of
Triumph over death and persecution. Also by the sword, as a symbol of
violent death, or by other implements of execution. These are
represented in conjunction with the individual martyr or saint, as
attributes and as a means of identification.

As symbols personal to Christ, the emblems of the Passion and
Crucifixion are proper to the Cross and chalice. Such, for instance, as
the crown of thorns, the nails, scourge, whipping-post, ladder, spear,
lantern, thirty pieces of silver, etc.


_Symbolism of Gems, etc._

In Christian art, gems, metals and colours are invested with symbolic
meaning. The amethyst signifies humility, the Diamond--Invulnerable
Faith, the Sardonyx--Power, the Sapphire--Hope, Gold represents Power or
Glory, and Silver--Purity.

Black represents Grief or Death, Blue--Hope and Divine Contemplation,
pale blue--Peace, Christian Prudence or a serene conscience,
Green--Faith, Gladness, pale green--Baptism, Grey--Tribulation,
Purple--Justice or Royalty, Red--Martyrdom for Faith, Scarlet--Fervour,
and glory of witnesses to the Church, Violet--Penitence, and
White--Purity, Temperance and Innocence.

Shells on tombstones are allusive to the earthly body left behind, a
mere shell of the immortal soul. They are also used to indicate a
pilgrim, by whom they were carried, probably as a drinking vessel or
form of spoon.

Torches, either upright or inverted, symbolised respectively Life and
Death. When in the latter position the flame is represented as
ascending, the significance is Death with hope of the Resurrection. An
earlier signification in Pagan art is the bridal torch of Hymen.


_Masks_

Masks, which frequently appear in Renaissance ornament, are traceable to
the Greek employment to symbolise Comedy and Tragedy.

The Medusa head, which occurs on shields and on the Ægis of Athenē,
was the emblem of Terror. The tradition being that Medusa, one of the
three Gorgons, famous for her hair, set her beauty against that of
Athenē. As a punishment, her hair was converted into serpents, the
aspect of which was so terrible that any who looked thereon were changed
to stone. A fate to which the Gorgon herself succumbed on seeing her
reflection in the burnished shield of Perseus.

The Cornucopia, or horn of plenty, another instance of Pagan survival,
was given by the infant Zeus to Almathæ in gratitude, with the promise
that the possessor should always have abundance in everything desired.
The horn being that of a goat from whom the god was fed, invariably
accompanies the representations of Ceres.


_Symbols of Time_

Time is symbolised by the hour-glass and by the scythe. The latter
implement, though generally accepted is more strictly the emblem of
Death, which cuts down prematurely. Whereas Time only garners when ripe
the sickle would be more appropriate.


_Secular Symbols_

Besides those enumerated, emblems are used for the arts, sciences, and
crafts, and as devices for Guilds and Corporations.

The arts of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture are symbolised by the
various implements employed, as are the crafts. Music by the Lyre and
other instruments, Literature by the Lamp, Books, and the Owl as the
Bird of Wisdom.

Science and mechanics are similarly indicated. Means of transit, by a
winged wheel, suggestive of Speed and Progress; trade and commerce by
bales of goods and by the Caduceus, and Agriculture by implements,
sheaves of corn and fruit.


_Trophies_

Groups of weapons used in war and hunting have been employed in a
decorative manner. This can be traced to the Greek custom of hanging the
weapons abandoned by a fleeing enemy on trees, and to the spoils of
victory carried in the Roman triumphal processions.

Such trophies of arms and armour appear in sculptured form as decoration
to the Roman arches and military monuments. A custom which was emulated
in later times in arsenals, public buildings and tombs.


_Heraldry_

Heraldry, which probably had its origin in Totemism, was practised
chiefly for purposes of identification, and was essential in the period
of complete armour, which rendered recognition in the ordinary way
difficult.

Originally expressed on shields, surcoats and banners, it was employed
later on tombs, and became a feature in decorative work. Indeed the
display of heraldic devices on gates and entrances, and in
chimney-pieces, is quite justified as indicative of ownership. Such
details were eventually introduced into ornament for the sake of mass
effect and variety.


_Heraldry in Design_

A very early example of this decorative employment is that of the Lion
gate at Mycenæ. Heraldic designs also appear in the later Byzantine and
Sicilian tapestries and entered largely into Renaissance ornament. The
shield is particularly conspicuous, with its development into the
strapwork frame and cartouche forms of the Jacobean and French
Renaissance.

It will be gathered from the foregoing that the latter day designers,
especially those of the Renaissance, borrowed freely from the past, to
which there could be little objection if the employment of such details
were justified by conditions.


_Symbolism in Modern Art_

Unintelligent reproduction is not only retrogressive but a confession of
incapacity, and it is desirable to create an interest in the present and
to invest modern art--wherever possible--with meaning.


_Present Apathy_

In this the co-operation of the general public is essential. In the
past, as is evident in the simplest utensils, beauty was universally
appreciated, but at the present time the large majority are apathetic to
æsthetic environment; regarding art vaguely as the production and
display of pictures and sculpture.

The present shows a considerable advance on the deplorable taste of the
mid-Victorian period, but we have still far to go. The incongruity of
domestic decoration and furniture which, unhappily, is too general, is
the result of individual selection which is invariably uneducated.

The manufacturer can do much, and the designer may be prepared to do
more, but until artistic appreciation is more generally diffused, any
progress must necessarily be very slow.



CHAPTER IX

WAYS AND MEANS


Through the medium of sight, interest and emotion are excited by phases
of colour and form, varying in individuals according to temperament. The
artistic perception and appreciation of these are invariably due to
natural faculty, though much may be acquired by intelligent study.


