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Title: Handbook to the Mennonite Hymnary
Author: Hostetler, Lester
Language: English
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                              Handbook to
                         The Mennonite Hymnary


                                  _By_
                        Lester Hostetler, B. D.
                   Coeditor, _The Mennonite Hymnary_

      General Conference of the Mennonite Church of North America
                         Board of Publications
                             Newton, Kansas
                                  1949

       Copyright, 1949, by the General Conference of Mennonites,
                         Board of Publications
       Printed by the Brethren Publishing House, Elgin, Illinois


                                   TO
                  ALL WHO LOVE THE HYMNS OF THE CHURCH
                                  AND
                          DESIRE TO SING THEM
                                  WITH
                    THE SPIRIT AND THE UNDERSTANDING
                               THIS BOOK
                              IS DEDICATED
                                   IN
                           GRATITUDE AND LOVE



                                CONTENTS


                                                                    PAGE
  PREFACE                                                             ix
  EXPLANATORY NOTES                                                   xi
  INTRODUCTION TO OUR HYMNS AND TUNES                                xii


                NOTES ON THE WORDS AND MUSIC OF THE HYMNS
                                                                   HYMNS
  WORSHIP
      Praise and Adoration                                          1-18
      Morning                                                      19-27
      Evening                                                      28-40
      Close of Worship                                             41-45
  GOD THE FATHER
      His Majesty and Power                                        46-47
      Maker of Heaven and Earth                                    48-53
      His Love and Mercy                                           54-64
  JESUS CHRIST OUR LORD
      His Advent                                                   65-69
      His Birth                                                    70-86
      His Epiphany                                                 87-91
      His Life and Ministry                                        92-99
      His Triumphal Entry                                        100-101
      His Passion                                                102-112
      His Resurrection                                           113-116
      His Ascension                                              117-124
      His Coming Again                                           125-130
  THE HOLY SPIRIT                                                131-139
  THE CHRISTIAN LIFE
      The Call of Christ                                         140-144
      Penitence and Confession                                   145-147
      Faith and Vision                                           148-154
      Peace and Joy                                              155-159
      Guidance and Protection                                    160-169
      Love and Gratitude                                         170-179
      Prayer and Communion                                       180-189
      Loyalty and Steadfastness                                  190-194
      Trials and Temptation                                      195-198
      Aspiration and Hope                                        199-204
      Purity and Uprightness                                     205-211
      Consecration and Stewardship                               212-220
      Service and Brotherhood                                    221-231
      Inner Life                                                 232-239
  HYMNS OF COURAGE AND COMFORT                                   240-259
  THE LIFE ETERNAL                                               260-266
  THE KINGDOM OF GOD                                             267-272
  THE CHURCH
      General                                                    273-277
      The House of God                                           278-282
      The Lord’s Day                                             283-288
      The Holy Scriptures                                        289-292
      The Ministry                                               293-297
      Sacraments and Rites
      Consecration of Children                                   298-300
      Baptism of Believers                                       301-302
      The Lord’s Supper                                          303-311
      Marriage                                                       312
      Burial of the Dead                                         313-316
      The Communion of Saints                                    317-319
      Church Unity                                               320-323
  CHRISTIAN MISSIONS                                             324-342
  NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LIFE
      The Nation                                                 343-349
      World Friendship and Peace                                 350-357
  THE CHRISTIAN HOME AND FAMILY                                  358-363
  SPECIAL SERVICES
      Mother’s Day                                                   364
      Farewell Service                                               365
      Our Forefathers                                            366-369
      Hospital Sunday                                                370
      Temperance Sunday                                              371
      Labor Day                                                  372-374
  THE SEASONS
      Harvest and Thanksgiving                                   375-378
      New Year                                                   379-383
      Winter                                                         384
      Spring                                                         385
      Summer                                                         386
      Autumn                                                         387
  SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES                                           388-390
  YOUTH                                                          391-402


                                 BOOK TWO
  HYMNS FOR CHILDREN
      {Praise}                                                   403-405
      {Nature}                                                   406-410
      {Christmas}                                                411-414
      {Easter}                                                       415
      {Loyalty and Consecration}                                 416-421
      {Prayer}                                                   422-435
      {Missions}                                                     436


                                BOOK THREE
  GOSPEL SONGS                                                   437-504


                                BOOK FOUR
  THE CHURCH YEAR IN CHORALES
      Call to Worship                                            505-508
      Praise                                                     509-520
      Advent                                                     522-524
      Christmastide                                              525-527
      (New Year)                                                     528
      Epiphany                                                   529-530
      Lent                                                       531-540
      Eastertide                                                 541-545
      Whitsuntide                                                546-548
      The Church and Missions                                    549-552
      {Morning}                                                  553-555
      {Evening}                                                  556-557
      General                                                    558-574


                                BOOK FIVE
  METRICAL PSALMS                                                575-600


                                 BOOK SIX
  RESPONSES, CHANTS, DOXOLOGIES, AND AMENS
      {Responses}                                                601-609
      {The Lord’s Prayer}                                            610
      {Offertories}                                              611-612
      {Benedictions}                                             613-614
      {Doxologies}                                               615-618
      {Amens}                                                    619-623


                                                                    PAGE
  PRINCIPAL WORKS CONSULTED                                          395


                                 INDEXES
  (1) Index of Scripture Texts                                       400
  (2) Topical Index of the Metrical Psalms                           402
  (3) Composers and Sources of Tunes                                 402
  (4) Authors, Translators and Sources                               407
  (5) Alphabetical Index of Tunes                                    412
  (6) Original First Lines of Translations                           417
  (7) Index of First Lines                                           419



                                PREFACE


The aim of this book is to serve as a companion to the _Mennonite
Hymnary_. It seeks to explain, as far as possible, the origin of the
words and music of every hymn in the _Hymnary_.

The great lyrics of the church, contributed by every age since the days
of the apostles, are a precious heritage, and a source of inspiration
and power. This work is intended to foster an understanding of and love
for our hymns, new and old, and to stimulate the time-honored and
blessed practice of congregational singing in the church today.

The _Handbook_ may be found useful as an aid (1) in the private study of
hymns or their use in family devotions; (2) in selecting suitable hymns
for the many and varied services of public worship; (3) in preparing
special music services or hymn sings where such occasions are planned to
improve the singing in the church; (4) for study groups in hymnology in
churches and schools. The historical development of hymnology may be
followed in the brief “Introduction to Our Hymns and Tunes.”

The author has endeavored to make the work as comprehensive as possible
without overburdening the reader with too many details. Many hymns have
interesting stories connected with their origin and use while others,
equally valuable, were just written, without drama or incident, the poet
scarcely knowing how or why, except that the Inner Voice spoke. The
apocryphal tales which have been circulated concerning some hymns have
been studiously avoided. The aim has been to include only such material
as seems to bear genuine marks of authenticity. The bibliography of
“Principal Works Consulted,” found elsewhere in the book, indicates the
main sources.

The original versions of translated hymns are not always readily
available and for that reason they are reproduced in the _Handbook_.
Translated hymns are usually selections from a much larger number of
stanzas and it is often instructive to be able to study the whole
structure of the original work.

_Acknowledgements._ I wish to acknowledge valuable help received from
the following and to express hereby my gratitude to them: to Dr. Robert
McCutchan, author of _Our Hymnody_, who generously responded to my
request for information on a dozen or more hymns on which I had no data;
to Dr. Henry Wilder Foote, of Harvard University, author of _Three
Centuries of American Hymnody_, for biographical material on several
hymn writers, and the use of books from his private library; to Dr.
Reginald McAll, Executive Secretary of the Hymn Society of America for
helpful material; to Dr. Ruth Messenger, Archivist for the Hymn Society
of America, who furnished nearly all the Latin originals, and the
Italian original of Savonarola’s hymn, and information concerning these
hymns; to Dr. Armin Heussler, author of a forth-coming handbook to the
_Evangelical hymnal_, for material on several of the chorales; to Wm.
Runyan of the Hope Publishing Company, and to Dr. John Trowbridge of the
Bible Institute of Los Angeles, for information concerning several of
the gospel songs; to Dr. Cornelius Krahn who made the rich hymnic
treasures of the Mennonite Historical Library at Bethel College
available to me; to the late Rev. C. E. Krehbiel who loaned me material
from his private library for this work but did not live to see its
completion; to B. Bargen for help in preparing the manuscript for
publication; to Mrs. Beatrice Buller for reading the manuscripts and
proofs of the German chorales; to my wife, Charity Steiner Hostetler,
who read all the manuscripts and proofs and whose constant interest and
assistance were indispensable; and to others, too numerous to mention,
who in any way facilitated the completion of the work.

The book, written during spare moments of a busy pastorate, is sent
forth with the prayer that, in spite of errors and imperfections, it may
inspire all who use it to sing with greater devotion the praises of Him
who loved us and redeemed us.

                                                        Lester Hostetler

  The Parsonage
  Bethel College Mennonite Church
  North Newton, Kansas
  January 20, 1949



                           EXPLANATORY NOTES


In the interest of brevity and to avoid repetition, certain recurring
words are abbreviated:

_Hymnary_ is used for _Mennonite Hymnary_.

_c._ (_circa_) means approximate date.

_Tr._ is prefixed to the names of all translators.

_Anon._ (anonymous) means without any name acknowledged, as that of
author or composer.

The word “Number” has been omitted: thus Hymn 22 means Hymn No. 22.

_Cf._ means compare. (Latin: confer).

The original texts of German hymns found throughout the _Handbook_,
especially in the section of Chorales, Book IV, are the versions used in
one or more of the following works: _Gesangbuch mit Noten_, (Berne,
Ind., 1890); _Gesangbuch der Mennoniten_, (Canadian, 1942); _The
Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal_, (Concordia Pub. House, 1942);
_Gesangbuch zum gottesdienstlichen und häuslichen Gebrauch in
Evangelischen Mennoniten-Gemeinden_, (Konferenz der süddeutschen
Mennoniten zu Ludwigshafen a. Rh. 1910); and Knapp, _Evangelischer
Liederschatz_. Many variations occur in the texts as found in these
versions, the explanation of which would require a much greater
knowledge of German hymnody than the author possesses. An effort has
been made to bring the spelling into conformity with the modern German
practice of omitting the “h” where it was formerly used with the “th”;
the use of “ss” instead of “sz”; and printing the initial letter of the
pronouns referring to Deity, in lower case rather than with capitals.



                 AN INTRODUCTION TO OUR HYMNS AND TUNES


                 With Illustrations From the _Hymnary_

  1. Definition of a Hymn.
  2. The Beginnings of Christian Song.
  3. Hymns of the Eastern Church: Greek and Syriac.
  4. Hymns of the Western Church: Latin.
  5. Hymns of the Bohemian Brethren.
  6. Hymns of the Reformation: The German Chorales.
  7. Hymns of the Reformation: The Metrical Psalms.
  8. Psalm Versions.
  9. English Hymnody.
  10. American Hymns.
  11. The Gospel Songs.
  12. Women Hymn Writers.
  13. Mennonite Hymnody.
  14. Antecedents of the _Mennonite Hymnary_.
  15. The Translation of Hymns.
  16. Church Unity in the Hymn Book.
  17. Hymn Meters.
  18. Hymn Tunes.
  19. John Wesley’s Rules for Singing.


                        1. Definition of a Hymn.

St. Augustine, 354-430, gave a definition of a hymn, which has been
widely accepted:

  A hymn is the praise of God by singing. A hymn is a song embodying the
  praise of God. If there is merely praise but not praise of God it is
  not a hymn. If there be praise, and praise of God, but not sung, it is
  not a hymn. For it to be a hymn, it is needful, therefore, for it to
  have three things—praise, praise of God, and these sung.

A recent definition, accepted by the Hymn Society of America, is that of
the late Carl F. Price:

  A Christian hymn is a lyric poem, reverently and devotionally
  conceived, which is designed to be sung and which expresses the
  worshiper’s attitude toward God, or God’s purposes, in human life.

L. F. Benson, America’s foremost hymnologist, defines a hymn in these
simple words:

  The Christian hymn ... is a form of words appropriate to be sung or
  chanted in public devotions.

A hymn is to be sung _by a congregation_. Its message must be simple,
not subtle. It must read well and sing well. In modern usage, the hymn
is not limited to the praise of God but includes other moods of worship
such as resignation and consecration.


                  2. The Beginnings of Christian Song.

Hymn singing has always been associated with Christian worship. Jesus
and the Twelve sang a hymn, presumably a portion of the _Hallel_ (Ps.
115-118), after the Supper was ended. Paul and Silas sang hymns, “songs
of the night,” during the midnight hours of their imprisonment in
Philippi. The great Apostle recognized the value of song when he
exhorted the churches thus:

  Be filled with the Spirit; speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns
  and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the
  Lord. Eph. 5:18, 19.

  Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom; teaching and
  admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,
  singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord. Col. 3:16.

  I will sing with the spirit, and I will sing with the understanding
  also. I Cor. 14:15.

The Jewish converts who at first composed the church had a rich heritage
of song in the Book of Psalms. This was their hymnbook, used in the
Temple worship and in the home and probably also in the synagogue
services. The use of the Psalms, carried over from the Jewish service,
forms to this day an important element in Christian worship.

Besides the Psalms, the early church sang the nativity lyrics that adorn
the first two chapters of the Gospel of Luke. It also made extensive use
of _Hallelujah_ as a part of the people’s praise, adding, in the course
of time, the _Gloria Patri_, the _Sanctus_, the _Te Deum_, and other
canticles.

The nativity hymns in Luke, five in all, are extensively used in Roman
Catholic and Anglican services.

  _Ave Maria_ (Hail Mary). 1:28-29, 42-45. The salutation of Gabriel and
  of Elizabeth.

  _Magnificat._ “My soul doth magnify the Lord....” 1:46-55. Hymn of the
  Virgin Mary.

  _Benedictus._ “Blessed be the Lord God of Israel....” 1:68-79. Song of
  Zacharias.

  _Nunc Dimittis._ “Lord, now lettest Thou thy servant depart in peace.”
  2:29-32. Song of Simeon.

  _Gloria in excelsis._ “Glory to God in the highest....” 2:14. Song of
  the Angels. Used as a part of the Roman mass and often found in
  Protestant hymns, e.g., “Angels we have heard on high” 82.


              Beginnings of Christian Song in the Hymnary

  _Psalms._ Book Five. 575-600.
  _Gloria Patri_ 606-7.
  _Ter Sanctus_ (_Trisagion_) “Holy, holy, holy” 601-2.
  _Te Deum._ “Holy God we praise Thy name” 519. A metrical translation
          of an ancient version.


           3. Hymns of the Eastern Church: Greek and Syriac.

The ancient Eastern Church developed a rich hymnody, rising steadily in
the fourth century until it reached its culmination in the eighth and
ninth centuries. Since it employed the Greek and Syriac languages, its
hymnic treasures remained almost completely hidden and unknown to the
English speaking churches for many centuries. It is only in recent
years, through the efforts of scholars like John Mason Neale and Edward
Caswall that some of the Eastern hymns have been translated and made
available for modern use. Eastern hymns are characterized by an
objective, dignified, contemplation of God. Except when confessing sin
and unworthiness, they contain nothing of the subjective feelings of the
worshipper such as is found in many modern hymns. Though there is very
little in the _Hymnary_ from the Eastern Church, our collection is
enriched by the inclusion of a small number of hymns from this source.


                       Greek Hymns in the Hymnary

    Clement of Alexandria, 170-220, “Shepherd of tender youth” (398)
    Candle Lighting Hymn, “O gladsome light” (34)
    Synesius, c. 375-430, “Lord Jesus, think on me” (196)
    St. Germanus, 634-734, “A great and mighty wonder” (526)
    St. John of Damascus, 8th century, “The day of resurrection” (115)
            “Come, ye faithful, raise the strain” (113)
    St. Stephen the Sabaite, 725-94, “Art thou weary, heavy-laden” (143)
    Candle Lighting Hymn, “Darkening night, the land doth” (32)


                 4. Hymns of the Western Church: Latin.

Two great names are associated with the music of the Western Church:
Ambrose, c. 340-97, known as the “Father of Hymnody in the Western
Church;” and Gregory the Great, 540-604, the missionary-minded pope, and
reformer of church music.

Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, not only composed hymns and music but
stimulated others to do the same. Under his leadership there developed a
large body of church music based upon four scales, which came to be
known as Ambrosian Chant. Although widely known as a scholar,
theologian, and preacher, Ambrose’s most lasting influence was upon the
music of the church. None of his hymns are found in our collection.

Gregory the Great, two centuries later, carried forward the work of
Ambrose. He added four more scales or modes to the Ambrosian system,
thus giving to the repertory of church music more definiteness and
variety. The music that developed during the papacy of Gregory came to
be known as Gregorian Chant, or plainsong, or plainchant. It is “plain”
because unadorned, unharmonized and unmeasured. Its rhythm is the free
rhythm of speech, the beats falling irregularly. The Gregorian Chant
remained the music of the church for a thousand years and forms the
basis of all Roman Catholic music today. Some of these chants were
adapted by Luther for congregational singing, and set to words in the
vernacular of the people. A few of the tunes, usually in a form scarcely
recognizable from the original, are used today in Protestant hymnals, as
for instance, the tune “Hamburg.” Some of the music in the Amish church
services is traceable to the Gregorian Chant.

The singing in the medieval church was liturgical in character and
confined to the clergy and trained choirs. This was its weakness. The
laity was not expected to sing, neither were they able to do so.
Congregational singing, so important in our worship today, had for
centuries been unknown in the Roman Catholic Church. Reform was
inevitable and it came in due time.

While only remnants of the music survive, many hymns from the Western
Church have been translated from the Latin and a few choice ones have
found their way into the _Hymnary_.


                       Latin Hymns in the Hymnary

    Prudentius, 348-c. 413, “Bethlehem, of noblest cities” (88)
    Gregory the Great, 540-604, “Father, we praise Thee” (24)
    Anonymous, 6th or 7th century, “Christ is made the sure” (277)
            “Joy dawned again on Easterday” (415)
    Theodulph of Orleans, 9th century, “All glory, laud, and honor”
          (100)
    Bernard of Clairvaux, 1091-1153, “Jesus the very thought” (155)
            “O sacred Head, now wounded” (539)
    Bernard of Cluny, 12th century, “Jerusalem, the golden” (262-3)
    Anonymous, 12th century, “O come, O come, Emmanuel” (67)
    Savonarola, 1452-98 (Italian), “Jesus, Refuge of the weary” (536)
    Anonymous, 17th-18th centuries, “O come, all ye faithful” (80)
            “The year is gone beyond recall” (382)


                   5. Hymns of the Bohemian Brethren.

The followers of John Hus who came to be known as the Bohemian Brethren,
and later as the Moravians, were the first Protestant group to introduce
congregational singing into their worship. They also published the first
Protestant hymnbooks, one in 1501 and another in 1505, containing 89 and
400 hymns, respectively, in their native Bohemian tongue. Their efforts
to introduce congregational singing were sternly opposed by the Roman
hierarchy. The Council of Constance condemned Hus to be burned at the
stake and warned his successor, Jacob of Misi, to cease the singing of
hymns in the churches. It decreed:

  If laymen are forbidden to preach and interpret the Scriptures, much
  more are they forbidden to sing publicly in the churches.

As a result of their persecution, the Brethren in 1508 sent out
messengers to search for true Christian people into whose communion they
might apply for admission—one to Russia, one to Greece, one to Bulgaria,
and one to Palestine and Egypt. All returned unsuccessful. No such
Christians had been found. They therefore remained in their own country,
giving themselves assiduously to the translation and printing of the
Bible.

In 1522 the Brethren sent two messengers to Luther to greet him and ask
his advice. Luther became interested in them and welcomed their
fellowship. He was impressed with the hymnbook the Brethren had
published, and later used some of the hymns in his own work.

Two centuries later, the Brethren, known now as the Moravians, settled
on Count Zinzendorf’s estates in Saxony, spreading rapidly from thence
into other countries in Europe and to the United States. One of
England’s foremost hymn writers and hymnologists, James Montgomery, was
an adherent to their faith.


          Bohemian Brethren and Moravian Hymns in the Hymnary

    Michael Weisse, 1480-1534, “Christ, the Lord, is ris’n again” (544)
            Tunes: “Mit Freuden Zart” (512), “Ravenshaw” (292)
    von Zinzendorf, Nikolaus L., 1700-60, “Jesus, still lead on” (574)
    von Zinzendorf, Christian R., 1724-62, “Man of sorrows” (537)
    Henriette Luise von Hayn, 1724-82, “I am Jesus’ little lamb” (430)
    James Montgomery, 1771-1854, “Hail to the Lord’s Anointed” (65)
            “Angels from the realms of glory” (81)
            “Go to dark Gethsemane” (107) and many others


           6. Hymns of the Reformation: the German Chorales.

The movement toward congregational singing, inaugurated by the Bohemian
Brethren, was soon to be merged into the greater Reformation movement.
Luther’s influence on the worship and music of the church was
revolutionary. For a thousand years the laymen had had no part in church
song. Congregational singing was unknown. Ambrosian music had at first
been introduced for congregational use but it became more and more
liturgical, thrusting the laity into the background. The Gregorian Chant
which followed was never intended for use except by the priests and
trained choirs. The followers of Hus pioneered in congregational
singing; but it was Luther and his followers who brought it into full
fruition.

Luther was a born music lover and a musician of adequate training.
Moreover he possessed a remarkable gift for writing hymns in clear
thought to bring the Word of God home to the hearts of the common
people. He and his followers put songs on the lips of the German people
and they sang themselves into the Reformation. So effective were these
songs that his enemies in the Roman church declared that “Luther’s songs
have damned more souls than all his books and speeches.”

_Chorales._ The word “chorale” (“choral” in German) refers to the hymn
tunes of Lutheran Protestantism, though in common usage the term
includes the words associated with the tunes. The melodies had much to
do with the popularity of the songs. They came from various sources.
Many of them were original compositions by Luther and others; some were
borrowed from the hymn books of the Bohemian Brethren; a considerable
number were adaptations of plainsongs used in the Catholic Church; still
others were adopted from beloved folksongs. Luther was an eclectic in
his choice of music. He used any tune from any source that suited his
purpose. Many thousands of chorales came into existence in Germany
during his time and the two centuries that followed. The hundreds still
in use represent the best in church music today. They are characterized
by a plain melody, a strong harmony, and a stately rhythm; all of which
adapts them well for effective congregational singing.

The chorales at first did not have the regular rhythms that they later
took on. The steady progression of even notes, invariable in Bach’s day,
had come only gradually into use. Some of the recent hymnbooks, in the
interest of greater variety of rhythm, are returning to the original
“rhythmic chorales.”

Though _unison_ singing has been widely practiced and is advocated today
by some good authorities in church music, Luther encouraged part
singing. In his first Preface to the _Geystliches Gesangbücklin_, 1525,
he wrote:

  These songs have been set in four parts, for no other reason than
  because I wished to provide our young people (who both will and ought
  to be instructed in music and other sciences) with something whereby
  they might rid themselves of amorous and carnal songs, and in their
  stead learn something wholesome, and so apply themselves to what is
  good with pleasure, as becometh the young.

The period of the German chorales may be said to have begun with Luther,
1483-1546, and ended two centuries later with J. S. Bach, 1685-1750.
Bach brought the chorale tunes to their highest perfection, using many
of them in his larger choral works. He composed about 30 original
chorale melodies, wrote reharmonizations for approximately 400, and
composed many chorale preludes for the organ which are in wide use
today.

The German hymns and chorale tunes, used constantly in the home and
school, as well as in the church, have been of great importance in our
Mennonite worship in the past. They constitute the main body of material
in all our German collections of hymns. In an effort to preserve and
emphasize this rich heritage, there was incorporated into the _Hymnary_,
a special section, Book III, made up exclusively of chorales.


                     German Chorales in the Hymnary

  16th Century
    Martin Luther, 1483-1546, “A mighty fortress is our God” (549)
            “From heaven above to earth I come” (527)
            “Out of the depths I cry to Thee” (531-2)
    Nicolaus Selnecker, 1532-92, “Now cheer our hearts” (557)
    Philipp Nicolai, 1556-1608, “Wake, awake, for night is flying” (522)
            “How brightly shines the Morning Star” (529)
  17th Century
  (_1_)—_Period of The Thirty Years War—1618-48_
    Johann Heerman, 1585-1647, “Ah, dearest Jesus” (534)
    Josua Stegman, 1588-1632, “Abide with us, our Savior” (559)
    Matthaus von Löwenstern, 1594-1648, “Lord of our life” (278)
    Georg Weissel, 1590-1635, “Lift up your heads” (523)
    Heinrich Albert, 1604-51, “God who madest earth” (573)
    Ernst Homburg, 1605-81, “Christ, the life of all the living” (535)
    Michael Schirmer, 1606-73, “O Holy Spirit, enter in” (546)
    Paul Gerhardt, 1607-76, “O sacred Head, now wounded” (539) and
          others
    Gerhard Tersteegen, 1697-1769, “God reveals His presence” (506)
            “O power of love, all else transcending” (517)
  (_2_)—_Later 17th Century_
    Johann Franck, 1618-77, “Deck thyself, my soul,” (552)
    Tobias Clausnitzer, 1619-84, “Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier” (553a)
    Georg Neumark, 1621-81, “He who would be in God” (571)
    Johann Scheffler, 1624-77, “I am the Lord, O hear my voice” (565)
    Joachim Neander, 1650-80, “Heaven and earth, the sea” (510)
  _18th Century_
    Johann Mentzer, 1658-1734, “O that I had a thousand voices” (509)
    Erdmann Neumeister, 1671-1756, “Sinners Jesus will receive” (466)
    Benjamin Schmolck, 1672-1737, “My Jesus, as Thou wilt” (250)
    Philipp F. Hiller, 1699-1769, “O Son of God, we wait for” (524)
            “What mercy and divine compassion” (562)
    Christian F. Gellert, 1715-69, “How great, almighty is Thy” (516)
    Johann Sebastian Bach, 1685-1750. The life of the great musician
          marks the close of the German Chorale period and for that
          reason his name is placed here. None of Bach’s original
          chorale melodies are found in the _Hymnary_ but use is made of
          a number of his harmonizations. See 539, 545, 556, 557, 564,
          566.


           7. Hymns of the Reformation: The Metrical Psalms.

While the German people, under the leadership of Luther, were singing
chorales set to original religious poems, a large section of
Protestantism, under the influence of John Calvin, confined itself to
the singing of Psalms. To the French reformer, now preaching at Geneva,
hymns were “man-made,” whereas the psalms were the inspired word of God
and the only proper vehicle for the praise of God. Calvin, unlike
Luther, was not a musician, and at first permitted only unison singing,
unaccompanied. Part singing and instrumental accompaniment seemed to
savor of the frivolous and worldly, an opinion which Calvin, however,
was soon to modify. For two hundred years the Calvinistic churches on
the Continent and in Britain were influenced in their worship song by
the strict views of Calvin, limiting themselves to the metrical psalms
and scriptural paraphrases. The German people in the meantime produced a
rich treasury of original religious lyrics, contributed by some of their
best poets.


            Psalter Tunes and Metrical Psalms in the Hymnary

  _Genevan Psalter_ Tunes, 1551.
            O Seigneur (19)
            Old 134th (128, 132, 616)
            Rendez à Dieu (306)
            Old 124th (354)
            Old 100th (594)
  _Scottish Psalter_, 1650.
            Book Five (575 to 600) with a few exceptions
  _New Version_, 1696, Tate and Brady.
            “Through all the changing scenes of life” (583)
            “As pants the hart for cooling streams” (586)
            “O come, loud anthems let us sing” (18)
            “While shepherds watched their flocks by night” (73-4)


                           8. Psalm Versions.

The use of the psalms in singing, first on the Continent, then in
England and Scotland, and later in America, brought forth many metrical
versions of the psalter, the principal ones being the following:

a. _The Genevan Psalter_, begun 1539, published complete in 1562. It was
made at the request of John Calvin by Clément Marot, court poet of
France, and Theodore Beza, a French scholar. It became the psalm book
for the Reformation churches on the continent, and is spoken of as the
most famous book of praise the Christian Church ever produced. It was
issued in at least one thousand editions and translated into a number of
tongues. Some of the original tunes are still in use, e.g., “Old
Hundredth.”

b. _The Anglo-Genevan Psalter_, Geneva, 1556. This was used by John
Knox, the Scottish reformer, and his followers who fled the persecutions
of “Bloody Mary,” and formed a congregation at Geneva. The book
incorporated some of the Sternhold and Hopkins versions which were in
use in England, and added others.

c. _The Old Version_, Sternhold and Hopkins, completed in 1562. Used in
England for 134 years. It is entitled, _The Whole Booke of Psalmes_, but
came to be known as the “Old Version.”

d. _The Bay Psalm Book_, Boston, 1640. This was the first book printed
in English-speaking America. It was made to obtain greater literalness
to the Hebrew original than was found in the versions then in use. The
book reigned supreme among the English churches in New England for over
a century. Seventy editions of it were printed in America, the last in
1773. Eighteen editions appeared in England, and twenty-two in Scotland.
There were no tunes given it until 1698, then only 13, with the air in
the bass.

e. _The Scottish Psalter_, completed 1650. Special mention is made of
this version of the Psalms because it is the source of nearly all the
selections of metrical psalms which constitute Book Five of the
_Hymnary_. The number of versions and editions of psalms which appeared
on the Continent and in England were numerous and confusing, each
claiming its own special merits. Finally, in the interests of better
literary diction and greater unity in singing in the Scottish
Presbyterian churches, the General Assembly authorized a new version.
The result, after many years’ work, was the famous _Scottish Psalter_ of
1650 which remains the standard work in Scotland today.

There is a certain “dignified crudeness” in some of the literary
expressions but the psalms have long been learned in this version and
have become an important part of the religious training and experience
of millions of English speaking people, especially in Scotland.

The Scottish Psalter first appeared with words only. There were no notes
and no suggestions for melodies. The succeeding one hundred years were a
time of confusion. The tunes used were few in number, such as the
leaders had learned from various sources, and passed on to succeeding
generations by rote. The time came when better singing and better tunes
were demanded and gradually the psalter appeared with tunes. Early tune
versions put the melody invariably in the tenor. The latest edition,
printed in 1929, by the Oxford Press, contains the best Psalm tunes
which had gradually come into use, many of them arranged with
“Faux-bourdon” (wherein the congregation sings one or more verses to the
melody while the choir supplies the harmony), and “Descant” (a second
melody over that of the tune).

f. _The New Version_, Tate and Brady, London, 1696. This version
gradually supplanted the _Old Version_ of Sternhold and Hopkins, and
held its place in the worship of the church for 150 years. It was
adopted, in 1789, by the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United
States and bound with the prayer book of that Communion.

The above versions are only a few of the large number of psalters that
were published by the Calvinistic churches on the Continent, in Great
Britain, and in America. The metrical psalms were designed for the
singing church. They were intended to restore song to the people in
their worship, serving in this respect a similar purpose to the chorales
in Germany.

Some of the psalm books were published without music, some with the
melody only, and others in four-part harmony. The statement is
frequently made that Calvinistic Protestantism approved only unison
singing. The appearance of numerous books, complete with four voice
parts, points to the contrary. It is true that Calvin at first
encouraged unison singing only, regarding harmony more in the nature of
amusement than the worship of God; but upon observing the effectiveness
of singing in Germany, he soon changed his views and became more liberal
in this respect.


                          9. English Hymnody.

The youthful, courageous Isaac Watts, 1674-1748, an ardent dissenter,
pioneered the movement which resulted in a flood of hymns and hymnbooks
in the English churches. Watts was not satisfied with the psalm singing
of his time, which by now had become formal and lifeless. Parts of the
psalter, he pointed out, were obviously not written in the spirit of the
Gospel. “By keeping too close to David,” he wrote in one of his
Prefaces, “the vail of Moses is thrown over our hearts.” Watts removed
that “vail,” Christianizing the psalms and composing during his lifetime
more than 600 original hymns, expressing in the language of the time,
the thoughts of the worshippers. Through his influence, his age, the
18th century, became the first age of hymn singing in England.

John and Charles Wesley, following Watts, made enormous use of hymn
singing in their evangelistic work, giving the movement for
congregational singing a powerful impetus. Charles is said to have
composed over 6,000 hymns.

From the Wesleys onward through the 19th century, the hymn writers in
England became numerous. The restrictive shackles of psalm singing had
been broken and the creative urge to worship in new forms resulted in a
vast number of original religious lyrics and the publication of hundreds
of hymnbooks. The development can be summarized here only in outline
form.


                     English Hymnody in the Hymnary

  Early—17th Century
    Henry Wotton, 1568-1639, “How happy is he” (208)
    George Herbert, 1593-1633, “Teach me, my God and King” (226)
    John Milton, 1608-74, “Let us with a gladsome mind” (64)
            “How lovely are Thy dwellings fair” (592)
    Thomas Ken, 1637-1711, “Awake, my soul, and with the sun” (25)
            “All praise to Thee, my God, this night” (33)
            “Praise God, from whom all blessings flow” (618)
    Joseph Addison, 1672-1719, “The spacious firmament on high” (50)
            “How are Thy servants blest” (338)
  18th Century
  _1. Two Independents_:
    Isaac Watts, 1674-1748, “Father of English Hymnody”
            “When I survey the wondrous cross” (105-6)
            “Joy to the world! the Lord is come” (70)
            “God is the refuge of His saints” (257)
            and many others
    Philip Doddridge, 1702-51, “How gentle God’s commands” (56)
            (and 128, 167, 218, 383, 465)
  _2. The Wesleys and their Associates_:
    John Wesley, 1703-91, translations (170, 226, 246, 508, 558)
    Charles Wesley, 1707-88, “Bard of Methodism”
            “Come, Thou long-expected Jesus” (69)
            “Jesus, Lover of my soul” (158-9)
            “Love divine, all loves excelling” (178-9)
            and many others
    William Williams, 1717-91, “Sweet Singer of Wales”
            “Guide me, O Thou great Jehovah” (160)
    John Cennick, 1718-55, “Lo, He comes, with clouds” (130)
            “Jesus, my all, to heav’n is gone” (468)
    Thomas Olivers, 1725-99, “The God of Abraham praise” (14)
    Edward Perronet, 1726-92, “All hail the power of Jesus” (3, 4, 5)
  _3. A Calvinistic Antagonist of Wesley_
    Augustus Toplady, 1740-78, “Rock of Ages, cleft for me” (148)
  _4. The Olney Hymnists:_
    John Newton, 1725-1807, “Glorious things of thee” (274)
            “Safely through another week” (284)
            “Amazing grace! how sweet the sound” (463)
    William Cowper, 1731-1800, “God moves in a mysterious way” (60)
            “O for a closer walk with God” (197)
            “There is a fountain filled with blood” (492)
  _5. Others—18th Century:_
    Anne Steele, 1716-78, “Father, whate’er of earthly bliss” (251)
    Joseph Grigg, c. 1720-68, “Behold a Stranger at the door” (141)
            “Jesus, and shall it ever be” (192)
    Robert Robinson, 1735-90, “Mighty God, while angels bless” (46)
            “Come, Thou fount of every blessing” (189)
    John Fawcett, 1740-1817, “Blest be the tie that binds” (41)
            “Lord, dismiss us with Thy blessing” (45)
  Modern English—19th Century
  _1. Earliest_:
    Thomas Kelly, 1769-1854, “Look, ye saints, the sight” (119)
            “Hark, ten thousand harps and voices” (123)
            “On the mountain top appearing” (336)
    James Montgomery, 1771-1854, “Prayer is the soul’s sincere” (184)
            “Angels, from the realms of glory” (81)
            “In the hour of trial” (195) and many others
    Robert Grant, 1779-1838, “O worship the King” (7)
            “Savior, when, in dust to Thee” (145)
    Reginald Heber, 1783-1826, “Holy, holy, holy” (1)
            “Bread of the world in mercy broken” (304)
            “From Greenland’s icy mountains” (333)
    Charlotte Elliott, 1789-1871, “Just as I am, without one plea” (458)
            “O holy Savior, Friend unseen” (233)
            “My God and Father, while I stray” (245)
    Henry Milman, 1791-1868, “Ride on, ride on in majesty” (101)
    John Bowring, 1792-1872, “In the Cross of Christ I glory” (110)
            “Watchman, tell us of the night” (66)
            “God is love; His mercy brightens” (55)
    Henry F. Lyte, 1793-1847, “Abide with me” (40)
  _2. The Oxford Group_:
    John Keble, 1792-1866, “New every morning is the love” (22)
            “Sun of my soul, Thou Savior dear” (30)
    Matthew Bridges, 1800-94, “Crown Him with many crowns” (118)
    John Henry Newman, 1801-90, “Lead, kindly light” (162-3)
    Richard Trench, 1807-86, “Lord, what a change within” (183)
    Frederick Faber, 1814-63, “There’s a wideness in God’s mercy” (58)
            “Faith of our fathers” (154)
    Mrs. Cecil Frances Alexander, 1823-95, “There is a green hill” (104)
  (_Translators of Latin and Greek Hymns_)
    John Chandler, 1806-76, “Christ is our Cornerstone” (9)
            “What star is this” (87)
    Edward Caswall, 1814-78, “Bethlehem, of noblest cities” (88)
            “Jesus, the very thought of Thee” (155)
    John M. Neale, 1818-66, “O come, O come Emmanuel” (67)
            “All glory, laud, and honor” (100)
  _3. Translators of German Hymns_:
    Catherine Winkworth, 1829-78, “Wake, awake for night” (522)
            and 24 others
    Frances E. Cox, 1812-97, “Sing praise to God” (512)
            “Jesus lives” (543)
    Jane L. Borthwick, 1813-97, “Be still, my soul” (54)
            “My Jesus, as Thou wilt” (250)
            “Jesus, still lead on” (574)
    Sarah Borthwick Findlater, 1823-1907, “O happy home” (358)
  _4. Other Hymnists—19th Century_:
    Christopher Wordsworth, 1807-85, “Gracious Spirit,” (174)
            “O day of rest and gladness” (285)
    Horatius Bonar, 1808-89, “I heard the voice of Jesus say” (142)
            “I lay my sins on Jesus” (444)
            “When the weary, seeking rest” (203) and others
    Alfred Tennyson, 1809-92, “Strong Son of God” (149)
            “Sunset and evening star” (265)
            “Ring out, wild bells” (379)
    Henry Alford, 1810-71, “We walk by faith, and not by sight” (152)
            “Come, ye thankful people, come” (377)
    W. W. How, 1823-97, “O Jesus, Thou art standing” (144)
            “For all the saints who from their labor rest” (317)
            “O Word of God Incarnate” (289) and others
    Godfrey Thring, 1823-1903, “From the Eastern mountains” (89)
            “Thou to whom the sick and dying” (370)
    Adelaide Proctor, 1825-64, “My God, I thank Thee” (177)
            “I do not ask, O Lord” (471)
    Edward H. Bickersteth, 1825-1906, “Peace, perfect peace” (256)
    John Ellerton, 1826-93, “Savior, again to Thy dear name” (43)
            “Now the laborer’s task is o’er” (315)
            “Throned upon the awful tree” (109) and others
    S. Baring-Gould, 1834-1924, “Now the day is over” (29)
            “Onward, Christian soldiers” (225)
    Edwin Hatch, 1835-89, “Breathe on me, breath of God” (135)
    Frances R. Havergal, 1836-79, “Take my life, and let it be” (215)
            “Lord, speak to me, that I may speak” (296)
            “Thou art coming, O my Savior” (126) and others
    Samuel Stone, 1839-1900, “The Church’s one foundation” (273)
    George Matheson, 1842-1906, “O love that wilt not let me go” (175)
  Recent English Hymns
    Rudyard Kipling, 1865-1936, “Father in heav’n” (401)
    Stopford A. Brooke, 1832-1916, “Let the whole creation cry” (49)
    John Oxenham, 1852-1941, “In Christ there is no East” (320)
            “Peace in our time, O Lord” (357)
    Percy Dearmer, 1867-1936, “Remember all God’s children” (436)
    Richard Roberts, 1874—, “For them whose ways” (166)
    Laurence Housman, 1865—, “Father Eternal” (354)


                          10. American Hymns.

The English speaking colonists who settled in America during the 17th
century continued the psalm singing traditions of their forebears in
England. The practice prevailed in their churches for two hundred years.
The first book printed by them was the _Bay Psalm Book_, in 1640, at
Cambridge, Massachusetts. It contained no original hymns. The singing of
psalms, and later of hymns borrowed from England made up nearly the
entire repertory of church music until the middle of the 19th century.

On the other hand, the German speaking colonists, including the
Mennonites, had brought with them the hymn books of the Lutheran
tradition and continued the use of the German chorales in their worship.
The two streams of hymnody, English psalms and German chorales, went
their independent courses for two centuries, scarcely influencing each
other.

In the meantime there was very little original hymnody produced in
America, with the exception of the work of the Wesleys during their
brief experiment in Georgia, and the composition of certain hymns and
tunes by the German people of Pennsylvania, which have remained, until
recently, in manuscript form. Timothy Dwight’s hymn on the church, “I
love Thy Kingdom, Lord” (275) is probably the earliest American hymn
still in use.

After the middle of the 19th century the number of hymn writers became
large and their works came into increasing use, some choice examples
finding their way into English hymnbooks. America’s original
contribution to Christian hymnody has not been only the Gospel Songs
represented by the writings of Fanny Crosby, but the more permanent
works of Whittier, George W. Doane, Hosmer, Samuel Longfellow,
Washington Gladden, S. F. Smith, and many others. Our musical
contributions have been less conspicuous, but the tunes of Mason are
coming into their own again and many of them will doubtless survive for
a long time, as will also those of Bradbury, Hastings, and others.

The tendency today in American hymnbooks is to unite the best in English
and German traditions. The _Hymnary_ illustrates this trend. It makes
large use of the English hymns while at the same time preserving a
considerable body of the German chorales. In keeping with this trend,
the recent hymnbooks of the Episcopal, Presbyterian, Methodist and other
churches of English origin, incorporate some of the German chorale tunes
and in some cases the translations of the words. The hymn books of our
time have become the channels through which flow the rich contributions
to the stream of Christian hymnody from Christian people of all times
and places.


                     American Hymns in the Hymnary

  Early American
    Timothy Dwight, 1752-1817, “I love Thy kingdom, Lord” (275)
    Thomas Hastings, 1784-1872, “Hail to the brightness” (332)
    Henry Ware, Jr., 1794-1843, “Happy the home when God” (361)
    Wm. B. Tappan, 1794-1849, “’Tis midnight; and on Olive’s brow” (103)
    Francis Scott Key, 1779-1843, “Lord, with glowing heart” (511)
    George W. Doane, 1799-1859, “Softly now the light of day” (36)
  19th Century
    Leonard Bacon, 1802-81, “O God, beneath Thy guiding hand” (367)
    John G. Whittier, 1807-92, “Dear Lord and Father” (181)
    Ray Palmer, 1808-87, “My faith looks up to Thee” (150)
    S. F. Smith, 1808-95, “The morning light is breaking” (324)
    Oliver W. Holmes, 1809-94, “Lord of all being, throned afar” (53)
    E. H. Sears, 1810-76, “It came upon the midnight clear” (75)
    W. H. Burleigh, 1812-71, “Lead us, O Father, in the paths” (164)
    Harriet Beecher Stowe, 1811-96, “Still, still with Thee” (23)
    Sylvanus Phelps, 1816-95, “Savior, Thy dying love” (220)
    Arthur C. Coxe, 1818-96, “O where are kings and empires” (276)
    Elizabeth Payson Prentiss, 1818-78, “More love to Thee” (472)
    Edward Hopper, 1818-88, “Jesus, Savior, pilot me” (161)
    George Duffield, Jr., 1818-88, “Stand up, stand up for Jesus” (193)
    Samuel Longfellow, 1819-92, “Holy Spirit, Truth divine” (136)
    James Russell Lowell, 1819-91, “Once to every man” (346)
    Anna Warner, 1820-1915, “We would see Jesus” (201)
    John H. Hopkins, 1820-91, “We three kings of Orient are” (90)
    Eliza Scudder, 1821-96, “Thou Grace Divine, encircling all” (57)
    Samuel Johnson, 1822-82, “Father, in Thy mysterious” (188)
    Jeremiah E. Rankin, 1828-1904, “God be with you” (365)
    Joseph H. Gilmore, 1834-1918, “He leadeth me” (478)
    Phillips Brooks, 1835-93, “O little town of Bethlehem” (84)
  Recent American Hymns
    Washington Gladden, 1836-1918, “O Master, let me walk” (223)
    Frederick L. Hosmer, 1840-1929, “Not always on the mount” (98)
    Mary Lathbury, 1841-1913, “Day is dying in the west” (31)
            “Break Thou the bread of Life” (288)
    Frank Mason North, 1850-1936, “Where cross the crowded” (222)
    M. Woolsey Stryker, 1851-1929, “Almighty Lord, with one” (390)
    Henry van Dyke, 1852-1933, “Joyful, joyful, we adore Thee” (10)
    Louis F. Benson, 1855-1930, “O sing a song of Bethlehem” (92)
    Maltbie D. Babcock, 1858-1901, “This is my Father’s world” (48)
    Katherine Lee Bates, 1859-1929, “O beautiful for spacious” (343)
    Milton S. Littlefield, 1864-1934, “O Son of man, thou” (373)
    Jay T. Stocking, 1870-1936, “O Master Workman” (93)
    Wm. M. Vories, 1880—, “Let there be light, Lord God” (353)
    Harry Webb Farrington, 1880-1931, “I know not how that” (99)
    W. Russel Bowie, 1882—, “Lord, through changing days” (402)
    Howard Arnold Walter, 1884-1918, “I would be true” (207)
    Earl Marlatt, 1892—, “‘Are ye able,’ said the Master” (392)


                           11. Gospel Songs.

During the latter part of the 19th century there came into use, both in
the United States and in England, a type of religious song known as the
Gospel Song. Less dignified than the chorales or the English hymns,
these songs made a popular appeal and were widely used in prayer
meetings and revivals.

The words of the typical Gospel Song are usually simple and easily
remembered and concern themselves largely with the individual’s
salvation. The personal pronouns “I” and “my” predominate. The tunes are
rhythmic and catchy and always have a refrain added. Their harmonies are
largely built on the simple tonic, dominant, and subdominant chords. The
masses of the people readily learned to sing these tunes and experienced
a thrill in singing them which the use of the more stately and solid
hymns failed to effect.

The great bulk of these songs were produced in America during the latter
half of the 19th century and were found extremely useful in large mass
meetings. The evangelistic work of Moody and Sankey during the 1870’s,
1880’s, and 1890’s brought the Gospel Songs into special prominence and
the Salvation Army has made them known in nearly every country in the
world. Collections of Gospel Songs sold by the millions of copies and
every denomination was affected, to a greater or lesser extent, by this
type of singing.

Since the standard of music and words in the Gospel Songs is
considerably below that which prevails in our best hymnals as well as in
secular music and literature taught in the public schools, churches
should seriously consider the ultimate effect of their too frequent use.
It is a fallacy to assert that the people will respond to nothing
better. Gospel Songs have a legitimate place, particularly in special
services and revivals, but they leave much to be desired in the total
work and worship of the church. Neither the music nor the words possess
the strength and dignity entirely adequate for the worshipful praise of
the Eternal.

The principal names associated with Gospel Songs are the following:

_Authors._ Fanny J. Crosby, Philip P. Bliss, Robert Lowry, Katherine
Hankey, E. A. Hoffman, and many others. Most of the words, though not
all, were written by Americans during the latter part of the nineteenth
century. Miss Crosby was by far the most prolific of them all and many
of her works are found in all modern hymnals of denominations that use
this type of music. In Germany, Ernst Gebhardt became the leader of the
gospel song movement, composing words and music, publishing numerous
song books, and serving as song leader in great revival meetings.

