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Title: Historical Record of the Thirteenth Regiment of Light Dragoons: From Its Formation in 1715 to 1842
Author: Cannon, Richard
Language: English
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HISTORICAL RECORDS

OF

THE BRITISH ARMY.



GENERAL ORDERS.


  _HORSE-GUARDS_,
  _1st January, 1836_.

His Majesty has been pleased to command, that, with a view of doing
the fullest justice to Regiments, as well as to Individuals who
have distinguished themselves by their Bravery in Action with the
Enemy, an Account of the Services of every Regiment in the British
Army shall be published under the superintendence and direction
of the Adjutant-General; and that this Account shall contain the
following particulars, viz.,

  ---- The Period and Circumstances of the Original Formation of
  the Regiment; The Stations at which it has been from time to time
  employed; The Battles, Sieges, and other Military Operations,
  in which it has been engaged, particularly specifying any
  Achievement it may have performed, and the Colours, Trophies,
  &c., it may have captured from the Enemy.

  ---- The Names of the Officers and the number of Non-Commissioned
  Officers and Privates, Killed or Wounded by the Enemy, specifying
  the Place and Date of the Action.

  ---- The Names of those Officers, who, in consideration of their
  Gallant Services and Meritorious Conduct in Engagements with the
  Enemy, have been distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other
  Marks of His Majesty's gracious favour.

  ---- The Names of all such Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers
  and Privates as may have specially signalized themselves in
  Action.

  And,

  ---- The Badges and Devices which the Regiment may have been
  permitted to bear, and the Causes on account of which such Badges
  or Devices, or any other Marks of Distinction, have been granted.

  By Command of the Right Honourable
  GENERAL LORD HILL,
  _Commanding-in-Chief_.

  JOHN MACDONALD,
  _Adjutant-General_.



PREFACE.


The character and credit of the British Army must chiefly depend
upon the zeal and ardour, by which all who enter into its service
are animated, and consequently it is of the highest importance that
any measure calculated to excite the spirit of emulation, by which
alone great and gallant actions are achieved, should be adopted.

Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment of this desirable
object, than a full display of the noble deeds with which the
Military History of our country abounds. To hold forth these bright
examples to the imitation of the youthful soldier, and thus to
incite him to emulate the meritorious conduct of those who have
preceded him in their honourable career, are among the motives that
have given rise to the present publication.

The operations of the British Troops are, indeed, announced in the
"London Gazette," from whence they are transferred into the public
prints: the achievements of our armies are thus made known at the
time of their occurrence, and receive the tribute of praise and
admiration to which they are entitled. On extraordinary occasions,
the Houses of Parliament have been in the habit of conferring on
the Commanders, and the Officers and Troops acting under their
orders, expressions of approbation and of thanks for their skill
and bravery, and these testimonials, confirmed by the high honour
of their Sovereign's Approbation, constitute the reward which the
soldier most highly prizes.

It has not, however, until late years, been the practice (which
appears to have long prevailed in some of the Continental armies)
for British Regiments to keep regular records of their services
and achievements. Hence some difficulty has been experienced in
obtaining, particularly from the old Regiments, an authentic
account of their origin and subsequent services.

This defect will now be remedied, in consequence of His Majesty
having been pleased to command, that every Regiment shall in future
keep a full and ample record of its services at home and abroad.

From the materials thus collected, the country will henceforth
derive information as to the difficulties and privations which
chequer the career of those who embrace the military profession. In
Great Britain, where so large a number of persons are devoted to
the active concerns of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and
where these pursuits have, for so long a period, been undisturbed
by the _presence of war_, which few other countries have escaped,
comparatively little is known of the vicissitudes of active
service, and of the casualties of climate, to which, even during
peace, the British Troops are exposed in every part of the globe,
with little or no interval of repose.

In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which the country
derives from the industry and the enterprise of the agriculturist
and the trader, its happy inhabitants may be supposed not often to
reflect on the perilous duties of the soldier and the sailor,--on
their sufferings,--and on the sacrifice of valuable life, by which
so many national benefits are obtained and preserved.

The conduct of the British Troops, their valour, and endurance,
have shone conspicuously under great and trying difficulties; and
their character has been established in Continental warfare by the
irresistible spirit with which they have effected debarkations in
spite of the most formidable opposition, and by the gallantry and
steadiness with which they have maintained their advantages against
superior numbers.

In the official Reports made by the respective Commanders, ample
justice has generally been done to the gallant exertions of the
Corps employed; but the details of their services, and of acts of
individual bravery, can only be fully given in the Annals of the
various Regiments.

These Records are now preparing for publication, under His
Majesty's special authority, by Mr. RICHARD CANNON, Principal Clerk
of the Adjutant-General's Office; and while the perusal of them
cannot fail to be useful and interesting to military men of every
rank, it is considered that they will also afford entertainment and
information to the general reader, particularly to those who may
have served in the Army, or who have relatives in the Service.

There exists in the breasts of most of those who have served,
or are serving, in the Army, an _Esprit de Corps_--an attachment
to every thing belonging to their Regiment; to such persons a
narrative of the services of their own Corps cannot fail to prove
interesting. Authentic accounts of the actions of the great,--the
valiant,--the loyal, have always been of paramount interest with
a brave and civilized people. Great Britain has produced a race
of heroes who, in moments of danger and terror, have stood, "firm
as the rocks of their native shore;" and when half the World has
been arrayed against them, they have fought the battles of their
Country with unshaken fortitude. It is presumed that a record of
achievements in war,--victories so complete and surprising, gained
by our countrymen,--our brothers,--our fellow-citizens in arms,--a
record which revives the memory of the brave, and brings their
gallant deeds before us, will certainly prove acceptable to the
public.

Biographical memoirs of the Colonels and other distinguished
Officers, will be introduced in the Records of their respective
Regiments, and the Honorary Distinctions which have, from time to
time, been conferred upon each Regiment, as testifying the value
and importance of its services, will be faithfully set forth.

As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record of each Regiment
will be printed in a distinct number, so that when the whole shall
be completed, the Parts may be bound up in numerical succession.


  HISTORICAL RECORD

  OF

  THE THIRTEENTH

  REGIMENT OF

  LIGHT DRAGOONS;

  CONTAINING AN ACCOUNT OF

  THE FORMATION OF THE REGIMENT

  IN 1715,

  AND OF

  ITS SUBSEQUENT SERVICES

  TO

  1842.

  LONDON:
  JOHN W. PARKER, WEST STRAND.
  M.DCCC.XI.II.


  LONDON:
  HARRISON AND CO., PRINTERS,
  ST. MARTIN'S LANE.


  [Illustration: (Badge with Motto)]

  THE THIRTEENTH
  LIGHT DRAGOONS

  BEAR ON THEIR CHACOS AND APPOINTMENTS

  THE MOTTO

  _VIRET IN ÆTERNUM_;

  AND THE WORDS

  "PENINSULA," AND "WATERLOO,"

  TO COMMEMORATE THE SERVICES OF THE REGIMENT IN
  PORTUGAL, SPAIN, AND THE SOUTH OF FRANCE,
  FROM 1810 TO 1814;

  AND AT THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO, ON
  THE 18TH JUNE, 1815;

  UNDER
  FIELD MARSHAL THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON.



CONTENTS.


  Year                                                          Page

  1715  Formation of the Regiment                                  9

  ----  Names of the Officers                                     10

  ----  Rebellion of the Earl of Mar.--Action at Preston          --

  1718  The Regiment proceeds to Ireland                          12

  1742  Returns to England                                        13

  1745  Rebellion in Scotland                                     14

  ----  Battle of Preston-Pans                                    15

  1746  --------- Falkirk                                         18

  1749  Embarks for Ireland                                       20

  1751  Description of the Clothing and Guidons                   --

  1783  Constituted _Light Dragoons_                              25

  1784  Clothing changed from Scarlet to _Blue_                   --

  1795  Two Troops embark for Jamaica                             28

  1796  The Regiment proceeds to Barbadoes                        --

  ----  Services in the Island of St. Domingo                     29

  ----  ------------------------- Jamaica                         --

  1798  Returns to England                                        30

  1803  In readiness to repel the projected French Invasion       31

  1807  Reviewed by the Prince of Wales and the Duke of York      32

  1809  Ditto, ditto, and other Members of the Royal Family       33

  1810  Embarks for Portugal                                      34

  ----  Joins the Army in the Alemtejo                            --

  1810  Capture of a party of French Dragoons at Ladoera          35

  ----  Battle of Busaco                                          39

  ----  Lines of Torres Vedras                                    40

  1811  Action at Campo Mayor                                     41

  ----  Party Surprised near Olivenza                             46

  ----  Covering the Siege of Olivenza                            47

  ----  Action near Los Santos                                    --

  ----  Covering of the Siege of Badajoz                          48

  ----  Battle of Albuhera                                        --

  ----  Action at Usagre                                          --

  ----  --------- Arroyo de Molinos                               50

  ----  Skirmish between La Nava and Merida                       51

  1812  Covering the Siege of Badajoz                             52

  ----  Attack on the French post at Almaraz                      53

  ----  Action at Usagre                                          54

  1813  The French driven from Salamanca                          56

  ----  Battle of Vittoria                                        --

  ----  --------- the Pyrenees                                    58

  ----  ------------- Nive                                        59

  ----  Action at Hasparen                                        --

  1814  --------- Sauveterre                                      60

  ----  Battle of Orthes                                          61

  ----  Rencounter at Ayre                                        62

  ----  Action at St. Gaudens                                     63

  ----  Battle of Toulouse                                        65

  ----  Returns to England                                        --

  ----  Embarks for Ireland                                       66

  1815  Proceeds to Flanders                                      67

  ----  Battle of Waterloo                                        68

  ----  Advances to Paris                                         71

  1816  Returns to England                                        71

  1819  Embarks for India                                         72

  ----  Stationed at Arcot                                        73

  1820  Removes to Bangalore                                      --

  1826  Returns to Arcot                                          --

  1828  Proceeds to Arnee                                         --

  1829  Marches to Bangalore                                      --

  1832  Resumes wearing Scarlet Clothing                          --

  1833  Authority to retain the motto _Viret in æternum_          74

  1836  Facings changed to _Green_                                --

  1839  Action at Zorapoor                                        75

  1840  Orders issued previous to quitting India                  76

  ----  Returns to England                                        79

  ----  Blue Clothing, with Buff Facings, resumed                 --

  1841  Inspected by the Duke of Cambridge                        --

  1842  Attends as a Guard of Honor to the King of Prussia
          on his Visit to England                                 80

  ----  The Conclusion                                            81



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS.


  Year                                                Page

  1715  Richard Munden                                  82

  1722  Sir Robert Rich, Bart.                          83

  1725  William Stanhope                                84

  1730  Henry Hawley                                    85

  1740  Robert Dalway                                   86

  1741  Humphrey Bland                                  87

  1743  James Gardiner                                  --

  1745  Francis Ligonier                                90

  1746  Philip Naison                                   91

  1751  Sir Charles Armand Powlet, K.B.                 92

  ----  Hon. Henry Seymour Conway                       --

  1754  John Mostyn                                     93

  1758  Archibald Douglas                               94

  1778  Richard Pierson                                 95

  1781  Francis Craig                                   --

  1811  Hon. Sir Henry George Grey, G.C.B., G.C.H.      --

  1715}
   to } SUCCESSION OF LIEUT.-COLONELS                   96
  1842}


[Illustration: THIRTEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS.

  [_To face page 1._
]



HISTORICAL RECORD

OF

THE THIRTEENTH

REGIMENT

OF

LIGHT DRAGOONS.


[Sidenote: 1715]

During the summer of 1715, when treachery, treason, and mistaken
notions of duty, united with the intrigues of foreign courts,
menaced Great Britain with domestic war, and when the expectations
of the friends of the Pretender were become sanguine of effecting
his speedy elevation to the throne, King George I. augmented the
regular army, and the THIRTEENTH REGIMENT OF DRAGOONS was raised
in the midland counties of England, by Brigadier-General RICHARD
MUNDEN, whose valour, loyalty, and devotion to the house of Hanover
were undoubted. The following officers were appointed to the
regiment by commissions dated the 22nd of July, 1715.

  _Captains._

  Rich. Munden, _Col._
  Clem. Neville, _Lt.-Col._
  Sam. Freeman, _Maj._
  Francis Howard
  Lutton Lister
  ---- Heblethwayte

  _Lieutenants._
  Hen. de Grangues, _Capt. Lt._
  Philip Bridgman
  Thomas Mason
  Francis Hull
  Henry Dawson
  John Molyneux

  _Cornets._

  Gerald Fitzgerald
  Chas. Greenwood
  William Freeman
  William Williamson
  John Watson
  Martin O'Bryan.

After its formation the regiment occupied quarters in Cheshire,
where it was stationed, under the command of Major-General
Wills, when the rebellion in Scotland, headed by the Earl of
Mar, commenced. When the insurgents, under General Forster and
Brigadier-General Mackintosh, advanced into Lancashire, the
regiment was directed to proceed towards Manchester, to confront
and fight the rebel bands; it was formed in brigade with Stanhope's
dragoons (afterwards disbanded), under the command of its colonel,
Brigadier-General Munden, and at break of day on the 12th of
November, it advanced towards _Preston_, where the rebels had taken
post, and had barricaded the avenues of the town. After driving in
the rebel piquets, the king's troops formed, about three in the
afternoon, opposite the main streets; a squadron of the regiment
dismounted, to take part in storming the avenue leading to Wigan,
and the other two squadrons supported the storming party which
attacked the avenue leading to Lancaster. The first barrier was
carried in gallant style; but the inner barricade could not be
forced for want of cannon. The soldiers took possession of some
buildings, threw a breastwork across the road, and set the houses
between the breastwork and barricade on fire; thus blockading the
insurgents in the town. Major-General Carpenter afterwards arrived
with some additional forces, and the rebel bands surrendered at
discretion. The regiment had four men and twelve horses wounded in
this service, and its colonel was thanked for his gallant conduct
at the head of one of the storming parties.

