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Title: History of the settlement of Upper Canada (Ontario,) - with special reference to the Bay Quinté
Author: Canniff, William
Language: English
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                                 OF THE
                      Settlement of Upper Canada,
                       WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO
                            THE BAY QUINTÉ.


                     WM. CANNIFF, M.D., M.R.C.S.E.,

                        “PRINCIPLES OF SURGERY.”



                              THE HONORABLE






                                      BY HIS RESPECTFUL ADMIRER,

                                                        WILLIAM CANNIFF.


In the year 1861 a meeting was convened at the Education Office,
Toronto, with the view of establishing an Historical Society for Upper
Canada. The writer, as an Upper Canadian by birth, and deeply interested
in his country with respect to the past as well as the future, was
present. The result of that meeting was the appointment of a Committee
to frame a Constitution and By-Laws, and take the necessary steps to
organize the proposed Society, and to report three weeks thereafter.

The Committee consisted of the Hon. Mr. Merritt, Rev. Dr. Ryerson, Col.
Jarvis, Mr. DeGrassi, Mr. Merritt, J. J. Hodgins, Dr. Canniff and Mr.
Coventry. For reasons unknown to the writer, this Committee never even
met. The following year the writer received a printed circular
respecting an “Historical Society of Upper Canada” which had been
established at St. Catharines, of which Col. John Clarke, of Port
Dalhousie, was President; Hon. Wm. H. Merritt, Vice-President, and
George Coventry, of Cobourg, Secretary.

                          “HONORARY MEMBERS.”

           “Chief Justice Sir John Beverley Robinson, Bart.,
           Colonel Jarvis, _Toronto_,
           Doctor Canniff, _Toronto_,
           Henry Eccles, Esq., Q.C.,
           William H. Kittson, Esq., _Hamilton_,
           Henry Ruttan, Esq., _Cobourg_,
           The Venerable Lord Bishop of Toronto,
           Alfio DeGrassi, Esq., _Toronto_,
           J. P. Merritt, _St. Catharines_,
           Thomas C. Keefer, Esq., _Yorkville_,
           Hon. George S. Boulton, _Cobourg_,
           David, Burn, Esq., _Cobourg_.”

At the request of this Society the writer undertook to prepare a Paper
upon the Settlement of the Bay Quinté. Having been induced to take up
his abode for a time at Belleville, near which he was born, the writer
availed himself of every opportunity he could create while engaged in
his professional duties, during a period of five years, to collect facts
pertaining to the subject. After some months of labor, he was advised by
friends, in whose judgment he had confidence, to write a History of the
Bay Quinté, for publication.

Acting upon this advice, he continued, with increased energy, to collect
and elaborate material. In carrying out this object, he not only visited
different sections of the country and many individuals, but consulted
the libraries at Toronto and Ottawa, as well as availed himself of the
private libraries of kind friends, especially Canniff Haight, Esq., of
Picton. As the writer proceeded in his work, he found the subject
assuming more extended proportions than he had anticipated. He found
that, to write an account of the Settlement of the Bay Quinté, was to
pen a history of the settlement of the Province. Finally, he has been
induced to designate the work “A History of the Settlement of Upper

The labor, time and thought which has been given to the subject need not
to be dwelt upon. Every effort has been made, consistent with
professional duties, upon which the writer’s family is dependent, to
sift a mass of promiscuous material which has come under investigation,
so that grains of truth alone might fill the measure which this volume

Various sources of information have been duly indicated in the text; but
there are a large number of individuals, from whom information has been
obtained, whose names could not be recalled.

This work has been one of love as well as labor; yet time and again the
writer would have relinquished it had it not been for the words of
encouragement, volunteered by his friends.

The writer has explained the cause of his writing this volume. He now
presents it to the reader—to Canadians—to the world. He loves his
country so well, that he regrets an abler pen had not undertaken the
task, that justice might be more fully done to the worthy.

Fault may be found because of repeated and earnest protests against the
attitude assumed by the United States: the comments made in respect to
their history: the contrast drawn upon the subject of LIBERTY and
FREEDOM. The writer offers no excuse. He has endeavored to adhere to
truth. It is true these pages have been written during a period of great
irritation to Canadians, from the hostile and aggressive spirit which
the United States have displayed towards us; but a record has been made
which, it is trusted, will stand the test of the closest examination.

As to the work, apart from its historical character, no remark is
offered, except that the writer is perfectly conscious of errors and
imperfections. Time has not been allowed to polish; and while the pages
have been going through the press, other necessary duties have prevented
that close and undivided attention which the work demanded. But
subscribers to the volume were urgent in their requests to have the work
without further delays. The reader is referred to a page of _Errata_.

A concluding chapter it has been found necessary to omit, in consequence
of the size already attained. In this it was intended to discuss the
future prospects of the Dominion. The writer has unbounded faith in the
Confederation scheme. Before this scheme was initiated, the writer, in a
lecture delivered to a Toronto audience, uttered these words. Pointing
out the elements which constitute the fabric of a great nation, he
remarked that he “loved to contemplate the future, when all the British
American Provinces would be consolidated into a grand whole; when, from
the summit of the Rocky Mountains, would be seen—to the East along the
magnificent lakes and river to the Atlantic, and down the western slopes
to the Pacific—the ceaseless industry of the Canadian beaver, and the
evergreen Maple Leaf overshadowing the peaceful homes of Canada.” The
prospects now are far brighter than when those words were spoken; and
notwithstanding the obstacles—an unpatriotic company of Englishmen, the
unscrupulous designs of covetous Americans, and the apathy of the
British Government—the belief is broad and strong that the dream of the
future will be realized. There is life in the tree whose seed was
planted eighty years ago, and as it has in the past continued to grow,
so it will in the future.

In concluding these prefatory remarks, we desire to tender our thanks to
all who have assisted us directly or indirectly, by supplying
information, and by encouraging words. Particularly we thank those
gentlemen who gave their names as subscribers, some of them voluntarily,
years ago, before the work was fairly commenced; also the Hon. Lewis
Wallbridge, for procuring for us, when Speaker, copies of manuscript in
the Parliamentary Library, at Ottawa.

Finally, we express our obligations to the Publishers and Printers.

 Toronto, 27th March, 1869.

                                                 [_Copy Right secured._]



                               CHAPTER I.

 Antiquarianism—Records of the Early Nations—Tradition—The Press—
   The Eastern World—The Western World—Importance of History—
   Columbus—Colonization—Canada—America—Cartier—French Canadian
   writers—Cartier’s first visit—Huguenots—Cartier’s second visit—
   Jean Francois—Sir George E. Cartier—Establishment of the Fur
   Trade—Champlain—Discovery of Lake Ontario—Bay of Quinté—Quebec
   founded—First fighting with Indians—First taking of Quebec by
   the British—Returned to France—The Recollets and Jesuits—Death
   of Champlain—Foundation of Montreal—Emigration from France—The
   Carignan Regiment—DeCourcelle—Proposal to found a Fort at Lake
   Ontario—Frontenac—Fort at Cataraqui—La Salle—Fort at Niagara—
   First vessel upon the Lakes—Its fate—Death of La Salle, the
   first settler of Upper Canada—Founder of Louisiana—Discoverer of
   the mouth of the Mississippi                                        1

                               CHAPTER II.

 Cataraqui Fort strengthened—Kente Indians seized and carried
   captive to France—Massacre of Lachine—Commencing struggle
   between New England and New France—Siege of Quebec by Sir Wm.
   Phipps—Destruction of Fort Cataraqui—Its re-erection—Treaty of
   Ryswick—Death of Frontenac—Iroquois in England—Another attempt
   to capture Quebec—Decline of French power—Population of Canada
   and of New England—Continuation of the contest for the fur
   trade—Taking of Fort Louisburg—Col. Washington, dishonorable
   conduct—Inconsistency of Dr. Franklin—Commencement of seven
   years’ war—Close of first year—Montcalm—His presentiment—Taking
   of Fort Oswego—Of Fort William Henry—Fearful massacre—The state
   of Canada—Wolfe appears—Taking of Frontenac—Duquesne—Apathy of
   France—The Spring of 1759—Reduced state of Canada—Overthrow of
   French power in America—The result—Union of elements—The capture
   of Quebec—Wolfe—Death of Montcalm—Fort Niagara—Johnson—Effort to
   retake Quebec—Wreck of the French army—Capitulation at Montreal—
   Population—The first British Governor of Canada—The Canadians as
   British subjects—The result of French enterprise—Rebellion         15

                               DIVISION I.


                              CHAPTER III.

 First American rebellion—Independence—Traitors made heroes—
   Loyalists driven away to found another colony—The responsibility
   of rebelling—Treatment of the Loyalists—The several colonies—The
   first Englishman in America—Receives £10—English colonization—
   Virginia—Convicts—Extent of Virginia—First Governor—Virginians
   not willing to rebel—Quota supplied to the rebel army—New York—
   Hudson—The Dutch—New Netherlands—Price of New Amsterdam (New
   York)—First Legislative Assembly—Not quick to rebel—Quota of
   rebel troops—Gave many settlers to Upper Canada—New Jersey—Its
   settlement—A battle ground—Gave rebel troops; also loyal troops—
   Furnished settlers to Upper Canada—Massachusetts—Captain Smith—
   New England Puritans—The “Mayflower”—First Governor—Cruel
   treatment of Indians—Massachusetts takes the lead in rebelling—
   Troops—Loyalists—New Hampshire—Troops—Delaware—Settlement—Quota
   of rebel troops—Connecticut—Education—Troops—Roman Catholics—
   Toleration—Rhode Island—Providence—Inconsistency of the
   Puritans—Roger Williams—North Carolina—Inhabitants—South
   Carolina—Many Loyalists—Pennsylvania—William Penn—Conduct toward
   Indians—The people opposed to rebellion—Georgia—Oglethorpe—
   Policy of New England—New England                                  32

                               CHAPTER IV.

 American writers—Sabine—Loyalists had no time to waste—
   Independence not sought at first—Adams—Franklin—Jay—Jefferson—
   Washington—Madison—The British Government—Ingratitude of the
   Colonists—Taxation—Smugglers—Crown officers—Persistence—
   Superciliousness Contest between Old England and New England       41

                               CHAPTER V.

 The signers of the Declaration of Independence—Their nativity—
   Injustice of American writers for 80 years—Cast back
   mis-statements—The Whigs had been U. E. Loyalists—Hancock—
   Office-seekers—Malcontents stir up strife—What the fathers of
   the Republic fought for—Rebel committees—Black mail—Otis, John
   Adams, Warren, Washington, Henry, Franklin—What caused them to
   rebel—What the American revolutionary heroes actually were—
   Cruelty, during and after the war—No Freedom—The political
   mistake of the rebels in alienating the loyalists—The
   Consequence—Motives of the loyalists—False charges—Conscientious
   Conservatives—Rebellion not warranted—Attachment to the old
   flag—Loyalists driven away—_Suppressio veri_—Want of noble
   spirit towards the South—Effects—Comparison between loyalists
   and rebels—Education—Religion—The neutral—The professions          46

                               CHAPTER VI.

 Republicanism—The lesson of the first rebellion—The late civil
   war—The Loyalists; their losses and hardships—Ignored by
   Americans—Unrecorded—The world kept in ignorance—American glory—
   Englishmen—Question of Colonial treatment—The reason why Great
   Britain failed to subdue the rebellion—Character of the rebel
   bravery—The great result—Liberty in England and United States
   contrasted—Slavery—The result to U. E. Loyalists—Burgoyne—
   Mobocracy—Treatment from “Sons of Liberty”—Old men, women and
   children—Instances of cruelty—Brutality—Rapacity—Torture—The
   lower classes—“Swamp Law”—Fiendish cruelty—Worse than Butler’s
   Rangers—Seward and the Fenians—Infamous falsification—Close of
   the war—Recognition of independence by Great Britain—Crushed
   hopes of the Loyalists—In New York—Their conduct—Evacuation day—
   The position of the Loyalists—Confiscation—“Attainting”—Seizing
   Estates—Paine—Commissioners at Paris—British Ministry—Loyalists’
   petition—King’s speech—Division of claimants—Six classes—The
   number—Tardy justice—Noble conduct of South Carolina—Impostors—
   Loyalists in Lower Canada—Proclamation—The soldiers’ families—
   Journeyings—Meeting of families                                    52

                              CHAPTER VII.

 A spirit of strife—The French war—British American troops—Former
   comrades opposed—Number of U. E. Loyalists in the field—General
   Burgoyne—Defeat—First reverse of British arms—The campaign—
   Colonel St. Leger—Fort Stanwix—Colonel Baume—Battle of
   Bennington—General Herkimer—Gates—Schuyler—Braemar Heights—
   Saratoga—Surrender—The result upon the people—Sir John Johnson—
   Sir William—Sketch—Indian Chief—Laced coat—Indian’s dream—It
   comes to pass—Sir William dreams—It also comes to pass—Too hard
   a dream—Sir John—Attempt to arrest—Escape—Starving—Royal greens—
   Johnson’s losses—Living in Canada—Death—Principal Corps of
   Royalists—King’s Rangers—Queen’s Rangers—Major Rogers—Simcoe—The
   Rangers in Upper Canada—Disbanded—The Hessians                     63

                              CHAPTER VIII.

 Indian names—The Five Tribes—The Sixth—Confederation—Government—
   Married—Teaching—Christianity—Brant elected Chief—Commissioned a
   British Captain—Visits England—Returns—Leads his warriors to
   battle—Efforts of Rebels to seduce Brant to their cause—
   Attempted treachery of the Rebel Herkimer—Border warfare—
   Wyoming—Attempt to blacken the character of Brant—His noble
   conduct—Untruthful American History—The inhabitants of Wyoming—
   The Rebels first to blame—Cherry Valley—Van Schaick—Bloody
   orders—Terrible conduct of the Rebels, Helpless Indian families—
   Further deeds of blood and rapine by the rebel Sullivan—A month
   of horrible work—Attributes of cruelty more conspicuous in the
   Rebels than in the Indians—The New Englander—Conduct toward the
   Indians—Inconsistent—The “down trodden”—The Mohawks—Indian
   agriculture—Broken faith with the Indians—Noble conduct of
   Brant—After the war—His family—Death—Miss Molly—Indian usage—The
   character of the Mohawk—The six Indians as Canadians—Fidelity to
   the British—Receiving land—Bay Quinté—Grand River—Settling—
   Captain Isaac, Captain John—At present—Mohawk Counsel              71

                               CHAPTER IX.

   Diamond                                                            85

                               CHAPTER X.

   Ostrom—Peterson                                                   100

                               CHAPTER XI.

 Rogers’ family—Ryerson—Redner—Sherwood—Taylor—Van Dusen—
   Williamsburgh—Wright—Wilkins—Young—Officers who settled in
   Niagara District                                                  117

                              DIVISION II.


                              CHAPTER XII.

 Indian paths—Portages—Original French routes—Mer de Canada—
   Original names of St. Lawrence—Ontario—Huron—Route by Bay
   Quinté—Old French maps—Original English routes—Four ways from
   Atlantic to the Lakes—Mississippi—Potomac—Hudson—Indian name of
   Erie—From New York to Ontario—The Hudson River—Mohawk—Wood
   creek—Oneida Lake—Oswego River—The carrying places—West Canada
   Creek—Black River—Oswegotchie—The navigation—Military highway—
   Lower Canada—An historic route—The paths followed by the
   Loyalists—Indian paths north of Lake Ontario—Crossing the Lake—
   From Cape Vincent to the Bay Quinté—From Oswego by Duck Islands—
   East Lake—Picton Bay—Coasting Ontario—Two ways to Huron—By Bay
   Quinté and Trent; by Don River—Lake Simcoe—Point Traverse—
   Loyalists—Travelling by the St. Lawrence—First road—Long
   remembered event                                                  129

                              CHAPTER XIII.

 Indians traveled by foot or by canoe—Secreting canoes—Primeval
   scenes—Hunting expeditions—War path—In 1812—Brock—A night at
   Myers’ Creek—Important arrival—The North West Company—Their
   canoes—Route—Grand Portage—The Voyageurs—The Batteaux—Size—
   Ascending the rapids—Lachine—A dry dock—Loyalists by batteaux—
   Durham boats—Difficulties—In 1788, time from Lachine to
   Fredericksburgh—Waiting for batteaux—Extracts from a journal,
   traveling in 1811—From Kingston to Montreal—The expenses—The
   Schenectady boats—Trade between Albany and Cataraqui—The Durham
   boat—Duncan—Description of flat-bottomed boat by “Murray”—
   Statement of Finkle—Trading—Batteaux in 1812—Rate of traveling—
   The change in fifty years—Time from Albany to Bay Quinté—
   Instances—Loyalists traveling in winter—Route—Willsbury
   wilderness—Tarrying at Cornwall—The “French Train”—Traveling
   along north shore of Ontario—Indian path—Horseback—Individual
   owners of batteaux—Around Bay Quinté—The Last regular batteaux—
   In 1819—“Lines” from magazine                                     135

                              CHAPTER XIV.

 The first Vessel—The French—La Salle—The Griffon—Vessels in 1770—
   During the Rebellion—Building at Carleton Island—Captain
   Andrews—The Ontario—Col. Burton—Loss of the Ontario—The
   Sheehans—Hills—Givins’—Murney’s Point—Schooner ‘Speedy’—Mohawk—
   Mississauga—Duke of Kent—Capt. Bouchette—Paxton—McKenzie—
   Richardson—Earle Steele—Fortiche—The Governor Simcoe—Sloop
   ‘Elizabeth’—First vessel built at York—Collins’ Report upon
   Navigating the Lakes—Navy in Upper Canada, 1795—Rochfoucault—
   Capt. Bouchette—Officers’ Pay—York, the centre of the Naval
   Force—Gun Boats—The Loss of the “Speedy”—Reckoner—Dr. Strachan—
   Solicitor-Gen. Gray—Canada took the lead in building Vessels—
   First Canadian Merchant Vessel—The York—A Schooner on runners
   round the Falls—Sending Coals to Newcastle—Upon Bay Quinté—The
   Outskirts of Civilization—“The Prince Edward” built of Red
   Cedar—In 1812—Schooner “Mary Ann”—1817—Capt. Matthews             147

                              DIVISION III.


                               CHAPTER XV.

 Major Gen. Holland—Surveying on Atlantic Coast—An adherent of the
   Crown—Removal to Montreal—Death—Major Holland—Information from
   “Maple Leaves”—Holland Farm—Taché—First Canadian Poem—Head
   Quarters of Gen. Montgomery—Hospitality—Duke of Kent—Spencer
   Grange—Holland Tree—Graves—Epitaphs—Surveyor Washington—County
   Surveyor—Surveyors after the War—First Survey in Upper Canada—
   Commenced in 1781—The Mode pursued—Information in Crown Lands
   Department—The Nine Townships upon the St. Lawrence—At the close
   of the War—Non-Professional Surveyors—Thomas Sherwood—Assisting
   to Settle—Surveying around the Bay Quinté—Bongard—
   Deputy-Surveyor Collins—First Survey at Frontenac—Town Reserve—
   Size of Township—Mistakes—Kotte—Tuffy—Capt. Grass—Capt. Murney—
   Surveying in Winter—Planting Posts—Result—Litigation—Losing
   Land—A Newspaper Letter—Magistrates—Landholders—Their Sons’
   Lawyers—Alleged Filching—Speculators at Seat of Government—Grave
   Charges—Width of Lots—Mode of Surveying—Number of Concessions—
   Cross Roads—Surveyors Orders—Numbering the Lots—Surveying around
   the Bay—The ten Townships—Their Lands—The Surveying Party—A
   Singer—Statement of Gourlay                                       154

                              CHAPTER XVI.

 The term Concession—First Concession of Land in Canada—The
   Carignan Regiment—Seigniories—Disproportion of the sexes—Females
   sent from France—Their appearance—Settling them—Marriage
   allowance—The last seigniory—New Longeuil—Seigniory at
   Frontenac—Grants to refugees—Officers and men—Scale of granting—
   Free of expense—Squatting—Disbanded soldiers—Remote regions—A
   wise and beneficent policy—Impostors—Very young officers—
   Wholesale granting of land—Republicans coming over—Covetous—
   False pretensions—Government had to discriminate—Rules and
   regulations—Family lands—Bounty—Certificates—Selling claims—Rear
   concessions—Transfer of location ticket—Land board—Tardiness in
   obtaining titles to real estate—Transfer by bond—Jobbing—Sir Wm.
   Pullency—Washington—Giving lands to favorites—Reserves—Evil
   results—The Family Compact—Extract from Playter—Extract from
   Lord Durham—From Gourlay—Recompense to Loyalists—Rations—Mode of
   drawing land—Land agent—Broken front—Traitor Arnold—Tyendinaga    164

                              CHAPTER XVII.

 Lines—Western Settlement, 1783—Population—Settlement upon St.
   Lawrence and Bay—Number, 1784—Proclamation to Loyalists—Society
   disturbed—Two kinds of Loyalists—St. Lawrence and Bay favorable
   for settlement—Government provisions—State of the Loyalists—
   Serving out rations—Clothes—Utensils for clearing and fencing—
   The axe—Furniture—Attacking a last enemy—Tents—Waiting for their
   lots—“Bees”—Size of dwellings—Mode of building—Exchanging work—
   Bedsteads—Clearing—Fireing trees—Ignorance of pioneer life—
   Disposing of the wood—No beast of burden—Logging—Determination—
   All settlers on a common ground—Additional refugees—Advance—
   Simcoe’s proclamation, 1792—Conditions of grants—The response—
   Later settlers—Questionable Loyalists—Yankees longing for
   Canada—Loyalty in 1812                                            181

                              DIVISION IV.

                    THE FIRST YEARS OF UPPER CANADA.

                             CHAPTER XVIII.

 Father Picquet—Provision of Forts in Upper Canada just before
   conquest—Frontenac—Milk—Brandy—Toronto—The several forts—
   Detroit—British garrisons—Grasping rebels—Efforts to starve out
   Loyalists in Canada—Worse treated than the Acadians—Efforts to
   secure Fur Trade—The frontier forts—Americans’ conduct to
   Indians—Result—Conduct of British Government—Rations for three
   years—Grinding by hand—“Hominy blocks”—“Plumping mill”—The
   women—Soldier farmers—The Hessians—Suffering—The “Scarce Year”—
   Charge against the Commissariat officers—Famine—Cry for bread—
   Instances of suffering—Starving children—No salt—Fish—Game—
   Eating young grain—Begging bran—A common sorrow—Providential
   escapes—Eating buds and leaves—Deaths—Primitive fishing—Catching
   salmon—Going 125 miles to mill—Disconsolate families—1789—
   Partial relief—First beef slaughtered in Upper Canada—First log
   barn—A “Bee,” what they ate and drank—Tea introduced—Statements
   of Sheriff Sherwood—Roger Bates—John Parrott—Col. Clark—Squirrel
   swimming Niagara—Maple sugar—How it was made—Women assisting—
   Made dishes of food—Pumpkin loaf—Extract from Rochefoucault—
   1795—Quality of grain raised—Quinté Bay—Cultivation—Corn
   exported—The grain dealers—Price of flour—Pork—Profits of the
   merchants                                                         191

                              CHAPTER XIX.

 Kingston Mills—Action of Government—The Millwright—Situation of
   the first Mill—Why Selected—The Machinery—Put up by Loyalists—No
   Toll—Only Mill for three years—Going to Mill, 1784—The Napanee
   Mill—Commenced 1785—Robert Clarke—An old Book—“Appenea” Falls—
   Price of certain articles—What Rum cost, and was used for—The
   Mill opened 1787—Sergt.-Major Clarke in charge—Indian Corn—Small
   Toll—Surveyor Collins in charge—Becomes the property of R.
   Cartwright, 1792—Rebuilt—Origin of Napanee—Price of Butter,
   1788—Mills at Four Mile Creek, Niagara Falls, Fort Erie, and
   Grand River—Mills on the St. Lawrence—The Stone Mills—Van
   Alstine—Lake of the Mountain—1796—Natural Beauty, _versus_
   Utility—The Mill—Van Alstine’s Death—Wind Mill—Myer’s Mill—Mill
   at Consecon                                                       206

                               CHAPTER XX.

 Clothing—Domestic and Farming Implements—Style of Dress eighty
   years ago—Clothing of the Refuges—Disbanded Soldiers—No Fresh
   Supply—Indian Garments of Skin—Deerskin Pants—Petticoats—Bed
   Coverings—Cultivating Flax—Sheep—Home-made Clothes—Rude
   Implements—Fulling—French Mode—Lindsay Woolsey—The
   Spinning-wheel—Young men Selecting Wives—Bees—Marriage Portion—
   Every Farmer his own Tanner and Shoemaker—Fashions—How odd hours
   were spent—Home-made Shoes—What Blankets were made of—Primitive
   Bedstead—Nakedness—Bridal Apparel—No Saddles—Kingston and
   Newark—Little Money—Bartering—Merchants from Albany—Unable to
   buy—Credit with Merchants—The Results—Itinerant Mechanics—
   Americans—Become Canadians—An old Stone-mason—Wooden Dishes—
   Making Spoons—Other Hardships—Indians Friendly—Effects of
   Alcohol upon the Mississaugas—Groundless Panic—Drunken Indians—
   Women, defending Themselves—An erroneous Statement about Indian
   Massacre in “Dominion Monthly Magazine”—Statement of an Old
   Settler, Sherwood—Wild Beasts—Few Fire-arms—Narrow Escapes—
   Depredations at Night—Destroying Stock—An Act of Parliament—“A
   traveller’s statement”—The Day of Small Things—Settlers
   Contented—The Extent of their Ambition—Reward of Industry—
   Population in 1808—Importations—Money—The Youth                   211

                              CHAPTER XXI.

 Sweat of the brow—No beast of burden—No stock—Except by a few—
   Horses and oxen—From Lower Canada—York State—Late comers,
   brought some—No fodder—First stock in Adolphustown—Incidents—
   Cock and hens—“Tipler”—Cattle driving—First cow in Thurlow—First
   house in Marysburgh—The first oxen—No market for butter and
   cheese—Sheep—Rev. Mr. Stuart, as an Agriculturist—Horses at
   Napanee—An offer for a yoke of steers                             220

                              CHAPTER XXII.

 Old channels of trade, and travel—Art and science—New channels—The
   wilderness—Loyalists Travelling on foot, from Kingston to York—
   Formation of roads—Act of parliament—1793—Its provisions—Crooked
   roads—Foot-path—Bridle-path—King’s highway from Lower Canada—
   When surveyed—Road from Kingston westward—Its course—Simcoe’s
   military road—Dundas street—Asa Danforth—Contract with
   government—Road from Kingston to Ancaster—Danforth road—1799—
   Misunderstandings—Danforth’s pamphlets—Slow improvement—Cause—
   Extract from Gourlay—Thomas Markland’s report—Ferries—1796—Acts
   of parliament—Statute labor—Money grants—Commissioners—Midland
   district—Distribution—The Cataraqui Bridge Company—The
   petitioners—An act—The provisions—The plan of building—The
   bridge—Toll—Completing the bridge—Improvements of roads—McAdam—
   Declines a knighthood                                             224

                             CHAPTER XXIII.

 Ode to Canada—Early events—First English child in America, 1587—In
   New England—First French child, 1621—First in Upper Canada,
   1783—In Prince Edward—Adolphustown—Ameliasburgh—North of the
   Rideau—Indian marriage ceremony—Difficulty among first settlers
   to get clergymen—First marriage in America, 1608—First in New
   England, 1621—First in Canada, 1621—Marriageable folks—No one to
   tie the matrimonial knot—Only one clergyman—Officers marrying—
   Magistrates empowered—Legislation, 1793—Its provision—Making
   valid certain marriages—Further Legislation, 1798—In 1818—1821—
   1831—Clergymen of all denominations permitted to marry—Methodist
   ministers—Marriage license, 1814—Five persons appointed to
   issue—A noticeable matter—Statements of Bates—Mode of courting
   in the woods—Newcastle wedding expeditions—Weapons of defence—
   Ladies’ dresses—The lover’s “rig”—A wedding ring—Paying the
   magistrate—A good corn basket—Going to weddings—“Bitters”—Old
   folks stay at home—The dance, several nights—Marriage outfit—
   Frontier life—Morals in Upper Canada—Absence of irregularities—
   Exceptional instances—Unable to get married, Peter and Polly—A
   singular witness—Rev. Mr. Stuart—Langhorn—McDowell—How to adorn
   the bride—What she wore—A wedding in 1808—On horseback—The
   guests—The wedding—The banquet—The game of forfeits—The night—
   Second day wedding—The young folks on horseback—Terpischorean—An
   elopement by canoe—The Squire—The chase—The lovers successful—
   The Squires who married                                           232

                              CHAPTER XXIV.

 Burying places—How selected—Family burying place—For the
   neighborhood—The Dutch—Upon the Hudson—Bay Quinté—A sacred spot
   to the Loyalists—Ashes to ashes—Primitive mode of burial—The
   coffin—At the grave—The father’s remarks—Return to labor—French
   Burying-place at Frontenac—Its site—U. E. Loyalists’ burying
   place at Kingston—The “U. E. burying-ground,” Adolphustown—
   Worthy sires of Canada’s sons—Decay—Neglect of illustrious dead—
   Repair wanted—Oldest burying-ground in Prince Edward—Ross Place—
   At East Lake—Upon the Rose farm—“The Dutch burying-ground”—
   Second growth trees—In Sophiasburgh—Cronk farm—In Sidney—Rude
   tomb stones—Burial-place of Captain Myers—Reflections—Dust to
   dust—In Thurlow—“Taylor burying-ground”—The first person buried—
   Lieut. Ferguson—An aged female—Her work done—Wheels stand still   243

                               DIVISION V.


                              CHAPTER XXV.

 French missionaries—First in 1615—Recollets—With Champlain—
   Jesuits, in 1625—Valuable records—Bishopric of Quebec, 1674—
   First Bishop of Canada, Laval—Rivalry—Power of Jesuits—Number of
   missionaries—Their “relations”—First mission field; Bay Quinté
   region—“Antient mission”—How founded—First missionaries—Kleus,
   Abbe D’Urfé—La Salle to build a church—The ornaments and sacred
   vessels—The site of the “Chappel” uncertain—Bald Bluff, Carrying
   Place—Silver crosses—Mission at Georgian Bay—The “Christian
   Islands”—Chapel at Michilmicinac, 1679—The natives attracted—
   Subjects of the French King—Francois Picquet—La Presentation—
   _Soegasti_—The most important mission—The object—Six Nations—The
   missionary’s living—“Disagreeable expostulations”—Putting
   stomach in order—Trout—Picquet’s mode of teaching Indians—The
   same afterwards adopted by Rev. W. Case—Picquet’s success—
   Picquet on a voyage—At Fort Toronto—Mississaugas’ request—
   Picquet’s reply—A slander—At Niagara, Oswego—At Frontenac—Grand
   reception—Return to La Presentation—Picquet in the last French
   war—Returns to France—By Mississippi—“Apostles of Peace”—
   Unseemly strife—Last of the Jesuits in Canada                     249

                              CHAPTER XXVI.

 First church in New York, 1633—First Dominie, Rev. Everardus
   Bogardus—The Dutch, Huguenots, Pilgrims—Transporting ministers
   and churches—First Rector of New York, Wm. Vesey—Henry Barclay,
   1746—First Catholic Bishop in America, 1789—Episcopalian Bishop,
   1796—Moral state of Pioneers in Canada—Religion—No ministers—No
   striking immorality—Feared God and honored their King—The
   Fathers of Upper Canada—Religious views—A hundred years ago—
   “Carousing and Dancing”—Rev. Dr. John Ogilvie—First Protestant
   clergyman in Canada—Chaplain, 1759, at Niagara—A Missionary
   Successor of Dr. Barclay, New York—Death, 1774—Rev. John
   Doughty—A Graduate ordained—At Peekskill—Schenectady—A Loyalist—
   A Prisoner—To Canada—Chaplain—To England—Returns—Missionary
   Resigns—Rev Dr. John Stuart—First clergyman to settle—His
   memoir—The “Father of the U. C. Church”—Mission work—The five
   nations—The Dutch—Rev. Mr. Freeman—Translator—Rev. Mr. Andrews—
   Rev. Mr. Spencer Woodbridge, Howley—New England missionaries—
   Rev. Dr. Whelock—The Indian converts—The London society—Rev. Mr.
   Inglis—John Stuart selected missionary—A native of Pennsylvania—
   Irish descent—A graduate, Phil. Coll.—Joins Church of England—To
   England—Ordination—Holy Orders, 1770—Enters upon his work         255

                             CHAPTER XXVII.

 At Fort Hunter—Mr. Stuart’s first sermon, Christmas—Officiates in
   Indian tongue—Translates—The rebellion—Prayers for the King—The
   Johnsons—Rebels attack his house—Plunder—Indignity—Church
   desecrated—Used as a stable—A barrel of rum—Arrested—Ordered to
   come before rebel commissioners—On Parole—Limits—Idle two years—
   To Albany—Phil—Determines to remove to Canada—Not secure—
   Exchanging—Security—Real estate forfeited—Route—Negroes—The
   journey, three weeks—At St. John’s—Charge of Public School—
   Chaplain—At the close of the war—Three Protestant Parishes—
   Determines to settle at Cataraqui—Chaplain to Garrison—
   Missionary—Bishop of Virginia, Dr. Griffith—Visits Mr. Stuart—
   Invitation to Virginia declined—“Rivetted prejudices,”
   satisfied—“The only refuge clergymen”—Path of duty—Visits the
   settlements, 1784—Mohawks, Grand river—Reception of their old
   pastor—First church—Mohawks, Bay of Quinté—Remains in Montreal a
   year—Assistant—Removes to Cataraqui, 1785—His land—Number of
   houses in Kingston—A short cut to Lake Huron—Fortunate in land—
   5000 settlers—Poor and happy—Industrious—Around his Parish,
   1788—Two hundred miles long—By batteau—Brant—New Oswego—Mohawk
   village church, steeple, and bell—First in Upper Canada—Plate—
   Organ—Furniture—Returns—At Niagara—Old parishioners—Tempted to
   move—Comfortable, not rich—Declines a judgeship—New
   Mecklenburgh—Appointed Chaplain to first House of Assembly—
   Mohawk Mission—At Marysburgh—Degree of D.D.—Prosperity—Happy—
   Decline of life—His duties—Illness, Death, 1811—His appearance—
   “The little gentleman”—His manners—Honorable title—His children—
   Rev. O’Kill Stuart                                                260

                             CHAPTER XXVIII.

 A Missionary—Chaplain at Niagara—Pastors to the settlers—Chaplain
   to Legislature—Visits Grand river—Officiates—A land speculator—
   Receives a pension, £50—1823—Rev. Mr. Pollard—At Amherstburgh—
   Mr. Langhorn—A missionary—Little education—Useful—Odd—On Bay
   Quinté in Ernesttown—Builds a church—At Adolphustown—Preaches at
   Hagerman’s—Another church—A diligent pastor—Pioneer preacher
   around the bay—Christening—Marrying—Particular—His appointments—
   Clerk’s Fees—Generosity—Present to bride—Faithful to sick calls—
   Frozen feet—No stockings—Shoe buckles—Dress—Books—Peculiarities—
   Fond of the water—Charitable—War of 1812—Determined to leave
   Canada—Thinks it doomed—Singular notice—Returns to Europe—His
   library—Present to Kingston—Twenty years in Canada—Extract from
   Gazette—No one immediately to take his place—Rev. John Bethune—
   Died 1815—Native of Scotland—U. E. Loyalists—Lost Property—
   Chaplain to 84th Regiment—A Presbyterian—Second Legal Clergymen
   in Upper Canada—Settled at Cornwall—Children—The Baptists—Wyner—
   Turner—Holts Wiem—Baptists upon river Moira—First Chapel—How
   built—Places of preaching—Hayden’s Corners—At East Lake—The
   Lutherans—Rev. Schwerdfeger—Lutheran settlers—County Dundas—
   First church east of Kingston—Rev. Mr. Myers lived in
   Marysburgh—Marriage—His log church—Removes to St. Lawrence—
   Resigns—To Philadelphia—Mr. Weant—Lives in Ernesttown—Removes to
   Matilda—Not supported—Secretly joins the English church—
   Re-ordained—His society ignorant—Suspicious—Preaching in shirt
   sleeves—Mr. Myers’ return, by sleigh—Locking church door—The
   thirty-nine articles—Compromise—Mr. Myers continues three years
   a Lutheran—He secedes—The end of both Seceders—Rev. I. L.
   Senderling—Rev. Herman Hayunga—Rev. Mr. Shorts—Last Lutheran
   minister at Ernesttown, McCarty—Married                           267

                              CHAPTER XXIX.

 Bishop Strachan—A teacher—A preacher—A student—Holy Orders—A
   Presbyterian—Becomes an Episcopalian—A supporter of the “Family
   compact”—Sincere—His opinion of the people—Ignorant—Unprepared
   for self-government—Strachan’s religious chart—He was deceived—
   The Methodists—Anomalous connection—A fillibustering people—
   Republicanism egotistical—Loyalty of the Methodists—American
   ministers—Dr. Strachan’s position—His birth place—His education—
   A.M., 1793—Studying Theology—Comes to Canada—A student of Dr.
   Stuart’s—Ordained Deacon—A missionary at Cornwall—Rector at
   York—Archdeacon—Bishop of Toronto—Coadjutor—Death—A public
   burial—Rev. Mr. McDowell—First Presbyterian at Bay Quinté—
   Invited by Van Alstine—On his way—At Brockville—Settles in a
   second town—His circuit—A worthy minister—Fulfilling his
   mission—Traveling on foot—To York—Marrying the people—His death—
   His descendants—Places of preaching—A Calvinist—Invites
   controversy—Mr. Coate accepts the challenge—The disputation—
   Excitement—The result—Rev. Mr. Smart—Called by Mr. McDowell—
   Pres. clergyman at Brockville—Fifty years—An earnest Christian—A
   desire to write—“Observer”—A pioneer—A cause of regret—Not
   extreme—Mr. Smart’s views on politics—The masses uneducated—The
   “Family Compact”—Rise of responsible government—The Bidwells—
   Credit to Dr. Strachan—Brock’s funeral sermon—Foundation of
   Kingston gaol—Maitland—Demonstration—Sherwood’s statement         273

                              CHAPTER XXX.

 The Quakers—Among the Settlers—From Penn—Duchess County—First
   Meeting-house—David Sand—Elijah Hick—Visiting Canada—James
   Noxen—A first settler—Their mode of worship—In Sophiasburg—The
   meeting-house—Joseph Leavens—Hicksites—Traveling—Death, aged 92—
   Extract, Picton Sun—The first preaching places—First English
   church—In private houses—At Sandwich—The Indian church at the
   bay—Ernesttown—First Methodist church—Preaching at Niagara—First
   church in Kingston—At Waterloo—At Niagara—Churches at Kingston,
   1817—In Hallowell—Thurlow—Methodist meeting-houses, 1816—At
   Montreal—Building chapels in olden times—Occupying the frame—The
   old Methodist chapels—In Hallowell township—In the fifth town—
   St. Lawrence—First English Church, Belleville—Mr. Campbell—First
   time in the pulpit—How he got out—The old church superseded—
   Church, front of Sidney—Rev. John Cochrane—Rev. Mr. Grier—First
   Presbyterian Church in Belleville—Rev. Mr. Ketcham—First
   Methodist Church in Belleville—Healey, Puffer—The site of the
   church—A second one                                               279

                              CHAPTER XXXI.

 The first Methodist Preachers—The army—Capt. Webb—Tuffey—George
   Vagabonds—McCarty arrested—Trial—At Kingston—Banished—“A
   martyr”—Doubtful—Losee, first Methodist missionary, 1790—A
   minister—A loyalist—Where he first preached—“A curiosity”—
   Earnest pioneer Methodist—Class-meetings—Suitable for all
   classes—Losee’s class-meetings—Determines to build a
   meeting-house—Built in Adolphustown—Its size—The subscribers—
   Members, amount—Embury—Those who subscribed for first church in
   New York—Same names—The centenary of Methodism—New York
   Methodists driven away—American Methodist forgetful—Embury and
   Heck refugees—Ashgrove—No credit given to British officers—
   Embury’s brother—The rigging loft, N. Y.—Barbara Heck—Settling
   in Augusta—First Methodist Church in America—Subscribers—“Lost
   Chapters”—The Author’s silence—What is acknowledged—“Severe
   threats”—Mr. Mann—To Nova Scotia—Mr. Wakely “admires piety”—Not
   “loyalty”—Second chapel, N. Y.—Adolphustown subscribers—Conrad
   VanDusen—Eliz. Roblin—Huff—Ruttan—The second Methodist chapel—
   The subscribers—Commenced May, 1795—Carpenter’s wages—Members
   Cataraqui Circuit—Going to Conference—Returns—Darias Dunham—
   Physician—First quarterly meeting—Anecdotes—Bringing a “dish
   cloth”—“Clean up”—The new made squire—Asses—Unclean spirits—
   Losee discontinues preaching—Cause—Disappointment—Return to New
   York—Dunham useful—Settles—Preachers travelling—Saddle-bags—
   Methodism among loyalists—Camp-meetings—Where first held in
   Canada—Worshipping in the woods—Breaking up—Killing the Devil—
   First Canadian preacher—Journey from New York                     285

                             CHAPTER XXXIa.

 Henry Ryan—Ryanites—He comes to Canada—His associate, Case—At
   Kingston—A singer—Preaching in the market-place—Their treatment—
   In office—His circuit—1000 miles—What he received—Elder—
   Superseded—Probable cause—A British subject—During the war of
   1812—President of Conference—“High-minded”—Useful—Acceptable to
   the people—Desired independence by the Canadians—How he was
   treated—His labors—Brave—Witty—“Fatherless children”—“Impudent
   scoundrel”—Muscular—“Methodists’ bull”—“Magistrate’s goat”—Ryan
   seeks separation—Breckenridge—Conduct of the American
   Conference—Ryan’s agitation—Effect upon the Bishops—First Canada
   Conference—At Hallowell—Desire for independence—Reasons, cogent—
   Fruit of Ryan’s doings—The way the Conference treated Ryan—
   Withdraws—No faith in the United States Conference—Ryan sincere—
   “Canadian Wesleyans”—The motives of the United States Conference
   questionable—The wrong done Ryan—Second Canada Conference—Case,
   first Superintendent—Visit of Bishop Asbury—Account by Henry
   Bœhm—Asbury an Englishman—During the rebellion—A Bishop—His
   journey to Canada—Crossing the St. Lawrence—Traveling in Canada—
   An upset—“A decent people”—His opinion of the country—The Bishop
   ill—At Kingston—Bœhm at Embury’s—A field meeting—Riding all
   night—Crossing to Sackett’s harbor—Nearly wrecked                 295

                             CHAPTER XXXII.

 McDonnell—First R. Catholic Bishop—A “Memorandum”—Birth-place—in
   Spain—A priest—In Scotland—Glengary Fencibles—Ireland, 1798—To
   Canada—Bishop—Death in Scotland—Body removed to Canada—Funeral
   obsequies—Buried at Kingston—Had influence—Member of Canadian
   Legislative Council—Pastoral visitations, 1806—A loyal man—A
   pioneer in his church—The Bishop’s Address, 1836—Refuting
   Mal-charges—Number of the R. C. clergy in 1804—From Lake
   Superior to Lower Canada—Traveling horseback—Sometimes on foot—
   Hardships—Not a politician—Expending private means—Faithful
   services—Acknowledged—Roman Catholic U. E. Loyalists—First
   church in Ernesttown—McDonnell at Belleville—Rev. M. Brennan—
   First church in Belleville—What we have aimed at—The advantages
   to the English Church—The Reserves—In Lower Canada—Dr. Mountain—
   Number of English clergymen, 1793—A Bishop—Monopoly initiated—
   Intolerance and exclusion swept away—An early habit at Divine
   Service                                                           303

                             CHAPTER XXXIII.

 First Sabbath teaching—Hannah Bell, 1769—School established, 1781—
   Raikes—Wesley—First in United States—First in Canada—Cattrick—
   Moon—Common in 1824—First in Belleville—Turnbull—Cooper—
   Marshall—Prizes, who won them—Mr. Turnbull’s death—Intemperance—
   First temperance societies—Change of custom—Rum—Increasing
   intemperance—The tastes of the pioneers—Temperance, not
   teetotalism—First society in Canada—Drinks at raisings and bees—
   Society at Hallowell                                              308

                             CHAPTER XXXIV.

 The Six Nations—Faithful English Allies—Society for Propagation of
   Gospel—First missionary to Iroquois—John Thomas, first convert—
   Visit of Chiefs to England—Their names—Their portraits—Attention
   to them—Asking for instructor—Queen Anne—Communion Service—
   During the Rebellion—Burying the plate—Recovered—Division of the
   articles—Sacrilege of the Rebels—Re-printing Prayer Book—Mr.
   Stuart, missionary—The women and children—At Lachine—Attachment
   to Mr. Stuart—Touching instance—Mr. Stuart’s Indian sister—
   Church at Tyendinaga—School teacher to the Mohawk—John Bininger—
   First teacher—The Bininger family—The Moravian Society—Count
   Zinzendorf—Moravian church at New York—First minister, Abraham
   Bininger—Friend of Embury—An old account book—John Bininger
   journeying to Canada—Living at Bay Quinté—Removes to Mohawk
   village—Missionary spirit—Abraham Bininger’s letters—The
   directions—Children pleasing parents—“Galloping thoughts”—
   Christianity—Canadian Moravian missionaries—Moravian loyalists—
   What was sent from New York—“Best Treasure”—The “Dear Flock”—
   David Zieshager at the Thames—J. Bininger acceptable to Mohawk—
   Abraham Bininger desires to visit Canada—Death of Mrs. Bininger—
   “Tender mother”—Bininger and Wesley—“Garitson”—“Losee”—“Dunon”—
   Reconciled to Methodists—Pitying Losee—Losee leaving Canada—
   Ceases to be teacher—Appointing a successor—William Bell—The
   salary—The Mohawks don’t attend school—An improvement—The cattle
   may not go in School-house—The school discontinued                312

                              CHAPTER XXXV.

 The first Church at Tyendinaga grows old—A Council—Ask for
   assistance—Gov. Bagot—Laying first stone of new Church—The
   Inscription—The Ceremony—The new Church—Their Singing—The
   surrounding Scenery—John Hall’s Tomb—Pagan Indians—Red Jacket—
   His Speech—Reflection upon Christians—Indians had nothing to do
   with murdering the Saviour                                        319

                             CHAPTER XXXVI.

 Mississauga Indians—Father Picquet’s opinion—Remnant of a large
   tribe—Their land—Sold to Government—Rev. Wm. Case—John Sunday—A
   drunkard—Peter Jones—Baptising Indians—At a camp-meeting—Their
   department—Extract from Playter—William Beaver—Conversions—Jacob
   Peter—Severe upon white Christians—Their worship—The Father of
   Canadian missions—Scheme to teach Indians—Grape Island—Leasing
   Islands—The parties—“Dated at Belleville”—Constructing a
   village—The lumber—How obtained—Encamping on Grape Island—The
   method of instruction—The number—Agriculture—Their singing—
   School house—The teacher—Instructions of women—Miss Barnes—
   Property of Indians—Cost of improvements—A visit to Government—
   Asking for land—“Big Island”—Other favors—Peter Jacobs at New
   York—Extracts from Playter—Number of Indian converts, 1829—River
   Credit Indians—Indians removed to Alnwick                         323

                              DIVISION VI.


                             CHAPTER XXXVII.

 Education among the Loyalists—Effect of the war—No opportunity for
   Education—A few Educated—At Bath—A common belief—What was
   requisite for farming—Learning at home—The school teachers—Their
   qualifications—Rev. Mr. Stuart as a teacher—Academy at Kingston—
   First Canadian D.D.—Mr. Clark, Teacher, 1786—Donevan—Garrison
   Schools—Cockerell—Myers—Blaney—Michael—Atkins—Kingston, 1795—
   Lyons—Mrs. Cranahan—In Adolphustown—Morden—Faulkiner—The school
   books—Evening schools—McDougall—O’Reiley—McCormick—Flogging—
   Articles of Agreement—Recollections—Boarding round—American
   teachers—School books—The letter Z                                329

                            CHAPTER XXXVIII.

 Mr. Stuart’s school—Simcoe—State Church and College—Grammar
   schools—Hon. R. Hamilton—Chalmers—Strachan—Comes to Canada—
   Educational history—Arrival at Kingston—The pupils—Fees—Removes
   to Cornwall—Pupils follow—Strachan, a Canadian—Marries—Interview
   with Bishop Strachan—His disappointment—A stranger—What he
   forsook—300 pupils—Their success—Stay at Cornwall—Appointments
   at York—A lecturer—At Kingston—Member of Legislative Council—
   Politician—Clergy Reserves—Founds King’s College—The thirty-nine
   articles—Monopoly swept away—Voluntaryism—Founds Trinity
   College—Bishop Strachan in 1866—What he had accomplished—Those
   he tutored—Setting up a high standard—“Reckoner”—Sincerity—
   Legislation, 1797—Address to the King—Grammar Schools—Grant,
   1798—Board of Education—Endowment of King’s College—Its
   constitution—Changes—Upper Canada College—Endowment—“A spirit of
   improvement”—Gourlay—The second academy—At Ernesttown—The
   trustees—Bidwell—Charges—Contradicted—Rival school—Bidwell’s
   son—Conspicuous character—Bidwell’s death—Son removes to
   Toronto—Academy building, a barrack—Literary spirit of Bath—
   Never revived—York                                                334

                             CHAPTER XXXIX.

 Extract from Cooper—Educational institutions—Kingston—Queen’s
   College—Own’s Real Estate—Regiopolis College—Roman Catholic—
   Grammar School—Attendance—School houses—Library—Separate School—
   Private Schools—The Quaker School—William Penn—Upon the Hudson—
   Near Bloomfield—Origin of school—Gurnay—His offer—Management of
   school—The teaching—Mrs. Crombie’s school—Picton ladies’
   Academy—McMullen, proprietor—Teachers—Gentlemen’s department—
   Popular—The art of printing—In America—Book publishing—First in
   America—Books among the loyalists—Few—Passed around—Ferguson’s
   books—The Bible—Libraries at Kingston and Bath—Legislation—In
   Lower Canada—Reading room at Hallowell—Reserves for education—
   Upper Canada in respect to education—Praiseworthy—Common School
   system bill introduced 1841—Amended, 1846—Dr. Ryerson’s system—
   Unsurpassed                                                       341

                               CHAPTER XL.

 First Newspapers, 1457—Year, 66—English Newspapers—In America—In
   Canada—‘Gazette’—Founder—Papers in 1753—Quebec ‘Herald’—Montreal
   ‘Gazette’—‘Le Temps’—Quebec ‘Mercury’—Canadian ‘Courant’—‘Royal
   Gazette’—First in Newfoundland—‘U. C. Gazette’—First paper—
   Subscribers—Upper Canada ‘Guardian’—Wilcox—Mr. Thorpe—
   Opposition—Libel—Elected to Parliament—York Jail—Leader—In 1812—
   Deserted—York ‘Gazette’—Kingston ‘Gazette’—Only Paper—News sixty
   years ago—In Midland District—Rev. Mr. Miles—Pioneer of
   Journalism—His Birthplace—Learns the printing business—Mower—
   Montreal ‘Gazette’—Kendall—Partnership—To Kingston in 1810—The
   printing office—Kingston ‘Gazette’—Mr. Miles sells out—The
   concern purchased—Mr. Miles asked to be Editor—Their kindness—
   Gratitude—Second Volume—Extract from ‘Gazette’—The Price—
   Kingston ‘Chronicle’—Upper Canada ‘Herald’—‘Canadian Watchman’—
   Mr. Miles at Prescott—Returns to Kingston—Enters the Ministry—
   Loyal Subject—In 1812—On Duty—Archdeacon Stuart—Col. Cartwright—
   Contributors to ‘Gazette’—Our Thanks—A Watch—Faithfulness—“A
   Good Chance”—Subscribers at York—Kingston ‘Spectator’—‘Patriot’—
   ‘Argus’—‘Commercial Advertizer’—‘British Whig’—‘Chronicle’ and
   ‘News’—First Daily in Upper Canada—Paper Boxes—Brockville
   ‘Recorder’—A Reform paper—McLeod—Grenville ‘Gazette’—Prescott
   ‘Telegraph’—‘Christian Guardian’—Reform Journals                  350

                              CHAPTER XLI.

 First paper between Kingston and York—Hallowell “Free Press”—The
   Editor—“Recluse”—Fruitless efforts—Proprietor—Wooden press—Of
   iron—“Free Press,” independent—The “Traveller”—Press removed to
   Cobourg—“Prince Edward Gazette”—“Picton Gazette”—“Picton Sun”—
   “Picton Times”—“New Nation”—“Cobourg Star”—“Anglo-Canadian” at
   Belleville—The Editor—Price—The “Phœnix”—Slicer—“Canadian
   Wesleyan”—“Hastings Times”—The “Reformer”—The “Intelligencer”—
   George Benjamin—The “Victoria Chronicle”—“Hastings Chronicle”—
   Extract from Playter—“Colonial Advocate”—“Upper Canada Herald”—
   “Barker’s Magazine”—“Victoria Magazine”—Joseph Wilson—Mrs.
   Moodie—Sheriff Moodie—Pioneer in Canadian literature—Extract
   from Morgan—“Literary Garland”—“Roughing it in the Bush”—
   “Eclectic Magazine”—“Wilson’s Experiment”—“Wilson’s Canada
   Casket”—The “Bee” at Napanee—“Emporium”—The “Standard”—The
   “Reformer”—“North American”—“Ledger”—“Weekly Express”—“Christian
   Casket”—“Trenton Advocate”—“British Ensign”—The “Canadian Gem”—
   “Maple Leaf”—Papers in 1853—Canadian papers superior to
   American—Death at Boston—Berczy—Canadian idioms—Accent—Good
   English—Superstition—Home education—Fireside stories—Traditions   358

                              DIVISION VII.


                              CHAPTER XLII.

 The Indians—Their origin—Pre-historic Canada—Indian relics—
   Original inhabitants—Les Iroquois du nord—Original names—
   Peninsula of Upper Canada—Champlain exploring—Ascends the
   Ottawa—His route to Lake Nippissing—To Lake Huron—French river—
   The country—Georgian Bay—Lake Simcoe—Down the Trent—A grand
   trip—Bay Quinté and Lake Ontario discovered—War demonstration—
   Wintering at the Bay—A contrast—Roundabout way—Erroneous
   impressions                                                       366

                             CHAPTER XLIII.

 Name—Letter, “Daily News”—“Omega” Lines—The writer—Conjectures—
   Five Bays—Indian origin—Kentes—Villages—_Les Couis_—Modes of
   spelling—Canty—The occupants, 1783—Mississaugas—Origin—With the
   Iroquois—The _Souter_—Mississaugas, dark—At Kingston—Bay Quinté—
   Land bought—Reserves—Claim upon the islands—Wappoose Island—
   Indian agent—Indians hunting—Up the Sagonaska—Making sugar—
   Peaceable—To Kingston for presents                                374

                              CHAPTER XLIV.

 Appearance—Mouth of Bay—Length—The Peninsula of Prince Edward—
   Width of Bay—Long Reach—Course of Bay—The High Shore—Division of
   bay—Eastern, central, western—Taking a trip—Through the Reach—A
   picture—A quiet spot—Lake on the mountain—A description—Montreal
   Gazette—Beautiful view—Rhine, Hudson—Contrast—Classic ground—A
   sketch—Birth place of celebrated Canadians—Hagerman—A leading
   spirit—Sir J. A. McDonald—Reflections—A log house—Relics of the
   past—Lesson of life—In the lower bay—Reminiscences—The front—
   Cradle of the province—Shore of Marysburgh—In the Western Bay—
   Cuthbertson—Up the bay—A battle ground—Devil’s Hill—In the
   depths—Prosperity—Geological supposition—Head of bay—The past     383

                              CHAPTER XLV.

 The “Big Bay”—Musketoe Bay—Mohawk Bay—Hay Bay—“Eastern Bay”—Site
   of Ancient Kentes—The name—Old Families—An Accident, 1819—
   Eighteen Drowned—Extract from Playter—Searching for the Bodies—
   Burying the dead—Picton Bay—Appearance—The “Grand Bay”—Upper
   Gap—Lower Gap—Kingston Bay—A Picture—Recollections—A Contract—
   Ship Yards—Extract from Cooper—Inland Lakes                       395

                              CHAPTER XLVa.

 Islands—Possessed by Indians—The “Thousand Islands”—Carleton
   Island—History of Island—During the rebellion—Wolfe Island—The
   name—Howe Island—Old name—County of Ontario—Garden Island—
   Horseshoe Island—Sir Jeffry Amherst—The size—Indian name—
   “Tontine”—Johnson’s Island—The Island won—Present owner—First
   settler—The three brothers—Small Islands—Hare Island—Nut Island—
   Wappoose Island—Indian rendezvous—Captain John’s Island—
   Bartering—Hunger Island—Big Island—First settlers—Huff’s Island—
   Paul Huff—Grape Island—Hog Island—Smaller Islands—Mississauga
   Island—A tradition—The carrying place—Its course—Original
   survey—History—American prisoners—Col. Wilkins                    402

                             DIVISION VIII.


                              CHAPTER XLVI.

 The French—Their policy—Trading posts—Cahiaque—Variations—Name of
   river—Foundation of Fort Frontenac—A change—Site of old fort—La
   Salle’s petition—A Seigniory—Governors visiting—War Expedition—
   Fort destroyed—Rebuilt—Colonial wars—Taking of Fort Oswego—
   Frontenac taken—End of French domination                          410

                             CHAPTER XLVII.

 Cooper’s Essay—Loyalists naming places—King’s Town—Queen’s Town—
   Niagara—Spanish names—Cataraqui from 1759 to 1783—Desolation—The
   rebellion—Station, Carleton Island—Settling—Refugees at New
   York—Michael Grass—Prisoner at Cataraqui—From New York to
   Canada—Captain Grass takes possession of first township—First
   landholders—A letter by Captain Grass—Changes—Surveying forts
   and harbors—Report to Lord Dorchester—Kingston, _versus_
   Carleton Island—The defenses—Troops—King’s township—First
   settlers—“Plan of township No. 1”—First owners of town lots—
   Names—Settlers upon the front—First inhabitants of Kingston—A
   naval and military station—The Commodore—Living of old—Kingston
   in _last century_—New fortifications                              419

                             CHAPTER XLVIII.

 The situation of Kingston—Under military influence—Monopolist—
   Early history of legislation—In 1810—Gourlay’s statement—Police—
   Modern Kingston—Lord Sydenham—Seat of government—Perambulating—
   Surrounding country—Provisions—An appeal for Kingston as
   capital—Barriefield—Pittsburgh—Building of small crafts—Famous—
   Roads—Waterloo—Cemetery—Portsmouth—Kingston Mill—Little
   Cataraqui—Collinsby—Quantity of land—Early and influential
   inhabitants—Post masters—“Honorable men”—Deacon, Macaulay,
   Cartwright, Markland, Cummings, Smiths, Kerby—Allen McLean,
   first lawyer—A gardener—Sheriff McLean—“Chrys” Hagerman—Customs—
   Sampson, shooting a smuggler—Hagerman, M.P.P.—Removes to Toronto  430

                              CHAPTER XLIX.

 The second town—Ernest’s town—King George—His children—Settlers of
   Ernesttown—Disbanded soldiers—Johnson’s regiment—Major Rogers’
   corps—The “Roll”—Number—By whom enlisted—An old book—Township
   surveyed—Settling—Traveling—Living in tents—A change—Officers—
   Names—Occupants of lots—Mill Creek—The descendants—Quality of
   land—Village—The settlers in 1811—The main road—Incorporation of
   Bath—Trading—Fairfield—The library—Bath by Gourlay—Bath of the
   present—Bath _versus_ Napanee—In 1812—American Fleet—Wonderful
   achievement—Safe distance from shore—Third township—
   Fredericksburgh—After Duke of Sussex—Surveyed by Kotte—A promise
   to the disbanded soldiers—Johnson—Fredericksburgh additional—A
   dispute—Quantity of land—Extract from Mrs. Moodie—Reserve for
   village—Second surveys                                            439

                               CHAPTER L.

 The fourth township—Adolphustown—After Duke of Cambridge—Quantity
   of Land—Survey—Major VanAlstine—Refugees—From New York—Time—
   Voyage—Their Fare—Names—Arrived—Hagerman’s Point—In Tents—First
   Settler—Town Plot—Death—The Burial—A Relic—Commissary—Dispute of
   Surveyors—The Settlers—All things in common—An aged man—Golden
   rule—Old map—Names—Islands—The township—Price of land—First
   “town meeting”—Minutes—The Officers Record—Inhabitants, 1794—Up
   to 1824—First Magistrates—Centre of Canada—Court Held in Barn—In
   Methodist Chapel—“A Den of Thieves”—Court House erected—
   Adolphustown Canadians—Members of Parliament—The Courts—Where
   first held—Hagerman—Travelers tarrying at Adolphustown            448

                               CHAPTER LI.

 Marysburgh—Origin—Once part of a Seigniory—Survey—Hessians—Old
   map—The lots—Officers of the 84th Regt.—Original landowners—
   Indian Point—McDonnell’s Cove—Grog Bay—“Accommodating Bay”—
   “Gammon Point”—Black River—“Long Point”—Reserves—Course pursued
   by the Surveyor—Number of Hessians—Their sufferings—Dark tales—
   Discontented—Returning to Hesse—A suitable location—Not U. E.
   Loyalists—Received land gratis—Family land—Their habits—Capt.
   McDonnell—Squire Wright—Sergt. Harrison—The Smith’s—Grant to
   Major VanAlstine—Beautiful Scenery—Smith’s bay—“The Rock”—Over a
   precipice                                                         458

                              CHAPTER LII.

 Sixth township—Name—Survey—Convenient for settlement—First
   settlers—A remote township—What was paid for lots—“Late
   Loyalists”—Going to Mill—Geological formation—Along the fronts—
   High shore—Grassy Point—Its history—Marsh front—Central place—
   Stickney’s Hill—Foster’s Hill—Northport—Trade—James Cotter—
   Gores—Demerestville—The name—“Sodom”—First records—Township
   meetings—The Laws of the township—Divided into parishes—Town
   clerk—Officers—The poor—The committee—Inhabitants, 1824—Fish
   Lake—Seventh Township—The name—Survey by Kotte—At the Carrying
   Place—Surveyor’s assistant—No early records—First settlers        465

                              CHAPTER LIII.

 Prince Edward—The name—Rich land—Size of peninsula—Shape—Small
   Lakes—Sand hills—The Ducks—Gibson’s rock—The past—First settler—
   Col. Young—Prospecting—Discovery of East Lake—West Lake—Moving
   in—Settlers in 1800—East Lake—Capt. Richardson—“Prince Edward
   Division Bill”—Office seekers—Township of Hallowell—The name—
   Formation of Township—First records 1798—The officers—The laws—
   Magistrates—Picton—Its origin—Hallowell village—Dr. Austin—Gen.
   Picton—His monument—Naming the villages—A contest—The Court
   house—An offer—Enterprise—Proposed steamboat—Churches—Rev. Mr.
   Macaulay—Rev. Mr. Fraser—Rev. Mr. Lalor                           476

                              CHAPTER LIV.

 Eighth Township—Sidney—Name—Survey—Settlement, 1787—Letter from
   Ferguson—Trading—Barter—Potatoes—Building—Cows—No salt to spare—
   First settlers—Myers—Re-surveying—James Farley—Town Clerk at
   first meeting—William Ketcheson—Gilbert’s Cove—Coming to the
   front—River Trent—Old names—Ferry—Bridge—Trenton—Its settlement—
   Squire Bleeker                                                    485

                               CHAPTER LV.

 Ninth town—Thurlow—Name—When surveyed—Front—Indian burying ground—
   Owner of first lots—Chisholm—Singleton—Myers—Ferguson—Indian
   traders—To Kingston in batteau—Singleton’s death—Ferguson’s
   death—Distress of the families—Settled, 1789—Ascending the
   Moira—Taking possession of land—Fifth concession—John Taylor—
   Founder of Belleville—Myers buying land—Settlers upon the front—
   Municipal record—Town officers—1798—Succeeding years—Canifton,
   its founder—Settling—The diet—Building mill—Road—River Moira—
   Origin of name—Earl Moira—Indian name—Indian offering—
   “Cabojunk”—Myers’ saw-mill—Place not attractive—First bridge—The
   flouring-mill—Belleville—Indian village—Myers’ Creek—Formation
   of village—First Inn—Permanent bridge—Bridge Street—In 1800—
   Growth—A second mill—McNabb’s—Sad death—Captain McIntosh—Petrie—
   Inhabitants, 1809—Dr. Spareham—Naming of Belleville—Bella Gore—
   By Gore in council—Petition—Extract from Kingston Gazette—
   Surveying reserve—Wilmot—Mistakes—Granting of lots—Conditions—
   Board of Police—Extent of Belleville—Muddy streets—Inhabitants
   in 1824—Court-house—First Court, Quarter Sessions—Belleville in
   1836                                                              489

                              CHAPTER LVI.

 Tenth township—Richmond—Origin—Quantity of land—Shores of Mohawk
   Bay—Village on south shore—Original land holders—Names—Napanee—
   The falls—The mill—Salmon River—Indian name—Source of Napanee
   River—Its course—Colebrook—Simcoe Falls—Name—Clarke’s Mills—
   Newburgh—Academy—The settlers—“Clarkville”—No records             503

                              DIVISION IX.


                              CHAPTER LVII.

 Military rule—Imperial Act, 1774—French Canada—Refugees—Military
   Government in Upper Canada—New Districts—Lunenburgh—
   Mecklenburgh—Nassau—Hesse—The Judges—Duncan—Cartwright—Hamilton—
   Robertson—Court in Mecklenburgh—Civil Law—Judge Duncan—Judge
   Cartwright—Punishment inflicted—First execution—New Constitution
   of Quebec—1791, Quebec Bill passed—Inhabitants of Upper Canada    505

                             CHAPTER LVIII.

 Simcoe—His arrival in Canada—Up the St. Lawrence—An old house—“Old
   Breeches’ River”—Simcoe’s attendants—The old veterans—“Good old
   cause”—“Content”—Toasting—Old officers—Executive Council of
   Upper Canada—First entry—Simcoe inducted to office—Religious
   ceremony—“The proceedings”—Those present—Oath of office—
   Organization of Legislative Council—Assembly—Issuing writs for
   elections—Members of Council—Simcoe’s difficulty—At Kingston—
   Division of Province—The Governor’s officers—Rochfoucault upon
   Simcoe—Simcoe’s surroundings—His wife—Opening Parliament in
   1795—Those present—Retinue—Dress—The nineteen counties—Simcoe’s
   designs—Visit of the Queen’s father—At Kingston—Niagara—A war
   dance                                                             509

                              CHAPTER LIX.

 General Hunter—Peter Russell—Francis Gore, 1806—Alex. Grant—Brock—
   1812—United States declare war—Prompt action—Parliament—
   Proclamation—The issue—Second proclamation—General Hull—His
   proclamation—Bombast and impertinence—The Indians—Proclamation
   answered—Hull a prisoner—Michigan conquered—To Niagara—At
   Queenston heights—“Push on York Volunteers”—Death of Brock—
   McDonnell—War of 1812, the Americans—Extract from Merritt—What
   Canadians did—Brock’s monument—General Sheaffe—General Drummond—
   Invading the States—What Canada will do—Lord Sydenham—A tribute
   by Dr. Ryerson—Union of the Provinces                             517

                               CHAPTER LX.

 Kingston—First capital—First act of government—Niagara—Selecting
   the capital—Niagara in 1788—Carrying place—Landing place—Newark—
   In 1795—Mr. Hamilton—The inhabitants—Little York—The Don—The
   Harbor—Survey—De la Trenche—London—Inhabitants of the Don—Yonge
   street, a military road—Governor at York—Castle Frank—York in
   1798—The Baldwins—In 1806—Buffalo—York, 1813—Taken by the
   Americans—The Combatants—Toronto—“Muddy York”—A monument
   required                                                          526

                              CHAPTER LXI.

 Parliament—Simcoe’s Proclamation—Nineteen counties formed—Names
   and boundaries—First elections—Names of members—Officers of the
   House—A Quaker member—Chaplain—Meeting of Parliament—The Throne,
   a camp stool—Address—To both houses—Closing address—Acts passed—
   Simcoe’s confidential letters—A contrast—A blending—2nd Session—
   The Acts—Quarter Sessions—3rd, 4th, 5th Sessions—New division of
   Province—1798—Modes of punishment—Burning the hand—Whipping—
   Salaries of officers—Revenue first year—The members of
   Parliament—Education—Offering for Parliament—A “Junius”—Early
   administration of justice—“Heaven-born lawyers”—First
   magistrates                                                       533

                               DIVISION X.


                              CHAPTER LXII.

 Militia Act, 1792—Simcoe—No faith in the Americans—His views—
   Military Roads—Division of Districts—Military purposes—The
   officers—Legislation—The expenses—Repeated Legislation—
   Aggressive spirit—The Enrolment—Hastings Battalion—“Something
   brewing”—List of Officers—Col. Ferguson—Col. Bell—Leeds Militia—
   Officers’ clothing—The Midland District—Prince Edward—Training
   Places                                                            544

                             CHAPTER LXIII.

 In 1812, around Bay Quinté—The declaration of war—The news at
   Kingston—The call to arms—Hastings—Events at Kingston—In 1813—
   Attack upon Sacket’s Harbor—Oswego—American fleet before
   Kingston—Royal George—Kingston prepared—Chrysler’s farm—A
   “Postscript”—Along the St. Lawrence—Ribaldry—The Commissary—
   Capt. Wilkins—Quakers—Rate of pay—American prisoners—The
   Wounded—Surgeons, Dougal, Meacham—Jonathan Phillips—Militiamen’s
   reward—Militia orders—Parliamentary grants                        551

                              CHAPTER LXIV.

 The Six Nations in 1812—American animus—“Manifest Destiny”—Mohawk
   Indians—A right to defend their homes—Inconsistency—American
   savages—Extract from Playter—Brock’s proclamation—Indian
   character, conduct, eloquence—Deserters in 1812—Few of them—
   Court-martials—The attempts at conquest by the Americans—The
   numbers—Result of war—Canadians saved the country—And can do so—
   Fraternal kindness                                                564

                              DIVISION XI.

                        ADVANCE OF CIVILIZATION.

                              CHAPTER LXV.

 Canada’s first step in civilization—Slavery in America—By whom
   introduced—False charge—Slavery in Canada—History—Imperial Acts—
   Legislation in Canada—The several clauses—In Lower Canada—
   Justice Osgood—Slavery at the Rebellion—Among the U. E.
   Loyalists—Those who held slaves—Descendants of the slaves—“A
   British slave”—“For sale”—“Indian slave”—Upper Canada’s Record—
   Compared with the States—Liberty—Why the United States abolished
   slavery—Honor to whom honor is due                                569

                              CHAPTER LXVI.

 Returns to the Pioneer—Bay Region—Garden of Canada—Clogs—False
   views of settlers—Result—New blood—Good example—Anecdote—The
   “Family Compact”—Partiality—Origin of the _Compact_—Their
   conduct—The evil they did—A proposed Canadian Aristocracy—What
   it would have led to—What may come—“Peter Funks”                  580

                             CHAPTER LXVII.

 Agriculture—Natural Products—Rice—Ginseng—Orchards—Plows—Reaping—
   Flax—Legislation—Agricultural Society organized by Simcoe—A
   Snuff Box—Fogies—Silver—Want of help—Midland District taking the
   lead—Societies—Legislative help—Prince Edward—Pearl Ashes—
   Factories—Tanneries—Breweries, Carding Machines—Paper—Lumber—
   First vehicles—Sleighs—Waggons—Home-made—Roads—First Public
   Conveyances—Stages—Fare—Building Greater—Sawing Mills introduced
   by the Dutch—First Brick Building—Myers’ House—Its past history—
   Furniture from Albany—Currency—Paper Money—Banks—First
   Merchants—Barter—Pedlars—On the Bay                               587

                             CHAPTER LXVIII.

 Steam vessels—Crossing the Atlantic in 1791—First Steam Vessel—
   Hudson—The second on the St. Lawrence—First across the Atlantic—
   In Upper Canada—_Frontenac_—Built in Ernesttown—The Builders—
   Finkle’s Point—Cost of Vessel—Dimensions—Launched—First Trip—
   Captain McKenzie—‘_Walk-in-the-Water_’—_Queen Charlotte_—How
   Built—Upon Bay Quinté—Capt. Dennis—First year—Death of Dennis—
   Henry Gilderslieve—What he did—Other Steamboats—Canals—First in
   Upper Canada—Welland Canal—Desjardin—Rideau—Its object—Col. By—A
   proposed Canal—Railroads—The first in the world—Proposed Railway
   from Kingston to Toronto, 1846—In Prince Edward District—
   Increase of Population—Extract from Dr. Lillie—Comparison with
   the United States—Favorable to Canada—False Cries—The French—
   Midland District, 1818                                            599

                              DIVISION XII.


                              CHAPTER LXIX.

 Definition—A division—Their principles—Our position—Ancestry—
   Dutch—Puritans—Huguenots—New Rochelle—English writers—Talbot—
   Falsehoods—Canadian and English ancestry—Howison—Maligner—
   Gourlay’s reply—Palatines—Old names                               616

                              CHAPTER LXX.

 Character—Hospitality—At home—Fireside—Visitors—Bees—Raisings—
   Easter Eggs—Dancing—Hovington House—Caste—Drinks—Horse-racing—
   Boxing—Amusements—La Crosse—Duels—Patriotism—Annexation—Freedom—
   Egotism—The Loyalists—Instances—Longevity—Climate of Canada—A
   quotation—Long lived—The children—The present race—A
   nationality—Comparison—“U. E. Loyalist”—Their Privileges—Order
   of Council—Dissatisfaction                                        624

                              CHAPTER LXXI.

 Notice of a Few—Booth—Brock—Burritt—Cotter—Cartwright—Conger—Cole—
   Hagerman—Johnson’s—“Bill” Johnson—Macaulay—The Captive,
   Christian Moore—Parliament—Morden—Roblins—Simon—Van Alstine—
   McIntosh—Bird—Gerow—Vankleek—Perry—Sir William Johnson’s
   children                                                          642


 Roll of the 2nd Battalion King’s Royal Regiment                     667

 The Governors of Canada                                             670

 Indian Goods                                                        671


  Page 29, 12th line from top, instead of “1859,” read “1759.”

  Page 80, 4th line from bottom, instead of “are equally,” read “were

  Page 102, 16th line from bottom, instead of “removed to the town,”
    read “to the fifth town.”

  Page 104, instead of “Hodgins,” read “Hudgins.”

  Page 104, 16th line from top, instead of “1859,” read “1809.”

  Page 130, 4th line, 2nd paragraph, instead of “South,” read “North.”

  Page 138, heading of page should be “Voyaging.”

  Page 192, bottom line, instead of “dispersed,” read “dispossessed.”

  Page 257, 19th line, “gloomy,” read “glowing.”

  Page 288, 19th line, “glowing a picture,” should have “of”

  Page 293, instead of “Wesleyanism,” read “Wesleyans.”

  Page 371, 14th line, instead of “1815,” read “1615.”

  Page 437, 10th line from bottom, instead of “Lawer,” read “Lawyer.”

  Page 585, 15th line, after “Governor,” read _they were generally_.

  Page 596, 3rd line, after “often,” read _inferior_.






                               CHAPTER I.

  CONTENTS—Antiquarianism—Records of the Early Nations—Tradition—The
    Press—The Eastern World—The Western World—Importance of History—
    Columbus—Colonization—Canada—America—Cartier—French Canadian
    writers—Cartier’s first visit—Huguenots—Cartier’s second visit—
    Jean Francois—Sir George E. Cartier—Establishment of the Fur
    Trade—Champlain—Discovery of Lake Ontario—Bay of Quinté—Quebec
    founded—First fighting with Indians—First taking of Quebec by the
    British—Returned to France—The Recollets and Jesuits—Death of
    Champlain—Foundation of Montreal—Emigration from France—The
    Carignan Regiment—DeCourcelle—Proposal to found a Fort at Lake
    Ontario—Frontenac—Fort at Cataraqui—La Salle—Fort at Niagara—First
    vessel upon the Lakes—Its fate—Death of La Salle, the first
    settler of Upper Canada—Founder of Louisiana—Discoverer of the
    mouth of the Mississippi.

There exists, as one characteristic of the nineteenth century, an
earnest desire on the part of many to recall, and, in mind, to live over
the days and years that are past; and many there are who occupy more or
less of their time in collecting the scattered relics of bygone days—in
searching among the faded records of departed years, to eagerly catch
the golden sands of facts which cling to legendary tales, and to
interpret the hieroglyphics which the footsteps of time have well-nigh
worn away. To this fact many a museum can bear ample testimony. The
antiquarian enjoys intense satisfaction in his labors of research, and
when he is rewarded by the discovery of something new, he is but
stimulated to renewed exertion. In the old world rich fields have been,
and are now being explored; and in the new laborers are not wanting.

Since the days when man first trod the virgin soil of this globe, he has
ever been accustomed to preserve the more important events of his life,
and, by tradition, to hand them down to his children’s children; and
likewise has it been with communities and nations. Every people who are
known to have occupied a place upon the earth, have left some indication
of their origin, and the part they played in the world’s great drama. In
recent days, facts pertaining to nations and particular individuals are
preserved in all their amplitude, through the agency of the Press. But
in former centuries, only a few symbols, perhaps rudely cut in solid
stone, commemorated events of the most important kind. The historians of
Eastern nations have had to look far back into the misty past, to learn
the facts of their birth and infant days; while the dark days of
barbarism hang as a thick veil to obstruct the view. The middle ages,
like a destructive flood, swept away, to a great extent, the records
previously in existence. But out of the _debris_ has been exhumed many a
precious relic; and the stone and the marble thus obtained, have
supplied valuable material on which to base trustworthy history.

In recording the events which belong to the Western world—this broad
American continent—the historian has far less of toil and research to
undergo. It is true the native Indian, who once proudly ruled the vast
extent of the new world, has a history yet undeveloped. An impenetrable
cloud obscures the facts appertaining to his advent upon this continent.
The nature of his origin is buried in the ocean of pre-historic time.
But in reference to the occupation of America by Europeans, the
subjugation and gradual extermination of the Indian, the life of the
pioneer, the struggles for political independence, the rapid growth and
development of nations; all these results, embraced within the space of
a few centuries, are freely accessible to the American historian.

The importance of history cannot be questioned; the light it affords is
always valuable, and, if studied aright, will supply the student with
material by which he may qualify himself for any position in public
life. In the following chapters it is intended to draw attention more
particularly to the new world, and to examine a few pages in the history
of North America.

In the absence of any data upon which to base statements relating to the
aborigines, we may say the history of the new world begins with the
memorable and enterprising adventures of Christopher Columbus, in 1492;
although there is evidence that America had been previously visited by
the people of Northern Europe, about the year 1000. The steady flow of
emigrants which commenced a century later, from the old world to the
new, of bold, energetic people, is a spectacle of grand import.

Almost every nation of Europe has contributed to the colonization of
America. All, however, were not at first actuated by the same motives in
braving the perils of the deep—then far greater than at the present day—
and the dangers of the wilderness. The Spaniards were searching for the
precious gold. The English desired to acquire territory; the Dutch
sought to extend their commerce; and the French, it is said, were, at
first, intent only on converting the pagan Indians to Christianity.—
(Garneau.) Space will not permit to trace the course of events in
connection with the first settlements in America; the history of the
several colonies, the bloody Indian wars, the contentions between the
different colonizing people, the rebellions of the colonies and their
achievement of independence. We shall mainly confine ourselves to those
events which led to, and accompanied the settlement of Upper Canada.

Canada, the coast of which was first discovered by John Cabot, in 1497,
is an honorable name, far more so than America. It has been a cause of
complaint with some that the United States should appropriate to their
exclusive use the name of America. But it is quite right they should
enjoy it. It is after a superficial impostor, Amerigo Vespucci, who
availed himself of the discoveries of Columbus, to vaunt himself into

The word Canada is most probably derived from an Iroquois word,
signifying Cabin. It has been stated on the authority of a Castilian
tradition, that the word was of Spanish origin. The Spaniards, looking
after gold, ascended the St. Lawrence, but failing to find the precious
metal, exclaimed “Aca nada,” (Here is nothing.) The natives hearing the
land thus called, when Europeans again visited them, upon being asked
the name of their country, replied “Canada,” in imitation of the
Spaniards. Again, Father Hennepin asserts that the Spaniards, upon
leaving the land, gave it the appellation “El Cape di nada,” (Cape
nothing,) which in time became changed into Canada. But Charlevoix, in
his “Histoire de la Nouvelle France,” says that Canada is derived from
the Iroquois word “Kannata,” pronounced Canada, which signifies “love of
cabins.” Duponcion, in the “Transactions of the Philosophical Society of
Philadelphia,” founds his belief of the Indian origin of the name
Canada, on the fact that, in the translation of the Gospel by St.
Matthew into the Mohawk tongue, by Brant, the word Canada is always made
to signify a village. Taking the whole matter into consideration, there
appears the best of reasons to conclude that Canada, a name now properly
bestowed upon the Dominion, is of Indian origin, and signifies the
country of a people who are accustomed to live in villages or permanent
cabins, instead of in tents and constantly changing from one place to

The history of French Canada is one of unusual interest—from the time
Jacques Cartier, in 1534, with two vessels of less than 60 tons burden
each, and 122 men in all, entered for the first time the Gulf of St.
Lawrence—up to the present day. It was not until the first decade of the
17th century, nearly a hundred years after Cartier first landed, that
successful colonization by the French was accomplished. Nevertheless,
Canada has as early a place among the colonies of America as New
Netherlands or Virginia, which are the oldest States of the neighboring
Union. Virginia was planted in 1608; New Netherlands (now New York,) was
not settled until 1614. Prior to that, in 1609, Hudson had ascended the
river now bearing his name, as far as the present site of Albany; but at
the same time the intrepid Champlain was traversing the wilds of the
more northern part of the territory to the south of Lake Ontario.

Although the history of New France is one of great interest, yet, in
this local history, space can only be allowed to glance at the course of
events in connection therewith. But French Canada is not in danger of
suffering for want of historians to pen the events of her life. Already
enthusiastic countrymen have done justice to the patriotism, valor and
ability of the Franco-Canadian race. And, at the present time, earnest
workers are in the field, searching among the records of the past,
stowed away in Paris, with the view of making known all that can be
learned of their sires. We find no fault with the intense love they bear
to their language, their laws, their religion, their institutions
generally. Such is characteristic of a high-spirited race; and, as
common Canadians we rejoice to have so devoted a people to lay with us
the foundation of our northern Dominion.

It has already been said that Jacques Cartier first landed in Canada in
1534. At this time the pent up millions of Europe, lying in a state of
semi-bondage, were prepared to strike off the chains which had hitherto
bound them, both in mind and body, to the select ones, who claimed that
prerogative, as of Divine origin, and to avail themselves of the vast
territory which Columbus had recovered from oblivion. Then was the
future pregnant with events of the most startling nature—events fraught
with interests of the most colossal magnitude. While America was to open
up a new field for active labor, wherein all might pluck wealth, the art
of printing, so soon to be in active operation, was to emancipate the
mind, and cast broadly the seeds of universal liberty. Already was being
broken the fallow ground, in the rich soil of which was to germinate the
great truths of science.

In May, 1535, Cartier set out on his second voyage to the New World, in
“La Grande Hermion,” a vessel of 110 tons, accompanied by two other
vessels of smaller size, with 110 men altogether. Reaching Labrador in
July, he on St. Laurence Day entered St. John’s River; and thus arose
the name of St. Lawrence, afterward applied to the mighty river now
bearing that name. Guided by two natives, Cartier ascended the St.
Lawrence as far as the Isle d’Orleans, where he was received by the
Indians in a friendly spirit. Cartier having determined to stay the
winter, moored his vessels in the St. Charles River, with the Indian
village of Stadaconé upon the heights above him. The same autumn he
ascended with a small party to visit Hochelaga, now Montreal. Here he
found a considerable village of fifty wooden dwellings, each fifty paces
long, and twelve and fifteen broad. This village was fortified. An aged
and withered chief accorded Cartier a distinguished reception; after
which Cartier ascended to the top of the mountain, to which he gave the
name Mont Real, or Royal Mount, a name subsequently given to the village
which has become the commercial capital of the Dominion, and which is
destined to rival even New York.

Cartier’s stay in Canada during the winter was attended with much
distress, and the loss by death of twenty-six of his men; while most of
the rest were almost dying, being, it is related, saved by the medical
skill of the natives. In the Spring he returned to France, carrying with
him several Indians. It was five years later before another visit was
made to Canada, owing to the civil and religious wars existing in
France. It was the cruel laws enacted and put in force at this time in
France that expatriated so many noble Huguenots who were dispersed
throughout Great Britain, Ireland, and afterward America, the blood of
whom yet flows in the veins of many of the descendants of the loyal
refugees from the rebelling States of America. In the Summer of 1541
Cartier again set sail for the St. Lawrence. He was to have been
accompanied by one Jean Francois de la Roque, a brave and faithful
servant of the king, to whom had been conceded the privilege of raising
a body of volunteers to form a permanent settlement upon the St.
Lawrence. But unforeseen difficulties prevented his sailing until the
following year. In the meantime Cartier, to whom had been given command,
with five ships, had, after a tedious passage, reached Canada, and
ascended to Quebec. The intending colonizers immediately went ashore and
commenced the work of clearing the land for cultivation. The winter was
passed in safety, but in the spring, tired of waiting for the Governor,
who ought to have followed him the year before, and discovering signs of
hostility on the part of the savages, he determined to return to France.
So he embarked all the men and set sail. Before he had reached the
Atlantic, however, he met la Roque, with some two hundred more
colonists, who desired Cartier to return, but he continued his course to
France. Jean Francois landed safely at Quebec. In the autumn he sent
home two vessels for provisions for the following year, while he
prepared to undergo the severity of the coming winter, a season that
brought severe trials, with the death of fifty of his men. The following
year he set out with seventy men to seek fresh discoveries up the river,
but he was unsuccessful. France, again immersed in war, paid no
attention to the request for succor in the New World, but ordered
Cartier to bring back the Governor, whose presence as a soldier was
desired. With him returned all the colonists. Thus the attempt to
establish a settlement upon the St. Lawrence failed, not, however,
through any want of courage, or ability on the part of Cartier, the
founder of Canada. The name thus immortalized and which disappeared from
the history of Canada for many years, again occupies a place. And, Sir
George Etienne Cartier, of to-day, although not a lineal descendant of
the first Cartier, holds a position of distinction; and, as one who has
assisted in effecting the Confederation of the provinces, his name will
ever stand identified, as his great predecessor and namesake, with the
history of our Canada.

In 1549, Jean Francois a second time, set out for Canada with his
brother, and others, but they all perished on the way. This disaster
prevented any further immediate attempt at settlement in Canada.

The commencement of the seventeenth century found France again in a
state suitable to encourage colonial enterprize, and she, in common with
other European nations was directing her attention to the yet unexplored
New World. At this time one Pont-Gravé, a merchant of St. Malo,
conceived the idea of establishing a fur trade between Canada and
France; and to this end he connected himself with one Chauvin, a person
of some influence at court, who succeeded in obtaining the appointment
of governor to Canada, with a monopoly of the peltry traffic. These two
adventurers, with a few men, set out for Canada, but arrived in a state
of destitution. Chauvin died, while the others were preserved alive by
the kindness of the natives. Chauvin was succeeded by De Chastes,
Governor of Dieppe; and Captain Samuel Champlain, who had distinguished
himself as a naval officer, was appointed to command an expedition about
to proceed to the New World.

The name of Champlain is indelibly fixed upon the pages of Canadian
history. It was he who traversed trackless forests, ascended the most
rapid rivers, discovered the Lake of Ontario, by way of Bay Quinté, and
gave his name to another lake. It was in 1603 that Champlain set out
upon his voyage. He had but three small vessels, it is said, of no more
than twelve or fifteen tons burden. He ascended as far as Sault St.
Louis, and made careful observations. He prepared a chart, with which he
returned to France. The king was well pleased with his report, and De
Chaste having died, Governor de Monts succeeded him, to whom was
granted, exclusively, the fur trade in Canada. But their operations were
confined, at first, to Acadia, now Nova Scotia. In 1607 De Monts
abandoned Acadia and directed his attention to Canada. Obtaining from
the king a renewal of his privileges, he appointed Champlain his
lieutenant, whom he despatched with two vessels. The party arrived at
Stadaconé, on the 3rd of July. The party commenced clearing land where
the lower town of Quebec now stands, and erected cabins in which to
live. Having determined to make this the head-quarters of his
establishment, he proceeded to build a fort. Thus was founded the
ancient capital of Canada upon the Gibraltar of America. The powers
granted to Champlain were ample, whereby he was enabled to maintain
order and enforce law. During the well nigh one hundred years that had
passed away since Cartier attempted to colonize, great changes, it would
seem, had taken place among the Indians. Altogether different tribes
occupied the Laurentian valley; and the former Indian villages of
Stadoconé, and Hochelaga had been entirely destroyed, Champlain found
the Indians of this place, the Algonquins, at enmity with other tribes
to the west, the Iroquois. The Algonquins were glad to form an alliance
with him against their long standing enemy. It suited the purpose of
Champlain to thus ally himself; but the policy may well be questioned;
at all events it inaugurated a long course of warfare between the French
and the Iroquois, which only terminated when Canada became a British
dependency. He, no doubt, was ignorant of the great power and
superiority of the confederated five nations which formed the Iroquois
people. The first encounter between Champlain and the Indians took place
the 29th of July, 1609, by the lake which now bears his name, which had
been known by the Indians as Lake Corlar. The Iroquois, who had never
before seen the use of fire-arms, were naturally overwhelmed with
surprise at this new mode of warfare, by which three of their chiefs
were suddenly stricken to the earth; and they beat a hasty retreat,
leaving their camp to the pillage of the enemy. The following year
Champlain again set out with his Indian allies, and a second time drove
them from the well contested field by the use of fire-arms. It was on
this occasion he first met the Hurons, which were to become such fast
allies, until almost exterminated. But the time came when the Iroquois,
supplied with arms and trained to their use, by the Dutch, became better
able to cope with the French. In 1612 Count de Soissons succeeded De
Monts. Champlain, who was again engaged in war, was at the same time
endeavoring to advance the peltry traffic, a trade that had many
vicissitudes, owing to the changing opinions at home, and the uncertain
support of merchants. He commenced the erection of a fort at Montreal,
and formed an alliance with the Huron Indians.

In the year 1615, the Iroquois were collected near the foot of Lake
Ontario, a body of water as yet unseen by Europeans. At the request of
the Indians, it has been said Champlain set out to attack them, after
having ascended the Ottawa. The course taken by him, and the disastrous
result are given in connection with the discovery of the Bay Quinté. The
year 1628 saw Canada, as well as the colony of Florida, pass under the
power of the “Company of the Hundred Partners.” The same year saw Quebec
in a state of great distress, the inhabitants almost starving, and a
fleet of British war vessels at the entrance of the St. Lawrence
demanding the surrender of the fort. War was then existing between
England and France, arising out of the intestine war of France, between
the Huguenots and the Catholics, which had resulted in the subjugation
of the former, many of whom had sought refuge in England and entered her
service. Two of the vessels now threatening French Canada were commanded
by Huguenots, one Captain Michel; the other David Kertk. The latter
demanded the surrender of Quebec, but Champlain concealed the great
straits to which he was reduced and bravely withstood the famine and
cold through the long winter, in the hopes of relief in the spring,
which was destined never to reach him. Instead of relief, the spring
brought three vessels of war, commanded by Kertk’s two brothers, Louis
and Thomas. The demand to surrender could no longer be refused, and upon
the 29th July, 1618, the English took possession of Quebec. Louis Kertk
became Governor, while Champlain accompanied Thomas Kertk to Europe.
Quebec remained in British possession until the treaty of
St-German-en-Laye, signed 29th March 1632, by which England renounced
all claims upon New France.

Quebec was governed by Louis Kertk during the three years it was in
possession of England, and he returned it to the French, it was alleged,
a heap of ruins. On the ensuing year, the “Hundred Partners” resumed
their sway, and Champlain was re-appointed Governor, who came with much
pomp and took possession of Fort St. Louis with the beating of drums.
Hereafter emigration from France was accelerated. Even some of the
higher classes sought in Canada, repose from the troubles incident to
religious and domestic war, although Catholics. The Jesuits were now
superseding the order of Recollets, and were earnestly seeking to
convert the Hurons; and at the same to secure their trusty allegiance.
For two years prosperity continued to smile upon the province, and in
1635 the Jesuits laid the foundation stone of the College of Quebec. But
the same year took from New France its chief and its greatest friend.
Champlain died on Christmas day in Quebec, after “thirty years of
untiring efforts to establish and extend the French possessions in
America.” This great discoverer, and founder of Quebec left no children,
his wife remained in Canada four years, when she returned to France.

Following the death of Champlain was the terrible onslaught by the
Iroquois upon the Hurons, whom they entirely destroyed as a nation,
leaving but a remnant under the protection of the French. In 1642 M. de
Maisonneuve laid the foundation of Montreal, the village consisting of a
few buildings with wooden palisades, was then called “Ville-Marie.”
Maisonneuve gathered here the converted Indians to teach them the art of

The successor to Champlain was M. de Chateaufort: but we cannot continue
to even sketch the history of the several Governors, and the successive
steps in Canadian development only so far as they bear upon our subject.

In 1663 the population along the St. Lawrence numbered to between 2,000
and 2,500. In 1665 the number was increased by emigration, and by the
arrival of the Carignan regiment, a veteran body of men who became
permanent settlers, and who aided much in controlling the Indians and
maintaining the power of the French. The same year live stock was
introduced, and horses for the first time were seen in Canada. About
this time commenced, in earnest, the struggle between England and France
for the supremacy of the fur trade. The viceroy, M. de Tracy, began to
erect regular forts upon the Richeleu. In 1671 there was a rendezvous of
Indian Chiefs at Sault St. Marie, and through the influence of Father
Allouez, the several tribes consented to become subjects of France. In
the same year M. de Courcelles, now Governor, in pursuance of the
attempt to govern the fur trade, conceived the idea of planting a fort
at the foot of Lake Ontario. But he left before the work had commenced,
and was succeeded by Louis de Buade, _Conte de_ Frontenac, after whom
the fort, subsequently erected, was called.

As the founder of the first settlement in Upper Canada, whose name is
now so familiar, as belonging to a County, we may make space to say of
Frontenac, that he was a gentleman of good birth, and had gained great
distinction, having attained to the rank of Brigadier-General. He was
somewhat proud and haughty, but condescending to his inferiors. His
instructions from his master, the King, on coming to the Canada, were to
secure the aggrandizement of France. Emigration in large numbers from
France having been forbidden, he was to seek the increase of numbers in
New France by stimulating early marriages. And to this day, the rate of
increase by birth, among the French, is considerably greater than with
the Anglo-Saxon.

He was to foster agriculture, the raising of stock, to increase the
fishing operations, and the trade abroad; and he was instructed to take
measures to construct a highway between Canada and Acadia, a plan which
is only now about to be accomplished in the Intercolonial Railroad.
Frontenac, likewise received very explicit instructions as to his
procedure towards the Jesuits and Recollects; and he was charged “to
administer justice with the strictest impartiality.” The Colony being at
peace, Frontenac’s principal difficulty was in dealing with the Church,
and he found it necessary to take high-handed steps to bring the Clergy
into subjection to the State. There had been for years a struggle with
respect to the liquor traffic among the Indians; the Bishops being
opposed to it, while the Governor favored it for the purpose of
furthering the trade in furs. The dissentions between parties became so
great, and representations to the home authorities became so frequent
and vexatious that Frontenac and the Intendant were both recalled in
1682. But during the incumbency of Frontenac, explorations had continued
in the west, and the fort at Cataraqui had been fully established; and
the Mississippi had been discovered by Pére Marquette and M. Joliet, in
1673. That same year Frontenac set out 29th of June, from Montreal, with
an expedition for Cataraqui, arriving there 12th July. There was at this
time one Robert Cavalier de la Salle, a native of Rouen, who had come to
Canada when a young man, full of a project for securing a road by a
northwestern passage to China. He was a man of ability and energy, but
without means. But he managed to obtain the favorable notice of Governor
Frontenac, who regarded him as a man after his own heart.

In the time of de Courcelles he opened a trading post near Montreal, now
Lachine, so called from La Salle’s belief that a pathway to China would
be found thence across the Continent by the waters of the Ottawa or
Upper Lakes. The discovery of the Mississippi caused no little sensation
in Canada; and La Salle lost no time in asking permission and assistance
to continue the western explorations, declaring his belief that the
upper waters of the Mississippi would, if followed to their source, lead
to the Pacific Ocean. He consequently submitted a petition for a certain
grant of land at Cataraqui to the king, Louis X. (See under history of

Thus it seems that La Salle, a name greatly distinguished in connection
with the discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi, stands connected
very intimately with the foundation of Kingston. For him a Seigniory was
here erected, and from this point he went forth on his eventful voyage.
He was a man of much energy and lost no time in setting out. His boats
laden with goods, and likewise with material for constructing a
brigantine, and a fort, set sail for the Niagara River. The first steps
La Salle prepared to take was to erect a second fort at Niagara, and
then to build his vessel upon the waters of Lake Erie.

The construction of the defensive work of the fort, however, suited not
the views of the Indians, so he satisfied himself with a palisaded
storehouse. In the winter the vessel was commenced, six miles above the
Falls. By the middle of summer it was ready to be launched, which was
done with a salute of cannon, and the chanting of a Te deum, amid great
rejoicing. There was also great demonstration among the Indians, who
designated the French “Otkou,” or “men of a contriving mind.” The vessel
was named _Griffon_, and on the 7th August, 1679, with seven guns, and
small arms, and loaded with goods she entered Lake Erie. A few day’s
sail and Detroit, or the strait was reached; and on the 23rd August, she
was cutting the waters of Lake Huron. In five days Michilmicinac was
gained; then the voyageur proceeded to the western shore of Michigan,
where he cast anchor. The wonder of the Aborigines, as they witnessed
this mounted craft, and heard the thunder tones of the cannon, may be
conceived. But this first vessel upon the western lakes, which had at
first so prosperous a voyage, was doomed to early destruction. Men of
enterprise and success invariably have to encounter enemies born of
incapacity and jealousy, who in the absence of the victim, may sow the
seeds of evil. La Salle had not a few of such enemies, it would seem, to
encounter. After his departure his creditors had seized his possessions,
and he, as soon as he heard of it, loaded the _Griffon_ with peltries
and despatched her for Niagara. But the _Griffon_ never reached Detroit,
the waters of Lake Huron swallowed her up, and all on board. La Salle
proceeded with thirty men to the lower end of Lake Michigan, and laid
the foundation of another fort. He then continued westward to the
Illinois River, and formed still another fort. But this chain of forts
thus established by La Salle, was not destined to accomplish the great
end aimed at. Among the opponents of La Salle, were not only those
jealous of his success, but likewise rival merchants, who were ill
pleased to see the fur trade monopolized by one; and then, there was the
growing trade by the English. These many obstacles and the loss of his
vessel with its cargo, and of a second one, in the Gulph of St.
Lawrence, about this time, valued at £22,000, had the effect of
seriously crippling him; yet his was a nature not easily overcome.
Leaving Father Hennepin to explore the Illinois River and the Upper
Mississippi, he set out March 2nd, 1680, for Montreal, accompanied by
four whites and an Indian guide.

Two years later and the indomitable La Salle, nothing daunted, who had
compounded with his creditors, and suffered repeated disappointments, is
found traversing the forest, for the Mississippi, to descend that stream
to its mouth. He reached the Mississippi, 6th February, 1682. Descending
the stream he stopped at the mouth of the Ohio to erect a fort. He then
continued his easy course down the Father of rivers, and reached its
mouth on the 5th April, and took formal possession of the territory in
the name of the king, calling the place after him, Louisiana. The glory
thus won by La Salle, was not to be crowned with the success,
financially, that ought to have followed. At this juncture Governor
Frontenac, seemingly the only friend La Salle had, was called home to be
followed by M. de la Barre. A continuation of the persecutions and
misrepresentations of his conduct, led to the sequestration of Fort
Frontenac, as well as Fort St. Louis, and in the following year he was
called upon to defend himself at court, which he was able to do. The
result was an order to reinstate the founder of Louisiana on his return,
in Fort Frontenac, and to repair all damages which his property had
sustained in that locality.

La Salle was graciously received by the king on account of his discovery
of the mouth of the Mississippi, and was commissioned to begin a
colonization of Louisiana. The same unfortunate luck continued to attend
him. He sailed July 24th, 1684, from La Rochelle with two ships of war
and two other vessels, having some 500 persons in all. The fleet was
commanded by M. de Beaujeu. Between the commander and La Salle, a
misunderstanding arose which ended in decided aversion. One of the ships
was captured by the Spaniards, and the others overpassed the mouth of
the Mississippi by many leagues. The commander instead of assisting to
carry out La Salle’s object, did all he could to thwart him. One of the
vessels was run upon the reefs and lost. Finally Beaujeu left La Salle
with his people upon a desert shore without provision, and put out to
sea. Although 120 leagues distant from the Mississippi, in Texas, La
Salle set some of his people to cultivate the land, and began to
construct a fort. But the craftsmen were deficient. The seed sown did
not grow, the savages became troublesome, and one evil after another
rapidly succeeded until his men were mostly all dead. As a last resort
La Salle determined to set out for Canada to proceed to France. It was
early spring and the indomitable discoverer found but slow progress; at
last some of those accompanying him, mutinied together and resorted to
force, during which La Salle was mortally wounded. Thus perished the
discoverer of the mouth of the Mississippi, the founder of Louisiana, as
well as the first land owner of Upper Canada. It is worthy of note here
how great was the territory of France in America at this time. It was a
vast region, embracing within its limits the Hudson’s Bay territory,
Acadia, Canada, a great part of Maine, portions of the States of Vermont
and New York, with the whole of the valley of the Mississippi. And a
great portion of this ought, to-day, to form part of Canada, some of
which would, were it not for the indifference, or stupidity of English
commissioners, and the contemptible trickery of Americans, such as the
act of concealing the fact of the existence of a certain map by Daniel
Webster, which would prove adverse to his pretentions.

It has been deemed appropriate to follow La Salle in his steps, not
alone because he was the first settler in Upper Canada, who held land
property; but because we learn of the way in which the French,
originally struggling to gain a footing in the Lower St. Lawrence,
gradually extended westward, carrying in one hand the Cross, and with
the other, planting forts for the purpose of trade, and erecting such
defences as the uncertain character of the natives rendered necessary.
We learn how it came, that fort after fort, whose ruins may yet be
traced across the continent, were planted along a route which commenced
at the mouth of the mighty St. Lawrence, extended along the western
lakes, and then turning southward terminated at the mouth of the
majestic Mississippi.



                              CHAPTER II.

  CONTENTS—Cataraqui fort strengthened—Kente Indians seized and
    carried captive to France—Massacre of Lachine—Commencing struggle
    between New England and New France—Siege of Quebec by Sir Wm.
    Phipps—Destruction of Fort Cataraqui—Its re-erection—Treaty of
    Ryswick—Death of Frontenac—Iroquois in England—Another attempt to
    capture Quebec—Decline of French power—Population of Canada and of
    New England—Continuation of the contest for the fur trade—Taking
    of Fort Louisburg—Col. Washington, dishonorable conduct—
    Inconsistency of Dr. Franklin—Commencement of seven years’ war—
    Close of first year—Montcalm—His presentiment—Taking of Fort
    Oswego—Of Fort William Henry—Fearful massacre—The state of Canada—
    Wolfe appears—Taking of Frontenac—Duquesne—Apathy of France—The
    spring of 1759—Reduced state of Canada—The overthrow of French
    power in America—The result—Union of elements—The capture of
    Quebec—Wolfe—Death of Montcalm—Fort Niagara—Johnson—Effort to
    retake Quebec—Wreck of the French army—Capitulation at Montreal—
    Population—The first British Governor of Canada—The Canadians as
    British subjects—The result of French enterprise—Rebellion.