_Perception_

In most forms of artistic expression the hand is the auxiliary of the
eye. Though sensitiveness of touch and dexterous manipulation are
essential, these can be acquired by practice. Perception, is of
paramount importance, and it may be assumed that the artist’s vision is
more sensitive to appearance and subsequent suggestion than that of the
layman.

The interest of the average individual in art is generally that of
subject and sentiment. This is probably a more natural and logical
attitude than that of the artist, to whom--as a craftsman--the interest
is often merely that of technique. These possibly represent the two
extremes; the cultured individual is capable of appreciation of the
ideal without consideration of schools and isms.

Many students in their early essays draw rather from an imagined
knowledge than from the actual visual aspect--are apt to take forms for
granted, to assume, for example, that an object is round when it is
really subtilely polygonal. Theoretically a curve has no existence,
being really a combination of straight lines varying in length and
direction. Many beginners are unable to approximate even so obvious a
form as a right angle, and until their vision and judgment is trained,
it is improbable that they can successfully render more subtile
combinations. It is the business of the teacher to train the vision so
that the perceptive faculties are developed, and instil in the mind of
the student that art is only concerned with appearance. Any fact not
visually apparent should be ignored.


_Accepted Conventions_

The whole subject is complicated by convention; thus for convenience,
forms are drawn in outline, but these drawings are not representations,
and are only recognisable and accepted as such through education and
tradition. Drawing in outline is merely to sequestrate a portion of the
surface by a line or lines, and can only define at most two dimensions.
When shade and shadow are added there is some approximation to the solid
in the suggestion of the third dimension. Though these tend to a more
lucid explanation, the work remains a convention if colour and
atmosphere are rendered in monochrome.

It is generally assumed that appreciation for colour is inherent. That
this to some extent is true is evident in the attraction of bright
colour to the child and the savage. Subtle quantities and combinations
are only appreciated by comparatively few, the faculty for colour being
extremely rare.


_Influence of Fashion_

The average individual is guided as a rule in colour selection by vogue
or fashion, though it is the polite custom to concede that the average
woman is naturally endowed with taste. This is delicate ground, but the
awful and impossible associations evident at times in feminine costume
certainly do not justify the courtesy. There are superstitions in colour
selection evidently the result of tradition, such, for instance, as red
and yellow being suitable for a sallow complexion. The actual effect of
these colours being to excite the complementaries, is hardly favourable
to the misguided wearer.

The average man is generally more discreet in selection when sartorially
concerned. Not that he necessarily possesses more taste, but because he
is observant of custom, and moreover, has generally an instinctive
dislike to anything pronounced. At times, however, the women-folk take
the initiative, and two of the greatest inflictions that men suffer are
the selection of their ties and cigars by one of the opposite sex.

In domestic environment the selection is invariably imitative or guided
by fashion, and if the prevailing vogue prescribes brown paper as a
lining for walls, it is probably adopted. But the choice, however it may
be influenced, is made possibly without thought of the furniture and
upholstery that is associated.


_Harmonious Consistency_

The colour scheme should be determined by aspect and by the use of the
particular apartment. A sunny room should be treated differently to one
with a north-east aspect, in which an appearance of warmth is
desirable. Furniture, too, must be considered, reds being an unsuitable
setting for oak as a rule, while mahogany is best associated with
delicate greens and greys.

It is a reasonable assumption that the training of the student should
result in greater discrimination, and when the exercise consists of
representing, it is a matter of careful approximation of colours and
values. In original design the harmonious effect depends on the
individual, who, in early attempts in colour, jumps at it, being
unconscious of any guiding principle.


_Natural Suggestion_

It would seem that the wealth of colour combination in the various
natural aspects apparent to all, would surely influence selection; that
it generally fails to do so is testimony to lack of observation. Nature
left alone never makes mistakes, and the colouring in flowers, land,
sky, and water, the plumage of birds and other natural phenomena, is
always harmonious if seen in original environment. When the balance and
correct association is disturbed it is due to human interference, as is
evident too often in the work of the landscape gardener and
horticulturist.


_Colour Scheme_

In decoration the scheme may consist of tints or tones of any one
colour, and the contrast is merely that of tone; in other words, of
lighter and darker phases. This method of colouring, which is quite
suitable in some instances, is fairly safe, as the latitude for error is
greatly reduced, but certainly is not courageous.

The problem arises, when the scheme involves the use of more than one
colour, and the successful effect depends on judicious association and
balance. The simple rule is never to display two only of the primary
colours in juxtaposition, the presence of the third being essential to
harmonious and satisfactory effect.

This, as a principle, forms the basis of much of the Moresque
decoration, in which the details were picked out in blue and red of
positive hues, and separated or outlined with gold.

More consideration is required when positive or pure colour is not in
request, and the proportions of juxtaposed tints have to be relative. As
any tint departs from the full strength of its particular category, so
those associated should be proportionately remote.

Respective quantities may vary and one colour occupy relatively a small
part of the surface, when to preserve the balance it may be stronger in
hue than others occupying adjacent and larger areas. For such
contingencies it is impossible to give exact formulæ, as the pigments
employed are not always constant. In the case of manufacturers of mixed
paints, it is customary to issue samples of colours for the year or
season, and they cannot guarantee repeating exactly any colour or tint
in subsequent mixing. The same applies where coloured papers and
textiles are concerned; therefore judgment based on principle and
experience can be the only guide.