After escorting the rebel prisoners to the nearest gaols, the
regiment was placed in cantonments in Lancashire, where it was
stationed until the final suppression of the rebellion in Scotland,
by the troops under the Duke of Argyle, in the early part of 1716.

[Sidenote: 1716]

[Sidenote: 1717]

The regiment assembled in April, 1716, at Manchester, where it
was inspected, and afterwards marched into dispersed quarters
in Wiltshire; in April, 1717, it marched into the counties of
Berks and Hants, and passed the following winter at Worcester and
Bromsgrove.

[Sidenote: 1718]

In the spring of 1718 the regiment marched to Gloucester and
Tewksbury: a reduction in the army took place, and in the autumn
of this year, the THIRTEENTH Dragoons embarked at Liverpool for
Ireland, to replace a regiment ordered to be disbanded in that
country.

[Sidenote: 1719]

[Sidenote: 1722]

[Sidenote: 1725]

The THIRTEENTH Dragoons were stationed in Ireland during the
remainder of the reign of King George I., and also during the first
fourteen years of the reign of King George II. Their colonel,
Brigadier-General Munden, was removed, in 1722, to the eighth
dragoons, and was succeeded by Brigadier-General Sir Robert Rich,
Baronet, whose regiment of dragoons, raised in 1715, had been
disbanded. On the decease of Brigadier-General Munden, in 1725, Sir
Robert Rich was removed to the eighth dragoons, and was succeeded
by Colonel William Stanhope, afterwards Earl of Harrington, who
raised a regiment in 1715, which was disbanded in 1718.

[Sidenote: 1730]

Lord Harrington was appointed Secretary of State, and the colonelcy
of the THIRTEENTH Dragoons was conferred, on the 7th of July, 1730,
on Colonel Henry Hawley, from the thirty-third foot.

[Sidenote: 1735]

[Sidenote: 1739]

[Sidenote: 1740]

[Sidenote: 1741]

Colonel Hawley was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general in
1735, to that of major-general in 1739, and was removed to the
Royal Dragoons in May, 1740, when he was succeeded by Colonel
Robert Dalway, from the thirty-ninth foot. This officer died in
November of the same year, and in January, 1741, King George II.
conferred the colonelcy of the regiment on Colonel Humphrey Bland,
from the thirty-sixth foot.

[Sidenote: 1742]

In 1742 a British army was sent to Flanders, to support the house
of Austria against the combined efforts of the King of France and
the Elector of Bavaria, and the THIRTEENTH Dragoons were withdrawn
from Ireland, and stationed in South Britain.

[Sidenote: 1743]

Brigadier-General Bland was removed to the third dragoons in April,
1743, and King George II. promoted Lieut.-Colonel JAMES GARDINER,
from the Inniskilling Dragoons, to the colonelcy of the THIRTEENTH
dragoons.

[Sidenote: 1744]

Colonel Gardiner left the sixth dragoons in Germany, and joined
his regiment in England, and being a most zealous and efficient
officer, he bestowed much care on its discipline, equipment, and
the condition of the horses.

[Sidenote: 1745]

The THIRTEENTH Dragoons were stationed in Scotland when the
rebellion, headed by Charles Edward, eldest son of the Pretender,
broke out in that country in the summer of 1745, and they were
ordered to take post at Stirling, from whence Lieut.-General Sir
John Cope, the commander-in-chief in Scotland, advanced with a
small force into the Highlands, but he was unable to stop the
progress of the numerous bands of mountaineers which had joined
the Pretender's standard, and he embarked with some infantry
from Aberdeen for Leith. When the rebel army advanced to cross
the Firth, the THIRTEENTH Dragoons moved to Falkirk, and their
commanding officer, Colonel Gardiner, was desirous of being
reinforced by other troops, in order to be enabled to make some
effectual opposition; but he was suddenly ordered to proceed with
his own and Hamilton's (fourteenth) dragoons, by forced marches,
to Dunbar, to join Sir John Cope. This hasty retreat before an
enemy which the soldiers were desirous of attacking, produced a bad
effect on the minds of the men, and they were further disheartened
by hearing that the rebels had gained possession of Edinburgh,
towards which city they were directed to advance. The young
Pretender put the clans in motion to meet the king's troops, who
were not half so numerous as their opponents; and on the 20th of
September the two armies confronted each other near the village of
_Preston-pans_, seven miles from Edinburgh. When the THIRTEENTH
Dragoons had formed in line, Colonel Gardiner rode along the ranks
and addressed the men in the most animated manner; the soldiers
desired to be led against the enemy, and Colonel Gardiner suggested
to Sir John Cope the advantages which would probably result from
an immediate attack on the insurgent bands; but a defensive plan
was adopted, which proved another source of discouragement to the
dragoons[1].

The troops passed the night in the fields, and the THIRTEENTH
Dragoons furnished videttes and patroles to watch the motions of
the rebel army, which advanced to the attack before day-light on
the following morning. A chosen band of Highlanders was discovered
through the thick atmosphere advancing against the right; and two
other columns of mountaineers were in motion to join in the attack;
as they drew near, they raised a loud shout, fired a volley, threw
down their muskets, and rushed sword in hand upon the soldiers
guarding the artillery on the right, who, finding themselves
assailed by more than three times their own number, gave way and
fled. The dragoons, seeing the artillery lost, became disheartened;
the THIRTEENTH fired their carbines, and then advanced to charge
a column of Highlanders, so numerous, that the dragoons were
dismayed, and being seized with a sudden panic, the greater part
of them fled. A few, however, including Colonel Gardiner, and
Lieut.-Colonel Whitney, charged manfully; Colonel Gardiner highly
distinguished himself, and though shot in the breast, refused to
retire; Lieut.-Colonel Whitney was shot in the arm, and was forced
to withdraw; Lieutenant Grafton and Quarter-Master Burroughs
were wounded and taken prisoners; Quarter-Master West, a man of
distinguished bravery, and about fifteen dragoons rallied round
their colonel, but were overpowered, the quarter-master was taken
prisoner, and few of the men escaped. Colonel Gardiner afterwards
rode towards some infantry, and while in the act of encouraging
them to make a resolute stand, he was cut down by a Highlander with
a scythe fastened to a pole, and as he fell, another Highlander
gave him a mortal blow on the head; thus terminated the career
of a most meritorious officer, who was distinguished for strict
attention to duty, personal bravery, and christian virtues.

The infantry having been overpowered, the whole fled from the
field. The THIRTEENTH Dragoons passed through Preston, and were
rallied at the west end of the town, from whence Lieut.-General Sir
John Cope retired with them to Berwick.

The loss of the battle of Preston-pans proved a serious disaster,
as the rebels obtained possession of a train of artillery, and a
great quantity of arms, and were afterwards enabled to penetrate
into England. The THIRTEENTH Dragoons joined the troops under
Field-Marshal Wade, at Newcastle, and afterwards returned to
Scotland, and the colonelcy was conferred on Colonel Francis
Ligonier, from the forty-eighth foot, an excellent officer,
conspicuous for zeal for the service and personal bravery.

[Sidenote: 1746]

After the retreat of the rebels from Derby back to Scotland, the
regiment marched to Edinburgh, where a small army was assembled
under Lieut.-General Hawley, and the rebels having besieged
Stirling Castle, the troops advanced, in the middle of January,
1746, to raise the siege, and halted near _Falkirk_, where a camp
was formed. The rebels advanced to meet the King's forces, and
a general engagement was fought on Falkirk Moor on the 17th of
January. Colonel FRANCIS LIGONIER, of the THIRTEENTH Dragoons, was
taken ill of a pleurisy; he was bled and blistered on the 14th of
January, but no consideration could keep him from his duty, and he
quitted his bed and commanded the brigade of dragoons at the battle
on the 17th of January. The action was commenced by a charge of the
cavalry; Colonel Ligonier led the THIRTEENTH Dragoons forward with
great spirit, broke the first line of rebels, and cut down a number
of opponents, but he was unable to force the second line, and a
heavy storm of wind and rain beat so violently in the soldiers'
faces as to produce some confusion. Lieut.-Colonel Whitney, who had
recovered from his wounds received at Preston-pans and resumed his
duty, was killed fighting in the midst of a crowd of Highlanders;
several other officers and a number of men were also killed and
wounded. The torrent of battle flowed in favour of the rebels, and
one wing of the King's army retired; a few regiments, however,
maintained their ground with the most heroic bravery, and were
supported by Colonel Ligonier with a party of dragoons; after
dark, the King's troops being exposed to a heavy rain, retired to
Linlithgow. Colonel Ligonier covered the retreat with his dragoons
to Linlithgow, and being drenched with rain and benumbed with cold,
he was seized with an inflammation in the throat, of which he died
on the 25th of January, much regretted by the regiment.

The THIRTEENTH Dragoons withdrew from Linlithgow to Edinburgh,
and when the Duke of Cumberland took the command of the army and
advanced against the rebels, the regiment was left at Edinburgh,
and directed to patrole along the roads leading westward to prevent
the insurgents receiving intelligence.

On the 17th of February, 1746, the colonelcy was conferred on
Philip Naizon, from the lieut.-colonelcy of the first royal
dragoons.

The rebellion in Scotland was suppressed by the decisive battle of
Culloden, on the 16th of April, 1746.

[Sidenote: 1748]

[Sidenote: 1749]

In 1748, a treaty of peace was concluded at Aix-la-Chapelle; the
dragoon regiments on foreign service returned to England, and
in the early part of 1749, the THIRTEENTH Dragoons embarked for
Ireland.

[Sidenote: 1751]

Colonel Philip Naizon died in January, 1751, and was succeeded
in the colonelcy of the THIRTEENTH Dragoons by Major-General Sir
Charles Armand Powlet, K.B. from the ninth regiment of foot. This
officer died in November of the same year, and was succeeded by
Colonel the Honorable Henry Seymour Conway, from the thirty-fourth
regiment of foot.

The following particulars respecting the uniform and guidons of the
regiment, have been extracted from a royal warrant, dated the 1st
of July, 1751.

COATS,--scarlet, double-breasted, without lappels, lined with
_light green_; slit sleeves turned up with light green; the
button-holes ornamented with narrow yellow lace; the buttons flat,
of yellow metal, set on three and three; a long slash pocket in
each skirt; and a yellow worsted aiguillette on the right shoulder.

WAISTCOATS AND BREECHES,--light green.

HATS,--three-cornered, bound with gold lace, and ornamented with
a black cockade and a yellow loop. The forage cap red, turned up
with light green, and 13.D. on the little flap.

BOOTS,--of jacked leather.

HORSE FURNITURE,--of light green cloth; the holster caps and
housings having a border of white lace, with a yellow stripe down
the centre; XIII.D. embroidered, in white, upon a red ground,
within a wreath of roses and thistles, on the housings; and upon
the holster caps, the King's cipher and crown, with XIII.D.
underneath.

CLOAKS,--of scarlet cloth, with a light green cape and lining; the
buttons set on three and three upon white frogs, or loops, with a
yellow stripe down the centre.

OFFICERS,--distinguished by gold lace and embroidery, and a crimson
silk sash worn across the left shoulder.

QUARTER-MASTERS,--to wear a crimson silk sash round their waists.

SERJEANTS,--to have narrow gold lace on their cuffs, pockets, and
shoulder straps; gold aiguillettes, and light green and yellow
worsted sashes tied round their waists.

DRUMMERS AND HAUTBOYS,--light-green coats, lined with scarlet, and
ornamented with white and yellow lace; scarlet waistcoats and
breeches.

GUIDONS,--the first, or King's guidon, to be of crimson silk, with
a silver and yellow fringe; in the centre, the rose and thistle
conjoined, and crown over them, with the motto, _Dieu et mon
Droit_, underneath; the white horse in a compartment in the first
and fourth corners, and XIII.D. in silver characters, on a light
green ground, in the second and third corners: the second and
third guidons to be of light-green silk; in the centre XIII.D. in
silver characters on a crimson ground, within a wreath of roses and
thistles on the same stalk; the white horse on a red ground, in the
first and fourth corners; and the rose and thistle conjoined, upon
a red ground, in the second and third corners; the third guidon to
have a figure 3, on a circular red ground, under the wreath.

[Sidenote: 1754]

On the removal of Lieut.-General Conway to the fourth Irish horse,
now seventh dragoon guards, in July, 1754, Colonel John Mostyn was
appointed to the colonelcy of the THIRTEENTH Dragoons, from the
Seventh Royal Fusiliers.

[Sidenote: 1757]

[Sidenote: 1758]

[Sidenote: 1759]

[Sidenote: 1761]

Colonel Mostyn was promoted to the rank of major-general, in 1757,
and was removed in 1758, to the Fifth Royal Irish Dragoons,--when
His Majesty conferred the colonelcy of the THIRTEENTH on Archibald
Douglas, from the lieut.-colonelcy of the fourth dragoons. This
officer was one of the King's aides-de-camp and a member of
parliament, and he was promoted to the rank of major-general in
1759, and to that of lieut.-general in 1761.

[Sidenote: 1768]

[Sidenote: 1770]

In the clothing warrant of 1768, the facings of the regiment are
directed to be of _deep green_, and the waistcoats and breeches of
buff, instead of light-green. White waistcoats and breeches were
adopted a few years afterwards, and a small red and white feather
was introduced into the cocked-hats.

[Sidenote: 1778]

Lieut.-General Douglas died at Dublin, in October, 1778, and was
succeeded by Lieut.-General Richard Pierson, from the thirty-sixth
foot. This officer was rewarded with the dignity of a Knight of the
Bath.

[Sidenote: 1779]

In 1779, the regiment proceeded by forced marches to the north of
Ireland, in consequence of disturbances in that quarter, and its
presence soon restored order.

[Sidenote: 1780]

The THIRTEENTH Dragoons encamped in 1780, with the army in the
neighbourhood of Ardfinnan,--and, on the breaking up of the
encampment, moved into quarters at Clonmel, Carrick-on-Suir, and
Cappoquin.

