Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: The Jacquard Machine Analyzed and Explained - With an appendix on the preparation of jacquard cards...
Author: Posselt, E. A.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Jacquard Machine Analyzed and Explained - With an appendix on the preparation of jacquard cards..." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



                         THE JACQUARD MACHINE
                        Analyzed and Explained:
                           WITH AN APPENDIX
                                ON THE
                    PREPARATION OF JACQUARD CARDS,
                                  AND
          PRACTICAL HINTS TO LEARNERS OF JACQUARD DESIGNING.

                                  BY
                            E. A. POSSELT,
  _Head Master, Textile Department, Pennsylvania Museum and School of
                           Industrial Art_,
                No. 1336 Spring Garden Street.

                        With 230 Illustrations.

                          PHILADELPHIA, PA.:
              PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE SCHOOL.
                                 1888.



                          Copyrighted, 1887,
                                  BY
                            E. A. POSSELT.

                               Press of
                  Dando Printing and Publishing Co.,
                    34 S. Third St., Philadelphia.

                          Photo-Engravings by
                         The Levytype Company,
                             Philadelphia.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.


                                                                   PAGE.

  =History of the Jacquard Machine=,                                   7

  =The Jacquard Machine--General Arrangement and Application=,         9

  =Illustration of the different parts of the
      Jacquard Machine--Method of Operation, etc.=,                   11

  =The Jacquard Harness--The Comber-boards=,                          20

  =Tying-up of Jacquard Harness=,                                     23
       I.--Straight-through Tie-up,                                   23
      II.--Straight-through Tie-up for Repeated Effects, in
            one Repeat of the Design,                                 29
     III.--Straight-through Tie-up of Jacquard Loom, having
            Front Harness attached,                                   31
      IV.--Centre Tie-up,                                             33
       V.--Straight-through and Point Tie-ups Combined,               35
      VI.--Straight-through Tie-up in Two Sections,                   48
     VII.--Tying-up a Jacquard Harness for Figuring Part
            of the Design with an Extra Warp,                         51
    VIII.--Straight-through Tie-up in Three Sections,                 53
      IX.--Point Tie-up in Three Sections,                            55
       X.--Combination Tie-up in Two Sections,                        56
      XI.--Straight-through Tie-up in Four Sections,                  57
     XII.--Tying-up of Jacquard Looms with Compound Harness attached, 58
    XIII.--Tying-up Jacquard Looms for Gauze Fabrics,                 64

  =Modifications of the Single Lift Jacquard Machine=,                67
       I.--Double Lift Single Cylinder Jacquard Machine,              67
      II.--Double Lift Double Cylinder Jacquard Machine,              69
     III.--Substitution of Tail-cords for Hooks,                      71

  =Tying-up of Jacquard Harness for Two-ply Ingrain Carpet=,          72
        General Description of the Construction of the Fabric,        72
        Straight-through Tie-up for Ingrain Carpet,                   74
        Point Tie-up for Ingrain Carpet,                              78


APPENDIX.

  =Preparing and Stamping of Jacquard Cards=,                         85
        Dobby Card Punching Machines,                                 86
        Piano Card Stamping Machines,                                 86
        Stamping of Cards,                                            91
        Repeating Jacquard Cards by the Positive Action Repeater,     92

  =Lacing of Jacquard Cards=,                                         97
        Lacing of Jacquard Cards by Hand,                             97
        Lacing of Jacquard Cards by Machine,                          98


PRACTICAL HINTS TO LEARNERS OF JACQUARD DESIGNING.

  =Squared Designing Paper for the different Textile Fabrics
    executed on the Jacquard Machine=,                               103
        Practical Use of the Heavy Square in Designing Paper,        105
        Selection of Designing Paper for Single Cloth,               105
        Selection of Designing Paper for Double Cloth,               106
        Selection of Designing Paper for Two-ply Ingrain Carpet,     106
        Selection of the Proper Brush for the
          different [O] Designing Papers,                            107
        Colors used for Painting Textile Designs,                    107
        Preservation of Textile Designs,                             107

  =Sketching of Designs for Textile Fabrics to be
    executed on the Jacquard Machine=,                               108
        Methods of Setting the Figures,                              108
        Size of Sketch Required,                                     109
        Enlarging and Reducing Figures for Sketches,                 110
        Transferring of the Sketch to the Squared Designing Paper,   112
        Outlining in Squares,                                        113
        Rules for Outlining in Squares Inside or Outside the
          Drawing Outline,                                           114
        Illustration of a Sketch--Outlining on [O] Paper--Finished
          Design--Fabric Sample (Single Cloth),                      115
        Designs for Damask Fabrics to be executed on a Jacquard Loom,
          with Compound Harness attached,                            116
        Designs for Two-ply Ingrain Carpet,                          116
        Designs for Dressgoods Figured with Extra Warp,              117
        Designs for Figured Pile Fabrics,                            118
        The Shading of Textile Fabrics by the Weave,                 118

  =Glossary=,                                                        121



PREFACE.


Very little has been written upon the Jacquard machine, and the fabrics
produced by it; and nothing at all has been heretofore published in
this country with regard to the machines and systems, as employed here.

Greatly assisted by the guidance, help and advice of Mr. T. C. Search,
President of the Philadelphia Textile Association, and Vice-President
and Chairman of the Committee of Instruction of the Pennsylvania Museum
and School of Industrial Art, the author gives here the results of his
practical experience on this subject, with a very detailed description
of the methods of procedure with the Jacquard and accompanying
machines, in the different branches of Textile Manufacture.

                                                       E. A. POSSELT.
  _Philadelphia, Pa._, 1888.



HISTORY OF

THE JACQUARD MACHINE.


The Jacquard machine was named after Joseph Marie Jacquard. Jacquard
was born in Lyons, France, on the 7th of July, 1752. His parents
were employed in the manufacture of silk fabrics. The first trade
Jacquard learned was book-binding; type-founding and cutlery following
successively. He was 20 years of age when his father died, leaving him
a small house and hand-loom in the village of Cauzon, near Lyons. He
commenced to invent different improvements in the line of weaving, but
without other success than accumulating debt, compelling him to earn
the living for himself and family, first in a plaster quarry at Bugey,
near Lyons, afterwards by working at cutlery, type-founding and weaving
in Lyons.

In 1792 he joined the Revolutionists, and after his return in the
following year he and his son assisted in the defence of Lyons against
the Army of the Convention, but left when his son was killed near him
in battle.

Lyons Council offered him a room, for working on improvements for
weaving at the “Palace of the Fine Arts,” with the condition that he
should instruct scholars free of charge. During his stay there the
Society of Arts, in London, offered a reward for a machine for making
fishing nets. Jacquard succeeded in perfecting it, but had to travel
under protection to Paris, where he had to show and explain his machine
before the “Conservatorium of Arts and Trades.”

On the 2d of February, 1804, Jacquard received 3000 francs, and the
gold medal from the London Society, and also an engagement in the
Conservatorium of Arts, in Paris. Here he found opportunity for
making improvements on his weaving machine, by the study of the older
inventions of Bouchon, Falcon and Vancanson.

M. Bouchon, in 1725, employed a band of pierced paper pressed by a
hand-bar against a row of horizontal wires, so as to push forward those
which happened to lie opposite the blank spaces, and thus bring loops
at the lower extremity of vertical wires in connection with a comb-like
rack below. M. Falcon submitted in 1728 a chain of cards, and a square
prism, known as the cylinder, in lieu of the band of paper of Bouchon.
In 1745, Jacques de Vancanson suppressed altogether the cumbrous
tail-cards of the draw-loom, and made the loom completely self-acting
by placing the pierced paper or card upon the surface of a large
pierced cylinder, which traveled backwards and forwards at each stroke,
and revolved through a small angle by ratchet work. He also invented
the rising and falling griffe, and thus made a machine very nearly
resembling the actual Jacquard.

Jacquard returned to Lyons in the year 1804 to take charge of the
work-house. During his stay at this place he finished his machine. He
was an experienced workman, combining together the best parts of the
machines of his predecessors in the same line, and succeeded as _the
first person_ in obtaining an arrangement sufficiently practical to be
generally employed. In 1806 Napoleon Buonaparte changed his position,
giving him an annuity of 3000 francs, but compelling him to transfer
his invention to the city of Lyons, as well as any further inventions.
Until 1810 Jacquard had great troubles, as his machine was not
understood by the weavers. So violent was the opposition made to its
introduction that he was compelled to leave Lyons in order to save his
life. The _Conseil des Prudhommes_ broke up his machines in the public
places, and Jacquard was delivered over to universal ignominy. But
after some years had passed the machine proved to be of the greatest
value, and on the spot where the model was destroyed a statue to
Jacquard now stands. He died August 7th, 1834, in Quillins, near Lyons,
at 82 years of age. At the time of his death over 30,000 Jacquard
machines were in operation in his native city.

[Illustration]



The Jacquard Machine.--General Arrangement and Application.


If a fabric contains a great number of ends of warp bound differently
in the filling, the method of guiding the warp by harness frames is too
cumbrous and inefficient; in such cases it becomes necessary to use the
Jacquard machine for raising the warp-threads separately by means of
hook and leash.

The hooks as used for raising leash, mail, lingo, and warp-thread,
consist of wires 16 to 17 inches long, with a crook on each end. On the
lower crook is fastened the leash by means of the neck-cord.

The cords of each leash are threaded through the holes of the
comber-board; the latter are separated from each other according to the
texture of the warp in reed.

On the harness-cords are adjusted the heddles, (either twine or wire),
on which are fastened the lingoes as weights. In the mails of the
heddles are drawn the warp-threads.

Now, from the foregoing explanations, it will be apparent that by
raising the hook in the Jacquard machine we raise the leash, and the
latter raises every warp-thread throughout the fabric for interlacing
with the filling.

The next point required to be known is, which hooks are to be raised,
and which are to be lowered? To regulate this, a design (pattern)
is prepared in which the floating of the warp over the filling is
indicated.

For the warp-threads required to be raised holes are punched in the
cards. In these holes the points of the needles extending through
the needle-board are pushed by a spring fastened on the rear of each
needle. The needles are adjusted in rows of different heights. The
arrangements most used are 4, 8, and 12 rows high. Each row as to
height in the machine contains a bar (knife) in the griffe. When the
griffe is down, or the machine at rest, the upper crooks of the hooks
are raised about half an inch above the griffe-bars.

The needles which control the position of the hooks, permitting them
to rise or compelling them to remain stationary, are pressed by the
springs fastened in the rear towards the cards, which are moved on
a quadrilateral and perforated cylinder. This cylinder performs a
movement similar to a pendulum towards the points of the needles. Any
needle for which a hole was punched in the card will penetrate the
cylinder; consequently, the corresponding hook will remain in its
natural position, on the crook over the corresponding griffe-bar, and
upon lifting the griffe the hook will be raised.

Again, needles for which no holes are punched in the cards will be
thrust back by moving the cylinder containing the cards towards the
needle-board; this motion forces back the corresponding hooks, pushing
them away from the griffe-bars above, and upon raising the griffe they
will remain stationary; hence, if a blank card were pressed against all
the needles of any machine, the entire number of needles the machine
contains would be pushed back, and none of the hooks would come in
contact with the griffe-bars, and, consequently, raising the griffe
would produce an empty lift. On the other hand, using a card having
every hole of the cylinder punched, (or the empty cylinder used), would
lift every needle in the machine. Pressing the needles towards the rear
compresses the springs; these will again expand as soon as the cylinder
leaves the needle-board. The hooks, which were left standing in their
position over the griffe-bars are caught by the latter at the raising
of the griffe. The elevation of these hooks raises the leashes fastened
to them, thus causing the lifted warp-threads to form a shed with those
not lifted.

Jacquard machines are made of different sizes and descriptions, some
having only a few hooks and others a large number. The sizes most often
used are 100, 200, 400, 600, 900, 1200 hooks. The number or size is
always indicated by the number of needles and hooks which it contains,
without counting the reserve rows, of which there are generally two.
These reserve rows are used for various purposes, such as raising the
selvedge; raising the front harness; raising the shuttle-boxes on
hand-looms; guiding the take-up motion on hand-looms; indicating a
certain card through ringing a bell on hand-looms, etc.

Sometimes a few of the needles and hooks from the reserve are added to
the main part of the needles and hooks. For example: Take a design in
which the ground weave repeats on 12 ends; working a 400 machine, we
find:

           400 ÷ 12 = 33 repeats of the weave, less 4 hooks;

Consequently, if this ground-weave is repeated all over the width of
the fabric, we must use either:

    396 hooks, leaving 4 hooks more to be added to the two rows
    already used; or 408 hooks, requiring us to call upon the
    reserve rows for eight extra hooks.

Hooks which have no leashes adjusted must be taken out of the machine.

Sometimes two, three, or more, machines are employed on one loom, and
may be worked in different manners. In this country Jacquard machines,
for power as well as hand-looms, are made of iron, whereas in Europe
the machines for hand-looms (comprising the greater part of the
Jacquard machines in use) are made of wood; using the iron ones only
for power-looms; and even yet, in most cases, the wooden machines are
used for the latter.



Illustrations of the Different Parts of the Jacquard Machine.--Method
of Operation, etc.


Every Jacquard machine may be divided into the following parts:

    1. The Frame and the Perforated Board through which
    the neck-cords are passed.

    2. The Griffe and necessary attachments for lifting the
    same.

    3. The Hooks.

    4. The Needles.

    5. The Springs and Spring Frame.

    6. The Needle-board.

    7. The Cylinder, Hammer,
    and Batten.

    8. The Catches.

    9. The Cards.

    10. The Jacquard Harness.

THE FRAME.

Fig. I.,[A] represents the side view of the “frame” of a common 200
Jacquard machine by _a_, _b_, _c_, _d_. The width of the frame in its
main part [see 6 to 7] is 9-1/2 inches.

1-1/8 inches is the width of the iron casting at the places marked 8
and 9.

2 inches is the height of casting at the place indicated by 1.

1-1/2 inches is the height of casting at the place indicated by 3.

1-3/4 inches is the height of casting at the place indicated by 5.

The open part of the frame, marked 2 in drawing, is 6 inches high.

[Illustration: Fig. I.]

[A] For illustration of the present article a 200 Jacquard machine is
used, illustrated on pages 11-17 by Figs. I. to XI., which contains
the same principles of construction as any other size machine. These
illustrations are drawn one-fourth of the actual size; hence, any
measures, etc., we have omitted may readily be found by any student.

The open part of the frame, marked 4 in drawing, is 5 inches high.
Hence, the main height of the frame is as follows:

    1 = 2     inches.
    2 = 6       "
    3 = 1-1/2   "
    4 = 5       "
    5 = 1-3/4   "
       ------
       16-1/4 inches main height.


THE PERFORATED BOARD.

[Illustration: Fig. II.]

The perforated bottom board, through which the neck-cords are passed,
contains one hole for every hook in the machine, and is illustrated in
Fig. II. separately. It shows the following measurements:

    Entire width of board = 8 inches.
       "   length     "   = 12   "
    Thickness         "   = 3/4  "

    Distance of   {_a_, in length of board, 0.27 inch. (See _l_ to _b_.)
    holes from    {
    each centre,  {_b_, in width       "     7/8   "   (See _m_ to _w_.)
         "      first row from the part of the frame illustrated
                                   in Fig. I., 2-3/4 inches.
         "        "      "      "  rear part of the frame, 2-1/2 inches.

This board is fastened by screws to the frame at places indicated in
Fig. I. by 11 and 12.


THE PLUNGER.

Besides the frame, Fig. I. illustrates: Under I. the Jacquard plunger,
3/4 inch diameter, for guiding the griffe (attached to its head) when
raising. To strengthen the steadiness of this latter movement shoulders
are attached to the frame at the three places where the plunger slides.

    Height of frame at _k_, = 2-3/4 inches.
       "        "      _l_, = 2       "
       "        "      _m_, = 2       "

Screws, _f_, dotted in drawing, on head of plunger, fasten the griffe
to it.

Part III. in Fig. I. illustrates the attachment for providing the
lifting of the plunger in a hand-loom, likewise the griffe, etc. This
consists of a triangular shaped frame 14-1/4 inches high, or less,
according to height of room. This part is fastened to the front part of
the frame by bolts at _o_ and _p_. In the slot at the top, between _r_
and _s_, a wooden cylinder of 3-1/2 inches diameter is fastened to an
iron shaft resting in the frame at _t_.

At 13 a leather strap is fastened to this cylinder and to the plunger
14. It will easily be seen that by turning the wooden cylinder in the
direction of the arrows, 15, the plunger will be raised with the griffe
fastened to its top. By reversing the action of the cylinder, the
plunger and griffe will return to their previous positions. The action
thus described constitutes a “single lift,” raising and lowering of
plunger and griffe for each pick.


THE CATCHES.

At IV., Fig. I., the “catches” for turning the cylinder at the lantern
are illustrated. The distance of the centre of the screws which hold
the catches to the frame is 4-3/4 inches. Between these two catches the
cylinder is adjusted to the batten, and the direction of its turning is
regulated by the catch which is brought in contact with the lantern.
If the catch, _y_, turns, the cylinder will turn the card situated on
its top towards the needle-board, and if catch, _z_, is brought into
contact with the lantern, the card hanging below the needle-board will
be the next in turn to be pushed towards the needles.

The entire length of the catches in the present illustration is 8 ins.,
allowing 5-1/4 ins. for the catch itself and 2-3/4 ins. for the part to
which it is fastened. Making this catch in two pieces is preferable to
the old style of one piece, because the moment of turning the cylinder
can be more easily regulated.


THE GRIFFE.

[Illustration: Fig. III.]

Fig. III. illustrates the top view of the griffe. As mentioned before,
the griffe is fastened to the plunger by means of screws. In the
drawing the dark shaded places marked _f_ are the hollow places in the
griffe, through which the screws fasten the latter to the plunger. The
griffe, like the other parts explained, is made of cast iron, and the
machine is of the following dimensions:

  Length of griffe, _a_ to _b_,                          = 9-3/4 inches.
  Depth   "    "    _a_ to _c_,                          = 6-5/8    "
  Extension on each side, _e_ to _f_,                    = 1-1/2    "
  Distance of griffe-bars, _s_ to _s_,                   =   7/8    "
  Length      "      "     _m_ to _n_,                   = 9-1/4    "
  Height      "      "   [see Fig. IV.,
                          sectional cut of griffe-bars,] = 7/8 inch.

[Illustration: Fig. IV.]


THE HOOK.

[Illustration: Fig. V.]

Fig. V. represents a hook as used in the present machine, made of No.
13-1/4 bright spring wire. Height, _a_ to _c_, = 16-5/8 inches. Height
of rester, _b_ to _c_, = 6-5/8 inches.


THE NEEDLE.

Fig. VI. illustrates a needle, as used in connection with the hook.
Distance from head to loop, 9-1/8 inches, = _a_ to _c_. Length of loop,
1-5/8 inches, = _c_ to _d_. 10-3/4 inches entire length.

[Illustration: Fig. VI.]

The distance from head to eye (for passing through the hook) is
regulated according to the row in which the needle belongs. In the
present illustration this is, Head to eye, = 7 inches, = _a_ to _b_.
The eye, = 3/8 inch, = _b_.

Eight different positions of the distance of the eye from head will be
required by an 8-row machine. The needles are made of No. 15-1/2 bright
spring wire. The loop on the end, _c_ to _d_, permits a pin to be
inserted, [see Fig. VII., _o_], and also holds the needle in position.

[Illustration: Fig. VII.]

Fig. VII. gives a clear understanding of the arrangement of hooks,
needles, griffe-bars, springs, frame for holding the latter, and the
needle-board. This drawing is in accordance with the preceding ones,
executed one-fourth of the actual size, and represents the sectional
cut of one cross-row in the Jacquard machine containing 8 hooks, (as it
is an 8-row deep machine which we explain): _e_ to _e´_, 1st hook; _f_
to _f´_, 2d hook; _g_ to _g´_, 3d hook; _h_ to _h´_, 4th hook; _i_ to
_i´_, 5th hook; _k_ to _k´_, 6th hook; _l_ to _l´_, 7th hook; _m_ to
_m´_, 8th hook. These hooks are held in their required places by the
eyes of the needles [see place _v_ at hook 1], through which the former
are passed.

The needles rest with their heads in the needle-board, _a_ to _b_,
extending outside, towards the cylinder, for about 1/2 inch. The rear
part of the needle--the loop--is passed between two bars of the spring
frame, _n_, _p_, and held by the latter firmly, but with sufficient
play for a longitudinal motion for pressing towards their springs. The
pin, _o_, is inserted for holding the springs in their places. One pin
is required for each vertical row of needles. The part of the spring
frame, _r_, _n_, _p_, _s_, unshaded, is made of cast iron; the shaded
part (extension) is constructed of wood. Below the upper crook of the
hooks, the black sections represent a sectional cut of the griffe-bars;
_v_ to _w_ indicates the rester for the lower hooks, which keeps the
latter in their required position.

A study of this illustration will show that when the heads of the
needles, _a-b_, are pushed backwards, in the direction of arrows,
the hooks are also moved. If the needles are not pushed, the upper
crooks of the hooks will remain in position, as in drawing, over the
griffe-bar; and raising the latter will consequently raise every one
of these hooks. Therefore, if a blank card is pressed against the 208
needles of the machine, all the needles and hooks will be pushed back,
out of the way of contact with the griffe-bars, thus causing an empty
lift when they are raised; whereas, by pressing with an empty cylinder,
or with a card, containing as many holes as the machine has needles,
and so placed that the holes are exactly opposite the needles, none
of them would be moved, and each hook would remain vertical over its
griffe-bar; and raising the griffe will lift every hook.

As mentioned before, the springs, _u_, are attached to the needles
between the needle-frame, _n-p_, and the pin, _o_. Fig. VI., the
distance _e_ to _f_ indicates the part of the loop around which the
spring is adjusted, and where it rests against the expansion of the
loop. _f_, in Fig. VI., represents the place where pin, _o_, (as
shown in Fig. VII.) passes through the loop and is fastened to the
needle-frame on top and bottom. Pressing the needle at the head
compresses the spring, as the latter is securely fastened on one end by
the wider part of the loop, and on the other end by a pin inserted in
the loop and fastened to the frame. Remove the pressure at the head of
the needle, and the spring will return to its natural position, pushing
the needle into its old place. These springs are made of thin brass
wire.

It is necessary to keep the needle-eyes in the proper place, otherwise
it would result in bending the hook out of its perpendicular position,
and by lowering the griffe its bars would possibly come in contact with
the head of the hook, crushing the latter, or doing more damage if not
detected at once. Each needle or hook, if worn out, can be replaced by
pulling out the pin, _o_, thus loosening the needle and giving a chance
to work the required hook out of the needle-eye.


THE BATTEN MOTION.

[Illustration: Fig. VIII.]

Fig. VIII. represents the batten motion to be attached to the
guiding-rod, [see No. 14, in Fig. I.], and the frame, [see No. 16, in
Fig. I.] The batten, 2, is connected to a triangular lever by means
of lever, _d_. Another vertical lever connects the lower part of this
triangular lever to a projecting bolt, _k_, fixed to the guiding-rod of
the griffe. By raising the guiding-rod, thus raising lever, _k_, in the
direction of the arrow, the batten is thrown outwards, [see direction
of arrow below _c_], returning again to its former position at the
lowering of the griffe. _f_ indicates the place where the triangular
lever is fastened (movable) to the projecting bolt, extending out of
the frame. _a_ indicates the place for the cylinder. Part 1 of the
batten is movable at _l_ in the direction of arrow, _s_, allowing the
cylinder to be inserted. Part 1 is fastened (after putting the cylinder
in at _a_), to 2 by means of the screw, _n_.


THE CYLINDER.

[Illustration: Fig. IX.]

Fig. IX. represents the cylinder, with the lantern for turning the same
by means of the catches. The dimensions for the cylinder in the present
machine are as follows:

    Height of cylinder,        =  2-7/16 inches.
    Width  "    "              = 13        "
     "     "  lantern,         =  1-1/2    "
    Average length of spindle, = 2         "

This cylinder is carried in the batten, the latter moving in the
groove provided for it under 10, Fig. I. This batten has sufficient
vibratory motion to enable it to move the required distance away from
the needle-board. After coming in contact with the catch it still moves
until the cylinder has performed a complete turn. The cylinder is
steadied in the required position by the hammer pressing by the means
of a spring towards the lantern from below.


THE HAMMER.

[Illustration: Fig. X.]

Fig. X. illustrates the hammer as attached to the batten; _a_ to _b_,
(equals 3 inches in width in our present illustration), represents the
head of the hammer, forming the foundation for steadying the cylinder
in its turning. The hammer is pressed for this purpose towards the
cylinder by means of the spring, _s_ to _r_. Parts _h_ and _k_ guide
the hammer in its up and down movements, and are solid parts of the
batten. By turning the cylinder the hammer is pushed down in the
direction of the arrow, _t_, thus compressing the spring, which returns
to its normal position after the cylinder has completed its turn, ready
for being advanced towards the needle-board.

The following are accurate measurements of this part of the machine:

    Height of head of hammer at _a_ and _b_,  =    1/4 inch.
    Thickness of hammer-head, _e_ to _c_,     =    3/8   "
    Height of hammer-head when at rest
      above the top guiding part, _c_ to _o_, =  1-1/2   "
    Width of the guiding-rod, _c_ to _d_,     =    1/2   "
    Thickness of “top guide,” _f_ to _g_,     =    3/4   "
       "         “lower guide,” _f_ to _r_,   =    1/4   "
    Distance between these guides,            =  9       "
    Total height of guiding-rod,              = 10-1/2   "

The shaded part of the drawing above the hammer represents the
cylinder, _i_, which has its shaft for turning at _m_.


THE NEEDLE-BOARD.

[Illustration: Fig. XI.]

As before mentioned, the heads of the needles are passed through the
needle-board. A drawing of this board, representing the front view, is
shown in Fig. XI. The following are the dimensions:

_a_ to _c_, = 9-1/2 inches. _a_ to _b_, = 2-3/8 inches.

Each side of the prism, always technically called the cylinder, has
a protruding peg about 1/2 inch in length. When in contact with the
needle-board these pegs enter the black holes shown upon either side
in drawing. The 208 needles and holes in the present machine are
represented by a small spot for the former with an outside ring for the
latter.

[Illustration: Fig. XII.]

The lifting of the griffe, which in turn also operates the other parts
of the Jacquard head, as explained before, is not always produced
from above: very often this lifting is arranged to be done by means
of a lever arrangement from below the griffe. This method of working
the mechanism in the Jacquard machine is illustrated by Fig. XII.,
representing the perspective view of a 400 Jacquard machine, (W. P.
Uhlinger, builder).

[Illustration: Fig. XIII.]

Fig. XIII. represents the same machine adjusted to the loom. On the
longer arm of the lever a series of holes are found. These regulate
the height of the lift by the vertical rod which provides the required
movement. The nearer this rod is adjusted to the Jacquard head the
higher the lift of the Jacquard harness, thus forming the shed.


THE JACQUARD CARDS.

[Illustration: Fig. XIV.]

Fig. XIV. represents a single Jacquard card, as required for the 200
Jacquard machine, 1/4 of its actual size. This shows 26 rows of holes
in its width and 8 rows in its depth, 208 holes. These holes are shown
in black, one for each hook in the machine. Besides these a large
hole on each side permit the pegs of the cylinder to enter into the
needle-board. The cards are interlaced in an endless arrangement.

[Illustration: Fig. XV.]

Fig. XV. illustrates four cards laced together. The large holes
(marked _d_ in drawing) are peg holes to receive the pegs, _h_, _h´_,
_h´´_, _h´´´_, etc., of the cylinder, as shown in Fig. IX. These pegs
are movable so that any small variations at cutting with different
card-stamping machines can be rectified. The paper used for the cards
must be of sufficient thickness to resist the wear caused by the
needles, as well as to give steadiness to the cards when resting in the
pegs of the cylinder.

The cards are interlaced in an endless arrangement; hence, one card is
brought after the other in rotation towards the needles. The cards only
refuse service by not fitting properly on the cylinder, _i. e._, if the
peg holes are too near together or too far apart; or if the cards are
warped, which is liable to happen in a damp workshop.

A careful examination of the cards fitting on the cylinder is
absolutely necessary, otherwise a wrong lifting of the hooks destroying
the cards by the pegs punching new holes would result. The cylinder
with cards perfectly cut must be set so as to allow the needles to
penetrate into the centre of the holes stamped for them in the card.
Sometimes the cylinder is set too high or too low--too far in front or
too far in rear. To ascertain the proper position, lift the machine
and place some paint, or grease from the machine, on the heads of
the needles. Afterwards let the machine “fall in,” which will bring
the cards against the heads of the needles, producing an impression
and indicating the exact position of the needle-heads. The cylinder
is always set in its proper position when no marks are made by the
entering needles on the margins of the stamped holes and where there
are no holes the impression left by the needle head must be equally
distant from the surrounding holes.

[Illustration: Fig. XVI.]

To get a clear understanding of this examine Fig. XVI. illustrating six
different impressions of the needles. The circle shown with full lines
in each of these six illustrations represents the correct position
of the circumference of the hole, and the dotted circles the various
errors that may exist.

Fig. A shows the cylinder set in its proper place, which is indicated
by the impression of the needle in the centre.