In 1685 Marquis DeNonville became Governor, and brought with him to
Canada 600 regular troops. The Iroquois had become allies of the
English, with whom they preferred to trade. DeNonville ascended to
Cataraqui with two thousand men. Arrived at Cataraqui, he tried, by
gentle means at first, to obtain certain terms from them, but the
Iroquois were insolent, being supported by the English traders.
DeNonville wrote to Paris for more troops, and, in the mean time,
proceeded to accumulate stores at Cataraqui, and to strengthen the fort
at Niagara. The King sent to Canada, in 1687, 800 soldiers, to assist in
subduing the Iroquois. DeNonville becoming bold, and in his increased
strength, pursued a course of trickery which has been branded by all
writers as anti-Christian, and more savage than anything pertaining to
the savages (so-called) of America. Pére Lamberville, a missionary among
the Iroquois, caused a certain number of chiefs to congregate at Fort
Frontenac, to confer with the governor, and when they were within the
precincts of the fort they were seized and carried captive in chains,
even to France, and there sent to the galleys. Draper says that these
were Indians of the tribes called Ganneyouses and Kentes, and that about
40 or 50 men, and 80 women and children were seized, who were forwarded
to France. The attitude of the Indians under such trying circumstances,
towards the missionary among them, stands out in prominent contrast to
the vile conduct of the French governor. The missionary, summoned by the
chief, was thus addressed: “We have every right to treat thee as our
foe, but we have not the inclination to do so. We know thy nature too
well; thine heart has had no share in causing the wrong that has been
done to us. We are not so unjust as to punish thee for a crime that thou
abhorrest as much as we.” Then the aged chief informed him that the
young men of the tribe might not feel so lenient, and that he must
leave, at the same time causing him to be conducted by a safe path from
their midst.

For a time DeNonville somewhat curbed the Iroquois; but in the end he
failed completely to hold the ground which had previously been acquired.
For four years he continued to govern; matters continually growing
worse, until, in the spring of 1689, 1,400 Iroquois made an onslaught on
the island of Montreal. The inhabitants, in the depth of sleep, knew
nothing of their danger, until the fearful whoop and the bloody tomahawk
and scalping knife were already at work. The butchery was most fearful;
the cruelties to women and children most revolting. Besides those
instantly killed, 200 were burnt alive, and others died under prolonged
torture. This was called the massacre of Lachine. The governor was
paralyzed, and no step was taken to redress the great evil.

It was under such circumstances that he was recalled, and superseded by
De Frontenac, who had again been requested to become governor. Frontenac
landed at Quebec on the 18th October, 1689, and was received with every
demonstration of joy.

Frontenac entered upon his duties shortly before the renewal of
hostilities between England and France. All of Protestant Europe,
indeed, were enlisted in the war which had, to a great extent, arisen
from the cruel course pursued by France towards the Huguenots.
Frontenac, whose master foresaw the war, which was declared in the
following year, brought with him full instructions to prepare for a
vigorous warfare all along the frontier of New France, even to the
Hudson Bay territory. By this time the English settlements upon the
Atlantic coast had attained to no inconsiderable strength, and were
already engaging in trade by water, as well as with the Indians in
peltries; and already it had become a question of conquest by New
England or by New France. The present juncture seemed one favorable for
bold measures on the part of the Anglo-Americans. They had rapidly
advanced in material strength, while the French had rather declined,
owing to the want of immigration and to the frequent destructive
incursions of the Iroquois. The declaration of war between England and
France, in June, 1689, saw the colonists prepared to contest the ground
for supremacy, and monopoly of the fur trade. The French,
notwithstanding their limited numerical strength, hesitated not to enter
the field, and made up their want of numbers by superior and determined
bravery. Before De Frontenac had arrived, everything was going on badly
with the Canadians. M. DeNonville had, before his departure, instructed
Senor de Valreuve, commandant at Cataraqui, to blow up the fort, which
had been accordingly done; and the country abandoned to the Indians, who
now ranged the country, to the very entrance of Montreal. But Frontenac
determined to take bold and active measures to carry the war into the
enemies’ country, notwithstanding the odds against the French. Organized
plans of attack, at different points, were arranged, one of which, in
its carrying out, was quite as cruel and barbarous as the Lachine
massacre, which it was intended, as afterwards stated, it should
revenge. A party of French and Indians were led in the direction of
Albany. On their way, one night, about eleven o’clock, they attacked the
sleeping town of Schenectady, and put the defenceless inhabitants to the
sword. Those acts cannot be justified in Europeans, and show the fearful
spirit of barbarity which reigned in those early days of America. The
effect produced by the bands of raiders that swept over the British
colonies along the frontier, and here and there, into the very interior,
was salutary to the French interests, and the spring saw the French flag
much more respected by the Indians than it had lately been: yet the
Iroquois earnestly and boldly strove to carry death to the door of every
Canadian hamlet. The energetic measures adopted by Frontenac frustrated
all their attempts; yet it was unsafe for the husbandman to go to the
field, so that famine began to appear. The spring of 1691 saw, however,
instead of a repeated invasion of New England, extensive preparations in
the latter country to invade Canada. Sir William Phipps was preparing to
sail from Boston, with a squadron, to capture Quebec, and General
Winthrop, with forces from Connecticut and New York, was mustering his
militia, to invade by land. The latter marched to, and encamped upon,
the banks of Lake George, where he waited for the appearance of Phipps,
by the St. Lawrence; but, in the meantime, disease attacked his troops,
and he was obliged to retrace his steps to Albany. Scarcely had Winthrop
departed when the fleet under Phipps entered the waters of the St.
Lawrence, and ascended, to invest the City of Quebec, appearing in sight
on the 16th of October. Phipps demanded a surrender; but Frontenac,
although with an inferior garrison and but few troops, gave a spirited
refusal; and ultimately, before the close of the month, Phipps found it
expedient to retire. Thus terminated the first siege of Quebec.

The ensuing four years presented one continuous scene of border warfare.
While hostilities in Europe were exhausting the resources of France,
Canada, under Frontenac, was more than holding its own. The British
Americans vainly tried again to besiege Quebec, making an attack by
land; but each attempt was attended with disaster. Frontenac,
recognizing the importance of Cataraqui as a place of defence, sent 700
men to re-erect the fort. In this he was opposed by the Intendant, M. de
Champigny, and even by the home government; but he had the work
completed in 1695, before orders came to abstain from erecting it.
Frontenac had submitted a report giving the reasons why the fort should
exist, namely: in time of peace for trade, and to repair hatchets and
arms; and in time of war to afford a place of retreat, and to give
succor and provisions; also a place to organize expeditions against the
Iroquois, and to receive the sick and wounded on returning from
expeditions. On the other hand, De Champigny reported that the trade
would not be much in time of peace, as the Iroquois would prefer to deal
with the English, who would give more; that the Indian should carry the
beaver skin to the French, not the French go for it; that the fort was
out of the direct course of trade, some thirty or forty leagues; that
the force necessary to carry provisions would at any time be capable of
proceeding against the enemy. It would be better to take a more
southerly course from Montreal into the enemy’s country, while Cataraqui
is situated upon the opposite side of the lake; that it was an unfit
place for sick and wounded, being “very unhealthy, eighty-seven having
died there in one year, out of the hundred who composed the garrison.”
“The swamp poisons the garrison,” which is so situated that it affords
no protection except to the men within it, who might as well be in a
prison. He counselled that the fort should be abandoned, as it was
useless and expensive. Frontenac, however, having erected the fort,
garrisoned it with 48 soldiers. The expense of re-establishing the fort
and supplying the necessary provisions cost some £700. At this juncture
the French had entertained the idea of calling in the outposts along the
western lakes and upon the Mississippi, but it was represented that to
do so was to open the way for the exclusive trade of the Indians with
the English. But Frontenac advised no such measures. He, by his
determined bravery, succeeded in bringing the Iroquois to respect the
French name, and he often carried fire and death into their very
country. When the war terminated, the old boundaries of the Provinces
had been fully re-established, and honors were conferred upon the
governor by his royal master. In 1697 the war terminated by the treaty
of Ryswick, signed September 11, by which the French were to restore all
places taken from the British in America; and it was stipulated that a
commission should be appointed to determine the respective boundaries of
the Provinces.

In the year 1698, on the 28th November, Count de Frontenac died, aged
77, much beloved by the Canadians, after having raised New France from a
low condition to a high state of material advancement. But against him
was too truly said that he encouraged the dreadful traffic of liquor
among the Indians, in order that advantageous trading, in which the
governor allowed himself to meddle, might be carried on.

On 26th May, 1703, M. de Calliére, who had been the successor of
Frontenac, died, and the governor of Montreal, who was the Marquis de
Vaudreuil, was nominated as successor.

This appointment, made at the instance of the colonists, was conferred
with hesitancy, the reason being that his Countess was a native-born
Canadian! Not only in that day but in later days, and under other
circumstances, we have seen the belief obtaining that natives of Canada
must, from the nature of their birth-place, lack those qualifications
for distinguished positions with which those from home are supposed to
be so eminently endowed.

The British Colonists by this time began to entertain desires to conquer
Canada, and steps were taken to accomplish the taking of Quebec. Among
those who took an active part, by raising provincial troops, and in
visiting England to obtain assistance, was General Nicholson, whose
descendants to this day live in the vicinity of the Bay Quinté, and in
the Lower Provinces. In 1710 he visited England, in company with five
Iroquois chiefs, who were presented to Queen Anne, and who received
distinguished attention, being conveyed to the palace in royal coaches.
It was following this that the Queen presented those interesting pieces
of Communion plate to the five nations, part of which may be seen at
Tyendinagua, and part at the Grand River. A futile attempt was made by
Nicholson, with a fleet under Admiral Walker, in 1711, to take Quebec.
The whole enterprise not only failed but was attended with great
disaster. General Nicholson, with his army at Lake Champlain, had to
give up his desire to capture Montreal and Quebec.

On March 30, 1713, was signed the treaty of Utrecht. In this treaty
abridgement of French territory in America was effected. Acadia,
Hudson’s Bay territory and Newfoundland were ceded to Britain. French
power was on the decline both in America, and Europe. Vainly the French
tried to regain what they had lost in Newfoundland and Acadia, by
founding an establishment at Cape Breton, and in the foundation of the
historic fort of Louisburg.

In 1714 Governor Vaudreuil went to France, where he remained until
September, 1716. He then returned to Canada, and set about improving the
state of affairs generally. Quebec, at the present day such an
impregnable fortress, was not, in any respect, regularly fortified
before the beginning of this century. To the natural strength of the
place was first added artificial aid, in 1702. To this again were added,
in 1712, other defences, and in 1720, by the approval of the home
government, the fortification was systematically proceeded with. At this
time the colony was divided into three distinct governments, those of
Quebec, Three Rivers, and Montreal; and the whole was subdivided into
eighty-two parishes. The whole population was estimated at 25,000;
whilst at the same time the British colonies had 60,000 males able to
bear arms. The governor, aware of this, already began to fear a
successful invasion of Canada.

M. de Vaudreuil died October 10, 1725, having been governor twenty-one
years. He was succeeded by the Marquis de Beauharnois, who arrived at
Quebec in 1726. The contest for the supremacy of the fur trade
continued. The British seeing the advantage of the line of forts held by
the French determined to erect a fort also, and selected the mouth of
the Oswego for its site. As an offset to this aggression on the part of
the British, against which the French vainly protested, the French fort
at the mouth of the Niagara was erected, with defences; and orders were
given that a stone fort should replace the one originally constructed of
wood, at Cataraqui. In 1731, Fort Frederick was also erected, at Crown
Point, on Lake Champlain. This year, Varrennes, Sieur de la Vérendrye,
urged by the governor, set about to discover a route to the Pacific
ocean; but he only reached the foot of the Rocky Mountains, being the
first white man to discover them. About this time the fort at Toronto
(Lake) is, for the first time, referred to. For more than a decade the
strife for the peltry traffic continued to be waged, yet without any
actual warfare. It was seen by all that peace could not continue, and
New England and New France were all the time anticipating the conflict.
In 1745 war broke out in Europe, and immediately extended to America. It
will be remembered that the French were dispossessed of Acadia, but had
subsequently erected a fort upon Cape Breton, Louisburg. From this naval
stronghold they were able to send privateers and men-of-war. The
English, in the meantime, seeing this evil, and that this was a
protection to the only entrance to French territory, determined to
possess it promptly, if it were possible. To carry out this project,
which originated with Governor Shirley, of Massachusetts, 4,000 militia,
levied in Mass., New Hampshire, Maine, and Connecticut, under Colonel
Pepperel, sailed from Boston in March. The attack upon this strong fort
was so well planned and carried out, that full success was the result.
Admiral Warren arrived with ships to give assistance, and captured a
French ship of 64 guns, with 560 soldiers and supplies. Already the
Anglo-Americans were beginning to display the energy (derived from an
energetic race) which was to overturn British domination in the Atlantic
States. But in the first place it was necessary that England should
extinguish French power. The brilliant nature of the attack and taking
of Fort Louisburg was recognized by the granting of baronetcies to
Governor Shirley and Colonel Pepperel. This success hastened the
determination to conquer Canada—a desire already existing in the hearts
of the Anglo-Americans; and Governor Shirley applied to the British
government for regulars and a fleet for that purpose. Meanwhile, a
fleet, with several thousand troops, sailed from France, with a view of
re-taking Cape Breton and Acadia; but tempest and disease destroyed the
force, until it was no longer able to invade.

From the year 1745 border warfare continually blazed along the frontier.
The French, with their savage allies, carried the scalping-knife and the
torch into the British settlements, captured Fort Massachusetts and Fort
Bridgman, and gained other victories, and the luckless settlers had to
seek safety in the more largely-settled parts of the country.

Again came temporary peace to the colonists. In 1748, upon the 7th of
October, the treaty was signed at Aix-la-Chapelles, by the terms of
which Cape Breton reverted to the French. This treaty was, however, but
a lull in the struggle in America, which was destined to end in

The French continued to strengthen their outposts. Detroit was
garrisoned, and forts of stone were built at Green Bay, Toronto, and La
Présentation. In 1756, Fort Duquesne, at Pittsburgh, was established. It
was in this year that Washington first came before the public as an
actor. He led a considerable force to the west, with the view of
destroying Fort Duquesne, and encountered a small body of French. The
man who subsequently became a hero by concurring events, as well as by
his own energy, did not, on this occasion—if we may credit history—act a
very honorable part. Informed of the camping ground of the enemy, he
marched all night, to attack them in the morning. Junonville, the
commander, when aware of the proximity of Washington, made known to him
by a trumpeter that he had a letter to deliver, and when Junonville had
begun to read his letter firing was suddenly re-commenced. The painters
of Washington’s character have tried to cover this stain; but unbiassed
recorders think he was by no means blameless. But Washington’s
humiliation rapidly followed this unmanly procedure. The main force of
the French, hearing of the massacre by Washington, advanced to revenge
it; and, attacking him in his own chosen position, succeeded, after ten
hours’ fighting with muskets alone, against cannon, in driving
Washington from his position, and compelled him to make an inglorious

At the beginning of 1755, England sent out additional soldiers and means
of war, and appointed General Braddock, who had distinguished himself as
a soldier, to act as military chief.

At this time, “Dr. Franklin estimated the whole English provincials at a
total of 1,200,000; whilst the whole number of people in Canada, Cape
Breton, Louisiana, &c., was under 80,000 souls.”—(_Garneau._) At the
same time France was weak, by the presence of an indolent King, who
allowed himself and kingdom to be governed by a courtesan, Madame de
Pompadour. Religious dissensions and stagnation of trade, all
contributed to place France in but a poor position to engage in war.
Great Britain, on the contrary, was in all respects prosperous. At such
a favorable time it was that the Anglo-Americans urged the mother
country to carry on, with the utmost rigor, a war for the subjugation of
Canada. Franklin, as astute a politician as clever in science, was their
principal mouthpiece. He who, twenty-five years thereafter, repaired to
Paris, to arouse the public feeling of France and entire Europe against
Britain; the same who came to Canada to revolutionize it in 1776, was,
in 1754, the greatest promoter of the coming invasion of the French
possessions in North America. “There need never be permanent repose
expected for our thirteen colonies,” urged he, “so long as the French
are masters of Canada.” Thus was inaugurated what is known as the seven
years’ war.

The respective combatants marshalled their forces for the conflict. The
French, nothing daunted, took energetic measures to repel the foe, and
strike blows here and there, as opportunity afforded. A force was sent
to take Fort Oswego from the English, while Johnson, a name to be
mentioned hereafter, was despatched to attack Fort Frederick. The first
great battle was fought in the Ohio valley, by General Braddock. Here
the French gained a signal victory, with but a few men, and utterly put
to rout their enemy. At Fort Edward, the French, under General Dieskau,
were less successful in an encounter with Johnson, the French commander
being taken prisoner.

The close of the first year saw Forts Frederick, Niagara and Duquesne,
still in the hands of the French, while bands of savages and Canadians
traversed the British settlements, massacring and burning all before

The ensuing year witnessed more elaborate arrangements to continue the
war. France sent to Canada soldiers, provisions, war material and money;
and, also, the Marquis de Montcalm was selected to take charge of the
army. Montcalm had seen service, and with him came other officers
likewise experienced.

Proceeding to Montreal, he conferred with the Governor, and it was
determined to form two principal camps, one at Ticonderoga, the other at
Frontenac, and a battalion was despatched to Niagara.

The British, at the same time, made extensive preparations, both in the
colonies and at home, and the Earl of London was appointed

It is a remarkable fact that Montcalm had from the first a fatal
presentiment as to the issue of the war; yet he, all the same, took
every step that prudence and energy directed, to secure the success of
his army. There was also a coolness between him and the Governor, who
manifested a determination and energy worthy of him. It was determined
that fresh attempts should be made to possess Fort Oswego, and General
Montcalm arrived at Frontenac for that purpose on the 29th of July. Upon
the 11th August they reached Oswego and invested the Fort, which was
obliged to surrender on the 14th, the commander, Colonel Mercer, having
been killed. The Fort was razed to the ground. The Canadians then
withdrew to their homes carrying the prisoners of war, and the guns of
the Fort, and provisions with them. This was the principal event of this
year. The winter saw the Canadians suffer from famine and small-pox.
During the winter 1757–8, there was continued hostility, and in the
following year Montcalm succeeded in taking Fort William Henry, after a
siege of four days. Colonel Munroe commanded the Fort, and he trusted
for support to General Webb, who failed to afford it, but instead sent a
message to Munroe to retire, which note fell into the hands of Montcalm.
Munroe on the morning of the 9th, displayed his flag of truce. The
events of this capitulation have ever been held in remembrance, because
of the fearful massacre which the Indians made of the English, who had
surrendered, and who marched out without their arms, in full confidence
in the integrity of the victorious besiegers. Stern history has cast no
little blame upon Montcalm, for at least remissness of duty; and the pen
of historic fiction has found it a fruitful theme with which to weave a
story, and record thrilling events.

The ensuing winter was one of great privation to the Canadians, the
harvest had failed; and everything began to look dark indeed for the
devoted French; yet four years of war had given all the advantage to
their arms. The continued ill-success of the British, caused them to
raise increased numbers of men, so that by numerical force they might
overwhelm the French. In the spring of 1758, 80,000 British combatants
were ready to march. While such was the condition and war-like spirit
which obtained upon the British side, a far different state of affairs
existed with the French. Success had so far attended the gallant feats
undertaken by them. All along the lengthened border the foe had been
defeated, or had gained but scant victory. Again, the Iroquois nation,
impressed with the success thus obtained by the French, and gratified to
have the Fort of Oswego, always unpleasant to them, destroyed, seemed
inclined to take sides with them, certainly did not favor the English.
But, when so much has been said the extent of French power in America
has been stated. Canada was no longer receiving support from France. The
colonists had been weakened by continual warfare and repeated

But undeterred by the dark clouds that continued to thicken, the
Canadians buckled on their armor to fight till the very last. Says
Montcalm to the Minister at home, “We shall fight and we shall bury
ourselves, if need be, under the ruins of the colony.” Again the tide of
war ebbed and flowed with fearful power. Carillon was made red with
British blood, as vain endeavors were made to capture that French strong
hold. Against Louisburg, Cape Breton, Carillon, Lake Champlain, and
Duquesne in the Ohio Valley, the English arrayed their fleets and
armies. In the attack now made upon Louisburg, for the first time
appears the name of Wolfe, who distinguished himself by scaling a rock,
with a hundred men, which had hitherto been regarded unaccessible. After
a spirited defence, the French surrendered the Fort, a perfect wreck,
July 26. About this time Cape Breton passed into British hands, and thus
was opened to the English, the Fort of Quebec.

In the mean time the attack upon Fort Carillon by General Abercromby,
with a strong army, had proved a complete failure. The French, although
few, desperately met the repeated assaults made during half a day, and
Abercromby, cut up and ashamed, was forced to relinquish the matter.
This battle was fought July 8th, in which 3,600 men struggled
successfully for six hours against 15,000 picked soldiers. (_Garneau._)
De Lévis, who had been in command at Fort Frontenac, was called by
Montcalm to take part in the defence of Carillon. This left Fort
Frontenac comparatively weak, and Abercromby, having learned the fact,
despatched Colonel Bradstreet, who had taken an active part in the
battle, to capture the Fort. Bradstreet set out with 3,000 men, 11 guns
and mortars. The invading force reached its destination August 25. The
Fort had been left with 70 men under the command of M. de Noyan,
notwithstanding, the Fort was bravely defended for a time. “The victors
captured many cannons, quantities of small arms, boats of provisions and
nine newly armed barques,—part of the trophies brought from Oswego when
captured. After loading his barges to the waters-edge, Bradstreet
released his prisoners on parole, burnt the Fort, also seven of the
barks, and returned to his country.” (_Garneau._) This was a severe blow
to the struggling Canadians. The Governor had ordered the farmers from
the field, and all the savages he could command, to march to the
assistance of Fort Frontenac; but when the party reached Fort
Présentation, (Ogdensburg), it was learned that Frontenac was already
destroyed. To add to the misfortune of the French, the same autumn,
General Forbes, notwithstanding a part of his force had been previously
defeated, secured the destruction of Fort Duquesne on the Ohio. This
closed the engagements for the year 1748, and everything looked for the
French, most discouraging. The winter was spent by the English in
preparing for a still more determined continuation of the war; while the
French wasted their energies in domestic dissention. The Governor M. de
Vaudreuil and Montcalm ceased not to quarrel, and to charge each other
with incompetency, and even crimes. At the same time the means of the
country was absorbed by unpatriotic merchants, who availed themselves of
the circumstances of the country to amass fortunes by illegal traffic in
furs with the Indians.

The Government at home, although informed by Montcalm that Canada would
be conquered if help were not sent, took no step to assist the devoted
Colonists, who, although disheartened were not disposed to surrender
allegiance to their native country, even when all but forsaken. The
spring of 1759 beheld them standing to their arms with calm
determination, awaiting the onset of the foe. The British as in previous
years prepared to invade Canada simultaneously at three different
points. There was no fortress in the Lower St. Lawrence to obstruct
their advance by water, so Quebec was the point at which, to the east,
the attack would be made. A corps of 10,000 men commanded by General
Wolfe, who we have seen, distinguished himself at the taking of
Louisburg, prepared to ascend the St. Lawrence to invest the capital.
Another force 12,000 strong under General Amherst, a name we shall have
to speak of hereafter, was to pass by Lake Champlain to descend the
Richeleu and to join Wolfe at Quebec. And a third force, under General
Prideaux, with savages under Sir William Johnson, were to possess Fort
Niagara, and then descend to the capture of Montreal. Opposed to the
numerous and well appointed armies of invasion, there was, according to
Garneau, all in all of Frenchmen, between the ages of 16 and 60, capable
of bearing arms, but a little over 15,000. In the early spring, one M.
de Corbiere, ascended with the view of rebuilding Fort Frontenac. 300
men were also sent to repair and defend Niagara. But it soon was deemed
expedient to recall them and to concentrate their forces. Every man from
even the more remote parts, presented himself to the nearest place of
rendezvous. In the latter part of May, word came that the enemies’ ships
were coming.

The events connected with the overthrow of French supremacy in Canada
cannot fail to impress the student of Canadian history.

The capture of Quebec, and, as an inevitable result, the conquest of
Canada are events of great interest; but the space cannot be allowed
here to more than refer to the thrilling scenes of valor displayed by
the victors and the vanquished. As Canadians of British origin we
recognize the event as one not to be deplored, however Franco-Canadians
may regard the question. The conquest of Canada, was to add a new
element to that of the British American which was destined to grow, and
to act no mean part in respect to British interests in America, and we
believe, ultimately to completely amalgamate with a portion of the older
elements, and thus to beget a race, under Confederation, none the less
noble, none the less stable, and none the less glorious, than that race
(a prototype of this)—the Original Anglo-Saxon derived from the Norman,
who came to England with William the Conqueror, as well as the Saxon

More than a hundred years have passed away since the fall of Quebec. The
centenary anniversary of the event has been celebrated with an amount of
enthusiasm which probably Quebec never witnessed before. Since the
American Revolution, when the French Canadians fought by the side of the
American Loyalist to defend Quebec, the former have ceased to be a
conquered people—Sequestrated from France, they have escaped all the
horrors which have since swept over that people, while they have
retained their language, religion, and laws. A hundred years has
eradicated or rather changed all the feelings which burned so fervently
in the French Canadian heart, except their love of Canada; and they have
joined heartily with the Anglo-Saxon to erect a joint monument which
commemorates at once the heroism of Wolfe, and the gallantry of

Although the forces invading under Wolfe, exceeded in number those who
defended the citadel, yet, the greatest heroism was displayed in its
taking. The British fleet of “20 ships of the line with frigates and
smaller war vessels,” and transports, reached the Isle of Orleans, June
25, where the land force disembarked and proceeded deliberately to
invest the stronghold, finding a more difficult task than had been
expected. Repeated attempts and assaults were made with the result of
showing Wolfe how strong was the position his youthful ardor would fain
secure. Not alone was he baffled thus, but a severe illness prostrated
him to death’s door, whose portals were so soon to be opened to him, by
another means. In his moments of discouragement he had written home in a
spirit not calculated to afford hope. The plan which resulted in
success, it is said was suggested by his three faithful Generals,
Monkton, Townshend and Murray.

The night before the 13th of September, 1759, the day upon which Wolfe
was to win imperishable laurels, and to lay down his life, he felt a
presentiment that his end was near, and carefully arranged all his
worldly affairs. On the evening of the 12th he invited Captain John
Davis (afterwards Admiral, Earl St. Vincent), of the _Porcupine_ sloop
of war, to spend an hour or two on board the _Sutherland_. “Wolfe, in
the course of their conversation, said that he knew he should not
survive the morrow; and when they were about to separate, he took from
his bosom the picture of Louther and delivered it into the hands of his
friend, whom he requested, should his foreboding be fulfilled, to
restore the pledge to the lady on his arrival in England.”

Having previously made disposition of his forces to prepare the way for
the final attack, and, as well in some instances, to deceive the enemy
as to his intentions, Wolfe finally, at one o’clock, upon the morning of
the 13th September, set out in flat bottomed boats to make his landing
at Fuller’s Cove, thereafter to be called after himself. The night was
dark, and other circumstances being favorable the landing was safely
effected, the heights ascended, and at the break of day Montcalm learned
with the utmost astonishment that the enemy was upon the heights of
Abraham in battle array. Montcalm hastened to drive away the venturesome
foe, but this was not to be accomplished; a few hours brought a
realization of his early presentiment. After a spirited struggle the
French were to be seen running, the announcement of which made Wolfe die
happy; and, Montcalm was wounded unto death. He died on the 14th. The
defeat of Montcalm secured the capture of Quebec, yet it was not until
the 18th September that the city surrendered, and French writers would
make it appear that even then it were not necessary.

The command of the French army after the death of Montcalm devolved upon
Gen. de Lévis, who had been absent up the St. Lawrence. He returned to
Montreal only in time to hear of Montcalm’s defeat. He hastened to the
rescue of the beleaguered city, but he reached the vicinity, not until
Quebec had passed into the hands of the British.

During the time these exciting scenes had been transpiring at Quebec,
Gen. Amherst had been confronting Boulamaque, upon the shores of Lake
Champlain; whom he had compelled to return, and to destroy Fort
Frederick and to retire to Isle Aux Nois. In the west, at Niagara Gen.
Prideaux and Sir Wm. Johnson had been successful in taking the Fort from
Pouchot. By this, Lake Ontario with its northern shore, as well as the
region of the Bay of Quinté came into the possession of the British.

The expedition to capture Fort Niagara, taken at the urgent request of
the Governor of New York, was under the command of General Prideaux. The
attacking party landed at Four Mile Creek almost four miles east of the
Fort, on the 6th July, 1759. Fort Niagara was garrisoned by 486 men
according to Pouchot, the French commander, but according to English
statements 600. General Prideaux forces numbered, according to Capt. de
Lancy, 1,200, and 1,000 Indians, as said by Sir William Johnson. Pouchot
discovered their approach the following day. He despatched couriers to
Presque Isle, to Fort Machault, at the mouth of French Creek, Pa., and
to the commander of the Fort at the “Carrying Place” for assistance.
Reinforcements were sent, numbering about 600 French, and 100 Indians.
They resembled when passing down the rapids, “a floating island, so
black was the river with batteaux and canoes.” They landed a few miles
above the falls and proceeded to Lewiston and thence to relieve Pouchot.
In the mean time the siege had been pressed with vigor. Prideaux, the
English General, had been killed and the command had devolved on Sir W.
Johnson. The English learned of the approach of the reinforcements, and
Captain James de Lancy was despatched to a position in ambuscade above
the present site of Youngstown. The French discovering the English in
ambush, made an impetuous attack upon them, but the English withstood
the assault, and eventually turned the tide against the enemy, who were
put to flight, 200 being killed, and 100 taken prisoners. Pouchot
learned of the disaster about two o’clock; and, two hours after Sir W.
Johnson demanded a surrender. That same evening, or on the following
morning he complied; but he has stated that he would not have done so
had it not been for the mutiny of the Germans who formed a part of the
garrison. On the 26th the garrison left the fort to be transported to
New York. Thus was the power of the French broken in the west, and the
English became masters of the key to the Northwest.

The following spring Gen. de Lévis determined to make an effort to
retake Quebec, and upon the 28th of April, the plains of Abraham were
again red with blood, and the British, under Gen. Murray, were compelled
to seek safety within the walls of the city, where they were besieged
until the 9th, when a British frigate arrived and gave succor.

On the 14th July Gen. Murray, with a large sailing force, commenced the
ascent of the St. Lawrence. At the same time Gen. Amherst, with a
considerable force was commencing a descent from Oswego. The two were
thus advancing toward Montreal, each subduing on the way such forts and
garrisons as were deemed of sufficient importance. By the first of
September, the city of the Royal Mountain, containing the wreck of the
French army was encompassed on either hand. The Governor, upon the night
of the 6th, held a council of war, at which it was determined to
capitulate. The celebrated act was signed on the 8th September, 1760,
and the same day the English took possession of the city. Thus Canada
passed into the possession of the British. The terms of capitulation
were more favorable to the French than they had any reason to expect,
and those terms have ever been fulfilled.

The Governor, Gen. de Lévis, the officers, and a large number of men,
women and children returned to France. At the time of the taking of
Montreal, there remained at Detroit some three or four hundred families.
This Fort and others around the lakes yet held by the French were
surrendered to Major Rogers, a person again to be spoken of. The
population according to the Governor, left of French origin, was 70,000.

The Canadians who did not return to France repaired to their homes and
renewed their peaceful avocations.

The first British Governor, Sir Jeffry Amherst, entered upon his
functions 1763.

We have now very cursorily indeed, noticed the history of the French
Canadians up to the time they became British subjects. We have seen they
did not willingly become such; yet scarcely fifteen years were to pass
away before their loyalty to the British flag was to be tested; not
indeed to decide whether they should again become a part of France,
rather than remain British, but whether their condition as British
subjects was so intolerable that they should seek other protection of a
foreign origin.

We shall see that although promises were held out of great political
advantage they preferred to remain as they were. There remained in the
hearts of the Canadian French, not so much a dislike to England as a
detestation to the New Englander. Hence it was that when the rebel
banner was unfurled in 1776, with the declaration of American
Independence upon it, no Canadian rallied around it. Although
commissioners from the rebel congress visited them with honied words and
fair promises, they received no friendly welcome. The Canadians regarded
their old enemies as enemies still, and they turned their backs upon the
revolting provinces and their faces toward old England for protection.
The commissioners to the Canadians, composed of Dr. Benj. Franklin,
Samuel Chase and Charles Carrol, with his brother, a Jesuit Priest were
appointed to this mission, on the 15th February, 1776. The same Franklin
who now offered the French “freedom,” had urged upon the British in 1753
the expediency of reducing Canada!!

For a century and a half France endeavored in vain to erect a power in
America; but shall we say that it was all in vain?

The monument although broken, so far as France is concerned yet stands a
lasting memorial of French energy, of religious fervor, stern
determination, and indomitable valor. And, when the wave of revolution
passed over the thirteen British Colonies, the column was conspicuous
enough to be seen by refugees; the protection Canada offered was
sufficient for the homeless families of U. E. Loyalists. Canada was a
sacred spot, although French. It constituted a nucleus, around which
collected those who preferred order to rebellion. Those who had fought
as opponents at Duquesne, at Niagara, at Frontenac, at Tyconderoga, and
upon the Plains of Abraham, were joined together. The heel, which had
assisted to crush the Canadian French, now sought and found a resting
place among those who had been overcome. Thus was to be laid the
foundation of the Dominion of Canada, whose future is to be great.
Stretching from seaboard to seaboard, it is destined to become, ere it
has reached the present age of the United States, the Russia of America,
with the purest principles of government the world has ever known.

We now approach the period of time when another element of discord was
to appear among the races which inhabited America. Bloody Indian wars
had in the past swept back and forth across the woody land. Rival
colonizers had resorted to strife, to extend territorial power. European
weapons had been transported to wage wars of extermination. Conquest and
subjugation of Indians and rivals had been witnessed; but now Rebellion,
a term that has received fresh significance in the late civil war in the
United States, was to be initiated. The British blood and money which
had been lavishly spent for the Anglo-Americans, had only prepared those
colonists to seek other advantages. The Indians held in subjection, the
French conquered, the mother country itself must now be coerced to give
full rein to the spoiled and wayward offspring.

                              DIVISION I.

                              CHAPTER III.

  CONTENTS—First American Rebellion—Independence—Traitors made Heroes—
    Loyalists driven away to found another Colony—The responsibility
    of rebelling—Treatment of the Loyalists—The several Colonies—The
    first Englishman in America—Receives £10—English Colonization—
    Virginia—Convicts—Extent of Virginia—First Governor—Virginians not
    willing to rebel—Quota supplied to the rebel army—New York—Hudson—
    The Dutch—New Netherlands—Price of New Amsterdam (New York)—First
    Legislative Assembly—Not quick to rebel—Quota of rebel troops—Gave
    many settlers to Upper Canada—New Jersey—Its settlement—A battle
    ground—Gave rebel troops; also loyal troops—Furnished settlers to
    Upper Canada—Massachusetts—Captain Smith—New England Puritans—The
    “Mayflower”—First Governor—Cruel treatment of Indians—
    Massachusetts takes the lead in rebelling—Troops—Loyalists—New
    Hampshire—Troops—Delaware—Settlement—Quota of rebel troops—
    Connecticut—Education—Troops—Roman Catholics—Toleration—Rhode
    Island—Providence—Inconsistency of the Puritans—Roger Williams—
    North Carolina—Inhabitants—South Carolina—Many loyalists—
    Pennsylvania—William Penn—Conduct toward Indians—The people
    opposed to rebellion—Georgia—Oglethorpe—Policy of England—New

In the introductory chapters a brief sketch has been given of the
settlement of America. We now approach the important events which belong
to the first great American rebellion, which culminated in the
Declaration of Independence by the thirteen British American Colonies,
and terminated in the recognition of their independence by the parent
State. The rebellion had resulted in a revolution, and traitors were
made heroes!

It forms a part of the present undertaking to record some of the facts
relative to the steps by which the now powerful United States were, as a
whole, ushered into the arena of nations, and by which a large class of
Americans, true to their British allegiance, were compelled to leave
their native country to found another colony in the northern wilderness.
To be justified in rebelling against the constituted authorities there
must be the most cogent reasons; to take up arms against the State—to
initiate a civil war, is assuming the most fearful consequences.

To present even a brief account of the circumstances which led to the
settlement of Upper Canada, it becomes necessary to dwell for a time
upon the great rebellion of 1776, the result of which was adverse to
those Americans who adhered to the old flag under which they had been
born, had come to the new world, and had prospered; a rebellion which
was attended and followed by persecution and violence, imprisonment and
confiscation, banishment, and, too often, death; which caused a stream
of refugee loyalists to set in toward the wilderness of Canada.

At the time of the rebellion of the English colonists in America, they
consisted of thirteen provinces. Massachusetts, with her colony of
Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South
Carolina, and Georgia. It may be well to briefly notice these several
states, and the part each took in the war for Independence.

The first Englishman to set foot upon the continent of America was John
Cabot, who discovered Newfoundland, and probably the adjacent mainland,
June 4, 1497. The event is noticed in the Privy Purse expenditure thus:
“1497, Aug. 10—To hym that found the new Isle, £10,” which seems to have
been a grant for his services.


In the year 1578, Sir H. Gilbert endeavoured to establish a settlement
at the mouth of the Roanoke. Failing in his undertaking, his half
brother, Sir Walter Raleigh, made a similar effort the following year,
which likewise failed. It was Sir Walter Raleigh who gave the name to
Virginia, in honor of Elizabeth, the virgin Queen. A third and
successful effort was made to colonize in 1607–8, at Jamestown. This
dates the commencement of English colonization of America. Some time
later, America was looked upon as a country quite beyond the pale of
civilization, even as Botany Bay was at a still later period; and in the
year 1621, the British Government transported to Virginia 100 convicts.
But notwithstanding, “Virginia,” to use the words of Morse’s Geography,
“the birth-place of Washington, has given six Presidents to the Union.”

The colony of Virginia was originally indefinite in its boundary; and,
judging from old maps, it would seem to have included all of North
America. But a map dated 1614 shows the more northern part as New
England. The first Governor of Virginia entered upon his duties in 1619.

This State was by no means quick to sever the connection with the mother
country. Many of her sons stood up for the crown, and very many families
became refugees. Washington said of Virginia, in a letter, that “the
people of Virginia will come reluctantly into the idea of independence.”
But in time, by the specious representations of Washington and others,
the State produced a certain number of rebels. The quota demanded by the
rebel congress was 48,522. She supplied, in 1776, 6,181; and afterwards

                               NEW YORK.

In the year 1609 Hendrick Hudson, an Englishman, in the employ of
Holland, first explored the great river running through New York State,
which now bears his name. He, on behalf of the Dutch took possession of
the country. Settlement first took place in 1614, and by 1620, a
considerable colony was planted. The island of Manhatten, where now
stands New York City, was honestly purchased of the Indians for
twenty-four dollars. The village thus founded was called New Amsterdam,
and the colony was designated New Netherlands.

Having been taken by the English in 1674, the name of the territory was
changed to New York, after James, Duke of York, brother to Charles II.
The first Legislative Assembly for this Province, met in New York, 17th
October, 1683, just one hundred years before Upper Canada began to be

The State of New York was not among the foremost in rebelling. The Dutch
element which prevailed, was not given to change. Some of the most
exciting events and battles of the war were enacted in this State. Right
royally did the people take up arms against the rebels and drive
Washington from Manhatten. Battalions and regiments were repeatedly
raised and organized in this State. The valleys of the Mohawk and Hudson
became historic grounds. Here was witnessed the ignoble failure of
Burgoyne’s Campaign, which was the commencement of the decline of
British power; and the City of New York was the last ground of the
States occupied by British troops, until the war of 1813. New York
furnished troops for the rebel cause, in 1775, 2,075; in 1776, 3,629;
and subsequently 12,077.

Of all the States, New York gave the largest number of pioneers to Upper

                              NEW JERSEY.

New Jersey was settled in 1620 by the Dutch and Swedes. Having been
taken by the English, it was given by Charles II. to the Duke of York.
Retaken by the Dutch in 1673, it was bought by Wm. Penn and his friends.
At one time it was divided into East Jersey and West Jersey, East Jersey
belonging to Penn. In 1702 the two Jersies were united under one
government, and received the name of _New Jersey_.

Upon the grounds of this State were fought some of the most decisive
battles of the war.

Of the Rebel troops Jersey supplied in 1676, 3,193. The quota required
afterwards was 11,396—of which she granted 7,534. But Jersey also gave a
large number of Royal troops.

New Jersey furnished a good many settlers to Upper Canada, of whom one
of the most distinguished is the Ryerson family. Many of the settlers
along the bay retain interesting traditions of their Jersey ancestry.


The territory of this State was originally discovered by the Cabots in
1497, and visited by Capt. John Smith in 1614, by whom it was said to
have been named New England. It consisted of the present States of
Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and
Massachusetts. In 1620, upon 22nd December, the Puritan Fathers landed
upon the Plymouth Rock, some 30 miles from Boston, and planted the first
of the New England States. The “Mayflower,” by which they had traversed
the Atlantic was only 180 tons burden. She sailed from Southampton with
102 emigrants. Half of this number died from cold and hardship the first
year. They selected for their first Elder one John Carner, who as chief
officer had great control. He has consequently been called the first
Governor of New England. The territory had been granted by James I. to
the “Plymouth Company.” Although the Puritans had left their homes
because they did not enjoy their rights, they forgot the Golden Rule in
their forest homes. They failed to remember that the Indian had rights.
The untutored native thought he had a right to the soil, and as the
Puritans, unlike Penn, were unwilling to recognize his rights, but
undertook to appropriate the territory, there ensued bloody Indian wars.
The Puritan revenged himself, and the native retaliated. So, for many
years border massacres were common and terrible.

Massachusetts with the other New England States, took the lead in
rebellion, and by great pains succeeded in indoctrinating the midland
and Southern States. The first blood of the rebellion was shed in this
State, at Lexington and Bunker Hill. The State supplied troops in 1775,
16,444; in 1776, 13,372. The quota subsequently required was 52,728, of
which 38,091 was furnished.

But Massachusetts had not a few true-hearted loyalists of whom a
considerable number became settlers in Upper Canada. At the evacuation
of Boston “1,100 retreated in a body with the Royal army. Altogether
there left Massachusetts at least 2,000 United Empire Loyalists.” The
Colony of Maine also had a good many adherents of the crown—(_Sabine._)

                             NEW HAMPSHIRE.

This Province was first colonized by emigrants from Hampshire, England,
in 1623. Subsequently it was peopled by English from other parts, and by

New Hampshire supplied in 1775, 2,824 troops; in 1776, 3,012. Her quota
was 10,194. Granted 6,653. We are at the same time assured by Sabine
that New Hampshire had many and powerful opponents of rebellion.


Delaware was originally settled by Swedes and Finlanders in 1627. Became
a part of New Netherlands in 1655, and in 1664 fell to the English. It
was included in the grant of Wm. Penn in 1682. In 1701 it was erected
into a colony for legislative purposes.

She supplied rebel troops in 1776, 609. Her quota fixed was 3,974.
Supplied 1,778.


Connecticut was first occupied by emigrants in 1631. The Charter was
granted by Charles II., which continued in existence until 1818, when it
was superseded by the existing constitution. Connecticut “has uniformly
been a nursery of educated men of every class” for the Union. And, it
may be added, a number found their way to Upper Canada, as school
teachers, subsequent to the Revolution. And there was a certain number
of the people of Connecticut among the Loyalists. Sabine says a good

This State furnished for the rebel war in 1775, 4,507; in 1776, 6,390.
The quota fixed was 28,336, of which was given 21,142.


Maryland was granted to the second Lord Baltimore, a Roman Catholic, by
Queen Mary, in 1632 or 4. He colonized the Province with a company of
Co-religionists of the higher class of English gentry. It was named
after the English Queen, Henrietta Maria. “In 1649, it was made, as has
been well said, ‘a land of sanctuary,’ by the toleration of all
religious denominations, but the Puritans, expelled from Virginia, made
great trouble in the Colony.”

The State supplied troops in 1776, 637. Quota fixed by congress 26,608,
of which she supplied 13,275.

                             RHODE ISLAND.

Massachusetts, planted by Puritans, who came to secure liberty of
conscience, would not allow certain individuals in their midst to enjoy
like religious liberty, and hence the foundation of Rhode Island.
Providence, its original name, was thus significantly called, because
here the Baptists, under Roger Williams (oppressed by the Puritans of
Plymouth), found a _providential_ asylum. This was in 1636. In how short
a time (16 years) had the oppressed learned to act oppressively!

A charter was granted to Roger Williams in 1642. The government
continued to exist under this charter until 1842, a period of 200 years.

Rhode Island gave troops to the number of 1,193 in 1775, and 798 in
1776. Quota demanded, 5,694; furnished 3,917.

                            NORTH CAROLINA.

This colony was planted in 1653 by the older colony of Virginia. The
colony at first included both North and South Carolina, which continued
until 1693, when the south part was erected into a separate colony,
under the name of South Carolina. The inhabitants of North Carolina
consisted, in part, of refugees from England at the overthrow of the
Stuarts. These mainly remained loyal to the crown, and were destined to
again become refugees. At the commencement of the rebellion the people
of this colony were about equally divided between the adherents of the
crown, and the rebels. The loyalists were a devoted band. At the same
time, the rebels—at least some of them—took extreme steps. They formally
demanded a separation from Great Britain in May, 1775, fourteen months
before the 4th July declaration of 1776. The State provided, in 1776,
1,134 rebel troops. The quota asked for was 23,994, but only 6,129 was

                            SOUTH CAROLINA.

South Carolina was first settled in 1670.

“The great body of the people were emigrants from Switzerland, Germany,
France, Great Britain, and the northern colonies of America, and their
descendants, and were opposed to a separation from the mother country;”
yet South Carolina furnished troops for the rebellion, in 1776, to the
number of 2,069. Subsequently she gave 4,348; although her quota, as
fixed by Congress, was 16,932.

In this colony were many who could not see the justice of a rebellion.
Yankee descendants may say they “bowed their necks to the yoke of
colonial vassalage,” but it was a wise spirit of conservatism which is
expressed in the desire to “look before you leap.” “Persons who had
refused to enlist under the whig banner, flocked to the royal standard
by hundreds.” “Sir Henry Clinton informed the British Government that
the whole State had submitted to the royal arms.” This general
attachment to the British crown made the rebels vindictive and
bloodthirsty, and they sought to drive away the loyal and peaceable by a
vengeful shedding of blood. Consequently, the tories retaliated, and
Chief Justice Marshall said, “the whigs seem determined to extirpate the
tories, and the tories the whigs; some thousands have fallen in this way
in this quarter.” “Being almost equally divided, reciprocal injuries had
gradually sharpened their resentment against each other, and had armed
neighbour against neighbour, until it became a war of extermination.”
Now, it is submitted that rebellion can hardly be justified when the
people are so equally divided. Sabine remarks that “after the fall of
Charleston, and until the peace, the tories were in the ascendant.”


This splendid colony was granted to William Penn, the Quaker and
philanthropist, who was the son of Sir William Penn, an eminent English
admiral. Sir William held a claim against the British government for
£16,000; and, some time after his death, his son having his attention
directed to the new world, obtained, in lieu of that amount, the grant
of land now forming this State. The charter was granted by Charles II.
in 1681. Penn sought the new world to escape the persecutions inflicted
upon him at home. This he had brought upon himself, by freely expressing
his decided sectarian views, and by writings, disseminating the
teachings of George Fox, also by attacking the Established Church. He
was repeatedly imprisoned in the Tower, and even in Newgate for six
months. Penn, on procuring the grant of land, determined to make it “a
home for his co-religionists, where they might preach and practice their
convictions in unmolested peace.” To the territory he gave the name of
Sylvania; but afterwards King Charles insisted that Penn should be
prefixed, making it Pennsylvania. Penn sailed from England, with several
friends, in August, 1682. On reaching America he found that some Swedes
and Finns had settled along the banks of the Delaware. Although Penn had
a charter by which he could possess the land, yet, as an European, he
did not forget the original and rightful owners of the soil. Penn’s
conduct in this respect stands out in striking contrast to the course
pursued by the Puritans. It was on the 30th November, 1682, that William
Penn held his famous interview with the Indian tribes, when he effected
a straightforward treaty with them, never to be broken or disturbed, so
that he secured perpetual peace and respect. By this humane course with
the Indians, and by encouraging emigration of all classes, securing to
them the fullest liberty of conscience by a wise constitution, he
succeeded, with his co-religionists, in building up a most flourishing
colony. Subsequently the population was enlarged by numerous accessions
from Scotland and Germany.

                  *       *       *       *       *

The government of Pennsylvania was proprietary, and continued such until
the revolution swept away the charter, and made the children of William
Penn outcasts from the land they and their fathers had made fertile. At
the time of the revolution, John Penn, son of Richard Penn, who was the
grandson of William Penn, was the Governor of the colony. He, with the
masses of the people in the middle States, was opposed to the rebellion.
It is said there were thousands of loyalists in this State who desired
and offered to serve the crown, but whose services were lost through
bungling by those in office. Yet the State gave troops to the rebel
cause; 400 in 1775, and in the following year 5,519. The quota allotted
was 40,416; granted, 19,689.


This was the last of the thirteen colonies established. The founder was
Oglethorpe, who effected a settlement in 1773, and who lived to see the
colony a State. The colonists landed at Charleston in January, 1733.

When the rebellion broke out, this colony was “justly regarded as highly
loyal.” She refused to send delegates to the first rebel congress; “and
that she was represented in the second was owing to the zeal of a native
of Connecticut, Dr. Seymour Hall. It required time and labour to
organize a party of ‘liberty men’ to complete the Confederacy.” The
number of troops supplied in 1775 was 350; the quota was fixed at 3,974,
and there was supplied 2,328.

The history of England between the periods when Virginia and Georgia,
the oldest and youngest of the colonies that rebelled, were founded, was
one of turmoil and strife, of religious contentions and civil war; and
the colonists cast off during this hundred years carried with them,
across the Atlantic, heartfelt bitterness, and many of them no little
passion for evil. Notwithstanding, we have seen that the Southern
States, with Pennsylvania and New York, did not seek to divide their
connection with the parent State. It was generally admitted that the
policy of England towards them “had been mild—perhaps liberal.” But, as
we have seen, New England, with a few malcontents in other states—
envious office-seekers, managed to disseminate the principles of
rebellion—principles that New England has quite forgotten in her
treatment of the South.

                              NEW ENGLAND.

Of the aforementioned colonies, they all had received and had secured to
them by charter, from an indulgent mother country, governments of the
most liberal nature. Civil and religious liberty were fully enjoyed.
Says Mr. Sabine: “Virtually, republican charters; subject only to the
appointment of a governor on the part of the Crown. Every colony was,
practically, a State within itself; and it is a suggestive fact that the
very earliest assertion of legislative superiority on the part of the
mother country only operated negatively, by forbidding every colony to
make laws repugnant to those of England.”

Certain of the British colonies were, together, called “New England,”
and since the Independence they are known as the New England States.
They consist of New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island,
Connecticut, and Maine, which was then a colony of Massachusetts. This
region was granted by James I. to the Plymouth Company in 1606. It was
called North Virginia, but it was changed some years later, before it
was actually settled. It was the people of these States to whom the term
“Yankee” was originally applied; and now, in the United States, this
epithet is used solely in reference to these States; but in Canada and
England the word is applied very generally to all Americans. The origin
of the word Yankee is probably traceable to the Indian appellation
“_Yengee_,” for English, or _Anglais_, after the French.

                              CHAPTER IV.

  CONTENTS—American Writers—Sabine—Loyalists had no time to waste—
    Independence not sought at first—Adams—Franklin—Jay—Jefferson—
    Washington—Madison—The British Government—Ingratitude of the
    Colonists—Taxation—Smugglers—Crown Officers—Persistence—
    Superciliousness—Contest between Old England and New England.

It is most refreshing to one who has been accustomed to see American
school books, and even religious American tracts thickly strewn with the
most fulsome self-praise, and wordy accounts of British tyranny, and of
American purity and valor; to read the speeches, and listen to 4th of
July orators, who, with distorted history and hifalutin panegyrics, have
not ceased to wrap their country in a blazing sheet of glory. After
suffering all this, _ad nauseam_, it is most agreeable to read the
writings of one American author upon the subject of their Independence,
who can do some justice to the Loyalists. Reference is made to Lorenzo
Sabine, the author of “Royalists of the American Revolution.”
Considering the prejudices which exist throughout the United States
against every thing British, and the overweening vanity of the people in
respect to the success which crowned their efforts to dismember the
British Empire; it is a matter for grateful recognition that a native of
New England should take up his pen to write redeeming words on behalf of
the Loyalists whom they had been taught to stigmatize, to be read by his
fellow countrymen. Living upon the borders, beyond which he could see
the settled refugees working out their destiny, under adverse
circumstances, and laying the foundation of a nation, he took up his
pen, while the Upper Canadians were yet struggling with the forest, and
without time to gather up the records of their wrongs, their losses,
their persecutions, and more than all, the malicious charges against
them; and hurl them back at their traducers. On behalf of those who will
accept the writer as a representative of the United Empire Loyalists, he
thanks Lorenzo Sabine, for what he has said. He has said nothing but the
substantial truth in our favor, and in saying that, he has said very
much. In his prefatory remarks, after referring to their deficiency of
knowledge of the “Tories” he says, “The reason is obvious. Men who, like
the Loyalists, separate themselves from their friends and kindred, who
are driven from their homes, who surrender the hopes and expectations of
life, and who become outlaws, wanderers, and exiles,—such men leave few
memorials behind them. Their papers are scattered and lost, and their
very names pass from human recollections.”

Before considering the question, whether the American colonies were
justified in taking an extreme step; it is most necessary to state that,
at the first there were but an insignificant number of the colonists who
held the belief that armed rebellion was demanded. Even among those who,
with no mild-toned language denounced the mother country for enacting
laws oppressive to the commerce and industry of the Americans, no one
was found to advocate separation; on the contrary to use the words of
Sabine “The denial that independence was the final object, was constant
and general.” To obtain concessions and preserve the connection with
England, was affirmed everywhere; and John Adams, years after the peace,
went further than this, for he said ‘_There was not a moment during the
Revolution, when I would not have given everything I possessed for a
restoration to the state of things before the contest began, provided we
could have had a sufficient security for its continuance_.’ Again,
Franklin’s testimony, a few days before the affair at Lexington, was,
that he had “more than once travelled from one end of the continent to
the other, and kept a variety of company, eating, drinking, and
conversing with them freely, and never _had heard in any conversation
from any person drunk or sober, the least expression of a wish for
separation, or a hint that such a thing would be advantageous to
America_.” Mr. Jay is quite as explicit. “During the course of my life
and until the second petition of Congress in 1775, _I never did hear an
American of any class, of any description, express a wish for the
independence of the colonies_. It has always, and still is, my opinion
and belief, that our country was prompted and impelled to independence
by _necessity_, and not by _choice_.” Says Mr. Jefferson, “What,
eastward of New York, might have been the dispositions toward England
before the commencement of hostilities, I know not, but _before that_ I
never heard a whisper of a disposition to separate from Great Britain,
_and after that_, _its possibility_ was contemplated with affliction by
all.” Washington, in 1774, sustained these declarations, and, in the
“Fairfax County Resolves” it was complained, that “_malevolent
falsehoods_” were propagated by the ministry to prejudice the mind of
the king; _particularly_ that there is an intention in the American
colonies to _set up for independent States_; and Washington expressed a
wish that the “dispute might be left to posterity to determine.” Mr.
Madison was not in public life until May, 1776, but he says, “It has
always been my impression, that a _re-establishment of the colonial
relations_ to the _parent country_, _as they were previous to the
controversy_, was the real object of _every_ class of the people, till
the despair of obtaining it.”

The testimony of these Fathers of the Republic, cannot be impeached;
and, we must, therefore, seek for the cause of the rebellion in some
other place. We have seen how the British colonies were planted. In
connection with them, two leading influences may be discovered
constantly at work, one of a personal nature; the other referring to the
State. Individuals would not sever the ties of home-ship and brave the
wide ocean, to expose themselves to the varied dangers of the
wilderness, did they not have good reason to expect due returns. The
Government would not afford ships and means to send her sons to distant
shores, unless the colony would become serviceable to the parent State.
The British Government had enabled many a hardy son to lay the
foundation for substantial wealth. More than all, the colonies of
America had been assisted to put under their feet their French rival.
For their benefit the Crown expected, and undertook to enforce some
tribute. But the colonists would not recognize the right of the Crown to
tax them for their labor. For all the British Government had done for
the colonies, for all the money spent, she required that the colonists
should be taxed. Laws were enacted, and officers and revenue collectors
appointed to enforce the laws. It was required that these colonies
should not trade, without certain restrictions, with foreign nations;
but the merchants of Massachusetts, having tasted the sweets of
unrestricted trade, were unwilling to pay revenue to the Crown, although
trading under the protection of the British flag. And so it came that
when royal collectors of customs were sent out; when men of war coasted
the shores of Massachusetts to prevent smuggling, by Hancock and others,
there was no disposition to submit to Imperial taxation. For years the
law relating to revenue had been a dead letter almost, the smugglers
having used hush money. But at last Government determined to put down
illicit trade. It is true the colonies did not object without a special
plea, which was “no taxation without representation.” But the real
points at issue were, whether contraband commerce should continue and
increase, or the Crown receive the dues demanded by law. “Nine-tenths
probably, of all the tea, wine, fruit, sugar, and molasses, consumed in
the colonies were smuggled. To put this down was the determined purpose
of the ministry. The commanders of the ships of war on the American
station were accordingly commissioned as officers of the customs; and,
to quicken their zeal, they were to share in the proceeds of the
confiscations; the courts to decide upon the lawfulness of seizures,
were to be composed of a single judge, without a jury, whose emoluments
were to be derived from his own condemnations; the Governors of the
colonies and the military officers were to be rewarded for their
activity by swearing also, either in the property condemned, or in the
penalties annexed to the interdicted trade.” And was not the Crown
correct in enforcing laws intended for the public weal? Had hostile
fleets approached Boston harbour to invade, instead of smuggling crafts,
freighted with luxuries, would not the colonist have called loudly for
Imperial help to protect? But if the Government had the best of rights
to enforce the laws, it certainly displayed much want of judgment in the
mode adopted to carry out its demands. The foregoing, from Sabine,
recalls to us at once the cause why resistance was strenuously made. The
mode of paying their Crown officers was well calculated to kindle
feelings of the most determined opposition on the part of the illicit
traders, such as John Hancock, John Langdon, Samuel Adams, William
Whipple, George Clymer, Stephen Hopkins, Francis Louis, Philip
Livingston, Eldridge Gerry, Joseph Hewes, George Taylor, Roger Sherman,
Button Gurnett, and Robert Morris, all signers of the declaration of
independence,—all smugglers!

And thus it came about. The Crown was determined to exact taxes, and
ignorant of the feelings of the colonists; and the colonists, grown rich
by unrestricted trade—by smuggling, entered into a contract, which was
only to end in dismemberment of the British Empire. Side issues were
raised, cries of oppression shouted, the love of liberty invoked and
epithets bandied; but they were only for effect, to inflame the public
mind, of which there was much wavering. Of course, there were other
things which assisted to ripen rebellion, at least were so represented,
that they added to the growing discontent. Colonies, when they have
become developed by age, and powerful by local circumstances, will
naturally lose the interest which animates the subject at home. It is in
the nature of things that the love of country should gradually change
from the old home to the new. The inhabitants of the colonies were in
many cases but descendants of European nations, who could not be
expected to retain the warmest attachment to the parent country. The
tide of war had changed the allegiance of many a one. The heterogeneous
whole could not be called English, and hence it was more easy to cast
aside the noble feeling called patriotism. Then there were jealousies of
the Crown officers, and everything undertaken by the home government,
having the appearance of change, was promptly suspected as being
intended to degrade them. The exclusiveness of the regular army and
superciliousness to the provincial troops, during the French war, caused
many a sting, and the thought of insult to the provincial officer
remained to rankle and fester in the mind of many a military aspirant.
The proposal to introduce Episcopal Bishops, to give precedence to the
Established Church, had its effect upon many, yet many of the
non-conformists were equally loyal.

The contest was originally between New England and Old England. While
the Middle and Southern States were for peace, or moderate measures, the
north sedulously worked to stir up strife by disseminating specious
statements and spreading abroad partisan sentiments. Massachusetts took
the lead. Founded by Puritans, (who, themselves were the most intolerant
bigots and became the greatest persecutors America has seen,) these
States possessed the proper elements with which to kindle discontent.

Thus we have learned that independence was not the primary object of
revolt, and we have seen that the leaders in rebellion were principally
New Englanders, and were actuated mainly by mercenary motives, unbounded
selfishness and bigotry.

                               CHAPTER V.

  CONTENTS—The signers of the Declaration of Independence—Their
    nativity—Injustice of American writers for 80 years—Cast back
    mis-statements—The whigs had been U. E. Loyalists—Hancock—
    Office-seekers—Malcontents stir up strife—What the fathers of the
    Republic fought for—Rebel committees—Black mail—Otis, John Adams,
    Warren, Washington, Henry, Franklin—What caused them to rebel—What
    the American revolutionary heroes actually were—Cruelty, during
    and after the war—No freedom—The political mistake of the rebels
    in alienating the loyalists—The consequence—Motives of the
    loyalists—False charges—Conscientious conservatives—Rebellion not
    warranted—Attachment to the old flag—Loyalists driven away—
    _Suppressio veri_—Want of noble spirit towards the South—Effects—
    Comparison between loyalists and rebels—Education—Religion—The
    neutral—The professions.

Of the fifty-six signers of the Declaration of Independence nine were
born in Massachusetts, seven in Virginia, six in Maryland, five in
Connecticut, four in New Jersey, four in Pennsylvania, four in South
Carolina, three in New York, three in Delaware, two in Rhode Island, one
in Maine, three in Ireland, two in England, two in Scotland, and one in
Wales. Of these twenty-one were attornies; ten merchants; four
physicians; three farmers; one clergyman; one printer; and ten men of

                              THE MOTIVES.

But let us more carefully consider the motives in connection with the
rebellion of ‘76. So assiduously have our fathers, the U. E. Loyalists,
been branded by most American writers as altogether base, that it
becomes us to cast back the mis-statements—to tear away the specious
covering of the American revolutionary heroes, and throw the sunlight of
truth upon their character, and dispel the false, foul stigma, which the
utterances of eighty years have essayed to fasten upon the noble band of

Up to 1776, the whigs as well as the tories were United Empire
Loyalists; and it was only when the king’s forces required taxes; when
the colonists were requested no longer to smuggle; when they could not
dispossess the tories of the power and emoluments of office—it was only
then that the Declaration of Independence was signed by those more
particularly interested. John Hancock, whose name stands first upon the
document, in such bold characters, had been a successful smuggler,
whereby he had acquired his millions, and no wonder he staked his
thousands on the issue. Evidence is not wanting to show that many of the
leaders of the rebellion, had they been holders of office, would have
been as true to the British Crown as were those whom they envied. Every
man who took part on the rebel side has been written a hero; but it is
asking too much to request us to believe that all the holders of office
were base, and lost to the feelings of natural independence and
patriotism; more especially when a large proportion of them were,
admittedly, educated and religious men; while, on the contrary, the
rebels alone were actuated by patriotism and the nobler feelings of
manhood. Apart from the merits or demerits of their cause, it must be
admitted that the circumstances of the times force upon us the thought
that a comparatively few needy office-seekers, or lookers-after other
favors from the Crown, not being able to obtain the loaves and fishes,
began to stir up strife. A few, possessed of sufficient education, by
the aid of the wealthy contraband traders, were enabled, by popular
sensational speeches and inflammatory pamphlets, to arouse the feelings
of the uneducated; and, finally, to create such a current of political
hatred to the Crown that it could not be stayed, and which swept away
the ties that naturally attached them to Great Britain.

We may easily imagine the surprise which many experienced in after days,
when the war had ended and their independence was acknowledged, to find
themselves heroes, and their names commemorated as fathers of their
country; whereas they had fought only for money or plunder, or smuggled
goods, or because they had not office. In not a few cases it is such
whose names have served for the high-sounding fourth of July orators;
for the buncombe speechifier and the flippant editor, to base their
eulogistic memoriams. Undoubtedly there are a few entitled to the place
they occupy in the temple of fame; but the vast majority seem to have
been actuated by mercenary motives. We have authenticated cases where
prominent individuals took sides with the rebels because they were
disappointed in obtaining office; and innumerable instances where
wealthy persons were arrested, ostensibly on suspicion, and compelled to
pay large fines, and then set at liberty. No feudal tyrant of Europe in
the olden times enforced black mail from the traveller with less
compunction than rebel “committees” exacted money from wealthy
individuals who desired simply to remain neutral.

It has been said that Otis, a name revered by the Americans, actually
avowed that he “would set Massachusetts in a flame, though he should
perish in the fire.” For what? Not because he wanted liberty, but
because his father was not appointed to a vacant judgeship! It is
alleged that John Adams was at a loss which side to take, and finally
became a rebel because he was refused a commission in the peace! It is
said that Joseph Warren was a broken-down man, and sought, amid the
turmoil of civic strife, to better his condition. And the immortal
Washington, it is related, and has never been successfully contradicted,
was soured against the mother county because he was not retained in the
British army in reward for his services in the French war. Again,
Richard Henry was disappointed in not receiving the office of stamp
distributor, which he solicited. Franklin was vexed because of
opposition to his great land projects and plans of settlement on the
Ohio. Indeed it is averred that mostly all the prominent whigs who sided
with the rebels were young men, with nothing to lose and everything to
gain by political changes and civil war. Thus it will be seen that the
so-called American revolutionary heroes have not altogether clean hands,
however much they may have been washed by their descendants. The
clothing placed upon them may conceal the dirt and dross and blood, but
they are indelibly there.

It is not alone the motives which constituted the mainsprings of the
rebels’ action that we place in the balance, but their conduct towards
those who differed from them. Individual instances of cruelty we shall
have occasion to introduce; but it may here be said that it was the
tories who acted as the conservators of peace against a mobocracy, and
consequently were made to suffer great afflictions. It was because of
this they were forced away to live and die as aliens to the land of
their birth. The tories were Americans as well as the whigs; and when at
last Great Britain ceased to try to coerce the colonies, and their
independence was secured, then a nobler spirit should have obtained
among the conquerors, and no one, because he had conscientiously been a
conservative, should have been treated with opprobrium. It always
becomes the victorious to be generous; and we, with all respect to many
American friends, submit that, had patriotism alone actuated the
revolutionary party, the American loyalists would have been invited to
join with the whigs in erecting a mighty nation. Had _freedom_, indeed,
been the watchword then, as it has flauntingly been since, it would have
been conceded that the tory had a right to his opinion as well as the
whig to his. Do the Americans descant upon the wisdom and far-seeing
policy of those who signed the Declaration of Independence and framed
the constitution of the Union? Monroe, we doubt not, had a different
opinion when he begot the doctrine “America for the Americans.” Had the
U. E. Loyalists been treated honorably; had they been allowed but their
rights; had they not been driven away; then the name _British American_
would forever have passed away; and instead of a belt of British
provinces on their north, to constitute a ceaseless cause of
misunderstanding with England, the star-spangled banner would,
doubtless, long ago, have peacefully floated over all our land. Looking
at the subject from this (an American) stand-point, we see that a
shortsighted policy—a vindictive feeling, a covetous desire for the
property of the tories—controlled the movements of the hour; and when
the terms of peace were signed the birthright of the American tory was
signed away, and he became forever an alien. But, as we shall see, he,
in consequence, became the founder of a Province which, like a rock, has
resisted, and ever will resist, the northward extension of the United

                       MOTIVES OF THE LOYALISTS.

Whatever may have been the incentives to rebellion, yielded to by those
who revolted, there cannot rest upon the mind of the honest reader of
unbiassed history a doubt as to the motives of the loyalists. The
home-spun eulogists of the United States revolutionary soldiers have
never ceased to dwell upon the principles which fired the breasts of the
patriots, and nerved their arms to deeds of daring and successful
warfare; all the time observing silence respecting the bravery of those
who, from the same walks of life, engaged in the strife as the
determined antagonists to rebellion. They have again and again charged
upon the “king’s men” that it was because they were servants of the
Crown and feeders at the government stall that loyalty was assumed and
fought for. But facts, when allowed to stand out uncovered by the cant
of liberatists, declare, in words that may not be gainsayed, that there
were a vast number who held no appointment under the Crown, yet who,
from first to last, were true—naturally true—to their king and country.
The great mass were essentially conservatives, called “tories.” They
held the opinion that to rebel was not only unnecessary but wrong. They
believed that the evils of which the colonists had just reason to
complain were not so great as to justify the extreme step taken by the
signers of the Declaration of Independence; that any injustice existing
was but temporary and would, when properly and calmly represented to the
home government, be remedied; that to convulse the colonies in war was
an unjustifiably harsh procedure; and, entertaining such a belief, it is
submitted that they were noble indeed in standing up for peace—for more
moderate measures. Moreover, not unlikely, many were impressed with the
view that the disaffected were laboring under an erroneous idea of
oppression; that the training incident to pioneer life, the previous
wars with the French Canadians, the constant contentions with the
Indians, had begotten false views of their rights, and made them too
quick to discover supposed wrongs. Candidly impressed with such
thoughts, they could not be otherwise than true to the natural instincts
of their heart, and refuse to take part, or acquiesce in throwing
overboard the government of England, and so become aliens to the flag
under which they were born and had lived, and for which they had fought.
Not many may cast aside their feelings of nationality; not many can
forget the land of their birth; not a large number will bury the
associations of a life-time without the most potent causes. And,
doubtless, the Anglo-American who faithfully adhered to the old flag
possessed all the ardor of a lofty patriotism. But the American writer
has forgotten all this. In the broad sunlight of national success he has
not discovered the sacred longings of the U. E. Loyalists for the Union
Jack. Looking at the events of ‘76 by the lurid glare of civil war, his
eyes are blinded to the fact that a noble band, possessing equal rights
with the rebels, loved England, notwithstanding all her faults, and for
that love sacrificed their all of worldly goods. The citizens of the
United States would prefer to have it said in history that the U. E.
Loyalists, in every instance, voluntarily left their homes during the
war, or at its close. The loyalists are thereby, no doubt, made to
appear more devotedly attached to the British Crown. But it is right to
have it distinctly stated that American writers mostly make themselves
guilty of _suppressio veri_. The latest instance of this is seen in a
report to the Hon. Hugh McCullough, Secretary of the Treasury, prepared
by E. H. Derby, Commissioner of the Treasury Department, dated January
1st, 1866, who, in remarking upon the British Colonial policy from 1776
down to 1830, takes occasion to say that, “at first there was little
fellowship between the United States and the Provincialists, many of
whom were descended from the loyalists who _followed_ the British troops
from our shores.” The fact is, however, that many of them were driven
away. The tories were not loyal without sense; and when the fortune of
war had turned against them, they would, in great numbers, have made the
best of their changed condition, and have lived to become true citizens
of the new-born nation. But this was not to be. The loyalists were to be
made feel that they were outcasts. It is the same ignoble and
unstatesmanlike course which is now being pursued toward the subdued
South. They must needs be made to know they are rebels. It is a
shortsighted policy, even as the former was. The former led to the
establishment of a nation to their north, which will stand, even after
the Union lies in fragments; the latter fosters a feeling of alienation,
which will speak upon the first opportunity, in the thunder tones of

If a comparison is instituted between the rebels of 1776, and those who
were conservators of peace, the contrast is found to be very great. It
is charged against the loyalists that all office-holders were tories;
but is this more worthy of remark than the fact that many became rebels
because they could not obtain office. Nay, the latter is infinitely more
heinous in its nature. If we look at the two parties, with respect to
education and, it may be added, religion, it is found that the great
bulk of the educated and refined, the religious classes, especially the
clergy, the leading lawyers, the most prominent medical men, were all
loyalists. It was not because they were office-holders, it was because
they possessed a moral and elevated mind, educated to a correct
standard. Then, again, there was a large class of citizens who loved
retirement, and who begged to be allowed to remain neutral, but who were
actually compelled to take sides with the rebels or be driven away.

The peaceably inclined, who looked for guidance to their spiritual
instructors, generally beheld them, if not actually advocating the
interests of the crown, at least setting an example against rebellion,
and they were thus strengthened in their feelings of loyalty, or
determination to remain neutral. The flame of patriotism was kept aglow
in many a heart by the earnest prayer of the gospel minister. Says
Sabine: “From what has now been said it is evident that a very
considerable proportion of the professional and editorial intelligence
and talents of the thirteen colonies was arrayed against the popular
movement.” Again: “a large number of the clergy were United Empire
Loyalists.” Also, “the giants of the law were nearly all loyalists.” The
physicians were mostly tories, but were, as a general thing, not
molested. “A few were banished; others became surgeons in the army.”

                              CHAPTER VI.

  CONTENTS—Republicanism—The lesson of the first rebellion—The late
    civil war—The Loyalists; their losses and hardships—Ignored by
    Americans—Unrecorded—The world kept in ignorance—American glory—
    Englishmen—Question of Colonial treatment—The reason why Great
    Britain failed to subdue the rebellion—Character of the rebel
    bravery—The great result—Liberty in England and United States
    contrasted—Slavery—The result to U. E. Loyalists—Burgoyne—
    Mobocracy—Treatment from “Sons of Liberty”—Old men, women and
    children—Instances of cruelty—Brutality—Rapacity—Torture—The lower
    classes—“Swamp Law”—Fiendish cruelty—Worse than Butler’s Rangers—
    Seward and the Fenians—Infamous falsification—Close of the war—
    Recognition of independence by Great Britain—Crushed hopes of the
    Loyalists—In New York—Their conduct—Evacuation day—The position of
    the Loyalists—Confiscation—“Attainting”—Seizing estates—Paine—
    Commissioners at Paris—British Ministry—Loyalists’ petition—King’s
    speech—Division of claimants—Six classes—The number—Tardy justice—
    Noble conduct of South Carolina—Impostors—Loyalists in Lower
    Canada—Proclamation—The soldiers’ families—Journeyings—Meeting of

                              THE RESULT.

Almost a hundred years have passed away since the war-cloud arose which
swept away thirteen of Britain’s colonies upon the uncertain and
tempest-tossed ocean of Republicanism. That storm is long since stilled,
as well as the hearts of those who took part therein.

While the statesman and politician may, with advantage, study the lesson
then read, and which has been but lately annotated by the United States
civil war, by the determined subjection of eight millions of
Southerners, who desired freedom to establish a new government, let it
be our humble occupation to record some of the immediate individual
results of that great tempest, of which American writers, with but few
exceptions, have never spoken fairly. Writers among them are not wanting
to give lively pen pictures of their revolutionary heroes; not only
forgetting the sufferings of the loyalists—the devoted ones, who gave up
all—property, homes, friends, all the associations of a birth-place,
rather than bow the knee to Baal; but who have wilfully misrepresented
them; have charged them with crimes, at once atrocious and unfounded.
The sufferings, the losses, the hardships, incident to pioneer life,
with the noble purposes and undeviating loyalty of the British American
tories, have never been fully related—never engaged the pen of the
faithful historian. American writers, on the contrary, have recorded in
glowing colors the deeds and actions of the “fathers of the Republic.”
To this no objection; can be made; but may we not charge those
historians with uncharitableness, with unnecessary neglect of the claims
of the loyalists to pure motives, with ignoring their brave deeds, their
devoted sufferings, and with unduly ascribing to the “king’s men”
motives base and cruel. But the sufferings of the U. E. Loyalists are
unrecorded. The world has rarely been told that they were persecuted,
their homes pillaged, their persons maltreated, their valuables seized,
their houses made desolate, their real estate taken from them, without
legal proceedings. The world has been so flooded with the writings of
Americans, describing their own excellencies and eulogizing their own
cause, that no space has been found to do simple justice to the noble
ones who preferred British rule to the uncertain and untried. Indeed, so
strongly and for so long a time has the current been flowing to swell
the ocean of American glory, that hardly a voice or pen is found doing
service for the unfortunate loyalists, who chose to endure a little
rather than rush into the vortex of rebellious strife. Even Englishmen
have so long listened to one-sided statements, that no one of them can
be found to say a word for the old tory party of America. Hence it is
that the U. E. Loyalists are very imperfectly known; their history
unwritten, their tales of sorrow unattended to, their noble doings
unsung. Had there been a hand to guide a describing pen,—to picture the
doings, the sufferings, the self-denying heroism of the loyal party; to
recount the motives underlying all they did; and had there been ears as
willing to listen, and eyes to read, and hearts to receive the facts as
those of a contrary nature have obtained, then a far different
impression would have been made, and fixed upon the world.

That the British Government was right or wise in its treatment of the
American colonies we now have every reason to doubt. At the same time,
that England might have subdued that rebellion, had she put forth her
undivided strength, there is but little reason to question. Had she not
been engaged in a formidable war with France; or even with that, had her
statesmen acquired a correct knowledge of America as to topography, and
as to the feelings and wishes of the people and their just complaints;
or had able generals been entrusted with the command of the armies,
instead of incompetent favorites; or had a little diplomacy been
practiced, and the ringleaders of the whig faction—often hungry
agitators—been conciliated by office; in either event the rebellion
might have been nipped in the bud, or easily overcome. The American
Republic owes its independence to the circumstances in which Great
Britain was then placed, and the incapacity of a few of the British
Generals, rather than to superior bravery, extraordinary military
talent, or any high-toned longing for liberty. No doubt many of the
rebelling party were brave; but it was often the bravery of the
guerilla, or the desperate adventurer.

Of the great result—the recognition of the independence of the rebelling
provinces by the mother country—we design not to speak at length. It
will always remain a question, whether it would not have been better for
the States themselves, and the world at large, if they had remained a
part of the British Empire. That the evils of which they complained
would, in due time, have been removed, upon proper representation, there
is no substantial reason to doubt. That the principles of true freedom
would have advanced and spread quite as rapidly, and that, to-day,
liberty, in the broadest sense, would have reigned in the world fully as
triumphant, the whole history of England and the United States
sufficiently attest. It was many long years after Britain had struck off
the chains of slavery before the United States reached the same point;
and then only because it became a “military necessity.” Looking at the
two nations to-day, and judging by the utterances of the two respective
people, whether enunciated in the halls of legislature, by the head of
the nation, by the bar, in the pulpit, by the press, or from the
platform; or if we be guided by the public deeds of each, it is
submitted that the more genuine ring of the metal sounds from beneath
the wide-spreading banner of old England.

The effect of the successful rebellion, to which it is intended to
refer, has reference to the United Empire Loyalists of America. And
first, the effect upon them during the war.

The defeat of Burgoyne was the first event which immediately led to
severe disaster of the loyalists. This general, with more assurance than
foresight, and perhaps more courage than military skill, succeeded, not
only in leading his army to destruction, but in placing the friendly
inhabitants on his route in such a position that no mercy was
subsequently extended to them by the ruthless rebels. When he
surrendered, instead of securing for them immunity from any harm, he
entirely neglected their interests; notwithstanding they had supplied
his troops with provision. The relentless conduct of the rebels in arms
and the whig government was bloodthirsty and vindictive. Their hate
towards those who would not take sides with them, whether in arms for
the Crown or not, was barbarous. Persons suspected of sympathy with the
tories were subjects of continued molestation. Mobocracy reigned.
Vagabond bodies of men were sent abroad to range the country, to lay
waste and destroy the property of the loyalists, imprison the suspected,
and seize the goods of the unprotected. Tarring and feathering was of
common occurrence. Massachusetts especially gained a name for cruelty
far exceeding any which has been applied to the Indians, with all their
barbarism. There was a villainous band who called themselves the “Sons
of Liberty,” who carried fire and sword—not against an open enemy in the
light of day, but to peaceful firesides in the darkness of night. Their
victims were the old men, the women and children, and the defenceless.
Old men and children were driven to the woods for shelter, or placed in
a closed room, and, with chimney stopped, smoked to suffocation. Females
were subject to insult and the most fiendish treatment. Dwellings were
fired at night, and their occupants left houseless, and exposed to the
inclemency of the weather.

Suspected persons were arrested and put to terrible torture, such as
attaching a rope to the neck and hauling the individual through the
water till insensible; or suspending him to a tree till life was almost
gone. This was frequently done with the object of extracting information
as to the whereabouts of a father or a brother, or as to the place where
money and valuables were concealed. The tales of cruelty the writer has
heard related concerning the treatment the loyal party were exposed to,
would harrow up the soul of any one possessing feelings of pity and

The loyalists who immediately suffered, that is, while the war was in
progress, were many. Military forts were established here and there, to
which many fled precipitately from the several States.

It is a matter of extreme astonishment how men who set up the standard
of revolt under the sacred name of liberty, could so far ignore the
principles of liberty in the treatment of innocent old men, women and
children, as we find stated by honest witnesses. The darkest tales of
savage dealing come to us from our fathers. Families, whose sole offence
consisted in being unwilling to rebel, and in being desirous to remain
faithfully neutral, were the objects of the rapacious prey of a brutal
soldiery. Their substance when not available for the rebel horde, was
scattered to the winds. Devouring fire was cast into peaceful homes. How
gross the hypocrisy, how base the motives that actuated very many of the
adventurers in rebellion. The most hellish means were adopted at times,
to force away persons of property, that the so-called “Sons of Liberty”
might enjoy their substance and homes. Attending these scenes of
desolation and refined cruelty, their imprisonments and torture, were
incidents of thrilling interest, of fearful suffering, of hairbreadth
escapes, of forlorn rescues.

The lower classes of those who rebelled were men of bold and lawless
nature: whether we pass along the shores of New England, among the
fishermen, or travel thorough the woods of Maine and New Hampshire, and
become acquainted with woodmen of the forest, or as they were called
“Loggers and Sawyers.” The spirit that animated the merchants of Boston
and Salem, in their extended operations of smuggling, lived, also, in
the reckless fishermen and woodmen; and for years before the rebellion
really commenced they had been resisting, even by physical force, the
revenue officers, who were often expelled from the woods by what was
called “swamp law.” Men with such nature, finding that their lawlessness
had become popular, and that steps were being taken to resist the
government on a general plan, were not slow to act their part. One
result of the rebellion was a determined and systematic course of
retaliation upon those who had recognized the majesty of the law. A
continued and uncompromising persecution was entered upon toward them.

No history can parallel the deeds of atrocity enacted by the villainous
“Liberty men.” Said an old lady, on the verge of the grave, and with
voice tremulous in remembrance of fiendish acts she had witnessed, “The
Rebels, on one occasion entered a house and stripped it of everything,
even the bed on which lay a woman on the point of confinement. But a
single sheet was left to cover the woman upon a winter’s night, who,
before morning became a mother.” In 1776, there arrived at Fort George,
in a starving state, Mrs. Nellis, Mrs. Secord, Mrs. Young, Mrs. Buck and
Mrs. Bonnar, with thirty-one children, whom the circumstances of the
rebellion had driven away. Talk about the cruelty of Indians and of Tory
oppression. The unprincipled rebels did well to try to hide their
ignominious deeds behind the fabrications respecting the doings of
Butler’s Rangers, and the noble-minded Brant. May we not cease to wonder
that the descendants of the rebels in the year 1866, endeavour to hound
on a pack of thieves and murderers to possess themselves of the homes
our fathers sought out for us. The self-applauding writers of the
revolutionary war, found it convenient to forget the doings of the “Sons
of Liberty” and of Sullivan, while they laid to the charge of Butler’s
Rangers and the Indians, acts of inhumanity (which we are informed on
good authority are unfounded, Butler having never abused woman or
child.) In the same manner, Secretary Seward found it desirable to
falsify dates, by saying the Fenians invaded Canada on the 6th of June,
that it might appear he had vindicated promptly their neutrality laws;
whereas they actually crossed, and engaged in battle, on the morning of
the 2nd. But as time will fully bring out the facts connected with the
first American rebellion, and place them face to face with one-sided
history, so will faithful history record the whole truth of the infamous
invasion of our country by a band of American citizens with United
States arms in their hands. Those deeds of blood, enacted by men under
the hypocritical cry of liberty have not been forgotten by the United
Empire Loyalists, but have been handed down to us, to place on record
against the cruel actors.

Hostilities ceased 19th April, 1783, and on the 20th September, the
independence of the United States was acknowledged.

The recognition of independence by Great Britain, was the death knell to
the cherished hopes of the loyalists. Many had escaped into the
provinces, and many were in the army, and not a few were in England.
Although the majority of them had been driven away, a few still remained
in those places, yet held by the British forces, as New York. “When the
news of peace became known, the city presented a scene of distress not
easily described. Adherents to the Crown, who were in the army, tore the
lapels from their coats and stamped them under their feet, and exclaimed
that they were ruined; others cried out they had sacrificed everything
to prove their loyalty, and were now left to shift for themselves,
without the friendship of their king or country. Previous to the
evacuation, and in September, upwards of 12,000 men, women, and
children, embarked at the city, at Long and Staten Islands, for Nova
Scotia and the Bahamas,” and for Canada. “Some of these victims to civil
war tried to make merry at their doom, by saying they were bound to a
lovely country, where there are nine months winter and three months cold
weather every year, while others, in their desperation tore down their
houses, and had they not been prevented, would have carried off the
bricks of which they were built.” The British had possessed New York
since 15th September, 1776, and on the 25th November, 1783, yielded it
up to the Americans. This is “Evacuation day.”

When Cornwallis surrendered he vainly tried to obtain a promise of
protection for the Loyal Americans, who, in part, formed his army.
Failing in this, he sent an armed vessel away with a large number.

At this time beside the many who had become refugees, there were some
loyalists scattered through the States. Many of these remained in the
now Independent States, and many of them would have returned, to become
faithful citizens under the new order of things, had they been allowed
so to do. But the young Republic knew not how to be magnanimous to those
whom the fortunes of war had left in great distress—whom they had
conquered, and the United Empire Loyalists were made aliens from their
native homes. Their property must be confiscated, and many being large
land owners, rich prizes were thus secured. While the conflict continued
to rage there was some excuse, but when war had ceased, and everything
had been accomplished that the most craving rebel could wish, it was a
ruthless, an ungenerous, nay, a base proceeding on the part of the
revolutionists, to force away their very brethren, often related by the
ties of consanguinity. But it was a spirit as unprincipled as this,
which instigated the rebellion, and which characterized the vast
majority of those who fought under the sacred name of liberty, and such
was the spirit of the conquerors.

The successful rebels determined to possess themselves of the lands and
property of the loyalists, even in violation of treaty. The action of
Congress was sufficiently high-handed and wanting in generosity; but the
proceedings of the State Legislatures, with a few exceptions, were
execrable—characterized by ignoble and vindictive passion.

The Legislatures of each state took early steps to punish the adherents
of Britain, to dispossess them of their property, and to banish them.
Massachusetts took the lead in dealing severely against the loyalists. A
rebel magistrates’ warrant was sufficient to banish one. Hundreds of
Massachusetts Loyalists were prohibited from returning on penalty of
imprisonment and even death. And the other States were active in
“attainting” and confiscating, often without the form of trial. Each
State carried on its function as a government, and trials ought to have
been granted, in common justice to every one. But the Whigs were
intolerant, hot-headed, malevolent, unforgiving. It has been said that
“if it be conceded that rebellion against England was right, then every
step necessary to success was justifiable.” If we grant all this there
remains the fact that after success had crowned rebellion, persecution
and confiscation continued. New York, on the 12th May, 1784, passed “An
act for the speedy sale of the confiscated and forfeited estates within
the States.” The powers consisted in the appointment of “commissioners
of forfeitures.” Among those who lost their land was one Davoe. He had
300 acres near New York, twenty miles, which was confiscated and given
to the notorious Tom Paine, the infidel, whose extreme liberal views
expressed in his work, “Common Sense,” made him the friend of
Washington, and revolutionists generally. Paine, after taking part in
the French Revolutions, came, in 1802, to his place in New York, where
he enjoyed the loyalists’ confiscated property until his death, 8th
June, 1809.

In the terms of peace signed at Paris, there was no security effected
for the losses sustained by the American Loyalists.

As Burgoyne at his inglorious surrender at Saratoga, thought not of the
innocent inhabitants of the Mohawk and Hudson, who had identified
themselves with the loyal cause, and supplied his troops with
provisions, and left them to the merciless “Sons of Liberty,” to be
despoiled of their all, and exposed to fearful cruelty, so at the last,
when the British Government relinquished the attempt to subdue
rebellion, the American Loyalists were of remote consideration. We can
gather now but the outlines of this great wrong done unto noble men. The
particulars are buried in the wreck of fortune, and of happiness,
respecting all worldly matters. The after life of the loyalists was of
too earnest a nature to allow time to place on record the sufferings,
and the wanderings of the disinherited. The lost cause did not stimulate
men to draw upon imagination, such as may be found in gaudy-hued
descriptions of American revolutionary heroes, male and female. But
there is sufficient of facts recorded, and engraven by the iron pen of
extreme anguish upon hearts, that were of flesh, to stamp the
persecutors with infamy, and mark the refugees, that clustered around
the border forts, and found homes at Sorel, Lachine, and Montreal, with
the highest attributes of patriotism and love of country.

The conduct of the ministry, and the commissioners at Paris is open to
the severest censure. They left the claims of the loyalists to be
decided by the American Congress. We may allow them the credit of having
held the belief, that this body would be actuated by a feeling of
justice and right, but the error was a grave one, the wrong grievous and
hard to be endured. In pursuing this course, the British ministry did
not escape condemnation by members of Parliament, and a feeling of
sympathy was evoked that led to a tardy dispensing of justice. Lord
North said “that never were the honor, the principles, the policy of a
nation, so grossly abused as in the desertion of those men, who are now
exposed to every punishment that desertion and poverty can inflict,
because they were not rebels.” Mr. Sheridan “execrated the treatment of
those unfortunate men, who, without the least notice taken of their
civil and religious rights, were handed over as subjects to a power that
would not fail to take vengeance on them for their zeal and attachment
to the religion and government of the mother country,” “and he called it
a crime to deliver them over to confiscation, tyranny, resentment and
oppression.” Lord Loughborough said that “in ancient nor modern history
had there been so shameful a desertion of men who had sacrificed all to
their duty and to their reliance upon British faith.” Others, in terms
of equal severity, denounced the ministry in Parliament for their
neglect. The ministry admitted it all, but excused themselves by the
plea that “a part must be wounded, that the whole of the empire may not
perish”—that they “had but the alternative, either to accept the terms
proposed, or continue the war.”

“A number of loyalists in England, came to the United States to claim
restitution of their estates, but their applications were unheeded,”
except to imprison, and banish them.

The treaty of peace signed, without any provision for the suffering
loyalists, they at once took steps to petition the Imperial Parliament
for justice. “They organized an agency, and appointed a Committee,
composed of one delegate, or agent from each of the thirteen States, to
enlighten the British public.” “At the opening of Parliament the King,
in his speech from the throne, alluded to the ‘American sufferers’ and
trusted generous attention would be shewn to them.” An act was
consequently passed creating a “Board of Commissioners” to examine the
claims preferred. The claimants were divided into six classes.

“_First Class._—Those who had rendered service to Great Britain.”

“_Second Class._—Those who had borne arms for Great Britain.”

“_Third Class._—Uniform Loyalists.”

“_Fourth Class._—Loyal British subjects residents in Great Britain.”

“_Fifth Class._—Loyalists who had taken oaths to the American States,
but afterward joined the British.”

“_Sixth Class._—Loyalists who had borne arms for the American States,
and afterwards joined the British navy or army.”

The claimants had to state in writing, and specifically the nature of
their losses. Great and unnecessary caution was observed by the Board.
The rigid rules of examinations caused much dissatisfaction and gave the
Board the name of “Inquisition.”

The 26th of March, 1784, was the latest period for presenting claims,
which was allowed, and on or before that day, the number of claimants
was two thousand and sixty-three. A “second report which was made in
December of the same year, shows that one hundred and twenty-eight
additional cases had been disposed of.” In May and July 1865, one
hundred and twenty-two cases more were disposed of. In April 1786, one
hundred and forty more were attended to. The commissioners proceeded
with their investigations during the years 1786 and 1787. “Meantime” and
to her honor be it said “South Carolina had restored the estates of
several of her loyalists.”

Years passed away before the commissioners had decided upon all the
claims, and great and loud was the complaint made by the claimants. The
press was invoked to secure a more prompt concession of justice,
pamphlets were published on their behalf, and one printed in 1788, five
years after the peace, contained the following: “It is well that this
delay of justice has produced the most melancholy and shocking events. A
number of the sufferers have been driven by it into insanity, and become
their own destroyers, leaving behind them their helpless widows and
orphans to subsist upon the cold charity of strangers. Others have been
sent to cultivate a wilderness for their subsistence, without having the
means, and compelled through want, to throw themselves on the mercy of
the American States, and the charity of their former friends, to support
the life which might have been made comfortable by the money long since
due from the British Government, and many others, with their families
are barely subsisting upon a temporary allowance from government, a mere
pittance when compared with the sum due them.”

The total number of claimants was 5,072, of whom 924 withdrew or failed
to make good the claim. The sum of money allowed was £3,294,452. We have
seen there was, in addition, given to the widows and orphans, between
20,000 and 30,000 pounds.

There is no doubt that a certain number of the claimants were impostors,
while many asked remuneration above what their losses had actually been,
and this caused the commissioners to examine more closely the claims
proffered. But it is submitted that they ought, in dealing with the
money already granted by a considerate Parliament, to have leaned on the
side of clemency.

At the close of the contest there were a large number of Refugees in
Lower Canada, especially at Fort St. John, about twenty-nine miles from
Montreal. In the main these were American born, and principally from the
New England States; yet there were representatives from England,
Ireland, Scotland and Germany. Besides the Refugees, there were several
Provincial Corps, which were no longer to be retained in the service,
but to be disbanded. Of these there was the 84th, often called Johnson’s
regiment, this was 800 strong, mostly Dutch, from the Mohawk, and
Hudson, descendants of the old stock. This regiment consisted of two
corps, one under Major Jessup, stationed at St. John’s, and the other
under Rogers, a part of which at least, was stationed at Fort Oswego.
Jessup’s corps became the first pioneers upon the St. Lawrence, and
Rogers among the first along the Bay of Quinté. Both settled in 1784.
There were other troops stationed at St. John’s, and likewise not a few
who had discharged irregular, but important duties, as scouts, and in
other ways.

It has been generally estimated that at the close of the struggle, and
as a result, there were distributed of American Loyalists upon the
shores of Canada, about 10,000. At the first, most of these were in
Lower Canada, but there were likewise a few at the frontier forts upon
the Upper waters, and a few detached squatters. Then, “there was not a
single tree cut from the (present) Lower Province line to Kingston, 150
miles; and at Kingston there were but a few surrounding huts; and from
thence all around Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, with the exception of a
few Indian huts on some desolate spot of hunting ground, all was a dense
wilderness.” (Ex Sheriff Sherwood.)

“A proclamation was issued,” says Croil in his history of Dundas, “that
all who wished to continue their allegiance to Britain, should peaceably
rendezvous at certain points on the frontiers. These were, Sackets
Harbour, Carleton Island, Oswego and Niagara, on the Upper Canada
confines; and Isle Aux Nois, on the borders of Lower Canada. Jessup’s
Corps was stationed at Isle Aux Nois, and late in the autumn of 1783,
the soldiers were joined by their wives and little ones, who had
wandered the weary way on foot, to Whitehall, through swamps and
forest,—beset with difficulties, dangers, and privations innumerable.
The soldiers met them there with boats, and conveyed them the rest of
their journey by water, through Lake Champlain. Imagination fails us
when we attempt to form an idea of the emotions that filled their
hearts, as families, that had formerly lived happily together,
surrounded with peace and plenty, and had been separated by the rude
hand of war, now met each other’s embrace, in circumstances of abject
poverty. A boisterous passage was before them, in open boats, exposed to
the rigors of the season—a dreary prospect of the coming winter, to be
spent in pent up barracks, and a certainty should they be spared, of
undergoing a lifetime of such hardships, toil and privation, as are
inseparable from the settlement of a new country.” As soon as the
journey was accomplished, the soldiers and their families, were embarked
in boats, sent down to Richelieu to Sorel, thence to Montreal, and on to
Cornwall, by the laborious and tedious route of the St. Lawrence. (See
settlement of Ernest town.)

                              CHAPTER VII.

  CONTENTS—A spirit of strife—The French war—British American Troops—
    Former comrades opposed—Number of U. E. Loyalists in the field—
    General Burgoyne—Defeat—First reverse of British arms—The
    campaign—Colonel St. Leger—Fort Stanwix—Colonel Baume—Battle of
    Bennington—General Herkimer—Gates—Schuyler—Braemar Heights—
    Saratoga—Surrender—The result upon the people—Sir John Johnson—Sir
    William—Sketch—Indian Chief—Laced coat—Indian’s dream—It comes to
    pass—Sir William dreams—It also comes to pass—Too hard a dream—Sir
    John—Attempt to arrest—Escape—Starving—Royal Greens—Johnson’s
    losses—Living in Canada—Death—Principal Corps of Royalists—King’s
    Rangers—Queen’s Rangers—Major Rogers—Simcoe—The Rangers in Upper
    Canada—Disbanded—The Hessians.

The seven years’ war between Canada and New England, in which a large
number of the Colonists were engaged, had created not a few officers of
military worth and talent, while a spirit of strife and contention had
been engendered among the people generally. The Colonial war, carried on
with so much determination, was stimulated, not so much by the English
nation at home as by New Englanders. It was they who were chiefly
interested in the overthrow of French power in Canada. While money and
men had been freely granted by the Imperial Government, the several
colonies had also freely contributed. They “furnished in that war quite
twenty-eight thousand men, in more than one of the campaigns, and every
year to the extent of their ability.” “On the ocean, full twelve
thousand seamen were enlisted in the Royal Navy and in the Colonial
Privateers.” In this manner had been formed a taste for military life,
which waited to be gratified, or sought for food. When, therefore, the
unsavory acts of England wounded the Colonial vanity, and demagogues
traversed the country to embitter the feelings of the mass against the
king, the hot-headed were not slow to advise an appeal to arms. At the
same time, the loyal in heart, the conservators of Imperial interest,
viewing with wonder and alarm the manifestation of fratricidal war—of
rebellion, felt it their duty to take up arms against the unprincipled
(and often dishonest) agitators, and endeavor to crush out the spirit of
revolt. And thus it came, that very many who had fought side by side at
Ticonderoga, Crown Point, Duquesne, Niagara, Oswego, Frontenac,
Montreal, and around Quebec, under a common flag, were now to be arrayed
in hostile bands. Not state against state, nor yet merely neighbor
against neighbor, but brother against brother, and father against son!
Civil war, of all wars, is the most terrible: in addition to the horrors
of the battle-field, there is an upheaving of the very foundation of
society. All the feelings of brotherhood, of Christian love, are
paralyzed, and the demon of destruction and cruelty is successfully

Behold, then, the British Americans divided into two parties; each
buckling on the armor to protect from the other, and sharpening the
weapons of warfare to encounter his kindred foe. The contest of 1776-‘83
is most generally looked upon as one between the English and Americans;
but in reality it was, at first—so far as fighting went—between the
conservative and rebel Americans. In an address to the king, presented
by the loyalists in 1779, it is stated that the number of native
Americans in his service exceeded those enlisted by Congress. Another
address, in 1782, says that “there are more men in his Majesty’s
provincial regiments than there is in the continental service.” Sabine
says that “there were 25,000, at the lowest computation.” If such be the
case, the question may well be asked, how came it that the rebels
succeeded? Looking at the matter from our distant stand-point, through
the light of events we find recorded, there seems but one conclusion at
which we may arrive, namely, that the disaster to the British arms was
due—altogether due—to the incapacity of certain of the generals to whom
was intrusted the Imperial interests in America.

                        THE COMBATANTS—BURGOYNE.

The most notable instance of mistaken generalship was that of Burgoyne.
His campaign in the summer of 1777, and the final overthrow of his army
and surrender at Saratoga, will engage our particular attention;
inasmuch as it was the first decided reverse to the British arms, and by
giving courage to the rebels, assisted much to further their cause.
Thereby their faith was strengthened, and the number of rebels increased
from no inconsiderable class, who waited to join the strongest party.
Again, the scene of this campaign was close to the borders of Canada,
and there followed a speedy escape of the first refugees from the Mohawk
valley and the Upper Hudson to the friendly shores of the St. Lawrence.

A year had elapsed since the Declaration of Independence, and England
had sent troops to America, with the view of assisting the forces there
to subdue the malcontents. In the early part of July, Burgoyne set out
from Lower Canada with about 8,500 soldiers, 500 Indians, and 150
Canadians, intending to traverse the country to Albany, possessing
himself of all rebel strongholds on the way, and thence descend along
the river Hudson, to New York, to form a junction with General Howe,
that city having been captured from the rebels the 15th September
previous. Passing by way of Lake Champlain, he encountered the enemy on
the 6th July, and captured Ticonderoga and Mount Independence, with 128
cannon, several armed vessels, a quantity of baggage, ammunition and
provisions. “This easy conquest inflamed his imagination.” The first
step towards the defeat of his army was the unsuccessful attempt of
Colonel St. Leger, with 800 men, who ascended the St. Lawrence to
Oswego, and thence up the river, to take Fort Stanwix (Rome), intending
to descend the Mohawk and join Burgoyne with his main force, as he
entered the head of the valley of the Hudson. Colonel St. Leger arrived
at Fort Stanwix on the 3rd August, 1777. For a time he was the winner;
but for some reason, it is said that the Indians suddenly left him, and
his troops, seized with a panic, fled. In the meantime, General Burgoyne
was pursuing his way, having driven General Schuyler from Lake St.
George to the mouth of the Mohawk river.

Burgoyne, flushed with this renewed success, after his late capture of
Ticonderoga and Mount Independence, vainly supposed he could advance
steadily down the Hudson. He sent a body of men, 500 strong, under
Colonel Baume, into the interior, eastward, with the view of encouraging
the inhabitants to continued loyalty, and of arresting the machinations
of the rebels. Near Bennington the rebels had an important post, with
magazines, and a large force under General Stark. Baume, ignorant of
their strength, rushed headlong against the enemy. Nothing daunted, he
led on his 500 brave men. For two hours he contended with the unequal
foe, when his troops were almost annihilated, and he fell from his
horse, mortally wounded. But few escaped to tell the tale. Meanwhile,
Burgoyne, apprised of the danger surrounding Baume, had sent assistance
under Colonel Breynan. Unfortunately, they had not much ammunition, and,
after fighting until all was exhausted, they had to flee. These three
reverses paved the way for the final overthrow of Burgoyne. He was still
marching forward, bent on reaching Albany, to accomplish the object of
the campaign—a juncture with the army of General Howe. But now in his
rear, to the west, instead of Colonel St. Leger descending the Mohawk,
was General Herkimer, who had dispersed St. Leger’s force; and to the
east was General Stark, flushed with his victories over Baume and
Breynan. Burgoyne met Gates at last on Braemar heights, and again, and
for the last time, led his troops on to victory, although the contest
was well sustained. General Schuyler had intrenched his forces at the
mouth of the Mohawk, and Burgoyne, having waited until his provision was
exhausted, at last resolved to make an assault. It was bravely made, but
without success; and before night-fall the army was retreating. Night,
instead of enabling them to regain their spirits and renew their ardor,
only brought the intelligence of the defeats previously sustained at
Stanwix and Bennington. This was the 7th October. Flight now was the
only possible chance for safety. The tents were left standing; his sick
and wounded forsaken. But the enemy now surrounded him; the places he
had taken were already re-taken; and upon the 10th of the month he found
himself helpless upon the fields of Saratoga, where he surrendered. The
whole of the men were sent to Boston and other places south, there to
languish in prison.

Thus it came that the inhabitants in this section of the country came
under the power of the rebels, and those who had adhered to the loyal
side were mercilessly driven away at the point of the bayonet. The
writer has heard too many accounts of the extreme cruelty practised at
this time to doubt that such took place, or question the fiendish nature
of the acts practised by the successful rebels against, not foes in
arms, but the helpless. Many thus driven away (and these were the first
refugees who entered Canada) suffered great hardships all through the
winter. Most of the men entered the ranks subsequently, while not a few,
from their knowledge of the country, undertook the trying and
venturesome engagement of spies. The families gathered around the forts
upon the borders had to live upon the fare supplied by the commissariat
of the army. A large number were collected at Mishish; and the story
goes that a Frenchman, whose duty it was to deal out the supplies, did
so with much of bad conduct and cruel treatment.

                           SIR JOHN JOHNSON.

Among the officers who served with General Burgoyne was Sir John
Johnson, who had been the first to suffer persecution, the first to
become a refugee, and who became a principal pioneer in Upper Canada.