[Sidenote: 1781]

Lieut.-General Pierson expired suddenly on the morning of the
13th of February, 1781, and was succeeded by Lieut.-General
Francis Craig, from the lieut.-colonelcy of the First regiment of
Foot-Guards.

In 1781 the regiment marched to Charleville and Bruff, and was
subsequently stationed at Cork, where it received orders to
proceed, with some other regiments and artillery under the command
of Colonel Ralph Abercromby, against George Robert Fitzgerald, who
had fortified his family residence near Castlebar, in the county of
Mayo, and was in open rebellion against the laws. On the arrival
of the forces at Castlebar, they proceeded on the service assigned
to them,--but Fitzgerald had fled and quitted the country: some
ship guns, which he had mounted, were seized and brought into the
barracks at Castlebar,--where the THIRTEENTH remained,--sending
detachments to Ballinrobe and Sligo.

[Sidenote: 1782]

[Sidenote: 1783]

Soon after the termination of the American war, in 1782, the
regiment underwent a change of clothing and equipment, and was
constituted a corps of LIGHT CAVALRY. The cocked-hats were
replaced by helmets, and appointments of a lighter description
than formerly worn. These alterations were completed in 1783. In
the spring of this year the regiment was stationed at Belturbet
and Sligo; and, in consequence of the barracks at the former place
falling down in the winter, a detachment was sent to Cavan.

[Sidenote: 1784]

In 1784 the colour of the clothing was changed from scarlet to
_blue_, and the facings to light buff.

In May the regiment--then designated the "THIRTEENTH LIGHT
DRAGOONS" in the Annual Army List--again assembled at Belturbet,
and, after the usual inspection, marched into quarters at Athlone,
Roscommon, and Cloghan, when the horses were turned out to grass
for the first time since the commencement of the American war.
After the peace the establishment had been reduced to one hundred
and forty-four men, and one hundred and thirty-eight horses.

[Sidenote: 1785]

The THIRTEENTH were reviewed at Athlone, in June, 1785, and marched
into quarters at Kilkenny, Ballyragget, and Carrick-on-Suir.

[Sidenote: 1786]

In June, 1786, the regiment assembled for inspection at Kilkenny,
and marched to Mallow, Bandon, and Tallow.

During the winter of this year the troops were moved from Mallow to
Cork, in consequence of disturbances; and they, as well as those at
Bandon and Tallow, were constantly on duty, and greatly harassed;
the gaols were filled with their prisoners of "White Boys,"
"Peep-o'day-Boys," &c., as the different bands of these misguided
men called themselves.

[Sidenote: 1787]

In May, 1787, the regiment marched to Cashel, where it was
inspected, and in June it was quartered in Maryborough,
Mountmelick, and Thurles.

[Sidenote: 1788]

[Sidenote: 1789]

The regiment proceeded to Dublin in June, 1788, and subsequently
moved into the Phœnix Park barrack, Navan and Man of War.

[Sidenote: 1790]

In June, 1790, the THIRTEENTH were stationed at Clonmel, Clogheen,
Mallow, and Charleville, and at the end of this year a draught of
men was sent to the Twentieth Dragoons at Jamaica.

[Sidenote: 1791]

The regiment was inspected in June, 1791, and the detachment at
Mallow was withdrawn to Clonmel.

[Sidenote: 1792]

After the inspection in May, 1792, the regiment marched to Athlone,
Roscommon, and Portumna.

In the mean time a revolution had taken place in France, where the
destructive principles of democracy had overthrown all legitimate
authority, divested the sovereign of regal power, and threatened to
involve Europe in war. Under these circumstances the British army
was augmented, and five men and horses were added to each troop of
the THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons.

[Sidenote: 1793]

The French republicans having added to their numerous atrocities
the decapitation of their sovereign, war commenced in 1793, and
the establishment of the THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons was further
augmented.

After the inspection in October, the regiment changed its quarters
to Belturbet and Sligo. It was called upon to furnish thirty-six
mounted men to complete the cavalry regiments augmenting for
foreign service.

[Sidenote: 1794]

In the beginning of 1794 the regiment marched to Ballinrobe and
Castlebar, part of it remaining stationed in Sligo.

[Sidenote: 1795]

The violence of party in France soon kindled a corresponding
sensation in the colonies of that country in the West Indies, where
the whites, mulattoes, and blacks, became inflamed against each
other, and when the decree of "_Equality_" passed, an open rupture
followed. The blacks revolted, particularly in the island of St.
Domingo. Anarchy, massacre, and devastation followed, and several
planters obtained aid from the English, and transferred their
allegiance from France to the British crown. Additional forces were
ordered to the West Indies. Two troops of the THIRTEENTH Light
Dragoons were withdrawn from Ireland in June, 1795; they remained a
few weeks in England, and embarked, in September, for Jamaica.

[Sidenote: 1796]

The regiment, having received orders to prepare for service in
the West Indies, assembled at Mallow, and there delivered over
its horses for the use of other corps; it afterwards embarked at
Cork and sailed to Bristol, where it met the Fourteenth Dragoons,
destined for the same service. It subsequently proceeded into
quarters at Warminster and Frome, thence to Salisbury, Winchester,
and Southampton, where it embarked in transports; and joining other
vessels containing troops belonging to the expedition, the whole
proceeded to Cove Harbour, and in February, 1796, seven troops
of the regiment sailed for Barbadoes, where they arrived in the
beginning of April.

Captain Bolton of the THIRTEENTH was sent to purchase horses in
America.

From Barbadoes the regiment sailed to St. Domingo; but the
reduction of that island was found to be impracticable, as the
health of European troops could not be preserved long enough to
reduce the blacks and French revolutionists to obedience. The
THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons, partly mounted on horses sent from
America, had a few skirmishes with the armed bands which possessed
the country, and a party of the regiment which accompanied the
expedition against the town of Bombarde, had an opportunity of
charging the enemy with great effect; but the climate soon reduced
the regiment to a skeleton: it lost twenty officers, seven troop
quarter-masters, and two hundred and thirty-three soldiers in six
months, and the few remaining officers and soldiers were removed to
Jamaica in December.

A part of the regiment, under the command of the Honorable Colonel
Walpole of the THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons, who was promoted to the
local rank of major-general, shared in the dangers and fatigues of
the harassing warfare against the Maroons in Jamaica, until its
successful termination, which, with the consequent safety of the
island, was attributed to the talent, energy, and courage displayed
by the major-general; and a sword of the value of five hundred
guineas was voted to him by the house of assembly.

[Sidenote: 1798]

The regiment remained at Jamaica until July, 1798, when it
transferred a few of the surviving men to the Twentieth Light
Dragoons, and the remainder, amounting only to fifty-two
individuals, embarked for England, where they arrived in October,
and landed at Gravesend.

[Sidenote: 1799]

The THIRTEENTH were stationed at Trowbridge, and subsequently at
York. Every exertion was made under the active superintendence
of Lieut.-Colonel Bolton, to complete the establishment, which
was soon effected; and in August, 1799, the regiment marched to
Birmingham. It was shortly afterwards stationed at Coventry,
Warwick, and Stratford-on-Avon. About this period the strength
of the regiment was increased to nine troops, amounting to eight
hundred and two men, and the same number of horses.

[Sidenote: 1800]

In 1800 part of the regiment occupied Leicester and Nuneaton, and
the establishment was increased to ten troops. In the autumn of
this year, the THIRTEENTH were quartered at Norwich, Aylsham,
Walsham, Beccles, Bungay, and Wymondham.

[Sidenote: 1801]

[Sidenote: 1802]

In the beginning of 1801 the establishment was increased to nine
hundred and two men and the same number of horses; the regiment was
distributed, at different periods during this and the following
year, in quarters at Atleborough, Dedham, Maningtree, Norwich,
Colchester, Ipswich, Sudbury, Stowmarket, Needhammarket, Hadleigh,
Woodbridge, and Boston.

Hostilities with France having been terminated by the treaty of
Amiens, in the summer of 1802 the establishment was reduced to
eight troops, amounting to five hundred and sixteen men, and four
hundred and thirty-six horses. The quarters were changed to Romford
and Hornchurch.

[Sidenote: 1803]

The conduct of General Bonaparte, then first consul of France, soon
produced another war, which commenced in 1803, when the regiment
was augmented to six hundred and four men and the same number of
horses; it was quartered at Hounslow, Windsor, and Hampton Court,
and held in readiness to assist in repelling the threatened French
invasion by an army assembled at Boulogne.

[Sidenote: 1804]

The French armament continuing at Boulogne, and the preparations
for invading England being augmented, in 1804, the regiment
occupied Sandwich, Stonar, and Ramsgate, with an establishment
increased to eight hundred and fifty-four men, and seven hundred
and fifty-four horses, which was subsequently augmented to one
thousand and sixty-four men, and the same number of horses.

[Sidenote: 1805]

[Sidenote: 1806]

In the autumn of 1805, the French army marched for Germany, and the
project of invading England was laid aside. Towards the end of the
year, the regiment was quartered at Canterbury; and in September,
1806, it occupied Deal, Sandwich, and Ramsgate, its strength being
reduced to eight hundred and fifty-four men and horses.

[Sidenote: 1807]

[Sidenote: 1808]

In the summer of 1807, the THIRTEENTH were distributed in quarters
at Kingston, Richmond, and Twickenham. The regiment was reviewed
by the Prince of Wales and the Duke of York, and, in consequence
of the high opinion formed of it by their royal highnesses, the
order for its march to Dorchester was countermanded, and it was
detained to form, with the Twelfth Light Dragoons, a brigade, under
the command of Colonel Bolton of the THIRTEENTH, which brigade was
reviewed by His Royal Highness the Duke of York. The THIRTEENTH
afterwards proceeded to Dorchester and Weymouth, from whence
detachments were sent to Radipole, Wareham, Bridport, and, in the
beginning of 1808, to Blandford, Trowbridge, and Gosport.

The regiment was reviewed by His Royal Highness the Duke of
Cumberland at Dorchester. Its establishment of horses was reduced
to seven hundred and fifty-four: it assembled at Exeter for review,
and was distributed in quarters at Totness, Modbury, Truro,
Taunton, Honiton, Tiverton, and Exeter.

[Sidenote: 1809]

In the summer of 1809, the regiment was quartered at Hounslow,
Hampton Court, Richmond, Twickenham, Chertsey, Staines, and Egham,
and was reviewed by His Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge, and
subsequently by His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, attended by
their Royal Highnesses the Dukes of York, Clarence, Cumberland, and
Cambridge, the Duke of Brunswick Oels, &c.

[Sidenote: 1810]

Portugal and Spain had, in the mean time, become the theatre of
war; the French emperor had overrun those countries with troops,
and had placed his brother Joseph on the throne of Spain; and
a British army, commanded by Lord Wellington, was aiding the
inhabitants of the Peninsula in their resistance to the gigantic
power of Napoleon. The THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons were selected
to join the Peninsular army. Eight troops, mustering about nine
hundred officers and soldiers, embarked at Portsmouth in February,
1810, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Michael Head; they sailed
to Lisbon, from whence one squadron was detached to Cadiz, which
fortress was invested on the land side by the French, and the
Spanish regency had solicited the aid of British troops. The other
six troops landed at Lisbon,--Portugal having been delivered, by
British skill and valour, from the power of the enemy.

After a short halt at Belem to refresh the men and horses after the
voyage, the regiment marched to the Alemtejo, and was attached to
the division commanded by Lieut.-General Sir Rowland Hill, which it
joined in May, in the neighbourhood of Portalegre. At this period
a powerful French army was about to invade Portugal under Marshal
Massena, Prince of Esling, who boasted he would drive the English
into the sea, and plant the eagles of France on the walls of
Lisbon; but he was ignorant of the qualities of British soldiers,
and of the abilities of their commander. The allied army withdrew,
before the very superior numbers of the enemy, towards Lisbon, in
front of which city the celebrated lines of Torres Vedras were
forming to arrest the torrent of invasion. The movements of the
THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons were connected with those of the division
under Sir Rowland Hill, and eventually with the Portuguese cavalry
under Brigadier-General Henry Fane.

After withdrawing from the frontiers of Portugal, the head-quarters
were established at Escalhos de Cima, and a troop of the regiment,
commanded by Captain William White, with a troop of the Fourth
(Portuguese) Dragoons, were stationed at _Ladoera_, to watch the
movements of General Reynier's corps.

On the morning of the 22nd of August, Captain White, when foraging
with about fifty of his troop, received information of the approach
of a reconnoitring party of about sixty French dragoons, whom he
pursued, and attacking them with the most distinguished bravery,
wounded several, and captured two officers, the whole of the men,
and fifty-eight horses, without sustaining any loss.

Captain White, on perceiving the enemy, sent for the troop of
Portuguese cavalry, who promptly advanced to his support, but they
could not arrive in time to take an active share in either the
conflict or capture.

The following report of this occurrence was forwarded to
head-quarters.

  "_Escalhos de Cima, 22nd August, 1810._

  "SIR,

  "I have the honour to report to you that the troop of the
  THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons, and one of the fourth Portuguese
  dragoons, under the command of Captain White of the THIRTEENTH,
  at Ladoera, this morning, fell in with a patrole of the enemy's
  dragoons, consisting of one captain, two subalterns, and about
  sixty men. Captain White fortunately succeeded in coming up with
  them, when he immediately charged and overturned them; and the
  result has been the capture of two lieutenants, three serjeants,
  six corporals, one trumpeter, and fifty privates, and about
  sixty horses: the captain was also a prisoner, but escaped,
  during the bustle, on foot.

  "I am happy to say, this has been performed without the loss of a
  man on our side: six of the enemy are wounded.

  "Captain White expresses his obligations to Major Charles A.
  Vigoureux[2] of the thirty-eighth regiment, who was a volunteer
  with him; and to the Alferes Pedro Raymando di Oliviera,
  commanding the Portuguese troop (which he states to have done
  its duty extremely well, and to have shown much gallantry), and
  also to Lieutenant Samuel Charles Turner, of the THIRTEENTH Light
  Dragoons, to whose activity and courage he reports himself to
  be indebted for several of his prisoners. I trust the whole
  will be considered to have merited the approbation of the
  commander-in-chief.