Fig. B shows the cylinder is set too high, as indicated by the
impression of the needle. [See arrow.]

In Fig. C the cylinder is set too low.

In Fig. D the cylinder is set too far to the left.

In Fig. E the cylinder is set too far to the right.

In Fig. F the cylinder is set too low and too far to the right.

In Fig. G the cylinder is set too low and too far to the left.

In Fig. H the cylinder is set too high and too far to the left.

In Fig. K the cylinder is set too high and too far to the right.

If the machine produces wrong lifts of the hooks and the trouble is
not found in the setting of the cylinder, nor in the hooks or needles,
then ascertain if the cylinder is adjusted by means of the lever
arrangement, close enough to the needle-board; for if it is not, the
hooks will not be pushed far enough from the griffe-bars, and by
raising the latter a wrong shed will be produced. When using a great
number of cards in a set they are made to fold into a “rack.” This is
done by attaching a wire 1 to 1-1/2 inches longer than the cards at the
junction of, say every 12th, 15th, or 20th cards. [See _c_ at Fig. XV.]

The cards fall through a wooden frame, Fig. XVII., but the wires
attached to the cards, being longer, can not pass through, and the
cards will remain suspended, and subsequently fold together in a very
compact manner.

[Illustration: Fig. XVII.]

In Fig. XVII. we illustrate 156 cards arranged with wires attached to
every twelfth card, as follows: between cards 156 and 1, 12 and 13, 24
and 25, 36 and 37, 48 and 49, 60 and 61, 72 and 73, 84 and 85, 96 and
97, 108 and 109, 120 and 121, 132 and 133, 144 and 145.

At _e_, _f_, _g_, are shown prisms of the size of the cylinder, by
which the cards are guided and regulated in their run towards the
cylinder, (direction of arrow); _i_ and _h_ represent round rollers,
also placed in rack for guiding cards after leaving the cylinder, _c_;
_a_ and _b_, the needle-board; _c_ and _d_, the needles of the machine.
_S_ represents the wires as inserted in cards for holding them in the
frame.



THE JACQUARD HARNESS.


To the lower end of the hooks (_c._ in Fig. V.) the neck-cords
are adjusted. The latter are passed separately through one of the
corresponding holes of the perforated bottom board (Fig. II.) To
these neck-cords are fastened the leashes of the Jacquard harness
about 1/2 to 1 inch above the frame containing the rods which guide
the neck-cords vertically as the hooks are raised and lowered. The
different harness-cords are threaded through the comber-board in
various ways called “Tie-ups,” which will be explained later.


The Comber-board and Methods of Figuring for it.

There are two kinds of comber-boards used upon Jacquard looms:

1st. Comber-boards made of a solid piece of material, either wood or
porcelain.

2d. Comber-boards made in strips of either of the materials above
named, and adjusted afterwards in a wooden frame.


Comber-boards Made of a Solid Piece of Material.

Before ordering a comber-board, it is necessary to know the texture
of the fabric in the loom, and also the number or size of the machine
to be used; for the number of holes per inch in the comber-board is
regulated by this. Afterwards, we may, if we choose, arrange the number
of holes in depth of the comber-board, according to the number of
griffe-bars in the machine, (guided by the fabric to be made). We may
have eight griffe-bars in the machine, and arrange the comber-board 4,
6, 8, 10, 12 rows deep; or we may have 12 griffe-bars in the machine,
and arrange the comber-board 12, 10, 8, 6, 4 rows deep.

RULE: The number of holes to one inch in the comber-board must equal
the texture of the fabric to one inch in loom.

EXAMPLE: Suppose a fabric with a texture in the loom of 100 threads,
and we are to use a 600 Jacquard machine, with 12 rows. The width of
the fabric in the loom is to be 36 inches.

_Required_: The number of holes in the width of the comber-board.

_Answer_: 100 × 36 = 3600 holes in the comber-board.

3600 ÷ 12 = 300, the number of holes in width.

The width and depth of the comber-board are regulated by the width of
the cloth required and by the design to be used.

The greater the number of rows in depth the closer they must be; the
same is true of the width.

It is necessary to take care not to have the comber-board too deep, as
the consequence would be a bad shed; furthermore, we must not have the
holes too close together, as in a high texture this would make trouble
in the weaving through the catching of the heddles with the warp, and
also cause useless chafing of the warp-threads and the heddles.


The Changing of Solid Comber-boards for Different Textures.

In Jacquard work we generally use the same texture, or as near as
possible, as the loom is tied up for; but changes are sometimes
unavoidable. If we reduce the texture of the fabric in a Jacquard loom
tied-up for a solid comber-board, we must reduce proportionally the
number of hooks and needles used in designing, and hence the number
of heddles used per inch. These heddles will thus be left empty when
drawing in the warp. To accomplish this lift the full machine and
throw the hooks not to be used from the knives, lowering in this way
every mail which is not to be used. Sometimes there may be only one,
two, three, or four hooks to be thrown off, on account of the design.
At other times it may be necessary that one-eighth, or one-fourth, or
even one-half of the whole number shall be dropped for this purpose.
For instance, suppose we have a dressgoods design of 596 threads and a
600 machine. These four ends left off the 600, if in 6, 7, 8, or more
inches in width, would not affect the fabric nor the cost to any great
extent; hence we may leave out the first or last four needles of the
600.

Suppose we have a texture of 100 in the comber-board, to lower to 66
ends per inch. 66 ends, or the nearest even part of 100 (66-2/3) is 2/3
of 100; hence, we only need two-thirds of our machine; and as the same
is supposed to be arranged 12 rows deep, we need 2/3 of 12 rows, or 8
rows. The four rows thus found necessary to drop may be dropped from
the ends, or alternately, as follows:

Every alternate 2 rows taken, 1 row missed, 4 times over, = 12 rows.
Or, 2 rows missed, 8 rows taken, 2 rows missed, = 12 rows.


Comber-boards made in Strips and Adjusted afterwards in a Frame.

By these comber-boards which are used to a great advantage on narrow
loom work up to 36 inch fabrics, we can change the texture for the
fabric; for the strips composing the comber-board may be drawn
apart, thus changing the higher texture to lower; whereas in a solid
comber-board this could only be done by re-tying the harness or
changing the number of needles used in the machine. To give a clear
understanding Figs. XVIII., XIX., XX. are needed.

Fig. XVIII. represents an 8-row deep comber-board, _a_, _b_, _c_, _d_,
composed of 10 strips which are set close together. By examining each
strip 5 cross-rows of holes will be found, making the whole number of
holes 400.

Suppose the comber-board as represented in Fig. XVIII. is intended for
a texture of 100 ends per inch; this will give for the width of the
fabric (_i_, _k_, to _l_, _m_,) 4 inches.

[Illustration: Fig. XIX.]

[Illustration: Fig. XVIII.]

In Fig. XIX. the comber-board is arranged for a texture of half as many
ends, or 50 holes per inch, and the 10 strips are arranged accordingly;
the empty places between the strips are of same size as the strips
themselves, and the fabric design below the comber-board is arranged to
correspond.

[Illustration: Fig. XX.]

Fig. XX. illustrates the sectional cut of the comber-board used in
drawings, Figs. XVIII. and XIX., and the letters indicating the
different parts of these figures which correspond.


Divisions of the Comber-board.

Under this heading we classify one repeat of the arrangement of
threading harness-cords in the comber-board, and therefore one repeat
of the design of the fabric. We find fabrics in which are used one
or more divisions of one system of threading harness-cords in the
comber-board; again, there are others in which one or more divisions of
one system are combined with one or more divisions of another, or even
of two or three other systems.


Heddles for the Jacquard Harness.

[Illustration: Fig. XXI.]

After the harness-cords are threaded through the comber-board the
heddles are adjusted. Of these there are two kinds:

_A._ The twine heddle, containing the mail for holding the warp-thread.

_B._ The wire heddle, similar in its construction to the regular
heddle, used in the common harness-loom. These are very little used,
and only in fabrics of a low texture.

Fig. XXI. illustrates a regular twine heddle one-fourth of its actual
size.

_b_ represents the mail, through the eye of which the warp-threads are
passed.

_a_, the adjustment of the heddle to the harness-cord.

_c_ indicates part of the lingo for weighting the heddle.

[Illustration: Fig. XXII.]

Fig. XXII. illustrates the method observed for combining heddle and
harness-cords. _a_, the guide-board, to get the mails regular in
height; _b_, the knot combining heddle and harness-cord. [See _a_ in
Fig. XXI.] _c_, the mail. _d_, the lingo.

[Illustration: Fig. XXIII.]

Fig. XXIII. illustrates the average position of the mail in a loom.
_a_, breast-beam of the loom. _c_, the warp-beam or guide-beam over
which the warp runs on its way towards the harness. _b_, the position
of the heddle. _d_, the lingo.


The “Leasing” of the Harness.

[Illustration: Fig. XXIV.]

This requires a clear conception of the rotation in which the different
heddles are threaded, according to the tie-up employed. Two methods are
in use: 1st. The heddle nearest the weaver is the first to be threaded,
and the heddle of the same row in rear of the comber-board is the last.
2d. This principle reversed, thus arranging the leasing from rear to
front.

The latter method is the one most generally observed. Every row in
depth of comber-board is leased separately, and in rotation secured
to the lease-twines, _a_ and _b_, in Fig. XXIV., thus forming an
uninterrupted line of heddles through the entire Jacquard harness.
Through these heddles the warp is afterwards drawn in rotation.



TYING-UP OF JACQUARD HARNESS.


1. The Straight-Through Tie-up.

This tie-up contains in its principle the foundation of all the others.
Three methods are in common use, which we will now explain.


1st. The Jacquard Harness threaded on the machine in the direction from
Front to Rear.

This tie-up is represented in Fig. XXV.

[Illustration: Fig. XXV.]

As mentioned in the heading of this article, the Jacquard harness,
or the leashes, are fastened to the machine in rotation from front
to rear, the threading of the comber-board being done from rear to
front. The comber-board is in three divisions. The machine used for
illustrating is a 400 Jacquard 8-row machine, and the comber-board used
is also 8 rows deep. This method of tying-up of the leashes forms what
is technically known as “open harness.” As the drawing is designed to
explain a 400 machine, 8 rows drawn in the comber-board, also 8 rows
deep, one row in height of the cylinder will equal one row in depth on
the comber-board. In examining the illustration the eye must follow the
line connecting the numbers on the neck-cords to the corresponding
numbers near the holes on the comber-board. If this be done, the
tie-up will readily explain itself. It will also explain the method of
procedure if a machine is used containing a different number of needles
and hooks, and a comber-board having as many rows in depth as there
are griffe-bars in the machine. For example, a 600 machine, with 12
griffe-bars, needs for this tie-up a comber-board 12 rows deep; and a
200 machine, with 8 griffe-bars, requires a comber-board 8 rows deep,
etc., etc.

[Illustration: Fig. XXVI.]

The drawing shows a comber-board with 3 divisions, each division
furnishing one harness-cord to each neck-cord, making in all three
harness-cords to every neck-cord. The same tie-up will apply should the
drawing contain a different number of divisions. The illustration shows
only the first and last rows of each division in the comber-board, and
also the first and last rows of neck-cords.

The design below the drawing represents a damask fabric to be executed
on this tie-up, requiring the whole number of needles for one repeat
of the pattern of 400 threads. In designing for these tie-ups it is
necessary to arrange the design to repeat itself in the number of
needles that will be used in producing the fabric. The first and last
threads must connect with each other, without interruption, forming
a continuous design over all the divisions. Thus we find, in fabric
design of a damask towel, Fig. XXVI., the repeat (division) from _A_
to _B_. In the centre of the design marked _a_, and the main part of
the border marked _c_, we find one repeat; whereas borders _b_ and _b´_
repeat 8 times.

In the fabric illustrated by design, Fig. XXVII., again a damask
towel, the repeat, or one division, is also indicated by _A_ to _B_.
The centre of the fabric, _a_, repeats twice in one division; borders
_b_ and _b´_ repeat four times in the same distance; whereas the main
design of the border indicated by _c_ requires one complete division.

[Illustration: Fig. XXVII.]


2d. The Jacquard Harness threaded on the machine from Rear to Front.

[Illustration: Fig. XXVIII.]

This is the second method for the straight-through tie-up, and is
illustrated in Fig. XXVIII. The Jacquard harness is fastened to the
machine, at the neck-cords, from rear to front. The threading of the
comber-board is also from rear to front. In this method the work of
attaching the leashes to the neck-cords is commenced in the rear
instead of the front of the machine, thus giving a different view and
arrangement of the tie-up. This disposition of the threads is called a
“sectional harness arrangement.”

The illustration shows a 400 Jacquard or 8-row machine, in connection
with an 8-row deep comber-board, with one row in the comber-board
requiring a corresponding row on the face of the cylinder. It will also
explain the method of procedure with this tie-up in Jacquard machines
with comber-boards of different sizes.

Fig. XXIX. represents the perforated board at the bottom of the
machine through which the neck-cords pass, attaching the leash to the
neck-cords. The first row, containing neck-cords numbered 1, 2, 3,
4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, and the 50th row, containing those numbered 393,
394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, and 400, are the only ones shown in Fig.
XXVIII. illustrating the tie-up. The comber-board is divided into
four sections; hence, the drawing, as represented in Fig. XXVIII.,
calls for a fabric with 1600 ends in width. 400 ends, or any number
dividing into 400, can be used for the repeat of the pattern. The
method followed in the illustration may be applied to any size of
Jacquard machine, and also to any required number of divisions in the
comber-board.

[Illustration: Fig. XXIX.]

In ascertaining the number of hooks or needles for one repeat of the
design, determine accurately if the repeat of the weave employed for
binding _the ground_ or the figure divides evenly into this number. For
example, take bottom board, Fig. XXIX., calling for 400 hooks and 400
needles. Suppose the ground weave to be an 8-leaf satin, and the design
to repeat once in the 400 hooks. 400 ÷ 8 = 50 repeats, showing an equal
division But suppose a 12-leaf satin is used; it is obvious that 12 is
not an even factor of 400, as the division shows a remainder of 4. To
dispose of this remainder two methods are open:

First. Omit last 4 ends and use only 396 hooks, a multiple of 12,
giving 33 repeats; or,

Second. Add 8 hooks from the reserve rows, elsewhere previously alluded
to, thus increasing the number to 408, which is also a multiple of 12,
giving 34 repeats.


3d. The Straight-Through Tie-up on the English System.

The English system, which is widely used, has the Jacquard machine so
adjusted upon the loom as to have the cylinder lengthways, running in
the same direction as the comber-board; or, what is the same thing,
running in the direction of the width of the fabric. [See Fig. XXX.]

[Illustration: Fig. XXX.]

The 8 hooks of one cross-row (one hook from each of the 8 griffe-bars)
run in the direction from the cloth beam towards the warp beam.
Having the same number of rows in depth, in comber-board as there
are griffe-bars, one may readily see the advantages of this tie-up.
The first row in depth of the comber-board contains harness-cords
from neck-cords 1 to 8. The second row deep of comber-board contains
harness-cords from neck-cords 9 to 16, finishing each division on the
last (25th) row, with harness-cords from neck-cords 193 to 200.

Should we have a 600 machine, with 12 rows, the comber-board would also
have 12 rows, as the 600 machine contains 12 griffe-bars. The first row
of the comber-board receives the harness-cords from Nos. 1 to 12; the
second row from Nos. 13 to 24, and so on, finishing on the last (50th)
row of comber-board with 589 to 600.


II. Straight-Through Tie-up for Repeated Effects, in one Repeat of the
Design.

This method of arranging the tying-up of the Jacquard harness is based
upon the necessity for producing patterns having a larger number of
warp-threads than the Jacquard used has needles. The principle to be
observed is found in producing small effects which repeat themselves in
the general design.

The number of cords for the leashes depends upon the frequency with
which these repeats occur. Fabrics with stripe effects offer greater
opportunities for reducing the number of hooks and needles than other
designs. Fig. XXXI. illustrates such a design with its tie-up, using
a 400 Jacquard machine with 8 rows. The pattern shows four distinct
effects, as follows:

_A_, requiring rows 1 to 16, inclusive; or harness-cords 1 to 128,
inclusive.

_B_, requiring rows 17 to 21, inclusive; or harness-cords 129 to 168,
inclusive.

_C_, requiring rows 22 to 34; or harness-cords 169 to 272, inclusive.

_D_, requiring rows 35 to 50; or harness-cords 273 to 400, inclusive.

In this fabric we find 2 full repeats of the design: first, _E_ to
_F_; second, _E´´_ to _F´´_, thus requiring two divisions in the
comber-board, as indicated by the vertical line between _F_ and _E´´_.

[Illustration: Fig. XXXI.]

The next subject to consider is the different arrangement of repeated
effects in one division. Commence at the left-hand side of the fabric
sketch with effect _A_, which repeats only once in one pattern or one
division. The illustration shows two divisions, and also that each hook
of rows 1 to 16, inclusive, in the first division can be connected with
each hook of rows 1 to 16, inclusive, in the second division, because
these rows produce the same effect in the design, which repeats itself
in these two places. This connection forms what is technically called a
leash, and it will always be found that for every harness-cord a leash
contains, there will be found a repeat in the design to correspond.

Effect _B_ is repeated four times in the design, or in each division.
By having two divisions for the illustration we find that to produce
the necessary repeats in the design each hook of rows 17 to 21,
inclusive, requires 8 harness-cords to each leash.

Effect _C_ repeats twice in one pattern or one division. Having two
divisions for the illustration, each hook of row 22, including row 34,
requires 4 harness-cords to each leash.

Effect _D_ repeats once in pattern, once in division. This will give a
result similar to _A_, two divisions, row 35, including row 50, with
two harness-cords to each leash. This tie-up illustrates the first row
of every effect, and also the last leash, 400.

Adding the number of warp-threads in the full repeat of the pattern, we
have:

    Effect A = 128 threads.
      "    B =  40   "
      "    C = 104   "
      "    B =  40   "
      "    D = 128   "
      "    B =  40   "
      "    C = 104   "
      "    B =  40   "
              ----
               624 threads.

Or, in other words, we are producing with a “straight-through tie-up
for repeated effects” on a 400 Jacquard machine, a design, which would
require a 600 machine on a common straight-through tie-up, including
the two reserve rows, or 624 needles; in other words, a saving is made
of 224 needles in one full repeat of the pattern.

In designing for looms tied up for similar styles, the repeats of
effects must be kept in mind. The general style of every design may be
changed, but the arrangement of the repeated effects cannot be altered
without changing the entire Jacquard harness.


III. Straight-Through Tie-up of a Jacquard Loom having Front Harness
Attached.

As mentioned in the beginning of this work, every Jacquard machine
contains two reserve rows, which may be used for various purposes.
One of the purposes to which these rows are frequently put is the
enlargement of the design of the fabric by using harness on the front
of the comber-board, technically known as “front harness.” For example,
in damask table-cloths, we may use the Jacquard harness for producing
the border of the fabric. The centre part may be produced with front
harness, forming a checkerboard, or some similar effect. This process
may be reversed by designing the centre of the table-cloth for the
Jacquard harness, and the border for the front harness.

[Illustration: Fig. XXXII.]

A third method is to design part of the centre and part of the border
for the Jacquard harness, the other parts being designed for the front
harness. This tie-up is also used to a great extent in the manufacture
of dressgoods, etc., where stripe effects produced by the front
harness, alternate with floral or geometrical designs produced by the
Jacquard harness.

In Fig. XXXIII. the centre of a table-cloth cover is shown to further
illustrate this method of tying-up. One-half of the width of the design
is for the Jacquard harness; the other half is for the front harness.
To produce the required checkerboard effect these front harness are
used here in two distinct sets.

The 1st set = 5 harness, working on the 5-leaf satin warp for face,
alternating with the

2d set = 5 harness, working on the 5-leaf satin filling for face.

If only 8 front harness should be used for the design, we should have
the

1st set = 4 harness, working on the 4 harness broken twill warp for
face.

2d set = 4 harness, working on the 4 harness broken twill filling for
face.

Set 1 to alternate with set 2 to form the check. Care must be taken
that the number of checks formed by the front harness are evenly
arranged to the figured part of the fabric. For example, Fig. XXXIII.,
in the front harness part of the design shows 5 warp checks and 5
filling checks in one row, = 10 checks.

[Illustration: Fig. XXXIII.]

Suppose 10 front harness are used and 20 warp-threads allowed for each
check; then 20 × 10 = 200 warp-threads, all used for effects by the
front harness.

This requires 200 warp-threads for figure effects to be used by the
Jacquard harness.

The repeat of the pattern is therefore 400 warp-threads, which is
produced by straight-through tie-up, front harness attached, with 200
hooks and needles for FIGURE PART of the design, _plus_ 10 hooks and
needles for CHECKERBOARD PART of the fabric taken from the 16 hooks and
needles of 2 reserve rows, leaves 6 hooks and needles for selvedge, etc.

As previously stated, the front harness may be used for dressgoods
fabrics. In this way the design may be enlarged to any required extent.

Fig. XXXII. illustrates this method, using an 8-row Jacquard machine,
with 4 front harness adjusted, in common use for the manufacture of
dressgoods fabrics, damasks, etc.

[Illustration: Fig. XXXIV.]

Fig. XXXIV. shows a fabric designed for dressgoods forming an
all-over-set pattern. In this design parts _F_ and _F´´_ must be
executed with the Jacquard leashes; parts _G_ and _G_ can be executed
with front harness. For example: parts _F_ and _F´´_ require each 100
hooks, the ground part to be woven in 4 harness broken twill. We find
the answer as to number of warp-threads in the repeat and number of
hooks required for weaving as follows:

    _F_   = 100 threads.
    _G_   = 100  "     (because covering the same distance as _F_
                        in part of the fabric.)
    _F´´_ = 100  "
    _G_   = 100  "
            ---
            400 warp threads in repeat.

    _F_   = 100 hooks.
    _F´´_ = 100  "
            ---
            200 hooks for figure.
              4 hooks for weaving the ground, front harness.
            ---
            204 hooks required to weave design, Fig. XXXIV.,
                repeating with 400 warp-threads.


IV. The Centre Tie-up.

[Illustration: Fig. XXXV.]

The centre tie-up, also called the point tie-up, has for its purpose
the enlargement of the design in fabrics such as table-covers,
dressgoods, etc. This tie-up resembles in its principle that of a
common point-draw on the harness-loom. After drawing from front to
rear once straight through the entire set of harness, draw from rear
to front and repeat. The only difference between harness-work and
Jacquard work is in the fact, that with harness we commence to draw in
from the first harness straight through to the last, _A_ to _B_, and
back again, _B_ to _C_; but with the Jacquard tie-up on this method
this is arranged through the threading of the comber-board, having a
straight-through leasing of the heddles and drawing in of the warp.

In Fig. XXXV. there is a clear illustration given of the principle of
the centre tie-up on an 8-row comber-board _A_, _A´_, _B_, _B´_. In
laying out the comber board, it must be divided by the line _C_, _C´_,
into two equal parts, _D_, _C_, and _C_, _D´_. In the part _A_, _A´_,
_C_, _C´_, of the comber-board, we commence threading with leash 1 at
the left-hand rear corner, running in succession towards the centre, as
indicated by the arrow on this part of the comber-board.

In part _B_, _B´_, _C_, _C´_, the threading begins in the opposite
corner, to the right-hand in front, with number 1 leash, threading in
rotation the number of leashes from the front towards the rear, as
again indicated on the figure by an arrow. After leasing and threading
the harness, No. 1 leash will contain in its two mails the first
and the last of the warp-threads, as indicated in Fig. XXXV. by the
numbers, and the rotation by the arrows, _S_ and _S´_.

[Illustration: Fig. XXXVI.]

Fig. XXXVI. represents this centre or point tie-up applied to a 200
Jacquard machine; comber-board, 8 rows deep; two full divisions; _A_,
_B_, the first division; _B_, _D_, the second division; _C_ and _C´_
forming the centre in each division. This machine will, if tied-up
in this manner, produce a design requiring 400 warp-threads. We must
arrange the design for this tie-up so as to repeat forwards and
backwards respectively in the centre. Such a design will run upwards
at a given angle to a definite point, then it will return by the same
angle in an opposite direction until it reaches the base from which it
originally started.

[Illustration: Fig. XXXVII.]

In this manner design, Fig. XXXVII., is constructed. _A_, _B_, _C_,
_C´_, _D_, correspond with the same letters used in Fig. XXXVI.;
hence, it will readily explain itself, as well as the method to be
observed in designing for this kind of tie-up. The design runs straight
through from _A_ to _C_, and repeats itself backwards from _C_ to _B_,
finishing at _B_ the first full division.

    _B-C´_ equal _A-C_,}
    _C´-D_   "   _C-B_,}

forming the second division.

Any changes as to different sizes of machines, rows deep of
comber-board, or number of divisions, must be executed upon the
principle explained in this article.


V. “Straight-Through” and “Point” Tie-ups Combined.

_A.--For fabrics requiring for their centres a straight-through tie-up
and for their borders a point tie-up, one-half division of it for each
border._

These tie-ups are used to a great extent for napkins, handkerchiefs,
scarfs, and similar damask fabrics, in which the centre part of the
fabric is worked on the straight-through method; the borders on each
side on the point tie-up, repeating equally from centre towards the
selvedge. In the other two borders to be woven at the beginning and the
end of the fabric, the same principle is observed, thus producing four
corner squares, only two of which need be designed, as the other two
repeat through the arrangement of the tie-up, which must repeat equally
towards both sides of the border at the connecting places.

[Illustration: Fig. XXXVIII.]

Fig. XXXVIII. illustrates this method of tying-up a 200 machine, using
192 hooks and needles, equal to 24 long rows of a regular 8-row deep
machine. The machine is divided into two sections, as follows:

  Needles  1 to   96 for the  1st section or centre.
    "     97 "   192    "     2d    "      " the border.
  4 repeats of centre,                    = 4 x 96 = 384 ends.
  2 repeats of border, one for each side, = 2 x 96 = 192
                                                    ----
                                                     576 ends in fabric,
                                                 not including selvedge.

[Illustration]

The drawing represents four divisions for the centre, hence four
harness-cords for each leash. The border, having only two repeats
in the fabric, will contain only two harness-cords to one leash. In
the drawing the first full row of the machine is indicated, which
is equal to the first row deep of every centre division; containing
harness-cords 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. We also show (heavy line)
the last centre leash, No. 96 being the last hook of row 12 of the
machine. The borders _A´_ and _A´´_ are from the same design, but
the figure runs in an opposite direction in each one, as indicated
by the arrows in the comber-board above. Border _A´_ commences with
harness-cord from leash 192, ending with harness-cord from leash 97,
near the centre design. Border _A´´_ commences with harness-cord from
leash 97, near the centre design, ending with harness-cord from leash
192 near the selvedge. The great difficulty to be overcome in arranging
these patterns for the loom is in the union of the two tie-ups, the
straight-through and the point.

As previously stated, the borders _A´_ and _A´´_ are made with the
point tie-up, while the remainder of the borders are made with the
straight-through tie-up. The combination of these two tie-ups occurs in
the corner squares of the border, and the arrangement must be such as
will permit the two sides of the corner patterns to properly unite with
the design for the balance of the border.

Ground plan for above fabric: Letters _A_, _C_, _D_, _B_, _F_,
correspond to same letters as used on the outside of fabric design.
_S_, _S´_, _S´´_, _S´´´_, _S´´´´_, also correspond for centre division.

[Illustration: Fig. XXXIX.]

For the purpose of giving a correct comprehension of the foregoing
explanation of tying-up, but under a different arrangement, Fig. XXXIX.
was designed for a 600 machine, having the same arrangement of the
borders, viz.: point tie-up, using one-half division for each side; the
centre a straight tie-up, but employing only one repeat. The following
particulars will explain the entire procedure:

200 needles and hooks are used for borders, point tie-up, once through,
equals 1/2 division for each border. [See letters _B_ and _B´_ on
comber-board.]

[Illustration: Fig. XL.]

400 needles and hooks are used for centre, straight tie-up, one repeat.
[See letter _C_ on comber-board.]

    200 ends for each border, = 400 warp-threads.
              "  centre,      = 400     "
                               ----
                                800 warp-threads.

In the ground plan of the fabric _A_ is the centre; _B_, _B´_, _B´´_,
_B´´´_, borders; _C_, _C´_, _C´´_, _C´´´_, corners.

Fig. XL. is a fabric design executed on this principle: _a_ to _b_,
border; _c_ to _d_, centre; _b_ to _a_, repeat of the first border.


Straight-Through and Point Tie-ups Combined.

_B.--For fabrics requiring for their centres a straight-through tie-up,
and for their border on point tie-up one full division for each border._

This arrangement of both foundation tie-ups resembles the preceding.
The only difference is found in employing the full division of the
centre or point tie-up for each border instead of the half division.

[Illustration: Fig. XLI.]

