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Title: The Universal Counterfeit and Bank Note Detector at Sight
Author: Foote, H. C.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                        THE UNIVERSAL COUNTERFEIT
                                   AND
                       ALTERED BANK NOTE DETECTOR,
                                AT SIGHT:

   A System of Infallible Detection at Sight, Applicable to all Banks
     in the United States, now in circulation, or hereafter issued.

                        COMPLETE IN SEVEN RULES:

                                  WITH
                  Diagrams and Illustrations on Steel,
                          FOR SELF-INSTRUCTION.

                  ARRANGED AND IMPROVED BY H. C. FOOTE,
                         71 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.

                    FOURTH EDITION.--FIFTH THOUSAND.

                                NEW YORK:
                 MANN & SPEAR, PRINTERS AND STATIONERS,
                            133 PEARL STREET.
                                  1853.

       Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1848, by

                           WHEELER M. GILLETT,

    in the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of the United States,
                        for the District of Ohio.



TESTIMONIALS.


_New York, Sept. 18th, 1849._--I have examined Mr. Foote’s method of
detecting counterfeit Bank Notes, and have no hesitation in saying, that
in my opinion it will be exceedingly serviceable to any who will give it
their attention.

                             F. W. EDMONDS, Cashier Mechanics’ Bank, N.Y.

I concur in the above.

                                                  E. H. ARTHUR,
                                           Ass’t Cashier Union Bank, N.Y.

Mr. H. C. Foote’s method of detecting counterfeit and altered notes is
founded on true principles, and well worthy the consideration of all
money-takers.

                                                        J. McCHESNEY,
           Of Adams, McChesney & Co., Exchange Brokers, 71 Wall st., N.Y.

                   CHAS. COLGATE & CO., Exchange Brokers, 67 Wall street.

                           C. S. SLOANE, Exchange Broker, 23 Wall street.

                           ANTHONY LANE, Exchange Broker, 49 Wall street.

_Troy, Nov. 23d, 1849._--Two months since I attended Mr. Foote’s
instructions in detecting counterfeit Bank Notes, and am very willing now
to say that I am well satisfied with his system and mode of explaining it.

                                      C. P. HARTT, Teller Troy City Bank.

_New York, Nov. 28th, 1849._--I fully concur in the opinion respecting Mr.
Foote’s mode of detecting Counterfeit Bills as expressed above.

                              J. SIMPSON, Book-keeper, 72 William street.

_City Hall, New York, Nov 29th, 1849._--I fully concur with Mr. Simpson in
the above opinion.

                                                     GEO. W. MATSELL,
                                                         Chief of Police.

_Lansingburgh, N. Y., Nov. 23d, 1849._--I fully agree with the preceding
opinions on the subject of H. C. Foote’s Detector.

                              A. WALSH, Jr., Teller Bank of Lansingburgh.

_New York, Dec. 22d, 1849._--I concur in the above statements.

                      AMASA Z. FOSTER, Exchange Broker, 234 Pearl street.

_New York, Dec. 26th, 1849._--I have examined Mr. H. C. Foote’s system for
detecting counterfeit Bank paper and think it useful, especially in
well-executed counterfeits where judgment must depend upon the engraving
alone.

                                                      W. R. VERMILYE,
               Of Carpenter & Vermilye, Exchange Brokers, 54 Wall street.

_New York, Nov. 17th, 1849._--Having taken lessons in counterfeit Bank
Note Detection, as given by Mr. H. C. Foote, I hesitate not to say that I
am fully satisfied that if strictly followed and practised upon, any man
may detect the most ingenious counterfeit. It has the advantage of being
reduced to system, and the information imparted respecting genuine
engraving is worth double the cost of lesson.

                                                            A. LEWIS,
           Cashier at Loder & Co.’s Wholesale Dry Goods, 83 Cedar street.

_New York, Nov. 20th, 1849._--I have examined into Mr. Foote’s system of
counterfeit detection, and am satisfied it is useful and of great
advantage to all dealing in Bank Notes.

                      WILSON DEFENDORF, Exchange Broker, 82 Wall street.
                      SMITH & HAWS, Exchange Brokers, 137 Chatham street.

_New York, Jan. 8th, 1850._--Having been instructed by Mr. H. C. Foote in
his method of detecting counterfeit Bank Bills, I can say with confidence
that his system is perfect.

                       CHAS. W. HUBBELL, Cashier with Lee & Brewster,
                                        Print Warehouse, 44 Cedar street.

_New York, Dec. 5th, 1849._--Having availed myself of the instruction
imparted in counterfeit detection as taught by Mr. H. C. Foote, I have no
hesitation in saying that I am fully satisfied that it can by strict
attention to the rules be made an infallible means of detecting all kinds
of spurious Bills.

                           A. CARPENTER, Domestic Goods, 52 Cedar street.

_New York. Feb. 19th, 1850._--I take pleasure in stating that the
instruction I have received from Mr. Foote is of great service to me in
detecting counterfeit and altered Bills.

                      CHAS. F. GOODHUE, Cashier at D. & D. H. Brooks,
                   Clothing Warehouse, cor. Catharine and Cherry streets.

_New York, Feb. 19th, 1850._--About the best three dollars I have spent
was with Mr. Foote for his valuable lesson in detecting counterfeit money.

                                                       JOHN T. BROWN,
                     Of Andrew Brown & Son, Clothiers, 114 Cherry street.

_New York, 16th Nov. 1849._--I have examined the system of Mr. Foote for
detecting counterfeits, and am satisfied that it is infallible when all
the rules are applied.

                                                        S. M. ALFORD,
                                      Wholesale Hardware, 5 Platt street.

Also several hundred more testimonials from Bankers, Brokers, and
Merchants in New York City, Troy, Buffalo, Detroit and Ohio.



Notices by the Press of the “Universal Counterfeit Detector.”