  "I am, &c.,
  "H. FANE, Brigadier-General.

  "_To Lieut.-General Hill, &c. &c._"

And the following orders were subsequently published:--

  "_Lazados, 23rd August, 1810._

  "Lieut.-General Hill has received, with much satisfaction, from
  Brigadier-General Fane, the report of an attack made yesterday
  morning by a squadron consisting of one troop of the THIRTEENTH
  British Light Dragoons and one troop of the Fourth Portuguese
  Dragoons, under the command of Captain White of the former, on a
  body of the enemy's cavalry at Ladoera, the result of which was
  the capture of two lieutenants, three serjeants, six corporals,
  one trumpeter, and fifty dragoons, and about fifty-eight horses.
  The conduct of Captain White and the officers, non-commissioned
  officers, and men of the two services engaged in this affair,
  merits the lieut.-general's best thanks, and he will not fail to
  lay the particulars before the commander of the forces.

  "The brigadier-general has much pleasure in communicating the
  preceding order, and he congratulates the officers and soldiers
  concerned on having merited the approbation of the lieut.-general
  commanding the division."


  "_Escalhos-de-Cima, 28th August, 1810._

  "Major-General Fane has received the orders of His Excellency
  Lord Wellington, Commander-in-Chief, &c. to convey to Captain
  White[3] and Lieutenant Turner of the THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons,
  and to the Alferes Pedro Raymando di Oliviera, of the Fourth
  regiment of Portuguese Dragoons, and to the non-commissioned
  officers and soldiers engaged in the affair of the 22nd instant,
  near Ladoera, His Excellency's approbation of their conduct, and
  to inform them, that His Excellency will not fail to report his
  sense of their behaviour in the most favourable terms to His
  Majesty and to His Royal Highness the Prince Regent."

The captured horses were sold by auction, and the proceeds of the
sale divided among the THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons.

[Sidenote: 1811]

After some further retrograde movements, Lord Wellington resolved
to oppose the enemy's forces on the rocks of _Busaco_, and during
the hard-fought battle on the 27th of September, the THIRTEENTH
Dragoons were posted in front of Alva to observe and check the
movements of the French cavalry on the Mondego. The squadron
detached to Cadiz had, in the mean time, returned to Portugal, and
it joined the regiment about this period.

After sustaining a severe repulse at Busaco, the enemy turned the
position by a flank movement, and the allied army withdrew to
the lines of _Torres Vedras_. During the skilful performance of
these difficult operations, the numerous cavalry of the enemy were
effectually kept in check by the British squadrons, who, by their
bold front and noble daring, whenever an opportunity occurred,
succeeded in instilling into their adversaries a dread of their
superior prowess. The French marshal viewed the stupendous works
of Torres Vedras with astonishment and dismay, and finding it
impossible to accomplish his threat of driving the English into the
sea, he withdrew to Santarem, when the THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons
advanced, and having crossed the Tagus in boats at Valada, they
proceeded to Chamusca, a village, situated on the left bank of the
river.

The THIRTEENTH Dragoons were stationed some months at Chamusca
and its neighbourhood, where Marshal Sir William Carr Beresford
fixed his head-quarters, having under him a strong body of
troops to prevent the passage of the Tagus, and to intercept all
communications between Marshal Massena and Marshal Soult. In this
service the regiment was employed until the 6th of March, 1811,
when the French army having retired from Santarem, it moved forward
in pursuit, and the scenes of devastation, slaughter, and confusion
it witnessed on the line of the enemy's disastrous retreat, exceed
description. After following the French a considerable distance,
the regiment was detached, with other forces under Marshal
Beresford, to the relief of _Campo Mayor_, which fortress was
besieged by a detachment from Marshal Soult's army.

Campo Mayor surrendered before the arrival of the troops sent
to its relief, and the French, having dismantled the works,
were marching out of the town as the British approached it on
the morning of the 25th of March,--they consisted of nearly
nine hundred cavalry, three battalions of infantry, some horse
artillery, and a battering train of sixteen guns, under the command
of their celebrated general, Latour Maubourg. One squadron of the
THIRTEENTH Dragoons was attached to the light division on this
occasion; a troop was with a brigade of Portuguese infantry, and
five troops were at the head of the column. Having turned the town
by the left, the regiment sent forward one troop to skirmish with
the enemy, who retreated by the Badajoz road. The British pressed
forward in a semi-circular form, to enclose the French, who halted
with their infantry in square, and their cavalry formed in their
front and rear. Colonel MICHAEL HEAD was directed to attack with
the two squadrons of the THIRTEENTH, amounting to two hundred and
three officers and soldiers, and he led them forward with the most
distinguished gallantry[4]; a regiment of French hussars advanced
to meet the THIRTEENTH, and the opposing horsemen raised a loud
shout and rushed upon each other. Several men were overthrown by
the shock; the combatants pierced through on both sides, and facing
about, charged each other again with the most heroic bravery. A
sharp sword conflict ensued, in which the valour of the THIRTEENTH
proved victorious, and many of the hussars having been cut down,
the remainder fled. In the mean time, a French squadron formed on
the enemy's right, wheeled inwards, and, attacking the British
left, did some mischief; but the THIRTEENTH promptly opposed, and
overthrew them after a short contest. The French continued their
flight, the THIRTEENTH followed, and such was the ardour of these
brave swordsmen, that the fire of the French infantry could not
stop them; they galloped forward, cut down the French gunners,
and, believing the other brigades would easily dispose of the
French troops thus passed, they continued the pursuit. For some
time the French dragoons resisted, but their formation soon became
so completely broken, that they surrendered as soon as they were
overtaken. The pursuit was continued at a rapid rate, the object
being to gain the front, and capture the whole, as well as the
enormous quantity of baggage on the road; but the dragoons were not
aware of what was taking place in the rear. Marshal Beresford was
informed that the THIRTEENTH Dragoons were cut off; the loss of one
regiment appeared to be a serious disaster, and he did not permit
the heavy cavalry to charge. The French infantry retiring steadily,
recovered their artillery, and effected their retreat. Meanwhile
the THIRTEENTH and some Portuguese squadrons, commanded by Colonel
Otway, who formed as a support during the attack, were pursuing
the French troopers at a rapid pace; on arriving at the bridge
of Badajoz, they were fired upon by the guns of that fortress.
The regiment then halted and retired to secure the prisoners,
and captured artillery and baggage. Some of the French drivers,
refusing to surrender, were sabred, and the mules were mounted by
men of the THIRTEENTH. The retreat was continued several miles, the
men in high spirits at their wonderful success; at length they were
met by the retiring French infantry, and by all the beaten cavalry
which could find refuge with it. For a few exhausted dragoons to
have engaged that body of troops would have been madness, and
the THIRTEENTH were forced to abandon their captures and make a
detour to the right to join the army, which they effected, and
went into bivouac in the neighbourhood of Campo Mayor. The loss of
the regiment was twelve men and seven horses killed; Lieutenants
William Slater Smith and Frederick Geale, Adjutant Holmes,
Quarter-master Greenham, one serjeant, twenty-eight rank and file,
wounded; one serjeant, nineteen rank and file, and forty-four
horses missing. Three hundred French were killed, wounded, and
taken prisoners; the French colonel, Chamarin, of the Twenty-sixth
Dragoons, was killed in single combat by _Corporal Logan_, of the
THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons, which, with many other instances of
individual bravery in this sharply contested affair, is recorded in
the books of the regiment[5].

The THIRTEENTH, on this occasion, evinced the superiority of their
discipline over their equally brave and numerically superior
adversaries, by their greater quickness in rallying after the
different attacks,--and this circumstance, with the skilful and
determined use of their weapons, greatly tended to their brilliant
success in this well-fought field.

An officer, who made his escape from Badajoz a few days after
this affair, reported that the French infantry had brought in a
great number of severely wounded cavalry soldiers--chiefly sabre
wounds[6].

Preparations were subsequently made for besieging Badajoz, and the
Guadiana was passed in boats in the early part of April; on the
night of the 16th of April an outpost of the THIRTEENTH Dragoons,
which had been relieved by a squadron of Portuguese cavalry, was
surprised by a body of French troops from _Olivenza_, and only
twenty men escaped. The loss was three men wounded, Captain Morris,
Lieutenant Moss, fifty soldiers, and sixty-five horses taken
prisoners. The imagined security of their position, induced by the
Portuguese squadron being in their front, and their consequent
neglect of due precautions, led to the surprise of this party,
by an overwhelming force of the enemy, when totally unprepared
for resistance. This was not forgotten,--and the THIRTEENTH never
gave occasion for the repetition of a similar severe but wholesome
lesson during the remainder of the war.

The siege of _Olivenza_ was undertaken by the fourth division,
and the army advanced to drive the French detachments from the
province of Estremadura. The British and Portuguese cavalry arrived
at _Los Santos_ on the 16th of April, and fell in with a body of
French heavy cavalry, when the leading troops of the THIRTEENTH,
under Captains Boyse and Macalister, promptly formed and checked
the advance of the enemy. The remainder of the regiment, commanded
by Colonel Head, quickly formed line,--charged,--cut down many of
the enemy,--took two officers and a number of men and horses,--and
continued in close and rapid pursuit for several miles,
successfully frustrating every attempt of the French to rally, and
driving them from the field in utter confusion. The enemy suffered
a very severe loss in killed and wounded. The left squadron of
the THIRTEENTH, partly formed of the men who had escaped on the
6th instant, had the satisfaction of recapturing some of their
horses and accoutrements, and severely revenging their own and
their comrades' mischance on some of the very authors of it, who
were among their opponents on this occasion. It was observed that
these men displayed the most determined gallantry: nothing daunted
by the superior numbers of the enemy immediately opposed to them,
they rushed fearlessly into their ranks, and committed terrible
havoc with their sabres. Captain Doherty had a horse shot under
him in this affair. The French commander, whose gallant bearing in
leading his men to the attack was long a theme of admiration among
the officers who witnessed it, was killed by private _James Beard_
of the regiment, much to the regret of those who had observed his
gallantry.

On the 19th of April eighteen men, who had escaped from the enemy,
rejoined the regiment.

The THIRTEENTH Regiment of Light Dragoons remained in advance when
the siege of _Badajoz_ was undertaken; but withdrew, with the other
cavalry, on the advance of Marshal Soult, (who had collected an
army to succour that fortress,) and joined the forces under Marshal
Beresford at _Albuhera_, at which place a general engagement was
fought on the 16th of May. Two squadrons of the THIRTEENTH were
posted near the river above the bridge, with orders to defend it,
and had opportunities of making some successful charges against the
enemy's cavalry, who attempted to cross the stream. The other two
squadrons were posted to keep in check a considerable body of the
enemy's cavalry, but they were not seriously engaged, and their
loss was limited to one horse killed, and one man wounded.

Marshal Soult, having been repulsed, retired, and the THIRTEENTH
Dragoons were sent in pursuit of the enemy. The French rear-guard
having been driven from _Usagre_, that post was occupied, on
the night of the 24th of May, by a portion of the troops under
Major-General Lumley; the THIRTEENTH being in bivouac near the
town. The French advanced on the following day, when some sharp
fighting occurred, in which the third dragoon guards and fourth
dragoons distinguished themselves. The conduct of Colonel Head, of
the THIRTEENTH Dragoons, as well as of every officer and soldier
present, was commended in Major-General Lumley's despatch.

The siege of _Badajoz_ having been resumed, Marshal Soult's army,
strongly reinforced, again advanced; Marshal Massena's army also
marched into Estremadura, and the allies again raised the siege of
Badajoz, and took up a position behind the Caya, where the enemy
did not venture to attack them. When the French armies retired, the
Marquis of Wellington proceeded towards the Agueda, leaving the
THIRTEENTH Dragoons in the Alemtejo, under Lieut.-General Hill;
they were formed in brigade with the ninth dragoons and second
hussars, of the King's German Legion, under Major-General Long,
and were stationed at Villa Viciosa, and afterwards at Monforte, a
small town nineteen miles from Portalegre.

From Monforte, the THIRTEENTH Dragoons marched, towards the end
of October, to the Spanish frontiers, and with other troops under
Lieut.-General Hill, were engaged in the surprise of a French force
under General Girard at _Arroyo de Molinos_. By forced marches,
performed in stormy weather, the British arrived in the vicinity
of the village at day-break on the morning of the 28th of October;
a storm of rain with a thick mist concealed the advance, and the
French were surprised in the act of assembling to commence their
march. The cavalry marched with every precaution to avoid giving
the alarm. The enemy's troops were soon broken; their artillery
was captured by a squadron of the THIRTEENTH, commanded by Captain
Mansell Bowers, and their infantry, attempting to escape by
climbing steep mountains, were intercepted, and the greatest part
made prisoners. Captain Bowers, with his troop of the THIRTEENTH,
pursued a body of French cavalry, and captured a number of men
and horses. The conduct of Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Muter,
who commanded the regiment on this occasion, was commended in
Lieutenant-General Hill's public despatch.

Towards the end of December Lieut.-General Hill again advanced,
and the THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons were employed in an attempt
to surprise a body of French troops under General Dombrouski at
Merida. On arriving at _La Nava_, three hundred French infantry
and a party of hussars were found in the town; they immediately
retired,--the infantry in square; and the THIRTEENTH and second
hussars of the King's German Legion pursued. Some sharp skirmishing
occurred, but the ground favouring the French, they made good their
retreat to Merida, and informing General Dombrouski of the approach
of British troops, he retreated during the night. The regiment
afterwards returned to Monforte; its loss, in the skirmish between
La Nava and Merida, was three horses killed; eleven men, five
officers' horses and fifteen troop horses wounded; one man missing.

On the decease of Lieut.-General Francis Craig, the colonelcy was
conferred on Lieut.-General the Honorable Henry George Grey, from
lieut.-colonel of the Seventh Light Dragoons, by commission dated
the 30th of December, 1811.