Fig. XLI. illustrates this method of tying-up adjusted to a 600
Jacquard machine. The centre of the fabric requires 400 needles and
hooks in 6 repeats or divisions, or 400 × 6 = 2400 warp-threads. The
border calls for 204 needles and hooks, point tie-up, one full division
for each side, or 204 × 2 x 2 = 816 warp-threads. The arrangement of
margin and selvedge, as applied on each side, is explained separately
through ground plan of comber-board by fig. XLII. The margin calls for
8 needles and 8 hooks in machine, 6 repeats of same for each side, or
96 warp-threads. The selvedge is formed by 2, 4 or 8 needles, (working
plain), and has 24 heddles for each side or 48 selvedge-threads in
warp. These selvedge ends may, if preferred, be drawn two ends in one
heddle. By adding these different systems of threads we find:

  Centre   = 2400 warp-threads.
  Borders  =  816  "      "    (814  if  point  drawn only once.)
  Margin   =   96  "      "
  Selvedge =   48  "      "
            -----
             3360 threads in warp.

  For the centre part of the fabric, needle and hook  1 to 400 are used.
    "     border      "        "      "       "     401 "  604  "
    "     margin      "        "      "       "     605 "  612  "

Leaving one complete row of the reserve to use for selvedge, etc., if
required.

[Illustration: Fig. XLII.]

[Illustration: Fig. XLIII.]

In drawing, Fig. XLI., we only illustrate centre and border of the
tie-up, so as not to confuse the eye by too many lines, and, as
mentioned at the beginning, employed Fig. XLII. for illustrating
the ground plan for selvedge and margin. In selvedge and margin the
harness-cords are indicated by consecutive numbers, thus:

  Margin,   1 to 48.
  Selvedge, 1 "  24.

  When threading margin in comber-board:
  1,  9, 17, 25, 33, 41, call for the same leash.
  2, 10, 18, 26, 34, 42,      "        "     "
  3, 11, 19, 27, 35, 43,      "        "     "
  4, 12, 20, 28, 36, 44,      "        "     "
  5, 13, 21, 29, 37, 45,      "        "     "
  6, 14, 22, 30, 38, 46,      "        "     "
  7, 15, 23, 31, 39, 47,      "        "     "
  8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48,      "        "     "

  Leashes in centre part of fabric,    1 to 400 call for 6 harness-cords.
    "        border         "        401 "  604      "   4    "      "
    "        margin         "        605 "  612      "  12    "      "
    " for selvedge if using 4 hooks, 613 "  616      "  12    "      "

This tie-up is the one most frequently employed in the manufacture of
damask table-covers. Not only will drawings and explanations lead to
a thorough understanding of the procedure, but they will also readily
show the great variety of textile fabrics to which the principle of
this tie-up may be applied.

Fig. XLIII. illustrates the margin arranged 8 threads for each row,
and 5 rows or 40 threads for each side. The selvedge in this drawing
is illustrated by one complete row of 12 double threads for each
side. The selvedge and margin holes are all represented shaded. The
selvedge is marked _S_ in addition to the number. The five margin rows
are indicated each by figures 1 to 8. The nearest row of border is
also represented, being numbered 401 to 412, corresponding to Fig.
XLI. This method of using only 8 rows of the 12-row deep comber-board
is extensively used in fabrics of a common texture, employing an 8
harness satin for the margin as weave, which repeats once for each row
in comber-board. Besides, a great advantage results from being able to
tie-up 8 leashes threaded 8 rows deep in comber-board to the 8 hooks in
1 row of the machine, which the weave calls for.

[Illustration: Fig. XLIV.]

[Illustration: Fig. XLV.]

Fig. XLIV. and Fig. XLV. represent designs for fabrics executed on this
method of tying-up.

    Fig. XLIV.--_A_ to _B_ = border, _C_ the centre.
                _B_  " _D_ = margin, between centre and border.
                _D_  " _E_ = 1 repeat of the centre, 6 times
                               over in width of fabric.

    Fig.  XLV.--_A_ to _B_ = border, _C_ its centre.
                _B_  " _D_ = centre, 6 times over in width of fabric.


Straight-Through and Point Tie-ups Combined.

_C.--For fabrics having the centre for straight-through, with the
border for straight-through and point tie-ups, (half divisions),
combined._

[Illustration: Fig. XLVI.]

[Illustration: Fig. XLVII.]

This method of tying-up is illustrated in Fig. XLVI., and the
fabric produced in Fig. XLVII. With this method of tying-up is
usually introduced an extra margin for the purpose of separating the
ornamentation of the design, so as to permit of a clearer definition.
This is tied-up on 8 needles and hooks, situated between border and
centre, (24 ends) shown at margin _B_ in the design. The centre of the
fabric, (two divisions only illustrated out of ten actually used), is
tied-up on the straight-through method, requiring for its working,
harness-cords 1 to 240. The border has the point tie-up in half
sections; these half sections have a straight-through tie-up design in
its centre. Harness-cords 241 to 456 are used for the straight-through
section, and 457 to 600 for the point tie-up section. The margin is
produced by harness-cords 601 to 608, leaving 16 needles and hooks
of the machine unemployed, which may be used for selvedge or other
purposes. The drawing of this tie-up and fabric illustrates only the
right-hand side. The complete design requires, in addition to the
borders and margins, 10 divisions or repeats in the centre. The figure
shows only two of these repeats and border and margins of one side. The
number of ends in the fabric is found as follows:

  Centre, 10 × 240                                   = 2400 ends.

  Border, {point,    4 × 144 = 576}                  = 1008  "
          {straight, 2 × 216 = 432}

  Margin, {between border and centre,   24 × 2 = 48} =  144  "
          {between border and selvedge, 48 × 2 = 96}

  Selvedge, not indicated in drawing of tie-up,      =   48  "
                                                       ----
                                                       3620 ends in warp.

Number of harness-cords required for each leash:

    Leashes   1 to 240 = 10 cords to 1 leash.
      "     241  " 456 =  2     "    1   "
      "     457  " 600 =  4     "    1   "
      "     601  " 608 = 18     "    1   "

Selvedge leashes, if worked by 4 needles and hooks, = 12 cords to 1
leash.

[Illustration: Fig. XLVIII.]

Fig. XLVIII., on page 42, illustrates another fabric design to be
executed on this method of tie-up.

  _A_ to _D_ = Border { _A_ to _B_ = point tie-up with _C_ to _D_.
                      { _B_ to _C_ = straight-through part.

  _D_ to _E_ = Centre, first repeat, division, for straight-through.


Straight-Through and Point Tie-ups Combined.

_D.--For fabrics composed of the straight-through tie-up for centre;
the point tie-up, half divisions, and the point tie-up, full divisions,
for borders._

This method of tie-up is used to a great extent in the manufacture
of damask napkins, containing in its centre the monogram of hotels,
restaurants, or private names. This effect is produced by floating the
filling.

[Illustration: Fig. XLIX.]

In this manner, we find tie-up, Fig. XLIX., and fabric sample, Fig.
L., executed, using for explanation a 400 Jacquard machine, certainly
very low texture for these fabrics. In case of a higher texture being
necessary, each effect must be proportionally increased. The machines
most generally used for this class of fabrics are of the 900-1200
denomination.

[Illustration: Fig. L.]

Taking the present tie-up into consideration, we find the centre
for forming the monogram, containing 200 harness-cords tied-up
straight-through the borders on each side of the monogram, is
executed on the point tie-up, one-half section for each side, taking
100 needles and hooks, or harness-cords. The outside border on each
side is executed on the point tie-up, using one complete division of
it for each side; and in addition, 100 harness-cords for the working.
Adding these various divisions of the harness-cords gives the number of
warp-threads as follows, viz.:

  Border, _N_,  100 needles on point    = 200 threads,
                                                (199 if omitting the
                                                 point the second time).
    "     _M_,  100 needles on straight = 100    "
  Centre, _L_,  200   "     "  straight = 200    "
  Border, _M´_, 100   "     "  return   = 100    "
    "     _N´_, 100   "     "  point    = 200    "
                                                (199 if omitting  the
                                        -----    double point.)
                                          800 threads.

For number of harness cords to each leash we find:

    Needles and hooks, 1 to 100 = 4 cords to each leash.
      "           "  101  " 200 = 2   "      "      "
      "           "  201  " 400 = 1 cord     "      "

Fig. LI. illustrates a fabric, damask table-cover, to be executed on
the same principle.

[Illustration: Fig. LI.]

    Margin = _a_ to _b_ and _h_ to _i_.
             { small = {_b_ to _c_ and return _c_ to _d_} Point.
      Border {         {_f_ "  _g_  "     "   _g_ "  _h_}
             {  main =  _d_ "  _e_  "     "   _e_ "  _f_   "
    Centre = 1st division _i_ to _k_, straight-through.

This fabric can also be executed on the tie-up explained through Fig.
XLI., as follows:

    Border = _a_ to _i_ on point tie-up, _e_ for centre or point.
    Centre = 1st division _i_ to _k_, straight-through.


Straight-Through and Point Tie-ups Combined.

_E.--Mixed Tie-up._

Containing in one repeat of the design the straight-through tie-up and
the point tie-up, one full division, for the centre; the point tie-up,
in half divisions, repeating once through on each side of the fabric,
to make the border. These arrangements of tie-ups are used to a great
extent in the manufacture of damask fabrics of every denomination.

The principle of using mixed tie-ups, Fig. LII., is found in the
necessity of producing large designs, containing varied effects, with a
proportionally smaller Jacquard machine. Under whatever management the
straight-through and the point tie-ups are combined, their principle
remains undisturbed. Every time we arrange a Jacquard loom on a mixed
tie-up, we must consider that any subsequent design must be arranged
with reference to the same principle as the one in use, otherwise the
work must all be rearranged, which would have to be done even for the
smallest change in the number of ends for each effect.

[Illustration: Fig. LII.  Fig. LIII.]

Take for illustration a damask fabric, Fig. LIII., handkerchief, bureau
scarf, art square, etc. The details given will make the work quite
plain:

Part of comber-board from _A_ to _B_, or _D_ to _C_, illustrates
one-half of the board and procedure of tying-up. The design below also
shows only one-half of the fabric. Arrow, _G_, near comber-board,
and arrow, _M_, near fabric, are placed to indicate the direction
in which a repeat is obtained. The fabric will form its centre at
_D_, repeating towards each border and selvedge. This is illustrated
in the comber-board by the 1-row deep, outside of line _A_, _D_.
Harness-cords indicated by dotted lines. The threading of this last
mentioned row, as well as the threading of the half division of the
point tie-up, is indicated by arrows _H_ and _K_, forming the centre
by means of harness-cords 193 and 193. The straight-through tie-up
part of the fabric is found between _E_ and _F_, containing 12 repeats
in the centre, and also the same number in the lower border. In the
comber-board is illustrated this arrangement, repeating the first row,
containing harness-cords 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, twelve times, and
the last hole of the third row containing harness-cord No. 24, twelve
times. On the bottom of the comber-board these 12 repeats are indicated
by 12 small arrows between parts _E_ to _F_.

The first row in the first division of the straight-through tie-up is
completely threaded; the other eleven have only the harness-cord from
leash 1, as indicated; this is done so as not to confuse the eye with
too many lines. The border of the fabric is arranged for harness-cords
25 to 192 on the point tie-up, having one-half division on each side.
Arrow _L_ indicates the right-hand border. The border on the left
requires the same harness-cords which are threaded in comber-board from
right to left; hence the borders of the fabric contain the same design
repeating from the centre towards the selvedge.

At the beginning we stated that the use of mixed tie-ups made it
possible to employ a smaller size Jacquard machine for large designs
containing various effects. The following analysis of Fig. LII. shows
very clearly how this is done.

Number of warp-ends in one complete repeat in width of the fabric:

    Border, right-hand,   = 168 threads.
    Centre, straight-tie, = 288    "
      "     point-tie,  { = 168    "
                        { = 168    "
      "     straight-tie, = 288    "
    Border, left-hand,    = 168    "
                           ----
                           1248 ends warp in fabric.

Number of needles required to produce the design:

    Border, = 168 needles. Centre on straight-tie, = 24 needles.
    Centre on point-tie, = 168 needles. 360 needles required for
    producing the complete design, thus saving the difference
    between 1248 and 360, or 888 needles; all of which is
    accomplished through the use of the mixed tie-up.

Number of harness-cords required for each leash:

Leashes 1 to 24 contain 24 cords for one repeat of the entire design.
Leashes 25 to 360 contain 2 cords for one repeat of the entire design.
It is not always practicable to reduce the effects in a design to
the lowest possible number of needles. On account of the changes in
styles, it is best to arrange these tie-ups with a view to giving as
much opportunity as possible to the designer. In the present tie-up
experience teaches that it will be more advantageous to arrange the
straight-through tie-up either for 6 divisions to 48 ends each, or 4
divisions to 72 ends each. 360 needles, as figured at the beginning,
require a 400 machine, or, counting reserve rows, 416 needles; hence we
can, without disadvantage, increase 360 needles to 384 or 408, which
will give a greater scope, if required, to make a new design.


VI. The Straight-Through Tie-up in Two Sections.

_A.--Using machine and comber-board in two equal sections._

[Illustration: Fig. LIV.]

This tie-up, Fig. LIV., is used on fabrics having two different
kinds of warp, which, as a rule, are of different colors. One of
these warps is shown working at _B_ in the comber-board, and also at
the bottom-board. The other warp employed for the figure effect is
shown working at _A_. Fabrics that are made on this tie-up can also
be made on the common straight-through; but the work of designing
and card stamping will be largely increased. In the illustration
all the figure-threads, and also all the threads used for the
weave (binder-threads) can be designed without interruption to each
other. The breaking off of the figures is thus avoided, a thing
quite impossible where the regular straight-through tie-up is used.
The drawing given herewith represents this straight-through tie-up
in sections applied to a 200 Jacquard machine. The reserve rows are
omitted. The machine and the comber-board, it will be observed, are
divided into two even parts. In one part, the rear of _A_, of the
comber-board we thread only in the leashes from needles 1 to 100,
and in the other part, front of _B_, from needles 101 to 200. Hence,
the first row of the comber-board contains leashes 1 to 4 and 101 to
104; the second row will contain leashes 5 to 8 and 105 to 108; the
third row will contain leashes 9 to 12 and 109 to 112, and so on, each
division finishing on the last row (25th) with leashes 97 to 100 and
197 to 200.

The leasing of the threads is always done by alternately threading the
harness-cords of section _A_ with section _B_. Hence, first thread of
the warp draws in first mail of leash No. 1; second thread of the warp
draws in first mail of leash No. 101; third thread of the warp draws
in first mail of leash No. 2; fourth thread of the warp draws in first
mail of leash No. 102.

[Illustration: Fig. LV.]

Fig. LV., a fabric design for cloaking for straight-through tie-up in
two sections. _A_, face warp, black silk; _B_, back warp, black cotton.


_B. Using two machines and a comber-board having equal sections._

[Illustration: Fig. LVI.]

Sometimes two or more machines are employed in producing fabrics having
two systems of warps; each machine working on its own system. In this
manner Fig. LVI. is executed, representing a straight-through tie-up
arranged for two Jacquard machines, _S_ and _H_, in which the warp is
drawn in the Jacquard harness as follows: one end from machine _S_,
one end from machine _H_. For explanation two 100 Jacquard machines
are used for the purpose of simplifying the arrangements of laying
out and threading the comber-board. A larger Jacquard machine for the
illustrations would require more leashes, and the explanation would be
more difficult.

The comber-board, _a_, _b_, _c_, _d_, is divided into two equal parts,
_S_ and _H_. Each part containing the harness-cord for one machine
only. The drawing of the tie-up is arranged for two divisions, and also
readily explains any tie-up for more divisions.

The leasing of the Jacquard harness, _K_, is arranged (as illustrated
in the drawing by leash-rods _p_ and _r_) to commence as follows:

1st end: harness-cord fastened to No. 1 needle of machine, _S_; 2d end
to No. 1º needle of machine, _H_; 3d end to No. 2 needle of machine,
_S_; 4th end to No. 2º needle of machine, _H_; 5th end to No. 3 needle
of machine, _S_; 6th end to No. 3º needle of machine, _H_; 7th end to
No. 4 needle of machine, _S_; 8th end to No. 4º needle of machine, _H_.

These eight ends, forming the first complete row of the comber-board,
will use the first row of both machines; the second row of the
comber-board will use the second row of both machines; and so on,
until every row of the comber-board, with corresponding row of the
Jacquard machine, is taken up. In the drawing we have indicated, as
usual, besides the first row, the last row of the machine and the
comber-board; or, in other words, we show the threading of

  Warp end 193: harness-cord fastened to No. 97 needle of harness _S_.
     "     194:       "         "        "   97º    "       "     _H_.
     "     195:       "         "        "   98     "       "     _S_.
     "     196:       "         "        "   98º    "       "     _H_.
     "     197:       "         "        "   99     "       "     _S_.
     "     198:       "         "        "   99º    "       "     _H_.
     "     199:       "         "        "  100     "       "     _S_.
     "     200:       "         "        "  100º    "       "     _H_.

This method of using two Jacquard machines, on the principle explained,
is employed on Jacquard looms for dressgoods figured with an extra
warp, on upholstery goods, and similar textile fabrics.

[Illustration: Fig. LVII.]

Fig. LVII. shows a fabric design for a curtain, to be executed on the
straight-through tie-up in two sections.


_C.--Using one machine and one comber-board: the machine unequally
divided and the comber-board equally divided._

To explain, take the regular upholstery fabric tie-up known as “petty
point,” on a 600 machine 12 rows in depth. 600 ÷ 12 = 50 + 2 rows
reserve = 52 rows in width. We find used--

     1 row for selvedge.
    10 rows for binders (_B_).
    41 rows for figure (_A_).
    --
    52 rows.

41 (rows figure) × 12 (needles for one row) = 492 needles to be used
for figure.

10 (rows binder) × 12 (needles for one row) = 120 needles to be used
for binder.

Suppose we have four divisions in loom, hence, four harness-cords
to one leash, for the figure section, or 492 × 4 = 1968 ends of
warp used for figure. 1968 threads of figure warp require the same
number of threads of ground warp, which must be divided by 120, the
number of needles and hooks set apart for it in the machine, or--as
each needle and hook carries one leash--120 leashes. 1968 ÷ 120 = 16
repeats; and 48 leashes, or four rows in the machine, must each have 17
harness-cords carrying 816 threads; and 72 leashes, or six rows in the
machine, must each have 16 harness-cords carrying 1152 threads, = 1968.


VII. Tying-up a Jacquard Harness for Figuring Part of the Design with
an Extra Warp, (part for Two Sections, part for Single).

This tie-up (the character of which is indicated in Fig. LVIII.) is
used for textile fabrics having two distinct warps in part of the
fabric, and a single warp in the remainder, for ground only. It will
readily be seen in the drawing which explains this tie-up that one
part of the fabric will have to contain more ends of warp per inch
than the other, as the figuring is done with an extra warp upon the
regular ground cloth. The number of ends of ground warp per inch will,
as a general rule, be the same throughout the fabric. In Fig. LVIII.,
explaining this method of tying-up, the texture is twice as high in the
figure stripe as in the ground part of the fabric. If 40 ends of warp
per inch are used for the ground, 80 ends per inch must be used in the
figured part, _B_ to _C_, _B´_ to _C´_.

[Illustration: Fig. LVIII.]

A 200 machine is used in the illustration, divided as follows:

    150 needles for the ground over the entire fabric, _A_ to _B´´_.
     50 needles for the figure effects, _B_ to _C_, and _B´_ to _C´_.

The comber-board, therefore, must be arranged accordingly, (2-2/3
divisions in drawing executed). The depth of the comber-board is
divided into two parts: _H_, _M_, _N_, _K_, the first; _M_, _N_, _O_,
_P_, the second. The first contains leashes fastened to neck-cords
attached to needles 151 to 200, or the figure part, _F_ and _F´_; the
second contains leashes fastened to neck-cords attached to the needles
1 to 150, or the ground part for the entire fabric. In the drawing of
lines showing the harness-cords of the Jacquard harness we have only
indicated:

_A._ The ground part, leashes Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4 in rotation, and No.
150. This last leash of the ground warp we have indicated by a heavy
line.

_B._ For the figure part, needles 151 to 200 are used. Leashes 151,
152, 153, 154, are indicated in rotation, also the leash operated by
hook 200; this latter one being also lined more distinctly than the
others.

These explanations readily show how to adapt the tying-up for any
textile fabric made upon this principle to any number Jacquard machine.


VIII. The Straight-Through Tie-up in Three Sections.

The straight-through tie-up in three sections, which is illustrated by
drawings, Figs. LIX. and LX., is largely used in the manufacture of
fancy plushes and velvets, and also in the construction of any other
kinds of fabrics in which the face is figured in three systems of
warps, or in two systems of warps for the face and one system for the
binder.

If it were required, these fabrics could be made on the straight
tie-up, (Figs. XXV., XXVIII. and XXX.), but, as will readily be seen,
they may be worked to much better advantage, both for designing and
card-stamping, upon the method shown here.

[Illustration: Fig. LIX.]

Fig. LIX. illustrates the method of adjusting the leashes to the
neck-cords and threading the comber-board. In the example, we use for
describing the method a 900 Jacquard machine, and follow the English
system for placing it on the loom. The machine is divided into three
sections: Section 1, using hooks and needles 1 to 300; Section 2, using
hooks and needles 301 to 600; Section 3, using hooks and needles 601 to
900, leaving the two reserve rows (generally found in every machine)
out of the illustration.

The comber-board is divided into two divisions lengthways, (but the
same method must be observed if more than two divisions are used), and
also into three sections in its depth. The number of sections in the
comber-board must correspond to the number of sections in the machine.

The threading of the machine is done from the rear towards the front,
and from the left towards the right. The threading of the comber-board
is done in a corresponding manner. 300 ends for each section in one
division, divided by 4 rows deep each section, making 75 cross-rows.
Threading of the Jacquard harness is as follows:

    No. 1 from Section 1, white.
      301   "     "    2, shaded.
      601   "     "    3, black.
        2   "     "    1, white.
      302   "     "    2, shaded.
      602   "     "    3, black.
        3   "     "    1, white.
      303   "     "    2, shaded.
      603   "     "    3, black.
        4   "     "    1, white.
      304   "     "    2, shaded.
      604   "     "    3. black.
        5   "     "    1, white.
      305   "     "    2, shaded.
      605   "     "    3, black.

[Illustration: Fig. LX.]

And so on; all of which are shown separately in Fig. LX.

_R_ and _R´´_ are for the two-lease strings; _S_, the successive
order of threads; _S´´_, the number of leashes. Hooks and needles
correspond with drawing _A_. White warp-threads indicate section 1;
shaded warp-threads, section 2; black warp-threads, section 3. The fine
lines in Fig. LIX. indicate the leashes for the first row deep of the
comber-board; the heavy lines indicate the last leash for each section.

Fig. LXI. illustrates a fabric designed for this tie-up. The various
small star effects are arranged on the principle of the 5-leaf satin.

[Illustration: Fig. LXI.]


IX. The Point Tie-up in Three Sections.

This method of tying-up Jacquard looms shows the point tie-up applied
to the three-section arrangement, on the same principle as the
straight-through in paragraph VIII.

[Illustration: Fig. LXII.]

Fig. LXII. shows the comber-board divided into three distinct sections,
marked _I._, _II._ and _III._ For explanation, take a 300 machine;
allow 100 needles and hooks for each section, distributed as follows:
Section I., 1 to 100; Section II., 101 to 200; Section III., 201 to
300. Each section contains 200 warp-threads; and the complete division
of three sections, 600 threads. The threading of three sections,
illustrated in Fig. LX., is applied to the present tie-up, as follows:

    1st end, from section   I., attached to No.   1 harness-cord.
    2d   "       "         II.,    "       "    101    "
    3d   "       "        III.,    "       "    201    "
    4th  "       "          I.,    "       "      2    "
    5th  "       "         II.,    "       "    102    "
    6th  "       "        III.,    "       "    202    "
    7th  "       "          I.,    "       "      3    "
    8th  "       "         II.,    "       "    103    "
    9th  "       "        III.,    "       "    203    "  And so on.


X. Combination Tie-up in Two Sections. (“Tie-up Amalgamate.”)

[Illustration: Fig. LXIII.]

This tie-up illustrates the point tie-up and the straight-through
combined on the two-section system. In Fig. LXIII., a 600 machine is
used for illustration; the comber-board being divided into two parts:
_a_, _b_, _c_, _d_, for No. 1 section; _e_, _f_, _g_, _h_, for No. 2
section.

No. 1 section requires the use of needles and hooks 1 to 200 on the
straight-through principle, four divisions, taking 800 warp-threads.

No. 2 section requires the use of needles and hooks 201 to 600 on
the point principle, one division, taking 800 warp-threads. The two
sections thus use 1600 warp-threads in one repeat.

The threading of the harness is as follows: 1-201, 2-202, 3-203, etc.,
ending with 200-201.

This tie-up, as well as any changes in the arrangement and the number
of needles, (but not changed in its principle), is used for double
color figures of warps of large design, with a small all-over figure
effect (No. 1 section) for the ground. Fig. LXIV. is executed on this
tie-up.

[Illustration: Fig. LXIV.]


XI. The Straight-Through Tie-up in Four Sections.

Fig. LXV. shows 384 needles and hooks of the Jacquard machine, threaded
in four sections in comber-board, _A_, _B_, _C_, _D_. The threading of
comber-board is as follows:

[Illustration: Fig. LXV.]

    1st, No. 1 leash in section 1.
    2d,   "  2   "       "      2.
    3d,   "  3   "       "      3.
    4th,  "  4   "       "      4.
    5th,  "  5   "       "      1.
    6th,  "  6   "       "      2.
    7th,  "  7   "       "      3.
    8th,  "  8   "       "      4.
    9th,  "  9   "       "      1.

And so on. The threading of the harness is explained below the
comber-board, _l_ and _m_ indicating the leash-strings; and
warp-threads 1, 2, 3, 4, from leashes 1, 2, 3, 4, are indicated as
threaded.

384 times 4 divisions make 1536 warp-threads.


XII. Tying-up of Jacquard Looms with Compound Harness attached.

Tying-up of Jacquard looms with extra compound harness, consists in
applying two separate systems of harness in the loom. The warp-threads,
after having passed through the Jacquard harness, are passed through
harness in front. Each system of harness performs special duty,
although they are both working the same warp. The Jacquard harness
is used for forming the general design on a large scale; the second
harness divides this pattern into detail, (twills, satins, or any other
desired weave). The above tie-up is necessary in the manufacture of
rich damasks and similar fabrics, where a large number of warp-ends
is required, with a correspondingly small number of picks per inch.
Suppose a damask fabric to contain 300 ends warp per inch, with only
75 picks per inch; or in the proportion of 4 to 1. Now, to employ this
principle of making four ends warp equal to one filling, the size of
the design would be produced in the fabric, but the richness, and also
the fineness, of the face of the fabric would be entirely lost. To
prevent this it should be the object of the designer to keep the fine
warp-threads entirely on the surface, to interweave the proportion
of ends varying between warp and filling (as in example above, four
warp-threads) separately. This principle of textures requires the
compound harness to be attached; or, in other words, a machine must be
used which is capable of raising not only every alternate thread, but
every third, fourth, or eighth thread, if required, for the formation
of the body of the cloth.

Fig. LXVI. illustrates as plainly as possible the principle of
tying-up to do this work, using a 100 Jacquard machine for figuring,
comber-board threaded in three divisions, four heddles to each leash,
eight compound harnesses.

[Illustration: Fig. LXVI.]

[Illustration: Fig. LXVII.]

In the tying-up of Jacquard harness four heddles to one leash are
generally used, as illustrated at _c_, in Fig. LXVI.; each heddle
containing one warp-thread. Fig. LXVII. shows the arrangement of these
four warp-threads, when using only one heddle to each leash, but in
which the mail contains four eyes. This method is less frequently
employed. Instead of using a 100 machine, as in Fig. LXVI.,

  A 200 machine (straight-through) will require 800 warp-threads
                                                    for each division.
    300    "        "        "      "      "   1200    "    "    "
    400    "        "        "      "      "   1600    "    "    "
    600    "        "        "      "      "   2400    "    "    "
    900    "        "        "      "      "   3600    "    "    "
   1200    "        "        "      "      "   4800    "    "    "

To change the tie-up principle from the straight-through method
to the point method, taking a 1200 machine using four heddles per
harness-cord, 9600 warp-threads will be required for each division for
repeat of pattern.

This little example plainly shows the great advantage of this method of
tying-up looms for making the finest damasks, etc.

To explain the general method of this tie-up, commence with Fig. LXVI.,
which represents a 100 machine, three divisions, four heddles to one
leash, eight compound harnesses.

It will not be necessary to explain the threading of the comber-board,
as this is always done on the same plain principles. The four heddles
of the first row deep of comber-board emerge below the board at the
beginning of the first division, marked _a_, _a´_, _a´´_, _a´´´_. The
first row deep in comber-board in the first division, and the last row
deep in comber-board in the third division only are shown; but as these
two rows also indicate the first and last rows in the Jacquard machine,
and as the principle of _a_, _a´_, _a´´_, _a´´´_, and _b_, _b´_, _b´´_,
_b´´´_, has to be observed in every one of these 75 rows deep in width
of comber-board _E´_ to _E´´_ taken, it will explain the tie-up for
the entire number. At _c_, in leash _a_, four distinct heddles are
adjusted; the same thing is repeated in every one of the eight leashes
extended in drawing below the comber-board, giving in return, thus:
four heddles and three divisions in a 100 machine = 4 × 3 × 100, or
1200 warp-threads for the entire fabric.