_Music._ William B. Bradbury, Robert Lowry, W. H. Doane, Philip Philips,
James McGranahan, George C. Stebbins, P. P. Bliss, D. W. Towner, Wm. J.
Kirkpatrick, and others.

_Song Leaders._ P. P. Bliss, Ira Sankey, James McGranahan, George C.
Stebbins, Charles Alexander, Homer Rodeheaver.

It should be noted that there is no absolute line of demarcation between
hymns and some of the Gospel Songs. Some of the numbers in the Gospel
Songs section of the _Hymnary_ might well be classified as hymns, e.g.,
Nos. 441, 444, 447, 458, 463, 468, 470, 471, 472, and 492. Either words
or music meet the generally accepted standards of a hymn.


                        12. Women Hymn Writers.

There have been no outstanding women composers of church tunes but some
of our finest lyrics have been contributed by women, as the following
list from the _Hymnary_ will show:

  _German_
    Katharina von Schlegel, b. 1697, “Be still, my soul” (54)
    Henriette Luise von Hayn, 1724-82, “Weil ich Jesu” (430)
  _English_
    Anne Steele, 1716-78, “Father, whate’er of earthly bliss” (251)
    Marianne Nunn, 1778-1847, “One is kind above all others” (447)
    Harriet Auber, 1773-1862, “Our blest Redeemer” (138)
    Dorothy Ann Thrupp, 1779-1847, “Saviour, like a shepherd” (395)
    Charlotte Elliott, 1789-1871, “Just as I am, without one plea” (458)
    Margaret Mackay, 1802-87, “Asleep in Jesus” (314)
    Sarah Flower Adams, 1805-48, “Nearer my God, to Thee” (202)
    Jemima Luke, 1813-1906, “I think when I read that sweet” (427)
    Anne Brontë, 1820-49, “Believe not those who say” (210)
    Cecil Frances Alexander, 1823-95, “There is a green hill” (104)
    Adelaide Proctor, 1825-64, “My God, I thank Thee” (177)
    Elizabeth Clephane, 1830-69, “Beneath the Cross of Jesus” (112)
    Anna L. Coghill, 1836-1907, “Work, for the night is coming” (221)
    Frances R. Havergal, 1836-79, “Take my life and let it be” (215)
    Dorothy Blomfield, 1858-1932, “O perfect love, all human” (312)
    Jessie Adams, 1863—, “I feel the winds of God today” (391)
  (_Translators_)
    Frances Cox, 1812-97, “Sing praise to God” (512)
    Jane L. Borthwick, 1813-97, “Be still my soul” (54)
    Sarah Borthwick Findlater, 1823-1907, “O happy home” (358)
    Catherine Winkworth, 1829-78. Numerous hymns. Foremost translator of
          German chorales.
  _American_
    Harriet Beecher Stowe, 1811-96, “Still, still with Thee” (23)
    Elizabeth Prentiss, 1818-78, “More love to Thee, O Christ” (472)
    Susan Warner, 1819-85, “Jesus bids us shine” (420)
    Anna B. Warner, 1820-1915, “Jesus loves me! this I know” (428)
    Fanny Crosby, 1820-1915, “Rescue the perishing” (497) and many
          others
    Eliza Scudder, 1821-96, “Thou Grace Divine, encircling all” (57)
    Phoebe Cary, 1824-71, “One sweetly solemn thought” (264)
    Katherine Hankey, 1834-1911, “I love to tell the story” (493)
    Mary Ann Thomson, 1834-1923, “O Zion, haste” (328)
    Annie Sherwood Hawks, 1835-1918, “I need Thee every hour” (187)
    Mary Lathbury, 1841-1913, “Day is dying in the west” (31)
            “Break Thou the bread of life” (288)
    Katherine Lee Bates, 1859-1929, “O beautiful for spacious” (343)


                         13. Mennonite Hymnody.

Mennonites have made many contributions to society through their
religious life and practices, but we have produced no important hymnody
of our own. Throughout the four hundred years of our existence as a
church, we have been a singing people, in times of persecution as well
as in times of peace. Great emphasis has always been laid upon the
importance of congregational singing in our worship services. Since the
beginning of the 19th century the Mennonites of various branches, in
America alone, have published over fifty hymnbooks. But an examination
of these hymnbooks shows that we are heavily indebted to others. Instead
of producing original hymns and tunes, we have borrowed, with minor
exceptions, our entire repertory from other denominations. The wealth of
verse and music produced by German and English writers throughout the
centuries has been found to serve our needs adequately and well.

The churches in Europe used hymnbooks compiled from Lutheran and
Reformed sources. Upon coming to the United States and Canada, they
gradually adopted English and American hymns and in some sections of the
church, the Gospel Songs came into wide use.

Our German collections of hymns have, until recently, been uniformly on
a higher level, both as to music and poetry, than the collections used
after the change was made to the English language. During the transition
from the German to the English language, many churches, in their choice
of their hymnbooks, sacrificed the fine chorales which had been a part
of their religious heritage. This was due partly to the revivalistic
influences of the times and partly to the fact that there were no good
translations available of the German hymns which earlier were in use.
The situation is gradually correcting itself. We are re-evaluating our
hymnody, sifting the wheat from the chaff, and bringing back into our
worship the rich treasure of song which had been used in the past. The
_Mennonite Hymnary_ is an effort in this direction.


             14. The Antecedents of the Mennonite Hymnary.

The story of the hymn books antedating the _Hymnary_ may be briefly
summarized by listing the following books:

  1565. The first German Mennonite hymn book was published in 1565 or
    1566 (date omitted from title), entitled, _Ein schön Gesangbüchlein
    Geistlicher Lieder, zusammengetragen aus dem A. und N. Testament
    durch fromme Christen und Liebhaber Gottes, welcher hiefür etliche
    getrucht sei gewesen, aber noch viel dazu gethan, welche nie im
    Truck aussgangen seindt, in welchen auch ein recht Leben und
    Fundament dez rechten Christlichen Glaubens gelehrt wirdt. Coloss.
    3._

    A second edition, 1570-1583, (date not given), adds to the above
    title the following:

    _Jetzo von neuem widerum übersehn, an vielen Orten gebessert und mit
    etlichen newen Liedern vermehret. Coloss. 3._

    Of the 133 hymns in the book, 9 had been in use among other
    churches. Many of the others were by Mennonite authors, among them
    Johann Schütz, Thomas Ducker, Gerhard Siebenakker von Sittart, and
    Heinrich Krenen von Breidtbock. Many of the hymns are of a
    controversial nature and have no literary value; for example, this
    on infant baptism:

  Die Schrift sagt nicht von Kindertaufe
  Davon hab ich nicht gelesen.
  Wer nach Gottes Wort getauft soll sein
  Der musz gläubig wesen.

  Es ist ein Bad der Wiedergeburt,
  Ein Bund eines guten Gewissens
  Ein’ Verneurung des heiliges Geistes
  Davon keine Kinder wissen.

    Most of the hymns were set to secular melodies popular at the time.
    Very little of this first hymnal survives.

  1570—_Ausbund, Das ist: Etliche schöne Christliche Lieder, wie sie in
    dem Gefängnis zu Passau in dem Schlosz von den Schweizer-Brüdern und
    von andern rechtglaubigen Christen hin und her gedichtet worden._

    At least twelve editions have been printed in Europe, the last one
    in Basel, 1838. Its use was confined to the South Germans and Swiss
    Mennonites. Reprinted in America and still in use by the Amish, the
    _Ausbund_ has the distinction of being the oldest hymn book
    officially in use by any church in America.

  1780—_Geistreiches Gesangbuch zur öffentlichen und besonderen Erbauung
    der Mennonitischen Gemeinde in und vor der Stadt Danzig._

    The book has had long use in Danzig. A revised edition appeared in
    1908.

  1803—_Das Kleine Geistliche Harfe der Kinder Zions._ Germantown, Pa.
    The first Mennonite hymnbook printed in America. It was the official
    hymnbook of the Franconia Conference of Mennonites of which John H.
    Oberholzer, founder of the General Conference of Mennonites, was a
    member. Seven editions were printed, the last in Elkhart, Ind.,
    1904.

  1804—_Unpartheyisches Gesangbuch_, Lancaster, Pa. The official
    hymnbook of the Lancaster Mennonite Conference for almost a century.
    Fourteen reprints were made, the last in 1923 for the Amish.

  1843—_Gesangbuch in welchem eine Sammlung geistreiche Lieder
    befindlich._ 9th ed. Elbing. The hymnbook of the Prussian
    Mennonites. It was taken by the Prussians to Russia where it was
    republished in Odessa, 1844.

  1856—_Gesangbuch zum Gottesdienstlichen und haeuslichen Gebrauch in
    Evangelischen Mennoniten Gemeinden._ Worms.

    Published by the churches of Baden and the Palatinate. The hymnal
    committee was fortunate in securing the assistance of the eminent
    German hymnologist, Albert Knapp. The book contains 600 hymns and an
    appendix of prayers. A book of melodies was also provided. This
    collection holds an important place in Mennonite hymnody. It was
    reprinted in Danzig, 1873, for use by the Danzig Mennonites, and in
    Philadelphia, 1873, for use in the General Conference of Mennonites.
    The excellent qualities of the more recent _Gesangbuch mit Noten_
    may be traced, in considerable measure, to this work.

  1869—_Gesangbuch in Mennoniten Gemeinden für Kirche und Haus._
    Published for the churches of West Prussia, this work went through
    at least four editions, the fourth in 1901. The book was republished
    in Danzig, 1873.

  1873—_Gesangbuch zum Gottesdienstlichen und häuslichen Gebrauch in
    Mennoniten Gemeinden._ Philadelphia. Ordered by the sixth General
    Conference of Mennonites held at Wadsworth, Ohio. The main body of
    the book is the same as that published in Worms, 1856, but with the
    appendix of prayers omitted, and an appendix of 22 hymns added, the
    latter the contribution of the Mennonites in Pennsylvania. The book
    was intended to form a closer bond of union between the Mennonites
    in the East and those west of the Mississippi.

  1890—_Gesangbuch mit Noten. Herausgegeben von der allgemeinen
    Conferenz der Mennoniten von Nord America._ Berne, Ind. The book
    passed through 15 editions, the last in 1936. A noteworthy
    collection of hymns and tunes that met with wide approval in the
    General Conference churches.

  1894—_Mennonite Hymnal, A Blending of Many Voices._ Berne, Ind. An A.
    S. Barnes publication adopted, practically unchanged, by the General
    Conference of Mennonites. Our first official English hymnal, though
    many collections from other sources were finding wide use in our
    churches. The book has nothing of distinctiveness or distinction.

  1927—_The Mennonite Hymn Book._ Berne, Ind. Published by the General
    Conference of Mennonites. Compiled and edited by a committee
    appointed by the Conference. The book was more satisfactory than the
    _Mennonite Hymnal_ of 1894, but never became very popular. Total
    sales of three editions were less than 5,000 copies.

  1940—_The Mennonite Hymnary._ Published by the General Conference of
    Mennonites of North America, Board of Publication, Mennonite
    Publication Office, Newton, Kansas, 1940. Now in its sixth edition.


                      15. The Translation of Hymns.

A word may be in order concerning the translation of hymns. It is
difficult to transfer the color and feeling of one language to another.
For this reason many people who know the German hymns by heart have a
sense of disappointment when they read them in an English version. In
some instances a translation is inferior to the original but this is not
necessarily the case. It is well to remember that nearly all of us read
the Bible only in a translation, yet never doubt the literary quality of
the English King James Version or the German Version of Luther. The
hymn, “Ich weiss einen Strom,” is superior as poetry, and in its
religious feeling, to the English original, “O have you not heard of
that beautiful stream,” though the former is a translation of the
latter. The reason is that Gebhardt, the translator, was a poet in his
own right. Good translations are possible if the translator has poetic
ability of a high order, and if he translates into his native tongue.
Catherine Winkworth was the foremost translator of German hymns into
English and Ernst Gebhardt performed a similar role in translating
English and American hymns into German. Had either tried to do the work
of the other, the results would in all probability have lacked true
color and correct idiomatic and poetic expression.


                   16. Church Unity in the Hymnbook.

The unity of the Christian Church is expressed nowhere more eloquently
than in the hymns we sing. Every modern hymnal, regardless of the
denominational interest it represents, reaches across the ages to gather
its treasures from sources new and old; it knows nothing of the external
barriers which divide Christians into denominations, but makes use of
the hymns of widely divergent Christian groups. The _Mennonite Hymnary_
is no exception. Here are found hymns from the early church, East and
West, translated from the Greek and Latin fathers. Others, like
Savonarola’s hymn, come from the Middle Ages. Many are chorales from the
land of Luther, or metrical psalms from the Calvinistic reformers. A
substantial body of our hymnody stems from the Anglican Church, while
some of our best hymns are from sturdy independents like Watts and
Doddridge, and still others breathe the evangelistic fervor of Wesley,
Cowper, and Newton. The Quakers too have made their contribution as well
as certain Roman Catholics and Unitarians. In no aspect of our church
life do we attain so nearly to ecumenicity as in our worship in song.
Christians may differ widely in their religious views but they are able
to unite as one body in singing their songs of praise.

The following classification of hymns by denominations is far from
exhaustive. It is intended merely to suggest the wealth of material
drawn from many denominations, listing only representative writers
together with a representative hymn. The index of authors may be
consulted for a complete list of hymns written by each author.

  a. _Anglican_ (_Church of England_)
    Addison, Joseph, “The spacious firmament on high” (50)
    Alexander, Mrs. Cecil (Irish), “Jesus calls us, o’er the tumult”
          (140)
    Baring-Gould, Sabine, “Onward, Christian soldiers” (225)
    Bode, John E., “O Jesus, I have promised” (212)
    Croly, George (Irish), “Spirit of God, descend” (133)
    Dix, William C., “As with gladness men of old” (530)
    Ellerton, John, “Savior, again to Thy dear name we raise” (43)
    Elliott, Charlotte, “Just as I am, without one plea” (458)
    Grant, Robert (Scotch), “O worship the King” (7)
    Hankey, Katherine, “I love to tell the story” (493)
    Havergal, Frances, “Take my life, and let it be” (215)
    Heber, Reginald, “Holy, holy, holy” (1)
    How, W. W., “O Jesus, Thou art standing” (144)
    Lyte, Henry F., “Abide with me” (40)
    Newton, John, “Glorious things of thee are spoken” (274)
    Pierpoint, Folliott S., “For the beauty of the earth” (51)
    Stone, Samuel, “The Church’s one foundation” (273)
    Toplady, Augustus, “Rock of ages” (148)
    Wordsworth, Christopher, “O day of rest and gladness” (285)
  b. _Baptist_
    Fawcett, John (Eng.), “Blest be the tie that binds” (41)
    Gilmore, Henry, “He leadeth me” (478)
    Hearn, Marianne (Eng.), “Just as I am, thine own to be” (393)
    Hawks, Annie S., “I need Thee every hour” (187)
    Lowry, Robert, “Low in the grave He lay” (452)
    Phelps, Sylvanus, “Savior, Thy dying love” (220)
    Rankin, Jeremiah, “God be with you till we meet again” (365)
    Smith, Samuel F., “The morning light is breaking” (324)
    Stennett, Samuel, “Majestic sweetness sits enthroned” (120)
  c. _Bohemian Brethren_ (_Moravians_)
    Hayn, Luise von, “I am Jesus’ little lamb” (430)
    Montgomery, James, “Prayer is the soul’s sincere desire” (184)
    Rights, Douglas LeTell, “Veiled in darkness Judah lay” (68)
    Weisse, Michael, “Christ, the Lord, is ris’n again” (544)
    Zinzendorf, Nikolaus Ludwig, Graf von, “Jesu! geh’ voran” (574)
    Zinzendorf, Christian Renatus, Graf von, “Man of sorrows” (537)
  d. _Catholic_ (_Roman_)
    St. Bernard of Clairvaux, “O sacred Head, now wounded” (539)
    Bridges, Matthew, “Crown Him with many crowns” (118)
    Faber, Frederick, “Faith of our fathers” (154)
    Franz, Ignaz, “Grosser Gott, wir loben dich” (519)
    Mohr, Joseph, “Silent night” (83)
    Newman, John Henry, “Lead, kindly Light” (162-3)
    Scheffler, Johann, “Mir nach, spricht Christus” (565)
  e. _Congregational_
    Bliss, Philip P., “Brightly beams our Father’s mercy” (448)
    Dwight, Timothy, “I love Thy Kingdom, Lord” (275)
    Gladden, Washington, “O Master, let me walk with Thee” (223)
    Luke, Jemima (Eng.), “I think when I read that sweet story” (427)
    Palmer, Horatio, “Yield not to temptation” (477)
    Palmer, Ray, “My faith looks up to Thee” (150)
    Shurtleff, Ernest W., “Lead on, O King Eternal” (399)
    Sleeper, W. T., “Ye must be born again” (461)
    Stocking, Jay T., “O Master Workman of the race” (93)
    Stowe, Harriet Beecher, “Still, still with Thee” (23)
    Walter, Howard A., “I would be true” (207)
    Wolcott, Samuel, “Christ for the world we sing” (327)
  f. _English Independent_
    Doddridge, Philip, “How gentle God’s commands” (56)
    Watts, Isaac, “When I survey the wondrous cross” (105-6)
  g. _Episcopal_ (_American_)
    Brooks, Phillips, “O little town of Bethlehem” (84)
    Bowie, W. Russel, “Lord, through changing days” (402)
    Coxe, Arthur C., “O where are kings and empires now” (276)
    Doane, George W., “Fling out the banner” (331)
    Hopkins, John, Jr., “We three kings of Orient are” (90)
    Key, Francis Scott, “Lord, with glowing heart I’d praise” (511)
    Roberts, Daniel C., “God of our fathers, whose almighty” (347)
  h. _Lutheran_ (_German_)
    Clausnitzer, Tobias, “Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier” (553a)
    Gerhardt, Paul, “Commit thou all thy griefs” (558)
    Luther, Martin, “A mighty fortress is our God” (549)
    Nicolai, Philipp, “Wake, awake for night is flying” (522)
    Rinkart, M. Martin, “Now thank we all our God” (514)
    Schmolck, Benjamin, “My Jesus, as Thou wilt” (250)
    Spitta, Karl Johann Philipp, “O happy home, where Thou” (358)
  i. _Methodist_
    Crosby, Fanny, “Jesus, keep me near the cross” (490)
    Farrington, Harry Webb, “I know not how that Bethlehem’s” (99)
    Gebhardt, Ernst (German), “Ich weiss einen Strom” (232)
    Lathbury, Mary, “Break Thou the bread of life” (288)
    Marlatt, Earl, “Are ye able, said the Master” (392)
    Nicholson, James, “Lord Jesus, I long to be perfectly whole” (469)
    North, Frank Mason, “Where cross the crowded ways of life” (222)
    Owens, Priscilla, “We have heard the joyful sound” (334)
    Wesley, Charles, “Jesus, lover of my soul” (158-9)
    Williams, William (Welsh), “Guide me, O Thou great” (160)
  j. _Presbyterian_
    Babcock, Maltbie, “This is my Father’s world” (48)
    Benson, Louis, “O sing a song of Bethlehem” (92)
    Clephane, Elizabeth (Scotch), “Beneath the cross of Jesus” (112)
    Duffield, George, “Stand up, stand up for Jesus” (193)
    Hastings, Thomas, “Hail to the brightness” (332)
    Hopper, Edward, “Jesus, Savior, pilot me” (161)
    Mackay, Wm. P., “We praise Thee, O God” (437)
    Matheson, George (Scotch), “O Love that wilt not let me go” (175)
    Merrill, Wm. P., “Rise up, O men of God” (230)
    Prentiss, Elizabeth, “More love to Thee, O Christ” (472)
    Small, James G. (Scotch), “I’ve found a Friend” (445)
    Van Dyke, Henry, “Joyful, joyful, we adore Thee” (10)
  k. _Quaker_
    Adams, Jessie, “I feel the winds of God today” (391)
    Barton, Bernard, “Walk in the light” (209)
    Whittier, John G., “Dear Lord and Father of mankind” (181)
  l. _Unitarian_
    Adams, Sarah F., “Nearer, my God, to Thee” (202)
    Bennett, S. F., “In the sweet bye and bye” (504)
    Bowring, John, “In the cross of Christ I glory” (110)
    Holmes, Oliver W., “Lord of all being, throned afar” (53)
    Hosmer, Frederick L., “Father, to Thee we look in all our” (249)
    Johnson, Samuel, “Father, in Thy mysterious presence” (188)
    Longfellow, Samuel, “I look to Thee in every need” (244)
    Martineau, James, “Thy way is in the deep, O Lord” (242)
    Parker, Theodore, “O Thou great Friend to all the sons” (224)
    Sears, Edmund, “It came upon a midnight clear” (75)
    Ware, Henry, Jr., “Great God, the followers of Thy Son” (13)
  m. _No Church Affiliation_
    Bates, Katherine Lee, “O beautiful, for spacious skies” (343)
    Vories, Wm. M., “Let there be light, Lord God of hosts” (353)


                            17. Hymn Meters.

Meter (English, _Metre_) refers to the rhythmic element in poetry:

  a. the number of lines in a stanza.
  b. the number of syllables in a line.
  c. the arrangement of accented and unaccented syllables.

The figures attached to the tune names in the _Hymnary_ indicate the
number of lines in a stanza and the number of syllables in a line, e.
g., 8.7.8.7. means that the hymn has four lines in each stanza, the
first line being made up of 8 syllables, the second of 7 syllables, the
third of 8 syllables, and the last of 7 syllables. The figures are
placed there to facilitate the fitting of tunes to hymns, a
responsibility which is left now-a-days largely to hymnbook editors.

A given tune may be used with any variety of hymns provided the latter
have the same meter as the tune. Likewise a given hymn may be sung to
any tune that fits its meter, e.g., “Come, Thou Almighty King,” set to
the tune, “Italian Hymn,” as both have the meter pattern 6.6.4.6.6.6.4.
This is also the meter of “My country ’tis of thee” set to “America.”
Hence the words and tunes of these hymns may be interchanged. As a
matter of fact, “Come Thou Almighty King” was originally used with the
tune “America.” The practice of using alternate tunes is less common now
than formerly and must be done with care for while the meters may be
suited, the words and tune may be incompatible otherwise.


                              Meter Names

A few meters have specific names. These, with their abbreviations are as
follows:

_Short Meter_ (S.M.) 6.6.8.6, e.g.

  Blest be the tie that binds                         (6)
     Our hearts in Christian love:                    (6)
  The fellowship of kindred minds                     (8)
     Is like to that above.                           (6)

_Short Meter Double_ (S.M.D.) is used for a tune in which the quatrain
is repeated, e.g. “Terra Beata” (48), set to the words “This is my
Father’s world.”

_Common Meter_ (C.M.), also called Ballad Meter, consists of four lines
of 8.6.8.6. syllables, e.g.

  In Christ there is no East or West                  (8)
     In Him no South or North;                        (6)
  But one great fellowship of love                    (8)
     Throughout the whole wide earth.                 (6)

Nearly all the metrical psalms appeared in this meter.

_Common Meter Double_ (C.M.D.) is employed when two Common Meter
quatrains are used to form one stanza, e.g.,

                “It came upon a midnight clear.”    (75)

_Long Meter_ (L.M.) consists of a four line stanza in which each line is
of eight syllables, e.g.,

  Praise God, from whom all blessings flow;           (8)
  Praise Him, all creatures here below;               (8)
  Praise Him above, ye heavenly host;                 (8)
  Praise Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.                 (8)

_Long Meter Double_ (L.M.D.), not often used, consists of a stanza of
eight lines, each line of eight syllables, e.g.,

               “The spacious firmament on high.”    (50)


                              Accentuation

In setting a hymn to music it is important that the accented syllables
of the poetry fall on the accented beats of the musical bars. Try
singing “Softly and tenderly Jesus is calling” (456) to the tune “Ich
weiss einen Strom” (232). The meter is the same in each
case—11.7.11.7.—with refrain—but the words and tune are obviously not
suited to each other because of differences in accentuation.


                            18. Hymn Tunes.

  a. What is a good tune?
  b. Importance of tunes.
  c. Composers of tunes.
  d. Sources of tunes.
  e. Tune names.


                        a. What is a good tune?

The quality of a tune must be judged by its definite and restricted use.
It is to be sung by a congregation of people, the majority of whom have
had only limited musical training, and without benefit of rehearsal. The
tune must therefore be judged by such questions as these: Is it
singable? Are the parts within easy pitch range of the voices? Is it
free from difficult intervals or modulations into other keys? Is it
interesting? Does it create a worshipful atmosphere? Does the mood of
the tune fit the mood and thought of the words?


                      b. The importance of tunes.

The tune is of great importance to the success of the hymn. Our “best
hymns” owe their popularity in many instances, to the tune with which
they are associated. On the other hand many excellent hymns remain
unused because the tunes given them are too difficult or too
uninteresting. It is the tune that creates the mood of worship and
charges the words with emotion so that their message is carried forth
with feeling and power.


                         c. Composers of tunes.

The story of the development of the hymn tune begins with the worship
song in the Temple at Jerusalem where the psalms were sung antiphonally
by priests and people accompanied by harps and trumpets. Little is known
of these tunes or their composers. This early Christian music would
doubtless sound strange to modern ears.

The important names in the roll of church musicians, from the early
centuries to the present time, include the following:

  _Italian_—Ambrose, 4th century
      Gregory the Great, 6th century
      Palestrina, 1525-94
  _French_—Louis Bourgeois, c. 1510-?
  _German_—Luther, 1483-1546; Nicolai, 1556-1608; Hassler, 1564-1612;
          Praetorius, 1571-1621; Crüger, 1598-1662; Bach, 1685-1750.
  _English_—Tallis, 1510-85; Gibbons, 1583-1625; Croft, 1678-1727;
          Gauntlett, 1805-76; Monk, 1823-99; Dykes, 1823-76; S. Wesley,
          1810-76; Barnby, 1838-96; Stainer, 1840-1901; Sullivan,
          1842-1900.
  _American_—L. Mason, 1792-1872; Bradbury, 1816-68; Hastings,
          1784-1872; Stebbins, 1846-1945.

The great composers, besides Bach, whose names are found in church
hymnals are: Haydn, Beethoven, Handel, Mozart, Mendelssohn, Gounod, and
Sibelius.

The above is only a partial list of composers of good church music.
Among their works is a corpus of fine hymn tunes far greater than has
been utilized by the church so far. For years to come, compilers of hymn
books will have a vast reservoir of excellent tunes, old yet new, to
draw from.


                          d. Sources of tunes.

An examination of the origin of church tunes shows a variety of sources.
Many tunes were especially written for the words to which they are set;
others are adaptations from early medieval chants; still others, as for
example, the “Passion Chorale” and “Londonderry Air”, were folk tunes
originally used with secular words. Some of our best tunes are
adaptations of melodies from larger musical works, as for example, “Hymn
to Joy” (10) from Beethoven’s _Ninth Symphony_; “Finlandia” (54), from a
tone poem by Sibelius; and “Seymour” (36), from Weber’s opera, _Oberon_.


                             e. Tune names.

Composers usually name their tunes in order to facilitate their
identification. The names given them are selected quite arbitrarily. W.
H. Havergal, prolific composer of church music, named his tunes after
the rivers, mountains, valleys, etc., of Palestine, e.g. “Abana,”
“Ahava,” “Ararat,” “Baca,” etc. Other tunes have been named for the
composer, e.g., “Bradbury” (395); the name of a friend, e.g.,
“Rockingham” (105); name of a city or village, e.g., “Boylston” (214); a
street, “Federal Street” (192); a cottage, “Hollingside” (159); an event
in history, “Nicaea” (1); or the central idea in the words, “Pilot”
(161).

In Germany, the usual practice has been to name the tune after the first
line of the hymn to which it was originally set.

Some tunes, unfortunately, are known by more than one name, e.g., “St.
Michel’s” (93) and “Jerusalem, Jerusalem” (125). In a few cases the same
name is given to several tunes, e.g., “Wesley” (309 and 332). This is
confusing and it is highly desirable that hymnbook editors strive toward
uniformity of nomenclature.


                  19. John Wesley’s Rules for Singing.

In one of John Wesley’s compilations of tunes, _Sacred Melody_, the
great preacher and founder of Methodism gives the following rules for
singing. Some of the expressions used may provoke a smile but, as
Lightwood suggests, “it would be a very good thing if these were read
aloud from time to time in all churches and chapels where good
congregational singing is aimed at.”

  a. Learn these tunes before you learn any others; afterwards learn as
  many as you please.

  b. Sing them exactly as they are printed here, without altering or
  mending them at all; and if you have learned to sing them otherwise,
  unlearn it as soon as you can.

  c. Sing ALL. See that you join with the congregation as frequently as
  you can. Let not a slight degree of weakness or weariness hinder you.
  If it is a cross to you, take it up, and you will find it a blessing.

  d. Sing lustily and with a good courage. Beware of singing as if you
  were half dead, or half asleep; but lift up your voice with strength.
  Be no more afraid of your voice now, nor more ashamed of its being
  heard, than when you sang the songs of Satan.

  e. Sing modestly. Do not bawl, so as to be heard above or distinct
  from the rest of the congregation, that you may not destroy the
  harmony; but strive to unite your voices together, so as to make one
  clear melodious sound.

  f. Sing in tune. Whatever time is sung be sure to keep with it. Do not
  run before nor stay behind it; but attend close to the leading voices,
  and move therewith exactly as you can; and take care not to sing too
  low. This drawling way naturally steals on all who are lazy: and it is
  high time to drive it out from among us, and sing all our tunes just
  as quick as we did at first.

  g. Above all sing spiritually. Have an eye to God in every word you
  sing. Aim at pleasing Him more than yourself, or any other creature.
  In order to do this attend strictly to the sense of what you sing, and
  see that your heart is not carried away with the sound, but offered to
  God continually; so shall our singing be such as the Lord will approve
  of here, and regard you when He cometh in the clouds of Heaven.



                                 BOOK I
                      Hymns for Worship and Praise


                      WORSHIP—PRAISE AND ADORATION


1. Holy, holy, holy                          _Reginald Heber_, 1783-1826

A metrical paraphrase of Revelation 4:8-11. The hymn was written for use
on Trinity Sunday of the Church Year but has found a wide general use as
a morning hymn. It ranks high in any list of “best hymns.” Some give it
first place.

The author, Reginald Heber, was educated at Oxford, England, for the
Anglican ministry. For sixteen years he served as rector at Hodnet,
Shropshire, where most of his hymns were written. He became an eminent
churchman, as well as hymn writer, and was made bishop of Calcutta in
1822. After four years, his life came to an end suddenly at the close of
a day in which he had baptized forty-two native converts. He is the
author of the popular missionary hymn, “From Greenland’s icy mountains”
(333).

“Holy, holy, holy,” was one of Alfred Tennyson’s favorite hymns, and it
was sung at his funeral service in Westminster Abbey, April 12, 1892.

_MUSIC._ The tune, NICAEA, was composed for this hymn and was so named
because the text deals with the doctrine of the Trinity as expounded in
the Council of Nicaea which met in the city of Nicaea in Asia Minor, 325
A.D., the first ecumenical council of the Christian Church. It convened
at the call of the Emperor, Constantine, to settle the so-called “Arian
controversy” concerning the nature of Christ. Arius, a presbyter of
Alexandria, taught that Christ was neither divine nor human, but
superangelic. After sitting from May 20 to August 25, to hear all sides
of the heated debate, the council decided in favor of Athanasius, a
deacon of Alexandria and chief opponent of Arius. The result was
incorporated in the Nicene creed which declares that Christ is “the same
substance with the Father.” Our hymn asserts the same doctrine: “God in
Three Persons, blessed Trinity.”

J. B. Dykes, 1823-76, composer of the tune, was born in Hull, England,
the son of a banker. He was educated at Cambridge for the ministry but
had also received a thorough training in music and became one of
England’s leading hymn-tune writers. For a score of years he was vicar
of the Anglican church, St. Oswald’s, in the city of Durham. He
published sermons and other writings but is best known for his 300 hymn
tunes, many of which are still in wide use. One of his most popular
tunes is “Lux Benigna” which is always associated with John Henry
Newman’s hymn, “Lead kindly light” (162).


2. God is in His holy temple                                 _Anonymous_

Based on Hab. 2:20: “The Lord is in his holy temple: let all the earth
keep silence before him.” The hymn, whose authorship is anonymous, is a
call to silence and reverence as the worshipper bows in the presence of
God.

_MUSIC._ The origin of the popular and useful tune, AUTUMN, has been in
dispute. Some books refer to it as a Spanish melody, and others have
seen in the tune a reminiscence of a psalm-tune found in the _Genevan
Psalter_ of 1551. It is ascribed here to one, Louis von Esch, but Dr.
Robert McCutchan, editor of the _Methodist Hymnal_ and author of _Our
Hymnody_, says: “There is no basis whatever for ascribing it to any
other than Barthélémon.”

Francois H. Barthélémon was born in Bordeaux, July 27, 1741, and died in
London, July 20, 1808. He gave up his position as an officer in the
French army to make music his profession and became a composer and
distinguished violinist and conductor in England. Most of his
compositions were of a secular nature. His other church pieces are
“Morning Hymn” (25) and “Ballerma” (146, 585). Late in life Barthélémon
joined the Swedenborgian Church. He died of paralysis at the age of 67.


3, 4, 5. All hail the power of Jesus’ name    _Edward Perronet_, 1726-92

The original version of this hymn contained eight stanzas and first
appeared in the _Gospel Magazine_, Augustus Toplady’s journal, the first
stanza together with the tune “Miles Lane,” in November, 1779, and the
remaining stanzas in April, 1780. It is one of the popular, stirring
hymns of the English language, sung in England almost invariably to the
tune “Miles Lane” and in America more generally to “Coronation.”

Edward Perronet was born in 1726 and became a vicar in the Church of
England in Shoreham. Later, under the influence of John Wesley, he left
the established church to become an itinerant Methodist preacher. After
some years he left the Methodists and ministered to a small dissenting
congregation in Canterbury, where he died in 1792.

The fourth stanza is attributed by some authorities to the Rev. John
Rippon, a Baptist minister.

A missionary in India, E. P. Scott, went to visit a mountain tribe when
one day he found himself surrounded with a number of wild, ferocious
tribesmen, pointing their spears at him. Expecting death, he closed his
eyes and sang this hymn, “All hail the power of Jesus’ name,” playing
the tune “Miles Lane” on his violin. The music and words produced such a
profound effect upon these wild tribesmen that they spared Scott’s life
and invited him to settle among them. For over two years, until his
health failed, he worked with great success among them, and when he was
compelled to return to America, they accompanied him thirty or forty
miles and begged him to return. Upon regaining his health, he did return
and labored with them until his death.

_MUSIC._ MILES LANE (No. 3) was composed by William Shrubsole,
1760-1806, especially for this hymn. He was an intimate friend of the
author of the hymn. Most of his life was spent as music teacher and
organist in various English churches. The tune is very effective,
especially in its thrilling climax in the fourfold repetition of “Crown
Him.” However, due to its wide melodic range, its sustained notes, and
interrupted pace, it is more difficult to sing than “Coronation.”

CORONATION (No. 4) was composed by Oliver Holden. He had little formal
training in music and was a carpenter by trade. He was born in Shirley,
Mass., Sept. 18, 1765. After the English burned Charlestown, across the
river from Boston, Holden helped in the task of rebuilding and made
considerable money. Later he engaged in the real estate business, owned
a music store, and all the while led choirs and singing schools. He was
elected representative to the Congress. He was an influential citizen
and a prominent member of the Baptist Church. However, he is remembered
by posterity as the composer of this much-loved tune.

DIADEM (No. 5) is an effective tune widely used on anniversary
occasions. The composer, James Ellor, an English Methodist, was born in
Lancashire in 1819. He was not a professional musician, but a hatter by
trade. For a time he worked as a railway employee. While still a young
man, he came to America, where he worked at the hatmaking trade. For
some years before his death in 1899, he was nearly blind. This tune was
composed when Ellor was only 19 years old. It was written especially for
this hymn and has had wide use as a choir number.


6. Ye servants of God, your Master proclaim    _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88

This hymn by Charles Wesley, perhaps the greatest hymnist of all ages,
was No. 1 in a collection published in 1774 and entitled, _Hymns for
Times of Trouble and Persecution_. The original had six stanzas and was
marked, “To be sung in a tumult.” The Wesleys knew the meaning of
persecution and tumults. They were often attacked by godless men who
used physical violence. Hoodlums were known to try to break up their
meetings by blowing horns, ringing bells, or barking in front of the
preacher. Sometimes cattle were driven into the congregation. The
Wesleys were also opposed by the clergy and people of the established
church who hated the upheavals and disturbances these men caused in the
staid and stolid church life of the times. Nothing could stop the
Wesleys or repress their enthusiasm. John, who once thanked God for
getting together such a “congregation of drunkards, swearers, and
Sabbath breakers,” continued his preaching; and Charles his hymn
writing. With the early apostles, the Wesleys could say, “We cannot but
speak the things which we have seen and heard.”

Charles Wesley, John’s youngest brother, graduated from Oxford in 1729
and became a devout priest in the Anglican Church. He came to Georgia in
1735 as secretary to General Oglethorpe but after one year, he returned
to England on account of failing health. The years from 1738 to 1756
were devoted whole heartedly to assisting his brother John in the great
revivalistic work among the masses of the common people in England,
Scotland, and Ireland. He was a prolific writer, being the author of
about 6,500 hymns. Of these only a few score survive, so difficult is it
to write hymns that stand the test of time. Twenty-three of his hymns,
more than of any other author, are included in the _Hymnary_. Wesley,
being Arminian in his theology (as opposed to the predestinarian views
of Calvinism) emphasizes in his hymns the power of Christ to save to the
uttermost. Others of his hymns surpass this one from the standpoint of
good literature, but very few equal its spirit of adoring praise and
fervid enthusiasm.

_MUSIC._ HANOVER is a vigorous, singable, hymn-tune which has long been
associated with these words, although the tune “Lyons” (7), too, is
frequently set to this hymn. It is one of the earliest examples of the
English psalm-tune, as distinguished from the Genevan. The triple
measure was novel and met with objection when it first appeared.

The composer, William Croft, 1678-1727, had a doctor’s degree in music
and was organist, for a time, in Westminster Abbey, London, where his
remains lie buried. He labored hard, amidst many discouragements, to
improve the music in the Church of England, and made for himself in the
field of sacred music, one of the greatest names in English musical
history. His tunes and anthems are widely used.


7. O worship the King, all glorious above      _Robert Grant_, 1779-1838

A simple, yet majestic hymn, based on the magnificent 104th Psalm. A
careful reading of the Psalm will result in a new appreciation of this
free paraphrase by Grant.

Robert Grant was born in Bombay, India. When six years old, his parents
moved to London. He received his education in Oxford, was admitted to
the bar, elected to Parliament in 1808, and then held various
responsible government positions, climaxed in 1834 by his appointment as
Governor of Bombay. He died at Delpoonie, India, where a medical school,
bearing his name, was erected in his memory. Though a prominent man and
active in public affairs, Grant will be remembered principally as the
author of this, his most important hymn. He wrote a number of other
hymns but only this one and “Savior, when, in dust, to Thee” (145) have
survived.

_MUSIC._ The tune LYONS is by Haydn, not the famous “Papa” Haydn who
wrote symphonies, string quartets, and _The Creation_, but J. Michael
Haydn, 1737-1806, a younger brother. He was born in Austria. Though
self-taught in music (like his famous brother Franz), he became the
teacher of many eminent musicians of his time, including Carl von Weber.
Haydn was a warm-hearted, devout, and gifted man, and might have become
famous except for two things—his life was lived in the shadow of his
more illustrious brother, and he was too modest to permit most of his
works to be published.

LYONS is a singable tune with a fine melodic curve and is strikingly
similar to “Hanover” (6) with which it may be interchanged with good
effect.


8. Come Thou Almighty King                     _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88

This hymn of praise and prayer is widely used in all branches of the
Christian church in the English speaking world and has been translated
into many foreign languages. It has been generally attributed to Charles
Wesley, the great “Bard of Methodism,” but the authorship is uncertain.
The hymn appeared as the first of only two selections in a small booklet
published by John Wesley about 1757. The second hymn was by Charles
Wesley and was entitled, “The Backslider.” “Come, Thou Almighty King,”
with the title, “An Hymn to the Trinity,” did not bear the name of
Charles Wesley, and it appears nowhere in his collected works. No one
can be certain, therefore, of the authorship or date of its writing.
Like all good hymns, it rises above time or personal circumstance and
expresses for all Christians their feeling of praise and adoration of
God. It was originally sung to the tune, “God Save the King,” the hymn
following the same metrical pattern as the British National Anthem and
our own “America.”

_MUSIC._ ITALIAN HYMN, also called “Trinity,” and “Moscow,” is one of
our most famous hymn tunes and deserves its renown. It was composed for
this hymn by Felice de Giardini, 1716-1796, an Italian violinist, who
spent many years in England and ranked among the top-notch artists and
teachers of violin in Europe. Though a great artist, he was a capricious
and peevish personality, had few friends and many enemies, was a poor
business manager, and died in poverty and distress in the city of Moscow
where he had gone to better his fortune and failed.


9. Christ is our Cornerstone                        _Latin, 8th century_
                                            _Tr. John Chandler_, 1806-76

This is a translation of a mediaeval Latin hymn. At the beginning of the
Christian era, the prevailing language was Greek. With the dominance of
Rome over the empire of Alexander the Great, Greek gradually gave way to
the Latin tongue, and from the fourth century to the dawn of the
Reformation, a rich treasury of Latin hymns came into existence in the
church. Many of these have now been translated for use in modern English
speaking churches. They are stately, reverent, devout pieces of
devotional literature which have been the joy and consolation of
countless saintly souls down through the centuries. Other examples of
hymns from Latin sources are found at Nos. 67, 80, 87, 114, 116, 171,
277, 382, and 415.

“Christ is our Cornerstone” is based on “_Angularis fundamentum_,” a
dedication hymn of anonymous authorship, attributed here to the 8th
century, but it may be of much earlier origin. Hymn 277, “Christ is made
the sure foundation,” is another rendering of the same Latin poem, by a
different translator and into a different meter, and is there dated “6th
or 7th century.”

John Chandler, the translator, was one of a group of Anglican clergymen
belonging to what was known in England as the Oxford Group (not to be
confused with the recent Oxford group movement headed by John Buchman).
They were interested in restoring to the church a dignified service of
worship. These Latin hymns contributed to this purpose. Chandler was a
scholar as well as preacher, author of several books and many printed
sermons and tracts, and was one of the first and best translators of
Latin hymns. This, of course, is not a literal translation, for
consideration had to be given to poetic and doctrinal fitness for modern
use.

_MUSIC._ The tune DARWALL was composed by John Darwall, 1731-89, an
Anglican clergyman and also an enthusiastic amateur musician. He
composed a tune for each of the 150 metrical Psalms, each written in two
parts only, treble and bass. DARWALL was set to Psalm 148. His tunes,
for the most part, have not been published and have passed into
oblivion.


10. Joyful, joyful we adore Thee             _Henry van Dyke_, 1852-1933

A nature hymn of the first order, written by one who himself had a
profound appreciation and love of the out-of-doors. The words from
beginning to end are an expression of the beauty in nature and the
resulting joy and spirit of praise it brings to the worshipper. The hymn
was written in 1907 while the author was on a preaching visit to
Williams College; it was designated to be sung to the “Hymn to Joy” in
the last movement of Beethoven’s _Ninth Symphony_. The words fit the
music perfectly. It is one of the most joyful hymns in the English
language.

Henry van Dyke was born in Germantown, Pa.; received his education in
Princeton University and Theological Seminary; and began his work as
pastor of the United Congregational Church in Newport, R. I. After four
years he was called to the pulpit of the Brick Presbyterian Church in
New York where he became a widely known figure. In 1900 he was called to
the chair of English Literature in Princeton. He was a friend of
President Woodrow Wilson who appointed van Dyke as minister to the
Netherlands and Luxemburg, which post he held from 1913 to 1917. He is
the author of many books, including the beautiful story entitled, _The
Other Wise Man._

_MUSIC._ HYMN TO JOY is a hymn tune arrangement from the fourth movement
of Beethoven’s _Ninth Symphony_, probably the greatest symphony ever
penned, even though the composer was stone-deaf when he wrote it.

Ludwig von Beethoven was born at Bonn, Germany, in 1770 and died in
Vienna in 1827. During his tempestuous life, he composed many
compositions for piano, violin, orchestra, and string quartet. His nine
symphonies are on the repertoire of all the great modern symphony
orchestras.


11. Give to our God immortal praise             _Isaac Watts_, 1674-1748

Recognized as the best of three versions which Watts made of Psalm 136.
The hymn expresses with dignity and fervor the high praise of God.

Isaac Watts, scholar, poet, and pastor of the Independent Church in Mark
Lane, London, ranks among the greatest of English hymn writers. He is
the author of about 600 hymns and versions, many of which are still in
common use. The _Hymnary_ contains 19 of his works. Watts is often
referred to as the “father of English hymnody.” Though suffering from
bodily ailments during the greater part of his adult life, he was robust
in his thinking and became a bold and sturdy fighter for the cause of
intellectual and religious freedom. Watts was one of the gentlest and
kindest of men and a friend of the young. His wide intellectual
interests enabled him to write textbooks on logic, geography, and
astronomy, which were used in the universities of England as well as
Harvard and Yale. Though he was never married and had no children of his
own, Watts was a lover of children and wrote one of the world’s most
beautiful cradle songs—“Hush, my dear, lie still and slumber.” In 1715,
he issued a notable book of verse for children. One of the poems,
entitled, “Against Quarrelling and Fighting,” runs as follows:

  Let dogs delight to bark and bite
    For God hath made them so;
  Let bears and lions growl and fight
    For ’tis their nature to.

  But children, you should never let
    Such angry passions rise;
  Your little hands were never made
    To tear each other’s eyes.

Let grown-ups in our day grasp the idea in this simple poem!

_MUSIC._ The tune, LASST UNS ERFREUEN, one of the most famous in any
hymn book, was published in _Geistliche Kirchengesäng_, Cologne, 1623.
It was set to an Easter hymn beginning, “_Lasst uns erfreuen herzlich
sehr_,” from whence it derives its name. The tune is unusual for its
simplicity of structure and its invariable repetition of phrases
throughout. Usually the alleluias in lines 3 and 6 are sung in harmony,
the rest of the song in unison. The tune lends itself well to antiphonal
or echo singing on the rare occasions when such varied effects are
desired. The composer is not known.


12. O for a thousand tongues to sing           _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88

From a poem of 18 stanzas, written by Wesley to celebrate the first
anniversary of his great spiritual change, a conversion experience in
which he felt the clear light of the Gospel possessing his soul. The
poem was entitled, “For the Anniversary Day of One’s Conversion.” Wesley
was greatly influenced by the Moravian missionary Peter Bohler who once
said to him: “Had I a thousand tongues, I would praise Him with them
all.” The incident, lingering in Wesley’s mind, was turned into a song
which expresses the joy and confidence of the redeemed. For 150 years,
and until recently, this hymn appeared as No. 1 in Methodist hymnbooks
on both sides of the Atlantic.

For further comments on Charles Wesley see Hymn 6.

_MUSIC._ AZMON was introduced into this country from Germany where it
was a favorite school song. Carl G. Gläser, the composer, was born at
Weissenfels, Germany, 1784, and died at Barmen, 1829. He was a teacher
of piano, violin, and voice, and director of choruses. He also owned and
managed a music store.