[Sidenote: 1812]

While the regiment was occupying quarters at Monforte, Ciudad
Rodrigo was besieged and captured by storm in January, 1812.
When _Badajoz_ was besieged, the regiment advanced and formed
part of the covering army. During the advance and the subsequent
operations, the THIRTEENTH were employed in the arduous outpost
duties of the army, and engaged in affairs and skirmishes,
which were of frequent occurrence, owing to the constant alerts
occasioned by the enemy's cavalry in their front, who took every
opportunity of endeavouring to cut off the foraging parties,
patroles, &c.

In the advance to Merida, in March, the German hussars, having
fallen in with the French cavalry, commenced skirmishing, and
pushed them through the town and across the bridge. Major-General
Long ordered the THIRTEENTH to gain the front at a gallop, which
they did, and, crossing the Guadiana at a deep ford, formed and
charged the enemy, who broke and fled, the regiment following,
and constantly skirmishing with them till near dark, when it was
ordered to discontinue the pursuit.

In April the fortress of Badajoz was taken by storm, and the army
afterwards quitted Estremadura, when the THIRTEENTH Dragoons were
again left with Lieut.-General Hill.

The regiment was employed in the enterprise against the
enemy's works, which protected the bridge across the Tagus at
_Almaraz_. These were destroyed on the 19th of May, to render the
communications between the French armies more difficult. On this
occasion the THIRTEENTH advanced to the high road by the pass of
Mirabete, and were in reserve while the forts were stormed.

During the summer and autumn of this year, the services of the
regiment were connected with the movements of the troops under
Lieut.-General Sir Rowland Hill; it performed many long marches,
took part in a few skirmishes, and penetrated into the interior of
Spain.

In July the THIRTEENTH, in brigade with the ninth dragoons and
second German hussars, were engaged in a second successful affair
with the enemy at _Usagre_; and in one of the several skirmishes,
_Serjeant Shaw_ of the THIRTEENTH distinguished himself by his
gallantry. Honourable mention is also made of the firm and orderly
retreat of a squadron of the regiment, commanded by Captain
SHAPLAND BOYSE, before a vastly superior body of the enemy's
cavalry, by whom they were hard pressed for a considerable distance
in the neighbourhood of Ocana.

A singular circumstance occurred when the regiment was bivouacked
in the neighbourhood of Aranjuez: the horses, being unbridled for
the convenience of feeding, were linked, and the officers and men
were reposing from their fatigues, when the Second German Hussars,
who had been ordered to join Lord Wellington's army, filed past;
the THIRTEENTH immediately sprung up, and actuated by the impulse
of the moment, greeted their old comrades with a hearty parting
cheer, which so alarmed the horses that four troops broke loose,
notwithstanding every exertion made to detain them, and dispersed
over the open country, galloping about in squads, and scattering
bridles, pistols, carbines, &c., in every direction. The scene
was truly ludicrous; but this inconsiderate act might have been
attended with serious consequences, as the enemy was in force,
particularly in cavalry, in Aranjuez. The horses, some of which
had strayed to a distance of four or five leagues, and had been
secreted by the Spaniards, were all brought back in the course
of the day, and scarcely an article of equipment was lost. The
exertions of Adjutant Holmes on this occasion are particularly
mentioned.

At the close of the campaign, when the main army withdrew from
Burgos, the troops under Lieut.-General Hill also fell back, and
the whole were united at Salamanca.

The THIRTEENTH were in reserve in the affair at Alba de Tormes,
and were engaged, with the rear guard, in skirmishing with the
enemy during the retrograde movement of the army to the Agueda.
The horses suffered severely from want of forage. After retiring
beyond the confines of Spain, the regiment marched to the Alemtejo,
and was quartered at Crato, where it received a reinforcement of
officers, men, and horses, from England in December.

[Sidenote: 1813]

In February, 1813, the regiment was removed from Crato to Monforte,
where it received a draught of one hundred and thirty-six horses
from the Ninth Dragoons, who were ordered to return to England; at
the same time a serjeant and ten men were attached to the staff
corps of cavalry.

At the opening of the brilliant campaign of this year, the regiment
marched towards _Salamanca_, and was employed in the operations
by which the French troops were driven from that city on the 26th
of May. The numbers and improved organization of the allied army
enabled the British commander to drive the enemy before him with
a strength and violence which the French could not withstand.
Rivers were crossed, rocks and mountains were climbed, and barren
tracts traversed, with so little opposition, that the power of the
enemy appeared to be paralyzed; but in the plains of _Vittoria_
Joseph Bonaparte made a stand, and the THIRTEENTH Dragoons took
part in the engagement on the 21st of June, when the French
army sustained a decisive overthrow. The regiment supported
the attacks of the infantry on this occasion, and subsequently
received orders to advance and act as opportunities might occur.
After clearing various obstacles in their front, the THIRTEENTH
approached Vittoria, when the royal carriages were perceived, and
Major-General Long instantly ordered a squadron, commanded by
Captain Doherty, to pursue them; this was promptly executed, and
the whole were captured after a sharp skirmish, in which private
_Michael Sullivan_ distinguished himself, cutting down a French
officer and capturing his horses. In the mean time, the remainder
of the regiment had formed in front of a compact body of the enemy,
whom they vigorously charged and routed. Captain Doherty, observing
this movement, left the royal carriages in charge of serjeant
Scriven and twelve men, and joined the regiment, with which he
continued in close pursuit of the enemy during the remainder of
the day. Serjeant Scriven reported his having given up the royal
carriages to an officer, with a party of infantry, who said he had
orders to take charge of them, but he omitted taking a receipt
or demanding the officer's name. The commanding officer of the
regiment, Major Patrick Doherty, received a gold medal for this
battle.

Following the rear of the French army, the regiment arrived at
the foot of the Pyrenees, and entering the pass through these
celebrated mountains, near Pampeluna, to furnish posts of
correspondence between the different divisions, it proceeded to
the valley of Roncesvalles,--a place celebrated for the defeat
of Charlemagne by the Duke of Gascony, assisted by the Saracens;
a pillar erected on the spot, to commemorate the victory, was
destroyed by the French in 1794. Up this valley the French army,
commanded by Marshal Soult, advanced on the 25th of July, and
some sharp fighting occurred, which ended in the retreat of the
British to a position in the mountains in front of Pampeluna. The
regiment, excepting one troop detached to assist in the blockade of
Pampeluna, was formed in support of the sixth division during the
severe contest in the _Pyrenees_, and when the French were repulsed
they were pursued to the confines of their own country.

The passage of the Bidassoa was effected in the early part of
October; the French were driven from their position on the Nivelle
in November; and the THIRTEENTH, with the Fourteenth Dragoons,
were engaged in the operations by which the passage of the _Nive_
was effected on the 9th of December. On the following day the
regiment was at _Hasparen_, observing the movements of the French
troops under General Paris. Some fighting took place on the
three subsequent days, and the posts at Hasparen were attacked
on the 13th of December. The gallant conduct of private _James
Armstrong_ of the THIRTEENTH, on this occasion, obtained for him
the distinguished honour of Sir Rowland Hill's particular notice,
and he was immediately promoted. Being one of a small party posted
to keep up the communication, he dashed forward and rallied some
British skirmishers, who had been forced back, placed himself at
their head, and attacked and repulsed the enemy, cutting down some,
and taking others prisoners.

[Sidenote: 1814]

The severity of the season detained the allies in their cantonments
for a short time, during which period the THIRTEENTH were employed
in the outpost duties, and Lieutenant Phillips is mentioned in the
books of the regiment, as having shown great prudence and judgment
in bringing off his piquet, when attacked and hard pressed by the
enemy's cavalry. In consequence of the want of forage, pounded
furze was given as food to the horses.

In February, the army again commenced operations, and the
THIRTEENTH Dragoons were employed in the movements connected with
the forcing of the line of the Bidouze and the Gave de Mauleon; and
in a sharp affair with the enemy's rear-guard, private Shreenan
of the regiment distinguished himself by his great gallantry. The
regiment was engaged, on the 17th of February, at _Sauveterre_,
where Lieutenant Geale and several men and horses were killed;
serjeant-major Thomas Rosser[7] particularly distinguished himself
on this occasion. Being detached with twelve men, he fell in with a
party of the enemy of more than double his numbers, whom he charged
three times, cutting down three himself, and capturing some men
and horses. The same morning, previous to this affair, the mare
on which serjeant-major Rosser was mounted was killed by a shell
striking her in her side, and he escaped without injury.

After several other movements, the THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons were
engaged in forcing the French position at _Orthes_, on the 27th
of February, 1814. The right and centre of the army assembled
opposite the village of Orthes, and the THIRTEENTH Dragoons,
forming part of the body of troops destined to turn and attack
the enemy's right, assembled near the junction of the Gave de Pau
with the Gave d'Oleron. The village of St. Boës was carried; but
the nature of the ground required a change to be made in the plan
of the action. The narrow passage behind the village was opened,
a body of troops, including the THIRTEENTH, pushed through, and
spread a front beyond, and the French army was forced back with
loss. Lieutenant Robert Nesbit was severely wounded; two men and
two horses were killed, and six horses wounded, on this occasion.
In a charge of the enemy's cavalry, which was gallantly met and
repulsed by the THIRTEENTH, a personal rencontre took place between
Lieutenant Doherty and the French officer who led it; the latter
was cut down, and surrendered. Many of the enemy were sabred, and
captured by the regiment. The commanding-officer of the regiment,
Lieutenant-Colonel Patrick Doherty, received a gold clasp,
inscribed with the word "_Orthes_," to be attached to the riband to
which his Vittoria medal was suspended.

On the following day the THIRTEENTH Dragoons pursued the enemy in
the direction of Mont de Marsan; and on the 2nd of March, they were
engaged in a slight affair at _Ayre_.

The British divisions continued to move forward, and the French
were everywhere driven before the allied army.

The THIRTEENTH shared with their old comrades of the "ragged
brigade[8]," the gallant Fourteenth, in the advance-duties of the
army, which brought them repeatedly into collision with the enemy.

On the 22nd of March, as three troops of the THIRTEENTH Light
Dragoons, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Patrick Doherty, with Major
Boyse, Captain Macalister, Lieutenants Doherty, Drought, and
Lawrence, and Brigade-Major Dunbar, approached _St. Gaudens_, four
squadrons of French cavalry were discovered drawn up in front of
the town. Undismayed by the superior numbers of the enemy, the
THIRTEENTH advanced to the charge, and such was the ardour and
determined bravery with which they rushed upon their numerous
opponents, that the French horsemen were overthrown at the first
shock, and they galloped in disorder through the streets; but they
rallied at the other side of the town, and prepared to resist the
few British troopers whose audacity they were desirous to punish.
The THIRTEENTH being supported by the Third Dragoon Guards, dashed
through the town, and rushing sword in hand upon the French
squadrons, broke them in an instant, and pursued them for two
miles, cutting many down, and taking above a hundred prisoners,
and sixty horses. The ground was covered with cavalry equipments,
arms, and dead and wounded men and horses. The conduct of the
THIRTEENTH was highly commended in Major-General Fane's report
of this action; the officers and soldiers were also thanked in
orders by Lieut.-General Sir Rowland Hill, and the signal gallantry
evinced by Captain James Macalister, who commanded the advance on
this occasion, was rewarded with the rank of major in the army. The
THIRTEENTH nobly upheld, on this occasion, their well-earned fame
as bold horsemen and dexterous swordsmen; and, by their promptitude
in rushing to the attack, showed that they possessed the true
spirit of good cavalry, adding another to the many proofs they had
already given of the insufficiency of the mere preponderance of
superior numbers to resist the shock of a determined charge[9].

The THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons continued to form part of the force
in advance in the immediate presence of the enemy; every encounter
gave additional proof of the ascendancy which the British troops
had acquired over their opponents, and as the war drew towards a
close, this became more apparent.

On the 10th of April the enemy's fortified position at _Toulouse_
was attacked. The THIRTEENTH were at their post, but no opportunity
to charge the enemy occurred.

When the French withdrew from Toulouse, the regiment advanced
through the town in pursuit, and occupied a chain of posts in front
of the allied army.

The war was soon afterwards terminated by the treaty of Paris, and
the Bourbon family was restored to the throne of France.

Thus the conquering arms of Britain had rescued kingdoms from the
tyrannical power of the usurper; and the THIRTEENTH Dragoons,
who had largely shared in the attendant toils and dangers, saw
the cause in which they had been engaged, triumphant over all
opposition.

After reposing in quarters a short time at Grammont, the regiment
sent its dismounted men and baggage to Bourdeaux, and commenced its
march through France to Boulogne, where it embarked for England,
and landed at Ramsgate on the 7th of July, after an absence of four
years and five months, during which period it had marched about
_one thousand five hundred_ leagues (principally Spanish); it had
been engaged in _thirty-two_ affairs, many of which were sharp and
contested, besides the general actions; it had been _one hundred
and ninety-seven_ nights in bivouac, and its casualties amounted
to _two hundred and seventy-four men_, and _one thousand and nine
horses_.

The THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons marched from Ramsgate to Hounslow
and its neighbourhood; and having been inspected by His Royal
Highness the Commander-in-Chief, they proceeded to Weymouth. The
establishment was reduced to eight troops.

[Sidenote: 1815]

The regiment embarked at Plymouth, and arrived at Cork in November.
During the end of this year and the beginning of 1815, the regiment
was distributed in quarters at Cork, Fermoy, Mallow, Bandon,
Limerick, Clogheen, Gort, and Tallow.

On the 6th of April, 1815, the royal authority to bear on its
guidons and appointments the word "PENINSULA," as a mark of the
Prince Regent's approbation of its conduct in Portugal, Spain, and
France, under Field Marshal His Grace the Duke of Wellington, was
communicated to the regiment; and shortly afterwards the veterans
of the Peninsula were again employed on foreign service; the return
of Bonaparte to France, his resumption of the imperial dignity, and
the flight of Louis XVIII. to Flanders, having rekindled the flame
of war on the continent.