“COUNTERFEIT BANK-NOTE DETECTOR AT SIGHT.”--We have seen a little pamphlet
of 20 pages, by H. C. Foote, of 763 Greenwich-street, N. Y., with this
title. It gives eight rules, with illustrative diagrams, by an
acquaintance with which, any person may readily distinguish the engraving
of a counterfeit bill from a genuine one--founded upon the principle that
no counterfeiter, working with his hand, can possibly attain the beauty
and accuracy of engraving by the perfect and costly machinery of
professional engravers. The difference between the two is shown by the
diagrams. The writer says he has never seen a counterfeit which a judgment
by these rules would not condemn at sight. Well-informed dealers in Bank
Notes usually act upon this principle, but Mr. Foote has here attempted to
give rules and explanations to render it more clear and easily understood,
and by which every man may judge for himself. Its price is $2. We think,
with Mr. Edmonds, Cashier of the Mechanics’ Bank, N. Y., that it will be
“exceedingly serviceable to any one who will give it due
attention.”--_Newark Daily Advertiser._

COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR.--Our readers will notice in another column the
advertisement of H. C. Foote’s Universal Counterfeit Detector. We have
examined the system, and have no hesitation in stating that it will do
more than all others now in use towards ridding the country of counterfeit
notes. The instructions which accompany the magnifying glass will enable a
person, with very little trouble, to determine between good and bad notes.
We notice among those who have recommended the system, the names of F. W.
Edmonds, Esq. Cashier of the Mechanics’ Bank, N. Y.; E. H. Arthur, Esq. of
the Union Bank; C. S. Sloane, Broker, Wall street, and many other
prominent money dealers. From what we can learn, we should think it a
subject of universal interest.--_Scientific American._

🖙 H. C. Foote has published a little book of 20 pages, called the
Counterfeit Note Detector. It seems to us to contain much important
information for the detection of counterfeit Paper-money.--_New York
Express_, November 24.

TO DETECT COUNTERFEITS.--We have been made acquainted with a very valuable
method of detecting counterfeit Bank Notes at sight, which may be learned
by any one in one hour. The author is Mr. H. C. Foote, No. 763
Greenwich-street, N. Y.--_New York Sun_, November 6th, 1849.

“THE UNIVERSAL COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR.”--Mr. H. C. Foote, of 763
Greenwich-street, has just published a pamphlet, entitled as above, small
in size, but exceedingly useful; a familiarity with the contents of which
will render every one fully competent to detect any counterfeit or altered
Bank Note at sight. From an examination into the system we are convinced
that the knowledge derived from the little work in question will be of
essential interest to every tradesman, and we therefore commend it to
their attention and consideration. By an advertisement in another column
it will be perceived that Mr. Foote will give lessons in his system, to
all who may desire it.--_New York Atlas_, February 3d, 1850.

_Water Cure Institute, Saratoga Spa_, Sept. 12th. 1849.--TO WHOM IT MAY
CONCERN:--The bearer, Henry C. Foote, is a young gentleman of
unexceptionable moral character, of excellent business habits, of strict
integrity, and is scrupulously honest. He professes nothing he is not
competent to perform. The business he is now engaged in is, and must be,
of great individual and public benefit, and a direct means of preventing
men from attempting to prey upon the community by fraud. If all that
handle money had the knowledge of detecting spurious Bank Notes at sight,
the trade would become extinct. Mr. Foote can impart this knowledge in one
hour to any person of ordinary observation. We most heartily commend him
and his art to the public.

                                                     W. A. HAMILTON, M.D.

“THE UNIVERSAL COUNTERFEIT AND ALTERED BANK-NOTE DETECTOR” explains a
method for the infallible detection of counterfeit notes. It is highly
recommended by experienced bankers, and with its clear descriptions of the
essential points in a genuine note, cannot fail to be of great practical
value.--_New York Tribune_, Aug. 21st, 1850.



UNIVERSAL COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR,

Applicable to all Banks in the United States.


The Steel-plate Illustrations contain standard specimens of all the
different styles of engraving of the notes of all the Banks in the United
States--six distinct kinds; four kinds of Engine-work, which is impossible
to be imitated by hand. In counterfeits it is attempted, and this book
explains the principle in such a manner as to enable any person to detect
_at sight_, infallibly, any counterfeit or altered note.



INTRODUCTION.


Heretofore the best judges of money have had nothing as a guide in judging
at sight but experience in handling money, a familiarity with the notes of
a few particular banks, and the general appearance of a note. They become
familiar with a certain (to them) undefined perfect appearance, generally
possessed by genuine notes, and any apparent want of which creates
suspicion as to the genuineness of a note; but the first impression, they
affirm, is the best, as sometimes upon continued examination the judgment,
having no particular guide, wavers, gets confused, and is often at fault.
Now this uncertainty may be entirely obviated, and the detection of
counterfeits at sight reduced to a perfect science or mathematical
certainty; and this great desideratum is held to be perfectly attained in
the rules here presented, when combined with a little practice in handling
money.

All genuine Bank Notes in the United States are engraved upon one uniform
principle, by regular Bank-note Engraving Companies. A company consists of
ten to twenty first-class artists, each perfect in his own department;
there is required a heavy capital to be invested, and the use of perfect,
costly and inimitable machinery. Since the invention of the Geometric
Lathe, Ruling Engine, and Medallion Ruling, and the invention of
transferring engravings by Perkins, it has been rendered entirely out of
the question--in fact, a physical impossibility--for any genuine note to
be perfectly imitated. Counterfeiters cannot procure all the machinery;
and even supposing they could, it would be against their own interest to
invest $50,000 to $100,000 in an illegitimate business, to run the
hazardous risk of seizure and confiscation. It would be more to their
interest to invest that amount in any honest business. They therefore
attempt to imitate the several kinds of inimitable engine-work by hand,
and the imitations thus produced vary in character from miserably poor to
tolerable, and sometimes exceedingly close imitations--deceiving the best
judges who do not understand the principle, but detected at a glance by
any one understanding it, as it is explained and illustrated in the
following pages. Sometimes they get hold of one or more worn-out stolen
genuine dies and use them in their issues--and so far their work will be
genuine; but there is always enough else of the other portions of the work
to indicate a counterfeit note.