The Primary colours are Red, Yellow and Blue; admixture of any two of
these result in the Secondary colours which form the complementaries of
the Primaries not involved. Thus blue and yellow combined result in
green, which is the complementary of red, the complementary of yellow
being purple, and that of blue, orange.

Intensity of hue of any colour employed may vary considerably, and this
variation should be proportional in other tints associated. Part of the
charm of colour often depends on its complexity, in natural aspects due
to atmosphere and varied phases of light. Pure colours should at times
be avoided, that is, in the sense in which they are obtainable as
pigments.


_Early Training_

Students should have attained some considerable facility in drawing
before taking the study of design seriously, though probably part of the
early training has dealt with extremely elementary forms leading in that
direction. Undoubtedly, too, many enter on this phase of study without
adequate preparation, having little appreciation of the underlying
geometric construction, not only in design but in all form.

This, on investigation, can always be found, and either the general mass
or sub-divisions identified with some simple geometric shape enclosing
the more intimate details. Correct approximation and placing are
essential to the accuracy and success of the drawing. Too often through
lack of training the tendency is to draw detail right away, without the
necessary preliminary of determining the mass shapes.


_Nature Study_

The study of natural form is of paramount importance to prospective
designers. Subjects should be selected as season or opportunity permit,
not merely from plant and floral growth, but any form available, animate
or inanimate that is suggestive of pattern or susceptible of ornamental
treatment.

Students in their early attempts in design invariably find convention a
stumbling-block, and in making their studies from nature cannot at first
grasp the idea that selection should be exercised, and that only those
phases which are favourable to decorative results should be recorded.
Design is not concerned with facts or exact portraiture so much as
pattern, and only those features and attitudes that are suitable should
be dealt with. To perpetuate the ugly and unsuitable is waste of both
time and energy.


_Aspect and Attitude_

In too many instances the first aspect of the subject of study is
recorded, even without any regard to natural attitude. It may be a spray
of blossom taken by the student from the parent tree or shrub, which is
fixed up in any position that comes handy. For this there is no excuse;
the spray should not only be placed consistently, but to the best
advantage, the object being to record aspects that are suggestive of
decorative development.

In design it is conditional that each individual detail should be
primarily effective as a silhouette, surface interest being of secondary
consideration.

Any leaf or flower that does not conform should be so arranged as to
satisfactorily comply with this condition, and this can easily be
achieved by slightly shifting the point of view, as it is generally due
to extreme foreshortening, or perspective that is confusing in
appearance.

[Illustration: No. 285. Natural Aspect of Various Leaves.

Those in outline unsuitable without adaptation for ornament. The
silhouette versions shew natural aspects that readily lend to decorative
purposes.]

Points of study to be noted are the stem growth, junctions and angles of
branching and articulation of leaves, the difference in development of
leaves on main stem and those on flower stalk, and phases of the
flowers. The drawing should be explanatory as far as possible, and any
detail not quite clear should be expressed in separate lucid diagrams.
When readily accessible, a series of studies should be made of the same
plant or growth at differing stages, so as to form a record of the life
history and development.

Care should be exercised to arrange the study with its explanatory
details on the paper so as to satisfactorily occupy the area, not
necessarily symmetrically, but with a view to desirable balance. Those
with a natural faculty for design will probably do this instinctively,
but the observance is important in developing the sense of arrangement.


_Treatment_

The drawings, which should be carefully detailed as to form, and
intimate detail--in fact diagrammatic--can be in pencil or ink outline,
light and shade is generally unimportant, though it may be lightly
suggested.

With regard to colour, except in examples of special suggestion, little
time need be wasted in still life renderings, though suggestive colour
schemes may well be noted, but the drawing should at least be lightly
tinted, this serving the double purpose of fixing the pencil lines, and
defining the silhouette shapes.

These studies should form material for designs, not at first ambitious,
but dealing with single leaves or flowers, and deriving from them
details suitable to some form of decorative expression. These can be
expressed in flat colour, with or without outline, or further ornamented
by treatments suggestive of veining or striation. The blotching of some
leaves during autumnal changes or any natural markings can often be
turned to decorative account.


_Drawings for Reproduction_

Designs in some instances are in the form of perspective sketches, when
it is desirable to convey an idea of their final appearance, but as a
rule they are expressed as working drawings. This is imperative when the
final production is the result of some mechanical production, as in book
decoration and advertisement either black and white or in colour.
Drawings for these are generally made larger and reduced to the required
size by photography, and the blocks for printing made from the
photograph.

There is no fixed rule as to size of drawing or reduction, but if the
designs are drawn for one-third reduction there will be no material
alteration in values when produced. But as the reduction is increased
there is a proportionate risk in alteration of values. It is desirable
to bear the proposed reduction in mind and to work more boldly or with
thicker lines, otherwise the final effect may be thin and weak. In pen
drawing, the lines should be clear and distinct whatever their
thickness.

For designs in black and white, hot-pressed paper, Bristol board or
smooth card are most suitable. The ink should be waterproof, as, if
necessary, corrections with Chinese white can be more neatly made. Fine
pens, except for very minute work, are not desirable, a Gillott’s
ladies’ fine writing nib yielding as fine a line as is ordinarily
required. For some classes of work a brush will be found more suitable,
but care should be taken that all lines--whether thick or thin--are
equally black.

Designs in colour for illustration or advertisement, which are to be
reproduced by lithography or the three-colour process, can be on card or
Whatman paper. The colours employed being transparent or opaque,
whichever is more suitable to working and effect. Larger designs for
advertisement, such as posters, are usually painted in tempera or opaque
colour, and these should be applied as far as possible edge to edge,
overpainting being avoided.