Lowell Mason, the arranger of the tune, was one of America’s earliest
exponents and teachers of public school music and did much to bring
worthy popular hymn tunes into the churches. He was born January 8,
1792, at Orange, N. J. At the age of 16, he was a choir leader and
teacher of singing classes. At 23, he went to Savannah, Ga., as a bank
clerk, returning to Boston in 1827 to become president and conductor of
the Handel and Haydn Society. He wrote a large number of singable hymn
tunes which have had wide use in the hymn books of all denominations.
More of his compositions are found in the _Hymnary_ than of any other
composer. He died at Orange, N. J., August 11, 1872.


13. Great God, the followers of Thy Son     _Henry Ware, Jr._, 1794-1843

Written for an ordination service which took place in Baltimore in 1819,
William E. Channing preaching the sermon.

The author, Henry Ware, Jr., was born at Hingham, Mass., April 21, 1794;
died September 25, 1843, at Framingham, Mass. He was educated at
Harvard, and served as minister of the Second Unitarian Church, Boston,
1817 to 1829, with Ralph Waldo Emerson as assistant for a time. From
1829 to 1842, he was Professor of Pulpit Eloquence and Pastoral Care in
the Harvard Divinity School. He was editor of the _Christian Disciple_
and later of the _Christian Register_.

_MUSIC._ For comments on Lowell Mason, composer of HEBRON, see Hymn 12.


14. The God of Abraham praise           _Daniel Ben Judah, 14th century_
                            _Revised version by Thomas Olivers_, 1725-99

This praise hymn, with its magnificent tune, had its origin in a Jewish
synagogue in London. Thomas Olivers, a Welshman and follower of John
Wesley, spent fifty years of his life as a Methodist minister, during
which time he travelled more than 100,000 miles on horseback in his
evangelistic work. His fame, however, rests upon this hymn. While
visiting in London, he went to the Great Synagogue in Duke’s Place and
heard the cantor sing the Hebrew _Yigdal_ or doxology, in which the
articles of the Jewish faith are recited. Upon hearing this, Oliver
wrote “The God of Abraham praise,” a Christian version of the _Yigdal_.
The original is by Daniel Ben Judah of the 14th century. Oliver then
called on the Cantor, Meyer Leoni, who gave him this melody to suit the
hymn he had written.

_MUSIC._ LEONI, according to Winfield Douglas, is probably not older
than the 17th century and is not related to ancient Jewish music.
Although written in a minor key, it strikes the note of praise. Its
rhythm and vigor of movement adapts it well for use as a processional or
recessional hymn.


15. We praise Thee, O God, our Redeemer        _Julia Bulkley Cady Cory_

A notable hymn of praise written by Mrs. Julia Cady Cory, who was born
and reared in what was reputed to be one of the happiest Christian homes
in New York City. Her father, J. Cleveland Cady, was a nationally known
architect. A devout Christian, he had a genuine love for boys and girls
and was superintendent of the same Sunday school for fifty-two years.
Concerning the origin of this hymn, Mrs. Cory has written:

  Years before I was married (in 1902), the organist of the Brick
  Presbyterian Church of New York City, knowing of my interest in
  hymnology, came to me and told me that he had a very fine Netherlands
  melody associated with most militaristic and unchristian words. He
  lamented the fact, and requested me to write more suitable words,
  which could be used for the Thanksgiving service at the Brick Church.
  The hymn as you see it today, was the result.

_MUSIC._ KREMSER is named after Edward Kremser, 1838-1914, a Viennese
musician who arranged the tune from a Netherlands melody dating to 1625.
The composer is not known. It is a stirring piece of music, simple in
style, and easy to sing. It is equally impressive, whether sung in
measured, stately tones like a chorale, or in the gayer festive mood in
which young people like to sing. Children and young people usually
respond to this hymn with enthusiasm.


16. Praise the Lord: ye heavens adore Him            _Foundling Hospital
                                                             Collection_
                                   _Stanza 3 by Edward Osler_, 1798-1863

A free rendering of some lines of Psalm 148 in which all the hosts of
heaven and earth join in a magnificent chorus of praise to God.

The first two stanzas are anonymous. They were first published in the
_Foundling Hospital Collection_, a book of hymns and anthems compiled by
Thomas Coram, an English seaman, merchant captain and philanthropist. In
later life, Mr. Coram devoted his time and fortune to the support of a
children’s hospital in which a chapel was also maintained and the
children trained in singing.

Edward Osler, author of the third stanza, was an English surgeon and
author of books on scientific as well as religious subjects. He was also
a distinguished hymnologist and wrote a number of versions of the Psalms
and hymns for use in the Church of England.

_MUSIC._ FABEN was composed by John Henry Wilcox, 1827-75, Boston
organist and expert in organ construction. The tune should not be taken
too fast; otherwise the short notes become choppy and the effect is
spoiled. Singers should avoid slurring the intervals of the melody,
especially the descending fourth at the end of the first, third and
seventh lines.


17. Come, let us join our cheerful songs        _Isaac Watts,_ 1674-1748

A paraphrase of Revelation 5:11-13. It is one of the most widely
esteemed of Watts’ poems and one of the classics of English hymnody.

The basses and tenors would be less likely to sing the wrong words at
the beginning of the third score if the lines of all four stanzas had
been printed. Let the song leader remind them to look ahead for the
proper lines of each stanza before singing their solo part, and so avoid
some incongruities of thought!

For comments on Isaac Watts see Hymn 11.

_MUSIC._ CAMBRIDGE is an effective tune but with most congregations it
needs some rehearsal before it is usable in a worship service. The
composer, John Randall, 1715-99, was an organist and Professor of Music
in Cambridge University. He was a friend of the poet Thomas Gray.


18. O come, loud anthems let us sing                    _Tate and Brady_

A metrical version of Psalm 95, by Tate and Brady, two Irishmen who
collaborated in producing, in 1696, the _New Version_ of the Psalms.
Their work partly supplanted the older version by Sternhold and Hopkins,
then in use.

Nahum Tate, 1652-1715, was the son of an Irish clergyman, and, like
Brady, received his education at Trinity College, Dublin. He was only a
second-rate poet but managed to receive appointment as Poet Laureate of
England in 1690.

Nicholas Brady, 1659-1726, was granted the honorary degree of Doctor of
Divinity from Dublin University for services rendered to the Protestant
cause. Among his many appointments were the chaplaincy to the king of
England and incumbency of Stratford-on-Avon. Tate and Brady recast all
of the Psalms into metrical verse in an attempt to improve on the old
version then in use in the churches. Their work was done in a day when
only the psalms were permitted to be sung in worship services in
England. The writing of hymns was still in the future. Only a few of
their renderings still find a place among our modern English hymns. The
_Hymnary_ includes two besides this one, Nos. 583 and 586.

_MUSIC._ The tune was found in _St. Basil’s Hymn Book_ where it is
credited to Haydn, but we are not told which Haydn. No further
information concerning its origin has been traced. It is especially
effective when sung by a large congregation.


                                MORNING


19. When morning gilds the skies                          _19th century_
                                               _Tr. E. Caswall_, 1814-78

A radiant morning hymn of adoration. It comes from the German song, “Bei
frühem Morgenlicht,” of unknown authorship, which first appeared in
print in the _Katholisches Gesangbuch_, 1828, bearing the title, “A
Christian Greeting.”

  Bei frühem Morgenlicht
  Erwacht mein Herz und spricht.
    Gelobt sei Jesus Christus!
  So sing ich früh and spät,
  Bei Arbeit und Gebet,
    Gelobt sei Jesus Christus!

The translator, Edward Caswall, was an English scholar and clergyman,
educated at Oxford. He left the Church of England to become a Roman
Catholic priest. Caswall did much for the sick poor and the poor
children in Birmingham, England, where he lived. He wrote excellent
original hymns and made many translations from German and Latin sources.
(See Nos. 88 and 155.)

_MUSIC._ O SEIGNEUR was composed or arranged by the Frenchman L.
Bourgeois, _c._ 1500- _c._ 1561, who was an adherent of Calvin and
followed him to Geneva in 1541. He was assigned by Calvin the task of
providing music for the metrical psalter, but his work was attended with
troubles and difficulties. Once he was thrown in prison for making
unauthorized alterations in certain well-known tunes. He tried hard to
introduce part-singing in a day when only unison singing was permitted
by Calvin. Not succeeding in this, he left Geneva and returned to Paris,
his birthplace. O SEIGNEUR is a superb tune. It gathers interest and
force throughout its considerable length. The tune, which also may be
used as a choir anthem, should be sung in fairly lively tempo to bring
out its extraordinary power.


20. Lord, in the morning                        _Isaac Watts_, 1674-1748

Based on Psalm 5:3: “My voice shalt thou hear in the morning, O Lord; in
the morning will I direct my prayer to thee, and will look up.” Watts
did not hesitate to change the wording of the Psalms, when necessary, to
“Christianize” them. In the preface to his book of _Psalms_, he states
his method and purpose in these words:

  It is necessary that I should inform my readers that they are not to
  expect in this book an exact translation of the Psalms of David. My
  design is to accommodate the Book of Psalms to Christian Worship.

For further comments on Watts see Hymn 11.

_MUSIC._ WARWICK, a psalm-tune of somewhat ornamental style, was
composed by Samuel Stanley, 1767-1822, who for thirty-three years was
the leader of singing in Carr’s Lane Meeting House, Birmingham, England,
where he made its music famous. He was a noted violincellist and an
authority on the music of Handel. His position in the church was not
then considered inconsistent with his being, for a time, keeper of the
town tavern.


21. When morning gilds the skies         _19th century, Tr. E. Caswall_,
                                                                 1814-78

For comments on the words see Hymn 19.

_MUSIC._ LAUDES DOMINI was composed by Joseph Barnby, 1838-96, an
English organist and one of the most prolific hymn-tune writers of his
time. He was conductor of the Royal Choral Society in London, which
presented many splendid performances of the great oratorios. It is a
reverent and vigorous tune, written especially for this hymn, and makes
a good processional.


22. New every morning is the love                _John Keble_, 1792-1866

Taken from John Keble’s _Christian Year_, a book of devotional poetry,
one of the great religious classics in the English language. The
original poem of sixteen stanzas is based on Lamentations 3:22b, 23a:
“His compassions fail not. They are new every morning.” The hymn shows a
deep appreciation of the beauties of the natural world, linking them
with the worship of God.

John Keble was educated at Oxford where he was an outstandingly
brilliant student. Later he taught at Oxford for nine years and then
spent thirteen years as curate in his father’s church in
Gloucestershire. Following that he became vicar of Hursley where he
rebuilt the parish church with profits from his book, _The Christian
Year_, which passed through 90 editions during the author’s lifetime.
Keble was one of the influential leaders in the so-called Oxford or
Tractarian Movement in England, an effort to emphasize worthier ideas of
the church and a greater dignity and beauty in worship.

_MUSIC._ MELCOMBE, a melody of fine balance and great dignity, was
composed by Samuel Webbe, 1740-1816, son of an English government
official in Minorca. He spent his early life as a cabinetmaker but later
turned to music, becoming a noted organist and composer of a large
quantity of secular and sacred music.


23. Still, still with Thee              _Harriet Beecher Stowe_, 1811-96

Based on Psalm 139:18: “When I awake I am still with Thee.” It is a
beautiful, personal, morning hymn, expressing the soul’s adoration upon
waking to find itself in the glad consciousness of the divine presence.

Harriet Beecher Stowe belonged to a famous American family. Her father,
Lyman Beecher, and her brother, Henry Ward Beecher, were eloquent and
influential preachers in the Presbyterian and Congregational churches,
respectively. Harriet’s girlhood was spent in Cincinnati, Ohio, where
her father was president of Lane Theological Seminary. She married
Calvin Ellis Stowe, of the Lane faculty. In 1852, she published _Uncle
Tom’s Cabin_, a story which became immensely popular and made a notable
contribution to the cause of freedom for the slaves.

_MUSIC._ CONSOLATION is No. 9 of the 48 pieces, all of distinctive lyric
quality, composed by Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, and known as _Songs
without Words._ The tune appears here in slightly modified form. It is
well adapted for the hymn but suffers frequently from dragging. It
should be sung with a steady pace and clearly defined rhythm.

Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy was born in Hamburg, Germany, 1809, the son
of a Jewish banker. His father, Abraham Mendelssohn, wished the children
to be brought up as Protestant Christians and added the name “Bartholdy”
to distinguish them from the Jewish members of the family. “Bartholdy”
was the name of the proprietor of the garden belonging to the family.
Mendelssohn composed extensively for the piano and wrote symphonies for
the orchestra. Among his choral works are the great oratorios, _Elijah_
and _St. Paul_. A man of culture and wealth, he travelled extensively
and was popular wherever he went, especially in England. He died in
Leipzig in 1847.


24. Father, we praise Thee                  _Gregory the Great_, 540-604
                                          _Tr. Percy Dearmer_, 1867-1936

The original of this morning hymn is attributed to Gregory the Great,
Pope Gregory I, a sincere man, devoted to missions and reforms within
the church, and one of the greatest of the line of Popes. The date of
his election to the papacy, A.D. 590, is usually given by church
historians as the end of the period of the Ancient Church and the
beginning of the period of the Middle Ages—a witness to the importance
of Gregory. A man of unblemished character and statesmanlike wisdom, he
had a noble vision and ambition for Christianity and took a keen
interest in the ritual and music of the church. Though not original or
scholarly, he was a voluminous writer and had much influence in his
time. He sent out missionaries, such as Augustine to England, and
labored incessantly to purify and strengthen the church, care for its
poor, and bring Christianity to the heathen. Gregory was particularly
interested in the music of the church; and the “Gregorian Chants,” many
of them composed by him, became the basis of cathedral music for a
thousand years. He did away with certain embellishments which had crept
in through the influence of Ambrose, and inaugurated the use of the
solemn, stately chants which bear his name.

The translation of this hymn is by Percy Dearmer, an English hymnologist
and clergyman who became Canon of Westminster, London, in 1931. He
edited _Songs of Praise_, adopted widely in England for use in churches
and public schools.

_MUSIC._ CHRISTI SANCTORUM is a tune of uncertain origin taken from a
book by Francois de la Feillée, entitled _Methode du Plain Chant_,
published in 1782. The melody, easily within range of all voices, is
well adapted for unison singing. It is most effective when sung somewhat
slowly. Though the tune appears in a book of plainsong, the melody has
rhythm and is measured, and has none of the characteristics of a
plainsong.


25. Awake, my soul, and with the sun             _Thomas Ken_, 1637-1711

Taken from a _Manual of Prayers_, which Bishop Ken wrote for Winchester
College students in 1674. It appeared as the “Morning Hymn.” The preface
of the book admonished the boys “to be sure to sing the Morning and
Evening Hymn in your chamber devoutly.” Both the Morning and Evening
Hymn (33) had for the closing stanza the famous doxology, “Praise God
from whom all blessings flow,” now sung by the whole Christian church.
The original poem had fourteen stanzas. According to Julian, this hymn
is one of four at the head of all hymns in the English language.

Thomas Ken was an English poet and clergyman and had considerable
musical talent. He was a man unafraid to declare his convictions. He
once refused to read, at the king’s command, a certain document to his
parishioners, and was imprisoned for his defiance. He finally lost his
bishopric because he refused to swear allegiance to Mary and William of
Orange when they became rulers of England. Ken was known for his saintly
character, his great ability and eloquence as a preacher, and his
pioneering in the art of hymn writing.

That all hymns must be written in the third person, as is sometimes
asserted, is disproved by this great hymn in its use of “I” and “my.”

_MUSIC._ For comments on Francois H. Barthélémon, composer of the tune,
MORNING HYMN, see Hymn 2.


26. Christ, whose glory fills the skies        _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88

One of the greatest morning hymns in the English language, based on Mal.
4:2: “But unto you that fear my name shall the sun of righteousness
arise with healing in his wings.” James Montgomery called it “one of
Charles Wesley’s loveliest progeny.” It pictures Christ as the true
Light and the Sun of Righteousness triumphing over the darkness of sin
and grief.

Charles Wesley was the second youngest in a family of nineteen children
and became the “sweet singer of Methodism.” He and Isaac Watts were the
most important hymnists of the 18th century in England.

For further comments on Wesley see Hymn 6.

_MUSIC._ LUX PRIMA is by the French composer, Charles F. Gounod,
1818-93, a musician of a deeply religious nature. Gounod had taken two
years of theology with the expectation of becoming ordained, but later
decided that his greatest contribution to religion would be through
music. His outstanding religious work is the oratorio, _The Redemption_.
While composing it, he used to spend hours in Notre Dame Cathedral in
prayer and meditation. LUX PRIMA is a stirring tune, building up to a
climax at “Day-star,” and is widely used as a processional.


27. Come, my soul, thou must be waking       _F. R. von Canitz_, 1654-99
                                            _Tr. H. J. Buckoll_, 1803-71

From a book of German lyrics, translated by H. J. Buckoll. The original
poem of 13 stanzas begins with the words, “_Seele, du muszt munter
werden_.” The hymn, expressing the glories of a new day, is especially
suitable for use in schools and colleges. It is a translation of stanzas
1, 6, 8, 10, and 11 of the original:

  Seele, du musst munter werden!
    Denn der Erden
  Blickt hervor ein neuer Tag.
  Komm, dem Schöpfer dieser Strahlen
    Zu bezahlen,
  Was dein schwacher Trieb vermag.

  Bitte, dass er dir Gedeihen
    Mag verleihen,
  Wenn du auf was Gutes zielst;
  Aber dass er dich mag stören
    Und bekehren
  Wenn du böse Regung fühlst.

  Denk, dass er auf deinen Wegen
    Ist zugegen,
  Und erkennet, was du tust;
  Dass er auch verborgne Flecken
    Kann entdecken,
  Und die tiefste Sündenlust.

  Drum so seufze, dass dein Scheiden
    Nicht ein Leiden,
  Sondern sanftes Schlafen sei—
  Dass ich seh’ mit ew’ger Wonne
    Jene Sonne,
  Wann des Todes Nacht vorbei.

  Treib’ nur Gottes Gnadenblicke
    Nicht zurücke
  Fasse treulich ihren Schein;
  Dann wird deiner Seele Frieden
    Schon hienieden
  Süsser als die Sonne sein.

Friedrich Rudolph Ludwig, Freiherr von Canitz, was born in Berlin in
1654. He was a distinguished diplomat, a philanthropist, and a devout
Christian. In the early morning of his last day on earth, August 11,
1699, ill with dropsy, he gazed at the rising sun and exclaimed, “Oh, if
the sight of this created sun is so charming and beautiful, what will be
the sight of the unspeakable glory of the Creator himself!” He was
_Staatrath_ (State Counsellor) at the time of his death.

The translator, Rev. Henry J. Buckoll, was educated at Oxford and spent
most of his life teaching. He edited several collections of songs for
schools and in 1842 published _Hymns Translated from the German_.

_MUSIC._ HAYDN comes from a tune in one of the movements of a string
quartet by Franz Joseph Haydn, 1732-1809, the great Austrian composer,
and important figure in the history of music. He was affectionately
named “Papa Haydn” by Mozart. He wrote church music, song, opera, and
oratorio, over 100 symphonies and 83 string quartets. His _Creation_, a
sacred oratorio, is widely known. He was devoutly religious and did not
hesitate to ascribe his musical scores to God’s glory. He gave as one of
his reasons for writing music: “that the weary and worn or the man
burdened with affairs might enjoy something of solace and refreshment.”
There is a cheerfulness and optimism about his music which appeals to
amateur and professional alike. Haydn was a teacher as well as composer
and numbered among his pupils Mozart and Beethoven.


                                EVENING


28. Now on land and sea descending          _Samuel Longfellow_, 1819-92

Written for use in a series of vesper services the author was conducting
in his church. It was published, with other hymns, in a small book
called _Vespers_. This hymn and “Again as evening’s shadow falls” (No.
280), also by Longfellow, have become two of the most-loved evening
hymns in the English language.

Samuel Longfellow, younger brother of the poet, Henry Wadsworth
Longfellow, was born and died in Portland, Maine. He was educated at
Harvard for the ministry and served congregations in Fall River, Mass.;
Brooklyn; and Germantown, Pa., resigning the last charge to write his
brother’s _Life_, 1886. Though a Unitarian, he speaks of Christ as Lord
and Saviour and accepted the miracles of the New Testament. He edited
several important hymn books and wrote a number of hymns of excellent
quality. Thirteen of his compositions are included in the _Hymnary_.

_MUSIC._ VESPERS is by the Russian composer Dimitri Stephanovitch
Bortniansky who was born at Gloukoff, in the Ukraine, 1752, and died at
St. Petersburg, 1825. He studied music at Moscow, St. Petersburg, and
Venice, Italy, the Empress Catherine of Russia supplying the necessary
funds. (It was this Empress Catherine who extended an invitation in 1786
to Prussian Mennonites to settle in South Russia, promising religious
toleration, military exemption, and other special privileges.)
Bortniansky became Director of the Imperial Kapelle, the Empress’ Church
Choir. He was a distinguished composer of sacred music and has had a
great and lasting influence on Russian church music. From his pen came
the well-known chorale tune, “_Ich bete an die Macht der Liebe_” (No.
517).

The word “Jubilate” means “to shout for joy.” It comes from the same
Latin root as “jubilee” and “jubilant.” Its English pronunciation in
singing is Jōo-bĭ-lä-tĭ. If you prefer the Latin, sing it
Yōo-bā-lä-tĭ.


29. Now the day is over                 _Sabine Baring-Gould_, 1834-1924

Based on Proverbs 3:24:

  “When thou liest down, thou shalt not be afraid;
  Yea, thou shalt lie down, and thy sleep shall be sweet.”

The hymn was written for children, but is suitable for worshippers of
all ages.

Sabine Baring-Gould was educated at Cambridge and became a clergyman of
the Church of England. He was a man of great industry and versatility,
and possessed a wide range of interests. He wrote books on travel,
biography, history, and is the author of several novels. He also edited
several collections of folk songs. Baring-Gould is the author of “Onward
Christian soldiers,” another hymn written for children, which has
received a much wider use than originally intended.

_MUSIC._ MERRIAL is a favorite tune for choir use in evening services.
The average congregation can learn to sing it without difficulty, and
when sung slowly and thoughtfully, it constitutes a deeply moving
evening prayer.

For comments on the composer, Joseph Barnby, see Hymn 21.


30. Sun of my soul, Thou Savior dear             _John Keble_, 1792-1866

Another evening hymn, widely used, and destined to live as long as
English hymns are sung. It is taken from the author’s _Christian Year_,
a book of devotional poetry which sold 305,500 copies in forty-six
years. The original poem of fourteen stanzas, composed November 25,
1820, appeared with the title, “’Tis Gone, that Bright and Orbèd Blaze,”
and was headed with the text, “Abide with us” (Luke 24:29). The hymn
represents a lone traveller pressing on his way after the sun has set,
but trusting in Christ, the “Sun of the soul,” for guidance and
protection, and lifting a prayer for the sick and poor and the helpless.
Tennyson, too, likened Christ to the sun. Asked what Christ meant to him
he paused beside a flower in the garden and answered: “What the sun is
to that flower, Jesus Christ is to my soul. He is the Sun of my soul.”

For further comments on John Keble see Hymn 22.

_MUSIC._ HURSLEY is a good tune but not as good as the original,
“_Grosser Gott, wir loben Dich_” (No. 519), from which some unknown
person adapted it. The melody and harmonization have been changed, not
for the better, to suit the English words. “Hursley” was the name of the
parish of which Keble was vicar, and the tune was doubtless given this
name when it came to be associated with Keble’s hymn.


31. Day is dying in the west                  _Mary Lathbury_, 1841-1913

An evening hymn of high rank which has been used widely in American
churches during the past half century.

Mary A. Lathbury, daughter of a Methodist minister, was a successful art
teacher but is remembered chiefly for her work with the Methodist Sunday
School Union and her literary contributions to periodicals for young
people. The “Look Up” Legion which she founded had for its motto, Edward
Everett Hale’s four rules of good conduct:

  Look up, not down;
  Look forward, not back;
  Look out, not in,
  And lend a hand.

Miss Lathbury wrote this hymn for use at the vesper services at Lake
Chautauqua, in western New York, where hundreds of young people, eager
to deepen their spiritual life, have met every year since 1873 for Bible
study and prayer. This hymn and “Break Thou the Bread of Life” give the
author a permanent place in American hymnody.

_MUSIC._ CHAUTAUQUA was written especially for Miss Lathbury’s hymn.
William F. Sherwin, 1826-88, studied music under Lowell Mason and later
became a teacher of vocal music. He was unusually successful in leading
choral groups and was appointed music director at Lake Chautauqua. The
tune is dignified and stately, yet simple. The refrain should be sung
softly at the beginning and rise gradually to a climax.


32. Darkening night the land doth cover                    _Anon. Greek_
                                         _Tr. Robert Bridges_, 1844-1930

From an anonymous 8th-century or earlier Greek hymn. Some authorities
believe it to be an expansion of the Greek candle lighting hymn (No.
34), also translated by Robert Bridges. The editors of the _Hymnary_, in
search of a poem to fit the well-known UNTER LILIEN JENER FREUDEN tune
in the _Gesangbuch mit Noten_, found for it this beautiful evening hymn
published in the _American Oxford Hymnal_.

The translator, Robert Bridges, was one of England’s great literary
scholars who gave serious attention to hymnology. After graduating from
Eton and Oxford, he turned his attention to medicine and became a
distinguished surgeon. At the early age of 38, however, he retired from
medicine to give himself to literature and music. In 1913, he was made
Poet Laureate of England. His most significant work in hymnology was the
famous _Yattendon Hymnal_, which he published in 1899 while living in
the village of Yattendon. It consisted of 100 hymns, 44 of which were
from his own pen, either as author or translator. The hymns were set to
music derived largely from the _Genevan Psalter_. The hymnal represented
an extraordinarily high standard, both as to words and music, but it
never became popular, and copies of it are nearly impossible to find.

_MUSIC._ The tune, UNTER LILIEN JENER FREUDEN, is found at No. 546 of
the _Gesangbuch mit Noten_ where it is set to a poem by J. Allendorf. No
information has been traced concerning the composer, J. Voigtländer.


33. All praise to Thee, my God this night        _Thomas Ken_, 1637-1711

Based on Psalm 91:4: “He shall cover thee with his feathers; and under
his wings shalt thou trust.”

This is the “Evening Hymn,” whereas No. 25 is the “Morning Hymn” which
Bishop Ken wrote for the devotional use of students at Winchester
College. His endeavor was to express in simple, fitting words the
thoughts that ought to be in the minds of the boys of the school “and
all other devout Christians” in the evening. The two hymns were
published in 1695 and have been growing in fame and power these two and
one-half centuries. Both concluded with the doxology, “Praise God from
whom all blessings flow,” now known and sung throughout Christendom.

_MUSIC._ The tune, EVENING HYMN, was originally in canon form, i.e., a
form in which one voice begins the melody which is then imitated note
for note by some other voice, as in a “round.” Tallis, as was customary
at the time, started the melody in the tenor, imitated by the soprano.
The tune used here is a later and altered form which, in the judgment of
this writer, is less interesting than the canonic form used in many
hymnbooks. Its choice was an editorial inadvertence.

Thomas Tallis, composer of the tune, died in 1585. The exact date of his
birth, probably before 1520, remains uncertain. Styled the “Father of
English Cathedral Music,” he was chorister at St. Paul’s Cathedral,
London, and later held important posts as organist. He was indisputably
the greatest English musician of his age, and EVENING HYMN is his most
famous tune.


34. O Gladsome Light, O Grace                  _Greek 1st or 2d Century_
                                         _Tr. Robert Bridges,_ 1844-1930

This is the oldest Christian hymn in common use, belonging to the first
or second century. It was sung by the early Christians as a hymn of
thanksgiving at the lighting of the candles at the vesper services in
the church and probably also in the home. It is still so used in the
Eastern churches. St. Basil wrote c. 370 regarding this hymn: “We cannot
say who is the father of this expression at the Thanksgiving of the
Lighting of the Lamps; but it is an _ancient_ formula which the people
repeat.” So in A.D. 370 the hymn was already ancient!

For comments on the translator, Robert Bridges, see Hymn 32.

_MUSIC._ The tune NUNC DIMITTIS is by the French musician, Louis
Bourgeois, c. 1510-61, the best melodist of his day, and composer of
most of the music for the _Genevan Psalter_, a French metrical version
of the Psalms published in 1549. Many of his melodies have been altered,
as for example, “Old Hundredth,” but this one has come to us unchanged.
It is a glorious melody which needs to be listened to repeatedly to be
appreciated. The harmonization is by Claude Goudimel, c. 1505/10-72,
another eminent Protestant musician, who provided harmonies for many of
the Genevan psalm tunes. Goudimel’s life came to an end in the massacre
of St. Bartholomew in 1572, one of those tragedies during the
counter-reformation in which the Protestants suffered at the hands of
the Jesuits.


35. God that madest earth and heaven         _Stanza 1, Reginald Heber_,
                                                               1783-1826
                                     _Stanza 2, William Mercer_, 1811-73
                                 _Stanza 3, Richard Whateley_, 1787-1863

The original hymn consisted of the first stanza only which was written
by Reginald Heber after hearing the tune used here played by a Welch
harpist in a home where Heber was visiting. Retiring to a quiet place,
he promptly wrote the stanza to suit the melody.

For comments on Reginald Heber see Hymn 1.

William Mercer, author of the second stanza, was a clergyman in the
Church of England in Sheffield. In 1857, he issued _The Church Psalter
and Hymn Book_, the most important Church of England book of its time.
His aim was to promote greater participation by the congregation in the
hymn singing.

Richard Whately was archbishop of Dublin. He was a man of great
brilliance of mind, though, it is said, he had no ear for music and no
eye for natural beauty.

_MUSIC._ The tune AR HYD Y NOS is a Welsh traditional melody commonly
associated with the words “All through the night.” It appears in many
modern hymnals. A growing number of folk tunes are being used for hymn
tunes.


36. Softly now the light of day     _George Washington Doane_, 1799-1859

An American hymn characterized by simplicity and grace, and sung the
world over wherever the English language is spoken. It appeared in 1824
in a collection of poems, _Songs by the Way_, with the heading
“Evening.” It is based on Psalm 141:2, “Let my prayer be set forth
before Thee as incense; and the lifting up of my hands as the evening
sacrifice.”

George Washington Doane was born in Trenton, New Jersey, in 1799, the
year that the “Father of our Country” died; hence his name. He was
educated at Union College, Schenectady, New York, and ordained, at the
age of 22, in the Episcopal Church. At the early age of 33 he was made
bishop of New Jersey. A pioneer in education, and ahead of his time in
many things, his life was full of trials. But his exceptional talents,
learning and force of character made him one of the great church leaders
of his time.

_MUSIC._ SEYMOUR is by the eminent German composer of opera, Carl M. von
Weber, 1786-1826. This tune, a great favorite, is from the opening
chorus of his opera, _Oberon_, which is sung while fairies “trip it
lightly” on the stage. When contributions towards the musical edition of
the famous English book, _Hymns Ancient and Modern_, London, 1861, were
invited by advertisement, the editor, W. H. Monk, received more requests
for the insertion of this tune than any other, despite its secular
origin.


37. At even, when the sun was set              _Henry Twells_, 1823-1900

This evening hymn, a prayer for the healing of our bodily as well as
spiritual ills, has been translated into many foreign tongues, and is
found in nearly all standard hymn books both in America and abroad. The
original has eight stanzas. It is based on the touching evening scene
described in Mark 1:32, “At even, when the sun was set, they brought
unto him all that were sick.”

Henry Twells was ordained in 1849 in the Church of England. Among the
parishes he served was Stratford-on-Avon, the birthplace of Shakespeare.
At the time he wrote this hymn, he was headmaster of a large grammar
school and penned the verses one afternoon while the boys were writing
an examination.

_MUSIC._ The tune, ANGELUS, appeared in somewhat different form in
_Heilige Seelenlust_, one of a series of Catholic collections of hymns
in Germany, written in the vernacular, and edited by Johann Scheffler.
The tune is credited to Georg Josephi, a German musician of whom little
is known except that he was the musical editor of _Heilige Seelenlust_.
It is a tune of rare beauty though its modulations into several
different keys makes it more difficult to sing than some and gives it a
sense of restlessness not found in other popular tunes.


38. Savior, breathe an evening blessing      _James Edmeston_, 1791-1867

This hymn ranks with the best of the evening hymns of the English
language though it is practically all that survives of the more than two
thousand hymns that came from the too prolific pen of the author.

James Edmeston, a member of the Church of England, was an eminent London
architect and surveyor who had a great love for and interest in children
and possessed a gift for writing sacred poetry. He had the habit of
writing a hymn every Sunday and reading it at family worship.

During the Boxer uprising in China in 1900, in which many Americans lost
their lives, a group of missionaries, beleaguered outside of Shanghai,
found in this hymn the expression of their feelings, as well as a great
source of comfort. One of them wrote:

  Separated from home and friends, facing death in a far-off land, and
  full of tenderest feelings, we lifted our hearts in song:

  “Though destruction walk around us,
    Though the arrows past us fly:
  Angel guards from Thee surround us;
    We are safe if Thou art nigh.”

  Out of the storm each soul, renewing its strength, mounted up with
  wings as eagles and found peace in the secret of His presence. Our
  Saviour breathed, in very deed, “an evening blessing,” the fragrance
  of which remains even unto this day. The last verse of the hymn,
  “Should swift death this night o’ertake us,” was omitted. It seemed
  too probable that it might. We wanted only to think of the
  safe-keeping, and such, thank God, it proved to be.

_MUSIC._ The tune EVENING PRAYER was written by Stebbins while music
director at Tremont Temple, Boston, as a response to be sung after the
morning prayer. Two years later it was set to this evening hymn by the
composer himself, for use in an evangelistic campaign in Providence, R.
I. Stebbins writes, “I arranged to have a male choir of 20 voices sing
the music as set to the beautiful hymn, and to my gratification found
they were admirably suited to each other. Since then the hymn has been
used in many gospel hymn books and church hymnals, both here and abroad.
It has been used also in St. Paul’s Cathedral, in London.”

George C. Stebbins, 1846-1945, was born and reared on a farm in New
York. He became interested in music through the country singing school.
After serving as music director at the First Baptist Church, Chicago,
and Tremont Temple, Boston, he became associated with D. L. Moody and
helped organize choruses for many of Moody’s evangelistic campaigns both
here and abroad. He was co-editor with Ira Sankey and James McGranahan
of various editions of _Gospel Hymns_ and was himself one of the best
composers of gospel hymn tunes. He lived to be nearly 100 years old.

The hymn is also set to the tune “Ringe Recht” (147) in some hymnals.


39. Unheard the dews around me fall                          _Anonymous_

This hymn, emphasizing the silences of God as manifested in the world
without and within, is of anonymous authorship. It is found in _Hymns of
the Spirit_ but most of the other modern hymnals have overlooked it.

_MUSIC._ WINDSOR is an English tune of unknown origin. It was set to
Psalm 116 in a book of Psalm tunes by M. William Damon, published in
1591. It is one of a number of tunes written in the minor mode which
appear in the _Hymnary_. Note that the “Amen” closes with the chord in F
major, in keeping with the general practice of following a minor tune
with an “Amen” in which the last chord is in the major mode.

In _Songs of Praise_, London, 1931, this tune is set to the hymn “Jesus,
the very thought of Thee” (155).


40. Abide with me; fast falls the eventide    _Henry F. Lyte,_ 1793-1847

One of the great consolation songs of Christianity. It is really not an
evening hymn, but for a person in his last illness, when the thought of
passing through the gateway of death, and the glory of the great beyond
are the soul’s vital concern. It has long been sung at evening services
because, presumably, the end of the natural day suggests the evening of
life, and the mood of the tune is so well suited to the pensive
quietness of the close of day.

Henry F. Lyte, a Scotsman, was a young clergyman in the Church of
England when he wrote this hymn. There is a popular tradition that he
wrote it near the end of his life when ill health compelled him to
resign his parish and after he held his last communion on September 4,
1847. But James Moffatt, the distinguished historian and translator of
the Bible, gives a different account of its origin. He says the hymn was
inspired during the fatal illness of an intimate friend of the author,
Rev. William A. Le Hunte. Dr. Lyte was constantly at the side of his
dying friend who, in his closing hours, repeatedly said these words,
“Abide with me,” which moved Dr. Lyte to write the hymn. Twenty-seven
years later, 1847, when he felt his own end approaching, he recalled the
hymn.

_MUSIC._ EVENTIDE is Monk’s best known tune. In a letter to J. C.
Hadden, Mrs. Monk wrote: “This tune was written at a time of great
sorrow—when together we watched, as we did daily, the glories of the
setting sun. As the golden rays faded, he took up some paper and
pencilled that tune which has gone over all the world.” The composition
is said to have been completed in ten minutes. It was the last hymn sung
by the Canadian nurse Edith Cavell before she suffered martyrdom in
Belgium, October 12, 1915.

Wm. H. Monk, 1823-89, English organist and composer, devoted his life to
the service of church music. For forty years he held the post of
organist at King’s College, London, and St. Matthias, Stoke Newington,
devoting himself to the advancement of good congregational singing. “He
taught many to praise God who had never praised Him before; he taught
others to praise Him more worthily than hitherto.” He was the music
editor of the famous _Hymns Ancient and Modern_, published in England,
1861.


                            CLOSE OF WORSHIP


41. Blest be the tie that binds                _John Fawcett_, 1740-1817

This hymn is often sung at the close of church meetings. Sometimes the
custom of the people joining hands while singing is observed.

John Fawcett, an English Baptist minister, was serving a small country
church in Yorkshire when he received and accepted a call to a large city
church in London, which paid a salary more suited to the needs of his
big family. His farewell sermon had been preached, six or seven wagons
stood loaded with his furniture and books, and all was ready for his
departure. But when the members of his humble flock turned out to bid
farewell, many of them in tears, and imploring him to stay, it was more
than he or Mrs. Fawcett could stand. He ordered the wagons unloaded and
the furniture put back in its place, and sent a message to the London
church that he was not coming. Afterwards he wrote this hymn which was
to become one of the most famous in the English language.

_MUSIC._ DENNIS is simple and easy of performance, yet pleasing and
effective. The tune was composed by Hans Georg Nägeli, 1768-1836, a
Swiss, who was born near Zurich where he spent most of his life as music
publisher, composer, and teacher. He was a prominent figure in public
school music and was greatly interested in church music.

Lowell Mason found this melody in manuscript form and arranged it for
use as a church tune.

For comments on Lowell Mason see Hymn 12. The tune “Boylston” (214) is
also used with this hymn.


42. The Lord be with us as we bend              _John Ellerton_, 1826-93

The hymn is particularly appropriate for the close of an evening
service.

John Ellerton was a minister of the Church of England, a teacher,
author, and one of England’s most distinguished hymnists. He assisted in
editing the famous _Hymns Ancient and Modern_, London, 1861. He was
early surrounded with religious influences and had a happy childhood
life. Of his parents he wrote, “I used to feel how happy my father and
mother were, even more than how good they were.” He composed about fifty
hymns and made about ten translations, a large proportion of which have
found their way into church hymnals. He refused to take out a copyright
for any of his hymns, saying that “if any are counted worthy to
contribute to Christ’s praise in the congregation, one ought to feel
very thankful and humble.” His hymns, of which there are eight in the
_Hymnary_, are elevated in tone and devotional spirit.

_MUSIC._ BEATITUDO was written for the Revised Edition of _Hymns Ancient
and Modern_, 1875, and was set to the words, “How bright these glorious
spirits shine.”

For comments on the composer, J. B. Dykes, see Hymn 1.


43. Savior, again to Thy dear Name we raise     _John Ellerton_, 1826-93

This, the most popular of Ellerton’s hymns, was originally written in
1866 for a choir festival. It was revised and condensed to these four
verses, rich in poetic beauty and spiritual power, to take a high place
among our evening hymns. The first stanza may be used with good effect
as a choral benediction. The last stanza was sung at Ellerton’s funeral
on June 20, 1893.

For comments on John Ellerton see Hymn 42.

_MUSIC._ ELLERS was composed for this hymn in 1869.

Edward John Hopkins, 1818-1901, was a distinguished English church
musician who served as organist in several important London churches,
including Westminster Abbey. He was a prolific composer of church music
of fine quality—services, hymn-tunes, anthems, organ pieces—and enjoyed
a great reputation as editor of hymn books.


44. O Savior, bless us ere we go           _Frederick W. Faber_, 1814-63

A hymn for the close of evening worship.

Frederick W. Faber was educated at Oxford and became a minister in the
Church of England. He began his parish work at Elton where he became a
forceful preacher and was known for his fine Christian character and
lovely spirit. Church attendance increased, the parish grew, and the
people who had been known for their intemperance and immorality were now
reputed for their thrift and good behavior.

Under the influence of John Henry Newman, Faber changed his views and
joined the Roman Catholic Church. After a trip to Rome, he lived at
Birmingham where he formed, with eight others, a community called
“Brothers of the Will of God.” Later he moved to London where he
continued his service in the Catholic Church until his death at the age
of forty-nine. He wrote many theological and devotional books but is
best known for his hymns of which he wrote 150, among which are such
favorites as “There’s a wideness in God’s mercy” (58) and “Faith of our
fathers” (154). His hymns are numbered among the treasures of English
hymnody. They are devotional in spirit and with slight alterations
appropriate for use in all Christian churches.

_MUSIC._ SURREY is a beautiful tune which became immediately popular and
has remained so, especially in England. The composer, Henry Carey,
1692-1743, was a teacher in boarding schools and private families in
England. He composed a large number of secular songs and was only
incidentally a writer of church music.


45. Lord, dismiss us with Thy blessing         _John Fawcett_, 1740-1817

This popular dismission hymn is ascribed to the English Baptist
minister, John Fawcett, who is best known as the author of “Blest be the
tie that binds.” The hymn has undergone some alteration with the passing
of the years. The third stanza originally read:

  “So whene’er the signal’s given
    “Us from earth to call away,
  “Borne on angels’ wings to heaven
    “Glad the summons to obey,
      “May we ever
  “Reign with Christ in endless day.”

For comments on John Fawcett see Hymn 41.

_MUSIC._ SICILIAN MARINERS is a familiar tune of unknown origin which
has been set to various hymns, including the Latin “_O Sanctissima, O
Purissima_,” and the German “_O du fröliche, o du selige_.” The tune,
sometimes called “Sicily,” is not known in Sicily today.


                  GOD THE FATHER—HIS MAJESTY AND POWER


46. Mighty God, while angels bless Thee       _Robert Robinson_, 1735-90

The author of this hymn had a unique career. Robert Robinson, born in
Norfolk, England, of lowly parentage, was left fatherless at eight to be
the sole support of his widowed mother. At fourteen he was apprenticed
to a barber in London who frequently reprimanded him for giving too much
time to the reading of books and too little to business. At seventeen he
heard the great evangelist Whitefield preach a sermon on Matthew 3:7 and
decided to dedicate his life to God. His complete conversion he dates a
few years later, 1755. He began preaching under the Methodists but soon
developed independent views and in 1759 he received adult baptism and
united with the Baptists. Shortly afterwards he became the pastor of a
small Baptist church in the university town of Cambridge. He was a
gifted scholar, and though he had little formal education, he held the
respect of Cambridge students, notwithstanding the taunts of university
professors. Serving a small and poor congregation and being without
finances to support his large family, he helped himself by engaging in
farming and carrying on business as a coal and corn merchant while
preaching twice a Sunday and holding evangelistic meetings during the
week. In this he succeeded in a very remarkable measure, aided by the
fact that he knew the soil and the tillers of the soil and was gifted
with the sense of humor and a Spurgeon-like wit. Besides this hymn, he
also wrote the well-known hymn, “Come, Thou fount of every blessing”
(189).

_MUSIC._ CRUCIFER, originally known as “Bethany,” was composed by Henry
Smart for “Jesus, I my cross have taken.” The composer favored unison
singing of this melody, at moderate tempo. Most congregations will find
the pitch range in the melody too wide for best results in unison
singing.

Henry Smart, 1813-1879, turned from the legal profession to devote his
life to music. Though largely self-taught, he became one of England’s
distinguished organists and builder of organs. He suffered from poor
eyesight and the last fourteen years of his life he was totally blind,
but he kept on playing and composing for he had a very retentive memory
and possessed a rare skill in extempore playing. Smart was a strong
advocate of congregational singing, but favored the unison singing of
melodies, and had a decided prejudice against what he considered unduly
fast congregational singing.


47. I sing the mighty power of God              _Isaac Watts_, 1674-1748

A hymn of praise, magnifying the power, wisdom, goodness, and
omnipresence of God as revealed in creation. It appeared first in Watt’s
_Divine and Moral Songs for the Use of Children_ where it was entitled,
“Praise for Creation and Providence.” The original has eight stanzas.

For comments on Watts see No. 11.

_MUSIC._ ELLACOMBE is a cheerful, unpretentious tune that deserves to be
better known. The source designated is _Gesangbuch der Herzogl_
published in 1784, but some of our best authorities are content to leave
its exact origin in doubt. It found its way into English hymnals soon
after it was published in _Vollständige Sammlung der gewöhnlichen
Melodien zum Mainzer Gesangbuche_, by X. L. Hartig, in 1833.


                       MAKER OF HEAVEN AND EARTH


48. This is my Father’s world            _Maltbie D. Babcock_, 1858-1901

The original has sixteen stanzas, each beginning with the words “This is
my Father’s world,” a good slogan to begin and end the day. It appeared
in the author’s _Thoughts for Every Day Living_, a book of religious
verse. The hymn expresses a confident attitude toward life and a buoyant
faith in God.

Maltbie D. Babcock, prominent Presbyterian minister, was born in
Syracuse, New York, graduated from Syracuse University and Auburn
Seminary and then began his first pastorate at the First Presbyterian
Church, Lockport, N. Y. His second pastorate was at Brown Memorial
Church, Baltimore, where he was popular with the students at Johns
Hopkins University. He then received a call to the Brick Church, New
York City, where he became the successor of Henry van Dyke. In his
student days he was known as a fine student, a great athlete, a good
musician, and a friend to all. He loved young people and during his
ministry they turned to him for counsel.

_MUSIC._ The tune TERRA BEATA is simple, light in movement, and easy to
sing. It was composed by Franklin Sheppard, 1852-1930, a Philadelphia
business man, Presbyterian layman, and friend of Dr. Babcock. Sheppard
was also an accomplished musician. He modestly attributed the tune to an
old English folk melody, but it is known now that he himself was the
composer. He named the tune “Terra Beata,” happy or blessed earth.

The arrangement in the _Hymnary_, known as “Terra Patris,” is by Edward
Shippen Barnes, a contemporary American organist and composer. His
harmonization is a little more difficult to sing but also more
interesting than the original by Sheppard.


49. Let the whole creation cry           _Stopford A. Brooke_, 1832-1916

The hymn is an imitation of Psalm 148. It is a universal call to praise
rather than an expression of praise, hence it is addressed not to God
but to his creation everywhere, as a call to worship God. The hymn is
characterized by literary grace, simplicity, and tenderness, and is
included in many modern hymnals.

Stopford A. Brooke, born in Ireland, was educated at Dublin, then became
a clergyman in the Anglican Church. For a time he was one of the most
popular preachers in London. In 1880, being restive under the doctrinal
standards of the church, he severed his relation with the Anglicans and
continued a ministry of preaching and lecturing and writing as an
independent, not associated with any denomination. His _Life and Letters
of F. W. Robertson_ ranks among the classic biographies. In 1881, he
compiled _Christian Hymns_ for use in his own congregation, in which
this hymn is found, the original having ten stanzas.

_MUSIC._ ROLAND is an easy, flowing tune which congregations love to
sing after learning it well. It is suitable for use as a processional.
The composer, Caleb Simmer, born 1856, was an American musician. His
sacred pieces include anthems, quartets, cantatas, and organ music.