Now, following the first heddle downwards on leash 1, _a_, _c_,
marked on drawing, _d_, (indicated by dotted lines), No. 1 harness of
the compound harness, _H_, is reached. The cross X on this harness
indicates that the warp-thread drawn through mail fastened on heddle,
_d_, must also be drawn through No. 1 harness; the next heddle from the
same leash will reach No. 2 harness; and so on until No. 4 harness is
taken up, which will finish No. 1 harness-cord of No. 1 leash in the
first division. The second harness-cord, _a´_, will use harness 5, 6,
7, 8; the third harness-cord, _a´´_, will use harness 1, 2, 3, 4, over
again, as used by a; the fourth harness-cord, _a´´´_, will use harness
5, 6, 7, 8, over again, as used by _a´_.

Continue in this manner until leash 100 in the first division on
harness 5, 6, 7, 8, is finished. The second and third divisions
strictly repeat the first.

[Illustration: Fig. LXVIII.]

Fig. LXIX. represents the side elevation for Fig. LXVI. In both
of these drawings some of the letters and figures correspond, as
follows: harness-cords _a_, _a´_, _a´´_, _a´´´_, in first row deep of
comber-board, _E_, _E´_. _H_ shows compound harness set 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8; figures 1, 2, 3, 4, on top of comber-board represent the first
row deep from the front elevation in drawing.

New letters: _B_, the warp-beam; _Z_, the lease of the warp formed by
rods, _Z´_ and _Z´´_; _O_, the distance between the Jacquard harness
and compound harness set, _H_. _D_, the shed, as formed in loom when
weaving. For illustration of this shed pick No. 7 in Fig. LXVIII.,
shows that leashes 2 and 3, or _a´_ and _a´´_, are raised at the same
time. Leashes 1 and 4, or _a_ and _a´´´_, are not raised.

The principle of forming the shed for picking the shuttle will be more
particularly explained later on by Figs. LXX. to LXXV.

[Illustration: Fig. LXIX.]

At _c_, in Fig. LXIX., the beginning of the shed is shown; also the
last woven part of the fabric, _c_, _c´_, _c´´_, which is indicated
as passing around the breast-beam, _F_. _L_, _L´_, _L´´_, _L´´´_,
indicate leashes 1, 2, 3, 4, extending to the Jacquard machine towards
neck-cords 1, 2, 3, 4.

[Illustration: Fig. LXX.]

Fig. LXX. represents a warp-thread forming the bottom part of a shed.
Mail, _L_, and harness, _H_, occupy a position similar to that of mail
and harness for warp-thread passing through No. 1 heddle of leash _a_,
and harness 1 in Fig. LXIX.

  Warp-thread  passing through leash
  No. 2,               _a_,    and harness 2, in Fig. LXIX. is the same.
   "  4,               _a_,          "     4,      "    "       "
   " 13,            _a´´´_,          "     5,      "    "       "
   " 15,            _a´´´_,          "     7,      "    "       "
   " 16,            _a´´´_,          "     8,      "    "       "

[Illustration: Fig. LXXI.]

Fig. LXXI. shows a warp-thread forming part of the top shed by raising
the leash; hence mail, _L_, is shown raised. The compound harness is
supposed to be resting, which allows the warp-thread to slide up to the
height of the required size of shed. This figure illustrates plainly
the following warp-threads in Fig. LXIX.

  Warp-thread  passing through leash
    No. 5,            _a´_,    and harness 5, in Fig. LXIX. is the same.
     "  7,            _a´_,         "      7,      "    "       "
     "  8,            _a´_,         "      8,      "    "       "
     "  9,           _a´´_,         "      1,      "    "       "
     " 10,           _a´´_,         "      2,      "    "       "
     " 12,           _a´´_,         "      4,      "    "       "

[Illustration: Fig. LXXII.]

Fig. LXXII. illustrates the side view of a warp-thread where the hook
of the Jacquard is not raised; hence, the mail remains in its resting
place. Following the warp-thread towards _c_, the compound harness is
shown raised, thus forming part of the top of a shed. This figure is
designed to show the passage of the warp-thread through mail No. 3 of
leash _a_, and harness No. 3, in Fig. LXIX.

[Illustration: Fig. LXXIII.]

Fig. LXXIII. illustrates a thread forming part of a lower shed. In the
drawing the mail is raised, but at the same time the heddle of harness
is lowered, compelling the thread to rest on the bottom of the lay.
This figure is designed to show warp-thread passing through mail No. 6,
of leash _a´_, and harness No. 6, in Fig. LXIX.

Fig. LXXIV. is a side view of a thread forming the upper part of a shed
where mail and harness have been raised the same as in Fig. LXIX., the
warp-thread passing through mail No. 11 of leash, _a´´_, and harness
No. 3.

Fig. LXXV. illustrates mail not raised and harness down. This change is
not necessary in Fig. IV.; the warp-thread forming the lower part of
the shed.

[Illustration: Fig. LXXIV.]

[Illustration: Fig. LXXV.]

In Figs. LXX. to LXXV. the following letters correspond with the same
letters in Fig. LXIX.: _Z´´_, nearest lease-rod to Jacquard harness;
_D_, shed for picking shuttle; _C_, starting point of shed or last
woven place of fabric.


_The Kind of Heddles Required for Compound Harness._

The eyes of these heddles are much longer than those of common heddles.
They must be sufficiently long to allow the six movements illustrated
in Fig. LXX. to LXXV., hence the height of these heddle eyes will
influence the height of the shed.


_Working the Compound Harness by a Separate Machine._

For working compound harness a separate small witch-loom is generally
used, thus saving, to a great extent, the Jacquard cards. In this
manner the ground may be easily altered without changing any cards, it
being only necessary to change the small set of cards on the witch-loom
controlling one repeat of the body weave for the harness. The number of
picks for the harness can also be readily adjusted to one change in the
Jacquard figure without disturbing the cards of any consequence. For
example: in manufacturing a damask fabric, suppose four harness picks
make one change of figure in the Jacquard machine, and it is necessary
to reduce these four picks to one change of figure, on account of
having to use some heavier filling, or other similar reason; this
alteration can be easily made when using two separate machines.


_Number of Compound Harness to Use._

The number of harness used is regulated by the weave required for
raising, and the weave required for lowering.

The number of harness may vary to a large degree, as we may use any
suitable weave from the 4-leaf twill up to the 16-leaf satin. As a
general rule, for fine damasks we use the 8-leaf satin, requiring 8
harness.


_Positions of Compound Harness During Weaving._

There are three distinct positions for the harness: 1st, centre; 2d,
up; 3d, down.

Fig. LXVIII., p. 60, illustrates the 8-leaf satin combining filling and
warp up in one design.


_A few Different Weaves for Working Compound Harness._

[Illustration: Fig. LXXVI.]

[Illustration: Fig. LXXVII. Filling Weave as raised in the upper shed
by harness. [X] Risers. [O] Sinkers.]


[Illustration: Fig. LXXVIII. Warp Weave to interweave in lower shed
through harness. [O] Warp on face. X Warp down.]

[Illustration: Fig. LXXIX. A. Filling up. B. Warp up.]

[Illustration: Fig. LXXX. 5-Leaf Satin. Filling. Warp.]

A great variety of combinations of different weaves for this class of
textile fabrics exist. It is only necessary to illustrate a few more
examples to guide us in finding the principles underlying these changes.

[Illustration: Fig. LXXXI. 7-Leaf Satin. Filling. Warp.]

[Illustration: Fig. LXXXII. 8-Leaf Satin. 8-Harness Broken Twill.
Filling. Warp.]

[Illustration: Fig. LXXXIII. 8-Leaf Satin. 8-Harness Fancy Twill.
Filling. Warp.]

Fig. LXXIX. is an example of warp and filling, binding in a 4-leaf
twill. Both systems are illustrated for a clear understanding: [X] Fig.
_A_, indicates the raising of the harness for forming the upper part of
the shed; [O] Fig. _B_, indicates the rotation of drawing warp-threads
from the upper shed into the lower shed. Drawing-in draft is for
4-harness (straight).

[Illustration: Fig. LXXXIV. 10-Leaf Satin. 10-Leaf Satin. Filling.
Warp.]

[Illustration: Fig. LXXXV. 10-Leaf Satin. 5-Harness Satin. Filling.
Warp.]

[Illustration: Fig. LXXXVI. 12-Harness Satin. Filling. Warp.]


XIII.--Tying-up Jacquard Looms for Gauze Fabrics.

Gauze fabrics are produced by a separate system of weaves, which
have the peculiar characteristic of warp-threads not lying parallel
to each other. One kind of this warp is called the “douping warp”
or “whip-threads;” these are twisted around the ground-warp. The
ground-threads, as well as the whip-threads, which work together, must
be drawn into one dent.

Jacquard gauze can be worked in various ways; for example: One
whip-thread against one or more ground-threads. More than one
whip-thread against one or more ground-threads.

There are two methods of tying-up for gauze fabrics: 1st. A tie-up in
which the doups are worked by one, two, three or four shafts in front
of the Jacquard harness. 2d. A tie-up in which the gauze figuring
is done all over the fabric, requiring each doup to be arranged for
working separately. If the ground-threads and whip-threads are worked
from the same Jacquard machine, the latter must be divided into two
sections: 1st section for the ground-threads with ground heddles; 2d
section for the whip-threads with standard heddles.

If a fabric contains the gauze in the form of a stripe, arranged one
end ground and one end whip, the same number of hooks are required
for the ground and whip-threads of each section, and an extra dead
harness must be employed; but if this arrangement of one end ground
and one end whip must form figures, then the ground and whip-threads
must form the first section, and the whip-threads alone the second
section. In this case the second section requires only half as many
hooks as the first; and for the same reason, if we are forming figures
with two ground-threads and one whip-thread, the first section will
contain three times as many hooks as the second, etc. Very often two
whip-threads are used for twisting, in which case they must be drawn
together in the doup. If several whip and ground-threads are drawn
into one reed they usually work independently at first on a regular
weave; following this is the gauze weave formed by a certain number of
whip-threads raised either on the left or right of the ground-threads
contained in the same dent. This movement brings into operation the
second section of the machine containing the harness-cords for the
standard heddles. The technical terms for these various combinations
are: single-thread gauze, double-thread gauze, triple-thread gauze, etc.

The tie-up most generally used requires two-thirds of the needles for
ground heddles and one-third of the needles for standard heddles;
hence, if using a 200 machine we find: 128 needles and hooks for the
ground heddles, and 64 needles and hooks for the standard heddles. [See
Fig. LXXXVII., p. 65.]

[Illustration: Fig. LXXXVII.]

The comber-board is divided into two sections. The rear part (2/3) is
used for the ground, the front part (1/3) is used for the standard.


_Threading of the Harness._

Thread the warp into the ground heddles in the same manner as a common
straight-through tie-up. Then take the first left-hand thread of the
warp and draw it through the doup. The next two warp-threads draw above
the first one on the left-hand side of the same doup. These three
warp-threads must be drawn together in one dent. After drawing the
first pair in one dent, leave one, two, or more dents empty, according
to the fabric. The 4th, 5th and 6th warp-threads, also each subsequent
pair, are threaded the same as the first.

[Illustration: Fig. LXXXVIII.]

[Illustration: Fig. LXXXIX.]

[Illustration: Fig. XC.]

Figs. LXXXVIII. and LXXXIX. are designed for illustrating this point.
The lingoes for the doups are about one-half the weight of those used
for the ground heddles.

Fig. XC. represents a fancy gauze to be executed in this manner.

[Illustration: Fig. XCI.]

[Illustration: Fig. XCII.]

[Illustration: Fig. XCIII.]

[Illustration: Fig. XCIV.]

[Illustration: Fig. XCV.]

Fig. XCI. represents the threading of the harness for a gauze fabric:
_f_, _g_, first and second warp-thread, over the doup; _h_, _i_, third
and fourth, through the doup.

Figs. XCII. and XCIII. illustrate the two movements of the harness in
the gauze weave.

Figs. XCIV. and XCV. illustrate the movements of the harness in the
regular weave: _a_, _b_, represents the comber-board; _c_, the place
where the doup is fastened to the dead harness; _d_, _e_, the standard
heddle; _f_, _g_, _h_, _i_, the mails of the common heddles.

The following are the fourteen different movements that might be
required in regular weaving. The figures show the number of threads up
and the number down, thus: [1/3] equal first warp-thread up; second,
third, and fourth down.

   1.   [1/3] = _f_ up.
   2.  [1/12] = _g_ up.
   3.  [1/21] = _h_ up, doup raised.
   4.   [1/3] = _i_ up, doup raised.
   5.   [2/2] = _f_ and _g_ up.
   6.  [2/11] = _g_ and _h_ up, doup raised.
   7.   [2/2] = _h_ and _i_ up, doup raised. [Illustrated by Fig. XCIII.]
   8. [11/11] = _f_ and _h_ up, doup raised. [See Fig. XCV.]
   9.  [11/2] = _f_ and _i_ up, doup raised.
  10. [11/11] = _g_ and _i_ up, doup raised. [See Fig. XCIV.]
  11.   [3/1] = _f_, _g_, and _h_ up, doup raised.
  12.   [3/1] = _g_, _h_, and _i_ up, doup raised.
  13.  [21/1] = _f_, _g_, and _i_ up, doup raised.
  14.  [12/1] = _f_, _h_, and _i_ up, doup raised.

These fourteen different movements cover all the possible changes in
regular weaving. The movement (7) illustrated in Fig. 8, in addition to
forming the regular weave, is also necessary to the formation of the
gauze weave.

These few explanations clearly show the great variety of effects
possible for the designer; for he can figure with the regular method
of weaving, and can also figure gauze weaving to exchange with regular
weaving, forming a separate design on the fabric.



Modifications of the Single Lift Jacquard Machine.


Having thoroughly described the construction and action of the regular
Jacquard machine, it now remains to illustrate and explain its
modifications. Among the most prominent are:

1st. The Double Lift Single Cylinder Jacquard Machine.

2d. The Double Lift Double Cylinder Jacquard Machine.

3d. The Arrangement of Substituting “Tail-cords” in place of the Hooks,
etc.


I. Double Lift Single Cylinder Jacquard Machine.

The principle of this machine consists in raising the warp-threads any
number of times in succession without allowing the shed to close, thus
performing the work in nearly half the time, and with less wear and
tear on the warp.

Fig. XCVI. represents the sectional cut of one row across all the
griffe-bars. The machine selected for the illustration is of the 12-row
type. Jacquard machines of this description have two hooks to one
needle; therefore in the drawing twenty-four hooks are represented.
Two griffes are provided, each working every alternate hook.

[Illustration: Fig. XCVI.]

[Illustration: Fig. XCVII.]

In Fig. XCVI. the sectional cut of both griffes is shown, and in Fig.
XCVII. the top view of both griffes; the first set is represented
shaded, the second black. The former requires hooks Nos. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9,
11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, and the latter Nos. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14,
16, 18, 20, 22, 24.

This arrangement permits either hook to be lifted separately by the
griffes, and a corresponding elevation of the leash. As these griffes
work in opposition, one descends while the other ascends; this motion
prevents the leash from dropping the entire length of the cords, since
the ascending griffe catches it at half distance as the two griffes
pass each other. In this operation the shed is never entirely closed,
and a corresponding gain in speed is attained. It will thus be seen
that the “double lift” single cylinder has great advantages over the
ordinary machine. Of course, the warp-thread must make its complete
journeys up and down when called for by the design; but when once up,
it need not be brought down until absolutely required by the pattern.
The warp is thus subjected to less friction in working, and it is
possible to use yarns with less twist and obtain good results.

The advantages arising from not closing the shed may be seen in the
following example of a warp-thread working on an 8-leaf satin, in which
seven picks are up in succession.

By the single lift machine this warp-thread must travel seven times up
and seven times down, thus closing the shed absolutely seven times,
with a corresponding wear and tear. The double lift single cylinder
arrangement does not require the warp-thread to make these seven
complete journeys to the “race-board” of the lay, but instead it makes
seven half trips. The saving may be shown by the following analysis:
Single lift machine, warp-thread, seven picks up in succession, in
8-leaf satin (warp-face) requiring fourteen complete movements.

Double lift single cylinder machine requiring for the same effect:

    Up the first time,                = one complete movement.
    Six times down, } half movements, = six complete movements.
    Six times up,   }
    Down the last time,               = one complete movement.
    Or eight complete movements.

Showing the utility of the two machines to be to each other as 8 to 14,
or 4 to 7.

[Illustration: Fig. XCVIII.]

Fig. XCVIII. illustrates the complete double lift single cylinder
Jacquard machine, as built by W. P. Uhlinger, Philadelphia. In this
drawing both griffes are distinctly visible; also their mode of
operation by means of the double-acting lever. This machine has the set
of hooks for each griffe-bar protected by a plate of sheet iron, thus
steadying the hooks in their motion, and enabling smaller crooks to be
used for the latter.

[Illustration: Fig. IC.]

Fig. IC. represents a double lift single cylinder Jacquard machine as
built by Thomas Halton, Philadelphia, attached to a regular broad loom,
(Knowles or Crompton), and tied-up for upholstery work. The griffe-bars
in this Jacquard machine are constructed of such height that when
lifted they never rise above the crooks of the hooks, which are thrown
out of operation by the descent of the other griffe.

[Illustration: Fig. C.]

[Illustration: Fig. CI.]

[Illustration: Fig. CII.]

Fig. C., hooks at rest.

Fig. CI., hooks 1 and 3, etc., raised, = 2 and 4, etc., at rest.

Fig. CII., hooks 2 and 4, etc., raised, = 1 and 3, etc., at rest.


II. Double Lift Double Cylinder Jacquard Machine.

The principle of this machine consists in the combination of two
separate Jacquard machines. Two hooks (one of each machine) are
connected to one leash of the Jacquard harness, and as each machine is
operated alternately, a high speed is attained, which is the purpose
of the machine. For example: 140 picks per minute (speed of loom) only
requires 70 picks per minute from each part of the double lift double
cylinder.

In Fig. CIII. this is clearly illustrated. It shows two 12-row machines
(_E_ and _F_) combined, thus giving 24 griffe-bars for the complete
double machine, as the griffes work within each other. As explained for
double lift single cylinder, every alternate bar is connected with a
separate griffe, and these two griffes are worked alternately on the
same double lever arrangement.

_O_ to _P_ and _O´_ to _P´_, represent the two needle-boards; _P_ to
_R_ and _P´_ to _R´_, represent the two corresponding needle-boxes.

These double lift double cylinder Jacquard machines are mostly used
in the manufacture of turkey-red goods and similar table-cover
fabrics, using tie-ups similar to the one illustrated below, which is
a combination of the straight-through and point tie-up, which may be
alluded to once more by way of explanation in this particular case.

The illustration represents a double lift double cylinder machine
containing two 600 machines, which equals an ordinary 600 machine for
the tie-up.

[Illustration: Fig. CIII.]

This tie-up contains six divisions for the centre straight-through,
and requiring leashes 1 to 400 from each part of the double machine.
Leashes 1, 12, and 400 (heavy lines) only are illustrated in drawing.

The borders are constructed on the point tie-up, and require leashes
401 to 604 from each part of the double machine. The first and last
leash only are illustrated. The margins between border and selvedge
are worked by leashes 605 to 612. Centre and border are 12 rows deep,
arranged in the comber-board; the margin 8 rows deep, on account of
working it (as is generally done) on an 8-leaf satin. One complete row
in machine, (both parts), as well as in the comber-board, (illustrated
on each side in drawing), is left for the selvedge.

[Illustration: Fig. CIV.]

Fig. CIV. represents this machine (built by Thomas Halton,
Philadelphia,) attached to a Clipper loom. In this drawing both sets
of cards (one to contain the even numbers, and the other the uneven
numbers) are clearly visible, and also the double lever arrangement for
working every cylinder alternately. As the cylinders run at only half
speed, the wear on the cards is reduced to a minimum.


III. The Substitution of Tail-cords for Hooks.

Jacquard machines having this construction are generally employed in
the manufacture of ingrain carpets.

[Illustration: Fig. CV.]

Fig. CV. represents the sectional cut of one row of needles across
the machine; also the necessary boards for guiding and operating the
tail-cords. This machine consists of two divisions (I. and II.,) which
are worked alternately for the common 2-ply ingrain carpet.

_A_, represents the top board, to which the tail-cords are fastened
around a wire by knot shown below the boards. Each board is 6-1/4 by
3/4 inches, with a distance of 1-1/4 inches between them.

_B_, represents the “Lifter-boards” (trap-boards) which are shown in
top view in the special article devoted to the manufacture of ingrain
carpets. (Fig. CIX., p. 74.) Its dimensions are 6-1/4 inches by 1 inch.
Distance from top-boards to lifter-boards, 9-1/4 inches. _C_ to _D_,
needle-board. Arrow, _S_, the direction of working the cylinder towards
the needles. _F_ to _G_, the needle-box with its pin for holding the
needles in position. Each needle is connected to two tail-cords, as
indicated in the drawing, one for figure and one for ground. _H_ and
_L_ are the two guide-boards for the tail-cords. Distance from _B_ to
_H_, 7-1/4 inches, from _H_ to _L_, 8-1/2 inches. Dimensions of each
guide-board, 6-1/4 inches by 3/4 inch. Each tail-cord is weighted by a
small lead weight, as shown at _K_ in drawing.

In this machine the springs for the needles are omitted, and a board
large enough to cover the ends of all the needles, substituted. [See
arrow, _P_.]

[Illustration: Fig. CVI.]

Fig. CVI. illustrates the rear view of the needle-box, _B_, and the
board for pressing the needles, _A_. _C_ shows the hanger, which is
attached (movable) to the top of the machine. [See _E_, in Fig. CV.]



Tying-up of Jacquard Harness for Two-ply Ingrain Carpets.

With a General Description of the Working of the Loom and Construction
of the Fabric.


Two-ply Ingrain Carpet is an article composed of two fabrics, produced
on the regular double-cloth system. These two fabrics are arranged
in the loom to form figures by a simple exchanging of positions.
A great variety of colors may be put into each of these separate
fabrics, (ground and figure), and the most elaborate designs may be
used. On every part of the carpet where these two fabrics do not
exchange, each works on the plain weave. The exchanging of these two
fabrics binds both into one, thus forming the ingrain carpet. In the
manufacture of this carpet four sets of warp-threads, and also four
sets of filling-threads are generally employed; but, if occasionally
more or less should be used, in warp or in filling, or in both, in
the same fabric, the principle of exchanging is still observed. If
employing four sets in warp and filling, two sets of each are used
for forming the figure, the other two sets forming the ground, each
of the figure-threads having as its mate one of the ground-threads.
These threads are so arranged that when a figure-thread appears upon
the face of the fabric its mate appears upon the back, and when the
figure-thread appears upon the back the corresponding ground-thread
appears upon the face.

[Illustration: Fig. CVII.]

To give a clearer understanding of the foregoing, a sectional cut of an
Ingrain carpet fabric is given in Fig. CVII.

Suppose the filling-threads for the figure to be:

    RED, indicated by heavy shaded circles;
                     picks 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30.
    BLACK, indicated by full black circles;
                     picks 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32.

And the filling-threads for the ground to be:

    WHITE, indicated by empty circles;
                     picks 1, 5, 9, 13, 17, 21, 25, 29.
    OLIVE, indicated by light shaded circles;
                     picks 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 23, 27, 31.

A careful examination of the drawing shows that the white threads mate
with the red, and the black threads with the olive, so that when one of
these colors shows upon the face the mating color will show upon the
back, and _vice versa_.

As a general rule, these warp-threads are of the same color as the
weft-threads; hence, every filling pick, appearing either on face or
back, is bound by a warp-thread of the same color. The sectional cut
represents four distinct effects with 32 picks, thus allowing 8 picks
for the illustration of each part.

  1st effect, picks  1 to 8,
                     is ground up (white and olive).
  2d     "     "     9 to 16,
                     is figure up (red and black).
  3d     "     "    17 to 24,
                     is 1st effect in “_shot about_” (red and olive up).
  4th    "     "    25 to 32,
                     is 2d     "    "     " (white and black up).

Two methods of tying-up Jacquard harness are in use:

    1st, the “straight-through” principle,
             (known to the trade as “cross-point”).
    2d, the “point” method,
             (known to the trade as “centre-tie”).


I. The Straight-Through Tie-up for Ingrain Carpets.

[Illustration: Fig. CVIII.]

Fig. CVIII., p. 73, represents the arrangement of the neck-cords with
the heddles (through the harness-cords). There are two separate bottom
boards in the machine, marked _A_, _B_, for ground and figure; also two
corresponding lifter-boards, which are illustrated separately by Fig.
CIX.

[Illustration: Fig. CIX.]

The four journals are clearly illustrated by Fig. CX. (each journal
carrying its own set of threads).

    The first thread in the loom (left side)
                                 will be found on the first journal.
     "  second   "      "     "
                                  "        "     "    third    "
     "  third    "      "     "
                                  "        "     "    second   "
     "  fourth   "      "     "
                                  "        "     "    fourth   "

[Illustration: Fig. CX.]

This arrangement of threads, 1, 3, 2, 4, is repeated throughout the
fabric. For an example, a carpet is shown termed “extra fine,” executed
on 26 “designs,” requiring 26 × 8, or 208 small squares for warp on the
designing paper. Ingrain carpets are generally woven one yard wide,
having in this width two repeats or divisions; hence the number of
harness-cords for the present example is as follows: 26 × 8 = 208 × 2,
for ground and figure; 416 × 2, for two divisions, = 832 harness-cords
(or 416 leashes) required for tying-up.

[Illustration: Fig. CXI.]

Fig. CXI. illustrates the adjustment of heddle (mail) and lingo through
the journal, _J_, by means of the heavy knot at _b_. This knot must be
large enough not to pass through the hole of the journal. The average
measures for the present drawing are as follows:

    Lingo, _f_ to _g_  =   9 inches.
    Heddle, _e_ to _f_ =   8  "
            _c_ to _d_ =  10  "
    Mail, _d_ to _e_   = 6/8  "
    Height of journal, _b_ to _c_ = 1-1/8 inches.
    Connecting cord of heddle to harness-cord, _a_ to _b_ = 6 inches.

This drawing will explain the principle of raising the warp either by
means of the harness-board, (arrow 1), or by means of the knot through
raising the journal, (arrow 2). If raised by means of the harness-cord,
the connecting heddle slides upwards in the hole provided for it in
the journal; or the journal takes the place of a common comber-board;
but if the journal be used for raising, the knot, _b_, will rise with
it, carrying the heddle the same as before, the harness-cords becoming
slack by this movement.

In Fig. CVIII., p. 73, the journals are arranged as follows:

  1st journal, } for ground, { White, 1st set of threads. } For repeat,
  2d     "     }             { Olive, 3d    "       "     } -- 238 times
  3d     "     } for figure, { Red,   2d    "       "     } over.
  4th    "     }             { Black, 4th   "       "     }

In the same drawing are also represented the first eight heddles (in
both divisions), as connected with harness-cords 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,
8; also the last four heddles of the rear journal (fourth) connected
with their corresponding cords, 404, 408, 412, 416.

The first row (1 to 8) illustrates the principle of tying-up the
harness and the leasing of the heddles; whereas the four heddles in the
rear (404, 408, 412, and 416) show the practical commencement of the
tie-up, _i. e._, four neck-cords in succession to four heddles of the
journal.

_A_ represents bottom-board in the machine where the neck-cords for the
ground harness-cords pass through. _B_, the bottom-board in the machine
where the neck-cords for the figure harness-cords pass through.

In Fig. CIX., showing the lifter-boards, _A_ is also used for the
ground, and _B_ for the figure; 26 rows of the machine are shown for
explaining the tie-up for a texture known as “extra fine,” or equal to
832 heddles in the width of loom (one yard).

Jacquard machines for two-ply ingrain carpets are usually constructed
with 34 rows, and 33-1/2 of these are used. 33-1/2 rows have 33-1/2
× 8, or 268 needles, which carry 1072 threads, the number actually
used in what is termed a full “extra super.” Should only 30 of these
be used, having 30 × 8, or 240 needles, and carrying 960 threads for
warp, the carpet is termed “super;” and if 25 rows, with 25 × 8 = 200
needles are used, carrying 800 threads, the product is called “fine”
ingrain, and represents about the lowest grade of these carpets. It
frequently happens that we find slight variations in the number of
threads used in the various grades of carpet named. The pattern may
require such a change, or economy in production may induce the maker to
use a smaller number; or, as is done in a few instances, a manufacturer
may always make his “extra super” on 32 rows; but all such changes are
done by a corresponding depreciation of the value of the fabric, as
compared with a full “extra super” of 33-1/2 rows.

[Illustration: Fig. CXII.]

[Illustration: Fig. CXIV.]

[Illustration: Fig. CXIII.]

Fig. CIX., p. 74, illustrates the full 34 rows, and indicates 26
rows used for illustration of tie-up (4 rows empty on each side).
In power-looms the raising of the different journals is generally
accomplished by an arrangement of cams, but in hand-looms it is done by
the lifter-boards.

In Fig. CIX. the four large holes on each side are made for this
purpose, and the wires for raising the journals are shown by heavy
lines in tie-up in Fig. CVIII., p. 73. Fig. CXII. represents the
process of lifting the journals, as follows:

First pick raises lifter-board _A_, journal 4; second pick raises
lifter-board _B_, journal 1; third pick raises lifter-board _A_,
journal 3; fourth pick raises lifter-board _B_, journal 2.