_Opaque Colour_

Care should be taken in mixing the colour to the required tint or shade.
This requires some experience, as when white forms part of the mixture,
the effect when dry is always lighter and colder than when the paint is
in the fluid state; therefore allowance for this should be made. Opaque
and tempera colours are not used so fluid as ordinary transparent water
colours, and if applied too thin will fail to cover the surface solidly,
or dry blotchy. Cartridge paper is not only good enough but more
suitable for opaque colour than papers of better quality. Not merely is
there no advantage in these, but the texture is an unnecessary
embarrassment; moreover cartridge paper can be obtained in continuous
form of good width.


_Enlarging and Reducing_

When drawings are enlarged or reduced, the linear dimensions and not
those of the area are implied; thus one half means one half of both
width and height--really one-fourth of the area. It is obvious that half
the area would be a different proportion, and it is the proportion that
is concerned.

[Illustration: No. 286. Diagonal Method of Enlarging or Reducing. Solid
line shews given size.]

Divisional measurement is rendered unnecessary by the diagonal method of
proportion. Given a rectangular shape, which has to be reduced or
enlarged, a diagonal line should be drawn, and prolonged if the latter,
through opposite angles. A line parallel to either the vertical or
horizontal can be drawn and returned at a right angle where it
intersects the diagonal, and regardless of any dimensions, this will
ensure the exact proportion of the original rectangle.

It is obvious that such designs as the foregoing should be complete, and
both in drawing and colour a perfect anticipation of the painted result,
owing nothing of their effect to mechanical reproduction.


_Textiles_

In designs for printed and woven fabrics, though the process of
production varies, it is still necessary that the drawing be complete in
the technical indications. Otherwise the reproduced version may suffer,
or at least not fulfil the intention of the designer, and it follows
that the drawings should be concise in every detail, even to the colour
effect desired.

The drawings are usually to the full size in most printed fabrics. The
design is not reproduced by any mechanical process, the blocks or
rollers used in printing being cut by hand from a transferred tracing
made from the original. Hence the importance of exactitude in joining
and dimensions.

In some instances the whole of the pattern is cut in relief in the wood,
but in others, lines are the result of narrow strips of ribbon-like
brass embedded in the surface of the block or roller. These have their
influence on the design, as in the former method of production the lines
can vary in thickness and can be invested with greater interest than the
employment of the wire can give. The metal results in a hard line of
unvarying thinness.

Drawings for printed and woven fabrics are usually in opaque colour, and
each tint employed should display a defined edge, graduated effects
being only technically possible by means of tapering lines or stipple.
Each distinct colour or tint involves separate printing; therefore as it
is economically desirable to attain the best effect with the minimum
cost, the utmost should be made of the colours employed.


_Wallpapers_

Wallpapers as a rule are printed in opaque colour, but in textiles, when
the colour is transparent, more elaborate effects are possible by
overprinting or super-imposing one colour on another. In woven fabrics
similar effects can be obtained by judicious manipulation of the
shuttles, but in all cases it should be borne in mind that a working
drawing is necessary in which the details are clearly indicative of the
final result.

Designs that have to be realised by some form of handicraft require the
same care and concise regard to detail, though the drawings need not be
so complete as to appearance, and may be to scale or drawn full size
according to condition.


_Architectural Drawings_

Architectural drawings are drawn to scale, that of eight feet to one
inch being general, with working drawings to a scale of half an inch to
the foot accompanied by full-size details and profiles of mouldings. The
drawings are geometric, that is in plan, elevation, and section,
expressed in line and generally tinted. On plans and sections arbitrary
colours are employed to indicate material, for instance, red denotes
brick, purple-grey, stone, warm grey, cement, Prussian blue, iron or
steel, and burnt sienna or Vandyke brown, wood.

These drawings convey little idea of the intended effect to the lay
mind, and it is customary to suggest the eventual appearance by
perspective views, but for practical reasons they constitute the most
convenient form from which dimensions can be taken for working purposes.


_Structural Design_

In all structural design similar drawings are necessary, although sketch
designs in perspective may be made to suggest effect, working drawings
are imperative to the execution of the work. These, when reduced to the
essential conditions of rendering, with explanatory details and
sections, assume a very different aspect to the original sketch.

The success of the completed work depends upon skilful detailing, which
must be thoroughly explicit to be of real value.

For convenience such working drawings are generally made on detail
paper, which is usually obtainable in rolls sixty inches wide by
twenty-five or fifty yards. This is sufficiently transparent to be
employed for tracings, a great convenience when copies are in request,
and is a good surface for pen, pencil or chalk, though somewhat thin for
colour.

Designs can be sketched in charcoal, and the desired lines drawn in ink.
When dry the charcoal lines can be obliterated by rubbing with a leather
or soft cloth, by which the charcoal is distributed, forming a tone over
the whole surface. This is easily removable by india-rubber, and
excellent relief effects can be obtained by judiciously taking out
lights and strengthening shadows, though to avoid any possible
misunderstanding it is usual to also indicate the relief by sections
drawn through the details.


_Lucid Arrangement_

In geometric and working drawings when plans and sections are incidental
to lucid explanation, these latter should appear relatively; that is,
the plan should be in alignment with the elevation, etc. Statements and
directions as to procedure are often necessary, and these, placed with
judgment and in good lettering, are valuable in balancing the drawing.
Not that this has any effect on the work, but because it has a good
influence on the designer.