“His father, Sir William Johnson, was a native of Ireland, of whom it
was said, in 1755, that he had long resided upon the Mohawk river, in
the western part of New York, where he had acquired a considerable
estate, and was universally beloved, not only by the inhabitants but
also by the neighboring Indians, whose language he had learned and whose
affections he had gained, by his humanity and affability. This led to
his appointment as agent for Indian affairs, on the part of Great
Britain, and he was said to be ‘the soul of all their transactions with
the savages.’”

Of Sir William’s talents and shrewdness in dealing with the likewise
shrewd Indian, the following is found in Sabine: “Allen relates that on
his receiving from England some finely-laced clothes, the Mohawk chief
became possessed with the desire of equalling the baronet in the
splendor of his apparel, and, with a demure face, pretended to have
dreamed that Sir William had presented him with a suit of the decorated
garments. As the solemn hint could not be mistaken or avoided, the
Indian monarch was gratified, and went away, highly pleased with the
success of his device. But alas for Hendrick’s shortsighted sagacity! In
a few days Sir William, in turn, had a dream, to the effect that the
chief had given him several thousand acres of land. ‘The land is yours,’
said Hendrick, ‘but now, Sir William, I never dream with you again, you
dream too hard for me.’”

At the breaking out of the revolutionary war, Sir John, who had
succeeded to his father’s title, appears, also, to have inherited his
influence with the Indians, and to have exerted that influence to the
utmost in favor of the Royal cause. By this means he rendered himself
particularly obnoxious to the continentals, as the Americans were then
called. Accordingly, in 1776, Colonel Dayton, with part of his regiment,
was sent to arrest him, and thus put it out of his power to do further
mischief. Receiving timely notice of this from his tory friends at
Albany, he hastily assembled a large number of his tenants and others,
and made preparations for a retreat, which he successfully accomplished.

“Avoiding the route by Lake Champlain, from fear of falling into the
hands of the enemy, who were supposed to be assembled in that direction,
he struck deep into the woods, by way of the head waters of the Hudson,
and descended the Raquette river, to its confluence with the St.
Lawrence, and thence crossed over to Canada. Their provision failed soon
after they had left their homes. Weary and foot-sore, numbers of them
sank by the way, and had to be left behind, but were shortly afterwards
relieved by a party of Indians, who were sent from Caughnawaga in search
of them. After nineteen days of hardship, which have had few parallels
in our history, they reached Montreal. So hasty was their flight, that
the family papers were buried in the garden, and nothing taken with them
but such articles as were of prime necessity.” Soon after his arrival at
Montreal he was “commissioned a colonel, and raised two battalions of
loyalists, who bore the designation of the Royal Greens. From the time
of organizing this corps, he became one of the most active, and one of
the bitterest foes that the whigs encountered during the contest. So
true is it, as was said by the wise man of Israel, that ‘a brother
offended is harder to be won than a strong city, and their contentions
are like the bars of a castle.’ Sir John was in several regular and
fairly conducted battles. He invested Fort Stanwix in 1777, and defeated
the brave General Herkimer; and in 1780 was defeated himself by General
Van Rensselaer, at Fox’s Mills.”

The result of his adherence to the Crown was, that his extensive family
estates upon the Mohawk were confiscated; but at the close of the war he
received large grants of land in various parts of Canada, beside a
considerable sum of money. He continued to be Superintendent of Indian
affairs, and resided in Montreal until his death, in 1822.

                         THE LOYAL COMBATANTS.

The following are the principal corps and regiments of loyalists who
took part in the war against the rebels, and who were mainly Americans:

“The King’s Rangers; the Royal Fencible Americans; the Queen’s Rangers;
the New York Volunteers; the King’s American regiment; the Prince of
Wales’ American Volunteers; the Maryland Loyalists; De Lancey’s
Battalions; the Second American regiment; the King’s Rangers, Carolina;
the South Carolina Royalists; the North Carolina Highland Regiment; the
King’s American Dragoons; the Loyal American Regiment; the American
Legion; the New Jersey Volunteers; the British Legion; the Loyal
Foresters; the Orange Rangers; the Pennsylvania Loyalists; the Guides
and Pioneers; the North Carolina Volunteers; the Georgia Loyalists; the
West Chester Volunteers. These corps were all commanded by colonels or
lieutenant-colonels; and as De Lancey’s battalions and the New Jersey
Volunteers consisted each of three battalions, there were twenty-eight.
To these, the Loyal New Englanders, the Associated Loyalists and
Wentworth’s Volunteers, remain to be added. Still further, Colonel
Archibald Hamilton, of New York, commanded at one period seventeen
companies of loyal Militia.”

Respecting the officers and more prominent men of the corps, who settled
in Canada, we have succeeded in collecting the following account.

                          THE QUEEN’S RANGERS.

This corps acted a very conspicuous part during the war. It was raised
by Major Robert Rogers, of New Hampshire, son of James Rogers. He had
served during the French war, with distinction, as commander of Rogers’
Rangers, and was, “in 1776, appointed Governor of Michilimackinac.
During the early part of the rebellion he was in the revolting states,
probably acting as a spy, and was in correspondence with the rebel
Congress, and with Washington himself. He was imprisoned at New York,
but was released on parole, which, it is said, he broke (like General
Scott in 1812), and accepted the commission of colonel in the British
army, and proceeded to raise the corps mentioned.” About 1777 “he went
to England, and Simcoe succeeded him as commander of the Queen’s

Sabine, speaking of John Brown Lawrence, says he was imprisoned in the
Burlington gaol, New Jersey, and that “Lieut.-Colonel John G. Simcoe,
commander of the Queen’s Rangers, was a fellow-prisoner, and when
exchanged said, at parting, ‘I shall never forget your kindness.’ He did
not: and when appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, he invited
Mr. Lawrence to settle there,” and, through the Governor, he acquired a
large tract of land.

The Queen’s Rangers were disbanded in 1802, having been associated with
the events of the first government of Upper Canada, their colonel
(Simcoe) having been the first Governor. A detachment of this regiment
were stationed upon the banks of the Don, before there was a single
white inhabitant where now stands Toronto.

                          FERGUSON’S RANGERS.

This corps formed a part of Burgoyne’s army at the time of surrendering,
and, “with other provincial prisoners, retired to Canada, by permission
of Gates.”

                             THE HESSIANS.

The British Government, during the course of the war, procured some
foreign troops from one of the German Principalities upon the Rhine,
mostly from Hesse-Hamburg. This foreign legion was under the command of
General Baron de Reidesel, of their own country. It would seem from the
testimony of their descendants in Marysburgh, that the British
Government employed the men from the Government of the principality, and
that the men did not voluntarily enter the service, but were impressed.
These Hessians were drilled before leaving their country. They were
composed of infantry, artillery, and a rifle company, “Green Yongers.”
They were embarked for Canada, by way of Portsmouth, and reached Quebec
in time to join the British army, and meet the enemy at Stillwater.
Conrad Bongard, of Marysburgh, informs us that his father was one of the
company under General Reidesel. He was in the artillery, and accompanied
Burgoyne in his eventful campaign; was at the battle of Tyconderoga;
and, with the rest of the Hessian troops, was taken prisoner at
Saratoga. They were taken down to Virginia, and there retained as
prisoners of war for nearly two years. Being released on parole, many of
them, with their General, were conveyed back to Germany; but some of
them, having the alternative, preferred to remain in America, to share
with the loyalists in grants of land. (See Marysburgh, where the
Hessians settled). Conrad Bongard became the servant of Surveyor
Holland, and was with him as he proceeded up the St. Lawrence, to
survey. Bongard married a widow Carr, whose husband had been in the 24th
regiment of Royal Fusileers, and had died while the prisoners were
retained in Virginia. He eventually settled in the fifth township, where
he died, January, 1840, aged 89. His wife, Susan, died February, 1846,
aged 98. Both were members of the Lutheran church. Mrs. B. was a native
of Philadelphia.

The wife of the General, Baroness de Reidesel, has left an interesting
record of the battles prior to Burgoyne’s surrender.

                             CHAPTER VIII.

  CONTENTS—Indian Names—The Five Tribes—The Sixth—Confederation—
    Education—Married—Teaching—Christianity—Brant elected Chief—
    Commissioned a British Captain—Visits England—Returns—Leads his
    warriors to battle—Efforts of Rebels to seduce Brant to their
    cause—Attempted treachery of the Rebel Herchimer—Border warfare—
    Wyoming—Attempt to blacken the character of Brant—His noble
    conduct—Untruthful American History—The inhabitants of Wyoming—The
    Rebels first to blame—Cherry Valley—Van Schaick—Bloody orders—
    Terrible conduct of the Rebels, Helpless Indian families—Further
    deeds of blood and rapine by the rebel Sullivan—A month of
    horrible work—Attributes of cruelty more conspicuous in the Rebels
    than in the Indians—The New Englander—Conduct toward the Indians—
    Inconsistent—The “down trodden”—The Mohawks—Indian agriculture—
    Broken faith with the Indians—Noble conduct of Brant—After the
    war—His family—Death—Miss Molly—Indian usage—The character of the
    Mohawk—The six Indians as Canadians—Fidelity to the British—
    Receiving land—Bay Quinté—Grand River—Settling—Captain Isaac,
    Captain John—At present—Mohawk Counsel.

                            THE SIX NATIONS.

This once powerful Confederacy styled themselves Kan-ye-a-ke; also, they
sometimes called themselves _Aganuschioni_ or _Agnanuschioni_, which
signifies _united_ people. The French designated them Iroquois, from a
peculiar sound of their speech. The English knew them as the _Five
Nations_, and _Six Nations_, more generally by the latter term. The
original five tribes that formed the Confederacy, were the Mohawks,
Oneidas, Cayugas, Onondagas, and Senecas. Subsequently in 1712, the
Tuscaroras came from the south, North Carolina, and made the sixth
nation. But according to some authority, there were six nations before
the Tuscaroras joined them. However, we learn from several sources, that
up to 1712, the English, in speaking of them, referred to only five
nations. The Oneidas seem, at one time, to have been omitted, and the
Aucguagas inserted in their stead. The oldest members of the
confederation were the Mohawks, Onondagas, and Senecas. The union of
those three tribes took place prior to the occupation of America by the
Europeans. The time at which the confederation of the five nations was
formed is uncertain, but it is supposed to have been in the early part
of the sixteenth century. The league binding them together was rather of
a democratic nature.

Each tribe was represented in the great council of the nation by one
principal sachem, with a number of associates.

They were always deliberate in their councils, considerate in their
decisions, never infringing upon the rights of a minority, and dignified
in their utterances. They were noted, not only as warriors, but as well
for their agriculture, their laws, and their oratorical ability.

Each tribe was subdivided into classes, and each of these had a device
or “totem,” namely, the tortoise, the bear, the wolf, the beaver, the
deer, the falcon, the plover, and the crane.

They were for hundreds of years the terror of the various Indian tribes
peopling North America, and most of the time could at will, roam the
wide expanse between the Hudson Bay and the Carolinas. Other tribes, too
weak to oppose them, were from time to time completely exterminated. Of
these was the Erie tribe, which had entirely disappeared by the year
1653. Of those who stubbornly resisted the Six Nations, were the Hurons,
the Adirondacks, of the north, the Delawares, the Cherokees, and the

Smith, an historian of New York, says that in 1756 “Our Indians
universally concur in the claim of all the lands not sold to the
English, from the mouth of Sorel River, on the south side of Lakes Erie
and Ontario, on both sides of the Ohio, till it falls into the
Mississippi; and on the north side of those lakes, that whole territory
between the Outaouais River, and the Lake Huron, and even beyond the
straits between that and Lake Erie.”

“When the Dutch began the settlement of New York, all the Indians on
Long Island, and the northern shore of the Sound, on the banks of the
Connecticut, Hudson, Delaware, and Susquehanna rivers, were in
subjection to the Five Nations,” and in 1756, “a little tribe, settled
at the Sugar-loaf Mountain, in Orange County, made a yearly payment of
about £20 to the Mohawks.”

Among the traditions of this people is one that they had a supernatural
origin from the heart of a mountain, that they then migrated to the
west, where they lived for a time by the sea shore. Then, in time
returned to the country of the lakes. A country now passed into the
hands of the white man, who paid no just price. But the names of many
places yet indicate the history of the ancient owners of the soil.

Among the Mohawks, in the beginning of the eighteenth century, was a
chief known as Old King Hendrick, or Soi-euga-rah-ta, renowned for
eloquence, bravery, and integrity. He was intimate with Sir William
Johnson, and it was between them that the amusing contention of dreams
occurred, that has been narrated.

In 1755, a battle was fought at Lake George, between the French, under
Baron Dieskau, and the English, under Johnson, resulting in the defeat
of the French. The French and English were supported by their respective
allies. At this engagement Old King Hendrick, then seventy years old,
but still full of energy and courage, was killed. Strangely enough it
was at this battle that Brant, then only thirteen years old, first took
part with his tribe in the contest. The mantle of Soieugarahta fell upon
the youthful Thayendinagea.

_Thayendinagea_, or _Joseph Brant_, was born upon the banks of the
Ohio, in the year 1742, while his tribe was on a visit to that
region. According to Stone, his biographer, he was the son of
“Tehowaghwengaraghkwin a full-blooded Mohawk, of the Wolf tribe.”

After the battle at Lake George, Brant continued with his people under
Johnson till the close of that bloody war. At its close, about 1760,
Brant, with several other young Indians, was placed by Johnson at Moor
School, Lebanon, Connecticut. After acquiring some knowledge of the
rudiments of literature, he left the school to engage in active warfare
with the Pontiacs and Ottawas. In 1765, we find him married and settled
in his own house at the Mohawk Valley. It is said he was not married,
except in the Indian mode, until the winter of 1779, when at Niagara,
seeing a Miss Moore, a captive, married, he was also thus married by
Colonel John Butler, to a half-breed, the daughter of Colonel Croghan,
by an Indian woman. Here he spent a quiet and peaceful life for some
years, acting as interpreter in negotiations between his people and the
whites, and lending his aid to the efforts of the missionaries who were
engaged in the work of teaching and converting the Indians.

“Those who visited his house, spoke in high terms of his kindness and
hospitality.” Sir William Johnson died in 1774, and was succeeded by his
son-in-law, Colonel George Johnson, as Indian agent, who appointed Brant
his Secretary. The same year Johnson had to flee from the Mohawk,
westward, to escape being captured by a band of rebels. He was
accompanied by Brant and the principal warriors of the tribe. The rebels
vainly tried to win the Indians to their side; but excepting a few
Senecas, they preferred their long tried friends. The regular successor
of Old King Hendrick, was “little Abraham.” It is said he was well
disposed to the Americans, probably through jealousy of Brant. At all
events, Brant, by universal consent became the principal chief. He
proceeded with the other chiefs, and a large body of Indian warriors to
Montreal, where he was commissioned as a captain in the British army.
“In the fall of 1775, he sailed for England to hold personal conference
with the officers of government. He was an object of much curiosity at
London, and attracted the attention of persons of high rank and great
celebrity.” Brant returned to America in the spring following, landed
near New York, and made his way through his enemy’s country to Canada.
He placed himself at the head of his warriors, and led them on to many a
victory. The first of which was at the battle of “the Cedars.”

But the rebels did not cease endeavoring to seduce Brant to their cause.
In June, 1777, General Herkimer of the rebel militia approached Brant’s
head-quarters with a large force, ostensibly to treat on terms of
equality. Brant had reason to suspect treachery, and consequently would
not, for some time, meet Herkimer. After a week, however, he arranged to
see General Herkimer, but every precaution was taken against treachery,
and it appears that not without cause. Brant and Herkimer were old, and
had been intimate friends. Brant took with him a guard of about forty
warriors. It would seem that Herkimer’s intention was to try and
persuade Brant to come over to the rebels, and failing in this to have
Brant assassinated as he was retiring. Says an American writer,
Brownell, “We are sorry to record an instance of such unpardonable
treachery as Herkimer is said to have planned at this juncture. One of
his men, Joseph Waggoner, affirmed that the General privately exhorted
him to arrange matters so that Brant and his three principal associates
might be assassinated.” Well does it become the Americans to talk about
savage barbarity. Brant thwarted the intentions of his old friend by
keeping his forty warriors within call. During all of the repeated
attempts to get the Mohawks they never swerved, but reminded the rebels
of their old treaties with England, and the ill-treatment their people
had sustained at the hands of the colonists.

The head-quarters of Brant was at Oghkwaga, Owego, upon the Susquehanna.
During the summer of 1777 while Burgoyne was advancing, the Mohawks
under Brant rendered important service. In the attempt to capture Fort
Stanwix, they took a prominent part. In the summer of 1778 the Indians,
with Butler’s Rangers were engaged principally in border warfare. It was
during this season that the affair at Wyoming took place, which event
has been so extravagantly made use of to blacken the character of the
Indians and vilify the “tories.” That Brant was not inhuman, but that he
was noble, let recent American writers testify. Brownell says: “many an
instance is recorded of his interference, even in the heat of conflict,
to stay the hand uplifted against the feeble and helpless.”

It was in the latter part of June that a descent was planned upon the
settlements of Wyoming. Of this event, again we will let Brownell
speak:—“It has been a commonly received opinion that Brant was the Chief
under whom the Indian portion of the army was mustered, but it is now
believed that he had as little share in this campaign as in many other
scenes of blood long coupled with his name. There was no proof that he
was present at any of the scenes that we are about to relate.”

“No portion of the whole history of the revolution has been so distorted
in the narration as that connected with the laying waste of the valley
of Wyoming. No two accounts seem to agree, and historians have striven
to out-do each other in the violence of their expressions of
indignation, at cruelties and horrors which existed only in their
imaginations, or which came to them embellished with all the
exaggeration incident to reports arising amid scenes of excitement and

Wyoming had, for many years, been the scene of the bitterest hostility
between the settlers under the Connecticut grant, and those from
Pennsylvania. Although these warlike operations were upon a small scale,
they were conducted with great vindictiveness and treachery. Blood was
frequently shed, and as either party obtained the ascendency, small
favor was shown to their opponents, who were generally driven from their
homes in hopeless destitution. We cannot go into a history of these
early transactions, and only mention them as explanatory of the feelings
of savage animosity which were exhibited between neighbors, and even
members of the same family, who had espoused opposite interests in the
revolutionary contest.” Such, be it noted, was the character of the
inhabitants of Wyoming valley, who have been so long held up as innocent
victims of Indian barbarity. By the above, we learn that prior to this,
there had been contentions between the loyalists and rebels. The party
who entered Wyoming to attack the Fort, were under Colonel John Butler,
and were composed of some 300 British regulars and refugees, and 500
Indians. Now, it would seem that the depredation which was committed
after Colonel Zebulon Butler, the rebel leader, had been defeated, and
the Fort had capitulated, was to a great extent due to retaliatory steps
taken by the loyalists who previously had been forced away, and had seen
their homes committed to the flames. Such was the border warfare of
those days. It was not Indian savagery, it was a species of fighting
introduced by the “Sons of Liberty.” And if we condemn such mode of
fighting, let our condemnation rest first, and mainly upon those who
initiated it. Not upon the Indians, for they were led by white men—not
upon Brant, for he was not there—not so much upon the loyalists, for
they had been driven away from their homes; but let it be upon those who
introduced it.

The rebels were not slow to seek retribution for their losses at
Wyoming. Aided by a party of Oneidas who lent themselves to the rebels,
“Colonel Wm. Butler with a Pennsylvania regiment, entered the towns of
Unadilla and Oghkwaga, and burned and destroyed the buildings, together
with large stores of provisions intended for winter use.” In turn,
Walter Butler led a party of 700, a large number being Indians under
Brant, to attack a fort at Cherry Valley which was “garrisoned by troops
under Colonel Ichabod Alden.” It will be seen that the Indians and
loyalists did not enter an unprotected place to burn and destroy. They
attacked a garrison of troops. But the Indians exasperated by the cruel
procedure at Oghkwaga, became ungovernable, and about fifty men, women
and children fell by the tomahawk. This was the retaliation which the
Indian had been taught to regard as justifiable for the wrongs which had
been inflicted upon his own tribe—his little ones; yet be it remembered,
and later American writers admit it, that the commanders, Butler and
Brant, did all they could to restrain the terrible doings of the
exasperated men. “Specific instances are reported in which the Mohawk
Chief interfered, and successfully, to avert the murderous tomahawk.”

And now begins the bloody revenge which the rebels determined to inflict
upon the Indians, without respect to tribes. In April, 1779, Colonel Van
Schaick was despatched with a sufficient force for the purpose, with
instructions “to lay waste the whole of their towns, to destroy all
their cattle and property.” “The Colonel obeyed his orders to the
letter, and left nothing but blackened ruins behind him.” It was merely
a march of destruction, for the Indians were not there to oppose their
steps. The villages and property that were destroyed belonged to the
Onondagas, although they had not taken a decided stand with the loyalist
party. It was enough that they were Indians, and would not join the
rebels. But this was merely a prelude to what was preparing, in
pursuance of a resolution of the rebel congress. The infamous duty of
commanding this army of destruction, town destroyers the Indians called
them, was entrusted to General Sullivan, whose nature was adequate to
the requirements of the command.

On the 22nd August, 1779, five thousand men were concentrated at Tioga,
upon the Susquehanna. The men were prepared for their uncivilized duty
by promises of the territory over which they were about to sow blood and
fire. The Indians had no adequate force to oppose their march westward
over the Six Nations territory. Brant with his warriors, with the
Butlers and Johnsons made a gallant resistance upon the banks of the
Chemung, near the present town of Elmira. But, after suffering
considerable loss, the vastly superior force compelled them to flee, and
there remained nothing to arrest the devastating rebel army, and during
the whole month of September they continued the work of despoliation.

It has been the custom of almost all American historians to give the
Indians attributes of the most debasing character. At peace, unworthy
the advantages of civilization; at war, treacherous and ferociously
cruel. For this persistent and ungenerous procedure it is impossible to
conceive any cause, unless to supply an excuse for the steady course of
double-dealing the Americans have pursued toward the original owners of
the soil, and provide a covering for the oft-repeated treachery
practised toward the credulous Indian by the over-reaching New
Englander. To the Mohawk Nation particularly, since they proved true
allies of the British, have American writers found it agreeable to
bestow a character noted for blood and rapine. Nothing can be more
untrue than the character thus gratuitously portrayed, nothing more at
variance with the essential nature of the Indian, when free from
European intrigues, and the cursed fire-water. The aboriginal races of
North America are not by nature, blood-thirsty above Europeans. That
they are honest, just and true, capable of distinguishing between right
and wrong, with a due appreciation of well-kept faith, is well attested
by the conduct which has ever been observed by them toward, not alone
the Pennsylvanians, but every man found to be a Quaker. No instance can
be found recorded throughout the long bloody wars of the Indians, where
a hair of the head of a single man, woman or child of that denomination
was injured by the Indian; and thus because the upright Penn never
defrauded them. The Americans, while British colonists, with the
exception alluded to, made themselves obnoxious to almost all Indian
tribes. They never secured that hearty and faithful alliance that the
French did. There seemed to be something in the air, especially of the
New England States, which in a few generations blinded the eye, by which
the golden rule is to be observed.

The Americans, who have ever set themselves up as the champions, _par
excellence_, of liberty, to whom the “down-trodden of the old world”
could look for sympathy, if not direct support, have signally failed to
observe those lofty principles at home toward the natives of the soil,
while they continued for eighty years to keep in chains the sable sons
of Africa. They have found it convenient and plausible to prate about
the political “tyranny of European despots;” but no nation of northern
Europe has shown such disregard for the rights of their people as the
United States have exhibited toward the original owners of the soil.
Avarice has quite outgrown every principle of liberty that germinated
ere they came to America. The frontier men, the land-jobber, the New
England merchant, as well as the Southern Planter, have alike ignored
true liberty in defrauding the Indian, in sending out slavers, and in
cruel treatment of the slave. Then can we wonder that the noble-minded
Indian, naturally true to his faith, should, when cheated, wronged,—
cruelly wronged, with the ferocity natural to his race, visit the
faithless with terrible retribution?

The unbiassed records of the past, speak in tones that cannot be hushed,
of the more noble conduct of the natives, than of those who have sought
to exterminate them. The Mohawks, although brave warriors, fought not
for the mere love of it. They even at times strove to mediate between
the French and New Englanders.

To the Mohawks, the American writer has especially bestowed a name
bloody and ignoble. And all because they listened not to their wily
attempts to seduce them to join the rebels, but preferred to ally
themselves with the British. No doubt the Indian had long before
discriminated between the rule of British officers, and the selfish
policy of local governments. And hence, we find, in every scrap of paper
relating to the Mohawks, unfounded accounts of savage doings. But
taking, as true, the darkest pages written by the Americans against the
Six Nations, they present no parallel to the deeds of brutal vengeance
enacted by the American army under Sullivan, when he traversed the
fruitful country, so long the home of the Iroquois. Says an American
writer: “When the army reached the Genesee Valley, all were surprised at
the cultivation exhibited, by wide fields of corn, gardens well stocked,
their cattle, houses, and other buildings, showing good design, with
mechanical skill, and every kind of vegetable that could be conceived.
Beautiful as was the scene in the eyes of the army, a few days changed
it to utter desolation; neither house, nor garden, grain, fruit tree, or
vegetable, was left unscathed.”

Says Stone: “Forty Indian towns were destroyed. Corn gathered and
ungathered, to the amount of 160,000 bushels, shared the same fate;
their fruit trees were cut down; and the Indians were hunted like wild
beasts, till neither house, nor fruit tree, nor field of corn, nor
inhabitant, remained in the whole country.” And the poor Indian women,
and children, and old men, were thus left at the approaching winter to
seek support at the British garrisons. Truly the rebels of ‘76 were
brave and civilized!

Thirteen years after, one of the chiefs said to Washington, “Even to
this day, when the name of the town-destroyer is heard, our women look
behind them and turn pale, and our children cling close to the necks of
their mother; our sachems and our warriors are men, who cannot be
afraid, but their hearts are grieved with the fears of our women and
children.” Thus the brave Sullivan, with his thousand rebels, made war
against old men, women and children, who were living in their rightful
homes. This was fighting for liberty!

The blood of the Indian, as well as the slave, has risen up to reproach
the American, and it required much of fresh blood to wash away the
stains remaining from their deeds of cruelty and rapine, inflicted
during their revolutionary war, under the name of liberty. The soldiers
of Sullivan were stimulated in their evil work by promises of the land
they were sent to despoil; and the close of the war saw them return to
claim their promises, while the rightful owner was driven away. A
certain portion of the Six Nations having received pledges from the
United States Government for their welfare, remained to become subjects
of the new nation. But excepting Washington himself, and General
Schuyler, not one heeded their promises made to the Indian. The most
unjust proceedings were begun and ruthlessly carried on by individuals,
by companies, by legislators, by speculators, to steal every inch of
land that belonged by all that is right, to the Senecas. How unlike the
benignant and faithful conduct of the British Government in Canada.

Brant continued during the war to harass the enemy in every possible
way, and in the following year, August, planned a terrible, but just
retaliation for the work of Sullivan’s horde. It was now the turn of the
rebels to have their houses, provisions and crops, despoiled. But all
the while “no barbarities were permitted upon the persons of defenceless
women and children, but a large number of them were borne away into
captivity.” Again, in October, Johnson and Brant, with Corn Planter, a
distinguished Seneca chief, invaded the Mohawk Valley. In this foray,
the same conduct was observed toward women and children. On one
occasion, Brant sent an Indian runner with an infant, that had been
unintentionally carried from its mother with some captives, to restore
it. Still, again the following year, the Indians under Brant, and the
Royalists under Major Ross, were found over-running their old homes
along the Mohawk and Schoharie. On this their last expedition, they were
met by the rebels in force under Colonel Willet, with some Oneida
warriors, and defeated them. Colonel Walter N. Butler, whom the rebels
have so often tried to malign, was shot and scalped by an Oneida Indian,
under the command of the rebel Willet.

We learn by the foregoing that the Iroquois were not only brave as
warriors, but they had attained to a much higher position in the scale
of being than other tribes inhabiting America. They were not ignorant of
agriculture, nor indifferent to the blessings derived therefrom. The
rich uplands of the country lying to the north of the Alleghenies, were
made to contribute to their wants, as did the denizen of the forest.
They were equally at home, whether upon the war path, the trail of the
deer, or in the tilling of land. The plow of the Anglo-Saxon has not in
seventy years completely effaced the evidences of their agricultural
skill. And not less were their sachems noted for wisdom in council, and
for eloquence. Not only corn, but beans and other cereals were
cultivated, particularly by the Six Nations. Fruits and edibles,
introduced by the Europeans, were propagated by the natives, and when
the rebel Sullivan, in accordance with orders from Washington, swept
over their country, large orchards of excellent fruit, as well as fields
of grain, were met with and ruthlessly destroyed, as were the women and
children, with their peaceful homes.

According to Rochefoucault, Brant’s manners were half European; he was
accompanied by two negro servants, and was, “in appearance, like an
Englishman.” Brant visited England in December 1785, and was treated
with great consideration.

After the close of the war, Brant settled at Wellington Square, upon
land conferred by the Crown, where he lived after the English mode. He
died here 24th November, 1807. His wife, who never took to civilized
life, after her husband’s death, removed to the Grand River, and lived
in her wigwam. Some of her children remained in the “commodious
dwelling,” and others accompanied her to the life of the wigwam.
According to Weld, Brant had at one time thirty or forty negro slaves,
which he kept in the greatest subjection. He also says that Brant’s half
pay as a captain, and his presents yearly received, amounted to £500.

His last days were made unhappy by a debased son, who, after threatening
his father’s life, was at last killed by him, in self defence, by a
short sword which Brant wore at his side. Respecting another of his
sons, the Kingston _Herald_, September 5th, 1832, says:

  “It is with unfeigned sorrow that we announce the death of CAPTAIN
  JOHN BRANT, Chief of the Six Nations Indians. He died of Cholera, at
  Brantford, on the 27th ult., after an illness of only six hours. Mr.
  Brant was the son of the celebrated Indian Chief, whose memory was
  unjustly assailed by Campbell the Poet, and for the vindication of
  which the subject of this notice some years ago purposely visited
  England. Possessing the education, feelings, and manners of a
  gentleman, he was beloved by all who had the pleasure of his
  acquaintance, and his death cannot fail to be deeply and very
  generally regretted.”

We have spoken of the intimacy that existed between the Mohawks and Sir
William Johnson, the Colonial Agent of England. This, be it remembered,
was more than a hundred years ago, and great changes have taken place in
the opinion of many with regard to certain irregularities of society. We
cannot excuse the conduct of Sir William, when he had lost his European
wife, in taking the sister of Brant, Miss Molly, without the form of
matrimonial alliance; but we must concede every allowance for the times
in which he lived. But while grave doubt may rest upon the moral
principle displayed by him, we see no just reason to reflect in any way
upon the Indian female. Miss Molly took up her abode with Sir William,
and lived with him as a faithful spouse until he died. However, this
must not be regarded as indicating depravity on the part of the
simple-minded native. It must be remembered that the Indian’s mode of
marrying consists of but little more than the young squaw leaving the
father’s wigwam, and repairing to that of her future husband, and there
is no reason to doubt that Miss Molly was ever other than a virtuous
woman. And this belief is corroborated by the fact that four daughters,
the issue of this alliance, were most respectably married.

Of the Six Nations, this tribe always stood foremost as brave and
uncompromising adherents to the British Government, notwithstanding the
utmost endeavors of the rebels to win them to their side. It becomes,
consequently a duty, and a pleasing duty to refer more particularly to
this race, a remnant of which yet lives upon the shore of the bay. Among
the Mohawks are, however, remnants of some of the other tribes.

The tribe is so-called, after the river, upon whose banks they so long
lived. They did not formerly acknowledge the title, but called
themselves by a name which interpreted, means “just such a people as we
ought to be.” This name is not known, unless it may be Agniers, a name
sometimes applied by the French.

This tribe was the oldest and most important of the Six Nations, and
supplied the bravest warriors, and one of its chiefs was usually in
command of the united warriors of all the tribes.

It must not be forgotten that the Mohawks, who came to Canada, and other
tribes of the Six Nations, were to all intents, United Empire Loyalists.
At the close of the struggle, we have seen elsewhere, that the
commissioners at Paris, in their unseemly haste to contract terms of
peace, forgot how much was due to the loyalists of America, and urged no
special terms to ameliorate the condition of the many who had fought and
lost all for the maintenance of British power. Likewise did they forget
the aboriginal natives who had equally suffered. The fact that these
Indians were not even referred to, gave Brant a just cause of complaint,
which he duly set forth in a memorial to the Imperial Government. But,
as the British Government and nation subsequently strove to relieve the
suffering condition of the refugees, so did they afford to the loyal
sons of the forest every possible facility to make themselves
comfortable. Indeed, the British officers in command, at the first, gave
a pledge that all that they lost should be restored. The promise thus
given by Sir Guy Carleton, was ratified by his successor, General
Haldimand, in 1779, Captain General and Commander-in-Chief in Canada,
and confirmed by Patent, under the Great Seal, January 14, 1793, issued
by Governor Simcoe.

At the close of the war, a portion of the Mohawks were temporarily
residing on the American side of Niagara River, in the vicinity of the
old landing place above the Fort. The Senecas, who seem to have been at
this time more closely allied than other tribes to the Mohawks, offered
to them a tract of land within the territory of the United States. But
the Mohawks would not live in the United States. They declared they
would “sink or swim with England.”

Brant proceeded to Montreal to confer with Sir John Johnson, General
Superintendent of Indian affairs. “The tract upon which the chief had
fixed his attention, was situated upon the Bay de Quinté.” General
Haldimand, in accordance with this wish, purchased a tract of land upon
the bay from the Mississaugas, and conveyed it to the Mohawks.
Subsequently, when Brant returned to Niagara, the Senecas expressed
their desire that their old and intimate friends, the Mohawks, should
live nearer to them than upon the Bay de Quinté. Brant convened a
council of the tribe to consider the matter, the result was, that he
went a second time to Quebec to solicit a tract of land less remote from
the Senecas. Haldimand granted this request, and the land, six miles
square, upon the Grand River was accordingly purchased from the
Mississaugas, and given to them, forty miles off from the Senecas. The
above facts are taken from Brant’s MS. and History. We may infer from
this fact, that the party who did come to the bay under Captain John,
felt less attachment to the Senecas than the other portion of the tribe.
The quantity of land on the bay originally granted was 92,700 acres; but
a portion has been surrendered.

In the early part of the rebellion, the Mohawk families fled from their
valley with precipitation. They mostly went to Lachine, where they
remained three years. They then ascended the river in their canoes, and
probably stayed a winter at Cataraqui, the winter of 1783–4. The whole
tribe was under Brant. Second in command was Captain John, a cousin of
Brant, and his senior in years.

In the spring, a portion of the tribe entered the Bay Quinté, and passed
up to the present township of Tyendinaga. The majority, led by Brant,
passed up along the south shore of Lake Ontario to Niagara.

                       THE MOHAWKS AS CANADIANS.

Descendants of the bravest of all the brave Indian warriors of America,
we find them peaceable and in most respects imbibing the spirit of the
day. Ever since the party settled on the bay, they have manifested no
turbulent spirit, none of those wild attributes natural to the
wild-woods Indian, toward their white neighbors. Among themselves there
has been one occasion of disturbance. This arose from the quarrelsome
nature of one Captain Isaac Hill. This Chief, with his people, formed a
part of Brant’s company that settled on the Grand River. After a few
years, having disagreed with his nation, and become exceedingly
disagreeable from his officious and selfish conduct, he removed to the
bay, and united himself with Captain John’s party, which received him.
But he failed to live peaceably with them. Eventually the disagreement
resulted in a serious hostile engagement between the two branches, who
fought with tomahawks and knives. But one person was killed, a chief of
Captain John’s party, Powles Claus, who was stabbed in the abdomen. But
subsequently Captain Isaac Hill became a worthy inhabitant. His house
still standing, then considered large, was frequently open to the more
festive, across the Bay in Sophiasburgh.

Out of the six hundred Indians, now living upon the Reserve, there is
only one with pure Indian blood. His name is David Smart. It has been
elsewhere stated, that the custom prevailed among the Mohawk nation, to
maintain the number of the tribe, by taking captive a sufficient number
to fill the vacancies caused by death of their people. The result was,
that these captives marrying with Indians, they gradually underwent a
change, and the original appearance of the Mohawk has lost its
characteristic features. The circumstances of the Indians during the
revolutionary war, and subsequently in settling in Canada, led to
frequent unions between the white men of different nationalities and the
Indian women. Therefore, at the present day there remains but little
more than a trace of the primal Indian who lorded it, a hundred years
ago, over no inconsiderable portion of the North American Continent.

When visiting the Indians, on our way, we met some eight or ten sleighs
laden with them, returning from a funeral. We were much struck with the
appearance of solid, farmer-like comfort which their horses and
conveyances exhibited, as well as they themselves did in their half
Canadian dress.

While drunkenness has prevailed among the older Indians, it is pleasing
to know that the younger ones are far more regular in their habits. For
this, much credit is due to the Christian oversight of their former and
present pastors. They have 1800 acres of land. They number 630, and are
increasing yearly.

The seal of the Mohawk Counsel may be seen with the Rev. Mr. Anderson.
The armorial bearings consist of the wolf, the bear and the turtle.
These animals, in the order here given, indicate, not tribes, nor
families exactly, but rank. The wolf is the highest class, the bear next
in rank, and the turtle the lowest grade.

                              CHAPTER IX.


                         INDIVIDUAL COMBATANTS.

The immediately following notices of the combatants who settled in Upper
Canada are extracted from Sabine.

“At the beginning of the revolution, Samuel Anderson, of New York, went
to Canada. He soon entered the service of the Crown, and was a captain
under Sir John Johnson. In 1783 he settled near Cornwall, in Upper
Canada, and received half-pay. He held several civil offices: those of
Magistrate, Judge of a district court, and associate Justice of the
Court of King’s Bench, were among them. He continued to reside upon his
estate near Cornwall, in Upper Canada, until his decease in 1836, at the
age of one hundred and one. His property in New York was abandoned and

“Joseph Anderson, lieutenant in the King’s regiment, New York. At the
peace he retired to Canada. He died near Cornwall, Canada West, in 1853,
aged ninety. He drew half pay for a period of about seventy years. One
of the last survivors of the United Empire Loyalists.”

“John Bethune, of North Carolina, chaplain in the Loyal Militia. Taken
prisoner in the battle at Cross Creek in 1776. Confined in Halifax gaol,
but ordered finally to Philadelphia. After his release, his continued
loyalty reduced him to great distress. He was appointed chaplain to the
84th regiment, and restored to comfort. At the peace he settled in Upper
Canada, and died at Williamstown in that colony, in 1815, in his
sixty-fifth year.”

“James Burwell, of New Jersey, born at Rockaway, January 18, 1754. Our
loyalist enlisted in his Majesty’s service in the year 1776, at the age
of twenty-two, and served seven years, and was present at the battle of
Yorktown, when Lord Cornwallis surrendered, and was there slightly

“Came to Upper Canada in the year 1796, too late to obtain the King’s
bounty of family land, but was placed on the United Empire list, and
received two hundred acres for himself and each of his children. He
removed to the Talbot settlement in the year 1810. He died in the County
of Elgin, Canada, July, 1853, aged ninety-nine years and five months.”

“John Butler, of Tyron, now Montgomery county, New York. Before the war,
Colonel Butler was in close official connection with Sir William, Sir
John, and Colonel Guy Johnson, and followed their political fortunes. At
the breaking out of hostilities he commanded a regiment of New York
Militia, and entered at once into the military service of the Crown.
During the war his wife was taken prisoner, and exchanged for the wife
of the whig colonel, Campbell. Colonel John Butler was richly rewarded
for his services. Succeeding (in part) to the agency of Indian affairs,
long held by the Johnsons, he enjoyed, about the year 1796, a salary of
£500 stg. per annum, and a pension, as a military officer, of £200 more.
Previously, he had received a grant of 500 acres of land, and a similar
provision for his children. His home, after the war, was in Upper
Canada. He was attainted during the contest, and his property
confiscated. He lived, before the revolution, in the present town of

“Joseph Canliff, in 1781 a lieutenant in the first battalion New Jersey
Volunteers.” This person is probably of the same lineage as the writer
of this work, great confusion often existing with regard to the spelling
of names in the early days of America.

“Daniel Claus. He married a daughter of Sir William Johnson, and served
for a considerable time in the Indian Department of Canada, under his
brother-in-law, Colonel Guy Johnson.”

“William Claus, Deputy Superintendent General of Indian affairs, was his

Coffin—There were several of this name who took part in the war against
the rebellion. Of these, the following are connected with Canadian

“Sir Thomas Aston Coffin, baronet, of Boston, son of William Coffin. He
graduated at Harvard University in 1772. At one period of the rebellion
he was private secretary to Sir Guy Carleton. In 1804 he was Secretary
and Comptroller of Lower Canada.” Afterwards Commissary General in the
British army.

“Nathaniel Coffin, of Boston. After the revolution he settled in Upper
Canada.” Served in the war of 1812. “For a number of years was
Adjutant-General of the Militia of Upper Canada. Died at Toronto in
1846, aged 80.”

“John Coffin: was Assistant Commissary General in the British army, and
died at Quebec in 1837, aged 78.”

“Doane, of Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Of this family there were five
brothers, namely: Moses, Joseph, Israel, Abraham, Mahlon. They were men
of fine figures and address, elegant horsemen, great runners and
leapers, and excellent at stratagems and escapes. Their father was
respectable, and possessed a good estate. The sons themselves, prior to
the war, were men of reputation, and proposed to remain neutral: but,
harassed personally, their property sold by the whigs because they would
not submit to the exactions of the time, the above-mentioned determined
to wage a predatory warfare upon their persecutors, and to live in the
open air, as they best could do. This plan they executed, to the terror
of the country around, acting as spies to the royal army, and robbing
and plundering continually; yet they spared the weak, the poor and the
peaceful. They aimed at public property and at public men. Generally,
their expeditions were on horseback. Sometimes the five went together,
at others separately, with accomplices. Whoever of them was apprehended
broke jail; whoever of them was assailed escaped. In a word, such was
their course, that a reward of £300 was offered for the head of each.

“Ultimately, three were slain. Moses, after a desperate fight, was shot
by his captor; and Abraham and Mahlon were hung at Philadelphia.

“Joseph, before the revolution, taught school. During the war, while on
a marauding expedition, he was shot through the cheeks, fell from his
horse, and was taken prisoner. He was committed to jail to await his
trial, but escaped to New Jersey. A reward of $800 was offered for his
apprehension, but without success. He resumed his former employment in
New Jersey, and lived there, under an assumed name, nearly a year, but
finally fled to Canada. Several years after the peace he returned to
Pennsylvania, ‘a poor, degraded, broken-down old man,’ to claim a legacy
of about £40, which he was allowed to recover, and to depart. In his
youth he was distinguished for great physical activity.”

The only separate mention of Israel is, that “in February, 1783, he was
in jail; that he appealed to the Council of Pennsylvania to be released,
on account of his own sufferings and the destitute condition of his
family, and that his petition was dismissed.”

“Stephen Jarvis, in 1782 was a lieutenant of cavalry in the South
Carolina Royalists. He was in New Brunswick after the revolution, but
went to Upper Canada, and died at Toronto, at the residence of the Rev.
Dr. Phillips, 1840, aged eighty-four. During his service in the
revolution he was in several actions.”

“William Jarvis, an officer of cavalry in the Queen’s Rangers. Wounded
at the siege of Yorktown. At the peace he settled in Upper Canada, and
became Secretary of that Province. He died at York in 1817. His widow,
Hannah, a daughter of the Rev. Dr. Peters, of Hebron, Connecticut, died
at Queenston, Upper Canada, 1845, aged eighty-three.”

“David Jones was a captain in the royal service, and is supposed to
‘have married the beautiful and good Jane McCrea, whose cruel death, in
1777, by the Indians, is universally known and lamented.’ According to
Lossing, he lived in Canada to an old age, having never married. Jane
McCrea was the daughter of the Rev. James McCrea, of New Jersey,

“Jonathan Jones, of New York, brother of Jane McCrea’s lover. Late in
1776 he assisted in raising a company in Canada, and joined the British,
in garrison, at Crown Point. Later in the war he was a captain, and
served under General Frazer.”

McDonald—There were a good many of this name who took part as
combatants, of whom several settled in Canada.

Alexander McDonald was a major in a North Carolina regiment. “His wife
was the celebrated Flora McDonald, who was so true and so devoted to the
unfortunate Prince Charles Edward, the last Stuart, who sought the
throne of England. They had emigrated to North Carolina, and when the
rebellion broke out, he, with two sons, took up arms for the Crown.”

Those who settled in Canada were “Donald McDonald, of New York. He
served under Sir John Johnson for seven years, and died at the Wolfe
Island, Upper Canada, in 1839, aged 97.”

“Allan McDonald, of Tryon, New York,” was associated with Sir John
Johnson in 1776. “He died at Three Rivers, Lower Canada, in 1822, quite

“John McGill.—In 1782 he was an officer of infantry in the Queen’s
Rangers, and, at the close of the war, went to New Brunswick. He removed
to Upper Canada, and became a person of note. He died at Toronto, in
1834, at the age of eighty-three. At the time of his decease he was a
member of the Legislative Council of the Colony.”

“Donald McGillis resided, at the beginning of the revolution, on the
Mohawk river, New York. Embracing the royal side in the contest, he
formed one of a ‘determined band of young men’ who attacked a whig post
and, in the face of a superior force, cut down the flag-staff, and tore
in strips the stars and stripes attached to it. Subsequently, he joined
a grenadier company, called the Royal Yorkers, and performed efficient
service throughout the war. He settled in Canada at the peace; and,
entering the British service again in 1812, was commissioned as a
captain in the Colonial corps, by Sir Isaac Brock. He died at River
Raisin, Canada, in 1844, aged eighty years.”

“Thomas Merrit, of New York, in 1782 was cornet of cavalry in the
Queen’s Rangers. He settled in Upper Canada, and held the offices of
Sheriff of the District of Niagara and Surveyor of the King’s Forests.
He received half pay as a retired military officer. He died at St.
Catharines, May, 1842, aged eighty-two.”

“Nathaniel Munday, in 1782 was an officer in the Queen’s Rangers. He was
in New Brunswick after the revolution, and received half pay; but left
that colony and, it is believed, went to Canada.”

“John Peters, of Hebron, Connecticut; born in 1740. A most devoted
loyalist. He went to Canada finally, and raised a corps, called the
Queen’s Loyal Rangers, of which Lord Dorchester gave him command, with
the rank of lieutenant-colonel.”

“Christopher Robinson, of Virginia, kinsman of Beverley. Entered William
and Mary College with his cousin Robert; escaped with him to New York,
and received a commission in the Loyal American regiment. Served at the
South, and was wounded. At the peace he went to Nova Scotia, and
received a grant of land at Wilmot. He soon removed to Canada, where
Governor Simcoe gave him the appointment of Deputy Surveyor-General of
Crown Lands. His salary, half pay, and an estate of two thousand acres,
placed him in circumstances of comfort. He was the father of several
children, some of whom were educated in the mother-country. He died in
Canada. His widow, Esther, daughter of Rev. John Sayre, of New
Brunswick, died in 1827. His son, Beverley Robinson, who was born in
1791, was appointed Attorney-General of Upper Canada in 1818; Chief
Justice in 1829; created a Baronet in 1854; and died in 1863.”

“Singleton—A lieutenant in the ‘Royal Greens,’ was wounded in 1777,
during the investment of Fort Stanwix.” Probably Captain Singleton, who
settled in Thurlow, Upper Canada, was the same person.

“Finley Ross, of New York, was a follower of Sir John Johnson to Canada
in 1776. After the revolution he served in Europe, and was at Minden and
Jena. He settled at Charlotteburgh, Upper Canada, where he died, in
1830, aged ninety.”

“Allan McNab, a Lieutenant of cavalry in the Queen’s Rangers, under
Colonel Simcoe. During the war he received thirteen wounds. He
accompanied his commander to Upper Canada, then a dense, unpeopled
wilderness, where he settled. He was appointed Sergeant-at-arms of the
House of Assembly of that Province, and held the office many years. His
son, the late Sir Allan McNab, was a gentleman who filled many important
offices in Upper Canada.”

The Hamilton _Spectator_, speaking of the death of Sir A. N. McNab,
says: “The Hon. Colonel Sir Allan Napier McNab, Bart., M.L.C., A. D. C.,
was born at Niagara in the year 1798, of Scotch extraction,”—his
grandfather, Major Robert McNab, of the 22nd regiment, or Black Watch,
was Royal Forester in Scotland, and resided on a small property called
Dundurn, at the head of Loch Earn. His father entered the army in her
Majesty’s 7th regiment, and was subsequently promoted to a dragoon
regiment. He was attached to the staff of General Simcoe during the
revolutionary war; after its close he accompanied General Simcoe to this
country. When the Americans attacked Toronto, Sir Allan, then a boy at
school, was one of a number of boys selected as able to carry a musket;
and after the authorities surrendered the city, he retreated with the
army to Kingston, when through the instrumentality of Sir Roger Sheaffe,
a friend of his father’s, he was rated as mid-shipman on board Sir James
Yeo’s ship, and accompanied the expeditions to Sackett’s Harbor,
Genesee, and other places on the American side of the lake. Finding
promotions rather slow, he left the navy and joined the 100th regiment
under Colonel Murray, and was with them when they re-occupied the
Niagara frontier. He crossed with the advanced guard at the storming and
taking of Fort Niagara. For his conduct in this affair he was honored
with an ensigncy in the 49th regiment. He was with General Ryall at
Erie, and crossed the river with him when Black Rock and Buffalo were
burned, in retaliation for the destruction of Niagara, a few months
previous. After the termination of this campaign, Sir Allan joined his
regiment in Montreal, and shortly after marched with them to the attack
of Plattsburgh. On the morning of the attack he had the honor of
commanding the advanced guard at the Saranac Bridge. At the reduction of
the army in 1816 or 1817, he was placed on half-pay.

It is impossible at this time to give anything like a history of the
disbanded soldiers who settled on the shores of the Bay and the St.
Lawrence. There could not be allowed the space necessary to do justice
to the character of each. But even if such were possible we are wanting
in the essential matter of information. We propose, however, to insert
the names of every one known to have been a loyal combatant, whether an
officer or private, with such statements relative to his history as we
possess. We shall not confine ourselves to this particular region of the
Province, but include those who settled at Niagara, and in Lower Canada.
And while we may not supply a complete account of any one, it is trusted
that the instalment will not be unacceptable to the descendants of those
to whom we refer. We shall arrange them alphabetically without reference
to rank or station.

Captain Joseph Allen, formerly Captain Allen of New Jersey, held a
commission in the British Army at New York for some time during the war.
He owned extensive mill property, and was regarded as a very wealthy
person. All his possessions were confiscated, and he in 1783, found his
way, among other refugees, first to Sorel, where he stayed a winter, and
finally to Upper Canada. His family consisted of two sons, John and
Jonathan, and three daughters, Rachel, Ursula, and Elizabeth. Captain
Allen was one of the first settlers in Adolphustown, and his descendants
still live in the township, among whom are Parker Allen, Esq., J. D.
Watson, Esq., and David McWherter, Esq. Captain Allen had extensive
grants of land in Adolphustown, and in Marysburgh, and elsewhere; as
well as his children. Jonathan Allen, succeeded his father upon the
homestead, and was for many years an acceptable Justice of the Peace.
His brother, Joseph Allen, moved to Marysburgh, and was a Captain of
militia during the war of 1812. Captain Allen brought with him several
slaves, “who followed his fortunes with peculiar attachment, even after
their liberation.”

We have seen that the rebellion led to the divisions of families. It was
so with the Allison family of Haverstraw, New York. There were seven
brothers; two sided with the rebels. One Benjamin, being a boy, was at
home, while the other four took part with loyalists. One settled in New
Brunswick, probably the Edward Allison Sabine speaks of, who had been
captain in De Lancey’s third battalion, and who received half-pay, and
after whom _Mount Allison_ is called.

Joseph Allison was living at Haverstraw, New York. He was for a time
engaged in the navy yard at New York. At one time he and another entered
the rebel camp, and after remaining a few days availed themselves of a
dark night and carried off five excellent horses belonging to a troop of
cavalry. They were pursued and barely escaped. Allison took these horses
in return for the loss of his house and other property which the rebels
had ruthlessly burned. He was at the battle of White Plains, and had
narrow escapes, his comrade beside him was shot down, and his canteen
belt cut in two by a ball. As he could not carry the canteen, h$1 $2
took time to empty that vessel of the rum which it contained.

His neighbors at Haverstraw were exceedingly vindictive against him.
After several years, he visited there to see his aged mother, when a mob
attempted to tar and feather him, and he had to hide in the woods all
night. Allison came to Canada with Van Alstine, and drew lot 17, in
Adolphustown. A strong, healthy and vigorous man, he contributed no
little to the early settlement. Died upon his farm, aged eighty-eight.
His wife’s name was Mary Richmond, of a well-known Quaker family. His
descendants still occupy the old homestead, a most worthy family.
Benjamin Allison, the youngest, came to Adolphustown in 1795.

William Ashley, sen., was born in the city of London, England, in the
year 1749, and joined the army at an early age.

During the American Revolutionary war, he came out under General Howe,
serving in all his campaigns until the close of the struggle. He had two
brothers also in the army with him, one of whom returned to England, and
the other settled somewhere in the United States, the exact locality not
now being known. General J. M. Ashley, Republican member of Congress
from Ohio, is, so far as can be ascertained, a descendant of this

After the termination of the war, William Ashley came to Canada, and
first settled in the township of Loborough, county of Frontenac, where
he married Margaret Buck, the daughter of a U. E. L., and one of the
first settlers in this part of Canada. He resided here until about 1790,
when he removed to Kingston, where he followed the employment of a
butcher, and was the first butcher in Kingston, a fact he often
mentioned in his old age. He built a house of red cedar logs, cut from
the spot, which continued to stand until 1858, when it was taken down
and a small brick building, the “Victoria Hotel,” built on the site.
When removed the logs were found in a perfectly sound condition, they
having been covered with clapboards many years ago, which preserved them
from the weather.

This house stood on Brock street, near the corner of Bagot street. At
the time of its erection there were scarcely twenty residences in the
place, and that part of the city now lying west of the City Hall was
then covered with a dense forest of pine, cedar and ash. William Ashley
lived to see this pass away and a flourishing city spring up. He died in
1835, leaving a family of ten children—Margaret, Mary, Elizabeth,
William, John, James, Thomas, Henry, Adam and George: all of whom are
now dead excepting Thomas, who resides near Toronto.

James also died in 1835, and Henry, who was the first gaoler in Picton,
died in 1836, at the early age of thirty-one.

William Ashley, Jun., married Ann Gerollamy, daughter of an officer in
the British army, serving through the Revolutionary War, and acting as
Orderly in the war of 1812. He left Kingston in 1830, and resided until
1842 near the mouth of Black River, in the township of Marysburgh, and
then returned, and continued to reside there, teaching, and filling
various offices until his death, August 16, 1867.

The _British Whig_ newspaper when recording his death, remarked, “Mr.
Ashley was one of our oldest citizens, and has lived to witness many
changes in his native place. He was born on the very spot where the
_British Whig_ office now stands.” The last sentence is a mistake, he
was not born in the city, but in the township of Loborough; although the
building containing the _British Whig_ office still belongs to the
‘Ashley property’ on Bagot Street.

John Ashley was gaoler in Kingston for a number of years when the gaol
stood near the site of the present Post Office, and filled public
situations from the time he was nineteen years of age until his death in
1858. He was a prominent member of the County Council for nearly twenty
years, and was Colonel of the militia at the time of his death.

Adam and George Ashley both died in 1847.

William Bell—We shall have occasion to speak of William Bell in
different places in these pages. He was born August 12, 1758, in County
of Tyrone, Ireland.

At the time of the Revolutionary War he was a sergeant in the 53rd
regiment of the line. Some time after the close of the war, he succeeded
in procuring his discharge from the service, at Lachine, and came to
Cataraqui, sometime in 1789. He was on intimate terms with John
Ferguson, and, we believe, related by marriage. It was at Ferguson’s
solicitation that Bell came to the Bay. We have before us an old account
book, by which we learn that Ferguson and Bell commenced trading on the
front of Sidney in the latter part of 1789. They remained here in
business until 1792. Subsequently Bell became school teacher to the
Mohawks, and seems to have done business there in the way of trading, in
1799. In 1803 we find him settled in Thurlow. Ferguson, who was living
at Kingston, had been appointed Colonel of the Hastings Militia, and
Bell was selected by him to assist in organizing the body. He was
commissioned captain in December 1798, Major in August 1800; and in 1809
Lieutenant-Colonel. Colonel Bell was well known as a public man in
Thurlow. He was appointed to several offices—Magistrate, Coroner, and
finally Colonel of the Hastings Battalion. As magistrate he took an
active part in the doings of Thurlow and Belleville for many years. He
was also an active person in connection with the agricultural societies,
until a few years before his death, 1833. The papers left by Colonel
Bell have been of great service to us. His wife’s name was Rachel Hare,
who died 1853, aged eighty-one.

Colonel Stephen Burritt took part in the war against the rebels, being
seven years in the army, in Roger’s Rangers. He settled upon the Rideau,
the 9th of April, 1793. In the same year was born Colonel E. Burritt,
who was the first child born of white parents north of the Rideau. This
interesting fact was given to the writer by Colonel E. Burritt in 1867.
Colonel Burritt is a cousin of the celebrated Learned Blacksmith.

Willet Casey was born in Rhode Island. His father was killed in battle
during the war. At the close of the war he settled near Lake Champlain,
upon what he supposed to be British territory, but finding such was not
the case, and although he had made considerable clearing, he removed
again. Turning his steps toward Upper Canada with his aged mother and
wife, he reached in due time, the 4th township. The family, upon
arriving, found shelter in a blacksmith’s shop until a log hut could be
built. Three months afterwards the old mother died. Willet Casey had a
brother in a company of horsemen, who fought for the British. He
remained in the States and went South. It is probably the descendants of
this Casey, who took an active part in the late civil war in the United

The writer has seen the fine, erect old couple that came to Canada, when
on the verge of eighty, and two nobler specimens of nature’s nobility
could not be imagined.

Luke Carscallian was an Irishman by birth, and had served in the British
army; he had retired and emigrated to the American colonies prior to the
rebellion. He desired to remain neutral, and take no part in the
contest. The rebels, however, said to him that inasmuch as he was
acquainted with military tactics he must come and assist them, or be
regarded as a King’s man. His reply was that he had fought for the king,
and he would do it again, consequently an order was issued to arrest
him; but when they came to take him he had secreted himself. The escape
was a hurried one, and all his possessions were at the mercy of the
rebels—land to the amount of 12,000 acres. They, disappointed in not
catching him, took his young and tender son, and threatened to hang him
if he would not reveal his father’s place of concealment. The brave
little fellow replied, hang away! and the cruel men under the name of
liberty carried out their threat, and three times was he suspended until
almost dead, yet he would not tell, and then when taken down one of the
monsters actually kicked him.

Oliver Church was Lieutenant in the 84th regiment. He settled with the
many other half-pay officers, on the front of Fredericksburgh, three
miles west of Bath. He had three sons, and three daughters, who settled
upon the Bay, but are now dead except one daughter. Lieutenant Church
died in 1812, and his wife some years later. They were both very old
when they died.

A grand-child of the old veteran, Mrs. H. of Belleville informs us that
she has often heard about her grandfather having to crush grain by hand,
and spending a week going to the Kingston mill.

Robert Clark, late of the Township of Ernest town, in the County of
Addington, was born March 15, 1744 on Quaker Hill, Duchess County,
Province of New York. He learned the trade of carpenter and millwright,
of a Mr. Woolly. He left his family and joined the British standard in
the revolutionary war, was in General Burgoyne’s army, and was requested
by the General that he and other Provincial volunteers, should leave the
army and go to Canada, which place, he reached after some weeks of great
suffering and privation. The day after he left (October 17, 1777,)
General Burgoyne capitulated, and surrendered his arms to the American
Generals Gates and Arnold. Robert Clark subsequently served two years in
his Majesty’s Provincial Regiment, called the Loyal Rangers, commanded
by Major Edward Jessup, and in Captain Sabastian Jones’ company, and was
discharged on the 24th December, 1783. He owned two farms in Duchess
County, one of 100, the other of 150 acres, both of which were
confiscated. He was employed by the government in 1782–3 to erect the
Kingston mills, (then Cataraqui) preparatory to the settlement of the
loyalists in that section of Upper Canada, at which time his family,
consisting of his wife and three sons, arrived at Sorel in Lower Canada,
where they all were afflicted with the small pox, and being entirely
among strangers they were compelled to endure more than the usual amount
of suffering incident to that disease, their natural protector being at
a distance, and in the employ of the government, could not leave to
administer to their necessity. In 1784, his family joined him at the
mills, after having been separated by the vicissitudes of war for a
space of seven years. In 1785 he removed with his family to lot No. 74,
1st concession Ernest town, in which year he was again employed by
government to erect the Napanee mills. He was appointed Justice of the
Peace for the district of Mecklenburgh, in July 1788, and a captain in
the militia in 1809, and died 17th December, 1823.

John C. Clark was married to Rachel Storer, and had a family of ten sons
and three daughters.

Captain Crawford, of the Rogers corps, settled on lot No. 1 of
Fredericksburgh. Became a magistrate, and lived to be an old man, was
also colonel of militia.

George Dame was the son of Theophilus Dame, evidently a veteran soldier,
from the copy of his will now before us. He gave to his “son, George
Dame, the one-half of my (his) real estate in Dover, England, to hold to
him forever,” also his wearing apparel, books, gold watch, gilt-headed
cane, horses, sleigh and harness, and one hundred dollars. He bequeathed
to his grandson, John Frederick Dame, his camp bedstead, and curtains
and valence for carriage of camp bedstead, and his silver-mounted
hanger. To his grandson Augustus Dame, his fusee, gorget, and small seal
skin trunk. To another grandson he left his double-barrelled pistol. By
reference to these items we learn that Theophilus Dame must have been a
British officer of some standing.

His son, George Dame, followed in the footsteps of his father in
pursuing the profession of arms. We have before us a document, dated
1765, which declares that “Ensign George Dame of the 8th or King’s Own
Regiment of foot, was admitted burgess of the Burgh of Dumfries, with
liberty to him to exercise and enjoy the whole immunities and privileges
thereof, &c.” For some reason this commission in the 8th regiment was
relinquished; but ten years later we find he has a commission from
General Carleton, Major-General and Commander-in-chief of His Majesty’s
forces in the Province of Quebec, and upon the frontier thereof,
appointing him “Ensign in the Royal Regiment of Highland Emigrants
commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Commandant Allan McLean.” “Given under
my hand and seal at the Castle of Saint Lewis, in the city of Quebec,
21st of November, 1775.” In 1779 he received a commission from Frederick
Haldimand, Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief, &c., appointing him
“Captain in a corps of Rangers raised to serve with the Indians during
the rebellion, whereof John Butler, Esq., is Major Commandant”.

After the close of the war, Captain Dame lived at Three Rivers, Lower
Canada, where we find him acting as Returning Officer in 1792, Mured
Clarke being Lieutenant Governor. He died at Three Rivers, April 16th,

An official paper before us sets forth that “Guy, Lord Dorchester,
authorizes Frederick Dame, ‘by beat of drum or otherwise,’ forthwith to
raise from amongst the inhabitants of Upper and Lower Canada, as many
able-bodied men as will assist the completing of a company, to be
commanded by Captain Richard Wilkinson. This company to be mainly
provincial, and for the service of Canada, and to serve for the space of
three years, or during the war. This order shall continue in force for
twelve months.” Dated at the Castle of St. Lewis, Quebec, 21st June,
1796. This is signed “DORCHESTER.”

The same year, bearing date the 17th December, is a commission from
Robert Prescott, Esq., Lieutenant-Governor, appointing Frederick Dame
ensign to the second battalion Royal Canadian Volunteers.

In the year 1802 John Frederick Dame received his commission as Surveyor
of Lands in Upper and Lower Canada, from Robert Shore Milnes,
Lieutenant-Governor, upon the certificate of Joseph Bouchette, Esq.,
Deputy Surveyor-General. Up to this time it would seem he had been
living at Three Rivers.

Allan Dame, a son of the aforementioned, is now residing in Marysburgh,
not far from McDonald’s Cove. He is now in the neighborhood of sixty:
this is his native place. He is a fine specimen of an English Canadian
farmer; and well he may be, being a descendant of a worthy stock, of
English growth. He is married to the granddaughter of Colonel McDonald.

Daly—P. K. Daly, Esq., of Thurlow, has kindly furnished us with the
following interesting account:

Captain Peter Daly, my grandfather, was the son of Capt. Daly, of an
Irish regiment, that was stationed in New York for some years before the
outbreak of the old revolutionary war, but was called home to Ireland
before the commencement of hostilities; and finally fell a victim to
that cruel code of honor which obliged a man to fight a duel.

At the earnest solicitation of a bachelor friend, of the name of Vroman,
he had been induced to leave his son Peter behind. Vroman resided upon
the banks of the Mohawk, where the city of Amsterdam now stands. He was
a man of considerable wealth, all of which he promised to bestow upon
his son, Peter Daly; a promise he would, in all probability, have kept,
had circumstances permitted; but he was prevented by the stern realities
of the times—those stern realities that tried men’s souls, and called
upon every man to declare himself. The subject of this sketch could not
dishonor the blood that flowed in his veins, and, although but 16 years
of age, he clung firmly to the old flag that, for “a thousand years had
braved the battle and the breeze.” He joined a company, and followed the
destiny of his flag along the shores of Lake Champlain, where, in one
night, he assisted in scaling three forts. He assisted in taking Fort
Tyconderoga, and gradually fought or worked his way into Canada. The war
closing, he, in company with other loyalists, came up the Bay of Quinté,
and subsequently married and settled in the second concession of Ernest
town, in the vicinity of the village of Bath, where, by cultivating his
farm, and by industry, he secured a comfortable living.

He was remarked through life for his strictly honorable dealing, and his
adherence to “the old flag.” In religion he was a firm Presbyterian.
From his old protector, Vroman, he never heard anything definite. He
cared but little for the land that had driven him into exile, to dwell
among the wild beasts of the unbroken forest.

It is supposed that Vroman, in his declining years, gave his property to
some other favorite. Be that as it may, Peter Daly saw none of it, but
came into this country naked, as it were; carved out of the forest his
own fortune, and left a numerous and respected family. There are now
only two of his sons living, Thomas and Charles, who live on the old
farm, near Bath. His eldest daughter, Mrs. Aikens, is still living, in
Sidney. My father, Philip, was the eldest. He died at Oak Shade, in
Ernest town, in 1861, in the 71st year of his age. David, the next son,
lived and died at Waterloo, near Kingston; and Lewis lived and died at
Storrington. The first wife of Asal Rockwell, of Ernest town was a
daughter of his. Jacob Shibly, Esq., ex M.P.P., married another
daughter; and the late Joshua Boatte another. Their descendants are

John Diamond was born in Albany, with several brothers. An elder brother
was drafted, but he tried to escape from a service that was distasteful
to him; was concealed for some time, and upon a sick bed. The visits of
the doctor led to suspicion, and the house was visited by rebels.
Although he had been placed in a bed, and the clothes so arranged that,
as was thought, his presence would not be detected, his breathing
betrayed him. They at once required his father to give a bond for
$1,200, that his son should not be removed while sick. He got well, and,
some time after, again sought to escape, but was caught, and handcuffed
to another. Being removed from one place to another, the two prisoners
managed to knock their guard on the head, and ran for life through the
woods, united together. One would sometimes run on one side of a
sapling, and the other on the opposite side. At night they managed to
rub their handcuffs off, and finally escaped to Canada. Of the other
brothers, two were carried off by the rebels, and never more heard of.
John was taken to the rebel army when old enough to do service; but he
also escaped to Canada, and enlisted in Rogers’ Battalion, with which he
did service until the close of the war, when he settled with the company
at Fredericksburgh.

John Diamond married Miss Loyst, a native of Philadelphia, whose
ancestors were German. She acted no inferior part, for a woman, during
the exciting times of the rebellion. They married in Lower Canada. They
spent their first summer in Upper Canada, in clearing a little spot of
land, and in the fall got a little grain in the ground. They slept,
during the summer, under a tree, but erected a small hut before winter
set in.

                               CHAPTER X.



Among the early and influential settlers upon the bay, was John
Ferguson. It has been our good fortune to come into possession of a good
many public and private letters penned by his hand, and invaluable
information has thus been obtained. The following letter will inform the
reader of the part he took in the service during the war. It is
addressed to Mr. Augustus Jones.

                                            KINGSTON, 22nd July, 1792.


  Inclosed is my old application for the land on the carrying place,
  which I send agreeable to your desire. I need not attempt to explain
  it better, as you know so well what I want. I wish, if consistent,
  that land, 200 acres, Mrs. Ferguson is entitled to, might be joined
  to it. if I cannot get a grant of the carrying place, will you be so
  good as to let me know what terms it may be had on. I have it in my
  power to settle the place immediately, had I any security for it. I
  am certain Mr. Hamilton will interest himself for me, but I am loth
  to apply to him at present, as in all probability he has too much
  business to think of besides. Should it be asked how and where I
  served, I will mention the particulars. The 24th June, 1774, I was
  appointed, and acted as barrack-master until 24th March, 1778, when
  I was ordered to Carleton Island, being also commissary at the post.
  Thirteenth April, 1782, I was appointed barrack-master of Ontario,
  where I remained until ordered to Cataraqui in September, 1783, and
  acted as barrack-master for both posts, until 24th June, 1785, when
  I was obliged to relinquish it, having more business in the
  commissary’s department than I could well manage, with the other
  appointment, occasioned by the increase of loyalists settling in
  this neighborhood. Twenty-fifth February, 1778, my father then being
  commissary of Oswegotchie, delivered the stores to me, as he was
  unable to do the duty himself. He died 13th March, following, when I
  was appointed his successor.

  The 13th April, I was ordered to Carleton Island to assist Mr.
  McLean in the transport business. In November, 1778, I was again
  sent to Oswegotchie, where I remained commissary of the post until
  24th June, 1782, when I was sent to Ontario to take charge there,
  from thence I was sent to this place, 24th September, 1783, where I
  remained until a reformation took place in the commissary
  department, and I was on the 24th June, 1787, served like a great
  many others, sent about my business without any provision, after
  having spent my best days in His Majesty’s service.

  You see I was eleven years barrack-master, and nine years a
  commissary, I was also six years in the Commissary General’s office
  at Montreal (a clerk,) during which time my father was permitted to
  do my duty as barrack-master. I will write you again by next

                          Your very humble servant,
                                          (Signed)      JOHN FERGUSON.

Ensign Frazer, of the 84th regiment settled at the point of Ernest town.
Had three sons. His widow married Colonel Thompson.

The Cornwall _Freeholder_, notices the death of Mr. Frazer, of St.
Andrew’s, C. W., the discoverer of Frazer river, and of Mrs. Frazer, who
departed this life a few hours afterwards. Mr. Frazer was one of the few
survivors of the find old “Northwesters,” and his name, as the first
explorer of the golden stream which bears it, will be remembered with
honor long after most of the provincial cotemporaries are forgotten. The
_Freeholder_ says: “Mr. Frazer was the youngest son of Mr. Simon Frazer,
who emigrated to the State of New York, in 1773. He purchased land near
Bennington; but upon the breaking out of the revolutionary war, he
attached himself to the royal cause, and served as captain, at the
battle of Bennington; where he was captured by the rebels. He died in
Albany jail, about thirteen months afterwards, his end being hastened by
the rigorous nature of the imprisonment. He was married to Isabella
Grant, daughter of Daldregan, and had issue, four sons and five
daughters. The widow, with her children, came to Canada after the peace
of 1783. Simon Frazer, the elder, the father of the object of this
notice, was the second son of William Frazer, the third of Kilbockie,
who, by his wife, Margaret, daughter of John McDonell, of Ardnabie, had
nine sons:—1st. William, the fourth of Kilbockie; 2nd. Simon, who came
to America, as we have seen; 3rd. John, who was captain in Wolf’s army,
shared in the honors of the capture of Quebec, and was subsequently, for
many years, Chief Justice of the Montreal district; 4th. Archibald, who
was Lieutenant in Frazer’s regiment, under General Wolfe, was afterwards
captain of the Glengarry Fencibles, and served in Ireland during the
rebellion in ‘98; 5th. Peter, a doctor of medicine, who died in Spain;
6th. Alexander, who served as captain in General Caird’s army, and died
in India; 7th. Donald, a Lieutenant in the army, who was killed in
battle in Germany; 8th. James, also a Lieutenant in the army, and one of
the sufferers in the Black Hole of Calcutta, in 1756; 9th. Roderick, who
died at sea.”

Mr. J. B. Ashley, a native of Marysburgh, to whom much valuable
information we possess is due, says: “My great grandfather, James
Gerollamy, was but seventeen years of age when he joined General
Clinton’s army in 1779, and remained in the service until the virtual
close of the war in 1782, when he came from New York to Quebec, and
thence to Bath, where he settled, on what was until lately known, as the
“Hichcock Farm.”” He afterwards removed to the fifth town, and settled
on lot No. 11, 1st concession, lake side. He received from government
certain farming implements, the same as before mentioned. A part of them
coming into the hands of my father, Augustus Ashley, of Marysburgh. The
hatchet, I have often used when a young lad in my childish employments.
It is now lost. The share and coulter belonging to the plough, remain
among a collection of old iron in my father’s woodshed until the present
day. James Gerollamy, married Ann Dulmage, the daughter of Thomas
Dulmage, who came with him to Canada and settled near him at Bath, in
the second town, and subsequently moved to lot No. “D,” at the head of
South Bay, in the township of Marysburgh, where he died. The graves of
himself and wife being still under a large maple tree, close to the site
of his house.

James Gerollamy, and his two sons, James and John, served through the
war of 1812, under General Provost, Brock and Drummond. The old man
holding the rank of Orderly, and his son James that of Lieutenant. The
latter received a grant of 1000 acres of land for services as a “spy,”
he was one of the number who planned the successful attempts upon
Oswego, Black Rock and Buffalo, and at the battle of Niagara, generally
known as “Lundy’s Lane.” He fought in the company or regiment known as
“Grenadiers,” which, in their manœuvering were compelled to run and
wallow over a field of corn with mud ankle deep.

The whole family were remarkable for large size, being over six feet in
height, of great strength, and healthy, with robust constitutions. The
old gentleman was acknowledged the surest marksman in this section of
the country, and his “fusil,” was his constant companion. He died about
ten years ago, aged about ninety-five years, being in full possession of
his faculties until the last. I can well remember seeing him sauntering
through the garden, bent with his weight of years, and leaning on his

Thomas Goldsmith, a native of Ulster Co., Montgomery town, New York. He
was engaged as a spy, and discharged important and successful duties, in
carrying information from Gen. Burgoyne to Lord Cornwallis, and
returning with despatches. He frequently passed the guards of the
Continental army, and often was subjected to a close search, but
succeeded in eluding detection. Goldsmith owned one thousand acres of
land, on which was a flouring mill with two run of stones. Also, a
sailing vessel launched, but not entirely finished, for the West India
trade. The boat was sacrificed. The produce of his farm was paid for in
Continental bills. The malleable iron of his mill was taken to make a
chain to put across the Hudson to stop boats. His neighbors, the rebels,
catching him one day from home, covered him and his horse and saddle,
with a coat of tar and feathers. After the close of the war, he was
compelled to part with his land to get away. It was sold for a mere
trifle. He came into Canada in 1786, bringing with him some cattle, most
of which died for want of something to eat. He was accompanied by David
Conger, and reached Kingston, June 24. Settled at first in the fourth
township; but soon after removed to Holliwell, where he received a grant
of 400 acres of land, 1st. con., lot 9. Here he lived and died, aged

Sergeant Harrison was a native of Ireland, and served for many years in
the fifty-third regiment. For some time during the revolutionary war, he
was in the Quartermaster’s store, and post office. He was altogether
twenty-eight years in the service. At the close of the war, he settled
in Marysburgh, with the first band, not connected with the Hessians, and
was probably under Wright in the commissary department for the
settlement. He settled on lot nine, east of the Rock.

William Hudgins was born on a small island, known as Ginn’s Island,
lying about three and a half miles from the Virginia shore, in
Chesapeake bay, where his father, Lewis Hudgins, had a farm of two
hundred acres. He joined the Royal army with his younger brother Lewis,
in 1778, serving in the regiment known as the Queen’s Rangers, under
Lord Cornwallis; where he held the rank of sergeant, and his brother
that of corporal. At the battle of Yorktown, he was wounded and taken
prisoner, and his brother was killed. After his exchange he came to New
Brunswick, and settled about thirty miles above Frederickton, on the St.
John’s river, where he lived until 1809, when he removed to Canada.
First settling in Adolphustown, near what is known now as Cole’s Point.
He joined the incorporated militia during the war of 1812, serving under
Colonel McGill, and Colonel Shaw. He received the right to considerable
land; but after the capture of York, now Toronto, by the Americans in
1813, and the consequent destruction of property, the documents
pertaining to the same were burnt, and he could not, as a consequence,
get his grant. Immediately after the war of 1812, he removed to
Marysburg, where he remained until his death.

The above information is received from Mr. William Hudgins, son of the
above mentioned William Hudgins, who is now an old man, he having served
with his father in the war of 1812.

“It would have done you good to have heard the old gentleman, with his
silver locks flowing in the wind, whitened with the frosts of four-score
winters, as he descanted upon scenes and incidents in connection with
the war, through which he served, and to have witnessed his eye twinkle
with pride, when he referred to the loyalty of his honored parent.”—

Edward Hicks, who settled in Marysburgh, was placed in prison with his
father. His father was taken out and hanged before his window upon an
apple tree, (a piece of refined cruelty worthy a rebel cause). This
aroused Edward to a state of desperation, who with manacled hands, paced
his cell. To carry out his intention, he feigned illness, and frequently
required the guard to accompany him to the outer yard. At night fall he
went out accompanied by the guard. Watching the opportunity, he drew up
his hands and struck a furious blow upon the head of the soldier with
his handcuffs, which laid the man prostrate. Edward darted away to a
stream which ran near by, and across which was a mill-dam and a slide.
He rushed under this slide, and before a cry was raised, he concealed
himself under the sheet of water. He could hear the din and tumult, as
search was everywhere made through the night. Cold, wet, benumbed,
hungry and handcuffed, he remained in his hiding place until the
following night, thirty-six hours, when he crept out and escaped to the
woods. After nine days of fasting he reached the British army. Edward
Hicks did not forget the death of his father. He “fought the rebels in
nine battles afterward, and still owes them grudge.”

Joseph, Joshua and Edward, belonged to Butler’s Rangers, and saw no
little service. They were from Philadelphia, and left considerable
property. They had granted them a large tract of land west of Niagara,
where sprung up Hicks’ settlement. Joseph Hicks afterwards settled on
lot six, Marysburgh, west of the Rock.—(_Ashley._)

Edward Hicks is represented as having been a very powerful man, often
performing remarkable feats of strength, such as lifting barrels of
flour and pork to his shoulders, and such like.

He went to Boston in 1778, in the character of a spy, and was detected
by the Americans, and taken prisoner. He represented himself as a young
man searching for his mother, who had removed to that section of the
country; but it is supposed that his captors considered him as rather
too smart looking a young man to be lost in any enterprise, he being of
fine build, standing good six feet, and possessing an intelligent
countenance, and at his trial, condemned him as a spy to be dealt with

John Howell, a son of Richard Howell, from Wales, was born in New Jersey
in 1753. When 24 years old he took up his residence at Johnstown, on the
Mohawk river. At the commencement of hostilities, in 1776, he joined Sir
John Johnson’s 2nd battalion, and was raised to the position of
serjeant-major. His name appears as such upon the battalion roll, now
before the writer. He remained in the army during the war, doing duty at
St. Johns, Coteau du lac, and at many other places. When his company was
disbanded at Oswego, in 1782, he came immediately to Kingston, and
thence to Fredericksburgh, where he settled upon his lot of 200 acres.
By adhering to the loyal cause, Sergeant Howell suffered serious loss in
real estate. The pleasant town of Rome now stands upon the land which
was his. His valuable property was not yielded up to the rapacious
rebels without a legal effort to recover possession. The case was in
court for many years, and Sergeant Howell spent $1,400 in vain efforts
to recover. No doubt it was pre-judged before he spent his money. An
event in Howell’s life during the war is not without a touching
interest. Before joining the regiment, he had courted and won the heart
of a fair lady at Johnstown. While stationed at Coteau du lac he
obtained permission during the winter, when hostilities were suspended,
to go to Johnstown to obtain his bride. Guided by seven Indians, he set
out to traverse a pathless wilderness, on snowshoes. The wedding trip
had its perils, and almost a fatal termination. On their return they
lost their way in the interminable woods, and soon found themselves
destitute of food. For days they were without anything to eat. One day
they shot a squirrel, which, divided among them, was hardly a taste to
each. The thongs of their shoes were roasted and eaten, to allay the
pangs of hunger. At last they succeeded in shooting a deer, which had
well nigh proved the death of some, from over-eating. Two of the men
were left behind, but they subsequently came in.

Sergeant Howell’s loss as a loyalist was great; but, so far as could be,
it was made good by Government. He drew 1,200 acres of land as an
officer, and the same quantity for his family. At an early date after
his arrival at the Bay he was appointed Commissioner in the Peace; and
subsequently he was made Colonel of the Prince Edward Militia.

Soon after settling in Fredericksburgh he built a windmill, probably the
first mill built by an individual in the Province. He afterwards sold it
to one Russell. The remains still mark the spot.

He finally settled in Sophiasburgh, while it was yet considered by the
infant colony as the backwoods of the settlement. He was a man of
liberal education for the times, and was conversant with the Dutch and
French languages, and understood the Indian dialect. From his former
connection with the Johnson settlement upon the Mohawk, and his close
contiguity to the Mohawk Indians upon the Bay, he held a high place in
their regard. He often visited them; and their chiefs as often paid him
state visits. They often called upon him to settle their disputes, which
he never failed to do by his sternness and kindness combined. His
presence was sufficient to inspire awe amongst them when disposed to be
troublesome, which was increased by his long sword which he would hang
to his side.

Henry Hover was quite a boy when the rebellion was progressing, being
about sixteen when the Declaration of Independence was signed. Living
along the Hudson, near New York, he went out one day for the cows, when
he was caught by some rebels and carried to Lancaster jail. After being
in prison for some time he was released, and permitted to go to New
York. He some time after, by some means, enlisted in Butler’s Rangers,
and set out, with four others (one his brother), to traverse the wide
country on foot, from New York to Fort Niagara, the head-quarters of the
company. Lying one night under the trees, they were suddenly attacked by
a scouting party of rebels, by being fired upon. One was killed, and the
rest taken prisoners. Henry Hover remained in prison, in chains, until
the close of the war, nearly two years. The hardships and cruelties he
endured were, indeed, terrible. When he was taken prisoner he had on a
pair of linen trowsers; no others were ever given him; and when he was
released these were hanging in shreds upon him. They had nothing to lie
upon but the cold brick floor, two persons being chained together. Years
after, a stranger called one day at Hover’s in Adolphustown. Hover not
being at home, the man wrote his name, “Greenway,” the man to whom Henry
had been chained for many a weary day and month in prison. Hover being
released at the close of the war, reported himself at Niagara, and was
discharged with the rest of his company. He received all his back pay,
while in jail, and a grant of land at St. Davids; but his father, Casper
Hover, a refugee, had settled in Adolphustown, having come in Major Van
Alstine’s corps. Henry wished to see his parents, from whom he had been
so long separated, and sought a chance to go down from the Niagara
frontier. He entered on board an old “hulk,” an old French vessel coming
down the lake, and so got to Kingston, which place he reached soon after
Van Alstine’s company had settled in the fourth Township. Henry set out
from Kingston on foot, along the bay, through the woods. In time he
arrived at the third township. He was misdirected across to Hay Bay.
Following its shores, he met Holland’s surveying party, who told him
that he was astray, and put him on the correct track. Henry Hover
determined to remain at the bay, and was included among the original
settlers under Van Alstine, drawing land like the rest, being the only
one who did not belong to that company. He sleeps from his warfare—from
his long life of well-spent industry, in the “old U. E. burying ground,”
at the front, in Adolphustown.

Among those who fought the unequal battle of Bennington was Captain
Hogle, who was shot dead. He was a native of Vermont. He left a widow
and three sons, who were yet young. They were under the necessity of
leaving their valuable possessions and removing to Canada. They buried
plate in the garden, which was never regained. At the expiration of the
war they settled in Ernest town.

David Hartman—was present at the battle of Bennington, and was shot
through the chest. Notwithstanding, he lived for many years. He settled
in Ernest town.

John Ham, the founder of the Ham family of Canada, so well and so
favorably known in different sections of the Province. He was born near
Albany. His father was a native of Germany, although of English
parentage. John Ham was a soldier during the war, and in one of several
engagements, was wounded in the leg. The ball, lodging in the calf, was
cut out, and, at the request of the suffering but brave hero, was shot
back at the foe. He was one of the company who settled in Ernest town.
He had a family of ten children, eight of them being sons, namely: John,
Henry, Peter, George, Jacob, Philip, Benjamin, and Richard, all of whom
lived and died in Canada.

The name of Herkimer is engraved upon the history of America, both in
the United States and in Canada. “Colonel Hanjost Herkimer, or John
Joost, was a son of Johan Jost Herkimer, one of the Palatines of the
German Flats, New York, and a brother of the rebel general, Nicholas
Herkimer. His property was confiscated. He went to Canada, and died
there before 1787.”—(_Sabine._) Prior to the war he had occupied several
public offices. He served as an officer in Butler’s Rangers. We find his
name inserted for lot 24 of Kingston, on which now stands part of the
city. His son Nicholas settled upon the Point now bearing the family
name. He married a Purdy, and had several children. His end was a sad
one, being murdered by a blacksmith, named Rogers, who escaped. A
daughter was married to Captain Sadlier, another to an officer in the
army, and a third to Mr. Wartman.

The old family place in New York State is yet indicated by the name of
Herkimer County.

William Johnson Holt was ensign in Ferguson’s Rangers. This corps formed
part of the army of Burgoyne at the time of his surrender, and, with
other provincial prisoners, retired to Canada, by permission of Gates.
The subject of this notice settled in Montreal, where he held the
lucrative office of Inspector of Pot and Pearl Ashes, and received half
pay for nearly fifty years. He died at Montreal, in 1826. By his first
wife (Ruah Stevens, of Pittsfield, Massachusetts), he was the father of
a large family of sons and daughters; by his second wife (Elizabeth
Cuyler) he left no issue. His sixth son, Charles Adolphus, alone has
surviving male children, of whom the eldest, Charles Gates Holt, is
(1864) a distinguished counsellor-at-law, and a gentleman of the highest
respectability, at Quebec. In February, 1864, he was appointed one of
“Her Majesty’s Counsel, learned in the law,” and thus entitled to wear
the “silk robe.”

“John Jones, of Maine, captain in Rogers’ Rangers. Being of a dark
complexion, he was called ‘Mahogany Jones.’ Prior to the war he lived at
or near Pownalborough, and was Surveyor of the Plymouth Company. As the
troubles increased, the whigs accused him of secreting tea, and broke
open his store. Next, they fastened him to a long rope, and dragged him
through the water until he was nearly drowned. Finally, to put an end to
his exertions against the popular cause, he was committed to jail in
Boston. He escaped, went to Quebec in 1780, and received a commission in
the Rangers. In Maine, again, before the peace, he annoyed his personal
foes repeatedly. Among his feats was the capture of his ‘old enemy,’
General Charles Cushing, of Pownalborough. Jones, immediately after the
peace, was at the Bay of Fundy, and interested in lands granted on that
island to loyalists. In 1784 he resumed his business as surveyor, on the
river St. Croix.—At length, ‘his toryism forgotten,’ he removed to the
Kennebec. He died at Augusta, Maine.”

Captain William Johnson, of the King’s Royal regiment, afterwards
colonel of the Militia of Addington. Besides the celebrated Sir John
Johnson’s family, there were a large number of combatants and loyalists
of this name, and mostly all of them were conspicuous for their gallant
deeds in arms. Captain William Johnson settled some miles west of
Kingston, on the front. Left one child, a daughter, who married McCoy.
They removed to Toronto. It is said by Mr. Finkle that the first militia
mustered in Upper Canada was by Col. William Johnson, at Finkle’s

The name of Johnson has become somewhat famous in Canadian history.
James Johnson, an Irishman, was a soldier in Rogers’ Battalion. He came
to Upper Canada with the first settlers of Ernest town, and was captain
of the cattle-drivers that came at that time, or a year later. He got
his location ticket at Carleton Island. He had a family of seven sons
and six daughters. Six of the sons’ names were: Daniel, James, William,
Matthew, Jacob, Andrew. The last-mentioned supplies us with the above
information. He is now upwards of one hundred years of age.—(See U. E.

William Ketcheson, of Sidney, who was born September, 1782, at Bedford,
New York, says that his father, William Ketcheson, was a native of
England, and came to America with his grandfather, his father being
dead. They settled in South Carolina, and lived there until the
rebellion broke out. William Ketcheson, sen., was then about seventeen
years of age, and entered the British service as a dragoon, under Lord
Cornwallis. He served during the war; took part in many engagements, and
was wounded in the thigh. Shortly before the close of hostilities he was
married to Mary Bull, daughter of John Bull, a loyalist. After the peace
he went to Nova Scotia, and engaged in fishing for a while; lived in a
shanty at a rock-bound place, called Portoon. A fire ran over the place,
burning up mostly everything, and almost our informant, who was then
only about 18 months old. He and his mother were put on board a boat and
taken to New York. The father remained to settle his affairs at Nova
Scotia, and then came on into Canada, alone, in 1786. He worked a farm
on shares, in the third township, belonging to John Miller. Raked in the
grain; went for his family, and then subsequently worked Spence’s farm
on shares for many years. Finally moved to Sidney, in 1800, and settled
in the fifth concession.

“John Waltermeyer a tory partisan leader. He was noted for enterprise
and daring, but not for cruelty or ferocity. In 1781, at the head of a
band of Tories, Indians, and Canadians, he attempted to carry off
General Schuyler, whose abode at that time was in the suburbs of Albany.
The party entered the dwelling, commenced packing up the plate, and a
search for the General. But that gentleman opened a window, and, as if
speaking to an armed force of his own, called out,—“Come on, my brave
fellows; surround the house, and secure the villains who are
plundering.” The happy stratagem caused Waltermeyer and his followers to
betake themselves to flight.”

The foregoing statement is taken from Sabine; we shall now give
information derived from Captain Myer’s descendants, and others who knew
him well. It is without doubt correct.

Captain Myer’s father and brother identified themselves with the rebel
party, and we have heard it stated that he was at first, a rebel also,
but not receiving promotion as he expected, forsook the cause, and upon
the offer of a captaincy in the British forces allied himself to them.
That this was the pure invention of his enemies is sufficiently plain.
At the beginning of the rebellion Captain Myers, with his father, was a
farmer in the vicinity of Albany, and could have had no reason for
promotion. As to the captaincy, we find that he did not receive it until
1782, when the war had virtually closed, as the following shows:

Frederick Haldimand, Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief of the
Province of Quebec and territories depending thereon, &c., &c., &c.
General and Commander-in-Chief of His Majesty’s forces in said Province
and territories thereof, &c., &c., &c.


  _By Virtue_ of the power and authority in me vested, I do hereby
  constitute, appoint you to be _captain_ in the corps of Loyal
  Rangers whereof Edward Jessup, Esq., is Major-Commandant. You are
  therefore carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of
  _captain_ by exercising and well disciplining both the inferior
  officers and soldiers of the corps, and I do hereby command them to
  obey you as their _captain_, and you are to observe and follow such
  orders and directions as you shall from time to time receive from me
  your Major, Major-Commandant, or any other of your superior
  officers, according to the rules and discipline of war. In pursuance
  of the trust hereby reposed in you. _Given_ under my hand and seal
  at Arms, at the Castle of _St. Louis, at Quebec_, this thirtieth day
  of May, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two, and in the
  twenty-second year of the reign of our Sovereign, Lord George the
  Third, by the Grace of God, Great Britain, France and Ireland, King,
  Defender of the Faith, and so forth.

                                        (Signed)      FRED. HALDIMAND.

  By His Excellency’s Command,
                        R. MATHEWS.

It is true that during the war he made the attempt to take General
Schuyler a prisoner. He went with ten men to Albany for the purpose of
seizing the General, and carrying him away captive. On entering the yard
at night, they looked through the window and saw the object of the
expedition, but when they had entered the house he could no where be
found, although search was made from cellar to garret. But in the garret
were a number of puncheons turned up side down. Some of them were
examined, but not all. After the war had closed, the Governor called on
Myers and told him that had he turned over the other puncheons he would
have found him. A faithful female slave had placed him there. The men
with Myers had instruction to touch none of the Governor’s property,
after leaving the place, however, he found one of the men in possession
of a silver cup. This was sent back to the Governor afterward.

During the war, Myers on one occasion, perhaps when he was returning
from his attempt to take Schuyler, was nearly starved to death. He had
with him a favorite dog, which became sick for want of food. He carried
the dog for days, not knowing but he would have to kill him for food.
But they all got safely out of it, and he retained the dog for many a
day, and on one occasion he showed him to Schuyler. After the war
Captain Myers enjoyed a pension of 5s. 6d. a day. He lived in Lower
Canada two years. A certificate of Masonry informs us that he was in
Quebec in 1780. He frequently carried despatches to New York, in the
first years of the war; upon one occasion he was in a friend’s house
when the rebels came up, he jumped out of the back window and ran to the
woods, he was seen, and persons on horseback came rapidly to the woods,
and tied their horses, to pursue him on foot, which they hastily did;
Myers had, however, hidden himself close by, and when they had fairly
entered the woods in pursuit of him, he jumped up and deliberately
selected the best horse, upon which he mounted, and so made an easy
escape to New York.

He came up the bay at an early date, and it would seem squatted on the
front of the ninth town before it was surveyed. He then moved up to
Sidney where he lived until 1790, when he returned to the Moira River.

Captain Myers was a bold man, with limited education, but honest, and,
like many others of the Dutch Loyalists, given to great hospitality. He
was a pioneer in mill building, in trading, and in sailing batteaux and
schooners, up and down the bay.

Charles McArthur, a native of Scotland, came to America before the
rebellion, and settled upon the Mohawk Diver. Took part in the war, in
Burgoyne’s army. Lived for some time at Oswegotchie, when he removed to
head of the bay. There were living then west of the Trent River only the
following families: Peter Huffman, Donald McDonell, John Bleeker, Esq.,
and John McArthur. A daughter of Charles McArthur still lives at
Belleville, having been born at Oswegotchie, now aged 78, (Mrs. Maybee.)

Ensign Miller, of Jessup’s corps, was a native of Duchess County. He had
a brother an ensign, who lived and died at Montreal. Settled in
Fredericksburgh, adjacent Adolphustown; drew in all 2,000 acres of land,
in different places. Died 1805, aged forty-seven. Another brother came
to the Province the year after the U. E. list had closed. He was the
father of Rev. Gilbert Miller of Picton, and died at the age of ninety.
Mr. G. Miller informs us that two great uncles, named Ogden, were with
the British troops at the taking of Fort Frontenac.

All of this name (Ogden) are supposed to be related. They were, it is
thought, of Welsh origin. One of that name settled upon the Delaware
River previous to the rebellion. It is not quite certain whether this
first Ogden died by the banks of the Delaware, or as is thought came to
the Bay Quinté. He had three sons, one of whom died before their
removal, leaving four sons. They, with their uncles, came at a very
early date to Hamilton, but the four nephews removed to the Bay Quinté
about 1790. Their names were James, John, Joseph and Richard. The
numerous body living around the bay of this name, have all sprung from
these four brothers. (Marshal R. Morden.)

Mr. James Morden was a private in His Majesty’s Provincial Regiment,
King’s Royal of New York, Sir J. Johnson Commander. Discharged 1785 at
Montreal, at the age of twenty, having served three years.

Colonel McDonald, as he was subsequently called, as an officer of
militia, served under Sir John Johnson. He was one of the first settlers
of the fifth township at the Bay Quinté. He landed first in the cove
bearing his name, near Mount Pleasant, 1784. We have stood upon the spot
where he first set foot upon the land, and pitched his tent. This cove
is marked upon some of the old maps as Grog Bay, but in reality, Grog
Bay was a small inlet from the cove. Colonel McDonald lived to be
eighty-five years old. He drew large quantities of land, besides
receiving many other favors from government. He left but one offspring,
a daughter, who married a native of France named Prinyea, whose
descendants are worthy inhabitants of the place.

We find the following newspaper record: “Died on the 3rd October, 1815,
Sergeant Alexander McDonald, in his 78th year. This worthy veteran
enlisted in 1757 in the 78th or Frazer’s regiment, in which he served at
the taking of Louisburg and Quebec. In 1763 he was drafted into the
60th, and served in the active campaigns during the American war, under
the late General Provost, in Carolina and Georgia. In 1799 he was
drafted from the 60th into the 41st regiment, in which he served till
August 1811, when he was discharged, after a faithful service of
fifty-five years.”

The Canadian _Courant_ spoke of J. McDonnell, as follows:—“The subject
of this memoir was born in Glengary, in the Highlands of Scotland, about
the year 1750. His father was principal tacksman on the estate. The
spirit of emigration prevailed very much in Scotland, and particularly
in the Highlands, a little before the commencement of the American war.
The father of Mr. R. McDonnell partaking of the feelings of his clan,
and anticipating many advantages in this new world, accompanied a
considerable emigration from Glengary estate, of which he was one of the
principal leaders. Mr. R. McDonnell landed at New York with his father,
and a number of the same name, in 1773, but the disputes between Great
Britain and the colonies having assumed a very serious appearance, it
was thought prudent to send him into Canada. Being designed for
commerce, he was placed in a counting house, but the war breaking out,
the spirit of his ancestors burst forth with an ardor which could not be
restrained. He joined the Royal Standard, and was immediately appointed
to an ensigncy, in the 84th regiment. In this subordinate situation he
did not fail to distinguish himself by his bravery and good conduct, and
on one singular and trying occasion he exhibited the greatest
intrepidity and coolness. He was advanced to the command of a company in
Butler’s Rangers. Many of your readers still remember that the services
required by this regiment were of the most arduous kind. They were sent
out on scouting parties, and employed in picking up intelligence, and in
harassing the back settlements of the enemy. As their marches lay
through pathless forests, they were frequently reduced to the greatest
necessities, nor had they even, while on service, any of those comforts
which are so common in regular camps. In the many expeditions and
contests in which this regiment was engaged, during the war, Captain
McDonnell bore a distinguished part, but the great hardships which he
had to surmount, undermined a constitution naturally excellent, and
entailed upon him a severe rheumatism which embittered the remaining
part of his life.

During some time he acted as Pay-master of the regiment, and by his own
care and attention he found himself at the end of the war in the
possession of a small independence. This he considered equally the
property of his father, brothers and sisters as his own, and proved by
his generosity that his filial love and brotherly affection were equal
to his other virtues. In 1794 when it was thought proper to levy a
regiment in this country to remedy the great desertion which attended
regiments from Europe, he raised a company.

“In 1795 he was promoted to the majority, and the regiment having been
divided into two battalions, he became Lieutenant-Colonel of the 2nd, in

“He commanded at Niagara during the building of Fort George, and in 1802
he again retired on half-pay, the Royal Canadian Regiments having been
most injudiciously reduced during the continuance of the ephemeral peace
of Amiens. While at Fort George he married Miss Yates, a lady from the
States, whose amiable and obliging manners gained the esteem of all who
had the honor of her acquaintance. By this lady, in whom the Colonel
enjoyed all that has to be wished in a companion and friend, he has a
son, a promising boy, who, it is to be hoped, will inherit the virtues
of his father. The Colonel’s active benevolence was known to all, and
experienced by many of his friends.

“There was something so generous, so noble in his manner of doing a
kindness of this sort, as to give it a double value.

“In 1807 he was appointed Pay-master to the 10th Royal Veteran
Battalion, a situation certainly far below his merits—but his
circumstances, which, owing to his generous disposition, were by no
means affluent, induced him to accept it.

“He had been exceedingly infirm for many years, and perhaps the severe
climate at Quebec was too much for his weak constitution. Certain it is
that this city has been fatal to several respectable characters from the
Upper Province. He caught a severe cold in the beginning of November,
1809, accompanied with a violent cough and expectoration; he was not,
indeed, thought dangerously ill, till within a short time of his death,
but his feeble constitution could not support the cough, and he expired
on the twenty-first.

“Such are the scanty materials which I have been able to collect
respecting the life of a most excellent officer and honorable man, who
became dearer to his friends and acquaintances the longer he was known
to them.

“He was rather below the middle size, of a fair complexion, and in his
youth, uncommonly strong and active. For some time past his appearance
was totally altered; insomuch that those who had not seen him for many
years, could not recognize a single feature of the swift and intrepid
captain of the Rangers.

“An acute disease made it frequently painful for him to move a limb,
even for days and weeks together, but though his body suffered, his mind
was active and benevolent, and his anxiety to promote the interests of
his friends ceased only with his life.”

Among those who took part in the unequal engagement at Bennington, was
Alexander Nicholson, a Scotchman, who came to America shortly before the
war broke out. He enlisted as a private under Burgoyne; but before the
close of the war, received a commission. He was one of a company which
was all but annihilated at Bennington. He stood by his Colonel when that
officer was shot from his horse. Vainly trying to get him re-horsed,
that officer told him it was no use, that he had better flee. The day
being evidently lost, he proceeded to escape as best he could. With his
arm wounded, he managed to escape through a field of corn to the woods.
Coming to a river, he was arrested by an Indian upon the opposite bank,
who, mistaking him for a rebel, fired at him. The Indian being
undeceived, he forded the river. Making good his escape, he, with many
others, wandered for days, or rather for nights, hiding by day, as
scouts were ranging the woods to hunt out the tories. There were,
however, friends who assisted to conceal them, as well as to furnish
them with food. He often spoke of his sufferings at that fearful time;
lying upon the cold ground without covering, and sleeping, to wake with
the hair frozen to the bare ground. Subsequently Nicholson was attached
to Rogers corps. He settled in Fredericksburgh, at the close of
hostilities, and subsequently removed in 1809, to the township of

Ostrom was engaged to carry despatches through the enemy’s line. On one
occasion he had the despatch in a silver bullet, which he put in his
mouth. Having reason to believe he would be diligently examined, he took
it from his mouth as he would a quid of tobacco, threw it in the fire
and thus escaped.

Nicholas Peterson, with his three sons, Nicholas, Paul and Christopher,
were living near New York, and took a part in the war.

They assisted in fighting one of the most remarkable battles of the
revolution. It took place on the west side of the North River, opposite
the city of New York, when seventy-five British Militiamen resisted an
attack made by 5,500 rebels, for several hours. The British had a Block
House, made of logs, with a hollow excavation behind, and in this hollow
they loaded their guns, and would then step forward and discharge them
at the enemy. Only three of the British were slain; the rebels lost
many. These Petersons lost everything of any importance, when they left
New York. Some of their valuables they buried to preserve them from the
enemy, and the rest they left to their use.

Nicholas and Paul settled on lots No. 12 and 13, in the first concession
of Adolphustown, south of Hay bay.

                              CHAPTER XI.

  CONTENTS—Rogers’ family—Ryerson—Redner—Sherwood—Taylor—Van Dusen—
    Williamsburgh—Wright—Wilkins—Young—Officers who settled in Niagara

Under Queen’s Rangers will be found some account of Major Rogers,
derived from Sabine. We here give further information, procured from
Robert D. Rogers, Esq., and Dr. Armstrong, of Rochester, New York, who
is a native of Fredericksburgh, and who, for many years, practised his
profession in Picton and Kingston.

Robert D. Rogers, of Ashburnham, writes: “My grandfather, James Rogers,
settled first in Vermont, and had several large tracts of land there;
he, and his brothers were officers in the Queen’s Rangers, of which his
brother Robert was the chief officer; they were employed in the wars of
the French and Indians, until the taking of Quebec by the British, after
which the said Robert Rogers was ordered by General Amherst to proceed
westward and take possession of all the forts and places held by the
French, as far west as Detroit and Michilimackinac, which he did in the
fall of 1760; and he afterwards went to England, where he published a
journal kept by him during the French and Indian wars, and up to 1761,
which was published in London 1765. He also wrote another book, giving a
description of all the North American Colonies. My grandfather continued
to reside in Vermont, until the time of the revolution, when he joined
the British army, and after peace was proclaimed, settled near the East
Lake in Prince Edward. I have heard that he was buried in
Fredericksburgh, but do not know the place. My father represented Prince
Edward in the first Parliament of Upper Canada, of which he was a member
for twenty-six years.”