The two positions of the four “tails” in these four picks are
illustrated as follows: Fig. CXIII., hole in cylinder; CXIV., no hole
in cylinder. The black spots represent the knots, either as caught in
the slot or passing free in the hole.

Looms tied-up on the foregoing principles have but one operation of
the Jacquard needles for every two picks of the loom, there being an
operation of the ground and figure lifter-boards in succession between
the operations of the Jacquard needles. Each Jacquard needle controls
two tails, one connected with the warp for the figure, (red and black
in our example), and the other to the warp for the ground, (olive and
white in our example). The drawing of the lifter-boards shows the slots
for catching the tails in opposite directions from each other; hence,
when the figuring tail of the needle is adjusted so as to be lifted by
the figure lifter-board, the ground-tail will not be acted on by the
ground lifter-board when it rises.

To give a clear understanding of the foregoing explanations, a detailed
statement of the operations of the loom necessary in weaving a piece of
the fabric is shown in sectional cut Fig. CVII., as follows:

  ------+-----+------------+------------+--------------+-----------------
   Pick.|     | Lift-board | Lift-board |              |
     +--+     |    for     |    for     |    Journal   |
     | Color. |  figure.   |  ground.   |    lifts.    |  Threads down.
  ---+--------+------------+------------+--------------+-----------------
   1 | White. | Rises,     | At rest.   | White to bind| Red, black,
     |        | no lift.   |            | on face.     | olive.
     |        |            |            |              |
   2 | Red.   | At rest.   | Lifts white| Red.         | Black for
     |        |            | and olive. |              | binding on back.
     |        |            |            |              |
   3 | Olive. | Rises,     | At rest.   | Olive to bind| Red, black,
     |        | no lift.   |            | on face.     | white.
     |        |            |            |              |
   4 | Black. | At rest.   | Lifts white| Black.       | Red for binding
     |        |            | and olive. |              | on back.
     |        |            |            |              |
   5 | White. | Rises,     | At rest.   | White to bind| Red, black,
     |        | no lift.   |            | on face.     | olive.
     |        |            |            |              |
   6 | Red.   | At rest.   | Lifts white| Red.         | Black for
     |        |            | and olive. |              | binding on back.
     |        |            |            |              |
   7 | Olive. | Rises,     | At rest.   | Olive to bind| Red, black,
     |        | no lift.   |            | on face.     | white.
     |        |            |            |              |
   8 | Black. | At rest.   | Lifts white| Black.       | Red for binding
     |        |            | and olive. |              | on back.
     |        |            |            |              |
   9 | White. | Lifts red  | At rest.   | White.       | Olive for
     |        | and black. |            |              | binding on back.
     |        |            |            |              |
  10 | Red.   | At rest.   | Rises,     | Red to bind  | Black, white,
     |        |            | no lift.   | on face.     | olive.
     |        |            |            |              |
  11 | Olive. | Lifts red  | At rest.   | Olive.       | White for
     |        | and black. |            |              | binding on back.
     |        |            |            |              |
  12 | Black. | At rest.   | Rises,     | Black to bind| Red, white,
     |        |            | no lift.   | on face.     | olive.
     |        |            |            |              |
  13 | White. | Lifts red  | At rest.   | White.       | Olive for
     |        | and black. |            |              | binding on back.
     |        |            |            |              |
  14 | Red.   | At rest.   | Rises,     | Red to bind  | Black, white,
     |        |            | no lift.   | on face.     | olive.
     |        |            |            |              |
  15 | Olive. | Lifts red  | At rest.   | Olive.       | White for
     |        | and black. |            |              | binding on back.
     |        |            |            |              |
  16 | Black. | At rest.   | Rises,     | Black to bind| Red, white,
     |        |            | no lift.   | on face.     | olive.
     |        |            |            |              |
  17 | White. | Lifts red  | At rest.   | White.       | Olive to bind
     |        | and black. |            |              | on back.
     |        |            |            |              |
  18 | Red.   | At rest.   | Rises,     | Red to bind  | Black, white,
     |        |            | no lift.   | on face.     | olive.
     |        |            |            |              |
  19 | Olive. | Rises,     | At rest.   | Olive to bind| White, red,
     |        | no lift.   |            | on face.     | black.
     |        |            |            |              |
  20 | Black. | At rest.   | Lifts white| Black.       | Red to bind
     |        |            | and olive. |              | on back.
     |        |            |            |              |
  21 | White. | Lifts red  | At rest.   | White.       | Olive to bind
     |        | and black. |            |              | on back.
     |        |            |            |              |
  22 | Red.   | At rest.   | Rises,     |Red to bind   | Black, white,
     |        |            | no lift.   | on face.     | olive.
     |        |            |            |              |
  23 | Olive. | Rises,     | At rest    | Olive to bind| White, red,
     |        | no lift.   |            | on face.     | black.
     |        |            |            |              |
  24 | Black. | At rest.   | Lifts white| Black.       | Red to bind
     |        |            | and olive. |              | on back.
     |        |            |            |              |
  25 | White. | Rises,     | At rest.   | White to bind| Olive, red,
     |        | no lift.   |            | on face.     | black.
     |        |            |            |              |
  26 | Red.   | At rest.   | Lifts white| Red.         | Black to bind
     |        |            | and olive. |              | on back.
     |        |            |            |              |
  27 | Olive. | Lifts red  | At rest.   | Olive.       | White to bind
     |        | and black. |            |              | on back.
     |        |            |            |              |
  28 | Black. | At rest.   | Rises,     | Black to bind| Red, white,
     |        |            | no lift.   | on face.     | olive.
     |        |            |            |              |
  29 | White. | Rises,     | At rest.   | White to bind| Olive, red,
     |        | no lift.   |            | on face.     | black.
     |        |            |            |              |
  30 | Red.   | At rest.   | Lifts white| Red.         | Black to bind
     |        |            | and olive. |              | on back.
     |        |            |            |              |
  31 | Olive. | Lifts red  | At rest.   | Olive.       | White to bind
     |        | and black. |            |              | on back.
     |        |            |            |              |
  32 | Black. | At rest.   | Rises,     | Black to bind| Red, white,
     |        |            | no lift.   | on face.     | olive.
  ---+--------+------------+------------+--------------+----------------

[Illustration: Fig. CXV.]

Fig. CXV., p. 76, illustrates a fabric design for an ingrain carpet,
straight-through tie-up, _a_ and _b_ forming one repeat, (or one
division), equal to one-half yard.


II. The Point Tie-up for Ingrain Carpets.

This method of tying-up is based upon the straight-through tie-up
principle, arranged as follows: The design in the fabric repeats from
its centre equally towards each selvedge.

[Illustration:

            Centre.
  |            ^           |
  |          / | \         |
  |       /    |    \      |
  |    /       |       \   |
   /                      \
  Selvedge.        Selvedge.]

[Illustration: Fig. CXVI.]

[Illustration: Fig. CXVII.]

Figs. CXVI. and CXVII. illustrate two fabric designs, _a_ to _b_, the
width of the fabric or one yard on the loom; _c_ is the centre or point
of the design; _b_ to _d_ is the repeat of _a_ to _c_, where the widths
are sewed together.

[Illustration: Fig. CXVIII.]

Fig. CVIII., p. 73, shows the first and last rows, also the two centre
rows of the journals threaded to the neck-cords (tail-cords) of the
machine. Each cord is numbered to correspond. _a_, _b_, _c_, _d_,
represent the cords for lifting the journals, on the same principle as
in the straight-through tie-up. In power-looms this is done by a cam
arrangement.

Fig. CXIX., p. 80, is designed to give a thorough understanding of
the adjustment of harness-cords to heddles, as well as the leasing of
the latter. The numbers selected for indicating the different cords
correspond with those used in Fig. CXVIII.

  Journal 1 = white, } ground.
     "    2 = olive, }
     "    3 = red,   } figure.
     "    4 = black, }

  Arrangement of threading; _a_ to _b_, 51 times repeated, = 408 cords.
  The last row in the half width illustrated separately
    by _c_ to _d_, which is the same as _a_ to _b_,        =   8  "  416
                                                                     ---
  _S_ forms the centre or point; _e_ to _f_, first row of
    each journal, near centre, (repeat of centre-cord for
    ground or figure  omitted; see _o_ on
    journals 2 and 4),                                     =   6  "
  _g_ to _h_, 50 times repeated,                           = 400  "
  _i_ to _k_, last row, same as _g_ to _h_,                =   8  "  414
                                                             ---     ---
  Total number of cords used,                                        830

The following is the method employed in drawing for indicating the
different colors of warp-threads:

    Blank for white,        } ground.
    Light shaded for olive, }

    Heavy shaded for red,   } figure.
    Black for black,        }

[Illustration: Fig. CXIX.]

[Illustration: Fig. CXX.]

The beauty of an ingrain carpet consists in its color combination.
In hand-looms the common batten is used in connection with a shuttle
which is somewhat curved, a form most suitable to being thrown by the
hand. The batten naturally falls towards the weaver by its own gravity,
being usually worked a little out of a vertical line for that purpose.
In this method the shed forms its own shuttle-race, or bed upon which
the shuttle slides. When two or more shuttles are used, they are laid
on the woven piece of carpet before the weaver, and he selects them
as required. If a solid shuttle-race is connected to the batten, the
warp-threads are pressed down upon it and the shuttle slides upon the
ridge of the warp-threads. In this case the “fly-shuttle” is used, and
also the “drop-box;” the latter being operated by some of the reserve
needles of the Jacquard machine.

[Illustration: Fig. CXXI.]

Fig. CXX. shows a shuttle-box mechanism for carpet hand-looms. As
already stated, the four journals in power-looms are lifted by cams or
similar contrivances. In Fig. CXXI. (representing the Crompton carpet
loom) this cam arrangement is clearly visible; the cams are situated
above the journals, the latter being lifted by means of the journal
rods from above. The loom carries four shuttle-boxes at each end of the
lathe; any one of the series at either end can be brought into line
with the shuttle-race at any pick.

[Illustration: Fig. CXXII.]

In some looms the journals are also lifted from below, as shown in Fig.
CXXII., representing the “Knowles” carpet loom. In this the journals
are controlled by a chain motion, instead of a cam, operating either
journal at will, which can not be done on a loom where the journals are
actuated by cams. This permits the shading of a fabric to be changed
without cutting out the warp and re-drawing it. The box mechanism (four
boxes on each side of the lathe) is positive, and controlled by a chain
on the same shaft as the journals, and may be used with the chain
alone, or with the chain in combination with the cards. The motion can
be run forward or reversed at will, and any box called as desired.

Before closing this article, it is necessary to mention the method
of working the loom built with a stationary “shuttle-raceway” and an
independent “comb,” the latter having a reciprocating movement for
beating up the filling, and a rising and falling motion for bringing
the comb up into, and taking it out of the warp; it has also yielding
racks and filling forks, and a cam so timed for operating the forks,
that the latter will seize the filling and carry it forward in front of
the range of the said comb.

Fig. CXXIII. illustrates the side view of the comb and its lay;
also the parts necessary to be shown for working the same: _k_, the
independent lay; _d_, the comb; _c_, the reed; _a_, its lathe; _b_,
the shuttle-race; _c_, the breast beam of loom; oval ring, _d_, _e_,
_g_, represents the motion of the comb in beating up the filling; _e_,
_r_, upper shed of the warp; _e_, _t_, lower shed of the warp; _x_,
the shed; _h_, stud fixed to the loom framing; _h_, _i_, to _i_, _k_,
toggle connection of lay to stud, _h_; _i_, _m_, to _m_, _l_, crank
connected at _i_ to the toggles; _l_, crank shaft; _p_, _o_, lever for
raising and lowering the lay, _k_; _n_, its fulcrum; _s_, grooved cam
for working lever, _p_, _o_.

[Illustration: Fig. CXXIII.]

[Illustration: Fig. CXXIV.]

The vibratory movement of the comb-lay for beating up the filling is
produced by the action of the cranks upon the toggle connections; and
the upward and downward movement of the lay, to produce the entrance of
the comb into the warp and its withdrawal therefrom, is produced by the
action of the lever upon the grooved cam. The comb, _d_, is constructed
of teeth, which are secured together by a bolt passing through them,
and which have their bases of dovetail form to enable them to be
secured between a dovetail lip, on the lay, and a dovetail clamping
plate, secured to the lay by bolts.

Fig. CXXIV. illustrates the method of lifting the journals from below.
The journals, of which there are four, are arranged to work in upright
fixed guides on the loom framing, _d_, _e_, _f_, _g_, and are operated
by treadles, which are arranged in pairs below, each journal being
connected with one pair of treadles by two rods at its opposite ends.
These treadles are operated by cams for each pair of treadles and each
journal.

[Illustration: Fig. CXXV.]

Fig. CXXV. represents the top view of the “fixed guides” containing
the journals. This loom is provided with ten shuttle-boxes, (seven for
the revolver, three upright), for each side, and built by the Furbush
Machine Company, being a combination of their older carpet loom known
as the “Murkland,” and the “Duckworth Carpet Loom.”

[Illustration]



APPENDIX.



Preparing and Stamping of Jacquard Cards.


_Preparing._

The Jacquard card consists of a strong, durable pasteboard cut to the
exact size of the cylinder. For cutting or preparing the cards to
the required size, a table is used with the different sizes of cards
indicated on its surface. A sharp steel blade is adjusted to the side
of the table. A heavy knife of sufficient length, and containing a
second steel blade, is secured to a projecting bolt on the rear end of
the table, allowing enough play for the knife to be easily raised and
lowered. The blade of the knife works close against the blade fastened
to the table; and when pressed down both blades rest close together.
On the front side of the table is a long groove in which is a guide,
fastened by a bolt and nut. This guide can be set to suit any of the
marks on the table, thus regulating the size of the cards to be cut.

Two measures (the length and the width) are required to be cut for each
set of cards: 1st. The sheets of pasteboard are required to be trimmed
one way in sufficient number for the length of the cards. 2d. Each
trimmed sheet is afterwards separated in strips of the required width.


_Card Stamping._

The oldest method for stamping cards, now only occasionally used,
consists of two perforated steel plates, between which the blank
cards are placed, and the required holes stamped by hand by means of
punches. It will easily be seen that this method is not up to the
present advanced times, hence various machines have been introduced for
arranging the punches. Among those most generally used are:

[Illustration: Fig. 1.]

      I.--Dobby Card Punching Machines.
     II.--Piano Card Stamping Machines.
    III.--Repeating Machines.


I. Dobby Card Punching Machines.

These machines, illustrated by Fig. 1., (W. P. Uhlinger, builder), are
used for stamping cards for the smaller Jacquard machines, technically
termed “Dobbies.” They are of very compact build, and operated by
belt-power. The whole card is punched at one revolution or stroke. The
rack on top of the machine holds the design. The punches for peg-holes
and lace-holes are immovable, while the key punches act independently,
at the will of the operator. Jacquard cards for these machines are
generally composed of the strongest pasteboard, and require a very
strongly constructed machine.


II. Piano Card Stamping Machines.

These are operated in two ways, by the belt or foot-power. There are
two kinds of each: “French index” and “American index.”

[Illustration: Fig. 2.]

[Illustration: Fig. 3.]

[Illustration: Fig. 4.]

[Illustration: Fig. 5.]

[Illustration: Fig. 6.]

[Illustration: Fig. 7.]

[Illustration: Fig. 8.]

[Illustration: Fig. 9.]

[Illustration: Fig. 10.]

[Illustration: Fig. 11.]

Figs. 2 to 11 are drawn to one-half the actual size of the “Uhlinger
Card Stamping Machine.”

Figs. 13, 16, 17, 18, 19 are drawn to one-quarter the actual size of
the “Royle Card Stamping Machine.”

Figs. 2 and 13 (_E_, _F_, _G_, _H_,) represent the top view of the head
(cover taken off), the twelve holes for holding the punches for one
row, also the large hole for holding the peg, _P_. Each punch works
vertically, and is guided by a key for stamping the hole.

Fig. 14 illustrates the punch (actual size) as used in the “Royle”
machine: _a_ to _b_ = 3/4 inch; _b_ to _c_ = 2-7/8 inches; 7/32 inch
diameter of punch, _d_ to _c_.

Fig. 15 illustrates a corresponding key: diameter of key 3/16 inch,
_d_ to _e_; diameter of head, 3/8 inch, _a_ to _b_; _c_ is the hole
for inserting the pin which holds the spring. The length of the keys
vary from 1-3/4 to 2-1/8 inches, according to the position they occupy
in the machine. The punch and key of the Uhlinger machine are shown
(one-half of actual size) in Figs. 4 and 5.

_A_ and _B_, in Figs. 2 and 13, represent the piston for guiding the
head in its vertical motion.

Fig. 3 represents the front view of the head. The numbers and letters
indicating the different parts correspond with Fig. 2.

The principle of construction and action of the heads in both kinds of
machine are similar. Each key is provided with a fine spiral spring,
which, after every action of the key, returns it to its original
position. The key for the peg-hole is controlled by the larger spring,
_S_, _D_, in Figs. 2 and 13. The arrows in these two drawings indicate
the direction taken by the keys when under pressure.

When cutting cards eight rows deep, the thumb of the right hand works
the key for the peg-hole; the eight keys in the rear of the machine
(which are the ones to be used) are worked by the four fingers of each
hand.

When cutting cards twelve rows deep, the eight keys in the rear are
operated by the eight fingers in the same manner; but the thumb of the
right hand operates keys marked 1 and 2, and the thumb of the left
hand operates keys marked 11 and 12.

During the cutting operation the fingers should not be removed from the
keys; they should always be in readiness to press the required key into
action, as this is the only way to become expert.

The eye of the card stamper must rest uninterruptedly on his design;
and the keys are called at will by the fingers, without the eye leaving
the design, to find out where a certain key or finger is situated at
the time.

Fig. 4 shows relative positions of punch, _S_, and key, _E_, when ready
for stamping a hole.

Fig. 5 shows the relative positions of punch and key when no hole is
required.

_O_ represents the Jacquard card as resting in the slot of the lower
head. II. in Fig. 3, marked _X to Z_, shows a full width view of this
card.

The space _D_, in Figs. 4 and 5 permits the spring to be inserted
regulating the key. _A_, _B_, _C_, solid parts of the upper head, (I.,
in Fig. 3). _F_, _G_, _K_, _L_, solid parts of the lower head, (II., in
Fig. 3).

The cards are passed into and through the stationary part of the head
at _X_, _Z_, and are attached to a “carriage” in the rear of the punch
head.

[Illustration: Fig. 12.]

Two methods are employed for moving the carriage:

1st. By a “skipper” at its rear fastened to the carriage, which
moves in a rack of pins secured to the cutting table. This method of
construction is used by the Uhlinger machine. Figs. 6 and 7 are front
and side views of this mechanism. Figs. 8 and 9, the top view and
sectional cut of the rack.

2d. The rack is fastened to the carriage, and the skipper to the table,
thus reversing the first method. [See Fig. 19, top view.] This method
of construction is employed in the Royle machine.

The distance of the pins in the racks in both systems of construction
(American and French) corresponds to the distance of the rows in
the card. The racks are generally constructed for 600, 900, and
1200 Jacquard machines. Of these three sizes the 1200 is the most
advantageous, as cards can be cut for any smaller size machine. The
rack of a 900 machine (French index) contains 88 pins, while that of a
1200 machine (French index) contains 114 pins.

Fig. 10 illustrates the “catch” for holding the cards in the Uhlinger
machine. This is fastened to the carriage when pressed by the hand on
top in the direction of arrow, _S_; this catch will compress spring,
_D_, in the direction of arrow, _S´_, thus opening the “blade,” _C_,
(front view shown by Fig. 11), in the direction of arrow, _S´´_, thus
allowing the card to be inserted and held, securely fastened to the
carriage.

Fig. 18 illustrates the side view of the carriage and its catch for
holding the Jacquard card as used in the Royle machine. Arrow, _S_,
indicates the pressure of the operator’s hand on lever, _B_, when the
card is inserted. This lever presses by means of presser, _D_, in the
direction of arrow, _S´_, on the double-acting lever, _E_, at _c_.
This lever moving around its fulcrum, _e_, will lift catch, _F_, in
the direction of arrow, _S´´_, thus allowing the card to be inserted.
Spring, _G_, fastened to main part of carriage, _A_, by means of screw,
_a_, secures the card to the catch. _C_, _C´_, are the carriage wheels,
of which there are four.

[Illustration: Fig. 13.]

[Illustration: Fig. 14.]

[Illustration: Fig. 15.]

[Illustration: Fig. 16.]

[Illustration: Fig. 17.]

[Illustration: Fig. 18.]

[Illustration: Fig. 19.]

Fig. 19 represents the top view of Fig. 18, and is designed to show
the arrangement of levers, wheels, and catches of the complete rack
as used for a 900 machine. The letters indicating the different parts
correspond with the ones used in Fig. 18.

Fig. 16 shows top view and ground plan, and Fig. 17 the front elevation
of the “card-guide,” as constructed on the Royle machine. It is
universal and self-adjusting to any width of cards from 3/4 to 3-1/2
inches; both guide-plates, _C_ and _D_, are caused to move equally
toward or away from the peg-punch, thus accurately centering the
peg-hole in all cards.

Letters _A_, _B_, _P_, and numbers 1 to 12, correspond to those used in
Fig. 13. _E_, _F_, _H_, _K_, are the three levers moving around pin,
_G_, (the latter in even line with the centre of the peg-hole, _P_).
These levers are held by screw, _L_, in any required position. Spring,
_S_, holds lever, _F_, _H_, against pin, _T_, which in turn is fastened
to the same plate as screw, _L_.

Fig. 16 indicates the card-guide set for a 12-row card. Let us suppose
it necessary to cut an 8-row card. Loosen screw, _L_, and spring, _S_,
will instantly contract until each side of the guide has moved the
required distance (two holes and two spaces between holes) towards the
centre. Much valuable time is saved by the use of this guide, as it
instantly adjusts itself to any width of card, and at the same time
centralizes each card passed through the machine. In factories where
broken cards require to be constantly renewed, the value of this guide
is especially noticeable, there being no material interruption of the
regular work of the operator, who can replace the damaged card at the
moment wanted.

[Illustration: Fig. 20.]

Letters indicating the different parts in Fig. 17, correspond to those
used in Fig. 16. As mentioned before, the pistons, _A_ and _B_, of
the cutting head are connected below the table to the cutting levers,
and by a simple combination of levers, the cutting pedal is brought
in direct relation to the cutting lever; all of which are illustrated
in the perspective view of the Royle machine in Fig. 20, and the
Uhlinger machine in Fig. 12. The working of the cutting pedal is very
simple. Pressing the pedal, situated at the right, causes the punch
head to descend, and the punch penetrates the card. Transferring the
pressure from the right to the left pedal raises the punch-head to its
former position, (punches above card), ready for a repetition of these
movements. The “skip” arrangement allows the carriage to advance the
distance from one pin to the other in the card-rack, thus placing the
card in proper position under the punches.

At the proper height above the punch-head is the reading-board, on
which the guide-rules are moved across the design by screws, which are
connected by gearing and operated by means of the hand-wheel or crank
shown on the lower side of the board. As drawing-pins or thumb-tacks
are generally used as fastenings for the design, the reading-board is
made of soft wood, and its trimmings are made of hard wood.

[Illustration: Fig. 21.]

Fig. 21 illustrates the Uhlinger Card Stamping Machine operated by
belt-power. Being the same in principle as the foot-power machine, it
is only necessary to state that instead of working the machine by means
of the cutting pedals, it is done automatically by simply touching any
of the keys that operate the punches; thus the machine makes one stroke
and punches the required holes.


The Stamping of Cards.

[Illustration: Fig. 22.]

Before commencing this work a clear conception of the tie-up and
leasing of the heddles is required. The holes in the cards for the
needles to penetrate, or the spots in cards where no hole is to be
stamped, must be arranged in an uninterrupted chain from one row to
the other, until all the rows are taken up. As previously mentioned,
the method observed in tying-up the loom is the guide for stamping
the cards. The number of ends required in a certain design may repeat
only once in the number of hooks and needles employed in the Jacquard
machine; or they may repeat two, three, or more times.

[Illustration: Fig. 23.]

Fig. 23 illustrates a design upon 40 warp-threads. Fig. 22 shows the
corresponding card, (French index), one-fourth of its actual size,
for the first pick. In a 200 machine this design will repeat itself
five times. The lace-holes and the peg-holes are blank. The reserve
row (26th) is shaded, and the design as cut in card is indicated by
black dots. This cut also shows the direction of reading each row to
correspond with the numbering for the punch-heads, in Figs. 2, 3,
13, and card-guide in Fig. 16. The numbers 1 to 40, 41 to 80, 81 to
120, 121 to 160, 161 to 200, indicate the direction of stamping the
design, as well as the five repeats to form the complete card. In this
connection it will be of great advantage to examine Fig. XXIX., p. 28,
under the head of the Jacquard Machine and its Tie-ups.

[Illustration: Fig. 24.]

Fig. 24 illustrates a Jacquard card (American index) stamped for
ingrain carpets, one-half of actual size. This card illustrates the
stamping for two textures, 1´ to 208´ being for “extra fine.” The
26 rows needed are shown full black, and marked to correspond. The
peg-holes and lace-holes are left blank. In the other texture, or
what is termed “extra super” ingrain carpet, the additional rows are
represented by the shaded holes at the ends of the cards. Arrow, _S_,
indicates the direction for commencing to read off each row.


III. Repeating Jacquard Pattern Cards by the Positive Action Repeater.

[Illustration: Fig. 25.]

If several sets of cards of one design are required for starting a
corresponding number of looms, and the first set has been produced by
the “piano machine” exact duplicates can easily be obtained at small
cost to the manufacturer by the “Repeating Machine.” This machine is
built by Messrs. John Royle & Sons, Paterson, N. J., and is illustrated
by Fig. 25 in a perspective view.

Fig. 26, p. 94, represents the front elevation of the throat-piece
through which the cards that are to be cut pass, the carriage on which
it is supported, and the mechanism employed for imparting a rising and
falling motion to the carriage.

Fig. 27, p. 95, is a vertical longitudinal section of the upper portion
of the machine.

Fig. 28, p. 95, gives a perspective view in detail of portions of a
selecting-needle and key-wire and a lever connecting them.

Fig. 29, p. 95, gives a view in detail of the mechanism employed to
turn the pattern cylinder.

The cards to be duplicated (_N_, _N_, Fig. 26, p. 94,) are arranged
upon the card race-arms (_M_, _M_, Fig. 26,) in the same manner as
upon a loom. The uncut or blank cards, having been previously laced
together, (_E_, _E_, Fig. 26), are piled in the rear at the base of the
column, and thence passed forward through the machine, and delivered
finished in front.

The perforating of the cards is performed by a vertically reciprocating
die, (_D_, Fig. 26), and a set of punches (_C_, Fig. 26,) carried in a
fixed punch-head, and capable of being pushed upward when such movement
is not prevented. The cards commonly used are of a size to receive 600
holes, and hence that number of punches are required.

The cards (_E_) to be cut are drawn over a “reel” or “idler” (_F_, Fig.
26,) at the back of the machine, and thence pass through openings in
the base frame to the front of the machine, and over a square cylinder
having a step-by-step rotary motion. By each quarter turn of this
cylinder, the chain of cards is drawn forward sufficiently to bring
a new card in the die. By the rising movement of the die (carriage),
which takes place as soon as the intermittent feed of the cards has
ceased, the card in the throat of the machine is carried up against the
lower ends of the punches, and is cut or perforated by all such punches
as have their upward movement prevented by the keys; while such punches
as are not arrested by the keys are carried upward, and do not puncture
the card. The pieces of card cut off fall through a throat or opening
in the carriage (_F_, Fig. 27,) into the hollow base frame, (_A_, Fig.
27), and can be taken out at the door, (_A_, Fig. 26).

It will therefore be apparent that the variations in the cards are
produced simply by holding down different punches in successive
punching operations. This is regulated by the original set of cards,
(_N_, Fig. 26), which are passed over the pattern cylinder (_O_, Fig.
26). The latter has also a step-by-step rotary motion similar to the
cylinder first described. Its four faces are covered with holes the
same distances apart as the perforations in the pattern cards. This
pattern cylinder is mounted in bearings in a carriage on the top of
the machine, and is reciprocated back and forth between the successive
rotary movements of the feed and pattern cylinders.

[Illustration: Fig. 26.]

In the upper part of the machine are arranged what are termed selecting
needles, (_C_, Fig. 27), which consist of wires arranged in horizontal
rows, with their ends opposite to the pattern cylinder, and which
are the same distance apart as the holes in the cylinder, so that if
the cylinder were moved up by the carriage against the ends of the
needles, the latter would enter the holes in the cylinder, and would
not be moved longitudinally. There are the same number of selecting
needles as punches in the machine--six hundred. When, however, a
perforated pattern card is on the cylinder, and it is moved against
the ends of the selecting needles, such needles as are opposite the
perforations of the cards will enter them, and will not be moved, while
such needles as are opposite the blank spaces of the cards will be
moved longitudinally. [See Fig. 27 for illustration.] At the reverse
movement of the carriage, an “evener,” which is secured to it at the
end opposite the pattern cylinder, strikes against the ends of all
the needles so moved and pushes them back to their original position.
Above each of the punches before described is a horizontal sliding key
(_D_, Fig. 27,) attached to a horizontal key-wire (_D´_, Fig. 27), and
the 600 key-wires are arranged in horizontal rows below the selecting
needles, and are each connected by a lever (_B_, Fig. 27,) with the
corresponding selecting needle. Consequently, a longitudinal motion of
any selecting needle will move the key-wire with which it is connected
in a reverse direction.