Possibly the story of Giotto and the circle that figured in the early
school primers is responsible for the very general impression that the
use of mechanical instruments is inartistic. Another characteristic of
the young beginner is a total disregard for anything in the nature of
exact dimension.

No useful purpose is served, and much valuable time is wasted, in
attempts to accomplish freehand, forms that may be perfectly achieved by
proper implements. Familiarity with the use of these will be found of
great assistance in all design in which geometric construction, apparent
or not, plays so large a part.

Of this the average beginner has little conception, and though Geometry
has been a subject of their early training, they seldom have any clear
idea as to its employment in design. Except in few instances, they are
unpractised in the use of geometrical instruments, and at times
oblivious that these serve any practical purpose.


_Mathematical Equipment_

In design, where accuracy is of paramount importance, a reasonable
equipment is imperative. Drawing boards vary in size, but for most
ordinary work the antiquarian will suffice; the best type being that
commonly used in engineering and architectural offices, with battens for
adjustment and invariably a steel guide for the T square.

Large T squares are more reliable on account of the wider head, the
better sort being in mahogany with bevelled ebony edge. When accuracy is
essential, the T square should only be employed for horizontal lines,
those in a vertical direction being attained by the use of the set
square, when the right angle can be assured by contact of the base of
the latter on the edge of the T square.

Set squares indispensable for ordinary work are those of the angles of
45 degrees and 60 degrees. They should be large, about twelve inch, and
in celluloid, which, being translucent, tends to greater accuracy.

Bevelled set squares, usually in mahogany with ebony edge, are desirable
when the ruling pen is used, and should be placed with the bevelled side
to the surface of drawing as a precaution against blotting through the
ink running off the edge from the pen. For the same reason the edge of
the T square should be slightly tilted, so as not to be in contact with
the drawing when ruling lines with the pen.

The mathematical instruments in common request are dividers,
indispensable in scale drawing. For delicate work spring dividers with
needle points ensure greater accuracy. The bow or pencil compass, large
with extending bar, and small; with spring bows, for minute work. For
very large circles the beam compass is employed, consisting of a wood
bar with two sliding clamps fitted respectively with point, and either
pencil or pen which can be adjusted to the required radius.

For ink drawings the bow or pen compass is employed for circular curves;
spring bows for extremely small details, medium for general purposes.
The large compass in the ordinary set is provided with both pen and
pencil joints, which can be adjusted as required.


_Use of the Ruling Pen_

For straight lines the ruling pen should be employed. In this implement,
the nibs, as in the pen compasses are provided with a screw, by means of
which the pen can be adjusted to form thick or thin lines as required.
Care should be taken in the adjustment; for the thinnest line the points
should only be in contact. If screwed too tightly the nibs may be bent
and would have to be re-set.

There is a limit to the thickness of line in individual ruling pens,
which are made in varying sizes for fine or bold work. Bow and ruling
pens should never be filled to the full capacity, as they are then
liable to flood and blot the work. It is better also to charge the pen
with the filler, which is usually provided with the ordinary liquid ink,
or a brush; otherwise blotting may result. If the pen is filled by
dipping, the nibs should be wiped dry on each occasion on the external
faces.

In use the ruling pen should be held as vertical as possible, with the
nibs perfectly parallel to the edge of T or set square, any divergence
from the vertical might result in a curve instead of the straight line
required. If the nibs are at an angle with the ruling edge, the ink will
not flow freely, and there is also a tendency to cut the surface.


_Proportional Compass_

Another instrument of great use, though not so commonly in request, is
the proportional compass, by means of which drawings are enlarged or
reduced. It consists of two shanks furnished with points at each end,
the shanks being slotted out centrally to form a slide. The adjustment
is accomplished by a set screw which also forms a pivot, which, set at
any of the marked divisions, assures the given proportion.


_Tracings_

Tracing paper is largely in request, not only as a means of repeating
details and units by transferring, but when copies of a drawing are
required. It can be obtained in rolls varying in width, forty inch being
generally useful, and in different surfaces, rough and smooth, the
former being good for pencil work--the smooth being more suitable for
ink tracings.

When tracings of a more durable character are required they are made on
linen, which for this purpose has a highly glazed surface on which the
ink will not always run equally. This can be rectified by lightly
rubbing the surface with French chalk and by adding a little ox gall to
the ink. The latter is a useful agent in counteracting any greasiness of
surface and is often necessary in colour work.


_Conclusion_

The stimulus of competition is always healthy, and the necessity to
attract has resulted generally in raising the standard, notably in forms
of advertisement. The designer has not only to keep pace with modern
conditions, but in some phases of work has also to anticipate future
demand.

Students are too often infected with the phase of the moment, or by the
work of some distinguished exponent. This is quite natural, and to some
extent such emulation may be condoned, but if it becomes an obsession it
is fatal to the development of individualism. It is desirable, indeed
commendable, for students to be interested in contemporaneous work; but
they should realise that personality will never be achieved by
imitation, though emulation and experiment are legitimate methods of
training.

Art training is largely in that of technique, consisting chiefly of the
handling of the tools and mediums involved. It is obvious that when this
technique is successfully acquired it implies a high standard of
craftsmanship. This is essential, but personality is of greater
importance and its development depends upon the individual. Some who
have nothing personal to express may be capable of attaining great
facility in various mediums, but stop at the imitative, and though this
may be lucrative, no great artistic distinction is possible.

If personality is latent it will develop quite unconsciously, and the
endeavour of the student should be to see, understand and express the
subject of study or idea with sincerity, regardless of any current phase
however interesting. In this way only can be attained the personal
attitude and expression that really constitutes the interest in all
forms of art.