From Dr. Armstrong, we learn that “Major Rogers was born in Londonderry,
New Hampshire, about the year 1728.” His wife was the daughter of the
Rev. David McGregor, pastor of the Presbyterian church, Londonderry, of
which his father, the Rev. James McGregor, formerly of Londonderry,
Ireland, was the founder, April 12, 1719. Major Rogers was the father of
three sons and three daughters. He removed with his family to Vermont,
where he had become the proprietor of a large tract of land. Here he
lived until the breaking out of the rebellion, (see Queen’s Rangers.)
After the conclusion of the war, Major Rogers, abandoning his property
in Vermont, much of which had been destroyed, his herds of cattle driven
off and appropriated to their own use by his neighbors, removed with his
family to Canada and settled in Fredericksburgh. That he had been there
previously and explored the country, and that he had taken with him a
corps of soldiers, is altogether probable, for I well remember to have
seen in my earliest boyhood, evidences of previous military strife, such
as numerous broken guns, swords, and other worn-out weapons. At
Fredericksburg, Major Rogers erected, as he had done before at
Londonderry, Vermont, the first frame house in the township. How long he
remained here I am unable to say, but probably several years. My own
birth-place, August 29, 1789, was in a little village one or two miles
below his residence, and as I was one of his legatees, he probably
remained there for some time after that event. I find no record of his
death, but it probably took place about the year 1792. He was buried in
Fredericksburgh, as were his widow and eldest daughter (my mother),
1793. His eldest son James, returned to Vermont and recovered a
considerable portion of the land in Londonderry. He afterward, in 1819,
removed with his family to Haldimand, where he died several years ago.
His second son, David McGregor, familiarly known also as “Major Rogers,”
remained in Canada up to the time of his death, about 1823. While quite
a young man, he was elected a member of the first Parliament of Upper
Canada. He then resided at Little Lake in the township of Hallowell. He
afterwards removed to Cramahe, where I found him in 1803, engaged as a
merchant, holding the office of clerk of the Peace, clerk of the
District Court, and Registrar of Deeds, besides being a member of
Parliament, and carrying on a farm. His name is pretty closely
identified with the early history of Upper Canada. He was a man of great
energy of character and sound judgment, was highly respected and
esteemed, and died greatly lamented. After remaining in Fredericksburgh
several years, the family of the late Major (James) Rogers removed to
the “Little Lake,” so called. This was the scene of my earliest
recollections. In the same neighborhood had resided Mr. Peters, and his
family. He was a native of New England, remained loyal to the Crown,
became an officer in the Queen’s Rangers, and was among the early
refugees to Canada. He afterwards became sheriff of Newcastle, having
removed from the Little Lake, first to the Carrying Place, and
afterwards to Cramahe, about the year 1804, where he died many years

Joseph Ryerson, of New Jersey, one of the five hundred and fifty
volunteers who went to Charleston, South Carolina. For his good conduct
in bearing despatches one hundred and ninety-six miles into the
interior, he was promoted to a Lieutenancy in the Prince of Wales’
Volunteers. Subsequently he was engaged in six battles, and once
wounded. At the peace he went to New Brunswick, thence to Canada, where
he settled and became a Colonel in the militia. In the war of 1812, he
and his three sons were in arms against the United States. He died near
Victoria, Upper Canada, in 1854, aged ninety-four, one of the last of
the “old United Empire Loyalists.”—(_Sabine._)

One of Captain Ryerson’s old comrades, Peter Redner, of the bay, says,
he was “a man of daring intrepidity, and a great favorite in his
company.” He often related an instance when Captain Ryerson, commanding
a scouting party, for which peculiar service he was eminently fitted,
ventured to crawl up to a tent of American officers, and discovering one
standing in the door who saw him, he walked boldly up, thus lessening
suspicion, and drawing his bayonet immediately ran him through the body,
and escaped before his companions had sufficiently recovered from the
shock to give pursuit. He represented Captain Ryerson as being one of
the most determined men he ever knew, with the service of his country
uppermost in his mind, he often exposed himself to great danger to
accomplish his desires.

Samuel Ryerson, of New Jersey, brother of Joseph, joined the Royal
Standard, and received a commission as captain in the Third Battalion of
New Jersey Volunteers; went to New Brunswick at the peace, thence to
Canada, where he settled.

Peter Redner, a native of New Jersey, was connected with the service for
some time. He was in the same division as Captain Ryerson, and during
his subsequent life was always delighted to tell of the incidents in
connection with the several campaigns through which he passed,
especially such as related to “his friend Ryerson,” to whom he was much

At the close of the war he went to Nova Scotia, where he drew land; but
not liking the place, he disposed of his land and came to Canada. He
purchased lot ninety-four in Ameliasburgh for a small consideration,
from William Fox, a United Empire Loyalist, of Pennsylvania, who had
drawn it.—(_Ashley._)

Walter Ross—He arrived, an emigrant from Scotland, at Quebec, the night
before the fall of Montgomery. He, with others from the ship,
immediately took up arms, and assisted to repulse the enemy in a most
distinguished manner. He subsequently lived with Major Frazer, and
became so great a favorite that the Major assisted him to an ensigncy.
After the close of the war he married Miss Williams, of Ernest town, and
settled in Marysburgh, on the lake shore.

The Ruttans were descendants of the Huguenots. Says Sheriff Ruttan: “My
grandfather emigrated to America about the time of Sir William Johnson,
Bart., in 1734, and settled at a town called New Rochelle, in
Westchester county, New York. This town, or tract of land, was purchased
in 1689, expressly for a Huguenot settlement, by Jacob Leister,
Commissioner of the Admiralty, under Governor Dongan of New York. It
soon increased, and in 1700 had a vast number of militia officers, loyal
to the backbone. To this settlement my grandfather repaired soon after
his arrival. My father and uncle Peter were born here about 1757, and
1759. Both entered the army in the 3rd battalion of Jersey volunteers,
one as Lieutenant, the other as Captain. This was about the year 1778.
In the year 1778, my uncle Peter accompanied Brant from New York to
Western Canada, on a tour of observation, being a great favorite, so
much so that he named his son Joseph Brant Ruttan, as a token of his
friendship. As a further token of his esteem, Brant, at parting,
presented him with a handsome brace of pistols, which he valued highly.
At his decease, they came into my possession. My father and uncle had
grants of 1200 acres of land each, at Adolphustown, in the Midland
District; this was in 1783 or 1784.”

Sheriff Ruttan, when a child, met with a slight accident which probably
turned the current of his life from one of comparative obscurity to
notoriety. Henry Ruttan went out with his brother one spring morning to
tap trees for sugar making. Accidentally two of Henry’s fingers were
severed from his hand by an untoward stroke of the sharp axe. This loss
led his father to send him to school, as he could not perform manual
labor. Respecting his education, the reader is referred to the division
on “Early Education.” With the education obtained in Adolphustown, he
went to Kingston and was apprenticed with John Kerby, a successful
merchant. By industry as well as talent, Henry advanced to be a partner,
and was entrusted to open a store in the “new township” near Grafton, in
Newcastle. Subsequently, he distinguished himself as a soldier, in 1812,
then as a member of Parliament, as Speaker, and for a long time as
Sheriff. Latterly his name is associated with inventions for ventilation
of buildings and cars.

Captain Schermerhorn was among the first settlers upon the bay Quinté.
Respecting the nature of his services during the war we have no record,
nor have we learned in what regiment he served; but most probably in
Johnson’s. The writer has in his possession a portion of an epaulet
which belonged to this officer. He drew large quantities of land in the
western part of the Province, as well as a lot in Fredericksburgh. He
died in 1788 when on a visit to Montreal to procure his half-pay. His
widow and eldest son died soon after. His youngest son, John, settled on
lot 95, 9th concession Ameliasburg.—(_J. B. Ashley._)

“Colonel Spencer” was an officer in Roger’s Battalion, settled on lot 9,
1st concession Fredericksburgh additional. He died shortly after the
commencement of the war of 1812, having been Colonel of the militia, and
active in preparing to meet the foe. He was buried, with military
honors, upon his own farm.

His brother Augustus was an ensign, and settled at East Lake, on
half-pay. His wife, Sarah Conger, lived to be ninety-four years old.

In the former part of last century there were born three brothers, Seth,
Thomas, and Adiel Sherwood, in old Stratford, in the Province of
Connecticut. The three brothers removed, 1743, to New York State, five
miles north of Fort Edward, within a short distance of the spot where
Burgoyne surrendered. At the commencement of the rebellion, Seth and
Adiel identified themselves with the rebel party, becoming officers in
the army, while Thomas adhered to his Sovereign. It was probably after
the defeat of Burgoyne, when he proceeded to St. John, Lower Canada, and
was subsequently employed by the British Government on secret service in
the revolting State. His knowledge of the country enabled him to bring
from the territory of the enemy not a few who were desirous of serving
in the British army. In 1779 his family removed to St. Johns, and he
received an appointment as subaltern in Major Jessup’s corps.

At the close of the war, Thomas Sherwood came with his corps to the St.
Lawrence, and became the first actual settler in the county of Leeds. He
was well known as an active public man, “he was ever ready to give
assistance and instructions to the new comers.” He also assisted in the
first survey of that part. He was among the first magistrates. He lived
on his farm forty-two years, and died, aged 81, in peace.

Adiel Sherwood, from whom we receive the foregoing facts, was the son of
Thomas, and was born at the homestead in New York State, 16th May, 1779,
shortly before the family left for Canada. He says: “I remained with the
family at St. Johns until May, 1784, when we came in the very first
brigade of batteaux to the Upper Province, where my father pitched his
tent, about three miles below Brockville, so that I may say I saw the
first tree cut, and the first hill of corn and potatoes planted by an
actual settler.” Mr. Adiel Sherwood at an early date, 1796, was
appointed an ensign in the first regiment of Leeds Militia. He was
promoted from time to time until he became Colonel. He was commissioned
a Magistrate, Clerk of the Peace, Commissioner of Land Board, and
finally Sheriff for the district of Johnstown. He was connected with the
militia fifty years, when he retired on full rank. Was Treasurer of the
District twenty-five years, and Sheriff thirty-five. Mr. Sherwood still
lives, an active, genial, and Christian-minded gentleman, and we take
this occasion to express our feelings of gratitude for his assistance
and sympathy in this our undertaking.

There were a good many of the name of Taylor among the loyalists
residing at Boston, New York, and New Jersey. They were all in the
higher walks of life, and some filled high public stations. One family,
consisting at the time of the rebellion, of a mother and three sons, has
a tragic and deeply interesting history. For many of the particulars I
am indebted to Sheriff George Taylor, of Belleville, a descendant of the
youngest of the brothers.

Sheriff Taylor’s father was earned John, and was born upon the banks of
the Hudson, of Scotch parents. He was fourteen years old when the
rebellion broke out. His two brothers were officers in the British army,
and were employed in the hazardous duties of spies. The only knowledge
he has of his uncles, is that they were both caught at different times,
one upon one side of the Hudson and the other the opposite side; both
were convicted and executed by hanging, one upon the limb of an apple
tree, the other of an oak. John Taylor was at home with his mother upon
the farm, at Kinderhook. But one day he was carried off while from the
house, by a press gang, to Burgoyne’s army. He continued in the army for
seven years, until the end of the war, when he was discharged. During
this time he was in numerous engagements, and received three wounds at
least, one a sabre wound, and a ball wound in the arm. It is stated on
good authority, (Petrie) that he once carried a despatch from Quebec to
Nova Scotia, following the Bay of Fundy. His mother in the meantime was
ignorant of his whereabouts, and held the belief that he was dead, or
carried off by the Indians. At the expiration of the war he went to New
Brunswick by some means, subsequently he undertook to walk on snowshoes,
with three others, from St. Johns to Sorel, which he accomplished, while
the three others died on the way; he saved his life by killing and
eating his dog. He procured his discharge at Sorel. In 1783 he came up
the St. Lawrence to Cataraqui, and thence walked up the bay as far as
the mouth of the Moria River, accompanied by one William McMullen.
Ascending the Moria he chose the land, where is now the 4th concession
of Thurlow, the “Holstead farm.” He lived here a few months, but the
Indians drove him away, declaring the river belonged to them. He then
bought lot No. 5, at the front, of Captain Singleton, property which yet
bears his name. John Taylor married the daughter of a U. E. Loyalist by
the name of Russell.

Two or three years after he came to Thurlow, he visited his old home at
Kinderhook, to see his mother, who knew not he was alive. She
accompanied him back to Canada, although hard on ninety years old. She
did not live long in her new home.

Two intimate comrades of John Taylor in the army, were Merritt and
Soles, father of D. B. Soles, formerly of Belleville.

Respecting the brothers of John Taylor, the following appeared in the
Hastings _Chronicle_ of Belleville, 13th November, 1861.

“A SPY OF THE REVOLUTION.—In the year 1776, when Governor Clinton
resided in Albany, there came a stranger to his house one cold wintry
morning, soon after the family had breakfasted. He was welcomed by the
household, and hospitably entertained. A breakfast was ordered, and the
Governor, with his wife and daughter employed in knitting, was sitting
before the fire, and entered into conversation with him about the
affairs of the country, which naturally led to the enquiry of what was
his occupation. The caution and hesitancy with which the stranger spoke,
aroused the keen-sighted Clinton. He communicated his suspicion to his
wife and daughter, who closely watched his every word and action.
Unconscious of this, but finding that he had fallen among enemies, the
stranger was seen to take something from his pocket and swallow it.
Meantime Madam Clinton, with the ready tact of a woman of those
troublesome times, went quietly into the kitchen, and ordered hot coffee
to be immediately made, and added to it a strong dose of tartar emetic.
The stranger, delighted with the smoking beverage, partook freely of it,
and Mrs. Clinton soon had the satisfaction of seeing it produce the
desired result. From scripture out of his own mouth was he condemned. A
silver bullet appeared, which upon examination was unscrewed and found
to contain an important despatch from Burgoyne. He was tried, condemned
and executed, and the bullet is still preserved in the family.”

“The foregoing article we clip from the Boston _Free Flag_ of the 2nd
November, 1861; this, there is reason to infer, is a special reference
to a relative of one of the oldest families in this part of Canada. John
Taylor in his life time, well known to the first inhabitants of
Belleville, had two brothers employed upon secret service for the
British Government during the American revolutionary war; their names
were Neil and Daniel. At different times they were each apprehended and
suffered the severe penalty of the law. A tradition of the Taylor family
of this place, agrees in all particulars with the above article, and
points to one of the Taylor brothers as the person therein alluded to.”

Sabine says that “Daniel Taylor in 1777, was dispatched by Sir Henry
Clinton to Burgoyne, with intelligence of the capture of Fort
Montgomery, and was taken on his way by the whigs as a spy. Finding
himself in danger, he turned aside, took a small silver ball or bullet
from his pocket and swallowed it. The act was seen, and General George
Clinton, into whose hands he had fallen, ordered a severe dose of emetic
tartar to be administered, which caused him to discharge the bullet. On
being unscrewed, the silver bullet was found to contain a letter from
the one British General to the other, which ran as follows:

                                       FORT MONTGOMERY, October 2, 1777.

_Nous voici_—and nothing between us but Gates. I sincerely hope this
little success of ours may facilitate your operations. In answer to your
letter of 28th of September, by C. C., I shall only say, I cannot
presume to order, or even advise, for reasons obvious. I heartily wish
you success.

                           Faithfully yours,

                                                             H. CLINTON.

 To General Burgoyne.

Taylor was tried, convicted, and executed, shortly after his detection.”

Conrad VanDusen was a native of Duchess County, N. Y., born 23rd April,
1751. His father was Robert VanDusen. At the commencement of the
rebellion he was in business as a tailor, in New York City. He served
during the whole of the war, seven years, in Butler’s Rangers. During
this time, his wife, who was also from Duchess County, formerly a Miss
Coon, carried on the tailoring business in New York, and succeeded in
saving fifty-three guineas. On leaving for Canada with VanAlstine, they
brought with them two large boxes of clothing. They also had some

During the war VanDusen was sometimes employed upon secret service, and
upon one occasion was caught, and condemned to be hanged. Upon leaving
the room in which he had been tried, he managed to convey to a woman
present, whose earnest demeanor led him to believe she was friendly, a
gold ring, a keep-sake of his wife. By some means VanDusen escaped,
having concealed himself in a swamp under water, with his face only
above water, and in after years he was surprised and rejoiced to receive
by letter the identical ring, which had been sent to him by the woman
into whose hands he had so adroitly placed it. She had directed the
letter to Cataraqui.

The close of the war found VanDusen at New York, and he joined
VanAlstine’s band of refugees, and settled in Adolphustown. Subsequently
he removed to Marysburgh, lot No. 9, where he died, aged seventy-six
years and seven months. He lies buried in the U. E. burying ground,

Frederick Frank Williamsburgh, at the time of the war lived upon the
Susquehanna, and owned a thousand acres of land. He was a sickly man.
His family consisted of a son eleven years old, and three daughters. One
day he went some distance to a mill, taking his children with him, and
leaving his wife and mother at home. That day the rebels made a raid,
and he was taken prisoner from his children on the road; and coming to
his barn, it, with all his grain was burned up. His wife and old mother
sought safety in the woods, and the house was stripped of everything.
The children arriving home without their father, found no mother, or
grandmother, only the smoking ruins of the barn and the dismantled
house. Frightened almost to death, and expecting to be killed before
morning, they lay down on the floor. About midnight came a knock at the
door; after a time they summoned sufficient courage to ask who was
there, when it was found to be neighbor who had been hunted in the woods
for three days and who was almost starved. He was admitted, and having
slept for a short time, he proceeded to prepare a raft upon the river;
upon this he placed some flour he had concealed in the woods, and the
children, with himself, and floated down the river. But the morning
brought the enemy, and they were taken. The children were conveyed to a
place where they found their mother; but the father having been thrown
into a prison, in three months his weak constitution succumbed to the
cruelty of his prison house.

The family found their way to Lower Canada, after a time, living upon
the rations dealt out from day to day from the commissariat department.
They, after a time, went to Montreal, and one son, when twelve year old,
enlisted. For a time he acted as tailor to the regiment, but
subsequently became a favorite with the Colonel and was promoted. The
descendants of this William Williamsburgh now live in Belleville.

Sergeant Daniel Wright was born in the city of London, 1741. He was
sergeant in the 74th regiment. Sergeant Wright was present at the battle
before Quebec, when Montgomery was killed. He settled in Marysburgh in
1784. He was commissary officer for the fifth township, and was
subsequently appointed magistrate and then registrar, which office he
held for upwards of thirty years. Was Lieut. Colonel in the Prince
Edward Militia. “Old Squire Wright” was a man of education and
gentlemanly deportment, strictly religious, and noted for his urbanity;
he obtained the soubriquet of “Squire civil.” It is said he was never
known to smile. Unlike other retired officers, it is said, he did not
seek to acquire extensive tracts of land. Died April, 1828, aged

The following is from the Kingston _Chronicle_: “Died at the Carrying
Place, 27th February, 1836, Robert Wilkins, Esq., in the ninety-fourth
year of his age. He entered the army at the early age of seventeen, in
the 17th Light Dragoons, then commanded by the late Colonel Hale. Soon
after he joined the regiment it was ordered to Scotland. There it did
not long remain; the “Whiteboy” conspiracy had been formed in Ireland.
From Ireland he sailed with the same distinguished regiment for the
British American Colonies, then raising the standard of revolt, landed
at Boston, and a few days after bore a conspicuous part in the battle of
Bunker’s Hill, on which occasion he had two horses shot under him. He
was present at most of the engagements in the northern colonies. At the
battle of White Plains, he was one of the forlorn hope, where he
received a severe contusion on the breast, and lost the thumb of his
right hand. After recovering from his wounds, he retired from the army,
and entered into mercantile pursuits in the city of New York. There he
carried on a prosperous business until peace was concluded; but when
that city was evacuated by the British troops (in 1783) he was too
strongly attached to his king to remain behind. He then accompanied them
to Shelburne, Nova Scotia. In the improvements of that luckless place,
he expended a large sum of money, but finding that the place would not
succeed, he left, and in 1789, returned to his native country, from
which, three years after, he was induced to follow Governor Simcoe to
this colony, just after it had received its constitution, and became a
distinct government. From that time he remained in Upper Canada, and
most of the time at this place. Of Christian doctrine and Christian
duty, he had a much deeper sense than was obvious to occasional
visitors. His hospitality was proverbial, and never under his roof was
the poor refused food or shelter. His remains were followed to the
church, and thence to the house appointed for all living, by not less
than 300 of his friends and neighbors.”

For an account of the son of the above, see notices of U. E. Loyalists.

Col. H. Young—His father was a native of Nottingham, England, and came
to New York when eighteen years old, and settled at Jamaica, Long
Island. He was a gunsmith by trade. Subsequently he removed to Husack,
northern New York. He had four sons, George, Henry, William, John, and
two daughters. His second son Henry, was born at Jamaica, 10th March,
1737. At the age of eighteen he joined the British army, as a volunteer.
He was present at the battle of Tyconderoga, under General Abercrombie.
He was also with the army under General Amherst, which went from Albany
to Montreal, to join the army from Quebec, under General Murray.
Continued in the army until 1761, when he returned home, married a Miss
Campman, and lived in peace until the rebellion broke out. He again
joined the British army as a private, and was at the battle of
Bennington, but he so distinguished himself that he was promoted to an
ensigncy in the King’s Royal Regiment, of New York. During the war he
took part in seventeen battles, but escaped with one wound in the hand.
In the year 1780, he was sent with Major Ross to Carleton Island. For
three years he was at this place, or Oswego. In 1783 he was discharged
on half pay, and received grants of land—3,000 acres, with the privilege
of selecting the place. Immediately after his release he set out,
sometime during the summer or autumn of 1783, to prospect for land. In a
small canoe, he, with a brother officer, named, it is said, McCarty,
proceeded up the bay Quinté, and into Picton bay to its head, thence to
East Lake. Having decided to take land here, he left his son during the
winter. In the following spring 1784, he brought his family from St.
Johns, where they had been staying. (See settlement of Prince Edward).
Colonel Young died at East Lake. 3rd December, 1820, aged eighty-three
years and nine months.

Daniel Young was in the Engineer Department during the latter part of
the revolutionary war. He died at East Lake, 30th September, 1850, aged

Henry Young was Lieutenant of Militia in the war of 1812. Went to
Kingston on duty, where he died, latter part of December, 1812.

Among the first settlers of the Upper Province, especially upon the St.
Lawrence, and who took part in the war, may be mentioned, Captain Thomas
Frazer, Captain William Frazer, Lieutenant Solomon Snider, Lieutenant
Gideon Adams, Captain Simon Covelle, Captain Drummond, Ensign Dulmage,
Ensign Sampson, Lieutenant Farrand, Captain Amberson, Lieutenant McLean,
Lieutenant James Campbell, Lieutenant Alexander Campbell, Sergeant
Benoni Wiltsie, Ensign E. Bolton, Captain Justus Sherwood, Captain John
Jones, Lieutenant James Breakenridge, of Roger’s corps.

Colonel Clarke, of Dalhousie, gives a “list of half pay officers who
settled in the Niagara District after the rebellion of the colonies:”

Colonel John Butler, originator of Butler’s Rangers, an Irishman, a
connection of Lord Osmore; Captain Andrew Brant, Butler’s Rangers;
Captain B. Fry, Captain P. Hare, Captain Thos. Butler, Captain Aaron
Brant, Captain P. Paulding, Captain John Ball, Captain P. Ball, Captain
P. Ten Brock, Lieutenant R. Clench, Lieutenant Wm. Brant, Lieutenant Wm.
Tweeny, Lieut. Jocal Swoos, Lieut. James Clements, Lieut. D. Swoos, all
of Butler’s Rangers; Captain James Brant, Indian Department; Captain H.
Nelles, Captain James Young, Captain Robert Nelles, Captain Joseph
Dockater, Captain C. Ryman, Lieut. J. Clement, Lieut. W. B. Shuhm,
Lieut. A. Chrysler, Lieut. S. Secord, Lieut. F. Stevens, Surgeon R.
Kerr, Commodore T. Merritt, father of the late Hon. W. H. Merritt, all
of the Indian Department.

                              DIVISION II.

                              CHAPTER XII.

  CONTENTS—Indian paths—Portages—Original French routes—Mer de Canada—
    Original names of St. Lawrence—Ontario—Huron—Route by Bay Quinté—
    Old French maps—Original English routes—Four ways from Atlantic to
    the Lakes—Mississippi—Potomac—Hudson—Indian name of Erie—From New
    York to Ontario—The Hudson River—Mohawk—Wood creek—Oneida Lake—
    Oswego River—The carrying places—West Canada Creek—Black River—
    Oswegotchie—The navigation—Military highway—Lower Canada—An
    historic route—The paths followed by the Loyalists—Indian paths
    north of Lake Ontario—Crossing the Lake—From Cape Vincent to the
    Bay Quinté—From Oswego by Duck Islands—East Lake—Picton Bay—
    Coasting Ontario—Two ways to Huron—By Bay Quinté and Trent; by Don
    River—Lake Simcoe—Point Traverse—Loyalists—Traveling by the St.
    Lawrence—First road—Long remembered event.

Although the European found the American continent a vast unbroken
wilderness, yet the native Indians had well defined routes of travel.
Mainly, the long journeys made by them in their hunting excursions, and
when upon the war path, were by water up and down rivers, and along the
shores of lakes. And at certain places around rapids, and from one body
of water to another, their frequent journeyings created a well marked
path. These portages or carrying places may even yet, in many places be
traced, and are still known by such appellations. The arrival of the
European in America was followed by his penetrating, step by step, to
the further recesses of the north and west. The opening of the fur trade
with the Indians led to increased travel along some of the original
paths, and probably to the opening of new ones. While the French by the
waters of the Lower St. Lawrence, found it convenient to ascend by the
great streams, the English had to traverse the high lands which separate
the sources of the rivers which empty into the Atlantic, from those
which rise to flow to the lakes and rivers of fresh water to the north.

The original routes of travel taken by the French were up the St.
Lawrence, at first called the “Grand River of Canada,” while the gulf is
marked Galpo di Canada O’S Larenzo. The water of the Atlantic, south of
the Chesapeake River to Newfoundland and the gulf, was known as the _Mer
de Canada_. From the seaboard the traveler sometimes, having ascended to
the mouth of the Sorel River, turned west to lake Champlain, and thence
into the western part of the present New York State, or continuing up
the St. Lawrence to its confluence with the Ottawa, or as it was
sometimes called Grand River, selected one or the other of these
majestic streams, by which to continue the journey westward. Following
the Ottawa, the way led to the north as far as Lake Nippissing, and
thence westward to the Georgian Bay. Sometimes the voyager would
continue to ascend the St. Lawrence to Lake Ontario, a portion of the
St. Lawrence sometimes called Cataraqui River, or the Iroquois River,
that is to say, the river which leads to Cataraqui, or the Iroquois
country. Lake Ontario was called by Champlain, Lake St. Louis, and
subsequently for a time it was known as Lake Frontenac. According to a
map observed in the French Imperial Library the Indian name of Ontario
was Skaniadono, 1688.

From Lake Ontario to Lake Huron, at first named Mer Douce, and, then
after the Huron Indians, who were expelled from that region by the
Iroquois in 1650, a very common route was up the Bay Quinté, the River
Trent, Lake Simcoe, and to Georgian Bay. That this was a not unfrequent
way is well exhibited by the old French maps, which, prepared to
indicate the principal waterways to the traveler, had the waters of the
Bay and Trent, even to its source, made broad, so that the observer
might imagine that the bay and the river were one continuous bay of
navigable waters. As this route was adjacent to the territory of the
Iroquois nation, it was only when the French were at peace with them
that this course was taken, until the establishment of the fort at
Cataraqui. Again, the French occasionally followed the south shore of
Lake Ontario to the Niagara River and ascended it to Lake Erie, and thus
approached the far west.

While the French with comparative ease, reached the vast inland seas,
the English by more difficult channels sought the advantages, which
intercourse with the lake Indians afforded. An early writer of American
history, Isaac Weld, says: “There are four principal channels for trade
between the ocean and the lakes. One by the Mississippi to Lake Erie, a
second by the Potomac and French Creek to Lake Erie. (Lake Erie was at
first called Okswego, and the territory to the south of Lake Erie was
sometimes called Ontario Nous.) A third by the Hudson, and a fourth by
the St. Lawrence.” A later writer says: “It is worthy of notice, that a
person may go from Quebec to New Orleans by water all the way except
about a mile from the source of Illinois River.” The last mentioned
route we have seen belonged to the French, and was the best to follow,
as well as the most direct to Europe. Of the other three, we have only
to speak of that by the Hudson.

The distance from New York to Lake Ontario is laid down as being 500
miles. From New York Bay to Albany, the Hudson is navigable, 180 miles.
Ten miles north of Albany the river divides into two branches. The
western branch is the Mohawk and leads to Rome, formerly Fort Stanwix. A
branch of the Mohawk, Wood Creek, leads toward Oneida Lake, which was
reached by a portage. A branch of Wood Creek was called Canada Creek,
and led toward Lake Champlain. From Oneida Lake, the larger lake,
Ontario, is reached by the Oswego River. Weld probably refers to this
route when he says that the distance over which boats had to be hauled
by land, (perhaps, from New York to Ontario) was altogether thirty
miles. This was no doubt the most speedy route by which to reach Upper
Canada from the Hudson. Frequent reference is made to it, in the
accounts of journeying, by the U. E. Loyalists, which have come under
notice. It was by far the most commonly traveled way, taken by those who
came into Canada after the close of the war. And, it is stated, 1796,
that the chief part of the trade between New York and the lake is by
this way. But sometimes, the traveler up the Mohawk, instead of turning
into Vilcrik, or Wood Creek, would continue to ascend the Mohawk, which
turned more toward the east; and then into a branch sometimes called,
1756, West Canada Creek, by which he was brought contiguous to the head
waters of the Black River, which empties into the lake at Sacket’s
Harbor. But the Black River was sometimes reached by ascending the
Hudson, above the mouth of the Mohawk, away eastward to the Mohegan
mountains, where the Hudson rises. Crossing these mountains he would
strike the Moose River, which is a tributary to the Black River.
Occasionally, instead of Moose River, the Oswegotchie was reached, and
followed to its mouth at La Présentation, the present town of
Ogdensburgh That this route was well known, is shown from the statement
of Weld, that, “It is said that both the Hudson and Oswegotchie River
are capable of being made navigable for light batteaux to where they
approach within a short distance, about four miles.” All of these
branches of the Hudson are interrupted by falls.

Still another way was now and then taken, after having crossed the
Mohegans, namely, by Long Lake which feeds Racket River, that empties
into the St. Lawrence, at St. Regis, opposite Cornwall. Again, numerous
accounts have been furnished the writer, in which the traveler followed
the military highway to Lower Canada, by Whitehall, Lake Champlain, Fort
Ticonderoga, Plattsburgh, and then turning northward proceeded to
Cornwall. But this way was the common one to Lower Canada, and by the
Sorel. This historic route was no doubt long used by the Indians, before
the European trod it, and Champlain at an early period penetrated to the
lake, to which his name is forever attached. Along this road passed many
a military expedition; and during the wars between the colonies of
France and England, here ebbed and flowed the tide of strife. The
rebellion of 1776 witnessed Burgoyne with his army sweep by here
westward to meet his disastrous fate; and thereafter set in the stream
of refugees and loyalists, which ceased not to flow for many a year,
along this path.

While the great majority of the loyalists who came to Canada, followed
one or other of the routes above mentioned, there were some who came
around by the Atlantic, and up the St. Lawrence. There were at least two
companies, one under the leadership of Captain Grass, and one under
Captain Van Alstine, who sailed from New York in ships under the
protection of a war vessel, shortly before the evacuation by the British
forces in 1783.

Directing our attention to the territory north of Lake Ontario, and the
Upper St. Lawrence, we find some interesting facts relative to the
original Indian paths; sometimes, followed on hunting and fishing
expeditions, and sometimes in pursuit of an enemy. There is evidence
that the Mohawks, upon the southern shore of Lake Ontario, were
accustomed to pass across the waters, to the northern shores by
different routes. Thus, one was from Cape Vincent to Wolfe Island, and
thence along its shore to the west end, and then either to Cataraqui, or
up the Bay Quinté, or perhaps across to Amherst Island, where, it seems,
generally resided a Chief of considerable importance. A second route,
followed by them, in their frail bark canoes, was from a point of land
somewhat east of Oswego, called in later days Henderson’s Point, taking
in their way Stony Island, the Jallup Islands, and stretching across to
Yorkshire Island, and Duck Island, then to the Drake Islands, and
finally to Point Traverse. Following the shore around this point,
Wappoose Island was also reached; or, on the contrary, proceeding along
the shore westward they reached East Lake. From the northernmost point
of this lake they directed their steps, with canoes on their heads,
across the carrying place to the head of Picton Bay, a distance of a
little over four miles. It is interesting to notice that upon the old
maps, by the early French navigators, the above mentioned islands are
specified as “_au des Couis_;” while at the same time the Bay of Quinté
bears the name of _Couis_, showing unmistakably that the Mohawk Indians
passed by this way to the head waters of the bay and to the Trent River.
Herriot designates one of these islands, Isle de Quinté. Two maps in the
Imperial library of Paris, give these islands, above mentioned, the name
of Middle Islands, and the waters east of them are named Cataraqui Bay.
It is not at all unlikely that Champlain, when he first saw Lake
Ontario, emerged from the water of East lake. Again, instead of entering
the Bay Quinté with a view of passing up the River Moira, or Trent, they
would continue along the south shore of Prince Edward, past West Lake
and Consecon Lake, and proceed westward, sometimes to the river at Port
Hope, sometimes further west, even to the Don, and ascend some one of
the rivers to the head waters of the Trent or Lake Simcoe. The early
maps indicate Indian villages along at several points. Owing to the
dangerous coast along the south shore of Prince Edward, sometimes they
chose the longer and more tedious route through the Bay Quinté to its
head. That here was a common carrying place is well attested by the
statements of many. Indeed, at this point upon the shores of the lake
was an Indian village of importance. An old graveyard here, upon being
plowed, has yielded rich and important relics, showing that the Indians
were Christianized, and that valuable French gifts had been bestowed.

It would seem from a letter of DeNonville, that there were two ways to
reach Lake Huron from Lake Ontario: one by the Bay Quinté and the Trent;
the other by the way of the Don River and Lake Simcoe, called by him
“Lake Taranto.” In the selection of routes they were guided by Indians.

The route by the Trent and the Bay Quinté was for many a day regarded as
the most direct, and the best route to Lake Huron, even since the
settlement by Europeans. Its supposed importance was sufficient to lead
to the attempt to construct a canal with locks, to make it navigable.
Gourlay says, sometime after the war of 1812, that “in course of time it
may become an object of importance to connect Rice Lake by a canal with
Lake Ontario direct, instead of following the present canoe route by its
natural outlet into the Bay Quinté.”

The Marquis DeNonville, in 1685, moved on the Five Nations with his
little army in canoes, in two divisions. On the 23rd June, one-half
proceeded on the south side from the fort Cataraqui, and the other on
the north side of the lake, and met near Oswego. Now, there can be no
doubt, that the latter party crossed the bay to Indian Point, passed
along its southern shore, then across the bay by Wappoose Island, and
then around, or crossing Point Traverse struck far into the lake, by the
islands which constituted the guides of this early Indian route. It may
be that this was so commonly traveled that the old name of Point
Traverse was thus derived.

We have indicated the several routes followed by the Indians, the
French, the English, and finally by the Refugees, so far as relate to
the territory now comprising Upper Canada, that is by which it was
originally reached and settled. Beside, there were some who found their
way by land from the head waters of the Susquehanna to Lake Erie and
Niagara. But the vast majority of pioneers of Upper Canada entered by
the channels aforesaid.

For many years, the only road from Lower Canada was by the St. Lawrence,
ascending wearily up the dangerous rapids in canoes and batteaux; and it
will be found that the lots in the first townships were surveyed narrow
in order to secure a water frontage to as many as possible, because
there was no other means of transit than by water. But those who settled
in the second concessions, a year or two later, were obliged to tread
the length of the long front lots, in order to reach the water. At the
same time the communication with Lower Canada, up and down the rapids,
was attended with many hazards and inconveniences. It consequently
became a matter of no little importance to have a road through the
settlements to Montreal, which might be traveled by horse, a King’s
highway from the eastern Provincial line. It was, however, some years
after the first settlement before this was secured. The original survey
for a road was made by one Ponair, assisted by one Kilborne. “The
opening” Sherwood says, “of this road from Lower Canada to Brockville
and thence to Cataraqui, a distance of 145 miles, was an event long
remembered by the pioneers. At the end of each mile was planted a red
cedar post with a mark upon it indicating the number of miles from the
Provincial line.”—(See First Years of Upper Canada—Construction of

                             CHAPTER XIII.

  CONTENTS—Indians traveled by foot or by canoe—Secreting canoes—
    Primeval scenes—Hunting expeditions—War path—In 1812—Brock—A night
    at Myers’ Creek—Important arrival—The North West Company—Their
    canoes—Route—Grand Portage—The Voyageurs—The Batteaux—Size—
    Ascending the rapids—Lachine—A dry dock—Loyalists by batteaux—
    Durham boats—Difficulties—In 1788, time from Lachine to
    Fredericksburgh—Waiting for batteaux—Extracts from a journal,
    travelling in 1811—From Kingston to Montreal—The expenses—The
    Schenectady boats—Trade between Albany and Cataraqui—The Durham
    boat—Duncan—Description of flat-bottomed boat by “Murray”—
    Statement of Finkle—Trading—Batteaux in 1812—Rate of traveling—The
    change in fifty years—Time from Albany to Bay Quinté—Instances—
    Loyalists traveling in winter—Route—Willsbury wilderness—Tarrying
    at Cornwall—The “French Train”—Traveling along north shore of
    Ontario—Indian path—Horseback—Individual owners of batteaux—Around
    Bay Quinté—The last regular batteaux—In 1819—“Lines” from

                          TRAVELING BY CANOE.

Having pointed out the several general routes by which the aborigines
and the first Europeans in America, were wont to traverse the country
from the seaboard to the far west, and indicated more particularly the
smaller paths of the Indians around the Bay Quinté and Lake Ontario, we
purpose glancing at the means by which they made their way through the

The Native had but two modes of transporting himself from place to
place; namely, by foot and by the canoe. He was trained to make long
expeditions upon the war-path, or after prey. When his course lay along
a water way, he employed his birch canoe. This being light, he could
easily ascend rapids, and when necessary, lift it from the water, and
placing it, bottom upward, upon his head, carry it around the falls, or
over a portage with the greatest facility. When upon the chase, or about
to attack a foe, the canoe was so carefully secreted, that the passing
traveler would never detect its whereabouts. The French and English at
the first followed this Indian mode of traveling. From the graphic
descriptions which are given to us by the early writers of this Indian
mode of traveling in America, ere the sound of the axe had broken upon
the clear northern air, and while nature presented an unbroken garment
of green, it is not difficult to imagine that scenes of Indian canoe
traveling were in the extreme picturesque. It is not necessary to go
beyond the Bay Quinté, to find a place where all the natural beauty was
combined with the rude usages of the aboriginal inhabitant, to create a
picture of rare interest and attraction. In those primeval times there
was no regular passage made between one part of the country and another.
The Indian in his light canoe glided along here and there, as his fancy
led him, or the probability of obtaining fish or game dictated. At
certain seasons of the year there was a general movement, as they
started off on their hunting expeditions; and at other times the
warriors alone set out, when only intent upon surprising the hated foe.
On these occasions one canoe would silently and swiftly follow in the
wake of the other, until the place of debarkation was reached. For a
long time the birch canoe was the only mode of traveling, and when the
French came with their batteaux, the canoe continued for a long time the
principal means of transit. Even so late as the war of 1812, canoes were
employed, and many of the gallant ones who fought and conquered the
conceited and unscrupulous Yankee invader, found their way to the front
by the swift birch bark. Company after company of Red Coats were to be
seen plying the trim paddle as the canoe sped on its way. We have it on
good authority that Major General Brock, at the reception of the
intelligence, that the United States had declared war against Great
Britain, set out from Lower Canada in a birch canoe, and with a
companion and their boatman, journeyed all the way to York, followed by
a regiment of soldiers. Incidents of this passage are yet related by the
living. He reached Belleville, or as it was then called Myers’ Creek,
late one night, after having been traveling for some time without rest.
With his companion, he went ashore and sought a place to sleep. They
entered the public house of Captain Mc——, and after examining a room,
decided to sleep there the night. But the host, hearing an unusual
noise, rushed into the room demanding who was there. The General’s
companion, with the quickness, and in language somewhat characteristic
of the army of that time, told him he would kick him to h—ll in a
minute. Captain Mc—— somewhat disconcerted at the threat and tone of
authority walked out, and meeting the boatman, ask him who the parties
were. Upon being informed, he rushed away in a state of great alarm, not
daring to shew himself again to the General. The house is still

The following notice is from the Kingston _Gazette_.

                                               “YORK, April 29, 1815.”

  “On Sunday evening last arrived in this town from Burlington, in a
  birch canoe, Lieutenant General Sir George Murray Knight,” &c., &c.


Gourley, speaking of Lachine, says that “from Lachine the canoes
employed by the North West Company in the fur trade take their
departure. Of all the numerous contrivances for transporting heavy
burthens by water, these vessels are perhaps the most extraordinary:
scarcely anything can be conceived so inadequate from the slightness of
their construction, to the purpose they are applied to, and to contend
against the impetuous torrent of the many rapids that must be passed
through in the course of a voyage. They seldom exceed thirty feet in
length, and six in breadth, diminishing to a sharp point at each end,
without distinction of head or stern; the frame is composed of small
pieces of some very light wood; it is then covered with the bark of the
birch tree, cut into convenient slips, that are rarely more than the
eighth of an inch in thickness; these are sewed together with threads
made from the twisted fibres of the roots of a particular tree, and
strengthened where necessary by narrow strips of the same materials
applied on the inside; the joints in the fragile planking are made
water-tight, by being covered with a species of gum that adheres very
firmly, and becomes perfectly hard. No ironwork of any description, not
even nails, are employed in building these slender vessels, which, when
complete, weigh only about five hundred weight each. On being prepared
for the voyage, they receive their lading, that for the convenience of
carrying across the portages is made up in packages of about
three-quarters of a hundred weight each, and amounts altogether to five
tons, or a little more, including provisions, and other necessaries for
the men, of whom from eight to ten are employed to each canoe; they
usually set out in brigades like the batteaux, and in the course of a
summer, upwards of fifty of these vessels are thus dispatched. They
proceed up the Grand, or Ottawa River, so far as the south-west branch,
by which, and a chain of small lakes, they reach Lake Nippissing;
through it, and down the French River into Lake Huron; along its
northern coast, up the narrows of St. Mary, into Lake Superior, and
then, by its northern side, to the Grand Portage, a distance of about
1,100 miles from the place of departure. The difficulties encountered in
this voyage are not easily conceived; the great number of rapids in the
rivers, the different portages from lake to lake, which vary from a few
yards to three miles or more in length, where the canoes must be
unladen, and with their contents carried to the next water, occasion a
succession of labors and fatigues of which but a poor estimation can be
formed by judging it from the ordinary occupations of other laboring
classes. From the Grand Portage, that is nine miles across, a
continuation of the same toils takes place in bark canoes of an inferior
size, through the chain of lakes and streams that run from the height of
land westward to the Lake of the Woods, Lake Winnipeg, and onwards to
more distant establishments of the company in the remote regions of the
north-west country. The men are robust, hardy, and resolute, capable of
enduring great extremes of fatigues and privation for a long time, with
a patience almost inexhaustible. In the large lakes they are frequently
daring enough to cross the deep bays, often a distance of several
leagues, in their canoes, to avoid lengthening the route by coasting
them; yet, notwithstanding all the risks and hardships attending their
employment, they prefer it to every other, and are very seldom induced
to relinquish it in favor of any more settled occupation. The few
dollars they receive as the compensation for so many privations and
dangers, are in general, dissipated with a most careless indifference to
future wants, and when at an end, they very contentedly renew the same
series of toils to obtain a fresh supply.”

“The batteaux,” says Ex-Sheriff Sherwood, “by which the refugees
emigrated, were principally built at Lachine, nine miles from Montreal.
They were calculated to carry four or five families, with about two tons
weight. Twelve boats constituted a brigade, and each brigade had a
conductor, with five men in each boat, one of which steered. The duty of
the conductor was to give directions for the safe management of the
boats, to keep them together; and when they came to a rapid they left a
portion of the boats with one man in charge. The boats ascending were
doubly manned, and drawn by a rope fastened at the bow of the boat,
leaving four men in the boat with setting poles, thus the men walked
along the side of the river, sometimes in the water, or on the edge of
the bank, as circumstances occurred. If the tops of trees or brush were
in the way they would have to stop and cut them away. Having reached the
head of the rapid the boats were left with a man, and the others went
back for others,” and so they continued until all the rapids were
mounted. Lachine was the starting place, a place of some twenty dwelling
houses. Here Mr. Grant had a dry dock for batteaux.

It was by these batteaux, that the refugees, and their families, as well
as the soldiers and their families passed from the shores of Lake
Champlain, from Sorel, and the St. Lawrence, where they had temporally
lived, to the Upper Province. It was also by these, or the Skenectady,
or the Durham boat, that the pioneers made their transit from Oswego.

Thus it will be seen that to gain the northern shore of the St. Lawrence
and Lake Ontario, was a task of no easy nature, and the steps by which
they came were taken literally inch by inch, and were attended with
labor hard and venturesome. Records are not wanting of the severe
hardships endured by families on their way to their wooded lands.
Supplied with limited comforts, perhaps only the actual necessaries of
life, they advanced slowly by day along dangerous rapids, and at night
rested under the blue sky. But our fathers and mothers were made of
stern stuff, and all was borne with a noble heroism.

This toilsome mode of traveling continued for many a year. John
Ferguson, writing in 1788, from Fredericksburgh to a friend in Lower
Canada, Lachine, says of his journey, “after a most tedious and
fatiguing journey I arrived here—nineteen days on the way—horrid roads—
sometimes for whole days up to the waist in water or mire.” But the
average time required to ascend the rapids with a brigade was from ten
to twelve days, and three or four to descend.

One can hardly conceive of the toilsome hours formerly spent in passing
from Kingston, or the seventh and eighth townships of the bay to
Montreal, and back. Before setting out, the traveler would make
elaborate preparations for a journey of several weeks. There was no
regular traffic, and only an occasional batteaux, laden with simple
articles of merchandise, would start for the head waters of the bay.
Individuals would often wait, sometimes a long time, for these
opportunities, and then would work their passage, by taking a hand at
the oars. Even up to the present century, it was the custom.

The following is a most interesting instance of batteaux traveling which
has been placed in our hands by the Rev. Mr. Miles. It gives one an
excellent idea of traveling at the beginning of the present century. “I
left Kingston on the 6th of April, 1811, but as the traveling _then_ was
not as it is _now_, I did not arrive in Montreal till the 15th. I will
just copy verbatim, the journal I kept on my passage. Durham boats were
scarce on the Canada side at that time, but it was thought if I could
get to the American shore, I would find one on its way to Montreal.
Well, I found a man in Kingston, just from Grindstone Island, who had
brought up some shingles and tar to sell, and he told me if I could get
to Briton’s Point, several miles down the river from Cape Vincent, and
to which place he would take me, that he thought I would find a Durham
boat there, and the following is my journal on that route.

“Grindstone Island, April 11th, 1811.—Left Kingston yesterday, April
6th, at 3 p.m., in an open skiff, with R. Watson, a clerk in Dr. Jonas
Abbott’s store, and two hands belonging to the skiff—head wind—rowed
hard till about eight in the evening, when having blistered both hands,
and being very much fatigued, we drew our skiff on shore, and camped on
the shore of Long Island, about five miles above Grindstone Island—wind
strong from the north—very cold and without victuals or fire—feet wet—
slept some, walked some, and by daybreak was somewhat chilled. Strong
head wind. Stuck close to our dear lodgings till about eight, when the
wind abated, and we stuck to our oars till about eleven o’clock, when we
made Grindstone Island, weary, and very hungry—eat a hearty dish of
“sapon” and milk—rested about an hour—set off for Briton’s tavern on the
American shore, where we arrived about 4 p.m., the water being entirely
calm. Had not been on shore ten minutes, as good luck would have it,
before we engaged a passage for Cornwall in a Durham boat, and a breeze
coming up directly from the south, our American boats immediately
hoisted sail and proceeded about thirty miles, when the wind changed,
and we put into a bay on Grenadier Island, about nine in the evening—eat
some supper at a house owned by Mr. Baxter—spread a sail upon the floor,
and seven boatmen and four passengers camped down before the fire. In
the morning I felt my bones as though they had been lying on the soft
side of a hard rough floor. April 8, head wind still. Wished myself
either at Kingston or Montreal. April 9, still a head wind. Must take it
as it comes. Reading and writing the order of the day. At 7 p.m.,
hoisted sail. At one a.m., arrived at a house on the Canada shore, and
slept on the floor till daylight. April 10, left for Ogdensburg, where
we arrived at 3 p.m. Found an old acquaintance and passed the afternoon
quite agreeably. April 11, had a good night’s rest. Still a head wind.
Found the printing office and composed types the greater part of the
day. April 12, still a head wind. April 13, left Ogdensburg and arrived
at Cornwall. April 14, left Cornwall and arrived at M’Gee’s, Lake St.
Francis. April 15, left M’Gee’s and arrived at Montreal about 8 p.m.
Traveling expenses from Kingston to Montreal $9.75.”

With the later coming refugees was introduced another kind of flat
bottomed boat. It was generally small and rigged with an ungainly sail.
It was generally built at the Town of Schenectady, and hence the name.
Schenectady is a German word, and means _pine barren_. Families about to
come to Canada would build one or more to meet their requirements. There
was never a large number of this particular kind of boat. Those that
were to be seen, were upon the bay.

With the opening up of trade between Albany and Upper Canada, was
introduced still another kind of vessel, which was adapted to the use of
merchants, engaged in the carrying trade. One of the earliest
traffickers from the Mohawk River to the lakes by the Durham boats was
Duncan, of Augusta, who was, as will be seen, one of the first
Legislative Councillors of Upper Canada. He finally removed to
Schenectady. It is said that he introduced the trade between the Mohawk
and Buffalo which led to the construction of the Erie Canal.

A writer, speaking of the boats used by the Canadians, says, the largest
boats used by the Canadian boatmen is called the Durham boat, “used here
and in the rapids of the Mohawk. It is long, shallow, and nearly flat
bottomed. The chief instrument of steerage is a pole ten feet long, shod
with iron, and crossed at short intervals with small bars of wood like
the feet of a ladder; the men place themselves at the bow, two on each
side, thrust their poles into the channel, and grasping successively the
wooden bars, work their way toward the stern, thus pushing on the vessel
in that direction.” (Murray).

Mr. Finkle remarks that “the first mode of conveyance for travelers from
Montreal to Kingston, after the settlement of Upper Canada, was by
Canadian batteaux laden with merchandize (at this time there was no
separate conveyance).” The return cargo consisted of barrels of flour,
peas, potash, north-west packs of furs, &c.; the men and conductors
employed in this business were Lower Canadians. This mode of conveyance
continued without interruption until 1809, when the Durham boats came
from the Mohawk River and embarked in the carrying trade only between
Montreal and Kingston. Being of commodious size, far above the batteaux,
they materially interfered with them and lessened the trade by the
batteaux. The men who managed the Durham boats came with them from the
Mohawk River, these boats were entirely manned by men from that country.

The flat bottomed boat continued in use until some time after the war of
1812. Until the canal along the St. Lawrence was constructed it was the
only way by which merchandize could be transported to the Upper Province
through the rapids of the St. Lawrence. After the establishment of York
as the capital of Upper Canada, there sprung up naturally, a trade
between Kingston and the “muddy” capital, and regular batteaux
communication was, after a little, established. Once a week the solitary
boat left Kingston, and slowly made its way by oars, up the bay to the
Carrying Place over which it was hauled by Asa Weller, a tavern keeper,
upon low wheels or trucks drawn by oxen, and then continued its way
along the shore of Ontario, to its destination. These boats carried not
only merchandize but passengers. Beside the regular batteaux there were
occasionally others, owned by small merchants and pedlars. It was by the
flat bottomed boat and canoe that many of the troops ascended to the
head of the lake in 1812, and by which many of the 1000 prisoners taken
at Detroit were conveyed to Quebec. The rate of speed of the batteaux or
Durham boat, as well as the Skenectady boat, can be approximated from
the statement of “A traveller,” writing in 1835. He says, “the line of
boats which start from Albany to Skenectady, on their way to Upper
Canada, go two-and-a-half miles an hour, taking in stoppages—charging
one-and-a-half cents per mile, including board.” This mode of traveling
is preferred by large families and prudent settlers.

The conveniences of traveling then, as well as the time required, are so
widely different from what we are accustomed to in this day, that we
have to pause and wonder at the change which even fifty and sixty years
have wrought. Even after Upper Canada had become somewhat settled, it
was a momentous matter for a family to set out from the Hudson for
Cataraqui, or the Bay Quinté, as they generally called the settlement in
those days. For instance, Mr. Lambert, of Sophiasburgh, who came in
1802, was six weeks on the way between Albany and the bay, coming by the
Mohawk and Oswego Rivers, and crossing from “Gravelly Point” to “Isle
Tanti.” We will give another instance:—Nicholas L., came from New Jersey
with seven sons and two daughters. It took a month to come. Having
reached Schenectady they waited to build a batteaux. This completed,
they stored away provisions to last them until Cataraqui was reached.
They also brought with them iron kettles, with which to make maple
sugar, and “a churn full of honey.” Mr. L., being a fanning mill maker,
he brought also a quantity of wire gauze. At Oswego, the fort there
being still held by the British, they were strictly questioned as to the
use intended to be made of the kettles and gauze. Satisfaction being
given on this point, the family continued their tedious journey along
the shore toward Kingston. Barely escaping being wrecked off Stony
Island, they at last reached the north shore. Three days more of weary
rowing up the bay, and Hay Bay was reached, where they settled.

The loyalists not alone came in summer, by batteaux or the Schenectady
boat; but likewise in winter. They generally followed, as near as
possible, some one of the routes taken in summer. To undertake to
traverse a wilderness with no road, and guided only by rivers and
creeks, or blazed trees, was no common thing. Several families would
sometimes join together to form a train of sleighs. They would carry
with them their bedding, clothes, and the necessary provisions. We have
received interesting accounts of winter journeyings from Albany along
the Hudson, across to the Black River country, and to the St. Lawrence.
Sometimes the train would follow the “military road” along by Champlain,
St. George, and as far as Plattsburgh, and then turn north to the St.
Lawrence, by what was then called the Willsbury wilderness, and
“Chataguee” woods. At the beginning of the present century there was but
one tavern through all that vast forest, and this of the poorest
character. Indeed it is said that while provision might be procured for
the horses, none could be had for man. Those who thus entered Canada in
winter found it necessary to stay at Cornwall until spring. Two or more
of the men would walk along the St. Lawrence to the bay Quinté, and, at
the opening of navigation, having borrowed a batteaux descend to
Cornwall for the women, children, and articles brought with them. Often,
indeed generally unacquainted with the use of the boat, the passage up
and down the river was tedious and toilsome. While the families and
sleighs were transported in the batteaux the horses were taken along the
shore by the larger boys, if such there were among them. The “French
train” was occasionally employed in their winter travels. It consisted
of a long rude sleigh with several horses driven tandem style, this
allowed the passage among the trees to be made more easily.

Many very interesting reminiscences are known of traveling along the bay
by the pioneers. A few are adduced.


Travelers from Montreal to the west would come by a batteaux, or Durham
boat, to Kingston. Those who had business further west, says Finkle,
“were conveyed to Henry Finkle’s in Ernest town, where they commonly
stopped a few days. Thence they made their journey on horse back. A
white man conducted them to the River Trent, where resided Colonel
Bleecker who was at the head, and had control of all the Mississauga
Indians, and commanded the entire country from the Trent to Toronto. At
this place the traveler was furnished with a fresh horse and an Indian
guide to conduct him through an unsettled country, the road being little
better than a common Indian path, with all its windings. The road
continued in this state until about the year 1798. Sometimes the
traveler continued his way around the head of the lake on horse back to
Queenston, where resided Judge Hamilton.

During the time the surveyors were laying out the townships of the bay,
batteaux occasionally passed up and down, supplying the staff with their
requirements, or perhaps with some one looking for a good tract of land.

In 1790 a batteaux was owned by Mr. Lambert, of the eighth township, and
Mr. Ferguson, writing from Kingston to Mr. Bell, wished him to borrow
it, to come to Kingston.

Among the first to use batteaux as a mode of traffic, was Captain Myers.
He sailed one up and down the bay to carry, not only his own freight,
but for the accommodation of others. He frequently went to Kingston, and
now and then to Montreal, the mode pursued, was to charge for freight
down, and then give the passenger a free passage back. This was followed
for many years, with great profit. The Captain was accustomed to make
the journey as pleasant as possible to the passengers. He always kept
his grog in his “caboose,” and would deal it out to all. There was no
doubt much of jollity and pleasant yarn-spinning, during the long
passages upon the tranquil waters of the bay. Captain Myers subsequently
owned a schooner.”

A letter written 11th November, 1790, by John Ferguson, to Wm. Bell, of
Sidney, says, “As I suppose Mr. Lounsbury’s boat is idle, I would be
glad that you would endeavour to borrow or hire it and Sherrard’s son
and come down to the third township.”

When persons had gone down the bay, and were expected to return upon a
certain night, there would often be a fire kindled on the shore to guide
them homeward. In dark nights this was really necessary. Many were the
expedients resorted to make short cuts. The feat of swimming horses over
the bay was now and then resorted to by the Wallbridges after they
settled in Ameliasburgh. Wishing to go to Kingston, they would go down
to the point where the bay is narrow, and swim the horses across to Ox
Point, and then ride to Kingston by a bridle path. It would now and then
happen at a late period, that a traveler passing to his place of
settlement would have a lumber waggon. This would be ferried across the
bay by placing it across two log canoes. Referring to swimming the bay
by a horse, a colored man, yet living within the neighbourhood of
Belleville, remembers when a boy, to have been put upon a horse, and
then to have obeyed orders to swim him across the bay. This occurred
near Belleville.

Long after steamboats were started on the bay, the batteaux continued to
ply between Belleville and Montreal. The last to sail these was Fanning
and John Covert. In 1830, Fanning arrived at Montreal from Belleville so
early as to present his bills of laden upon the first of April. The
following business notice cannot fail to be interesting:

“The subscribers having established a line of Durham Boats from this
place, propose forwarding from the different ports of the lake to that
of Montreal, on the following terms, viz.:

“From York, Niagara, Queenston, and the head of the lake, for each
barrel of Flour delivered at the Port of Montreal, 5s. and 6d.

“From Kingston, to the Port of Montreal, for each barrel of Flour, 4s.
and 6d.

“From York, Niagara, Queenston, and the head of the lake, for each
barrel of Potash delivered at the Port of Montreal, 12s. and 6d.

“From Kingston to the Port of Montreal, for each barrel of Potash, 10s.

“From York, Niagara, Queenston, and the head of the lake, for each
barrel of Pork delivered at the Port of Montreal, 8s. and 3d.

“From Kingston to the Port of Montreal, for each barrel of Pork, 6s. and

“Merchandize will be transported by the same means from Lachine to
Kingston, at the rate of 5s. per cwt.

“An elegant Passage Boat will also leave Kingston every tenth day for
Montreal, which will be fitted up in the most commodious manner and
prevent any delay to passengers leaving the upper part of the lake in
the Steam Boat _Frontenac_, it having been built for the purpose of
leaving this place immediately after her arrival.

“These arrangements will take effect at the opening of the navigation,
and be continued during the season.

                                                     “THOMAS MARKLAND.
                                                     “PETER SMITH.
                                                     “LAWRENCE HERKIMER.
                                                     “JOHN KERBY.
                                                     “WILLIAM MITCHELL.

“Kingston, February, 1819.”

Respecting the Canadian Batteaux, the following is from the Boston
_Weekly Magazine_ of an old date.

“Lines written while at anchor in Kingston Harbour, Lake Ontario, on
hearing from several Canadian boats entering from the St. Lawrence—their
usual songs.

               Hark! o’er the lakes unruffled wave,
                 A distant solemn chant is sped;
               Is it some requiem at the grave?
                 Some last kind honor to the dead?
               ‘Tis silent all—again begin;
                 It is the wearied boatman’s lay,
               That hails alike the rising sun,
                 And his last soft departing ray.

               Forth from yon island’s dusky side,
                 The train of batteaux now appear,
               And onward as they slowly glide,
                 More loud their chorus greets the ear.
               But, ah! the charm that distance gave,
                 When first in solemn sounds their song
               Crept slowly o’er the limpid wave,
                 Is lost in notes full loud and strong.

               Row, brothers row, with songs of joy,
                 For now in view a port appears;
               No rapids here our course annoy,
                 No hidden rocks excite our fears,
               Be this sweet night to slumber given,
                 And when the morning lights the wave
               We’ll give our matin songs to heav’n,
                 Our course to bless, our lives to save.”

                              CHAPTER XIV.

  CONTENTS—The first Vessel—The French—La Salle—The Griffon—Vessels in
    1770—During the Rebellion—Building at Carleton Island—Captain
    Andrews—The Ontario—Col. Burton—Loss of the Ontario—The Sheehans—
    Hills—Givins’—Murney’s Point—Schooner ‘Speedy’—Mohawk—Mississauga—
    Duke of Kent—Capt. Bouchette—Paxton—McKenzie—Richardson—Earle
    Steele—Fortiche—The Governor Simcoe—Sloop ‘Elizabeth’—First vessel
    built at York—Collins’ Report upon Navigating the Lakes—Navy in
    Upper Canada, 1795—Rochfoucault—Capt. Bouchette—Officers’ Pay—
    York, the centre of the Naval Force—Gun Boats—The Loss of the
    “Speedy”—Reckoner—Dr. Strachan—Solicitor-Gen. Gray—Canada took the
    lead in building Vessels—First Canadian Merchant Vessel—The York—A
    Schooner on runners around the Falls—Sending Coals to Newcastle—
    Upon Bay Quinté—The Outskirts of Civilization—“The Prince Edward”
    built of Red Cedar—in 1812—Schooner “Mary Ann”—1817—Capt.

                       THE FIRST SAILING VESSELS.

The first vessels, with sails, which navigated the waters of the lakes,
were built by the French, to pursue their discoveries, and to carry on
the fur trade. The first sailing vessel launched upon the Lakes, was
built by LaSalle. He, with Father Hennepin and Chevalier de Tonti, set
sail from Cataraqui, on the 18th November, 1678, for the mouth of the
Niagara river, having on board his bark goods, and material for building
a brigantine on Lake Erie. During the winter the vessel was commenced,
six miles above the Falls, and was launched by the middle of summer,
amid great display and ceremony. The vessel was named “Griffon,”
according to Garneau; but Father Hennepin says “Cataraqui.” “She was a
kind of brigantine, not unlike a Dutch galliot, with a broad elevated
bow and stern, very flat in the bottom; she looked much larger than she
really was. She was of sixty tons burden. With the aid of tow-lines and
sails the Niagara river was, with difficulty, ascended; and on the 7th
August, 1679, the first vessel that ever sat upon the lakes, entered
Lake Erie.” The end of this vessel was a sad one. (See Introduction).

We are indebted to the _Detroit Tribune_ for the following interesting

“In 1766 four vessels plied upon Lake Erie. These were the “Gladwin,”
“Lady Charlotte,” “Victory,” and “Boston.”

“The two latter laid up in the fall near Navy Island, above Niagara
Falls, and one of them was burned accidentally, November 30, of the same
year. A vessel called the “Brunswick,” owned and commanded by Captain
Alexander Grant, made her appearance on the lakes during the year 1767,
and was lost some time during the season following. Captain Grant was
the Commodore of the lakes for two or three years. In 1769 Sterling and
Porteous built a vessel at Detroit, called the “Enterprise,” Richard
Cornwall, of New York, being the carpenter. The boatmen, who went from
Schenectady with the rigging and stores for this vessel to Detroit, were
to have each £20, and ten gallons of rum. They were seventy days on Lake
Erie, and two of the number perished from hunger, and their bodies were
kept to decoy eagles and ravens. They returned to New York in February,
1760, by way of Pittsburgh, then called Fort Pitt.

“In May, 1770, a vessel of seventy tons burthen was launched at Niagara,
called the “Charity.” The same year the Duke of Gloucester, Secretary
Townsend, Samuel Tutchet, Henry Baxter, and four others, formed a
company for mining copper on Lake Superior. In December they built at
Point Aux Pins, a barge, and laid the keel for a sloop of forty tons
burthen. Of the success of this enterprise we are not informed.
Subsequent to the above period very little was accomplished in the
construction of craft for lake navigation, and the few that came into
commission were used solely as traders, as were in fact, all those
previously named. A short time after, 1770, batteaux from Montreal and
Quebec, employed by the Hudson’s Bay Fur Company, made their annual
tours westward, gathering large quantities of furs, and returning
homeward in the fall. It has been stated that the first vessel built on
Lake Ontario was in 1749, but this, we have reason to believe, is not

During the Revolutionary War, the British Government built at Carleton
Island, a few vessels to carry troops and provisions from place to place
along the Lake, from Carleton Island to Niagara. The first Commissioner
at the Dock Yard was Commodore James Andrews, Lieutenant in the Royal
Navy. The “Ontario,” a war vessel of considerable importance, carrying
22 guns, was built at Carleton Island. This vessel was commanded by
Capt. Andrews. Some time between 1780 and 1783, as the “Ontario” was
proceeding from Niagara to Oswego with a detachment of the King’s Own
regiment, commanded by Colonel Burton, with other officers, a storm
arose at night, and the vessel was lost with all on board. Col. John
Clark, in his memoirs, whose father belonged to the 8th regiment, says
this event happened in 1780 or ‘81, in which belief he is supported by
Mr. Sheehan, a descendant of Capt. Andrews: but other authority has it
that the event took place in 1783. At all events, the occurrence
produced a melancholy effect, which long remained in the minds of those
acquainted with the circumstances. Captain Andrews left a widow, a son,
and two daughters. The son returned to Scotland, the daughters married
and settled in Canada. The Sheehans, Hills, and Givins are descendants
of Captain Andrews’ daughters, whose husbands had been in the army.

After the settlement of Kingston, the Government built vessels at
Murney’s Point, and at Navy Point. Among the first built here was the
Schooner “Speedy,” and also the “Mohawk” and “Mississauga,” and “Duke of
Kent.” Among the first commanders of vessels, most of whom were of the
Royal Navy, were Capt. Bouchette, Capt. Paxton, Capt. McKenzie, Capt.
Richardson, Capt. Earle, Capt. Steele and Capt. Fortiche.

“The first vessel built for trade upon Lake Ontario,” that is after
Upper Canada was settled, “may have been the ‘Governor Simcoe,’ for the
North West Company; after she was worn out and laid up, Judge
Cartwright, who was agent for the Company at Kingston, built another for
that Company, and one for himself, both built at the same time, side by
side, on Mississauga Point, at the mouth of Cataraqui Creek. Both were
launched on the same day; the one for the Company named “Governor
Simcoe,” and the other “Sloop Elizabeth.” These were built during my
stay with Judge Cartwright, in 1808.

“The first, and only vessel for many years, built at York, was a small
schooner about forty-five tons. Built by two brothers named Kendrick.”—

The survey made by Deputy Surveyor-General Collins, at the request of
Lord Dorchester, in 1788, included an examination of the lakes and
harbors from Kingston to Michilmicinac. In reference to the lakes and
vessels, the Surveyor says:—“Vessels sailing on these waters being
seldom for any length of time out of sight of land, the navigation must
be considered chiefly as pilotage, to which the use of good natural
charts is essential and therefore much wanted. Gales of wind, or
squalls, rise suddenly upon the lakes, and from the confined state of
the waters, or want of sea-room, (as it is called), vessels may in some
degree be considered as upon a lee shore, and this seems to point out
the necessity for their being built on such a construction as will best
enable them to work to windward. Schooners should, perhaps, have the
preference, as being rather safer than sloops, they should be from 80 to
100 tons burthen on Lake Ontario, and 50 tons burthen on Lakes Erie and
Huron; but if not intended to communicate between these two lakes, they
may then be the same size as on Lake Ontario; and if this system is
approved there can be no necessity to deviate from it unless an enemy
should build vessels of greater magnitude or force; but as the intent of
bringing any such forward, at least the building of them can never
remain a secret, there may be always time to counteract such a design by
preparing to meet them at least on equal terms. It does not seem
advisable, nor do I know any reason to continue the practice of building
vessels flat bottomed, or to have very little draft of water, they are
always unsafe, and many of the accidents which have happened on the
lakes, have perhaps, in some degree been owing to that construction. On
the contrary, if they are built on proper principles for burthen as well
as sailing they will be safer, and will find sufficient depth of water
proportioned to any tonnage which can be requisite for them upon these

Respecting the navy in Upper Canada, Rochfoucault writes in 1795: “The
Royal Navy is not very formidable in this place; six vessels compose the
whole naval force, two of which are small gun-boats, which we saw at
Niagara, and which are stationed at York.” Two small schooners of twelve
guns, viz., the “Onondaga,” in which we took our passage, and the
“Mohawk,” which is just finished; a small yacht of eighty tons, mounting
six guns as the two schooners, which has lately been taken into dock to
be repaired, form the rest of it. All these vessels are built of timber
fresh cut down, and not seasoned, and for this reason last never longer
than six or eight years. To preserve them, even to this time, requires a
thorough repair; they must be heaved down and caulked, which costs at
least from one thousand, to one thousand two hundred guineas. This is an
enormous price, and yet it is not so high as on Lake Erie, whither all
sorts of naval stores must be sent from Kingston, and where the price of
labor is still higher. The timbers of the Mississauga, which was built
three years ago, are almost all rotten. It is so easy to make provision
for ship-timber for many years to come, as this would require merely the
felling of it, and that too at no great distance from the place where it
is to be used, that it is difficult to account for this precaution not
having been adopted. Two gun-boats, which are destined by Governor
Simcoe to serve only in time of war, are at present on the stocks; but
the carpenters who work at them are but eight in number. The extent of
the dilapidations and embezzlements, committed at so great a distance
from the mother country, may be easily conceived. In the course of last
winter a judicial enquiry into a charge of this nature was instituted at
Kingston. The Commissioner of the navy and the principal ship-wright, it
was asserted, had clearly colluded against the King’s interest; but
interest and protection are as powerful in the new world as in the old:
for both the Commissioner and ship-wright continue in their places.

“Captain Bouchette commands the naval force on Lake Ontario, and is at
the head of all the marine establishments, yet without the least power
in money matters. This gentleman possesses the confidence both of Lord
Dorchester and Governor Simcoe; he is a Canadian by birth, but entered
the British service when Canada fell into the power of England.

“While Arnold and Montgomery were besieging Quebec, Lord Dorchester,
disguised as a Canadian, stole on board his ship into that city, on
which occasion he displayed much activity, intrepidity, and courage. It
is not at all a matter of surprise that Lord Dorchester should bear in
mind this eminent service. By all accounts he is altogether
incorruptible, and an officer who treats his inferiors with great
mildness and justice.

“In regard to the pay of the Royal Marine force on Lake Ontario, a
captain has ten shillings a day, a lieutenant six, and a second
lieutenant three shillings and sixpence. The seamen’s wages are eight
dollars per month. The masters of merchantmen have twenty-five dollars,
and the sailors from nine to ten dollars a month.

“Commander Bouchette is among those, who most strenuously oppose the
project of moving to York, the central point of the force on the lake;
but his family reside at Kingston, and his lands are situated near that
place. Such reasons are frequently of sufficient weight to determine
political opinions.”

Again, says the same writer, “Governor Simcoe intends to make York the
centre of the naval force on Lake Ontario. Only four gunboats are at
present on this lake, two of which are constantly employed in
transporting merchandise; the other two, which alone are fit to carry
troops and guns, and have oars and sails, are lying under shelter until
an occasion occurs to convert them to their intended purpose. It is the
Governor’s intention to build ten smaller gunboats on Lake Ontario, and
ten on Lake Erie. The ship carpenters, who construct them, reside in the
United States, and return home every winter.”

“On the 7th October, 1807, Mr. Justice Cochrane, Mr. Gray, the Solicitor
General, and Mr. Agnus McDonald, embarked at York, with several other
passengers in the _Speedy_, a government schooner, commanded by Captain
Paxton, for the purpose of going to Newcastle where the Assizes were to
be held on the 10th. The vessel was seen a few miles from her destined
port on the evening of the 8th. The wind commenced to blow, and the
schooner was never heard of more. There were pieces picked up on the
opposite shore. Mr. Cochrane was young in years, but not in piety.” The
above is extracted from the Kingston _Gazette_, written by “Reckoner,”
which was the name under which Dr. Strachan contributed to that paper.
Colonel Clark, of Dalhousie, says “I recollect the loss of the
_Speedy_,” and he remarks of Solicitor General Gray, that he was “a
noble character, noted for his sympathy on behalf of abolishing
slavery.” He says that there were upwards of twenty passengers; among
them he mentions Jacob Herkimer, a merchant of York.

It will be seen that Canada took the lead in building the early vessels
upon the lakes. The first American ship that navigated Lake Erie, was
purchased from the British in 1796. She was called the _Detroit_. The
first vessel built by the Americans, for the lakes, was constructed in
1797. The first Canadian merchant vessel built upon Lake Ontario, was by
Francis Crooks, brother of the Hon. James Crooks. It was built to the
east of the present United States fort, at the mouth of the Niagara
river, in 1792, and was called the “York.” She was wrecked at Genesee
river. In 1800 a schooner of about 75 or 100 tons, was brought to
Clifton, and during the winter of 1801 she crossed by the portage road
on immense runners to Queenston, where she again found her native
element in the Niagara river. She was, in 1804, lost in bringing a cargo
to Niagara, with all on board.—(_Clark._)

It is a curious fact that in the American war of 1812, the British
“Admiralty sent out the frame work, blocks, &c., of the Psyche frigate,
which could have been procured on the spot in the tenth of the time and
a twentieth part of the expense. At the same time there was furnished to
each ship of war on Lake Ontario, a full supply of water casks, with an
apparatus for distilling sea water,” forgetting the fact that the waters
of the lake were of the purest quality.

Directing our attention to the waters of the bay Quinté, it is found
that until after 1812, but few sailing vessels entered the upper waters,
although found east of Picton Bay. Strange as it may appear at the
present day, there was a time when the head of Picton Bay, or Hay Bay,
was regarded as the head of the bay, and the very outskirts of
civilization, while going up the Long Reach, to the Mohawk tract was
looked upon like going to the Red River at the present day. The settlers
above were too few, and their requirements too limited for a sailing
vessel to ascend, unless occasionally to the Napanee mills. But as time
passed, sloops and schooners, as well as batteaux found employment along
the western townships.

In the first year of the present century, there was built in the
township of Marysburgh, a short distance west of the Stone mills, a
schooner of some celebrity. It was built by Captain Murney, father of
the late Hon. Edward Murney, of Belleville. Captain Murney came to
Kingston in 1797, at the solicitation of Mr. Joseph Forsyth. It was
constructed for himself, and was made altogether of red cedar, a kind of
wood formerly very plentiful along the bay, and which possesses a most
agreeable odor, and is extremely durable. The vessel was named the
_Prince Edward_. John Clark, of Dalhousie, says of this vessel, that he
was on board the following year of her building, and that she was a
“staunch good ship, with an able captain.” Her size was sufficient to
allow 700 barrels of flour to be stowed beneath her hatches. She ran
upon Lake Ontario for many years, and made for her owner a small
fortune. She was in good condition in 1812, and was employed by
government as an armed vessel. A schooner called _Prince Edward_,
probably the same, Captain Young, was the first vessel to land at the
pier when erected at Wellington.

The Kingston _Gazette_, April 12, 1817, says: “On Thursday, 20th inst.
at three o’clock p.m., arrived at Ernesttown, in the Bay of Quinté, the
schooner _Mary Ann_, Captain J. Mosier, in twenty hours from York, and
at this port yesterday afternoon with fourteen passengers, of whom
eleven were members of the Provincial Parliament. This is the seventh
voyage this vessel has made this season, to the great credit of her
master. The _Mary Ann_ sailed again in about half an hour for the Bay

One of the early vessels upon the bay was commanded by Matthews, father
of the rebel of 1836, who was executed.

                             DIVISION III.

                              CHAPTER XV.

  CONTENTS—Major Gen. Holland—Surveying on Atlantic Coast—An adherent
    of the Crown—Removal to Montreal—Death—Major Holland—Information
    from “Maple Leaves”—Holland Farm—Taché—First Canadian Poem—Head
    Quarters of Gen. Montgomery—Hospitality—Duke of Kent—Spencer
    Grange—Holland Tree—Graves—Epitaphs—Surveyor Washington—County
    Surveyor—Surveyors after the War—First Survey in Upper Canada—
    Commenced in 1781—The Mode pursued—Information in Crown Lands
    Department—The Nine Townships upon the St. Lawrence—At the close
    of the War—Non-Professional Surveyors—Thomas Sherwood—Assisting to
    Settle—Surveying around the Bay Quinté—Bongard—Deputy-Surveyor
    Collins—First Survey at Frontenac—Town Reserve—Size of Township—
    Mistakes—Kotte—Tuffy—Capt. Grass—Capt. Murney—Surveying in Winter—
    Planting Posts—Result—Litigation—Losing Land—A Newspaper Letter—
    Magistrates—Landholders—Their Sons’ Lawyers—Alleged Filching—
    Speculators at Seat of Government—Grave Charges—Width of Lots—Mode
    of Surveying—Number of Concessions—Cross Roads—Surveyors Orders—
    Numbering the Lots—Surveying around the Bay—The ten Townships—
    Their Lands—The Surveying Party—A Singer—Statement of Gourlay.


Among those who distinguished themselves at Louisburg and on the Plains
of Abraham under General Wolfe, was Major Samuel Holland. Sabine says,
he was “Surveyor-General of the Colonies north of Virginia.” In 1773 he
announced his intention to make Perth Amboy, near Jersey, his
head-quarters, and wrote to a gentleman there to inquire for houses to
accommodate himself and his assistants. He then completed the surveys as
far west as Boston. Proposed in 1774 to get round Cape Cod, and to New
London, and said it would be at best six years before he should be able
to finish his labors. In 1775, he wrote Lord Dartmouth that he was ready
to run the line between Massachusetts and New York. By a communication
laid before the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts in July, 1775, it
appears that he had loaned to Alex. Shepard, Jun., who was also a
surveyor, a plan or survey of Maine, which Shepard disliked to return,
fearing that it might be used in a manner prejudicial to the Whig cause,
as Holland was an adherent of the Crown, and then in New Jersey.
Congress recommended to Shepard to retain Holland’s plan. Major Holland
went to Lower Canada, where he resumed his duties of Surveyor-General,
in which capacity he served nearly fifty years. He died in 1801, and at
the time of his decease he was a member of the Executive and Legislative

It was under Surveyor Holland that the first surveys were made upon the
banks of the St. Lawrence and the Bay of Quinté. Major Holland was a
gentleman of education, and known for his social and amiable qualities.
We are indebted to the author of “Maple Leaves,” J. M. LeMoine, Esq.,
for information respecting Surveyor Holland. Extending from the brow of
St. Foy heights along St. Louis Road at Quebec, was a piece of land of
200 acres which was known as the Holland Farm. This farm had belonged to
a rich merchant of Quebec, Mon. Jean Taché, who wrote the first Canadian
Poem, “Tableau de la Mer.” He was the ancestor of the late Sir E. Taché.
About the year 1740 he built upon an eminence a high peaked structure,
which, during the seige of Quebec, was the head quarters of Gen.
Montgomery. This place was bought by Gen. Holland in 1780, who lived
there in affluence for many years, subsequent to the close of the war,
1783. The _elite_ of Quebec were wont to resort here to enjoy his
hospitality, and in 1791, he entertained Edward, afterward Duke of Kent,
the father of our Queen. This place is now known as Spencer Grange; but
the old building has long since been removed to be replaced by the
present well-known mansion. From the St. Foy Road may be seen a fir tree
known as the Holland Tree. Under that tree are several graves, which
some years ago were inclosed with a substantial stone wall, with an iron
gate. But now only the foundation remains. Two of the graves had neat
marble slabs, with the names of Samuel Holland senior, and Samuel
Holland, junior. “Here rest Major Surveyor Holland, and his son, who was
killed in a duel at Montreal, by Major Ward of the 60th Regiment,” by a
shot from one of a brace of pistols presented to Major Holland by Gen.
Wolfe. This farm is now in possession of the military authorities.

At the time of the rebellion the land of the thirteen Colonies was, in
many cases, still unsurveyed, or so imperfectly laid out that frequent
demands were made for the professional surveyor. In the very nature of
things pertaining to the settlement of America, there was a general
demand for surveyors. The country was constantly being opened up. Some
of the most prominent men of the day had been surveyors. Gen. Washington
commenced life as a country surveyor. In the war, both on the rebel and
British sides, were to be found professional surveyors engaged in
fighting. Consequently when the war terminated, there was no lack of
surveyors to carry on the work of surveying the wilderness of Upper
Canada. We have seen that Major Holland held the position of
Surveyor-General, and there was duly appointed a certain number of
deputies and assistants.

Even while the war was in progress, steps seem to have been taken to
furnish the refugee Loyalists with new homes, upon the land still lying
in a state of nature. The land in Lower Canada being in the main held by
the French Canadians, it was deemed expedient to lay out along the
shores of the upper waters a range of lots for their use. In pursuance
of this, the first survey of land was made by order of Gen. Clarke,
Acting Governor, or Military Commander, in 1781. Naturally the survey
would commence at the extreme western point of French settlement. This
was on the north bank of Lake St. Francis, at the cove west of Pointe au
Bodet, in the limit between the Township of Lancaster, and the seigniory
of New Longueil.

We have reason to believe that the surveyor at first laid out only a
single range of lots fronting upon the river. In the first place a front
line was established. This seems to have been done along the breadth of
several proposed townships. In doing this it was desirable to have as
little broken front as possible, while at the same time the frontage of
each lot remained unbroken by coves of the river or bay. We are informed
by the Crown Land Department that in some townships there could, in
recent days, be found no posts to indicate the front line, while the
side lines in the second concession were sufficiently marked.

The original surveyor along the St. Lawrence evidently did not extend
his operations above Elizabethtown, which was called the ninth township,
being the ninth laid out from New Longueil. This is apparent from the
fact that while Elizabethtown was settled in 1781, the next township
above, that of Yonge, was not settled until two years later. The quality
of the land thence to Kingston was not such as would prove useful to the
poor settler, and therefore was allowed for a time to remain unsurveyed.
Hence it came that Cataraqui was the commencement of a second series of
townships distinguished by numbers only. These two distinct ranges of
townships, one upon the St. Lawrence numbering nine, and one upon the
Bay numbering ten, were, when necessary, distinguished apart by the
designation, the “first,” “second,” or “third” Township “upon the St.
Lawrence,” or “upon the Bay of Quinté,” as the case might be.

It is impossible to say how far the work of surveying had progressed
from Lake St. Francis westward, before the close of the war; it is very
probable, however, that only a base line had been run, and some
temporary mark placed to indicate the corners of each township. Such,
indeed, is shown to be the case by the statement of Sheriff Sherwood,
who says that his father Thomas Sherwood, who had been a subaltern in
the 84th Reg., and who actually located on the first lot in the first
concession of Elizabethtown, “was often called upon to run the side
lines of the lots” for the settlers as they came one after another, and
“to shew them their land.” Mr. Sherwood was not a professional surveyor,
but “he had the instruments and practically knew well how to use them,
and he was ever ready to give his assistance and instructions to the new

                      SURVEYING AROUND BAY QUINTÉ.

In the year 1783, Major Holland, Surveyor-General of Canada, received
instructions from Sir Frederick Haldimand, Governor of the Province of
Quebec, to proceed on duty to Western Canada. Prior to this, we have
observed, there had been commenced a range of lots laid out at the
easternmost limits of what now forms Canada West, to the extent of nine
townships. Yet evidence is wanting that this range had been completed at
the period stated. Holland set out with a sufficient staff of assistants
and attachés, to simultaneously lay out several of the proposed
townships along the St. Lawrence, and the Bay of Quinté. The party
passed up the St. Lawrence, ascending the rapids in a brigade of
batteaux manned by French boatmen. Surveyor Holland had, as his personal
attendant, —— Bongard, who had been in the artillery under General
Reidezel, of the Foreign Legion. From the son of this person, now living
in Marysburgh, valuable information has been obtained, much of which has
been substantiated by legal documents, published in connection with the
law report of the trial respecting the Murney estate and the town of
Kingston. Mr. Bongard says that Holland, as he passed up, detailed a
deputy to each of the townships, stopping first at Oswegotchie, opposite
Prescott, and that he passed up as far as the fourth township upon Bay
Quinté, where he pitched his tent, and where he continued to hold his
head-quarters, receiving the reports of the various Deputy-Surveyors as
they were from time to time brought in. While it seems most probable
that Holland came to the Upper Province in 1783, it is possible that he
remained in Lower Canada until the spring of 1784, having deputed
Surveyor Collins to commence a survey westward from the fort at
Frontenac; or perhaps he visited that place with Collins whom he left to
carry on the work during this first year.

Whether Surveyor-General Holland visited Fort Frontenac in the year
1783, or not, it was Deputy-Surveyor John Collins who made the first
survey of the first township, and of the original town plot of Kingston.
According to the sworn testimony of Gilbert Orser, who assisted Collins,
in the year 1783, as well as others, the township was surveyed first,
and the town plot afterward; although it appears that Holland’s
instructions were, first “to lay out proper reservations for the town
and fort, and then to proceed and lay out the township, six miles
square.” The lots were to contain each 200 acres, to be 25 in number,
each range. Mr. Collins placed a monument, it is averred, “at the
south-east angle of lot 25, from which a line was run northerly the
whole depth of the Township, six miles, where another stone monument was
placed, making a line of blazed trees throughout.” From this, it would
seem, he continued to survey the township, leaving the land for the
town, which he, no doubt, thought extensive enough, to be laid out into
town lots, and leaving 40 feet of land, which was to form a road between
the town and township. Respecting this line and lot 25, there has been a
great deal of litigation. As nearly as the facts can be gathered, the
following statement may be regarded as correct:

After Collins had completed the survey of the township, and had even
made his returns, to the effect that it contained 25 lots, of 200 acres,
he was importuned, or ‘induced by the Commanding Officer at Fort
Frontenac,’ to make lot 25 contain only 100 acres, that more ground
might thereby be had for the proposed town. More than this, it seems
that there was some mistake in the said eastern side line, so as to
subsequently limit lot 25 to even less than 100 acres. And, Capt.
Michael Grass, when he took possession of this lot, in 1784, found that
this line was inaccurately run. Deputy-Surveyor Kotte was requested to
examine it; and finding there was an error, made representations to
Government, who sent persons to correct it. One Deputy-Surveyor Tuffy
was directed to re-survey the line, and he gave more land to lot 25.
However, there was yet some error, which was a source of great trouble.
Capt. Michael Grass sold this lot to Capt. Murney, who, subsequently
finding it did not contain the amount of land which the patent assumed,
applied legally for his rights.

The surveying party, among whom were some of those who subsequently
settled in the township, and who must have belonged to Capt. Grass’
company of refugees, returned to Sorel, where they spent the winter. At
least this is the testimony of one of the grand-children of Capt. Grass.
But if the surveying party did, this winter of 1783–4, retire from their
work to Lower Canada, it appears unlikely they did the following winter.
Indeed there are indications that surveying went on during the winter.
In laying out the Townships, special attention was given to make the
lots front squarely upon the Bay. In the winter the base line could be
more closely run by the water edge upon the ice, than in summer, through
the woods. We are informed, at the Crown Lands Department, that in some
townships no posts or other marks had at first been found in the
re-survey, although such were to be found in the 2nd concession. The
inference was, that the posts planted in winter by the water, had, in
the spring or summer been washed away, in the course of time. This, as
may be supposed, led in time to great confusion, and no little
litigation. For many years there was much trouble to establish the land
marks all along the front; and cases are not wanting where it has been
charged that fraudulent removals of posts were made. The straightforward
settler, while engaged in his daily and yearly round of toil, thought
not of the side lines of his farm, fully believing that a survey had
been definitely fixed by marks that could not be altered, and too often
when plenty and comfort had come, he was startled to find some one
claiming some of his cleared or uncleared land. Although conscious that
such and such were the boundaries of the land granted to him, it was not
so easy to prove that such was the case. The annoyances of these direct
and indirect attempts to disinherit, may easily be imagined. In this
connection, the following letter may be given as exemplifying the
feelings, if not the facts—perhaps both—which belonged to those days. It
appeared in the Kingston _Gazette_ in 1816, over the signature “A.”

“SIR,—The situation of the old settlers in the Province of Upper Canada,
is truly deplorable. These people settled in the wilds of Canada, then
the Province of Quebec, under the surveys made by the acting
Surveyor-General. Landmarks being established for the guidance of their
improvements: no deeds were given them until the Parliament of Great
Britain altered the Quebec bill, arranged a new constitution, similar to
that they had lost during the rebellion, in the Province of New York,
from whence they chiefly came to settle at Frontenac, now Kingston.
After cultivating the country agreeably to those surveys for twenty
years or more, deeds are issued to cover those lots, drawn and
cultivated as above mentioned. The Surveyor-General, David William
Smith, Speaker of the House of Assembly, knowing that these deeds were
filled up by guess, the survey never having been made complete, wisely
provided an Act of the Legislature to prevent the deeds from moving the
old land-marks. This Act provides that when thirty freeholders apply to
the Magistrates in session they shall make an assessment and collect the
money to enable the Surveyor-General to erect monuments, in order to
preserve their ancient land-marks and boundaries. What is the reason
that this Act has not been complied with? Are the Magistrates all
landholders and their sons Lawyers?

“An order from the Governor has lain in the Surveyor-General’s office
ever since the year 1801 for monuments to be erected in the Township of
Kingston, agreeable to the intention of that Act. Why will not the
Magistrates do their duty? The consequence is, that the licensed
Surveyor, John Ryder, is running new lines every day, and moving the
land-marks of the old settlers. People who have come into the country
from the States, marry into a family, and obtain a lot of wild land, get
John Ryder to move the land-marks, and instead of a wild lot, take by
force a fine house and barn and orchard, and a well cultured farm, and
turn the old Tory, (as he is called) out of his house, and all his labor
for thirty years.

“These old settlers have suffered all that men could suffer; first in a
seven years’ rebellion in the revolutionized colonies; then came to a
remote wilderness, some hundred miles from any inhabitant—not a road,
not a cow, or an ox, or a horse to assist them; no bread during the
winter, they wintered first at Cataraqui. A little pease and pork was
all they could get until the ice gave way in the spring of 1785.

“The King, as an acknowledgment and mark of his approbation for the
loyalty and sufferings of his faithful subjects, ordered lands to be
granted them free from expense, and marked each man’s name with the
letters U. E., with a grant annexed to each child as it became of age,
of two hundred acres of the waste lands of the crown.

“Now these children cannot get these lands agreeably to the intention of
Government. They must sell their right to a set of speculators that
hover round the seat of Government, or never get located. Or if they
should have the fortune to get a location ticket, it is situated on
rocks, and lakes, and barren lands, where they are worth nothing at all;
the good lots being marked by the Surveyors, and located by those U. E.
rights they have so purchased.

“Now, Sir, _was_ I a scholar, I might draw you a much better description
of this wickedness. But I have lived to see thirteen colonies, now
States of America, severed from the British empire by the
mal-administration of justice in the civil government of those colonies;
the people’s minds were soured to that degree that a few designing men
overthrew the Government.”

“After the conquest of Canada, the king ordered a thousand acres of land
to be granted to each man. The land was granted; but the people to whom
it was granted were deprived by a set of speculators, from ever getting
a foot, unless they became tenants to those who, in a manner, had robbed
them of their rights.”

While the lots were generally made twenty chains in width, a few of the
first townships were but nineteen, and consequently of greater depth to
make the 200 acres, and the concessions were proportionally wider.

The base line being established, a second one, parallel thereto, was
made at a distance generally of a mile and a quarter, allowance being
made in addition, for a road. It is more than likely that in many
townships the second line, or concession, was not immediately run out.
The settlers could not easily traverse even a mile of woods, and for a
time accommodation was made only at the front. But within a year, in
most townships, the second row of lots had been surveyed and partially
occupied. At the front line was always an allowance for a road of sixty
feet, as well as at the second line for one of forty feet. The range of
lots between the front and the second lines as well as between the
second and third, and so on, was called a Concession, a term derived
from the French, having reference to their mode of conferring land in
the Lower Province, and peculiar to this country. Each concession was
divided into lots of 200 acres each, the dividing lines being at right
angles with the concession lines, and a quarter of a mile distant from
each other. At intervals of two or three miles, a strip of forty feet
between two lots was left, for a cross road. In Ameliasburgh it seems
that this was neglected. The number of concessions depended on
circumstances. Along the St. Lawrence, they numbered to even fifteen or
sixteen. Along the bay they were seven and eight. Adolphustown has only
four. The irregular course of the Bay Quinté, and the fronting of the
townships upon its waters, gave rise to great irregularity in the
interior lots, and produced a large number of Gores. This may be noticed
more especially in Sophiasburgh, and indeed throughout all of Prince
Edward district.

Respecting the provision made for cross roads, Alex. Aitkins, who was
Deputy Surveyor of Midland district for many years, says under date,
1797, in respect to the township of Sophiasburgh, “Mr. Kotte’s orders
1785, were from Deputy Surveyor General, Mr. Collins, who was then at
Kingston, to lay off cross roads between every six lots as he had done
in the eastern part of the province, from township number one, now
Charlotteburgh, to township number eight Elizabethtown, and, of no
doubt, they would be found at the waters’ edge on the Bay Quinté.”

By looking at the township maps of the bay, it will be seen that the
lots of the first three townships, are numbered from west to east, while
as we have seen, the townships were numbered from east to west. It is
inferred from this fact that the surveyor conducted his survey along the
front, planting posts to mark the division of lots, and leaving
allowance for roads, but did not complete the concessions until the
breadth of the townships had been determined, when it was done from west
to east, the lots being numbered accordingly.

The surveyor continued to chain the front, upon the north shore of the
bay, until he reached the turn in the bay at the western point of
Adolphustown. This portion of territory was divided into four townships.

The surveyor then crossed the bay and proceeded from the Upper Gap, to
lay out lots in an irregular manner upon the water, along the bay and
the lake to, and around Smith’s Bay, and along Black Creek; also upon
the east shore of Picton Bay. This constituted the fifth township.
Following the bay shore of Prince Edward peninsula from Picton Bay,
along the High Shore and around Green Point, another, the sixth
township, was laid out; the lots always fronting on the bay. Still
following the bay, the seventh township was created, the western
boundary of which brought the surveyor to the head of the bay, or
Carrying Place.

Turning eastward along the north shore of the bay, the eighth township
was laid out. Likewise, the ninth township, which brought the surveyor
to a tract of land which had been reserved for, and given to the
faithful Mohawk Indians. Passing by the present township of Tyendinaga,
still another township was laid out fronting upon the Mohawk Bay, and
Napanee River. This constituted the tenth township, Richmond. Thus the
surveyors had made a complete circuit of the bay. These townships were,
for many a day, designated by the numeral prefix; even yet may be found
gray haired individuals who speak of them in no other way. Subsequently,
however, these townships had given to them respectively, the royal names
of Kingston, Ernest town, Fredericksburgh, Adolphustown, Marysburgh,
Ameliasburgh, Sophiasburgh; and the noble ones of Sidney, Thurlow, and

There would at the present time, be nothing so interesting to the
settlers of the bay, than to read a diary of the events connected with
the original survey. Surveying the wilderness is weary work at any time;
but when the persons who take part in striking the lines and fixing the
boundaries, have constantly in mind that when their survey is completed,
they cannot return to civilization and the comforts of a home, but that
they have to remain to become citizens of the forest, they must
experience many a heart pang. Yet there seems to have been a
lightheartedness with most of them. The camp fire at night witnessed
many pleasant hours of jovial pass-time. Singing, storytelling, wiled
away agreeably many an hour. Accompanying Collins’ surveying party, was
one Purdy, who gained no little renown as a capital singer.

We will close our remarks upon the original survey by giving the
statement of Gourlay. He says that “such was the haste to get land
surveyed and given away, that ignorant and careless men were employed to
measure it out, and such a mess did they make of their land measuring,
that one of the present surveyors informed me that in running new lines
over a great extent of the province, he found spare room for a whole
township in the midst of those laid out at an early period. It may
readily be conceived, upon consideration of this fact, what blundering
has been committed, and what mistakes stand for correction.”

                              CHAPTER XVI.

  CONTENTS—The term Concession—First Concession of Land in Canada—The
    Carignan Regiment—Seigniories—Disproportion of the sexes—Females
    sent from France—Their appearance—Settling them—Marriage
    allowance—The last seigniory—New Longeuil—Seigniory at Frontenac—
    Grants to Refugees—Officers and men—Scale of granting—Free of
    expense—Squatting—Disbanded soldiers—Remote regions—A wise and
    beneficent policy—Impostors—Very young officers—Wholesale granting
    of land—Republicans coming over—Covetous—False pretensions—
    Government had to discriminate—Rules and regulations—Family lands—
    Bounty—Certificates—Selling claims—Rear concessions—Transfer of
    location ticket—Land board—Tardiness in obtaining titles to real
    estate—Transfer by bond—Jobbing—Sir Wm. Pullency—Washington—Giving
    lands to favorites—Reserves—Evil results—The Family Compact—
    Extract from Playter—Extract from Lord Durham—From Gourlay—
    Recompense to Loyalists—Rations—Mode of drawing land—Land Agent—
    Broken front—Traitor Arnold—Tyendinaga.


It has been stated that the term concession, as well as the system of
granting land to disbanded soldiers, was derived from the French. The
first concession of lands to soldiers took place in 1665, to the
Carignan Regiment, a name derived from a Prince of the house of Savoy,
which came to New France with the first Viceroy. It was a distinguished
corps in the French Infantry, having won renown on many a bloody field,
and carried death to many an Iroquois Indian. The Indians having sought
peace from the French, leave was granted to this regiment to permanently
settle in the New World. Titles to land was conferred according to rank,
and as well, sums of money to assist in the clearing of land. “The
officers, who were mostly noblesse obtained seigniories with their late
soldiers for vassals.” The settlement of this body of men increased the
disproportion between the males and females in Canada. The home
government considerately took steps to remedy this abnormal state of
things and despatched “several hundred from old France.” They “consisted
of tall, short, fair, brown, fat and lean.” These females were offered
to such of the men as had means to support a wife. In a few days they
were all disposed of. The Governor-General then distributed to the newly
married ones “oxen, cows, hogs, fowls, salted beef,” as well as money.—

The original grants of land by the French Government under the feudal
system, was into seigniories. These were subdivided into parishes,
“whose extents were exactly defined by De Vandreuil and Bigon, September
1721.” For these grants of seignioral tenure, certain acts of fealty
were to be performed, pursuant to the custom of Paris. After the British
supremacy, grants of land were still made by government in Lower Canada.
The last seigniory was conferred by the French in April, 1734, to
Chevalier de Longeuil, and is known as New Longeuil. It constitutes the
western boundary of the Lower Province.


We have elsewhere seen that the first person, other than the natives, to
possess land in Upper Canada, was De la Salle, the discoverer of the
Mississippi River, to whom was granted a seigniory at Cataraqui, of four
leagues, including the fort, and the islands in front of the four
leagues of territory. Wolfe, Gage and Amherst Islands.

At the close of the war in 1783, it was determined by government to
confer grants of land to the refugee loyalists in Canada, on the same
scale to officers and men as had been done after the conquest of Canada,
1763, with the exception that all loyalists under the rank of subaltern
were to receive 200 acres. The grants to the disbanded soldiers and
loyalists, were to be made free of every expense.

In some of the townships, the settlers were squatting along the St.
Lawrence and Bay Quinté, until late in the summer and fall of 1784,
waiting to know the location of their lots. This might easily be, as
although the forest had been surveyed, the lots had not been numbered.
So, although the refugee soldier had his location ticket for a certain
lot, it was often a long tedious time before he could know its precise

The front part of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth townships
upon the bay were definitely disposed of to disbanded soldiers and
refugees, formed into companies. But the lands, then considered more
remote, as along the north shore of Hay Bay, in the third and fourth
towns; in some parts of the fifth; and more particularly along the
shores of the western extremity of the bay, were at the service of any
one who might venture to settle. It was considered quite in the remote
part of the earth. Even the head of Picton Bay was considered a place
which would hardly be settled. The result was, that many of the choice
lots were taken up in the eighth and ninth towns, before they were

The policy pursued by the British Government, in recognizing the
services of those who served in the British army against the rebels, and
in recompensing the losses sustained by those who adhered to the British
Crown in America, was most wise and beneficent. There were a few
deserving ones in suffering circumstances, who failed to get the bounty
so wisely granted. This sometimes was the result of the individual’s own
neglect, in not advancing his claims; sometimes the fault of an agent
who, too intent in getting for himself, forget those entrusted to his
care. While a small number thus remained without justice, there were on
the other hand, a large number who succeeded unworthily in obtaining
grants. It is no cause for wonder, that out of the large number who
composed the U. E. Loyalists, there would be found a certain number who
would not hesitate to so represent, or misrepresent their case, that an
undue reward would be accorded. Finding the government on the giving
hand, they scrupled not to take advantage of its parental kindness. In
later days we have seen the United States, when in the throes of a great
civil war, bleeding at every point of the body politic, by the
unprincipled contractors and others, who the most loudly proclaimed
their patriotism. In 1783, when a rebellion had proved successful, and
so had become a revolution, and the nation, from which a branch had been
struck off, was most anxious to repay those who had preferred loyalty to
personal aggrandizement, we may not wonder that there were some willing
to take all they could get.

It is also related that certain officers of the regiments were in the
habit of putting each of their children, however young, upon the
strength of the regiment, with the view of securing him land, and hence
arose an expression the “Major won’t take his pap,” and “half pay
officers never die,” as the officer placed on half pay when a year old,
would long enjoy it. But it will be often found that this mode was
adopted by those in authority, as the most convenient to confer favors
upon the chief officers, although a very ridiculous one.

For many a year no strict rules for discrimination, were observed in the
granting of lands in Canada, and the petitions which literally crowded
upon the government, were, in the main, promptly complied with. The time
came, however, when more care had to be observed, for not a few of those
who had actually rebelled, or had sympathized with the rebels, finding
less advantages from republicanism than had been promised, and with
chagrin, learning that those, whose homesteads and lands they had
assisted to confiscate, had wrought out new homes upon land, conferred
by a government more liberal, and of a nobler mind than the _parvenu_
government, which had erected a new flag upon American soil, looked now
with longing, covetous eyes toward the northern country, which those
they had persecuted, had converted from a wilderness to comfortable
homes. The trials of the first settlement had been overcome. The
occasional visit of a Canadian pioneer to his old home in the States,
where he told the pleasing tale of success, notwithstanding their
cruelty, caused some to envy their hard earned comforts, and even led
some who had been the worst of rebels, to set out for Canada with a view
of asserting their loyalty and, thereby of procuring lands. Not a few of
such unworthy ones succeeded for a time in procuring lands. It therefore
became necessary, on the part of the government, to exact the most
searching examination of parties petitioning for land. No reference is
here made to those who came into the province in response to the
invitation proclaimed by Governor Simcoe; but to those who entered under
false colors, prior to the time of Upper Canada being set apart from
Lower Canada.

  _Extracts from the Rules and Regulations for the conduct of the Land
    Office Department, dated Council Chamber, 17th February, 1789, for
    the guidance of the Land Boards._

“4th. The safety and propriety of admitting the petitioner to become an
inhabitant of this Province being well ascertained to the satisfaction
of the Board, they shall administer to every such person the oaths of
fidelity and allegiance directed by law; after which the Board shall
give every such petitioner a certificate to the Surveyor General or any
person authorized to act as an Agent or Deputy Surveyor for the district
within the trust of that Board, expressing the ground of the
petitioner’s admission, and such Agent or Deputy Surveyor shall, within
two days after the presentment of the certificate, assign the petitioner
a single lot of about two hundred acres, describing the same with due
certainty and accuracy under his signature. But the said certificate
shall, nevertheless, have no effect if the petitioner shall not enter
upon the location, and begin the improvement and cultivation thereof
within one year from the date of such assignment, or if the petitioner
shall have had lands assigned to him before that time in any other part
of the Province.