The following items, quoted from newspapers (June, 1850), will serve to
show the necessity of the diffusion of some system of infallible detection
at sight:--

🖙 “The Western States, it is said, are flooded with $2 bills of the State
Bank, Indiana.”--_Times._

🖙 The _Boston Traveller_ of Wednesday, June 5th, says, “It is not supposed
that counterfeit money is manufactured in this city. The greater part of
the money of this description which has for years flooded the country,
comes from Canada, where, from various causes, its manufacturers have been
left comparatively undisturbed, to carry on their nefarious business. … It
is not perhaps an exaggeration to say that traders in our city are cheated
out of at least $50,000 annually, by means of counterfeit money.”

Now in New York city, which is four times larger than Boston, this system
has been pretty generally diffused among the merchants for nine months
past, and it may be safely predicted that for the year 1850 there will not
be one-tenth, or even a twentieth of the above sum lost here by
counterfeits. Men who handle any money should not refuse to expend the
trifling sum to learn this system. They should reflect that besides it
being against their own interests to remain ignorant of it, their neglect
to learn it _is just so much encouragement to counterfeiters_, because the
less this system is spread the greater the chance for counterfeit money to
circulate and defraud the public; therefore, every honest man should put
his shoulder to the wheel to facilitate the diffusion of the system, and
thereby assist to drive all spurious money out of circulation. The
different periodical Bank-note Lists are excellent guides, _as far as they
go_, but they do not and cannot go far enough. They assist too often
_after_ the mischief is done. In hundreds of cases their description of
counterfeits is necessarily vague and uncertain, especially where the
counterfeit is a _fac-simile_ of the genuine: they never make a man a good
judge of money _at sight_. But the greatest trouble is that new
counterfeits, it is said, are generally “rushed” in upon the community
preconcertedly, from different points at once, and the greatest mischief
is often done before they have time to get the description in the List.
Now this system will enable the poorest judge to detect _any_ counterfeit,
_new_ or old, AT SIGHT. It is arranged systematically into seven rules,
simple and comprehensive at a glance of the eye. For self-instruction a
magnifying glass will be of great assistance at first in learning the
principle, and afterwards the naked eye will be sufficient to detect, but
it is advisable to always have a glass on hand. Also a few specimens of
bills, good and bad, to compare and examine at first is necessary to make
the theory practical. The following is the list of


RULES:

  RULE 1. Geometric Lathe, }
   ”   2. Ruling Engine,   } Infallible when imitated.
   ”   3. Medallions,      }
   ”   4. Vignettes--viz: Stippling, Eyes, Hair, Drapery, Limbs,
            Scenery, &c.
   ”   5. Lettering and _Engravers’ names_.
   ”   6. Signatures and filling up.
   ”   7. Paper, printing, and general appearance.
  Alterations from broken Banks--the Magic Three.
  Altered Denominations--1st, 2d, 5th and 7th Rules.

It is believed, and experience has proved, that the above combination of
rules is arranged in the most judicious and effective order, and the best
adapted for practical use in detecting at sight that could be devised. It
is in fact nearly the order in which a genuine plate is originally got up.
First the “Geometric Lathe” dies, “Medallions,” and “Vignettes” are
transferred; then the “Lettering” and “Ruling Engine” work, next the
“Paper and Printing,” “Signatures and filling up,” and lastly, after all
is finished, the “General appearance” of the whole.



PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION.


That this work merits the encouraging praise and high appreciation it has
met with seems to be confirmed by its rapid sale and by the permanent,
steady demand yet existing for it, as well now as when it was first issued
in 1849. Various miserable imitations of it (infringements of the
copyright) have been attempted in the form of circulars, pamphlets, and
pretended outlines of it published in newspapers and Bank-note Lists, but
of such a superficial and abortive character as to entirely fail of being
a truthful synopsis and answering no particularly useful purpose in the
detection of counterfeits. This work stands pre-eminent and alone. The
only objection heretofore made to it was its high price. It is now reduced
to as low a price as it can possibly be afforded, and the present edition
improved.

                                                                 H. C. F.



RULES.


RULE I.

THE GEOMETRIC LATHE.

(_Infallible when imitated._)

The “Geometric Lathe” is a very perfect and costly Engraving Engine, which
produces very fine and beautiful ornamental patterns of geometric circles
of such complication, uniformity, and exquisite perfection, that it cannot
possibly be imitated in any manner. It engraves or turns the circular or
oval patterns on the dies, on which the figures representing the
denomination of the note are placed. A sketch of this engine is quoted
from “_Nicholson’s Operative Mechanic_.”

“One of the most important securities to the paper currency of nearly the
whole commercial world at the present time arises from the invention of
transferring engravings, and the work produced by the Geometric Lathe,
invented by Mr. ASA SPENCER, while a resident of New London, in the State
of Connecticut. The application of this Lathe-work for the security of
Bank Notes was first made by Messrs. FAIRMAN, DRAPER & CO., of
Philadelphia, in 1816, and from its great beauty and difficulty of
imitation, Mr. Spencer was induced to repair to England in 1819, for the
purpose of securing the paper currency of that country. As had been
expected, this work was put to the severest test which the combined talent
of its great metropolis could invent, and having passed this trial in a
very satisfactory manner, it was subsequently adopted very generally by
the Banks and Bankers of England and Scotland.