50. The spacious firmament on high           _Joseph Addison_, 1672-1719

This hymn was praised by Lord Selbourne as “a very perfect and finished
composition, taking rank among the best hymns of the English language.”
The author, Joseph Addison, was an eminent Englishman of letters. Dr.
Samuel Johnson said of him, “Whoever wishes to attain an English style,
familiar, but not coarse, elegant but not ostentatious, must give his
days and nights to the volumes of Addison.” In 1712, Addison wrote a
series of essays in the _Spectator_, concluding each essay with a hymn.
In the issue of August 23, this hymn, a free rendering of Psalm 19,
formed the conclusion to an essay on “The Proper Means of Strengthening
and Confirming Faith in the Mind of Man.”

_MUSIC._ CREATION is an adaptation of a part of the magnificent chorus
(No. 14) in Haydn’s oratorio, _The Creation_. For comments on Haydn, see
Hymn No. 27.


51. For the beauty of the earth       _Folliott S. Pierpoint_, 1835-1917

This delightful hymn of thanksgiving was originally written for the
communion service to bring the note of joy into the solemn sacrament,
making it truly an “eucharist.” It is now used frequently at
Thanksgiving and children’s services. It names many causes for praise
and thanksgiving, from the “beauty of the earth” to the “church that
lifteth holy hands.”

The author, Folliott S. Pierpoint, was born at Bath, England, and
educated at Cambridge. He was a teacher of the classics, published
several books of poems, and made notable contributions to the hymnody of
the church.

_MUSIC._ DIX appeared first in a collection of chorales edited and
published by Kocher in Stuttgart in 1838, set to the hymn “_Treuer
Heiland, wir sind hier_.” It has long been used with the words, “As with
gladness men of old” (530), by W. C. Dix, hence the name “Dix.” It has a
strong, joyous tune which marches with stately tread and is a favorite
processional.

Conrad Kocher, 1786-1872, was a German student of church music, a
composer and teacher. He studied at St. Petersburg and in Rome. He
founded the School of Sacred Song in Stuttgart, which did much to
improve German church music and popularize four-part singing in Germany.


52. God of the earth, the sky, the sea      _Samuel Longfellow_, 1819-92

A hymn which finds God in every aspect of nature. For comments on the
author, Samuel Longfellow, see Hymn 28.

_MUSIC._ SHELTERING WING, a long-meter melody admirably suited to these
words, is by the English church musician, Joseph Barnby, 1838-96. For
comments on him see Hymn 19.


53. Lord of all being, throned afar          _Oliver W. Holmes_, 1809-94

A hymn difficult to praise too highly, probably the greatest penned on
the omnipresence of God. Its first appearance was in the _Atlantic
Monthly_ as the final installment of the series of articles later
collected into book form and entitled _The Professor at the Breakfast
Table_. The work closed with the following lines and the hymn:

  Peace to all such as may have been vexed in spirit by any utterances
  these pages may have repeated! They will, doubtless, forget for the
  moment the differences in the hues of truth we look at through our
  human prisms and join in singing (inwardly) this hymn to the Source of
  the light we all need to lead us, and the warmth which alone can make
  us brothers:

  Lord of all being! throned afar,
    Thy glory flames from sun and star;
  Centre and soul of every sphere,
    Yet to each loving heart how near.

Oliver Wendell Holmes was the son of a Congregational minister in
Cambridge, Massachusetts, although later when he became established as a
physician in Boston, he united with the Unitarians. His writings are
nevertheless permeated by an evangelical warmth which has made his hymns
acceptable to all denominations. Holmes was a distinguished graduate of
Harvard University in Arts and Medicine and spent most of his years
teaching anatomy at Harvard. But he is best known to us as a man of
letters. None of his writings is so widely known as the two hymns, “Lord
of all being” and “O Love divine, that stooped to share” (172), both of
them found in the author’s _The Professor at the Breakfast Table_.

_MUSIC._ LOUVAN is by an American musician, Virgil C. Taylor, 1817-91,
organist and editor of song books. This is the only one of his tunes now
in common use. An alternative tune that fits the hymn very well is “St.
Crispin” found at No. 149.


                           HIS LOVE AND MERCY


54. Be still, my soul, the Lord is on thy side            _Katharina von
                                                 Schlegel, born c._ 1697
                                        _Tr. Jane L. Borthwick_, 1813-97

The hymn is a translation of a poem by Katharina von Schlegel. She was
born in Germany, 1697. No one seems to have found anything definite
concerning her life, except that she wrote some hymns, one of which
passed into the English language. The original, based on Psalm 46:10,
“Be still and know that I am God,” had four stanzas, as follows:

  Stille, mein Wille! Dein Jesus hilft siegen;
    Trage geduldig das Leiden, die Not;
  Gott ist’s, der alles zum besten will fügen,
    Der dir getreu bleibt in Schmerzen und Tod.
  Stille, mein Wille! Dein Jesus wird machen
  Glücklichen Ausgang bedenklicher Sachen.

  Stille, mein Wille! Der Herr hat’s in Händen;
    Hält sich dein Herz nur im Glauben an ihn,
  Wird er den Kummer bald wenden und enden
    Herrlich wird endlich, was wunderbar schien.
  Stille, mein Wille! Dein Heiland wird zeigen,
  Wie vor ihm Meer und Gewitter muss schweigen.

  Stille, mein Wille! Wenn Freunde sich trennen,
    Die du so zärtlich und innig geliebt,
  Wirst du die Freundschaft des Höchsten erkennen,
    Der sich zum Eigentum treulich dir gibt.
  Stille, mein Wille! Dein Jesus ersetzet,
  Was dich beim Sterben der Liebsten verletzet.

  Stille, mein Wille! Es kommen die Stunden,
    Dass wir beim Herrn sind ohn’ Wechsel der Zeit;
  Dann ist das Scheiden, der Kummer verschwunden.
    Ewige Freundschaft vergütet das Leid.
  Stille, mein Wille! Nach zeitlichem Scheiden
  Sehn wir uns wieder ohn’ Schmerzen und Leiden.

The words, both in the original and in the English translation, are of
great beauty and their message has brought real comfort to many a
burdened and disquieted soul.

The translation is by Jane Borthwick, born in Edinburgh, who, with her
sister, Sarah B. Findlater, did outstanding work as a translator of
German hymns. Only Catherine Winkworth surpassed her. Miss Borthwick, a
member of the Free Church of Scotland, was a devout Christian character,
especially interested in the mission work of the church, both home and
foreign. Another of her well-known translations is “My Jesus, as Thou
wilt” (250) from the original by Benjamin Schmolke.

_MUSIC._ FINLANDIA is from the pen of Jean Sibelius, born December 8,
1865, in Finland, and undoubtedly the greatest living composer. At this
writing, 1948, he is still living, but, through the misfortunes of war,
reduced to penury and poverty. Besides seven symphonies, he wrote many
smaller orchestral works. This tune is from the tone poem “Finlandia,”
the arrangement having been made for the _Hymnal of the Presbyterian
Church_ in 1932. It is included in a number of recent hymn books and has
become a favorite with worshipping congregations wherever introduced.


55. God is love; His mercy brightens           _John Bowring_, 1792-1872

A bright, joyful hymn which we owe to a layman, Sir John Bowring, born
at Exeter, England, 1792. Though a member of the Unitarian Church, his
faith was apparently that of an evangelical. On his tombstone are
engraved the words of another great hymn which he himself wrote, “In the
Cross of Christ I glory” (See 110). Bowring was the son of a
manufacturer of woolen goods and he spent his early years travelling in
all parts of the world in the interest of his father’s business. Though
he left school at the age of 14, he became an outstanding linguist and
scholar and writer. At the age of 16, he had acquired five languages and
late in life he is said to have known 200 languages and spoken 100. One
of his primary interests was politics. He was elected to the British
Parliament and later became the British consul at Canton and the
governor of Hong Kong. He published a book of _Hymns_ with the desire
that they might be useful in strengthening the religious faith of others
who under suffering and disheartening circumstances might chance to read
them.

The hymn is constructed to emphasize in each stanza the idea of God as
wisdom (I Cor. 1:30) and love (I John 4:8).

_MUSIC._ STOCKWELL, a very useful tune, appeared in Lowell Mason’s
popular collection of hymns, _New Carmina Sacra_, in 1850, set to the
words, “Silently the shades of evening,” written by Christopher Cox.

The composer, Darius Eliot Jones, 1815-81, was born at Carroll, N. Y.
His father, Abner Jones, was a well-known music teacher in New York.
Darius spent twenty years of his adult life in business. He served for a
time as assistant editor of the _Choral Advocate_, published by Mason
Brothers, New York, and at the same time conducted the music in Plymouth
Church, Brooklyn, where Henry Ward Beecher was pastor. At Beecher’s
suggestion, Jones prepared a new hymn book, _Temple Melodies_, 1861, for
use in Plymouth Church. Feeling a call to the Christian ministry, Jones
entered Iowa College, at Davenport, as a student and at the age of 43
was ordained as a Congregational minister. He served churches at
Columbia City and Newton Center, Ia., until 1863, when he became
treasurer of the Iowa General Association. For a year, he was agent for
the American Bible Society; and for four years, 1866-70, he was agent
for Iowa College, later located at Grinnell and known as Grinnell
College. Here Jones published a second hymn book, _Songs for the New
Life_, in 1869. From that time on, he served various churches in Iowa
until his death in 1881.


56. How gentle God’s commands                _Philip Doddridge_, 1702-51

This hymn, beautiful in poetic imagery, is based on I Peter 5:7,
“Casting all your care upon Him: for He careth for you.” When it first
appeared, posthumously, in a book of hymns by the author, it bore the
title, “God’s care a remedy for ours.”

Philip Doddridge was born in London, the youngest of a family of twenty,
most of whom died in childhood. His father was an oil merchant. Before
he could read, he had learned from his mother the stories of the Bible
by the aid of Bible pictures on the Dutch tiles that covered a portion
of the living room. Doddridge became a minister in the Congregational
Church and devoted his life not only to preaching, but to writing books
and teaching young men for the ministry. In 1751, he went to Lisbon to
seek relief from tuberculosis but died there. He is the author of over
400 hymns, a few of which have survived, and are found in most hymn
books. The _Hymnary_ contains six of his compositions.

_MUSIC._ DENNIS. For comments on this tune see Hymn 41.


57. Thou Grace Divine, encircling all           _Eliza Scudder_, 1821-96

The hymn was written by Eliza Scudder, an American hymn writer of the
middle nineteenth century. She was born in Boston, and died in Weston,
Massachusetts. She was a niece of Edmund H. Sears, author of “It came
upon a midnight clear” (No. 75). Miss Scudder was a person of deep
religious insight and lived a quiet, retiring life. She published a book
of religious verse, _Hymns and Sonnets_, in 1880. During most of her
active life she was a Unitarian, but in later life joined the Episcopal
Church.

_MUSIC._ BALLERMA (misspelled Balerma in some editions of the _Hymnary_)
is a very simple tune, the second pair of lines varying only slightly
from the first pair. The origin of the tune is uncertain. It is thought
to be an old Spanish melody, arranged by F. H. Barthélémon.

For comments on Barthélémon see Hymn 2.


58. There’s a wideness in God’s mercy             _F. W. Faber_, 1814-63

The original of this poem has thirteen stanzas, the first of which
reads:

  Souls of men! why will ye scatter
    Like a crowd of frightened sheep?
  Foolish hearts! why will ye wander
    From a love so true and deep?

The five stanzas selected for use here make an impressive and coherent
hymn with no trace of the author’s strong Roman Catholic bias which
characterizes nearly all of his hymns.

For comments on F. W. Faber see Hymn 44.

_MUSIC._ WELLESLEY was written, by request, for the graduation hymn of
the Newton (Mass.) high school class of which Miss Tourjee was then a
member. The original tune had a slight fault in voice leading which was
corrected, with her permission, by Dr. Hamilton C. Macdougall, then
Professor of Music at Wellesley College.

Lizzie S. Tourjee, 1858-1913, was a student at Wellesley College during
the year 1877-78. In 1883, she married Frank Estabrook. Her father, Dr.
Eben Tourjee, encouraged her in the writing of the tune, and named it
for the new college nearby where she became a student for one year.


59. Father Almighty, bless us with Thy blessing              _Anonymous_

A prayer of invocation seeking the blessing and guidance of Almighty
God. The authorship is anonymous.

_MUSIC._ INTEGER VITAE (or FLEMMING) was composed by Flemming for a
chorus of men’s voices. It was set to “Integer Vitae,” an ode by Horace.
The tune became a great favorite with college men not only in this
country but also in England and Germany. It was introduced as a hymn
tune through the hymnals of Dr. Charles R. Robinson, _Songs of the
Sanctuary_, and _Laudes Domine_, and has since been widely used and
accepted as one of our most satisfactory hymn tunes. It is one of the
favorite tunes in the _Gesangbuch mit Noten_ where it is set to the
words, “_Ach mein Herr Jesu_.”

The composer, Frederick Ferdinand Flemming, M. D., 1778-1813, received
his training in medicine and was a successful practitioner in Berlin. He
is known to posterity, however, as a composer of part songs for men’s
choruses, and more particularly as the composer of this tune.


60. God moves in a mysterious way            _William Cowper_, 1731-1800

There is no basis, according to most hymnologists, for the story that
this hymn was written after Cowper was mysteriously prevented from
committing suicide by drowning. The hymn was published by John Newton in
the _Olney Hymns_, 1779, and rapidly became popular. It is still found
in nearly all the hymnals. Its original title was “Light shining out of
darkness.” Its central thought is that God is working His sovereign will
even in the mystery and perplexity of human life, bringing light, not
_after_ darkness, but _out of_ darkness.

William Cowper, 1731-1800, was the greatest English poet of his age. He
had been trained for the law and was called to the bar at the age of
twenty-three but had to retire on account of ill health. He lost his
mental balance and became deeply melancholic, a misfortune which is
attributed to cruelty received at the hands of older and stronger lads
while he attended preparatory school. After treatment in a private
asylum, and living for a time in the home of Rev. Morley Unwin, he moved
to Olney where his devoted friend, the Rev. John Newton was curate. Here
he assisted Newton in his parochial and evangelistic work and
collaborated with him in the production of what became known as the
_Olney Hymns_. In spite of efforts at literary work, his depression of
spirit returned and never left him, except for brief intervals, until
his death in 1800.

_MUSIC._ DUNDEE (or FRENCH) is one of the twelve Common Tunes appearing
in the _Scottish Psalter, The CL Psalms of David &_, Edinburgh, 1615,
where it is named “French Tune.” Its first appearance in an English
Psalter is in Ravencroft’s _Whole Book of Psalms_, 1621, where it is
called “Dundy.” It is one of the best known of the psalm tunes and its
smooth, flowing melody has enjoyed great popularity.

For comments on the _Scottish Psalter_ see Hymn 575.


61. O God, our help in ages past                _Isaac Watts_, 1674-1748

Based on Psalm 90:1-6: “Lord, thou hast been our dwelling place in all
generations,” etc., this is Watt’s greatest hymn and one of the greatest
in the English language. It is found in all English hymn books and has
been translated into many languages. Its smoothness, simple dignity, and
faithfulness to Scripture give it the marks of a true church hymn, and
it has probably been chosen more than any other for use upon important
occasions. It is an indispensable New Year’s hymn.

A press dispatch related how the hymn was used during the Second World
War by a group of eleven doomed Norwegians as they faced a Nazi firing
squad in the village of Selbu outside of Trondheim, Norway, for “general
hostility” to German occupiers. “Despite the torture to which they had
been subjected to earlier,” writes an eye-witness, “the group of
prisoners, linked hand in hand, proudly and firmly faced their
executioners. One of the men, Peter Morseth, who for years led the
singing in the local church, read a short prayer and was joined by his
companions in singing the hymn, ‘O God our help in ages past.’ Then the
shots rang out.”

John Wesley printed the hymn in his _Collection of Psalms and Hymns_,
1734, altering the opening line from “Our God, our help,” to “O God, our
help.”

For comments on Isaac Watts see Hymn 11.

_MUSIC._ ST. ANNE appeared anonymously, in two parts—treble and bass—in
_A Supplement to the New Version of Psalms by Dr. Brady and Mr.
Tate. ... the sixth edition, corrected and much enlarged_, 1708, where
it was set to Psalm 42. It is attributed upon good authority to William
Croft, 1678-1727, who was interested in the production of the Tate and
Brady _New Version_. Croft is one of the greatest names in English
musical history.

For further comments on Croft, see Hymn 6.


62. The Lord is my Shepherd                _James Montgomery_, 1771-1854

One of the fine metrical versions that have been made of the
Twenty-third Psalm. It Is found in Montgomery’s _Songs of Zion, being
Imitations of Psalms_, 1822. Another much-loved and widely used version
of the same Psalm is that in the _Scottish Psalter_ (See 579).

James Montgomery, greatest of Moravian hymn writers, was born in
Ayrshire, Scotland, near the birthplace of Robert Burns. His father
became a minister in the Moravian Church and finally went as a
missionary to the West Indies where both he and his wife died. After
spending a part of his youth in precarious and doubtful ways of living,
and failing in several business ventures, James became the editor of
_The Sheffield Register_, a position he held with honor and distinction
for thirty-one years. He was twice imprisoned for expressing liberal
political views in his paper. He is classed by the _literati_ as a minor
English poet, but in the writing of hymns he ranks with Wesley, Watts,
and Doddridge. Of his 400 hymns, 100 are still in use. Eleven of his
hymns are found in the _Hymnary_, exceeded in number only by those of
Hosmer, Wesley and Watts. All of Montgomery’s hymns show a marvelous
knowledge of the Scriptures on the part of their author. He found in the
Psalms an inexhaustible source of devotional material and made metrical
versions of many of them.

_MUSIC._ POLAND. The tune is unique in the _Hymnary_ in that the melody
in the first three lines is found in the alto. To bring the melody out
with sufficient clearness, the altos might well be reenforced by some
sopranos, or men’s voices, or both.

Thomas Koschat, 1845-1914, was an Austrian composer and singer. While a
student of natural science at Vienna University he sang in the Court
Opera Chorus, and soon became its leader. In 1875, Koschat organized the
Kärnthner Quintet which became famous for its singing of Carinthian folk
songs. He is known for his harmonization of Carinthian melodies and
original songs in their style, for which he wrote the texts.


63. Father and Friend, Thy light, thy love     _John Bowring_, 1792-1872

A hymn on the omnipresence of God who reigns as Lord of life and cares
for His children.

For comments on John Bowring see Hymn 55.

_MUSIC._ ILLA, a simple long-meter tune within easy compass of the
voices, is by the American composer, Lowell Mason, 1792-1872, an exact
contemporary of Bowring. Mason’s tunes were popular at first and then
for a time they were frowned upon by some of the “highbrow” musicians
but in late years are returning with new favor into the hymn books.
Mason’s name appears 24 times in our collection.

For further comments on Mason see Hymn 12.


64. Let us with a gladsome mind                   _John Milton_, 1608-74

This delightful lyric is the result of John Milton’s paraphrasing of
Psalm 136 when he was a boy of 15 years. The original has 26 stanzas.
The Psalm tells the story of Israel’s history, ending each verse with
the refrain, “For his mercy endureth forever.” The selections here are
his renderings of verses 1, 2, 7, and 25. The closing stanza returns to
verse 1.

John Milton, the poet, was born in London, the son of the John Milton,
who had turned from the Roman Catholic Church to become a Protestant.
The future poet went to Christ’s College, Cambridge, where he received
his B.A. in 1628 and M.A. in 1632. His short poems and paraphrases were
written at an early age and constitute some of his best work. The second
period of his literary career was given almost entirely to writings on
political subjects for he lived in the day of the controversies which
led to Civil War and the establishment of the Commonwealth in England.
Milton joined Oliver Cromwell as his secretary for foreign tongues to
the Council of State, a position he held until the eve of the
Restoration, when he barely escaped the scaffold. For years he had
suffered from poor eyesight and became totally blind in his forty-fourth
year. The third period of his life, after the Restoration of the
Monarchy, was lived in close retirement. During this time he produced
his greatest writings: _Paradise Lost_, _Paradise Regained_, and _Samson
Agonistes_, all of them dictated to others. He ranks second only to
Shakespeare among English poets. He translated 19 psalms into meter.
Being the scholar’s rather than the people’s poet, he, however, had no
great influence on hymnology. His version of Psalm 84 is found at No.
592.

_MUSIC._ INNOCENTS appeared, anonymously, in the _Parish Choir_, 1850, a
publication issued by members of the Oxford Movement in England who went
by the name of “The Society for Promoting Church Music.” The “Society”
laid down the following principles for singing:

1. Congregational singing should be in unison.

2. The melody should be clearly marked.

3. The compass should be within the natural limits of the human voice.

4. Metrical psalmody should be confined to tunes in common time, as
being more simple and solemn than triple time.

After three years of precarious existence, 1846-49, the _Parish Choir_
was discontinued. INNOCENTS appeared at the end of Volume III amongst a
number of old psalm tunes, appointed to be sung to a hymn for Innocents
Day, hence the name. Lightwood attributes the tune to Joseph Smith, born
in 1800, near Birmingham, England. Smith was not a professional musician
but very fond of music, an excellent singer, and composer of many hymn
tunes and other pieces. The editor of the _Parish Choir_ altered the
original to the present form. It made its way into _Hymns Ancient and
Modern_, 1861, and is now found in many modern hymn books.


                    JESUS CHRIST OUR LORD—HIS ADVENT


65. Hail to the Lord’s Anointed            _James Montgomery_, 1771-1854

A rendering of Psalm 72, made in 1821 for the Christmas worship of a
Moravian settlement. The original has eight stanzas. Montgomery was
greatly interested in missions and this hymn, generally esteemed his
finest composition, is a good missionary hymn as well as a splendid one
for the Advent season. Dr. Adam Clarke gave it wide publicity by
publishing it in his famous _Bible Commentary_, 1822, at the end of his
exposition of Psalm 72, adding this note:

  I need not tell the intelligent reader that he has seized the spirit,
  and exhibited some of the principal beauties, of the Hebrew bard;
  though (to use his own words in a letter to me) his “hand trembled to
  touch the harp of Zion.” I take the liberty here to register a wish,
  which I have strongly expressed to himself, that he would favor the
  Church of God with a metrical version of the whole book.

It is interesting to compare this hymn with Isaac Watts’ rendering of
the same psalm (341).

For comments on James Montgomery see Hymn 62.

_MUSIC._ WEBB, also known as “Morning Light,” was composed for a secular
song, “’Tis dawn, the lark is singing,” and first published in _Odeon: A
Collection of Secular Melodies_, by G. J. Webb and Lowell Mason, 1837.
It first appeared as a hymn tune in _The Wesleyan Psalmist_, 1842, and
later it was used for the hymn “The morning Light is breaking,” in books
by Mason and Webb.

The composer, George James Webb, 1803-87, a member of the Swedenborgian
Church, was born near Salisbury, England; studied theology and music;
came to the United States and became associated with Lowell Mason in
editing and publishing music books. He was married to Mason’s daughter,
Mary. He played the organ at Old South Church, Boston, and was Professor
of Secular Music in the Boston Academy of Music.


66. Watchman, tell us of the night             _John Bowring_, 1792-1872

An Advent and missionary hymn, unique in that it consists of a dialog
(between a watchman and a traveller). The hymn is based on Isaiah 21:11,
12: “Watchman, what of the night? watchman, what of the night? The
watchman said, The morning cometh, and also the night: if ye will
enquire, enquire ye: return, come.” The meaning of the passage is not
evident from the context. Dr. C. S. Robinson describes the setting as
follows:

  The image it presents is singularly dramatic and picturesque. The
  scene is laid in the midst of the Babylonian Captivity. A lonely
  watchman is represented as standing on the ramparts of some tower
  along the defenses of the citadel. He seems to be anxiously looking
  for the issues of the siege leveled against it. The time is midnight.
  Calamity is over the land. The people are afflicted. Their enemies are
  pressing them hard. That solitary sentinel sadly remains at his post,
  peering into the unlit gloom, trying to discern signs of deliverance.
  But the heavens are starless, and the impenetrable clouds keep rolling
  on. Suddenly an unknown voice pierces the air. Whether in wailing
  sorrow or in bitter taunt, is not evident; but out of the stillness
  already grown oppressive breaks the question with repetitious
  pertinacity: “Watchman, what of the night? Watchman, what of the
  night?” The sentinel waits through a moment of surprised meditation
  and then tranquilly answers: “The morning cometh and also the night;
  if ye will inquire, inquire ye: return, come.” Then the dialog lapses
  into silence again, and the night gathers its unbroken shadows deeper
  than ever.

For comments on John Bowring see Hymn 55.

_MUSIC._ WATCHMAN is by Lowell Mason who wrote the tune in 1830 in 3-4
time. He intended it as a duet between soprano and tenor, with the
congregation repeating the last line of each stanza (the reply of the
watchman). The tune also lends itself well to antiphonal singing.

For comments on Mason see Hymn 12.


67. O come, O come, Emmanuel              _From the Latin, 12th Century_
                                  _Stanza 1, Tr. John M. Neale_, 1818-66
                               _Stanzas 2, 3, Henry Sloan Coffin_, 1877—

  Veni, veni, Emmanuel
  captivum solve Israel,
  qui gemit in exilio,
  privatus Dei Filio.
            Gaude, gaude; Emmanuel
            nascetur pro te, Israel.

The hymn comes from the Latin, being a translation of the first of the
seven greater _Antiphons_ (short anthems-verses) sung in the Roman
Church at Vespers on the seven days before Christmas. The refrain,
“Rejoice, rejoice,” etc., added to the hymn during the 13th century, is
the answer to the longing for Christ expressed in each stanza.

The translation of Stanza 1 is by John M. Neale, 1818-66, a Cambridge
scholar and the most noted hymnologist and liturgist of his time. He was
a minister and author of books on biblical and historical subjects, but
his fame rests chiefly on his translations of Greek and Latin hymns. The
_Hymnary_ contains ten of his works.

The second and third stanzas were translated in 1916 by Henry Sloan
Coffin, eminent Presbyterian minister, formerly of the Madison Avenue
Church in New York City, and then for many years president of Union
Theological Seminary. He is a recognized leader in contemporary American
church life.

_MUSIC._ VENI EMMANUEL, written in the first Gregorian mode, is an
adaptation by Thomas Helmore, in 1856, of a melody said to have been
found in a French manuscript in Lisbon, which has since disappeared. The
original is believed to have been a 12th century “Kyrie.” The harmony in
the minor mode gives the tune its quaint flavor. It should be sung with
spirit, in keeping with the joyful anticipation embodied in the words.
It is effective with men’s voices singing the first part in unison, then
all the voices in harmony on the refrain. The tune also lends itself to
interesting effects in antiphonal singing.


68. Veiled in darkness Judah lay          _Douglas LeTell Rights_, 1891—

Written in 1915, while World War I was raging in Europe and the clouds
were gathering thick over the United States. The hymn is an appeal for
the Spirit of Christ to bring peace and light to a troubled world. It
was composed while the author, a Moravian, was a student at the Divinity
School of Harvard University. It was the custom at that institution to
have students of the School submit original compositions of hymns, one
of which would be selected to be sung at the annual Christmas service of
the school. This hymn was selected for the Christmas of 1915.

Douglas LeTell Rights, born in Winston-Salem, N. C., received his A. B.
degree from the University of North Carolina and then prepared for the
ministry at the Moravian Theological Seminary, Bethlehem, Pa., and at
Harvard University. A member of the Moravian Church, anciently called
the _Unitas Fratrum_, his first pastorate was at the First Moravian
Church, Greensboro, N. C., 1916-18. In 1918-19, he was chaplain in the
army in World War I. Since 1919, he has been pastor of Trinity Moravian
Church, Winston-Salem, N. C. Rights is the author of _A Voyage Down the
Yadkin-Great Peedee River_, 1928, and has written numerous articles on
historical and archaeological subjects pertaining to his native state.
His latest book is the _American Indian in North Carolina_.

_MUSIC._ EBELING. For comments on the composer of this tune, Johann
Georg Ebeling, 1620-76, see Hymn 555.


69. Come, Thou long-expected Jesus             _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88

A dignified, yet stirring Advent hymn, based on Haggai 2:7: “The desire
of all nations shall come.” One of the first hymns of Wesley, it
appeared in a small book of 24 pages. _Hymns for the Nativity of our
Lord_, published in 1744. It is found in nearly all the modern hymn
books in England and America.

For comments on Charles Wesley see Hymn 6.

_MUSIC._ HYFRYDOL is a Welsh tune composed by Rowland Hugh Prichard,
1811-87, of Bala, Wales, who was active in the church as song leader,
soloist, and composer of tunes. This tune is a composition of his youth,
while he was still under twenty. It is characterized by its length,
smoothness, and utter simplicity, the whole melody moving throughout,
except for one note, within the compass of the fifth.


                               HIS BIRTH


70. Joy to the world! the Lord is come          _Isaac Watts_, 1674-1748

This hymn, which has such an important place in the yearly celebration
of the Nativity, is a free rendering of the latter part of Psalm 98:
“Make a joyful noise unto the Lord, all the earth: make a loud noise,
and rejoice, and sing praise.” Watts entitled it, “Messiah’s Coming and
Kingdom.” His effort to put the New Testament gospel into the Psalm
resulted in a great hymn of the Advent and Nativity, though his free
rendering nearly lost sight of the Psalm itself. He feels all nature
thrilling with joy at the Saviour’s birth.

For comments on Isaac Watts see Hymn 11.

_MUSIC._ ANTIOCH is an arrangement, credited by some authorities to
Lowell Mason, from Handel’s _Messiah_. The opening phrase resembles the
first bar of the chorus, “Lift up your heads,” and the four measures set
to “and heaven and nature sing” are reminiscent of the introduction to
the tenor recitative, “Comfort ye my people.” It is a stirring tune well
fitted to the words. It may be sung antiphonally to good effect, the
congregation singing lines 1 and 2 (1st score), the choir, lines 3 and 4
(2d and 3d scores), and both choir and congregation the refrain (last
score).


71. Christians, awake! salute the happy morn     _John Byrom_, 1692-1763

From a longer poem of 48 lines, written about 1749, by Dr. John Byrom
for his daughter Dolly who, when asked what she would like to have for a
Christmas present, replied, “Please write me a poem.” On Christmas
morning she found on her plate at the breakfast table a sheet of paper
on which was written this poem, entitled, “Christmas Day. For Dolly.” It
is based on Luke 2.

John Byrom was born in Manchester, England, graduated from Cambridge,
studied medicine but gave up its practice in order to teach a system of
shorthand he himself had invented, and which became the chief system of
shorthand in his time. He was a friend of Charles and John Wesley and
taught them shorthand, which Charles especially put to good use in
dashing down hymns as they flashed into his mind. Byrom was a man of
learning and piety and also was given to wit and humor. He coined the
phrase “tweedledum and tweedledee” when the friends of Handel and
Buononcini were debating the relative merits of the two composers:

  Some say, compared to Buononcini
    That Mynheer Handel is a ninny.
  Others aver that he to Handel
    Is scarcely fit to hold a candle.
  Strange all this difference should be
    Twixt tweedledum and tweedledee.

_MUSIC._ YORKSHIRE was composed by a musician and organist, John
Wainwright, of whom little is known. He is remembered principally by
this tune. Musically and emotionally, the tune is completely
satisfactory and well deserves its great popularity. It has been a
favorite among English speaking people for nearly a century.


72. Today be joy in every heart         _Frederick L. Hosmer_, 1840-1929

A hymn of Christmas peace.

The author, Frederic L. Hosmer, one of America’s foremost hymn writers,
was born in Framingham, Mass., and died in Berkeley, Calif. He was
educated at Harvard University and Divinity School and served as
minister of Unitarian churches in Northboro, Mass., Quincy, Ill.,
Cleveland, O., St. Louis, Mo., and Berkeley, Calif. At least 35 of his
hymns have come into more or less use in this country and in England.
The _Hymnary_ includes thirteen, a larger number than of any other
writer except Wesley and Watts.

_MUSIC._ DORKING, an English folk tune of anonymous composition, as all
folk tunes are, has characteristic grace of melody and strength of
rhythm.


73-74. While shepherds watched their flocks      _Nahum Tate_, 1652-1715

This carol is the work of Nahum Tate, poet laureate and co-author with
Nicholas Brady of the _New Version_ of the psalms in meter, to which was
added a supplement in 1770 containing this hymn. The quaint and
picturesque paraphrase of Luke 2:9-11, closing with the doxology, was
one of the few hymns permitted to be sung in the English churches along
with the metrical psalms. It became very popular and has been translated
into the Latin and nearly all the living languages. The words have been
set to many tunes.

For comments on Nahum Tate, see Hymn 18.

_MUSIC._ CHRISTMAS is an adaptation of a melody from Handel’s opera,
_Siroe_. Geo. F. Handel was born in Prussia in 1685 (the same year as J.
S. Bach) and died in 1759. He lived in England 50 years and became a
naturalized English citizen. He wrote many forms of music but is chiefly
known and loved for his oratorio, _The Messiah_.

_MUSIC._ ST. MARTIN’S (74), by William Tans’ur, is less joyful than
“Christmas,” but the tune fits the words perfectly. Its quiet, mystic
melody suggests the serenity of the Judean hillside where shepherds
watched their flocks.

William Tans’ur, 1706-85, was the son of a laborer, whose name is
spelled “Tanzer” in the church register. He became a teacher of
psalmody, moved from town to town to conduct singing classes, and did
much to improve psalm-singing in the Church of England. He published a
number of books on music. An eccentric man, given to self-advertisement,
he described his first volume _The Harmony of Sion_, 1734, as “The most
curiosest Book that ever was published.”


75. It came upon a midnight clear             _Edmund H. Sears_, 1810-76

Published by the _Christian Register_ in 1860, the hymn quickly attained
wide popularity. Edmund H. Sears was minister of a Unitarian Church at
Wayland, Mass. He wrote, “Though I was educated in the Unitarian
denomination, I believe and preach the divinity of Christ.” A careful
reading of the hymn reveals a fine social message. The author was
writing at a time of extraordinary unrest throughout the world, caused
in America by the passing of the Fugitive Slave Law, the great
forty-niner gold rush to California, and in Europe by the aftermath of
the revolution in France and Germany. In the stillness of the first
Christmas night, the author finds a message of healing for our
restlessness, and with Isaiah looks forward to a golden age when peace
shall reign on earth. But when will that time come? The Civil War,
tragic irony, followed in ten years! The hope, however, abides and is
valid, for peace is in the ultimate plan of God.

_MUSIC._ CAROL was composed by Richard Storrs Willis, brother of the
American poet, N. P. Willis. It is a graceful, popular tune, and is
often set to “While shepherds watched their flock by night,” for which
it is admirably adapted.


76. The first Noel the angel did say                       _Traditional_

“Noel” is a French word which came to mean several things—a “song of the
Birthday,” or “Christmas,” or “Carol.” A carol is a religious song
telling the story of a place or person or event. It is less formal and
solemn than an ordinary church hymn and was originally intended to be
sung outside rather than within the church walls. The words and music of
this carol are traditional, which means that no one knows who composed
them or when. They are known to have existed as early as the 17th
century. It is a very popular carol even though not quite true to the
gospel account in verse 2, for it was the wise men, not the shepherds,
that saw the star. Since most of the words have to do with the coming of
the wise men, the carol is fully as suitable for Epiphany as for
Christmas.

_MUSIC._ The tune THE FIRST NOEL is one of the best-known of all English
carol airs, especially in the west of England.


77. The stars were silent and the hills                       _E. Royce_

The poem was published in the _Presbyterian_ about 1939. No specific
information is at hand concerning the author. Bixel, composer of the
music, is under the impression that E. Royce was a missionary to China
who sent this poem to her church paper for publication.

_MUSIC._ SILENT was composed for this carol by James W. Bixel, who was
born at Bluffton, Ohio, November 7, 1913. After graduating from Bluffton
College, Bixel studied music in Cincinnati Conservatory of Music, where
he received his Master of Music degree in composition. He taught music
in the public schools of Mt. Gilead, Ohio, and then spent nearly four
years in Civilian Public Service. In the fall of 1947 he became a
teacher of harmony and piano in the music department of Bethel College.
The tune, begun and completed in one evening, has the distinction of
being the only one in the _Hymnary_ composed by a Mennonite. Which leads
one to observe that our hymns and tunes, like many other elements in our
culture, are “ours” by appreciation and use rather than by invention or
creation. It may be the future will find us less “practical” minded than
heretofore and that poetic and musical gifts will yet come to fruition
to make our contribution to the stream of hymns and tunes that have
enriched the worship of the Visible Church of all places and ages.


78. What child is this                         _William C. Dix_, 1837-98

One of numerous carols written by William Dix about 1865.

William Chatterton Dix was the son of a Bristol surgeon. He was educated
for a business career and became the manager of a marine insurance
company in Glasgow. He maintained, however, his literary interests and
wrote the _Life of Chatterton_, the poet; a book of _Pen Pictures of
Popular English Preachers_; and other works, including several volumes
of devotional poetry. He had been ill in bed on Epiphany Day, and after
reading the Gospel for the day, he wrote this hymn, finishing it by
evening. It became very popular and is found in nearly all English
hymnals. The accuracy of the second verse may be questioned—“To that
lowly manger bed.” For it is not likely that the babe Jesus was still in
the manger when the wise men appeared.

_MUSIC._ CHRIST THE KING, known in many hymnals as “Greensleeves,” is an
old English melody of the 17th century, mentioned somewhere by
Shakespeare. It is a joyous tune which may be sung as a solo, or with
the sopranos singing the words of the stanzas, while the other parts hum
the accompaniment, then all parts singing the refrain in harmony or in
unison.


79. Come, all ye shepherds                                 _Traditional_

A shepherd carol from Bohemia.

The words and music are traditional.

_MUSIC._ The tune was arranged by Edward Shippen Barnes, b. 1887,
American organist and composer who received his musical education at
Yale and in Paris. He now lives at Santa Monica, California. His
personal counsel was solicited and secured in the compilation and
editing of the _Hymnary_.


80. O come, all ye faithful                                      _Latin_

    Adeste, fideles,
    Laeti triumphantes;
  Venite, venite in Bethlehem;
    Natum videte
    Regem Angelorum:
  Venite, adoremus Dominum.

    Deum de Deo;
    Lumen de Lumine,
  Gestant puellae viscera
    Deum Verum,
    Genitum, non factum:
  Venite, adoremus Dominum.

    Ergo Qui natus
    Die hodierna,
  Iesu, Tibi sit gloria:
    Patris Aeterni
    Verbum Caro factum!
  Venite, adoremus Dominum.

A priceless legacy from the Latin Church and one of the most popular of
Christmas hymns. It has been translated into at least 125 languages. The
origin of the text and tune is obscure. The original poem may have been
German or French of the 17th or 18th century.

From the lengthy (and on the whole profitless) discussions of the
possible origins of the hymn, it may be concluded that the hymn and tune
came into use together, in the services of the Roman Church, during the
first part of the 18th century; that they were circulated first in
manuscript form and later appeared in print, the earliest known book
containing them being a small volume, _An Essay on the Church Plain
Chant_, published in London, 1782. Nothing definite can be stated as to
the authors of either words or music.

The translation was made in 1841 by Frederick Oakeley, 1802-80, Church
of England minister who later joined the Roman Catholics.

_MUSIC._ ADESTE FIDELES belongs by long association to this hymn, its
name being derived from the first words of the Latin. It is also widely
used with “How firm a foundation.” The present arrangement is credited
to Vincent Novello, organist in the Portuguese Chapel in London about
1785.


81. Angels from the realms of glory        _James Montgomery_, 1771-1854

A graceful lyric presenting to the imagination a series of pictures—the
Angels, the Shepherds, the Wise Men, and the Saints who like Simeon and
Anna, were waiting for the consolation of Israel. The fourth verse is
reminiscent of the prophetic words of Malachi: “The Lord whom ye seek
shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant
whom ye delight in: behold he shall come, saith the Lord of Hosts”
(3:1).

It is widely used for the Christmas season.

For comments on James Montgomery see Hymn 62.

_MUSIC._ REGENT SQUARE is a jubilant, vigorous tune, composed for the
English _Presbyterian Hymnal_ of 1867 in which it was set to Bonar’s
hymn, “Glory be to God the Father.”

The composer, Henry Smart, 1813-79, studied law for four years and then
decided to become a musician. Though he had little formal musical
training, he became a great organist, composer, and conductor. He became
totally blind by 1865, but, being a capable improviser, and possessing a
keen memory, he was able to continue as an organist. He did much for the
cause of good music in the church.

For further comments on Smart see Hymn 46.


82. Angels we have heard on high                       _Bishop Chadwick_

A popular carol of French origin, sung first in England by the
Westminster Abbey Choir and for that reason it is sometimes called the
“Westminster Carol.”

No information has been traced concerning Bishop Chadwick.

_MUSIC._ GLORIA is a traditional melody of anonymous composition. The
tune has been variously harmonized. This version is found in the _St.
Basil’s Hymnal_, compiled by the Basilian Fathers, and published in
Chicago, 1918 (Revised Ed.).


83. Silent night, holy night                    _Joseph Mohr_, 1792-1848

The most loved and most widely used of all Christmas carols.

It was composed December 24, 1818, by Joseph Mohr, 1792-1848, assistant
Catholic priest in an obscure German village, Oberndorf, near Salzburg,
Austria. At a Christmas celebration in the schoolhouse Mohr withdrew for
a time, then returned with a folded sheet of paper on which this carol
was written. He handed it to his friend, Franz Gruber, 1787-1863,
schoolmaster, song writer, and organist, as a Christmas gift. Gruber
composed the tune for it the same evening. The author and composer sang
it together, the latter accompanying on the guitar, and a choir of girls
from the village joining in the melody. The hymn and the tune became
immensely popular in Germany and Austria even before they appeared in
print, through their use by wandering Tyrolese singers. Today the carol
is sung in all Christian lands. It was a favorite of the great opera
singer Madame Ernestine Schumann-Heink, and she sang it on many of her
concert appearances.

_MUSIC._ STILLE NACHT. In keeping with German custom, the tune is named
after the first line of the hymn for which it was written.

A plaque in the schoolhouse at Oberndorf bears the following
inscription:

  Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht!
  Wer hat dich, O Lied, gemacht?
  Mohr hat dich so schoen erdacht,
  Gruber zu Gehoer gebracht,
  Priester und Lehrer vereint.


84. O little town of Bethlehem                _Phillips Brooks_, 1835-93

This carol was written for children, but it has become popular
everywhere with adults as well.

Phillips Brooks, one of America’s greatest preachers, grew up in a
musical home where memorizing and reciting of hymns was a part of the
children’s education. By the time he was ready for college he had
committed over 200 hymns to memory. He graduated from Harvard and from
the Episcopal Theological Seminary, Alexandria, Virginia, and served as
rector at the Church of the Advent, Philadelphia, and at Trinity Church,
Boston, where his preaching powers came to full and fruitful fruition.
In 1891, he became Bishop of Massachusetts. While in Philadelphia, he
was given a year’s leave of absence to travel in Europe and the Near
East. In Christmas Week in 1865, he rode on horseback from Jerusalem to
Bethlehem. The view of the little town is thought to have inspired this
hymn which he wrote several years later for the Christmas service of the
Sunday school in his church.

_MUSIC._ ST. LOUIS. Brooks asked his church organist, Lewis Redner, who
was also Sunday school superintendent, to set the carol to music. This
was done in great haste on the Saturday night before Christmas, 1868.
The words and tune, printed on leaflets, were sung by six teachers and
36 Sunday school children, and then practically forgotten until 1892
when they were published in the _Hymnal of the Episcopal Church_. The
hymn has become popular since, not only in America but also in England.
The tune generally used in England, however, is not “St. Louis,” but
“Forest Green.” (See 290.)


85. Hark the herald angels sing                _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88

One of the most popular English hymns. Julian listed four hymns as
standing at the head of all in the English language: “When I survey”
(105-6), “Rock of Ages” (148), “Awake my soul” (25), and this one.

It is taken from Wesley’s _Hymns and Sacred Poems_, 1739. The original
had 10 four-line stanzas and no refrain. The hymn has been altered in
various ways and improved. For example, the lines,

  With the angelic host proclaim,
    Christ is born in Bethlehem,

originally read

  Universal nature say
    Christ the Lord is born today.

And for our familiar first lines,

  Hark! the herald angels sing!
    Glory to the new-born King,

Wesley had

  Hark! how all the welkin rings,
    Glory to the King of Kings.

These, and other changes, disprove the common assertion that hymns
should always be sung just as the authors left them. As a rule, however,
it still remains true that “the _professional_ hymn mender is an odious
creature.”

For comments on Charles Wesley see Hymn 6.

_MUSIC._ MENDELSSOHN, also called “Bethlehem” and “St. Vincent,” is from
Mendelssohn’s _Festgesang_ for Male Chorus and Orchestra, composed in
1840 to celebrate the invention of printing. The tune is adapted from
chorus No. 2 of that work. Dr. W. H. Cummings, organist at Waltham
Abbey, set the tune to the words of this hymn and had it sung by the
Abbey Choir. It was so well received that he published it in 1856 and it
has since found its way into the hymn books of all denominations.

It is interesting to note Mendelssohn’s own estimate of the tune, as he
expressed it in a letter to his English publishers.

  I am sure that piece will be liked very much by the singers and
  hearers, but it will never do to sacred words. There must be a
  national and merry subject found out, something to which the
  soldier-like and buxom motion of the piece has some relation, and the
  words must express something gay and popular as the music tries to do.


86. O holy night

The night of the Saviour’s birth is the subject of Christmas carols in
every land, of which this and “Silent Night” are outstanding examples.
The words are anonymous.

The omitted third stanza reads as follows:

  Truly He taught us to love one another;
    His law is love and His gospel is peace.
  Chains shall he break for the slave is our brother,
    And in His name all oppression shall cease.
  Sweet hymn of joy in grateful chorus raise we,
    Let all within us praise His holy name;
  Christ is the Lord, Oh, praise His name forever!
    His power and glory evermore proclaim.
    His power and glory evermore proclaim.

_MUSIC._ The tune, HOLY NIGHT, is by Adolphe Adam, 1803-56,
distinguished French composer of comic operas and teacher of
composition. He became a professor in the Conservatory of Music in Paris
in 1849.


                              HIS EPIPHANY


87. What star is this                             _C. Coffin_, 1676-1749

A Latin hymn, _Quae stella sole pulchrior_, was included in the _Paris
Breviary_, 1736, and, again, in Coffin’s _Hymni Sacri_, 1736. Charles
Coffin, rector of the University of Paris, wrote a large number of
hymns, “not so much,” he says, “to gratify the poetic Spirit as to
achieve elegance and piety.”

The translation is by John Chandler, 1806-76, in his _Hymns of the
Primitive Church_, 1837. Chandler was educated at Oxford and became a
minister in the Church of England. Besides making a collection of hymns,
he is the author of several biographies and volumes of devotional
literature. His translation of this hymn has passed into many English
hymn books but invariably with some alterations.

_MUSIC._ PUER NOBIS is an arrangement of a German folk tune published by
the German composer, Michael Praetorius, 1571-1621, which he wrote in
1609. It was harmonized in 1904 by G. R. Woodward, an English musician.
It is a spirited tune and should be sung briskly and merrily.


88. Bethlehem, of noblest cities              _Prudentius_, 348-_c._ 413
                                               _Tr. E. Caswall_, 1814-78

Based on Matt. 2:6: “And thou, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, art not
the least among the princes of Judah: for out of thee shall come a
governor, that shall rule my people Israel,” and the story of the three
wise men bringing their gifts to Jesus.