“7th. The respective Boards shall, on petition from the Loyalists
already settled in the Upper Districts for the allotment of lands under
the instructions to the Deputy Surveyor General of the 2nd of June,
1787, or under prior or other orders for assigning portions to their
families, examine into the grounds of such requests and claims, and
being well satisfied of the justice thereof, they shall grant
certificates for such further qualities of lands as the said
instructions and orders may warrant to the acting Surveyors of their
Districts respectively, to be by them made effectual in the manner
before mentioned, but to be void, nevertheless, if prior to the passing
the grant in form, it shall appear to the Government that such
additional locations have been obtained by fraud, and that of these the
Boards transmit to the office of the Governor’s Secretary, and to each
others, like reports and lists as hereinbefore, as to the other
locations directed.

“8th. And to prevent individuals from monopolizing such spots as contain
mines, minerals, fossils, and conveniences for mills, and other similar
advantages of a common and public nature, to the prejudice of the
general interest of the settler, the Surveyor-General and his Agents or
Deputy Surveyors in the different districts, shall confine themselves in
the location to be made by them upon certificates of the respective
Boards, to such lands only as are fit for the common purpose of
husbandry; and they shall reserve all other spots aforementioned,
together with all such as may be fit and useful for ports and harbours,
or works of defence, or such as contain valuable timber for ships,
building or other purposes, conveniently situated for water carriage, in
the hands of the Crown, and they shall, without delay, give all
particular information to the Governor or Commander-in-Chief for the
time being, of all such spots as are hereinbefore directed to be
reserved to the Crown, that order may be taken respecting the same. And
the more effectually to prevent abuses and to put individuals on their
guard in this respect, any certificate of location given contrary to the
true intent and meaning of this regulation is hereby declared to be null
and void, and a special order of the Governor and Council made necessary
to pledge the faith of Government for granting of any such spots as are
directed to be reserved.


  “Certificate of the Board appointed by His Excellency the Governor,
  for the District of ——, in the Province of Quebec, under the rules
  and regulations for the conduct of the Land Office Department.

  “Dated, Council Chamber, Quebec, 17th February, 1789.

  “The bearer ——, having on the —— day of ——, preferred to the Board a
  Petition addressed to His Excellency the Governor in Council, for a
  grant of —— acres of land in the Township of —— in the District of —
  —. We have examined into his character and pretentions, and find
  that he has received —— acres of land in the Township of ——, in the
  District of ——, and that he settled on and has improved the same,
  and that he is entitled to a further assignment of —— acres, —— in
  conformity to the seventh articles of the rules and regulations

  “Given at the Board at this —— day of ——, one thousand seven hundred
  and ——.

  “To ——

  “Acting Surveyor for the District of ——.


  “I assign to the bearer —— the lot No. —— in the Township of ——, in
  the District of ——, containing —— acres, —— chains, which lands he
  is hereby authorized to occupy and improve, and having improved the
  same, he shall receive the same grant thereof, to him and his heirs
  or devisee in due form on such terms as it shall please His Majesty
  to ordain, and all persons are desired to take notice that this
  assignment and all others of a similar nature are not transferable,
  by purchase, donation or otherwise, on any pretence whatever, except
  by an act under the signature of the Board for the District in which
  the lands are situated, which is to be endorsed upon this

  “Given at ——, this —— day of ——, one thousand seven hundred and ——.

  “To ——

  “Acting Surveyor for the District of ——.”

But there were many a one who drew land, and never even saw it. It was
quickly, thoughtlessly sometimes, sold for little or nothing. Sometimes
for a quart of rum. The right jolly old soldier would take no thought of
the morrow. A few did not retain their lands, because they were of
little value for agricultural purposes; but the majority because they
were situated in that remote region in the 4th or 5th concession of the
third town, or away up in the 2nd concession of sixth town, or a long
way up in the eighth town. Rear concessions of even the first and second
townships were looked upon doubtingly, as to whether the land was worth
having. Often the land would not be looked after. It not unfrequently
was the case that settlers upon the front who had drawn land also in the
rear townships, disposed of the latter, not from any indifference as to
its future value, but to obtain the immediate necessaries of life, as
articles of clothing, or stock, or perhaps food, or seed grain, and now
and then in later days to pay taxes. The certificates of the children,
entitling them to land when of age, were often disposed of. Even
officers found it convenient, or necessary to sell rear land to new
comers, for ready money.

Thus it came to pass that a good many never took possession of the land
which a prudent Government had granted them. The statement has been made
that persons holding prominent positions at the time, and possessed of
prudent forethought, as to the value which would in the future attach to
certain lots, stood ready not only to accept offers to sell, but to
induce the ignorant and careless to dispose of their claims.
Consequently when patents were issued, several persons became patentees
of large tracts of land, which had been drawn by individual Loyalists,
whose names never appeared in the Crown Land Office. The transfer of a
certificate or “location ticket,” consisted in the seller writing his
name upon the back of the ticket. Occasionally a ticket would exchange
hands several times, so that at last when it was presented to obtain the
deed, it was difficult to determine who was the owner. The power to thus
transfer the certificates, was allowed for several years. But in time
Government discovered the abuses which had arisen out of it, and decided
that all patents should, thenceforward, be in the name of the person who
originally drew the land. Not unfrequently these certificates were lost.
The losers, upon claiming land, could not establish their rights; but
Government, to meet this misfortune, created a Land Board for each
Township, whose duty it was to examine and determine the claims of all
who presented them.

The following extract of a letter will explain itself:

  “_For the Kingston Gazette, June 1st, 1816._”

  “It has long been a subject of deep regret in the minds of judicious
  persons, that the inhabitants of this Province should be so
  neglectful as they are in securing their titles of real estate. When
  the country was first settled, the grants of land from the crown, on
  account of the existing state of the Province, could not be
  immediately issued. The settlers, however, drew their lots and went
  into possession of them, receiving only tickets, or certificates, as
  the evidence of their right to them. In the meantime, exchanges and
  sales were made by transfers of the possession with bonds for
  conveyances when the deeds should be obtained from the Crown Office.

  “This practice of transferring land by way of bond, being thus
  introduced, was continued by force of usage, after the cause of its
  introduction was removed. In too many instances it is still
  continued, although, by the death of the parties, and the consequent
  descent of estates to heirs under age, and other intervening
  privations, many disappointments, failures, and defects of title,
  are already experienced; and the evil consequences are becoming
  still more serious, as lands rise in value, become more settled and
  divided among assignees, devisees, &c. In a few years this custom,
  more prevalent perhaps in this Province, than elsewhere, will prove
  a fruitful source of litigation, unless the practice should be

In connection with free grants of land, and a certain degree of
indifference as to the value, there must necessarily arise more or less
speculation or land-jobbing.

Sir William Pullency has been called the first land-jobber in Canada. In
1791, he bought up 1,500,000, at one shilling per acre, and soon after
sold 700,000 at an average of eight shillings per acre. But land-jobbing
is not peculiar to Canada, nor has its practice militated against the
public character of eminent men, either here or abroad. General
Washington was not only a Surveyor, but an extensive land-jobber, and
thereby increased immensely his private fortune.

We have seen elsewhere, that a few private individuals were wont to buy
the location tickets of all who desired to part with them, or whom they
could induce to sell. In this way a few individuals came to own large
quantities of land, even from the first. Afterward, there was often
conferred by the authorities, quantities of land upon those connected
with influential persons, or upon favorites. Subsequently the mode of
reserving Crown and Clergy lands increased the evil. And it was an evil,
a serious drawback; not alone that, but favorites procured land without
any particular claim or right. The land thus held in reserve, being
distributed among the settled lots in the several townships, was waste
land, and a barrier to advancement. Each settler had to clear a road
across his lot; but the Government lots, and those held by
non-residents, remained without any road across them, except such paths
as the absolute requirements of the settlers had caused them to make. In
this way, the interests of the inhabitants were much retarded, and the
welfare of the Province seriously damaged. The existence of the Family
Compact prevented the removal of this evil, for many a year, while
favorites enjoyed choice advantages. In 1817, “The House of Assembly in
Upper Canada took into consideration the state of the Province, and
among other topics, the injury arising from the reserve lands of the
Crown and the Clergy.” In laying out the townships in later years, “The
Government reserved in the first concession, the 5th, 15th, and 20th
lots; and the Clergy the 3rd, 10th, 17th, and 22nd. In the second
concession, the Crown reserved the 4th, 11th, 21st, and 23rd; and the
Clergy, the 2nd, 9th, and 16th. And thus in every two concessions, the
Crown would have three lots in one, and four in the other, or seven in
all; and the Clergy the same; or 14 lots reserved in every 48, or nearly
one-third of the land in each concession, and in each township. The
object of the reservation was to increase the value of such land by the
improvements of the settlers around it. The object was selfish, as the
reserve lands injured all those who did them good. It was difficulty
enough to clear up the forests; but to leave so many lots in this forest
state, was a difficulty added by the Crown. To have one-third of a
concession uncleared and uncultivated, was an injury to the two-thirds
cleared and cultivated. Large patches of forest, interspersed with
cultivated land, obstructs the water courses, the air, and the light;
nurtured wild animals and vermin destructive to crops and domestic
creatures around a farm house; and especially, are injurious to roads
running through them, by preventing the wind and the sun from drying the
moisture. Besides, no taxes were paid by these wild lots for any public
improvements; only from cultivated lands. The Assembly, however, were
cut short in their work of complaint, by being suddenly prorogued by the
Governor, whose Council was entirely against such an investigation. Here
was the beginning of the Clergy Reserve agitation in the Provincial
Parliament, which continued for many years.”—(_Playter._)

In this connection, the following extract from a report of Lord Durham,
will be found interesting:

“By official returns which accompany this report, it appears that, out
of about 17,000,000 acres comprised within the surveyed districts of
Upper Canada, less than 1,600,000 acres are yet unappropriated, and this
amount includes 450,000 acres the reserve for roads, leaving less than
1,200,000 acres open to grant, and of this remnant 500,000 acres are
required to satisfy claims for grants founded on pledges by the
Government. In the opinion of Mr. Radenhurst, the really acting
Surveyor-General, the remaining 700,000 consist for the most, part of
land inferior in position or quality. It may almost be said, therefore,
that the whole of the public lands in Upper Canada have been alienated
by the Government. In Lower Canada, out of 6,169,963 acres in the
surveyed townships, nearly 4,000,000 acres have been granted or sold;
and there are unsatisfied but indisputable claims for grants to the
amount of about 500,000. In Nova Scotia nearly 6,000,000 acres of land
have been granted, and in the opinion of the Surveyor-General, only
about one-eighth of the land which remains to the Crown, or 300,000
acres is available for the purposes of settlement. The whole of Prince
Edward’s Island, about 1,400,000 acres, was alienated in one day. In New
Brunswick 4,400,000 acres have been granted or sold, leaving to the
Crown about 11,000,000, of which 5,500,000 are considered fit for
immediate settlement.

“Of the lands granted in Upper and Lower Canada, upwards of 3,000,000
acres consist of ‘Clergy Reserves,’ being for the most part lots of 200
acres each, scattered at regular intervals over the whole face of the
townships, and remaining, with few exceptions, entirely wild to this
day. The evils produced by the system of reserving land for the Clergy
have become notorious, even in this country; and a common opinion I
believe prevails here, not only that the system has been abandoned, but
that measures of remedy have been adopted. This opinion is incorrect in
both points. In respect of every new township in both Provinces reserves
are still made for the Clergy, just as before; and the Act of the
Imperial Parliament which permits the sale of the Clergy Reserves,
applies to only one-fourth of the quantity The select committee of the
House of Commons on the civil government of Canada reported in 1828,
that “these reserved lands, as they are at present distributed over the
country, retard more than any other circumstance the growth of the
colony, lying as they do in detached portions of each township, and
intervening between the occupations of actual settlers, who have no
means of cutting roads through the woods and morasses, which thus
separate them from their neighbours. This description is perfectly
applicable to the present state of things. In no perceptible degree has
the evil been remedied.

“The system of Clergy Reserves was established by the act of 1791,
commonly called the Constitutional Act, which directed that, in respect
of all grants made by the Crown, a quantity equal to one-seventh of the
land so granted should be reserved for the clergy. A quantity equal to
one-seventh of all grants would be one-eighth of each township, or of
all the public land. Instead of this proportion, the practice has been,
ever since the act passed, and in the clearest violation of its
provisions, to set apart for the clergy in Upper Canada a seventh of all
the land, which is a quantity equal to a sixth of the land granted.
There have been appropriated for this purpose 300,000 acres, which
legally, it is manifest, belong to the public. And of the amount for
which Clergy Reserves have been sold in that Province, namely, £317,000
(of which about £100,000 have been already received and invested in the
English funds,) the sum of about £45,000 should belong to the public.

“In Lower Canada, the same violation of the law has taken place, with
this difference—that upon every sale of Crown and Clergy Reserves, a
fresh reserve for the Clergy has been made, equal to one-fifth of such
reserves. The result has been the appropriation for the clergy of
673,567 acres, instead of 446,000, being an excess of 227,559 acres, or
half as much again as they ought to have received. The Lower Canada fund
already produced by sales amounts to £50,000, of which, therefore, a
third, or about £16,000, belong to the public. If, without any reform of
this abuse, the whole of the unsold Clergy Reserves in both Provinces
should fetch the average price at which such lands have hitherto sold,
the public would be wronged to the amount of about £280,000; and the
reform of this abuse will produce a certain and almost immediate gain to
the public of £60,000. In referring, for further explanation of this
subject, to a paper in the appendix which has been drawn up by Mr.
Hanson, a member of the commission of inquiry which I appointed for the
colonies. I am desirous of stating my own conviction that the clergy
have had no part in this great misappropriation of the public property,
but that it has arisen entirely from heedless misconception, or some
other error, of the civil government of both Provinces.”

“The great objection to reserves for the clergy is, that those for whom
the land is set apart never have attempted, and never could successfully
attempt, to cultivate or settle the property, and that, by special
appropriation, so much land is withheld from settlers, and kept in a
state of waste, to the serious injury of all settlers in its
neighborhood. But it would be a great mistake to suppose that this is
the only practice by which such injury has been, and still is, inflicted
on actual settlers. In the two Canadas, especially, the practice of
rewarding, or attempting to reward, public services by grants of public
land, has produced, and is still producing, a degree of injury to actual
settlers which it is difficult to conceive without having witnessed it.
The very principle of such grants is bad, inasmuch as, under any
circumstances, they must lead to an amount of appropriation beyond the
wants of the community, and greatly beyond the proprietor’s means of
cultivation and settlement. In both the Canadas, not only has this
principle been pursued with reckless profusion, but the local executive
governments have managed, by violating or evading the instructions which
they received from the Secretary of State, to add incalculably to the
mischiefs that would have arisen at all events.

“In Upper Canada, 3,200,000 acres have been granted to “U. E.
Loyalists,” being refugees from the United States, who settled in the
province before 1787, and their children; 730,000 acres to Militia men;
450,000 acres to discharged Soldiers and Sailors; 225,000 acres to
Magistrates and Barristers; 136,000 acres to Executive Councillors, and
their families; 50,000 acres to five Legislative Councillors, and their
families; 36,900 acres to Clergymen, as private property; 264,000 to
persons contracting to make surveys; 92,526 acres to officers of the
Army and Navy; 500,000 acres for the endowment of schools; 48,520 acres
to Colonel Talbot; 12,000 acres to heirs of General Brock, and 12,000
acres to Dr. Mountain, a former Bishop of Quebec; making altogether,
with the Clergy Reserves, nearly half of all the surveyed land in the
province. In Lower Canada, exclusively of grants to refugee loyalists,
as to the amount of which the Crown Lands’ Department could furnish me
with no information, 450,000 acres having been granted to Militiamen, to
Executive Councillors 72,000 acres, to Governor Milne, about 48,000
acres, to Mr. Cushing and another, upwards of 100,000 acres (as a reward
for giving information in a case of high treason), to officers and
soldiers 200,000 acres, and to “leaders of townships” 1,457,209 acres,
making altogether, with the Clergy Reserves, rather more than half of
the surveyed lands originally at the disposal of the Crown.

“In Upper Canada, a very small proportion (perhaps less than a tenth) of
all the land thus granted, has been even occupied by settlers, much less
reclaimed and cultivated. In Lower Canada, with the exception of a few
townships bordering on the American frontier, which have been
comparatively well settled, in despite of the proprietors, by American
squatters, it may be said that nineteen-twentieths of these grants are
still unsettled, and in a perfectly wild state.

“No other result could have been expected in the case of those classes
of grantees whose station would preclude them from settling in the
wilderness, and whose means would enable them to avoid exertion for
giving immediate value to their grants; and unfortunately, the land
which was intended for persons of a poorer order, who might be expected
to improve it by their labor, has, for the most part, fallen into the
hands of land-jobbers of the class just mentioned, who have never
thought of settling in person, and who retain the land in its present
wild state, speculating upon its acquiring a value at some distant day,
when the demand for land shall have increased through the increase of

“In Upper Canada,” says Mr. Bolton, himself a great speculator and
holder of wild land, “the plan of granting large tracts of land to
gentlemen who have neither the muscular strength to go into the
wilderness, nor perhaps, the pecuniary means to improve their grants,
has been the means of a large part of the country remaining in a state
of wilderness. The system of granting land to the children of U. E.
Loyalists has not been productive of the benefits expected from it. A
very small proportion of the land granted to them has been occupied or
improved. A great proportion of such grants were to unmarried females,
who very readily disposed of them for a small consideration, frequently
from £2 to £5 for a grant of 200 acres. The grants made to young men
were also frequently sold for a very small consideration; they generally
had parents with whom they lived, and were therefore not disposed to
move to their grants of lands, but preferred remaining with their
families. I do not think one-tenth of the lands granted to U. E.
Loyalists has been occupied by the persons to whom they were granted,
and in a great proportion of cases not occupied at all.” Mr. Randenhurst
says, “the general price of these grants was from a gallon of rum up to
perhaps £6, so that while millions of acres were granted in this way,
the settlement of the Province was not advanced, nor the advantage of
the grantee secured in the manner that we may suppose to have been
contemplated by government.” He also mentions amongst extensive
purchasers of these grants, Mr. Hamilton, a member of the Legislative
Council, who bought about 100,000 acres. Chief Justices Emslie and
Powell, and Solicitor General Gray, who purchased from 20,800 to 50,000
acres; and states that several members of the Executive and Legislative
Councils, as well as of the House of Assembly, were “very large

“In Lower Canada, the grants to “Leaders and Associates” were made by an
evasion of instructions which deserve a particular description.

“By instructions to the Local Executive immediately after the passing of
the Constitutional Act, it was directed that “because great
inconveniences had theretofore arisen in many of the colonies in
America, from the granting excessive quantities of land to particular
persons who have never cultivated or settled the same, and have thereby
prevented others more industrious, from improving such lands; in order,
therefore, to prevent the like inconveniences in future, no farm-lot
should be granted to any person being master or mistress of a family in
any township to be laid out which should contain more than 200 acres.”
The instructions then invest the governor with a discretionary power to
grant additional quantities in certain cases, not exceeding 1,000 acres.
According to these instructions 200 acres should have been the general
amount, 1,200 the maximum, in special cases to be granted to any
individual. The greater part, however, of the land (1,457,200 acres) was
granted, in fact, to individuals at the rate of from 10,000 to 50,000 to
each person. The evasion of the regulations was managed as follows: A
petition, signed by from 10 to 40 or 50 persons, was presented to the
Executive Council, praying for a grant of 1,200 acres to each person,
and promising to settle the land so applied for. Such petitions were, I
am informed, always granted, the Council being perfectly aware that,
under a previous agreement between the applicants (of which the form was
prepared by the then Attorney General, and sold publicly by the law
stationers of Quebec), five-sixths of the land was to be conveyed to one
of them, termed leader, by whose means the grant was obtained. In most
cases the leader obtained the most of the land which had been nominally
applied for by fifty persons.”

Upon this subject we further give as worthy of attention, although we
will not endorse all that is said, the remarks made by Mr. Robert
Gourlay in his “Statistical Account.” He says, “when we look back into
the history of old countries, and observe how landed property was first
established; how it was seized upon, pulled about, given away, and
divided in all sorts of ways, shapes, and quantities; how it was
bequeathed, burdened, entailed, and leased in a hundred forms; when we
consider how dark were the days of antiquity,—how grossly ignorant and
savage were our remote forefathers, we cannot be so much surprised at
finding ourselves heirs to confusion; and, that, in these old countries,
entanglement continues to be the order of the day. But when civilized
men were quietly and peaceably to enter into the occupancy of a new
region, where all could be adjusted by the square and compass; and when
order, from the beginning, could have prevented for ever all possibility
of doubt, and dispute, and disturbance; how deplorable is it to know,
that in less than a life-time, even the simplest affairs should get into
confusion! and so it is already in Upper Canada, to a lamentable degree.
Boundaries of land are doubtful and disputed: deeds have been mislaid,
lost, unfounded, forged: they have been passed again and again in review
before commissioners: they have been blotted and blurred: they have got
into the repositories of attornies and pettifogging lawyers; while
courts of justice are every day adding doubt to doubt, delay to delay,
and confusion to confusion; with costs, charges, cheating.

“Things are not yet beyond the reach of amendment, even in the old
settlements. In the new, what a glorious task it is to devise plans for
lasting peace and prosperity!—to arrange in such a way, as to bar out a
world of turmoil in times to come!

“The present very unprofitable and comfortless condition of Upper Canada
must be traced back to the first operations of Simcoe. With all his
honesty, and energy, and zeal for settling the Province, he had really
no sound views on the subject, and he was infinitely too lavish in
disposing of the land—infinitely too much hurried in all his
proceedings. In giving away land to individuals, no doubt, he thought he
would give these individuals an interest in the improvement of the
country,—an inducement to settle in it, and draw to it settlers; but he
did not consider the character and condition of most of his favorites;
many of them officers in the army, whose habits did not accord with
business, and less still with solitude and the wilderness; whose hearts
were in England, and whose wishes were intent on retirement thither.
Most of them did retire from Upper Canada, and considering, as was
really the case, their land grants of little value, forgot and neglected
them. This was attended with many bad consequences. Their lands became
bars to improvement; as owners they were not known; could not be heard
of; could not be applied to, or consulted with, about any measure for
public advantage. Their promises under the Governor’s hand, their land
board certificates, their deeds, were flung about and neglected. But
mischief greater than all this, arose, is, and will be, from the badness
of surveys. Such was the haste to get land given away, that ignorant and
careless men were employed to measure it out, and such a mess did they
make of their land-measuring, that one of the present surveyors informed
me, that in running new lines over a great extent of the Province, he
found spare room for a whole township in the midst of those laid out at
an early period. It may readily be conceived, upon consideration of this
fact, what blundering has been committed, and what mistakes stand for
correction. Boundary lines in the wilderness are marked by blazing, as
it is called, that is, chopping off with an axe, a little bark from such
trees as stand nearest to the line. Careless surveyors can readily be
supposed to depart wide of the truth with this blazing: their measuring
chains cannot run very straight, and their compass needles, where these
are called in aid, may be greatly diverted from the right direction by
ferruginous substances in the neighbourhood, as spoken of. In short,
numerous mistakes and errors of survey have been made and discovered:
much dispute has arisen therefrom; and I have been told infinite
mischief is still in store. It occurred to me, while in Canada, and it
was one of the objects which, had a commission come home, I meant to
have pressed on the notice of government, that a complete new survey and
map of the Province should be executed; and at the same time a book,
after the manner of Doomsday-book, written out and published, setting
forth all the original grants, and describing briefly but surely all
property both public and private. I would yet most seriously recommend
such to be set about. It might be expensive now, but would assuredly
save, in time to come, a pound for every penny of its cost.”

We have seen elsewhere that, in the terms of peace made at Paris when
hostilities ceased, justice was not done to the American Loyalists. But
subsequently, when their claims became known to the British public,
there was uttered no uncertain sound, upon the floor of Parliament,
respecting the duty resting upon England towards the devoted but
distressed loyalists who had laid all upon the altar of patriotism; and
to the honor of England be said, every step was now taken to provide
some recompense for the United Empire Loyalists. It is true, the old
homes with their comforts and associations could not be restored; the
wilderness was to be their home, a quiet conscience their comfort, and
their associations those of the pioneer for many a day. But, what could
be done, was done by the Crown to render their circumstances tolerable.
Extensive grants of land were granted, not alone to the disbanded
soldier according to rank, but to every one who had become a refugee.
Three years supply of rations were allowed to all, as well as clothing;
and certain implements were furnished with which to clear the land and
prepare it for agriculture. The scale of granting lands was, to a field
officer 5000 acres, captain 3000, subaltern 2000, private 200. The
loyalists were ranked, with the disbanded soldiers, according to their
losses, and services rendered, having taken the usual oath of
allegiance; and all obtained their grants free of every expense. In
1798, complaints having been made to the Imperial Government respecting
the profuse manner of granting lands, royal instructions were given to
Gen. Hunter to limit the allowance to a quantity from 200 to 1,200. The
grants of land when large, were not to be in blocks; but few secured
more than 200 acres upon the front townships. The original mode of
granting lands, at least to the soldiers, was by lot. The process was
simple. The number of each lot, to be granted in each concession, was
written on a separate piece of paper, and all were placed in a hat and
well shaken, when each one to receive land, drew a piece of paper from
the hat. The number upon the paper was the number of his lot. He then
received a printed location ticket. In drawing lots, no one felt any
particular anxiety. They were yet unacquainted with the country, they
had not seen the land, and one number was as likely to prove as valuable
as another.

It would seem that the Surveyor acted as Land Agent. Having surveyed the
lots, he prepared the ballot, and arranged the time and place for the
settlers to draw. It was no doubt this original mode of drawing by
lottery, which gave the provincial term _drawing_ land. We have the
testimony of Ex-Sheriff Sherwood, that the Surveyor discharged this
office. He recollects “Esquire Collins;” he was at his father’s house,
and his father assisted in the matter of drawing with those who had
assembled for the purpose. The Surveyor had a plan by him, and as each
drew his lot, his name was written immediately upon the map. Many of the
plans, with names upon them, may be seen in the Crown Land Department.
Some of the settlers upon the front acquired much more land than others
by reason of the “broken front.” It often happened that the base line,
running from one cove of the Bay to another, left between it and the
water a large strip of land. This “broken front” belonged to the
adjacent 200 acres, so that often the fortunate party possessed even 50
or 100 acres extra.

One of the noted individuals to whom land was granted in Upper Canada,
was Arnold the Traitor. 18,000 acres was given him, and £10,000.

The tract of land now constituting the Township of Tyendinaga, having
been purchased from the Mississaugas, was deeded to the Mohawks. The
deed bears the date of 1804. The land is granted to “the chiefs,
warriors, people, women of the Six Nations.” The chief, at the time they
settled, was Capt. John Deserontyon.

                             CHAPTER XVII.

  CONTENTS—Lines—Western Settlement, 1783—Population—Settlement upon
    St. Lawrence and Bay—Number, 1784—Proclamation to Loyalists—
    Society disturbed—Two kinds of Loyalists—St. Lawrence and Bay
    favorable for Settlement—Government Provisions—State of the
    Loyalists—Serving out Rations—Clothes—Utensils for clearing and
    farming—The Axe—Furniture—Attacking a last enemy—Tents—Waiting for
    their Lots—“Bees”—Size of dwellings—Mode of building—Exchanging
    work—Bedsteads—Clearing—Fireing trees—Ignorance of Pioneer Life—
    Disposing of the Wood—No beast of burden—Logging—Determination—All
    Settlers on a common ground—Additional Refugees—Advance—Simcoe’s
    Proclamation, 1792—Conditions of Grants—The Response—Later
    Settlers—Questionable Loyalists—Yankees longing for Canada—Loyalty
    in 1812.



                        BY ALEXANDER M’LACHLAN.

                Land of mighty lake and forest!
                Where the winter’s locks are hoarest;
                Where the summer’s leaf is greenest;
                And the winter’s bite the keenest;
                Where the autumn’s leaf is searest.
                And her parting smile the dearest;
                Where the tempest rushes forth,
                From his caverns of the north,
                With the lightnings of his wrath.
                Sweeping forests from his path;
                Where the cataract stupendous
                Lifteth up her voice tremendous;
                Where uncultivated nature
                Rears her pines of giant stature;
                Sows her jagged hemlocks o’er,
                Thick as bristles on the boar;
                Plants the stately elm and oak
                Firmly in the iron rock;
                Where the crane her course is steering,
                And the eagle is careering,
                Where the gentle deer are bounding,
                And the woodman’s axe resounding;
                Land of mighty lake and river,
                To our hearts thou’rt dear forever!
                Thou art not a land of story;
                Thou art not a land of glory;
                No tradition, tale, nor song,
                To thine ancient woods belong;
                No long line of bards and sages
                Looking to us down the ages;
                No old heroes sweeping by,
                In their warlike panoply;
                Yet heroic deeds are done,
                Where no battle’s lost or won—
                In the cottage, in the woods,
                In the lonely solitudes—
                Pledges of affection given,
                That will be redeemed in heaven.

In 1783, when a regular survey and settlement of Western Canada
commenced, the inhabitants of the Lower Province extended westward, only
a few miles above Coteau du lac, upon the St. Lawrence, at Lake St.
Francis; but not a house was built within several miles of the division
line of the two Provinces, which is above Montreal, about 40 miles, on
the north shore. On the south side there was the Fort of Oswegotchie.
Besides the squatters around the military posts at Carleton Island,
Oswego, and Niagara, there were a few inhabitants at Detroit and
Sandwich, of French origin, where a settlement had sprung up in 1750.

The entire population of all Canada at this time, has been estimated at
120,000, including both the French and English. Although refugees had
squatted here and there upon the frontier, near to the several military
posts, it was not until 1784 that the land, now surveyed into lots, was
actually bestowed upon the Loyalists; yet it was mainly disbanded
soldiers that received their “location tickets” in the year 1784. The
grants were made to the corps under Jessup, upon the St. Lawrence, and
under Rogers upon the Bay; and to Butler’s Rangers at Niagara, at the
same time, or very nearly. During the same season, a settlement was made
upon the Niagara frontier and at Amherstburgh, by the Loyalists who had
found refuge at the contiguous Forts. It is supposed that the number who
became settlers this year, 1784, in Upper Canada was about 10,000. Thus
the Province of Upper Canada was planted; thus the Refugees and
disbanded soldiers found themselves pioneers in the wilds of Canada. Was
it for this they had adhered to the Crown—had taken up arms—had
sacrificed their all?

At the close of hostilities, a proclamation was issued to the Loyalists,
to rendezvous at Sacket’s Harbour, or Carleton Island, Oswego, Niagara,
and Isle aux Mois, the principal military posts upon the frontier.

The tempest of war which had swept across the American Continent,
severing thirteen Colonies from the parent trunk, had roughly disturbed
the elements of society. It resulted that the cessation of hostilities
left a turbulent ocean, which required time to compose itself. There
were Loyalists who would not live under a flag alien to Britain. There
were those whose circumstances would have induced them to abide the evil
that had overtaken them in the dismemberment of the British Empire; but
the fierce passions of the successful rebels rendered a peaceful or safe
existence of the Loyalists among them impossible. Driven they were, away
from their old homes. There were those who had been double minded, or
without choice, ready to go with the successful party. Such wandered
here and there looking for the best opportunity to secure self
aggrandisement. It is of the first two classes we speak.

Forced by cruel circumstances, to become pioneers in a wilderness, there
could not be found in America, a more favourable place whereupon to
settle than along the banks of the St. Lawrence, and around the
irregular shores of Bay Quinté, with its many indentations. They had to
convert the wood-covered land into homes. The trees had to be felled,
and the land prepared for grain, and the fruit of the soil to be
obtained for sustenance within three years, when Government provisions
would be discontinued. It can readily be understood that a water
communication to and from the central points of settlement, as well as
access to fishing waters, was most desirable. The smooth waters of the
upper St. Lawrence and the Bay Quinté constituted a highway of the most
valuable kind, for the only mode of travel was by the canoe, or
flat-bottomed batteau, which was supplied by the Government in limited
numbers; and in winter by rudely constructed hand-sleighs, along the icy

                          THE FIRST SETTLERS.

The settlers of Upper Canada, up to 1790, may be divided into those who
were forced away from the States by persecution, during and after the
war; the disbanded troops; and a nobler class, who left the States,
being unwilling to live under other than British rule.

To what extent were these pioneers fitted and prepared to enter upon the
truly formidable work of creating homes, and to secure the necessaries
of life for their families. But few of them possessed ought of worldly
goods, nearly all were depending upon the bounty of Government. In the
first place, they were supplied with rations; which consisted of flour,
pork, and a limited quantity of beef, a very little butter, and as
little salt. We find in Rev. Mr. Carroll’s “Past and Present” that
“their mode of serving out rations was rather peculiar.” “Their plan
was, to prevent the appearance of partiality, for the one who acted as
Commissary, either to turn his back, take one of the articles, and say,
‘who will have this?’ or else the provisions were weighed, or assorted,
and put into heaps, when the Commissary went around with a hat, and
received into it something which he would again recognize, as a button,
a knife, &c.; after which he took the articles out of the hat, as they
came uppermost, and placed one on each of the piles in rotation. Every
person then claimed the parcel on which he found the article which he
had thrown into the hat.”

They were also supplied with “clothes for three years, or until they
were able to provide these articles for themselves. They consisted of
coarse cloth for trowsers and Indian blankets for coats, and of shoes;
beside, each received a quantity of seed grain to sow upon the newly
cleared land, with certain implements of husbandry. To each was allotted
an axe, a hoe, and a spade; a plough, and one cow, were allotted to two
families; a whip and cross-cut saw to every fourth family; and, even
boats were provided for their use, and placed at convenient points;” and
“that nothing might seem to be wanting, on the part of the Government,
even portable corn mills, consisting of steel plates, turned by hand
like a coffee-mill, were distributed among the settlers.” We have
learned they were also supplied with nails, hand-saws and other
materials for building. To every five families were given a “set of
tools,” such as chisels and augers, of various sizes, and
drawing-knives; also pick-axes, and sickles for reaping. But,
unfortunately, many of these implements were of inferior quality. The
axe, with which the burden of the work was to be done, was unlike the
light implement now in use, it was but a short-handled ship axe,
intended for quite a different use than chopping trees and clearing
land. Notwithstanding, these various implements, thoughtfully provided
by Government, how greatly must they have come short in meeting the
varied wants of the settler, in his isolated clearing, far separated
from places whereat things necessary could be procured. However, the old
soldier, with his camp experience, was enabled by the aid of his tools,
to make homely and rude articles of domestic use. And, in farming, he
constructed a rough, but serviceable plow, and harrow, and made handles
for his scythe.

Thus provisioned and clothed, and thus armed with implements of
industry, the old soldiers advanced to the attack of a last enemy, the
wild woods. Unlike any previous warfare, was this lifetime struggle.
With location ticket in hand, they filed into the batteaux to ascend the
rapids. A certain number of batteaux joined together, generally about
twenty or twenty-five, formed a brigade, which was placed under the
command of a suitable officer; if not one who had in previous days, led
them against the foe. It is quite impossible to conceive of the emotions
which found a place in the breasts of the old veterans as they journeyed
along wearily from day to day, each one bringing them nearer to the spot
on which the tent was to be pitched for the last time. Eagerly, no
doubt, they scanned the thickly wooded shores as they passed along.
Curiously they examined the small settlement, clustering around
Cataraqui. And, it cannot be doubted, when they entered the waters of
the lovely Bay Quinté, the beauty of the scene created a feeling of joy
and reconciliation to their lot, in being thus cast upon a spot so rich
in natural beauty. These disbanded soldiers, at least each family, had a
canvass tent capable of accommodating, in a certain way, from eight to
ten persons. These were pitched upon the shore, at first in groups,
until each person had learned the situation of his lot, when he
immediately removed thereto. But there were by no means enough tents to
give cover to all, and many had only the friendly trees for protection.
The first steps taken were to clear a small space of trees, and erect a
place of habitation. We have seen what were the implements he had to
work with—the materials he must use to subdue the forest tree standing
before him.

Here, at the very threshold of Upper Canadian history, was initiated the
“institution” of “bees.” “Each with his axe on his shoulder, turned out
to help the other,” in erecting a log shanty. Small and unpretending
indeed, were these humble tenements first built along the shores of the
bay. The size of each depended upon the number to occupy it. None were
larger than twenty by fifteen feet; and an old man tells me that his
father, who was a carpenter, built one fifteen feet long and ten feet
broad, with a slanting roof seven or eight feet in height. The
back-woodsman’s shanty, which may yet be seen in the outskirts of our
country, is the counterpart of those which were first built; but perhaps
many of our readers may never have seen one. “Round logs,” (generally of
basswood,) “roughly notched together at the corners, and piled one above
another, to the height of seven or eight feet, constituted the walls.
Openings for a door, and one small window” (always beside the door)
“designed for four lights of glass, 7 × 9, were cut out,” (Government
had supplied them with a little glass and putty); “the spaces between
the logs were chinked with small splinters, and carefully plastered
outside and inside, with clay for mortar. Smooth straight poles were
laid lengthways of the building, on the walls, to serve as supports of
the roof. This was composed ‘of strips of elm bark, four feet in length,
by two or three feet in width, in layers, overlapping each other, and
fastened to the poles by withs.’” (The roof was some times of black oak,
or swamp oak, bark,) “with a sufficient slope to the back, this formed a
roof which was proof against wind and weather. An ample hearth, made of
flat stones, was then laid out, and a fire back of field stone or small
boulders, rudely built, was carried up as high as the walls. Above this
the chimney was formed of round poles, notched together and plastered
with mud. The floor was of the same materials as the walls, only that
the logs were split in two, and flattened so as to make a tolerably even
surface. As no boards were to be had to make a door, until they could be
sawn out by the whip saw, a blanket suspended from the inside for some
time took its place. By and by four little pains of glass, were stuck
into a rough sash, and then the shanty was complete.”—(_Croil._)

Furniture for the house was made by the old soldier; this was generally
of the roughest kind. They had the fashion of exchanging work, as well
as of having bees. Some of them had been mechanics in other days. A
carpenter was a valuable acquisition, and while others would assist him
to do his heavy work, he would in return do those little nicer jobs by
which the household comforts would be increased. No chests of drawers
were required; benches were made of split basswood, upon which to sit,
and tables were manufactured in the same style. The bedstead was
constructed at the end of the cabin, by taking poles of suitable size
and inserting the ends between the logs which formed the walls on either
side. These would be placed, before the cracks were filled in and

                           CLEARING THE LAND.

A log hut constructed, wherein to live; and such plain rough articles of
furniture as were really necessary provided, the next thing was to clear
the land, thickly covered with large trees and tangled brush. Many a
swing of the unhandy axe had to be made ere the trees could be felled,
and disposed of; and the ground made ready for the grain or root.

A few years later, and the settler would, in the dry summer season, fire
the woods, so as to kill the trees. By the next year they would have
become dry, so that by setting fire again they would burn down. In this
way much labor was saved. But sometimes the fire would prove
unmanageable and threaten to destroy the little house and log barn, as
well as crops. Another mode of destroying the large trees, was to girdle
them—that is, to cut through the bark all around the tree, whereby it
was killed, so that the following year it would likewise burn down.

A portion of the disbanded troops, as well as other loyalists, had been
bred to agricultural pursuits; and some of them, at least those who had
not been very long in arms, could the more readily adapt themselves to
their new circumstances, and resume their early occupation. The axe of
the woodsman was soon swung as vigorously along the shores of the well
wooded river and bay, as it had been in the forests years before, in the
backwoods of New England.

It is no ordinary undertaking for one to enter the primeval forest, to
cut down the tough grained trees, whose boughs have long met the first
beams of the rising sun, and swayed in the tempest wind; to clear away
the thick underbrush, which impedes the step at every turn; to clear out
a tangled cedar swamp, no matter how hardy may be the axeman—how well
accustomed to the use of the implement. With the best mode of
proceeding, with an axe of excellent make, and keen edge; and, combined
with which, let every other circumstance be favorable; yet, it requires
a determined will, an iron frame and supple muscle, to undertake and
carry out the successful clearing of a farm. But, the refugees and
disbanded soldiers, who formed the pioneers of Upper Canada, enjoyed not
even ordinary advantages. Many of the old soldiers had not the slightest
knowledge of the duties of pioneer life, while others had but an
imperfect idea. Some scarcely knew how to fell a tree. Hardy and
determined they were; but they possessed not the implements requisite to
clear off the solid trees. We have seen that the axe furnished by
government was large and clumsy, and could be swung only with difficulty
and great labor, being nothing more than the ship axe then in use. Slow
and wearisome indeed, must have been the progress made by the
unaccustomed woodsman in the work of clearing, and of preparing the logs
for his hut, while he had, as on-lookers, too often a feeble wife and
hungry children.

The ordinary course of clearing land is pretty well known. At the
present day the autumn and winter is the usual time, when the wood is
cut in sleigh lengths for home use, or made into cord wood for the
market. The brush is piled up into huge heaps, and in the following
season, when sufficiently dry, is burned up. Now, wood, except in the
remote parts, is very valuable, and for those who can part with it, it
brings a good income. But then, when the land was everywhere covered
with wood, the only thought was how to get rid of it. The great green
trees, after being cut down, had to lie until they had dried, or be cut
into pieces and removed. Time was necessary for the first. To accomplish
the second, involved labor with the unwieldy axe; and there were at
first, no beast of burden to haul the heavy logs. The arm of the pioneer
was the only motor power, and the trees had to be cut in short lengths,
that they might be carried. To overcome the more heavy work connected
with this, the settlers would have logging bees from place to place, and
by united strength subdue the otherwise obstinate forces. Mainly, the
trees were burned; the limbs and smaller portion first, and subsequently
the large trunk. The fire would consume all that was flammable, leaving
great black logs all over the ground. Then came “logging,” that is,
piling these black and half burned pieces into heaps, where, after a
longer time of drying, they might be consumed. A second, perhaps a third
time the pieces would have to be collected into “log heaps,” until
finally burned to ashes. It was by such means, that slowly the forest
along the St. Lawrence, and surrounding the Bay Quinté, as well in the
adjacent townships melted away before the daily work of the aggressive
settler. Although deprived of all those comforts, which most of them had
enjoyed in early life in the Hudson, and Mohawk valleys, and fruitful
fields of Pennsylvania, they toiled on determined to conquer—to make new
homes; and, for their children at least, to secure comforts. They rose
early, and toiled on all day, whether long or short, until night cast
its solemn pall over their rude quiet homes. The small clearing of a few
acres gradually widened, the sound of the axe was heard ringing all the
day, and the crash of the falling tree sent the startled wild beast to
the deeper recesses of the wild wood. The toilers were not all from the
same social rank, but now in the main, all found a common level; the
land allotted to the half pay officers was as thickly covered with wood.
A few possessed limited means, and were able to engage a help, to do
some of the work, but in a short time it was the same with all; men of
education, and who held high positions, rightly held the belief that it
was an honor to be a refugee farmer.

At the close of the war a considerable number of the refugees found
safety in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. But a certain number, not
finding such prospects as they had hoped, resolved to try Canada.
Consequently, for five or six years after the peace, this class
continued slowly to flow, to swell the number of inhabitants of Upper
Canada. Some of them tarried, or remained in Lower Canada; but the
majority ascended the Bay Quinté, and settled the new townships at the
head of the bay; not a few would remain for a year or two in the
townships already settled, working farms on shares, or living out, until
the future home was selected. A good many of the first settlers in the
sixth, seventh, and eight townships, had previously lived for a while in
the fourth township.

The advance of the settlements was along the bay, from Kingston township
and Ernest town, westward along both sides. When the settlers in the
first, second, third and fourth townships, had, to a certain extent
overcome the pioneers’ first difficulties, those in the sixth, seventh,
eight and ninth, were yet undergoing mostly all the same hardships and
trials. Far removed from Kingston, they could, with difficulty, procure
necessities, and consequently endured greater privation, and experienced
severer hardships; but in time these settlers also overcome, and ended
their days in comparative comfort.

Gen. Simcoe, after he became the first Governor of Upper Canada in 1792,
held the opinion that there remained in the States a large number of
Loyalists, and conceived the idea of affording them an inducement to
again come under British rule, as they were British in heart. He, by
proclamation, invited them to free grants of the rich land of Upper
Canada, in the following words:

“A PROCLAMATION, to such as are desirous to settle on lands of the
SIMCOE, ESQUIRE, Lieutenant-Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the said
Province, and Colonel commanding His Majesty’s Forces, &c., &c. Be it
known to all concerned that His Majesty, both by his royal commission
and instructions to the Governor, and in his absence, to the
Lieutenant-Governor of the said Province of Upper Canada, gives
authority or command to grant the lands of the Crown in the same by
patent under the great seal thereof. I do accordingly make known the
terms of grant and settlement to be:” &c.

Without introducing the somewhat lengthy terms given under the heads, it
is sufficient to say that they were most liberal; in the meanwhile
reserving what was necessary to maintain the rights previously granted
to Loyalist settlers. No lot was to be granted of more than 200 acres,
except such as the Governor might otherwise desire, but no one was to
receive a quantity exceeding 1000 acres. Every one had to make it appear
that he, or she was in a condition to cultivate and improve the land,
and “beside taking the usual oaths, subscribe a declaration, viz: I, A.
B. do promise and declare that I will maintain and defend to the utmost
of my power, the authority of the king in his parliament as the supreme
legislature of this province.” These grants were free excepting the fees
of office, “in passing the patent and recording the same.” The
proclamation was dated 7th February, 1792, Thomas Talbot, acting

It was obligatory on settlers to clear five acres of land, to build a
house, and to open a road across the front of his land, a quarter of a

Whether Simcoe was right in his opinion, that many loyalists remained in
the States, ready to avail themselves of a judicious opportunity of
becoming citizens of British territory, may be questioned; that there
were some, cannot be doubted. Not a few responded to his invitation, and
entered the new province. The recall of Simcoe led to the abrogation of
the terms specified in the aforementioned proclamation, and some of the
new comers were doomed to disappointment. As may naturally be supposed,
these later comers were not altogether regarded with favor by the first
settlers, who now regarded themselves as lords of the soil. The old
staunch loyalists were disposed to look upon them as Yankees, who came
only to get the land. And it seems that such was often the case. We have
the impartial statement of Rochefoucault, that there were some who
“falsely profess an attachment to the British monarch, and curse the
Government of the Union for the mere purpose of getting possession of
lands.” Even at this early day, they set about taking possession of
Canada! Indeed, it was a cause of grievance in Walford township,
Johnstown district, that persons from the States entered the country,
petitioned for land, took the necessary oaths—perjured themselves, and
having obtained possession of the land resold it, pocketed the money,
and left to build up the glorious Union.

But, while so much has to be said of some Americans, who took land in
Canada for mercenary motives, and committed fraud, it is pleasing to say
likewise, that a large number of settlers from the States, who came in
between 1794 and 1812, became worthy and loyal subjects of the Crown.
How far all of them were at first Britons in heart, may be questioned.
But the fact that the first settlers regarded them with doubtful eye,
and often charged them with being Yankees, led many, for very
peace-sake, to display their loyalty. But at last, when the war of 1812
broke out, they exhibited unmistakeable attachment to the British Crown.
To their honor be it said, they were as active in defending their homes
as any class. The number who deserted from Canada, was quite
insignificant. As would be expected, the war of 1812 arrested the stream
of emigration from the States. The Government of Canada thereafter
discountenanced it, and instead, made some efforts to draw British
European emigrants.

                              DIVISION IV.
                    THE FIRST YEARS OF UPPER CANADA.

                             CHAPTER XVIII.

  CONTENTS—Father Picquet—Provision of Forts in Upper Canada just
    before Conquest—Frontenac—Milk—Brandy—Toronto—The Several Forts—
    Detroit—British Garrisons—Grasping Rebels—Efforts to Starve out
    Loyalists in Canada—Worse Treated than the Acadians—Efforts to
    Secure Fur Trade—The Frontier Forts—Americans Conduct to Indians—
    Result—Conduct of British Government—Rations for Three Years—
    Grinding by Hand—“Hominy Blocks”—“Plumping Mill”—The Women—Soldier
    Farmers—The Hessians—Suffering—The “Scarce Year”—Charge against
    the Commissariat Officers—Famine—Cry for Bread—Instances of
    Suffering—Starving Children—No Salt—Fish—Game—Eating Young Grain—
    Begging Bran—A Common Sorrow—Providential Escapes—Eating Buds and
    Leaves—Deaths—Primitive Fishing—Catching Salmon—Going 125 miles to
    mill—Disconsolate Families—1789—Partial Relief—First Beef
    Slaughtered in Upper Canada—First Log Barn—A Bee, what they Ate
    and Drank—Tea Introduced—Statements of Sheriff Sherwood—Roger
    Bates—John Parrott—Col. Clark—Squirrelly Swimming Niagara—Maple
    Sugar—How it was made—Women assisting—Made Dishes of Food—Pumpkin
    Loaf—Extract from Rochefoucault—1795—Quality of Grain Raised—
    Quinté Bay—Cultivation—Corn Exported—The Grain Dealers—Price of
    Flour—Pork—Profits of the Merchants.

                        MODE OF PROCURING FOOD.

We have seen with what spirit and determination the loyalists engaged in
the duties pertaining to pioneer life; how they became domiciled in the
wilderness and adapted themselves to their new and trying situation.
Thus, was laid the foundation of the Province of Upper Canada, now
Ontario. Upon this foundation was to be erected the superstructure. Let
us proceed to examine the circumstances of the first years of Upper
Canadian life. And first with respect to _food_.

Father Picquet visited the Bay and Lake Ontario, from _La Présentation_—
Ogdensburgh, the year of the Conquest. He speaks of his visit to Fort
Frontenac, and remarks, “The bread and milk there, were bad; they had
not even brandy there to staunch a wound.” By which we learn that the
French garrison had a cow, although she gave indifferent milk; and that
even brandy for medicinal purposes could not be had. The missionary
proceeded to Fort Toronto which was situated upon Lake Simcoe, no doubt
ascending by the bay Quinté and Trent. Here he found “good bread and
good wine” and “everything requisite for trade” with the Indians. The
cession of Canada to the British by the French had been followed by a
withdrawal of troops from many of the forts, around which had clustered
a few hamlets, specks of civilization in a vast wilderness, and in most
places things had lapsed into their primal state. And, when rebellion
broke out in the Colonies of Britain, there were but a few posts whereat
were stationed any soldiers, or where clustered the white settlers.
There were a few French living at Detroit, and at Michilmicinac, and to
the north-east of Lake Huron. We have seen that during the war, refugees
found safety at the several military posts. The military rations were
served out to these loyal men in the same proportion as to the soldiers,
and when the war closed the garrisons continued to dispense the
necessaries of life to the settlers upon the north shores of the lake,
and St. Lawrence.

For ten years, after the terms of peace was signed between England and
the Independent States, the forts of Oswego, Niagara, Detroit, and
Michilmicinac, with the garrison on Carleton Island, remained in the
possession of the British troops. To this the grasping Americans warmly
took exceptions. Although it would have been next to impossible to
supply these places with provisions for troops of their own, they
nevertheless wished to dispossess the Royal troops; we learn that the
object was to starve out the refugees who had found shelter upon the
borders, and who would be depending for years to these forts, for the
very necessaries of life. In this, their cruelty exceeded that practised
towards the Acadians. Having driven away the loyalists and dispossessed
them at home, they would have followed them to their new wilderness
home, there to cut off their supplies and leave them to perish. They
wished to obtain possession of the forts not only to glut their vengeful
feeling against the tories, but to secure the traffic carried on with
the Indians. Dreams of aggrandizement floated through their avaricious
minds. It was regarded an excellent stroke of policy to turn the current
of the fur trade from the St. Lawrence, and starve out by degrees the
refugees, and the French who would have none of _their_ “Liberty.” Hence
their desire to get possession of the frontier forts. But it was
destined that this valuable traffic should never come into the hands of
the United States; or rather it should be said, the Americans had
determined to pursue a course which would completely alienate the Indian
tribes from them. Under such circumstances no possession of the forts
could have turned the trade from its natural channel by the St.
Lawrence, across the continent to New York.

The British Government never desired to stint the loyal refugees and the
disbanded soldiers. At the close of hostilities it was determined that
both alike, with their families, should receive while traveling, and for
a period of three years, such rations as are allowed daily to the
private soldier. And the Commissariat Department was instructed to make
the necessary provision to have transported to each township by batteau,
what should be requisite. Dépôts were established, in addition to the
different garrisons, in each township, to which some prominent and
trusted refugee of their number, generally a half pay officer, was
appointed as Commissary, and at which ample provisions of the specified
kind, as well as certain implements, it was ordered should be stored, to
be dealt out with regularity and fairness to each family, according to
the number of children. In some of the townships two batteaux were
provided to bring the provisions from Montreal. Besides the food thus
obtained, they were often enabled to freely supply themselves with game
of different kinds. The greatest trouble of all was to get the grain
supplied to them, ground into flour. According to Carroll and Croil, the
townships upon the St. Lawrence, were supplied with steel mills for
grinding grain; but no word of such indifferent convenience for the
settlers of the Bay, has by us been received; the settlers had to get
the grain crushed as best they could. Various modes were adopted to do
this; but in all cases the work was done by hand. Sometimes the grain
was crushed with an axe upon a flat stone. Many prepared a wooden
mortar, by cutting a block, of suitable length, about four feet, out of
the trunk of a large tree, oak or maple. Sometimes it was the stump of a
tree. In this a cavity was formed, generally by heating a piece of iron,
and placing it upon the end. In some quarters, a cannon ball from the
Garrison was used. By placing this, red hot, upon the wood, a hollow of
sufficient depth could be made. These mortars, sometimes called “Hominy
Blocks” and sometimes “Plumping Mill,” varied in size; sometimes holding
only a few quarts, sometimes a bushel, or even more. The pestle or
pounder, was made of the hardest wood, six or eight feet long, and eight
inches in diameter at the bottom end; the top sufficiently small to be
spanned by the hand. The pestle was sometimes called the stamper; and
the stump or block, with the pestle, was called the stump-mortar.
Generally, it was by the unaided hand that the grinding was done; but
after a time a sweep pole was arranged, similar to a well pole, and a
hard weighty substance being attached to the pole, much less strength
was required to crush the grain; at the same time a larger quantity
could be at once done. The work was generally done by two men. The grain
thus pounded was generally Indian Corn, and occasionally wild rice. To
crush wheat required much more labor, and a small mortar. The bran was
separated from the flour by a horse-hair sieve, one of which generally
served a whole community, as they were possessed only by a few. This
rude method continued for many years, especially in those townships
remote from the flouring mills. Frequently, an individual would possess
a large mortar, that would be used by a whole neighborhood. Mr. Diamond,
of Belleville, a native of Fredericksburg, remembers when a boy, to have
accompanied his father “to mill.” The mill was one of these larger
mortars which would contain a bushel of grain when being ground, but
which would hold, even measure, two bushels. The grain was crushed by a
sweep with a weight attached, of ten or twelve pounds.

But grinding grain in this rude manner, was very frequently done by the
women; and was but one of the difficulties attending the production of
meal. It was a hard task to prepare for use the corn supplied by
Government; but when that supply was cut off, and the settler had but
his own raising, it became much worse. Elsewhere we have seen the
difficult process by which seed was planted, and the fruit of the soil
reaped, and then thrashed. It had been thought by the Government that
three years would suffice to give the settler ample time to reap
sufficient grain for their sustenance. In most cases, industry and a
right application of labor, enabled the farmer to accomplish what was
expected of him. But the habits which some of the soldiers had acquired
during the war, were highly detrimental to regular industry. When the
three years’ supplies were discontinued, many found themselves
unprepared to meet the requirements of their new condition. It is said
that some of them entertained the belief that “Old George,” as they
familiarly called the King, would continue to feed them, for an
indefinite period of time, upon the bread of idleness. The Hessians, who
had settled in the fifth township, who had no idea of pioneer life, were
great sufferers, and it is stated that some actually died of starvation.
Again, there was a considerable class who had not had time to prepare
the land, and reap the fruit of the soil, prior to the supplies being
stopped; or who could not procure seed grain. These were likewise placed
in the most distressing circumstances. The fearful suffering experienced
in consequence will be mentioned under the head of the “Scarce Year.”

Notwithstanding, that Government supplied the settlers with provisions
for three years, and also with spring wheat, peas, corn, and potatoes
for seed, and took steps to furnish them, first with one mill at
Kingston, and then a second one at Napanee, at the expiration of the
three years, there were many unprepared. The mills were almost deserted,
and the hearts of the people were faint because there was no grain to
grind, and famine began to rest upon the struggling settlers, especially
along the Bay Quinté. It has already been said that with some of the
disbanded soldiers, there was some degree of negligence, or, a want of
due exertion to obtain home-raised grain before the Government supplies
were discontinued; also, that there was a certain number, who came with
their families two or three years after the first settlement, who were
not entitled to get Government rations, and who had not had time to
clear the land. Many of these brought provisions with them, but the long
distances traveled by them through a wilderness, allowed no large
quantity of stores to be transported. And within a few months, or a year
their store of food was exhausted. But the greatest evil of all it is
averred, was the failure on the part of the Commissary Department to
bring up from Lower Canada, the supplies which were required by those
yet in the service, and who rightly looked to that source for the bread
of life. And, it has been alleged that some who had charge of military
stores forgot this public duty, in their anxiety to secure abundant
supplies for their own families. And a spirit of cupidity has been laid
to the charge of one or two for retaining for private use the bread for
which so many were famishing. At this remote period it is impossible to
arrive at positive conclusions relative to the matter. We can only
examine the circumstances, and judge whether such a thing was likely. Of
course the Commissary officers, whose duty it had been to distribute
food in the several townships, would not be likely to disburse with a
hand so liberal, that they should themselves become destitute; yet the
fact that such had food, while others had none, would naturally create
an erroneous impression. But the famine was not limited to the Bay
region; although, being remote from Montreal, it was here the distress
was most grievously felt. Throughout Lower Canada the pinch of famine
was keenly experienced. Even there, in places, corn-meal was meted out
by the spoonful, wheat flour was unknown, while millet seed was ground
for a substitute. Still more, the opinion is given, that the accusation
against certain parties is contrary to the spirit which pervaded the
refugee settlers at that time. That they had laid up stores, and looked
indifferently upon the general suffering, is contrary to the known
character of the parties accused. In after days, as at the present time,
there were aroused petty jealousies, as one individual exceeded another
in prosperity. Family jars sometimes rise to feuds, and false surmises
grow into untruthful legends.

The period of famine is even yet remembered by a few, whose memory
reaches back to the immediately succeeding years, and the descendants of
the sufferers, speak of that time with peculiar feelings, imbibed from
their parents; and many are the touching stories even yet related of
this sad first page in the history of Upper Canada, when from Lower
Canada to the outskirts of the settlement was heard the cry for _bread!
bread! bread!_

The year of the famine is spoken of sometimes as the “scarce year,”
sometimes as the “hungry year,” or the “hard summer.” The extreme
distress seems to have commenced in the year 1787. With some, it lasted
a part of a year, with others a year, and with others upwards of a year.
The height of the distress was during the spring and early summer of
1788. But plenty to all, did not come till the summer of 1789. The
writer has in his possession accounts of many instances of extreme
suffering, during the famine, and for years after, through the ten
townships. A few will here be given, as briefly as may be possible.

One, who settled in the Sixth Township, (who was subsequently a Member
of Parliament for twenty years,) with wife and children, endured great
suffering. Their flour being exhausted he sent money to Quebec for some
more flour, but his money was sent back; there was none to be had. The
wife tried as an experiment to make bread out of some wheat bran, which
was bought at a dollar a bushel. She failed to make bread, but it was
eaten as a stir-about. Upon this, with Indian Cabbage, or “Cale,” “a
plant with a large leaf,” also wild potatoes or ground-nuts, the family
lived for many a week. In the spring they procured some potatoes to
plant, but the potatoe eye alone was planted, the other portion being
reserved for food. One of the daughters, in her extreme hunger digged up
for days, some of the potatoe rind and ate it. One day, her father
caught her at it, and seized hold of her arm to punish her, for
forgetting the requirements of the future, but he found her arms so
emaciated that his heart melted in pity for the starving child. Others
used to eat a plant called butternut, and another pig-weed. Children
would steal out at night with stolen potatoes, and roast them at the
burning log heap, and consider them a great treat. One individual has
left the record that she used to allay the pangs of hunger by eating a
little salt. But the majority of the settlers had no salt, and game and
fish, when it could be caught, was eaten without that condiment. Even at
a later date, salt was a scarce and dear article as the following will
show: “Sydney, 20th November, 1792—Received from Mr. John Ferguson, one
barrel of salt, for which I am to pay nine dollars.” (Signed), John
German. Often when fish or game was caught, it was forthwith roasted,
without waiting to go home to have it dressed. As spring advanced, and
the buds of the trees began to swell, they were gathered and eaten.
Roots were digged out of the ground; the bark of certain trees were
stripped off and consumed as food. One family lived for a fortnight on
beech leaves. Everything that was supposed to be capable of alleviating
the pangs of hunger, whether it yielded nutriment or not, was
unhesitatingly used; and in the fifth township some were killed by
eating poisonous roots. Beef bones were, in one neighbourhood, not only
boiled again and again, but actually carried from house to house, to
give a little taste to boiled bran, until there remained no taste in the
boiling water. In the fourth township, upon the sunny side of a hill,
was an early field of grain, and to this they came, from far and near,
to eat the milk-like heads of grain, so soon as they had sufficiently
grown, which were boiled and eaten. The daughter of the man who owned
the field, and gladly gave to all, still remains with us; then, she was
in the freshness of girlhood; now, she is in the autumn of a green old
age, nearly a hundred. She remembers to have seen them cutting the young
succulent grain, to use her own words “as thick as stumps.” This young
grain was a common dish, all along the Bay, until it became ripe. One
family lived several months solely on boiled oats. One day, a man came
to the door of a house in Adolphustown, with a bag, and a piece of
“calamink,” to exchange for flour. But the flour was low, and the future
doubtful, and none could be spared. The man turned away with tears of
anguish rolling down his face. The kind woman gave him a few pounds of
flour; he begged to be allowed to add some bran lying on the floor,
which was permitted, and he went his way.

There were, scattered through the settlements, a few who never were
entirely out of provisions, but who had procured some from Lower Canada,
or Oswego. Many of these, even at the risk of future want, would give
away, day after day, to those who came to their door, often a long
distance, seeking for the very bread of life. A piece of bread was often
the only thing to give; but thus, many a life was saved. These poor
unfortunates, would offer various articles in exchange for flour or
food. Even their lands—all they had, were offered for a few pounds of
flour. But, with a few execrable exceptions, the last loaf was divided;
and when flour was sold, it was at a fair valuation. A common sorrow
knit them together in fraternal relationship. The names of some are
handed down, who employed others to work all day for their board, and
would give nothing for their famishing ones at home. One of them also,
sold eight bushels of potatoes for a valuable cow. In some instances,
families living remotely, forsook their houses and sought for food at
Kingston. One family in Thurlow, set out for Kingston, following the bay
shore on foot. Their only food was bran, which, being mixed with water,
was cooked by the way, by heating flat stones and baking thereupon. As
before stated, the settlers of the fifth township suffered fearfully,
and it is stated, that some of them actually died. Mr. Parrott says,
that he has heard it stated that persons starved to death. And the
extraordinary statement is found in the M.S. of the late Mr. Merritt,
that one old couple, too old to help themselves, and left alone, were
preserved providentially from starvation, by pigeons, which would
occasionally come and allow themselves to be caught. The fact is stated
by others, that pigeons were at times, during the first years of
settling, very plentiful, and were always exceedingly tame. Another
person remarks, that although there was generally plenty of pigeons,
wild fowl, fish and partridge, yet, they seemed to keep away when most

One family, four in number, subsisted on the small quantity of milk
given by a young cow, with leeks, buds of trees, and often leaves were
added to the milk. A barrel of bran served a good purpose for baking a
kind of cake, which made a change on special occasions. At one time,
Reed, of Thurlow, offered a three year old horse for 50 lbs of flour.
This family would, at one time actually have starved to death, had not a
deer been miraculously shot. They often carried grain, a little, it is
true, to the Napanee mills, following the river, and bay shores. And
when they had no grain, articles of domestic use were taken to exchange
for flour and meal. A woman used to carry a bushel and a half of wheat
ten miles to the Napanee mills, and then carry the flour back.

Ex-Sheriff Ruttan says of his father’s family, with whom his uncle
lived, “We had the luxury of a cow which the family brought with them,
and had it not been for this domestic boon, all would have perished in
the year of scarcity. The crops had failed the year before, and the
winter that followed, was most inclement and severe. The snow was
unusually deep, so that the deer became an easy prey to their rapacious
enemies, the wolves, who fattened on their destruction, whilst men were
perishing for want. Five individuals, in different places, were found
dead, and one poor woman also, with a live infant at her breast; which
was cared for and protected.” “Two negroes were sent to Albany for corn,
who brought four bushels. This, with the milk of the cow dealt out day
by day in limited quantity, kept them alive till harvest.” “The
soldiers’ rations were reduced to one biscuit a day.” Referring to other
days after the famine he says: “Fish was plentiful”—the “fishing tackle
was on a primitive plan; something similar to the Indians, who fixed the
bait on part of the back bone of the pike, which would catch these finny
tribe quite as expeditiously as the best Limerick hook; but our supply
was from spearing by torchlight, which has been practiced by the Indian
from time immemorial; from whom we obtained a vast deal of practical

Roger Bates, near Cobourg, speaking of the first years of Upper Canada,
says that his grandfather’s family, living in Prince Edward for a while,
“adopted many ingenious contrivances of the Indians for procuring food.
Not the least simple and handy was a crotched pole, with which they
secured salmon in any quantity, the creeks being full of them.” He
removed to the township of Clarke, where he was the first white settler,
and for six months saw no white person. “For a long time he had to go to
Kingston, 125 miles, with his wheat to be ground. They had no other
conveyance than batteaux; the journey would sometimes occupy five or six
weeks. Of an evening they put in at some creek, and obtained their
salmon with ease, using a forked stick, which passed over the fish’s
back and held it fast. Sometimes they were so long gone for grist, in
consequence of bad weather, that the women would collect together and
have a good cry, thinking the batteaux had foundered. If their food ran
short, they had a dog that would, when told, hunt a deer and drive it
into the water, so that the young boys could shoot it.”

The summer of 1789 brought relief to most of the settlers,—the heaviest
of the weight of woe was removed. But, for nearly a decade, they enjoyed
but few comforts, and were often without the necessaries of life. The
days of the toiling pioneers were numbering up rapidly, yet the wants of
all were not relieved. Those whose industry had enabled them to sow a
quantity of grain reaped a goodly reward. The soil was very fruitful,
and subsequently for two and three years, repeated crops were raised
from a single sowing. But flour alone, although necessary to sustain
life, could hardly satisfy the cravings of hunger with those who had
been accustomed to a different mode of living. It was a long way to
Montreal or Albany, from which to transport by hand, everything
required, even when it could be had, and the settler had something to
exchange for such articles; beside the journey of several weeks. Game,
occasionally to be had, was not available at all seasons, nor at all
times; although running wild, ammunition was scarce, and some had none.
We have stated that Government gave to every five families a musket and
forty-eight rounds of ammunition, with some powder and shot, also some
twine to make fishing nets. Beef, mutton, &c., were unknown for many a
day. Strangely enough, a circumstantial account of the first beef
slaughtered along the Bay, probably in Upper Canada, is supplied by one
who, now in her 90th year, bears a distinct recollection of the event.
It was at Adolphustown. A few settlers had imported oxen, to use in
clearing the land. One of a yoke, was killed by the falling of a tree.
The remaining animal, now useless, was purchased by a farmer upon the
Front, who converted it into beef. With the hospitality characteristic
of the times, the neighbors were invited to a grand entertainment; and
the neighborhood, be it remembered, extended for thirty or forty miles.
A treat it was, this taste of an article of diet, long unknown.

The same person tells of the occasion when the first log barn was raised
in Adolphustown, it was during the scarce period. The “bee” which was
called, had to be entertained, in some way. But there were no
provisions. The old lady, then a girl, saw her mother for weeks previous
carefully putting away the eggs, which a few hens had contributed to
their comfort; upon the morning of the barn raising, they were brought
forth and found to amount to a pailful, well heaped. The most of the
better-to-do settlers always had rum, which was a far different article
from that sold now-a-days. With rum and eggs well beaten, and mixed with
all the milk that could be kept sweet from the last few milkings, this,
which was both food and drink was distributed to the members of the bee,
during the time of raising the barn.

Tea, now considered an indispensable luxury by every family, was quite
beyond the reach of all, for a long time; because of its scarcity and
high price. Persons are yet living who remember when tea was first
brought into family use. Various substitutes for tea were used, among
these were hemlock and sassafras; there was also a plant gathered called
by them the tea plant.

Sheriff Sherwood, in his most valuable memoirs, specially prepared for
the writer, remarks, “Many incidents and occurrences took place during
the early settlement which would, perhaps, at a future day be thought
incredible. I recollect seeing pigeons flying in such numbers that they
almost darkened the sky, and so low often as to be knocked down with
poles; I saw, where a near neighbor killed thirty at one shot; I almost
saw the shot, and saw the pigeons after they were shot.” Ducks were so
thick that when rising from a marsh “they made a noise like the roar of
heavy thunder.” “While many difficulties were encountered, yet we
realized many advantages, we were always supplied with venison,
partridge, and pigeon, and fish in abundance, no taxes to pay and plenty
of wood at our doors. Although deprived of many kinds of fruit, we had
the natural production of the country, strawberries, raspberries,
gooseberries, blackberries, and lots of red plums, and cranberries in
the various marshes all about the country, and I can assure you that
pumpkin and cranberries make an excellent substitute for apple pie.” Mr.
Sherwood refers to their dog “Tipler,” which was invaluable, in various
ways, in assisting to procure the food. He also speaks of “Providential”
assistance. “After the first year we raised wheat and Indian corn
sufficient for the year’s supply for the family; but then we had no
grist mill to grind it; we made out to get on with the Indian corn very
well by pounding it in the mortar, and made what we called samp, which
made coarse bread, and what the Dutch called sup-pawn; but let me tell
you how we made our mortar. We cut a log off a large tree, say two-and-a
half feet through and about six feet long, which we planted firm in the
ground, about four feet deep, then carefully burnt the centre of the top
and scraped it out clean, which gave us a large mortar. We generally
selected an iron-wood tree, from six to eight inches through, took the
bark off clean, made the handle to it of suitable length, this was our
pestle; and many a time have I pounded with it till the sweat ran down
merrily. But this pounding would not do for the wheat, and the
Government seeing the difficulty, built a mill back of Kingston, where
the inhabitants, for fifteen miles below Brockville had to get their
grinding done. In our neighborhood they got on very well in summer, by
joining two wooden canoes together. Three persons would unite, to carry
each a grist in their canoes, and would perform the journey in about a
week. But in winter this could not be done. After a few years, however,
when some had obtained horses, then a kind Providence furnished a road
on the ice for some years until a road was made passable for sleighs by
land. And it has not been practicable, indeed I may say possible, for
horses with loaded sleighs to go on the ice from Brockville to Kingston,
fifty years past.”

Roger Bates says that “the woods were filled with deer, bears, wolves,
martins, squirrels, and rabbits.” No doubt, at first, before fire-arms
were feared by them, they were plentiful and very tame. Even wild geese,
it would seem, were often easily shot. But powder and shot were
expensive, and unless good execution could be made, the charge was
reserved. Mr. Sherwood gives a trustworthy account of the shooting of
thirty pigeons at one shot; and another account is furnished, of Jacob
Parliament, of Sophiasburgh, who killed and wounded at a single shot,
four wild geese and five ducks. These wild fowl not only afforded
luxurious and nutritious diet, but their feathers were saved, and in
time pillows and even beds were thus made. Mr. John Parrott, of Ernest
Town, descendant of Col. Jas. Parrott, says, “there were bears, wolves,
and deer in great abundance, and there were lynx, wild cats, beavers and
foxes in every directions; also martins, minks and weasels beyond
calculation.” In this connection, we may record a fact related by Col.
Clark, respecting the migration of squirrels in the early part of the
present century across the Niagara river, from the States. He says, “an
immense immigration of squirrels took place, and so numerous were they
that the people stood with sticks to destroy them, as they landed on the
British shore, which by many was considered a breach of good faith on
the part of John Bull, who is always ready to grant an asylum to
fugitives of whatever nation they may belong to.”

                              MAPLE SUGAR.

                  “Soon the blue-birds and the bees
                    O’er the stubble will be winging;
                  So ‘tis time to tap the trees
                    And to set the axe a-ringing;

                  Time to set the hut to rights,
                    Where the girls and boys together
                  Tend the furnace fire o’nights
                    In the rough and rainy weather;

                  Time to hew and shape the trough,
                    And to punch the spile so hollow.
                  For the snow is thawing off
                    And the sugar-thaw must follow.

                  Oh, the gladdest time of year
                    Is the merry sugar-making,
                  When the swallows first appear
                    And the sleepy buds are waking!”

In the great wilderness were to be had, a few comforts and luxuries.
Sugar is not only a luxury, but is really a necessary article of food.
The properties of the sap of the maple was understood by the Indians,
and the French soon availed themselves of the means of making sugar. To
the present day, the French Canadians make it in considerable
quantities. At first, the settlers of Upper Canada did not generally
engage in making it; but, after a time a larger number did. The maple,
the monarch of the Canadian forest, whose leaf is the emblem of our
country, was a kind benefactor. In the spring, in the first days of
genial sunshine, active operations for sugar making were commenced.
Through the deep snow, the farmer and his sons would trudge, from tree
to tree, to tap them upon their sunny side. The “spile” would be
inserted to conduct the precious fluid into the trough of bass-wood,
which had been fashioned during the long winter evenings. A boiling
place would be arranged, with a long pole for a crane, upon which would
be strung the largest kettles that could be procured. At night, the sap
would be gathered from the troughs, a toilsome job, and put into
barrels. In the morning a curling smoke would rise from amidst the thick
woods, and the dry wood would crackle cheerily under the row of kettles,
all the sunny spring day; and night would show a rich dark syrup,
collected in one smaller kettle, for the more careful work of being
converted into sugar. Frequently the fire would be attended by the
women; and the men would come to gather the sap in the evening. In this
way many a family would be provided with abundant sugar, at all events
it had to serve them for the year, as they felt unable to purchase from
the merchant. In another place, we have related how a few made a
considerable quantity of sugar and sold it all, to pay for a farm, doing
without themselves.

The absence of various articles of food, led the thoughtful housewife to
invent new made dishes. The nature of these would depend in part upon
the articles of food most abundant, and upon the habits peculiar to
their ancestry, whether English, Dutch or some other. The great desire
was, to make a common article as tasty as possible. And at harvest time,
as well as at bees, the faithful wife would endeavour to prepare
something extra to regale the tired ones. There was, for instance, the
“pumpkin loaf,” a common dish. It consisted of pumpkin and corn meal
made into a small loaf, and eaten with butter. Another dish which seems
to have been derived from the Dutch, was Pot Pie, which was always, and
is even yet in many places, made to feed the hands at bees and raisings,
and even was generally made to grace the board on a wedding occasion. We
cannot give the space, if we felt prepared to speak, of the several made
dishes commonly in use among the older Canadians of Upper Canada. Many
of them are truly excellent in taste and nutritious in quality. They are
often similar to, or very like the dishes in the New England and Midland

This subject will be concluded by giving a few extracts from
Rochefoucault who wrote of what he saw and learned in Canada in 1795,
and who may be regarded as quite correct.

He says, “It is asserted” (by Simcoe) “that all Canada, produces not the
necessary corn for the consumption of its inhabitants, the troops are
supplied with flour from London, and with salt meat from Ireland.” But
Simcoe then thought that Canada was capable not alone of feeding her
inhabitants, but of becoming the granary of England, and receiving
commodities in Exchange. Speaking of Forty Mile Creek, he says: “Before
it empties itself into the lake, it turns a grist mill and two saw
mills, which belong to a Mr. Green, a loyalist of Jersey, who, six or
seven years ago, settled in this part of Upper Canada.” “Land newly
cleared yields here, the first year, twenty bushels of corn. They plough
the land after it has produced three or four crops, but not very deep.
The price of flour is twenty-two shillings per hundred weight, that of
wheat from seven to eight shillings per bushel. Laborers are scarce, and
are paid at the rate of six shillings a day. Wheat is generally sown
throughout all Upper Canada, but other sorts of grain are also
cultivated.” “Mr Green grinds the corn for all the military posts in
Upper Canada.”

Approaching Kingston by water he remarks that “on the left is Quinté
Bay, the banks of which are said to be cultivated up to a considerable
extent. The eye dwells with pleasure once more on cultivated ground. The
country looks pleasant. The houses lie closer than in any of the new
settled parts of Upper Canada which we have hitherto traversed. The
variegated verdure of the cornfields embellishes and enriches the
prospect, charms the eye, and enchants the mind.”

“This district not only produces the corn requisite for its own
consumption, but also exports yearly about 3 or 4000 bushels. This
grain, which, in winter, is conveyed down the river on sledges, is
bought by the merchants, who engage, on the arrival of the ships from
Europe, to pay its amount in such merchandise as the sellers may
require. The merchants buy this grain for government, which pays for it
in ready money, according to the market price at Montreal. The agent of
government causes part to be ground into flour, which he sends to the
different ports in Upper Canada, where it is wanted; and the surplus he
sends to England. The price of flour in Kingston is at present (12th
July, 1795) six dollars per barrel. The district of Kingston supplied,
last year, the other parts of Canada with large quantities of pease, the
culture of which, introduced but two years ago, proves very productive
and successful. In the course of last year, 1000 barrels of salt pork,
of 208 pounds each, were sent from Kingston to Quebec; its price was
eighteen dollars per barrel. The whole trade is carried on by merchants,
whose profits are the more considerable, as they fix the price of the
provisions which they receive from Europe, and sell without the least
competition.” Indeed, the profits of the dealers must have been immense.
They sold to the military authorities at a rate which would remunerate
them when the provisions came from England; and when the farmers of
Canada began to raise grain to sell, they bought it, or exchanged
merchandise for it, upon which they fixed the price, and continued to
sell the flour at the same price to the military authorities.

                              CHAPTER XIX.

  CONTENTS—Kingston Mills—Action of Government—The Millwright—
    Situation of the first Mill—Why Selected—The Machinery—Put up by
    Loyalists—No Toll—Only Mill for three years—Going to Mill, 1784—
    The Napanee Mill—Commenced 1785—Robert Clarke—An old Book—
    “Appenea” Falls—Price of certain articles—What Rum cost, and was
    used for—The Mill opened 1787—Sergt.-Major Clarke in charge—Indian
    Corn—Small Toll—Surveyor Collins in charge—Becomes the Property of
    R. Cartwright, 1792—Rebuilt—Origin of Napanee—Price of Butter,
    1788—Mills at Four Mile Creek, Niagara Falls, Fort Erie, and Grand
    River—Mills on the St. Lawrence—The Stone Mills—Van Alstine—Lake
    of the Mountain—1796—Natural Beauty, _versus_ Utility—The Mill—Van
    Alstine’s Death—Wind Mill—Myer’s Mill—Mill at Consecon.

                       THE FIRST FLOURING MILLS.

Government was not an indifferent spectator of the difficulty spoken of
as to the grinding of grain—the procuring of flour, and at an early day,
ordered means to meet the requirements of the pioneers. We have the
certain statement of John C. Clark, of Ernest town, now dead, written
ten years ago, that his father, Robert Clark, who was a millwright, “was
employed by Government, in 1782–3, to erect the Kingston Mills
preparatory to the settlement of the Loyalists in that section of Upper
Canada.” The place selected for erecting the mill, was upon the
Cataraqui River, seven miles north of the Fort, now the entrance of the
Rideau Canal, where are situated the first locks of that artificial
water way. When in a state of nature, the place must have been
strikingly beautiful; it is so at the present time, when the
achievements of art give variety of attraction. This situation, selected
for the first flouring mill, was central to the population strung along
the banks of the St. Lawrence, and Bay Quinté. Everything required for
the construction of the mill, was furnished by Government, such as the
mill stones, and the machinery. The rougher work, the walls of the
building, was done by men detailed for the purpose, from the company of
soldiers. The structure consisted of logs, or timber roughly squared,
and was erected, as well as the mill house, by the combined efforts of
the soldier settlers, collected for the purpose. All the settlers had
their grists ground without paying toll. The original building was
standing as late as 1836.

For nearly three years, the Cataraqui Mill was the only one in Central
Canada. The settlers came from Cornwall in the east, and the most remote
settlement up the Bay. At the present day, when railroads and swiftly
running steamers assist so materially to annihilate space as it were,
and bring distant places into close relationship, it would be regarded a
matter of no little trouble and inconvenience, to carry grain from
Cornwall on the one hand, and Sidney on the other, to Kingston, and wait
to have it ground into flour; but how infinitely greater the difficulty,
when a trackless woods covered the intervening spaces, when the only
mode of carrying anything was upon the back, or in a canoe, or batteaux,
or upon a raft, in summer; and upon a hand-sleigh in winter, drawn
through deep snow, following the windings of the shore along many a
dismal mile.

The increasing population around the Bay, caused the authorities to seek
a proper site for a second mill. The Napanee River, with its natural
falls, offered an advantageous place upon which to erect a second mill
for the settlers, upon the Bay. We have been fortunate, through the
kindness of Mr. P. Clark, of Collinsby, in being permitted to examine an
account book kept by Robert Clark, the millwright, of both the Kingston
and Napanee mills. By this, we learn that in the year 1785, Robert
Clark, who had completed the Kingston Mill, removed to the second
township, and, according to instructions received from Government,
proceeded to construct a mill upon the Napanee River, at the site of the
natural falls. In the absence of the full particulars relating to the
building of the Napanee Mills, the following cannot fail to be of
interest. In the account book aforementioned, the following references
to the building of the mill, are found recorded:

“An accompt of articles bought for the use of the works, November 8.”
“To 4 Augers of different size, from Mr. Phillips, carpenters at
Catariqui, 13s, 8d. To 3 quires of Writing Paper, 5s. December 6, To 20
lbs. of Nails, £1; December 22, To 6 Whip Saw Files, 3s. 9d.” Omitting
some items, and coming to March 23, 1786, we find “For Raising the Saw
Mill,” “2 gallons and 3 pints of Rum, 17s. 6d.” “April 20th, To 1 quart
of Rum, 2s.” On the “25th May, To 4 gallons and 1 quart of Rum, for
Raising the Grist Mill, at 7s. 6d.” The “26th, To 1 quart of Rum for the
People at work in the water at the Dam.” By this we learn the day upon
which the Napanee mill was erected. On the 20th July, Government is
again charged with “3 pints of Rum for raising the fender-post,” &c. On
the 27th, a pint was again required, but for what special purpose is not
mentioned. In December, 1786, we find “To making Bolt Cloth 15s.” “To
Clearing one acre and three-quarters of Land for a mill, at seven
dollars per acre, £3.” And we find that the iron or smith work for the
mill was done by David Palmer and Conly. From the fact that the bolting
cloth was not made until December, 1786, we may infer that the mill did
not commence operations until the beginning of 1787. The mill was a
great boon to the inhabitants around the Bay Quinté, not only because
they had a shorter distance to travel, but the amount of work pressing
upon the Kingston mill, made it very uncertain as to the time one would
have to wait, to get his gristing done. Consequently many came from the
Lower Bay, and the dwellers upon the South Bay in Marysburg, who
followed the shores around Indian Point and up the Bay Quinté. To those
living in Thurlow, Sidney, and at the Carrying Place, the mill was a
great blessing.

The father of the late Col. John Clark, of Port Dalhousie, who had been
Sergeant Major in the 8th Regiment, and who had, from 1777, been clerk
and naval storekeeper at Carleton Island, removed to within three miles
of Napanee, the same year the mill was built, to take charge of the
works, in addition to his other duties. John Clark, who was then a small
boy, says in his memoirs; the grain principally brought to be ground,
was Indian corn; but as the clearances increased, wheat became more
plentiful. He also speaks of the great industry which characterized the
settlers. “A small toll was exacted to pay for the daily expenses of the
mill, but this was a mere trifle, considering the advantages the
settlers derived from loss of time in proceeding to Kingston.” From this
we infer that no toll was demanded at the Kingston mill. “When my
father,” continues Col. Clark, “was ordered to Niagara, the mill was
delivered up to surveyor Collins, under whose directions it was
continued in operation for many years, and then the mill site became the
property of the Hon. R. Cartwright of Kingston.” But, we find the
statement elsewhere made that the land was originally granted to Captain
McDonald of Marysburg, who sold it to Cartwright.

Robert Clark, in his account book, says, “Commenced work for Mr.
Cartwright at the Napanee mills, the 28th August, 1792.” This was
probably the time when Cartwright became the owner. In the same year,
reference is made to timber, for the “new mill,” by which we learn that
Mr. Cartwright found it desirable to rebuild. The iron work for the new
mill came to £14.

By the book, from which we have made extracts, we see that the name is
spelled in different ways, the first being Appenea. For many years the
name was spelled Apanee. It has been said that it was an Indian name,
signifying flour, and was given by the Mississaugas, from the existence
of the flouring mill. Napanee may signify flour, in the Indian language,
but the inference drawn cannot be correct, as we find the name Appenea
Falls given to the place in 1785, before the mill was commenced.

Cartwright having rebuilt the mill put in one run of stone at first,
shortly after two, and then three. Robert Clark was the millwright, and
one Profect was in charge of the works. The mill seems to have been
constructed with some care, and Gourlay says, in 1817, that the Napanee
mill is the best in the Province. The old account book from which we
have gleaned, gives the price at which certain articles were vended.
Thus, we learn that in June, 1787, and July 1788, butter sold at Napanee
for 1s. per pound.

Some time after the erection of the Kingston and Napanee mills, others
were erected in other parts of the Province; one at Four Mile Creek, one
at the Niagara Falls, one at Fort Erie, another at the Mohawk Village,
Grand River; and still later, one at Twelve Mile Creek. “In the year
1788, the first grist mill in Dundas was built by Messrs. Coons and
Shaver in Matilda. It contained but one run of stone, and had a saw mill
attached. It stood about a mile above the present village of Iroquois.
It could grind 100 bushels of wheat per day, and turned out good flour.
Soon after, another mill was built on a much larger scale, by John
Munroe, also in Matilda, which had three run of stone.” There was also a
gang of saws. The machinery was driven by the St. Lawrence waters. At a
still later period VanAlstine’s mill was erected, at the Lake on the

The events connected with Captain, afterwards Major VanAlstine, as a
settler, are recorded in the settlement of Adolphustown. Directly
opposite the rich and sloping land on the north shore, on which he
settled, is a high prominent hill, which stands boldly up against the
bay. This “mountain” is famous on account of the lake upon its summit, a
particular account of which is given elsewhere. It is referred to here
in a practical sense. While, upon the hill-top is the work of nature,
presented in a striking manner; at its feet is the work of man, which,
particularly in the past, was of no little consequence to the well-being
of the settlers of the Bay. About the year 1796, the third flouring mill
of the bay was erected at this place by VanAlstine, to whom had been
granted a large tract of land. The surplus waters of the lake, in
primeval days, made their escape over the cliff, falling into the bay,
and forming, it must have been at times, a beautiful cascade. But, if
Captain VanAlstine had a taste for the beautiful in nature, he also had
a just appreciation of the wants of the people, and he proceeded to
utilize the falling water. A canal was cut down the mountain side, to
form a channel for the water to descend, and at the bottom was erected a
mill, the machinery of which was to be propelled by the descending
stream. From that day to this the work of grinding has been carried on.
However beautiful the lake above, and delightful the prospect, they
cannot exceed in interest the foundation of this mill. Imagination would
almost give words to the sound of the mill, which so peacefully clicks
the daily round of work. The down-rushing waters by the artificial
channel would seem to utter reminiscences of the past—regrets that they
may no longer tumble headlong over the hill-side to form a lovely
cascade; but the water-witch has been driven away by the spirit of
utilitarianism. This conspicuous hill has often been the point of hope,
the goal to which the farmer turned his little bark, containing, it is
true, but a few bushels of grain, yet so precious, and about which the
hungry ones in the little log house, thought so frequently, with bodies
long accustomed to suffer for the want of enough to eat. And, often this
mountain stood up as a guide to the settler, as he trudged along wearily
through the thick snow with a bag or two of grain upon a hand-sleigh.
Although not the very first mill, it dates back to the last century.

The Kingston _Gazette_ of the 16th April, 1811, contains an
advertisement, signed by the executors of the deceased Major
VanAlstine’s will, namely, George W. Myers, Cornelius VanAlstine, and
Thomas Dorland, in which it is stated that the mill contains two run of
stone, one superfine and two common bolts.

A windmill was built at a somewhat early period, by Sergeant Howell,
nearly opposite the Upper Gap, in Fredericksburgh. It was sold to one
Russell, who was an Engineer in Kingston, in the war of 1812. The
windmill was never much used, if at all.

About the beginning of the century, 1802, Capt. Myers built a flouring
mill upon the Moira. (See Thurlow.) It seems to have been a good mill,
for persons came a long distance to get grinding done. For instance:
Isaiah Tubs, who lived at West Lake, would come, carrying a bag of grain
upon his back.

In the year 1804, Mr. Wilkins says, a gristing mill was built at
Consecon, to the south of the Carrying Place. Consecon is an Indian
name, from Con-Cou, a pickerel.

                              CHAPTER XX.

  CONTENTS—Clothing—Domestic and Farming Implements—Style of Dress
    eighty years ago—Clothing of the Refugees—Disbanded Soldiers—No
    Fresh Supply—Indian Garments of Skin—Deerskin Pants—Petticoats—Bed
    Coverings—Cultivating Flax—Sheep—Home-made Clothes—Rude
    Implements—Fulling—French Mode—Lindsay Woolsey—The Spinning-wheel—
    Industry—Young men Selecting Wives—Bees—Marriage Portion—Every
    Farmer his own Tanner and Shoemaker—Fashions—How odd hours were
    spent—Home-made Shoes—What Blankets were made of—Primitive
    Bedstead—Nakedness—Bridal Apparel—No Saddles—Kingston and Newark—
    Little Money—Bartering—Merchants from Albany—Unable to buy—Credit
    with Merchants—The Results—Itinerant Mechanics—Americans—Become
    Canadians—An old Stone-mason—Wooden Dishes—Making Spoons—Other
    Hardships—Indians Friendly—Effects of Alcohol upon the
    Mississaugas—Groundless Panic—Drunken Indians—Women, defending
    Themselves—An erroneous Statement about Indian Massacre in
    “Dominion Monthly Magazine”—Statement of an Old Settler, Sherwood—
    Wild Beasts—Few Fire-arms—Narrow Escapes—Depredations at Night—
    Destroying Stock—An Act of Parliament—“A Traveller’s” Statement—
    The Day of Small Things—Settlers Contented—The Extent of their
    Ambition—Reward of Industry—Population in 1808—Importations—Money—
    The Youth.


The style of clothing worn by the refugees and disbanded soldiers was
such as prevailed eighty years ago in England. A certain difference, no
doubt, existed between the English and the Colonists, yet mainly the
style was the same. Among the first settlers upon the bay were those who
had fetched with them, and wore, at least occasionally, garments of
fashionable cut and appointments. Tight knee-breeches and silver buckles
would decorate the bodies of some, who had in other days mixed in the
fashionable throng, perhaps luxuriated in the gay city of New York,
where the presence of British soldiers always gave life and gaiety.
Indeed some of the inhabitants had been commissioned officers in the
regular army. Dr. Dougall, who had been in the navy, and who had settled
in the sixth Township, is remembered as a wearer of “tights” and silver
buckles. Also, Major VanAlstine wore this elegant attire, and the
M’Leans, of Kingston. Those who left their homes hurriedly during the
course of the war, and fled to Lower Canada and the several British
Forts, brought only what was upon their backs. Those who came more
leisurely might have a little more; but the distance to travel on foot
would deter from undertaking to bring more than supplies of food. The
disbanded soldiers had no more than what belongs to a soldier’s kit, and
no doubt the close of the war left many of them with well worn garments.
A few years of exposure to the wear and tear of pioneer life would quite
destroy the best supplied wardrobe, however carefully husbanded, or
ingeniously mended by the anxious wife. To replace the clothing was far
from an easy matter to the settlers, many of whom had no money,
certainly no time for a long journey to Montreal or Albany. After a few
years, Kingston became a place of trade, but the supply of clothing was
scant and dear, placing it beyond the reach of mostly all. The result
was that the vast majority of the inhabitants had to look to the
production of their lands wherewith to cover the nakedness of their
families. Those living up the bay continued to want for clothing for a
longer time, being unable to exchange with the merchants of Kingston,
until peddlers began to visit the more remote settlers.

The faded garments, patched until the original material could no longer
be distinguished, ultimately succumbed to the effects of time and labor.

The Indians, who as a general thing were friendly and kind, when they
visited the settlement, gave to the settlers the idea of manufacturing
garments out of deer skin. They, now and then exchanged skins for
articles the settlers could part with, and taught them how to prepare
the fresh pelt so as to make it pliable. The process consisted in
removing the hair and then working the hide by hand with the brains of
some animal, until it was soft and white. Trowsers made of this material
were not only comfortable for winter, but very durable. A gentleman who
recently died in Sophiasburgh at an advanced age, remembered to have
worn a pair for twelve years, being repaired occasionally, and at the
end they were sold for two dollars and-a-half. Petticoats for women were
often made of the same material. Roger Bates says “My grandmother made
all sorts of useful dresses with these skins, which were most
comfortable for a country life, and for going through the bush, could
not be torn by the branches.” Also, moccasins were procured from the
buckskin, and some had enough deer-skin to make covering for beds. But
deer-skin was not sufficiently abundant to give covering to all, such as
it was; and, certain clothing was required, for which it was unfit. Thus
left to their own resources, the settlers commenced at an early period
to cultivate flax, and as soon as possible to procure sheep. For many
years almost every family made their various garments, for both sexes,
of the coarse linen made from the flax, and cloth from wool raised at
home and carded by hand. Preparing the flax for weaving, as well as
spinning were done by hand, with inferior implements rudely made. But in
later years, occasionally spinning wheels and looms were brought in by
settlers. There were no fulling mills to complete the fabric. Even the
mode adopted then, in Lower Canada, was not practised, which was as
follows: A meeting of young folks, similar to a bee, was held from house
to house, at which both sexes took part. The cloth to be fulled was
placed in large tubs, and bare-legged youths would step in and with much
amusement dance the fulling done. In Upper Canada, both high and low
were glad to be able to don the home-made linen, and the linsey-woolsey

                  *       *       *       *       *

“The growth of flax was much attended to as soon as lands were cleared
and put in order.” “Then spinning-wheels were all the go, and home-made
linen, the pride of all families, manufactured substantial articles that
would last a lifetime.” The young men of industry would look for the
spinning-wheel and loom before selecting a wife. “A young farmer would
often be astonished to find on his marriage that his fair partner had
got a good supply of linen for her marriage portion. I have known as
much as sixty yards spun and manufactured at one bee or gathering.”—

When the skins of sheep, and of calves and beef become available, every
farmer became his own tanner, and dressed his leather; and then his own
shoemaker. Fashions did not change, except as the continued practice of
making for an increasing family, gave the maker ability to make
something more like a boot than a moccasin. Rainy days, and the nights,
were spent in doing such kind of work, not by candle light, but by the
hearth fire. It was at the same time that an axe-helve, a wooden plow, a
reaping cradle, a wooden fork, &c., were made. But many a child, whose
grand-children are now occupying positions of wealth and influence,
stayed in the log cabin the winter through, because he had nothing with
which to protect his feet from the snow. The writer’s father was not a
shoemaker by trade; but he remembers when a boy to have worn shoes made
by him. They were not conspicuous for their beauty, but it was thought
by the wearer they would last forever; within his recollection there was
not a shoemaker in Thurlow.

                  *       *       *       *       *

Much ingenuity was displayed in making clothes and blankets. What was
called the “Kearsy” blanket was made at an early date; the writer has
seen the first one said to have been manufactured in Upper Canada,
certainly the first on the Bay Quinté. It is yet in use and belongs to
one, nearly one hundred years of age, who is the daughter of the maker,
whom we remember to have seen when a boy, who, although then in the sear
and yellow leaf, was as tall and erect as if untold hardships had not
crowned her life. Within fifteen miles of Belleville, across the Bay,
was a log cabin, the occupants of which had for their first blanket, one
made out of hair, picked out of the tanner’s vat, and a hemp-like weed
growing in the yard. The hair was first cleaned by whipping it; then it
was carded and worked up with the hemp, and then spun. It was afterward
doubled and twisted, and finally woven into a blanket. The individual
whose wife did this, and whose descendants are among the most wealthy
farmers, bought his farm for a horse. For many a day, they had no
furniture, not even a chair, and the bedstead was made out of two poles,
driven between the logs of the shanty; and basswood bark was twisted so
as to bind them substantially together. Clean straw upon this, was
really the only thing they had in the house. And so it was with very
many, the exceptions being, some half pay officers, who had brought a
table, or a chest of drawers. In 1790, the brother of an individual,
holding an important post in Kingston, was near the head of the bay,
staying at a house in a state of nakedness; in which condition his
brother writes, “he must remain until I am able to go up.” “I have
agreed to put him to trial with a carpenter to learn the trade,” he must
therefore have been a large boy.

It was not until the close of the last century, that wearing articles,
other than those made out of flax and wool, were to be obtained. A
calico dress was a decided luxury. The petticoat, and short gown of
linen, was more common. A long chintz dress to go to meeting, was the
height of many a damsel’s ambition, or a grogran dress and short
petticoat. As years passed away, and a grown up daughter was about to be
married, efforts would be made to array the bride in fitting costume.
Often a dress, worn by the mother in other days, amid other scenes,
which had been laid carefully away, was brought forth to light, and made
by suitable alterations to do renewed service, although the white had
assumed a yellow cast, and had lost its lustre.

As late as 1816, a farmer owning land in Sidney, and who died rich, made
in winter a journey to Kingston with flour, wearing nothing on his feet,
but a pair of shoes, and who had his trowsers strapped down to keep his
ankles warm. Leg boots took too much leather. It was many years before a
bridle and saddle were known, and then, but a few possessed such a
convenience. Bare-back, or on a deer skin was the primitive mode.

After the erection of Upper Canada into a separate province, both
Kingston and Newark, where there were always troops, and where articles
of clothing were to be purchased from a few, who had gone into the
mercantile business, exhibited a degree of comfort and even gaiety in

At the first there was but little money in circulation. But few of the
refugees, or disbanded soldiers had any when they entered the
wilderness. The government were constantly paying a certain sum to the
troops at Kingston and Newark, and likewise to the retired half pay
officers. The few who could command money, were placed in a position of
greater comfort, as soon as articles of provisions and merchandise, were
brought to the new settlement. Mainly, however, trading was carried on
by exchanging one commodity for another. Probably the first articles for
trade, was the ticket for grants of land in the back concessions, often
parted with so cheaply. The settlers required clothing, grain for
sowing, and stock; these wants in time, led to trade, two kinds of which
were introduced. One carried on by merchants established at Kingston,
the other by pedlars, Yankee pedlars, who would come from Albany with
their pack in a canoe or small batteau, and who plied their calling
along the bay shore from clearing to clearing. Both the merchant at
Kingston, who waited for his customers to come to him, and the pedlar
who sought customers, asked for their wares, only grain or any other
produce. But wheat was desired above all others. It was an event of no
little interest to the back woodsman’s family, when the pedlar’s canoe
or batteau came along, and halted before the log house, by the shore.
And, even when their circumstances would not permit them to buy, it was
a luxury to have a look at the things, which were so temptingly
displayed. The toil-worn farmer, with well patched trowsers, would turn
with an inward sigh from the piece of cloth, which although so much
wanted, could not be got. The wife looked longingly at those little
things, which would just suit baby. The grown up daughters gazed
wistfully, but hopelessly at the bright calico prints, more valuable, in
their eyes than the choicest silks are to their descendants to day. But
a calico dress was a thing not enjoyed, but by few, until it was bought
for the wedding dress. Frequently some articles of family use was
exchanged for goods, which were deemed of more use. The trade of
merchants at Kingston steadily increased; but not a cash business. A
credit system was initiated and carried on. Goods would be purchased
with an engagement to pay in wheat or potatoes, or something else, at a
certain time. Here and there along the bay were Indian fur traders.
They, also, began to exchange with the settlers. While this was a great
convenience, and gave immediate comfort to many a family, it, at the
same time, led to serious results with many. Disappointed in the return
of crops, or in some other way, the payment could not be made.
Promissory notes were given at interest; and, after a few years, suing
and seizing of stock was the result. Sometimes even the farm went to
satisfy the creditor. Unfortunately, there are too many such cases in
the records of the settlers of the bay. Not alone did pedlars come from
the States, to pick up the fruit of the industry, of those they had
driven away; but there were itinerant Yankee mechanics who would
occasionally come along, looking for a job. Carpenters, Masons, &c.,
after a few years, found much to do. We would not speak disparagingly of
these Americans, because they served a good turn in erecting buildings,
as houses, barns, &c. They also introduced many valuable articles of
husbandry and domestic use. And finally, many of them forsook their
republican government, and permanently settled under the King, and
became the best of subjects. Even in the first decade of the present
century, mechanics would go up and down the bay seeking work. For
instance, there was one Travers, a stone mason, who found employment
along the bay, and even up the lake. Of this we are informed by one of
his apprentices who is now upwards of eighty years old. (We make place
in our Review to state that John W. Maybee, referred to, aged 88, died
7th February, 1869.)

A hundred things enter into the list of what constitutes home comforts.
But spare, indeed, were the articles to be found upon the kitchen
shelves. Plain enough, was the spread table, at which the family
gathered morning, noon, and night. Many had but one or two dishes, often
of wood, rudely made out of basswood; and spoons of the same material.
Knives and forks in many families were unknown. A few families had
brought a very limited number of articles for eating, relics of other
days, but these were exceedingly scarce. The wooden spoon was the most
common table article with which to carry food to the mouth. By and by
the pedlar brought pewter spoons, and once in a while the settler
procured pewter and moulds and made spoons for himself.

                           VARIOUS HARDSHIPS.

Apart from the suffering arising from want of food, and clothing to
wear, and furniture to make the house comfortable, there were others of
more or less magnitude. It would naturally be expected that one of the
first dangers in entering a wilderness, would be from the Indians, whose
territory was being occupied. But in the main this evil was not added to
their other distress. The considerate and just policy pursued by the
British Government, left the Indians no cause of complaint, and they did
not at any time assume an hostile attitude toward the infant colony. But
that curse of the human race,—baneful curse to the Indians, alcohol,
came with the white man; and, too often, the unscrupulous trader, and
merchant would, not only sell the fire water to them, but rely upon its
intoxicating qualities, to consummate more excellent bargains for furs.
The evil thus inflicted upon the Indian, returned in some cases, upon
innocent pioneers. The Indians under the influence of liquor are
particularly savage and ungovernable; prone to exhibit their wild
nature. Thirsting for the liquor, they would sometimes enter dwellings,
when they knew the men were absent, and endeavour to intimidate the
women to give them rum. A few instances of alarm and actual danger, come
to us, among the bay settlers. At one time particularly, there arose a
wide spread alarm, (long remembered as the “Indian alarms,”) that the
Indians were, upon some fixed night, when the men were away to Kingston
mills, going to massacre the settlers. This arose from some remarks, let
fall by a half drunken Indian. A few of the settlers, did actually leave
their homes, and sought protection in a more thickly settled locality,
while active steps were taken to defend their homes against the Indians.
Mrs. Dempsey, of seventh township, gathered up what she could, and with
her children crossed in a canoe to the eighth township. On another
occasion, when her husband was absent, several half drunken Indians came
to the house, and one stepping up to where she sat, trembling with fear,
and with her little ones nestling close to her, drew his knife, and
cutting a piece from the palm of his hand, held the bleeding wound
before her face, crying out “look, look, Indian no fraid.” Then he
brandished his knife in the most menacing manner. She hearing the sound
of a passing team, got up and slowly walked backwards to the door,
looking the savage bravely in the eye all the time. Her husband had
opportunely arrived, in time to save his family, which he did by a free
use of the horse-whip. On another occasion, Mrs. D. saved her life and
the children from drunken Indians, by rushing up a ladder with them,
into the garret, which could only be reached by a small opening through
the ceiling, and then hauling the ladder up. The Indians endeavoured to
assist each other up, and through the entrance, but she having a knife
succeeded by cutting their fingers, when they attempted to get up, in
keeping them back. These hostile attempts were exceptions, and always
the result of intoxication.