“The Geometric Lathe differs materially from any other _turning_ engine
hitherto invented. The only one which has any similarity in the work
produced, is the “Rose Engine;” but that is only capable of copying
patterns previously made upon guides, while the Geometric Lathe forms its
own patterns, which are all _originals_, and as various and unlimited as
the ‘Kaleidoscope.’…

“The impossibility of successfully imitating this work by any process of
hand-work within the reach of the whole combined talent of counterfeiters
will not be doubted when the severe test to which it has been submitted is
recollected: and even supposing any combination of counterfeiters to be in
possession of the different machines and appendages necessary to effect
their object, they would soon find that the time which would be required
to learn the use of these implements in secret, could be more profitably
employed in any honest occupation.”

The patterns produced by the Geometric Lathe are concentric, eccentric, or
geometric circles, radiating from a common centre, and beautifully
interwoven into each other, forming a perfectly regular and uniform
‘fancy’ pattern, so exactly true and uniform in its radiations, that there
never is the slightest possible irregularity or imperfection. It is
because the patterns are of such exquisite beauty and perfection, and at
the same time extremely fine and complicated, that it is utterly
impossible to imitate it by hand or by any process whatever. The Geometric
Lathe does not engrave the patterns immediately upon the plate itself, but
the patterns are transferred to the plate from roller dies or cylinders,
generally in two places, as a majority of bills contain two dies alike,
sometimes four, one in each corner. Being single-transferred the patterns
are reversed, and are then _white_ circles or lines upon a _black ground_.
Of course whenever there are two or four dies that pretend to be alike in
a genuine bill, they will all be exactly alike, being all transferred from
the same one die. See the two transfers of the die in the steel plate
containing the ‘3.’ In imitations of Lathe-work in counterfeit bills there
will be a failure in two ways: first, in imitating regularity of the
pattern, which is attempted to be done by hand, and also it is cut
directly on the plate instead of transferring, so that what in the genuine
is black _spaces_, is _engraved_ black in the counterfeits, leaving white
spaces and black dots, resembling cobble-stones--the white spaces between
which made to resemble white lines, while it can easily be seen that it is
only irregular black _dots_ and scratches instead of white lines or
geometric circles. Secondly, a failure in getting two dies exactly alike
in the same bill--that is, where they pretend to be alike. If done by hand
there cannot be two fine and complicated patterns made _exactly alike_;
but in the genuine, where the pattern on one die or cylinder is rolled or
transferred in two or more places, they will all of course be exactly
alike. This same work is to be seen on the backs of watches, called
“Engine Turning.”

[Illustration: A B

_Magnified 5 to 10 times._

C D

_Magnified 10 to 20 times._

E F

_Magnified 5 to 10 times._]

Diagrams A, B, C, and D, represent the appearance of various IMITATIONS of
Geometric Lathe-work when magnified with a powerful glass. There is
generally a studied effort to represent _white_ intersecting curved lines
or Geometric Circles on a _black_ ground; in fact trying to imitate
TRANSFERRING; but there will always be found, as in the above diagrams,
nothing but confused black dots and semi-circular scratches, arranged so
as to give it the same “_general appearance_” as the genuine, when held a
little distance off. Sometimes there is no effort made to imitate the
_white lines_, and there will be seen nothing but confused black dots and
irregular black curved lines, mixed up together. Diagram E represents a
magnified oblong-die, of alternating waved ruling, or eccentric parallels
transferred. See the two dies containing the figure “20” in the steel
plate illustration. This work is done by the Ruling Engine, and not by the
Geometric Lathe; but as the work is very similar, and imitations of it
fail in exactly the same manner, it is classed under the same rule.
Diagram F is a representation of a magnified counterfeit or imitation of
this work by hand; confused black dots on a _white_ ground, instead of
true interwoven white lines of the genuine on a _black_ ground.


RULE II.

RULING ENGINE.

(_Infallible when Imitated._)

The Ruling Engine is used for shading the letters, skies, &c. in genuine
Bank notes. Underneath, and sometimes on the lace of the letters in the
title or name of the Bank, as well as other lettering, there appears a
soft, smooth, pale grayish color, which to the naked eye appears to be
painted with a brush, but on close examination it proves to be fine
parallel lines, and when done by the Ruling Engine the lines are, 1st, all
exactly of the same size; 2d, regular distances apart; 3d, perfectly
parallel to each other; 4th, uniformity in their direction: and it is
_perfection_ in these four points which gives it such a smooth and perfect
appearance, and the least deviation from which will prove it to be
hand-work. In counterfeits this shading is imitated by hand, and it is
impossible to do it in this way as perfect as the Ruling Engine, as some
lines will be coarser than others, some wider apart than others, not
parallel, and some not perfectly straight, and all are apt to be more or
less _tapered_ off when done by hand with the graver, which is not the
case with the genuine, and which gives the whole a scratchy appearance; in
fact, the least deviation in any of the points will show at once, and
destroy the appearance of the whole. In titles, or the name of a bank,
where the letters are alike, as for instance,

[Illustration: THE BANK OF ----,]

the shading in the genuine always is done all the way across all at once,
and there is a perfect _uniformity_ from beginning to end; the lines all
point exactly in the same direction, whether horizontal or diagonal, on
the “T” in “THE” as on “F” in “OF,” preserving the same angle and fineness
throughout. In counterfeits, where the letters are shaded by hand, one
letter at a time, if the lines pretend to be horizontal, some are apt to
slant a little downwards or upwards, some letters shaded a little finer
than others--that is where they are intended to be alike and uniform. This
principle of UNIFORMITY in shading is very important, and should always be
noticed. See the words “UNIVERSAL,” “DETECTOR,” “BANKS,” and “UNITED
STATES,” in the steel plate, which are shaded by the Ruling Engine, while
the word “COUNTERFEIT” is shaded by hand to illustrate counterfeit work.