The author, Prudentius, 348-c. 413, a Spaniard, was one of the best and
most prolific of early Latin Christian poets. He received legal training
and served as lawyer and judge in several cities. At the age of 57 he
entered a monastery and for the rest of his life was a writer of poetry
in defense of and in praise of the Christian faith. He is regarded by
some as the first really great Christian poet and was widely read in
Europe throughout the Middle Ages, Erasmus being one of his admirers.

The translation is by Edward Caswall who shortly before had left the
Church of England to become a priest in the Roman Catholic Church.
Caswall was a Latin scholar and did much translating of Latin hymns. For
further comments on Caswall see Hymn 19.

_MUSIC._ STUTTGART is adapted from a melody by Christian F. Witt in his
_Psalmodia Sacra_, published in Gotha, 1715, where it is set to the
hymn, “_Sollt es gleich bisweilen scheinen_.” It is a stately,
straightforward tune of simple, rhythmic pattern and is singable by any
average congregation.

Christian F. Witt, 1660-1716, was a court organist and later
_Kapellmeister_ at Gotha. He composed a number of hymn tunes.


89. From the eastern mountains               _Godfrey Thring_, 1823-1903

Based on Matt. 2:2: “We have seen his star in the east and are come to
worship Him.” Its reference to the guiding star and its missionary
emphasis fit it ideally for the Epiphany season, but the hymn may be
used appropriately on more general occasions.

Godfrey Thring was educated at Shrewsbury and Balliol College, Oxford,
and held various positions as minister in the Church of England. In
1859, he succeeded his father as rector of Alford-with-Hornblotton and
in 1876, became prebendary of East Harptree in Wells Cathedral. He
published various hymn books of a high literary standard.

_MUSIC._ PRINCETHORPE. This tune, by William Pitts, 1824-1903, was taken
from _The Hymnary_ of the United Church of Canada. No information is at
hand concerning the composer or the origin of the tune.


90. We three kings of Orient are         _John H. Hopkins, Jr._, 1820-91

A popular carol giving the story of the wise men seeing the star and
bringing gifts to the Christ child.

John Henry Hopkins, Jr., was born at Pittsburgh, Pa. His father was an
Episcopalian minister who became the Bishop of Vermont. John was
educated at the University of Vermont and later was minister at
Williamsport, Pa. He is the author of several books of poems.

_MUSIC._ KINGS OF ORIENT was composed for this hymn by the author.


91. Brightest and best of the sons           _Reginald Heber_, 1783-1826

A lovely hymn of great beauty and simplicity of form and characterized
by robust faith—“richer by far is the heart’s adoration.” It was written
for the feast of Epiphany and was entitled, “Star of the East.” The hymn
was first published in the _Christian Observer_, 1811.

Heber, a hymnist of the first order, ranking with Wesley and Watts, was
governed by three ideas in his hymn writing: (1) the hymn is liturgical
and should follow the church year; (2) the hymn should follow and
supplement the sermon; (3) the hymn should be literary art.

For further comments on Reginald Heber see Hymn 1.

_MUSIC._ BRIGHTEST AND BEST was composed by Rev. Joseph Francis Thrupp,
1827-67, fellow of Cambridge College and minister in the Church of
England. He is the author of several books on Biblical subjects and
wrote a number of hymns of merit, none of which have come into general
use.


                         HIS LIFE AND MINISTRY


92. O sing a song of Bethlehem              _Louis F. Benson_, 1855-1930

Written as a Christmas carol but sings also of the later life of Jesus
in Nazareth, Galilee, and at Calvary. It was contributed to _The School
Hymnal_ (Presbyterian), edited by Dr. Benson in 1899.

Louis Fitzgerald Benson was born in Philadelphia and educated for the
bar. After seven years of practice, he gave up law to enter Princeton
Theological Seminary and was ordained a Presbyterian minister. He became
minister of the Church of the Redeemer, Germantown, Pa., but resigned
his charge after six years, to begin his great work as editor of hymn
books and writer and lecturer on hymnology. His book, _The English
Hymn_, unfortunately out of print, has no rival as a source of accurate
information about the development and use of English and American hymns.
His _Studies in Familiar Hymns_ (2 vols.) is unexcelled. For forty years
Dr. Benson rendered outstanding service to all students of hymnology
through his writings and lectures on the subject. He composed 32
original hymns and made 16 translations from the Latin which were
published as _Hymns, Original and Translated_, Philadelphia, 1925, in
which the present hymn appears.

_MUSIC._ BETHLEHEM, also called “Evangel,” was composed by Gottfried W.
Fink, 1783-1846, German minister, musician, music critic, and editor,
who was appointed in 1842 to a Professorship of Music at Leipzig. It is
a joyful tune in popular style, especially suitable for large choruses
or congregations.


93. O Master Workman of the race            _Jay T. Stocking_, 1870-1936

A hymn entitled, “The Carpenter of Nazareth,” written for young people
while the author was watching some carpenters at work in an Adirondack
Camp. It is one of a number of excellent modern hymns concerned with the
earthly life of Jesus and connecting Him with our daily life and labor.
Others are “O Master let me walk with Thee” (223), “Where cross the
crowded ways” (222), and “O Son of Man, Thou madest known” (373).

Jay T. Stocking was educated at Amherst, Yale Divinity School, and at
the University of Berlin. He was ordained in 1901, held a number of
prominent pastorates in the Congregational Church, and was made
moderator of the Congregational Council in 1934. He is the author of
several books and was a member of the Commission on International
Justice and Good Will of the Federal Council of Churches.

_MUSIC._ ST. MICHEL’S appeared in a collection of _Psalms and Hymns_,
compiled by William Gawler, and published in London around 1784 to 1789,
for use of the children of an orphan asylum at Lambeth. It was set to
“Creator Spirit, by whose aid,” a long-meter hymn. Later the tune was
changed to common meter double. It is also known by the names “St.
Maria,” “Beulah,” and “Woolrich Common.” The composer of the tune is not
known. _The Hymnary_ of the United Church of Canada attributes it to
Haydn. At No. 125 of the _Hymnary_ it appears as “Jerusalem, Jerusalem,”
where it is erroneously attributed, in the earlier editions, to Thomas
Hastings—an error carried over from the _Gesangbuch mit Noten_. Hastings
was born at about the same time the tune was already in print! It is
possible, of course, that he made an arrangement of the tune, and
thereby getting his name associated, inadvertently, with its
composition.

Wm. Gawler, c. 1750-1809, was a London musician and music publisher. In
1785, while organist at the Lambeth “Asylum,” a home, the first of its
kind in England, for fatherless girls, he published the book _Psalms and
Hymns_, referred to, later adding a supplement. Gawler made other
compilations of music books and also did some composing.


94. Ye fair green hills of Galilee          _Eustace R. Conder_, 1820-92

A fine hymn, setting forth obedience to duty and love to God and man as
the marks of Christ’s followers. It was contributed by the author to the
_Congregational Church Hymnal_, London, 1887.

Eustace Rogers Conder studied for the Congregational ministry in
Birmingham and later graduated with high honors in philosophy at London
University. For 17 years, he was minister of a Congregational Church at
Poole, where he trained students for missionary work, besides attending
to his regular duties as pastor. In 1873, he was elected chairman of the
Congregational Union of England and Wales. He wrote several books,
including _Outlines of the Life of Christ_ and _Sleepy Forest_, a book
of fairy tales for children.

_MUSIC._ STELLA is from an old English melody in 6-8 time which the
children sang to “Sweet Mary, sweet Mary, my age is sixteen.” About
1850, it was arranged by Henri F. Hemy, 1818-88, English organist, for
use in Catholic churches as an easy choir number. In 1875, the tune
appeared (almost note for note as in the _Hymnary_) in the Appendix of
_St. Alban’s Tune Book_, a book of pre-Reformation hymns set to
plainsong melodies. The Appendix of the book is a treasure house of
arrangements and adaptations of singable tunes from sacred and secular
sources.


95. Thine arm, O Lord, in days of old      _Edward H. Plumptre_, 1821-91

A hymn on the healing ministry of Christ, written in 1864 for use in the
Chapel of King’s College Hospital, London. Suitable for Hospital Day and
other occasions.

Edward Hayes Plumptre, an English scholar and church man, was educated
at King’s College, London, and at Oxford. He was minister in various
churches (Anglican) and became Professor of New Testament Exegesis at
King’s College. He wrote many excellent books, including the standard
_Life of Bishop Ken_, and several volumes of poems. He was appointed a
member of the Old Testament Company of Revisers of the Bible. This hymn
was included in the 2d edition of his _Lazarus, and other Poems_, from
which it made its way into the hymnals.

_MUSIC._ ST. MATTHEW, a psalm tune, appeared in the 6th ed. (1708) of _A
Supplement to the New Version of Psalms_, by Tate and Brady, where it
was set, in two parts, treble and bass, to Psalm 33. In slightly altered
form, it became one of the great hymn tunes but is more popular in
England than in America.

For comments on William Croft, 1678-1727, an important name in English
church music, see Hymn 6.


96. Who is he in yonder stall                  _Benj. R. Hanby_, 1833-67

A hymn on the birth, ministry, passion, resurrection, and exaltation of
Christ, the refrain answering the question asked in each stanza. It may
be used effectively for antiphonal singing between choir and
congregation.

The author, Benjamin Russel Hanby, was a minister in the United Brethren
Church but was strongly inclined to music and decided to make that his
life work. An interesting and talented man, he became associated with
George F. Root in the publication of sacred and secular song books in
Chicago. He was the author of a number of Sunday school songs and of
“Darling Nellie Gray,” “Old Shady,” and other popular numbers. His
untimely death ended his career almost before it was well begun. His
father, the Rev. William Hanby, was a bishop in the church of the United
Brethren in Christ and editor, for a number of years, of _The
Telescope_, the church’s official paper published at Circleville, Ohio.

_MUSIC._ LOWLINESSS was composed by the author of the words.


97. Fairest Lord Jesus                                   _Münster_, 1677
                                                 _Translated_, _c._ 1850

Called the “Crusader’s Hymn,” but there is no foundation for the
tradition that it was sung by the German knights of the 12th century on
their way to Jerusalem. The text and tune are modern. The German text
was published in _Münster Gesangbuch_, 1677 (Catholic). Our translation,
the oldest English version, is by an unknown author, about 1850. A later
translation, beginning “Beautiful Savior,” was made by J. A. Seiss in
1873. The original is as follows:

    Schönster Herr Jesu,
    Herrscher aller Herren,
  Gottes und Mariä Sohn!
    Dich will ich lieben,
    Dich will ich ehren.
  Meiner Seelen Freund’ und Kron’.

    Schön leucht’t der Monden,
    Schöner die Sonne
  Als die Sternlein allzumal.
    Jesus leucht’t schöner,
    Jesus leucht’t reiner,
  Als all die Engel im Himmelssaal.

    Schön sind die Wälder,
    Schöner die Felder
  In der schönen Frühlingszeit.
    Jesus ist schöner,
    Jesus ist reiner,
  Der unser traurigs Herz erfreut.

    Alle die Schönheit
    Himmels und der Erde
  Ist nur gegen ihn als Schein.
    Keiner soll nimmer
    Lieber uns werden
  Als er, der schönste Jesus mein!

_MUSIC._ CRUSADER’S HYMN, also known as _Schönster Herr Jesu_, appeared
in a book of Silesian folk songs, _Schlesische Volkslieder_, Leipzig,
1842. The hymn with this tune was first published in America in _Church
Carols and Choir Studies_ by the American composer Richard Storrs
Willis, 1850. F. Melius Christiansen, director of the St. Olaf Choir,
has arranged an exquisite anthem on this melody with the words
“Beautiful Savior.”

It is a useful and charming melody. Its popularity in Germany ranks with
Paul Gerhardt’s “_Befiehl du deine Wege_.”


98. Not always on the mount             _Frederick L. Hosmer_, 1840-1929

Based on the story of the transfiguration in Matthew 17, the lesson
enforced by the hymn is that the mount is necessary for vision; we
cannot abide there, yet our work in the valley will be nobler for the
pattern shown us on the mount.

For comments on Frederick L. Hosmer see Hymn 72.

The hymn, written in 1882, was first published in _Unity_, Chicago,
April 1, 1884. A year later it was included, in revised form, in the
author’s first series of _The Thought of God_.

_MUSIC._ TRANSYLVANIA is from a 16th century Hungarian chorale, arranged
by Robert L. Sanders, F. A. A. R., Chicago, for _Hymns of the Spirit_,
Beacon Press, 1938.


99. I know not how that Bethlehem’s Babe          _Harry W. Farrington_,
                                                               1880-1931

A Christmas song written in 1910, while the author was a graduate
student at Harvard University. It was awarded the prize which had been
offered for the best Christmas hymn written by a student. Though simple
and unpretentious, Professor George Herbert Palmer declared it “a
perfect poem.” The few lines encompass a vast body of Christian truth.

The author, Harry W. Farrington, 1880-1931 (date of death printed
erroneously as 1911 in earlier editions of the _Hymnary_), was educated
at Harvard and then became a Methodist minister. He was greatly
interested in work among children and inaugurated the Week Day Church
School at Gary, Ind., in 1914. After returning from service in World War
I, he became widely known as a speaker for children and it is estimated
that he addressed more than two million children in the public schools
of America. He is the author of several volumes of poems and has written
books on Franklin, Washington, Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt.

_MUSIC._ ES IST EIN BORN, also named “I Do Believe,” and “Camp-meeting,”
is an early American camp-meeting chorus sung to:

  I do believe, I now believe,
    I can hold out no more;
  I sink by dying love compelled
    And own Thee Conqueror.

It is used in the _Gesangbuch mit Noten_ to the words “_Es ist ein Born,
d’raus heil’ges Blut_.”


                          HIS TRIUMPHAL ENTRY


100. All glory laud and honor       _St. Theodulph of Orleans_, _c._ 820
                                               _Tr. John M. Neale_, 1854

From a long Latin hymn of 39 couplets, based on Psalm 24:7-10; Psalm
118:25-26; Matthew 21:1-17; and Luke 19:37-38.

  Gloria, laus et honor tibi sit, rex, Christe, redemptor,
    cui puerile decus prompsit hosanna pium.

  Israel tu rex, Davidis et inclyta proles,
    nomine qui in Domini, rex benedicte, venis.

  Coetus in excelsis te laudat caelicus omnis
    et mortalis homo, cuncta creata simul.

  Plebs Hebraea tibi cum palmis obvia venit;
    cum prece, voto, hymnis adsumus ecce tibi.

  Hi tibi passuro solvebant munia laudis;
    nos tibi regnanti pangimus ecce melos.

  Hi placuere tibi; placeat devotio nostra,
    rex pie, rex clemens, cui bona cuncta placent. Amen.

The hymn was used as the processional in the Palm Sunday service of the
medieval church.

St. Theodulph of Orleans composed the words about A.D. 820. He was
probably born in Italy, though neither the date nor place of his birth
are definitely known. Theodulph became the abbot of a monastery in
Florence but was later brought to France and made bishop of Orleans.
Emperor Louis the Pious imprisoned him on a false charge of conspiracy
in 818. There is a legend, but only a legend, that this hymn was
composed during the author’s confinement, and that St. Theodulph sang it
at the window of his cell as the King passed the prison on the way to
church and that the latter was so moved by it that he ordered the
release of Theodulph and his restoration to his office as bishop.

The translation was made by the learned John M. Neale (See 67) who wrote
that “another verse was usually sung, until the 17th century, at the
pious quaintness of which we can scarcely avoid a smile:

  “Be thou, O Lord, the rider,
    And we the little ass;
  That to God’s holy city
    Together we may pass.”

_MUSIC._ ST. THEODULPH was composed by Melchior Teschner (c. 1615), a
Lutheran pastor and musician. It was originally sung to the German
chorale, _Valet will ich dir geben_ (“Farewell, I gladly bid thee”), a
hymn for the dying. That the same tune is used to carry a cheerful,
festive hymn, as well as a hymn for the dying, illustrates the
plasticity of hymn tunes. Bach used the tune in his _St. John’s
Passion_, and it is also associated with Gerhardt’s “_Wie soll ich dich
empfangen_.” It is widely used as a Palm Sunday processional with St.
Theodulph’s words. The refrain may be sung by the congregation,
answering to the verses sung by the choir. Processional hymns were
almost invariably sung that way in the medieval church and Canon
Douglass suggests that “we should put this plan into far wider practice
if we really desire to improve our congregational singing.”


101. Ride on, ride on in majesty            _Henry H. Milman_, 1791-1868

A popular Palm Sunday hymn and incidentally one of the finest poems in
our hymn books. It was written by Henry H. Milman at the age of 30, the
year he was elected Professor of Poetry at Oxford University—1821.

Henry H. Milman was born in London, the son of Sir Francis Milman,
physician to the King. After a brilliant career at Oxford, he was
ordained at 25, appointed Professor of Poetry at Oxford at 30. Later he
became canon of Westminster and finally dean of St. Paul’s Cathedral in
London, which high office he filled with distinction. He is the author
of thirteen hymns. Milman was interested, too, in drama and wrote
several plays and translated Greek plays. He is best known, however, as
a historian, having published _The History of the Jews_ in 1829, and the
_History of Latin Christianity_ in 1855, both of them classics.

_MUSIC._ ST. DROSTANE was written for the words “Ride on, ride on” for
the _Congregational Hymn and Tune Book_, London, 1862. It has since come
into wide use with this hymn. Other tunes also used with this text are
“Winchester New” (369) and “Park Street” (272).

For comments on the composer, J. B. Dykes, see Hymn 1.


                              HIS PASSION


102. When my love to God grows weak           _John R. Wreford_, 1800-81

A useful hymn, true to the Gospel record, and free from the emotional
morbidity that is found in many passion hymns.

John Wreford, an Englishman trained for the Unitarian ministry, was
compelled to give up his ministry on account of a failing voice. He then
opened a school at Edgbaston. The later years of his life were spent in
retirement at Bristol. The original of this hymn written in 1837,
received little notice until it was rewritten and improved by Samuel
Longfellow, brother of the more famous Henry Wadsworth. In this revised
form it has been included in a number of the best English hymnals.

_MUSIC._ ORIENTIS PARTIBUS, the so-called “Donkey Festival Tune,” has a
most peculiar origin. During the Middle Ages, the church in some parts
of France celebrated January 14 as the “Feast of the Ass,” to
commemorate the flight into Egypt. A beautiful young woman holding a
child in her arms rode a donkey through the streets of the town and then
into the principal church. The donkey, with its burden, stood beside the
high altar while mass was celebrated, during which the hymn beginning
with the line “_Orientis partibus adventatis asinus_” was sung. The
melody of this hymn is the basis for our tune which was adapted by
Richard Redhead and published in his _Church Hymn Tunes_, 1853. The
original was the work of Pierre De Corbeil, Archbishop of Sens, who died
in 1222. It is a virile tune worthy of its increasing place in modern
hymn books.

For Richard Redhead see Hymn 109.


103. ’Tis midnight and on Olive’s brow         _William Bingham Tappan_,
                                                               1794-1849

A midnight hymn, depicting the darkness and sadness of Gethsemane. It is
often sung at communion services held on Thursday evening before Good
Friday.

William Bingham Tappan, a clock maker, was an influential leader in
Sunday school work in the Congregational Church in America. In early
manhood he taught school in Philadelphia, and then from 1826 until his
death he was in the employ of the American Sunday School Union as
manager and superintendent at Philadelphia, Cincinnati, and Boston. He
wrote and published eight or ten volumes of poetry of no special
significance.

_MUSIC._ OLIVET’S BROW was composed for this hymn and was first
published in _The Shawm_, 1853, by Bradbury and Root.

William Batchelder Bradbury, 1816-68, was born in York, Maine. After
many struggles, due to poverty, he learned music from Lowell Mason and
G. J. Webb and began conducting singing classes. He did outstanding work
in New York City in teaching music to children. His Juvenile Music
Festivals at the Baptist Tabernacle became an important feature of New
York’s musical life and gave a powerful stimulus to the introduction of
music into the public schools. In 1847, he went abroad for further study
in music. Upon returning to America, he became associated with Geo. F.
Root, Thos. Hastings, and Lowell Mason in musical Normal Institute work.
The group collaborated in the production of a new type of church music,
known as gospel songs, which swept the country during the revivalistic
work of Moody and Sankey.


104. There is a green hill far away      _Mrs. Cecil Frances Alexander_,
                                                                 1823-95

A popular hymn on the atonement, written for children but appropriated
for general use with all ages. It was first published in the author’s
_Hymns for Little Children_, 1848, her most famous book which ran into
100 editions. The accuracy of the first line may well be questioned for
the Gospels do not state that Jesus was crucified on a hill, only that
it was a place called “the skull” (Lk. 23:33). In any case, the
sun-baked Judean hills are seldom green.

Cecil Frances Humphrey, daughter of Major John Humphrey, was a native of
Ireland. Her father was an Englishman who, as a landowner and government
agent, went to reside in Ireland. In 1850, she married the Rev. Wm.
Alexander who, after spending many years in obscure parish work, was
elected Archbishop of Armagh and later Primate of all Ireland. Mrs.
Alexander was preëminently a writer for little children, her verses
being characterized by simplicity and tenderness and poetic beauty; but
she also contributed some notable church songs, e.g., “Jesus calls us
o’er the tumult” (140).

To make the truths of the church catechism interesting and intelligible
to little children, Mrs. Alexander wrote a series of poems to illustrate
the Apostle’s Creed. This hymn is on the clause “suffered under Pontius
Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried.” “All things bright and
beautiful” (410) was written for the first clause, “I believe in God the
Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth.” For the second clause, “And
in Jesus Christ His Son, born of the virgin Mary” she wrote “Once in
royal David’s city” (412).

_MUSIC._ MEDITATION appeared in _Original Tunes_, 1890, by John H.
Gower, where it is set to “There is a land of pure delight.” The tune
has since become closely associated with Mrs. Alexander’s hymn for which
it forms an appropriate setting.

John Henry Gower, 1855-1922, English organist and concert artist, became
professor of music at Trent College, Nottingham. Later he came to
America on account of mining interests in Colorado but maintained his
activity in music. He served as organist and choirmaster of St. John’s
Cathedral, Denver, and during the World’s Fair in Chicago, 1893, became
organist of the Church of the Epiphany in that city.


105-106. When I survey the wondrous cross       _Isaac Watts_, 1674-1748

One of the twenty-five hymns prepared by Watts to be sung at the Lord’s
Supper. Matthew Arnold, the famous literary critic, called it the “most
majestic hymn in the English language.” It is one of four hymns which
have been printed in more collections, translated into more tongues, and
used in more congregations, than any other. The three hymns classed with
this in popularity are “Rock of Ages,” “Jesus, Lover of my soul,” and
“All hail the power of Jesus’ name.”

Watts gave this hymn the title “Crucifixion to the World by the Cross of
Christ.” It is based on Galatians 6:14: “God forbid that I should glory
save in the Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is
crucified to me, and I unto the world.” In the first stanza there is a
reference to Phil. 3:7: “Howbeit what things were gain to me, these have
I counted loss for Christ.” The whole hymn, and especially the closing
stanza, reflects the thought of Galatians 2:20: “I have been crucified
with Christ ... who loved me and gave himself for me.” The third stanza,
a sublime picture of the suffering Saviour, should always be sung
softly.

For comments on Isaac Watts, see Hymn 11.

_MUSIC._ ROCKINGHAM OLD is a famous tune always used with this hymn in
England. It was named after the Marquis of Rockingham, a Whig statesman
who was thrice prime minister of England, and a friend of the composer.

Edward Miller, 1731-1807, was born at Norwich, England, the son of a
stone mason. He was a man of great literary attainments and considerable
musical ability. For 56 years he was organist of the parish church at
Doncaster, receiving the appointment in 1751 and retaining the post
until his death in 1807. Miller played the flute in Handel’s orchestra
in London and had many a story to tell of the great composer’s
eccentricities. Dissatisfied with the church music of his time, he was
led to publish a book, _Psalms of David_, which turned out to be a great
success. The book contained such tunes as “Burford” (228), “St. Magnes”
(582), “St. Anne” (61), “Surrey” (44), and others of a similar style
from the early part of the 18th century. It also contained some of his
original tunes, including ROCKINGHAM OLD, destined to become one of the
most popular English tunes ever written. This tune was not identified at
first with any particular words. Miller had set it to 9 different
psalms, using 3 keys—F, E flat, and E. It became associated with Watts’
“When I survey the wondrous cross,” in 1854, the combination appearing
in _Mercer’s Church Psalter_, and again in 1861, in _Hymns Ancient and
Modern_. The words and tune have now become inseparable in England.

HAMBURG (106), an arrangement by Lowell Mason from a Gregorian Chant,
illustrates the greatness of simplicity. The tune employs only five
tones of the scale and yet breathes the dignity and solemnity of the
great hymn to which it is set.

For comments on Lowell Mason see Hymn 12.


107. Go to dark Gethsemane                 _James Montgomery_, 1771-1854

A song of the sufferings and death of Christ.

Gethsemane, the Judgment Hall, and Calvary are successively brought to
mind and at each stage there is found in the example of Christ a lesson
for his disciples to learn.

The fourth verse in the original poem reads:

  Early hasten to the tomb
    Where they laid his breathless clay;
  All is solitude and gloom;
    Who hath taken him away?
  Christ is risen! he meets our eyes:
  Saviour, teach us so to rise.

For comments on James Montgomery see Hymn 62.

_MUSIC._ GETHSEMANE is a dignified tune in the minor mode, well adapted
to carry the words of this hymn. It was composed by Christopher Tye (c.
1508-72), a musician and minister in the Anglican Church, of whom a
contemporary document says that he is “a doctor of music but not skilful
at preaching.” He has been called the “father of the anthem,” having
given it a model for others to follow.

For comments on W. H. Monk, who adapted the tune, see Hymn 40.


108. Alas! and did my Savior bleed              _Isaac Watts_, 1674-1748

A fine hymn of consecration, published by Watts in his _Hymns and
Spiritual Songs_, 1707, under the title “Godly Sorrow Arising from the
Sufferings of Christ.” Dr. Charles S. Robinson states that “more
conversions in Christian biography are credited to this hymn than to any
other.” Fanny Crosby, the blind poet, ten of whose lyrics are found in
the _Hymnary_, credits this hymn with a share in her conversion. In
telling the story she says that during a revival in the old Thirtieth
Street Church, New York, in 1850, several times she sought the Saviour
at the altar; but not until one evening, November 20, did the light
come. “After a prayer was offered they began to sing the good old
consecration hymn, ‘Alas! and did my Saviour bleed,’ and when they had
reached the third line of the fourth stanza, ‘Here, Lord, I give myself
away,’ my very soul flooded with celestial light.”

For comments on Isaac Watts see Hymn 11.

_MUSIC._ MARTYRDOM. The original form of this melody is in common time
(4/4). It appeared in triple time in R. A. Smith’s _Sacred Music sung in
St. George’s Church_, Edinburgh, 1825, where it was designated “Old
Scottish Melody.” In 1827, it appeared in _The Seraph, Selection of
Psalms and Hymns_, edited by J. Robertson and published at Glasgow. In a
footnote to the tune it is stated that “the above tune ‘Fennich,’ or
‘Martyrdom,’ and by some called ‘Drumclog,’ was composed by Hugh Wilson,
a native of Fennick.” A legal dispute arose between Smith and Wilson
over the ownership of the tune. The evidence was abundant to show that
Wilson composed it. It is an effective tune. When it was first sung in
St. George’s, Edinburgh, the minister, Dr. Thomson, said, “O man! I
could not sing for weeping.”

Hugh Wilson, 1766-1824, the composer of the tune, learned his father’s
trade of shoemaking, studied and taught mathematics, and made sun-dials
as a hobby. He then held positions of responsibility in certain mills
and afterwards became a draftsman. He was interested in Sunday school
work and wrote a number of psalm tunes but MARTYRDOM is the only one
found in modern hymnals.


109. Throned upon the awful tree                _John Ellerton_, 1826-93

A solemn dirge of the Passion, written in 1875 in the seclusion of a
quiet rural parish and regarded as the author’s best composition. It
appeared in _Hymns Ancient and Modern_, 1875.

For comments on John Ellerton see Hymn 43.

_MUSIC._ REDHEAD NO. 76, also called “Petra,” and “Gethsemane,” was
composed by Richard Redhead, 1820-1901, English chorister and organist,
and proponent of the Oxford Movement (not to be confused with the modern
Oxford movement headed by Buchman). The tune, without name, appeared in
his _Church Hymns and Tunes, Ancient and Modern_, 1853, as No. 76. In
England it has long been sung to the hymn “Rock of Ages, cleft for me.”


110. In the Cross of Christ I glory            _John Bowring_, 1792-1872

The most popular of John Bowring’s _Hymns_, published in 1825, and a
classic among the hymns of the cross. It is based on Gal. 6:14: “But God
forbid that I should glory save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ,
by whom the world is crucified unto me, and I unto the world.” Bowring
died on November 23, 1872, and the words, “In the cross of Christ I
glory,” were placed on his tombstone.

It is remarkable that so great a hymn on the cross should be written by
a Unitarian, a communion which denies the deity of Jesus and the
evangelical doctrine of the atonement. Yet the hymn can be sung
whole-heartedly by every evangelical Christian for it magnifies the
cross and makes it the center of the Christian faith. Bowring, in spite
of his Unitarian connection, was a devout, evangelical believer.

For further comments on John Bowring see Hymn 55.

_MUSIC._ RATHBUN was composed by Ithamar Conkey, 1815-67, an organist
and prominent bass soloist who took part in many oratorio performances
in New York City. The tune was composed one Sunday afternoon after the
minister, Dr. Hiscox, of the Central Baptist Church, Norwich, Conn., had
preached one of a series of sermons on the “Words of the Cross.” Conkey
named the tune after the leading soprano in his choir, Mrs. Beriah S.
Rathbun.


111. Cross of Jesus, Cross of sorrow        _William J. Sparrow Simpson_

From Stainer’s oratorio, _The Crucifixion_, where it appears as No. 4
under the title, “The Mystery of Divine Humiliation.” The original has
10 stanzas.

The libretto of _The Crucifixion_ was written by Wm. J. Sparrow Simpson,
Church of England clergyman. He was educated at Cambridge, ordained in
1882, and became chaplain of St. Mary’s Hospital, Great Alford. His
theological works include the _Catholic Conception of the Church_ and
the _History of the Anglo-Catholic Movement_.

_MUSIC._ CROSS OF JESUS in Stainer’s _Crucifixion_ is intended among
other numbers in the oratorio, “to be sung by the congregation.” Its
depth of feeling is best realized if sung in rather slow tempo.

John Stainer, 1840-1901, began his career as a choir boy at St. Paul’s
Cathedral, London, at the age of seven, continuing there for nine years.
He early became acquainted with Arthur Sullivan and the two remained
fast friends throughout life. Stainer became one of England’s greatest
organists and succeeded Sir John Goss, at St. Paul’s Cathedral. He was
one of the most prolific and best-loved of the Victorian composers. A
bronze tablet, installed in his honor in St. Paul’s, was dedicated by a
service in which parts of his cantatas were sung, and closed with his
“sevenfold Amen” (623).


112. Beneath the Cross of Jesus    _Elizabeth Cecilia Clephane_, 1830-69

A hymn of Scottish origin, especially appropriate for use in Good Friday
services, but it can also be used on more general occasions.

Elizabeth Cecilia Douglas Clephane, daughter of the Sheriff of Fife and
Kinross, was born in Edinburgh. She was a member of the Free Church of
Scotland. Her hymn, “There were ninety and nine,” became widely known
through its use by Moody and Sankey in their famous evangelistic
meetings.

The hymn, “Beneath the Cross of Jesus,” appeared in Scotland, three
years after the death of Miss Clephane, in _The Family Treasure_, a home
magazine, with this explanatory note by the editor:

  These lines express the experiences, the hopes, and the longings of a
  young Christian lately released. Written on the very edge of this
  life, with the better land fully in view of faith, they seem to us
  footsteps printed on the sands of Time, where those sands touch the
  ocean of Eternity. These footprints of one whom the Good Shepherd led
  through the wilderness into rest, may, with God’s blessing, contribute
  to comfort and direct succeeding pilgrims.

_MUSIC._ ST. CHRISTOPHER was composed for this hymn by Frederick C.
Maker, 1844-1927, an English organist and composer of numerous hymn
tunes. Maker spent all his life in Bristol, England, thirty years of
which were devoted to the position of organist at the Redland Park
Congregational Church.


                            HIS RESURRECTION


113. Come ye faithful, raise the strain     _John of Damascus_, _c._ 700
                                                     _Tr. John M. Neale_

A Greek hymn based on the Song of Moses, Exodus 15.

  Αἴσωµεν, πάντες λαοί,
  τῶ ἐκ πικρᾶς δουλείας
  Φαραὼ τὸν Ἰσραὴλ ἀπαλλάξαντι
  καὶ ἐν βυθῷ φαλάσσης
  ποδὶ ἀβρόχως ὁδηγήσαντι
  ᾠδὴν ἐπινίκιον,
  ὅτι δεδόξασται.

  Σήµερον ἔαρ ψυχῶν,
  ὅτι Χριστὸς ἐκ τάφου,
  ὥσπερ ἥλιος, ἐκλάµψας τριήµερος
  τον ζοφερὸν χειµῶνα
  ἀπήλασε τῆς ἁµαρτίας ἡµῶν,
  αὐτὸν ἀνυµνήσωµεν,
  ὅτι δεδόξασται.

  Ἡ βασιλὶς τῶν ὡρῶν
  τῆ λαµπροφόρῳ ἡµέρᾳ
  ἡµερῶν τε βασιλίδι φανότατα
  δωροφοροῦσα, τέρπει
  τὸν ἔγκριτον τῆς ἐκκλησίας λαόν,
  ἀπαύστως ἀνυµνοῦσα
  τὸν ἀναστάτα Χριστόν.

  Πύλαι θανάτου, Χριστέ,
  οὐδὲ τοῦ τάφου σφραγῖδες,
  οὐδὲ κλεῖθρα τῶν θυρῶν Σοι ἀντέστησαν,
  ἀλλ’ ἀναστὰς ἐπέστης
  τοῖς φίλοις σου εἰρήνην, Δέσποτα,
  δωρούµενος τὴν πάντα
  νοῦν ὑπερέχουσαν.

It was written by John of Damascus about the middle of the 8th century.

John of Damascus, Greek theologian and distinguished hymnist, as well as
the greatest scholar and poet of his time, was born in Damascus of a
prominent family, about A.D. 700. He was educated by an Italian monk
named Cosmas, and retired to the monastery of St. Sabas in the Holy
Land. He died between 754 and 787. He wrote a number of canons. A canon
in Greek hymnology was a series of odes, usually eight or nine, threaded
on an acrostic. This hymn is from his canon for the Sunday after Easter.

For comments on the translator, John M. Neale, see Hymn 67.

_MUSIC._ ST. KEVIN. The composer, Arthur Sullivan, 1842-1900, was born
in London, the son of an Irish band-master. He received a thorough
musical education in London and on the continent and became a famous
choir leader, hymn book editor, conductor, and composer. In
collaboration with W. S. Gilbert, he composed light operas for which he
is best known.


114. Jesus Christ is ris’n today                                 _Latin_
                                               _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88

This hymn, which Percy Dearmer called “the Easter hymn par excellence,”
is based upon some Latin verses of an Easter carol of the 14th century,
except verse 4, which is attributed to Charles Wesley. It is of unknown
authorship, appearing with the tune “Easter Hymn” in a now rare book,
_Lyra Davidica_.

“Allelujah” is “Hallelujah” with the “H” omitted to soften it.

For comments on Wesley see Hymn 6.

_MUSIC._ EASTER HYMN, one of the most famous of all hymn tunes, is from
_Lyra Davidica, or a Collection of Divine Songs and Hymns, partly New
Composed, partly Translated from the High German and Latin Hymns; and
set to easy and pleasant Tunes_, published in London, 1708. The composer
is unknown. The hymn and tune were headed, “The Resurrection.”


115. The day of Resurrection                _John of Damascus_, _c._ 700
                                                     _Tr. John M. Neale_

  Ἀναστάσεως ἡµέρα,
  λαµπρυνθῶµεν λαοί.
  Πάσχα Κυρίου, πάσχα.
  Ἐκ γὰρ θανάτου πρὸς ζωήν,
  καὶ ἐκ γῆς πρὸς οὐρανόν,
  Χριστὸς ὁ θεὸς
  ἡµᾶς διεβίβασεν,
  ἐπινίκιον ᾄδοντας.

Another resurrection hymn from the Eastern Church by John of Damascus.
(See 113.) It is sung after midnight on Easter morning to set forth the
fact of the resurrection. Julian describes the service in his
_Dictionary of Hymnology_ (p. 62). The people assemble in the church
with unlighted tapers in their hands. While the priest chants in a half
whisper, they await the signal that Easter Day has begun. A cannon is
fired when the moment comes, the Cross is raised, and the people cry,
“_Christos anesti_” (Christ is risen.) The tapers are lighted and the
church is set ablaze with light. Outside there is the sound of drums and
trumpets, the people embrace and congratulate each other, and salute one
another with “_Christos anesti_.”

The reference in stanza 2 is to Matt. 28:9: “Jesus met them, saying,
‘All Hail!’”

For comments on the translator, John M. Neale, see Hymn 67.

_MUSIC._ LANCASHIRE, a thrilling tune of steady swing, was composed for
“From Greenland’s icy mountains,” to be used at a missionary meeting at
Blackburn, England. It is also, in some hymn books, used with “Lead on,
O King Eternal” (399).

For comments on the composer, Henry Smart, 1813-79, see Hymn 46.


116. The strife is o’er, the battle done                         _Latin_
                                           _Tr. Francis Pott_, 1832-1909

  Alleluia, Alleluia, Alleluia.
  Finita iam sunt praelia,
  Est parta iam victoria;
  Gaudeamus et canamus:
        Alleluia!

  Post fata mortis barbara
  Devicit Iesus tartara;
  Applaudamus et psallamus:
        Alleluia!

  Surrexit die tertia
  Caelesti clarus gratia
  Insonemus et cantemus:
        Alleluia!

  Sunt clausa stygis ostia.
  Et caeli patent atria;
  Gaudeamus et canamus:
        Alleluia!

  Per tua, Iesu, vulnera
  Nos mala morte libera,
  Ut vivamus et canamus:
        Alleluia! Amen.

One of the most celebrated of Easter hymns. It comes from an anonymous
medieval Latin poem which appeared in the Jesuit _Symphonia Sirenum_,
Cologne, 1695.

The translation is by Francis Pott, an Englishman. He was educated at
Oxford University and after serving a long number of years as curate and
rector in various churches, he retired on account of increasing
deafness. Pott published several volumes of hymns and wrote a book on
the “_Te Deum_.” He was a member of the original committee which
produced _Hymns Ancient and Modern_.

_MUSIC._ VICTORY, also called “Palestrina,” is an adaptation from the
“Gloria Patri” of a work called, _Magnificat Tertii Toni_, 1591, by the
eminent Italian composer, Giovanni Pierluigi Sante Da Palestrina,
1525-94.

The present arrangement was made by Wm. H. Monk for this hymn.

Palestrina, foremost composer of the Roman Catholic Church and supreme
master of polyphonic music, was born at Palestrina, Italy, the son of a
wealthy peasant, Pierluigi Sante. He was named “Da Palestrina” after his
birthplace, a common custom in his time. He received his musical
training at Rome where he came under the powerful influence of Orlando
di Lasso, the great master from the Netherlands. Palestrina served as
chapelmaster in his home town, master of the boys in the Julian Chapel
in Rome, and in 1555 was appointed one of the pontifical singers in the
Sistine Chapel but was dismissed a few months later when he became
guilty of the “crime” of matrimony. He then became chapelmaster at St.
John Lateran and later of the Liberian Chapel of Santa Maria Maggiore,
during which time he became known as “the saviour of church music.” Many
abuses had crept into the music of the church, particularly in the use
of secular airs grafted on stately church themes, and improvizations by
the singers who sometimes departed from the solemn words of the service
and substituted profane and lewd words in Italian and French. To correct
this scandal, the Ecumenical Council of Trent, in 1552, asked Palestrina
to prepare a mass free from the admixture of alien words and secular
melodies, and suitable for church use. The result was the composition of
three 6-part services, one of which, _Missa Papae Marcelli_, has been
regarded as one of the most sublime creations of all music and the model
of what church music should be. As a reward for this service, Palestrina
was granted a stipend by papal decree which was not large but gave him a
sufficient income. In 1571 he was re-elected to his old post as
Chapelmaster of St. Peter’s, where he remained for life. His fame as
teacher and composer extended throughout Europe, but his happiness was
clouded by the loss of two sons and the death of his wife in 1580, while
the remaining son, Igino, became a source of grief to him. Palestrina’s
compositions were many and of great variety, including 93 masses, 179
motets, hymns, prayers, responses, madrigals, etc.

For comments on Monk see Hymn 40.


                             HIS ASCENSION


117. Hail the day that sees Him rise           _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88

This hymn, originally in ten stanzas, appeared in Wesley’s _Hymns and
Sacred Poems_, 1739, under the caption “For Ascension Day.” The
Hallelujah was added later in White’s _Introits and Hymns_, 1852.

For comments on Charles Wesley see Hymn 6.

_MUSIC._ LLANFAIR, also named “Bethel,” is a Welsh hymn tune by Robert
Williams, c. 1781-1821, a basket maker. He was born blind, but became a
skilled craftsman and a musician of considerable ability.


118. Crown Him with many crowns               _Matthew Bridges_, 1800-94

Based on Rev. 19:12: “On his head were many crowns.” The hymn mentions a
four-fold crowning of Christ, as: (1) Lamb upon His throne; (2) Son of
God; (3) Lord of life; (4) Lord of heaven. Two omitted stanzas mention
“Lord of peace,” and “Lord of years.”

Matthew Bridges was brought up in the church of England but became
interested in the Oxford Movement and entered the Roman Catholic Church
in 1848. He was a student of history and wrote _The Roman Empire under
Constantine the Great_. He is also the author of several books of poems.
The latter part of his life was spent in the Province of Quebec, Canada.

The hymn was recast by Godfrey Thring to eliminate several obvious Roman
tendencies in it.

_MUSIC._ DIADEMATA, a solid, dignified tune which organists like to play
and congregations enjoy singing, was written for this hymn and named
after the Latin title given the hymn.

The composer, George Job Elvey, 1816-93, was a gifted organist and
composer and a devout Christian. He received the Bachelor of Music and
Doctorate in Music from Oxford University and was organist of St.
George’s Chapel, Windsor, for 47 years.


119. Look, ye saints, the sight is glorious    _Thomas Kelly_, 1769-1854

A majestic coronation hymn ranking with the best hymns of Watts and
Wesley. It is based on Rev. 11:15: “The kingdoms of this world are
become the kingdoms of our Lord and of his Christ. And he shall reign
forever and ever.”

Thomas Kelly was born in Dublin, the son of an Irish judge. He at first
intended to follow his father into the legal profession, but his
profound religious convictions led him to train for the ministry. As a
young clergyman, he was summoned, with others, to appear before the
Archbishop of Dublin to answer for his evangelistic zeal. He was rebuked
and prohibited from preaching in Dublin pulpits. He then withdrew from
the Church of England and started a number of independent churches. He
was much interested in the hymnody of the church and wrote 736 hymns in
all. They are characterized by loyalty to Jesus Christ and a deep
evangelical glow.

_MUSIC._ CORONAE is a virile tune, written in 1871, and well adapted by
its voice range for congregational singing.

For comments on the composer, Wm. H. Monk, see Hymn 40.


120. Majestic sweetness sits enthroned   _Samuel Stennett_, _c._ 1727-95

This hymn was published in John Rippon’s _Selection_, 1787, with the
title, “Chief among Ten Thousand: or the Excellencies of Christ.” It is
based on Song of Solomon 5:10-16. The original has 9 stanzas.

The author, Samuel Stennett, prominent non-conformist and champion of
religious freedom, was a Baptist clergyman who in 1741 became his
father’s assistant in Little Wild Street Church, London, and then
succeeded his father in 1758, continuing in the pastorate of the church
until his death in 1795.

_MUSIC._ ORTONVILLE has been a favorite hymn tune for over a century. It
is associated with these words now, but at first it was set to “O for a
closer walk with God.” Among Hastings’ tunes, this is second in
popularity to “Toplady” (148), the tune he made for “Rock of Ages.”

Thos. Hastings, 1784-1872, was born in Connecticut, moved to New York
state to farm but left the farm at the age of 33 to devote himself to
music. In 1831 he moved to New York City to serve the musical interests
of a group of churches. He wrote 600 hymns and about 1,000 hymn tunes.
He published 50 books of music and collaborated with Lowell Mason in
_Spiritual Songs for Social Worship_. The University of the City of New
York gave him the degree of Doctor of Music in 1858.


121. Rejoice, the Lord is King                 _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88

A jubilant song of Christ’s exaltation and coming in power, based on
Phil. 4:4: “Rejoice in the Lord alway, and again I say, rejoice.”

The hymn, in seven stanzas, appeared first in John Wesley’s _Sacred and
Moral Poems_, 1744, and later in Wesley’s _Hymns for our Lord’s
Resurrection_, 1746. Though the resurrection note is in the hymn, it is
appropriate also for general occasions.

Charles Wesley wrote four great festival hymns: (1) “Hark! the herald
angels sing” for Christmas; (2) “Christ the Lord is risen today” for
Easter; (3) “Hail the day that sees Him rise” for Ascension; and (4)
“Rejoice, the Lord is king” for Whitsuntide.

For comments on Charles Wesley see Hymn 6.

_MUSIC._ ARTHUR’S SEAT appeared in _Hymns and Songs of Praise_ 1874, by
John K. Paine and Uzziah C. Burnap. The tune is believed to be an
arrangement by Burnap from a melody composed by Sir John Goss, 1800-80,
English organist and composer of church choir music. Handel composed a
tune, “Gopsal,” especially for this hymn, but it is not well known and
has not found its way into many of the hymn books.

For comments on Paine and Burnap see Hymn 134.


122. Hail, Thou once despisèd Jesus!          _John Bakewell_, 1721-1819

A worshipful and strongly doctrinal hymn, bringing out plainly the
doctrine of the atonement as well as the Saviour’s enthronement and
glorification.

The authorship is traditionally assigned to John Bakewell, one of John
Wesley’s lay preachers. But it is not clear that he wrote all of it. It
appeared in 1760 in a collection by M. Madan, and later, in 1776, it was
included in _Psalms and Hymns_ by Augustus M. Toplady. Both editors
apparently made some changes and omissions in the hymn, resulting in our
present version.

_MUSIC._ IN BABILONE is a Dutch traditional melody, its present
arrangement having been made by Professor Julius Röntgen, 1855-1933, of
Amsterdam. It appeared in _The English Hymnal_ in 1906 and has since won
its way into many American hymn books. It is a joyous, robust melody
well suited to carry this hymn.


123. Hark, ten thousand harps and voices       _Thomas Kelly_, 1769-1854

Based on Heb. 1:6: “Let all the angels of God worship Him.”

The original poem has 7 stanzas. Lowell Mason added the “Hallelujahs”
and the “Amen” when he set the hymn to music. Some hymn books have
softened the “Hallelujah” to “Allelujah.” The last stanza is a prayer
for the hastening of the day when heaven and earth shall pass away,
which some may not be able to sing heartily and sincerely.

For comments on Thomas Kelly see Hymn 119.

_MUSIC._ HARWELL was written for this hymn in 1840. The original version
had the men’s voices introduce lines 5 and 6 with a dotted eighth and a
sixteenth note, in unison, while the soprano and altos observed a
quarter rest. Later editing changed the tune so all the parts observed
the quarter rest.

For comments on the composer, Lowell Mason, see Hymn 12.