[Illustration: Fig. 27.]

Fig. 28 gives a clear demonstration of the connection of a selecting
needle, _c_, to the key-wire, _f_ by means of the lever, _e_, movable
around the fixed pin, _d_. Each key (_D_, Fig. 27,) consists of a
cylindrical plug of metal, which, projecting over a punch, forms an
abutment to keep that punch from rising, but if withdrawn, allows the
punch to rise without resistance.

[Illustration: Fig. 28.]

[Illustration: Fig. 29.]

A step arrangement of the punches and keys is adopted; that is, the
upper ends of the outer rows of punches are highest and the punches
in the several rows decrease in height till the inner row is reached,
where the punches are the lowest. Hence, the keys of the upper rows,
which correspond to the outer rows of punches, are carried over the
inner rows of punches and terminate over the punches in the outer rows.

Normally, all the keys are above the punches, and all would punch when
the die ascends, but when a pattern card is carried by the pattern
cylinder against the ends of the selecting needles, certain needles are
moved and produce a reverse movement of the corresponding key-wires,
and draws certain keys out of reach of their punches; no resistance
being offered to the upward movement of such punches, they do not
perforate the cards.

The carriage on which the pattern cylinder is carried being mounted
directly on the top of the machine, can be readily lifted off to afford
access to the parts below, and it is provided with a movable hood,
which may be lifted to inspect the selecting needles.

The keys and key-wires are arranged farther apart vertically than the
selecting needles, thus enabling larger keys and heavier and stronger
key bearings to be used, and avoiding any liability of the punches
striking the keys in the tier next above when those of their own tier
are withdrawn.

Instead of applying a separate spring to each punch to move it downward
or return it as the die recedes, a positively operated returning plate
is used, which moves down as the die recedes and acts on collars on
the punches, [see _d_, Fig. 27], and forces all the punches down. This
is very important, for if any of the punches should fail to descend,
the movement of their keys would be prevented, and thereby the machine
would fail to properly repeat.

The bearings of the pattern cylinder are so constructed that the
cylinder can be instantly changed to allow either a 400 or a 600-hole
cylinder to be used, so that the bearings can be adjusted to adapt them
for either size cylinder.

The bearings of the feed cylinder, whereby the chain of cards to be
cut is moved, are constructed and supported so as to enable them to be
readily adjusted to suit slight variations in the tightness with which
the cards are laced, or in a greater degree to suit large or small
cards, and the mechanism whereby the cylinder is operated is capable of
ready adjustment for the same purpose.

It is well known that the punching of a great number of holes
simultaneously, even in cardboard, requires great power, and entails
enormous shock and great wear on the machine; to obviate this
difficulty, the punches are slightly varied in length relative to their
keys, so that they will not all act on the cards at exactly the same
instant, and the strain on the machine and power required are thereby
greatly reduced.


_A Lace-Hole Press_

Is indispensable to the machine. This is a separate little machine,
designed to set upon a bench or table, and is used especially for
cutting the peg and lace-holes. It may be operated very readily by
hand, but if desired, is easily adapted to run by power. The feeding
is done by one motion of the hand, and once handling of the card; the
cards leave the press by gravitation, and arrange themselves in piles.
The press is arranged to cut cards for 400 or 600 machines.



The Lacing of Cards.


Two methods are observed for lacing Jacquard cards: _A_, hand-lacing on
a common frame; _B_, lacing by power.


A. Lacing of Jacquard Cards by Hand.

For this purpose the cards are put on a common frame containing on its
surface pegs of a corresponding size to those used on the cylinder. The
pegs on the frame are made of hard wood, and the pegs of the cylinder
of brass. These pegs on the frame are located at exact distances apart,
and the frames are built to hold from 30 to 50 cards, superficially
arranged.

Figs. 30 and 31 illustrate the frame under _S_, showing at _a_ three
cards arranged for a fabric, with a twill effect from left to right;
and at _b_ the same cards arranged for a twill in the opposite
direction, from right to left. These frames are arranged to slide into
each, so as to adapt them to the distances of the peg-holes in the
cards. To give a clear understanding as to the distance of these pegs
from each other a few measures most generally used for lacing frames
are given.

[Illustration: Fig. 30.]

[Illustration: Fig. 31.]

1. For a 200 Machine (French Index.)

The centre of the pegs are 2-9/16´´ apart. Width of cards 2-5/16´´,
allowing 1/4´´ for distance between the cards. Diameter of the pegs
at the bottom, 3/8´´. Distance of the centre of one peg to the centre
of the corresponding one across the frame, 7-1/2´´. Length of card,
9-5/8´´.

2. For a 600 Machine (French Index).

The centre of the pegs are 3-5/8´´ apart. Width of cards, 3-3/8´´,
allowing 1/4´´ for distance between cards. Diameter of the pegs at the
bottom, 3/8´´. Distance of the centre of one peg to the centre of the
corresponding one across the frame, 14-5/8´´. Length of card, 16-7/8´´.

3. For an Ingrain Carpet Machine (American Index).

The centre of the pegs are 3´´ from each other. Width of cards 2-3/4´´,
allowing 1/4´´ for the distance between the cards. Diameter of the pegs
at the bottom, 3/8´´. Distance of the centre of one peg to the centre
of the corresponding one across the frame, 11-3/8´´. Length of card,
13-1/4´´.


B. Lacing of Jacquard Cards by Machine.

Different styles of machines are constructed for doing this work, among
which we find machines requiring two needles for each series of holes
in the Jacquard cards, and machines using one shuttle in connection
with each needle. The Jacquard cards mostly needed are for machines
containing 400, 600, etc., hooks and needles.

The Jacquard cards for these sizes have three series of lace-holes, and
the number of needles, or needles and shuttles, used in the machine, is
proportionally increased.


_The Method of using Two Needles for Lacing each Series of Holes_

Is the one most extensively employed, hence we will take this machine
(W. P. Uhlinger, Phila., builder,) for the subject.

[Illustration: Fig. 32.]

Fig. 32 represents the perspective view of a lacing machine for 600
Jacquard cards. The table is located at a convenient height, and is
33-1/2 by 36-1/2 inches. Two grooves, each 1-1/16 inches by 26-1/2
inches, are located five inches from front and rear respectively,
and 9-1/8 inches from each side. A third groove of the same size is
situated in the centre, 6-1/32 inches from the others. An endless chain
runs in each groove, consisting of 24 links, corresponding in length to
the width of the card to be laced. Each link of the two outside chains
has a peg of a size corresponding to the one used on the cylinder in
the Jacquard machine.

[Illustration: Fig. 33.]

Fig. 33 illustrates the side view of a link, and the method of
jointing: _a_, the peg; _c_, the joint of link; the length of each link
being 3-1/2 inches, and the height 1/3 inch at the joint; the diameter
of the pegs at the bottom, 3/8 inch; the height of each peg, 1/2 inch.

[Illustration: Fig. 34.]

Fig. 34 shows the top view of Fig. 33, illustrating two complete links.
The body of each link is 2-3/8 inches long; the head, 5/8 inch long;
the slot, 1 inch long. _a_ represents the peg; _e_ the empty spaces
between each pair of links, to receive the teeth (1/2 inch high) of
wheel (8 inches diameter, Fig. 36). This wheel holds and guides the
endless chain; also imparts the required movement to the cards. It is
regulated by a cam arrangement. [See Fig. 35.]

[Illustration: Fig. 35.]

[Illustration: Fig. 36.]

Two needles are required for each of the three series of lace-holes, or
six needles in all. The process of lacing each series is the same; as
the three horizontal working needles are connected to one rod; thus, by
working this rod, they are operated correspondingly. The three vertical
working needles are arranged in the same manner, and also the three
loop-guides.

[Illustration: Fig. 37.]

Fig. 37 shows a top view of one of the loop-guides, _d_, _a_, _c_.
The dotted lines near a represent the position of the corresponding
“presser” for the cards during the lacing process. Length of strip _c_,
= 5 inches; length of strip _d_, = 13 inches; width of each strip, =
3/4 inch; width of empty space, between _c_ and _d_, = 3/4 inch. _b_
indicates the top view of the vertical working needle. Arrow, _S_,
direction the cards run while being laced. As previously mentioned, two
needles are required for each series of lace-holes.

[Illustration: Fig. 38.]

Fig. 38 shows the top view of the needle, which works in a horizontal
direction. Fig. 39 side view of the same. Fig. 38 is shown threaded,
whereas Fig. 39 is not threaded, so as to give a clear view of the eye.
This needle is fastened to its holder by means of screw, _d_; the blade
of the needle extends 3-1/2 inches; width of needle at bottom, 3/16
inch.

[Illustration: Fig. 39.]

Two different sets of lacing twines are used, viz.:

1st. Set of fine thread running from three spools shown in a vertical
position on the side of the machine, used for threading the needles
running in a horizontal direction. In our explanation we denote this
twine with “_a_.” (7-ply, No. 14 soft laid mule yarn.)

2d. The set of heavy twine running from spools arranged horizontally
near the bottom in rear of machine is threaded to the vertical needles.
This twine is indicated by “_b_” in our explanations. (No. 24 braid
banding.)

[Illustration: Fig. 40.]

In Fig. 38, arrow, _e_, illustrates the twine, “_a_,” as coming off
the spools. On the bottom of the “holder” is an extension which is
separately illustrated in its front view by Fig. 40. This extension
contains a pin marked _k_, which guides the twine into the hole, _l_;
(_e_ and arrow in Fig. 38 correspond with _e_ and arrow in Fig. 40).

[Illustration: Fig. 41.]

The position of this twine in working is shown in Fig. 38. _C_,
the crossing of the two twines preparatory to forming the loop, is
illustrated. The mechanical construction is such that needle, _a_, is
withdrawn from loop at the same time needle, _b_, commences to rise,
placing the twines in position shown in Fig. 41. Needle, _b_, will in
turn pull down as soon as needle, _a_, is ready for moving forward. By
moving needle, _b_, down, its twine will form a loop, [see Fig. 42],
held in its position by the “loop-guide,” Fig. 37. Through this loop,
needle, _a_, is again inserted. Needle, _b_, will leave the card below
as soon as needle, _a_, is in its loop. At this juncture the cards will
be moved by means of the catch and chain of links one hole or one space
between cards, whichever may be required. After this is done, needle,
_b_, will rise in its new place, and at the same time needle, _a_,
commences its backward journey through the loop shown and explained in
Figs. 38 and 41 at the beginning; thus ready for a repetition of the
two movements.

[Illustration: Fig. 42.]

The foregoing explanations will give the principle of this card-lacing
machine as follows: “_One needle holds the other’s twine until the
other needle has moved one point ahead._”


_Lacing Machine working with One Needle and One Shuttle for each Series
of Holes._

[Illustration: Fig. 43.]

Fig. 43 illustrates the side elevation. Fig. 44 illustrates the front
elevation. The construction of this machine and its working are as
follows:

Over the prisms, _B_, _C_, _D_, of the same size and shape as a
cylinder of the Jacquard machine, run three endless chains. Surrounded
by this endless chain is the shuttle-box, _E_, with three shuttles, one
of which is illustrated in Fig. 45. On each of these shuttles a toothed
rod, _K_, is fastened, the teeth of which work in the circles, _H_,
_H_, as soon as a shuttle is put in its lay, _J_. This toothed rod,
which runs underneath the circles, _H_, is used to move the shuttles
to and fro. _L_ indicates the pulleys for driving the machine. _M´_
and _O_, _O´_, the gear-wheels; _Q_, the lever, and _P_, its guide,
connected as shown. The bent needles, _Z_, work in connection with the
shuttles, _E_. These needles are tubes through which the twine for
lacing from spools, _A_, are passed. These tubes are adjusted to rod,
_S_, which swings around pin, _T_, and gets its motion from rod, _U_,
_V_, _W_.

[Illustration: Fig. 44.]

The Jacquard cards are placed on the machine at _B´_, and move
in rotation under needle, _Z_. The movement of the cards must be
so regulated that, notwithstanding the want of uniformity in the
arrangement of the holes, each hole in turn must come directly under
the lacing needles.

The lacing of the cards is produced as follows: After the cards have
moved one hole, the needles, _Z_, lower to _P´_, Fig. 43, making the
shed. The shuttles move with their points under the thread thus
lowered by the needle, and pass clear through the loop. After the
needles rise, they will in turn tighten the loop, the shuttles return
to their original position, and the work repeats.

This method of lacing Jacquard cards has the disadvantage of compelling
the machine to be stopped oftener than if using the two-needle system
(Fig. 32), as the shuttles will only hold a small quantity of lacing
twine.

[Illustration: Fig. 45.]



PRACTICAL HINTS

TO

LEARNERS OF JACQUARD DESIGNING.


Designers for Jacquard work, in addition to being good draughtsmen,
must be thoroughly acquainted with the three systems of weaves: plain,
twills and satins, and their sub-divisions; also with the structure
of double cloth, three-ply cloth, four-ply cloth, etc. He must know
the influence of the texture upon the weaves and the fabric; the
arrangement of the threads in the dents of the reed; the different
systems of tying-up the Jacquard harness; and the stamping of the
Jacquard cards for the various kinds of textile fabrics.



Squared Designing Paper for the Different Textile Fabrics Executed on
the Jacquard Machine.


The classifying of the [O] designing paper is done by enclosing a
number of small rectangles, horizontal and vertical, within a certain
distance by a heavy line. Such enclosures are known in practice
as “squares.” The spaces between the vertical lines indicate the
warp-threads, and those between the horizontal lines the filling
threads. As a rule the warp dimension is indicated first; and a design
paper having five rectangles vertical with ten horizontal, is variously
read and indicated as 5 by 10, 5 × 10, or 5/10.

Figs. 46 to 68 represent some of the styles of [O] designing paper
most frequently used. The size of the square may vary in each kind of
paper, and must be selected according to the fabric to be sketched.
For example: There are three styles of 8 × 8 [O] designing paper in
general use: One forming 1/2 inch heavy squares, (Fig. 48), one forming
3/4 inch heavy squares, (Fig. 64), and the other forming 1 inch heavy
squares. These sizes may still be varied.

The principle of these three kinds of [O] designing paper is identical,
the size preferred being left to the pleasure of the designer. If a
design is to be made for a great number of needles, say 600, 900, 1200,
etc., it will be best to use the smallest size; whereas in a design for
only 100 to 200 needles the larger sizes may be employed.

[Illustration: _Fig 46. 8×6_]

[Illustration: _Fig 47. 8×7_]

[Illustration: _Fig 48. 8×8_]

[Illustration: _Fig 49. 8×9_]

[Illustration: _Fig 50. 8×10_]

[Illustration: _Fig 51. 8×12_]

[Illustration: _Fig 52. 4×8_]

[Illustration: _Fig 53. 4×12_]

[Illustration: _Fig 54. 4×20_]

[Illustration: _Fig 55. 4×24_]

[Illustration: _Fig 56. 5×8_]

[Illustration: _Fig 57. 6×10_]

[Illustration: _Fig 58. 6×12_]

[Illustration: _Fig 59. 9×10_]

[Illustration: _Fig 60. 10×10_]

[Illustration: _Fig 61. 10×12_]

[Illustration: _Fig 62. 12×12_]

[Illustration: _Fig 63. 24×12_]

[Illustration: _Fig 64. 8×8_]

[Illustration: _Fig 65. 10×14_]

[Illustration: _Fig 66. 8×15_]

[Illustration: _Fig 67. 8×16_]

[Illustration: _Fig 68. 5×16_]


Practical Use of the Heavy Square in Designing Paper.

The heavy square serves as a unit of measurement, as well as a means of
calculation, and shows readily and exactly the size of the design. The
eye becomes accustomed to grasping the meaning of this large square,
and comprehends at a glance the situation. For instance:

On 8 × 8 paper, 25 squares means 8 × 25, or 200 rectangles each way.
10 × 10 paper, 10 × 25, or 250 rectangles each way. 10 by 12 paper, 10
× 25, or 250 rectangles one way, and 12 × 25, 300 rectangles the other
way.

These rectangles in actual work represent threads or ends, thus:

    200 ends on  8 ×  8  paper require 25 squares.
    300    "    10 × 10   "      "     30   "
    450    "    10 × 12   "      "     45 squares one way,
                and 450 ÷ 12, or 37 squares + 6 lines the other way.

The squares will also assist in putting the weave in a design. For
example: Suppose a design for a damask table-cover is required, having
for weaves the 8-leaf satin. By using the 8 by 8 paper the “risers”
or “sinkers” of the 8-leaf satin are found in the same place in each
square, thus any error in forming the weave is at once detected.
Sometimes more than one square is required for ascertaining this fact;
suppose in the preceding example the [O] paper to be 10 by 10, then the
number of threads represented by four successive squares = 4 times 10,
or 40, being five repeats of the 8-leaf satin, as 5 times 8 = 40.


Selection of Designing Paper for Single Cloth.

For single cloth the character of the designing paper is ascertained
by the number of warp and filling threads required per inch in the
finished fabric. For example: A damask fabric with a texture, when
finished, of 80/120 (80 ends warp and 120 picks filling per inch) will
require a designing paper of corresponding proportion, or as 80 is to
120, = 8 × 12.

In stripes, checks, etc., the texture in part of the fabric is changed;
such changes require separate designs. If the difference is only
slight, one kind of paper is used. Select the paper derived through the
proportion of the two as required. For example: A dressgoods fabric
forming two distinct effects in one repeat of 400 warp-threads (200
successive ends required for each effect).

    The first  effect made on a texture 60/80.
     "  second      "    "        "     80/80.

Two distinct designs (one for each effect) are required:

  For the first  effect use a paper proportioned as 60 to 80, or 6 × 8.
      "   second         "       "     "     "      80 to 80, or 8 × 8.

If only one kind of [O] designing paper be used for both effects, find
the average of the warp, thus: 6 + 8 = 14, and 14 ÷ 2 = 7, showing that
paper 7 × 8 is the substitute. If using a designing paper under similar
circumstances the sketch must be squared to correspond.


Selection of Designing Paper For Double Cloth.

In fabrics where one line (visible across the face) is produced by two
or more different colored threads, (each pick forming part face, part
body or back of the fabric), the designing paper to be used is shown
by the proportion of the line effects to the warp-threads (figure) per
inch. Example: Take a dress-goods fabric, extra figured in the filling,
having the following texture: Warp, 60 ends per inch; filling, 100
picks per inch, double system, 1 pick for ground, 1 pick for figure.
The paper required is as 60:(100 ÷ 2) or as 60:50 = 12 × 10, or 6 × 5.

The figure is painted upon the paper in various colors and by the
card-stamping when cutting the ground cards. The extra colors are
treated as if they were ground. When cutting for the extra figure, deal
with it alone.

If a fabric has the double-cloth system applied to the warp, only
using one filling for both kinds of warp, and the Jacquard-harness is
tied-up for “single sections,” the squared designing paper required is
found from the proportion of the number of face and back warp-threads
per inch, to the number of picks per inch. Example: Take a dressgoods
fabric constructed on the following texture: 80 ends warp, 1 end
ground, 1 end figure, and 60 picks to 1 inch. The proportion for the
paper is as 80:60, or 8 × 6 designing paper.

If the tie-up in the loom is for double sections, (Fig. LIV. or LVI.),
the fabric in the previous example requires the comparison of the
face-warp with the filling, and the answer is: 80 ÷ 2 or 40 ends of
face-warp per inch, 60 picks filling per inch, giving the proportion of
40 to 60, requiring 8 × 12, or 4 × 6 designing paper for the figure.
The ground part of the design is executed separately on the same kind
of paper; or if the weave is of a short repeat, stamped without design.

In selecting the [O] designing paper for double cloth, such as
cloakings, coatings, etc., made with a back-warp, and executed on any
of the single section tie-ups, use the lines between the squares to
indicate the back-warp and back-filling. The proportion of ends of
face-warp to face-filling in one inch of the finished fabric indicates
the kind of paper needed.

Example: If a fabric has the following texture:

    Warp,    2 ends face, 1 end back,  90 ends per inch.
    Filling, 3     "      1    "      132 picks   "

The kind of designing paper needed is found by dividing 90 by 3, and
multiplying by 2, thus: 90 ÷ 3 × 2 = 60, number of ends of face-warp
per inch, and 132 ÷ 4 × 3 = 99, number of picks filling per inch,
giving a 60 × 99 paper, or its equivalent, 6 × 10.

Face cards for these fabrics must be stamped twice, first for the face
weave, and afterward for the binder. If using a 12-row machine, use
punches 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, and 11, for face; 3, 6, 9, and 12, for
the back of the fabric.


Selection of Designing Paper for Two-ply Ingrain Carpets.

Always observe the proportion existing between the number of warp and
filling-threads. For instance, take a carpet having 1072 ends warp
(536 ground and 536 filling) per yard, with 30 picks per inch (1 pick
ground and 1 pick filling, or 15 pair). Then, 1072 ÷ 36 = 29-28/36
ends of warp per inch. The proposition is as 29-28/36: 30; or, what is
practically the same, 30: 30, showing that the paper must be equally
divided, and 8 × 8 may be used, as is usually done.

Again, take a carpet having 832 ends warp (416 ground, 416 figure) per
yard with 20 picks per inch (1 pick ground, 1 pick figure, or 10 pair).
Then 832 ÷ 36 = 23-4/36, and the proportion is as 23-1/9: 20, or as
7-19/27: 6-2/3, practically 8: 7; and 8 × 7 paper may be used.

    NOTE.--It will always be advantageous for the card stamping if
    the designing paper be selected so that the number of warp-ends
    in one square equals the number of griffe-bars used in the
    Jacquard machine.


Selection of the Proper Brush for the Different [O] Designing Papers.

The brush used by the designer must be clipped according to the size
of the rectangles of the paper. It should cover the rectangle in warp
direction at one sweep of the hand; hence each size of the squared
paper requires a specially prepared brush for quick, good, and perfect
work.


Colors used For Painting Textile Designs.

For this purpose take common colors (in powder), and mix with water and
mucilage to avoid rubbing off after application. Use no more mucilage
than necessary, as too much will be followed by slow and imperfect
work. Colors mixed in this manner must be kept moist by adding a few
drops of water daily. The colors most generally used for painting
textile designs are:

    Vermilion.
    Lamp Black.
    White Lead.
    Emerald Green.
    Chrome Yellow.
    Burnt Umber.
    Cobalt Blue.
    Carmine, etc.

A few drops of alcohol will greatly assist the mixing of vermilion,
umber, and similar colors which have no affinity for water. Chloride
of lime is used on colors having a vegetable basis (as carmine, etc.,)
for correcting imperfections, applying weaves or changes in the colored
part of a design.

If the designing paper becomes greasy, the colors will not adhere. To
cure this take a moist sponge and wipe off the paper.


Preservation of Textile Designs.

To prevent textile designs (painted on the [O] designing paper) from
being soiled, apply a thin solution of white shellac varnish, which
dries almost instantaneously. A design preserved in this manner can be
cleaned off at any time with a wet sponge, and after years have passed
will appear bright and distinct.



Sketching of Designs for Textile Fabrics to be Executed on the Jacquard
Machine.


The first work to be done in making an _original_ design, or in
reproducing a design by making an _analysis_ of a woven fabric, is to
prepare the “_sketch_.” This sketch may be arranged the exact size of
pattern needed, or it may be proportionally larger or smaller. If the
design is a reproduction from a woven fabric, a correct duplicate on
the regular drawing paper is required; for this sketch is of the same
value to the designer for Jacquard work as the correct picking out of a
weave is to the designer for harness loom-work.

In preparing an _original sketch_, the points to be considered are:
_The setting of the figure, and the most practical size_.


Methods of Setting the Figures.

To give a clear illustration of this, Figs. 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75,
and 76 are designed, representing a few of the methods most frequently
used. A separate explanation of each will familiarize the student with
this part of the work.

[Illustration: Fig. 69.]

[Illustration: Fig. 70.]

[Illustration: Fig. 71.]

[Illustration: Fig. 72.]

Fig. 69 illustrates the setting of a figure in “_plain_.” The space
allowed for one repeat (outline of the square) is shown divided
horizontally and vertically into two equal parts each way. [See dotted
lines _a_, _b_, and _c_, _d_, thus giving the centre for the square
at _S_.] The design contains two circles in its repeat; one of these
circles is shown with its centre at _S_, and the other circle is
illustrated divided into four quarters, as shown in the four corners of
the square.

Fig. 70 represents another “_plain_” setting, but the figure employed,
a half-moon with a small circle near it, is set in two directions.

Fig. 71 illustrates a design having in its repeat two different
figures, each set by itself in “plain.” A third figure, ring _e_, _f_,
_g_, _h_, is used four times to break the general prominence of the
effect.

[Illustration: Diagram for Fig. 72.]

Fig. 72 shows the setting of a figure in a design similar to a
“_four-harness broken twill_.”

Fig. 73 shows a combination of one figure set in four-harness broken
twill style, the other set in plain.

Fig. 74 shows the setting of a figure in the “_five-leaf satin_” style.
[See diagram, p. 109.]

Fig. 75 shows the setting of two figures in the “_six-leaf satin_”
style.

Fig. 76 illustrates the setting of one figure in the “_eight-leaf
satin_” method.

[Illustration: Fig. 73.]

[Illustration: Fig. 74.]

[Illustration: Fig. 75.]

[Illustration: Fig. 76.]

[Illustration: Diagram for Fig. 74.]

[Illustration: Diagram for Fig. 76.]

In setting figures in a sketch the appearance of “_streaks_” must be
avoided. To do this it will be found advantageous to sketch more than
one repeat of the pattern; if possible, sketch two each way, that the
streaking, if any, may show itself in the sketch, and be corrected
there. Nearly all the patterns seen in fabrics which show streaks can
be traced to designers who prepare their designs without sketches; for
if a sketch had been made, the streaking of the fabric might have been
foreseen had the designer exercised proper care in the examination and
perfecting of his sketch. Figures taken from plants, or from life, can
be set in the same manner as explained for Figs. 69 to 76. For example,
Fig. 77, the figure for design. Fig. XXXIV., p. 32, the latter being
set after the method illustrated by Fig. 70.

[Illustration: Fig. 77.]

Figs. XXV., XXVI., XXXIII., XXXVIII., XLI., XLIV., XLV., XLVII.,
XLVIII., LI., LV., LVII., LXI., etc., all show sketches for fabrics
executed on one or the other methods of construction just explained.


Size of Sketch Required.

This is regulated by the number of harness-cords in one repeat
or division, the method of tie-up employed, and the texture of
the finished fabric. For example: Take 400 harness-cords for one
division. Texture of the fabric when finished 100/90. Tie-up employed,
straight-through. _Required_: The size of one repeat for the sketch.

_Answer_: 400 ÷ 100 = 4 inches. The figures may be arranged in this
sketch to repeat one, two, three, four, or more times in the 4 inches
thus available.


Enlarging and Reducing Figures for Sketches.

[Illustration: Fig. 79.]

[Illustration: Fig. 78.]

Figures are not always enlarged or reduced by free-hand drawing. Some
designers always use the “_squaring off_” process. The latter is
clearly illustrated by Figs. 78 and 79. Fig. 79 shows the reduction of
Fig. 78, and Fig. 78 the enlargement of Fig. 79.

[Illustration: Fig. 80.]

[Illustration: Fig. 81.]

The method observed is of different size squares for each design. Each
square of Fig. 78 containing the same proportion of the whole design as
is shown by the corresponding squares of Fig. 79.

[Illustration: Fig. 82.]

Fig. 80 illustrates another method of ruling off a figure preparatory
to enlargement, reduction, or duplication.

[Illustration: Fig. 83.]

[Illustration: Fig. 84.]

This “squaring off” is not always done in a sketch for the reasons
just mentioned, it being frequently done to assist the designer in
the original construction of his figure. Such an application of its
utility may be observed in Fig. 81, centre for Damask; Fig. 82, border
for Damask; and Figs. 83 and 84, sketches for Damask table-cover,
centre, with side border. The design of a border for a centre, or _vice
versa_, must be selected to correspond (Fig. 85).

[Illustration: Fig. 85.]

Fig. 86 shows a horizontal and vertical border, both of the same
design. It is obvious that it would be a very imperfect design if
either border should be allowed to form the corner, hence a union must
be carefully constructed embodying the same general features as the
design.

[Illustration: Fig. 86.]


Transferring of the Sketch to the Squared Designing Paper.

Having obtained a perfect sketch of the design as it appears in the
fabric, or as it is desired to show, the outlines are transferred
to the [O] designing paper. This always requires an enlargement of
the design, and to accomplish this the sketch itself must be ruled
proportionally to the heavy squares found on the [O] designing paper.
If these squares should be too small for the sketch, they may be
enlarged by throwing 4, 9, or 12 of the “squares” into one large one;
which is indicated by extra ruling off with pencil upon the required
heavy lines. In this case the sketch is ruled off corresponding
to these pencil lines. The transfer of the sketch to the required
[O] designing paper is governed by rules already explained for the
enlargement of a design on the regular drawing paper. After the design
is transferred to the [O] designing paper it must be “_outlined in
squares_.”