INDEX


Acanthus Foliage, 38, 263

    “    Leaf (Greek) 264

    “     “   (Roman) 266

    “     “ (Byzantine) 267
  Romanesque, 268
  Gothic, 268
  Italian Renaissance, 279
  French Renaissance, 280
  Jacobean, 280
  Louis XIV, 283
  Louis XV, 284
  Louis XVI, 284
  Grinling Gibbons, 285
  Adam, 286
  System of the, 286

Adam, Robert, 123

Alberti, Leo Battista, 76

Ancient Pottery, 8

Animals in Art, 331, 334

   “        “   Compound, 336

Angelo, M., 79

Anthemion, The, 262

Anthemius, 45

Apathy, Public, 8

Appliqué, 296

Appreciation of Design, 288

Architecture, Egyptian, 22
  Chaldean, 25
  Greek, 28
  Roman, 35
  Byzantine, 43
  Romanesque, 49
  Gothic, 59
  Renaissance, Italian, 75
       “       Florentine, 76
       “       Roman, 78
       “       Venetian, 80
       “       French, 85
       “       in England, 88
       “       Elizabethan, 91
       “       Jacobean, 93
       “       English, 102
       “       Louis XIII, 103
       “       Louis XIV, 106
       “       Louis XV, 110
       “       Later English, 113

Architectural Drawing, 158, 363

Architectural Features, Abacus, The, 173, 175, 178
  Arch, 20
    “   Pointed, 58
    “   Decorated, 64
    “   Perpendicular, 68
    “   184
  Arcades, 200
    “      Vaulted, 201
  Architrave, 161, 164, 169, 172, 211
  Archivolt, The, 186, 187
  Attic, The, 208
  Baluster, The, 191
  Balustrading, 193
  Battlement, The, 66
  Base, The Doric, 181
    “   The Ionic, 182
    “   The Corinthian, 183
  Basement, The, 207
  Buttress, The, 59
  Capital, The Doric, 173
    “      The Ionic, 175
    “      The Corinthian, 178
  Clerestory, The, 51, 67
  Column, The, 172
    “     Employment of, 194
    “     Disposition and Spacing of, 195
  Corinthian Order, The, 163
  Cornice, 161, 164, 169, 171, 209
  Doric Order, The, 161
  Doors, 211
  Entablature, The Doric, 164
       “       The Ionic, 169
       “       The Corinthian, 171
  Frieze, The, 161, 164, 167, 169, 171, 213, 226
  Impost, The Doric, 185
    “     The Ionic, 186
    “     The Corinthian, 187
  Ionic Order, The, 163
  Keystone, The, 187
  Lintel, The, 19
  Mouldings, 61, 64, 68, 97, 107
      “      Profiles, 138
      “      Purpose of, 139
      “      Decoration of, 143
      “      Employment of 147
  Mutule, The, 164
  Order, The, 160
    “    The Doric, 161
    “    The Ionic, 163
    “    The Corinthian, 163
  Pedestal, The, 188
  Pedestal, The Doric, 189
      “     The Ionic, 190
      “     The Corinthian, 190
  Pediment, The, 209
  Piers, 60, 184, 200, 205
  Pilaster, The, 160, 199, 235
  Plynth, The, 161, 181, 183, 184, 188, 190, 191, 193, 204, 208
  Rustication, 205
  Subsidiary Order, The, 202
  Superimposed Orders, 197, 204
  System of Proportion, 159
  Triforium, The, 53, 60, 67
  Vault, The, 20, 36, 53
    “    Treatment of, 224
  Vaulting, Fan, 68
  Volute, The, 175
  Windows, 60, 213
    “      Plate Tracery, 61
    “      Tracery of, 63, 64

Art, Interest in, 1
  Definition of, 5
  As an Appeal, 5
  Ethical Side of, 14
  Desire for Novelty in, 15
  Egyptian, 23
  Chaldean, 25
  Greek, 33
  Roman, 38
  Græco-Roman, 40
  Byzantine, 45

Artistic Phases of Expression, 10

Aureole, The, 340


Baluster, The, 153, 191, 246

Bank of Ireland, 136

Base, The Doric, 181

Base, The Ionic, 182

  “   The Corinthian, 183

Basement, The, 207

Battlement, The, 66

Bazzi Gian Antonio (Sodoma), 83

Berain, Claude, 106

  “     Jean, 106

Bernini, 80

Book Decoration, 300

Borders, 227

   “     Treatment, 233

Boule, André Charles, 106, 109

  “    Work, 298

Bramante, 78

Branching, Types of, 273

Brunelleschi, 76

Buttress, The, 59

Byzantine, Art, 45


Caduceus, The, 342.

Cannibalism, 336

Capital, The, 22, 50

Capital, Doric, 173
  Ionic, 175
  Corinthian, 178

Carved Work, 301
  Design for, 302

Ceilings, Jacobean, 97
  Louis XIII, 105
  Louis XIV, 108
  Louis XV, 112
  Treatment of, 218

Centaur, The, 339

Chaldean Art, 25

Chambers, Sir William, 136

Chambord, Chateau de, 86

Champleve Enamel, 47

Chenonceaux, sur Loire, 86

Chimney-piece, Jacobean, 94

Chippendale, 121

Choragic Monument, 32

Christian Art, Early, 46

Circle, Symbolic meaning of, 340

Cipriani, 126

Clerestory, The, 51, 67

Colour, Symbolism of, 345
  Use of, 353
  Opaque, 360

Column, The, 172
  Employment of, 194
  Disposition and Spacing of, 195

Commercial Production, 6
  Intercourse, 12

Convention, 292
  Accepted, 351

Cornucopia, The, 346

Corinthian, Order, 163
  Entablature, 171
  Capital, 178
  Base, 184
  Pedestal, 190
  Impost, 187