The THIRTEENTH were augmented to ten troops; and six troops,
commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Patrick Doherty, embarked at Cork
at the end of April and in the beginning of May; they landed at
Ostend, marched up the country, and were formed in brigade with the
Third Hussars, King's German Legion, under Colonel Sir Frederick
Arentschildt, K.C.B.

On the 29th of May the THIRTEENTH were present at Grammont at the
review of the British cavalry and artillery, commanded by the Earl
of Uxbridge, by His Grace the Duke of Wellington, accompanied by
Prince Blucher.

While the regiment was reposing in quarters, waiting for the army
to commence operations, Bonaparte endeavoured, by a rapid advance,
to surprise the allies and beat them in detail. The post at Quatre
Bras was attacked, and this position being fixed upon as the point
of concentration for the army under the Duke of Wellington, the
THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons marched in that direction, and joined the
army during the night of the 16th of June.

The regiment, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Shapland Boyse, was
employed in covering the retreat from Quatre Bras to the position
in front of the village of _Waterloo_, on the 17th of June, which
had been rendered necessary by the defeat and retrograde movement
of the Prussians.

At the memorable battle of "WATERLOO," on the 18th of June, 1815,
the THIRTEENTH Dragoons, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Boyse, had the
good fortune to acquire additional laurels. Eminent, as British
troops ever have been, for those warlike qualities which lead to
glory in the hour of battle, yet the field of "WATERLOO" elevated
their reputation above its former standard, and the THIRTEENTH
have the honour of being numbered among the corps which signalized
themselves in the "shock of steel." The regiment was posted with
the Seventh and Fifteenth Hussars in the right centre of the
position in the rear of Hugomont; it charged repeatedly during the
day with the most distinguished success, the enemy's cavalry and
infantry, having some sharp sword conflicts with the former; it
also aided in the successful attacks upon the advancing columns,
penetrated and completely routed a square of infantry, and thus
materially contributed to the overthrow of the French army, which
was driven from the field with the loss of its cannon, ammunition,
waggons, and all its _matériel_.

The loss of the regiment was Captain James Gubbins, Lieutenants
John Geale and John Pymm, eleven rank and file, and fifteen horses
killed; Lieut.-Colonel Shapland Boyse, Captains Joseph Doherty
and Gregorie, Lieutenants George Doherty, Charles Robert Bowers,
John A. E. Irving, James Mill, George H. Packe, ten serjeants,
two trumpeters, fifty-seven rank and file, and forty-six horses,
wounded: eight rank and file and fifty-two horses missing.

Captain Brooks Lawrence, upon whom the command of the regiment
devolved in the course of the day, had two horses killed and one
wounded under him.

The gallant conduct of troop serjeant-major _Wells_, who commanded
Captain Gubbins' troop after all the officers had fallen, was
particularly remarked; he was promoted into the second West India
regiment, and retired from the Fifty-fourth regiment as a captain
in 1841.

Lieutenant Doherty, besides being severely wounded in the head,
was struck by a ball which was stopped by the interposition of his
watch, which it flattened. He had taken out his watch to remark the
time, when the regiment was ordered to advance, and not being able
to return it, he put it into the breast of his jacket, and thus
providentially his life was saved.

The regiment was subsequently rewarded with the royal authority to
bear the word "WATERLOO" on its guidons and appointments; every
officer and soldier present received a silver medal, and the
privilege of reckoning two years' service for that day was also
conferred on the troops. Colonel Patrick Doherty and Lieut.-Colonel
Shapland Boyse, of the THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons, were made
Companions of the Bath.

The following officers received silver medals for the Battle of
Waterloo:--

  Lt.-Col. Patrick Doherty, _Col._
  Maj. Shapland Boyse, _Lt. Col._
  Capt. Brooks Lawrence
  Capt. Joseph Doherty
    "   James Macalister
    "   Mansell Bowers
    "   Charles Gregorie
    "   Frederick Goulbourne
  Lieut. G. H. Packe
    "    John Wallace
    "    John A. E. Irving
  Lieut. John J. Moss
    "    George Doherty
    "    John H. Drought
  Lieut. Charles Robt. Bowers
    "    Allan T. Maclean
    "    Robert Nesbit
    "    William Turner
    "    James Mill
  Surgeon Thomas G. Logan
  Vet.-Surg. John Constant
  Paymast. Alexander Strange
  Quartermast. Wm. Minchin.
  Cornet Joseph Wakefield

After passing the night on the field of battle, the regiment
advanced in pursuit of the French army on their retreat to Paris,
which city surrendered to the British and Prussian armies. This
event terminated the campaign, Louis the XVIIIth was restored,
and the British troops received the thanks of both houses of
Parliament for their distinguished conduct during this short
and most important struggle. The THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons were
stationed in the vicinity of Paris, and took part in several grand
reviews at which the Emperors of Russia and Austria, and the Kings
of France and Prussia, were present. On the formation of the army
of occupation in France, the Eleventh, THIRTEENTH, and Fifteenth
Light Dragoons constituted the third brigade of cavalry under
Major-General Sir Colquhoun Grant, K.C.B.

[Sidenote: 1816]

In the spring of 1816, the regiment having received orders to
return to England, it embarked at Calais, and landed at Dover
on the 13th of May, after an absence of one year and a few days,
during which period its casualties amounted to three officers,
sixty-five men, and one hundred and four horses.

The regiment marched to Romford, where it was reviewed by His Royal
Highness the Commander-in-Chief. In June it was distributed in
quarters at Newmarket, Bury St. Edmonds, Ely, Peterborough, and
Cambridge; and in July it marched to York, sending, at different
periods during the latter part of this and in the beginning of
the following year, detachments to Carlisle, Newcastle-on-Tyne,
Tadcaster, Stockton-on-Tees, Hull, Pontefract, Leeds, Halifax, and
Wakefield, where they were occasionally employed in quelling riots.
The establishment had been reduced in October, 1816.

[Sidenote: 1817]

The quarters were changed in July, 1817, to Brighton, with
detachments at Chichester, Arundel, Hastings, and Eastbourne.

[Sidenote: 1818]

In the summer and autumn of 1818, the regiment was stationed at
Manchester, Stockport, Blackburn, Bolton, and Preston, and was
engaged in quelling riots.

[Sidenote: 1819]

Having received orders to prepare for embarkation for India,
the regiment marched to Romford, where it was quartered a
short time, and in February, 1819, eight troops, commanded by
Lieutenant-Colonel Boyse, sailed from Gravesend; they were four
months on the voyage, and landed at Madras on the 13th of June
following. After a short halt, the regiment marched seventy-three
miles up the country to Arcot, the capital of the Carnatic, where
it was stationed during the remainder of the year.

[Sidenote: 1820]

[Sidenote: 1826]

From Arcot the regiment was removed, in the early part of 1820, to
Bangalore, a military station in Mysore, about two hundred miles
from Madras. At this station the regiment remained upwards of six
years, and in 1826, it was removed to Arcot.

[Sidenote: 1828]

In February, 1828, the regiment was encamped at Arcot, from
whence it was removed to Arnee, a town of the Carnatic, fourteen
miles south of Arcot, and was stationed at that place during the
remainder of the year.

[Sidenote: 1829]

The regiment left Arnee in March, 1829, and once more traversed the
country to Bangalore, where it was quartered during the remainder
of its stay in India.

[Sidenote: 1832]

In 1832, the regiment was again clothed in scarlet with buff
facings.

The Mahommedans of Mysore entered into a combination, in which
some Sepoys of the force at Bangalore joined, for the destruction
of the English officers and soldiers, and the subversion of
the British government in October, 1832; but the discovery of
this conspiracy on the day fixed upon for its execution, caused
immediate precautions to be taken, which prevented the outbreak.
Many of the mutineers were taken, tried, and sentenced,--some
to death,--and the remainder to transportation. The Sepoys were
executed in front of the assembled force.

[Sidenote: 1833]

In January, 1833, the royal authority was given for the THIRTEENTH
Light Dragoons to retain on their appointments the motto, "_Viret
in æternum_." This motto was borne by the regiment when it was a
corps of heavy cavalry, and known by the name of the "_the green
dragoons_," but was discontinued on its being made light. The motto
was subsequently resumed, and the privilege of bearing it was
confirmed to the regiment by King William IV., as above stated[10].

[Sidenote: 1836]

In December, 1836, King William IV. was pleased to command that the
facing of the regiment should be altered to _green_.

[Sidenote: 1839]

Two squadrons of the regiment, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel
Maclean, were detached to Bellary in February, 1839, and formed
part of the force employed in the expedition against the Nuwaub
of Kurnool. In the affair at _Zorapoor_, a party of the regiment,
commanded by Lieutenant Cameron, pursued the fugitives across the
river Toombuddra, and took several prisoners; for which they were
thanked in orders. The regiment lost one man, drowned, on this
occasion. The two squadrons returned to Bangalore on the 28th of
November. They lost thirty-two men, principally from cholera, and
six horses, on this service.

[Sidenote: 1840]

After passing upwards of twenty years in performing the important
duty of protecting the British possessions in the south of India,
the regiment received orders to prepare to return to England, and
it marched to Madras in the beginning of 1840[11], where it was
reviewed by Major-General Sir Robert Dick, K.C.B. and K.C.H.,
and on the following day transferred its horses to the Fifteenth
Hussars; such non-commissioned officers and soldiers as volunteered
to remain in India were then permitted to transfer their services
to other corps.

At the frequent reviews and inspections of the THIRTEENTH, during
their service in India, the regiment was invariably complimented
on its admirable system of interior economy, its high state of
discipline and efficiency, and the following orders were issued
previous to its leaving Madras:--

  "_Head-Quarters, Centre Division, Madras_,
  _29th January, 1840_.

  "Major-General Sir Robert Dick was much gratified this morning
  to find Her Majesty's THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons in such high
  order. The major-general will not fail to report to the general
  commanding-in-chief the soldier-like appearance and steadiness
  of the men, and the serviceable condition of the horses; the
  movements were made with precision and celerity, notwithstanding
  the heavy sandy ground the regiment moved over; the horses
  were well in hand; the advances in line and trotting past were
  admirable. The major-general cannot help regretting the services
  of so efficient a regiment will be so soon lost to the Indian
  army. He sincerely wishes Colonel Brunton, the officers, and men
  of the THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons a safe passage to England."


  "_Head-Quarters, Fort St. George_,
  _17 February, 1840_.

  "GENERAL ORDER.--The THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons being ordered to
  embark, the major-general commanding-in-chief cannot allow the
  corps to quit this command, without recording the high sense
  he entertains of its merits and conduct during the period of
  its service in the East. Although opportunities for adding to
  its long-established fame and reputation in the field have so
  rarely presented themselves to this arm of the service since the
  THIRTEENTH formed a portion of the Madras army, the major-general
  is well assured, that had occasion called forth a display of
  its energies against the enemy, it would have nobly sustained
  the high character of the British cavalry. Good conduct and
  discipline are qualities, however, as essentially necessary to
  mark the meritorious soldier out of the field as gallantry in it;
  and in these attributes of the profession the THIRTEENTH Light
  Dragoons have at all times shone conspicuous.

  "From having been in the division under his own immediate command
  during a period of more than two years, the major-general is
  enabled to bear testimony (as well as from the reports of his
  predecessors) to the uniform correctness of its conduct, and
  throughout the course of its lengthened service in Mysore,
  he believes it may safely be asserted, that not an instance
  has occurred of a complaint or appeal being preferred against
  an officer, non-commissioned officer, or private, of this
  distinguished corps, to the civil authorities. In taking leave,
  therefore, (for a time he hopes only) of the THIRTEENTH Light
  Dragoons, the major-general begs Lieut.-Colonel Brunton will
  accept himself, and convey to the officers and soldiers under
  his orders, the assurance of the esteem the major-general feels
  for, and the warm interest he shall ever take in, the prospects
  and fair fame of the regiment; and it will constitute a pleasing
  part of his duty to make the general-commanding-in-chief of Her
  Majesty's army acquainted with the sentiments he has thus felt
  to be due to the corps to express, of its character and merits,
  neither of which are unknown to Lord Hill already, and are in no
  wise diminished by a twenty years' absence from its native land.

  "By order of Major-General Sir Hugh Gough, K.C.B.

  "(Signed)      R. B. FEARON,
  "_Deputy Adjutant-General of_
  _Her Majesty's Forces_."

The regiment embarked from Madras in February, and landed at
Gravesend in June, after an absence of twenty-one years and three
months, during which period its casualties amounted to fifteen
officers and one thousand and fifty-one men.

The regiment marched to Canterbury, and the establishment was
reduced to six troops.

In June of this year the regiment resumed wearing blue clothing
with buff facing.

[Sidenote: 1841]

During the election at Canterbury in February, 1841, the regiment
was quartered at Deal, Sandwich, and Walmer; and when the general
election took place in June, it occupied Whitstable, Herne Bay, and
Margate, where it received a vote of thanks from the inhabitants
for its orderly and exemplary conduct.

On the 11th of May the regiment was inspected, mounted, by His
Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge, who was pleased to express
in very strong terms, to Lieut.-Colonel Brunton, his approbation
of the appearance and forward state of training of both men and
horses. On this occasion nearly one half of the men present had
joined as recruits since the return of the regiment from India
(ten months), and all were mounted on young horses, which had been
bought and trained during that time.

The friendship of the "ragged brigade," which had commenced with,
and had continued throughout the eventful careers of the two
regiments in the Peninsula, was cemented afresh by the arrival of
the Fourteenth at Canterbury, to prepare for service in India; when
the Fourteenth presented the regiment with their handsome mess
tables, to perpetuate in the THIRTEENTH a kindly remembrance of
their old companions in arms.

Lieut.-Colonel Brunton's exertions to complete the regiment in men
and horses had been attended with the most favourable results; and
having attained a state of efficiency, it marched, in August, to
Ipswich and Norwich, crossing the Thames at Gravesend.