The sky in vignettes in the genuine is sometimes ruled by the Ruling
Engine, and always appears soft, smooth, and perfectly done, and in this
case the lines taper off gradually. Imitations of this by hand will appear
uneven and scratchy, some lines coarser than others, and some wider apart
than others. All genuine skies, however, are not done by the Ruling
Engine, but are sometimes fine dots or wavy lines, which fade off into
fine dots, and sometimes heavy rolling clouds, circular lines, but it is
always done perfectly and beautifully, and looks smooth and natural, being
always done in genuine bills by first class artists, while the sky in
counterfeits is generally apt to appear coarse and scratchy, and not
fading off gradually enough.

[Illustration: G H

_Magnified 5 to 10 times._]

Diagram G serves to represent the style of genuine Ruling Engine work as
it appears when magnified 5 to 10 times, and H an imitation of Ruling
Engine shading as done by hand and magnified the same. A first-class
Ruling Engine is said to cost $3000.


RULE III.

MEDALLION OR PENTOGRAPH RULING.

(_Infallible when Imitated._)

The Medallions are raised patterns, or line-engravings, generally
representing a head, or some raised fancy patterns in genuine Bank Notes,
which look as if raised up from the paper. They are called medallions
because they are copied always from and represent the pattern upon a
medal. It is done by the Pentograph Ruling Engine, which, guided by the
medal, rules the whole pattern in _full length lines_, and the dies are
_double_ transferred to the plate, which makes the lines _black_, the same
in appearance as if the pattern was ruled directly upon the plate itself
by the engine. This work is done upon the same principle in mechanics of
“_guides_,” as shoe-lasts are turned by the “Last turning machine.” A
model last is used for a guide to the machine, which turns out of a
rough-hewn block of wood a last exactly like the model. Thus in genuine
medallion ruling there is always a medal or coin used for a “_guide_.” The
points in determining genuine medallions from imitations engraved by hand,
are, the lines in the genuine all run in one general direction; they are
always _full length lines_ across the whole pattern, the lines are all
_exactly the same size_ or caliber, they _never cross each other_. Every
undulation in the pattern on the guide or medal is copied with the most
_unerring exactness_, and articulated _distinctly_ and beautifully
correct, which is impossible to be done so perfectly by hand. In the
counterfeit the lines are apt to _break off_ in the midst of the pattern;
some lines are apt to be _coarser than others_, which gives it a scratchy
appearance. In the genuine, the lines crowd together in the parts of the
pattern that appear depressed or sunken, and spread apart more where the
pattern appears raised and looks whiter, producing the lights and shades
with the most magnificent ease and effect. In the counterfeit done by hand
the lines do not crowd and spread apart again, according to the pattern,
with such ease and effect, but the patterns appear stiff, flat, or
imperfectly raised. There is always one of two ways or alternatives in
which the hand-work imitations appear to fail. If they succeed in making
the lines full length, as they ought to be, then the pattern will
inevitably appear _flat_ in expression, imperfectly raised; but if they
succeed in making the pattern look _raised_, as it ought to be, then there
will inevitably be _broken_ or _forked lines_ all through the midst of the
pattern. It seems impossible to combine in hand-work imitations of this
extremely fine and complicated work full length lines, and at the same
time a perfectly _finished_ and _raised_ pattern, which the Pentograph
Ruling Engine always does in the highest perfection.

[Illustration: I J

_Magnified 5 to 10 times._

K

_Magnified 10 to 15 times._]

Diagrams I and J represent the appearance of counterfeit Medallions when
magnified. K represents the appearance of a genuine Medallion as magnified
10 to 15 times. _Every line is full length_, and exactly of the _same
size_. In J the lines _break off_ and _fork together_ all through the
midst of the pattern, and some lines a little _coarser_ than others,
which gives it a scratchy appearance.

Whenever there are two or more medallions in a genuine bill that pretend
to be alike, they are always exactly alike; being double-transferred from
the same original die; (see medallion heads marked ‘3’ in the steel
plate,) but two medallions cannot be made exactly alike separately by
hand. The following extract in relation to this work is quoted from the
Mechanic’s Magazine, 1835: “The Journal of the Franklin Institute for
September contains an elegant engraved portrait of Wm. Congreve, the
dramatist, executed by Wm. A. Spencer of Philadelphia, in the manner
described, and has inserted the following proofs that the invention can be
claimed for America. ‘Believing that the credit of the invention of a
machine for medal ruling is due to America, we will briefly set forth our
proofs, and then speak of the improvements which of late years the method
has undergone. The proofs to be given of the existence and state of the
machine are to be derived from the results produced by it. In 1817, by the
use of a machine which had been invented in Philadelphia, Christian
Gobrecht, die-sinker, produced an engraving upon copper, from a medal
having upon it the head of Alexander of Russia. From this engraving
impressions were taken and distributed. One of these impressions we have
seen. In 1819, Asa Spencer, now of the firm of Draper, Underwood & Co.
bank-note engravers, took with him to London a machine of the kind above
alluded to, which was designed principally for straight and waved-line
ruling. This machine was used in London during the year just mentioned,
and the mode of ruling waved lines, and of copying medals, was then
exhibited and explained by Mr. Spencer to several artists--particularly
Mr. Terrell, who took by permission a drawing of the machine, for the
purpose of having one made for his own use. Little however was done in
the way of medal ruling until about three years since, (1832,) when a
desire to apply the method to the engraving of designs for bank notes
caused it to be revived by Mr. Spencer, who bestowed great attention upon
it, and overcame the difficulties met with in the onset.’--The peculiar
construction of this machine has never been made a secret, nor has it ever
been patented, although prudential motives have required that it should
not be minutely described, and thus be placed in the hands of those by
whom its use might be perverted. The operations performed by this machine
are the ruling of parallel straight lines at any required distances apart,
either continuous or broken; ruling converging straight lines; ruling
waved lines, the waves being either similar, varying by more or less
imperceptible gradations; and medal ruling or transferring to copper the
fac-simile of a medal without injuring its surface, the waved lines
presenting a copy of the minutest parts of the medal.”