Craft Restriction, 256

Cressent, Charles, 111

Cross, The, 343

Crozier, The, 344

Crux Ansata, 343

Customs, Survival of, 311
  Early Burial, 322


Dance, George, 136

Decorative, Materials, 289

Deities, Egyptian, 318

Deities, Greek and Roman, 316
  Scandinavian, 317
  Pan, 339

Delorme, Philibert, 87

Dentils, 146

Design, Mental vision in, 1
  Inspired, 2
  Process and material in, 2, 8
  Considerations in, 3
  Public demand, 3
  Training in, 4
  Influence in, 4, 8, 12, 18
  Architectural influence in, 14
  Appreciation of, 288
  Structural, 363

Domes, Byzantine, 43
  Treatment of, 224

Domestic Conditions, 54, 72, 74

Donatello, 76

Doors, Jacobean, 96
  Proportions and Treatment, 211

Doric Order, 28, 161
  Entablature, 164
  Capital, 173
  Base, 181
  Pedestal, 189
  Impost, 185


Ecole de Médécine, 132

Echo, 319

Egyptian Art, 22

Enamel, Byzantine, 47

Endymion, 319

Enlarging Drawings, 360

Equipment, Mathematical, 365

Eurydice, 324

Evangelists, 331

Evolute Scroll, The, 234, 261


Farnese Palace, 79

Fates, 318, 320

Figure Composition, 244

Filagree Jewellery, 258

Flowers, in Ornament 270

Fontainebleau, Palace of, 86

Forms in the round, 245

Four Courts, Dublin, 136

French Renaissance, 85
  Louis XIII, 103
  Louis XIV, 106
  Régence, 111
  Louis XV, 110
  Louis XVI, 127
  Empire, 135

Frieze, The, 226, 266

Furniture, Egyptian, 24
  Chaldean, 27
  Greek, 32
  Roman, 39
  Middle Age, 54
  Decorated Gothic, 66, 73
  Italian Renaissance, 84
  English Renaissance, 92
  Jacobean, 98
  Louis XIII, 105
  Louis XIV, 108
  Louis XV, 113
  English (Dutch Influence) 118
  Queen Anne, 120
  Chippendale, 121
  Lacquered, 113, 126
  Painted, 126
  Sheraton, 127
  Louis XVI, 133
  Empire, 135


Gallo, Antonio San, 79

Gallo, Giuliano di San, 79

Gandon, James, 136

Gems, Symbolism of, 345

Gibbons, Grinling, 114, 137, 285

Gibbs, James, 115

Giocondo, 79

Giotto, 83

Gondouin, Jacques, 132

Gouthière, 133

Graces, Christian, 329

Græco-Roman Art, 40

Greek Art, 28

Grimani Palace, 80

Growth, Consistency in, 273


Half Figures in Ornament, 278

Halo, The, 340

Hamadryads, 339

Hampton Court Palace, 114

Hand, Symbolism of the, 341

Harpy, The, 320, 338

Hawksmoor, Nicholas, 115

Hepplewhite, 126

Heraldry, 348

Holbein, 89

Holkham, Norfolk, 121

Holt, Thomas, 91

Horse Guards, Whitehall, 121

Husk Leaf, The, 269


Impost, Doric, 185
  Ionic, 186
  Corinthian, 187

Impressionism, Early, 10

Influence of Material, 8, 258
  Political, 12, 17, 71
  Religious, 12, 17
  Commercial, 12, 17, 71
  Civic, 70
  Of the Crusades, 56
  Of Fashion, 352

Inspiration, Belief in,  2

Intarsia, 297

Interior treatment, Græco-Roman, 39
  Romanesque Church, 51
  Domestic, Tudor, 73
  Italian Renaissance, 83
  Jacobean, 94
  Louis XIII, 104
  Louis XIV, 107
  Louis, XV, 112
  Wren Period, 116
  Georgian, 121
  Adam, 126
  Louis, XVI, 133
  Walls, 216
  Ceilings, 218, 221, 222
  Vaults and Domes, 224

Ionic Order, Greek, 32
  Renaissance, 159
  Proportions of, 163
  Entablature, 169
  Capital, 175
  Base, 182
  Pedestal, 190
  Impost, 186

Italian Renaissance, 75, 78, 80


Jewellery, Filagree, 258

Jones, Inigo, 81, 102, 137


Kauffman, Angelica, 126

Kent, William,  121


Lace, 297

Lacquered Furniture, 113, 126

Lares, Roman, 322

Leaves, Employment of, 275
  Treatment of, 293

Lebrun, 106

Legend, 323, 333

Lepautre, 106

Limitations, Human, 1

Lintel, The, 19

Louvre, 80, 86


Maderno, Carlo, 79

Madrid, Chateau de, 86

Magical Qualities, Belief in, 325

Mainwaring, 123

Majano, Benedetto da, 77

Mansart, Jules Hardouin, 106

Mansion House, London, 136

Marble, Byzantine use of, 47, 300

Marquetry, 298

Marot, Daniel, 106, 109

Martyrdom, Symbols of, 345

Masks, 346

Mathematical Equipment, 365

Material in Design, 258

Mayhew, 123

Medusa, 346

Metal Work, Bronze, 42
  Byzantine, 47
  Repoussé, 304
  Cast, 306
  Mounts in Furniture, 108, 135