[Sidenote: 1842]

In January, 1842, on the occasion of the visit of the King of
Prussia to England to attend the christening of His Royal Highness
the Prince of Wales, the regiment was removed to Hampton Court and
Slough; and on the 4th of February the troops at the former place
marched, during the night, to Woolwich, and were present in the
morning at a review of the artillery previous to the embarkation of
the King of Prussia. The regiment returned from Hampton Court and
Slough to Ipswich and Norwich.

The THIRTEENTH regiment of Light Dragoons, during its long and
faithful services to its sovereign and country in various quarters
of the globe, has, in peace and in war, under every circumstance of
service, vicissitude of climate, and the trials incident thereto,
distinguished itself by the display of those qualities which ever
acquire unfading laurels in the field of action, and gain respect
and esteem for the British soldier.


  SIC "VIRET IN ÆTERNUM."


FOOTNOTES:

[1] DODDRIDGE'S _Life of Colonel James Gardiner_.

[2] Major Vigoureux, who was employed on the reconnoitring service,
gave Captain White information of the presence of the enemy, and
concerted with him the plan of attack. He requested Captain White
to mount him, which he did, on one of the largest horses of his
troop, and being a very tall and powerful man, his appearance was
most formidable. He charged with Captain White at the head of the
THIRTEENTH, and rode with uplifted sabre straight at the French
commanding-officer who was leading: on their meeting, that officer,
instead of defending himself, dropped his sword to the salute,
and turning it, presented the hilt to Major Vigoureux; the sword
was afterwards presented by Colonel Vigoureux to Lieut.-Colonel
Brunton, and is now in his possession.

[3] Captain White was afterwards appointed to the staff of the
army. He was killed at the battle of Salamanca.

[4] List of French cavalry attacked by two squadrons of the
THIRTEENTH Light Dragoons at Campo Mayor, 25th March, 1811.

  Second French Hussars          300 men.
  Tenth     ditto                350  "
  Twenty-sixth Heavy Dragoons    150  "
  Fourth Spanish Chasseurs        80  "
                                ----
                                 880  "


[5] Paymaster Gardiner obtained possession of Colonel Chamarin's
handsome helmet, and brought it to England. The colonel's sword was
given to Lieut.-Colonel Head.

[6] The following incident in allusion to the Campo Mayor affair is
taken from the journal of an officer published in CLARKE'S _Life of
the Duke of Wellington_:--

"Yesterday a French captain of dragoons brought over a trumpet,
demanding permission to search amongst the dead for his colonel.
His regiment was a fine one, with bright brass helmets and black
horse-hair, exactly like what the old Romans are depicted with. It
was truly a bloody scene, being almost all sabre wounds. It was
long before we could find the French colonel, for he was lying
on his face, his naked body weltering in blood; and as soon as
he was turned up, the officer knew him: he gave a sort of scream
and sprang off his horse, dashed his helmet on the ground, knelt
by the body, took the bloody hand and kissed it many times in an
agony of grief; it was an affecting and awful scene. I suppose
there were about six hundred naked dead bodies lying on the ground
at one view. The French colonel was killed by a corporal of the
THIRTEENTH. This corporal had killed one of his men, and he was so
enraged, that he sallied out himself and attacked the corporal, who
was well mounted and a good swordsman, as was the colonel himself.
Both defended for some time; the corporal cut him twice across the
face; his helmet came off at the second, when the corporal slew him
by a cut which nearly cleft his skull asunder, cutting in as deep
as the nose through the brain."

[7] Serjeant-Major Rosser was appointed cornet in the regiment in
1818, lieutenant in 1819, and captain in 1831, without purchase; he
was adjutant from October, 1818, to September, 1831; and retired
from the service by the sale of his commission 8th January, 1841.

[8] So named from the motley and tattered state of their garments,
owing to the constant exposure and hard work to which they had been
subjected.

[9] In the narrative of the campaigns of the Twenty-eighth
Regiment, by Lieut.-Colonel Cadell, is the following remark in
relation to the action at St. Gaudens:--

"This gallant corps (the THIRTEENTH) in a very short time cut the
Tenth French Hussars to pieces, taking upwards of one hundred
men and horses. Captain Macalister, who commanded the advance,
distinguished himself. When we came up, the sight was truly
melancholy: throughout the many actions in which we had taken
share, we never had seen men and horses so dreadfully mangled. The
horses were sold next day; but the best brought very little."

[10] The seal used by the THIRTEENTH when a corps of heavy cavalry,
with the motto "_Viret in æternum_" on a scroll upon it, is still
preserved in the regiment. The same motto was also embroidered on
the green horse furniture used when the regiment was heavy.

[11] On this march the regiment lost forty men by cholera, and two
from other causes.



SUCCESSIONS OF COLONELS

OF

THE THIRTEENTH

REGIMENT

OF

LIGHT DRAGOONS.


RICHARD MUNDEN,

_Appointed 22nd July, 1715_.

RICHARD MUNDEN served under King William III. in the Netherlands,
and also under the celebrated John Duke of Marlborough, and was
promoted to the rank of colonel in 1706. On the 6th of May, 1709,
he succeeded Lord Lovelace in the colonelcy of a regiment of foot,
which served in the war of the Spanish succession, and after
distinguishing itself at Saragossa in 1710, it was surrounded and
made prisoners in the mountains of Castille, by the army under
the Duke of Vendosme. In 1711 he was promoted to the rank of
brigadier-general; but the peace of Utrecht being concluded soon
afterwards, his regiment was disbanded, and he remained unemployed
until the summer of 1715, when he was commissioned to raise a
corps of dragoons--now the THIRTEENTH regiment of Light Dragoons.
He distinguished himself in the attack of the rebels at Preston,
in Lancashire, in November, 1715; and was removed to the eighth
dragoons in 1722. He died in 1725.


SIR ROBERT RICH, BARONET,

_Appointed 19th November, 1722_.

SIR ROBERT RICH entered the army in 1700, and gave such signal
proofs of courage and skill in the wars in the reign of Queen
Anne, that, on the 24th of October, 1709, he was advanced to
the command of a regiment of foot. At the peace of Utrecht his
regiment was disbanded, and he remained for some time unemployed;
but being distinguished for his loyalty and steady attachment to
the Protestant succession, he was commissioned to raise, in the
summer of 1715, a regiment of dragoons, which was instrumental in
suppressing the rebellion which broke out that year; but in 1718
it was disbanded. The services of Sir Robert Rich were, however,
not forgotten; he was appointed one of the grooms of the bedchamber
to the Prince of Wales (afterwards George II.): and on the 19th
of November, 1722, King George I. appointed him colonel of the
THIRTEENTH Dragoons; from which he was removed, in September, 1725,
to the eighth dragoons; and on the 1st of January, 1731, to the
seventh horse, now sixth dragoon guards. He was again removed in
1733 to the first troop of horse grenadier guards; and in 1735 to
the fourth dragoons; he was promoted to the rank of major-general
in 1735, to that of lieut.-general in 1739, general in 1745; and in
1757 he was advanced to the rank of field-marshal. He was a member
of Parliament, and governor of Chelsea Hospital. He died in 1768.


WILLIAM STANHOPE,

_Appointed 20th September, 1725_.

WILLIAM STANHOPE, youngest son of John Stanhope of Elvaston,
served several years in the third regiment of foot guards, in
which corps he obtained the command of a company, with the rank of
lieut.-colonel, and on the 17th of March, 1711, he was promoted
to the colonelcy of a regiment of foot, which served in Spain,
but was disbanded in November, 1712. In the summer of 1715, when
the kingdom was menaced with internal war, by the partizans of
the Pretender, he raised a regiment of dragoons for the service
of King George I.; and when the commotions, which followed, were
suppressed, his corps was disbanded. In 1717, he was employed in
a diplomatic character in Spain; hostilities with that country
commenced in 1719, and he subsequently served as a volunteer with
the French army, commanded by Marshal Duke of Berwick. He concerted
a plan for the destruction of three Spanish ships of the line, and
a great quantity of naval stores, in the port of St. Andero, which
was effected by an English squadron; Colonel Stanhope contributed
to the execution of this enterprise by accompanying a detachment
of troops, which Marshal Berwick sent, at his solicitation, and
was the first that leaped into the water when the boats approached
the shore. At the termination of the war, he was again appointed
envoy at the Spanish court, and while employed in this service
King George I. conferred on him the colonelcy of the THIRTEENTH
Dragoons. At the commencement of the war with Spain, 1726-7, he
returned to England, and was appointed vice-chamberlain to the
King; he was also nominated one of the British plenipotentiaries at
the congress at Soissons; and he subsequently proceeded to Spain
and concluded the treaty of Seville. His distinguished merits in
these negotiations, were rewarded, in November, 1729, with the
title of LORD HARRINGTON, in the county of Northampton; and on
the resignation of Lord Townshend, he was nominated secretary of
state, which was followed by his vacating the colonelcy of the
THIRTEENTH Dragoons. In the office of secretary of state, his
Lordship's knowledge of foreign affairs, with his application to
business, moderation, good sense, and integrity, rendered him a
valuable servant to the crown. On the change of the ministry he was
appointed lord president of the council; and in February, 1742,
he was advanced to the dignity of Viscount Petersham, and EARL of
HARRINGTON. In 1744 he was again appointed secretary of state; and
in 1746 he was constituted lord lieutenant of Ireland. He died in
1756.


HENRY HAWLEY,

_Appointed 7th July, 1730_.

This officer served the crown in four successive reigns; and held
a commission in the army during a period of sixty-five years. His
first appointment was dated the 10th of January, 1694; and having
signalized himself in the wars of Queen Anne, he obtained the rank
of colonel by brevet dated the 16th of October, 1712. On the 19th
of March, 1717, he was promoted from the lieutenant-colonelcy of
the fourth dragoons to the colonelcy of the thirty-third regiment
of foot; and on the 7th of July, 1730, he was removed to the
colonelcy of the THIRTEENTH Dragoons. In 1735 he was promoted to
the rank of brigadier-general; in 1739 to that of major-general;
and in the following year obtained the colonelcy of the royal
dragoons. In 1742 Major-General Hawley proceeded with the army to
Flanders, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general in
the following spring, and served at the battles of Dettingen and
Fontenoy. In 1746 he commanded against the rebel Highlanders in
Scotland, and the troops under his orders had a sharp encounter
with the enemy near Falkirk, and sustained considerable loss. He
was afterwards on the staff of the army in Ireland; and was many
years governor of Portsmouth. He died on the 24th of March, 1759.


ROBERT DALWAY,

_Appointed 12th May, 1740_.

ROBERT DALWAY was appointed cornet in a regiment of cavalry on
the 8th of March, 1704; he served several campaigns under the
celebrated John Duke of Marlborough, and was distinguished for
gallantry in action, and a strict attention to duty. On the 1st
of February, 1713, he was promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of
Harwich's horse, now seventh dragoon guards, and in 1739, King
George II. promoted him to the colonelcy of the thirty-ninth foot,
from which he was removed in 1740, to the THIRTEENTH Dragoons. He
died in November of the same year.


HUMPHREY BLAND,

_Appointed 9th January, 1741_.

This officer's first commission was dated the 4th of February,
1704, and he had the honour to serve under the renowned John Duke
of Marlborough. At the augmentation of the army in the summer
of 1715, he was appointed major of the eleventh dragoons, and
he subsequently obtained the lieut.-colonelcy of that corps.
He was employed in suppressing the rebellion which broke out
in 1715, and was wounded at the attack of the insurgents at
Preston, in Lancashire. He subsequently held a commission in the
royal dragoons, and also in the King's horse, now first dragoon
guards, and in June, 1737, he was promoted to the colonelcy of the
thirty-sixth foot, from which he was removed to the THIRTEENTH
Dragoons in 1741, and in 1743, he obtained the colonelcy of the
third dragoons. He served as brigadier-general at the battle of
Dettingen, in 1743, and at Fontenoy, in 1745. In the following
winter he served as major-general under the Duke of Cumberland,
in Scotland, where he signalized himself on several occasions,
and commanded a regiment of cavalry at the battle of Culloden. He
subsequently returned to the continent, and was wounded at the
battle of Val, in 1747. In 1752, he was removed to the colonelcy of
the first dragoon guards, which he retained until his decease in
1763.


JAMES GARDINER,

_Appointed 18th April, 1743_.