124. Alleluia! sing to Jesus!                  _William C. Dix_, 1837-98

Based on Rev. 5:9: “Thou hast redeemed us to God by thy blood out of
every nation.”

The original poem of five stanzas appeared in Dix’s _Altar Songs_, 1867,
and was entitled “Redemption by the Precious Blood.” The hymn was linked
to the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper. The third and fourth stanzas,
omitted here, are as follows:

  Alleluia! Bread of Heaven,
    Thou on earth our food, our stay!
  Alleluia! here the sinful
    Flee to thee from day to day:
  Intercessor, friend of sinners,
    Earth’s Redeemer, plead for me,
  Where the songs of all the sinless,
    Sweep across the crystal sea.

  Alleluia! King eternal,
    Thee the Lord of lords we own:
  Alleluia! born of Mary,
    Earth thy footstool, heav’n thy throne:
  Thou within the veil hast entered,
    Robed in flesh, our great High Priest:
  Thou on earth both Priest and Victim
    In the eucharistic feast.

For comments on William C. Dix see Hymn 78.

_MUSIC._ The tune was taken from _St. Basil’s Hymnal_, Chicago, 1918,
where it appears unnamed. It is a traditional Dutch melody. The present
arrangement of it is anonymous.


                            HIS COMING AGAIN


125. The King shall come when morning dawns             _From the Greek_
                                       _Tr. by John Brownlie_, 1859-1925

This hymn, setting forth the hope of Christ’s Second Coming in triumph,
comes from the Greek, but no information is at hand concerning the
original poem. It is not included in Julian’s _Dictionary_.

The translation is by John Brownlie, a Scottish minister, born in
Glasgow. He published several books of original hymns and translations
from the Greek.

_MUSIC._ JERUSALEM, JERUSALEM is wrongly attributed here to Thomas
Hastings though it is possible that the arrangement is his. The same
tune, named “St. Michel’s,” appears at No. 93, which see for comments.

For comments on Thomas Hastings see Hymn 120.


126. Thou art coming, O my Savior         _Frances R. Havergal_, 1836-79

The first hymn Miss Havergal wrote after Advent Sunday, December 2,
1873, when she “first saw clearly the blessedness of true consecration.”

Frances Ridley Havergal was the daughter of Rev. Wm. H. Havergal, an
Anglican clergyman who was greatly interested in the hymns and music of
the church and composed a number of tunes still in use. His tune,
“Evan,” is used in the _Hymnary_ (153 and 253). Frances thus grew up in
a cultured religious environment in which hymns and church music held a
prominent place. She was handicapped by a frail body and died at the
early age of forty-three. But throughout her short life, from the time
of her confirmation at seventeen until the end, she had an unbounded joy
in Christian service. No suffering could diminish her faith in the grace
of God through Jesus Christ. Despite her poor health, she was a devoted
student of the Bible and was able to repeat from memory the four
Gospels, the Epistles, Revelations, all the Psalms, Isaiah, and the
Minor Prophets. Besides writing many letters counselling those who
sought her advice, she wrote devotional books and composed sacred hymns
and poems, always emphasizing consecration and service. She made a
considerable contribution to the hymnody of the church. Six of her
compositions are to be found in the _Hymnary_ (126, 190, 215, 219, 296,
380).

_MUSIC._ BEVERLEY was composed for this hymn for use in _Hymns Ancient
and Modern_, Rev. ed., 1875.

For comments on W. H. Monk see Hymn 40.


127. Christ is coming, let creation           _John R. Macduff_, 1818-95

A Scottish hymn setting forth the glowing hope and expectation of the
coming of Christ in glory. It is based on Rev. 22:20: “He which
testifieth these things saith, Surely, I come quickly. Amen. Even so,
come, Lord Jesus.”

John R. Macduff was minister of the Sandyford Parish, Glasgow. He is the
author of several books of devotions and wrote numerous hymns. His
ministry at Sandyford was singularly fruitful. George Mattheson, blind
Scottish preacher, then a boy in Macduff’s congregation, afterwards said
of him: “Dr. Macduff gave me my first real conviction of the beauty of
Christianity.” Macduff held strongly to the premillennial view of the
coming of Christ.

_MUSIC._ NEANDER. This famous tune has been associated with various
words. The composer first published it in 1680 set to the hymn, “_Unser
Herrscher, unser König_.” It is also used with Schmolk’s “Open now the
gates of beauty” (505), and in England it is almost invariably
associated with “Come, ye saints, and raise an anthem,” by J. Hupton and
others.

Joachim Neander, 1650-80, whose real name was Neumann, was born at
Bremen, where he spent most of his life. As a youth he was somewhat wild
but in time became converted and associated himself with the Pietists of
Germany. He was a friend of Spener, the leader of the Pietists. His
unconventional zeal brought him into conflict with the authorities of
the Reformed Church of which he was a member, and he was dismissed for a
time from his office as teacher in the Düsseldorf schools. Being obliged
to leave town, he lived for some months in a cave in the region of the
Rhine, where he composed many of his hymns. He is the foremost hymn
writer of the German Reformed Church and is called “the Paul Gerhardt of
the Calvinists.” Neander, like Luther, was a man of scholarship and
accomplishment in poetry and music, as well as theology. He wrote more
than 60 hymns and composed tunes for them.


128. Ye servants of the Lord                 _Philip Doddridge_, 1702-51

“The Active Christian” is the author’s title of this hymn. It appeared
first in Job Orton’s posthumous edition of _Hymns founded on Various
Texts_, 1755. It is founded on Luke 12:35-37:

  Let your loins be girded about, and your lights burning;

  And ye yourselves like unto men that wait for their lord, when he will
  return from the wedding; that when he cometh and knocketh, they may
  open unto him immediately.

  Blessed are those servants, whom the lord when he cometh shall find
  watching: verily I say unto you, that he shall gird himself, and make
  them to sit down to meat, and will come forth and serve them.

Doddridge, known for his sound learning and genuine Christian character,
was a first-rate hymn writer. He taught Hebrew, Greek, algebra,
trigonometry, logic, philosophy, and theology to classes of candidates
for the Congregational ministry.

For further comments on Doddridge see Hymn 56.

_MUSIC._ OLD 134TH (ST. MICHAEL) is one of the greatest of short-meter
tunes, derived from the tune composed by L. Bourgeois for Psalm 101 in
the _Genevan Psalter_ of 1551.

For comments on L. Bourgeois see Hymn 34.


129. Come, Lord, and tarry not                 _Horatius Bonar_, 1808-89

A plaintive, sad hymn bordering almost on pessimism, by an able, pious
author who held the doctrine of the premillenarian coming of Christ. All
his life, Bonar’s mind was occupied with the subject of the second
advent, an interest which inspired much of his writing.

Horatius Bonar, born in Edinburgh, was the prince of Scottish hymn
writers. Educated at the University of Edinburgh, he was ordained in
1837 and became a minister in the Established Church of Scotland at
Kelso. At the Disruption in 1843, Bonar “came out” and was one of the
founders of the Free Church of Scotland (Presbyterian). Leaving Kelso,
he became the minister of Chalmer’s Memorial Church in Edinburgh, where
he served, a greatly beloved man, until his death. He was known as a man
of wide scholarship and culture. His mind was saturated with Scripture
and his heart possessed by a broad and generous faith.

His son, Rev. H. N. Bonar, wrote his father’s _Life_ which gives some
interesting information concerning his hymn writing. Bonar carried
notebooks with him in which he jotted thoughts, verses, and hymns as
they came to his mind.

“These notebooks,” writes the son, “contain most of the better-known
hymns, hastily written down in pencil in his spare moments. They are
full of contractions, with an occasional word or phrase in shorthand;
sometimes a line is struck out and another substituted, yet in nearly
every case the complete hymn, almost as it was afterwards published, can
be gleaned from this rough draft.”

_MUSIC._ SHIRLAND was composed by Samuel Stanley, 1767-1822, English
composer and precentor of Carr’s Lane Congregational Chapel, in
Birmingham. Through his skilled leadership the music of this church
became famous. The hymn singing attracted attention and resulted in a
great growth in the congregation.

For further comments on Stanley see Hymn 20.


130. Lo, He comes, with clouds descending        _John Cennick_, 1718-55

A hymn on the Second Advent, based on Rev. 1:7: “Behold He cometh with
clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him:
and all kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him. Even so, Amen.”

The author, John Cennick, came from a Quaker family though he grew up in
the Church of England. For some years his religious convictions were
unsettled. Then while engaged in land surveying, he came under the
influence of Wesley and became one of his lay preachers. Later he became
a follower of George Whitefield, and finally he joined the Moravians.
While limited in culture and outlook, he possessed genuine lyric fire;
and his name is of note among the hymnists, even though only a few of
his many hymns survive.

This hymn has been much revised. It owes not a little to Charles Wesley
who changed Cennick’s first line, “Lo! he cometh; countless trumpets,”
to the familiar “Lo, He comes with clouds descending.” Martin Madan, who
issued the hymn in his _Collection of Psalms and Hymns_, also gave it
certain finishing touches. The hymn possesses a scriptural vividness and
impressive treatment of theme which have carried it throughout the
English speaking world, despite the apocalyptic form of the description
it sets forth.

_MUSIC._ HOLYWOOD is attributed to Samuel Webbe, probably the elder,
1740-1816, a London organist and composer and a member of the Roman
Catholic Church. His son, Samuel Webbe, Jr., 1770-1843, following his
father in the musical profession, likewise became an organist and
composer.

Its solidity and triumphant note give this tune a worthy place in the
music of the church.


                            THE HOLY SPIRIT


131. Come, Holy Ghost, in love                     _Ray Palmer_, 1808-87
                                                    _Tr. from the Latin_

  Veni, Sancte Spiritus,
  Et emitte caelitus
    Lucis tuae radium:
  Veni, Pater pauperum;
  Veni, Dator munerum;
    Veni, Lumen cordium.

  Consolator optime,
  Dulcis Hospes animae,
    Duce Refrigerium,
  In labore Requies,
  In aestu Temperies,
    In fletu Solacium.

  O Lux beatissima,
  Reple cordis intima
    Tuorum fidelium.
  Sine tuo numine
  Nihil est in homine.
    Nihil est innoxium.

  Lava, quod est sordidum,
  Riga, quod est aridum,
    Rege, quod est devium,
  Fove, quod est languidum,
  Flecte, quod est rigidum,
    Sana, quod est saucium.

  Da tuis fidelibus
  In te confidentibus
    Sacrum septenarium;
  Da virtutis meritum,
  Da salutis exitum,
    Da perenne gaudium. Amen.

This truly great Latin hymn, addressed to the Holy Spirit, comes from
the 12th or 13th century. Its authorship is uncertain. Archbishop Trench
characterized it as “the loveliest of all the hymns in the whole cycle
of Sacred Latin Poetry.” Many translations have been made of it, this
one by Ray Palmer.

Ray Palmer, who held pastorates at Bath, Me., and Albany, N. Y., was for
a time corresponding secretary for the American Congregational Union.
His name remains the greatest among hymnists and translators in the
American Congregational church. His hymn, “My faith looks up to Thee”
(150), is known all over the world.

_MUSIC._ MALVERN is from _The Hallelujah_, a series of compilations of
tunes, edited by J. J. Waite and H. J. Gauntlett, first published in
1842. The work was intended to encourage the congregation to sing in
parts, an altogether novel principle in the English churches of that
time. To make the music easy to read, the notes were numbered, the tonic
sol-fa system having, as yet, not been developed. The present
arrangement is by John Roberts, 1822-77, Welsh Methodist pastor and
musician of extraordinary ability. He did much to improve congregational
singing in the church and was an eminent conductor of school music
festivals. Roberts wrote a number of tunes that are high in favor
throughout Wales and was incomparable as an arranger of congregational
hymn tunes.


132. Lord God, the Holy Ghost              _James Montgomery_, 1771-1854

One of the few hymns which deals distinctively with the Day of
Pentecost. For this reason, as well as for its inherent quality, it is
especially valuable.

For comments on James Montgomery see Hymn 62.

_MUSIC._ OLD 134TH. For comments on this tune see Hymn 128.


133. Spirit of God, descend upon my heart      _George Croly_, 1780-1860

Based on Gal. 5:25: “If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the
Spirit.”

George Croly was educated at Trinity College, Dublin. After ministering
in Ireland for a number of years, he went to London to engage in
literary pursuits. He had varied talents and became well known for his
poetry, fiction, plays, and contributed articles to magazines. In 1835,
he entered parish work in London, where he was greatly admired and
loved. His outspoken utterances attracted large congregations of all
ranks to his church. He prepared, at the request of his people, a
collection of _Psalms and Hymns for Public Worship_, of which only one
edition was printed. Dr. Croly dropped dead while walking one day on
Holborn Street. A man of scholarship and culture, and author of many
volumes, he is remembered chiefly through this hymn.

_MUSIC._ MORECAMBE, originally called “Hellespont,” was written to be
sung with “Abide with me,” for use in the church at Mannington, England,
where its composer was serving as organist.

Frederick Cook Atkinson, 1841-97, was an English organist and
choirmaster, having received his musical education at Cambridge.


134. Holy Ghost, dispel our sadness             _Paul Gerhardt_, 1607-76

A hymn of entreaty for the indwelling of the Holy Spirit.

The original is as follows:

  O Du allersüsste Freude,
    O Du allerschönstes Licht,
  Der Du uns in Lieb und Leide
    Unbesuchet lässest nicht;
  Geist des Höchsten, höchster Fürst
  Der Du hältst und halten wirst
    Ohn’ Aufhören alle Dinge
    Höre, höre, was ich singe.

  Du bist ja die beste Gabe
    Die ein Mensch nur nennen kann;
  Wenn ich Dich erwünsch’ und habe,
    Geb’ ich alles Wünschen d’ran.
  Ach, ergib Dich, komm zu mir,
  In mein Herze, das Du Dir,
    Eh ich in die Welt geboren
    Selbst zum Tempel auserkoren.

  Sei mein Retter, führ’ mich eben;
    Wenn ich sink’, mein Stab sei Du;
  Wenn ich sterbe, sei mein Leben;
    Wenn ich lieg’, sei meine Ruh;
  Wenn ich wieder aufersteh’,
  O so hilf mir, dass ich geh
    Hin, da Du in ew’gen Freuden
    Wirst die Auserwählten weiden.

The first translation was made by John Christian Jacobi, 1670-1750, for
his _Psalmodia Germanica_. His rendering began

  “O Thou sweetest source of gladness”

which Augustus Montague Toplady recast into the familiar

  “Holy Ghost, dispel our sadness.”

For comments on Toplady see Hymn 148.

Paul Gerhardt, next to Martin Luther, is the most noteworthy hymn writer
of the Evangelical Church in Germany. Even the hymns of Luther are not
as widely used today in the English speaking world as those of Gerhardt.
He was born March 12, 1607, in Gräfenhynichen, a village near the
celebrated Wittenberg. At 21 he began the study of theology in
Wittenberg, but he received no church position until 45, when he was
ordained and appointed provost at Mittenwalde, a small village. During
his six years there, his hymns were published and he became widely
known. In 1657, he was appointed third assistant pastor of the famous
Church of St. Nicholas in Berlin. From this position he was deposed
because he refused to sign a document promising that all clergymen would
abstain from any references in their sermons to doctrinal differences
between the Lutherans and Calvinists. Though he felt the blow keenly, he
met it with Christian patience and fortitude. “This,” he said, “is only
a small Berlin affliction; but I am also willing and ready to seal with
my blood the evangelical truth, and, like my namesake, St. Paul, to
offer my neck to the sword.” Additional sorrows came into his life with
the death of his wife and four of his children. He was left with a
single child, a boy of six, when he was called to the church at Lübden,
where he labored faithfully and successfully until his death on June 7,
1676. Most of his life being spent in the distractions and disasters of
the Thirty Years War, which left Germany in misery and ruins, Gerhardt
knew the depths of human sorrow. Out of the depths came his hymns of
comfort and hope which have been a source of strength to a multitude of
believers.

_MUSIC._ INVOCATION was composed by Uzziah C. Burnap, 1834-1900,
organist at the Church of the Heights, Brooklyn, and co-editor with John
K. Paine, Professor of Music at Harvard, of _Hymns and Songs of Praise_.


135. Breathe on me, breath of God                 _Edwin Hatch_, 1835-89

An earnest prayer for an inbreathing of the Holy Spirit and a greater
consecration of life. The hymn was first published in a privately
printed leaflet called, _Between Doubt and Prayer_, 1878. It is based on
John 20:22: “He breathed on them and saith unto them, Receive ye the
Holy Ghost.”

Edwin Hatch, Church of England clergyman and University Reader of
Ecclesiastical History at Oxford, was a scholar of world reputation. His
Bampton Lectures, _The Organization of the Early Christian Church_,
1881, were translated into German by Prof. Adolph Harnack, who wrote of
Hatch: “In his learning that of England’s great old theologians, Ussher
and Pearson, lived to me again. He was a glorious man, whose loss I
shall never cease to mourn.” Though a man of profound learning, his
faith was as simple and unaffected as that of a child.

_MUSIC._ TRENTHAM is a tune of great beauty, well fitted for these words
of devotion. The tenor part is especially melodious.

Robert Jackson, 1840-1914, English composer of many anthems, hymn tunes,
songs and part songs, succeeded his father as organist and choirmaster
at St. Peter’s church, Oldham, the father and son together having a
record of continuous service at the same church for 92 years. His whole
life was devoted to music. He was a member of Sir Charles Halle’s
orchestra and conductor of the Oldham Musical Society.


136. Holy Spirit, Truth divine              _Samuel Longfellow_, 1819-92

Entitled a “Prayer for Inspiration,” this superb hymn of the Holy Spirit
appeared in _Hymns of the Spirit_, 1864, edited by Samuel Johnson and
the author. Stanzas 5 and 6 are omitted.

For comments on Samuel Longfellow see Hymn 28.

_MUSIC._ MERCY is an arrangement of a piano composition called, “The
Last Hope,” by Louis Gottschalk, 1829-69, American composer, conductor,
and popular concert pianist. Among Gottschalk’s works are two operas,
two symphonies, and some piano pieces and songs—most of which are
forgotten today. The arrangement of the tune is the work of Dr. Edwin P.
Parker, 1836-1925, hymnologist and distinguished Congregationalist
minister at Hartford, Conn.


137. Holy Spirit, faithful Guide              _Marcus M. Wells_, 1815-95

The hymn and tune were written by Marcus M. Wells, a farmer and maker of
farm implements who lived all his life in New York State. Born at
Otsego, N. Y., he was converted in a mission at Buffalo. Regarding the
origin of the hymn and tune he wrote:

  On a Saturday afternoon, Oct. 1858, while at work in my cornfield, the
  sentiment of the hymn came to me. The next day, Sunday, being a very
  stormy day, I finished the hymn and wrote a tune for it and sent it to
  Prof. I. B. Woodbury.

The hymn sets forth God as a Presence, near the Christian’s side,
friendly and helpful and true, guiding him through the storms and floods
and desert wastes of his pilgrimage from earth to his heavenly home. It
was first published in the _New York Musical Pioneer_, edited by Isaac
B. Woodbury.


138. Our blest Redeemer, ere He breathed      _Harriet Auber_, 1773-1862

One of the finest of our hymns on the Holy Spirit. It was written for
Whitsunday and published in the author’s _The Spirit of the Psalms_,
1829, in seven stanzas, the second and third being omitted here. The
hymn appears in most modern hymnals and has been translated into several
languages.

Harriet Auber, whose grandfather went from Normandy to England in 1685
as a Huguenot refugee, was born in London. She was a woman of refinement
and culture who spent most of her life in the quiet villages of
Broxbourne and Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire. She wrote numerous poems and
hymns, but her name survives as the author of this exquisite lyric.

_MUSIC._ ST. CUTHBERT was composed for these words by J. B. Dykes for
the original edition of _Hymns Ancient and Modern_, 1861.

For comments on Dykes see Hymn 1.


139. Spirit divine, attend our prayer           _Andrew Reed_, 1787-1862
                                            _Samuel Longfellow_, 1819-92

This is a revision by Samuel Longfellow of a hymn written by Andrew
Reed, an English Congregational minister. Reed, a philanthropist and
great organizer, and founder of six asylums and orphanages, wrote 21
hymns and published several hymn books. He was an ardent supporter of
missionary work at home and abroad. Writing to his son who suggested
that the father should write his autobiography, Dr. Reed summed up his
own life in these words:

  I was born yesterday, I shall die tomorrow, and I must not spend today
  in telling what I have done, but in doing what I may for HIM who has
  done all for me. I sprang from the people, I have lived for the
  people—the most for the most unhappy; and the people when they know it
  will not suffer me to die out of loving remembrance.

_MUSIC._ BRECON. The origin of this tune has not been traced. It is a
useful tune as a choir response after the prayer.


                 THE CHRISTIAN LIFE—THE CALL OF CHRIST


140. Jesus calls us o’er the tumult   _Cecil Frances Alexander_, 1823-95

A hymn of consecration which has had far-reaching influence especially
over young people. It is based on Matt. 4:18, 19: “And Jesus, walking by
the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon, called Peter, and Andrew,
his brother, casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers. And he
saith unto them, Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men.” There
is also a reference to the incident by the lake recorded in John 21:15:
“So when they had dined, Jesus saith to Simon Peter, son of Jonas,
lovest thou me more than these?”

The hymn appeared first in _Hymns_, 1852, published by the Society for
the Promotion of Christian Knowledge. In the Episcopal Church in the
United States and Canada, it has been adopted as the hymn of the
Brotherhood of St. Andrew.

Mrs. Alexander is known principally as a writer of children’s hymns (410
and 412), but she also contributed excellent church songs for adults.

For comments on Mrs. Alexander see Hymn 104.

_MUSIC._ GALILEE was written for this hymn by William H. Jude,
1852-1922, English organist, composer, and lecturer on musical subjects.
The tune becomes waltz-like when sung in quick tempo. Recognizing this
danger, some hymn books are using other tunes with this hymn.


141. Behold a stranger at the door               _Joseph Grigg_, 1720-68

A lyric revealing in a remarkable manner the tenderness and love of
Christ. It is based on Rev. 3:20: “Behold, I stand at the door and
knock.” Bishop How’s hymn, “O Jesus Thou art standing” (144), with which
this may be compared, is based on the same passage.

Joseph Grigg, an English Presbyterian minister, began writing hymns when
only ten years old. After a brief pastorate, he retired from the active
ministry to devote himself to literary work. He published about 40
volumes, including several collections of hymns. Only two of his 43
hymns are found in modern hymnals, this one and “Jesus, and shall it
ever be” (192), the latter written when he was only ten years of age.

_MUSIC._ BERA, a very useful tune, was composed by John Edgar Gould,
1822-75, an American musical editor, dealer in musical instruments,
choral conductor, and publisher of music books. He was born in Maine,
but spent most of his adult life in New York City and Philadelphia.


142. I heard the voice of Jesus say            _Horatius Bonar_, 1808-89

Based on John 1:16: “Of his fulness have all we received, and grace for
grace,” and originally published with the title, “The Voice from
Galilee.”

The hymn is constructed on three sayings of Jesus: (1) “Come unto me,
all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest,” Mt.
11:28; (2) “Whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give shall
never thirst,” John 4:14; (3) “I am the light of the world; he that
followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of
life.” John 8:12. In the hymn, these three sayings, blended into a
perfect unity, have sounded down the ages by the “Voice from Galilee.”

The hymn, as C. S. Robinson reminds us, employs the personal pronoun to
emphasize the intimate relationship between Christ and the individual.
“Christ says, ‘Come to _me_,’ and the Christian says, ‘_I_ come.’ Christ
says, ‘_I_ give the living water’; and the listener answers, ‘_My_
thirst was quenched’; Christ says, ‘I am the light’; and the child of
God replies, ‘I found in him _my_ Star, _my_ Sun.’”

For comments on Horatius Bonar see Hymn 129.

_MUSIC._ VOX DELECTI was composed by J. B. Dykes for this hymn in _Hymns
Ancient and Modern_, Appendix, 1868. The musical difficulties of the
tune are more apparent than real. They can be overcome and its
possibilities appreciated by careful study and practice. The first half
is written in the minor key to carry the quiet, invitational words of
Jesus. The second part, the glad acceptance of the invitation, is
written in the strongly contrasting major key.

For comments on J. B. Dykes see Hymn 1.


143. Art thou weary, heavy laden           _Stephen the Sabaite_, 725-94
                                            _Tr. John M. Neale_, 1818-66

A restful, appealing lyric on the theme, “Come unto me, all ye that
labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest” Matt. 11:28.

It is one of the few dialog hymns. [Others are “Watchman, tell us of the
night” (66), and “Who is He in yonder stall?” (96)]. It may be sung
antiphonally, the choir singing the questions and the congregation the
answers.

Neale published this hymn in his _Hymns of the Eastern Church_, 1862, as
a translation of a Greek hymn by Stephen the Sabaite. It is a
paraphrase, however, rather than a translation.

For comments on John Neale see Hymn 67.

Hymnody in the Eastern Church reached its height in the 8th century.
Stephen was a nephew of John of Damascus. At the age of 10 he was placed
by his uncle in the monastery of Saint Sabas, located on a lofty cliff
overhanging the ravine of the Kidron, between Jerusalem and the Dead
Sea. Here he lived for more than half a century, known as Stephen the
Sabaite. The monastery, many of the cells cut out of solid rock, still
stands. The monks have been subjected to persecution, at various times,
at the hands of Persians, Moslems, and Bedouin Arabs, and the monastery
looks much like a fortress.

_MUSIC._ STEPHANOS was composed for this hymn by Henry W. Baker, and was
first published in the appendix of the original edition of _Hymns
Ancient and Modern_, 1868. The tune was harmonized by W. H. Monk (See
40).

Henry Williams Baker, 1821-77, was educated at Cambridge, ordained in
1844, and served as vicar of Monkland, Herefordshire, from 1851 till his
death in 1877. He was editor-in-chief of the epoch-making book, _Hymns
Ancient and Modern_, to which he contributed several of his own hymns
and tunes. As a High Churchman, he held to the doctrine of the celibacy
of the clergy and was never married.


144. O Jesus, Thou art standing                _William W. How_, 1823-97

Based on Rev. 3:20: “Behold, I stand at the door and knock: if any man
hear my voice and open the door, I will come in to him, and sup with
him, and he with me.” It was composed after the author had been reading
the beautiful poem by Jean Ingelow, entitled “Brothers and a Sermon,”
describing two brothers listening to an old parson in a fishing-village
church. A part of the poem is as follows:

  The parson knew that he had lost the eyes
  And ears of those before him for he made
  A pause ...
  ... then with a sigh
  Fronted the folk, lifted his grand gray head,
  And said, as one that pondered now the words
  He had been preaching on with new surprise,
  And found fresh marvel in their sound, “Behold!
  Behold!” saith He, “I stand at the door and knock.”

  Open the door with shame, if ye have sinned;
  If ye be sorry, open it with sighs.
  Albeit the place be bare for poverty,
  And comfortless for lack of plenishing,
  Be not abashed for that, but open it,
  And take Him in that comes to sup with thee;
  “Behold!” He saith, “I stand at the door and knock!”

            Speak, then, O rich and strong:
  Open, O happy young, ere yet the hand
  Of Him that knocks, wearied at last, forbear;
  The patient foot its thankless quest refrain.
  The wounded heart forevermore withdraw.

Holman Hunt’s picture, “The Light of the World,” is an exquisite
illustration of the spirit of this hymn.

William Walsham How was born at Shrewsbury, England, educated at Oxford,
and ordained to the ministry in 1846. He served various churches as
pastor and declined offers of positions of more distinction. He refused
the bishopric of Durham, one of the most distinguished posts in the
Anglican Church, with an income more than double what he then had. He
was a man of broad sympathies and apostolical zeal, and was a master of
the pastoral art. He collaborated with Thos. Baker Morrell in editing
_Psalms and Hymns_, 1854, and in 1871 was joint editor of _Church
Hymns_, published by the Society for the Promotion of Christian
Knowledge, the latter becoming the greatest rival of _Hymns Ancient and
Modern_ which that book had had to date. His poems are marked by
simplicity and beauty of diction and constitute some of the richest
treasures of modern hymnody.

_MUSIC._ ST. HILDA, also known as “St. Edith,” is an arrangement by Rev.
Edward Husband of a tune published by Justin H. Knecht in _Vollständige
Sammlung_, Stuttgart, 1799.

For comments on Knecht see Hymn 511.

Edward Husband, 1843-1908, was an English clergyman with a great deal of
musical talent and interest and was a well-known lecturer on the subject
of church music.


                        PENITENCE AND CONFESSION


145. Savior, when in dust to Thee              _Robert Grant_, 1779-1838

A hymn of penitence which has had a wide use. It was published in the
_Christian Observer_, 1815, as a Lenten “Litany.” The last line of each
stanza (five in the original) read, “Hear our solemn litany,” here
changed to “Hear thy people when they cry.” Stanzas 2 and 4 have been
much altered by an unknown hand. Grant’s original hymn of five stanzas
reads as follows:

                                   1.
  Savior, when in dust to Thee
  Low we bow the adoring knee,
  When, repentant, to the skies
  Scarce we lift our weeping eyes,
  Oh, by all Thy pains and woe
  Suffered once for man below,
  Bending from Thy throne on high,
  Hear our solemn litany!

                                   2.
  By Thy helpless infant years,
  By Thy life of want and tears,
  By Thy days of sore distress
  In the savage wilderness,
  By the dread, mysterious hour
  Of the insulting Tempter’s power,
  Turn, O turn, a favoring eye,
  Hear our solemn litany!

                                   3.
  By the sacred griefs that wept
  O’er the grave where Lazarus slept;
  By the boding tears that flowed
  Over Salem’s loved abode;
  By the anguished sigh that told
  Treachery lurked within Thy fold;
  From Thy seat above the sky
  Hear our solemn litany!

                                   4.
  By Thine hour of dire despair,
  By Thine agony of prayer,
  By the cross, the nail, the thorn,
  Piercing spear, and torturing scorn,
  By the gloom that veiled the skies
  O’er the dreadful sacrifice,
  Listen to our humble cry,
  Hear our solemn litany!

                                   5.
  By Thy deep expiring groan,
  By the sad sepulchral stone,
  By the vault whose dark abode
  Held in vain the rising God,
  Oh, from earth to heaven restored,
  Mighty, reascended Lord,
  Listen, listen, to the cry
  Of our solemn litany!

For comments on Robert Grant see Hymn 7.

_MUSIC._ SPANISH HYMN, also called “Spanish Chant,” is from an old 17th
century melody of unknown origin.


146. Come, let us to the Lord our God            _John Morison_, 1750-98
                                             _Scottish Paraphrase_, 1781

A version, from the Scottish Presbyterian Church, of Hosea 6:1-4:

  Come, and let us return unto the Lord: for he hath torn, and he will
  heal us; he hath smitten, and he will bind us up. After two days will
  he revive us: in the third day he will raise us up, and we shall live
  in his sight. Then shall we know, if we follow on to know the Lord:
  his going forth is prepared as the morning: and he shall come unto us
  as the rain, as the latter and former rain unto the earth.

  O Ephraim, what shall I do unto thee? O Judah, what shall I do unto
  thee? for your goodness is as a morning cloud, and as the early dew it
  goeth away.

Our hymn is one of the 67 “Translations and Paraphrases, in Verse, of
Several Passages of Sacred Scriptures,” together with five hymns, that
are appended to the _Scottish Psalter_ for use in public worship in the
Scotch Presbyterian Church.

John Morison was a Scotch scholar, teacher, and minister. He wrote a
number of paraphrases of scriptural passages, seven of which were
accepted into the authorized collection of _Scottish Paraphrases_, 1781.

_MUSIC._ BALLERMA. For comments on this tune see Hymn 57.


147. Lord, thy mercy now entreating     _Mary Ann Sidebotham_, 1833-1913

A hymn of penitence which was contributed to _The Children’s Hymn Book_,
1881, published by the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge,
London.

The author, Mary Ann Sidebotham, was an accomplished musician and a
lifelong friend of Henry Smart, the eminent organist and composer. She
spent much of her life in her brother’s vicarage, St.
Thomas-on-the-Bourne, Surrey, England, where she served as organist. She
composed numerous songs for children and was the music editor of the
above-mentioned _Children’s Hymn Book_.

_MUSIC._ RINGE RECHT. For comments on this tune see Hymn 563.


                            FAITH AND VISION


148. Rock of Ages, cleft for me           _Augustus M. Toplady_, 1740-78

Few hymns are more generally familiar or more treasured in the
affections of all ranks of people than this. It appeared first in the
_Gospel Magazine_, edited by Toplady, March, 1776, at the end of an
article entitled, “A remarkable calculation Introduced here for the sake
of the Spiritual Improvements subjoined. Questions and answers relating
to the National Debt.” The article points out that the national debt is
so large that the government will never be able to pay it off. The
author then proceeds to calculate the number of sins each human being
commits. Figuring the rate to be one per second, he arrives at this:

  Our dreadful account stands as follows: At ten years old each of us is
  chargeable with 315 millions and 360,000 sins. At twenty, with 630
  millions and 720,000. At thirty with 946 millions and 80,000.... At
  eighty, with 2,522 millions and 880,000.

The conclusion is that the debt can only be paid by the blood of Christ.
The hymn follows his “calculation,” under the heading, “A living and
dying Prayer for the Holiest Believer in the World.”

For 45 years after its publication, the hymn had little acceptance in
England. Its merits then became recognized, and it became very popular.
In the last century and a quarter it has had world-wide use, in a form
altered somewhat from the original. The hymn has been criticized for its
mixed metaphors (“cleft rock,” “riven side,” “to thy cross I cling,” “to
the fountain fly”), for its false rhymes, and its over-emphasis upon sin
obsession; but it has certain heart-piercing qualities which override
all its faults. Like other hymns of the first rank (e.g., “Jesus Lover
of my soul,” “Lead kindly light,” and “Nearer my God to Thee”) it voices
the universal need of divine help. Professor Saintsbury, a literary
critic, says of this hymn: “Every word, every syllable, in this really
great poem has its place and meaning.”

The central imagery of the hymn is found in the following Scripture
passages: Ex. 33:22: “While my glory passeth by, I will put thee in a
cleft of the rock, and will cover thee with my hand while I pass by”;
Isa. 26:4: “Trust ye in the Lord for ever: for in the Lord Jehovah is
the rock of ages” (margin); I Cor. 10:4: “and that Rock was Christ.”

A picturesque story, which originated about 1850, had it that Toplady
composed the hymn while he was sheltering from a thunder storm in a
great cleft of a limestone rock, some twelve years before the
publication of the hymn. The story is without foundation. Toplady was
fascinated by the thought of Christ as a rock and in a sermon on Isa.
42:11: “Let the inhabitants of the rock sing,” he said: “Chiefly may
they sing who inhabit Christ the spiritual Rock of Ages. He is a Rock in
three ways: as a Foundation to support, a Shelter to screen, and a
Fortress to protect.”

The hymn has had a wide use among German speaking people in a
translation made by Ernst Gebhardt, 1832-99.

  Fels des Heils, geöffnet mir,
  Birg’ mich, ew’ger Hort in dir!
  Lass das Wasser und das Blut,
  Deiner Seite heil’ge Flut,
  Mir das Heil sein, das frei macht
  Von der Sünden Schuld und Macht!

  Dem, was dein Gesetze spricht,
  Kann mein Werk genügen nicht.
  Mag ich ringen wie ich will,
  Fliessen auch der Tränen viel,
  Tilgt das doch nicht meine Schuld,
  Herr, mir hilft nur deine Huld.

  Da ich denn nichts bringen kann,
  Schmieg’ ich an dein Kreuz mich an
  Nackt und bloss—o kleid’ mich doch.
  Hülflos—ach erbarm’ dich noch.
  Unrein, Herr, flieh’ ich zu dir.
  Wasche mich, sonst sterb’ ich hier.

  Jetzt, da ich noch leb’ im Licht,
  Wenn mein Aug’ im Tode bricht,
  Wenn durch’s finst’re Tal ich geh’,
  Wenn ich vor dem Richter steh’,
  Fels des Heils, geöffnet mir,
  Birg’ mich, ew’ger Hort in dir!

Augustus M. Toplady, born at Farnham, England, was educated at Trinity
College, Dublin. His conversion occurred at the age of 16 while on a
visit in Ireland. The service was held in a barn and the text was Eph.
2:13: “But now, in Christ Jesus, ye who sometimes were far off are made
nigh by the blood of Christ.” The preacher was an illiterate but
warm-hearted layman named Morris. Concerning his conversion Toplady
wrote:

  Strange that I, who had so long sat under the means of grace in
  England, should be brought nigh unto God in an obscure part of
  Ireland, amidst a handful of God’s people met together in a barn, and
  under the ministry of one who could hardly spell his name. Surely this
  is the Lord’s doing, and it is marvelous.

Toplady was ordained to the ministry of the Church of England in 1762
and in 1768 became vicar of Broadhembury. The last years of his life
were passed in London preaching in a chapel of French Calvinists. He was
a powerful preacher, and large congregations came to hear him. A strong
Calvinist, and bitterly opposed to what he considered the reproach of
Arminianism, he became involved in unfortunate controversies with John
Wesley, during which neither disputant showed himself at his best. He
died of consumption at the early age of 38.

_MUSIC._ TOPLADY was composed for this hymn by Thomas Hastings,
1784-1872. It is a popular easily sung tune, and universally used in
America with this hymn. Hastings was not a great musician and this tune,
with its “sentimentality and rocking-chair rhythm,” can hardly be
considered great music. But it has been a blessing to millions of people
and will doubtless continue to be sung for years to come. In England the
hymn is invariably set to other tunes and some American hymn books have
introduced alternative tunes. The tune “Petra” (109) is used with this
hymn, as is also _Grosser Gott wir loben Dich_ (519).

For comments on Thomas Hastings see Hymn 120.


149. Strong Son of God, immortal love         _Alfred Tennyson_, 1809-92

From the prologue of Tennyson’s great poem, “In Memoriam,” 1850,
containing eleven stanzas; these are 1, 4, 5, and 7, unaltered.

The story of “In Memoriam” is familiar. At Cambridge University,
Tennyson and Arthur Hallam became intimate friends. Hallam became
engaged to Tennyson’s sister, and, after graduating from the University,
took a trip to the Continent. At Vienna, he became sick and died, which
prompted Tennyson to write the following brief but beautiful words:

  “In Vienna’s fatal walls,
  God’s finger touched him, and he slept.”

In 1850, seventeen years after Hallam’s death, Tennyson published “In
Memoriam,” a memorial to Hallam, but also to himself as well. Among the
individual verses of the poem which have become immortal are the
familiar lines beginning, “Ring out, wild bells, to the wild sky.” (See
379).

Alfred Tennyson was the son of Rev. George C. Tennyson. He was educated
at Cambridge and wrote poetry while an undergraduate. Upon the death of
Wordsworth in 1850, Tennyson was appointed Poet Laureate. He is regarded
as one of England’s greatest poets. He was not a hymn writer, yet
several of his poems are used as hymns. Tennyson died October 6, 1892,
and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

_MUSIC._ ST. CRISPIN was composed for the hymn “Just as I am, without
one plea.” The tune was used at the funeral of the composer.

For comments on the composer, George Elvey, see Hymn 118.


150. My faith looks up to Thee                     _Ray Palmer_, 1808-87

This hymn was written when the author had just left Yale at the age of
21 and was looking forward to his lifework in the Congregational
ministry. The origin of the hymn is given in Duffield’s _English Hymns_,
as follows:

  The hymn was written in 1830, but not published (as a hymn) until
  1882. The author was in New York City, “Between his college and
  theological studies,” and was in poor health, and a teacher in a
  ladies’ school. Dr. Palmer says: “I gave form to what I felt by
  writing, with little effort, the stanzas. I recollect I wrote them
  with very tender emotion, and ended the last lines with tears.” The
  manuscript was then placed in a pocket-book, where it remained for
  some time. Its true discoverer was Lowell Mason, the musician, who
  asked young Palmer if he had not some hymn or hymns to contribute to
  his new book. The pocket-book was produced and the little hymn, then
  between two and three years old, and never previously utilized, though
  it had been in print as a poem, was brought to light. Dr. Mason was
  attracted by it, and desired a copy. They stepped together into a
  store (it was in Boston), and the copy was made and taken away without
  further comment. On carefully reading the hymn at home, Dr. Mason was
  so interested that he wrote for it the tune “Olivet,” to which it is
  usually sung. Two or three days later, he again met the author in the
  street, and scarcely waiting to salute him, he said, “Mr. Palmer, you
  may live many years, and do many good things, but I think you will be
  best known to posterity as the author of ‘My Faith looks up to Thee.’”

The hymn appeared first in _Spiritual Songs for Social Worship_, 1831,
by Thomas Hastings and Lowell Mason. It has been translated into many
languages on the mission fields.

_MUSIC._ OLIVET. For comments on the composer, Lowell Mason, see Hymn
12.


151. How firm a foundation             _“K” in Rippon’s Selection_, 1787

A great song of faith, calling to mind such scripture passages as Heb.
13:5: “I will never leave thee nor forsake thee”; Isa. 43:1, 2: “Fear
not, for I have redeemed thee: I have called thee by thy name; thou art
mine. When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee; and
through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee; when thou walkest
through the fire, thou shalt not be burned; neither shall the flame
kindle upon thee.”

The authorship is uncertain. The hymn appeared in _A Selection of Hymns
from the Best Authors_, 1787, edited by John Rippon, 1751-1836, pastor
of the Baptist Church in Carter’s Lane, London, where it was signed “K.”
Who “K” was remains uncertain. The best guess seems to be that it refers
to Robert Keene, precentor in Dr. Rippon’s church. It is one more
example of a writer sending forth an immortal song to bless and
strengthen the faith of millions, and then hiding himself completely
from public notice.

_MUSIC._ ADESTE FIDELIS. For comments on this tune see Hymn 80.


152. We walk by faith, and not by sight          _Henry Alford_, 1810-71

Based on the story of the incredulity of Thomas in John 20:25-29:
“Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my
finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I
will not believe ... blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have
believed.”

Henry Alford was educated at Cambridge for the Anglican ministry. After
serving various churches, he finally, in 1857, became Dean of
Canterbury, the highest post in the church. He was a renowned scholar
and the author of numerous volumes. His _Greek Testament_ was his
greatest work and remained the standard critical commentary of the
latter 19th century. He was a member of the New Testament Revision
Company, whose work resulted in the revised version in 1881. Greatly
interested in hymnology, he himself wrote and translated many hymns, and
published several collections of hymns. Dean Alford was a strenuous
worker, never idle, always broad-minded and throughout his life
maintained cordial relations with non-conformists. A lifelong desire to
visit the Holy Land remained unfilled; which fact suggested the
beautiful inscription on his tombstone: “_Deversorium viatoris
proficiscentis Hierosolymam_”—“the inn of a pilgrim travelling to
Jerusalem.”

_MUSIC._ ARLINGTON is a tune from Thos. A. Arne’s opera _Artaxerxes_,
arranged by Rev. Ralph Harrison, 1748-1810, an English Presbyterian
minister who published it in his _Sacred Harmony_, 1784.

Thos. A. Arne, 1710-1778, was educated for the legal profession. He
turned away from law to become the foremost English composer of the 18th
century. He received his degree of Doctor of Music from Oxford in 1759.
Arne wrote the patriotic air, “Rule Britannia,” besides many other
popular songs. His sister, a famous contralto, was chosen by Handel as
one of the soloists for the first performance of _The Messiah_ in
Dublin, April 13, 1742.


153. O for a faith that will not shrink            _Wm. Hiley Bathurst_,
                                                               1796-1877

An excellent hymn on “The Power of Faith,” based on I John 5:4: “And
this is the victory that overcometh the world, even our faith.” It
appeared in the author’s _Psalms and Hymns for Public and Private Use_,
1831.

William Hiley Bathurst graduated from Oxford in 1818. During 33 years of
ministry at Barwick-in-Elmet, he endeared himself to his people by his
“eminent piety, his great simplicity of character, his tender love, and
his abundant generosity.” He was a shy and reserved man “and had the
peculiarity of becoming utterly silent if one asked the most trivial
question.” His father was Charles Bragge, a member of Parliament for
Bristol. The son assumed the name of Bathurst on succeeding to the
estate of his uncle, Earl Bathurst, at Lydney Park, Gloucester.

_MUSIC._ EVAN was originally a setting by Wm. H. Havergal for a poem by
Burns, “O Thou dread power who reign’st above.” Lowell Mason took a part
of the melody and arranged it, as here, for a psalm tune, publishing it
in _New Carmina Sacra_, 1850, under the name “Eva.” It might be added
that Havergal disapproved of the arrangement as a “sad estrangement.” In
spite of this, Mason’s arrangement has remained popular.

Rev. W. H. Havergal, 1793-1870, graduated from Oxford and was ordained
in the Church of England. He became the rector of a church, but due to a
carriage accident which resulted in concussion of the brain and injury
to his eyesight, he resigned his church and devoted himself to the study
of church music. In this field, he made a significant contribution by
his compositions and his efforts at purifying and elevating the music
used in the church. His daughter, Frances Ridley Havergal (see 126),
wrote many hymns, six of which are found in the _Hymnary_.


154. Faith of our fathers, living still    _Frederick W. Faber_, 1814-63

A stirring hymn of faith bringing to mind the story of the Christian
martyrs and pledging loyalty till death to the faith of our fathers. The
last stanza, suggesting the preaching of the faith through “kindly words
and virtuous life,” is especially fine and Christian in spirit.

By “faith of our fathers” we mean, as we sing the hymn, the truth
contained in the Gospels, taught by the Apostles, and brought again into
clear light at the Reformation. But the hymn originally, written by a
Roman Catholic, had reference to the Roman Catholic faith. The author,
an Englishman, wrote one verse as follows:

  Faith of our fathers! Mary’s prayers
    Shall win our country back to Thee!
  And through the truth that comes from God
    England indeed shall then be free.

The lines have been adapted for Protestant services to read:

  Faith of our fathers! God’s great power
    Shall soon all nations win for thee;
  And through the truth that comes from God
    Mankind shall then be truly free.

The stanza, somewhat over-optimistic, is omitted from the _Hymnary_.

For comments on the author, F. W. Faber, see Hymn 44.

_MUSIC._ ST. CATHERINE is of English origin. The composer, Henry F.
Hemy, 1818-88, was organist at St. Andrew’s Roman Catholic Church in
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and a teacher of piano and singing. He wrote this
tune for another hymn and published it in his _Crown of Jesus Music_,
1864, a popular book in Catholic churches in England. The refrain was
added in an arrangement by James G. Walton, 1821-1905.


                             PEACE AND JOY


155. Jesus, the very thought of Thee             _Ascribed to Bernard of
                                                   Clairvaux_, 1091-1153
                                           _Tr. Edward Caswall_, 1814-78

“This may well be called the sweetest and most evangelical hymn of the
Middle Ages.... It breathes the deepest love to Christ, as the fountain
of all peace and comfort, and the sum of all that is pure and
lovely.”—Philip Schaff.

It is from the famous medieval hymn “_Jesu, dulcis memoria_,” which
David Livingstone used to repeat as he explored Africa: “That hymn of
St. Bernard, on the name of Christ, although in what might be termed
dog-Latin, pleases me so: it rings in my ears as I wander across the
wide, wide wilderness.” Its beauty has charmed many others who are
familiar with the Latin. The original poem has fifty quatrains, of which
our hymn is a selection of the following five:

  Iesus dulcis memoria,
  Dans vera cordis gaudia;
  Sed super mel et omnia
  Dulcis eius praesentia.

  Nil canitur suavius,
  Auditur nil iucundius,
  Nil cogitatur dulcius,
  Quam Iesus, Dei Filius.