Methods of Expression, 292

Micheli, San, 80

Modelling, 301, 304

Mosaics, Byzantine, 47, 299

Mouldings, Attitude of, 148
  Bolection, 152
  Decorated Gothic, 64
  Decoration of, 143
  Drawn Metal, 155
  Employment of, 147
  Jacobean, 97
  Pointed Gothic, 61
  Plaster, 153
  Pottery, 154
  Profiles of, 138
  Purpose of, 139
  Repoussé, 157
  Rolled Metal, 155
  Spun Metal, 157
  Turned Wood, 153
  Wood Panel, 149

Muses, 328

Mythology, Origin of, 312
  Scandinavian, 317

Myths, Nature, 312
  Season, 314
  Sun, 315


Nature, Myths, 312
  Study, 355

Natural Attraction, 288

Natural Suggestion, 353
  Phenomena, Belief in, 315

Needlework, 296

Newgate Prison, 136

Nimbus, The, 340

Noon, 318

Numbers, Belief in, 328


Oppenord, Giles Marie, 111

Order, 160

Order, Doric, 161
  Ionic, 163
  Corinthian, 163

Originality, 1

Ornament, Roman, 39
  Byzantine, 45
  Romanesque, 50
  Pointed Gothic, 63
  Decorated Gothic, 65
  Perpendicular Gothic, 69
  French Renaissance, 88
  English        “    88, 91
  Later English  “    118
  Louis XVI, 134
  Empire, 135

Outline, Drawing, 254


Painted Decoration, Roman, 39
  Renaissance, 82, 294

Painted Furniture, 126

Palazzo, Pitti, 77
  Strozzi, 77

Palladio, 78, 81

Pan, 339

Panels, Treatment of, 236
  Juxtaposition, 238
  The Composing Lines, 241
  Grouping and Massing, 242
  Division of, 242

Pantheon, Rome, 36

Passion, Symbols of the, 345

Pastoral Staff, 344

Parthenon, 30

Perugino, 83

Peruzzi, Baldazzare, 79

Pineau, Nicholas, 111

Piers, Gothic, 60

Pinturrichio, 83

Potters, Elementary, 9

Pottery, Ancient, 8
  Greek, 34

Predestination, 319

Prehistoric Workers, 9

Personal Production, 10

Primitive Essays, 8
  Requirements, 11

Prohibition, 324

Propitiation, 320


Raffaelle, 79

Realism, 255

Régence, 111

Relief Work, Treatment of, 293, 301

Reproduction Processes, 304
  Drawing for, 359

Riesener, 133

Rococo, 111

Romano Giulio, 83

Rosette, The, 270


Sacred Trees and Flowers, 329

Sacrifice, 321

Sansovino (Jacopo Tatti) 80

Sarto, Andrea del, 86

Scamozzi, Vincenzo, 81

Sceptre, The, 341

Scroll, The, 266

Season Myths, 314

Secular Symbols, 347

Serlio, 78, 87

Shells, Symbolism of, 345

Sheraton, 127

Sirens, The, 338

Social Conditions, Early, 11

Sodoma (Gian Antonio Bazzi) 83

Somerset House, 136

Soufflet, 110

Spires, Pointed Gothic, 64
  Decorated Gothic, 66
  Classic, 116

Spiritual Belief, Early, 323

St. Geneviéve (Pantheon) 110
  George, Bloomsbury, 115
  Mark, Library of, 81
  Martin in the Fields, 115
  Mary le Strand, 115
  Mary, Woolnoth, 115
  Paul, Covent Garden, 103
  Peter’s, Rome, 78
  Stephen’s, Walbrook, 116

Standards, 246

Starts in Ornament, 276

Stencilled Work, 295

Strapwork, 87

Structural Design, 363

Style, 16
  Phases in, 18
     “    “  Gothic, 60

Sun Myths, 315
  Signs, 340

Supports, 246

Surface Interest, 294

Symbols of the Evangelists, 331

Symbolic Ornament, 310


Taboo, 322

Taste, 6

Tatti, 80

Technical Considerations, 292

Tendrils, 271

Textiles, Printed and Woven, 296, 361

Thorpe, Thomas, 91

Thyrsus, The, 342

Time, Symbols of, 346

Torches, 346

Torrigiano, 89

Totemism, 336

Tracery, 61
  Pointed, 63, 64, 68

Tracings, 368

Trident, The, 343

Triforium, 53, 60, 67

Trinity College, Cambridge, 116

Trinity, Symbols of the, 341

Triton, 339

Trophies, 347

Tuileries, The, 87


Udine, Giovanni da, 83

Undulate, Line or Stem, 230, 266


Vaga, Pierino del, 83

Vase, Greek, 29, 258
  Forms and Decoration, 248

Vase, Stretch out and Segments, 250

Vault, The, 20, 36, 53
  Treatment of, 224

Vaulting, Fan, 68

Veneer, 298

Venetian, Renaissance, 80

Versailles, Palace of, 106

Vesica Piscis, The, 340

Vignola, 78, 80, 87, 159

Vinci, Leonardo da, 86

Volute, The, 175


Wallpaper, 290, 362

Whitehall, Banqueting House, 103

Windows, Glazing of, 47, 67
  Pointed Gothic, 61
  Decorated Gothic, 64
  Perpendicular Gothic, 68
  Domestic, 73, 74
  Jacobean, 98
  Treatment of, 213

Winds Personified, 319

Wood, Inlay, 297
  Treatment of, 289

Wren, Sir Christopher, 81, 114, 137





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