JAMES GARDINER, son of Captain Patrick Gardiner, who died while
serving in Germany under the great Duke of Marlborough, in 1704,
was born in 1688. At the commencement of hostilities, in 1701, he
obtained a commission in one of the Scots regiments in the Dutch
service, and in 1702, he was appointed ensign in a regiment in
British pay. He served under the Duke of Marlborough, and at the
battle of Ramilies, on the 23rd of May, 1706, he was at the head
of the troops which attacked the French infantry posted in the
church-yard, and while in the act of planting his colours on an
elevated spot, and calling to his men to advance, he was shot in
the mouth. He lay all night on the ground, and on the following
day some foreign soldiers engaged to remove him to Huy; but being
unable to bear the fatigue of the journey, they left him at a
convent, where, owing to the kind care of the lady abbess, and the
aid she procured, he recovered in a few months[12]. This year he
was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, and he was soon afterwards
removed to the Scots Greys, commanded by Lord John Dalrymple,
afterwards Earl of Stair, who became much attached to Lieutenant
Gardiner. On the re-formation of the seventh dragoons, in February,
1715, Lieutenant Gardiner was appointed captain-lieutenant in
that corps, and in July following he was promoted to captain, in
Stanhope's dragoons, of which regiment he was appointed major
in 1717; but in the following year this corps was disbanded.
During the war he was aide-de-camp to the Earl of Stair, and he
was attached to the splendid retinue of that nobleman, while his
lordship resided at Paris, as ambassador extraordinary at that
court, from whence he was frequently despatched with important
information to London. While thus employed he became changed,
from a sprightly participator in all the gaieties of life, to one
of the most sedate and pious men of the age in which he lived,
and was remarkable for his punctilious observance of religious
duties. His steady attachment to the protestant succession, and
numerous services, were rewarded, on the 24th of January, 1730,
with the lieut.-colonelcy of the sixth dragoons, and he performed
the duties of commanding officer to this corps, many years, with
the most exemplary care and zeal. He proceeded on foreign service
with the Inniskilling dragoons, in 1742, and soon after his
arrival in Germany, in 1743, he was promoted to the colonelcy of
the THIRTEENTH Dragoons. He commanded the regiment in Scotland,
in 1745, when the rebellion, headed by the Pretenders eldest son,
broke out in that country, and he eventually joined the troops
under Lieut.-General Sir John Cope. During the night preceding
the battle of Preston-pans, the army occupied a position near his
own family residence, and he was attended by four of his domestic
servants, whom he dismissed about three o'clock, on the following
morning, with a pious exhortation to preserve their loyalty to
their sovereign. He spent a considerable time in private devotion
before the battle. At the commencement of the action, he was
wounded in the left breast by a musket shot, which caused him to
give a sudden spring in his saddle, when his servant, who held
a spare horse, endeavoured to persuade him to withdraw, but he
refused, saying it was only a wound in the flesh. In the charge, he
behaved with the most heroic gallantry, and afterwards attempted
to rally his men; but being unable to accomplish this, he joined
some infantry, and while in the act of encouraging them, he was
struck on the right arm by a Highlander with a scythe fastened
to a pole. His sword dropped; other opponents came round him;
he was unhorsed, and left for dead. About two hours after the
engagement had ceased, his servant found him; he was alive, and
the servant removed him in a cart to Tranent church, from whence
he was conveyed to the minister's house, and put to bed; but he
expired soon afterwards. "In person, Colonel Gardiner was strongly
built and well-proportioned; in stature unusually tall; and in
the expression of his countenance, intellectual and dignified. In
calm heroism, he has never been excelled. The energy he displayed,
notwithstanding his bodily infirmities, on the day preceding the
fight, at Preston-pans, his pious exhortation to his domestics, his
devotion before the battle, and his calm unflinching bravery during
the contest, have thrown a romantic charm around his memory, by
which it will, doubtless, be long and deservedly embalmed[13]."


FRANCIS LIGONIER,

_Appointed 1st October, 1745_.

FRANCIS LIGONIER, descended from the ancient family of Ligonier,
many years resident in Languedoc, in France. Being of the
Protestant religion, he withdrew from that country in the time
of Louis XIV., and, with his brother John, (afterwards Earl
Ligonier,) entered the British service. In his first commission he
was designated Francis de Ligonier, but the _de_ was afterwards
discontinued. He was appointed major of the eighth horse, now
seventh dragoon guards, in 1729, and lieut.-colonel in 1737, and
under his care that regiment became celebrated for efficiency
and exemplary conduct in quarters and in the field. He commanded
the eighth horse at the battle of Dettingen, where he highly
distinguished himself, and was wounded; and he was rewarded in
April, 1745, with the colonelcy of the forty-eighth foot, from
which he was removed in October to the THIRTEENTH Dragoons. He
served under Lieut.-General Hawley, in Scotland, in January, 1746,
and while suffering from an attack of the pleurisy, he quitted his
bed to command the cavalry at the battle of Falkirk, where he again
signalized himself; but fatigue, and exposure to the cold and wet,
brought on a disease, of which he died a few days afterwards, much
regretted by all who knew him.


PHILIP NAISON,

_Appointed 17th February, 1746_.

This officer entered the army in 1708, and he acquired a reputation
for attention to his duties and for personal bravery. He was
many years in the royal dragoons, and commanded that regiment at
the battle of Dettingen, where it captured the standard of the
Mousquetairs Noirs. He was also wounded at the head of the royal
dragoons at the battle of Fontenoy; and in 1746 King George II.
rewarded him with the colonelcy of the THIRTEENTH Dragoons. He died
in 1750.


SIR CHARLES ARMAND POWLET, K.B.,

_Appointed 26th January, 1751_.

CHARLES ARMAND POWLET, choosing the profession of arms, obtained
a commission as cornet of horse in 1710; he served many years in
the household cavalry, and was promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of
the first troop of horse grenadier guards by King George II., who
afterwards rewarded him with the colonelcy of the ninth regiment
of marines, by commission dated the 27th of December, 1740. At
the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle his regiment was disbanded; and in
November, 1749, he was appointed colonel of the ninth foot; he was
also promoted to the rank of major-general, was honoured with the
dignity of a knight of the bath, and held an appointment in the
establishment of the Prince of Wales. In 1751 he was removed to the
THIRTEENTH Dragoons: he died in November of the same year.


THE HONORABLE HENRY SEYMOUR CONWAY,

_Appointed 25th December, 1751_.

THE HONORABLE HENRY SEYMOUR CONWAY, second son of Lord Conway,
and brother of Francis Earl of Hertford, was appointed lieutenant
in the first foot guards in 1737, captain and lieut.-colonel in
1741, and in 1746 he was appointed aide-de-camp to the Duke of
Cumberland, and promoted to the colonelcy of the fifty-ninth (now
forty-eighth) foot. He was removed to the thirty-fourth foot in
1749, to the THIRTEENTH Dragoons in 1751, and to the fourth horse,
now seventh dragoon guards, in 1754. In 1756 he was promoted to the
rank of major-general, and in 1759 to that of lieut.-general, and
he was removed to the royal dragoons in the same year. He commanded
a division of the allied army in Germany under Prince Ferdinand of
Brunswick in 1761; and the British forces in Germany were placed
under his orders during the absence of the Marquis of Granby. He
was also one of the grooms of the bed-chamber to his majesty, and
a member of parliament; and having voted against ministers on the
great question of military warrants, in 1764, he resigned his court
appointment and military commands; but in 1768 he was appointed
colonel of the fourth dragoons. In 1770 he succeeded the Marquis of
Granby in the colonelcy of the royal regiment of horse guards; in
1772 he was promoted to the rank of general, and in 1793 to that
of field-marshal. He died in 1795; at which period he was eldest
general officer, and first field-marshal in the army.


JOHN MOSTYN,

_Appointed 8th July, 1754_.

This officer was appointed ensign on the 29th of February, 1732,
and after a short service he was promoted to captain in the
thirty-first foot, from which he was advanced in 1742 to the
commission of captain-lieutenant in the second foot guards. He
served with his regiment on the continent, and was wounded at the
battle of Fontenoy in 1745. In 1747 he was appointed aide-de-camp
to King George II.; in 1751 His Majesty gave him the colonelcy of
the seventh regiment of foot, from which he was removed, in 1754,
to the THIRTEENTH Dragoons, and in 1757 he was promoted to the
rank of major-general: in 1758 he was removed to the fifth, royal
Irish, dragoons. He commanded a brigade of infantry under Charles,
Duke of Marlborough, in the expedition to St. Maloes, in 1758; in
1759 he was promoted to the rank of lieut.-general, and in 1760 he
was removed to the colonelcy of the seventh dragoons. He served
under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, in Germany, and signalized
himself at many general engagements and skirmishes during the
years 1759-60-61, and -62; and at the termination of the war he
was appointed colonel of the first dragoon guards; in 1772 he was
promoted to the rank of general. He died in March, 1779.


ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS,

_Appointed 18th October, 1758_.

After a progressive service in the subordinate commissions, this
officer was promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the fourth dragoons
in February, 1747; he was also advanced to the rank of colonel in
the army, and honoured with the appointment of aide-de-camp to the
King. In 1758 His Majesty conferred upon him the colonelcy of the
THIRTEENTH Dragoons. He was promoted to the rank of major-general
in 1759, and to that of lieut.-general in 1761. He died at Dublin,
in October, 1778.


RICHARD PIERSON,

_Appointed 27th November, 1778_.

RICHARD PIERSON was many years an officer in the first foot guards,
in which regiment he was appointed major, with the rank of colonel
in the army, on the 21st of July, 1760. In 1762 he was promoted to
the rank of major-general, and in 1764 he was appointed colonel
of the sixty-third regiment of foot, from which he was removed in
the following year to the thirty-sixth regiment. In 1772 he was
promoted to the rank of lieut.-general; he was also honoured with
the dignity of a Knight of the Bath; and in 1778 he was removed to
the THIRTEENTH Dragoons. He was taken suddenly ill on his return
from the theatre on the night of the 12th of February, 1781, and
died before the following morning.


FRANCIS CRAIG,

_Appointed 15th February, 1781_.

FRANCIS CRAIG obtained a commission of ensign and lieutenant in
the second foot guards on the 22nd of April, 1742, and he served
in that regiment upwards of thirty-three years. He served with the
brigade of foot guards in Germany, in 1760-61, and -62, and was
promoted to the rank of colonel in the army in 1763. In 1775 he was
advanced from first major of the second, to lieutenant-colonel of
the first, foot guards, and promoted to the rank of major-general.
In 1777 he attained the rank of lieutenant-general; he was
appointed colonel of the THIRTEENTH Dragoons in 1781, and promoted
to the rank of general in 1793. He was many years governor of
Sheerness. He died in 1811, in the eighty-sixth year of his age.


THE HON. SIR HENRY GEORGE GREY, G.C.B., G.C.H.

_Appointed 30th December, 1811_.


SUCCESSION OF LIEUTENANT-COLONELS, THIRTEENTH LIGHT DRAGOONS.

  +--------------------+-----------------+-----------------------------+
  |                    |     Dates of    |                             |
  |     NAMES.         |   Appointment.  |            REMARKS.         |
  +--------------------+-----------------+-----------------------------+
  | Clement Neville    | 22nd July, 1715 | Colonel 14th Dragoons, 9th  |
  |                    |                 |   April, 1720.              |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | Peter Ker          |  24th May, 1722 |                             |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | Shuckburgh Whitney | 20th June, 1739 | Killed at the battle of     |
  |                    |                 |   Falkirk.                  |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | John Toovey        | 19th Sep., 1747 | Removed to the 1st Royal    |
  |                    |                 |   Dragoons in 1754.         |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | James Johnston     |  2nd Dec., 1754 | Ditto, ditto, 1759,         |
  |                    |                 |   afterwards Colonel 4th    |
  |                    |                 |   Dragoon Guards.           |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | Henry Gore         | 7th April, 1759 | Retired in 1764.            |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | Thomas Crow        |  6th Feb., 1764 | Ditto.                      |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | James Blaquiere    |  7th Dec., 1764 |                             |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | Sir James Steuart, | 15th July, 1776 | Colonel 12th Light Dragoons,|
  |   Baronet          |                 |   9th Nov., 1791.           |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | Honorable William  | 31st Dec., 1791 | Died in 1792.               |
  |   Cuffe            |                 |                             |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | Honorable George   | 31st Oct., 1792 | Retired in 1797.            |
  |   Walpole          |                 |                             |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | Robert Bolton      |  7th June, 1797 | Promoted Major-General,     |
  |                    |                 |   afterwards Colonel 7th    |
  |                    |                 |   Dragoon Guards.           |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | Honorable John     | 16th July, 1799 | Retired in 1801.            |
  |   Browne           |                 |                             |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | Michael Head       |  4th June, 1801 | Promoted Major-General.     |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | Patrick Doherty    |  4th June, 1813 | Retired in 1818.            |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | *Theophilus        |  5th Nov., 1818 | Commandant at Maidstone;    |
  |   Pritzler         |                 |   promoted Major-General.   |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | Shapland Boyse     |  8th Dec., 1818 | Retired in 1830.            |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | *Sir John Browne,  |   9th May, 1820 | Commandant at Maidstone;    |
  |   Kt.              |                 |   promoted Major-General.   |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | Thomas Hawker      |  9th Aug., 1821 | Held a superior command in  |
  |                    |                 |   India; promoted Major-Gen.|
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | John Floyd         | 21st July, 1825 | Retired in 1833.            |
  |   Paterson         |                 |                             |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | *Sir T. Noel Hill, | 22nd July, 1830 | Commandant at Maidstone;    |
  |   K.C.B.           |                 |   died in 1833.             |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | Richard Brunton    | 31st Dec., 1830 | Commanding the Regiment     |
  |                    |                 |   since December, 1831.     |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | William Persse     |  6th Dec., 1833 | Removed to 16th Lancers in  |
  |                    |                 |   1834.                     |
  |                    |                 |                             |
  | Allan Thomas       | 11th July, 1834 | To half-pay on the reduction|
  |   Maclean          |                 |   of the establishment in   |
  |                    |                 |   1840.                     |
  +--------------------+-----------------+-----------------------------+

  * The Officers, whose names are marked thus,*, were appointed to
  a regiment in India, in consequence of commanding the Cavalry
  Depôt at Maidstone;--but they did not join the regiment.


FOOTNOTES:

[12] In the _Life of Colonel James Gardiner_, by the Rev. J.
Doddridge, D.D., the circumstances connected with his being wounded
at Ramilies are detailed, which the Doctor states he had the
pleasure of hearing more than once from the colonel's own mouth:
but the doctor's memory must have failed in a few points, as there
are some palpable errors in the statement, such as--"the French
were masters of that spot (Ramilies) though their forces were
defeated at some distance;" &c. &c.

[13] Sir Walter Scott.



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  The 2-column list of officers on pages 70/71 has been reordered in
  a single column so that all Captains precede all Lieutenants.

  All { brackets have been removed from the Table on page 96, since
  there is no ambiguity in the etext table. This Table has a 'footnote'
  referenced by * which remains placed at the bottom of the Table.

  Except for those changes noted below, all misspellings in the text,
  and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained. For example,
  Field Marshal, Field-Marshal; bedchamber, bed-chamber; patrole;
  piquet; riband; signalized; rencounter.

  Pg 19, 'Philip Naizon' is also called 'Philip Naison' elsewhere in
  the book. Other external sources are also inconsistent in this
  regard.
  Pg 22, 'Royal Fusileers' replaced by 'Royal Fusiliers'.
  Pg 70, 'Lt.-Cl. Patrick' replaced by 'Lt.-Col. Patrick'.





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