  Iesu, spes paenitentibus,
  Quem pius es pententibus,
  Quam bonus te quaerentibus!
  Sed quid invenientibus.

  Nec lingua potest dicere,
  Nec littera exprimere;
  Experto potes credere,
  Quid sit Iesum diligere.

  Tu esto nostrum gaudium,
  Qui es futurus praemium;
  Sit nostra in te gloria
  Per cuncta semper saecula.

It is usually attributed to Bernard of Clairvaux (See 539), but many
authorities now question the authorship. Percy Dearmer says in _Songs of
Praise Discussed_ that “it is not by St. Bernard.... St. Bernard of
Clairvaux was born 1091 and the poem itself has been found in a
manuscript of the 11th century.” In further commenting on the authorship
he says, “We really know nothing and are not likely to know.”

The translation here is by Edward Caswall.

For comments on Caswall see Hymn 19.

A translation of a different _cento_ of the same hymn, by Ray Palmer, is
found at No. 171.

_MUSIC._ ST. AGNES was written for this hymn in _A Hymnal for Use in the
English Church_, 1866, edited by Rev. J. Grey. In England it is called
“St. Agnes, Durham,” to distinguish it from the tune, “Langran” (303)
which is known in England as “St. Agnes.”

For comments on the composer, John B. Dykes, see Hymn 1.


156. Rejoice, ye pure in heart             _Edward H. Plumptre_, 1821-91

A popular processional hymn written for that purpose in May, 1865, for a
choir festival in Peterborough Cathedral, one of the most important
Norman churches now standing in England. It was published in the same
year in the author’s _Lazarus, and Other Poems_. The refrain has been
added.

For comments on Edward H. Plumptre see Hymn 95.

_MUSIC._ MARION was written in 1883 for this hymn. The tune is admirably
adapted to the words and the combination has made this one of the
choicest of processional hymns. It is also effective for antiphonal
singing.

Arthur Henry Messiter, 1834-1916, born in Somersetshire, England, began
the serious study of music at the age of 17. Coming to America in 1863,
he sang for a time in the volunteer choir of Trinity Church, New York
City. Three years later this famous church appointed him their director
of music and organist, a position he held with distinction for 31 years.
He is the author of several notable books on music and editor of
_Episcopal Hymnal_ of 1893.


157. Jesus, our Savior, grant us Thy peace                 _E. C. Poppe_
                                                 _Tr. Amanda Hostettler_
                                                 _and E. Shippen Barnes_

A hymn of the peace of God, based on Col. 3:15: “And let the peace of
God rule in your hearts, to which also ye are called”; and John 14:27:
“Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you.”

The original poem of five stanzas appears in the _Gesangbuch mit Noten_
where it is attributed to E. C. Poppe. Erhard Christoph Poppe, 1804-78,
the son of a goldsmith, was born in Bremen. He was a colporteur for the
Methodist church.

  Seliger Friede, köstliche Gab’
    Meines geliebten Heilands, mich lab’;
  Tief in mein Inn’res du dich ergiess’,
    Dass ich dich, wie ich wünsche geniess.
  O, wie schmeckst du dem Herzen so süss!

  Seit mir mein Jesus Frieden geschenkt,
    Hat sich mein Alles in Ihn versenkt;
  Ach, wie war’s Ihm am Kreuze so bang!
    O, wie Ihn dort die Liebe so drang!
  Frieden zu spenden, Er für mich rang.

  Jesu, verklär Dich in mir noch mehr,
    Dass solchen Frieden ferner nichts stör’;
  Wie ja ein Vater Gutes gern giebt,
    Schenkst Du auch Deinem Kind, das Dich liebt;
  Frieden, den keine Wolke mehr trübt.

  Nimm Du allein das Herze uns ein,
    Dass wir recht mild und sanftmüthig sein,
  Dass uns’re Seelen, Dir nur geweiht,
    Ruhen in Deinem Blut allezeit;
  Friede versüsst uns dann Kreuz und Leid.

  Gieb Deinen Frieden immer mir so,
    Dass ich in Leid bleib’ ruhig und froh,
  Und wenn auch höher steiget die Noth,
    Ja, wenn zuletzt mir nahet der Tod,
  Lass mich im Frieden eilen zu Gott.

This free translation, specially made for the _Hymnary_, is by Mrs.
Amanda Hostettler, Upland, California, whose father, John Hirschler, was
a prominent minister in the General Conference of Mennonites. A few
changes in her work were made by E. Shippen Barnes.

For comments on Barnes see Hymn 48.

_MUSIC._ SELIGER FRIEDE, named after the initial words of the German
text, appeared anonymously in the _Gesangbuch mit Noten_. Its quiet,
pensive phrases are well adapted to the sentiment of the words.


158-9. Jesus, Lover of my soul                 _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88

The greatest hymn of all time.

Many of the stories concerning the origin of this hymn, such as that of
the bird flying in time of storm to Wesley, or a dove pursued by a hawk
finding refuge in his room, or Wesley’s own escape from a threatening
mob, cannot be substantiated and must be dismissed as legendary, however
plausible and fitting they may be.

The hymn first appeared in _Hymns and Sacred Poems_, 1740, with the
title, “In time of Prayer and Temptation.” The third stanza, omitted
from all hymnals, reads:

  Wilt Thou not regard my call?
    Wilt Thou not accept my prayer?
  Lo, I sink, I faint, I fall,
    Lo, on Thee I cast my care.
  Reach me out Thy gracious hand,
    While I of Thy strength receive,
  Hoping against hope I stand,
    Dying, and behold, I live.

The simplicity and literacy art of the hymn are unsurpassed. Of the 188
words in the four stanzas of the hymn generally used, all but 31 are
monosyllables. The hymn has been translated into virtually every
language and uncounted millions have found it a source of help in time
of need. Henry Ward Beecher once said: “I would rather have written that
hymn than to have the fame of all the kings that ever sat upon the
earth.”

In the annotated edition of the _Book of Common Praise_, 1909, the
following story is given:

  A party of Northern tourists were on the deck of an excursion steamer,
  on the Potomac, one summer evening in 1881. One of the party, who had
  a remarkable voice, began to sing hymns to the others. When he had
  sung two verses of “Jesu, lover of my soul,” a stranger made his way
  from the outskirts of the crowd: “Beg your pardon, sir, but were you
  actively engaged in the late war?” “Yes, sir, I fought under General
  Grant.” “Well,” the first speaker continued, “I did my fighting on the
  other side, and I think I was very near you one bright night eighteen
  years ago this month. It was much such a night as this. If I am not
  mistaken, you were on guard-duty. We of the South had sharp business
  on hand. I crept near your post of duty, my weapon in my hand; the
  shadows hid me. Your beat led you into the clear light. As you paced
  back and forth you were singing that same hymn. I raised my gun and
  aimed at your heart—and I had been selected for the work because I was
  a sure shot. Then out upon the night floated the words:

  Cover my defenceless head
  With the shadow of thy wing.

  Your prayer was answered. I couldn’t fire after that. And there was no
  attack made upon your camp that night. I felt sure, when I heard you
  singing this evening, that you were the man whose life I was spared
  from taking.” The singer grasped the hand of the Southerner and said:
  “I remember the night very well, and the feeling of depression with
  which I went forth to my duty. I knew the post was one of great
  danger. I paced my lonely beat, thinking of home and friends and all
  that life holds dear. Then the thought of God’s care came to me with
  peculiar force, and I sang the prayer of my heart and ceased to feel
  alone. How the prayer was answered I never knew until this evening.”

For comments on Wesley see Hymn 6.

_MUSIC._ MARTYN. The composer of this tune, Simeon B. Marsh, 1798-1875,
spent many years teaching singing classes in and near Albany, N. Y.,
travelling constantly on horseback from town to town through Albany
Presbytery. It was while enroute on his weekly circuit, one day during
the autumn of 1834, that the melody took form. He alighted from his
horse and wrote the music which he set to a hymn by John Newton, “Mary
to her Saviour’s tomb.” Thomas Hastings later set the tune to “Jesus,
Lover of my soul,” a combination now deeply imbedded in the affections
of the American Church.

_MUSIC._ HOLLINGSIDE (159) is the tune composed by John B. Dykes,
1823-76, especially for this hymn. The tune has more of musical interest
than the better known “Martyn,” and many hymnals give it first place for
use with this hymn. Dykes was always particular about the naming of his
tunes, often some incident in his life supplying the name. “Hollingside”
was the name of the cottage he lived in, while precentor at Durham, when
he wrote this. Regarding its composition, one of his sisters wrote:

  Some scenes during that visit will live forever in my memory. As, for
  instance, one calm Sunday evening, when I sat in the verandah in the
  deepening twilight and heard, through the open window, my brother
  composing and playing over the tune “Hollingside,” to the words “Jesu,
  Lover of my soul.”

For comments on Dykes see Hymn 1.


                        GUIDANCE AND PROTECTION


160. Guide me, O Thou great Jehovah          _William Williams_, 1717-91

A superb hymn of guidance in which the analogies of the history of
Israel in the wilderness appear in every stanza and almost in every
line. It was written in Welsh in 1745 and translated into English in
1771 by Rev. Peter Williams, friend of the author and fellow-worker.
Some think stanzas 2 and 3 were translated by the author himself or by
his son, the Rev. John Williams.

The hymn in Welsh, with its unpronounceable words, is as follows:

  Arglwydd, arwain trwy’r anialwch
    Fi bererin gwael ei wedd,
  Nad oes ynof nerth na bywyd,
    Fel yn gorwedd yn y bedd:
      Hollalluog
  Ydyw’r un a’m cwyd i’r lan.

  Agor y ffynnonau melus
    Sydd yn tarddu o’r Graig i maes;
  ’Rhyd yr anial mawr canlyned
    Afon iachawdwriaeth grâs:
      Rho imi hyny;
  Dim i mi ond dy fwynhau.

  Ymddiriedaf yn dy allu,
    Mawr yw’r gwaith a wnest erioed:
  Ti gest angau, ti gest uffern,
    Ti gest Satan dan dy droed:
      Pen Calfaria,
  Nac aed hwnw byth o’m cof.

William Williams was the chief hymn writer of Wales and one of her
greatest poets. He at first was in training for the medical profession
but after attending some revival services, decided to become a minister.
On account of his evangelical views (and his interest in evangelistic
work), he came in conflict with church dignitaries, resulting in his
withdrawal from the Established Church, and throwing himself into
evangelistic work. His preaching itineraries took him throughout Wales.
He travelled an average of 3,000 miles per year for 50 years. He wrote
many hymns, stirring the nation, influencing its character, and
deepening its faith. Williams was to Wales what Paul Gerhardt was to
Germany and Isaac Watts to England.

_MUSIC._ DISMISSAL was composed for the hymn “Lord, dismiss us with Thy
blessing” (45).

The composer, William Letton Viner, 1790-1867, was a student of Charles
Wesley, Jr. He was organist at St. Michael’s Church, Bath, for 18 years
and at St. Mary’s Penzance for 21 years. In 1859, he came to the United
States. He composed organ and church music and songs, and edited several
hymnals.


161. Jesus, Savior, pilot me                    _Edward Hopper_, 1818-88

A beautiful hymn suggested by the seafaring life. It was published
anonymously in _Sailors’ Magazine_, 1871, and again in the _Baptist
Praise Book_, 1871, and in C. S. Robinson’s collection of _Spiritual
Songs_, 1878. The author of the hymn, unknown for several years, was
discovered at the anniversary of the Seamen’s Friend Society, held at
the Broadway Tabernacle, New York City, May 10, 1880. Dr. Edward Hopper,
popular pastor of the Church of the Sea and Land in New York, having
been asked to write a special hymn for the occasion, brought instead,
“Jesus Savior, pilot me,” not aware that the hymn had already been
published in several church hymnals. The public learned then for the
first time the real authorship of the hymn. The original has six
stanzas, this being a selection of 1, 5, and 6.

Edward Hopper was born in New York City. He graduated from New York
University and then prepared himself at Union Theological Seminary, New
York, for the Presbyterian ministry. For many years he was pastor of the
Church of the Sea and Land in New York, which sailors attended in large
numbers.

_MUSIC._ PILOT, universally sung and beautifully adapted to these words,
was written just before the composer sailed for Europe a short while
before his death. He played the tune on the piano the night before he
embarked on shipboard for his last earthly voyage.

For further comments on the composer, John E. Gould, see Hymn 141.


162-3. Lead, kindly Light                   _John Henry Newman_, 1801-90

A prayer for light and guidance, written on Sunday, June 16, 1833, while
the author, travelling for his health, was lying, sick in mind and body,
on the deck of a sail vessel that was becalmed for a whole week in the
Straits of Bonifacio, in the Mediterranean Sea. Newman was going through
a period of great heart-searching because of the disturbed conditions in
England, both in church and state. His depressed feelings were
accentuated by the wretched state of his health. The hymn deserves its
wide popularity, for it expresses the universal longing for divine help
in time of deep depression. The meaning of “kindly light” was never
explained by the author. To some it represents the Inward Light of
conscience; to others just the divine guidance; but to most people it
doubtless means Christ as the Light of the World.

John Henry Newman was born in London, the son of a banker. His parents
were devout nonconformists and brought up their son in the evangelical
faith. After a distinguished career at Trinity College, Oxford, Newman
was ordained in the Church of England, and became the vicar of the
Oxford University Church, a post he filled with distinction from 1828 to
1843. His charm of personality and pulpit eloquence made him a profound
influence at the University. Newman became a leader in the Oxford
Movement and finally, in 1845, after a period of much hesitation, he
left Anglicanism to unite with the Roman Catholic Church. His _Apologia
pro Vita Sua_, a masterpiece of autobiography, constitutes a powerful
defense of the Roman system of belief. In 1879, after some years of
neglect by the church, he was made a cardinal. His fine Christian
character, and spiritual force, as well as his literary ability, were
universally recognized. Newman was a great Englishman and a great saint
though referred to by some writers as an “angel who lost his way.”

_MUSIC._ LUX BENIGNA was written for these words by J. B. Dykes. Dykes
told a friend that the tune came to him while walking through the Strand
in London. The tune is also known as “St. Oswald.”

A friend visiting Cardinal Newman said to him of “Lead, Kindly Light”:
“It must be a great pleasure to you to know that you have written a hymn
treasured wherever English speaking Christians are to be found: and
where are they not found?” To which Newman, after thoughtful silence,
replied: “Yes, deeply thankful, and more than thankful: but you see it
is not the hymn, but the tune, that has gained the popularity! The tune
is Dykes’, and Dr. Dykes was a great master.”

For comments on J. B. Dykes see Hymn 1.

SANDON was also written for this hymn. It appeared in _The Church and
Home Metrical Psalter and Hymnal_, 1860, edited by Purday himself. It is
simpler in form than LUX BENIGNA and is an effective and desirable
alternative tune.

Charles Purday, 1799-1885, the composer, was at one time a noted singer
in London. He became a publisher of music and was a popular lecturer on
musical subjects.


164. Lead us, O Father, in the paths of peace         _Wm. H. Burleigh_,
                                                                 1812-71

A hymn on the journey of life, entitled by the author, “Prayer for
Guidance.”

William Henry Burleigh was brought up on a farm at Plainfield, Conn. At
the age of 25, he went to Pittsburgh, Pa., and learned the printing
trade and journalism. He later became editor of the _Christian Freeman_,
an abolitionist journal, at Hartford, Conn. He was an ardent temperance
reformer and advocate of the abolition of slavery. His last appointment
was harbour master at New York, a post he held for 15 years. Burleigh
belonged to a distinguished group of Unitarians who have contributed to
American hymnody. His wife, Celia Burleigh, was for some time minister
of the Unitarian Church at Brooklyn, Conn., and wrote the _Life_ of her
husband.

_MUSIC._ LONGWOOD was composed for John Ellerton’s hymn, “Savior, again
to thy dear name we raise” (43).

For comments on the composer, Joseph Barnby, see Hymn 21.


165. O’er the trackless ocean guided               _Wm. H. Adams_, 1864—

A hymn on pioneer service, written probably with the Pilgrim Fathers in
mind, but equally applicable to other groups of immigrants who came
“o’er the trackless ocean” to build “rude homes” in the “new land, wild
and lonely.”

Information concerning the author has not been traced. The hymn is not
listed in _Julian’s Dictionary_.

_MUSIC._ BEECHER. For comments on this tune and its composer see Hymn
178.


166. For them whose ways are in the height      _Richard Roberts_, 1874—

This hymn for travellers by air was created to meet the new day of
amazing development which has taken place in modern travel. It is a
welcome addition to the hymnody of travel.

Richard Roberts, born in Wales, in 1874, is an eminent preacher. Before
going to Canada where he became the first Moderator of the United Church
of Canada, he occupied pulpits in Wales, London, and Brooklyn. He is one
of the founders of the “Fellowship of Reconciliation.” His views on the
relation of the church to war are well expressed in his own words:

  The world order in which war is inherent, the church exists to
  transform. When it supports the method of war, an end-product of the
  unredeemed world order, the church is not only proclaiming its own
  failure, but is hauling down its own flag and hoisting instead the
  flag of the world.

_MUSIC._ MORWELLHAM was composed by Charles Steggall, 1826-1905, an
English musician who was educated at the Royal Academy of Music in
London and then for half a century was chief professor of the organ in
the same institution. He is said to have trained more organists than any
teacher in England. Steggall was an enthusiast for the music of Bach and
served as honorary secretary of the Bach Society. He composed anthems
and church music and had a lifelong interest in hymnology. He succeeded
W. H. Monk as musical editor of _Hymns Ancient and Modern_.


167. O God of Bethel, by whose hand          _Philip Doddridge_, 1702-51
                                                            _and others_

A paraphrase of Genesis 28:20-22: “And Jacob vowed a vow, saying, If God
will be with me, and will keep me in this way that I go, and will give
me bread to eat, and raiment to put on, so that I come again to my
father’s house in peace; then shall the Lord be my God: and this stone,
which I have set for a pillar, shall be God’s house: and of all that
thou shalt give me I will surely give the tenth unto thee.”

The hymn has undergone certain changes and additions so that it really
is a composite production, the details of which need not be enumerated
here. Ours is the Scottish version found in the _Scottish Paraphrases_,
1781. In Scotland it is the best-loved of the paraphrases as “The Lord’s
My Shepherd” is the best-loved of the psalms.

For comments on Philip Doddridge see Hymn 56.

_MUSIC._ SALZBURG is an adaptation of an air in a movement of a Mass
composed by J. M. Haydn “for the use of country choirs.” It was
originally in 6-8 time. An entirely different tune by the same name is
found at Hymn 545.

For comments on Johann Michael Haydn see Hymn 7.


168. Captain of Israel’s host, and Guide       _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88

Based on the story of God’s guidance of the Israelites during their
exodus from Egypt and their journeyings in the wilderness, Exodus
13:17-22.

For comments on Charles Wesley see Hymn 6.

_MUSIC._ MIDDLESEX is an anonymous tune, the origin of which has not
been traced. The hymn and tune were taken from _The Hymnary_, published
in Toronto, 1930, by the United Church of Canada.


169. Eternal Father! strong to save           _William Whiting_, 1825-78

A hymn for travellers by sea. This hymn and tune have long been used
more frequently than any other for that purpose. Sir Evelyn Wood wrote
regarding this hymn: “It is much used by those at sea, and, when the
wind blows hard, by those on land.” The words, written in 1860, have
been revised several times.

It was the favorite hymn of the late Franklin D. Roosevelt and was sung
at his funeral at Hyde Park, New York, April 14, 1945.

William Whiting was a native of Kensington, London, and was for over
twenty years master of the Choristers’ School at Winchester College.

_MUSIC._ MELITA was written for this hymn. For comments on the composer,
J. B. Dykes, see Hymn 1.


                           LOVE AND GRATITUDE


170. Jesus, Thy boundless love to me            _Paul Gerhardt_, 1607-76
                                                       _Tr. John Wesley_

A hymn of the love of Christ, suited especially well for the Communion
Service. This great hymn by Paul Gerhardt first appeared in Crüger’s
_Praxis Pietatis Melica_, Berlin, 1653, in sixteen stanzas. John Wesley,
great revivalist and eminent translator of German hymns, rendered the
entire hymn into English, in a different meter, and published it in
_Hymns and Sacred Poems_, 1739. Our hymn consists of the first three
stanzas, the original of which are as follows:

  O Jesu Christ, mein schönstes Licht,
    Der du in deiner Seelen
  So hoch mich liebst, dass ich es nicht
    Aussprechen kann noch zählen:
  Gib, dass mein Herz dich wiederum
    Mit Lieben und Verlangen
    Mög’ umfangen
  Und als dein Eigentum
    Nur einzig an dir hangen!

  Gib, dass sonst nichts in meiner Seel’
    Als deine Liebe wohne;
  Gib, dass ich deine Lieb’ erwähl’
    Als meinen Schatz und Krone!
  Stoss alles aus, nimm alles hin,
    Was dich und mich will trennen
    Und nicht gönnen,
  Dass all mein Mut und Sinn
    In deiner Liebe brennen!

  Wie freundlich, selig, süss und schön
    Ist, Jesu, deine Liebe!
  Wo diese steht, kann nichts bestehn,
    Das meinen Geist betrübe;
  Drum lass nichts andres denken mich,
    Nichts sehen, fühlen, hören,
    Lieben, ehren
  Als deine Lieb’ und dich,
    Der du sie kannst vermehren!

The prayer for the realization of the love of Christ was answered
abundantly in Wesley’s own life. In his _Plain Account of Christian
Perfection_, he wrote:

  In the beginning of the year 1738, as I was returning from Savannah,
  the cry of my heart was

  “O grant that nothing in my soul
  May dwell but Thy pure love alone.”

On May 24 of the same year, in the Society Meeting in Aldersgate Street,
about a quarter before nine, during the reading of Luther’s Preface to
the Epistle to the Romans, I felt my heart strangely warmed. I felt I
did trust in Christ, Christ alone, for Salvation; and an assurance was
given me that He had taken away my sins, even _mine_, and saved _me_
from the law of sin and death.

Wesley became interested in the German chorales through his contact with
the Moravians. In 1735, he and his brother Charles Wesley set sail for
Georgia. Among their fellow passengers on the boat were 26 Moravians who
made much of the singing of hymns and seemed to meet every storm and
trial with unfaltering faith. Wesley was so impressed that on the third
day out he began the study of German and soon joined in the daily
worship of the Moravians. The fervor and spontaneity of their singing
made an indelible impression on his mind. He later translated a number
of chorales into English. (See 246, 508, 558.)

For comments on Paul Gerhardt see Hymn 134.

_MUSIC._ STELLA. For comments on this tune see Hymn 94.


171. Jesus, Thou Joy of loving hearts               _Latin 11th Century_
                                                        _Tr. Ray Palmer_

A hymn of devotional meditation especially appropriate for the Communion
Service.

From the same Latin hymn, “_Jesu dulcis memoria_,” as Hymn 155 (which
see) but using a different set of quatrains, Nos. 4, 3, 20, 28, and 10,
which appear in the Latin as follows:

  Jesu, dulcedo cordium;
  Fons veri, lumen mentium,
  Excedit omne gaudium,
  Et omne desiderium.

  Jesus, spes poenitentibus,
  Quam pius es petentibus,
  Quam bonus te quaerentibus!
  Sed quid invenientibus?

  Qui te gustant, esuriunt;
  Qui bibunt, adhuc sitiunt:
  Desiderare nesciunt
  Nisi Jesum, quem diligunt.

  Quoconque loco fuero,
  Mecum Jesum desidero;
  Quam laetus, cum invenero!
  Quam felix, cum tenuero!

  Mane nobiscum, Domine,
  Et nos illustra lumine,
  Pulsa mentis caligine,
  Mundum replens dulcedine.

For comments on the translator, Ray Palmer, see Hymn 131.

_MUSIC._ QUEBEC. This tune by Henry Baker was originally set to the
hymn, “Sun of my soul.” It is also called “Hesperus” and “Whitburn.”

Henry Baker (not to be confused with Henry W. Baker), 1835-1910, son of
Rev. James Baker, was educated as a civil engineer and spent many years
in his profession on railroad work in India. He loved music, and,
encouraged by John B. Dykes, proceeded in 1867 to his musical degree
(Mus. Bac.) at Exeter College, Oxford.


172. O love divine, that stooped to share       _Oliver Wendell Holmes_,
                                                                 1809-94

One of Holmes’ best hymns to which he gave the title, “Hymn of Trust.”
It is found in the author’s _Poems_, 1862. It was first published as one
of the poems in _The Professor at the Breakfast Table_, where it was
represented as having been heard by the professor as he walked by a sick
room. The little refrain, “Thou art near,” is based on Psalm 119:151:
“Thou art near, O Lord; and all thy commandments are truth.”

Oliver Wendell Holmes, American poet and man of letters, was the son of
Rev. Abiel Holmes, a Congregational minister. He graduated from Harvard
in 1829, studied medicine at home and abroad, and became Professor of
Anatomy and Physiology at Dartmouth in 1838. He was elected to the same
chair at Harvard in 1847, a position he filled with distinction for 35
years. During all his years of teaching he was also engaged in literary
work and published many volumes. Holmes was chief founder of the
_Atlantic Monthly_. He was a member of the Unitarian Church though in
later years he fell back for spiritual comfort on the great evangelical
hymns of Watts and Wesley, finding in them a source of satisfaction and
power which the hymns of his own denomination failed to supply. His son,
Oliver Wendell, Jr., became an eminent member of the Supreme Court of
the United States.

For further comments on Holmes see Hymn 53.

_MUSIC._ QUEBEC. For comments on this tune see Hymn 171.


173. Immortal Love, forever full      _John Greenleaf Whittier_, 1807-92

One of the great hymns on the living presence and sympathy of Christ. It
is taken from the poem, “Our Master,” of 38 stanzas, of which this hymn
is a selection of stanzas 1, 5, 13, 14, and 16 of the original.

John Greenleaf Whittier, the “Quaker Poet,” was born near Haverhill,
Mass., where he began life as a farm boy and village shoemaker. At the
age of 20, with only a limited education, he entered the profession of
journalism, largely as the result of becoming acquainted with William
Lloyd Garrison. He became editor of the _American Manufacturer_ in 1828,
and of the _New England Review_ in 1830. In 1836 he became the secretary
of the American Anti-Slavery Society and editor of its official organ,
the _Freeman_. Whittier was a staunch advocate of the freedom of slaves,
and as a Quaker, he was just as strongly opposed to war. His poems are
characterized by wide sympathy and a fervent love for God and man.
Though a staunch Quaker, wearing the distinctive garb and using the
Quaker mode of speech all his life, there was no narrow sectarianism in
his heart. A letter written to friends in Whittier, California, a city
named after the poet, for the dedication of the Protestant Episcopal
Church at that place, illustrates his large-hearted religious views:

  I see the good in all denominations, and hope that all will be
  represented in the settlement; ... diligent in business and serving
  the Lord, not wasting strength and vitality in spasmodic emotions, not
  relying on creed and dogma, but upon faithful obedience to the voice
  of God in the soul. I see your town is spoken of as an orthodox Quaker
  colony. I hope there will be no sectarian fence about “Whittier,” but
  that good men, irrespective of their creeds, will find a home there.
  Nothing would be worse for it than to have the idea get abroad that
  anything like intolerance and self-righteousness was its foundation. I
  am gratified to know that the people of the town which bears my name
  will remember me on my birthday. I watch its growth with great
  interest. It has the reputation among all who have seen it that it
  occupies one of the loveliest sites in California, and that in a moral
  and religious and educational point of view it need

  Fear not the skeptic’s puny hand
  While near the school the church will stand;
  Nor fear the blinded bigot’s rule
  While near the church shall stand the school.

_MUSIC._ SERENITY is taken from a larger work entitled, _Waft ye winds_.
Though the tune is named “Serenity,” the composer’s life was anything
but serene; he was the world’s most restless and most picturesque
composer. William Vincent Wallace, 1812-65, son of an Irish bandmaster,
became a brilliant violinist. He loved adventure and travel and made
successful concert tours to Australia, the South Sea Islands, India,
South America, Mexico, the United States, and elsewhere. Wallace spent
14 years in Germany composing piano music chiefly, but also writing a
number of operas. On account of failing health, he abandoned writing,
and went to New York where he lost all his fortune through the failure
of a piano factory. Undiscouraged by this disaster, he once more resumed
his career as composer, returned to London, and then on doctor’s orders
went to the Pyrenees where he died at the age of 51.


174. Gracious Spirit, Holy Ghost       _Christopher Wordsworth_, 1807-85

Written for one of the pre-Lenten Sundays (_Quinquagesima_), the lesson
for the day being I Corinthians 13. It is a fine enough hymn, but no
poet can render this great paean of praise of love into verse to equal
in poetic beauty the English of the King James Version.

Christopher Wordsworth was a nephew of the poet William Wordsworth. He
was a brilliant student and a good athlete. After graduation from
Cambridge, he became Head Master of Harrow for a time, then minister of
a church where he proved to be a model parish priest, and later was
appointed Bishop of Lincoln. Among his writings are a _Commentary on the
Bible_, and a book of devotional poetry, _The Holy Year_, prepared for
use in public worship.

_MUSIC._ CAPETOWN is an adaptation of a melody in “_Vierstimmiges
Choralbuch herausgegeben von Dr. F. Filitz_,” Berlin, 1847. It was
originally set to the hymn, “_Morgenglanz der Ewigkeit_” (554).

The composer, Friedrich Filitz, 1804-76, was a musician and editor of
German chorale books. He spent all his life in Munich except the years
1843-47 in Berlin.


175. O Love that wilt not let me go         _George Matheson_, 1842-1906

A song of joyful resignation, love, and trust, born out of the author’s
experience of suffering. The story has been circulated that the hymn was
written after the woman whom Matheson loved gave him up because of his
becoming blind—a good story with one defect, _viz._, that it isn’t true.
It could not be true because Matheson became blind at 15 and the hymn
was not written until he was 40 years old.

The author’s own account of the composition of the hymn is as follows:

  My hymn was composed in the manse of Innellan, on the evening of June
  6, 1882. I was at that time alone. It was the day of my sister’s
  marriage, and the rest of the family were staying over night in
  Glasgow. Something had happened to me, which was known only to myself,
  and which caused me the most severe mental suffering. The hymn was the
  fruit of that suffering. It was the quickest bit of work I ever did in
  my life. I had the impression rather of having it dictated to me by
  some inward voice than of working it out myself. I am quite sure that
  the whole work was completed in five minutes, and equally sure that it
  never received at my hands any retouching or correction. The Hymnal
  Committee of the Church of Scotland desired the change of one word. I
  had written originally “I climb the rainbow in the rain.” They
  objected to the word “climb” and I put in “trace.”

George W. Matheson, son of a wealthy merchant in Glasgow, was an able
and greatly honored minister in the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. He
was educated at Glasgow University and licensed to preach when 24 years
old. During his University course, and all the rest of his life, he had
to depend on the eyesight of others, which makes his accomplishments all
the more remarkable. He was a brilliant student and became a
distinguished preacher and pastor. At St. Bernard’s Church, Edinburgh,
he served a membership of over 2,000, never neglecting his duties of
pastoral calling in which he was invariably accompanied by his devoted
sister. He was a scholar of distinction and was the author of 25 books,
including such well-known works as _Representative Men of the Bible_,
_Representative Women of the Bible_, _The Spiritual Development of St.
Paul_, and a book of _Sacred Songs_. Of the many hymns he wrote, several
have been used in hymn books but only this one has gained universal
popularity.

_MUSIC._ ST. MARGARET was written one summer day as the composer was
sitting by the sea on the island of Arran and reading over Matheson’s
verses. The tune came to him suddenly and he hastened to the house where
he was staying where (in his own words): “I wrote the music straight
off, and I may say that the ink of the first note was hardly dry when I
finished the tune.”

The composer, Albert Lister Peace, 1844-1912, was organist at Glasgow
Cathedral and at the time he wrote this tune, he was music editor of the
revised _Scottish Hymnal_ of 1885.


176. For common gifts we bless Thee, Lord         _Charlotte M. Packard_

A hymn of gratitude for the common gifts too often taken for granted—the
physical senses, the air, sun, darkness and sleep, the courtesies of
friendship, etc. The last stanza is a prayer for unforgetful gratitude.

Information regarding the author, Charlotte M. Packard, has not been
traced. The hymn was taken from _Hymns of the Spirit_, 1937, Boston.

_MUSIC._ ILLSLEY appeared in _A Sett of New Psalm Tunes in Four Parts by
John Bishop_, c. 1700, where it is set to Psalm 100.

John Bishop, the composer, 1665-1737, was an English musician who became
organist of Winchester College in 1695 and in 1729 was appointed
organist of Winchester Chapel. He is buried in the Cloisters of the
College with the following epitaph:

  Vir singulari probitate, integerrima vita, moribus innocuis,
  musicaeque scientiae bene peritus, qui, postquam huic Collegio per
  XLII, annos sedulo inserviisset, ad Caelestam Choram placide migravit,
  decimo nono die Decembris, anno Dom. 1737, Aetat. 72. (A man of
  unexampled honesty, purest life, blameless morals, and of excellent
  skill in music, who, after serving this College diligently for 42
  years, passed tranquilly to the Celestial Choir on the 19th of
  December A.D. 1737, aged 72.)


177. My God, I thank Thee, who hast made        _Adelaide Anne Proctor_,
                                                                 1825-64

A hymn of pure gratitude, expressing thankfulness even for the trials of
life. It is equally useful for the sick and the well.

Adelaide Anne Proctor was born in London, the daughter of Bryan W.
Proctor, known in literary circles as “Barry Cornwall.” She possessed
extraordinary intellectual power and was specially gifted in music and
language. Miss Proctor contributed lyrics to _Household Verses_, edited
by Chas. Dickens, who wrote with admiration of her verse making, her
mental resources, humor, and works of beneficence. At 38 years of age
her physical strength weakened and then followed 15 weary months of
helplessness during which, however, she maintained her old cheerfulness
with never a trace of depression or regret. She was brought up in the
Church of England, but at the age of 26 united with the Roman Catholics.
Her broad sympathies and deep religious convictions placed her above the
dogmas of any one communion and enabled her to express the aspirations
of all God’s children. Besides her hymns, Miss Proctor is best known as
the author of the popular song, “The Lost Chord,” set to music by Arthur
Sullivan.

_MUSIC._ WENTWORTH was composed for this hymn in _The Bristol Tune
Book_, 2d series; 1876. The middle section of the tune, lines 3 and 4,
passes from the Key of C to A minor, D major and G major, making an
effective contrast to the opening and closing lines, in the key of C.

For comments on the composer, Frederick C. Maker, see Hymn 112.


178-9. Love divine, all loves excelling        _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88

The hymn appeared in the curiously named collection, _Hymns for those
that seek and those that have Redemption in the Blood of Christ_, 1747,
and was entitled “Jesu, show us Thy salvation.” It dwells upon the
thought of God as love, an idea not too common in the early hymns. The
thought of the hymn is complete without stanza 2 and many hymnals omit
it. Some have objected to this stanza because of the line, “Take away
our power of sinning.” Literally interpreted this would be a prayer to
have taken away the power of free moral choice, which is hardly what
Wesley intended. To obviate this difficulty, the line has been changed
to “Take away the _love_ of sinning.”

For comments on Wesley see Hymn 6.

_MUSIC._ BEECHER was composed by John Zundel, 1815-82, German-American
organist and composer who rendered distinguished service as minister of
music in the Plymouth Congregation Church, Brooklyn, of which Henry Ward
Beecher was pastor. He assisted Beecher in the production of the famous
_Plymouth Collection_ of hymns published in 1855. The tune, now known
throughout the world, was named after the great pulpiteer.

SONATA (179) is an adaptation of the theme-melody in Mozart’s piano
Sonata No. 16, where it is marked, _Andantino grazioso_. Dudley Buck
writes:

  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, 1756-91, composed 972 pieces of which we
  know. He is considered the greatest composer the world has ever seen,
  judged by the versatility and power of his genius. In every sort and
  kind of composition he was equally excellent. Beside being a great
  composer he was also a great performer, being the most accomplished
  pianist of his day. He was also an excellent player on the violin.


                          PRAYER AND COMMUNION


180. Pray when the morn is breaking   _Mrs. Jane Cross Simpson_, 1811-86
                                                            _and others_

A hymn setting forth the idea of prayer in a very simple way.

Jane Cross Simpson was the daughter of James Bell, a Glasgow attorney.
In 1837, she married her cousin J. B. Simpson, of Glasgow. At the age of
20, she had written a poem, “Go when the morning shineth,” which, after
some revision, had become popular. When _Songs of Praise_, an important
English hymnbook, was in the making, this poem was again revised to make
the present hymn. The “others” referred to are responsible for the
revision and according to _Songs of Praise Discussed_ consisted of Percy
Dearmer, Stephen Gwynn, Mabel Dearmer, and Jan Struther.

_MUSIC._ MEIRIONYDD is a vigorous tune of easy rhythm, on the pattern of
many Welsh tunes except that the last two lines, instead of being simple
repeats of the first two lines, as in the majority of such melodies, are
varied imitations of them.

The composer, William Lloyd, 1786-1852, a Welshman, was a self-educated
man. Though a cattle-dealing farmer, he possessed an excellent voice and
had a considerable knowledge of music. He held singing meetings and
conducted music classes in Wales.


181. Dear Lord and Father of mankind          _John Greenleaf Whittier_,
                                                                 1807-92

A song of quietude and peace, reflecting the inner life of the “Quaker
Poet.”

The verses are from a poem called, “The Brewing of Soma,” in which
Whittier tells of a certain sect of devotees in India who drank
intoxicating liquor brewed from the Soma plant. The drinking of it
brought them to a state of intoxicated excitement in which they imagined
they were god-possessed. The poet then points out how among Christians
emotional excitement is often mistaken for spiritual power.

  “In sensual transports, wild as vain,
  We brew in many a Christian fane,
  The heathen Soma still.”

Then follow the beautiful verses of our hymn in praise of the higher
life of restfulness in God. The poem was written in 1832, after a
particularly noisy and distasteful revival in Whittier’s neighborhood.

For comments on John Greenleaf Whittier see Hymn 173.

_MUSIC._ WHITTIER, also called “Rest” and “Elton,” was written for this
hymn.

For comments on the composer, Frederick C. Maker, see Hymn 112.


182. Sweet hour of prayer                           _William W. Walford_

One of the most popular of all modern prayer meeting hymns, sometimes
erroneously ascribed to Fanny Crosby. It was composed in 1842 by Rev.
William W. Walford, a blind minister of England, of whom little is known
except that he recited the words of this hymn to Rev. Thos. Salmon,
Congregational minister at Coleshill, England, who wrote them down and
later sent them to the New York _Observer_, in which publication they
were printed September 13, 1845. The original has four stanzas, the last
two being omitted here.

_MUSIC._ CONSOLATION, a tune well suited to the words, was composed by
Wm. B. Bradbury in 1859. It is also known as “Sweet Hour” and “Walford.”

For comments on the composer, Wm. B. Bradbury, see Hymn 103.


183. Lord, what a change within us one short hour            _Richard C.
                                                        Trench_, 1807-86
                                             _Arr. W. P. Merrill_, 1867—

A hymn of the peace and power available through the practice of prayer.
It is an arrangement of Trench’s sonnet on “Prayer.”

Richard Chenevix Trench was born in Dublin, educated at Twyford School,
Harrow, and Trinity College, Cambridge. He was preacher, poet, professor
of divinity and later the Archbishop of Dublin. Trench, a scholar of
distinction, is the author of valuable books, including _Notes on the
Parables_, _Notes on the Miracles_, and _Study of Words_.

The poem came into the hymn books through the arrangement made of it by
Dr. W. P. Merrill who first became acquainted with the sonnet through
hearing it read about 1907 by President Charles Cuthbert Hall, of Union
Theological Seminary in the course of a lecture at the University of
Chicago. As sonnets each have fourteen lines, changes were necessary to
make the poem suitable for singing. Dr. Merrill omitted two lines and
arranged the rest to make three symmetrical four-line stanzas.

William Pearson Merrill was born in Orange, N. J., January 10, 1867.
After graduating from Rutgers College, he trained for the Presbyterian
ministry at Union Theological Seminary, New York. He served churches in
Philadelphia and Chicago and then went, in 1911, to the Brick
Presbyterian Church in New York City to begin a long and distinguished
pastorate which ended with his retirement in 1938. He was president of
the Church Peace Union, was long active in The American Hymn Society,
and is the author of several books. His influence as preacher and
religious leader extends beyond his own denomination.

_MUSIC._ FFIGYSBREN, known in Wales as “Clod” (Praise), is a tune of
simple construction, but when sung rather slowly it is remarkably
powerful and effective. It appeared in America in _The Harvard
University Hymn Book_, edited by Archibald T. Davidson in 1926. It is
one of an increasing number of Welsh tunes which are becoming available
to enrich our hymnody with the element of unique beauty and fervor that
is so characteristic of the singing of the Welsh people.


184. Prayer is the soul’s sincere desire   _James Montgomery_, 1771-1854

A classic poem on prayer, written in 1818 at the request of the Rev. E.
Bickersteth for his _Treatise on Prayer_. In 1825 it was published in
_The Christian Psalmist_, headed, “What is Prayer?” The original has
eight stanzas of which our hymn is a selection of 1, 2, 4, 5. Prayer is
more, to be sure, than “the soul’s sincere desire,” for we sincerely
desire many things that are in conflict with God’s will. But taken as a
whole, the poem is an elaborate description of the nature of prayer and
teaches its principles and practice with truth and power. The last
stanza, unfortunately omitted in the _Hymnary_, is itself a beautiful,
direct petition:

  O Thou by whom we come to God,
    The Life, the Truth, the Way,
  The path of prayer Thyself hast trod,—
    Lord, teach us how to pray.

For comments on James Montgomery see Hymn 62.

_MUSIC._ ST. AGNES. For comments on this tune see Hymn 155. In some
books the hymn is set to the tune “_Es Ist Ein Born_” (241).


185. Thou art the Way, to Thee alone        _George W. Doane_, 1799-1859

Based on John 14:6: “I am the way, the truth, and the life; no man
cometh unto the Father, but by me.”

The hymn was written by one of the most able and influential men in the
Episcopal Church in America. It takes high rank among all the hymns
America has produced, and is one of the few hymns of American origin
included in the famous English book, _Hymns Ancient and Modern_. It is
written in simple style, employing only twelve words of more than one
syllable.

For further comments on Bishop Doane see Hymn 36.

_MUSIC._ LAMBETH was composed in 1871 by Wilhelm A. F. Schulthes. No
information is at hand concerning the composer. The tune was taken from
_The Hymnal_ (Protestant Episcopal, 1916).


186. What a friend we have in Jesus            _Joseph Scriven_, 1820-86

A spiritual song of comfort and hope and the most popular Canadian
contribution to the hymnody of the church.

The authorship of this hymn long remained a secret. In one publication
it was erroneously attributed to Horatius Bonar. Scriven composed it for
his mother to comfort her in time of special sorrow, not intending that
anyone else should see it. This information was revealed to a friend who
sat up with the author in his last illness.

Joseph Scriven, born in Dublin, came to Canada at the age of 25 and
settled first at Rice Lake and later at Port Hope, Ontario. He was
unmarried and lived with several families in succession. An eccentric
person, he was always assisting others, and was known as “the man who
sawed wood for widows and sick people who are unable to pay.” He was
found drowned in a stream near Rice Lake. A monument to his memory was
erected by the people who had been helped by him, and by others in the
district.

_MUSIC._ ERIE was composed for this hymn by Charles Crozat Converse,
1832-1918, an American, trained in Germany for the musical profession.
On returning to America, he studied law, graduating from Albany Law
School in 1861, and from 1875 practicing the legal profession at Erie,
Pa. He maintained his interest in music and published several
compositions during his career as lawyer.


187. I need Thee every hour            _Annie Sherwood Hawks_, 1835-1918

A song expressing the Christian believer’s ever-present sense of divine
help and guidance. It first appeared in a small collection of gospel
songs prepared for the National Baptist Sunday School Association which
met in Cincinnati, Ohio, November, 1872, and was sung there.

Mrs. Annie Sherwood Hawks was an active member of the Baptist Church in
Brooklyn of which Rev. Robert Lowry, who wrote the music to the words
and added the refrain, was the pastor. Concerning the hymn, Mrs. Hawks
wrote:

  Whenever my attention is called to it I am conscious of great
  satisfaction in the thought that I was permitted to write the hymn, “I
  need Thee every hour,” and that it was wafted out to the world on the
  wings of love and joy, rather than under stress of a great personal
  sorrow, with which it has so often been associated in the minds of
  those who sing it.

  I remember well the morning ... when in the midst of the daily cares
  of my home ... I was so filled with the sense of nearness to the
  Master that, wondering how one could live without Him either in joy or
  pain, these words, “I need Thee every hour,” were ushered into my
  mind, the thought at once taking full possession of me....

  For myself the hymn was prophetic rather than expressive of my own
  experience at the time it was written, and I do not understand why it
  so touched the great throbbing heart of humanity. It was not until
  long years after, when the shadow fell over my way—the shadow of a
  great loss—that I understood something of the comforting in the words
  I had been permitted to write and give out to others in my hours of
  sweet security and peace.

_MUSIC._ NEED. The tune was written for this hymn. The composer, Rev.
Robert Lowry, 1826-99, was born in Philadelphia and educated at Bucknell
University. After a few years in the Baptist ministry he became
Professor of Rhetoric at his alma mater. The University gave him his
doctorate in 1875. He resigned his chair in 1875 and the following year
resumed the work of the ministry at Plainfield, N. J., continuing until
his death. Though he had no serious training in music, Lowry wrote many
tunes and edited several popular collections of hymns. He did much to
encourage the gospel song movement in America.


188. Father, in Thy mysterious presence kneeling       _Samuel Johnson_,
                                                                 1822-82

A beautiful hymn of contrition, and prayer for the “Presence.”

Samuel Johnson was born in Salem, Mass. After graduating from Harvard
University and Harvard Divinity School, he became minister of the
Independent Church at Lynn, Mass., where he served from 1853 to 1870. He
was a fellow-student and close friend of Samuel Longfellow, the two
“Sams” collaborating in the editing of _A Book of Hymns_ which passed
through twelve editions and became the source of excellent hymnic
material not published before. He was a Unitarian by faith. A competent
scholar, he published _Oriental Religions_, the first adequate study of
comparative religions by an American.

_MUSIC._ HENLEY is one of Mason’s most appreciated tunes. It appeared in
_The Hallelujah_, 1854, by the composer, set to the hymn “Come unto me,
when shadows darkly gather.”

For comments on Lowell Mason see Hymn 12.


189. Come, thou Fount of every blessing       _Robert Robinson_, 1735-90

An old hymn that has been a “fount of blessing” itself to multitudes,
written only three years after the author’s conversion. It sounds a note
of anxiety lest the paths of sin lure the soul away from God. The
Scripture reference in the second stanza is to I Sam. 7:12: “Then Samuel
took a stone and set it between Mizpeh and Shen, and called the name of
it Ebenezer, saying, Hitherto hath the Lord helped me.”

For comments on the author, Robert Robinson, see Hymn 46.

_MUSIC._ NETTLETON appeared in John Wyeth’s _Repository_, 1813, arranged
with the melody in the treble. The authorship of the tune is unknown. It
has been attributed to Wyeth and to Asahel Nettleton, 1783-1844, a New
England evangelist and compiler of _Village Hymns_. It has been
suggested that a friend of Nettleton composed the tune and named it in
his honor.

John Wyeth was born in Cambridge, Mass., 1770, and followed the printing
and publishing business all his life. He was postmaster at Harrisburg,
Pa., under President Washington but was removed by President Adams
because of “incompatibility of the office of post master and editor of a
newspaper.” He died in Philadelphia, June 23, 1858.