Outlining in Squares.

This consists in painting the small squares forming the outline of the
figure as called for by the outline of the drawing. Two methods are
observed: One “_outlining in squares” inside the “drawing outline;”_
the other _“outlining in squares” outside the “drawing outline.”_

If painting outside the outline, no small squares are taken, in which
the drawing outline, taken from inside the figure, encloses more than
one-half of their surfaces. If painting the “outline in squares”
_inside_ the “drawing outline,” this rule is reversed, thus no small
square can be taken which is overrun by the drawing outline more than
one-half from the outside of the design. The most difficult part of the
outlining in squares is to obtain the nearest possible reproduction of
the drawing outline. If circles, curves, etc., are to be made, they
must be reproduced as nearly correct as possible; no bunches, cuts,
etc., should disturb its symmetry.

[Illustration: Fig. 87.]

Fig. 87 shows the variations and methods to be resorted to in
“outlining by squares” the five circles, each of different size.

Fig. 88 shows the formation of projected straight lines varying from
a horizontal to a vertical direction. The full changes by 8^s, 7^s,
6^s, 5^s, 4^s, 3^s, 2^s, 1^s are shown in full black. The half changes
between the 2^s and 3^s are formed of 2^s and 3^s taken alternately as
shown by the shaded line. Another half change between 1^s and 2^s, also
represented by the shaded effect, shows the change to be a repetition
of the step 1, 1, 2. Between this last mentioned change and the regular
2^s change, we find the direction of a straight line as derived from
a repetition of 2, 2, 1, indicated by the [.] Below the regular
change by 1^s the straight line is formed by using 7 times 1 and once
2 repeated. Above the regular change by 1^s as shown by the black
diagonal, these same changes will form straight lines running from 45°
to 90°.

[Illustration: Fig. 88.]


Rules for “Outlining in Squares” Inside or Outside the Drawing Outline.

The outlining in squares outside the drawing outline is observed in
designs having the figure produced by the filling. The outlining in
squares inside the drawing outline is observed in designs having the
figure produced by the warp. By reversing these two rules, the figure
in the design would be changed from the sketch, for if outlining
in squares inside the drawing outline, using filling for figure,
the figure would be reduced proportionally to the reduction made or
taken away by the outline squares. Thus, also, if the warp formed the
figure, and the “outlining being done in squares,” outside the drawing
outline, the figure would increase proportionally the size of the
squared outline. These rules refer to painting the squares for warp
only. Some fabrics require also the painting of the filling squares.

The foregoing explanation may be reduced to the following _Rule_: If
the figure is required to be in white, “outline by squares” outside the
drawing outline; if the figure is required to be painted, “outline by
squares” inside the drawing outline.

After the design is outlined by full small squares, either the figure
or the ground (as required, but generally the figure) is painted all
over. The paint required for this work has been previously described.
It is only necessary to mention that it must have body enough to be
clearly visible, but not sufficient to obscure the black ruled lines
of the paper, which must show clearly through the paint. The weave, if
necessary, is next put on the required spots, either in white or black
paint.


Illustration of a Sketch.

[Illustration: Fig. 89.]

_Outlining on [O] paper--finished design and fabric sample. For
single-cloth fabrics, as damasks, dressgoods, etc._

To give a clear illustration of the entire process from sketch to
finished design, Figs. 89, 90, and 91 are designed. Fig. 92 showing the
effect of the design on the fabric after being woven.

[Illustration: Fig. 90.]

[Illustration: Fig. 91.]

Fig. 89 represents a sketch for a fabric supposed to be executed with
80 warp-threads in one repeat; thus, if using 8 by 8 [O] designing
paper, (texture in this example supposed to be equal in filling and
warp), the sketch must be divided and ruled off into eight parts each
way.

Fig. 90 illustrates the sketch transferred to the [O] designing paper.
Fig. _A_ represents the “drawing in outline.” Fig. _B_, the “outlining
in squares.” Fig. 91, the complete design; and Fig. 92, the fabric
sample.

[Illustration: Fig. 92.]


Design for Damask Fabrics to be Executed on a Jacquard Loom, with
Compound Harness Attached.

[Illustration: Fig. 93.]

These designs require no special weave, as that is taken care of by
the compound harness in front of the Jacquard harness, as explained in
Chapter XII., page 58. After painting in the design, it is finished,
ready for card-stamping. Fig. 93 shows us a leaf, taken from sketch
(Fig. 80), which may be used in connection with a larger design, but
will clearly illustrate this division of textile work.


Designs for Two-ply Ingrain Carpet.

In these fabrics, when the ground and figure are indicated in the
design, the same is considered as finished. As previously stated in
the article devoted to these fabrics, a two-ply ingrain carpet is
composed of two fabrics, in which the journals introduce the weave, and
the double-acting Jacquard machine the exchange of ground and figure
effect.

Fig. 94 represents a small portion of a design illustrating the three
principal effects of this operation.

[Illustration: Fig. 94.]

    I. = figure up.

    II. = ground up.

    III. = effect technically known as “shot-about,” derived from
    one pick, figure up; one pick, ground up; and repeated.

In Fig. 95 a detailed description or analysis of the interlacing warp
and filling of Fig. 94 is given.

[Illustration: Fig. 95.

    [X] = figure up. }  Produced by the
    [D] = ground up. }  Jacquard machine.
     ×  = weave for ground.  }  Produced by
    [.] =  weave for figure. }  journals.]

The two-ply ingrain carpet can also be made upon a Jacquard loom,
tied up for double sections. [See Chapter VI., page 48.] This is also
extensively used in the manufacture of upholstery fabrics; in fact, the
latter mentioned method is almost exclusively used in Europe.

In Fig. 95 the weave of the “shot-about” effect calls for two picks
face, and two picks back. An examination of this part of the draft
shows that the warp-thread represented by the light pick [1/3] is
to be raised, or has been raised in the adjoining heavy pick [3/1];
further, we find the two light picks separated by the raising of a
different warp-thread in each pick, which is also effected between the
two heavy picks by the lowering of another warp-thread. This places the
ground-thread below its corresponding figure or mate thread, or the
figure thread below its corresponding ground-thread.

If these mate threads introduced in succession are required to show
side by side, either on the face or the back of the fabric, these
changes must be indicated on the design by different colors. If such
effects are to be introduced when using the common ingrain Jacquard
machine, the needles of the latter must be operated at each pick; this
requires twice as many cards as are used in designs where the mate
thread is always placed below or above its corresponding thread.


Designs for Dressgoods Figured with Extra Warp (one end Ground, one end
Figure), and Executed on the Double Section Tie-up.

In the article explaining the double section tie-up, [see Chapter VI.,
p. 48], as well as the one on the selection of the proper squared paper
required for these fabrics, the general character of these fabrics has
been explained.

As mentioned in Chapter VI., the machine is divided in two parts,
figure and ground; the Jacquard harness is leased one end figure, one
end ground, and repeated.

[Illustration: Fig. 96.]

[Illustration: Fig. 97.]

[Illustration: Fig. 98.]

Fig. 96 illustrates a part of such a design, and is to be cut for the
figure part of the needles.

Fig. 97 shows the plain weave, which is cut without a design in that
portion of the card which operates the ground of the Jacquard harness.

Fig. 98 shows the analysis of the woven fabric for the design referred
to in Fig. 96.

[N. B.--The plain weave used for explaining the present example may be
substituted by other weaves, as a [2/1] twill, [2/2] twill, or the four
harness broken twill, etc., without changing the figure design.]


Designs for Figured Pile Fabrics.

Designs for figured pile fabrics (terry or velvet), Plushes,
Astrakhans, etc., are also executed without introducing a weave in
the design. The design is only intended for the pile-threads, which
are raised when introducing the wire; the front harness operating the
ground-warp. The pile-warp, when raised over the wire, is bound by
means of the previous pick, as well as by the pick following by the
filling to the ground cloth.


The Shading of Textile Fabrics by the Weave.

[Illustration: Fig. 99.--Shading of Flowers in Sketches for Damask
Fabrics.]

This is generally done in the “figure” part (especially in flowers,
leaves, etc.), of damasks and similar textile fabrics. The shading can
be applied to the satin weaves to the best advantage.


_Rule for Shading with Satin Weaves._

Put the ground weave (filling for face) over the entire part of the
[O] designing paper, which is required to be shaded; afterwards add
one, two, three or more horizontal or vertical (connecting) spots to
the one spot which forms the foundation or satin filling for face. The
heaviness of the shade is regulated by the sketch or the fabric. For
example: In an 8-leaf satin the difference between filling for face and
warp for face may be made with three or four changes only; or with the
entire seven changes.

For shading twill weaves no rule can be given.

[Illustration: Fig. 100.--5-Leaf Satin.

  [4/1]
  [3/2]
  [2/3]
  [1/4]]

Fig. 100 shows the shading of the 5-leaf satin, four changes, each
eight threads, giving 4 × 8, or 32 threads for the effect.

[Illustration: Fig. 101.--8-Leaf Satin.]

Fig. 101 illustrates the 8-leaf satin applied for shading a circle,
using in rotation every possible change.

[Illustration: Fig. 102.--10-Leaf Satin.]

[Illustration: Fig. 103. 8-Harness Twill.]

Fig. 102 illustrates the shading of the 10-leaf satin from filling for
face [1/9], to warp for face [8/2], and back again to filling for face.

Fig. 103 represents the [7/1] eight harness twill, shaded from the
filling for face to the warp for face effect; the change occurring
every eight picks.



Glossary and Index.


[Illustration: decorated horizontal rule]

    Technical words, names and terms given in the Index, with
    reference to the number of the page where explained, are a
    complete collection used in the work.

    The Glossary, connected with the Index, contains those terms
    (mostly technical words) which to some extent have been
    mentioned in the book, or terms which, in the course of study,
    will appear alone. They are treated in a short but thorough and
    comprehensive manner in this Glossary.


                                                                    PAGE

  =American Index=, Piano Card-stamping machines for,                 86

  =Analysis=, the art of resolving a machine, fabric, or substance of
  any kind, into its constituent parts.

  =Arrangement= of hooks, needles, griffe-bars, springs, spring-frame
  and needle-board in the single-lift Jacquard machine,               14


  =Backing=, the filling of the lower fabric in a double cloth.

  =Batten=, the frame which carries the cylinder in its motion to and
  from the needle-board,                                              15

  =Batten Motion=,                                                    15

  =Binder-warp=, the warp-threads producing the foundation of a
  fabric; interior warp; this warp is generally not visible in the
  finished fabric. Used in astrakhans, velvets, plushes, Brussels
  carpets, upholstery fabrics, etc.

  =Bobbin.= The filling is wound on the bobbin, and the latter placed
  in the shuttle.

  =Bonchon, M.=, the inventor of the principle of the Jacquard
  machine,                                                             7

  =Border=, the outer part of a fabric.

  =Brush=, as required for perfect work,                             107


  =Camel Hair= is the hair of certain camels, and is used either
  combed or carded.

  =Card-guide=, used in the Piano Card-stamping machine,              90

  =Card-rack=,                                                        19

  =Card-wire=,                                                        19

  =Carriage=, technical name for a part of the Piano Card-stamping
  machine,                                                            88

  ---- Technical name for a part of the Repeating machine,        93, 96

  =Cashmere=, or _Kashmere_ wool, is the fine hair of the Cashmere
  goat, which thrives upon the Himalaya mountains and surrounding
  country, in Asia. _Cashmere_ is also used to indicate certain
  fabrics made of wool or silk warp and goat hair, or fine merino
  wool filling.

  =Catch=, a part of the Carriage in the Piano machine,               88

  =Catches=, a part of the Jacquard machine,                          13

  =Centre Tie-up or Point Tie-up=,                                    33

  =Colors= used for painting textile designs,                        107

  =Comber-board=, (_Cumber-board_ and _Compart-board_ are also
  technical terms frequently used for it); a perforated board which
  guides and keeps the harness-cords in the required positions.
  Lately, wires crossing each other and adjusted in a frame are used
  with advantage; this latter style is patented by The G. W. Stafford
  Manufacturing Co., Providence, R. I.,                          20, 130

  ---- Made in strips and adjusted in a frame,                        21

  ---- Made of a solid piece of material,                             20

  =Combination Tie-up= in two sections,                               56

  =Compound Harness.= Designs for fabrics executed on a Jacquard
  loom with Compound Harness attached,                               116

  ---- General arrangement and application,                           58

  ---- Number to use of,                                              63

  ---- Positions during weaving,                                      63

  ---- Their operation by a separate machine,                         62

  ---- Weaves for working,                                            63

  =Cotton= is the white, downy, fibrous substance which envelopes
  the seeds of various species of the cotton plant, _gossypium_,
  belonging to the natural order _malvaceæ_.

  ---- The size of the yarn when spun is calculated by numbers,
  commencing with No. 1, which requires 840 yards to 16 ounces; every
  successive number requiring 840 yards additional for the original
  16 ounces.

  =Cow Hair=, mixed with a suitable fibre like wool, is spun into the
  filling for coarse ingrain carpets, and similar coarse fabrics, as
  backing-filling for cloakings, etc.

  =Cylinder=, a part of the Jacquard machine,                   7, 9, 16


  =Damask=, a fabric originally made at Damascus, and composed of
  rich silk. The name is at present applied to various textile
  fabrics composed of cotton, linen, etc., which are of common
  household use, as table-covers, towels, etc.

  =Designing Paper= for the different textile fabrics,               103
  =Divisions= of a comber-board,                                      22

  =Dobbies=, Index machines, Witches, etc., are small Jacquard
  machines, or machines constructed upon its principles.

  =Dobby Card-punching Machine=,                                      86

  =Double Cloth=, selection of designing paper for,                  106

  ---- Two separate fabrics fastened together in the process of
  weaving. The advantages of double cloth are various, amongst which
  we find: To produce a heavier and thicker cloth; using materials to
  their best advantage; producing effects impossible to be procured in
  single cloth, etc. There are three divisions of double cloth:--
    _a_,  using one system of warp and two systems of filling;
    _b_,  using two systems of warp and one system of filling;
    _c_,  using two systems of warp and two systems of filling.

  =Double-lift Double-cylinder Jacquard Machine=, principle of
  construction, advantages over the single-lift, and method of
  operation,                                                          69

  =Double-lift Single-cylinder Jacquard Machine=, principle of
  construction, advantages over the single-lift, and method of
  operation,                                                          67

  =Doup=, an arrangement used in the manufacture of gauze fabrics
  which compels certain warp-threads to cross each other,          64-66

  =Douping Warp=, also known as _Whip-thread_, and used in connection
  with the ground-warp or standard thread in the construction of
  gauze fabrics,                                                      64

  =Drawing-in Draft=, method to be observed in drawing-in a warp in
  the eyes of the heddle.


  =End=, the technical word for a thread which is used often in its
  place.

  =Expert in Card-stamping=, how to become,                       86, 88

  =Extra Fine=, a two-ply ingrain carpet constructed with 832 threads
  warp, (36 inch wide fabric), exclusive of the selvedge,             74

  =Extra Super=, a two-ply ingrain carpet constructed with 1072
  threads in warp, (36 inch wide fabric), exclusive of the selvedge,  75

  =Extra Warp=, designs figured with,                                117


  =Fabric=, the structure of anything; the manner in which the parts
  of anything are united by art and labor; workmanship, texture,
  make, etc.

  ---- Manufactured cloth of any kind or material.

  =Fabrics= for which the Jacquard machine must be used,               9

  =Falcon, M.=, the inventor of the cylinder and the Jacquard cards,   7

  =Feed Cylinder=, a part of the Repeating machine,                   96

  =Filling=, the threads running crosswise in a cloth.

  =Flax.= This term is used to designate the flax or linen fibre,
  and also the plant from which it is obtained.

  =Frame=, a part of the Jacquard machine,                            11

  =French Index=, Piano Card-stamping machines for,                   86


  =Gauze Fabrics=, their peculiar characteristic construction,        64

  ---- Threading of the harness for,                               64-66

  ---- Tying-up for,                                                  64

  =Griffe=, a part of the Jacquard machine; also called Knife Box,
                                                            7, 9, 10, 13

  =Griffe-bars=, a part of the Jacquard machine;
  also called Knives,                                              9, 10

  =Guide-board=, used for regulating the height of the mails by
  tying-up a Jacquard harness,                                        23

  =Guiding-rod.= See Jacquard Plunger.


  =Hammer=, a part of the Jacquard machine,                           16

  =Harness cords=, the cords of each leash,                            9

  =Heavy Square=, its practical points of use on designing paper,    105

  =Heddle and Harness-cord=, combining,                               23

  =Heddles=, as required for compound harness,                        62
  ---- For the Jacquard harness,                                   9, 22

  =Hook=, a part of the Jacquard machine,                      9, 10, 13


  =Index Machines.= See Dobbies.

  =Ingrain=, as applied to carpets, was originally intended for a
  fabric where the wool was colored before carding and spinning, but
  which is not true at present, as the yarn is mostly manufactured
  before coloring. The great variety of colors used in an ingrain
  carpet at the present time, the constant changing of styles,
  besides the saving of expense by coloring the yarn after
  manufacture, are the general reasons for it. Ingrain carpet in our
  country means the same as Scottish or Kidderminster in Europe.

  =Ingrain Carpet=, two-ply, construction of the fabric,              72

  ---- Two-ply, designs for,                                         116

  ---- Two-ply, Jacquard Machine,                                     71

  ---- Two-ply, selection of designing paper,                        106

  ---- Two-ply, tying-up of its Jacquard harness,                     72

  =Ingrain Carpet Loom=, two-ply, built with a stationary
  shuttle-raceway and an independent comb for beating up the filling, 82

  ---- Two-ply, in which the journals are lifted from above by means
  of a cam arrangement,                                               81

  ---- Two-ply, in which the journals are lifted from below and
  controlled by either a chain or cam motion,                     81, 82


  =Jacquard Cards=, general arrangement and application,    7, 9, 17, 18
  ---- Preparing of,                                                  85
  ---- Stamping of,                                               85, 91

  =Jacquard Designing=, practical hints,                             103

  =Jacquard Harness=, general arrangement and application,            20

  =Jacquard, Joseph Marie=, life of,                                7, 8

  =Jacquard Loom=, a loom furnished with the Jacquard arrangement.

  =Jacquard Plunger=, a part of the Jacquard machine; also known as
  Guiding-rod,                                                        12

  =Journals=, peculiarly constructed harness frames used in the
  manufacture of two-ply ingrain carpets,                             75

  =Jute= is a native plant of China and the East Indies; its long
  fibre, which is of a brown to silver gray color, is used largely in
  the manufacture of Brussels and tapestry carpets, rugs, etc., for
  the body--ground structure of the fabric. It is distinguished from
  flax by being colored yellow under the influence of sulphuric acid
  and iodine solution. The size of the thread when spun is indicated
  by the same rule as wool--_Cut system_--300 yards to 16 ounces.


  =Keys=, as used in the Piano Card-stamping machine,                 86

  =Keys=, as used in the Repeating machine,                           93

  =Key Wire=, used in the Repeating machine,                          95


  =Lace-hole Press=,                                                  96

  =Lacing= of Jacquard cards,                                         97

  =Lacing Frame=,                                                     97

  =Lacing Machines=, using two needles for lacing each series of
  holes,                                                              98

  ---- Using one needle and one shuttle for lacing each series of
  holes,                                                             100

  =Lacing Needles=,                                                  100

  =Lacing Twine=, the kind to use for machine lacing,                100

  =Lantern=, an iron extension put on the cylinder of the Jacquard
  machine. The cylinder is turned by means of the catches working on
  the lantern,                                                        16

  =Leaf=, a harness; thus: 3-leaf twill or 3-harness twill, etc.

  =Lease=, or leas.

  =Leasing= of the Jacquard harness,                                  23

  =Leash=, two or more harness-cords combined and adjusted to one
  neck-cord. For every harness-cord a leash contains there will be
  found a repeat in the design to correspond,                          9

  =Lifter-boards=, or _Trap-boards_, used in the Jacquard machine for
  two-ply ingrain carpet,                                             71

  =Lifting= of the griffe,                                        12, 17

  =Lingo=, a small iron weight for each harness-cord,          9, 22, 23

  =Loom Pickers= are generally made of raw hide; less frequently of
  sole leather or wood. The picker stick, which is operated by means
  of cams or arms on the loom, drives the picker, and the latter the
  shuttle.

  =Loop-guide=, a part of the lacing machine,                         99


  =Mail=, made of metal, forms the centre part of a twine heddle; in
  the eye of the mail the warp-thread is drawn,                   22, 23

  ---- Its position in the loom, 23

  =Margin=, plain part between border and selvedge, or centre and
  border in a damask table-cover, etc.

  =Mate Threads=, technical name used in two-ply ingrain carpets; one
  ground-thread and its corresponding figure-thread,               72-80

  =Merino=, originally the wool of the Spanish Merino sheep, and
  known as some of the finest wool. _Colonial wools_, as Australia,
  Cape of Good Hope, New Zealand, bear the character of the Merino,
  derived through introducing and breeding the original stock in
  those countries.

  =Modifications= of the single-lift Jacquard machine,                67

  =Mohair=, the fleece of the Angora goat. It is largely used in the
  manufacture of light-weight dress goods, which are characterized
  by their lustre. In pile fabrics, as plushes, velvets, astrakhans,
  etc., of a plain or figured denomination, mohair is often used for
  the “pile-warp,” whereas the ground or body of the fabric is made
  of cotton.


  =Neck-cord=, the cord combining leash and hook,                      9

  =Needle=, a part of the Jacquard machine,                    9, 10, 14

  =Needle-board=, a part of the Jacquard machine,                     17


  =Open Harness=, tie-up,                                             23

  =Outlining in Squares=, methods and rules for,                 113-115


  =Pattern-cylinder=, a part of the Repeating machine,             94-96

  =Perforated Bottom-board=, a part of the Jacquard machine; through
  this board the neck-cords are passed, combining the hooks to the
  leash,                                                              12

  =Petty-point Tie-up=,                                               51

  =Piano Card-stamping Machine=, operated by belt power,              91

  ---- Operated by foot power,                                        86

  =Pick=, one filling thread; one passage of the shuttle through the
  shed.

  =Pile Fabrics= can have the pile produced either by the warp or
  the filling. If the pile has to be produced by the warp, a certain
  number of warp-threads are raised on certain picks over wires.
  These elevated threads are interwoven in the pick preceding the
  interweaving of the wire, and also in the pick following it, with a
  filling-thread to the ground cloth. After a certain number of wires
  have been inserted, the first interwoven wire is drawn out of the
  fabric to be used over, which operation is repeated in rotation
  with every wire. We find terry and velvet piles. If the pile is
  produced by the filling, some or all filling-threads must float in
  certain places to allow the thread to be cut at this place, or its
  fibres to be raised during the process of finishing the fabric,
                                                                 53, 118

  ---- Designs for,                                                  118

  =Plain-weave=, also known as cotton-weave; in this weave, warp
  and filling cross each other at right angles, and interweave
  alternately. Frequently used for ground-weave in Jacquard designs.

  =Point Tie-up or Centre Tie-up=,                                    33

  =Point Tie-up=, for two-ply ingrain carpets,                        78

  =Point Tie-up in three Sections=,                                   55

  =Preserving= of designs executed on [O] paper,                     107

  =Presser=, a part of the Lacing machine,                            99

  =Punch=, as used in the Piano Card-stamping machine,                86

  ---- As used in the Repeating machine,                              93

  =Punch-head=, a part of the Piano machine,                          86

  ---- A part of the Repeating machine,                               93


  =Rack=, a part of the Piano Card-stamping machine,                  88

  =Reed=, a series of narrow strips of metal, between which the
  warp-threads pass in the loom. The purpose of the reed is to keep
  the warp evenly divided, also to strike the filling in many places
  at the beating the reed towards the breast-beam of the loom. The
  reed is known by numbers, the number in each case indicating how
  many splits are in one inch. RULE for ascertaining the _reed
  number_, if the number of ends in the warp and the width in the
  reed are known; the threads per dent either given or to be selected
  according to the fabric:--Divide the number of ends in the warp by
  the width in the reed, which gives the number of threads per inch;
  divide this result again by the number of threads in one dent,
  according to the weave or rows deep of comber-board. Whole numbers
  or half numbers are generally used for grading reeds only.

  =Reel=, or =Idler=, a part of the Repeating machine,                93

  =Repeat=, that which is to be repeated; as the repeat of a pattern,
  the repeat of an effect in a design, etc.

  =Repeating Machine=, for Jacquard cards,                            92

  =Reserve Rows.= Nearly every Jacquard machine contains two extra
  rows of needles in addition to the number as classified,            10


  =Satin-weaves= are characterized by a smooth face. The stitch
  of the threads is opposite to that of the twill weaves. The
  foundations for designing a satin-weave are, in the first place, to
  arrange as much as possible distributed stitching; in the second,
  to have this as regular as possible. The satin-weaves commence
  with the five-harness, and can after this be made on any number
  of harness. To find the run of stitching in the easiest way, use
  the following rule: Divide the number of harness into two parts,
  which must neither be equal, nor the one a multiple of the other.
  Afterwards take one result and add it, commencing to count from
  1 until all threads or harnesses are taken up, as example: Five
  harness--5 = 2 + 3. Commencing with one and adding two points, we
  have as follows: 1 + 2 = 3 + 2 = 5 + 2 = 7, or 2 + 2 = 4. This
  will give the stitch as: 1, 3, 5, 2, 4, which means: the first
  pick stitches in the first warp-thread, the second pick stitches
  in the third warp-thread, the third pick stitches in the fifth
  warp-thread, the fourth pick stitches in the second warp-thread,
  the fifth pick stitches in the fourth warp-thread.

  ---- Are frequently employed for ground-weaves in Jacquard designs.

  =Section= of the comber-board, dividing the comber-board in its
  depth.

  =Sectional Harness Arrangement=,                                    26

  =Selecting Needle=, used in the Repeating machine,                  94

  =Selvedge=, the edge of cloth, woven in such a manner as to prevent
  ravelling, and often closed by complicating the threads; also
  called List, Listing.

  =Setting of Figures= in a sketch,                                  108

  =Setting of the Cylinder=,                                          18

  =Shading= of textile fabrics by the weave,                         118

  ---- Rules for,                                                    119

  =Shed=, the separation of the warp to allow the shuttle to pass
  through.

  =Shot-about=, the alternate exchange (filling ways) of figure up
  and ground up in two-ply ingrain carpet,                       72, 117

  =Shuttles= are the means for carrying the filling into and through
  the shed.

  =Shuttle-box Mechanism=, for carpet hand-looms,                     80

  =Shuttle-raceway=, the part of the lay on which the shuttle travels
  to and fro.

  =Silk= consists of the pale yellow, buff colored, or white fibre,
  which the silk worm spins around about itself when entering the
  _pupa_ or _chrysalis_ state. _Spun Silks_ are calculated as to size
  of the thread on the same basis as cotton. The adopted custom of
  specifying the size of raw silk is by giving the weight of 1000
  yards in drams, avoirdupois.

  =Single Cloth=, selection of designing paper,                      105

  =Single-lift Jacquard Machine.= By it warp-threads, as called for,
  according to the Jacquard cards, are raised and lowered each pick.

  =Sizes of Jacquard Machines=,                                       10

  =Sketches=, enlarging and reducing figures for,                    110

  =Sketch=, principles for,                                          108

  ---- Size required,                                                109

  ---- Transferring to the [O] designing paper,                 112, 115

  =Skipper=, technical name for a part of the Piano Card-stamping
  machine,                                                            88

  =Spools.= This technical term applies to a barrel, having a head on
  each end.

  =Spring Frame=, a part of the Jacquard machine,                     14

  =Springs=, as used in connection with the needles in the Jacquard
  machine,                                                     9, 10, 15

  =Squaring-off=, a process employed for enlarging and reducing
  figures in sketches,                                               110

  ---- A process employed in the construction of original sketches,  111

  ---- A process employed in transferring the sketch to the [O]
  designing paper,                                              112, 115

  =Straight-through Tie-up.= The Jacquard harness threaded on the
  machine in the direction from front to rear,                        23

  ---- The Jacquard harness threaded on the machine in the direction
  from rear to front,                                                 26

  ---- On the English system,                                         28

  ---- For repeating effects in one repeat of the design,             29

  ---- For two-ply ingrain carpets,                                   74

  ---- In four sections,                                              57

  ---- In three sections,                                             53

  ---- In two sections (for double cloth),                    48, 50, 51

  ---- Of a Jacquard harness, having front harness attached,          32

  ---- Single and double sections combined,                           51

  =Straight-through Tie-up and Point Tie-up=,
  combined,                                           35, 39, 42, 43, 46

  ---- Applied to a double-lift double-cylinder Jacquard machine,     70

  =Stop Motions=, for looms, are attachments for stopping the loom
  when the filling breaks or runs out. The _Protector_, an additional
  attachment to the loom, might also be classified as a _stop
  motion_, as it stops the loom in case the shuttle fails to reach
  its box.

  =Super=, a two-ply ingrain carpet constructed with 960 threads warp
  (36 inch wide fabric), exclusive of the selvedge,                   76


  =Tail-cords=, the substitutes of the regular hooks used in the
  ingrain carpet machine,                                             71

  =Temples=, attachments to the loom on each side of the selvedge,
  for holding the last woven part of the fabric in even width, with
  the width of the fabric in its reed, thus preventing as much
  useless chafing of the warp as possible.