Since writing the above, an article has been published in the _Dominion
Monthly Magazine_, in which it is stated that a family of settlers were
massacred by the Indians upon the banks of the St. Lawrence in 1795.
This statement is at variance with facts known to us, and with the
testimony of one who cannot be mistaken. His statement is as follows:

                                         BROCKVILLE, 13th April, 1868.


  I am in receipt of your note of this date, adverting to the
  statement of the massacre of a family in Upper Canada, by the
  Indians in 1795. I noticed the same statement in some paper I have
  lately read, and at the time I thought it to be a mistake in the
  date, or an entire fabrication. I am not aware of the least
  hostility shewn by the Indians to any of the U. E. Loyalists since
  1784, eleven years previous to date stated, and I do not believe a
  syllable of it.

                              Yours truly,

                                                       ADIEL SHERWOOD.

Although the native Indians did not, as a general thing, alarm the
settler, there were wild beasts that did. For years the wolf, and the
bear, and other ferocious animals were a source of terror and suffering.
These animals, unaccustomed to the sight of man, were at first
exceedingly tame. The settlers had but few fire-arms, and ammunition was
very scarce; and the beasts knew no terror of them. They would even by
day, come to the very door of the cabin, ready to seize the little
child, or the scanty stock of poultry, pigs, or sheep, or calves, or
salted provisions which had been left exposed, government stores, &c.
And at night they made the most hideous and incessant howls, until
morning. Many instances of their rapacity in robbing the scanty yard of
the settlers, and of hair breadth escapes of individuals from wolves and
bears, are mentioned. The destruction of stock by the wolf especially,
caused the government of Canada, at an early date, (1793,) to legislate,
with a view of gradually exterminating them; and an act was passed,
granting a premium of four dollars to every one who should bring a
wolf’s head to the proper officer; and two dollars for a bear’s. It was
withdrawn with regard to bears, in 1796. “A traveller,” writing in 1835,
remarks that in Kingston, resided a person who privately bred wolves to
obtain the reward. But whether such an enterprising citizen did actually
live in the good old town the writer saith not. Instances of narrow
escapes from the wild beasts are still remembered; for instance, Lewis
Daly, of Ernest town, was suddenly attacked by a bear within a mile of
home. He sprung up a small tree, which bending over, he was in momentary
danger of being reached. His cries brought help.

In those early days, the settler, looked not for great things; schooled
by the hardships of civil war, and inured to want, and half starvation,
they asked not for riches. Enough to eat, and to be warmly clad, and
housed from the winter’s cold, was the great point to which they
stretched their longing hopes. Plenty in the future for the little ones,
and for themselves, when they had grown old, was the single purpose of
their toilsome life. A descendant of a first settler upon the front of
Sidney, tells of his grandmother whom he had heard say, that her great
ambition at first, was to raise vegetables, onions and other useful
articles in her garden bed; to have poultry then, about her. After years
she got the fowls; but a mink, in a single night killed them all. Then,
again, they had got a breeding sow, and one morning a bear walked out of
the woods, and with one hug destroyed all their hopes of future porkers.

Gradually, as years passed away, comforts began to reward the patient
and industrious pioneers; acre after acre was brought under cultivation.
The log house received an addition, a little stock was procured, and the
future brightened up before them, and by the year 1808, the settlements
in Upper Canada were increasing in number, and spreading in every
direction. “The frontier of the country was fast filling up. Persons
were taking up land several miles from the water’s edge. Some had
ventured to take up land in the second tier of townships, in the midst
of the wilderness, and many miles from any habitation. The population
was now increased to about 70,000 souls. The importations was chiefly
liquors and groceries, which by the St. Lawrence and the United States,
brought a revenue of nearly £7,000. The bulk of the inhabitants
manufactured and wore their own clothing. The way of trade was mostly by
barter, as gold and silver were scarce, and there were no banks to issue
paper currency. Intemperance was very prevalent, and schools were
scarce. The youth were too fond of foolish amusements.”—(_Playter._)

                              CHAPTER XXI.

  CONTENTS—Sweat of the Brow—No Beast of Burden—No Stock—Except by a
    Few—Horses and Oxen—From Lower Canada—York State—Later comers,
    brought some—No Fodder—First Stock in Adolphustown—Incidents—Cock
    and Hen—“Tipler”—Cattle Driving—First Cow in Thurlow—First House
    in Marysburgh—The First Oxen—No Market for Butter and Cheese—
    Sheep—Rev. Mr. Stuart, as an Agriculturist—Horses at Napanee—An
    offer for a Yoke of Steers.


We have seen that the refugees and disbanded soldiers who entered
Canada, brought but a limited number of implements, and those of an
imperfect nature. The most of them had no means of lessening labor, no
beasts of burden. All the work had to be done by the sturdy arm, and by
the sweat of the brow. For years, mostly all alike thus labored, and for
many years the increasing number continued to toil, being unable to
procure beasts of burden, or any stock. The distance to go for them was
too far, and the way too difficult to be undertaken easily. But, a
greater difficulty, an insurmountable reason was that they had not the
means to purchase, until years of struggling had extracted from the
ground, covered with stumps, produce to exchange for the much required
help, in the form of beasts of burden. Some of the half-pay officers,
and other persons, favored by those holding some situations in the
government, were enabled to get beasts of burden at first, or within a
year or two. There were a few old soldiers who had a little money,
received at being discharged; and again, some sold their location
tickets of a portion of their land, and thereby were enabled to make
purchase of cows or oxen.

For beasts of burden, they, as a general thing, preferred oxen in
preference to horses, to work among the stumps with. Both oxen and
horses were brought from Lower Canada and York State. The later comers,
especially, fetched with them horses, oxen and cows from the latter

A few of the very first settlers, perhaps, brought one or more cows. We
find it stated that the disbanded soldiers had a cow allotted to every
two families; these must have been procured at Lower Canada, perhaps a
few by way of Oswego, where were stationed some troops. Sheriff Ruttan,
speaking of the famine, says: “We had the luxury of a cow which the
family brought with them.” Thomas Goldsmith came in 1786, and drove a
lot of cattle to the Bay: but he could not get enough for them to eat
and they, starved to death, excepting one heifer and a yoke of oxen. The
Petersons, who settled in the Fourth Town in 1785, and cleared a small
lot of land, went “the following year to Montreal and brought up some
horses and three cows, which comprised the principal stock then in the

After a few years, when the settlers had become somewhat established,
steps were taken more generally, to procure stock, so necessary to give
ordinary comfort to their families; while those who now entered the
country brought cows with them. Although the cows and oxen were procured
occasionally from Lower Canada; the most of them were obtained from the
States; but the horses were in the main at first, brought from Lower
Canada. Many incidents attending the long and devious journey through
the wilderness, are still told. Thomas Goldsmith, before mentioned, who
settled in Prince Edward, came into Canada by way of the Mohawk, Wood
Creek, Oneida Lake, and Oswego river, thence to Cataraqui. He undertook
to drive some cattle through the woods to Cape Vincent, piloted by a
friendly Indian, to swim them across the St. Lawrence. In this journey
he suffered almost every privation—hunger, fatigue, exposure. Resting
one night in the ordinary manner, with his head slightly raised, upon
the root of a tree, with no other covering than the tree’s branches, and
sleeping very soundly, after a day’s walking, he became benumbed from
exposure, and knew not of the rapidly descending rain, which had
actually covered his body when he awoke. Yet this man lived to be ninety
years old. Driving cattle through the woods was no easy matter, and dogs
were often employed for that purpose. Ex-Sheriff Sherwood, in his
valuable memorandum, relates an incident which throws light upon those
primitive days. After remarking how well he recollects the pleasure, he
and an elder brother experienced from a present made them of a cock and
hen, no common luxuries then, and with what care they watched over them,
he says: “let me tell you the tragic story of our little ‘Tipler,’ she
had become famed for driving cattle, and we thought much of her. Two
persons, one named Urehart, from the Bay Quinté, and the other Booth,
started to go through the woods to Fort Stanwix for cattle, and
prevailed upon my father to let them take poor little ‘Tipler.’ We saw
them safe across the river; but, sad to say, neither the men nor Tipler
were ever heard of after.”

John Ferguson, writing from Sidney, in July 1791, says that he cannot
get horses for the farm until winter.

In the summer of 1787, Elisha Miller and Col. Richey brought from
Saratoga County several cattle and horses. They were driven by way of
Black River, and swam the St. Lawrence at Gananoque.

The Reeds, who settled in Thurlow, in 1789, had a cow, which afforded
the principal means of sustenance. This, with basswood leaves and other
greens, constituted their food for many a day.

Mr. Harrison, now living in Marysburgh, tells of the first horse “below
the rock.” It was brought, and owned by Colonel McDonald. This, and
another were the only ones for many years. Afterward, oxen were brought
in, as well as cows, by drovers from Lower Canada.

Rochfoucault says, 1795: “The cattle are not subject to contagious
distempers; they are numerous, without being remarkably fine. The finest
oxen are procured from Connecticut, at the price of seventy or eighty
dollars a yoke. Cows are brought, either from the State of New York, and
these are the finest; or from Lower Canada; the former costs twenty, and
the latter fifteen dollars. These are small in size, but, in the opinion
of the farmers, better milch cows, and are, for this reason, preferred.
There are no fine bulls in the country; and the generality of farmers
are not sensible of the advantages to be derived from cattle of a fine
breed. In the summer, the cattle are turned into the woods; in winter,
that is, six months together, they are fed on dry fodder. There is no
ready market at which a farmer can sell that part of his cheese and
butter which is not wanted for the use of the family. Of cheese and
butter, therefore, no more is made than the family need for their own
consumption.” “Sheep are more numerous here than in any part of the
United States, which we have hitherto traversed. They are either
procured from Lower Canada or the State of New York, and cost three
dollars a head. They thrive in this country, but are high-legged, and of
a very indifferent shape. Coarse wool, when cleaned, costs two shillings
a pound.”

The above information was derived, the writer says, from Mr. Stuart, the
Curate of Kingston, “who cultivates, himself, seventy acres of land, a
part of 2,000 acres which had been granted him as a Loyalist. Without
being a very skilful farmer, he is perfectly acquainted with the details
of agriculture.” These statements refer no doubt, to the settlements of
the Bay. There is reference to horses, by Col. Clarke, whose father,
living at the Napanee Mills in 1788, had two favorite horses, Jolly and

In an old account book, now before us, for which we are indebted to Mr.
P. C. Clarke, of Collinsby, and which belonged to his grandfather,
Robert Clarke, who built the Napanee Mills, we find the following entry.

                                  “Appenea Falls, 23rd November, 1785.

  “Acct. of work for Adam Bower with his horses. Dec. 3, To day’s
  work, do., &c. He continued to work for sixty-two days with his

The following supplies valuable information:

                                        “Appanne Mills, 3rd Aug. 1788.

  “Messrs. Collins and Frobisher, Dr.” &c. (They must have been agents
  for the Government).

  “Aug. 21st. To David Bradshaw, one day with his oxen, 6s. June 11.
  To Samuel Browson, Jun’r., 2 days work with two yoke of oxen, at
  10s. March 28th. To 11½ days, Adam Arehart, with a span of horses,
  at 6s.

  “1789. Oct. 1. To Asa Richard; 9 days work with a pair of horses and
  a woman, at 9s.”

There is a memorandum in Robert Clarke’s book, as follows: “Mr. Joseph
Crane got at Canada” (it will be remembered that the first settlers
spoke of the Lower Province as Canada) “a bay horse six years old. A
brown mare four years old. Second Township, 13th March, 1787.”

The Dempsey’s drove in, 100 miles, some cattle in 1789 to Ameliasburgh.
He was offered 200 acres of land for a yoke of four-year-old steers,
which offer he refused. At another time he was offered 100 acres for a

                             CHAPTER XXII.

  CONTENTS—Old Channels of Trade, and Travel—Art and Science—New
    Channels—The Wilderness—Loyalists Traveling on Foot, from Kingston
    to York—Formation of Roads—Act of Parliament—1793—Its Provisions—
    Crooked Roads—Foot-path—Bridle-path—King’s Highway from Lower
    Canada—When Surveyed—Road from Kingston Westward—Its Course—
    Simcoe’s Military Road—Dundas Street—Asa Danforth—Contract with
    Government—Road from Kingston to Ancaster—Danforth Road—1799—
    Misunderstandings—Danforth’s Pamphlets—Slow Improvement—Cause—
    Extract from Gourlay—Thomas Markland’s Report—Ferries—1796—Acts of
    Parliament—Statute Labor—Money Grants—Commissioners—Midland
    District—Distribution—The Cataraqui Bridge Company—The
    Petitioners—An Act—The Provisions—The Plan of Building—The Bridge—
    Toll—Completing the Bridge—Improvement of Roads—McAdam—Declines a


The channels followed by the Europeans, as they penetrated the unknown
wilderness of America, were those indicated by the Indians, who had
themselves for centuries followed them, in their pursuit after the
chase, or when upon the war path. The great routes mentioned elsewhere,
are the natural ones, and no other could have been pursued. It was only
when art and science followed emigration to the new world that new
channels were opened up, and the canal and railroad superseded the old
devious ways along the windings of rivers.

Prior to the visiting of Europeans, the Indian paths were more or less
trodden as the requirements of food and the existence of prey led the
hunter here or there, or the war cry led them to the deadly encounter.
But when the Europeans initiated trade by giving for furs the attractive
trinkets, and such articles as contributed to the Indian taste of
comfort and grandeur, then there were more regular and frequent
travelings from the sea-board to the far west.

The occupation of Western Canada found the country in its primeval
state; a vast wilderness, and no roads. The only way of traveling from
one clearing to another was by the canoe and batteau, or by foot through
the trackless woods, guided by the banks of the bay, or a river, or the
blazing of the trees. For a long time not even a bridle-path existed,
had there been horses to ride upon. Even at a late date, journeys were
made on foot from Kingston to York along the lake shore. The formation
of roads was a very slow process. In the year 1793, an act was passed
“to Regulate the Laying out, Amending, and Keeping in Repair, the Public
Highways and Roads.” The roads were to be not less than thirty feet, nor
more than sixty wide. Each settler was under obligation to clear a road
across his lot; but there was the reserve lands for the Clergy and
Crown, which were not provided with roads. Any one traveling the older
settled districts will be struck with the devious character of the
highways. The configuration of the Bay Quinté, and the mode of laying
out the lots to secure a frontage upon the water, tended to cause this
irregularity. The settlements being apart, when a communication took
place between them the shortest cut would be taken, so far as hill, and
marsh, and creek would permit. The consequences were that many of the
roads were angular with the lots, or running zigzag. In later years,
some of these roads were closed up, but many remain to mark an original
foot-path. The banks of the bay and of creeks and rivers were naturally
followed, as sure guides, or perhaps as an Indian path. And thus
sometimes the road was made not direct, but roundabout. In the survey of
the concessions, provision was made for roads between the concessions,
and cross-roads were to be left between every fifth and sixth lots.

Many of the main roads were at first marked by the blazing of the trees,
when made through the woods, after a while a foot-path could be seen,
and then boughs were trimmed off, that one might ride on horseback; and
in time the sleigh was driven, and finally a waggon road was made.

Government was slack in giving funds to open up the country, and the
legislation, for many years, in reference to the subject, seemed as if
it was intended to do as little as possible, forgetting the fact that
“the first improvement of any country should be the making of good
roads.” But it soon became important to have a mail road between
Montreal and Kingston, and between Kingston and York, and then by way of
Dundas to the Thames, and to Niagara. Says Mr. A. Sheerwood, “I
recollect when the King’s highway was established from the Provincial
line to Kingston, the line was run by a surveyor named Ponair, with a
surveyor under his direction by the name of Joseph Kilborne. The
distance from the Provincial line to my father’s farm, three miles below
Brockville, was ninety-five miles, and from Brockville to the fort, this
side of Kingston, fifty miles; at the end of each mile was planted a red
cedar post, marked on it the number of miles from the Provincial line;
this line of road was made some years after the first settlement, but I
have forgotten the year.” The original mail road between Kingston and
York did not altogether follow the present line. At first, from
Kingston, the road followed the bay shore to Bath, and continued along
the shore to Adolphustown to Dorland’s Point, where was established a
ferry to communicate with Marysburg at the Lake of the Mountain; thence
the road followed the shore to the head of Picton Bay, and soon to
Bloomfold, Wellington, Consecon, by the Carrying Place, and continued to
closely follow the lake shore. Subsequently this great highway was
called the York Road when going towards York, and the Kingston Road when
going towards Kingston.

Gen. Simcoe intended to have a grand military road from one end of the
Province to the other. This he lined out and gave it the name of Dundas
Street. But he left the Province before his intentions were carried out,
and but a small portion was then constructed; while settlers had located
here and there along the proposed road, and had cleared land and built
with the full expectation that the great thoroughfare would shortly be
opened up. But years passed away, before this was done. Piece after
piece was here and there made passable, until at last the road was made
through the length of the Province.

The late Mr. Finkle of Ernest Town writes: “An American gentleman came
into Canada, 1798, by the name of Asa Danforth, and made a contract with
the Upper Canada Government, to open a road from Kingston through to
Ancaster, at the head of Lake Ontario, which road he completed.
Danforth’s home was at my father’s (Henry Finkle), before and after the
contract was taken. The work commenced in 1798, and was finished in
three years time.” This road passed through Prince Edward by Wellington.
Danforth “became dissatisfied with the government when the settlement
took place, and left Canada with a bitter feeling, so much so, that he,
some time after, sent to my father a package of pamphlets, he had
published to shew the injustice of the government transaction. He
desired they should be circulated through the country along the road.
However, the pamphlets were not distributed, and the fact never became
generally known.” For many years the main road was called the Danforth

As time advanced, the road between York and Kingston was gradually
improved. The great hindrance to road making is sufficiently indicated
by the following, taken from Gourlay. It is the expression of a meeting
of yeomen, held at the village of Waterloo, Kingston, February 2, 1818,
Major John Everett in the chair. Among other things it is asserted that
what retards the progress is that “great quantities of land in the
fronts and public situations, that remain unimproved, by being given
very injudiciously to persons who do not want to settle on them, and
what is most shameful and injurious, no law is made to compel them to
make or work any public road; but this is to be done by industrious
people, who settle around. Such lands remain like a putrid carcass, an
injury and a nuisance to all around: at the same time, to the owners,
this land increases in value, without their being made to contribute
towards it, at other men’s expense. Our worthies, a few years ago,
passed an act, that required a poor man to work three days upon the
public roads, and these over-gorged landowners but twelve days, and
others, with twenty times as much property, doing no more. It would
excite surprise at Governor Gore’s signing such a bill, if it was not
known that the Parliament voted him £3,000, to buy a piece of plate.”

Says Thomas Markland, in a General Report of Midland District:

“The same cause which has surrounded Little York with a desert, creates
gloom and desolation about Kingston, otherwise most beautifully
situated; I mean the seizure and monopoly of the land by people in
office and favour. On the east side, particularly, you may travel miles
together without passing a human dwelling; the roads are accordingly
most abominable to the very gates of this, the largest town in the
Province; and its market is often supplied with vegetables from the
United States, where property is less hampered, and the exertions of
cultivators more free, accordingly.”

In 1797, Parliament passed an Act, which was the first “for the
regulation of ferries.”

In 1794, an Act was passed “to make further provisions respecting
Highways and Roads.” An Act was passed, 1798, respecting “Statute duties
on Highways and Roads.” In 1804 an Act was passed “granting £1,000 for
repairing, laying out new roads, and building bridges in the several
districts.” Again, in 1808 £1,600 was granted for the same purpose; and
again the same sum in the following year. In 1811, £3,450 was granted.
In 1812, an Act was passed “to prevent damage to travelers on the
highways of the Province.” All persons meeting sleighs or waggons to
turn out to the right, and give half the way. Two or more bells to be
attached to every sleigh.

In 1812, it was found that “many roads were unnecessarily laid out;” to
remedy this, every one had to be confirmed by Justices of the Peace, and
if this were not done, the party who applied for the survey should pay
for the same.

In 1814, £6,000 was granted for Highways and Bridges; and the year
following, “£20,500 to be appropriated,” and Commissioners were
appointed on the road, to receive £25 each. Again, the year after,
£21,000 was granted.

In 1819, Parliament passed an “Act repealing and amending certain
portions of previous Acts,” by which a more elaborate provision was made
to secure statute labor. This was again amended in 1824. In 1826 was
enacted to grant £1,200 for making and repairing roads and bridges—Item:
“In aid of the Society for improving the Public Roads,” in a part of
Ernesttown and Kingston. In 1830, £13,650 was granted “for the
improvement of Roads and Bridges,” of which the Midland District
received £1,900, to be expended as follows, by contract after public
notice: “On the Montreal road, between the Town of Kingston, and the
limits of the County of Frontenac, the sum of fifty pounds. Joseph
Franklin, Elijah Beach, and James Atkinson to be Commissioners for
expending the same: On the road leading from the Town of Kingston, to
the Village of Waterloo, the sum of fifty pounds; and that Samuel
Askroyd, Horace Yeomans, and Benjamin Olcott, be Commissioners for
expending the same. On the leading road from Kingston to the Village of
Bath, the sum of one hundred pounds, and that Henry Lasher, Joseph Amy,
and Prentiss J. Fitch, be Commissioners for expending the same. On the
road leading from the Village of Waterloo to the Napanee Mills, the sum
of three hundred and fifty pounds; and that the Treasurer and Trustees
of the Kingston and Earnesttown Road Society be Commissioners for
expending the same. On the road leading from Loughborough to Waterloo,
the sum of fifty pounds; and that Samuel Aykroyd, John Campbell, and
Henry Wood be Commissioners for expending the same. On the road leading
from the fifth Concession of Portland to the third concession of the
Township of Kingston, fifty pounds; and that Jacob Shibly, Byron Spike,
and Thomas Sigsworth, be Commissioners for expending the same. On the
road leading from Bath to the Township of Camden, the sum of fifty
pounds; and that Ebenezer Perry, Benjamin Clarke, and John Perry, be
Commissioners for expending the same. On the road leading from Wessel’s
Ferry, in Sophiasburg, to Demorest’s Mill, the sum of one hundred
pounds; and that Abraham VanBlaricum, Daniel B. Way, and Guilliam
Demorest, be Commissioners for expending the same. On the road between
the widow M’Cready’s and the north-east of Chrysler’s Creek Bridge, in
the seventh concession of Thurlow, the sum of twenty-five pounds. On the
road in the township of Huntington, leading to the township of Madoc,
and surveyed by W. Ketcheson, in one-thousand eight hundred and
twenty-eight, seventy-five pounds, and that Jacob Jowngs, of Thurlow,
Garret Garritson, of Huntingdon, and James O’Hara, of Madoc, be
Commissioners for expending the same. On the road leading from the
Napanee Mills to Belleville, the sum of eight hundred pounds, and that
Allan McPherson, John Turnbull, William Post, David B. Soles, and John
Mabee, of Thurlow, be Commissioners for expending the same. On the road
leading from VanAlstine’s ferry to the Carrying Place, the sum of two
hundred pounds, and that Simeon Washburn, Esquire, Charles Biggar,
Esquire, and Jesse Henderson, be Commissioners for expending the same.”

During the same session, “there being reason to believe there would not
be enough means on hand to meet the grant,” an Act was passed to raise
by loan £8000. The year after another Act was passed to raise by
debenture the sum of £40,000 more to be appropriated to the several
districts. The Midland district to receive £2,200. Among the
specifications, were “in the Indian woods” £200 for the bridge at the
mouth of the little Cataraqui, £50 “to assist in erecting new bridge
across Marsh Creek, near William Brickman’s, in Ameliasburgh,” £20. “To
erect a bridge across East Creek, at the east end of East Lake, £50.”
“On the road leading from Belleville to the Marmora Iron Works, £250.”

On March, 25, 1828, there was passed an Act respecting “a road between
Ernesttown and the Gore of Fredericksburgh.”

The Preamble says, “whereas, in consequence of a dispute having arisen
between the Justices of the Peace of Ernesttown and Fredericksburgh,
respecting the right of either party to take charge” of the road, and to
which party the right of repairing it belongs, “in consequence of which
dispute, the aforesaid road though much traveled from necessity, is
dangerous and difficult to travel, on account of being left, in a great
measure, for a long time past, without being mended,” &c. It was enacted
that the two townships should equally take charge and keep in repair the
said road, certain portions being allotted to each.

In 1827 an act was passed to incorporate “The Cataraqui Bridge Company.”
Up to this time the communication between Kingston and the opposite
point of Frederick, was only by boat. The Act, or some portions of it
cannot but be interesting: “Whereas John H. Glover, John Marks, John
Macaulay, John Kerby, Christopher Alexander Hagerman, Michael Sproatt,
John P. Hawkins, Robert Moore, Charles Jones, Stephen Yarwood, Augustus
Barber, George Calls, Richard Williams, James B. Forsyth, George
McBeath, Adam Krieu, John S. Cartwright, Robert D. Cartwright, Alexander
Anderson, George O’Kill Stuart, Laughlin Currin, Donald McPherson, James
Jackalls, the younger, Francis Archibald Harper, John Cumming, James
Sampson, Elizabeth Herchmer, Catharine Markland, Anne Macaulay, John
Jenkins, and Edward Forsyth, have petitioned to be incorporated,” &c.
(This furnishes us with the names of the more prominent persons at that
time interested in Kingston). “And whereas, they have represented, by
their agents, that they have made arrangements with His Majesty’s
Government, in case the object above recited be carried into effect, for
the passage of Military and Naval stores, and of the officers and men
belonging and attached to the various Military and Naval departments,
for a certain consideration to be annually paid by the Government, and
that for the purpose of this incorporation, they have subscribed stock
to the amount of £6000.”

The Act of Incorporation provided that “the said Company are authorized
and empowered, at their own cost and charges, to erect and build a good
and substantial bridge over the great river Cataraqui, near the town of
Kingston, from the present scow landing on the military reserve,
opposite to the north-east end of the continuation of Front Street to
the opposite shore on Point Frederick, at the present scow landing on
the Military Reserve, adjoining the western addition of the Township of
Pittsburgh, with convenient access thereto at both ends of the bridge,
to and from the adjacent highways, at present in use; that the said
bridge shall be at least twenty-five feet wide, and of sufficient
strength for artillery carriages,” &c., &c.; they shall also be at
liberty to build tollhouses, and toll-bars; Provided always, that there
be a draw-bridge not less than eighteen feet, in some part, for the
passage of all vessels, which bridge shall be opened at all hours
required without exacting toll, and a space for rafts between the piers,
forty feet.

The amount of toll to be demanded from man and beast, and vehicle, was
fully specified in the Act.

The Company was to be managed by five Directors, Stockholders to hold
office for one year from each last Monday in January. The bridge was to
be completed within three years.

It was provided that no ferry should be allowed, nor other barge.

The final clause enacted that after fifty years his Majesty might assume
the possession of the bridge, upon paying to the Company the full value
thereof, to be ascertained by three arbitrators.

March 20, 1829, an Act was passed extending the time for completing the
bridge, two years from the passing of the Act.

We have seen how the roads throughout Canada, were gradually
constructed. As time advanced steps were taken, sometimes however very
tardily, to place public thoroughfares in a more passable condition. We
believe the road from Kingston to Napanee, was the first to be
macadamized, which for many long years was the exception in an execrable
road, stretching between Kingston and York. The originator of
macadamized roads was John Loudoun McAdam. He was born in Scotland in
1756; emigrated to New York when a lad, and remained in that City
throughout the Revolution. Under the protection of the British troops,
he accumulated a considerable fortune, as agent for the sale of prizes.
At the close of the war he returned to his native land, with the loss of
nearly all his property. His system of making roads is too well known to
require description. The British Government gave him £10,000, and
tendered the honor of knighthood, which he declined, but which was
conferred on his son, James Nicholl McAdam. He died at Moffat, County of
Dumfries, in 1836, aged eighty years.

                             CHAPTER XXIII.

  CONTENTS—Ode to Canada—Early events—First English child in America,
    1587—In New England—First French child, 1621—First in Upper
    Canada, 1783—In Prince Edward—Adolphustown—Ameliasburgh—North of
    the Rideau—Indian marriage ceremony—Difficulty among first
    settlers to get clergymen—First marriage in America, 1608—First in
    New England, 1621—First in Canada, 1620—Marriageable folks—No one
    to tie the matrimonial knot—Only one clergyman—Officers marrying—
    Magistrates empowered—Legislation, 1793—Its provision—Making valid
    certain marriages—Further legislation, 1798—In 1818—1821—1831—
    Clergymen of all denominations permitted to marry—Methodist
    ministers—Marriage license, 1814—Five persons appointed to issue—A
    noticeable matter—Statements of Bates—Mode of courting in the
    woods—Newcastle wedding expeditions—Weapons of defence—Ladies’
    dresses—The lover’s “rig”—A wedding ring—Paying the magistrate—A
    good corn basket—Going to weddings—“Bitters”—Old folks stay at
    home—The dance, several nights—Marriage outfit—Frontier life—
    Morals in Upper Canada—Absence of irregularities—Exceptional
    instances—Unable to get married, Peter and Polly—A singular
    witness—Rev. Mr. Stuart—Langhorn—McDowell—How to adorn the bride—
    What she wore—A wedding in 1808—On horseback—The guests—The
    wedding—The banquet—The game of forfeits—The night—Second day
    wedding—The young folks on horseback—Terpischorean—An elopement by
    Canoe—The Squire—The chase—The lovers successful—The Squires who

                            “ODE TO CANADA.”

        Canada faithful! Canada fair!
        Canada, beautiful, blooming and rare!
        Canada, happiest land of the earth!
        Hail to thee, Canada! land of my birth!
        Land of fair freedom, where bought not and sold,
        Are sinews and sorrows, for silver and gold!
        Land of broad lakes, sweet valleys and plains!
        Land where justice for rich and poor reigns!
        Land of tall forests, famed rivers and rills!
        Land of fair meadows, bold mountains and hills!
        Land where a man is a man, though he toil!
        Land where the tiller is lord of the soil!
        Land where a people are happy and free—
        Where is the land that is like unto thee?
        Thou hast for the stranger that seeketh thy shore
        A smile, and a cheer, and a welcome in store;
        The needy, relief; and the weary repose;
        A home for thy friends; and a grave for thy foes.
        Thy nobles are those whose riches in store
        Is the wealth of the soul, and the heart’s hidden lore;
        They cringe to no master, they bow to no lord
        Save Heaven’s, each night and each morning adored.
        Land of swift rivers, sweet-gliding along!
        Land of my pride, and land of my song!
        Canada, prosperous! Canada, true!
        Canada loyal, and virtuous, too!
        Canada, happiest land of the earth!
        Hail thee, forever, sweet land of my birth!


We turn from the sad pictures which have been truthfully, if imperfectly
done, which represent the darker side of the pioneer life of the
refugees, to others more pleasing. In those primitive times, events
which now seem trivial to a general public, were of general interest,
and the recollection cherished by a whole community. In the absence of
those stirring events which characterize the present, incidents of
comparative unimportance, became household words, and recollections.
Hence, it comes that posterity may, in some instances, know who were
first married in certain places in America, of the first birth, and who
first died.

“The first child born of English parents in America, was a daughter of
Mrs. Dore, of Virginia, October 18, 1587.” “There is now standing in
Marshalfield, Cape Cod, a portion of a house built by Perigrine White,
the first male child born of English parents in New England.” According
to the testimony of the registrar of Quebec, the first white child born
in Canada, was upon the 24th October, 1621, which was christened the
same day by the name of Eustache, being the son of Abraham and Margaret
L’Anglois; Abraham was a Scotchman, named Martin Abraham. He was king’s
pilot, and married to Eustache. The plains of Abraham derive their name
from him.

In the obituary notice of Rev. Mr. Pringle, a Methodist preacher, it is
stated that he was born in Prince Edward, in 1780, but this must be a
mistake. There is sufficient proof that the first settlement at Smith’s
Bay commenced in 1784, when the first part of Prince Edward became
settled. Perhaps, indeed, very likely, the first children born of
European parents, was the late Colonel John Clark, of Dalahousie, and an
elder brother and sister. His father, an Englishman, came to Quebec,
attached to the 8th regiment in 1768. From a sergeant-major, he was
appointed in 1776, clerk and naval store keeper at Carleton Island.
Here, Sarah and William Clark were born during the progress of the war.
Col. Clark says, “I was born at Frontenac, now Kingston, in 1783, and
was baptized by the Rev. Mr. Stuart.”

The Rev. Mr. Pringle, before alluded to, was the first, or among the
first-born in Prince Edward.

A son of Thomas Dorland, claimed to be the first white child born in the
fourth township; but the honor was disputed by Daniel Peterson. Mrs. Wm.
Ketcheson, now living in Sidney, daughter of Elizabeth Roblin, of
Adolphustown, was born there in 1784. She must have been one of the very
first, as the first settlers came that same year. On the 16th January
1785, Henry VanDusen was born in Adolphustown, being one of the first

Upon the 26th April, 1868, was buried Mrs. Bush, she was the first
female born in Ameliasburgh. Mr. Bleeker, yet living at Trenton, was the
first male child born in Ameliasburgh. Mrs. Covert, was also one of the
first persons born in Ameliasburgh.

The first person said to have been born in Toronto, was Mr. J. Cameron,
of Yonge Street, in 1798.

The first child born of white parents north of the Rideau, was Colonel
E. Burritt, Burritt’s Rapids, a relative of Elihu Burritt.

                        MARRYING IN EARLY TIMES.

The native Indians of America practiced no important ceremony in
connection with marrying. Certain steps had to be taken by the one who
might desire to have a certain female as his partner, and those
proceedings were always strictly attended to. But the final ceremony
consisted in little more than the affianced one, leaving the wigwam of
her father and repairing to that of her future lord and master. In many
cases the first settlers of America experienced some difficulty in
obtaining the services of a Christian minister to solemnize matrimony.
In French Canada there was not this difficulty, as from the first the
zealous missionary was ever beside the discoverer as he pressed on his

The first Christian marriage solemnized in America, took place in
Virginia in 1608, between John Loyden and Ann Burras. The first marriage
in New England was celebrated the 12th May, 1621, at Plymouth, between
Edward Waislow and Susannah White. The first marriage in the colony of
French Canada, was between Guillaume Couillard and Guillmet Hebert, July
1620. This is found in the first parish register, which was commenced
this year, 1620.

Among the pioneers of Upper Canada, were persons of every class as to
age, from the tender infant at the breast, to the gray-headed man. There
were young men and young women, as well as the aged, and as hopes and
desires exist to-day in the breast of the young, so did they then. As
the gentle influence of love animates at the present time, so it did
then. But there was a serious drawback; the consummation of courtship
could not easily be realized. Throughout the vast length of the
settlements there were but few clergymen to celebrate matrimony, and
many sighing swains had to wait months, and even years of wearisome time
to have performed the matrimonial ceremony. At the first, when a
chaplain was attached to a regiment, he was called upon, but when the
settlers commenced to clear, there was no chaplain connected with the
regiment. Indeed, Mr. Stuart, of Kingston, was the only clergyman in all
Upper Canada for a few years. But the duties of the chaplain were
frequently attended to by an officer, especially at Niagara, and many of
the first marriages in the young colony were performed by a colonel, an
adjutant, or a surgeon. Subsequently, magistrates were appointed, who
were commissioned to tie the nuptial knot.

                  *       *       *       *       *

In the second session of the first Parliament, 1793, was passed “_An Act
to confirm and make valid certain marriages heretofore contracted in the
country now comprised within the Province of Canada, and to provide for
the future solemnization of marriage within the same._”

“Whereas many marriages have been contracted in this Province at a time
when it was impossible to observe the forms prescribed by law for the
solemnization thereof, by reason that there was no Protestant parson or
minister duly ordained, residing in any part of the said Province, nor
any consecrated Protestant church or chapel within the same, and whereas
the parties having contracted such marriages, and their issue may
therefore be subjected to various disabilities, in order to quiet the
minds of such persons and to provide for the future solemnization of
marriage within this Province, be it enacted and declared by the King’s
Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the
Legislative Council and Assembly of the Province of Upper Canada, that
the marriage and marriages of all persons, not being under any canonical
disqualification to contract matrimony, that have been publicly
contracted before any magistrate or commanding officer of a post, or
adjutant, or surgeon of a regiment, acting as chaplain, or any other
person in any public office or employment, before the passing of this
Act, shall be confirmed and considered to all intents and purposes as
good and valid in law, and that the parties who have contracted such
marriages, and the issue thereof, may become severally entitled to all
the rights and benefits, and subject to all the obligations arising from
marriage and consanguinity, in as full and ample a manner as if the said
marriages had respectively been solemnized according to law.

“And be it further enacted, that in order to enable those persons who
may be desirous of preserving the testimony of such marriage, and of the
birth of their children, it shall and may be lawful, at any time, within
three years from the passing of this Act, for any magistrate of the
district where any such parties as may have contracted matrimony as
aforesaid, shall reside, at the request of either of said parties, to
administer to each an oath that they were married on a certain day, and
that there is now living issue of the marriage.” This attestation to be
subscribed to by the parties and certified by the magistrate. The Clerk
of the Peace recorded these certificates in a register for the purpose,
which thereafter was considered sufficient evidence of such matters.

It was further enacted, “That until there shall be five parsons or
ministers of the Church of England, doing duty in their respective
parishes in any one district,” persons “desirous of intermarrying with
each other, and neither of them living within the distance of eighteen
miles of any minister of the Church of England, may apply to any
neighbouring Justice of the Peace,” who should affix in some public
place, a notice, for which he should receive one shilling, and no more.
The purport of the notice was that A. B. and C. D. were desirous of
getting married, and there being no parson within eighteen miles, if any
person knew any just reason why they should not be married, should give
notice thereof to such magistrate. After which a form of the Church of
England was to be followed, but should a minister reside within eighteen
miles of either parties the marriage was null and void.

It is related that these notices of marriage were often attached to
trees by the road side, and as it was considered desirable in those days
to keep intending marriages secret, not unfrequently the intending
parties would watch and remove the notice which had been put up.

In the year 1798, an Act was passed to extend the provisions of the
first Act, which provided that “it shall be lawful for the minister of
any congregation or religious community of persons, professing to be
members of the Church of Scotland, or Lutherans, or Calvinists” to marry
according to the rights of such church, and it was necessary that one of
the persons to be married should have been a member of the particular
church six months before the marriage. The clergyman must have been
regularly ordained, and was to appear before six magistrates at quarter
sessions, with at least seven members of his congregation, to prove his
office, or take the oath of allegiance. And then, if the dignitaries
thought it expedient, they might grant him a certificate that he was a
settled minister, and therefore could marry, having published the
intended marriage upon three Sundays previous.

In November, 1818, a brief act was passed to make valid the marriages of
those who may have neglected to preserve the testimony of their

In the year 1821, an act was passed “for the more certain punishment of
persons illegally solemnizing marriage, by which it was provided, that
if persons, legally qualified to marry, should do so without the
publication of banns, unless license be first had, should be guilty of a

There was no further legislation until 1831, when provision was again
made to confirm marriages contracted “before any justice of the peace,
magistrate, or commanding officer of a post, or minister and clergyman,
in a manner similar to the previous acts.” It was at this time enacted
that it should be lawful for ministers of the church of Scotland,
Lutherans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Baptists, Independants,
Methodists, Menonists, Tunkers, or Moravians, to solemnize matrimony,
after having obtained certificates from the quarter sessions. According
to the act of 1798, only the church of Scotland, Lutherans, and
Calvinists, beside the English church, were permitted to marry persons.
So it will be seen by this act of 1831, important concessions were made
to different denominations. This act was by the Methodists, especially
regarded as a deserved recognition of the constantly increasing number
of that denomination. It certainly, at this time, seems remarkably
strange, that so obvious a right, was for so long a time withheld, not
alone from them, but other denominations. But the effort was strong, and
long continued to build up the church of England to the exclusion of all

The restriction upon the Methodist ministers was to them greater from
the fact, that for a long time they were members of a Conference
existing, where all denominations were alike endowed with the power to
perform the marriage ceremony. And it is recorded, that in a few
instances, the ministers stationed in Canada, either forgot the
illegality of marrying, or felt indisposed to submit to the unjust law,
and did actually marry some persons. Elder Ryan was one, and was
consequently banished; but was shortly pardoned by government, because
of his known loyalty. His son-in-law, Rev. S. B. Smith, was another; but
he defended himself at the trial and got free. Another was the Rev. Mr.
Sawyer, who at once, being accused, fled the country for a time.

It appears that on the 31st May, 1814, government appointed five persons
to issue marriage licenses. One at Queenston, one at York, one at
Kingston, one at Williamsburgh, and one at Cornwall. John Cumming was
appointed for Kingston. Prior to this, licenses had been occasionally
issued, probably, however, only by application to government. Marrying
by license was so noticeable an event, that it was considered elegant to
state in the marriage notice, “married by license.”

According to a letter in our possession, sometimes the issuer of license
would be without any, when he would give a certificate to the applicant,
by which the party could get married, and subsequently he would furnish
him with the license.

Having given the legal and legislative facts relative to marrying in
early times, it may not be inappropriate to adduce some items of a
social nature.

Roger Bates, of Newcastle, in his memoir at the parliament library,
speaks thus pleasantly and graphically in referring to his father’s
courtship and marriage, which took place at the commencement of the
present century. “The mode of courting in those days was a good deal of
the Indian fashion. The buxom daughter would run through the trees and
bushes, and pretend to get away from the lover; but somehow or other he
managed to catch her, gave her a kiss, and they soon got married, I
rather think by a magistrate. Time was too valuable to make a fuss about
such matters.” Whether this mode of courting was practiced elsewhere,
than in Newcastle, it may be doubted. Speaking of the weddings, and the
journey to get the knot tied, he says, “they generally furnished
themselves with tomahawks and implements to defend themselves, and to
camp out if required. The ladies had no white dresses to spoil, or fancy
bonnets. With deer skin petticoats, home-spun gowns, and perhaps
squirrel skin bonnet, they looked charming in the eyes of their lovers,
who were rigged out in similar materials.” Again, about the wedding
ring, which could not then be procured, he says, “I have heard my mother
say, that uncle Ferguson, a magistrate, rather than disappoint a happy
couple, who had walked twenty miles, made search throughout the house,
and luckily found a pair of old English skates, to which was attached a
ring, with this he proceeded with the ceremony, and fixing the ring on
the young woman’s finger, reminded her, that though a homely substitute,
she must continue to wear it, otherwise the ceremony would be dissolved.
That curious token was greatly cherished, and is still among the family

Mr. Sheriff Sherwood, speaking of his father, one of the first
magistrates appointed by Simcoe, says “he probably joined more
individuals together in the happy bonds of matrimony, than any other
person ever has, in the county of Leeds. I have often heard him mention
the circumstance of a young man asking him to marry him, but who said, I
cannot get the money to pay you, but I will make you a good wheat fan,
which he readily accepted, as it was an article much used at that time.
At another time an old man came on the same errand, and said to him, I
cannot get the money to pay you, but I will make you a good corn basket,
with oak splints, and so tight that I will warrant it to hold water, and
the old man punctually fulfilled his promise.”

We have some interesting information from an old lady who settled in
Ameliasburgh, and who still lives. Getting married at the beginning of
the present century was a great event. The Carrying Place was the usual
place of resort. They placed in a lumber waggon, a number of chairs, and
each gallant was supposed to support his partner upon his knee, and thus
economise room. “Bitters” were indulged in, but no fighting allowed. If
one began that, he was put out. Keeping good natured was a point of duty
insisted upon. No old persons went to the wedding, but they joined in
the dance, when the youngsters got back. A wedding without a dance was
considered an insipid affair; and it was generally kept up two or three
successive nights at different places. Francis Weese’s was a half-way
house between McMan’s corners, (Rednerville), and the Carrying Place.
Weese was a distinguished player upon the fiddle, and the wedding
parties often stayed with him the first night.

“A yoke of steers, a cow, three or four sheep, with a bed, table, two
dozen chairs, was regarded a very decent setting out for the bride. And
if the groom was heir to 50 or 100 acres of land, with a little cleared,
he was thought to have the worldly “gear,” to constitute a first-rate

The history of frontier life; of the advance body of pioneers in the far
west, frequently exhibits great irregularity in morals; a non-observance
of God’s commandments. But the record of the first settlers of Upper
Canada is remarkably bright. When it is recollected that they were but
scattered settlements in a wilderness; far away from civilized life;
excluded from the world, and removed from the influence of the salutary
power of public opinions, it is a matter of wonder, that great and
frequent violation of God’s law, with regard to marrying did not take
place. But such was not the case, as a general thing; the holy bonds of
matrimony, were employed to bind man and woman together, whether through
the officer, the magistrate or the clergyman. For years there was but
few clergymen to marry, and also but few magistrates, and there were
secluded settlements where the clergyman or magistrate came not, and
from which the inhabitants could not go, perhaps for many miles to get
married. But a few, and they are very few instances, are recorded where
parties deviated from the righteous way. Upon the shore of the bay, in a
remote locality, about the year 1796, lived two individuals, whom we
will call respectively Peter and Polly. They were living in the same
family, she as a “help,” and he as a hired man upon the farm. This
couple had desired to enter the bonds of matrimony; but the ministers
and squires lived some distance off, and they could not get away to be
married, so they had to wait for the coming of one who would marry them;
they had to wait, it would seem for several years, in the mean time they
consoled themselves with genuine, and no doubt honest love. At last it
came to pass that a Squire visited that neighbourhood, and stopped at
the house where they lived.

The family bethought them of the wishes of Peter and Polly; and that now
was the time to have the legal knot tied. So Polly was called from the
kitchen just as she was, and Peter from the field besmeared with sweat,
and clean dirt, and the two were made one. Among the witnesses of the
interesting ceremony, was a bright eyed boy who trotted unceremoniously
from the bride to the groom, calling them respectively “mozzer” and
“fadder.” The time came when this same boy was the owner of the land
whereon he had been born. This fact, from excellent authority, stands
out as an exception to a general rule, although there is not about it
that flagrant violation of moral principle which is too often seen at
the present day, under other circumstances which afford no excuse.

The Rev. Mr. Stuart, living at Kingston, was not often called upon to
marry, by persons outside of that village, and persons rarely found time
to go all the way to him. When Mr. Langhorn came and opened a church at
Adolphustown, and Bath, a more central place was supplied, and he
consequently was often employed. But Mr. McDowell was the one who most
frequently was required to marry. Being a minister of the church of
Scotland, he enjoyed the privilege of marrying, and unlike Langhorn, he
would marry them at their homes. So when making his rounds through the
country, on his preaching excursions, he was frequently called upon to
officiate in this capacity.

In the region of the Bay, were some who had in previous days, lived in
comfort, and had not wanted all that belonged to the well-to-do
inhabitants along the Hudson, and at New York. In some cases, these
families brought with them the fine clothes that had adorned their
bodies in former times. Not only was it difficult for them, in many
cases, to get some one to perform the marriage ceremony; but to the
female, especially, it was a grave matter how to adorn the bride with
that apparel which becomes the event. In those cases where rich clothes,
which had been used by parents, were stored away, they were brought
forth, and by a little alteration, made to do service; but by and by
these relics of better days were beyond their power to renovate, and
like others, they had, if married at all, to wear the garb mentioned by
Roger Bates, or some other plain article; a calico print, bought of a
pedlar, or a calamink, or linsey-woolsey petticoat, or a woolen drugget,
were no common luxuries in the wilderness home. An old lady who is still
living, tells us that she was married in 1807, and wore the
last-mentioned; and was thought very extravagant indeed. A venerable
lady, a native of the Bay, and now well-nigh eighty, remembers to have
attended a wedding about the year 1708, up the river Moira. She was
living with her uncle, Col. C. The wedding was one of some importance,
as both parties were well-to-do. There was but a path along the banks of
the river, and they went on horse back. At that time riding on horseback
was a common practice, not a single person merely, but in couples. It
was no unusual thing to see man and wife riding along together, also
brother and sister, and as well lovers. The guests to this wedding all
came on horse back, generally in pairs. They assembled early in the
forenoon, and the happy pair were soon united. The bride’s dress was
unusually grand, being of lawn; the two bridesmaids graced the occasion
by being dressed in muslin. She bears a distinct recollection of the
entertainment. The banquet was crowned with a majestic chicken pie, in a
pan capable of holding some twelve quarts; by roast goose, and with pies
and cakes of all sorts, in abundance. The bride’s father was the deacon
of a church, and did not allow dancing, but the afternoon and evening
were spent in joyous mirth and jovial “plays” in connection with which
forfeits were lost and redeemed. But, however much these plays may have
degenerated in recent days, they were then conducted with purity of
thought, and innocence of soul. The party did not break up the first
day. Half of the company repaired to the house of the groom’s father,
where beds were arranged for them. In the morning they went back to the
scene of the wedding, upon the banks of the river, which at this point
is particularly attractive. After breakfast, the young people, with the
newly married pair, set out for the front, to the mouth of the river.
They formed a joyous, and it must have been a picturesque cavalcade.
Each gentleman selected his fair partner, and having mounted his horse,
she was duly seated behind him. And thus they set out for their
destination. Pleasant, indeed, must have been the ride; striking the
scene, as they wended their way along the running water, and the bright
autumn sun shone upon them through the variegated leaves which clothed
the thickly standing trees. This night was spent at Myers’ Creek, in
following the notes of the fiddle with the nimble feet. This terminated
the wedding party. This is adduced as an illustration of marrying in
early times. Another will be briefly given: it was a case of elopement,
and occurred many years before the wedding above mentioned. A certain
Squire had been for many years in the enjoyment of wedded bliss. His
wife was the daughter of Capt. ——, a half-pay officer, an honest but
wayward Dutchman. The Squire’s wife died, and, in due time, he sought
the hand of another daughter of the Captain. But this the latter would
not listen to; he was determined they should not marry; because she was
his late wife’s sister. The worthy Squire could not see the force of the
objection, and the lady in question was likewise blinded by love. They
resolved to run away, or rather to paddle away, in a convenient canoe.
Clandestinely they set out upon the head waters of the bay, intending to
go to Kingston to obtain the services of a clergyman. But the Captain
learned the fact of their departure and started in pursuit with his
batteau and oarsmen. According to one account, the flying would-be
groomsman, who was paddling his own canoe, saw the angry parent coming,
and made haste to quicken his speed, but finding that they would be
overtaken, they landed upon an island in the bay, and hauled up the
canoe; and concealed it, with themselves, in a cavity upon the island;
and, after the Captain had passed, returned homeward and procured the
services of a Squire to marry them. But, according to another statement,
the lovers set out while the Captain was absent at Montreal, and arrived
at Kingston, unfortunately, as he was returning home. Seeing the Squire,
he had his suspicions aroused, and began to look about for his daughter.
She had, however, concealed herself by throwing an Indian blanket about
her person, and over her head, and by sitting down among some squaws.
The statement goes, that it was well the Captain did not find her, as he
would, as soon as not, have shot the Squire. The end of it was, they
were married, to live a long and happy domestic life. Although there may
be a little doubt as to the details of this early elopement on the bay,
there is no doubt that it took place in some such manner as described.

Among the Squires upon the Bay, the following were the most frequently
called upon to marry: Young, of the Carrying Place; Bleeker, of the
Trent; Lazier, of Sophiasburgh. The magistrates residing nearer Kingston
and Adolphustown had less of this to do, as clergymen could there be
more easily obtained.

                             CHAPTER XXIV.

  CONTENTS—Burying Places—How Selected—Family Burying Places—For the
    Neighbourhood—The Dutch—Upon the Hudson—Bay Quinté—A Sacred Spot
    to the Loyalists—Ashes to Ashes—Primitive Mode of Burial—The
    Coffin—At the Grave—The Father’s Remarks—Return to Labor—French
    Burying-place at Frontenac—Its Site—U. E. Loyalists’ Burying-place
    at Kingston—The “U. E. Burying Ground,” Adolphustown—Worthy Sires
    of Canada’s Sons—Decay—Neglect of Illustrious dead—Repair Wanted—
    Oldest Burying Ground in Prince Edward—Ross Place—At East Lake—
    Upon the Rose Farm—“The Dutch Burying Ground”—Second Growth Trees—
    In Sophiasburgh—Cronk Farm—In Sidney—Rude Tomb Stones—Burial-place
    of Capt. Myers—Reflections—Dust to Dust—In Thurlow—“Taylor Burying
    Ground”—The First Person Buried—Lieut. Ferguson—An Aged Female—Her
    Work Done—Wheels Stand Still.


“_Your fathers, where are they?_”

Burying places in all the new settlements were, as a general thing,
selected by the family to which death might first come. This was true of
every part of America. Ere the forest had fallen before the hand of the
axeman, or while the roots and stumps of the trees yet thickly
encumbered the ground, before the scythe had been used to cut the first
products of the soil, the great reaper death passed by, and one and
another of the number were cut down. Some suitable place, under the
circumstances, was selected for the grave, and quietly the body was laid
away. In time, a neighbour would lose a member of the family, and the
body would be brought and laid beside the first buried. And so on, until
a certain circle would be found burying in a common place. But sometimes
families would prefer to have a private burial ground, some conspicuous
spot being selected upon the farm, where the ashes of the family might
be gathered together, as one after another passed away. The Dutch are
particularly attached to this custom. This may be seen even yet in those
old sections of New York State, where the Dutch originally settled,
especially at Hoboken, opposite New York City. Sacred spots were
appropriated by each family upon the farm, in which the family was
buried. The descendants of these Dutch who became such loyal subjects,
and suffering refugees who settled around the bay, followed the same
practice. These spots may be seen along the Hudson, and the Bay Quinté,
which may be regarded as the Hudson of Canada, and are indicated by the
drooping willow, or the locust or cypress. Some from whom reliable
information has been received, state that the spot selected on the Bay
Quinté was often that, where the family had first landed—where they had
rested on the bare earth, beneath the trees, until a hut could be
erected. This spot was chosen by the refugee himself as a suitable place
to take his last rest. Indeed, the devotion of the settler to the land
where he had wrought out his living, and secured a comfortable home, was
sometimes of an exalted character. One instance by way of illustration:—
There came to the shores of Hay Bay an heroic woman, a little rough
perhaps, but one whose soul had been bitterly tried during the conflict
between her king and the rebels. Her husband had been on many a
battle-field, and she had assisted on many an occasion to give comfort
to the British troops. The log hut was duly erected, and day after day
they went forth together to subdue the wilderness. In the sear and
yellow leaf, when competence had been secured and could be bequeathed to
their children, when the first log tenement had fallen to decay, she
caused her children to promise that her body should be laid upon the
spot where that old hut had stood.

The mode of burial was often simple and touching, often there was no
clergyman of any denomination; no one to read a prayer over the dead for
the benefit of the living. Frequently, in the hush of suspended work,
through the quiet shades of the trees whose boughs sighed a requiem,
like as if angels whispered peace to the sad and tearful mourners who
silently, or with suppressed sobs, followed the coffin of the plainest
kind, often of rough construction, which contained the remains of a
loved one to the grave, in some spot selected. The rude coffin being
placed in the grave, those present would uncover, and the father, in sad
tones, would make a few remarks respecting the departed, offer a few
thoughts which the occasion suggested, and then the coffin was hidden
out of sight. The men would return to their labors, and the women to
their duties.

We learn, on excellent authority, that the burial place for the French,
at Fort Frontenac, was where the barracks now stand near the bridge. But
not unlikely the French, when one died away from the fort at any
distance, committed the dead to the earth in Indian burial places. The
first burial place for the U. E. Loyalists in Kingston, was situated
where St. Paul’s Church now stands, on Queen Street, which was formerly
called Grove Street.

No township is more rich in historic matters, pertaining to the U. E.
Loyalists than Adolphustown. Here settled a worthy band of refugees
whose lineage can be traced back to noble names in France, Germany and
Holland. Here was the birth-place of many of Canada’s more prominent and
worthy sons, and here repose the ashes of a large number of the devoted

As the steamboat enters to the wharf at Adolphustown, the observer may
notice a short distance to the west, upon the summit of a ridge, a small
enclosure in which are a number of second growth trees, maple and oak.
He may even see indistinctly a few marble tombstones. If he walks to the
spot he will find that the fence is rough, broken, and falling down.
Casting his eye over the ground he sees the traces of numerous graves,
with a few marble head-stones, and a long iron enclosure within which
are buried the dead of the Casey family; with a marble slab to the head
of each. The ground generally is covered with the _debris_ of what once
formed enclosures of individual graves or family plots. When visited by
the writer, one grave, that of Hannah Vandusen, had growing out of its
bosom a large poplar tree, while the wooden fence around was falling and
resting against the tree. The writer gazed on these evidences, not alone
of decay but neglect, with great regret, and with a sigh. For here,
without any mark of their grave, lie many who were not only noble U. E.
Loyalists, but who were men of distinction, and the fathers of men well
known in Canadian History. Mr. Joseph B. Allison, accompanied us, and
pointed out the several spots where he had seen buried these illustrious

In the north-west corner of the ground, with no trace even of a grave to
mark the spot, lies the old Major who commanded the company. Mr. Allison
was present, although a little boy at his burial. The event is fixed
upon his mind by the fact the militia turned out and buried him with
military honors. We stood on the spot overgrown with thorn trees, and
felt a pang that his name was thus forgotten, and his name almost
unknown. Close by is a neat marble headstone to a grave, upon which is
the following: “_Henry Hover, departed this life, August 23rd, 1842,
aged 79 years, 5 months and 17 days._” Noble man! Imprisonment with
chains for nearly two years, with many hardships during, and after the
war, did not make his life short, and we were thankful he had left
descendants who forgot not to mark his resting-place. For account of
this person see under “Royal Combatants.”

The entrance gate to the ground is at the east side. To the right on
entering, a short distance off, is an oak tree. Between the gate and
tree was laid the body of Nicholas Hagerman. Sad to say, nothing
indicates the resting-place of the earliest lawyer of the Province, and
the father of Judge Hagerman. (See distinguished Loyalists). In the
middle of the ground rests the dead of the Casey family. The two old
couple whom we remember to have seen when a boy in their green old age,
lie here. “Willet Casey died aged 86. Jane, his wife, aged 93.” We would
say to all here buried, _Requiescat in pace_. But the very crumblings of
the enclosures which were put around the graves by sorrowing friends
when they died cry out against the neglected state of the ground. The
efforts which have repeatedly been made to put the place in repair ought
to be repeated, and a stone wall at least made to effectually inclose
the sacred dust.

The oldest burying place, we believe, in Prince Edward, is some distance
from Indian Point, upon the Lake Shore, and east of the Rock, commonly
known as Ross’s Burying Ground. In this spot are buried some of the
first and most distinguished of the first settlers of Marysburgh.

Another old burying place in Prince Edward is at East Lake, at the
commencement of the Carrying Place. Here may be found the graves of some
eighteen persons who made the first settlement of East Lake. The lot
upon which it is situated belonged to Mr. Dyse. It is no longer used,
but is partially in a ploughed field, and partially covered by a second
growth of trees.

Upon the road along the south shore of Marysburg, a short distance west
of the Rock, upon the Rose farm, are to be seen the lingering remains of
the first church of this township. It was erected at an early date, and
was twenty-four feet square. Here Weant was wont to preach to his flock
of Lutherans, and here at times Langhorn from Bath also held forth. The
situation is pleasant, upon the brow of a comparatively steep hill,
overlooking a pleasant low-land, with the shining Ontario, and Long
Point stretching away into its waters; while to the right is the well
sheltered Wappoose Island. But another object attracts our attention.
Almost immediately fronting us upon a sand-hill close by the water’s
edge is to be seen “the old Dutch burying ground.” It is about
half-a-mile from the road, and we will descend the hill and take the
road through the fields along the fence, the way by which so many have
passed to their long home. The old graveyard is overshadowed by good
sized second growth pines, whose waving tops sigh not unharmoniously
over the ashes of the old Hessian and Dutch settlers. The adjacent shore
washed by the ever throbbing lake gives forth to day the gentlest
sounds. These old burying places remind one that Canada is ever growing
old. Here lie, not alone the early pioneers, but their grand-children;
and over the spot cleared are now good sized second growth trees. The
head boards are fallen in decay, the fence around the plots have
crumbled in the dust.

The oldest burying place in Sophiasburgh is upon the Cronk farm east of

Nearly midway between Belleville and Trenton is situated the oldest
burying ground of Sidney. It is pleasantly located upon an eminence by
the bay shore, and affords a fine view of the bay, and opposite shore.
The visitor will be struck with the irregularity of the graves in the
place primarily used, as if the graves had been dug among the stumps.
Some of them are almost north and south. At the ends of mostly all are
placed stones, rough they are, but lasting, and have, in a large number
of cases, more permanently indicated the position of the graves. Upon
some of these rough stones are rudely cut the initials of the occupant
of the grave. In a great number of cases tablets painted on wood have
been placed to commemorate the individual deceased. But these are
totally obliterated, and the wood is falling to decay. Probably the
temporary mark of affectionate sorrowing was as lasting as the life of
the bereaved. We lingered among the graves here, and they are numerous.
We see the name Myers. And we know that old Capt. Myers was buried here,
after an eventful life. Around him also repose his old acquaintances and
friends—and enemies. They are gone with the primeval woods that covered
the slopes by the Bay Quinté—gone with the hopes and aspirations, and
prospects, and realizations that crowned their trying and eventful life—
gone so that their ashes can no longer be gathered, like the old batteau
which transported them thither—gone like their old log houses whose very
foundations have been plowed up—gone like their rude implements of
agriculture—gone by the slow and wearisome steps of time which marks the
pioneer’s life.

It is gratifying to see that while the ground has been extended, a new
fence has been built, and elegant tombstones, 1868.

The first place set apart in which to bury the dead, in the township of
Thurlow was the “Taylor Burying Ground.” It is situated in Belleville,
at the east of the mouth of the Moira, in view of the bay. The first
person committed to the earth here was Lieut. Ferguson, who had been
associated with Capt. Singleton. The second individual is supposed to
have been the mother of John Taylor. She had been brought to the place
by her son, her only son, two having been executed by the rebels during
the war, when almost ninety years of age. But her stay on earth had
almost ended; not long after, she was one day engaged in spinning flax,
and suddenly ceased her work, and told them to put away the wheel, as
she would spin no more. A few minutes after she ceased to live, and the
weary wheels of life stood still. For many years this ground was the
repository of the dead, about the mouth of Myers’ Creek.

                              DIVISION V.

                              CHAPTER XXV.

  CONTENTS—French Missionaries—First in 1615—Recollets—With Champlain—
    Jesuits, in 1625—Valuable records—Bishopric of Quebec, 1674—First
    Bishop of Canada, Laval—Rivalry—Power of Jesuits—Number of
    Missionaries—Their “Relations”—First mission field; Bay Quinté
    region—“Antient mission”—How founded—First missionaries—Kleus,
    abbe D’Urfé—La Salle, to build a church—The ornaments and sacred
    vessels—The site of the “Chappel,” uncertain—Bald Bluff, Carrying
    Place—Silver crosses—Mission at Georgian Bay—The “Christian
    Islands”—Chapel at Michilmicinac, 1679—The natives attracted—
    Subjects of the French King—Francois Picquet—La Presentation—
    _Soegasti_—The most important mission—The object—Six Nations—The
    Missionary’s living—“Disagreeable expostulations”—Putting stomach
    in order—Trout—Picquet’s mode of teaching Indians—The same
    afterward adopted by Rev. W. Case—Picquet’s success—Picquet on a
    voyage—At Fort Toronto—Mississaugas request—Picquet’s reply—A
    slander—At Niagara, Oswego—At Frontenac—Grand reception—Return to
    La Presentation—Picquet in the last French war—Returns to France—
    By Mississippi—“Apostles of Peace”—Unseemly strife—Last of the
    Jesuits in Canada.


In introducing this subject, we propose first to glance at the original
French Missionaries, and then at the first Protestant Missionaries and
clergymen, who labored in the Atlantic Provinces.

The first missionaries of Christianity to America, came to Canada in the
year 1615. They were four in number, and belonged to the order of
Recollets, or Franciscans, of Spanish origin, a sect who attended to the
spiritual wants of the people without accepting any remuneration. Four
of these devoted men attended Champlain on his second visit to Canada in
1615. Three years later the Pope accorded the charge of missions in
Canada to the Recollets of Paris. In 1625 members of the society of
Jesus likewise entered the mission of America. Ignatius Loyola founded
the Jesuit society in 1521. These two orders of Roman Catholics,
especially the Jesuits, contributed much to the advancement of French
interests in Canada, and by their learning assisted greatly to elevate
the people. Side by side they traversed the vast wilderness of America,
with the intrepid explorers, and by their close observations, committed
to paper, they have left most valuable records of the country in its
primeval state; and the different tribes of savages that held possession
of the country.

Canada was “constituted an apostolic vicariate,” by the Pope, in 1657;
and became an episcopal see, named the Bishopric of Quebec, about 1673.
The first bishop of Canada was Francis de Laval, of the distinguished
house of Montmorency. The rivalry which existed between the Jesuits and
the Recollets, led to the withdrawal from the country of the latter. But
they returned again about 1669. They were welcomed by the people, who
preferred their self-supporting principles to the Jesuits, under Laval,
who required sustentation from them, which was exacted by a system of
tithes. The Jesuits became a very powerful ecclesiastical body, and
commanded even sufficient political influence to secure the recall of
the Governor, who was obnoxious to them, in 1665. Yet the people did not
like them, in their usurpation of temporal power. The second bishop of
Canada was M. de Saint Vallier, who was elevated to that position in

“Between the years 1635–1647, Canada was visited by eighteen Jesuit
missionaries.” It was due to these missionaries, who remained with, and
adapted themselves to the Indian tribes, that Canada held such a
position among the Aborigines. The relations of these missionaries are
of thrilling interest, and deserve the attention of all who desire to
become a student of history.

When there were no more than sixty inhabitants at Quebec, in 1620, the
Recollets had begun to erect a convent and chapel upon the banks of the
St. Charles River.

The Bay Quinté region may be regarded as the earliest mission field in
America. Of the four Missionaries who came with Champlain from France,
in 1615, one at least accompanied him in his journey up the Ottawa,
across to Georgian Bay, and down the Trent to the Bay. This was in July,
and Champlain was under the necessity of remaining in this region until
the following spring, in the meantime visiting several of the tribes all
along the north shore of Lake Ontario. During this period the zealous
Recollet earnestly labored to lay the foundation of Christianity among
the natives, and planted the “antient mission” spoken of by father
Picquet, 1751. We have positive statements to this effect. Probably when
Champlain returned to Montreal, in the spring of 1616, he was not
accompanied by the missionary; who stayed to establish the work he had
commenced. We find it stated that the earliest missionaries to this
region were M. Dolliere de Kleus, and Abbé D’Urfé, priests of the Saint
Sulpice Seminary. Picquet remarks that the ancient mission at the Bay
Quinté was established by Kleus and D’Urfé.

In June, 1571, DeCourcelles, as we have seen, visited Lake Ontario,
coming directly up the St. Lawrence. On this occasion, it is recorded,
he sent messages from Cataraqui “to a few missionaries residing among
the Indians.” Two years later, when Frontenac came, with a view of
establishing a fort, we find it stated that as he approached Cataraqui,
he was met by a canoe with the “Abbé D’Urfé, and the Captains of the
Five Nations.” The following year, 1674, LaSalle, in his petition for
the grant of Fort Frontenac, and adjacent lands, proposed “to build a
church when there will be 100 persons, meanwhile to entertain one or two
of the Recollet Friars to perform divine service, and administer the
sacraments there.” In the reply to this petition by the King, it was
stipulated that LaSalle should “cause a church to be erected within six
years of his grant.”

When Bradstreet, nearly a hundred years later, in 1751, captured Fort
Frontenac, the Commandant, M. de Moyan, obtained the promise from
Bradstreet, to “permit the ornaments and sacred vessels of the chappel
to be removed in the luggage of the Chaplain.”

By the foregoing, we learn the interesting fact, that for 150 years
before the capture of Canada by the English, and nearly 170 before Upper
Canada was first settled, there existed at the Bay Quinté an active
mission of Roman Catholic Christianity. The exact location of the
“chappel” cannot be fixed; but there is every reason to suppose that it
was upon the shores of the Bay, at some distance westward from
Cataraqui, inasmuch as reference is made to the chapel as quite apart
from the Fort, at Cataraqui.

From the nature of the relics found in the Indian burying ground, near
the Carrying Place, at Bald Bluff, by Weller’s Bay, it might even have
been situated there. Silver crosses, and other evidences of Roman
Catholic Christianity, have been found in this place. Father Picquet
remarks that the land was not good, but the quarter is beautiful.

There seems every probability that not many years after the
establishment of the mission by the Bay Quinté, another was established
in the neighborhood of Lake Huron, or Georgian Bay. Upon the river Wye,
some six miles north of Penetanguishene, Pe-na-tang-que shine, so called
by the Indians upon first seeing the sand banks, meaning “see the sand
is falling,” was established a French fort, at an early date, the
foundation of which may yet be seen. It appears likely that at this
point, at the Christian Islands, (a significant name,) situated between
the Manitoulin Islands and the mainland; and also at Michilmicinac, were
commenced missionary labors by the Recollets and others. We find it
stated that in 1679 there was a chapel at Michilmicinac, which may refer
to the Christian Islands. Here LaSalle, on his way westward, stopped and
attended mass, with the celebrated Recollet, Pére Hennepin.

The natives were strongly attached to these French missionaries.
Presents of porcelaine beads to make wampum, with a kind demeanor, soon
won many of them to become Roman Catholics; and the cross was set up in
their midst. And the time came when they were willing to acknowledge
themselves under the protection of, and subject to the French King.

At the present site of Ogdensburgh, in the year 1748, “Francis Picquet,
Doctor of the Sarbonne, King’s Missionary, and Prefect Apostolic to
Canada,” began to found the mission of _La Presentation_. By the river
Oswegotchie, then called by the Indians _Soegasti_, he succeeded in
planting a mission, which became the most important in all Canada. The
object was to convert the Six Nations to Roman Catholic Christianity,
and thereby to win them from their connection with the English. M.
Picquet was a devoted man. “He received at that time neither allowance
nor presents. From the King he had but one half pound of pork a day,
which made the savages say, when they brought him a buck and some
partridges, “We doubt not, Father, but that there have been disagreeable
expostulations in your stomach, because you had nothing but pork to eat.
Here is something to put your affairs in order.” They sometimes brought
him trout weighing eighty pounds.

In 1749, when French interests were declining in the new world, and when
every effort to secure the alliance of the Iroquois was devised,
Governor de Veudreuil sent the Rev. Abbe Picquet of the missionary house
at La Presentation, he being well and favorably known among the Five
Nations. The object was to draw within the bounds of La Presentation
many of the families, where they should not only be taught the Catholic
religion, but also the elements of husbandry. It was somewhat the same
idea as that which led the Rev. William Case, in later days, to
domesticate the Mississaugas on the Grape Island. L’Abbe Picquet was
successful in his mission, and in 1751, he had 396 heads of families
living at the place. Among these were the most distinguished and
influential families of the Iroquois. The settlement was divided into
three villages, and much taste and skill were displayed in the planning.
Great attractiveness characterized the place up to the conquest of

In the month of June, 1751, Father Picquet set out upon a voyage up to
Fort Frontenac, and thence up the Bay Quinté, and the River Trent to
Fort Toronto, and so on around Lake Ontario. He embarked in a King’s
canoe, accompanied by one bark, in which were five trusty savages. The
memoir of this trip is curious and edifying.

Proceeding to Fort Toronto, by way of the Trent, then an important
trading post with the Indians, he found Mississaugas there who flocked
around him; they spoke first of the happiness their young people, the
women and children, would feel, if the King would be as good to them as
to the Iroquois, for whom he procured missionaries. They complained that
instead of building a church, they had constructed only a canteen for
them. Abbe Picquet did not allow them to finish, and answered them, that
they had been treated according to their fancy; that they had never
evinced the least zeal for religion; that their conduct was much opposed
to it;—that the Iroquois, on the contrary, had manifested their love for
Christianity, but as he had no order to attract them to his mission, he
avoided a more lengthy explanation,” (Paris Doc). This conduct on the
part of Abbe Picquet must be regarded as heartless in the extreme. Such
language ought not to come from the lips of a missionary. It shows that
the Iroquois, because of his relationship with the English, had souls of
far more importance than the Mississauga, whose character for peace
rendered him of minor importance. The reflection upon the character was
uncharitable; and, judging by the light supplied by later days, it was
untrue—shamefully untrue. That the Mississauga Indians acquired a taste
for the brandy vended to them by the French trader was certainly a fact;
but that did not indicate an unwillingness on their part, to become
Christians. Missionaries, of the present century, have succeeded in
raising the Mississauga, not alone from paganism, but from a degrading
love of spirituous liquors acquired of the French, to a distinguished
place among converted Indians.

Abbe Picquet went from Fort Toronto, probably by the River Don, and
thence across the lake, to Fort Niagara, to negotiate with the Senecas.
Passing along the south shore, he visited the English fort at the mouth
of the River Oswego, called _Choueguen_. He also visited the River
Gascouchogou, (Genesee) and returned to Frontenac, where a grand
reception awaited him. “The Nippissings and Algonquins who were going to
war, drew up in a line of their own accord above Fort Frontenac, where
three standards were hoisted. They fired several volleys of musketry,
and cheered incessantly. They were answered in the same style from all
the little crafts of bark. M. de Verchere, and M. de la Valtrie, caused
the guns of the fort to be discharged at the same time, and the Indians,
transported with joy at the honors paid them, also kept up a continual
fire with shouts and exclamations which made every one rejoice. The
commandants and officers received our missionary at the landing. No
sooner had he landed than all the Algonquins and Nippissings of the lake
came to embrace him. Finally, when he returned to _La Presentation_, he
was received with that affection, that tenderness, which children would
experience in recovering a father whom they had lost.” Three years later
war was, for the last time, in progress between the French and English
in America. Father Picquet contributed much to stay the downfall of
French domination. He distinguished himself in all the principal
engagements, and by his presence animated the Indian converts to battle
for the French King. At last, finding all was lost, he retired on the
8th May, 1760. He ascended the Bay Quinté and Trent by Fort Toronto, and
passed on to Michilmicinac, and thence to the Mississippi; and then to
New Orleans, where he stayed twenty-two months. Died 15th July, 1781,
called the “Apostle of the Iroquois.”

During the French domination in Canada, the dissentions between the
Recollets and Jesuits were almost incessant. Now the one was sustained
and patronized by the governor regnant, now the other, and many were the
struggles between Church and State. The closing days of French rule
witnessed scenes of unseemly strife between the clergy and the
governors. The last of the Jesuits in Canada, Father Casat, died in
1800, and the whole of their valuable possessions came to the

                             CHAPTER XXVI.

  CONTENTS—First Church in New York, 1633—First Dominie, Rev.
    Everardus Bogardus—The Dutch, Huguenots, Pilgrims—Transporting
    ministers and churches—First Rector of New York, Wm. Vesey—Henry
    Barclay, 1746—First Catholic Bishop in America, 1789—Episcopalian
    Bishop, 1796—Moral state of Pioneers in Canada—Religion—No
    ministers—No striking immorality—Feared God and honored their
    King—The Fathers of Upper Canada—Religious views—A hundred years
    ago—“Carousing and Dancing”—Rev. Dr. John Ogilvie—First Protestant
    Clergyman in Canada—Chaplain 1759, at Niagara—A Missionary—
    Successor of Dr. Barclay, New York—Death, 1774—Rev. John Doughty—A
    Graduate Ordained—At Peekskill—Schenectady—A Loyalist—A Prisoner—
    To Canada—Chaplain—To England—Returns—Missionary—Resigns—Rev. Dr.
    John Stuart—First Clergyman to settle—His Memoir—The “Father of
    the U. C. Church”—Mission Work—The Five Nations—The Dutch—Rev. Mr.
    Freeman—Translator—Rev. Mr. Andrews—Rev. Mr. Spencer Woodbridge,
    Howley—New England Missionaries—Rev. Dr. Whelock—The Indian
    Converts—The London Society—Rev. Mr. Inglis—John Stuart selected
    missionary—A Native of Pennsylvania—Irish descent—A Graduate,
    Phil. Coll.—Joins Church of England—To England—Ordination—Holy
    Orders 1770—Enters upon his work.


According to the Rev. J. B. Wakley, “The Reformed Dutch Church was the
first organized in New Amsterdam, (New York). This year, 1633, the first
church edifice was erected on this island, (Manhatten). It was built on
what is called Broad Street. It was a small frail wooden building. The
name of the first Dominie is preserved, the Rev. Everardus Bogardus. He
came over from Holland with the celebrated Wanter Van Twiller. The Dutch
and the Huguenots, as well as the Pilgrims, brought the church, the
school-master, and their Bibles with them. They erected a dwelling for
the Rev. Mr. Bogardus to reside in. This was the first parsonage built
on the island, if not in America. This first minister in New Amsterdam
met with a sad end. After spending some years in the new world, in
returning to his native land, he, with eighty-one others, was lost off
the coast of Wales. The Bogarts are probably descended from this pioneer
minister, he having left children behind him in America, or some near
connection. The first Rector of the Church of England in New York, was
the Rev. William Vesey, pastor of Trinity Church. The Rev. Dr. Henry
Barclay was the second Rector, who had previously been catechist for ten
years to the Mohawk Indians. He became Rector October 22, 1746.” He was
the father of the late Thomas Barclay, Consul-General of His British
Majesty in the United States, and grandfather of Mr. Anthony Barclay,
late British Consul at New York, who was under the necessity of
returning home during the Russian war, in consequence of the jealousy
and partiality of the American Government.

We find it stated that Dr. Carroll, of Maryland, was the first Catholic
Bishop in America, 1789.

Dr. Seabury, Bishop of Connecticut, was the first Episcopalian Bishop of
that State, he died in 1796.

The circumstances of the settlers in Upper Canada were not such as would
conduce to a growth of religion and morality. Apart from the effect upon
them resulting from a civil war, and being driven away from home—
isolated in a wilderness, far removed from civilization; there were
circumstances inimical to the observance of religious duties. The
earnest contest for life, the daily struggle for food, and more
especially, the absence of ministers of the gospel, all combined to
create a feeling of indifference, if not a looseness of morals. In a few
instances, there was on the part of the settlers, a departure from that
strict virtue, which obtains at the present time, and in which they had
been trained. But on the whole, there was a close adherence, and a
severe determination to serve the God of their fathers. From many a log
cabin ascended the faithful prayer of the followers of Luther; of the
conscientious Episcopalian, and the zealous Methodist and Baptist. Yet,
for years, to some the word of life was not preached; and then but
rarely by the devoted missionary as he traveled his tedious round of the
wilderness. After ten years, the average of inhabitants to the square
miles, was only seven. This paucity of inhabitants, prevented regular
religious sermons by clergymen, as it did the formation of well taught
schools. This absence of educational and religious advantages, it might
be expected, would naturally lead to a demoralized state of society, but
such was not the case with the settlers of the ten townships. This
sparseness of population, arose in part, it must be mentioned, from the
system pursued by government, of reserving tracts of land, of granting
to the clergy, and to non-resident owners, all of which remained to
embarrass the separated settlers, and prevent advance of civilization,
by begetting ignorance and indifference to religion.

When it is remembered how great had been the trials of the refugees
during the continuation of the war; when we call to mind the school of
training belonging to a camp life; and still more, when it is taken into
consideration to how great an extent the settlers were removed from the
salutary influences of civilized life, it at once strikes the thoughtful
mind as surprising, that the early colonist did not relapse into a state
of non-religion and gross immorality. But it is a remarkable fact that
the loyalists who planted Upper Canada, not only honored their King, but
feared God, and in a very eminent degree fulfilled the later commandment
to love one another. Certainly there were exceptions. Even yet are
remembered the names of a few who availed themselves of their neighbors’
necessities to acquire property; and the story still floats down the
stream of time, that there were those who had plenty and to spare of
government stores, while the people were enduring the distress of the
“Hungry Year.” But even these reports lack confirmation, and even if
true, are the more conspicuous by their singularity. There is no
intention or desire to clothe the founders of Upper Canada with a
character to which they are not entitled, to suppress in any respect
facts that would tend to derogate the standing of the loyalists. This is
unnecessary to place them upon an elevated ground, but were it not, it
would be contrary to the writer’s feelings, and unfair to the reader.
There will be occasion to allude to a few instances, where gross evils
manifested themselves, yet after all, they are but the dark corners
which only serve to bring out the more glowing colors of the picture
presented. In arriving at a just estimate of their state of morals, it
is necessary to take into consideration, that many of the views held by
truly religious men a hundred years ago, differed widely from those held
by many to day. Reference is made to certain kinds of amusements then
unhesitatingly indulged in, which to-day are looked upon as inimical to
sound Christianity. One of these is the habit of using intoxicating
liquors. It was also charged against them, that they were “wofully
addicted to carousing and dancing.”

                        REV. JOHN OGILVIE, D.D.

This divine was probably the first Protestant clergyman that ever
officiated in Canada. He did so in the capacity of chaplain to a British
Regiment in an expedition to Fort Niagara, in 1759, when that French
stronghold was surrendered. Dr. Ogilvie, was a native of New York, and a
graduate of Yale college. He was employed by the Society for the
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, as a missionary with
success. In 1765 he succeeded the Rev. Dr. Barclay, as Rector of Trinity
Church, New York. He died in 1774. “A portrait of him is still preserved
in the vestry office of Trinity Church.” The next Protestant clergyman
we believe, was the Rev. John Doughty.

“An Episcopal minister. He graduated at King’s College, New York, in
1770. He was ordained in England for the church at Peekskill, but was
soon transferred to Schenectady. In 1775, political troubles put an end
to divine service, and he suffered much at the hands of the popular
party. In 1777, he obtained leave to depart to Canada, (after having
been twice a prisoner,) where he became chaplain of the “King’s Royal
Regiment,” of New York. In 1781 he went to England; but returned to
Canada in 1784, and officiated as missionary at Sorel. He resigned his
connection with the society for the propagation of the gospel in foreign
parts, in 1803.”—(_Sabine._)

The first clergyman to settle in Canada, and one of the refugee pioneers
at the first settlement of Kingston, was the Rev. John Stuart. We are
fortunate in having before us a transcript of the memoir of this
distinguished person.

  “_Memoirs of the Rev. John Stuart, D.D., father of the Upper Canada
    Church. He opened the first academy at Cataraqui—Kingston 1786.
    The last missionary to the Mohawks._”

“The conversion and civilization of the American Indians, engaged the
attention of Europeans at an early date.” The Jesuits first gave
attention to the Mohawks, 1642, a few years later, Father Joynes laid
down his life on the Mohawk River. The first colonizers, the Dutch did
not give the subject much attention. “The government of New York, did
not make any effort to Christianize the five nations, further than to
pay, for some time a small salary to the clergyman, at Albany, to attend
to the wants of such Indians, as might apply to him.” The Rev. Mr.
Freeman, translated into the Mohawk language, the Church of England
Prayer Book, with some passages of the Old and New Testament. “In 1712
Mr. Andrews was sent as a missionary to the Mohawk, by the society, for
propagating the gospel, and a church was built at the mouth of the
Schoharie creek, but that missionary soon abandoned the place. As he was
the first, so he was the last that resided among them for a great many
years. After that the only ministration was at Albany. In 1748, the Rev.
Mr. Spencer, Mr. Woodbridge and Howly, were sent successively by the
people of New England,” to this field of labor.

The French war soon interrupted this, and not until 1761, was anything
more done, when the Rev. Dr. Wheelock, directed his attention to that
quarter, with missionaries, and schoolmasters. The testimony mainly of
all these mentioned, who labored among the Indians, is to the effect
that, although they were quick to learn, and would for a time live a
Christian life, they mostly all lapsed into their former savage state.
“The necessity of having missionaries of the Church of England, resident
among the Mohawks, was again brought before the society for promoting of
the gospel, a few years before the revolution, both by Sir William
Johnson, and the Rev. Mr. Inglis, of New York, the last of whom also
laid the subject before the government of England, in the form of a
memorial. In 1770 the society again consented to ordain a missionary for
the exclusive service of the Mohawks. John Stuart, who was selected for
this purpose, was born at Harrisburgh, in Pennsylvania, in 1730. The
family mansion in which he was born was still standing in 1836.” His
father, an Irishman, came to America in 1730. John Stuart had two
brothers who sided with the Americans. When he “graduated at the college
of Philadelphia, he made up his mind to join the communion of the Church
of England.” His father being a Presbyterian, this was extremely
distasteful to him. But his father finally consenting, he proceeded to
England for ordination, and received Holy Orders in 1770, and was
appointed missionary to the Mohawks at Fort Hunter.

                             CHAPTER XXVII.

  CONTENTS—At Fort Hunter—Mr. Stuart’s first sermon, Christmas—
    Officiates in Indian tongue—Translates—The Rebellion—Prayers for
    the King—The Johnsons—Rebels attack his house—Plunder—Indignity—
    Church desecrated—Used as a stable—A barrel of rum—Arrested—
    Ordered to come before Rebel Commissioners—On Parole—Limits—Idle
    two years—To Albany—Phil—Determines to remove to Canada—Not
    secure—Exchanging—Security—Real estate forfeited—Route—Negroes—The
    journey, three weeks—At St. John’s—Charge of Public School—
    Chaplain—At the close of the war—Three Protestant Parishes—
    Determines to settle at Cataraqui—Chaplain to Garrison—Missionary—
    Bishop of Virginia, Dr. Griffith—Visits Mr. Stuart—Invitation to
    Virginia Declined—“Rivetted prejudices,” satisfied—“The only
    refugee clergyman”—Path of duty—Visits the settlement, 1784—
    Mohawks, Grand River—Reception of their old Pastor—First Church—
    Mohawks, Bay of Quinté—Remains in Montreal a year—Assistant—
    Removes to Cataraqui, 1785—His land—Number of houses in Kingston—A
    short cut to Lake Huron—Fortunate in land—5000 settlers—Poor and
    Happy—Industrious—Around his Parish, 1788—Two hundred miles long—
    By Batteau—Brant—New Oswego—Mohawk Village church, steeple, and
    bell—First in Upper Canada—Plate—Organ—Furniture—Returns—At
    Niagara—Old Parishioners—Tempted to move—Comfortable not rich—
    Declines a Judgeship—New Mecklenburgh—Appointed Chaplain to first
    House of Assembly—Mohawk Mission—At Marysburgh—Degree of D.D.—
    Prosperity—Happy—Decline of life—His duties—Illness, Death, 1811—
    His appearance—“The little gentleman”—His manners—Honorable title—
    His children—Rev. O’Kill Stuart.


Mr. Stuart immediately returned to America and proceeded to his mission,
preaching his first sermon to the Mohawks on Christmas of the same year,
1770. He preached regularly every Sunday after the service had been read
in Indian. In the afternoon he officiated in the Mohawk chapel to the
whites, mostly Dutch. “In 1774 he was able to read the liturgy, baptize
and marry in the Indian tongue, and converse tolerably well with them.
He subsequently, assisted by Brant, translated parts of the Bible. After
the commencement of the rebellion, until 1777, Mr. Stuart did not
experience any inconvenience,” although in other places the clergy had
been shamefully abused; he remained at Fort Hunter even after the
Declaration of Independence, and constantly performed divine service
without omitting prayers for the king. Mr. Stuart’s connection with the
Johnson family, and his relations to the Indians rendered him
particularly noxious to the Whigs. Although they had not proof of his
being active in aiding the British, everything was done to make his home
unbearable. “His house was attacked, his property plundered and every
indignity offered his person. His church was also plundered and turned
into a tavern, and in ridicule and contempt, a barrel of rum was placed
in the reading desk. The church was afterwards used as a stable, July,
1778. He was ordered by the Board to detect conspiracies, to leave his
home and repair forthwith with his family to Connecticut until his
exchange could be procured.” He was to leave within four days after
receiving the orders, or be committed to close confinement. “Mr. Stuart
appeared before the Commissioners two days after receiving the above
order, and declared his readiness to convince them that he had not
corresponded with the enemy, and that he was ready and willing to enter
into any engagement for the faithful performance of such duties as may
be enjoined him.” The Board took his parole, by which he was obligated
to abstain from doing anything against the Congress of the United
States, or for the British, and not to leave the limits of Schenectady
without permission of the Board. Soon after he writes there are only
three families of my congregation, the rest having joined the King’s
forces, nor had he preached for two years. In the Spring of 1780, the
Indians appeared in the county infuriated because of the conduct of
General Sullivan the previous year. Mr. Stuart had to abandon his house
and move to Albany. So imminent was the danger that the fleeing family
could see the houses about in flames, and hear the report of arms. At
Albany, Mr. Stuart received much civility from General Schuyler, and
obtained permission to visit Philadelphia. Having returned, he made up
his mind to emigrate to Canada, and communicated his resolution as
follows: “I arrived here eight days from the time I parted with you (at
Philadelphia) and found my family well, and after being sufficiently
affrighted, the enemy having been within twenty miles of this place, and
within one mile of my house in the country, considering the present
state of affairs in this part of the Province, I am fully persuaded that
I cannot possibly live here secure, either in regard to ourselves or
property during the ensuing season; this place is likely to be a
frontier, and will probably be burnt if the enemy can effect it. For
these and other weighty reasons, materially weighed, I have resolved,
with the approbation and consent of Mrs. Stuart, to emigrate to Canada,
and having made an application for an exchange, which I have reason to
believe will be granted.”

Mr. Stuart applied by letter to Governor Clinton, to be exchanged, March
30, 1781. His application received prompt attention, and he was the same
day allowed permission on certain conditions, which are stated by Mr.
Stuart in a letter to Rev. Mr. White, of Philadelphia. The letter is
dated Schenectady, April 17, 1781. “Being considered as a prisoner of
war, and having forfeited my real estate, I have given £400 security to
return in exchange for myself, one prisoner out of four nominated by the
Governor, viz.: one Colonel, two Captains, and one Lieutenant, either of
which will be accepted in my stead; or if neither of the prisoners
aforesaid can be obtained, I am to return as a prisoner of war to
Albany, when required. My personal property I am permitted to sell or
carry with me, and I am to proceed under the protection of a public
flag, as soon as it will be safe and convenient for women and children
to travel that course. We are to proceed from here to Fort Arin in
waggons, and from thence in Batteaux.” The danger of the journey was
adverted to, and the probability of obtaining a chaplaincy in Sir
William Johnson’s 2nd Battalion of Royal Yorkers, which is nearly
complete on the establishment. “My negroes being personal property, I
take with me, one of which being a young man, and capable of bearing
arms. I have given £100 security to send back a white person in his

“Mr. Stewart set out with his family, consisting of his wife and three
small children, on his long and tedious journey, on the 19th of Sept.,
1781, and arrived at St. Johns on the 9th of the following month, thus
accomplishing the journey in three weeks, which is now done in twelve or
fifteen hours. As there was no opening in Montreal, he took charge of a
public school, which, with his commission as Chaplain, gave him
support.” In a letter to Dr. White, dated Montreal, October 14, 1783, he
says: “I have no reason hitherto to dislike my change of climate; but,
as reduction must take place soon, my emoluments will be much
diminished, neither have I any flattering prospect of an eligible
situation in the way of my profession, as there are only three
protestant Parishes in this Province, the Pastors of which are
Frenchmen, and as likely to live as I am.” Soon after, Mr. Stuart
determined to settle at Cataraqui, where was a garrison, and to which a
good many loyalists had already proceeded. He was promised the
chaplaincy to the garrison, with a salary of one thousand dollars a
year, and he writes, “I can preserve the Indian mission in its
neighborhood, which, with other advantages, will afford a comfortable
subsistence, although I wish it laid in Maryland.” After the
acknowledged independence of the United States, and the separation of
the Episcopalian Church of America from the mother Church, Dr. Griffith,
the Bishop elect of Virginia, invited Mr. Stuart to settle in his
diocese; but Mr. Stuart declined. He writes, “The time has been when the
chance of obtaining a settlement in that part of Virginia would have
gratified my utmost desire; but, at my time of life, and with such
rivetted principles in favor of a Government totally different, ‘it is
impossible.’” Though Mr. Stuart did visit Philadelphia in 1786, he never
seems to have repented his removal to Canada. Yet the isolation in which
he sometimes found himself, would sometimes naturally call up memories
that could not fail to be painful. “I am,” he writes, “the only Refugee
Clergyman in this Province, &c.” As a relief from such thoughts, he
turned to the active duties of his calling. “I shall not regret,” said
he, “the disappointment and chagrin I have hitherto met with, if it
pleases God to make me the instrument of spreading the knowledge of His
Gospel amongst the heathen, and reclaiming only one lost sheep of the
house of Israel.” In this spirit he set out on the second of June, 1784,
to visit the new settlements on the St. Lawrence, Bay Quinté, and
Niagara Falls, where he arrived on the 18th of the same month. Already,
3,500 Loyalists had left Montreal that season for Upper Canada. His
reception by the Mohawks, ninety miles from the Falls, was very
affectionate, even the windows of the church in which he officiated were
crowded with those who were anxious to behold again their old Pastor,
from whom they had been so long separated. This church was the first
built in Upper Canada, and it must have been commenced immediately after
the Mohawks settled on the Grand River. He officiated also at Cataraqui,
where he found a garrison of three companies, about thirty good houses,
and some 1,500 souls who intended to settle higher up. He next proceeded
to the Bay of Quinté, where some more Mohawks had settled, and were busy
building houses and laying the foundation of their new village, named
Tyendinaga. Though Mr. Stuart had now received from the Society, whose
missionary he continued to be, discretionary powers to settle in any
part of Canada, he remained in Montreal another year, as assistant to
the Rev. Dr. DeLisle, Episcopal Clergyman of that town. He finally
removed to Cataraqui, in August, 1785. His share of the public land was
situated partly in Cataraqui, and partly at a place, which, in memory of
the dear old place on the Mohawk River, was now called New Johnstown.
Sometime in 1785, Mr. Stuart says, “I have two hundred acres within half
a mile of the garrison, a beautiful situation. The town increases fast;
there are already about fifty houses built in it, and some of them very
elegant. It is now the port of transport from Canada to Niagara. We have
now, just at the door, a ship, a scow, and a sloop, beside a number of
small crafts; and if the communication lately discovered from this place
by water, to Lake Huron and Michilmackinac proves as safe, and short as
we are made to believe, this will shortly be a place of considerable
trade.” Reference here must be made to the route up the Bay and River
Trent. “I have been fortunate in my locations of land, having 1,400
acres at different places, in good situations, and of an excellent
quality, three farms of which I am improving, and have sowed this fall
with thirty bushels in them. The number of souls to westward of us is
more than 5,000, and we gain, daily, new recruits from the States. We
are a poor, happy people, industrious beyond example. Our gracious King
gives us land gratis, and furnishes provisions, clothing, and farming
utensils, &c., until next September, after which the generality of the
people will be able to live without his bounty.” The above must have
been written in 1785, as in May, 1786, he opened an academy. In the
summer of 1788, he went round his Parish, which was then above 200 miles
long. He thus describes his voyage on this occasion. “I embarked in a
batteau with six Indians, commanded by Capt. Brant, and coasted along
the north shore of Lake Ontario, about 200 miles from the head of the
lake; we went twenty-five miles by land, to New Oswego, the new Mohawk
village on the Grand River; these people were my former charge, and the
Society still styles me their Mohawk Vill. Missionary. I found them
conveniently situated on a beautiful river, where the soil is equal in
fertility to any I ever saw. Their village contains about 700 souls, and
consists of a great number of good houses, with an elegant church in the
centre; it has a handsome steeple and bell, and is well finished
within.” By this we learn, that not only was the first Protestant Church
built at the Grand River, but as well here was the first steeple to
contain a bell, which was the first to be heard in Upper Canada. Brant,
when in England, collected money for all this. With the above, they had
the service of plate, preserved from the rebels on the Mohawk; crimson
furniture for the pulpit, and “the Psalmody was accompanied by an
organ.” “This place was uninhabited four years ago.” “I returned by the
route of Niagara, and visited that settlement. They had, as yet, no
clergyman, and I preached to a very large audience. The increase of
population there was immense, and indeed I was so well pleased with that
country, where I found many of my old Parishioners, that I was strongly
tempted to remove my family to it. You may suppose it cost me a struggle
to refuse the unanimous and pressing invitation of a large settlement,
with the additional argument of a subscription, and other emoluments,
amounting to near £300, York currency, per annum more than I have here.
But, on mature reflection, I have determined to remain here. You will
suppose me to be very rich, or very disinterested; but, I assure you,
neither was the case. I have a comfortable house, a good farm here, and
an excellent school for my children, in a very healthy climate, and all
these I could not have expected had I removed to Niagara. But, that you
may be convinced that I do not intend to die rich, I have also declined
an honorable and lucrative appointment. Our new settlements have been
divided into four districts, of which this place is the capital of one,
called New Mecklenburgh, and Courts of Justice are to be immediately
opened. I had a commission sent me, as first Judge of the Court of
Common Pleas. But, for reasons which readily occur to you, I returned it
to Lord Dorchester, who left this place a few days ago.”

In 1789, Mr. Stuart was appointed Bishop’s Commissionary for the
settlements from Point au Boudette to the western limits of the
Province, being the district now constituting Canada West. Though this
appointment added nothing to his emoluments, it increased considerably
his duties. At the meeting of the first Session of Parliament in 1792,
he was named Chaplain to the Upper House of Assembly, an appointment
which required for a time his presence at Niagara. He occasionally
visited and officiated for the Mohawk Village, at the Bay of Quinté.
But, notwithstanding the laudable exertions of the society, and the
partial indulgence of the British Government to this tribe, no
flattering accounts can be given either of their religious improvements,
or approach to civilization; on his return he usually stopped at Col.
McDonnell’s, Marysburgh, and preached in his house. In the year 1799,
the degree of D.D. was conferred on Mr. Stuart, by the University of
Pennsylvania, his Alma Mater, a complement he appreciated from his
native state. About the same time he received the appointment of
Chaplain to the Garrison of Kingston. “He had secured about 4000 acres
of valuable land to which he occasionally made additions.” In his
prosperity and wealth he exclaimed: “How mysterious are the ways of
Providence! How short-sighted we are! Some years ago I thought it a
great hardship to be banished into the wilderness, and would have
imagined myself completely happy, could I have exchanged it for a place
in the City of Philadelphia,—now the best wish we can form for our
dearest friends is to have them removed to us.” It must be remarked that
the above is taken from letters written to a friend in Philadelphia, and
no doubt, being private and social in their nature, there is often a
coloring favorable to the States which emanated from no love to that
country. “The remainder of Dr. Stuart’s life seems to have passed in the
routine of his duties, interrupted however by attacks of illness, to
which the increase of years, and the fatigue attendant on a mission in
so new a country, could not fail to subject him.” Dr. Stuart departed
this life on the 15th of August, 1811, in the seventy-first year of his
age, and was buried at Kingston, where he lives (says one of his
cotemporaries) in the heart of his friends. “He was about six feet four
inches in height, and from this circumstance, was known among his New
York friends as “the little gentleman.” His manners were quiet and
conciliating, and his character, such as led him rather to win more by
kindness and persuasion, than to awe and alarm them by the terrors of
authority. His sermons were composed in plain and nervous language, were
recommended by the affectionate manner of his delivery, and not
unfrequently found a way to the conscience of those who had long been
insensible to any real religious convictions. The honorable title of
Father of the Upper Canada Church, has been fitly bestowed on him, and
he deserves the name not more by his age and the length of his services,
than by the kind and paternal advice and encouragement, which he was
ever ready to give those younger than he on their first entrance on the
mission.” “By his wife, Jane O’Kill, of Philadelphia, who was born in
1752, he had five sons and three daughters.” All of his sons
subsequently occupied distinguished positions. His eldest son George
O’Kill, graduated at Cambridge, England, in 1801, entered Holy Orders,
and was appointed missionary at York, now Toronto, from whence he
returned on his father’s death to Kingston, where he became Archdeacon.
He died in 1862, at the age of eighty-six.

                            CHAPTER XXVIII.

  CONTENTS—A Missionary—Chaplain at Niagara—Pastor to the Settlers—
    Chaplain to Legislature—Visits Grand River—Officiates—A Land
    Speculator—Receives a pension, £50—1823—Rev. Mr. Pollard—At
    Amherstburgh—Mr. Langhorn—A Missionary—Little Education—Useful—
    Odd—On Bay Quinté In Ernesttown—Builds a Church—At Adolphustown—
    Preaches at Hagerman’s—Another Church—A Diligent Pastor—Pioneer
    Preacher around the Bay—Christening—Marrying—Particular—His
    Appointments—Clerk’s Fees—Generosity—Present to Bride—Faithful to
    Sick Calls—Frozen Feet—No Stockings—Shoe Buckles—Dress—Books—
    Peculiarities—Fond of the Water—Charitable—War of 1812—Determined
    to leave Canada—Thinks it doomed—Singular Notice—Returns to
    Europe—His Library—Present to Kingston—Twenty Years in Canada—
    Extract from Gazette—No One Immediately to take His Place—Rev.
    John Bethune—Died 1815—Native of Scotland—U. E. Loyalists—Lost
    Property—Chaplain to 84th Regiment—A Presbyterian—Second Legal
    Clergyman in Upper Canada—Settled at Cornwall—Children—The
    Baptists—Wyner—Turner—Holts Wiem—Baptists upon River Moira—First
    Chapel—How Built—Places of Preaching—Hayden’s Corners—At East
    Lake—The Lutherans—Rev. Schwerdfeger—Lutheran Settlers—County
    Dundas—First Church East of Kingston—Rev. Mr. Myers lived in
    Marysburgh—Marriage—His Log Church—Removes to St. Lawrence—
    Resigns—To Philadelphia—Mr. Weant—Lives in Ernesttown—Removes to
    Matilda—Not Supported—Secretly Joins the English Church—
    Re-ordained—His Society Ignorant—Suspicion—Preaching in Shirt
    Sleeves—Mr. Myers Returns, by Sleigh—Locking Church Door—The
    Thirty-nine Articles—Compromise—Mr. Myers continues Three Years a
    Lutheran—He Secedes—The End of both Seceders—Rev. I. L.
    Senderling—Rev. Herman Hayunga—Rev. Mr. Shorts—Last Lutheran
    Minister at Ernesttown, McCarty—Married.


The Rev. Robert Addison came as a missionary from the Society for
Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, in 1790. He probably discharged
the duties of chaplain to the troops stationed at Niagara, and also was
Clergyman, and officiated as such, to the settlers. When the government
was formed at Niagara, in 1792, Mr. Addison, was appointed Chaplain. He
occasionally visited the Grand River Indians, officiating through an
interpreter, and baptizing and marrying. Col. Clark says, Mr. Addison
was a land speculator. In 1823, an act was passed by Parliament,
granting Mr. Addison a pension of £50 per annum during life, for service
rendered as Chaplain to the House of Assembly for thirty years. Another
Episcopalian Clergyman, who came to Canada about the same time, was the
Rev. Mr. Pollard, whose station was at Amherstburgh.

A fourth Church of England Clergyman, and one with whom we must become
more familiar, was the Rev. Mr. Langhorn. According to the statement
made to us by the late Bishop Strachan, Mr. Langhorn was sent to Canada
as a missionary by a Society in London, called “The Bees,” or some such
name. He was a Welshman by birth, possessed of but little education or
talent, yet a truthful, zealous, and useful man. Odd in his manner, he
nevertheless worked faithfully among the settlers from Kingston to Hay
Bay. Upon arriving he took up his abode in Ernesttown, living at Hoyts,
the present site of Bath. Here he was instrumental in having, before
long time, erected an English Church. Soon after coming he visited
Adolphustown, and preached at Mr. Hagerman’s, where Mr. Stuart had
previously occasionally held service. Steps were at once taken to build
a church also at Adolphustown, and Mr. Langhorn came to hold service
regularly every second Sabbath. Mr. Langhorn was a diligent pastor in
his rounds among his flock, over an extensive tract with great
regularity, and once in a great while he went as far as the Carrying
Place, where it is said he preached the first of all the pioneer
ministers. He likewise occasionally visited Prince Edward, and preached
at Smith’s Bay, and at Congers, Picton Bay. He was very careful to have
all the children christened before they were eight days old, and never
failed to question the larger in the catechism. Marriage he would never
perform but in the church, and always before eleven in the morning. If
the parties to be joined failed to reach the church by the appointed
time, he would leave; and would refuse to marry them, no matter how far
they had come, generally on foot, or by canoe. Sometimes they were from
the remote townships, yet were sent away unmarried. After performing the
marriage ceremony, he would insist on receiving, it is said, three
coppers for his clerk. For himself he would take nothing, unless it was
to present it to the bride immediately. Seemingly he did not care for
money; and he would go in all kinds of weather when wanted to officiate,
or administer to the wants of the sick. One person tells us that he
remembers his coming to his father’s in winter, and that his feet were
frozen. No wonder, as Mr. Langhorn never wore stockings nor gloves in
the coldest weather. But his shoe buckles were broad and bright; and a
broad rimmed hat turned up at the sides covered his head. Upon his back
he generally carried in a bag some books for reading. We have referred
to his peculiarities; many extraordinary eccentricities are related of
him, both as a man and clergyman. He was very fond of the water, both in
summer and winter. “In summer,” (Playter says,) “he would, at times swim
from a cove on the main shore to a cove in the opposite island, three
miles apart, and in winter, he would cut a hole in the ice, and another
at some distance, and would dive down at one hole, and come up the
other. He had some eccentricities, but he seemed to be a good and
charitable man.”