RULE IV.

VIGNETTES--A GENERAL RULE.

_Faces, Eyes, Stippling, Hair, Drapery, Limbs, Scenery, &c._

Rule IV. relates to the Vignettes, to notice whether they appear to come
up to the usual standard of perfection in the following points: the faces,
eyes, stippling, hair, drapery, limbs, scenery, landscapes, water and
agricultural scenes, &c. This work is always done by hand, both in the
genuine and counterfeit; but in the genuine it is done by _first-class
artists_; men who are at the head of their profession, and who can always
get such a complete remuneration for their labor that there cannot
possibly be any temptation for them to counterfeit. It is only second,
third, fourth, and sometimes _hundredth_-rate artists that
counterfeit:--runaway apprentices and cast-off journeymen, and possibly
amateurs. The points to observe are first, the human face, stippling, and
the eyes. This is the most difficult of any part of the Vignette to
execute well, and fails in counterfeits, more than any other part of the
4th Rule. In the genuine, the eyes have a perfectly natural expression,
while in counterfeits they are, generally, merely two clumsy dots. The
_stippling_ is the beautiful artistic arrangement of the fine dots which
produce the shading--the smooth, even, soft _rounding_ of the features,
the cheeks, nose, lips, chin, and limbs; this fails _invariably_ in
counterfeits--the features, and generally the limbs also, appearing
_flat_, scratchy, inexpressive, and inanimate. The human hair in the
genuine will look soft, silky, and natural; displaying a _lustre_ in
portions where the light appears to strike it. In counterfeits the hair
generally appears _stiff_, coarse, _wiry_, lifeless, and unnatural. The
drapery in the genuine beautifully represents the folds and texture of
different kinds of cloth; sometimes the dark, heavy and glossy appearance
of broadcloth is produced; sometimes the light, flowing appearance of silk
or muslin--the folds always look easy and _flowing_--no stiffness. In
counterfeits the drapery generally appears scratchy and _stiff_, sometimes
having the _solid_ appearance of cast iron, and sometimes like coarse
wire-cloth, inexplicably twisted up in a snarl in trying to imitate the
easy and natural folds of the genuine. The limbs, hands, or feet are
always well done in the genuine, but generally fail in counterfeits. It is
a very difficult matter to execute well, and it requires a first-rate
artist to produce an elegant-shaped hand or foot and in an easy position.
To engrave human figures correctly it is first necessary for the artist to
acquire a _thorough_ knowledge of Anatomy. Smoke in the genuine is always
well done--generally in fine curved lines, and sometimes in straight
parallels, fading off gradually at the edges. In counterfeits the smoke
gradually appears coarse and _scratchy_. Also notice whether the
“perspective” is managed rightly: the lights and shades, and the forms of
animals, horses, cows, &c. &c. whether truthfully portrayed. Vignettes are
transferred to the plates from _double_ transferred cylinder dies.

“Chambers’s Information for the People” says:--

“Engraving, in all its various branches, is a species of labor which
probably requires greater remuneration than any other department of
art--for not only must there be a great degree of patience and
perseverance beyond what is required in most other employments, especially
in undertaking the engraving of a genuine bank-note plate, which must be
perfect in all its parts, showing the lights and shades true to life--one
part corresponding with another as though nature herself had formed the
impression. Such of course is the intention of the artist, who must be a
finished workman before he can receive employment in this capacity; the
perfection of the execution being of course the only great difficulty to
overcome. This will be seen from the fact that in all cases from ten to
fifteen artists are employed upon one bank note plate, and as this
employment necessarily calls into its service the very best talent that
can be secured, it follows as a matter of fact that we are perfectly safe
in looking to the perfection of a note for the genuineness of the bill.
Each artist has a separate part to execute; and as the whole plate is made
of different parts, called “dies” or “cuts,” it is therefore evident that
no band of counterfeiters can accomplish their designs--it being
impossible.”

[See the Vignette marked “4” in the steel plate; also the portrait of
Washington.]


RULE V.

LETTERING, AND ENGRAVERS’ NAMES.

Rule V. relates to the perfection of lettering. In the genuine the
lettering is done by a first-class artist, whose particular branch it is
to devote exclusively to that part of the work alone, and of course he
arrives at a degree of perfection that could not be approached without
such a sub-division of labor. In the genuine the letters are all exactly
of the same size, where they _pretend_ to be, and on the same _angle_ and
same size stroke, where they pretend to be. There are two great points to
observe as regards lettering, viz. _neatness_ in form, and
_uniformity_--the most important is UNIFORMITY. The want of uniformity in
size, slant, distances apart, thickness of stroke, and any deviation from
the line of the letters of a title, or the name of a bank for instance,
will show counterfeit work. See the lettering in the word COUNTERFEIT in
the steel-plate illustration compared with the lettering of the “UNIVERSAL
DETECTOR,” “UNITED STATES,” &c. The engraved writing in the genuine,
“Promise to pay on demand,” &c. is always beautifully done, the down
strokes _uniform in size and slant_, and the hair strokes extremely fine,
the curves _easy_ and _flowing_, while in counterfeits the down strokes
are apt to point in different angles, and the hair strokes coarse, and the
curves _stiff_ and defective. But perhaps the most important part of the
5th Rule, as it fails _invariably_, without exception, in all
counterfeits, is the engravers’ names or “imprint,” which in the genuine
is a _die_ cut in the most perfect manner, the letters very neat and
perfect and perfectly _uniform_ in every respect. In counterfeits it is
not a die, but letters cut in by hand, and never so perfect as the
genuine, but clumsy, not uniform distances apart, nor in size and slant,
and not all in a straight line, &c.


RULE VI.

SIGNATURES AND FILLING UP.