  =Terry=, a loop; an uncut pile fabric.

  =Textile=, a woven fabric.

  =Texture=, changing, for fabrics using a Jacquard harness threaded
  in the solid comber-board,                                          21

  ---- Number of warp and filling-ends in one inch; there are two
  textures:
    _a_,  for the fabric in the loom (reed).
    _b_,  for the finished fabric.

  =Twills= are frequently employed as ground-weaves for Jacquard
  designs.

  ---- A weave running diagonally across the fabric. They are divided
  into even-sided, uneven-sided, broken, and fancy twills.

  =Twist.= The amount and the direction of the twist in yarns of
  any kind of material is very important; thus it should never be
  overlooked in the preparation of a design for textile fabrics.

  =Tying-up of Jacquard Looms=, with compound harness attached,       58


  =Vaucanson=, the inventor of the griffe,                             7

  =Velvet=, a cut pile fabric.


  =Warp=, the threads running lengthwise in a cloth; the yarn which
  passes through the Jacquard harness and the reed.

  =Weave=, the way the two systems of threads (warp and filling),
  composed of any kind of material, are interlaced.

  =Whip-thread.= See Douping Warp.

  =Witches.= See Dobbies.

  =Wool.= By the term wool we comprehend the hairy covering of
  several species of _mamalia_, more especially that of the sheep.
  It is more flexible, elastic and curly than hair. Wool as used
  for warp and filling is either _combed_ or _carded_, technically
  known as _worsted_ or _wool-spun_ yarn. The size of the thread
  for worsted is calculated by 560 yards to 16 ounces for No. 1,
  and the same number of yards is added for each successive number
  balanced by the original 16 ounces. For woolen yarn two methods
  of calculating the size are in use: The _Cut_ system, having 300
  yards to one cut (16 ounces); the _Run_ system, having 1600 yards
  to one run (16 ounces). The same number of yards are added to
  each successive number of cut or run, also to be balanced by the
  original 16 ounces.



                      The Bridesburg Manuf’g Co.
                      TEXTILE MACHINERY BUILDERS,
                201-203 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia.

  Stockton Bates, President.      Wm. D. Shubert, Secretary.


[Illustration: LOOMS:]

       Roller, Goodyear, and Witch Harness, Sheeting, Duck, Bag,
                      Clipper, Gebhart, Ticking,

               AND ALL KINDS ARRANGED FOR JACQUARD TOPS.

    WOOL AND WORSTED CARDS,
              PICKERS, RENOVATORS, MULES.
                       SHODDY AND HAIR PICKERS.


            Foss & Pevey,--Wellman,--and Iron Roller Cards.
              Drawing,--Railway Heads,--Spinning Frames,
                   Reels,--Mill Warpers,--Spoolers.


                  Plans for all kinds of Mills made.


                       JAS. H. BILLINGTON & CO.,
                      ---- Established 1848.----

                        MANUFACTURERS’ SUPPLIES
                       OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, FOR
             COTTON, WOOLEN, SILK, AND WORSTED MACHINERY.

                           MANUFACTURERS OF
                Bobbins, Spools, Shuttles, and Skewers,
         Oak Leather Belting, Machine Cards, and Specialties.

                       GENERAL MILL FURNISHERS.

  No. 113 Chestnut Street,      Philadelphia, Pa.

                       CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED.


                     BARBOUR’S IRISH FLAX THREAD,

[Illustration:--1784--FLAX--1887--Trade Mark]

                  BARBOUR’S JACQUARD HARNESS THREAD,
   Noted for Strength and Smoothness, and Warranted not to Stretch.

                     THE BARBOUR BROTHERS COMPANY,
New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, and San Francisco.


[Illustration: BONAKER & JONES MANUFACTURERS OF DESIGN PAPER FOR CARPET
& UPHOLSTERY DESIGNERS; 58 N 4TH ST. PHILADELPHIA. Represented by
VINCENT T. RAFFERTY.]

 _Having the experience and facilities for making Design Papers in all
  sizes, we are enabled to supply manufacturers with the best at the
              lowest rates. Special sizes made to order._

         _Will be pleased to give you prices for any quantity
                        or size you may need._


                           Jacquard Machines
                      (Single and Double Action)
                       Of Improved Construction.


[Illustration]

    We give great attention to the workmanship, use only the best
    materials, and produce

    The Best Machine in the Market.

    Our prices compare favorably with those more cheaply built.

    We furnish machines constructed on the English plan--leaving
    out bottom board and glass rods--when desired.

                      Geo. W. Stafford Mfg. Co.,
             Nos. 3 and 5 Point Street, Providence, R. I.,
                           MACHINE BUILDERS.

  Single and Double Action Jacquards,
    Single and Double Action Dobbies,
      The only Double Action Open Shed POSITIVE Dobbie,
        Equalizing Spring Jacks,
          Cottrell’s Positive Let-off Motion, etc., etc.

    Sketches and Designs furnished and Cards Cut. Mail Eyes, Twine,
     Lingoes, Wires, Springs, etc., furnished. Leno Weaving--both
                   simple and compound--a specialty.

[Illustration: (Patented September 6, 1887.) This Comber-board can be
seen at the TEXTILE SCHOOL, 1336 Spring Garden Street, Philadelphia.]

                           STAFFORD’S PATENT
                             COMBER BOARD.

    The divisions are made with wires crossing each other, giving
    the least possible wearing surface on the twine, thus reducing
    friction on the outside of the harness, and consequent wear;
    preventing bagging and the jumping of lingoes; Jacquards can
    be run at much higher speed where this board is adopted. Five
    years’ use has sustained the above claims and demonstrated its
    practicability.


                          THE TEXTILE RECORD,

                   425 WALNUT STREET, PHILADELPHIA.


          THE FOREMOST TEXTILE JOURNAL OF THE UNITED STATES.
          _Covering every Department of Textile Manufacture._

              Weaving and Jacquard Work Fully Discussed.

[Illustration:

       Each Number                 The largest staff
       filled with                         of
   Original and Practical          Expert Contributors.
         Articles.]

 THE TEXTILE RECORD has positive practical value to every mill owner and
 mill worker.

 Its contributions to the literature of the textile industry surpass
 in value and interest everything yet attempted on this side of the
 Atlantic.


                   RICHLY ILLUSTRATED IN EACH NUMBER.

                     SAMPLE COPIES ON APPLICATION TO

     THE TEXTILE RECORD,
         No. 425 Walnut Street,
               PHILADELPHIA, PA.


                                 ROYLE’S

 [Illustration: _Highest Award at the American Institute, 1873, The
 Special Medal of Silver. Highest Award at New Orleans, The Gold Medal
 with First Degree of Merit._]


                         IMPROVED PIANO MACHINES
                                 --AND--
                       Automatic, Positive Action,
                            POWER REPEATERS,
                   For Cutting Jacquard Pattern Cards.

                        IMPROVED SILK MACHINERY:
              WARPERS, BEAMERS, QUILLERS, DOBBIES, COVERING
                    OR “GIMP” MACHINES, TWISTERS, &c.

                           JOHN ROYLE & SONS,
                             PATERSON, N. J.


 [Illustration: NEW HIGH-SPEED POWER LOOM FOR INGRAIN CARPETS. Built by
 THE M. A. FURBUSH & SON MACHINE CO., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. A.

 -->One Hundred Picks per Minute.<-- Fifteen Shuttles Pick and Pick. ]

                                 --NEW--
               HIGH-SPEED POWER LOOM FOR INGRAIN CARPETS.

 Built by THE M. A. FURBUSH & SON MACHINE CO., Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. A.

 -->ONE HUNDRED PICKS PER MINUTE.<-- FIFTEEN SHUTTLES PICK AND PICK.

 This Loom combines the best features of the Duckworth and Murkland
 Looms; while possessing the shading capacity of the latter, it is
 easier in its operation, and of a considerably higher speed than either.

 The following points as to the construction and operation of this Loom
 will prove to any manufacturer, superintendent, fixer or weaver the
 superiority of the same over any other style:

 =Runs light.= THERE IS NO HEAVY LAY TO OPERATE, AS IN OTHER LOOMS. The
 lay (raceway and boxes) are stationary, and the filling is beaten up
 by means of a comb, which is the only part that swings; being light,
 it can easily accomplish the movements necessary for the _one hundred
 picks per minute_, which could never be attained by operating the lay
 as in any other loom.

 =No tearing of cloth= BY THE SHUTTLE CATCHING IN THE WARP AND BEING
 DRAWN UP BY THE REED, as the comb for beating up the filling passes in
 front of the shuttle.

 =Easy on filling.= The peculiar shape of the filling fork allows the
 shuttle to pass under it, at the same time merely opening wide enough
 to admit the filling. The motion is easy and delicate, and will not
 break the poorest filling--a great point of superiority over all other
 high-speed looms, in which there is always more or less tendency to
 chop the filling.

 =Shuttle boxes.= The box mechanism is the same as in the Murkland Loom,
 there being a revolver of seven boxes and three upright boxes, thus
 giving ten boxes on each side, or twenty in all.

 =The Jacquard machine= is constructed principally as in the Duckworth
 Loom, although the cylinder gauge, boards and journals are like those
 of the Murkland. The cylinder is worked with the rock shaft of the
 Duckworth Loom, instead of a cam shaft.

 =The change gears= FOR TAKE-UP, instead of being worm gears, are
 ratchet; but the number of teeth to number of picks is the same as in
 the Murkland.

 =Power back-off.= The Loom has a power back-off, as in the Duckworth, a
 pressure of the foot being sufficient to reverse the Loom.

 =Separate cams= are provided for each arrangement of boxes, instead of
 segment cams as in the Murkland Loom.

 =The Loom is pick and pick. Journals are operated from below by cams
 and treadles.=

 The new Loom covers all the features demanded in a perfect Ingrain
 Carpet Loom, including =ability to make all the new weaves=.


 [Illustration: Parker Patent Drop Box Picker.]

 [Illustration: Pressed Centre.]

                             Loom Picker Co.
                            Biddeford, Maine,
                            MANUFACTURERS OF
                          RAW HIDE AND LEATHER
                       Loom Pickers and Strapping,

           Including many varieties of Raw Hide Pickers never
                  before made in this country, such as

  Scoops, Centre Scoops, Pressed Centres, Feathered Feet Bows, XL Bows,

   All of which are a superior substitute for the ordinary Bow Picker.


                        Sole Manufacturers of the
                     PARKER PATENT DROP BOX PICKER,

 Which is so constructed that the blow is against the edge of the
 hide forming the body of the Picker. These Pickers have no plug in
 the Shuttle Strike to be driven out or worked loose, and they are
 guaranteed not to break at the head.

                         Also, Manufacturers of
                  LOOM HARNESSES OF SUPERIOR QUALITY.

   All Harnesses are made of the very best quality of twine and stock,
   and are carefully finished. They are guaranteed to possess all the
                   requirements of a superior article.

   An Illustrated Catalogue giving a detailed description of our goods
                     will be mailed on application.


                              CHAS. ASHOFF,

                             MANUFACTURER OF
                           REEDS AND HEDDLES,
                              And Dealer in
                        Manufacturers’ Supplies,

                    _Nos. 191 and 193 Berks Street_,
                            PHILADELPHIA, PA.


                        Patent Jacquard Machines

  Applied to any Style or Make of Power Looms, for any Kind of Figured
                                 Goods.

          Single Lifts, Double Lifts, Raise and Drop Jacquards,

 WITCH MOTIONS (DOBBY MACHINES), SINGLE AND DOUBLE-LIFT HEDDLE MACHINES.

                    JACQUARD CARD-STAMPING MACHINES.

 [Illustration: Piano Steam-Power Card-Stamping Machine, For Jacquard
 Cards.

 The speed is completely at the will of the operator, and will punch as
 high as 170 strokes per minute. The capacity is about double that of a
 foot-power machine. Two cards can be stamped at once.]

 [Illustration: Dobby Card-Punching Machine

 This machine is built for punching Jacquard or Dobby Cards of the
 strongest pasteboard, punching the whole card at one revolution or
 stroke. After the keys are set, any number of duplicates can be
 punched. It is well constructed, simple, and a most effective machine.]

 [Illustration: Piano Foot-Treading Card-Stamping Machine.

 I have lately reconstructed this machine, making it more compact by a
 novel and durable escapement of the rack.]

 The only successful machine ever introduced for this purpose.

 Far superior to hand lacing for regularity and durability.

 Light-running, simple and durable.

 Can be operated by a small girl or boy.

 [Illustration: Jacquard Card-Lacing Machine.]

 Will lace 800 to 2000 cards per hour.

 Thoroughly and satisfactorily tested.

 Weighs about 500 pounds.

 Machines now in operation and ready for the inspection of manufacturers.

 Machines placed on trial with responsible parties.

                             W. P. UHLINGER,
              Nos. 14 to 36 Canal Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
  (Take red car on Third Street to Frankford Avenue and Canal Street.)


                 Knowles’ New Ingrain Power Carpet Loom.

 Designed to meet a want long felt in the manufacture of Ingrain
 Carpets, for a loom that should be simple in its construction, easy of
 operation, positive in its motions, and could be run at a high rate of
 speed.

 The =KNOWLES LOOM WORKS= take pleasure in calling the attention of
 carpet manufacturers to their new INGRAIN CARPET LOOM, as one in which
 all the above features are combined in such a manner as to make a loom
 that meets the requirements mentioned above, and one that will be
 highly appreciated by manufacturers of those goods for which the loom
 is designed.

 [Illustration]

 The following are among the important features:

 _The journals on the loom are controlled by a cam motion_, or by the
 same efficient chain motion that is used on our Worsted Loom instead of
 the cam motion, handling the warp with the greatest ease and _calling
 either journal at will_, which cannot be done on other carpet looms,
 thus giving a wider range of pattern and design than on other looms;
 and should it be necessary to change the shading, it can be done by
 changing the chain, instead of cutting out the warp and re-drawing it.

 _The box mechanism is positive_, and controlled by a chain on the same
 shaft as the journals, and may be used with the chain alone, or with
 the chain in combination with the cards. The motion can be run forward
 or reversed at will, and any box called as desired, thus giving a wide
 range to the shading facilities of the loom, and _any combination of
 colors_ can be produced on this loom that can be done _on any_ 4 × 4
 _box loom in the world_.

 _The Jacquard is of our own manufacture_, and of the most improved
 pattern. Great care is used in its construction, thus making it a very
 efficient part of the loom, and is driven from the same shaft as the
 journals and box motion, thus working in harmony with them.

 _The take-up motion is positive_, and is very substantial and accurate,
 consisting of fluted rolls, and operated by the usual train of gearing,
 while the goods are wound up on a roll below.

 _The let-off_ is controlled by the tension of the warp over a rocking
 whip roll, operated by a cam on the bottom shaft, held by a clamp
 friction, geared to the head of the beam.

 _Two filling motions are used_, one at each end of the lay, _each
 working independently_ of the other, inside the selvedge, so that the
 breakage of the weft is _instantly detected_, and these motions are
 so combined with friction pulley and brake, that the loom is stopped
 instantly “_on the pick_,” and consequently, when filling is replaced,
 the loom is ready to start without loss of time in finding the pick, or
 setting of Jacquard or box motion.

 _The shuttle-smash protector_, which knocks off the loom when the
 shuttle does not box properly, thus preventing what are known as
 “shuttle smashes;” _a shuttle check_, for easing the force of the
 shuttle as it enters the box; _a foot lever_, for throwing the lay
 back when the loom is stopped, making it very easy for the weaver, and
 the _speed at which the loom can be run_, together with the features
 mentioned above, combine to make this loom the best in the market for
 the purpose for which it is designed.

 Correspondence solicited and circulars sent on application.

     KNOWLES LOOM WORKS,
                  No. 57 Jackson Street, Worcester, Mass.


                           Schaum & Uhlinger,

   1030-1038 New Market St.,      Philadelphia, Pa.

                            MANUFACTURERS OF
                     RIBBON, TAPE AND WEBBING LOOMS,

   LATEST IMPROVEMENTS.      NEW PATTERNS.

                           LATHES OR BATTONS,

 For Ribbons, Fringes, Tapes, Suspender and Goring Web, &c. We construct
 our Lathes on correct mechanical principles, use only the best
 materials, and produce THE BEST LATHE IN THE MARKET. Write to us for
 estimates: it will pay you.

                           JACQUARD MACHINES,

   With any desired number of hooks. Applied to any manufacture of loom.

               _Harness Tied up for all Figured Weaving._

                    A FULL LINE OF WEAVERS’ SUPPLIES:

  Mails, Lingoes, Heddles, Harness Twine, Compart-Boards, Glass Rings,
                            Shuttle Eyes, &c.

 If you contemplate manufacturing Figured Goods, write to us for
 information, or send us samples of the goods you desire to make, and we
 will furnish you estimates for a complete equipment, including Jacquard
 Machines, with harness tied-up, designs made, cards cut, &c.

 Fifteen years’ practical experience in this line of business enables us
 to give our customers the BEST RESULTS with the LEAST EXPENSE.

                           Schaum & Uhlinger,

     1030-1038 New Market St.,      Philadelphia, Pa.


                             TEXTILE SCHOOL
                                 OF THE
            PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM AND SCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ART,

              Classrooms: {No. 1336 Spring Garden Street,
                          {S. E. Cor. Broad & Spring Garden Sts.

                 THE LEADING TEXTILE SCHOOL IN AMERICA.
     Founded in co-operation with the Trustees of the Penna. Museum
                      and School of Industrial Art,

                      WM. PLATT PEPPER, President,

    by the following members of the Philadelphia Textile Association:

     Thomas Dolan & Co.,
     John & James Dobson,
     William Wood & Co.,
     William Arrott,
     John Yewdall,
     Fiss, Banes, Erben & Co.,
     Conyers Button & Co.,
     George & James Bromley,
     Seville Schofield,
     Alexander Crow & Son,
     James Smith & Co.,
     M. A. Furbush & Son,
     John Bromley & Sons,
     Thomas L. Leedom,
     James Doak, Jr. & Co.,
     Charles Spencer & Co.,
     H. Becker & Co.,
     Andreas Hartel,
     S. B. M. Fleisher,
     Grundy Bros. & Campion,
     H. W. Butterworth & Sons,
     Stead & Miller.

 Extract from =COURSE OF STUDY= for Day Class, requiring three years’
 attendance at School.

                          FIRST YEAR’S COURSE.

 The hand-loom, analyzed and explained.

 Elementary principles of “dressing” warps; beaming the same; fixing of
 harness; drawing-in; reed and reed calculations, etc., for single cloth.

 A general study of the nature of materials used in weaving textile
 fabrics; explanation of the necessary materials and instruments used by
 designers.

 Weaves.--_Ground or Foundation Weaves._

 I. Plain, or cotton weave, and fancy figuring through color
 arrangements in warp and filling, for light-weight fabrics.

 II. Twill weaves--_a_, one-sided twills; _b_, even-sided twills; and
 fancy figuring with same through color arrangements in warp and filling.

 III. Satin weaves--_a_, single satins; _b_, double satins; _c_,
 figuring in single satins.

 _Drafting Weaves_.

 Lectures, with practical examples and rules observed.

 _Derivative Weaves_.

 Basket, rib, and granite weaves; steep, curved, broken, skip,
 corkscrew, and fancy twills; pointed twills and honeycomb weaves; pique
 weaves, and combinations of miscellaneous weaves.

 Standard sizes of cotton wool and worsted yarns, with calculations.

 Picking out samples of textile fabrics constructed on single weaves,
 with methods and rules employed in duplication.

 Original weaves for single cloth; complete orders for manufacturing.

 Instrumental drawing in elementary exercises, with instruments;
 construction of plane figures; line shading, etc.

 Freehand drawing; enlargement and reduction of designs; analysis of
 plants for the purpose of design for textile fabrics.

 Work in color; lectures on color harmony.

                          SECOND YEAR’S COURSE.

 The power-looms analyzed and explained, and practical weaving and
 fixing; _a_, the Thos. Wood roller loom, for ginghams, shirtings,
 cottonades, dress goods, etc.; _b_, the Crompton loom, and _c_, the
 Knowles loom, for worsted and woolen fabrics of every description;
 single and double beam work.

 Double Cloths--Study of the best methods of combining different weaves,
 as: Designs backed with weft; designs backed with warp; designs backed
 with warp and weft; designs for double cloth, double faced.

 Calculation: ascertaining the cost, production, etc., of the different
 fabrics.

 Analyses of single cloth (fancy), and double cloth fabrics, and
 reproduction with various changes, as requested.

 The Jacquard Machine Analyzed and Explained; principles of construction
 and method of operation of the single lift machine; the various
 modifications, such as double lift single cylinder, double lift double
 cylinder; “laying out” of comber-boards, and figuring for various
 changes in texture; tying-up of harness for single cloth.

 The Bridesburg Clipper Loom analyzed and explained, and practical work
 on it, with special reference to its use in connection with the double
 lift double cylinder Jacquard machine for damask table-covers, etc.

 Card-stamping machines (French index) analyzed and explained, and
 actual work for single cloth on the machine; explanation of, and
 practical work in card-lacing.

 Theoretical work; designing paper with reference to the different
 textures of single cloth fabrics.

 Sketching of designs for single cloth, and transferring sketch to the
 [O] designing paper.

 Shading of fabrics by the weave.

 Analysis of Jacquard work for actual reproduction; also for
 reproduction with various (given) changes.

 Study of special fabrics, such as dress trimmings, fringes, etc.

 Study of processes for textile fabrics before and after weaving.

 Instrumental drawing in lettering; drawing plans for machinery, rooms,
 mill buildings, etc.

 Illustrating processes of weaving.

 Illustrating sectional cuts of textile fabrics, etc.

 Freehand drawing; sketching for the different textile fabrics on
 Jacquard work.

 Work in color; lectures (advanced course); practice in the use of color.

 _Chemistry._

 Theory of Chemistry applicable to the textile art.

                          THIRD YEAR’S COURSE.

 The two-ply ingrain carpet machine analyzed and explained.

 The ingrain carpet hand-loom, and the ingrain carpet power-loom, built
 by the M. A. Furbush & Son Machine Co., analyzed, explained, and
 practical work.

 Card-stamping machine (American index) analyzed, explained, and
 practical work.

 Tying-up of Jacquard harness (French index) machines for double cloth;
 three and four-ply fabrics.

 _Advanced Work for the Harness Loom._

 Study and practical work of cut pile fabrics--velvets, plushes, etc.;
 terry pile fabrics, with wires and without wires; terry and velvet pile
 combined.

 Astrakans, cut, uncut, also cut and uncut combined.

 Chenille, rugs, curtains, etc.

 Gauze fabrics, plain, figured, and combined with other weaves.

 Designing for upholstery fabrics, Jacquard gauze, Brussels carpet,
 tapestry carpet, double face Brussels carpet, etc.

 Card-stamping on the French index stamping machine for two, three, and
 four-ply fabrics.

 Instrumental and freehand drawing similar to second year’s course, but
 for more difficult objects in textile fabrics and machinery.

 Work in color; application of theory of harmony to dyeing.

 _Chemistry._

 Theory and practice of chemistry, including actual work in the
 laboratory and dyeing of fabrics.

                              T. C. SEARCH,

            _Chairman Committee on Instruction of the School,
                 and Pres. Phila. Textile Association_.

 The Circular of the Committee on Instruction will be mailed upon
 application.


                             PRESS COMMENTS.

                    A Model School of Industrial Art.

 We cannot, at this time, speak of its provisions by which drawing,
 modeling, designing, etc., are taught; but we desire to call particular
 attention to the facilities that are offered for a practical
 instruction in _weaving and textile design_. Special courses are
 provided for _teaching designing_ for all varieties of _textile
 fabrics_, and its _practical application to loom work_. As a complete
 course in its theoretical and practical utility we do not hesitate to
 say it _is without an equal in America_. A school of this kind is of
 the highest importance to the manufacturing community that centres
 about Philadelphia.--_Boston Journal of Commerce._

                       An American Textile School.

 _The Textile Department_ of the Pennsylvania Museum and School of
 Industrial Art clearly fulfils the requirements of a good Textile
 School, and the promise is that it will speedily become one of the best
 in the world, as it is now decidedly the most advanced in this country.
 Pupils are taught _designing for all varieties of textile fabrics_, and
 to make them _thoroughly familiar with loom work_, so that they may be
 able not only to prepare their own designs, but also to reproduce their
 own patterns in the cloth.

 This institution, by fitting young Americans for exact scientific work
 in the textile industries, will confer a huge benefit upon them and
 upon the nation.--_The Textile Record of America._

         The Textile Department of the School of Industrial Art,
                         1336 Spring Garden St.

 Many scholars who have been at this school in former years are now
 filling responsible and profitable positions.--_The Bulletin, Phila._


                           Thomas Wood & Co.,
                        FAIRMOUNT MACHINE WORKS,
            Twenty-Second and Wood Streets, Philadelphia, Pa.

                              POWER LOOMS.

 [Illustration]

     Patent Bobbin Winding Machines.
     Patent Cop Winding Machines.
     Improved Presser Beaming Machines.
     Plain Beaming Machines.
     Improved Reels for Wool, Worsted, Cotton, Linen, etc.
     Improved Presser Spoolers.
     Plain Spoolers.
     Warp Splitting Machines.
     Hank Twisting Machines.

 [Illustration]

     Warping Mills with Patent Driving Heads and Improved Hecks.
     Single and Double Warp Sizing Machines.
     Dyeing Machines for Warp and Piece Goods.
     Cradle and Cone Indigo Mills.
     Fulling Mills.
     Calendering Machines.
     Self-acting Wool Scouring Machines.
     Yarn Bundling Presses.
     Loom Beam Trucks.

                    Shafting, Hangers, Pulleys, etc.

     Adjustable Self-oiling Bearings.
     Patent Friction Pulleys.
     Improved Cut-off Coupling.
     Patent Couplings.
     Patent Loose Pulleys.
     Gearing.

                               ELEVATORS.
      Plans Made and Factories Completely Equipped with Machinery.


                    Mill and Manufacturers’ Supplies.
                       SOLE PHILADELPHIA AGENT FOR

     STODDARD, LOVERING & CO.,
        Boston, Massachusetts, and Bradford, England.

     Importers of English Worsted Machinery, and Hattersley Looms,
     for every class of work. Also, Pickers, Temples, Loom Springs,
     and White’s Picker Leather in the side or by the strap,
     Torlotin’s Sizing; also, all other English Supplies.

                             ALSO AGENT FOR

     CHARLES L. IRESON,
         Boston, Massachusetts.

     Pure Oak-tanned Leather Belting and Findings, Wire-sewed
     Belting, and maker of Ireson’s Patent Self-adjusting Leather
     Link Belting.

     STEDMAN & SMITH,
         Lawrence, Massachusetts.

     Machinists and makers of Machine Castings, and every kind of
     Mill work.

     JOHN W. BARLOW,
     Lawrence, Massachusetts.

     Bow, Drop Box, English Scoop, or other Pickers of best quality.

     BANNING, BISSELL & CO.,
         New York, N. Y.

     Porcelain Department:--Pot Eyes, Steps, Shuttle Eyes, and
     Pottery Goods of every description.

 Single and Double Belting, Belt Hooks, Springs, Temples, Picker and
 Lace Leather (Coupes), Cleaning Cloths, Belt Dressing, (both American
and Hepburn & Gale’s English), Felt Cloth, Porcelain Goods, Fibre
Washers, Banding, Gears, &c., &c., in stock at all times. All Supplies
not in stock can be procured at once.

           WORSTED MILL MACHINERY AND SUPPLIES A SPECIALTY.

                          DAVID B. DOUGLASS,

        201 Church St., Philadelphia, Pa.



Transcriber’s notes:


In the text version, italics are represented by _underscores_, and bold
and black letter text by =equals= symbols. Superscripts are represented
by ^{} and subscripts by _{}

Missing or incorrect punctuation has been repaired. Inconsistent
spelling and hyphenation have been left,

In the html version, dittos have been replaced by the repeated text so
that text alignes for easier reading.

In the html version, adverts (unless all plain text) have been
reproduced as illustrations to demonstrate layouts, decorations
and fonts. The text from each illustration is given below each
illustration, unformatted.

The following mistakes have been noted:

  p. 9.  Towards the end of paragraph 6, there is an unclear word, I
         have used “on”.
  p. 19. atttached changed to attached.
  p. 33. F´´ = 100 , a repeat of “hooks” has been added.
  p. 42. 3620 ends in warp. This adds up to 3600 rather than 3620 but
         has been left as printed
  p. 46. harness-cords 193 and 193. Checking with Fig. LIII it appears
         to be 193 and 194, but left as printed.
  p. 52. B to C, B´ to C´. Trailing “)” removed.
  p. 57. Illustration: Fig. LXXV. is mislabeled, there is another LXXV
         further on and this one should be LXV.
  p. 68. lattter changed to latter
  p. 72. reg lar changed to regular.
  p. 76. arangement changed to arrangement.
  p. 77.  Lifte changed to Lifts and puntuaction made consistent.
  p. 127. know changed to known





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Jacquard Machine Analyzed and Explained - With an appendix on the preparation of jacquard cards..." ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home