Mr. Langhorn, when the war of 1812 commenced, acquired the belief, it is
said, that Canada would be conquered by the United States, and so
determined to escape. The following somewhat singular “Notice” appeared
in the Kingston _Gazette_:—“Notice—To all whom it may concern,—That the
Rev. J. Langhorn, of Ernesttown, intends returning to Europe this
summer, if he can find a convenient opportunity; and all who have any
objections to make, are requested to acquaint him with them, and they
will much oblige their humble servant,—J. Langhorn,—Earnesttown, March,
1813.” The Rev. gentleman did go home, and some say that he was again
coming to Canada, and was shipwrecked. Before leaving Canada, he made a
valuable present to Kingston, as the following notice will show:

“The Rev. Mr. Langhorn, of Ernesttown, who is about returning to
England, his native country, has presented a valuable collection of
books to the Social Library, established in this village. The directors
have expressed to him the thanks of the proprietors for his liberal
donation. Many of the volumes are very elegant, and, it is to be hoped,
will, for many years, remain a memorial of his liberality and
disposition to promote the diffusion of useful knowledge among a people,
with whom he has lived as an Episcopal Missionary more than twenty
years. During that period his acts of charity have been frequent and
numerous, and not confined to members of his own church; but extended to
indigent and meritorious persons of all denominations. Many who have
shared in his bounty, will have reason to recollect him with gratitude,
and to regret his removal from the country.”—(_Kingston Gazette_).

After his departure, the churches where he had preached were vacant for
many a day; and, at last, the one in Adolphustown went to decay.

There died, at Williamstown, U. C., 23rd September, 1815, the Rev. John
Bethune, in his 65th year. He was a native of Scotland. Came to America
before the rebellion, and was possessed of property, all of which he
lost, and was thereby reduced to great distress for the time being. The
foundation was then laid for the disease of which he died. During the
rebellion, he was appointed Chaplain to the 80th Regiment. At the close
of the war he settled in Canada. He left a widow and numerous family.

Ex-Sheriff Sherwood, of Brockville, says that “the Rev. Mr. Bethune, a
Presbyterian Clergyman, was the second legalized Clergyman in the
country. He settled at an early period at Cornwall. He was father of the
Rev. John Bethune, now Dean of Montreal, (1866).”


The first Ministers of this sect were Elders Wyner and Turner, a brother
of Gideon Turner, one of the first settlers of Thurlow. One, Elder
Holts, also preached around the Bay, but a love of brandy hindered him.
Yet he was an attractive preacher. This was probably about 1794.

A considerable number of Baptists settled up the river Moira, in
Thurlow. The first chapel built here was for that denomination, in the
fifth concession. Its size was thirty feet square. But, prior to the
building of this, a dozen or so would meet for worship at the house of
Mr. Ross. The chapel was mainly built by each member going to the place
and working at the building, from time to time, until it was completed.

Mr. Turner traveled through different sections, preaching wherever he
found his fellow communionists. He occasionally preached at Capt.
McIntosh’s, at Myer’s Creek, and now and then at the head of the Bay.
The Baptists were, probably, the first to preach at Sidney, and Thurlow.
Myer’s Creek was not a central place at which to collect the scattered
settlers until it became a village. Before that, the preaching place of
the Baptists, and afterwards of the Presbyterians and Methodists, was up
at Gilbert’s house, in Sidney, or at Col. Bell’s, in Thurlow. When the
village grew, services were held at Capt. McIntosh’s and Mr. Mitz’s, at
the mouth of the river, by different denominations, and still later, in
a small school house. Preaching also was held up the river, at Reed’s
and Hayden’s Corners.

The first Baptist Minister that preached at East Lake, Hallowell, was
the Rev. Joseph Wiem. Not unlikely, he and Elder Wyner are the same.


Among the early ministers of religion who attended to the spiritual
interests of the pioneers, were several of the Lutheran Church. Of this
denomination, there was a considerable number in the County of Dundas,
chiefly Dutch. There were also a community of them in Ernesttown, and
another in Marysburgh. The first church built in Upper Canada, east of
Kingston, perhaps the next after the one built at Tyendinaga, was
erected by the Lutherans. It was put up in 1790, named Zion’s Church,
and a Mr. Schwerdfeger, who resided near Albany, was invited to be their
Pastor. This invitation was gladly accepted, as he and his family had
suffered severe persecution from the victorious rebels. He died in 1803.

At an early period, indeed it would seem probable before Mr.
Schwerdfeger came to Canada, although the time cannot be positively
fixed, the Rev. Mr. Myers, from Philadelphia, lived in Marysburgh and
preached to the Lutheran Germans of that Township. He married a daughter
of Mr. Henry Smith, one of the first settlers there, where stood his log
church, about twenty-four feet square, upon the brow of a hill
overlooking a lovely landscape. Mr. Myers removed to the St. Lawrence,
and “in 1804 became Pastor of the Lutheran churches there.” (History of
Dundas). He resigned in 1807, not being supported, and removed to

The second Lutheran clergyman to preach upon the Bay, was the Rev. Mr.
Weant. He lived a short distance below Bath, and went every four weeks
to preach at Smith’s Bay; and, in the meantime, preached to the
Lutherans of Ernesttown, where he built a log church, the first there.
In 1808, he received a call from the Lutherans of Matilda, “which he
accepted, and for some time preached acceptably, residing in the
parsonage.” He, too, seems to have been inadequately supported by the
people, and yielding to inducements, too tempting for most men to
resist, he, in 1811, secretly joined the Church of England, and was
re-ordained by Bishop Mountain, in Quebec. Upon his return, he pretended
still to be a Lutheran minister, and preached, as usual, in German
exclusively. Suspicions, however, soon arose that all was not right, for
he began to use the English Book of Common Prayer, and occasionally to
wear the surplice, practices which gave such offence to his former
friends, that they declared they would no longer go to hear a man who
proclaimed to them in his shirt sleeves. A few were persuaded by him to
join the Church of England. The majority remained faithful. In 1814, the
Lutherans again invited the Rev. Mr. Myers; upon his consenting to come,
they sent two sleighs, in the winter, to Pennsylvania, and brought him
and his family to Dundas. But Mr. Weant would not give up the parsonage
and glebe, and put a padlock on the church door, and forbade any one to
enter, unless acknowledging the thirty-nine articles of the Church of
England. A compromise resulted, and the Lutherans were permitted to use
the building once in two weeks. For three years, Mr. Myers continued his
ministrations as a Lutheran, in the meantime being in straitened
circumstances. In 1817, strangely enough, Mr. Myers also forsook the
Lutheran Church, and conformed to the Church of England. (Hist. of
Dundas.) The end of Mr. Weant and Mr. Myers, according to accounts, was
not, in either case satisfactory. The latter died suddenly from a fall,
it is said, while he was intoxicated, and the former was addicted to the
same habit of intemperance.

The successor of Mr. Myers was the Rev. I. L. SENDERLING. He came in
1825, and stayed only a short time.

In 1826, Rev. HERMAN HAYUNIGA became the Pastor; and succeeded, after
many years, in restoring to the church its former prosperity,
notwithstanding much that opposed him. He had a new church erected. His
successor was the Rev. Dendrick Shorts.

The _Kingston Gazette_ contains a notice of perhaps the last Lutheran
Minister at Ernest town. “Married. In Ernesttown, 29th Jan, 1816, the
Rev. Wm. McCarty, Minister of the Lutheran congregation, to Miss
Clarissa Fralick.”

                             CHAPTER XXIX.

  CONTENTS—Bishop Strachan—A teacher—A preacher—A student—Holy Orders—
    A Presbyterian—Becomes an Episcopalian—A supporter of the “Family
    compact”—Sincere—His opinion of the people—Ignorant—Unprepared for
    self-government—Strachan’s religious chart—He was deceived—The
    Methodist—Anomalous connection—A fillibustering people—
    Republicanism egotistical—Loyalty of Methodists—American
    ministers—Dr. Strachan’s position—His birth place—His education—A.
    M., 1793—Studying Theology—Comes to Canada—A student of Dr.
    Stuarts—Ordained Deacon—A missionary at Cornwall—Rector at York—
    Archdeacon—Bishop of Toronto—Coadjutor—Death—A public burial—Rev.
    Mr. McDowell—First Presbyterian at Bay Quinté—Invited by
    VanAlstine—On his way—At Brockville—Settles in second town—His
    circuit—A worthy minister—Fulfilling his mission—Traveling on
    foot—To York—Marrying the people—His death—His descendants—Places
    of Preaching—A Calvinist—Invites controversy—Mr. Coate accepts the
    challenge—The disputation—Excitement—The result—Rev. Mr. Smart—
    Called by Mr. McDowell—Pres. clergyman at Brockville—Fifty years—
    An earnest Christian—A desire to write—“Observer”—A pioneer—A
    cause of regret—Not extreme—Mr. Smart’s views on politics—The
    masses uneducated—The “Family Compact”—Rise of responsible
    government—The Bidwells—Credit to Dr. Strachan—Brock’s funeral
    sermon—Foundation of Kingston gaol—Maitland—Demonstration—
    Sherwood’s statement.


Having elsewhere spoken of this distinguished man as the first teacher
of Higher Education in Upper Canada, it is intended to give him a proper
place among the first who preached the Gospel. Dr. Strachan, who had
studied Divinity at Kingston, under the guidance of Mr. Stuart, took
Holy Orders while engaged in teaching at Cornwall. Although he had been
brought up in the Presbyterian faith, he deliberately connected himself
with the Church of England, as the church of his choice.

From the first, Dr. Strachan took a decided stand in favor of the
exclusive power claimed by the government and the “Family Compact.” This
step was no doubt, deemed by him the very best to secure the interest of
the rising country, believing as he did, that the people generally were
unfitted by want of education to perform the duties of legislation and
self-government. His devotion to the government, led doubtless, in some
instances, to errors of judgment, and on a few occasions placed him in a
false position. Yet he was always seemingly conscientious. The course
pursued by him, in preparing, and sending to the Imperial Government a
religious chart, which subsequent investigation proved to be incorrect,
had, at the time, an unfortunate effect. But it is submitted, that it
has never been shewn, that Dr. Strachan was otherwise than deceived when
preparing the document. He made statements of a derogatory nature with
respect to the Methodist body; but can it be shewn that there was no
reason whatever for his statements. The history of the Methodists of
Canada, exhibits a loyalty above suspicion. But was there no ground on
which to place doubts respecting the propriety of any body of Canadians
receiving religious instruction from men who were subjects of another
country—a country which was ever threatening the province, and who had
basely invaded an unoffending people—a country that constantly
encouraged her citizens to penetrate the territory of contiguous powers
with the view of possessing it. While there is sufficient proof that the
Methodist ministers who came into the country were actuated by the very
highest motives, it cannot be denied that any one taught in the school
of republicanism, will carry with him wherever he goes, whether among
the courtly of Europe, the contented and happy Canadians, or the
blood-thirsty Mexicans, his belief in the immaculate principles of
republicanism. He cannot, even if he would, refrain from descanting upon
the superiority of his government over all others. The proclamation of
Gen. Hull, at Detroit, and of others, shews that the belief was
entertained in the States, that many Canadians were favorable to the
Americans. Whence could have arisen this belief? Not certainly from the
old U. E. Loyalists, who had been driven away from their native country?
Not surely by the English, Irish, or Scotch? Dr. Strachan, with the
government, could not close their eyes to these facts, and was it
unnatural to infer that American-sent Methodists had something to do
with it?

Bishop Strachan was a man of education, and as such, he must be judged
in reference to his opinion that Methodists were unqualified to teach
religious truth, from their imperfect or deficient education. We say,
not that much book learning is absolutely essential to a successful
expounding of the plan of salvation, although it is always most
desirable. But having taken our pen to do justice to all of whom we have
to speak, we desire to place the reader so far as we can upon the stand
of view occupied by the distinguished Divine and Scholar.

Dr. Strachan was born at Aberdeen, Scotland, 12th April, 1778. He was
educated at the Grammar School, and at King’s College, at that city,
where he took the degree of M. A., in 1793. He then removed to the
neighborhood of St. Andrews, and studied Theology, as a Presbyterian. As
stated elsewhere, he came to America in 1799, reaching Canada the last
day of the year. Disappointed in his expectations respecting an
appointment to establish a college, he became a school teacher in
Kingston, and at the same time a student of Divinity, under the guidance
and friendship of Dr. Stuart. He prosecuted his Theological studies
during the three years he was in Kingston, and in 1803, was ordained
Deacon, by Dr. Mountain, the first Protestant Bishop of Quebec. The
following year he was admitted to Holy Orders, and went as a missionary
to Cornwall. Here he continued nine years, attending diligently to his
duties as a minister, all over his widening parish; and also conducted a
Grammar School. In 1812 he received the appointment of Rector at York,
the capital, and in 1825 he was made Archdeacon. Enjoying political
appointments with these ecclesiastical, he finally, in 1839, was
elevated to be the first Bishop of Toronto. Dr. Strachan discharged the
duties of his high office with acceptability. In 1866 Archdeacon Bethune
was appointed as Coadjutor Bishop, the venerable prelate beginning to
feel that his time was almost done. He died 1st November, 1867, having
attained to his ninetieth year, and was accorded a public funeral. No
higher marks of esteem and veneration could have been exhibited than
were displayed by all classes at the death of this Canadian Divine.

The most of the settlers from the Hudson, not Lutherans, were
Presbyterians, or of the Dutch Reformed Church. Mr. McDowell was the
first Presbyterian minister to visit the Bay. He came about 1800,
perhaps before; when yet there were but few clergymen in the province.
We have seen it stated that he was sent for by Major VanAlstine, who was
a Presbyterian. On his way he tarried a day in the neighborhood of
Brockville. Adiel Sherwood was then teaching school, in connection with
which he was holding a public exhibition. Mr. McDowell attended, and
here first took a part as a minister, by offering his first public
prayer in the country. He proceeded to Kingston, and settled in the
second township. But his circuit of travel and places of preaching
extended from Brockville to the head of Bay Quinté. The name of this
worthy individual is too little known by the inhabitants of the bay. No
man contributed more than he to fulfill the Divine mission “go preach;”
and at a time when great spiritual want was felt he came to the hardy
settlers. The spirit of Christianity was by him aroused to no little
extent, especially among those, who in their early days had been
accustomed to sit under the teachings of Presbyterianism. He traveled
far and near, in all kinds of weather, and at all seasons, sometimes in
the canoe or batteau, and sometimes on foot. On one occasion he walked
all the way from Bay Quinté to York, following the lake shore, and
swimming the rivers that could not be otherwise forded. He probably
married more persons while in the ministerial work than all the rest in
the ten townships around the bay. This arose from his being the only
minister legally qualified to solemnize matrimony, beside the clergymen
of the English Church, Mr. Stuart, of Kingston, and Langhorn, of
Fredericksburgh. Persons wishing to be married repaired to him from all
the region of the bay, or availed themselves of his stated ministerial
tours. The writer’s parents, then living in Adolphustown, were among
those married by him, the certificate of which now lies before him. Mr.
A. Sherwood thus speaks of him, “He lived to labor many years in the
service of his Master, and after an honorable and good old age he died
highly esteemed by his friends and much respected by all who knew him.”
Mr. McDowell had at least two sons and a daughter. The last is Mrs.
Carpenter, now living at Demorestville. One of his sons removed to New
York and there established a Magdalene Asylum. Mr. McDowell, used to
pass around the bay twice or three times a year. He was one of the
first, to preach at the extreme head of the bay, the Carrying Place, and
for that purpose occupied a barn. Another of his preaching places was in
Sophiasburgh, on the marsh front. He preached here four times a year. He
was a rigid Calvinist, and preaching one Sabbath at the beginning of the
present century in the Court House at Adolphustown, he offered to argue
with any one publicly the question of Calvinism. The Methodist minister
of the bay, the Rev. Samuel Coate, was urged by his society to accept
the challenge, and after a good deal of hesitation did so. So a day was
appointed for the discussion. The meeting took place at a convenient
place, three miles from Bath, in the Presbyterian church. The excitement
was great; the inhabitants coming even from Sidney and Thurlow. Mr.
McDowell spoke first, and occupied half a day. Then followed Mr. Coate.
After he had spoken two hours Mr. McDowell and his friends left; why, it
is not said. Mr. Coate continued speaking until night. We have the
statement of the Methodists, that Mr. Coate had the best of it, but we
never learned the belief of the other party. Mr. Coate’s sermon was
published by request, and thereafter, it is said Presbyterianism waned
in the locality.

REV. MR. SMART,—This truly pious man, and evangelical minister, came to
Canada in 1811. He never actually lived within the precincts of the Bay;
but he was called to the wilderness of Upper Canada by the Rev. Mr.
McDowell, at least he was chiefly instrumental in bringing him out, even
before his student days were ended. For upwards of fifty years he
discharged the duties of Presbyterian clergyman at Brockville, the first
clergyman of any denomination within fifty miles. We shall ever remember
the kind genial person with whom we spent a few pleasant hours in the
evening of his eventful life, a life spent earnestly in the service of
his Master, and for the welfare of his family, for, to use his own
words, “In his day it was no easy matter to live and rear a family.”
This he said not complainingly, but because it hindered him from
indulging a desire he once felt to do something with his pen—to record,
as he was desired to do, the events connected with his early life in
Upper Canada, and his cotemporaries. At first he did contribute to the
_Kingston Gazette_, over the cognomen “Observer.” But other things
pressed upon him, and when repose came he fancied the fire of his early
days, for scribbling, had too far sunk. This is much to be regretted,
for as a close observer and upright man, and living in eventful times of
Canadian history, he was pre-eminently qualified to treat the subject.
Mr. Smart was always distinguished for moderate and well-considered
views upon Religion, Political Government and Education. He lived when
the battle commenced between the “Family Compact” and the people. While
he firmly set his face against the extreme stand taken by the Rev. Mr.
Strachan, he never identified himself with the party that opposed that
worker for, and with the Government. On this point, Mr. Smart makes
judicious remarks. In speaking of the rise and first days of the
Province, he says, “it was necessary the Government in Council should
create laws, and govern the people, inasmuch as the vast majority of the
inhabitants were unlettered, and unfit to occupy places which required
judgment and discrimination.” There were but few of the U. E. Loyalists
who possessed a complete education. He was personally acquainted with
many, especially along the St. Lawrence, and Bay of Quinté, and by no
means were all educated, or men of judgment; even the half-pay officers,
many of them, had but a limited education. Many of them were placed on
the list of officers, not because they had seen service, but as the most
certain way of compensating them for losses sustained in the Rebellion.
And there were few, if any, of them fitted by education for office, or
to serve in Parliament. Such being the case, the Governor and his
advisers were at the first necessarily impelled to rule the country.
Having once enjoyed the exclusive power, they became unwilling to share
it with the representatives of the people. But the time came when the
mass, having acquired some idea of Responsible Government, were no
longer to be kept in obscurity, and thence arose the war between the
Tory and the Radical. In all the contentions arising therefrom, Mr.
Smart held an intermediate position with the Bidwells and others. In
speaking of all this, Mr. Smart is particularly anxious to give credit
to Dr. Strachan for his honesty of purpose, saying that the Colony is
much indebted to him in many ways.

Mr. Smart was called upon to preach the funeral sermon of Canada’s great
hero, General Brock.

He also delivered an address on the occasion of laying the foundation
stone of the gaol in Kingston, in presence of the Governor, Peregrine
Maitland, who was down from York, on which occasion there was great
demonstration of Free Masons, and the farmers of the Bay.

Mr. Sherwood thus speaks of Mr. Smart: “On his arrival, he for some
little time made his home at my house, he was then 23 years old, he has
now (1866) entered his 78th year, has retired from a public charge, and
is now residing quietly, and I trust comfortably, at Gananoque; and I
feel quite sure, all that know him throughout the whole Province, will
join with me, in wishing him long life and happiness, both here and

                              CHAPTER XXX.

CONTENTS—The Quakers—Among the Settlers—From Penn.—Duchess County—First
Meeting-house—David Sand—Elijah Hick—Visiting Canada—James Noxen—A first
settler—Their mode of worship—In Sophiasburgh—The meeting-house—Joseph
Leavens—Hicksites—Traveling—Death, aged 92—Extract, Picton Sun—The first
preaching places—First English church—In private houses—At Sandwich—The
Indian church at the bay—Ernesttown—First Methodist church—Preaching at
Niagara—First church in Kingston—At Waterloo—At Niagara—Churches at
Kingston, 1817—In Hollowell—Thurlow—Methodist meeting-houses, 1816—At
Montreal—Building chapels in olden times—Occupying the frame—The old
Methodist chapels—In Hollowell township—In the fifth town—St. Lawrence—
First English Church, Belleville—Mr. Campbell—First time in the pulpit—
How he got out—The old church superseded—Church, front of Sidney—Rev.
John Cochrane—Rev. Mr. Grier—First Presbyterian Church in Belleville—
Rev. Mr. Ketcham—First Methodist Church in Belleville—Healey, Puffer—The
site of the church—A second one.

                         LEAVENS, HICKS, SAND.

Among the early settlers of the Bay were a goodly number of the Society
of Friends. Some of them were natives of Pennsylvania; but the majority
were from the Nine Partners, Duchess County, New York, where had existed
an extensive community of the followers of Fox. The first meeting-house
built by the Quakers in Canada was in Adolphustown upon the south shore
of Hay Bay, toward the close of last century.

About 1790, two Quaker preachers of some note visited Canada, they were
David Sand and Elijah Hick. By appointment they held service in
Adolphustown; it is uncertain whether this was before or after the
building of the meeting-house. The first and principal preacher among
the Quakers was James Noxen, one of the first settlers of Adolphustown,
under whom the Society was organized. He subsequently in 1814 removed to
Sophiasburgh, where he died in 1842.

The worship of the Quakers consists in essentially spiritual meditation
and earnest examination of the inmost soul, a quiet holding of the
balance, to weigh the actions and motives of everyday life. To the
proper discharge of these duties no place can be too quiet, too far
removed from the busy haunts of men.

The sixth township, or Sophiasburg had among its settlers a good many of
this sect, which at first had meetings at Jacob Cronk’s, until the year
1825, when they erected a meeting-house upon the northern front of the

Two miles below the village of Northport, is situated a Friends’
meeting-house. Here twice a week, on Thursdays and Sundays, congregate
few, or many of the adherents of this persuasion, to commune with their
God. The meeting-house, reposing upon the very verge of the shore, and
half shadowed by beautiful maples and evergreens, is a fit place in
which to submit oneself to strict self-examination. There is nothing
here to disturb the supreme quietude of the place, unless, the gentle
ripples of the water, or the more restless murmuring of the wave.

JOSEPH LEAVENS “was an early settler of Canada, an emigrant from New
York,” he was for many years an esteemed preacher of the Hicksite branch
of Quakers, and was accustomed to travel from place to place, to talk to
his co-religionists. He had a place for preaching in a loft of his
brother’s store in Belleville. He was one of the first Quaker preachers
in Canada and travelled through all the townships at the Bay, and to
East Lake.

“Died in the township of Hallowell, about the 24th of May, 1844, the
venerable Joseph Leavens, in the 92nd year of his age. He was amongst
the early settlers of the Canadian forest, and emigrated from New York
State, and probably was a native of Nine Partners District. He had long
been a Preacher in the Religious Society of Friends, and though not
possessed of more than one talent, yet it is believed that, as he
occupied that to his Maker’s glory, his reward will be as certain as
though he had received ten talents. He was a diligent reader in the
sacred volume. He was much beloved both by his neighbours and friends,
and it is desired that his gospel labours may be profitably remembered
by them and his relatives.”—(_Picton Sun._)

In speaking of the individual clergymen who first came to the Province
we have referred to many of the first preaching places and churches: but
there remains to be added some further remarks.

We have seen that the first church erected in Western Canada was at the
Mohawk settlement, Grand River, which was built the first year of their
habitation in that place—1785–6. Strange that the natives of the wood,
should take the lead in erecting places of worship. It was several years
later before even log meeting-houses were put up by the loyalists. For
many years the pioneer clergymen or preachers officiated in private
houses. Now the service would be at the house of one, to which a
considerable number could come from a circuit of ten or fifteen miles,
then it would be at the place of some settler whose larger log house
afforded a more commodious place of worship.

A church was built at an early date at Sandwich, but the year, we know
not. The first church erected upon the Bay, the Rev. Mr. Smart thinks,
was at the Mohawk village, Tyendinaga. At an early period a log church
was built in Ernesttown by the Lutherans and another on South Bay; one
also for Mr. Langhorn to preach in, and then another in Adolphustown.
The first Methodist church was built in Adolphustown in 1792, and a
second one a month later in Ernesttown.

The Rev. Mr. Addison, went to Niagara in 1792. When Governor Simcoe
lived in Navy Hall, the Council Chamber a building near the barracks it
was said, was used alternately by the English Church, and Church of

The first English Church was erected in Kingston in 1793, and up to 1810
it was the only one. A Methodist church was built at a very early date
at Waterloo; it was never finished, but used for many years. The first
at Niagara, was in 1802.

In November 28, 1817, there were in Kingston, “four churches or
meeting-houses, viz: 1 Episcopalian, 1 Roman Catholic and 2 Methodists;
there were 4 professional preachers, viz: 1 Episcopalian, 1 Presbyterian
and 2 Methodists. This enumeration does not include a chaplain to the
army, and one to the royal navy.” In Ernesttown there was one resident
professional preacher, a Methodist.

In Sophiasburgh there were no churches; but the Quakers, Methodists and
Presbyterians had meetings at private houses.

In Hollowell, says Eben. Washburne, “we have one Methodist, and one
Quaker meeting-house; preparations are making also for a Presbyterian
meeting-house. The former is attended by a circuit preacher every two
weeks; the latter by a Quaker every Sabbath.”

In Thurlow, “the Gospel is dispensed almost every Sabbath of the year,
in different parts of the township, by itinerant preachers of the
Methodist and Baptist sects.”

In 1816, there were eleven Methodist meeting-houses in Canada. These
were all of wood excepting one in Montreal, built in 1806, which was of
stone. “The mode of building chapels in the olden times was by joint
labor, and almost without the aid of money. The first step was for
scores of willing hands on a given day, to resort to the woods, and then
fell the trees, and square the timber; others, with oxen and horses,
drawing the hewed pieces and rafters to the appointed place. A second
step was to call all hands to frame the building, selecting the best
genius of the carpenter’s calling for superintendent. A third step was a
“bee” to raise the building; and the work for the first year was done.
The next year, the frame would be enclosed, with windows and doors, and
a rough floor laid loose. As soon as the meeting house was thus
advanced, it was immediately used for preaching, prayer meetings and
quarterly meetings. Some of the early chapels would be finished inside;
others, would be used for years in their rough, cold, and unfinished
state. The people were poor, had little or no money, but loved the
Gospel, and did what they could.”

The oldest of the eleven chapels is the Adolphustown, on the south shore
of the Hay Bay, and on the old Bay of Quinté circuit.

“The next for age is the chapel in the fourth concession of Ernesttown.
It was not erected here at first, but on the front of the township, lot
No. 27, and close to the Bay of Quinté. After some years, (some of the
principal Methodists moving to the fourth concession), the frame was
taken down, drawn to the present site, and put up again. It stands on
the public road, leading from Napanee to Kingston, and near the village
of Odessa. A roughcast school-house, now stands on the old site, east of
Bath. Some challenge the antiquity of the Ernesttown, with the
Adolphustown chapel; but both were commenced at about the same time, by
William Losee; the latter was first erected. As the traveler passes, he
may look on this old and useful meeting-house, still used for public
worship, and see a specimen of the architecture of the pious people
settled in the woods of Ernesttown seventy years ago.

“About nine miles from Odessa toward Kingston is the village of
Waterloo, and on the top of a sand-hill, formerly covered with lofty
pines, is a well proportioned and good looking Wesleyan stone church. It
is on the site of an ancient frame meeting-house, decayed, and gone,
which bore an antiquity nearly as great as the other two chapels. The
meeting-house in the Township of Kingston was an unfinished building, a
mere outside, with rough planks for seats.

“Two miles from the Town of Picton, and in the first concession of the
Township of Hollowell, is still to be seen one of the oldest Methodist
chapels in Upper Canada. The ground and the lumber were the gift of
Steven Conger. The first work was done in June, 1809. An account book,
now existing, shows the receipts and payments for the building. Some
paid subscriptions in money, some in wheat, some in teaming and work;
and one person paid one pound “by way of a turn.” The first trustees
were named Conger, Valleau, Vanblaricum, Dougal, German, Benson, Wilson,
and Vandusen. They are all dead, but children of some of them are still
living in the vicinity. The building is square, with pavilion roof, of
heavy frame timber, yet sound, having a school-house on one side, and a
mill on the other. Here is a burying ground attached, in which lie many
of the subscribers to, and first worshippers in, the chapel. It is still
used as a place of worship, and for a Sabbath school. These four chapels
were all in the old Bay of Quinté circuit.

“In the fifth township east of Kingston is another relic of the times of
old, called the Elizabethtown chapel. It is now within the boundaries of
the village of Lyn, about eight miles from Brockville, and near the
river St. Lawrence. A chapel particularly remarkable for the assembling
of the Genesse conference in 1817, and the great revival of religion
which there commenced.”

The first English Church erected west of Adolphustown, was at
Belleville. It was commenced in 1819, and finished the next year. The
Rev. Mr. Campbell was the first clergyman, and came to the place some
little time before the building was completed. An anecdote has been
related to us by one who saw the occurrence, which will serve to
illustrate the character of those days. Mr. Campbell one day entered the
church, when near its completion, and walked up a ladder and entered the
pulpit; immediately one of the workmen, named Smith, removed the ladder,
leaving the Rev. gentleman a prisoner; nor would they release him until
he had sent a messenger to his home for a certain beverage. This church
when erected was an ornament to the place, and is well remembered by
many, having been taken down in 1858, the present handsome structure
being completed. Mr. Campbell continued in charge until his death in
1835. During this time he caused to be erected a church at the front of
Sidney, midway between Belleville and the Trent, and he held services
there every second Sabbath, in the afternoon, for a time; but the
congregation was never large. Methodism seemed to take more hold of the
feelings of the people. Mr. Campbell’s successor was the Rev. John
Cochrane, who was pastor for three years, when the present incumbent,
the Rev. John Grier, who had been at the Carrying Place for some years,
took charge.

The first Presbyterian clergyman of Belleville, was Mr. Ketcham, under
him the first church was built.

The first Methodist church to be built in the western part of the Bay
country was at Belleville. It was probably about the beginning of this
century that the itinerant Methodist began to visit the head of the Bay
Quinté. They were accustomed to preach in private houses, and barns,
here and there along the front, and up the Moira River, and at Napanee.

Healy and Puffer were accustomed to preach at Col. Bell’s, Thurlow.

Belleville was laid out into lots in 1816; Mr. Ross applied to
government for one, as the society was disqualified from holding landed
property until 1828. The land was accordingly granted to him, and
recorded, January 7, 1819. A frame building was immediately commenced 50
by 30 feet. Before it was inclosed, service was held within the frame.
The building was never completed. The pulpit was of rough boards, and
the seats were of similar material, placed upon blocks. In 1831, a
second chapel was commenced, and the old one removed.

                             CHAPTER XXXI.

  CONTENTS—The first Methodist Preachers—The army—Capt. Webb—Tuffey—
    George Neal—Lyons—School-teacher—Exhorter—McCarty—Persecution—
    Bigotry—Vagabonds—McCarty arrested—Trial—At Kingston—Banished—“A
    martyr”—Doubtful—Losee, first Methodist missionary, 1790—A
    minister—A loyalist—Where he first preached—“A curiosity”—Earnest
    pioneer Methodist—Class-meetings—Suitable for all classes—Losee’s
    class-meetings—Determines to build a meeting-house—Built in
    Adolphustown—Its size—The subscribers—Members, amount—Embury—Those
    who subscribed for first church in New York—Same names—The
    centenary of Methodism—New York Methodists driven away—American
    Methodist forgetful—Embury and Heck refugees—Ashgrove—No credit
    given to British officers—Embury’s brother—The rigging loft, N.
    Y.—Barbara Heck—Settling in Augusta—First Methodist Church in
    America—Subscribers—“Lost Chapters”—The Author’s silence—What is
    acknowledged—“Severe threats”—Mr. Mann—To Nova Scotia—Mr. Wakely
    “admires piety”—not “loyalty”—Second chapel, N. Y.—Adolphustown
    subscribers—Conrad VanDusen—Eliz. Roblin—Huff—Ruttan—The second
    Methodist chapel—The subscribers—Commenced May, 1792—Carpenters’
    wages—Members, Cataraqui Circuit—Going to Conference—Returns—
    Darias Dunham—Physician—First quarterly meeting—Anecdotes—Bringing
    a “dish cloth”—“Clean up”—The new made squire—Asses—Unclean
    spirits—Losee discontinues preaching—Cause—Disappointment—Return
    to New York—Dunham useful—Settles—Preachers traveling—Saddle-bags—
    Methodism among the loyalists—Camp-meetings—Where first held, in
    Canada—Worshipping in the woods—Breaking up—Killing the Devil—
    First Canadian preacher—Journey from New York.


The first Methodist Preachers both in Lower and Upper Canada were
connected with the British Army; also, the second one in America, who
was Capt. Webb. “In 1780, a Methodist Local Preacher, named Tuffey, a
Commissary of the 44th, came with his regiment to Quebec. He commenced
preaching soon after his arrival, and continued to do so at suitable
times, while he remained,” or until his regiment was disbanded in 1783.
The second Methodist Preacher in Canada was George Neal, an Irishman.
During the war he was Major of a cavalry regiment. He “crossed the
Niagara river at Queenston on the 7th October, 1786, to take possession
of an officer’s portion of land, and soon began to preach to the new
settlers on the Niagara river—his labours were not in vain.”—(Playter).

“In 1788 a pious young man, called Lyons, an exhorter in the Methodist
Episcopal Church, came to Canada, and engaged in teaching school in
Adolphustown.” He collected the people together on the Sabbath, and
conducted religious services. “In the same year came James McCarty, an
Irishman, to Ernesttown.” He was a follower of Whitfield, but acted with
the Methodist, holding religious meetings. His preaching caused severe
persecution against him on the part of certain loyalists, who held the
doctrine that none could be true subjects who adhered not to the Church
of England; but to oppose the Church was to oppose the King. Advantage
was taken of this loyalty to try to prevent the introduction of any
other religious denominations. A law had been enacted by the Governor in
Council, that persons wandering about the country might be banished as
vagabonds. McCarty was arrested on a charge of vagabondism in
Adolphustown, and brought before a magistrate at VanDusen’s tavern, at
the front, who remanded him to Kingston. According to Playter, he was
preaching at Robert Perry’s when arrested; our informant is the Rev. C.
VanDusen, at whose father’s he was first arraigned. After being released
on bail, he was finally tried before Judge C., and was sentenced to be
banished, tradition says, upon an island in the St. Lawrence. At all
events he was placed in a batteau and taken away by French boatmen.
McCarty has obtained the name of _martyr_, but it is the belief of
unbiassed persons that he was not left upon the island, but was conveyed
to Montreal.

William Losee was the first regular preacher of the Methodist
denomination in Canada. He first visited the country in 1790, preached a
few sermons along the Bay of Quinté and St. Lawrence, and returned with
a petition from the settlers to the Conference, to send him as a
preacher. In February, 1791 he again came, as an appointed minister from
the Methodist Episcopal Church of the United States. “Losee was a
loyalist, and knew some of the settlers in Adolphustown, before they
left the United States. He desired to see them and preach to them the
glad tidings of salvation. Had he been on the revolutionary side, the
warm loyalists would not have received him—rather would have driven him
from the country.”—(Playter). One of the first places at which he
preached, was at the house of John Carscallian, in Fredericksburgh. The
tavern of Conrad VanDusen, in Adolphustown, was another, and at Paul
Huff’s, on Hay Bay, another. “A Methodist Preacher was a curiosity in
those days, and all were anxious to see the phenomenon; some would even
ask how he looked, or what he was like! A peculiarity in Losee, too,
was, that he had but one arm to use, the other being withered.” A true
pioneer Methodist, he set earnestly to work to form class-meetings and
organize societies, and during the summer his circuit embraced the
settlements in the Township of Kingston, Ernesttown, Fredericksburgh,
Marysburgh, and even Sophiasburgh. Class-meetings form the corner stone
of Wesleyan Methodism. But little understood, often entirely
misunderstood by others than Methodists, they are generally regarded as
the abode of cant or of priestly control. No greater error could exist.
Rightly conducted they are invaluable as a means of training the
religious mind, and establishing it upon the Rock of Ages. It has been
said that they are only suitable for the uneducated; not so, they are
alike beneficial to the peasant and the noble, the clown and the
_littérateur_. Losee, in accordance with the principles of Methodism, at
once set to work to create classes, and on the Sabbath of February 20,
1792, in the 3rd concession of Adolphustown, at Paul Huff’s house, he
established the first regular class-meeting in Canada. The second class
was formed on the following Sabbath, in Ernesttown, four miles from

A third class was formed in March, at Samuel Detlor’s, three miles from
Napanee. The following year the congregation had so increased, which met
at Paul Huff’s house, that a determination was formed to erect a meeting
house. A paper was drawn up, in which was set forth the great blessing
of God in sending a minister to their wilderness home, that a
“Meeting-house or Church” is requisite. Then follows an agreement of the
subscribers to build a Church, under the direction of Losee; to be
thirty-six feet by thirty feet, two stories high, with a gallery. “Said
house to be built on the north-west corner of Paul Huff’s land, lot No.
18, third concession, Fourth Town;” and promising to pay the sums of
money annexed to their respective names. This interesting document, with
the names of subscribers, and the subscription of each, is to be found
in Playter’s History of Methodism, a work that ought to be in the hands
of every Canadian, no matter what his creed, because of the fund of
general knowledge upon Canada it contains. The total number of
subscribers was twenty-two; the amount subscribed was £108. Among the
names are those familiar to every inhabitant of the Bay, some known
throughout Canada. To one, especially, reference must be made, Andrew
Embury, a name of historic interest in connection with Methodism in
America. It is a remarkable fact, that this and other names are to be
found among those who planted Methodism in New York. The celebration of
the centenary of Methodism in America, in 1866, was marked by frequent
and glowing accounts of those who introduced Methodism into America. Too
much credit, too much honor could not be given to the Emburys, the Hecks
and others, which was quite correct. But no reference was made in the
United States, nor in Canada for that matter, to the dark days of the
infant Society in New York, when the cruel rebellion interrupted the
meetings in that place; and where persecution followed the retirement of
the British forces, 1783. It is a page of history in connection with
that body, which American writers of Methodism endeavor to wipe out,
when the very founders of the Church in America were made to flee from
their homes; and had all their property sacrificed. The names of Embury
and Heck; of whom so much was said, were among the refugees from rebel
oppression. No word has been said of the cause of the removal of these
persons to the wilderness of Canada. Barbara Heck, who enjoys the
everlasting honor of causing Philip Embury to begin Preaching, was
driven away from her Methodist home. Philip Embury was not likewise
treated, because death had sealed his eyes a year before the declaration
of independence, ere the demon of rebellion was evoked by the spirit of
radicalism, and unhallowed desire for neighbor’s goods; otherwise his
bones, the resting place of which they have given so glowing a picture
of, would likewise be sleeping in our midst, in the quiet shades of the
Canadian forest, as do those of Paul Heck, who died in 1788; and of his
wife, Barbara, who died in 1804. The remains of Philip Embury, instead
of being urned, as they were, in 1822, in Ash Grove, Washington County,
New York, after lying buried for fifty-seven years in the old burying
ground of Abraham Beninger, should have found a burying place on
Canadian soil, where rests his widow, the place to which his brother and
the Hecks were driven. We have listened to some of the American orators,
and read more of their speeches, and could not help noticing that they
forgot to mention that their impetuous rebellion drove away from them
the founders of Methodism; they forgot to give any credit to Capt. Webb,
who was the second Methodist preacher in America; forsooth, because he
was a British officer, and it would be unpleasant to associate such with
centenary orations in this their day of Anglophobia.

Upon the north shore of Hay Bay, in Fredericksburgh, settled David
Embury, brother of Philip, who officiated as a Methodist Minister in New
York, in a Rigging Loft, on William St., about 1766. To do this he was
urged by Barbara Heck, wife of Paul Heck, both of whom were among the
first to settle on the St. Lawrence, in Augusta, in 1785. The first
Methodist Church erected in America, was in 1768, on John Street, New
York. Among the 250 subscribers, was the name of David Embury, the same
who settled on Hay Bay; he gave £2. Also, the name of Paul Heck, who
contributed £3 5s. Twenty-four years later, and among the twenty-two
subscribers to build the first Methodist meeting-house in Canada, again
appears the name of Embury—Andrew, son of David Embury. The author of
the “Lost Chapters of Methodism,” gives interesting accounts of the
formation of the Methodist Society in New York; but he is remarkably
silent in this instance, as others are, about the treatment they
received from the Americans; not a word to make it known that they were
driven into the wilds of Nova Scotia and Canada by a relentless people.
Yet, at the conclusion, he acknowledges this much: he says, “At the
conclusion of the Revolutionary war, severe threats having been thrown
out against the Loyalists who had taken refuge within the British lines,
Mr. Mann thought it his duty to embark, with a considerable number of
the Society, for the wilds of Nova Scotia.” Mr. Mann was a class leader,
and local preacher, and, during the war, at the request of the Trustees,
kept the chapel in John Street open, after the regular preacher had
left. “We see what became of a part of the Society, in John Street. Some
of them had been so loyal to their sovereign, they were afraid they
would suffer if they remained.” Of course they were, and had they not
sufficient reason from the “threats” which had been “thrown out.” Mr.
Wakely, the author, continues, “We can admire their piety without
endorsing their loyalty.” How kind. The second Methodist Church of New
York was built on the land of DeLancy, who had his immense property

Of the subscribers to the chapel in Adolphustown, Conrad Van Dusen gave
the largest amount, £15. He had been a Tavern keeper on the front, and
was one of the first fruits of Losee’s missionary labors. “He lived a
little east of the Court House. Of him many pleasing and amusing
anecdotes are told; though a tavern-keeper, as well as a merchant, he
opened his house for the Gospel, and when that Gospel entered his heart,
he deliberately took his axe and cut down his sign posts.”—(_Playter._)

The second largest contributor, was Elizabeth Roblin, who gave £12. She
was the widow of Philip Roblin, who died 1788. They had been among the
first settlers of Adolphustown. (See U. E. Loyalists.) Mrs. Roblin
afterwards became the wife of John Canniff, the founder of Canifton, and
her remains now rest on the hill in the old family burying ground, in
that village. She was the grand-parent of John P. Roblin, of Picton, “a
man who has served his country in several Parliaments of Upper Canada.
Her daughter Nancy, born in 1781, is the mother of a large branch of the
Ketcheson family in the County of Hastings.”—(_Playter._) She, with her
husband, still live in the fifth concession of Sidney, yet hale and
hearty, in the autumn of their genial, though toilsome, life. “The
subscription of the widow was liberal; indeed, the Roblins of the Bay of
Quinté have always been a hospitable and liberal minded people.” Paul
Huff and William Ruttan, each gave £10. The others gave smaller sums;
but, considering the date, it is noteworthy that so much was

The same month, it is said, Losee undertook to build a second Church in
Ernesttown, a short distance below Bath. The principal persons who aided
in building this meeting-house were James Parrot, John Lake, Robert
Clarke, Jacob Miller, and others. There is evidence in the account book
of Robert Clarke, who was a carpenter, that the chapel was commenced
May, 1792. He credits himself with then working twelve and a-half days;
and with working in October twelve and a-half days, at five shillings
and six-pence per day, which shows carpenter’s wages at that time. But
like a good hearted man, seeing the building fund not too full, he
reduced his wages to two shillings and nine-pence per day. His payment
to the chapel was £10. James Parrot received the subscriptions. The two
buildings were to be of the same size and form. As soon as these two
chapels were inclosed, the congregations sat on boards to hear the
preaching. They were the first Methodist Churches in Canada. At the end
of the year Mr. Losee had 165 members enrolled in the “Cataraqui
Circuit.” He set out on his long journey to attend conference at Albany.
Mr. Losee returned the following year, accompanied by Rev. Darius
Dunham. The latter took charge of the Bay of Quinté district—the
“Cataraqui Circuit,” while Losee went to the St. Lawrence to organize a
new society—this was called the “Oswegotchie” circuit.

On Saturday, September 15, the first “Quarterly” meeting was held, in
Mr. Parrot’s barn, 1st Con., Ernesttown, to which many of the settlers
came from the six townships. Darius Dunham was a Physician by
profession. “He was a man of strong mind, zealous, firm in his
opinions.” “He labored well on the Cataraqui Circuit, and was in high
repute by the people.”—(_Playter._)

Many anecdotes are told of Dunham. On account of his quick and blunt way
of speaking and rebuking evil doings, he acquired the name of “Scolding
Dunham.” Withal, he was witty, and he loved, it would seem, next to
Godliness, cleanliness, so he would, if at a house, where it were not
observed, according to his idea (and as there was only the one room, he
could see the whole process of preparing for the table,) he would tell
the housewife that the next time he came he would “bring a dish-cloth
along,” or perhaps, he would bluntly tell the woman to “clean up.”
Carroll relates the following story, yet often told and laughed at by
the old settlers of the Bay. “His reply to the newly appointed
magistrate’s bantering remarks, is widely reported. A new-made ‘Squire’
rallied Dunham before some company, about riding so fine a horse, and
told him he was very unlike his humble Master, who was content to ride
an ass. The preacher responded with his usual imperturbable gravity, and
in his usual heavy and measured tones, that he agreed with him
perfectly, and that he would most assuredly imitate his Master in that
particular, but for the difficulty of finding the animal required—the
Government having made up all the asses into magistrates.” A person of
the author’s acquaintance, informed him that he saw an infidel, who was
a fallen Lutheran clergyman, endeavoring, one night while Dunham was
preaching, to turn the whole into ridicule. The preacher affected not to
notice him, but went on exalting the excellency of Christianity, and
showing the formidable opposition it had confronted and overcome; when,
all at once, he turned to where the scoffer sat, and fixing his eyes
upon him, the old gentleman continued: “Shall Christianity and her
votaries, after having passed through fire and water,” &c.—“after all
this, I say, shall the servants of God, at this time of day, allow
themselves to be frightened by the _braying of an ass_.” In those days
it was believed, by some at least, that unclean spirits and devils might
be cast out by the power of God through the faithful Christian, and
Dunham had the credit of having, on several occasions, cast out devils.

Mr. Losee remained a preacher only two years, when he became mentally
unfit, having encountered a disappointment of a crushing nature. The
uncertainty of the cause of his discontinuing to preach, has been
dispelled by Playter, in the most touching language, “He was the subject
of that soft, yet powerful passion of our nature, which some account our
weakness, and others our greatest happiness. Piety and beauty were seen
connected in female form then as well as now, in this land of woods and
water, snows and burning heat. In the family of one of his hearers, and
in the vicinity of Napanee river, was a maid, of no little moral and
personal attraction. Soon his (Losee’s) attention was attracted; soon
the seed of love was planted in his bosom, and soon it germinated and
bore outward fruit. In the interim of suspense, as to whether he should
gain the person, another preacher came on the circuit, visits the same
dwelling, is attracted by the same fair object, and finds in his heart
the same passion. The two seek the same person. One is absent on the St.
Lawrence; the other frequents the blest habitation, never out of mind.
One, too, is deformed, the other a person of desirable appearance.
Jealousy crept in with love. But, at last, the preference was made, and
disappointment, like a thunderbolt, overset the mental balance of the
first itinerant minister in Canada.” He subsequently removed to New
York, where he continued to live for many years, and recovered his
mental health. He had purchased lots in Kingston, which he returned to
sell in 1816; at this time he was perfectly sound in mind, and was a
good man. He visited Adolphustown, and other places, preaching here and
there, and finally returned to New York.

Mr. Dunham proved a useful man, especially among the settlers of
Marysburgh. He ultimately in the year 1800, retired from the ministry
and settled near Napanee, having married into the Detlor family. But he
continued to act as a local preacher.

The early preachers often traveled from place to place on horseback
after a bridle-path had been made, with saddle-bags, containing oats in
one part, and a few articles of wearing apparel in another, perhaps a
religious book; thus the zealous preacher would travel mile after mile
through interminable forests. Indeed there are plenty to-day who have
done likewise.

There is one fact connected with the early Methodist preachers, which
requires a passing notice.

The settlers were all intensely loyal; yet when the Yankee Methodist
preacher came in their midst he was gladly received; it is true Losee
the first who came was a loyalist; but many who followed were Americans
and republicans. Although the Lutheran, Presbyterian, and English
churchmen had preceded the Methodists into Canada, neither seemed to
obtain that hold upon the hearts of the plain U. E. Loyalists, that the
Methodists did. The people of every denomination as well as those
belonging to none, flocked to hear them, and many stayed to become
followers. These Americans were always regarded with suspicion by
government, and serious doubts were entertained whether those who became
Methodists were loyal. But the war of 1812, exhibited in a thrilling
manner the old fire of attachment to their sovereign the King. There
seemed to be an adaptability between the Methodist mode of worship and
the plain old settlers, and for years there were many who left the
church of their fathers, and joined the more demonstrative society of
Wesleyans. Not only was this mode of ordinary worship followed by the
Methodist congenial, but especially the camp meeting engaged their
hearty attention. This mode of worshipping in the woods was first known
in Kentucky in 1801, and was initiated by two brothers named McGee, one
of whom was a Methodist, the other a Presbyterian. There are many who
regard the holding of camp-meetings as very questionable, even in the
past. Whatever may be said about the necessity of such meetings at the
present day, they were it is thought, highly appropriate in the infant
days of the country. At the first, and for many long years, there were
but few churches of any size. Then, the inhabitants had been buried as
it were in the primeval forests, left to meditate in its deep recesses,
far away from the busy haunts of men. No doubt the solemn repose, and
silent grandeur awoke in their minds feelings of awe, and of veneration,
just the same as one will feel when gazing along the naves of some old
grand cathedral, with its representations of trees and flowers. It is
not difficult to understand that the mind, trained by habit to
meditation in the woods, with its waving boughs telling of other times,
and of a mysterious future, would naturally find worshipping in the
woods, congenial to the soul,—find it a fit place for the higher
contemplation and worship of the great God. The first camp-meeting held
in Canada was in 1805, on the south shore of Hay Bay, near the chapel.
The meeting was attended by some from the distant townships, who went
down in batteaux. This was a great event to the settlers. Its
announcement, says Dr. Bangs, “beforehand excited great interest far and
near. Whole families prepared for a pilgrimage to the ground,
processions of waggons, and foot passengers wended along the highways.”
The ministers present were Case, Ryan, Pickett, Keeler, Madden and
Bangs. The meeting commenced on the 27th of September; the whole was
characterized by deep religious feeling as well as decided
demonstration, and the joy and comfort of believing, which ought always
to be present with the Christian, was generally experienced, while there
was an absence of that outside exhibition, too often seen in later
years, around the camps. We quote from Carroll respecting the ending of
this meeting. The account is from Dr. Bangs, “The time was at hand at
last for the conclusion of the meeting. The last night was the most
awfully impressive and yet most delightful scene my eyes ever beheld.
There was not a cloud in the sky. The stars studded the firmament, and
the glory of God filled the camp. All the neighbouring forest seemed
vocal with the echo of hymns. Turn our attention which way we would, we
heard the voice of prayer and praise. I will not attempt to describe the
parting scene, for it was indescribable. The preachers, about to
disperse to their distant fields of labor, hung upon each other’s necks,
weeping and yet rejoicing. Christians from remote settlements, who had
here formed holy friendships, which they expected would survive in
heaven, parted probably to meet no more on earth. As the hosts marched
off in different directions the songs of victory rolled along the

Apropos of Methodist camp-meetings, Carroll tells an anecdote
characteristic of the times, and as well of the honest Dutch. One of
these old settlers was speaking of a recent camp-meeting from which he
had just come said, “It was a poor, tet tull time, and no goot was tone,
till tat pig Petty (the Rev. Elias Pattie) come; but mit his pig fist,
he did kill te tuval so tet as a nit, and ten te work proke out.” The
Methodists of that day were fond of the demonstrative.

In the year 1806, a native of Prince Edward district entered the
Methodist ministry. He was the first native Canadian preacher of any
denomination, his name was Andrew Pringle.

The same year Thomas Whitehead was sent by the New York Conference. He
was six weeks on the road through the woods with his wife and six
children, “and during most of the time they subsisted on boiled wheat.”

                             CHAPTER XXXIa.

  CONTENTS—Henry Ryan—Ryanites—He comes to Canada—His associate, Case—
    At Kingston—A Singer—Preaching in the Market-place—Their
    treatment—In office—His circuit—1000 miles—What he received—Elder—
    Superseded—Probable cause—A British subject—During the war of
    1812—President of Conference—“High-minded”—Useful—Acceptable to
    the people—Desired independence by the Canadians—How he was
    treated—His labors—Brave—Witty—“Fatherless children”—“Impudent
    scoundrel”—Muscular—“Methodists’ Bull”—“Magistrate’s Goat”—Ryan
    seeks separation—Breakenridge—Conduct of the American Conference—
    Ryan’s agitation—Effect upon the Bishops—First Canada Conference—
    At Hollowell—Desire for independence—Reasons, cogent—Fruit of
    Ryan’s doings—The way the Conference treated Ryan—Withdraws—No
    faith in the United States Conference—Ryan sincere—“Canadian
    Wesleyans”—The motives of the United States Conference
    questionable—The wrong done Ryan—Second Canada Conference—Case,
    first Superintendent—Visit of Bishop Asbury—Account by Henry Bœhm—
    Asbury an Englishman—During the rebellion—A Bishop—His journey to
    Canada—Crossing the St. Lawrence—Traveling in Canada—An upset—“A
    decent people”—His opinion of the country—The Bishop ill—At
    Kingston—Bœhm at Embury’s—A field meeting—Riding all night—
    Crossing to Sackett’s harbor—Nearly wrecked.

                      SOME ACCOUNT OF HENRY RYAN.

A sketch of the early ministers who preached around the Bay Quinté,
would be incomplete without a somewhat extended notice of Elder Ryan,
after whom was called, a certain number of non-contented Methodists,

Henry Ryan, an Irishman, “of a bold energetic nature, with a powerful
voice,” commenced preaching in 1800. He was for five years stationed in
the States. In the year 1805, he, with the Rev. Wm. Case, was appointed
to the Bay Quinté circuit. It was they who arranged and conducted the
first camp meeting. Carroll, writing of that period, says, “there was no
society (of Methodists) then in the Town of Kingston, and its
inhabitants were very irreligious. The market house was the only chapel
of the Methodists, Case and his colleague (Ryan) made a bold push to
arouse the people. Sometimes they went together, Ryan was a powerful
singer too. They would ride into the town, put their horses at an inn,
lock arms, and go singing down the streets a stirring ode, beginning
with ‘Come let us march to Zion’s hill.’ By the time they had reached
the market-place, they usually had collected a large assembly. When
together, Ryan usually preached, and Case exhorted. Ryan’s stentorian
voice resounded through the town, and was heard across the adjacent
waters. They suffered no particular opposition excepting a little
annoyance from some of the baser sort, who sometimes tried to trip them
off the butcher’s block, which constituted their rostrum; set fire to
their hair, and then blew out their candle if it were in the night
season.” Proof was subsequently given that this preaching was not
without effect.

Mr. Ryan continued ten years at the Bay Quinté, and then three years in
the west at Long Point and Niagara. In 1810, he was presiding Elder. His
duties, as such, was to visit every part of the Province, from Detroit
to Cornwall. “Allowing for his returns home, he traveled about 1000
miles each quarter in the year, or 4000 miles a year. And what was the
worldly gain? The presiding Elder was allowed $80 for himself, $60 for
his wife, and what provisions he would need for his family. His entire
allowance might have been £60 a year. Such was the remuneration, and
such the labors, of the presiding Elder” of the Methodists fifty-three
years ago—(Playter).

Henry Ryan continued a presiding Elder, for many years, in the whole of
Upper Canada, a few years in Lower Canada, and then when the Bay of
Quinté district was set apart by division, he was appointed Elder to it.
But in 1834, for some reason, Mr. Ryan was superseded in office. The
reason of this can only be guessed. He was an Irishman by birth, and
although sent to Canada by an American body, he seems to have been more
a British subject, a Canadian, than American. During the war of 1812, he
remained in Canada attending to his duties, with three other faithful
men, Rhodes, Whitehead, and Pringle. More than that, as presiding Elder,
he assumed the oversight of the preachers at the close of the first
year. Others had been stationed in Canada who were British subjects, but
they ceased before the war had closed, to discharge their duties. The
Americans feared to come, or, having come, were warned off by
proclamation. Those who continued in the ministerial field met under the
presidency of Ryan. In the year of the commencement of the war, the
conference was to have met at Niagara, in Upper Canada; but war was
declared by the United States a month previous, and instead of venturing
into the country where their fellow countrymen were about to carry the
midnight torch, they turned aside to another place to hold their
conference. “None of the brethren laboring on the Canada side went over.
It is probable, although we are not certain, that they met at the place
appointed, where some sort of deliberations would take place.” The Rev.
John Ryerson says Mr. Ryan “held a conference, and held three
conferences during the war, the principal business of which was
employing preachers, and appointing them to their different fields of
labor.” The Rev. Ezra Adams says, “the second conference was held at
Matilda,” and “in 1814, it was held at the Bay of Quinté, at Second or
Fourth Town”—Carroll. Mr. Ryan was impulsive and authoritative, at least
the ministers thought so, and the rule of “Harry Ryan” was called
“high-handed.” The end of it all was that, although he was useful and
liked by the people, his ministerial brethren in Canada did not like
him, and the conference seemed glad to supersede one, who no doubt
already manifested his desire that the Canadian Methodists should become
independent of the Americans. In view of the political state of affairs,
the objection felt by the government to have American preachers giving
religious instruction to Canadians,—in view of the course pursued by
Ryan during the war of 1812—in view of his whole career up to this time,
the belief is forced upon the mind that it was not only when Ryan had
been superseded that he began to agitate for a separation. His labors
during the war were severe and continuous, says a preacher of the times,
“He used to travel from Montreal to Sandwich, to accomplish which he
kept two horses in the Niagara district, and one for the upper part of
the Province, and another for the lower. As his income was very small,
he eked out the sum necessary to support his family by peddling a
manufacture of his own in his extensive journeys, and by hauling with
his double team in winter time, on his return from Lower Canada, loads
of Government stores or general merchandise. Mr. Ryan, by his loyalty,
gained the confidence and admiration of all friends of British
supremacy, and by his abundant and heroic labors, the affections of the
God-fearing part of the community.” Much more might be said in the same
vein, but probably enough has been said to establish his claim to the
sympathy of every Bay of Quinté inhabitant, where he so long labored and
where most of his subsequent followers lived. It may be added that he
was brave and witty, and had a ready answer for every bantering remark.
Some wicked fellows are said to have asked him if he had heard the news?
What news? Why, that the devil is dead. Then said he, looking around on
the company, he has left a great many fatherless children. On another
occasion, on entering a public house, a low fellow, knowing him to be,
from his costume, a minister, remarked aloud, placing his hand in his
pocket, “There comes a Methodist preacher; I must take care of my
money.” Ryan promptly said, “You are an impudent scoundrel.” “Take
care,” said the man, “I cannot swallow that.” “Then chew it till you
can,” was the fearless reply.—(Carroll). At camp meetings, when it came
to pass that individuals came to create disturbance, and when there was
no police to take care of rowdies, Mr. Ryan has been known to display
his muscular power by actually throwing the guilty individuals over the
enclosure to the camp ground.

Mr. Ryan preached occasionally at Vandusens’ tavern in Adolphustown.
After one of his thundering sermons, a neighboring squire who was a
daily visitor at the tavern, and who had recently attempted to cut his
own throat, wrote upon the wall of the bar-room, “Elder Ryan, the
Methodist bull, preaches hell and damnation till the pulpit is full;”
whereupon some one wrote below it, “Bryan C——d, the magistrate goat,
barely escaped hell and damnation by cutting his throat.”

Mr. Ryan, upon his return from the General Conference in 1844, commenced
an agitation for independence of the Canadian Methodists, and from Port
Hope Creek to the Ottawa, he continued to urge the necessity of such an

“While not much liked by the preachers, Ryan was very popular among the
people,” especially along the Bay Quinté. Captain Breakenridge, a local
preacher, living on the St. Lawrence, joined him, in holding
conventions, and in procuring largely signed petitions, praying for
separation. Ryan and Breakenridge, went to the General Conference,
bearing these petitions, and were not received. But these petitions were
the commencement of the separation, which it was quite time should take
place for the well being of both parties. Concessions were made—a Canada
conference was formed through the instrumentality of Elder Ryan; but
under the superintendency of the United States conference. This did not
satisfy Ryan, and his followers in the Bay Quinté circuit. Meetings were
held at which it was resolved they would “_break off_” from the American
Church without permission. For four months Ryan energetically appealed
to the people. To allay this the Bishop had to come and say to the
Canadians, that if they wished independence, the next general
conference, which would meet in 1828, would no doubt grant it. The
following year the first Canada conference was held at the village of
Hollowell, (Picton). It was opened on the 25th August. There were thirty
preachers present, and they continued in session five days. The
agitation initiated by Ryan, had done its work, “a general desire
existed, that the Canada body should become an independent body, not
later than the general conference of 1828,” and a memorial was prepared
to be submitted to that body. After requesting to be set apart an
independent body, the following reason, with others was given. “The
state of society requires it. The first settlers having claimed the
protection of His Britannic Majesty in the revolutionary war, were
driven from their former possessions to endure great hardships in a
remote wilderness. Time, however, and a friendly intercourse, had worn
down their asperity and prejudice, when the late unhappy war revived
their former feelings; affording what they considered, new and grievous
occasion for disgust against their invading neighbors. The prejudices
thus excited would probably subside if their ministry were to become
residents in this country, as would be the case in the event of becoming
a separate body.” The fact that government regarded with dislike the
connection was adverted to, also that they were not allowed to solemnize
matrimony. Such was the fruit of Elder Ryan’s proceedings, and to him
belongs great credit, however much his motives may have been impugned.
It has been acknowledged that he was disliked by the preachers, and this
dislike was manifested this year by sending him as a missionary to the
Indians. No wonder he was dissatisfied. Not because he was placed in a
humble position, after acting nearly a quarter of a century as presiding
Elder; but because of the animus of those who did it. And moreover, he
entertained the belief that the general conference did not intend to
give independence. The next year Ryan was placed among the superannuated
ministers, and thus remained two years; the next year 1827, he withdrew,
and resumed the agitation for independence. He had no faith in the
United States conference, the cry was raised, Loyal Methodism against
Republican Methodism. In this Ryan was countenanced by Government and
the English Church, and Playter says, Dr. Strachan sent him £50 to carry
on the work of separation.

The whole previous life of Ryan, leads us to believe that he was sincere
and honest in his movements and statements, but it is said he was
greatly mistaken. The people generally said, wait till we see what the
general conference does. The preachers have said they will give us
independence, pause till we see. The result of the conference was as had
been promised; while already Ryan had separated, and, with a limited
number of followers, mostly along the bay and St. Lawrence, had formed a
new body with the name of _Canadian Wesleyan Methodist Church_. But it
will always remain a question whether the general conference would have
conceded the independence had it not been well known that Ryan would
take almost all if they were not made free. It is not an unknown thing
for a person who has worked for some public good to be robbed of the
credit in a surreptitious manner. Ryan was deceived, and his kind,
though impulsive nature resented the wrong done him. Though his name has
been placed under a shadow by those who were indebted to him, yet his
memory is even yet green and sweet in the hearts of some of the old
settlers. Well might Elder Ryan, select as his text at the time, “I have
raised up children and they have rebelled.”

The general conference assembled at Pittsburgh, 1st May, 1828. The
memorial from the Canada conference was duly considered, and whatever
may have been the reasons, they granted in the most kindly spirit, the
decided request of the Canadian Methodists. Ryan, it is said when he
heard of it, “looked astonished, trembled and could scarcely utter a

The second Canada conference met at Ernesttown, the 2nd October, 1828,
in Switzer’s chapel. “Bishop Hedding came for the last time, and
presided over the conference. No United States Bishop, no Bishop at all,
has ever presided since.” This year, Andrew Pringle, the first native
Methodist preacher, was placed on the superannuated list. After due
deliberation the conference resolved to organize into an independent
body, and adopted the discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church, as
the basis of their own. The Rev. Wm. Case was appointed General
Superintendent until the next conference.

It is not possible, nor would it be proper to give a connected history
of Methodism, or any other religious denomination. But the aim of the
writer is to supply facts relative to those who have lived and acted a
part in connection with the early history of the bay, with such other
facts as will throw light upon the matter. With this object in view, we
will here introduce, in conclusion, a brief notice of the visit of
Bishop Asbury to Canada in 1811. The account is from the pen of the Rev.
Henry Bœhm, with remarks by Mr. Carroll. Reading this account, it called
to our mind the account given to us by Father Bœhm, in 1854, while
sojourning at Staten Island, New York, where we had the great pleasure
of frequently meeting him and of enjoying the hospitality of his genial
family. Mr. Bœhm was the traveling companion of Bishop Asbury when he
visited Canada.

Bishop Asbury, the cotemporary of the Wesleys, being one whom Wesley
ordained to preach, he came to America in 1771, as a missionary, being
25 years old. Of all the English preachers in the revolting colonies, he
alone remained during the revolutionary war, and was under the necessity
of concealing himself in Delaware. Created a Bishop by Dr. Coke, in
1785, he continued for many years in the oversight of the Methodist
Church in America and in Canada. But although Methodism was planted in
Canada in 1792, it was not until the year mentioned that a Bishop found
his way to the remote settlements of Canada. Bishop Asbury, however, had
for years a desire to see Canada. Two years before he came he wrote, “I
shall see Canada before I die,” says Bœhm.

“We had a severe time on our journey. We crossed Lake Champlain, and Mr.
Asbury preached in a bar-room in Plattsburgh. The roads through the
woods, over rocks, down gulleys, over stumps, and through the mud, were
indescribable. They were enough to jolt a hale bishop to death, let
alone a poor, infirm old man, near the grave. On entering the village
(of St. Regis) as Mr. Asbury was leading his horse across a bridge made
of poles, the animal got his foot between them, and sunk into the mud
and water. Away went the saddle-bags; the books and clothes were wet,
and the horse was fast. We got a pole under him to pry him out; at the
same time the horse made a leap, and came out safe and sound. We crossed
the St. Lawrence in romantic style. We hired four Indians to paddle us
over. They lashed three canoes together, and put our horses in them,
their fore feet in one canoe, their hind feet in another. It was a
singular load; three canoes, three passengers, the bishop, Smith and
myself, three horses and four Indians. They were to take us over for
three dollars. It was nearly three miles across to where we landed”—“did
not reach the other side till late in the evening.” The Indians claimed
another dollar, because three could not be easily divided between four,
this was “cheerfully paid.” “We arrived in Canada on July 1st, 1811,
landing at Cornwall, and about midnight reached the hospitable house of
Evan Roise, who hailed the bishop’s arrival with joy, and gave him and
his companions a welcome worthy of patriarchal times.” “We found it warm
in Canada, and the Bishop suffered greatly. Here Henry Ryan, Presiding
Elder of Upper Canada, met us. The next day Bishop Asbury preached, the
day after the Bishop preached again and there was a love-feast, and the
Lord’s Supper.” Proceeding up the River St. Lawrence, arrived at the
eastern line of Matilda, the Bishop rode in Brother Glassford’s close
carriage, which he called a ‘calash,’ and he inquired how they would get
out if it upset. He had hardly asked the question before over went the
carriage, and the venerable Bishop was upset, but fortunately no bones
were broken; the saplings alongside the road broke the fall. On Friday
the Bishop preached in Matilda chapel, in what was called the German
settlement. I followed, preaching in German. The Bishop was delighted
with the people, he wrote, “here is a decent loving people. I called
upon Father Dulmage, and Brother Heck.” We tarried over night with David
Breackenridge. He married and baptised a great many people, and attended
many funerals. In 1804 he preached the funeral sermon of Mrs. Heck, who
died suddenly, and it is said she claimed to be the person who stirred
Philip Embury to preach the Gospel. On Saturday we rode twelve miles
before breakfast to Father Boyce’s, where we attended Quarterly Meeting.
Bishop Asbury preached a thrilling sermon. “The Bishop greatly admired
the country through which we rode. He says ‘Our ride has brought us
through one of the finest countries I have seen. The timber is of noble
size; the cattle are well shaped, and well looking; the crops are
abundant on a most fruitful soil. Surely this is a land that God, the
Lord hath blessed.’” (Such was the testimony of one who had traveled all
over the United States, concerning a country eighty years younger than
the older States of the Union. Such the testimony respecting the
pioneers of the country who twenty-five years previous came thereto into
an unbroken wilderness—respecting the men the Americans had driven away
and stigmatized by the application of the most degrading names). “On
Monday we proceeded to Gananoque Falls, to Colonel Stone’s. Father
Asbury was very lame from inflammatory rheumatism. “He suffered like a
martyr. On Tuesday we visited Brother Elias Dulmage, a very kind family,
and Bishop Asbury preached in the first Town Church” (Kingston Church).
E. Dulmage, one of the Palatines, lived afterward a long time as
jail-keeper.”—(Carroll). The Bishop was so poorly he could not proceed
on his journey, and was obliged to lie up and rest. He remained at
Brother Dulmage’s, where he found a very kind home, and I went with
Henry Ryan to his Quarterly Meeting, in Fourth or Adolphustown, Bay of
Quinté. On Friday we rode to Brother John Embury, Hay Bay. He was a
nephew of Philip Embury, the Apostle of American Methodism. On the
Lord’s day we had a glorious love-feast, and at the Lord’s Supper He was
made known to us in the breaking of bread. In a beautiful grove, under
the shade of trees planted by God’s own hand, I preached to two thousand
people, John Reynold’s, afterward Bishop Reynolds, of Belleville, and
Henry Ryan exhorted. (Exhorting after sermon was a common practice among
the Methodists in those days). Mr. Bœhm had to return to Kingston the
same night, in order that the Bishop might get to the Conference to be
held in the States immediately. To do so they rode all night—35 miles.
“To our great joy we found Father Asbury better”—“he had sent around and
got a congregation to whom he preached in the chapel. He also met the
Society and baptized two children. We were in Canada just a fortnight.
The Bishop was treated everywhere as the angel of the churches. The
Bishop preached six times in Canada, besides numerous lectures which he
delivered to societies.” The Bishop and Mr. Bœhm set out on the Monday
for Sackett’s Harbour, in a small sail boat. There was a heavy storm,
and they were nearly wrecked. On the water all night without a cabin.
Spent a fearful night, and reached Sackett’s Harbour the next afternoon.

                             CHAPTER XXXII.

  CONTENTS—McDonnell—First R. Catholic Bishop—A “Memorandum”—
    Birthplace—In Spain—A Priest—In Scotland—Glengary Fencibles—
    Ireland, 1798—To Canada—Bishop—Death in Scotland—Body removed to
    Canada—Funeral obsequies—Buried at Kingston—Had influence—Member
    of Canadian Legislative Council—Pastoral visitations, 1806—A loyal
    man—A Pioneer in his Church—The Bishop’s Address, 1836—Refuting
    mal-charges—Number of the R. C. Clergy in 1804—From Lake Superior
    to Lower Canada—Traveling horseback—Sometimes on foot—Hardships—
    Not a Politician—Expending private means—Faithful services—
    Acknowledged—Roman Catholic U. E. Loyalists—First Church in
    Ernesttown—McDonnell at Belleville—Rev. M. Brennan—First Church in
    Belleville—What we have aimed at—The advantages to the English
    Church—The Reserves—In Lower Canada—Dr. Mountain—Number of English
    Clergymen, 1793—A Bishop—Monopoly initiated—Intolerance and
    Exclusion swept away—An early habit at Divine service.


We are much indebted to J. P. McDonnell, Esq., of Belleville, for a
“Memorandum of his grand-parent, the Rev. Alex McDonnell, first Bishop
of Upper Canada.”

“He was born in the year 1760, in Glengary, in Scotland, educated for
the Priesthood at Valladolid College, in the Kingdom of Spain; for, at
this time no person professing the Roman Catholic faith could be allowed
to be educated in any part of the British empire. He was ordained Priest
before the year 1790. Then came back to Scotland, his native country,
and officiated as a Priest in Badenoch, a small district in North
Scotland, also in the city of Glasgow; afterwards joined, in 1798, the
Glengary Fencibles, then for duty in Ireland, under the command of Lord
McDonnell, of Glengary, who was Colonel of said Fencible Regiment. He
came to Canada in the year 1804; was consecrated first Bishop of Upper
Canada in the year 1822, titled as the Bishop of Kingston.” He died in
Dumfriesshire, a County bordering on England and Scotland, in the year
1840. His body was laid in St. Mary’s Church, Edinborough, until removed
to Canada, in 1862. His remains was taken from the cars at the station
at Lancaster, and carried to St. Raphael’s Cathedral; in which Church he
had spent some of his most useful days, administering the consolations
of his religion to his numerous co-religionists throughout the Province
of Upper Canada. His remains were escorted by thousands of people, of
all denominations, from St. Raphael’s Church to St. Andrew’s Church, and
thence to Cornwall depot, in order to convey his remains to Kingston,
the head of his See; where his remains now lie in the vaults of the
Cathedral of that ancient city, in which he, as Bishop, officiated for
years, a favorite of both Protestants and Catholics. I may here remark,
that no other man, either clergyman or lay, ever had more influence with
the Government, either Imperial or Colonial than Bishop McDonnell. In
fact he established the Catholic Church in Western Canada. All the lands
that the church now possesses were procured by his exertions. The Bishop
was a member of the Legislative Council for years in connection with the
Venerable Bishop Strachan, of Toronto. About the year 1806, he passed on
his way from Toronto, then York, to Kingston; celebrated mass at his
relation’s, Col. Archibald Chisholm, whose descendants are now living on
Lot. Nos. 8 and 9, 1st Con., Thurlow, adjoining the Town of Belleville—
carried his vestments on his back most of the way from Toronto to
Kingston; and he took passage in a birch canoe from his friend’s, Col.
Chisholm, to another relation, Col. McDonnell, (McDonald’s Cove,) on his
way to Kingston.

“Although his religion was then proscribed by the British Government,
and he was compelled to go to a foreign country to be educated, no more
loyal man to the British Crown lived; no other man ever conduced more to
the upholding of British supremacy in North America than he, and helped
to consolidate the same.”

We are also indebted to Mr. McDonnell for other valuable documents
concerning the Bishop, who may be regarded the father of his Church in
Upper Canada. At least, he was the pioneer of that denomination in the
Bay region. To a great extent, his history is the early history of his
Church. The worthy prelate will speak for himself, when at the advanced
age of seventy-four, and he spoke under circumstances which precluded
the possibility of any statement accidentally creeping in, which could
not be fully substantiated.

Referring to an address of the House of Assembly, 1836, in which his
character had been aspersed, and his motives assailed, he, in a letter
to Sir Francis Bond Head, asks “the liberty of making some remarks on a
few passages” thereof, and, among other things, says, “As to the charges
brought against myself, I feel very little affected by them, having the
consolation to think that fifty years spent in the faithful discharge of
my duty to God and to my country, have established my character upon a
foundation too solid to be shaken by the malicious calumnies of two
notorious slanderers.” To the charge that he had neglected his spiritual
functions to devote his time and talents to politics, he, by plain
declaration, refutes their “malicious charge,” stating the following
facts, which relate to the country from the year he entered it, 1804. He
says, “There were then but two Catholic clergymen in the whole of Upper
Canada. One of these clergymen soon deserted his post; and the other
resided in the Township of Sandwich, in the Western District, and never
went beyond the limits of his mission; so that upon entering upon my
pastoral duties, I had the whole of the Province beside in charge, and
without any assistance for the space of ten years. During that period, I
had to travel over the country, from Lake Superior to the Province line
of Lower Canada, to the discharge of my pastoral functions, carrying the
sacred vestments sometimes on horseback, sometimes on my back, and
sometimes in Indian birch canoes, living with savages—without any other
shelter or comfort, but what their fires and their fares, and the
branches of the trees afforded; crossing the great lakes and rivers, and
even descending the rapids of the St. Lawrence in their dangerous and
wretched crafts. Nor were the hardships and privations which I endured
among the new settlers and emigrants less than what I had to encounter
among the savages themselves, in their miserable shanties; exposed on
all sides to the weather, and destitute of every comfort. In this way I
have been spending my time and my health year after year, since I have
been in Upper Canada, and not clinging to a seat in the Legislative
Council and devoting my time to political strife, as my accusers are
pleased to assert. The erection of five and thirty Churches and Chapels,
great and small, although many of them are in an unfinished state, built
by my exertion; and the zealous services of two and twenty clergymen,
the major part of whom have been educated at my own expense, afford a
substantial proof that I have not neglected my spiritual functions, or
the care of the souls under my charge; and if that be not sufficient, I
can produce satisfactory documents to prove that I have expended, since
I have been in this Province, no less than thirteen thousand pounds, of
my own private means, beside what I received from other quarters, in
building Churches, Chapels, Presbyteries, and School-houses, in rearing
young men for the Church, and in promoting general education. With a
full knowledge of those facts, established beyond the possibility of a
contradiction, my accusers can have but little regard for the truth,
when they tax me with neglecting my spiritual functions and the care of
souls. The framers of the address to His Excellency knew perfectly well
that I never had, or enjoyed, a situation, or place of profit or
emolument, except the salary which my sovereign was pleased to bestow
upon me, in reward of forty-two years faithful services to my country,
having been instrumental in getting two corps of my flock raised and
embodied in defence of their country in critical times, viz., the first
Glengary Fencible Regiment, was raised by my influence, as a Catholic
corps, during the Irish rebellion, whose dangers and fatigues I shared
in that distracted country, and contributed in no small degree to
repress the rapacity of the soldiers, and bring back the deluded people
to a sense of their duty to their sovereign and submission to the laws.
Ample and honorable testimonials of their services and my conduct may be
found in the Government office of Toronto. The second Glengary Fencible
Regiment raised in the Province, when the Government of the United
States of America invaded, and expected to make a conquest of Canada,
was planned by me, and partly raised by my influence. My zeal in the
service of my country, and my exertions in the defence of this Province,
were acknowledged by his late Majesty, through Lord Bathurst, then
Secretary of State for the Colonies. My salary was then increased, and a
seat was assigned for me in the Legislative Council, as a distinguished
mark of my sovereign’s favor, an honor I should consider it a disgrace
to resign, although I can hardly expect ever to sit in the Council, nor
do I believe that Lord Glenelg, who knows something of me, would expect
that I should show so much imbecility in my latter days, as to
relinquish a mark of honor conferred upon me by my sovereign, to gratify
the vindictive malice of a few unprincipled radicals. So far, however,
from repining at the cruel and continued persecutions of my enemies, I
pray God to give me patience to suffer, for justice sake, and to forgive
them their unjust and unmerited conduct towards me. I have the honor to
be Sir,—Your most obedient and very humble servant,—(Signed)—Alex.
McDonnell. To T. Joseph, Esq., Sec’y to His Excellency, Sir Francis Bond
Head, &c., &c., &c.”

There were a number of Roman Catholics among the U. E. Loyalists. Among
them were the Chisholms on the front of Thurlow, to whose house Mr.
McDonnell came to preach as he made his annual round. I am told by an
old settler, that a very old Roman Catholic Church existed in Ernesttown
west, a short distance from Bath. Probably Mr. McDonnell travelled all
around the Bay, visiting members of his Church. There were several in
Marysburgh. He was the first to preach in Belleville, when it had become
a village. But the Rev Michael Brennan, who still lives, and is highly
respected by all classes, was the first priest located in Belleville; he
arrived in 1829. The frame of a building which had been erected for a
Freemason’s Lodge, was moved to the lot which had been received from
Government, and was converted into a Church. The present Church was
commenced in 1837, and completed in 1839.

We have now adverted to the several early clergymen of the different
denominations in the young colony of Upper Canada, and have dwelt upon
those facts, and related those events, which appertain to the work we
have in hand. We have essayed to simply write the truth, without
reference to the interests of any denomination, either by false, or high
coloring, or suppression of facts.

From what we have recorded, it is plain that the Church of England stood
the best chance of becoming the religion of Upper Canada. The seventh
part of the lands were reserved for the clergy, and it was determined to
erect an Ecclesiastical establishment in the Province. In Lower Canada
the Roman Catholics had been secured by Act of Imperial Parliament. In
Upper Canada it was resolved that the English Church should occupy a
similar position. The Rev. Dr. Jehoshaphat Mountain was sent out from
England in 1793, having been consecrated the first Bishop of Quebec, to
take charge of the English establishment in all Canada. There were then
in both Canadas five clergymen of the church. The monopoly thus
instituted continued for many years, and other denominations could not
even hold land upon which to build a place of worship. But time swept
all intolerance and exclusiveness away. In the year 1828, was passed “An
act for the Relief of Religious Societies” of the Province, by which it
was authorized “That whenever any religious congregation or society of
Presbyterians, Lutherans, Calvinists, Methodists, Congregationalists,
Independents, Anabaptists, Quakers, Menonists, Tunkers, or Moravians,
shall have an occasion to take a conveyance of land, it shall be lawful
for them to appoint trustees,” which body should hold perpetual
succession, &c. But it was also enacted that no one Society should hold
more than five acres.

This subject will be concluded by the following, the writer of which we
fail to remember. It is within our own recollection when this habit
still existed:

An early writer, a visitor to the Province of Canada, speaking about
religious denominations says, “The worshipping assemblies appear grave
and devout, except that in some of them it is customary for certain
persons to go out and come in frequently in time of service, to the
disturbance of others, and the interruption of that silence and
solemnity, which are enjoyed by politeness, no less than a sense of
religion. This indecorous practice prevails among several

                            CHAPTER XXXIII.

  CONTENTS—First Sabbath teaching—Hannah Bell, 1769—School
    established, 1781—Raikes—Wesley—First in United States—First in
    Canada—Cattrick, Moon—Common in 1824—First in Belleville—Turnbull—
    Cooper—Marshall—Prizes, who won them—Mr. Turnbull’s death—
    Intemperance—First Temperance Societies—Change of custom—Rum—
    Increasing intemperance—The tastes of the Pioneers—Temperance, not
    teetotalism—First Society in Canada—Drinks at Raising and Bees—
    Society at Hollowell.

                            SABBATH SCHOOLS.

The earliest attempt known to teach children upon the Sabbath was in
1769, made by a young lady, a Methodist, by the name of Hannah Bell, in
England, who was instrumental in training many children in the knowledge
of the Holy Scriptures. In 1781, while another Methodist young woman
(afterward the wife of the celebrated lay preacher, Samuel Bradburn) was
conversing in Gloucester with Robert Raikes, a benevolent citizen of
that town, and publisher of the _Gloucester Journal_, he pointed to
groups of neglected children in the street, and asked: “What can we do
for them?” She answered: “Let us teach them to read and take them to
church!” “He immediately proceeded to try the suggestion, and the
philanthropist and his female friend attended the first company of
Sunday-scholars to the church, exposed to the comments and laughter of
the populace as they passed along the street with their ragged
procession. Such was the origin of our present Sunday-school, an
institution which has perhaps done more for the church and the social
improvement of Protestant communities, than any other agency of modern
times, the pulpit excepted. Raikes, and his humble assistant, conducted
the experiment without ostentation. Not till November 3, 1783, did he
refer to it in his public journal. In 1784, he published in that paper
an account of his plan. This sketch immediately arrested the attention
of Wesley, who inserted the entire article in the January number of the
_American Magazine_ for 1785, and exhorted his people to adopt the new

In 1786, they were begun in the United States by the Methodist Bishop,
Francis Asbury, in Virginia. In 1790, the Methodist conference “resolved
on establishing Sunday-schools for poor children, white and black,”
since which time they have been in operation.

The first notice found of a Sabbath-school in Upper Canada, is in June,
1817, when a Rev. Mr. Cattrick proposed at Kingston to organize one. A
communication from Wm. Moon, in the _Gazette_, expresses great pleasure
thereat, and Mr. Moon offers for the purpose his school-room, and
likewise his services. In 1824, Sunday-schools were common in the old
settlements, and were valued and encouraged by all classes of people.
Not only did private benevolence contribute to the schools, but the
Upper Canada Parliament granted £150, for the “use and encouragement of
Sunday-schools,” and of indigent and remote settlements, in the purchase
of books and tracts—(Playter). A Sabbath-school was established in
Belleville about 1826, by John Turnbull, Dr. Marshall, and Dr. Cooper
who taught in the school. Some religious society granted books and
tracts to schools. Four prizes were granted for good attendance and
behaviour, consisting of two Bibles and two Testaments. They were
awarded, the first to J. H. Meacham, who is now Postmaster of
Belleville; the second to his sister, Anna Meacham, the third to Matilda
McNabb, the fourth to Albert Taylor. While these pages are going through
the press, we receive the sad intelligence that John Turnbull, Esq.,
last living of the three mentioned, has passed away at the beginning of
this new year, 1869, after a life of well-merited respect, and honor.
The writer feels he has lost a friend.

INTEMPERANCE.—Total abstinence or teetotalism was unknown when Upper
Canada was first settled. The first temperance society ever organized
was at Moreau, Saratoga, County, New York, in 1808.

To taste and drink a glass of wine or grog, was not regarded as a sin by
any one of that day. To the soldiers and sailors grog was dealt out as
regularly every day as rations. Rum was the liquor more generally used,
being imported from Jamaica, and infinitely purer than the rum sold
to-day. It has to be recorded that at a comparatively early date,
breweries and distilleries were erected, first in one township then in
another, so that after a few years the native liquor was much cheaper
than rum, and then followed the natural result—namely, increasing
intemperance. It is not difficult to understand that the old soldier
would like his regular glass of grog. In the long and tedious journeys
made by boat, when food perhaps was very limited in quantity, the
conveniently carried bottle would take its place, and extraordinary
labor and severe exposure would be endured by the agency of unnatural
stimulus. The absence of teetotal principles, the customs of the day;
want of food; frequent and severe trials and exposures, would lead even
the best of men to partake of spirituous liquors. As we see it to-day,
so it was then, abuse arose from moderate use, and those who had no
control over the appetite, or who loved to forget the bitterness of the
day by inebriation, would avail themselves of the opportunity to indulge
to excess. The mind naturally craves a stimulant. If this desire be not
fed by legitimate food, it is too likely to appropriate the unnatural.
The excitement of war had passed away; but had left in its wake the
seeds of longing in the breast of the old soldier. The educated man shut
out from the world, had but little to satisfy the usually active mind.
With some, the remembrance of old scenes—of old homesteads, and their
belongings, were forgotten in the stupefying cup. When all these facts
are considered, is there not abundant reason to wonder that intemperance
did not prevail more extensively. But it is a question after all,
whether the loyalists became more addicted to the cup after they
settled, than when at the old homes. Those who have charged the old
settlers with the vice of drinking, have forgotten to look at them in
comparison with other countries at that day, instead of the light set up
at a later period.

But while the pioneers preserved themselves from unusual indulgence, it
is to be regretted that their children too often forsook the path of
soberness, and in losing their right minds, lost the old farm made
valuable by their fathers’ toil. It was often a repetition of what
occasionally occurred when the soldiers were disbanded. They would often
sell a location ticket, or two or three acres of land for a quart of
rum; the sons would sell the fruit of a father’s hard work of a life

One of the first temperance societies formed in Canada was in
Adolphustown, on the 4th January, 1830. On this occasion the Rev. Job
Deacon, of the Church of England, delivered an address, after which a
respectable majority and three out of five magistrates present, adopted
resolutions condemning the use of ardent spirits, and unitedly
determining not to use or furnish drink for raisings, bees, and harvest
work. At the same meeting a temperance society was formed and a
constitution adopted under the title of “The Adolphustown Union Sabbath
School Temperance Society.” They pledged themselves not to use ardent
spirits for one year.

According to the Hollowell _Free Press_, a temperance society was formed
at Hollowell, in 1829; for it is announced that the “Second Anniversary”
will be held 3rd June, 1831. It is announced April 12, 1831, that a
temperance meeting will be held in the Methodist Chapel, when addresses
will be delivered by Dr. A. Austin. The officers elected for the ensuing
year are Asa Worden, Esq., M.P.P., President; Dr. Austin, Vice
President; P. V. Elmore, Secretary and Treasurer.

                             CHAPTER XXXIV.

  CONTENTS—The Six Nations—Faithful English Allies—Society for the
    Propagation of Gospel—First missionary to Iroquois—John Thomas,
    first convert—Visit of Chiefs to England—Their names—Their
    portraits—Attention to them—Asking for instructor—Queen Anne—
    Communion Service—During the Rebellion—Burying the Plate—
    Recovered—Division of the articles—Sacrilege of the Rebels—
    Re-printing Prayer Book—Mr. Stuart, missionary—The women and
    children—At Lachine—Attachment to Mr. Stuart—Touching instance—Mr.
    Stuart’s Indian sister—Church at Tyendinaga—School teacher to the
    Mohawk—John Bininger—First teacher—The Bininger family—The
    Moravian Society—Count Zinzendorf—Moravian church at New York—
    First minister, Abraham Bininger—Friend of Embury—An old account
    book—John Bininger journeying to Canada—Living at Bay Quinté—
    Removes to Mohawk village—Missionary spirit—Abraham Bininger’s
    letters—The directions—Children pleasing parents—“Galloping
    thoughts”—Christianity—Canadian Moravian missionaries—Moravian
    loyalists—What was sent from New York—“Best Treasure”—The “Dear
    Flock”—David Zieshager at the Thames—J. Bininger acceptable to
    Mohawk—Abraham Bininger desires to visit Canada—Death of Mrs.
    Bininger—“Tender mother”—Bininger and Wesley—“Garitson”—“Losee”—
    “Dunon”—Reconciled to Methodists—Pitying Losee—Losee leaving
    Canada—Ceases to be teacher—Appointing a successor—William Bell—
    The salary—The Mohawks don’t attend school—An improvement—The
    cattle may not go in school-house—The school discontinued.


From the first occupation of New York by the English, the Six Nations
had almost always been their faithful allies. This devotion did not
remain unnoticed. Returns were made not only of a temporal nature, but
in respect to things spiritual. So early as 1702 the Society for the
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the next year after its
organization, sent a Missionary (Rev. Mr. Andrews) to the Mohawk Valley.
Under his direction in 1714, the Church of England Common Prayers was
translated into their tongue. The first convert to Christianity was
christened John Thomas, who died in 1727, aged 119.

It is said the English in their determination to secure the alliance of
the Iroquois against the French prevailed upon certain chiefs to visit
the Court of Queen Anne, in 1710, thinking that the greatness and
splendour of England, would firmly fix their attachment.

There were four of them who crossed the water, and who were treated with
distinction. Their names were “_Te Yee Neen Ho Ga Prow_, and _Sa Ga Yean
Qua Proh Ton_, of the Maquas; _Elow Oh Roam_, and _Oh Nee Yeath Ton No
Prow_, of the River Sachem.” Portraits were taken of these four kings
and placed in the British Museum. When presented to the Queen they made
an elaborate speech, in which they spoke of their desire to see their
“great Queen;” the long tedious French war in which they had taken a
part; they urged the necessity of reducing Canada, and closed by
expressing a wish that their “great Queen will be pleased to send over
some person to instruct” them in a knowledge of the Saviour.
Consequently the Queen caused to be sent to the Mohawk church just
erected among them, a valuable sacramental service of plate, and a
communion cloth. This royal gift was ever held in the most fervent
esteem by the tribe. The part taken by the noble Iroquois during the
cruel rebellion of 1776–83 is elsewhere detailed; but in this connection
is to be noticed an incident of a touching nature. The rebel commander
of a blood-thirsty gang, stimulated by promises of the land which they
were sent to despoil, came upon the tribe at an unexpected moment. The
valuable—the costly—the revered gift from the Queen was in danger of
being seized by the lawless horde which was approaching. Not forgetting
them—not unmindful of things sacred, some of the chief members of the
tribe decided to conceal them by burying them in the earth, which was
accordingly done, the plate being wrapped in the communion cloth. These
doubly valuable articles remained buried until the close of the war,
when they were recovered. The plate had suffered no injury, but the
cloth had been almost destroyed by the damp earth. These precious relics
were divided between those who settled upon the Grand River, and the
smaller branch that remained at the Bay. They are to this day used on
sacramental occasions. Upon each of the articles, sacred to memory, and
sacredly employed, is cut the following words:

“The Gift of Her Majesty Queen Anne by the Grace of God of Great
Britain, France and Ireland, of Her Plantations in North America, Queen
of Her Indian Chappel of the Mohawk.”

When the lawless rebels came into their settlement, they destroyed the
translated Prayer book. The Mohawks, apprehensive that it would be lost,
asked the Governor (Haldimand) to have an edition published. This was
granted by printing a limited number in 1780 at Quebec. In 1787 a third
edition was published in London, a copy of which before us, supplies
these facts. In connection with it there is also a translation of the
Gospel according to St. Mark by Brant. It is stated in the Preface that
a translation of some other parts of the New Testament may soon be
expected from Brant. But such never appeared.

The missionary employed at the commencement of the rebellion, by the
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, was the Rev.
John Stuart. In 1770, he was appointed to the Mission at Fort Hunter. He
soon prepared a Mohawk translation of the Gospel by Mark, an exposition
of the Church catechism, and a compendious History of the Bible. He was
undisturbed in his labors, until after the Declaration of Independence,
though “he constantly performed divine service without omitting prayers
for the King.”

The women and children of the Indians when hurried away from their homes
repaired to Lachine, where they mostly remained until the end of the
war. The particulars of the history of their missionary is elsewhere
given. There was a sincere attachment between him and the tribe, an
instance of which is supplied by the conduct of a sister of Captain
Johns. Mrs. Stuart had an infant child which was deprived of its natural
food. The Indian woman weaned her own child that she might thereby be
able to supply the missionary’s child with food. This child was Charles
O’Kill Stuart. When he became the Venerable Archdeacon, he did not
forget the act of motherly kindness bestowed upon him. The faithful
breast upon which he had nestled, had long since closed its heaving by
death; but the daughter whom she had put away from the breast still
lived. Dr. Stuart visited the Indian woods every year, and invariably
went to see his sister, as he called her.

Early steps were taken to have built a church in which they might
worship. The Rev. John Stuart had his home in Kingston, yet he often
visited the Indians.

The first church was erected on Grand River by Brant in 1786, and as
nearly as we can learn the plain wooden building at the settlement upon
the Bay was, at the same time, or shortly after erected.

The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, not only
employed the Rev. Mr. Stuart, as a missionary, to labor with the
Mohawks, but likewise set apart a sum of £30, as a salary to a teacher
to instruct the children of the Indians upon Bay Quinté. Mr. Stuart
lived at Kingston, however, and could but visit the Indian village
occasionally. But a catechist was employed by him to supply spiritual
instruction. Mr. Stuart also had the appointing of a school teacher. The
precise time when this school was opened, it is impossible to determine.
The first reference we find to it is in a letter, (one of many kindly
entrusted to us by Mrs. Bininger of Belleville) written by John
Bininger, then living in Adolphustown, to his father, the Rev. Abraham
Bininger of Camden, New York, Moravian missionary. The letter is dated
18th September, 1792, and says, “being at Kingston, I heard as it were
accidentally, that the Rev. Mr. John Stuart wanted, on behalf of the
society in England, to hire a teacher for the Mohawks up this bay,
accordingly, I made an offer of my services.” This may have been the
commencement of the school. Mr. Stuart, not long after, accepted the
offer, and John Bininger says he gave his employers notice that he
should leave them. We learn that he was at that time, or had been a
short time before, engaged as a book-keeper in Kingston. He was detained
for two months before his employers would release him, immediately after
which he removed to the Mohawk village.

Before proceeding with the record of the Mohawk school, we shall ask the
reader to listen to a few of the facts in the history of the Bininger

The Moravian Society was founded by Count Zinzendorf. He visited New
York in 1741, and seven years later, 1748, a Moravian Church was
established in New York. The first or principal Moravian minister was
Abraham Bininger, a native of Switzerland, from the same town where the
immortal William Tell lived.—(Wakeley.) He was the intimate friend of
Embury and the other early Methodists in America.

Of the sons of the Rev. A. Bininger we have only to notice John. Before
us is an old account book in which is found the following memorandum:
“1791, May 30th, Moved from Camden in Salem, Washington County; June
2nd, Arrived at St. John’s, Canada; June 8th, Arrived at Lachine for
Kingston; 24th, arrived at Kingston, Upper Canada; July 2nd, Arrived at
John Carscallian’s, Fredricksburgh, Bay Kanty; October 2nd, Moved from
Fredricksburgh to Adolphustown, 1792; November 13th, Moved from
Adolphustown to Mohawk Village.” A letter written by John Bininger to
his father, is in a fine distinct hand, and indicates both learning and
piety, and that he was actuated, in taking the situation of teacher to
the Mohawks, by a missionary spirit. His father wrote to him from time
to time; the letters are dated at Camden, and usually refer to family
affairs; but each has a large portion devoted to Christian advice,
simply and touchingly, and sometimes quaintly given. They are signed
Abraham and Martha. The first letter is addressed to “Caterockqua,” and
the request is made upon the corner of the letter to “please forward
this with care and speed,” “also to the care of Mr. John Carscallian, or
Lieutenant Carscallian.” The rest of the letters are addressed to
Adolphustown, and the Mohawk Village, “Bay Quinté.”

In one letter he says “Remember children never please parents more than
when they are willing to be guided by them; self-guiding is always the
beginning of temptation, and next comes a fall that we must smart for
it; we are to work out our own salvation (not with high galloping
thoughts) but with fear and trembling.” In this way every letter beams
with pure and simple Christianity. After his children’s personal
well-being, he is concerned about the Moravian missionaries in Canada,
and also a considerable number of Moravian Loyalists who had settled
upon the Bay Quinté, after whom he frequently inquires. In one letter he
says “remember me to all my friends, in particular to old Mr.
Carscallian and wife.” One letter says, “We send you with Mr. McCabe a
lag. cheese, weight five pounds and three-quarters, about half-a-pint of
apple seed, from Urana’s saving. I also send you part of my best
treasure, the _Daily Word and Doctrinal Texts_, for the year 1792. The
collection of choice hymns and sixteen discourses of my very dear
friend, Count Zinzendorf.” He says, “I would heartily beg to make
Inquiry and friendship with the brethren among the Indians. They are
settled in the British lines, I don’t know the name of the place.” Again
he expresses a wish that he should inquire for the brethren’s
settlement, and “make a correspondence with them,” to think it his “duty
to assist them in the furtherance of the Gospel, both on account of
yourself and on account of your old father. If you can get any
intelligence pray let me know, I am often concerned in my mind for the
dear flock that believe in the Lord Jesus Christ. I think if any
gentleman in your parts can give information, it is the Reverend Mr.
Stuart, a minister of the Church of England, he is a gentleman that I
have great esteem for, I know he will give you all the intelligence he
possibly can.” Subsequently, 1794, he wishes his son to correspond with
the brethren at the river La Trenche (the Thames). As a result of this
request, we see a letter received from David Zeisherger, dated at River
Thames, 20th July, 1794, eighty miles from Detroit.

John Bininger was acceptable to the Mohawks of the Bay, as an
instructor. His father writes 5th January, 1794, “It was a real
satisfaction to me to see Mr. Hekenalder in New York, and more so when I
heard the good character of the Indians of your place living among
them.” Writing February 23rd, he says, “was I able to undergo the
hardships, I would certainly join with you and tell the poor Indians of
God their Saviour, that would be the highest and happiest employ for
me.” In August, he says “I would have ventured the hardships of the
journey, but mother and Isaac wont approve of it, they think I am too
old and feeble. I know that if I was with you I should have more
contentment than I have here.”

The last communication we have is dated February, 1804, in which the
good old Moravian says to his children, John and Phœbe, that their “dear
tender mother went happy to our dear Saviour;” at the funeral was so
many, he wondered how so many could collect.

The Rev. Abraham Bininger was intimate with Wesley, whom he accompanied
to Virginia. He also was familiar with Philip Embury, and Mr. “Garitson”
who baptized his grand-child. The first two Methodist preachers in
Canada were well known to him. Several letters, back and forth, are “per
favor of Losee.” In one letter he says, “Don forget to remember my love
and regards to Mr. Dunon (Dunham) and Mr. Loese.” The postscript of
another letter says, “Isaac intends to send a young heifer, two pound of
tea, a gammon, and a pise of smokt beef. Mother sends her love to Dunon
and Mr. Loese.” A letter dated April 12th, 1792, says John Switzers’ son
“was baptized by Mr. Garitson. Mr. Garitson is well approved of in these
parts. I heartily wish, as much as I love him, that he were in your
parts. I am of late more reconciled to the Methodists than I was before,
I see they really are a blessing to many poor souls.”

Writing 2nd August, 1794, he says “I heartily pity Mr. Losee for
withdrawing his hand, he is now to be treated with patience and
tenderness. I have sent last part of a discourse which I translated from
the brethren’s writing. I did it chiefly on account of Mr. Losee, if you
think proper send him a copy with a tender greet from me.” John
Bininger, writing January 12, 1795, remarks, Mr. Losee is just setting
out for the States.

Mr. John Bininger ceased to be teacher to the Mohawks sometime in the
latter part of 1795, or first part of 1796.

There are several letters before us, written by Mr. Stuart, in reference
to the appointment of a successor to Mr. Bininger, the first one is
directed to “Mr. William Bell, at the head of the Bay of Quinté,” and
dated at Kingston, September 26, 1796. He says “I received your letter
respecting the Mohawk school; I can give you no positive answer at
present: because I have agreed, conditionally with a school-master at
Montreal, that is, if he comes up, he is to have the school; I expect
daily to hear from him, although I do not think he will accept of the
employment. Some time ago Mr. Ferguson mentioned you as one who would
probably undertake that charge. I told Captain John that if the person
from Montreal disappointed me I would talk with you on the subject. The
salary is £30 sterling, with a house to live in, and some other
advantages which depend wholly on the pleasure of the Mohawks—but the
teacher must be a man, and not a woman, however well qualified.” The
teacher from Montreal did not come, and Mr. Bell was appointed. The
following seems to have been a copy of Mr. Bell’s first call for
payment, the half-yearly instalment.

“Mohawk Village, Bay of Quinté, July 5, 1797—Exchange for £15 sterling.

Sir,—At thirty days sight of this first of exchange, please to pay to
Mr. Robert McCauley, or order, the sum of fifteen pounds sterling, being
half-year’s salary, from the 15th day of November, 1796, to the 15th day
of May, 1797, due from the Society, without further advice, from, Sir,
&c., (Signed), William Bell, school-master to the Mohawks. To Calvert
Chapman, Esq., Treasurer to the Society for the Propagation of the
Gospel in Foreign Parts—Duke Street, Westminster.”

The Mohawks, it seems, did not appreciate the advantages which the
establishment of a school among them was intended to afford, and Mr.
Stuart is found writing as follows: “Kingston, August 18, 1799—Sir,—
Unless the Mohawks will send such a number of their children to school
as will justify me in continuing a school-master, in duty to myself, as
acting for the Society, I shall be under the necessity of discontinuing
the payment of your salary after the expiration of the present year.
This information I think proper to give you, that you may govern
yourself accordingly. I am, Sir,” &c., (Signed), John Stuart.