The 6th Rule relates to the signatures, and filling up the No., date, to
whom payable, cashier, and president. To notice whether the whole filling
up appears in two or three different hands, as it ought to be. In the
genuine the _No._ and _date_ is generally written by a bank clerk, who
writes a very neat, rapid _business_ hand--but of course there may be
exceptions to this Rule--but in counterfeits the No. and date is _almost
invariably clumsy and unbusiness-like_. Where the officers’ signatures are
imitated there will be a slow, studied, and stiff appearance, not easy,
natural and _original_-looking. Some men acquire an almost intuitive
knowledge of _original_ handwriting at sight, and the writer has seen many
excellent judges of Bank Notes who have acknowledged that they were guided
almost entirely by the signatures, even of strange banks. Auto-chirography
may be studied as a science, but it can only be acquired by long
experience, and it is not infallible: the best judges of writing might
possibly be deceived sometimes. In some counterfeits the signatures are
lithographed _fac-similes_, sometimes traced over with a pen. In writing
with a pen the ink thoroughly saturates the paper, but leaves a smooth
edge to the stroke, and has somewhat of a glossy appearance, while the
printed _fac-similes_ always have a _stamped_ appearance, the stroke of a
dead color and rough edge, not saturated or lively, like writing ink. If
traced over with a pen there will be places, especially in the hair
strokes, where the pen does not follow the curves in the stroke correctly.
In cases where fraudulent impressions are obtained from the genuine
plate, or where the plate itself is stolen, the 6th Rule is all that will
detect; but when such a case happens there are always measures taken by
the bank to meet it--a new plate is ordered, and the old emission called
in.


RULE VII.

PAPER AND GENERAL APPEARANCE.

Rule VII. relates to the paper, printing, and the general appearance of a
note. Genuine bank-note paper is made of linen or silk, or a mixture of
both, of a firm texture, and of a superior quality, (see the paper on
which the steel-plate illustration is printed.) This paper is manufactured
expressly for the banks and engraving companies alone, and counterfeiters
can seldom get hold of paper of this kind, but are generally compelled to
use slazy or half cotton paper. A counterfeit note is seldom printed as
well as the genuine, but often blurred, and poor ink. As to the “general
appearance,” this is produced by a combination of all the Rules. If all
the Rules are good, and the note well printed, the “general appearance” of
course will be perfect; but if there is any one or more of the Rules bad,
the harmony of the “general appearance” will be interrupted. But if a
genuine note is old, worn, and has been wet, the general appearance may be
bad, but the other rules will all be good, and prove the note to be
genuine.


ANASTATIC TRANSFERS, OR LITHOGRAPHY.

There was an emission, five or ten years ago, of some counterfeits on the
National Bank, Providence, 2s and 5s. They were not regularly-engraved
plates; and as the exact process by which they were got up is unknown,
they are supposed to be anastatic transfers, or lithographs. They have a
very _smoky_, brown, blurred, and _indistinct_ appearance, something
similar, but inferior to, mezzotinto engraving. It is supposed that the
process, whatever it was, did not succeed well enough, as there never have
any appeared like them since. The shading of the letters appeared to be a
solid brown coloring--no lines perceptible scarcely, and this was the
character of the engraving of the whole note.

The new counterfeit tens on the State Bank of Ohio are exceedingly well
done, though easily detected by the Rules. One kind--that with an X in the
center of the vignette--appears to be a lithograph, a transfer from the
genuine bill; but the impression produced appears to have been faint and
dim in many places, and re-touched with _a graver_;--thus easily detected
on examination, although very dangerous counterfeits.


ALTERATIONS FROM BROKEN BANKS.

THE “MAGIC THREE.”

The first seven Rules go to show whether a bill is from a genuine plate or
not. We now proceed to discuss _Altered Bills_. In altered bills, where a
genuine bill of a broken bank is altered by the counterfeiter to some
sound bank, there are three places in which the alteration must be made,
viz: First, the _State_; Second, _Title_, or name of the bank; and Third,
the _Town_. They are generally extracted, or the letters dissolved by some
chemical process, and the name of another bank, state, and town,
substituted in their place. The Ruling Engine shading on the genuine will
be imitated by hand in the substituted “title” and “town,” and this will
detect it as well as the clumsiness of the letters generally, and also the
white streak or bleaching of the paper around and between the substituted
letters. Sometimes the “bank” may be in the same State, and there will be
only two places to alter besides the signatures; and sometimes the broken
bank bills of the _same name or title_ are selected, (for instance the
Commercial Bank, Millington, Md.) and there will also be two places to
alter besides the signatures, viz: the “State” and “Town.” In dissolving
the signatures of the broken bank by some acid and substituting imitations
of the proper signatures, they generally look _faded_, which is caused by
a little acid still remaining in the paper--and also the whole filling up,
signatures and all, are in one handwriting. By noticing these three
points, the “State,” “Title,” and “Town,” (the Magic Three,) and the
signatures, the detection of any alteration from a broken bank will be a
very simple and easy matter. For instance, one of the best alterations,
and one that has deceived thousands of good judges when it was first
issued in 1849, were 1s, Madison County Bank, Cazenovia, N. Y. vignette
three females. The “New York Safety Fund” and “Cazenovia” were rather
clumsily lettered and the MADIS- was _shaded by hand_, while -ON COUNTY
BANK was shaded perfectly by the Ruling Engine. This shows of course an
alteration from some other name that ended in -ON; most probably CLINTON.
There was no bleaching or scratching of the paper around the substituted
letters, and the signatures were not faded, this shows that it was not an
_altered bill_ but an _altered plate_, probably a “wild cat” bank plate,
that was sold at auction, in New York, in 1841.


ALTERED DENOMINATIONS.