But writing again, March 16, 1800, Mr. Stuart says, “I am happy to hear
that the school is now furnished with a dozen or more scholars, and it
is expected you will be very strict in your discipline, and see that
prayers are read night and morning; that the children are taught the
Lord’s Prayer, and the Commandments—that children may not be sent home
even if their parents do not send wood at the stated times; that the
cattle may not be allowed to go into the school, but that it be kept
clean, and the wood belonging to it may not be used unless in school

Writing again, September 11, 1801, Mr. Stuart says, “I have waited with
patience to see whether the Mohawks would send their children more
regularly to school, but if the accounts I receive are true, the money
is expended to no purpose. I am told that there has not been a scholar
in school since last spring. And, as I never found that the fault was on
your side, I cannot, in conscience, allow the salary of the Society to
be paid for nothing. Therefore, unless Capt. John and the chief men of
the village will promise that the school shall be furnished with at
least six scholars, I must dismiss you from their service—as soon as you
receive this notification. I hope you will see the reasonableness of
this determination of mine, and you may show this letter to Capt. John
and the Mohawks, by which they will see that the continuance or
discontinuance of the school depends wholly on themselves.”

The final letter upon the subject is dated “Kingston, 26th August,
1802,” and says, “I have not yet received any letter from the Society;
but, for the reasons I mentioned to you, I think it will be expedient to
let the Mohawk school cease, at least for some time. I therefore notify
you that after your present quarter is ended you will not expect a
continuance of the salary.” (Signed), “John Stuart.” “To William Bell,
school-master to the Mohawks, Bay of Quinté.”

                             CHAPTER XXXV.

  CONTENTS—The first Church at Tyendinaga grows old—A Council—Ask for
    Assistance—Gov. Bagot—Laying first stone of new Church—The
    Inscription—The Ceremony—The new Church—Their Singing—The
    surrounding Scenery—John Hall’s Tomb—Pagan Indians—Red Jacket—His
    Speech—Reflection upon Christians—Indians had nothing to do with
    murdering the Saviour.

                         BUILDING A NEW CHURCH.

Their original edifice of wood, having served its purpose, and being in
a state of decay; it was deemed necessary to have erected a new and more
substantial building. They, consequently, held a Council, at which the
Chief made the following speech, after hearing all the ways and means
discussed—“If we attempt to build this church by ourselves, it will
never be done. Let us, therefore, ask our father, the Governor, to build
it for us, and it will be done at once.” Reference here was made, not to
the necessary funds, for they were to be derived from the sale of Indian
lands; but to the experience requisite to carry out the project. Sir
Charles Bagot, the Governor, was accordingly petitioned. “The first
stone was laid by S. P. Jarvis, Esq., Chief Superintendent of Indians in
Canada; and the Archdeacon of Kingston, the truly venerable G. O.
Stuart, conducted the usual service; which was preceded by a procession
of the Indians, who, singing a hymn, led the way from the wharf.” “The
following inscription was placed in this stone:


                       THE GLORY OF GOD OUR SAVIOUR



                          THROUGH JESUS CHRIST,

  In the sixth year of Our Mother Queen Victoria: Sir Charles Theophilus
    Metcalf, G.C.B., being Governor General of British North America;

  THE RIGHT REV. J. STRACHAN, D.D., AND LL.D., Being Bishop of Toronto:


              The old wooden fabric having answered its end,

                           THIS CORNER STONE OF

                       CHRIST’S CHURCH TYENDINAGA,

                                 WAS LAID

 In the presence of the Venerable George O’Kill Stuart, LL.D., Archdeacon
                               of Kingston;
    By Samuel Peter Jarvis, Chief Superintendent of Indian Affairs in
            Canada, assisted by various Members of the Church,

                    ON TUESDAY MAY 30TH, A. D., 1843.

                              &c., &c., &c.

A hymn was sung by the Indians, and Indian children of the school. The
Rev. Wm. Macauley, of Picton, delivered an address, which was followed
by a prayer from the Rev. Mr. Deacon.”—(_Sir Richard Henry

This edifice, with four lancet windows on each side, presents to the eye
a very pleasing appearance upon approaching it. While the interior may
not altogether appear so attractive, it is sufficiently interesting.
There is the elevated desk, and the more elevated pulpit; and upon the
wall, over the altar, are the ten commandments, in the Mohawk tongue.
Here is grandly united the Mother Church, and the devoted piety of the
once great Mohawk nation. Opposite the altar is a gallery, across the
end of the building, in which is an organ. Therefrom proceeds, Sunday
after Sunday, rich notes of tuneful melody, blending with the stout
voices of the singers. From this church ascends, have we not reason to
believe the adoration of hearts warmed into spiritual life by the pure
principles of Christianity.

The view from the church upon the surrounding scenery is very pleasant,
and, in the quietness of a summer day, one may linger gazing and
meditating upon the past history of the race whose dead slumber hard by.
The visitor’s attention will be directed to a flat tomb, of blue stone,
inclosed by a low stone wall, overgrown with shrubs. Upon the face of
the tomb are the words:

“This tomb, erected to the memory of John Hall, Ochechusleah, by the
Mohawks, in grateful remembrance of his Christian labors amongst them.
During thirty years, he served as a Mohawk Catechist, in this
settlement, under the Society for Propagating the Gospel, adorning the
doctrine of God, his Saviour, and enjoying the respect of all who knew
him. He died, generally regretted, June, 1848, aged 60 years.” This
stone also covers the remains of “Eloner, the exemplary wife of the
Catechist, who died in the Lord, May 7, 1840, aged 50.”

While the Mohawks always manifested a desire to learn the truth, as
taught by Christians, there were some of the Six Nations who believed
not, and steadfastly turned their backs upon the missionaries of the
Cross. Among these stood prominent the Seneca chief Sagnoaha, or Red
Jacket, one well known as an eloquent Sachem in all the Councils of his
people. A Seneca council was held at Buffalo Creek, in May, 1811, when
Red Jacket answered the desire of a missionary that they should become
Christians, as follows:—

“Brother!—We listened to the talk you delivered to us from the council
of black coats in New York. We have fully considered your talk, and the
offers you have made us. We now return our answer, which we wish you
also to understand. In making up our minds we have looked back to
remember what has been done in our days, and what our fathers have told
us was done in old times.

“Brother!—Great numbers of black coats have been among the Indians. With
sweet voices and smiling faces, they offered to teach them the religion
of the white people. Our brethren in the East listened to them. They
turn from the religion of their fathers, and look up the religion of the
white people. What good has it done? Are they more friendly, one to
another, than we are? No, Brother! They are a divided people; we are
united. They quarrel about religion; we live in love and friendship.
Besides, they drink strong waters, and they have learned how to cheat
and how to practice all the other vices of the white people, without
imitating their virtues. Brother!—If you wish us well, keep away; don’t
disturb us. Brother!—We do not worship the Great Spirit as the white
people do, but we believe that the forms of worship are indifferent to
the Great Spirit. It is the homage of sincere hearts that pleases him,
and we worship him in that manner.” “Brother! For these reasons we
cannot receive your offers. We have other things to do, and beg you will
make your minds easy, without troubling us, lest our heads should be too
much loaded, and by and by burst.” At another time, he is reported to
have said to one conversing with him upon the subject of Christianity,
that the Indians were not responsible for the death of Christ.
“Brother,” said he “if you white people murdered the Saviour, make it up
yourselves. We had nothing to do with it. If he had come among us, we
should have treated him better.”

                             CHAPTER XXXVI.

  CONTENTS—Mississauga Indians—Father Picquet’s opinion—Remnant of a
    large tribe—Their Land—Sold to Government—Rev. Wm. Case—John
    Sunday—A drunkard—Peter Jones—Baptising Indians—At a camp-meeting—
    Their department—Extract from Playter—William Beaver—Conversions—
    Jacob Peter—Severe upon white Christians—Their worship—The Father
    of Canadian missions—Scheme to teach Indians—Grape Island—Leasing
    islands—The parties—“Dated at Belleville”—Constructing a village—
    The lumber—How obtained—Encamping on Grape Island—The method of
    instruction—The number—Agriculture—Their singing—School house—The
    teacher—Instructions of women—Miss Barnes—Property of Indians—Cost
    of improvements—A visit to Government—Asking for land—“Big
    Island”—Other favors—Peter Jacobs at New York—Extracts from
    Playter—Number of Indian converts, 1829—River Credit Indians—
    Indians removed to Alnwick.


We have learned that the French missionary, Father Picquet did not
entertain a very high opinion, at least he professed not to, of the
moral character of the Mississaugas, and their susceptibility to the
influence of Christian religion. We will now see what was accomplished
by the agency of the Rev. William Case. We refer to that branch at
present called the Mississaugas of Alnwick, and formerly known as the
Mississaugas of the Bay of Quinté. They were the remnant of the powerful
tribe, which ceded a large tract in the Johnstown, Midland and Newcastle
districts to the Government. This block contained 2,748,000 acres, and
was surrendered in 1822, for an annuity of £642 10s.

In 1825 the Rev. William Case visited the Bay. Among the first to come
under the influence of religion, from the preaching of the Methodists
was John Sunday. The writer has conversed with many, who remember Sunday
as a very filthy drunkard. Peter Jones and John Crane, Mohawks who had
been converted to Methodism at the Grand River, visited Belleville.
Peter Jones with simple eloquence, soon reached the hearts of the
Mississaugas. The writer’s father has heard Peter Jones preach to them
in Indian near the banks of the Moira, just by No. 1 school-house in
Belleville. In the spring of 1826 Case baptized 22 Indian converts,
while 50 more seemed under the influence of religion. In June, a
camp-meeting was held in Adolphustown, the Mississaugas attended.
Special accommodation was afforded them. Their arrival is thus
graphically given by Playter, and it supplies an excellent idea of
Indian character in connection with religion.

A message came that the Mississauga fleet was in sight. A few repaired
to the shore to welcome and conduct the Indians to the ground. The bark
canoes contained men, women and children, with cooking utensils,
blankets, guns, spears, provisions, and bark for covering their wigwams.
The men took each a canoe reversed on his head, or the guns and spears;
each squaw a bundle of blankets or bark. The men marched first, the
women in the rear, and in file they moved to the encampment, headed by
two preachers. The congregation seeing the Indians passing through the
gate, and so equipped, was astonished. Reflecting on the former
condition and the present state of these natives of the woods, gratitude
and joy filled every bosom. God was praised for the salvation of the
heathen. After the natives had laid down the burdens, they all silently
prayed for the blessing of the Great Spirit, to the surprise and
increased delight of the pious whites. The Indians next built their
camp, in the oblong form, with poles, canoes, and bark. The adults
numbered 41, of whom 28 had given evidence of a converted state, and the
children were 17: in all 58. The natives had private meetings by
themselves, and the whites by themselves; but in preaching time, the
Indians sat on the right of the preaching stand. At the close of each
sermon, William Beaver, an Indian exhorter, translated the main points
for the Indians, the other Indian exhorters, Sunday, Moses, and Jacob
Peter spoke to their people on different occasions. Beaver’s first
exhortation was on Friday, and produced a great effect on the natives.

On Sunday Beaver spoke to his people with great fluency. Upon being
asked what he had been saying, “I tell ‘em,” said he, “they must all
turn away from sin; that the Great Spirit will give ‘em new eyes to see,
new ears to hear good things; new heart to understand, and sing, and
pray; all new! I tell ‘em squaws, they must wash ‘em blankets clean,
must cook ‘em victuals clean, like white women; they must live in peace,
worship God, and love one another. Then,” with a natural motion of the
hand and arm, as if to level an uneven surface, he added, “The Good
Spirit make the ground all smooth before you.”

“On Monday, the Lord’s supper was given to the Indians and the whites,
of the Indians 21 were also baptized, with ten of their children. The
whole number of the baptized in this tribe was now 43, 21 children. As
yet these Indians knew but one hymn, “O for a thousand tongues to sing,
my great Redeemer’s praise,” and one tune. This hymn they sung, over and
over, as if always new, and always good.”

It has been the custom, of not alone the United States, but some in our
midst, to regard the Indians as altogether degraded below the whites in
intelligence, in natural honesty, and in appreciation of right and
wrong. At the camp-meeting above referred to, there was a convert by
name of Jacob Peter. He is described as “a sprightly youth of 18 years.”
At some subsequent date during the same year, the Indians held a
prayer-meeting at the village of Demorestville. Mr. Demorest being
present with other white inhabitants, to witness the Indian’s devotion,
requested Jacob to speak a little to them in English; which he thus did:

“You white people have the Gospel a great many years. You have the Bible
too: suppose you read sometimes—but you very wicked. Suppose some very
good people: but great many wicked. You get drunk—you tell lies—you
break the Sabbath.” Then pointing to his brethren, he added, “But these
Indians, they hear the word only a little while—they can’t read the
Bible—but they become good right away. They no more get drunk—no more
tell lies—they keep the Sabbath day. To us Indians, seems very strange
that you have missionary so many years, and you so many rogues yet. The
Indians have missionary only a little while, and we all turn

“The whites little expected so bold a reproof from a youth belonging to
a race which is generally despised.”—(Playter).

Camp-meetings were peculiarly calculated to impress the Indians with
solemn thoughts. These children of the forest deemed the shade of trees
a fit and true place in which to worship the true God, just as seemed to
the first settlers who had for so long a time had their homes within the
quiet glades. And no more inconsiderate step could have been taken than
that pursued by Governor Maitland, who, at the instigation of others,
forbade the converted Indians at the River Credit to attend
camp-meetings. The conversion of the Mississaugas at Belleville, and the
Credit, soon became known to the other branches of the tribe scattered
throughout Canada, and in time the whole nation was under the influence
of Methodist teaching. Their change of life was as well marked as it has
been lasting.

The Rev. William Case, “The father of Canadian Missions,” determined to
permanently settle the tribe, to teach them the quiet pursuits of
agriculture, and their children the rudiments of education, as well as
of Christian knowledge. To this end the plan was adopted, of leasing two
islands, situated in Big Bay, which belonged to the tribe, and establish
thereupon the converted Indians. The parties to whom the tribe granted
the lease for 999 years, for the nominal sum of five shillings, were
“John Reynolds, Benjamin Ketcheson, Penuel G. Selden, James Bickford,
and William Ross.” The Chiefs, Warriors, and Indians conferring the
lease, and who signed the indenture, were “John Sunday, William Beaver,
John Simpson, Nelson Snake, Mitchell Snake, Jacob Musguashcum, Joseph
Skunk, Paul Yawaseeng, Jacob Nawgnashcum, John Salt, Isaac Skunk,
William Ross, Patto Skunk, Jacob Sheepegang, James Snake.” It was
“signed, sealed, and delivered in the presence of Tobias Bleaker, and
Peter Jones.” Dated Belleville, 16th October, 1826. The islands thus
leased were Huff’s Island, then known as “Logrim’s,” containing about
fifty acres, and Grape Island with eleven acres.

Steps were promptly taken to carry out the object aimed at by the
projectors, and arrangements were made to construct a village upon Grape
Island. The lumber for the buildings was obtained by cutting hemlock saw
logs upon the rear part of Tyendinaga, by the river Moira, under the
direction of Surveyor Emerson, which were floated down to Jonas
Canniff’s saw mill, and there sawed into suitable pieces. These were
again floated down in small rafts to the island. During the ensuing
winter, the buildings not being as yet erected, a large number encamped
upon Grape Island, while the rest went hunting, as usual. Instructions
commenced immediately. Preachers visited them from time to time, and two
interpreters. William Beaver and Jacob Peter taught them the Lord’s
Prayer and Ten Commandments. In January the hunting party returned, and
“a meeting, lasting several days, was held in the chapel in Belleville,
to instruct them also.” “The tribe mustered about 130 souls, and the
Society embraced every adult, about ninety persons.”

A branch of the tribe living in the rear of Kingston, forty in number,
came in May, the following Spring, and joined those at the island, and
became converts. In this month the buildings were commenced, and some
land ploughed and planted. The condition of the people was every day
improving. As many as 130 would assemble for worship. Their voices were
melodious, and delightful was the singing. A school and meeting-house
was built in July, 30 feet by 25 feet. William Smith was the first
school-teacher, having thirty scholars in the day school, and fifty in
the Sabbath school. The farming operations were under the
superintendence of R. Phelps. The girls and women were instructed in
knitting, sewing, making straw hats, and other work, by Miss E. Barnes.

“The public property of the Indians comprised a yoke of oxen, three
cows, a set of farming tools, and material for houses, as lumber, nails
and glass,—contributions of the benevolent. The improvements of the year
were expected to cost £250, to be met by benevolence in the United
States and Canada. In October, the meeting-house was seated, in
connection with which was a room provided for a study and bed for the
teacher. The bodies of eleven log houses were put up; eight had shingled
roofs, and they were enclosed before winter.”—(Playter).

Soon after, a deputation from Grape Island visited York, with a
deputation from Rice Lake, and the Credit Indians, to seek an audience
with the Government. A council was held with the Government officers on
the 30th January, 1828. The speeches were interpreted by Peter Jones.
John Sunday, after referring to their conversion, and having settled by
the Bay Quinté, said, “that when they considered the future welfare of
their children, they found that the island they claimed would not afford
them sufficient wood and pasture for any length of time, and that they
had now come to ask their great father, the governor, for a piece of
land lying near them.” “He then proceeded to ask the Government in what
situation Big Island was considered; whether or not it belonged to the
Indians? and, if it did, they asked their father to make those who had
settled on it without their consent, pay them a proper rent, as they had
hitherto turned them off with two bushels of potatoes for 200 acres of
land. In the last place, he asked permission of their great father to
cut some timber on the King’s land for their buildings.”—(Peter Jones).

In April of this year, Mr. Case, with John Sunday and Peter Jacobs,
attended the anniversary of the Missionary Society in New York. The
manifestation of Christianity displayed by these sons of the forest
touched the hearts of the people present, and led to a considerable
augmentation of the contributions previously supplied by private
individuals. They visited other parts of the United States, and returned
to the bay, May 12, “accompanied by two pious ladies, Miss Barnes, and
Miss Hubbard.” “The ladies came with the benevolent design of assisting
the Indians in religion, industry, and education.”

“In the tour Mr. Case received many presents of useful articles for the
Indians; and among the rest ticking for straw beds. This was divided
among twenty families, and made the first beds they ever slept upon.”
Among the conversions of this year, was an Indian woman, practising
witchcraft, as the people believe, and a Roman Catholic.

The people were not only persevering in religious duties, but made
progress in industry. Mr. Case collected the Indians together one
evening, to show what they had manufactured in two weeks. They exhibited
172 axe handles, 6 scoop shovels, 57 ladles, 4 trays, 44 broom-handles,
415 brooms. “The Indians were highly commended for their industry, and
some rewards were bestowed to stimulate greater diligence.”—(Playter).

According to the Annual Report of the Missionary Society of the
Methodist Episcopal Church of the United States, there were “two hundred
and twenty natives under the Christian instruction of one missionary,
one hundred and twenty of whom are regular communicants, and fifty
children are taught in the schools.” Lorenzo Dow visited Grape Island,
and writing July 29, 1829, says, “viewing the neatness and uniformity of
the village—the conduct of the children even in the streets—and not a
drunkard to be found in their borders. Surely what a lesson for the

The other communities of the Mississaugas that came under the religious
teaching of the Methodists are the River Credit Indians, the Rice Lake
Indians, and those at Schoogog, Simcoe, and the Thames River.

When the Indians from the Bay Quinté, and from Kingston, left Grape
Island, they removed to Alnwick. A Report on Indian Affairs, of 1858,
says, “they have now a block of land of 2000 acres divided into 25 acre

                              DIVISION VI

                            CHAPTER XXXVII.

  CONTENTS—Education among the Loyalists—Effect of the War—No
    opportunity for Education—A few Educated—At Bath—A common belief—
    What was requisite for farming—Learning at home—The School
    Teachers—Their qualifications—Rev. Mr. Stuart as a Teacher—Academy
    at Kingston—First Canadian D.D.—Mr. Clark, Teacher, 1786—Donevan—
    Garrison Schools—Cockerell—Myers—Blaney—Michael—Atkins—Kingston,
    1795—Lyons—Mrs. Cranahan—In Adolphustown—Morden—Faulkiner—The
    School Books—Evening Schools—McDougall—O’Reiley—McCormick—
    Whelan—Articles of Agreement—Recollections—Boarding round—American
    Teachers—School Books—The Letter Z.


The majority of the refugees possessed but limited education. There were
a very small number whose education was even excellent; but the greater
portion of Loyalists from the revolting Colonies, had not enjoyed
opportunities for even a common education. The state of society, for
many years, precluded the teaching of youth. During the civil war, the
chances for learning had been exceedingly slender. Apart from this,
there did not exist, a hundred years ago, the same desire to acquire
learning which now prevails. The disbanded soldiers and refugees, even
some of the half-pay officers, were void of education, which, even in
the back woods, is a source of pure enjoyment. There was, however, an
English seminary at Quebec, and at Montreal, at which a few were
educated during the war; for instance, Clark, who was a naval
store-keeper at Carleton Island, had his children there at school. At
the village of Kingston, there were a certain number of educated
persons; but around the Bay there was not much to boast of. As their
habitations were sparse, it was difficult for a sufficient number to
unite to form good schools. Among the old, sturdy farmers, who
themselves had no learning, and who had got along without much, if any
learning, and had no books to read, there obtained a belief that it was
not only unnecessary, but likely to have a bad effect upon the young,
disqualifying them for the plain duties of husbandry. If one could read,
sign his own name, and cast interest, it was looked upon as quite
sufficient for a farmer. But gradually there sprung up an increased
desire to acquire education, and a willingness to supply the means
therefor. In most places, the children were gladly sent to school. And,
moreover, in some cases, elder persons, without learning, married to one
possessed of it, would spend their long winter evenings in learning from
a willing partner, by the flickering fire light. Says Ex-Sheriff Ruttan,
then living at Adolphustown, “As there were no schools at that period,
what knowledge I acquired was from my mother, who would, of an evening,
relate events of the American rebellion, and the happy lives people once
led under British laws and protection previous to the outbreak.” “In a
few years, as the neighborhood improved, school teaching was introduced
by a few individuals, whose individual infirmities prevented them from
hard manual labor.” We find it stated that the first school teachers
were discharged soldiers, and generally Irish.

The Rev. John Stuart, subsequently. D.D., (See first clergyman) was the
first teacher in Upper Canada. So early as 1785, the year he settled at
Cataraqui, as he called the place, he says, in a letter written to an
old friend in the States, “The greatest inconvenience I feel here, is
there being no school for our boys; but, we are now applying to the
Legislature for assistance to erect an academy and have reason to expect
success; If I succeed in this, I shall die here contented.” “In May,
1786, he opened an academy at Kingston;” writing in 1788, he remarks, “I
have an excellent school for my children,” that is the children of
Kingston.—(Memoirs of Dr. Stuart). The degree of D.D., which was
conferred upon Mr. Stuart, in 1799, by his Alma Mater, at the University
of Pennsylvania, was the first University degree of any kind conferred
upon a Canadian, probably to any one of the present Dominion of Canada.

While the Rev. Mr. Stuart was engaged with the first school in Kingston,
Mr. Clarke was likewise employed in teaching upon the shores of the Bay,
probably in Ernesttown or Fredericksburgh. “We learn from Major Clark,
now residing in Edwardsburgh, that his father taught the first regular
school in Dundas. He arrived with his family in Montreal, in the year
1786, and proceeded to the Bay Quinté. He remained two years at the Bay,
employed in teaching. In 1788, he came to Matilda, at the instance of
Captain Frazer, who, at his own expense, purchased a farm for him, at
the cost of one hundred dollars. A few of the neighbors assisted in the
erection of a school house, in which Mr. Clark taught for several years.
He was a native of Perthshire, Scotland.”—(_History of Dundas_).

One of the first teachers at Kingston, was one Donevan.

As a general thing, all the British garrisons had, what was called, a
garrison school, and many of the children at first derived the rudiments
of education from these; that is, those living convenient to the forts.
The teachers of these army schools, no doubt, were of questionable
fitness, probably possessing but a minimum of knowledge, next to actual
ignorance. However, there may have been exceptions. Possibly, where a
chaplain was attached to a garrison, he taught, or superintended.

Col. Clark, of Dalhousie, says, “The first rudiments of my humble
education I acquired at the garrison school, at Old Fort, Niagara. When
we came to the British side of the river, I went to various schools. The
best among them was a Richard Cockerell, an Englishman, from the United
States, who left the country during the rebellion.” He also speaks of
D’Anovan of Kingston, as a teacher, and likewise Myers, Blaney, Mr.
Michael, Irish, and another, a Scotchman. This was before 1800.

A memorandum by Robert Clark, of Napanee, says, “My boys commenced going
to school to Mr. Daniel Allen Atkins, 18th January, 1791.”

Rochefoucault says, in 1795, speaking of Kingston, “In this district are
some schools, but they are few in number. The children are instructed in
reading and writing, and pay each a dollar a month. One of the masters,
superior to the rest, in point of knowledge, taught Latin; but he has
left the school, without being succeeded by another instructor of the
same learning.”

“In the year 1788, a pious young man, called Lyons, an exhorter in the
Methodist Episcopal Church, came to Canada, and engaged in teaching a
school in Adolphustown,” “upon Hay Bay or fourth concession.”—
(_Playter._) Ex-Sheriff Ruttan tells us, that “At seven years of age,
(1799), he was one of those who patronized Mrs. Cranahan, who opened a
Sylvan Seminary for the young idea, (in Adolphustown); from thence, I
went to Jonathan Clark’s, and then tried Thomas Morden, lastly William
Faulkiner, a relative of the Hagermans. You may suppose that these
graduations to Parnassus, was carried into effect, because a large
amount of knowledge could be obtained. Not so; for Dilworth’s Spelling
Book, and the New Testament, were the only books possessed by these
academies. About five miles distant, was another teacher, whose name I
forget; after his day’s work was done in the bush, but particularly in
the winter, he was ready to receive his pupils. This evening school was
for those in search of knowledge. My two elder brothers availed
themselves of this opportunity, and always went on snow shoes, which
they deposited at the door.” It looks very much as if courting may have
been intimately associated with these nightly researches for knowledge.
Mr. Ruttan adds, “And exciting occasions sometimes happened by
moonlight, when the girls joined the cavalcade.” At this school as well,
the only books were Dilworth, and the Testament; unless it were the
girl’s “looks.” “Those primeval days I remember with great pleasure.”
“At fourteen, (1806), my education was finished.” We learn that at an
early period there was one McDougall, who taught school in a log house
upon the south shore of Hay Bay. Says Mr. Henry VanDusen, one of the
first natives of Upper Canada, “The first who exercised the prerogative
of the school room in Adolphustown were the two sons of Edward O’Reily,
and McCormick, both of whom are well remembered by all who were favored
with their instruction—from the unmerciful floggings received.”

About the year 1803, one Salisbury taught school on the High Shore,
Sophiasburgh. The first teacher upon the Marsh Front, near Grassy Point,
was John James. At the mouth of Myers’ Creek, in 1807 or 8, James Potter
taught school; but, prior to that, a man by the name of Leslie taught.
About this time, there was also a Rev. Mr. Wright, a Presbyterian, who
taught school near Mrs. Simpson’s. He preached occasionally. In 1810, in
a little frame school house, near the present market, (Belleville,)
taught one John Watkins. One of the first school masters up the Moira,
fifth concession of Thurlow, was one Gibson. Mrs. Perry, born in
Ernesttown, remembers her first, and her principal school-teacher. His
name was Smith, and he taught in the second concession of Ernesttown in
1806. He had a large school, the children coming from all the
neighborhood, including the best families.

During the war of 1812, Mr. Whelan taught at Kingston, in the public
school. The school house stood near the block house. It is stated,
January, 1817, that he had been a teacher for ten years.

Before us, is a document, dated at Hollowell, Oct. 28, 1819. It is—
“Articles of agreement between R—— L——, of the one part, and we, the
undersigned, of the other part: that is to say: that R—— L—— doth engage
to keep a regular school, for the term of seven months from the first
day of November next, at the rate of two pounds ten shillings per month;
and he further doth agree to teach reading, writing, and arithmetic; to
keep regular hours, keep good order in school, as far as his abilities
will allow, see that the children go orderly from school to their
respective homes. And we, the undersigned, doth agree to pay R—— L—— the
sum above named of ten dollars per month for the time above mentioned;
and further, doth agree to find a comfortable house for the school, and
supply the same with wood fitted for the fire. And further, to wash,
mend, lodge, and victual him for the time of keeping said school. School
to be under charge and inspection of the following trustees: William
Clark, Peter Leavens, and Daniel Leavens.”

To which is subjoined, quaintly, in Mr. L.’s hand writing:

“It is to be understood that the said R—— L—— has performed his business
rightly till he is discharged,—(Signed)      R—— L——.”

Below are the names of the subscribers, and the number of scholars each
will send.

The practice already referred to, of setting apart for school teachers
such members of the family as were physically incapable of doing hard
manual labor, without any regard to their natural or acquired
capabilities, was of Yankee origin, and continued in many places for
many years. The writer had, among his early teachers, one who boarded
round from family to family, whose sole qualification to teach consisted
in his lameness. This prostitution of a noble calling, had the effect of
preventing men of education for a long time, from engaging in the duties
of this profession.

In different places, young men would engage for three or four months, in
winter, to teach school; but, with the return of spring, they would
return to the labor of the field and woods. After a while, young women
could be found who would teach in the concession school house all the
summer, to which the younger children would go.

Some of the first school teachers were from the old country, and some
from the American States. The latter would naturally desire to have used
American school books, and, as they were the most conveniently procured,
they were introduced, and continued to be in use for many years. At
least, by some schools, Dr. Noah Webster’s spelling book was among the
first to be used; and the writer commenced his rudimentary education in
that book. It followed, from the presence of American teachers and
school books, that peculiarities of American spelling and pronunciation
were taught to the children of Canada. For instance, take the letter Z.
This letter of the English alphabet is, according to original authority
pronounced _zed_; but Webster taught that it had not a compound sound,
and should be pronounced _ze_. This matter was brought before the
public, by a letter over the signature of “Harris,” which appeared in
the _Kingston Herald_, in 1846. After adducing abundance of authority,
he concludes that “the instructor of youth, who, when engaged in
teaching the elements of the English language, direct them to call that
letter _ze_, instead of _zed_, are teaching them error.”

                            CHAPTER XXXVIII.

  CONTENTS—Mr. Stuart’s school—Simcoe—State Church and College—Grammar
    Schools—Hon. R. Hamilton—Chalmers—Strachan—Comes to Canada—
    Educational history—Arrival at Kingston—The pupils—Fees—Removes to
    Cornwall—Pupils follow—Strachan, a Canadian—Marries—Interview with
    Bishop Strachan—His disappointment—A stranger—What he forsook—300
    pupils—Their success—Stay at Cornwall—Appointments at York—A
    lecturer—At Kingston—Member of Legislative Council—Politician—
    Clergy Reserves—Founds King’s College—The thirty-nine articles—
    Monopoly swept away—Voluntaryism—Founds Trinity College—Bishop
    Strachan in 1866—What he had accomplished—Those he tutored—Setting
    up a high standard—“Reckoner”—Sincerity—Legislation, 1797—Address
    to the King—Grammar Schools—Grant, 1798—Board of Education—
    Endowment Of King’s College—Its constitution—Changes—Upper Canada
    College—Endowment—“A spirit of improvement”—Gourlay—The second
    academy—At Ernesttown—The trustees—Bidwell—Charges—Contradicted—
    Rival school—Bidwell’s son—Conspicuous character—Bidwell’s death—
    Son removes to Toronto—Academy building, a barrack—Literary spirit
    of Bath—Never revived—York.


Up to the time that Upper Canada was set apart from the Province of
Quebec, as a distinct Province, and even until 1799, when Dr. Strachan
came to Kingston, the Rev. Mr. Stuart continued to be the only teacher
who imparted anything like a solid education. But his scholars consisted
mainly of boys not far advanced. No doubt many of them, however,
received from him the elements of a sound, and even classical education.

Governor Simcoe, soon after assuming office, impressed with the
importance of higher education, even for an infant colony, took early
steps to procure from the mother-country a competent person to place at
the head of a College he had determined to establish in connection with
a State Church. His scheme of education to further that object, was to
establish a system of grammar schools, and a University as the head.

The Hon. Robert Hamilton, of Queenston, had at this time a brother
living in Scotland, and it was through him that an offer was made first
to the celebrated Dr. Chalmers. But not desiring to come, although he
had not yet attained to his greatness, he mentioned the name of his
friend Strachan, to whom the offer was then made. Mr. Strachan decided
to come. Thus it was the veteran school-teacher, the divine, the founder
of Universities, who but recently passed away, was led to Canada to
become the occupant of one of the most conspicuous places in the
Province of Upper Canada. So intimately is the name of Dr. Strachan
associated with the history of education, as well as with the
Episcopalian Church, that it becomes necessary to supply here a somewhat
lengthened account of his educational history. He arrived at Kingston
the last day of the year, 1799, having sailed from Greenock the latter
part of August, and having been over four months on the way. But when
Strachan arrived, Simcoe had been recalled, and his scheme was at least,
in abeyance.

Col. Clark says that “a school was established at Kingston, 1800, by the
Hon. R. Cartwright for his sons, having Mr. Strachan for teacher, who
had the privilege of taking ten additional scholars at £10 each per
annum.” Among these ten were the late Chief Justice Robinson, Chief
Justice Macaulay, the Hon. George Markland, Bishop Bethune, the
successor of Dr. Strachan; the Rev. W. Macaulay, Picton; Captain
England, Royal Engineers; Justice McLean, Col. John Clark, and the two
sons of Hamilton, James and Samuel. These, with four sons of Richard
Cartwright, formed Mr. Strachan’s first school for the higher branches
of education.

Mr. Strachan continued to teach in Kingston for three years, when he
removed his school to Cornwall.

All of his pupils at Kingston, except John Clark, of Niagara, followed
him to that place, and continued for years under his instruction.

The high standard of education now set up by Mr. Strachan had a
beneficial effect. He trained here for usefulness and distinction, some
of the first men of the Province. In addition to those mentioned as
distinguished pupils, was Christopher Hagarman. Here Mr. Strachan, it
may be said, became a thorough Canadian, and began to identify himself
with the higher interests of the country. He shortly after married a
lady of Cornwall, Miss Woods, who lived to within a few years of the
Bishop’s death.

Dr. Strachan, in conversation with the writer, referred to the time of
his coming to Canada with no little feeling. He evidently felt the
disappointment arising from the departure of Governor Simcoe very
keenly, which left him quite to his own resources in the new country,
far from his home which he had forsaken, in view of certain promises of
advancement, congenial to his taste. He was, to use his own words, “a
lonely stranger in a foreign land, without resources or a single
acquaintance.” But in coming to speak of his pupils, of which there had
been about 300, and whose course in life he had been permitted to see;
whose success he had been proud to note, he spoke of them with all the
kindness and regard of a parent. He dwelt upon the character and high
position to which so many had attained, especially the late Chief
Justice Robinson. Speaking of himself, he said his “early life was of
too busy a nature to allow him to keep a journal.” And we find it stated
that he had to support a mother and two sisters.

Mr. Strachan continued at Cornwall nine years, teaching, when he removed
to York. The Government recognised his ability, and to increase the
sphere of his usefulness, and to establish a Provincial College, he was
requested to remove to the capital of Upper Canada, and had offered to
him every advantage, pecuniary and otherwise. In these early efforts to
establish higher education, says the Rev. Mr. Smart, whose testimony is
important, too much praise cannot be given to Dr. Strachan.

Although Mr. Strachan had removed to Cornwall, Kingston was occasionally
favored by his presence as a public lecturer, as the following notice
which appeared in the _Gazette_, December, 1810, will show:

“Mr. Strachan’s annual course of popular lectures on Natural Philosophy,
will commence on the second Monday in January, the course consisting of
thirty-six lectures, to be completed in two months. Tickets of
admission, four guineas; students taught at any of the District Schools
of Upper Canada, entitled to tickets for one guinea. This money to be
appropriated to the purchase of scientific books, for the use of those
who attend the lectures.”

In 1818 Dr. Strachan was appointed a member of the Legislative Council,
and also of the Executive Council. In these positions he was a
consistent worker to secure the establishment of a State Church; and for
the twenty-two years he took part in the politics of Upper Canada he
ceased not to work for the cause, and the preservation of the Clergy
Reserves. Dr. Strachan never forgot the original purpose which brought
him to Canada, the foundation of Grammar Schools and a University. In
1827, after using the influence which his political position allowed him
to secure this object, he procured a royal charter for a University
which he named King’s College after his _Alma Mater_. This institution
was intended for the exclusive benefit of those who would subscribe to
the Thirty-nine Articles. For nearly twenty years this University
continued under the control of the Church of England. But the spirit
which obtained in the public mind of Canada was hostile to this
monopoly, and the time came when the University he had founded became
more truly a national one. Although at this time an old man, when it
might have been supposed he would yield to the adverse influence which
had overcome his college, he never thought of resting satisfied, but, in
direct opposition to the principle against voluntaryism, for which his
life had been so far spent, he set about laying the foundation of
another University, and the Trinity College of Toronto is a second
monument to his untiring energy and success; a monument which renders
another unnecessary to commemorate him.

We penned the following remarks in 1866: This widely known worthy still
animates the church he has been mainly instrumental in erecting to a
high and ever influential position in Canada, and whose untiring
energies, guided by a brilliant intellect and a noble purpose, has made
him the parent of higher education in the Province. The result of his
doings—the traces of his vigorous mind, the repletion of his noble life
may be seen, not alone upon the page of Episcopalian Church History; but
in all the departments of Provincial life—in the halls of learning, in
the recorded charges from the Bench, by the mouth of those he educated;
in the speeches of many of Canada’s earliest and foremost statesmen. For
it was he tutored the mind of a McLean, a Hagerman, a Robinson, of the
Sherwoods, Jones, besides a large number of others who have acted a
conspicuous part in the history of the country. While the trees of the
forest yet overshadowed the muddy soil where Toronto now proudly rears
her graceful spires and domes, and while the wild duck found a safe
resting place in the bay, now thickly dotted with crafts of every size,
Dr. Strachan by pen, and by word of mouth, was setting up a high
standard of learning; and by worthy means, was stimulating the minds of
the future men of Canada to attain that high mark. Read the easy flowing
words that appeared in the Kingston _Gazette_, over “Reckoner,” and it
will strike one that if he took the _Spectator_ as a model, he
abundantly succeeded in imitating the immortal Addison. His school at
Cornwall was pre-eminently good, “he had the welfare of those committed
to him at heart, (says the Rev. Mr. Smart,) as well as the youth of the
country generally.”

Five years after the erection of Upper Canada into a distinct Province,
1797, steps were taken by the two Houses of Parliament to establish
schools for the higher branches of learning. A joint address was
presented to His Majesty, Geo. III., asking that he “would be graciously
pleased to direct his Government in this Province, to appropriate a
certain portion of the waste lands of the Crown, as a fund for the
establishment and support of a respectable Grammar School in each
District thereof; and also a College, or University, for the instruction
of youth in the different branches of liberal knowledge.” The Imperial
Government replied, enquiring in what manner, and to what extent, “a
portion of the Crown lands might be appropriated and rendered productive
towards the formation of a fund for the above purposes.” The Executive
Council of Canada recommended “that an appropriation of 500,000 acres,
or ten townships, after deducting the Crown and Clergy sevenths, would
be a sufficient fund for the establishment and maintenance of the royal
foundation of four Grammar Schools and one University.” It was also
suggested, that the Grammar Schools be established at Cornwall,
Kingston, Newark (Niagara), and Sandwich, and the University at York. It
is not known what action was taken on this recommendation.—(Lillie).
But, in 1798, “a grant was made of 549,000 acres of land in different
parts of the Province, to carry out the design of the Grammar Schools
and University.” “Of the above land endowment, 190,573 acres were, up to
the year 1826, assigned to (or disposed of by) a public body, known as
the Board of Education, the proceeds having been applied to the support
of Common and Grammar Schools.” The residue of the grant, amounting to
358,427 acres, appears to have been regarded as properly constituting
that portion of the royal gift which had been intended for the support
of the contemplated University.

Through the influence and exertion of Dr. Strachan, the University of
King’s College was established by Royal Charter of Incorporation, 15th
March, 1827, with an endowment of “225,000 acres of crown land, and
£1,000 for sixteen years.” The Council or Governors were to consist of
the Chancellor, President, and seven Professors or Graduates of the
institution. All were to be members of the Church of England. This
exclusive feature of the College continued to exist until 1843, when the
charter was modified whereby parties were eligible to hold office by a
declaration of their “belief in the authenticity and Divine
incorporation of the Old and New Testaments, and in the doctrine of the
Trinity.” Various changes were made by Legislative enactment until the
present institution became established, in 1853, when the faculties of
Law and Medicine were abolished, the name changed from King’s College to
University College, and the University and College made two distinct

The Royal Grammar School was merged into Upper Canada College in 1829,
and this institution was opened the following year. “In the years 1832,
1834, and 1835, it received endowments of land, amounting, in all, to
63,268 acres, irrespective of two valuable blocks in York—on one of
which the present College buildings stand.” “The College further
received an allowance from Government of £200 sterling, in 1830; £500 in
1831; and £1,000 sterling per annum since.”


While to Dr. Strachan belongs the honor of establishing the first school
whereat a liberal education might be obtained the efforts and labors of
others must not be forgotten. Shortly after the commencement of the
present century, there arose, perhaps as a result of the teaching of
Strachan, a greater desire for advanced learning. Says a writer in 1811,
“A spirit of improvement is evidently spreading, the value of education,
as well as the want of it, is felt. Gentlemen of competent means appear
to be sensible of the importance of giving their children academical
learning, and ambitious to do it without sending them abroad for the
purpose. Among other indications of progress in literary ambition, I
cannot forbear referring to the academy lately erected in Ernesttown, by
the subscription of public-spirited inhabitants of that, and the
neighbouring townships, who appear to be convinced that the cultivation
of liberal arts and sciences is naturally connected with an improvement
of manners and morals, and a general melioration of the state of

The academy above referred to was the second school of importance
established in Upper Canada. It was also situated upon the shores of the
Bay of Quinté. The following is from the _Kingston Gazette_:

“ERNESTTOWN ACADEMY.—The subscribers hereby inform the friends of
learning that an Academical School, under the superintendence of an
experienced preceptor, is opened in Ernesttown, near the church, for the
instruction of youth in English reading, speaking, grammar and
composition, the learned languages, penmanship, arithmetic, geography,
and other branches of Liberal Education. Scholars attending from a
distance may be boarded in good families on reasonable terms, and for
fifteen shillings a year can have the use of a valuable library. School
Trustees: Robert McDowel, Benjamin Fairfield, William Fairfield, Solomon
Johns, William Wilcox, Samuel Neilson, George Baker.—Ernesttown, 11th
March, 1811.”

The person selected for teacher was Mr. Barnabas Bidwell, who had a few
years previously come to Canada from the State of Massachusetts, where
he had been, according to a writer in the _Kingston Gazette_,
Attorney-General of that State. The same writer made charges of a
serious nature against Mr. Bidwell, as to the cause of his leaving his
country; but one of the above committee vindicated Mr. Bidwell’s
character; by asserting that although Mr. B. had been “unfortunate in
business, and became embarrassed, he was honest, and had left property
to pay his debts when he left—that he had been a tutor at the first
college in America—that he avoided politics and devoted himself to
literary pursuits.” It was about the commencement of the present
century, when Mr Bidwell came to Bath to live.

Probably the academy at Bath was regarded somewhat as a rival to the
school existing at Cornwall.

Barnabas Bidwell remained at Bath about eight years when he removed to
Kingston, with his son, Marshal Bidwell, who became a lawyer, and a very
conspicuous character in Canada. B. Bidwell died at Kingston, July 26,
1833, aged 70. His son removed to York in 1830, where he practised his
profession until the eventful year of 1837.

The academy, at the commencement of the war of 1812, was in a prosperous
state, but very soon all was changed,—the school was broken up, and the
building converted into a barrack. The close of the war unfortunately
saw no return of the old state of things, the teacher was gone, and the
students scattered, “having resorted to other places of education, many
of them out of the province. The building is now, (1822), occupied as a
house of public worship, and a common school. It is to be hoped,
however, that the taste for literary improvement may be revived, and
this seminary be re-established.” But these hopes were never realized.
The literary glory of Bath had departed. The capital of York was now to
become a centre to which would gravitate the more learned, and where
would be established the seats of learning. The limited, though earnest
rivalry which had existed between Kingston and Bath, was to be on a more
important scale, between the ancient capital, Kingston, and the more
promising one of York.

                             CHAPTER XXXIX.

  CONTENTS—Extract from Cooper—Educational institutions—Kingston—
    Queen’s College—Own’s Real Estate—Regiopolis College—Roman
    Catholic—Grammar School—Attendance—School houses—Library—Separate
    Schools—Private Schools—The Quaker School—William Penn—Upon the
    Hudson—Near Bloomfield—Origin of school—Gurnay—His offer—
    Management of school—The teaching—Mrs. Crombie’s schools—Picton
    Ladies’ Academy—McMullen, proprietor—Teachers—Gentlemen’s
    department—Popular—The art of printing—In America—Book publishing—
    First in America—Books among the loyalists—Few—Passed around—
    Ferguson’s books—The Bible—Libraries at Kingston and Bath—
    Legislation—In Lower Canada—Reading room at Hallowell—Reserves for
    Education—Upper Canada in respect to education—Praiseworthy—Common
    School System Bill introduced 1841—Amended, 1846—Dr. Ryerson’s

                      HIGHER EDUCATION, CONTINUED.

The subjoined statement we extract from Cooper, which was written in
1856. We have no doubt the last twelve years has been attended with a
steady increase in the importance of the Educational institutions of

“EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS.—There are in Kingston two colleges, Queen’s
College and Regiopolis; the County Grammar School, 11 Common Schools, 2
separate R. C. Schools, one School connected with the Nunnery, or
Sisters of Charity, with numerous good private schools for boys, private
schools for girls, infant schools and other minor educational
establishments, such as evening schools, classes for teaching
continental languages, &c., in all between 20 and 30.

“QUEEN’S COLLEGE.—Queen’s College is an educational institution of very
considerable importance, and from it have issued graduates in arts,
divinity and medicine, of no despicable attainments. It was incorporated
by Royal Charter in 1842, and is under the management of a Board of
Trustees and Senate. It has a Principal and four Professors in Arts and
Divinity, besides six Medical Professors. It confers Scholarships of the
aggregate value of £200, the highest being worth £12 10s. It numbers
during the present year, 47 medical students, 30 in Arts, 10 in
Divinity, connected with it is a Preparatory School, where great pains
are taken to prepare pupils for matriculation at the college. A good
library, containing some 3,000 volumes belongs to the College. A series
of meteorological observations are taken by the graduates, with the able
supervision of the Rev. Professor James Williamson, under whose
assiduous attention this branch of knowledge, so much neglected in
Canada has been carefully fostered.

“This institution owns valuable real estate, and is aided by an annual
grant from the Legislature of £750, and £250 to the medical branch.

“REGIOPOLIS COLLEGE is a Roman Catholic Seminary of learning; it has
three Professorships, the duties of which are discharged by Roman
Catholic clergymen. Beyond its own walls, and its own community, it is
little known as an educational institution.

“THE COUNTY GRAMMAR SCHOOL is supported as those in other counties, that
is, by a grant from Government of £100 per annum, and the tuition fees
of pupils. It possessed formerly a small endowment; this for the present
has been consumed in creating a fund for the liquidation of some debt on
the school-house, a plain substantial building in a healthy and elevated
part of the town; it is under the control of a Board of Trustees,
appointed by the County Council, and is managed by a head-master and
under-master. It is one of the three Grammar Schools first established
in the Province, and created by Royal Charter—the other two being at
Cornwall and Niagara.

“THE COMMON SCHOOLS are, as in other places, under the management of the
department of education, and the local control of a Board of Trustees,
and local Superintendent. There is a great want of proper and sufficient
school-houses, a want which it is anticipated will soon be supplied, the
Board having in contemplation, the immediate erection of proper
buildings. The free school system has been adopted here; the
difficulties usually attendant on its establishment have not been
altogether escaped—the public seeming loth to tax themselves to any
extent, for the purpose of general education. A marked increase in the
attendance at the city schools has taken place during the last two
years, and there are now taught as large a number of children in the
common schools of Kingston as in any other Canadian city, in proportion
to its population: the standard of education may or may not be as high
as in Toronto, Hamilton or Brockville, but if it is more elementary, it
is not less sound. In free public schools, such as now established, it
is perhaps as well not to aim at a higher standard than is here attained
to. When good school-houses are erected, it will doubtlessly be found
necessary to adopt the Central School system, on the model of that so
successfully carried out in Hamilton, Perth and St. Catharines, and
perhaps elsewhere. When such is the case the present schools will rank
high as primary schools, whilst the central schools will have to compete
with other similar institutions in the province, and will not likely be
behind them in character and value; these changes are in contemplation,
and will before long be carried into effect. The people of Kingston do
not fail to appreciate the benefits of sound education of its
inhabitants in elevating the position of a city. A public library,
containing some 2,000 volumes, has been established in connection with
the city schools.

“THE ROMAN CATHOLIC SEPARATE SCHOOLS are under the management of a
separate Board of Trustees; they are supported as are the Common
Schools, by a Legislative grant, proportionate to the average attendance
of pupils, and by a rate settled by the Board, collected from all
rate-payers; in the case of the Separate Schools, from the parents of
pupils and supporters of the schools, who are exempt from all other
taxation for school purposes. The rate in their case is usually very
low. The wealthier supporters of the schools, with a praiseworthy zeal,
voluntarily contribute largely to the required fund. Among the private
schools are many excellent academies for both boys and girls, which
afford both ornamental acquirements and substantial, classical and
commercial education.”

QUAKER SCHOOLS.—The noted and good William Penn founded a school for the
children of the Friends at an early date. Subsequently a Quaker Boarding
School was established upon the banks of the Hudson, near Poughkeepsie.

Toward the latter part of 1841, a school for the children of the Quaker
denomination, was opened near the pleasant village of Bloomfield, about
4 miles from Picton. The origin of the school we believe, was pretty
much as follows: An English gentleman, John Joseph Gurney, brother to
Elizabeth Fry, a member of the Quaker Society, and we believe a
minister, was travelling in Canada, and discovering the wants of that
denomination, with respect to education, offered to bestow a certain
sum, (£500), on condition that another specified sum were raised, a
suitable place bought, and buildings prepared. His offer being accepted,
and at this juncture, Mr. Armstrong being desirous of selling his farm
of 100 acres, with a good brick house just completed, the present site
of the school was procured. In addition to the means thus obtained there
was also a limited sum held by the society, it is said a bequest, for
educational purposes. Additional buildings were erected, and the school
duly opened. The first teachers were Americans. The school was managed
by a committee chosen annually by the Society, until the latter part of
1865, when it was leased to Mr. W. Valentine, to whom we are partially
indebted for the foregoing facts. The school continues under the
supervision of a managing committee, appointed by the Society. Its
capacity does not extend further than to receive 30 pupils of each sex,
who are taught the usual branches of a good English education, and
sometimes the rudiments of the classics and the modern languages.

In 1836, Mrs. Crombie and her sister Miss Bradshaw opened a “Female
Academy” in Picton, which promised to give “substantial and ornamental

The Picton Ladies’ Academy was opened in December, 1847, by the Rev. D.
McMullen, as sole proprietor. It was continued by him until May, 1851,
when Miss Creighton rented the premises and took charge of the school.
It continued under her management nine months, when it finally was
closed. The first teachers were the late Mrs. N. F. English, and Miss
Eliza Austin. Afterwards Miss M. E. Adams was preceptress, and Miss
Ployle was teacher.

A male department was established by Mr. McMullen, with the hope of
having it connected with the Grammar School. But this was not done. The
principal of the school was C. M. C. Cameron, now Dr. Cameron of Port
Hope, and a graduate of Victoria College. He was assisted by Mr. Samuel
W. Harding; the school existed but one year. Both of these schools were
well attended, and were deservedly popular. When closed it was generally
regarded as a public loss, by those most capable of judging.


We have accorded to Dr. Strachan a prominent and foremost position in
connection with the subject of higher education. We considered it a duty
as well as a pleasure, to thus honor one whose praise was in all the
land when he ceased to live. But the fountain of education opened by him
did not flow, shall we say, was not intended to flow to the masses. Dr.
Strachan’s educational establishment was rather created for a select
circle, for an expected Canadian aristocracy. It remained for others to
originate a stream of learning that should water the whole land, and
come within the reach of every Canadian family—that should give
intellectual life to the whole of the country, irrespective of creed or
origin. To the Wesleyan Methodists belongs the greater honor of
establishing an institution of higher learning, whose doors were opened
to all, and within which any one might obtain learning without
hindrance, no matter what his belief. While religious oversight was to
be extended, no peculiar dogma was to be enforced, no sectarian
principle was to be inculcated.

In the month of August, 1830, when the Wesleyan Conference met upon the
Bay Quinté, the Rev. Wm. Case, being General Superintendent, and Rev.
James (now Dr.) Richardson, Secretary, and while Cobourg was yet
embraced within the Bay Quinté District, the following Resolution was
adopted by that body:

“That a Committee of nine be chosen by ballot, consisting of three from
each District, to fix the location of the Seminary, according to some
general instructions to be given them by the Conference.” The committee
consisted of “J. Ryerson, T. Whitehead, S. Belton, David Wright, J.
Beatty, Wm. Ryerson, Thos. Madden, Wm. Brown, James Richardson.”

The following Constitution for the Upper Canada Academy, was adopted:

“1. That nine Trustees be appointed, three of whom shall go into office

“2. That a Board of Visitors, consisting of five, be chosen annually by
the Conference. That these two bodies should jointly form a Board to
appoint the Principal and Teachers, and govern, and generally
superintend the institution.”

The Conference, in the Pastoral Address, asked for the liberal support
of the members, in the establishment of the proposed Academy. A general
agent was appointed, and active steps taken to carry out the object. It
is noteworthy, that the call thus made to the farmers, many of whom were
yet struggling for the necessaries of life, was promptly and nobly
responded to. Agents continued to be appointed from year to year, and in
the Conference address of 1835, it is said, “We are happy to be able to
say that the buildings for the Upper Canada Academy are nearly
completed. We trust the Institution will soon be open for the reception
of pupils.” There had been delay “for want of funds.” Arrangements were
making to accommodate one hundred and seventy pupils, with board and
lodging. In 1836, it is found stated, that “the Conference and the
friends of general education, and of Wesleyan Methodists in Canada, have
at length, by their unremitting efforts, succeeded in preparing the
Upper Canada Academy for the reception of pupils, and we expect, in a
few days to see it in operation.” In 1837, we find that Matthew Ritchey,
A. M., was the Principal of the U. C. Academy. If we mistake not, the
Rev. Egerton Ryerson had previously been named to fill the office. At
all events, we have every reason to believe that this distinguished
Canadian educationist was chiefly instrumental in securing the
foundation of an abiding institution, probably, indeed, was the
originator of the scheme. He not only stimulated others to work; but
obtained from Government a grant, so often begrudged. He also, as a
representative to the British Conference, was the means of procuring a
donation of one hundred pounds’ worth of books, beside other
contributions. In 1840, the Rev. Mr. Ritchey ceased to be Principal.
During his time of service, it is stated, the Academy increasingly
progressed in efficiency and in increase of pupils. Mr. Ritchey’s
successor, in 1841, was the Rev. Jesse Hurlburt, A. B. Daniel C.
VanNorman was Professor of Mathematics, a post to which he had been
appointed a year previous.

The year 1842 saw the Upper Canada Academy changed into the Victoria
College, by Provincial Legislative enactment, possessing the usual
powers and privileges of a University. The Rev. Egerton Ryerson was made
Principal; Jesse Hurlburt, A. M., and D. C. VanNorman, Professors; and
James Spencer, English Teacher. Dr. Ryerson continued Principal until
1845. In 1845, Alexander MacNab, A. M., was appointed Acting Principal,
and in 1847 he became Principal, and held the position until 1850.

In 1851, the Rev. S. S. Nelles, A. M., was elected to the office which
he now continues to hold with so much credit and dignity, having been
instrumental in materially advancing the reputation of the previously
well known College.

                       BOOKS, LIBRARIES—PRINTING.

The art of printing was not old when the colonies of France and Great
Britain were planted in America. The discovery of this art, with the
avenue which the discovery of America, opened for the pent up millions
of Europe, wrought out the most striking changes which ever marked the
history of the human race. It struck the final blow to the spirit of
feudalism, while America supplied an asylum for those who found not full
freedom of conscience and an opportunity to rise in the scale of human

Book publishing being once introduced into England, rapidly became of
vast magnitude, and thus everywhere scattered the food essential for the
human mind. It was in the year 1639 that printing was introduced into
America; but it was sixty-two years before it became of any account,
during which time the business was mostly in Philadelphia. Altogether
there were but four presses in the country. The first book printed in
America was made in 1640. It was a reprint of the Psalm Book, and
afterwards passed through many editions, while it was reprinted in
England in eighteen editions, and twenty-two in Scotland, being seventy
in all.

Whatever may have been the state of education in the British Colonies,
and the general desire to read books at the time of the rebellion, it is
quite certain that the hasty manner in which many left their homes, the
long distance to travel, and necessity of carrying quantities of
provision which took all the strength of the refugees, precluded the
possibility of carrying many, or any books to the wilderness of Canada.
Even after the peace the long distance to come, and the frequent
impoverished condition of the settler, allowed not the desire, if such
existed, to fetch books for instruction and mental enjoyment. However,
there were some brought by them, but mostly by the officers recently out
from the old country. During the first ten years the books among the
settlers were very few; but these few were circulated from one township
to another—from one person to another, who had the desire to, and could,
read. We have in our possession, a letter from John Ferguson to Mr.
Bell, who was then, 1789, at Kingston, in which the latter is requested
to tell Mr. Markland, that he, Mr. Ferguson, had sent him from the
Eighth Township, by the bearer, the History of France. The same person
writing from Fredericksburgh in 1791, desires to have sent from Sidney
to him, “some books, viz.: five volumes of the History of England, by
Horn, and the two volumes of Andrew’s History of France.”

But while few, or no books of a secular nature, were brought by the
settler, a large number, true to their conscience, carried a copy of the
Bible, even many of the disbanded soldiers had one, especially the
Lutherans. These were often in the German, or Dutch language. Some of
these venerable and sacred relics we have seen; one in German, which
belonged to Bongard of Marysburgh.

For many years Kingston took the lead in everything that pertains to
education. The history of the _Kingston Gazette_ shows that, not only
did the leading men of the place give the patronage necessary to
establish and maintain a newspaper, independent of Government support,
and give interest to the columns of the paper by contributions; but
there is evidence of early and successful efforts to form a public
library. Reference is made to the Social library established in this
village (Kingston) in 1813, when the Rev. Mr. Langhorn presented to it a
valuable collection of books, (see the first clergyman). This library
had probably been in existence for some years. Another library was
established at Bath prior to this time. Gourlay says, in 1811, “books
are procured in considerable numbers, social libraries are introduced in
various places.” And, no doubt, the High School at Cornwall, under Mr.
Strachan, had attached to it a select library.

The _Kingston Gazette_ announces, August 1, 1815, that “A small
circulating library” has been opened at the _Gazette_ office, “on the
most reasonable terms.”

In 1816, an act was passed “to appropriate a sum of money for providing
a library for the use of the Legislative Council and House of Assembly
of this Province.” The sum granted was £800 to purchase books and maps.

While the growth of Upper Canada was attended by a corresponding
increase of private and public libraries, Lower Canada, there is reason
to believe, was maintaining the character it had acquired under its
original rulers, for educational privileges and individual efforts to
create centres of learning.

We find the statement “that the library of F. Fleming, Esq., Montreal,
comprising 12,000 volumes, sold by auction, September 8, 1833, was the
largest ever offered for sale on the American continent.”

In the _Hallowell Free Press_, 15th February, 1831, is the following:
“Library notice.”—“A meeting of the inhabitants of the village of
Hallowell is requested to-morrow evening, at Strikers’ Inn, at seven
o’clock, to take into consideration the propriety of establishing a
Reading-room in the village.” The next issue of the Journal says, “we
are glad to see our friends have established a reading-room.”

“At an early period of British dominion in America, blocks of wild land
were set apart, to make provision, by a future day, for public
institutions. Since the revolution, the United States have followed out,
in part, this practice, by allotting lands for schools, and in Canada,
whole townships have been appropriated for the same purpose.” While this
forethought respecting schools indicated a proper desire to secure
educational interests, it must be observed that the reserves, like those
of the Crown and Clergy, very materially prevented the opening up of the
country by settlers, and kept apart the settlers, over a wide field, and
thus preventing advancement in civilization.

Looking back at the history of legislation, relative to education, one
is struck with the fact that much, very much, was done by the young
colony of Upper Canada. The establishment of the Common Schools
especially, which first took place 1816, has been regarded as most wise,
and the grants of money most praiseworthy.

The present Common School system of Upper Canada was introduced in 1841.
The Bill was brought forward by the Hon. S. B. Harrison. The fundamental
principle, being the allotment of money to each county, on condition of
its raising an equal amount by local assessment. This act was amended
and improved in 1843, by the Hon. Francis Hincks, and in 1846, by the
Hon. W. H. Draper. In 1849, the Hon. J. H. Cameron introduced an act,
establishing schools in cities and towns. In the year following, these
two acts were incorporated into one, with further improvements.

The Common School system, as we find it to day, is, in a great measure,
the production of Dr. Ryerson’s long continued and intelligent labor.
Borrowing the machinery from the State of New York, and the mode of
support from Massachusetts, taking the Irish national school-books for
instruction, and making use of the Normal School system of Germany, he
has, by the addition of what was necessary, built up a system of Common
School education in the Province of Ontario, that cannot be surpassed,
if equalled, in the whole world.

                              CHAPTER XL.

  CONTENTS—First Newspapers, 1457—Year 66—English Newspapers—In
    America—In Canada—‘Gazette’—Founder—Papers in 1753—Quebec
    ‘Herald’—Montreal ‘Gazette’—‘Le Temps’—Quebec ‘Mercury’—Canadien
    ‘Courant’—‘Royal Gazette’—First in Newfoundland—‘U. C. Gazette’—
    First Paper—Subscribers—Upper Canada ‘Guardian’—Wilcox—Mr. Thorpe—
    Opposition—Libel—Elected to Parliament—York Jail—Leader—In 1812—
    Deserted—York ‘Gazette’—Kingston ‘Gazette’—Only Paper—News sixty
    years ago—In Midland District—Rev. Mr. Miles—Pioneer of
    Journalism—His Birthplace—Learns the Printing Business—Mower—
    Montreal ‘Gazette’—Kendall—Partnership—To Kingston in 1810—The
    Printing Office—Kingston ‘Gazette’—Mr. Miles sells out—The concern
    purchased—Mr. Miles asked to be Editor—Their kindness—Gratitude—
    Second Volume—Extract from ‘Gazette’—The Price—Kingston
    ‘Chronicle’—Upper Canada ‘Herald’—‘Canadian Watchman’—Mr. Miles at
    Prescott—Returns to Kingston—Enters the Ministry—Loyal Subject—In
    1812—On Duty—Archdeacon Stuart—Col. Cartwright—Contributors to
    ‘Gazette’—Our Thanks—A Watch—Faithfulness—“A Good Chance”—
    Subscribers at York—Kingston ‘Spectator’—‘Patriot’—‘Argus’—
    ‘Commercial Advertizer’—‘British Whig’—‘Chronicle’ and ‘News’—
    First Daily in Upper Canada—Paper Boxes—Brockville ‘Recorder’—A
    Reform paper—McLeod—Grenville ‘Gazette’—Prescott ‘Telegraph’—
    ‘Christian Guardian’—Reform Journals.


The first newspaper published in the world, says Galignani, bears the
name of Neuremberg, 1457. But according to Tacitus, newspapers, under
the name of _diurna_, circulated among the Romans so early as the year
66. The first English newspaper was issued in 1622, and the first French
in 1631. The first in America was the _Newsletter_, published at Boston,
1704. It was discontinued in 1776. The first published in New York, was
by Wm. Bradford, in 1773. In 1775, there were but thirty-seven in the
British colonies. By 1801, there were in the United States 203, and in
1810, 358. The first newspaper in Canada was the Quebec _Gazette_, first
issued in 1776. Although now upwards of a hundred years old, it
continues to live an active and useful life. The founder of it, Mr.
Brown, brought his press from Philadelphia in 1763. By his heirs it was
sold to Mr. Nelson, who left the establishment by his will to his
brother, the late Hon. John Wilson, long the experienced and able editor
of the paper. There were, in 1763, not more than twenty newspapers in
the breadth and length of the then American colonies; and the Quebec
_Gazette_ is the oldest in the British North American Provinces. For
nearly thirty years it remained without a competitor; but about 1788 the
Quebec _Herald_ was started, which had but a brief existence. About the
same time, the old Montreal _Gazette_ was established by one Mesplet,
and was published in French; but was soon discontinued until 1794. About
the same date _Le Temps_ newspaper was published at Quebec, in French
and English, and was of short life. The Quebec _Mercury_, published in
English, by Thomas Cary, commenced its career in 1804, and the
_Canadien_ followed it in 1806; but was stopped by the seizure of the
press by the Government, in 1810. The _Canadien Courant_ was founded at
Montreal about 1808. The _Royal Gazette_ and _Newfoundland Advertiser_,
the first newspaper in Newfoundland, appeared in 1707. The _Upper Canada
Gazette_ or _American Oracle_, the first paper in Upper Canada, was
established by Governor Simcoe, in 1793. It was first published on the
18th April, by Gideon Tiffany. Naturally its circulation was limited, as
the population was sparse, and communication difficult. It was supported
mainly by Government. Rochefoucault says, in 1795 it was “not taken by a
single person in Kingston. But the Quebec _Gazette_ was by two.”

The second journal published in Upper Canada, was the _Upper Canada
Guardian_, in opposition to Government, at York, by Mr. Joseph Wilcox,
an Irishman, in 1807, whose history is not of the most satisfactory
nature. He had been a Sheriff in the Home District; but was displaced
for voting at an election for one Thorpe. Mr. Thorpe had been sent out
from England as one of the Justices of the King’s Bench. Notwithstanding
this position, he became a candidate for member of Parliament; but,
being opposed by the Government, he was defeated. Subsequently he was
recalled by the Secretary of State, at the request of Governor Gore.
Wilcox, having lost his office, commenced publishing the _Guardian_, and
was very bitter in his opposition to the Government. He was prosecuted
for libel, but was acquitted, and becoming popular, was elected to
Parliament. Having used language considered unbecoming or seditious, he
was arrested, and confined in York jail, a miserable log building, “in a
filthy cell fit for a pig.” Subsequently, he became the leader of the
opposition, and had a majority in the House; for a time becoming more
and more an object of Ministerial dislike. At the commencement of the
war of 1812, he gave up his paper, and shouldered his musket. He fought
at Queenston against the Americans; but afterward deserted, taking with
him a body of Canadian militia, and became a Colonel in the American
army. He was killed, finally, at Fort Erie, by a musket ball, when
planting a guard during the seige.

Mr. Miles remarks that “When he came to Kingston, in 1810, there was but
one paper published in York, by the Government, called the _York
Gazette_, printed by Cameron and Bennet; and one at Newark, by Joseph
Wilcox.” These were the only papers then printed in Upper Canada; but
the one at Newark was discontinued in 1812, and the other was destroyed
when York was taken by the Americans, in April, 1813. The Kingston
_Gazette_ was the only paper then printed in Upper Canada, till 1816,
when the Government _Gazette_ was again commenced. The Rev. Mr. Carroll
says of the _York Gazette_, the number “for November 13, 1801, now lies
before the writer, a coarse, flimsy, two-leaved paper, of octavo size;
department of news is pretty large, but “news much older than their
ale.” On this, November 13, they have, wonderful to say! New York dates
so late as October the 23rd; Charleston, of October the 1st;
Philadelphia and Boston, of October the 19th; and a greater exploit
still, Halifax dates of Oct. 19, &c.”

We are indebted to the Rev. Stephen Miles, of Camden East, for the facts
relating to the establishment of the first newspaper in the Midland
District, indeed the first between Montreal and York, at Kingston. Mr.
Miles is not only the sole pioneer of journalism in Upper Canada, now
living, but he is the faithful _parent of the fourth estate in the
province_, and probably the oldest journalist now living in America or
Europe. The history of such an one cannot but be interesting, while it
is especially appropriate to the work upon our hands. Mr. Miles,
although a native of Vermont, is of English and Welsh extraction. Born
October 19, 1789, he was brought up on the farm until 1805, when he was
placed as an apprentice to the printing business, at Windsor, Ver., in
the office of Nahum Mower. In the spring of 1807, Mr. Mower moved his
printing materials to Montreal, Lower Canada, to which place Mr. Miles
accompanied him. “At that time there was only one printing establishment
in Montreal, under the management of Mr. Edward Edwards, who was also
the Postmaster there; the paper printed was the _Montreal Gazette_, of
small demy-size, two columns on a page, one in French the other in
English. Mr. Mower commenced printing the _Canadian Courant_, in
Montreal, about the middle of May, 1807. Mr. Mower, says Mr. Miles,
giving me three months of my time, my apprenticeship expired on the 19th
July, 1810.” Not long after “I made arrangements in connection with an
excellent young man Charles Kendall, who had worked as a journeyman, to
go to Kingston, Upper Canada, and commence publishing a paper.”
Accordingly having purchased our material from Mr. Mower, we left
Montreal 1st September, 1810, in the old fashioned Canadian batteau (17
in number) and arrived at a wharf in Kingston just the west side of
where the barracks now are, on the morning of the 13th. We took an
excellent breakfast at a tavern opposite, and at once set about to
procure a suitable room for a printing office. Upon the 25th September,
the first number of the _Kingston Gazette_, was published under the
names of “Mower and Kendall,” Mr. Miles not being of age. At this time
there were five papers in Lower Canada. The following March, Mr. Miles
sold out his share to Mr. Kendall, who finished the first volume. At the
close of the year, Mr. Kendall wishing to retire, disposed of the office
and contents “to the late Hon. Richard Cartwright, the Hon. Allen
McLean, Thomas Markland, Esq., Lawrence Herchimer, Esq., Peter Smith,
Esq., and John Kerby, Esq.” These gentlemen saw the necessity of having
a public journal in Kingston, and became the proprietors. They
immediately wrote to secure the services of Mr. Miles, to conduct the
office, and even desired him to take it off their hands. Mr. Miles
promptly came “expecting that the proprietors would wish to be
publishers as well, and that I should attend only to the mechanical
part, but it was their unanimous wish that I should take the whole
concern off their hands, continue to print the paper, and do the best I
could with it.” Mr. Miles speaks feelingly of the kindness of these
gentlemen who would accept no other terms than that he should take
possession and pay them when convenient, “and by God’s blessing all were
promptly paid.” These kind friends, says Mr. Miles, “have all passed
into the spirit world, and the prayer of my heart is, that God may
greatly bless their posterity.” “After some unavoidable delay, the
second volume of the Gazette was commenced by me, and printed and
published in my name, till December 31, 1818.” Before proceeding with
Mr. Miles’ history, as a journalist, we will copy from the volumes which
he has kindly placed at our service, such items as are appropriate.

“KINGSTON, Tuesday, November 19, 1811.—The establishment of the Kingston
Gazette, being now in the possession of the subscriber, he takes the
earliest opportunity of re-commencing its publication, as he intends
that it shall be conducted in the same impartial manner as heretofore
practiced by his predecessors, he confidently expects and solicits the
patronage and support of its former patrons, and of the public in
general. He will not intrude upon the patience of his readers by making
a multiplicity of promises, but will merely observe that he asks the
patronage of the public no longer than he shall be deserving of it.
Former correspondents of the Gazette, and gentlemen of science
generally, are respectfully invited to favor us with their
communications.—(Signed)—S. Miles.

“Printed and published by Stephen Miles, a few doors east of Walker’s
hotel. Price fifteen shillings per annum, five shillings in advance,
five shillings in six months, and five shillings at the end of year.
Exclusive of postage.”

In the beginning of 1819, John Alexander Pringle, and John Macaulay,
Esquires, to whom Mr. Miles had sold his printing establishment,
commenced publishing the _Kingston Chronicle_, Mr. Miles having charge
of the mechanical part for nearly three years.

In February or March, 1819, the _Upper Canada Herald_, owned and edited
by Hugh C. Thompson, Esq., was first issued. In 1822 Mr. Miles took
charge of the work of printing of this Journal, and continued in charge
until the spring of 1828.

On the 15th of May, the same year, Mr. Miles commenced printing on his
own account the “_Kingston Gazette and Religious Advocate_,” in quarto
form, which he continued till August 6, 1830. Again, Mr. M. took charge
of printing for Ezra S. Ely, who commenced August 13, the _Canadian
Watchman_, and continued it for one year. In December 1831, Mr. Miles
moved to Prescott; and on the 3rd June, 1832, commenced printing the
first paper in that place, and continued till April 1833. In July he
disposed of his establishment and returned to Kingston, and engaged as
printer of the _Kingston Chronicle_, which was now published by
McFarlane & Co., with whom he remained till December, 1835. This ended
Mr. Miles’ career as a printer and publisher; and he then entered upon
the calling of a Wesleyan minister.

Mr. Miles although a native of the States was a truly loyal subject, and
proved himself such during the war of 1812. The Gazette of May 5, 1813,
says “our attendance at _military_ duty prevented the publishing of the
Gazette yesterday.” This was the time when Kingston was threatened by
the Americans, and every man turned out as a volunteer. Mr. Miles tells
of the occasion, that he saw, among those shouldering the musket in the
market place, the late Arch Deacon Stuart. Mr. Miles belonged to Captain
Markland’s company. “Col. Cartwright seeing him, called him and desired
him to go to his office and he would be sent for when wanted.” The
principal contributors to the Gazette were Col. Cartwright, who wrote a
good deal, sometimes over Falkiner, Barnabas Bidwell, Christopher
Hagerman, generally Poetry, while a student with McLean, Solomon John,
who kept a book store; and particularly Rev. Mr. Strachan, over

We cannot leave Mr. Miles without expressing here our sincere thanks and
regard for the interest, trouble, and encouragement he has favored us
with, nor can we forgo recording the following. Says he, “the only watch
I ever owned I purchased in Montreal, on the 1st January 1810, price
$20. It has travelled with me in all my journeyings from that day to the
present time, and still keeps good time. It was made at Liverpool.” A
faithful man and a faithful watch; both for time, one for eternity.

About the year 1816 the _Gazette_ had the following, under the caption
of “_A good chance_:”

“A sober, honest, persevering man, would find it to his advantage to
undertake the circulation of the _Kingston Gazette_, weekly, on the
following route: say, to start from Kingston every Wednesday morning, go
through the village of Ernesttown, from thence to Adolphustown, and
cross either at Vanalstines or Baker’s Ferry, and so on through
Hallowell, &c., to the Carrying place; cross the River Trent, and return
to Kingston by the York post road. The advantages to be derived from an
undertaking of this kind, exclusive of the papers, we are persuaded
would be many; and any honest, persevering man, who could produce good
recommendations as to his sobriety, &c., and will give security for
punctual payment once a quarter, will make a good bargain by applying to
the publisher of the _Kingston Gazette_. There is not a doubt but that
four or five hundred papers might be distributed on this route to great
advantage.” We learn from another source, that at an early period there
was one Shubal Huff, who went around the Bay every fortnight, carrying
the _Kingston Gazette_ with other papers, pamphlets, &c., and also tea
and sugar.

The following indicates the character of the times when the _Gazette_
was established. It is a notice from the _Gazette_:

“Subscribers to the _Kingston Gazette_, in the neighbourhood of York,
will please apply at the store of Q. St. George, where their papers will
be delivered once a fortnight. Payments made to him in grain, &c., will
be acceptable. He will also receive subscriptions.” (Signed), Mower &

In addition to the papers already mentioned, there was the _Kingston
Spectator_, issued about 1830, and lasting three or four years. The
_Patriot_ was commenced in 1829, by T. Dalton. Subsequently there was
the _Argus_, _Commercial Advertiser_, and _Churchman_. The _British
Whig_ was started in 1832, by Dr. Barker, and is still published. _The
Chronicle and News_ began in 1830, is also still published. The _British
Whig_ was the first Daily published in Upper Canada.

For many years the subscribers to the _Gazette_ and other papers were
indebted to footmen who traveled through the more thickly settled parts
of the settlement, which were generally along the front. But after a
time there were scattered along in the second or more remote
concessions, subscribers to whom the footman could not go. These
individuals would often place boxes upon the path followed by the
carrier, into which could be dropped the paper, and letters as well.
These boxes were attached to a tree and made water-tight, and the owner
would go for his paper at his convenience.

One of the first newspapers in Upper Canada, east of Kingston, was the
_Recorder_. Says Adiel Sherwood, Esq., in a letter to the writer, it was
“the first and only paper of note, of early date in this district. It
was first got up in 1820 by one Beach, who continued but a short time
when he sold out to William Buel, Esq., and about 1848 Mr. Buel sold out
to the present proprietor and editor, D. Wylie, Esq. It was got up as
Reform paper, and has ever continued as such.”

The following is extracted from an American paper:

“In 1818, D. McLeod, a retired soldier,” who had fought at Badajoz, and
other places in the campaign under Wellington, and at Queenston, Upper
Canada, Chrysler’s Farm, Lundy’s Lane, and then under General Picton, at
Waterloo, “purchased a farm in Augusta, a few miles back of Prescott,
moved on it, and commenced the business of farming; not succeeding well
in his new avocation, he removed to Prescott and opened a classical
school, at which the late Preston King received his rudimentary Greek
lessons, and subsequently accepted the appointment of Clerk of the new
court of Commissioners, for the collection of debts. He purchased a
printing establishment and commenced the publication of a paper at
Prescott, called the _Grenville Gazette_, taking a decided stand against
the “Tory Compact” administration, and continued a zealous advocate of
reform until the insurrection broke out in December, 1837, when he was
forced to leave the country, when his press, type, and the various
paraphernalia of the printing office were seized by the Tories. A mob of
Tories visited his house, after he left the place, at midnight, to the
terror of his unprotected family, seized, and carried off his books,
letters, and other papers, and his elegant sword, as the trophies of
their midnight raid. He was chosen by the insurgents as their
major-general, and acted in that capacity during the continuance of the
insurrection. At this time large rewards were offered for his arrest on
each side of the line, on the Canadian side, for his rebellion against
that government; on the United States side for an alleged violation of
the Neutrality Laws,” in being supposed the leader of the party of men
who captured and burned the Canadian Steamer, “Sir Robert Peel,” Well’s

McLeod settled in Cleveland, Ohio, and is yet alive, being upwards of
eighty-four years of age. The Cleveland _Herald_, from which we learn
the above, records the celebration of “General D. McLeod’s fiftieth
anniversary of his marriage.”

The _Prescott Telegraph_, “The first number” said an exchange “published
by Messrs. Merrell & Miles, (1831) is now lying before us. From the
appearance of the first number, and the known ability of the
proprietors, we anticipate that the _Telegraph_ will be a valuable
acquisition to the best of newspapers in this Province, and also to the
principles of reform.”

The _Christian Guardian_ was established in the year 1829. Rev. E.
Ryerson being the Editor.

The following were so-called “Reform” papers: The _Colonial Advocate_,
by McKenzie, The _Canadian Watchman_, The _Brockville Recorder_, and The
_Hamilton Free Press_, &c.

                              CHAPTER XLI.

  CONTENTS—First paper between Kingston and York—Hallowell Free Press—
    The Editor—“Recluse”—Fruitless efforts—Proprietor—Wooden press—Of
    Iron—Free Press, Independent—The Traveller—Press removed to
    Cobourg—Prince Edward Gazette—Picton Gazette—Picton Sun—Picton
    Times—New Nation—Cobourg Star—Anglo-Canadian at Belleville—The
    Editor—Price—The Phœnix—Slicer—Canadian Wesleyan—Hastings Times—
    The Reformer—The Intelligencer—George Benjamin—The Victoria
    Chronicle—Hastings Chronicle—Extract from Playter—Colonial
    Advocate—Upper Canada Herald—Barker’s Magazine—Victoria Magazine—
    Joseph Wilson—Mrs. Moodie—Sheriff Moodie—Pioneer in Canadian
    literature—Extract from Morgan—Literary Garland—“Roughing it in
    the bush”—Eclectic Magazine—Wilson’s experiment—Wilson’s Canada
    Casket—The Bee at Napanee—Emporium—The Standard—The Reformer—North
    America—Ledger—Weekly Express—Christian Casket—Trenton Advocate—
    British Ensign—The Canadian Gem—Maple Leaf—Papers in 1853—Canadian
    papers superior to Americans—Death at Boston—Berczy—Canadian
    idioms—Accent—Good English—Superstition—Home education—Fireside


The first newspaper published between Kingston and York, was the
_Hallowell Free Press_, of demy size, the first number of which was
issued 28th December, 1830, by Joseph Wilson, Esq., now of Belleville;
W. A. Welles, Esq., editor, a gentleman from Utica, New York. Attempts
had been made at Cobourg, Port Hope, as well as at Hallowell, prior to
this, to establish papers, prospectus having been acknowledged by the
_Kingston Gazette_. A letter in the first number of the _Free Press_,
signed “Recluse,” says, “a number of attempts have been made to publish
a journal in this county, proposals circulated, subscriptions obtained
to a considerable amount, and the expectations of the public wrought up
to the highest degree, yet every attempt hitherto made, has proved
abortive, except the present; repeated imposition has, no doubt, had a
tendency to create in the public mind, a spirit of indifference and
apathy respecting newspapers.”

Mr. Wilson had his press of wood, made by one Scripture, of Colborne.
Although a very indifferent affair, it was used for a year, when Mr.
Wilson procured an iron press from New York. Probably one of the first
iron printing presses in the Province. The _Free Press_ was continued
for five years. Mr. Welles was editor for a short time only. This
journal was evidently intended for the public weal. No one can read the
first issues of the paper without being convinced that the proprietor
was intent upon rendering service to the public. He allied himself to no
party: the contending political aspirants of the day, had equal access
to the columns of the _Press_, and could thereby challenge unbiased
attention. “_The Traveller, or Prince Edward Gazette_,” published every
Friday, by Cecil Mortimer, Editor and Proprietor, “John Silver,
Printer,” 12s. 6d., per annum, in advance. Commenced April, 1836, and
continued about four years, when the printing press was removed to
Cobourg. In 1840, the _Prince Edward Gazette_ appeared, J. Dornan,
Publisher. It was continued under this name by Rev. Mr. Playter. In
1847, and in 1849, Mr. Thomas Donnelly became Editor and Proprietor,
changing the name to the _Picton Gazette_, which name it still bears.
Mr. Donnelly was succeeded as editor in 1853, by Maurice Moore, and he
again by S. M. Conger, in 1856, who still continues to publish this old
and popular journal. The _Picton Sun_, established in 1841, by Mr. J.
Douglas, who was succeeded in 1845, by J. McDonald, and he again in
1849, by Mr. Striker, who removed it to Cobourg in 1853. The following
year Dr. Gillespie and R. Boyle commenced the _Picton Times_, which
still continues to be published by Mr. Boyle. The _North American_
removed from Newburgh in 1861, published by McMullen Brothers. The _New
Nation_ succeeded it in 1865.

The _Anglo Canadian_ was established in Belleville in February, 1831. It
was “printed and published by Alexander T. W. Williamson, Editor, and W.
A. Welles. Printed at four dollars per annum, payable in advance.” A
copy of this paper is before us, and is very respectable as to size and
quality, and is readable. This was the first journal published in
Belleville. The _Phœnix_ arose from the ashes of the _Anglo-Canadian_.
It was first issued in the early part of July, 1831, “published every
Tuesday by T. Slicer, Editor and Proprietor, at his office, Water
Street, Belleville, U. C., 20s. per annum—if sent by mail, 22s. 6d.,
payable half-yearly.” A few copies before us resemble, in appearance,
its predecessor, the _Anglo-Canadian_. In one of the early copies is a
prospectus of the _Canadian Wesleyan_, the subscribers to the
announcement are “H. Ryan,” and “J. Jackson,” dated Hamilton, August,
1831.—(See first clergyman, H. Ryan).

The last number of the _Phœnix_ issued July 3, 1832, and which was
“published by William A. Welles, for the Proprietors,” says, “As the
present number completes the year, it is intended to give the paper a
new name; which, though less classical, may be considered more
appropriate.” The name selected was the “_Hastings Times_,” No. 17, of
the _Times_ now before us, was published by Rollin C. Benedict, every

“The _Reformer_” of Cobourg, published every Friday, J. Radcliff,
Editor, was first issued, June, 1832.

“The _Intelligencer_, of Belleville,” was founded by George Benjamin, in
September, 1834, who continued its editor until 1848, when McKenzie
Bowell, Esq., now M. P., succeeded him, who remains the proprietor. Mr.
Benjamin was an Englishman, born 1799, and died 1864. He was a gentleman
of more than ordinary ability, a consistent politician, and a true
friend. He held the highest municipal offices, and was Member of
Parliament from 1856 to 1863. He had talent to adorn any position.

The _Victoria Chronicle_ was founded in 1841, by S. M. Washburn and
Sutton, who had removed from Brockville. Sutton remained partner for two
years. In 1849 the establishment was purchased from Washburn by E.
Miles, Esq., who, with T. R. Mason, Esq., continues proprietor. The name
was changed many years ago from _Victoria_ to _Hastings Chronicle_.

A Magazine of _cheap miscellany_ was issued monthly, by Seth Washburn,
&c., Belleville, 1847 & 8.

Playter, writing of the year 1824, says, “books, periodicals, and
newspapers were scantily supplied to, and not much desired by the people
as yet, the country was not old enough to give much encouragement and
support to literature. Still, in the Methodist connection, the
_Magazine_, (Methodist) was tolerably well circulated, no less than
seventy subscribers were among the friends on the Bay of Quinté circuit
at once. Newspapers were on the increase; nineteen were now published in
Canada, and six of them twice a week. Quebec printed four, (of which one
was French); Stanstead one, Brockville one, Kingston two, York two,
Niagara one, Queenston one.”

The _Colonial Advocate_ was issued in the latter part of 1824, by
William Lyon McKenzie.

We have a copy of the _Upper Canada Herald_ before us, dated June 27,
1832, vol. xiv. which gives us the period at which it was started.

_Barker’s Canadian Magazine_, published at Kingston, by Edward John
Barker, M. D., commenced May, 1846.

——The _Victoria Magazine_, a monthly periodical, was issued first in
September, 1841, by Joseph Wilson, of Belleville, formerly of the
Hallowell _Free Press_. Like many a one subsequently commenced, the
_Magazine_ had but a brief existence. It continued just one year.

The editors were Sheriff Moodie, and his accomplished wife, whose
writings have gained for her a European reputation of no ordinary
standing. Mrs. Moodie may be regarded as the pioneer of Canadian
literature, and, as a long standing inhabitant of the Bay, she claims a
brief notice in these pages, to give which affords the writer but a
meagre opportunity to express his own high estimation of, and gratitude
to a personal friend, whose kind words of encouragement has so
frequently been a stimulus to action, when his energies flagged in this

Morgan, in his _Bibliotheca Canadensis_, a most useful compilation,
says: Mrs. Moodie is “well known in Canada and Great Britain for her
works, and as an extensive contributor to the periodical literature of
both countries. Born at Bungay, County of Suffolk, England, sixth
December, 1803. She is a member of the talented Strickland family, of
Beydon Hall, in the above County; four of her sisters, Elizabeth, Agnes,
(the best known), Jane, and Mrs. Trail, have each contributed to the
literature of the day. Both Mrs. Moodie and her sisters were educated by
their father, who is represented to have been a gentleman of education,
refined taste, and some wealth. Mrs. M. was only in her thirteenth year,
when her father died. As early as her fifteenth year, she began to write
for the press generally, for annuals and for periodicals, contributing
short poems and tales for children. About 1820, she produced her first
work of any pretension—a juvenile tale, which was well received by the
public and the press. In the following year she married Mr. Moodie, a
half-pay officer from the 21st Fusileers, and, in 1832, emigrated with
her husband, to Canada. They bought a farm near Port Hope, which,
however, they only held for a short time, removing to the back woods,
ten miles north of Peterborough, where they settled. There they remained
for a period of eight years, experiencing all the trials, mishaps and
troubles incident to early settlers, and which are so graphically
narrated and depicted by Mrs. M. in her “_Roughing it in the Bush_.” In
1839, Mr. Moodie was appointed Sheriff of Hastings, (an office from
which he retired a few years since,) and, with his wife, took up his
residence at Belleville, where they have since lived. During the
existence of the _Literary Garland_, (Montreal), Mrs. M. was the
principal contributor of fiction to its pages. For some years she edited
the _Victoria Magazine_, (Belleville). Her contributions to these and
other annuals, magazines, and newspapers, would fill many volumes.”

The work for which Mrs. Moodie became more especially famous, was
“_Roughing it in the Bush_;” but other volumes are exceedingly
interesting, as “_Flora Lindsay_,” “_Mark Hurdlestone_,” “_Geoffry
Moreton_,” or the “_Faithless Guardian_,” and “_Life in the Clearings_.”

“John Wedderburn Dunbar Moodie, formerly Lieutenant in the 21st Reg. of
Fusileers,” saw action in Holland, where he was wounded; he was a writer
for the _United Service Journal_, _Literary Garland_, (Montreal), and
author of “_Ten Years in Africa_,” and “_Scenes and Adventures as a
Soldier and Settler, during half a Century_.”

The _Victoria Magazine_ was succeeded by the _Eclectic Magazine_, Joseph
Wilson being Editor and Proprietor. This monthly was also continued only
one year. Mr. Wilson now commenced a “family paper called _Wilson’s
Experiment_,” and soon after, in connection with it, _Wilson’s Canada
Casket_. These were issued alternately every two weeks, and were
continued for two years. They had a large circulation, as Mr. Wilson
avers, at the last about 6,000. The subscribers were not only in Canada,
but in the Lower Provinces. The journals were discontinued, not because
they did not pay; but in consequence of embarrassment from other causes.

The _Bee_ was the first newspaper published in Napanee, in 1851, by the
Rev. G. D. Greenleaf, Editor and Proprietor. It was a small sheet, and
semi-political, at one dollar per year. It was printed on a press of the
owner’s own construction, and continued two years, when it was succeeded
by the _Emporium_, published by the same person, at the same office. It
was somewhat larger than the _Bee_, and was two dollars a year. Its
existence extended but little over a year.

The _Standard_ was the third journal established at Napanee, 1853, by a
joint-stock company. It was in the interest of the Conservatives. Its
first editor was Dr. McLean, formerly of Kingston. Subsequently, the
paper came under the management of Alexander Campbell, Esq., and
continued for a few years. It then passed into the hands of Mr. A.
Henry. It is still published by Henry and Brother.

The next paper, after the _Standard_, to be issued was the _Reformer_,
by Carman and Dunham. There have subsequently been published the _North
American_, _The Ledger_, and the _Weekly Express_. Besides the above,
there was published, in 1854, continuing for two years, _The Christian
Casket_, by E. A Dunham.

Trenton first possessed a newspaper in 1854. It was published and edited
by Alexander Begg, and its name was the _Trenton Advocate_. The first
number was issued March 4, 1854. About a year, afterward, the paper
changed owners, and took the name of _British Ensign_. It was continued
about two years longer.

We have before us several copies of _The Canadian Gem_ and _Family
Visitor_, published at Cobourg; and edited by Joseph H. Leonard, 1848.
It is very readable, and exhibits no little enterprise. Also, we have
_The Maple Leaf_; published at Montreal by R. W. Loy, 1853. Mr. Loy died
not long after its issue. This also contains many interesting articles
of a local and general nature.

In 1853, 158 papers are mentioned in the _Canada Directory_, of which,
114 are issued in Upper Canada. At the present time the number has much
increased. Respecting the newspapers of Canada, Mr. Buckingham, who
visited Canada in 1840, says that they are generally superior to those
of the Provincial towns of the United States.

The following cannot fail to be of interest:

A Boston paper says, “Died—In the early part of the year 1813, Wm.
Berczy, Esq., aged 68; a distinguished inhabitant of the Province of
Upper Canada, and highly respected for his literary acquirements. In the
decease of this gentleman, society must sustain an irreparable loss, and
the republic of letters will have cause to mourn the death of a man,
eminent for genius and talent.”

CANADIAN IDIOMS.—The loyalist settlers of Upper Canada were mainly of
American birth, and those speaking English, differed in no respect in
their mode of speech from those who remained in the States. Even to this
day there is some resemblance between native Upper Canadians and the
Americans of the Midland States; though there is not, to any extent, a
likeness to the Yankee of, the New England States. While the Yankee, and
to some extent, the whole of the American people have steadily diverged
from the pure English, both with respect to accent and idiom, as well as
in the meaning attached to certain words; in Canada this tendency has
been arrested by the presence of English gentlemen, often half-pay
officers, and their families, by the officers of the Army and Navy, and
as well by the school teachers, high and low, which were often from the
old country. The accent of Canadians, and their idioms to-day, are to a
certain extent peculiar, _sui generis_, which peculiarity is constantly
increasing, even as the British American is assuming in appearance a
distinct characteristic. Taking all classes of Canadians, it may be said
that for a people far removed from the source of pure English, that is
the Court, they have a very correct mode of speaking, the criticisms of
English travelers to the contrary, notwithstanding. As education becomes
more diffused among the masses there will ensue a very decided
improvement in the mode of speaking among Canadians. Listening to the
children at any school, composed of the children of Englishmen,
Scotchmen, Irishmen, Americans, and even of Germans, it is impossible to
detect any marked difference in their accent, or way of expressing

SUPERSTITION.—Although a few of the settlers had books to read, many had
none. And as there were no school teachers very many children grew up
without being able to read, or at most very little, and entirely unable
to write, unless it might be their name. The writer has been struck with
the difference between the composition and penmanship of many of the
settlers and that of their immediate children, the former being good,
the latter bad; while the parent could write a bold signature, and
express himself in writing a letter, intelligibly, the offspring either
could do nothing of the kind, or else made a very poor attempt. The
result of this was, that the mind, starved for want of mental food of a
wholesome nature, did not become inactive, but sought other kinds of
pabulum. They derived a certain amount of information from the legendary
tales told and retold of former days of happiness and plenty. Excluded
from the world of literature, and secluded in a forest of eternal
silence, except the tones uttered by the voice of nature, sometimes
whispering in the gentle murmurs of the sighing wind, and sometimes
thundering forth in the loudest voice,—shut up with nature they listened
to her words, and not educated to understand her meaning, they undertook
to interpret her speech, and oftentimes superstition of the deepest kind
took possession of their minds. This prevailed perhaps more especially
among the Dutch. Belief in ghosts, or “spooks” was a common thing, and
before the bright and flickering light of many a hearth fire, during the
winter nights, were told “stories” which lost nothing in their relating.
And along the Bay were many old houses, once the homes of the settler
which it was declared, was occasionally visited by the spirit of the
builder, who returned to discharge some duty which rested heavily upon
him in the spirit world, or who desired to reveal the place of
concealment of some hoarded gold which had been so safely buried in some
cranny nook.

A company of neighbours spending the evening would take their turn in
telling of what they had seen or dreamed, or heard told; and at last
when the bright sparkling fire had sunk into subdued embers, the
consciousness of having to go home through the woods, or past a grave
yard, would arouse the talkers. Shuddering at the thought, with
imagination heightened by the conversation, they would set out on their
path. It was at such times that the spirit of some recently departed one
would be seen hovering over the grave, or floating away at the approach
of footsteps. Strange voices came from the midst of the darkness, and
unnatural lights flashed in the eyes of the midnight traveler. Should no
sound or sight present themselves on the way, there was still a chance
to experience much in dreams, when revelations of the gravest import
would be made, which only had to be repeated three nights in succession
to obtain the status of absolute certainty.

The traditions and recitals made known to the children were sometimes,
not alone exaggerated, but untrue. The old soldier, or loyalist in his
great hatred to the rebels, would sometimes unduly blacken the character
of the fathers of the American Republic; for instance, the writer has
heard it several times, told as a fact, that Washington was the
illegitimate son of King George.

By some means a belief obtained, that at a place called Devil’s Hill, at
the Indian Woods, was concealed in the earth, a quantity of money, and
parties used to actually go and dig for it. There was a huge rock here
which was supposed to cover the precious metal, and a “bee” was formed,
on one occasion to overturn it, but they found nothing to reward them
for their pains.

                             DIVISION VII.

                             CHAPTER XLII.

  CONTENTS—The Indians—Their origin—Pre-historic Canada—Indian relics—
    Original inhabitants—Les Iroquois du nord—Original names—Peninsula
    of Upper Canada—Champlain exploring—Ascends the Ottawa—His route
    to Lake Nippissing—To Lake Huron—French River—The country—Georgian
    Bay—Lake Simcoe—Down the Trent—A grand trip—Bay Quinté, and Lake
    Ontario discovered—War demonstration—Wintering at the Bay—A
    contrast—Roundabout way—Erroneous impressions.


In this work but brief reference can be made to the general history of
the Indians. Perhaps it is hardly necessary to explain that the term
Indian, applied to the aborigines of America, took its origin from the
fact, that when the New World was discovered it was supposed to be a
part of the Indias (East Indias), the riches of which had led the
intrepid navigator to seek a more direct route thereto. And consequently
the natives were called Indians.

It does not lie within the scope of this work to speak of the several
theories which have been given with respect to the origin of the
natives, nor to advance any particular view. It is sufficient to remark
that the character of the various tribes, their features, their
traditions, and customs, all indicate most unmistakably that Asia was
the original birthplace of the aborigines of America. Of course,
reference is made only to those Indians whose representatives occupied
the continent when discovered by Columbus, and not to those who had in
some long past day held possession, who have left here and there
indications of their rude character, and primitive mode of life, and who
were swept away by the more powerful and warlike invaders—the
predecessors of the aborigines of whom we now write.

In our researches we have collected a good many Indian relics, of the
origin of which we have no record, and can only guess, while science
strives to explain. We offer no views of our own, but give the following

                          PRE-HISTORIC CANADA.

From the Manchester _Guardian_. “At a meeting of the Manchester
Anthropological society, on Monday, Mr. Plant made a communication upon
some curious relics which he exhibited, of a race of pre-historic men,
for which he was indebted to Mr. J. S. Wilson, of Perrytown, Canada
West. These objects were obtained from the soil of the lands which have
been cleared of the forests and brought into cultivation. It is only in
the spring, when the snow has disappeared, that these objects are found,
the winter snow acting like a riddle to the soil, and bringing to the
surface the pebbles and broken pieces of pottery, flint, weapons, &c.
The most interesting features connected with these relics is, that the
localities where they are so frequently found are situated on the high
level ground of ancient terraces, or beach lines, which may be traced at
about 600 ft. above the sea level, all around the great Canadian lakes,
or, in fact, all around the high lands of the River St. Lawrence basin.
There are three terraces at descending levels to the present shores of
the great lakes. The highest terrace is the most ancient, and the
evidences connected with this terrace all seem to point to the
conclusion that it belongs to an age very remote, when the area now
occupied by the great fresh-water lakes was filled by an inland bay,
connected by a wide strait with the Atlantic, and was subject to the
action of glacier ice from the land, as well as flows of icebergs from
the current flowing from the north-east. The high terraces are,
therefore, of marine origin, and the pre-historic objects found in them
are indicative of a race of men whose habits were consistent with the
physical features of the land and sea; a race of hardy fishers, living
upon the whale, the walrus, the shark, and marine sources of food,
together with the reindeer and Arctic animals. Since this remote time,
the whole of the land about the lakes has risen from 600 to 1,000 feet
above the sea, slowly and evenly through a great length of time, pausing
twice sufficiently long to form two lower terraces; and at present is
forming a fourth on the shore lines of the lakes. The pre-historic
objects consist of great quantities of earthenware of rude make, quartz
arrow heads, black stone adzes and hatchets, sharp splinters of bone
worked to a point, teeth drilled and bone needles, and bowls and stems
of smoking pipes about six inches long. These last are singular and most
interesting objects, and are solely confined to the North American
continent, proving that the habit of smoking some narcotic plant has
been indulged in by mankind from the most remote ages to which the
geologist assigns the relics of pre-historic man, the age which
immediately succeeded the glacial period.”

All around the bay, as well as in other parts of Canada, may be found
here and there indications of an extinct people whose sepulchral remains
can be traced. Along the western portion particularly, are faint traces
of mounds or tumuli which have been found to contain not only human
remains; but objects of curiosity. For a more particular account of
these the reader is referred to an interesting paper in the _Canadian
Journal_ for September 1860, by T. C. Wallbridge, Esq., of Belleville.


     “Dark as the frost-nipped leaves that strew the ground,
     The Indian hunter here his shelter found;
     Here cut his bow, and shaped his arrows true,
     Here built his wigwam and his bark canoe,
     Speared the quick salmon leaping up the fall,
     And slew the deer without the rifle ball;
     Here his young squaw her cradling tree would choose,
     Singing her chant to hush her swart pappoose;
     Here stain her quills, and string her trinkets rude,
     And weave her warrior’s wampum in the wood.


For many long years, perhaps centuries, before the white man saw the
pleasant shores of the Bay, the Indian war-whoop was often heard, and
the war dance performed along its borders. We know but little of those
primal days. We cannot estimate the cruelties of barbaric warfare,
natural to the aborigines, which have been enacted. We cannot count up
the number of Indian braves who have moved upon its wood-begirded
waters, as conquerors, or as captives, nor the woman and children
carried away from their kindred—nor yet the total of the bleeding scalps
which have hung at the girdle of the returning warriors, as they pursued
the devious trail.

Early French travelers, generally Jesuits, have marked roughly the
territory, which embraces in its area, the land extending from the
Ottawa westward to Lake Huron, and from the St. Lawrence and Lake
Ontario, northward to the French River, and Lake Nippissing. This was
named the country of _Les Iroquois du Nord_, and, according to a map in
the Imperial French Library, the land north of Bay Quinté, was called in
1656, _Tout-hatar_, and the land west to Lake Huron, was named
_Conchradum_. There were, at the same time indicated at the eastern
borders, the “antient Hurons” and the “Outtawas” at the west, occupying
the peninsula of Upper Canada, the _Neutre Nation de truite_, and at the
mouth of the French river, _Mississagues_. It would seem at first, that
the inhabitants were a branch of the Iroquois, or Six Nation Indians.
But it may be that they had given to them the name Iroquois from their
peculiar mode of expression, like the Indian to the south of the lake;—
although not immediately connected. According to a map, examined by the
writer, in the Imperial library at Paris, all the land between the
Ottawa and Lake Huron was the Algonquins. A map by Champlain calls the
land north of the Bay Quinté, _Lien force cerfs_. The northern Iroquois
was divided into several tribes, each of which had a distinct name, and
lived in considerable communities, here and there. The old maps are
marked with sites of Indian villages, where, no doubt, they lived a
greater portion of their time; probably the families remained most of
the time, and also the males, except when away up the rivers to the
north, upon hunting expeditions. Among these tribes and villages was the
_Kentes_. Their village was situated at the east of Hay Bay, according
to some maps; according to others, it was placed upon the south shore of
Prince Edward, west of West Lake. Another tribe mentioned is
_Gaungouts_. And along the north shore of the Mohawk Bay near Napanee,
is marked an Indian village called _Gaunaroute_. Upon another map the
village here is called _Gameydocs_. Just above the Carrying Place, near
the harbour of Presqu Isle, is another village called _Ganaroske_, and a
second one designated _Gonetoust_. Some of the maps here alluded to,
bear date as late as 1703, while others are much earlier.

The waters of the bay and the lake adjacent, were looked upon as
valuable for fishing, and the land as abundant in game. McMullen, in his
History of Canada, speaks thus of the bay region. Referring to the year
1692, he states, “the Aborigines and French ravaged the frontiers of
Massachusetts, and revenged upon its helpless borderers the injuries
suffered by the Canadians; detachments of troops swept the favorite
hunting grounds of the Iroquois along the beautiful Bay of Quinté; and
an expedition from Montreal did considerable injury to the Mohawks in
their own country.”

The peninsula of Upper Canada was called, in 1686, _Saquinan_—(Paris
documents). The “Neutre Nation” was exterminated by the Iroquois prior
to 1650.

It is an interesting fact that Champlain arrived at Lake Ontario, or
“fresh water sea,” as he called it, being the first European to gaze
upon its broad blue waters, by the way of the Bay of Quintè. This was in
1615. Prior to that he had penetrated by way of Sorel river, and the
lake which has been named after him, and explored some part of the
territory to the south of Ontario lake; but probably was not north of
the Mohigan mountains, at least he did not then discover Lake Ontario.
His principal object at this time was to create terror of the French
arms, on behalf of the Six Nation Indians.

It was after a return from France, with a commission granting him