This is altering from a smaller to a larger denomination--as 1s altered to
5s, &c. &c. This is done in various ways. One way it is done by pasting;
but it is more generally done by extracting the ink of the figure and the
die containing it by some chemical fluid, and printing in its place a
counterfeit die, or sometimes a stolen genuine die containing a larger
denomination. The words, “ONE DOLLAR,” which generally is shaded by the
Ruling Engine, are extracted, and “FIVE DOLLARS” substituted in its place
and _shaded by hand_. A difference also in the color of the ink of the
substituted denominations from the rest of the note will generally be
seen. Sometimes the letters of the substituted denomination are _common
printer’s type_, the “old English letter,” 🖙 Twenty Dollars.


OLD-STYLE PLATES.

Counterfeits upon the old-fashioned plates, “Perkin’s stereotype plate”
and others, all that contain any _transferred_ dies, the pattern _white_
upon a black ground, can be detected by the imitation of transferring.
Diagrams E, F, on page 16, also diagrams, L, M, will illustrate this
principle. In the genuine it is machine waved-ruling transferred from
dies, while in the counterfeit this is imitated by engraving the _black
spaces_ immediately upon the plate itself, and attempting to make it fit
so as to have the appearance of being transferred. L represents the
genuine, (though imperfect,) M represents the counterfeit. There are four
out of the seven Rules that will apply to the old fashioned “Perkin’s
stereotype” and most other old-style plates, viz: the 1st Rule, or
Transferring; the 5th Rule, the Lettering, especially the mass of small
lettering, “One Dollar,” “One Dollar,” in the body of the note; 6th Rule,
the Signatures and filling up; 7th Rule, Paper and general appearance.

[Illustration: L M]


THE PIECING OPERATION.

This process of increasing the number of bills from a given quantity by
piecing--as making ten bills out of nine--appears to be done--as seen in a
specimen lately--by cutting off perpendicularly a piece, one ninth of a
bill, and pasting in its place a piece of a _counterfeit_ on the same
bank and denomination to match. The same process will be then carried on
with the nine bills, only that in each bill the piece would be cut out in
a different place. When the nine bills are thus all pieced there would be
_just enough surplus pieces left_ of the genuine to paste together with
one piece of the counterfeit to make a _complete bill like the rest_, and
this would be the profit on the operation. The counterfeit part of the
bills appeared to be intentionally defaced, so as to be nearly illegible,
in order to escape detection. The banks will only redeem such bills at
their estimated proportionate value.


SUMMING UP.

PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE RULES.

No matter how much a bill may be worn and defaced, if the name of the bank
and the denomination can be seen, the application of these rules will
enable a person to decide at sight whether a bill is genuine or not. The
1st Rule, the Geometric Lathe-work being infallible, any imitation can be
detected at a glance, when of course the bill must be a counterfeit
without looking any further. But a great many counterfeits contain _stolen
genuine dies_, when of course the 1st Rule will fail to detect; but there
is always enough else to detect a bad bill. The 2d Rule, the Ruling Engine
work--any imitation of this can be detected at a glance. This rule detects
oftener than almost any other rule, and therefore it is one of the most
useful of all the rules. In some old-fashioned genuine plates, especially
in some of the old New England plates, there may occur an exception to
this rule, the shading of the letters being done by hand. Now and then,
but very rarely, a counterfeit is seen containing genuine Ruling Engine
work; but in such a case there are plenty of the other rules to fail.
Counterfeiters may get some genuine work, but they cannot get a _perfect
combination of all the work genuine_. There is always _something lacking_.
It is against their interest to invest so much capital as would enable
them to get everything perfect. Besides, they can never get the services
of a sufficient number of first-class artists, and _all_ the necessary
machinery. 3d Rule, the Medallions--see if the heads or other ornamental
patterns of this work look raised, distinct, clear and smooth, and the
lines all _full length_, and the most skillful imitations by hand can be
detected at a glance. 4th Rule, the Vignettes--whether they come up to the
usual standard of perfection, especially the human eye and face. Sometimes
the vignette in a counterfeit is a stolen genuine die, generally much
worn. A lot of old worn out dies were sold at auction in New York in 1841
to the highest bidder, and some got into counterfeiters’ hands. 5th Rule,
the Lettering and Engravers’ Names. It is an exceedingly rare thing indeed
to find anything near first-class lettering in a counterfeit; but the
Engravers’ names _always fail_--the writer has never seen a single
exception. 6th Rule, the Signatures and Filling Up. Counterfeits are so
often palpably filled up all in one handwriting as to make this an
important rule; also look out for lithographed ‘fac-similes.’ 7th Rule,
Paper and General Appearance. Experience has proved that it is always best
in judging a doubtful bill to apply the rules in their proper order, one
after the other, commencing with the 1st, otherwise a person might forget
one or two rules, and neglect to apply the very rule that would most
palpably condemn the bill. The writer has never seen a counterfeit where
less than _two_ of the rules would condemn it at sight, and the rest
genuine work. But the majority of counterfeits are condemned by three,
four, five, six, and very often the whole seven rules.


THE STEEL-PLATE ILLUSTRATION.

The steel plate, next to the title-page, contains a standard specimen of
all the different styles of genuine engraving on all bank notes of all
banks in the United States. But _those particular patterns_ or dies do not
belong to any regular Bank-note Engraving Co. in the U.S. They, with
others, were sold at auction some years since, and duplicate dies have
been made from them and scattered over the country, New York, Boston and
Philadelphia, and some of them have got into counterfeiters’ hands, who
use them in their spurious issues. Therefore no pattern like any one of
these will ever be seen in a genuine note; but one or more of the
duplicates of them will often be seen in a counterfeit. The plate
therefore serves two purposes--1st, illustrating genuine and perfect work;
2d, to guard against genuine auction dies used in counterfeits.

Another auction vignette die, often seen in counterfeits, but never in a
genuine bill, is a woman sitting by a sheaf of wheat, canal lock on the
right and locomotive and bridge on the left.





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