                       LOYALTY AND STEADFASTNESS


190. Who is on the Lord’s side            _Frances R. Havergal_, 1836-79

An impressive call to Christian service. The hymn is based on the
incident in the life of David in I Chron. 12:18: “Then the spirit came
upon Amasai who was the chief of the captains, and he said, ‘Thine are
we, David, and on thy side’.... Then David received them and made them
captains of the band.”

For comments on Frances Havergal see Hymn 126.

_MUSIC._ ARMAGEDDON. This stirring tune was first used to “Onward,
Christian Soldiers,” and later with the above hymn. It is an arrangement
by John Goss of a tune by Louise Reichardt which appeared in _Kern des
Deutschen Kirchengesangs_, 1853.

Louise Reichardt, 1788-1826, was a teacher of vocal music in Berlin.

For comments on John Goss see Hymn 121.


191. When courage fails, and faith burns low      _Frederick L. Hosmer_,
                                                               1840-1929

A triumphant song setting forth the ultimate victory of truth, and
encouraging young people to stand loyally for the truth, even “though
men deride.”

For comments on the author, Frederick L. Hosmer, see Hymn 72.

_MUSIC._ WINCHESTER OLD. For comments on this tune see Hymn 588.


192. Jesus, and shall it ever be              _Joseph B. Grigg_, 1720-68

Entitled by the author “Ashamed of Me.” The hymn is based on Mark 8:38:
“Whosoever therefore shall be ashamed of me and of my words in this
adulterous and sinful generation; of him also shall the Son of man be
ashamed, when he cometh in the glory of his Father with the holy
angels.”

The original poem, composed when the author was only ten years of age,
has been altered somewhat by Benjamin Francis, an English Baptist
preacher who was born in Wales in 1734. Francis was an earnest and
popular minister and received flattering calls to London and elsewhere
but chose to remain with his flock at the Baptist Church at Shortwood
where he ministered from 1757 until his death in 1799.

For comments on Joseph B. Grigg see Hymn 141.

_MUSIC._ FEDERAL STREET is the name of a street in Salem, Mass., where
the composer lived and where his wife was born, lived, and died. The
tune was written in 1832 to a child’s funeral hymn by Anne Steele, which
began, “So fades the lovely, blooming flower.”

Henry Kemble Oliver, 1800-85, was a great lover of music even though his
father disapproved of music and forbade the son having anything to do
with it. After graduating from Dartmouth, he had a varied career as
teacher, manager of cotton mills, adjutant-general of his state,
treasurer of the State of Massachusetts, and mayor of Salem. He had
acquired some musical education and found time to compose and publish a
considerable amount of sacred music.


193. Stand up, stand up for Jesus        _George Duffield, Jr._, 1818-88

A hymn of the Christian warfare, widely known, and found in nearly all
English hymn books. The origin of it is best given in the author’s own
words in a leaflet printed in Detroit, 1883, and quoted by his son,
Samuel Duffield, in _English Hymns_, 1886:

  “Stand up for Jesus” was the dying message of the Rev. Dudley A. Tyng,
  to the Young Men’s Christian Association, and the ministers associated
  with them in the Noon-Day Prayer Meeting, during the great revival of
  1858, usually known as “The Work of God in Philadelphia.”

  A very dear personal friend, I knew young Tyng as one of the noblest,
  bravest, manliest men I ever met; not inferior in eloquence to his
  honored father, and the acknowledged leader of a campaign for Christ
  that has become historical. The Sabbath before his death he preached
  in the immense edifice known as Jaynes’ Hall, one of the most
  successful sermons of modern times. Of the five thousand men there
  assembled, at least one thousand, it was believed, were “the slain of
  the Lord.” His text was Exodus 10:11, and hence the allusion in the
  third verse of the hymn.

  The following Wednesday, leaving his study for a moment, he went to
  the barn floor, where a mule was at work on a horse-power, shelling
  corn. Patting him on the neck, the sleeve of his silk study gown
  caught in the cogs of the wheel, and his arm was torn out by the
  roots! His death occurred in a few hours. Never was there greater
  lamentation over a young man than over him, and when Gen. 50:26 was
  announced as the text for his funeral sermon, the place at once became
  a Bochim, and continued so for many minutes.

  The following Sunday the author of the hymn preached from Eph. 6:14,
  and the above verses were written simply as the concluding
  exhortation. The superintendent of the Sabbath-school had a fly-leaf
  printed for the children—a stray copy found its way into a Baptist
  newspaper—and from that paper it has gone in English, and in German
  and Latin translations all over the world. The first time the author
  heard it sung outside of his own denomination, was in 1864, as the
  favorite song of the Christian soldiers in the Army of the James.

                                                     ... George Duffield

  Detroit, May 29, 1883.

George Duffield, Jr., 1818-88, son of Rev. George Duffield, was educated
at Yale and Union Theological Seminary for the Presbyterian ministry and
held pastorates in Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Galesburg, Ill., Adrian and
Lansing, Michigan. His son, Samuel W. Duffield, was the author of
_English Hymns_.

_MUSIC._ WEBB. For comments on this tune see Hymn 65.


194. God’s trumpet wakes the slumb’ring world       _Samuel Longfellow_,
                                                                 1819-92

A stirring call to a loyal stand for truth and witness against wrong.
The hymn first appeared in _Hymns of the Spirit_, 1864.

For comments on Samuel Longfellow see Hymn 28.

_MUSIC._ ALL SAINTS NEW was written for Bishop Heber’s hymn, “The Son of
God goes forth to war.”

The composer, Henry Stephen Cutler, 1824-1902, received his education at
Boston, his birthplace, and in Europe. He became a well-known organist
and choir master, serving churches in Boston, New York, and other
cities, and attracted attention by robing his choir members and seating
them in the chancel, innovations in his day.


                         TRIALS AND TEMPTATIONS


195. In the hour of trial                  _James Montgomery_, 1771-1854
                             _Alt. Frances A. Hutton and Godfrey Thring_

The hymn is based on Luke 22:32: “I have prayed for thee, that thy faith
fail not.” It was written October 13, 1834, with the title, “In trial
and temptation,” and published in 1853 in Montgomery’s _Original Hymns_
under the title “Prayers on Pilgrimage.” The third and fourth stanzas
have been altered considerably, not entirely for the better. Montgomery
began the second stanza:

  With its witching pleasures.

In the first stanza he had

  Jesus _pray_ for me;

to which there was much objection on scriptural grounds, in spite of the
words of Christ, “I pray for them” (John 17:9).

For comments on James Montgomery see Hymn 62.

_MUSIC._ PENITENCE was composed by Spencer Lane, 1843-1903, who received
musical training in the Boston Conservatory of Music and became a
teacher of vocal and instrumental music. He was in charge of music in
various churches in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Virginia, and Maryland.
While choirmaster at St. James Church, Woonsocket, R. I., he wrote this
tune one Sunday while his wife was preparing dinner. It was used at a
parish choir festival on “Easter Tuesday, 1899, at 7:30 p.m.” and at the
suggestion of the rector of the church, it was sent to Dr. Chas. L.
Hutchins, who included it in the _Episcopal Hymnal_ of 1879. Of the
various tunes composed by Lane, this is the only one in general use
today.


196. Lord Jesus, think on me                    _Synesius_, _c._ 375-430
                                       _Tr. Allen W. Chatfield_, 1808-96

A subjective and meditative hymn of trust, coming to us from the ancient
Eastern Church.

Synesius, a native of Cyrene, came from an illustrious family. He
studied at Alexandria and became a Christian in 401. Against his own
wishes, but in response to the will of the people, he was elected bishop
of Ptolemais. He is described in Chas. Kingsley’s _Hypatia_ as a
distinguished churchman, philosopher, statesman, and patriot.

The translator, Rev. A. W. Chatfield, was an Anglican clergyman who had
a distinguished career at Cambridge. He translated many of the hymns of
the early Greek poets into English.

The original poem, of which this is a paraphrase rather than an exact
translation, is as follows:

  Μνώεο, Χριστέ,
  υἱὲ Θεοῖο
  ὑψιµέδοντος,
  οἰκέτω Σοῦ,
  Κῆρ’ ἀλιτροῖο
  Τάδε γράψαντος;
  Καί µοι ὄρασσον
  λύσιν παθέων
  κηριτρεφέων
  τά µοι ἐµφυῆ
  ψυχᾷ ῥυπαρᾷ;
  δὸς δὲ ἰδέσθαι,
  Σῶτερ Ἰησοῦ,
  ζαθέαν αἴγλαν
  Σάν, ἔνθα φανεὶς
  µέλψω ἀοιδὰν
  παίονι ψυχᾶν,
  παίονι γυίων,
  Πατρὶ σὺν µεγάλῳ
  Πνεύµατί Θ’ Ἁγνῷ.

_MUSIC._ SOUTHWELL, a characteristic psalm tune, was set to Psalm 45 in
_Damon’s Psalms of David_, 1579, and was named “Southwell” in
Ravencroft’s _Psalm Book_ of 1621. It was originally written in the
Dorian mode (the first “authentic” Gregorian mode, D as keynote). A
fuller explanation may be found in the _History of Music in the Western
Church_, by Dickinson, pp. 113 ff.

For comments on _Damon’s Psalter_ see Hymn 589.


197. O for a closer walk with God            _William Cowper_, 1731-1800

A tender, beautiful hymn, in use wherever English is spoken.

It was published in the _Olney Hymns_ (See 60) under the title “Walking
with God.” It is based on Genesis 5:24: “Enoch walked with God.” The
hymn was written December 9, 1769, during the serious illness of the
poet’s dear friend, the wife of Rev. Morley Unwin, in whose home he
stayed and found the tenderest of care during his own illness.
Concerning her, Cowper wrote in a letter the day following the
composition of this hymn:

  She is the chief of blessings I have met with in my journey since the
  Lord was pleased to call me.... Her illness has been a sharp trial to
  me. Oh, that it may have a sanctified effect, that I may rejoice to
  surrender up to the Lord my dearest comforts, the moment He may
  require them.... I began to compose the verses yesterday morning
  before daybreak but fell asleep at the end of the first two lines:
  when I awaked again, the third and fourth were whispered to my heart
  in a way which I have so often experienced.

For comments on William Cowper see Hymn 60.

_MUSIC._ BELMONT is an adaptation from a melody in _Sacred Melodies ...
adapted to the best English poets_, Vol. I; 1812, by William Gardiner.
The _Sacred Melodies_ appeared in six volumes containing tunes by the
best masters, adapted to English words.

The composer, William Gardiner, 1770-1853, was an English stocking
manufacturer who travelled extensively at home and abroad, principally
in the interests of his business, but also making acquaintance with
musicians of all ranks and with their music. He published songs and
duets of his own composition in his youth, over the _nom de plume_ of
“W. G. Leicester.” His _Sacred Melodies_, referred to above, did
valuable service in drawing attention to many fine compositions
otherwise unknown.


198. Soldiers of Christ, arise                 _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88

For comments on Charles Wesley see Hymn 6.

“The Whole Armor of God” is the title of this hymn in Wesley’s _Hymns
and Sacred Poems_, 1749. It is based on Ephesians 6:10-18: “Put on the
whole armor of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of
the devil,” etc. The entire poem contains 16 double stanzas, of which
our hymn is a selection of the first, second, and sixteenth.

_MUSIC._ DIADEMATA. For comments on this tune see Hymn 118.


                          ASPIRATION AND HOPE


199. While Thee I seek, protecting Power            _Helen M. Williams_,
                                                               1762-1827

A hymn of faith and trust in God.

Helen Maria Williams, an English Unitarian, lived for some years with
her sister who had married a French Protestant. It was during the period
of the Revolution and the reign of terror. Being an outspoken
republican, she was imprisoned by Robespierre, and was released only
after his death in 1794. She was a woman of extraordinary intellectual
strength and published many volumes on politics, religion, and literary
questions, and finally her collected poems, entitled, _Poems on Various
Occasions_. She lived in England and in France, and the closing years of
her life were spent in Holland in the home of a nephew who was pastor of
a Reformed Church in Amsterdam.

_MUSIC._ BRATTLE STREET. For comments on the composer of this tune,
Ignace Pleyel, see Hymn 238.


200. Rise, my soul, and stretch thy wings     _Robert Seagrave_, 1693-c.
                                                                    1759

This hymn, entitled “The Pilgrim’s Song,” first appeared in _Hymns for
Christian Worship_, by Robert Seagrave, London, 1742.

Robert Seagrave, son of Rev. Robert Seagrave, was educated at Cambridge
and was ordained a clergyman in the Church of England. He became
interested in the Wesleys and Whitefield and published pamphlets and
sermons designed to reform the clergy and Church of England. He wrote 50
original hymns, of which this one is still in use. The exact year of
Seagrave’s death is not certain.

_MUSIC._ AMSTERDAM is attributed to James Nares, 1715-1783, but most
authorities believe the tune to be much older. It appears in what is
known as the _Foundery Collection_, the first Methodist hymnal, by John
Wesley, 1742, and is said to be one of the German chorale tunes which
John Wesley acquired from the Moravian Brethren.


201. We would see Jesus                      _Anna B. Warner_, 1820-1915

Based on John 12:20-23: “There were certain Greeks among them that came
up to worship at the feast: the same came therefore to Philip, which was
of Bethsaida of Galilee, and desired him, saying, Sir, we would see
Jesus.... And Jesus answered them saying, The hour is come, that the Son
of man should be glorified.”

The hymn first appeared in six stanzas in _Hymns of the Church
Militant_, compiled by Anna Warner, New York, 1858, and published in
1861. It is another example of a fine hymn contributed by a woman.

The third and fourth stanzas, omitted here, are of the same excellent
quality as the others:

  We would see Jesus: other lights are paling,
    Which for long years we have rejoiced to see;
  The blessings of our pilgrimage are failing;
    We would not mourn them for we go to Thee.

  We would see Jesus: yet the spirit lingers
    Round the dear objects it has loved so long,
  And earth from earth can scarce unclose its fingers;
    Our love to Thee makes not this love less strong.

Anna Bartlett Warner, lived on Constitution Island in the Hudson River,
near West Point, where she and her more famous sister, Susan Warner,
conducted a Bible class for nearly two generations for the cadets of the
United States Military Academy. Because of this service, she was buried
with military honors upon her death in 1915. Miss Warner wrote novels
under the pseudonym of “Amy Lothrop,” but she is best known for this
hymn and the song beloved of all little children, “Jesus loves me: this
I know.”

_MUSIC._ HENLEY. For comments on this tune see Hymn 188.


202. Nearer, my God, to Thee               _Sarah Flower Adams_, 1805-48

A hymn of high poetic quality which has preserved its popularity from
generation to generation. It is based on the story of Jacob at Bethel in
Gen. 28:10-22:

  And Jacob went out from Beersheba, and went toward Haran. And he
  lighted upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the
  sun was set; and he took of the stones of that place, and put them for
  his pillows, and lay down in that place to sleep. And he dreamed, and
  behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to
  heaven: and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on
  it.... And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that
  he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil
  upon the top of it. And he called the name of that place Bethel.

Sarah Flower Adams was the daughter of Benjamin Flower, an editor; she
married William B. Adams, an engineer and inventor, in 1834. She was a
member of a Unitarian congregation in London. A woman of fine intellect,
she wrote much prose and verse, and was a friend of Robert Browning. She
died of tuberculosis, contracting the disease while caring for her
sister, Eliza, who had fallen victim to the same disease two years
earlier.

_MUSIC._ BETHANY was written by Lowell Mason for this hymn. Its
resemblance to the tune of the well-known “Oft in the stilly night” has
been noted. The tune to this hymn was played by the ship’s band on board
the “Titanic” as the vessel sank on its maiden voyage, Sunday, April 14,
1912, after colliding with an iceberg in the Atlantic. 1635 passengers
were lost, ending life’s voyage with the strains of the familiar and
appropriate prayer resounding across the waters—“Nearer, my God, to
Thee.”

For comments on Lowell Mason see Hymn 12.


203. When the weary, seeking rest              _Horatius Bonar_, 1808-89

Entitled, “Intercession for All Conditions of Men,” in Bonar’s _Hymns of
Faith and Hope_, 3d series, 1867.

The history of this hymn is given by the author’s son, Rev. H. N. Bonar,
as follows:

  My father was asked to provide words to the music, and was especially
  requested to furnish a fitting refrain to the two lovely lines of
  Mendelssohn’s with which Callcott’s tune, “Intercession,” ends. In
  searching for a Scripture theme containing some reiterated phrase
  almost of the nature of a refrain, he was struck with Solomon’s prayer
  at the dedication of the temple (2 Chron. 6) in which every separate
  petition concludes with substantially the same words.

  This idea was taken for his starting point, and Solomon’s words, “Hear
  thou from heaven thy dwelling place and forgive,” became the familiar
  couplet:

  “Hear then in love, O Lord, the cry
  In heaven, thy dwelling place on high.”

  This foundation once provided, the rest of the hymn was built upon it.

For comments on Horatius Bonar see Hymn 129.

_MUSIC._ INTERCESSION was composed by William H. Callcott, 1807-82, an
English musician. He was organist of Ely Chapel, Holborn, and afterwards
of St. Barnabas’ Church, Kensington, and composed anthems and songs.

The refrain is from Mendelssohn’s oratorio, _Elijah_, part of the prayer
for rain by the prophet and the people. Bonar’s hymn was written for
this tune.


204. Lord, I hear of show’rs of blessing   _Elizabeth Codner_, 1824-1919

Based on Gen. 27:34: “Bless me, even me also, O my Father,” and Ezek.
34:26: “There shall be showers of blessing.” It is an especially useful
hymn at revival meetings.

Elizabeth Codner was the wife of Rev. David Codner, a clergyman of the
Church of England. She engaged in some literary work and was much
interested in the Mildmay Protestant Mission in North London.

The author has given the origin of the hymn as follows:

  A party of young friends over whom I was watching with anxious hope
  attended a meeting in which details were given of a revival work in
  Ireland. They came back greatly impressed. My fear was lest they
  should be satisfied to let their own fleece remain dry, and I pressed
  upon them the privilege and responsibility of getting a share in the
  out-poured blessing. On the Sunday following, not being well enough to
  get out, I had a time of quiet communion. Those children were still on
  my heart, and I longed to press upon them an earnest individual
  appeal. Without effort words seemed to be given to me, and they took
  the form of a hymn. I had no thought of sending it beyond the limits
  of my own circle, but, passing it on to one and another, it became a
  word of power, and I then published it as a leaflet. Of its future
  history I can only say the Lord took it quite out of my own hands. It
  was read from pulpits, circulated by tens of thousands, and blessed in
  a remarkable degree. Every now and then some sweet token was sent to
  cheer me in a somewhat isolated life, of its influence upon souls. Now
  it would be tidings from afar of a young officer dying in India and
  sending home his Bible with the hymn pasted on the flyleaf as the
  precious memorial of that which brought him to the Lord. Then came the
  story of a poor outcast gathered into the fold by the same means. Then
  came to me a letter given me by Mr. E. P. Hammond, which he had
  received, and in which were the words: “Thank you for singing that
  hymn ‘Even Me,’ for it was the singing of that hymn that saved me. I
  was a lost woman, a wicked mother. I have stolen and lied and been so
  bad to my dear, innocent children. Friendless, I attended your inquiry
  meeting; but no one came to me because of the crowd. But on Saturday
  afternoon, at the First Presbyterian Church, when they all sang that
  hymn together, those beautiful words, ‘Let some drops now fall on me,’
  and also those, ‘Blessing others, O bless me,’ it seemed to reach my
  very soul. I thought, ‘Jesus can accept me—“even me”’ and it brought
  me to his feet, and I feel the burden of sin removed. Can you wonder
  that I love those words and I love to hear them sung?”

  The original rendering has in a variety of instances been departed
  from. To some alterations I have consented, but always prefer that the
  words remain unchanged from the form in which God so richly blessed
  them. The point of the hymn, in its close and individual application,
  is in the “Even me” at the end of the verse. I thankfully commit them
  to whoever desires to use them in the services of our blessed Master.

_MUSIC._ EVEN ME. For comments on the composer, Wm. B. Bradbury, see
Hymn 103.


                         PURITY AND UPRIGHTNESS


205. Blest are the pure in heart      _J. Keble_, 1792-1866 _and others_

A hymn of the simple, pure life. Purity of heart has a wider meaning
than the specific virtue of chastity. Stanzas 1 and 3 are from Keble’s,
_The Christian Year_, 1827. Stanzas 2 and 4 are from the _New Mitre Hymn
Book_, 1836, and their authorship is uncertain. Some think they are from
the pen of the editor of the book, W. J. Hall, or of the co-editor,
Edward Osler.

For comments on John Keble see Hymn 22.

_MUSIC._ FRANCONIA is from a book compiled by Johann Balthasar König,
_Harmonischer Lieder-Schatz_, Frankfurt-am-Main, 1738, where it is set
to the hymn, _Was ist, das mich betrübt?_ The original melody may have
been by König himself.

The present tune, arranged by Rev. W. H. Havergal, has become one of the
best known Short-Meter (6.6.8.8.) tunes.

For comments on W. H. Havergal see Hymn 153.


206. How blest are they whose hearts are pure          _W. H. Bathurst_,
                                                               1796-1877

Based on the beatitude in Matt. 5:8: “Blessed are the pure in heart: for
they shall see God.”

For comments on the author, W. H. Bathurst, see Hymn 153.

_MUSIC._ GLENLUCE is one of the Common Tunes (See 20) in the _Scottish
Psalter_ of 1635.

For comments on the _Scottish Psalter_ see Hymn 575.


207. I would be true                   _Howard Arnold Walter_, 1884-1918

A popular hymn at young people’s summer conferences and other youth
gatherings. The words have often been reprinted in trade journals and
newspapers and used on many a motto card. The ideals of youth—truth,
purity, strength, bravery, friendship, generosity, humility, laughter,
love, and helpfulness, encompassed in these few lines—were all revealed
in the author’s brief life.

Howard Arnold Walter was graduated _cum laude_ in 1905 from Princeton
University while Woodrow Wilson was president of the institution. He
then entered Hartford Theological Seminary to prepare himself for the
ministry, but after the first year went to Japan to teach English in
Waseda University in Tokyo. After one year, he returned to Hartford
where, upon graduation, he won the Two-Year Fellowship. In 1909 and 1910
he studied in Edinburgh and in German Universities. He chose the foreign
mission field for life service but, owing to a weak heart, was unable to
pass the required physical examination. In spite of his handicap, he
volunteered for Y.M.C.A. work and was assigned by John R. Mott to India,
where he worked among the Mohammedan students in Foreman Christian
College, Lahore. He died there November 1, 1918, during the influenza
epidemic, leaving a devoted wife and three small children. The words, “I
would be true,” were inscribed on a memorial tablet erected in his home
church in New Britain, Conn.

The hymn was written in 1907 in Japan when Walter was just 23 years old.
Recalling the joys and friendships of his home, the words came to him on
New Year’s morning as he was on his knees. He mailed the poem entitled,
“My Creed,” to his mother who sent it to _Harper’s Magazine_ in order to
share with others the beauty of its message. It appeared in the May,
1907, issue of that magazine and later found its way into a number of
hymn books.

The third stanza, making the hymn more complete, was later written by
the author and sent to Rev. Theodore A. Green, minister of the First
Church of Christ, New Haven, Connecticut:

  I would be prayerful through each busy moment;
  I would be constantly in touch with God;
  I would be tuned to hear the slightest whisper;
  I would have faith to keep the path Christ trod.

_MUSIC._ PEEK. No one seemed to know anything of the composer of this
tune until very recently when Dr. Reginald L. McAll, secretary of the
Hymn Society of America, assigned to the Hon. Edgar M. Doughty,
Brooklyn, an official referee of the New York State Supreme Court, an
accomplished musician and active member of the Baptist Church, the task
of searching out in behalf of the Society the facts concerning Mr. Peek.
The Hon. Mr. Doughty completed his research just before his death in
1947, at the age of 80 and the information presented here is based on a
document compiled from his papers by his secretary. Miss Mildred Taylor
Denisch:

Joseph Yates Peek, 1843-1911, born in Schenectady, N. Y., had very
little formal musical training, but was endowed with a love for music
and considerable native musical ability and became a proficient amateur
performer on the violin and piano. In early life he was a carpenter and
farmer but later established a business as florist and horticulturist. A
deeply religious man, always interested in the church, he retired from
business in 1904, and in spite of his advanced years, became a prominent
lay preacher in the Methodist Church. In 1911 he was ordained, but his
career as a regular minister was cut short when a heart attack, which
occurred while preaching, resulted in his death. Peek was a humble
Christian gentleman who sought no honors for himself, which may account
for the fact that his identity as the composer of this tune remained
hidden so long. Then, too, he may have felt that the credit for the tune
did not belong entirely to himself, for he received considerable help
from a friend, Dr. Tuller, an organist and composer, who jotted down the
notes as Peek whistled the melody, and later added the harmonization.

Peek had received a copy of Walter’s poem which was printed on a New
Year’s card and entitled, “My Creed.” He was greatly impressed with the
words, and in a moment of inspiration gave them wings of song to carry
them over the wide world.

The tune has become immensely popular in spite of its weak down-curve of
melody. The hymn may also be sung to Barnby’s more sturdy tune, “Perfect
Love” (312), which fits the words perfectly.


208. How happy is he born and taught           _Henry Wotton_, 1568-1639

The original of this hymn was published in _Reliquiae Wottonianae_ with
a memoir by Isaac Walton, 1651. The poem was altered somewhat to make it
suitable for a congregational hymn.

Henry Wotton graduated from Oxford in 1588. He had a varied career,
travelling on the continent, acting as agent to the Earl of Essex for
collection of foreign intelligence, and then settling in Venice where he
was ambassador at the court from 1604-24, with two intervals during
which he was engaged in diplomatic missions to other countries and in
parliamentary work in England. From 1624 until his death he was provost
of Eton. Besides the above-named book, he published _The Elements of
Architecture_, 1624, and _Ad Regem e Scotia reducem_ in 1633.

_MUSIC._ WAREHAM, by William Knapp, is from _A Sett of New Psalm Tunes
and Anthems, in Four Parts by Wm. Knapp_, 1738, where it is set to Psalm
36:5-10 with the heading, “For the Holy Sacrament.” It is a deservedly
popular melody, remarkably smooth, moving throughout by step except the
perfect fourth interval between the fifth and sixth notes.


209. Walk in the light! so shalt thou know   _Bernard Barton_, 1784-1849

A useful hymn, by a Quaker poet, setting forth the characteristic Quaker
doctrine of the “Inner Light,” based on I John 1:7: “But if we walk in
the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another,
and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin.”

The hymn appeared in the author’s _Devotional Verses_, London, 1826.

Bernard Barton, known in England as the “Quaker Poet” (as was Whittier
in America), was born in London and educated at a Quaker school at
Ipswich. When 26 years old he became a Clerk in Alexander’s Bank at
Woodbridge, Suffolk, and stayed there the remainder of his life. On Nov.
16, 1843, he wrote in a letter:

  I took my seat on the identical stool I now occupy at the desk to the
  wood of which I have now well-nigh grown, in the third month of the
  year 1810, and there I have sat for three and thirty years beside the
  odd eight months without one month’s respite in all that time. I often
  wonder that my health has stood this sedentary probation as it has and
  that my mental facilities have survived three and thirty years of
  putting down figures in three rows, casting them up and carrying them
  forward, _ad infinitum_.

He might have given some of these years to literary pursuits had he not
followed the good advice of Charles Lamb who wrote him:

  Throw yourself on the world, without any rational plan of support
  beyond what the chance employ of booksellers would afford you! Throw
  yourself rather, my dear sir, from the steep Tarpeian rock, slap-dash
  headlong upon iron spikes. If you have but five consolatory minutes
  between the desk and the bed, make much of them, and live a century in
  them, rather than turn slave to the booksellers. They are Turks and
  Tartars when they have poor authors at their beck. Hitherto you have
  been at arm’s length from them—come not within their grasp. I have
  known many authors’ want for bread—some repining, others enjoying the
  blessed security of a counting-house—all agreeing they had rather have
  been tailors, weavers, what not? rather than the things they were. I
  have known some starved, some go mad, one dear friend literally dying
  in a workhouse. Oh, you know not—may you never know—the miseries of
  subsisting by authorship!

He published eight or ten volumes of verse. His writings show an
extensive acquaintance with the Scriptures.

_MUSIC._ DEDHAM. For comments on the composer, William Gardiner, see
Hymn 197.


210. Believe not those who say                    _Anne Brontë_, 1820-49

A hymn of courage. The original is in 10 stanzas, of which this hymn is
a selection of stanzas 1, 2, 8, 9, 10.

Anne Brontë, one of three illustrious sisters, the other two being
Charlotte and Emily, was born near Bradford, England, the daughter of
the Rev. Patrick Brontë, Vicar of Haworth, Yorkshire. She was joint
author with her sisters of a book of _Poems_, 1846, and wrote other
volumes under the pseudonym, “Acton Bell.”

_MUSIC._ The tune, VIGIL, is by the Italian composer, Giovanni
Paisiello, 1741-1816, whose works include 100 operas, a Passion
oratorio, 30 masses, a requiem, 40 motets, and 8 symphonies. From 1776
to 1784, he was in the service of Empress Catherine of Russia, who a few
years later was receiving Mennonites from Danzig and West Prussia to
settle her crown lands at Chortitz. Paisiello was called to Paris to
organize the music of the First Consul, meanwhile composing some church
music. His last years were spent in Naples, where he was choirmaster to
Joseph Bonaparte and Murat.


211. Go forth to life                       _Samuel Longfellow_, 1819-92

A challenge to live life bravely and true. The hymn is from _Hymns of
the Spirit_, 1864, prepared by Samuel Longfellow and Samuel Johnson. It
is one of the lyrics which helped establish Longfellow’s reputation as a
hymn writer.

For comments on Samuel Longfellow see Hymn 28.

_MUSIC._ MENDON is a variation of a “German Air” introduced into
American hymn books by Samuel Dyer. The original had an additional note
in each line and a different last line. The change to the present form
and its name is attributed to Lowell Mason.

Samuel Dyer, 1785-1835, born in England, came to America when 26 years
old and became a choir leader and teacher of sacred music in New York,
Philadelphia, and Baltimore. He published several collections of sacred
music, one of which, _Philadelphia Collection of Sacred Music_, 1828,
gives valuable sketches of composers, and information about Dyer
himself.


                      CONSECRATION AND STEWARDSHIP


212. O Jesus, I have promised                _John Ernest Bode_, 1816-74

A hymn of consecration which the author wrote on the occasion of the
confirmation of his daughter and two sons as “O Jesus, _we_ have
promised.” It is frequently, and appropriately, used at baptismal
services.

John Ernest Bode graduated with high honors from Oxford, where he was a
fellow and tutor for six years; then became rector of Westwall,
Oxfordshire, and later of Castle Campus, Cambridgeshire. He was a man of
considerable attainments and was Bampton Lecturer in 1855. He wrote a
number of hymns and is the author of several volumes of poetry.

_MUSIC._ ANGEL’S STORY, also known as “Supplication” and “Watermouth,”
was written for Emily H. Miller’s hymn, “I love to hear the story which
angel voices tell,” from which it derives its name. It first appeared in
the _Methodist Sunday School Hymn Book_, 1881, but has since come into
wide usage set to “O Jesus, I have promised.”

The composer, Arthur H. Mann, 1850-1930, was a distinguished English
organist, and musical editor of _The Church of England Hymnal_. He was
an authority on the music of Handel, and composed much church music.
Oxford University gave him the degrees of Bachelor of Music and Doctor
of Music.


213. We give Thee but thine own                     _W. W. How_, 1823-97

Based on Prov. 19:17: “He that hath pity on the poor lendeth to the
Lord.” It is a hymn on Christian giving and liberality, sounding the
real humanitarian note, a side of religion which an effective and virile
hymnology cannot ignore. It may appropriately be sung by choir or
congregation in the dedication of the offering. (See comments at 611.)

For comments on W. W. How see Hymn 144.

_MUSIC._ SCHUMANN, a fine short-meter tune, is ascribed to Robert
Schumann but it seems as if no one has ever found anything among his
musical writings from which the tune could have been derived. It
appeared in Lowell Mason’s _Cantica Laudis_ in 1850.

For comments on Schumann see Hymn 296.


214. A charge to keep I have                   _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88

One of the greatest of Wesley’s short hymns taken from _Short Hymns on
Select Passages of the Holy Scriptures_, 1762, where it is headed, “Keep
the charge of the Lord, that ye die not” (Lev. 8:35).

The hymn strikes a much-needed note regarding the serious significance
of this life. Thomas Carlyle expressed the same thought in his old age
when he said: “The older I grow, and now I stand upon the brink of
eternity, the more comes back to me the sentence in the catechism which
I learned when a child, and the fuller and deeper its meaning becomes:
‘What is the chief end of man? To glorify God and enjoy Him forever.’”

For comments on Charles Wesley see Hymn 6.

_MUSIC._ BOYLSTON was composed by Lowell Mason and named after one of
the towns in his native state. It appeared in _The Choir_, 1832, set to
“Our days are as the grass.” The tune is widely used with “Blest be the
tie that binds.”

For comments on Lowell Mason, see Hymn 12.


215. Take my life and let it be           _Frances R. Havergal_, 1836-79

One of the finest hymns of consecration and service. It has been
translated into many languages, including Russian, and many of Africa
and Asia.

The author’s own story of how this hymn was written after her visit in a
certain home throws a vivid light on her evangelical zeal:

  There were ten persons in the house, some unconverted and long prayed
  for, some converted but not rejoicing Christians. He gave me the
  prayer, “Lord give me ALL in this house.” And He just did. Before I
  left the house everyone had got a blessing. The night of my visit,
  after I had retired, the governess asked me to go to the two
  daughters. They were crying. Then and there both of them trusted and
  rejoiced. I was too happy to sleep, and passed most of the night in
  praise and renewal of my own consecration; and these little couplets
  formed themselves and chimed in my heart one after the other, till
  they finished with “Ever, ONLY, ALL for Thee!”

The hymn appears here unaltered from the original.

For further comments on Frances Havergal see Hymn 126.

_MUSIC._ HENDON. This tune appeared first in America in _Carmina Sacra_,
1841, edited by Lowell Mason. The composer, Henri Abraham César Malan,
1787-1864, born in Geneva, Switzerland, was a man of many interests. He
was a well educated minister, a blacksmith, carpenter, printer, and
artist. He had a burning zeal for the conversion of souls. Convinced
that the national church stood in need of reform, he aroused much
opposition. After preaching an unorthodox sermon at the College of
Geneva, he was dismissed from his regentship at the college and was
finally driven from the state church. He then built a chapel in his own
garden and preached there for 43 years, attracting overflowing crowds
and becoming widely known throughout Belgium, France, England, and
Scotland for his evangelism. He wrote more than 1,000 hymns and set
tunes to them, a remarkable achievement. As the originator of the modern
hymn movement in the French Reformed Church, Malan has a permanent place
in French Hymnody.


216. My Jesus, I love Thee          _William Rolf Featherstone_, 1842-78

The authorship of this hymn was unknown until recently when Robert
McCutchan, author of _Our Hymnody_, discovered that it was written by
William Rolf Featherstone, a Canadian by birth, when he was only sixteen
years of age. The author sent the hymn to an aunt, Mrs. E. Featherstone
Wilson, living in Los Angeles, who suggested to her nephew that it be
published. No further information concerning Featherstone is at hand.

_MUSIC._ GORDON. The tune was written for this hymn which the composer,
Dr. Gordon, found in the _London Hymn Book_, 1864. This combination of
hymn and tune became popular and is widely known in America.

Adoniram Judson Gordon, 1836-1895, was born at New Hampton, New
Hampshire, educated at Brown University and Newton Theological Seminary,
and became the distinguished pastor of the Clarendon Street Baptist
Church, Boston. He at one time was editor of _The Watchword_, and is
author of a series of books called _Quiet Talks_.


217. Have Thine own way, Lord              _Adelaide Pollard_, 1862-1934

A hymn of the believer’s humble resignation to God, as the clay to the
potter.

The author, Adelaide Addison Pollard, was a modest poet. She signed her
writings for many years with only her initials, but in recent times her
publishers have used her full name. Miss Pollard was born in Iowa, but
died in New York City. She was buried in the family plot at Ft. Madison,
Iowa. While a teacher of elocution and expression, she became interested
in deeper spiritual things through the ministry of R. A. Torrey and
James M. Gray, and enrolled for further Bible training at the Moody
Bible Institute, Chicago. She became a teacher in the Missionary
Alliance Bible School at Nyack, N. Y., and also did missionary work in
South Africa. Miss Pollard wrote numerous hymns and devotional poems.
Her two best-known hymns are: “Have Thine own way, Lord,” and “Shepherd
of Israel.” Her mother was Rebecca Pollard who wrote the song poem, “I
surrender all,” for which D. B. Towner wrote the music.

_MUSIC._ ADELAIDE. The name of the tune is obviously derived from the
name of the author of the words for which it was composed. For comments
on the composer, Geo. C. Stebbins, see Hymn 38.


218. Fountain of good, to own thy love       _Philip Doddridge_, 1702-51

An appealing hymn on fellowship and service as well as consecration.

The author entitled the hymn, “On Relieving Christ in the Poor.” The
original first line began “Jesus, my Lord, how rich thy grace.” The hymn
was rewritten by Edward Osler, 1798-1863, for Hall’s _Mitre Hymn Book_,
1836, in which form it is found in modern hymnals, including the
_Hymnary_.

For comments on Philip Doddridge see Hymn 56.

_MUSIC._ DALEHURST was composed by Arthur Cottman, 1842-79, an
Englishman trained for the law but interested keenly in sacred music. It
was first published in Cottman’s _Ten Original Tunes_, 1874, and has
since been introduced into the hymnals and set to various texts. It is a
tune of simple pattern, contemplative in mood, and should be sung in an
even, moderate tempo.


219. Master, speak! thy servant heareth   _Frances R. Havergal_, 1836-79

Based on the conversation between Samuel and Eli, I Sam. 3:1-10.

Miss Havergal’s favorite name for Christ was “Master,” because, she
said, “it implies rule and submission, and this is what love craves. Men
may feel differently, but a true woman’s submission is inseparable from
deep love.”

For comments on Frances Havergal see Hymn 126.

_MUSIC._ AMEN, JESUS HAN SKAL RAADE (“Amen, Jesus, He shall reign”)
comes from Denmark. The composer, Anton Peter Berggreen, 1801-80, was
born in Copenhagen and lived there all his life. He studied music and
became a composer of many works, the most popular being his _National
Songs_ in eleven volumes. His collection of _Psalm Tunes_ are widely
used in Danish churches. He was organist at Trinity Church, Copenhagen,
and organized musical associations among laboring people which are still
popular. For a number of years he was Professor of Singing at the
Metropolitan School and inspector of the public schools in his native
city.


220. Savior, thy dying love                _Sylvanus D. Phelps_, 1816-95

Phelps gave this hymn to be published in _Pure Gold,_ a Sunday school
songbook which Robert Lowry, composer of music, was then editing and of
which more than a million copies were sold. The hymn was given the
heading, “Lord, what wilt Thou have me to do?” (Acts 9:6.)

Sylvanus Dryden Phelps, Baptist minister, was born in Suffolk, Conn.;
received his education at Brown University; and in 1846 became pastor of
the First Baptist Church, New Haven, Conn., where he remained for 28
years. He published three volumes of poetry. His son, William Lyon
Phelps, was the distinguished Professor of English Literature at Yale
and a lay preacher.

_MUSIC._ SOMETHING FOR JESUS was written for this hymn. At the time he
composed this tune, Lowry was pastor of a Baptist Church in Lewisburg,
Pa., and Professor of Literature in Bucknell University.

For further comments on Robert Lowry see Hymn 187.


                        SERVICE AND BROTHERHOOD


221. Work, for the night is coming      _Anna Louisa Coghill_, 1836-1907

Based on John 9:4: “I must work the works of him that sent me, while it
is day: the night cometh, when no man can work.” The hymn was written
when the author, eighteen years old, lived in Canada. It was published
in a Canadian newspaper and later in her small volume of poems, _Leaves
from the Backwoods_, Montreal, 1864.

Anna Louisa Walker was born in England but went in her teens with her
parents to Sania, Canada, where her brothers were railway engineers.
Returning to England, she became a governess for a time, then she
reviewed books, making her home with her second cousin, a Mrs. Oliphant,
for some years. In 1883 she married Harry Coghill, a wealthy merchant.
She published six novels and a book of poems, _Oak and Maple_, and
edited the _Autobiography and Letters_ of Mrs. Oliphant.

_MUSIC._ WORK SONG, known in England as “Diligence,” was written for
this hymn. To fit the tune it became necessary to drop a syllable in the
fourth line of each verse, an alteration which the author disliked
extremely and which she never sanctioned.

For comments on Lowell Mason see Hymn 12.


222. Where cross the crowded ways of life           _Frank Mason North_,
                                                               1850-1935

An unexcelled “Hymn for the City.” The following account of it is given
in _The Churchman_, July, 1938, in an article by Eloise R. Griffith, on
“Our Great Hymns”:

  Frank Mason North, D.D., a well-known clergyman of the Methodist
  Church, is the author of this well-loved hymn. It is sometimes called
  “A Prayer for the City,” or “A Prayer for the Multitudes,” and has the
  distinction of appearing in more standard hymnals today than any other
  hymn written in this century. To those of us who are concerned about
  “how the other half lives,” and who know either from our own
  experiences or those of friends about the darker side of life in a
  great city and particularly in our own country during the last nine
  years,—this beautiful hymn never fails to find a heartfelt response.
  It paints a picture with which many city dwellers are all too
  familiar.

  In 1903, Dr. North was editor of _The Christian City_, the organ of
  the Methodist City Missionary Society. His office was in the Fifth
  Avenue building of the Methodist Book Concern. One day one of the
  professors of Wesleyan University (who was on the committee to prepare
  and revise the new Methodist hymnal, and who knew North’s ability to
  write hymns), met him in one of the halls. “Why don’t you write a
  missionary hymn for us, Dr. North?” asked the professor. “We need more
  missionary hymns in our new hymnal.” Dr. North modestly answered that
  he did not feel he would be able to write a hymn worthy of the
  proposed new hymnal, but that he would try.

  Soon after this incident occurred, Dr. North was preaching a sermon
  from the text in St. Matthew 22:9: “Go ye therefore into the
  highways,” etc. During his preparation for this sermon, he was again
  especially impressed by the rendering of the Greek text in the Revised
  Version, which reads “Go ye therefore into the partings of the
  highways.” Dr. North thought of and described in his sermon the
  appealing challenge made by great crowds of people thronging the
  crossroads of the city—places like Madison Square and Union Square in
  the New York of 1903. Dr. North knew New York City very thoroughly,
  and his heart yearned over the sick, the lonely, the destitute, the
  troubled. So, while he preached, the first line of this great hymn
  came to him—“Where cross the crowded ways of life.” It did not take
  him long to compose the words which followed, and after the
  publication of the hymn in _The Christian City_, it was at once
  accepted for the new Methodist hymnal of 1905. The hymn is widely used
  in Canada and throughout Great Britain, and has been translated into
  several foreign languages, including some of the Far East ones.

_MUSIC._ GERMANY is a fine long-meter tune found in a book, _Sacred
Melodies_, in which the compiler, William Gardiner, 1770-1853, an
English stocking manufacturer interested in music, collected
compositions by the best foreign composers, adapting them to English
words. The tune is also known by the name “Walton,” especially in
England. As to its origin, Gardiner says in his book, _Music and
Friends_, that it “is somewhere in the works of Beethoven, but where I
cannot now point out.” This may be a mistake, for no one else has ever
found it in a Beethoven collection.


223. O Master, let me walk with Thee     _Washington Gladden_, 1836-1918

A greatly loved service hymn which the author entitled, “Walking with
God.” In a note dated June 15, 1907, Gladden says:

  This hymn was written in 1879 for a magazine, _Sunday Afternoon_,
  which I was then editing. There were three eight-line stanzas. Dr.
  Charles H. Richards found the poem, which was not intended for a hymn,
  and made a hymn of it by omitting the second stanza, which was not
  suitable for devotional purposes.

The omitted stanza reads as follows:

  O Master, let me walk with Thee
  Before the taunting Pharisee;
  Help me to bear the sting of spite,
  The hate of men who hide thy light,
  The sore distrust of souls sincere
  Who cannot read thy judgments clear,
  The dullness of the multitude
  Who dimly guess that thou art good.

Washington Gladden, distinguished Congregational minister and author,
was reared on a farm near Oswego, N. Y., attending country school and
Oswego Academy and later entering Williams College, from which he
graduated in 1859. He was licensed to preach in 1860; then held
pastorates in Congregational churches in New York and Massachusetts, and
finally in 1882 began his widely known and influential work as pastor of
the First Congregational Church in Columbus, Ohio, which was to last for
28 years. His lectures and writings on social questions were prophetic
messages of the time. After 50 years in the ministry, he wrote: “If the
church would dare to preach and practice the things which Jesus Christ
has commanded, she would soon regain her lost power.” He is the author
of thirty or more volumes but is remembered best by this poem which has
come into such wide use in the worship services of all the churches.

_MUSIC._ MARYTON was written for the words, “Sun of my soul, Thou Savior
dear,” in _Church Hymns and Tunes_, 1874; but it has become inseparably
associated with Gladden’s hymn. Permission to use this hymn was granted
by the author only on condition that it be used with this tune.

The composer, Henry Percy Smith, 1825-98, was a minister in the Church
of England, deeply interested in church music. After graduating from
Balliol College, Oxford, he served various churches as curate and vicar
and finally became chaplain at Cannes and Canon of Gibraltar.


224. O Thou great Friend to all the sons of men       _Theodore Parker_,
                                                                 1810-60

Based on the Scriptural passages, John 15:14: “Ye are my friends if ye
do the things which I command you” and John 14:6: “I am the way, the
truth, and the life.”

The author, Rev. Theodore Parker, an outstanding abolitionist and a
leader in New England Unitarianism, was educated at Harvard and spent
most of his ministry in Boston. While travelling abroad in the hope of
restoring his health, he became ill and died at Florence, Italy, where
he was buried.

_MUSIC._ FFIGYSBREN. For comments on this tune see Hymn 183.


225. Onward, Christian soldiers             _S. Baring-Gould_, 1834-1924

A hymn of the Christian warfare, written by a Church of England
clergyman for a children’s processional, but now having a much wider
use. The author gave the following account of the writing of the hymn:

  Whitmonday is a great day for school festivals in Yorkshire. One
  Whitmonday, thirty years ago, it was arranged that our school should
  join forces with a neighboring village. I wanted the children to sing
  when marching from one village to another; so I sat up at night,
  resolved that I would write something myself. “Onward, Christian
  soldiers” was the result. It was written in great haste, and I am
  afraid some of the rhymes are faulty. Certainly nothing has surprised
  me more than its popularity.

An omitted stanza reads:

  What the saints established,
    That I hold for true;
  What the saints believed,
    That believe I too.
  Long as earth endureth
    Men that faith will hold,
  Kingdoms, nations, empires
    In destruction rolled.

For comments on the author, S. Baring-Gould, see Hymn 29.

_MUSIC._ ST. GERTRUDE was written for these words by Sir Arthur Sullivan
and dedicated to Mrs. Gertrude Clay-Ker-Seymer, in whose house the
composer often stayed. The hymn derived a great part of its popularity
from its use with this stirring tune.

For comments on Sullivan see Hymn 113.


226. Teach me, my God and King               _George Herbert_, 1593-1633
                                                _Adapted by John Wesley_

A hymn of consecration and heavenly-mindedness that marks the Christian
life. Verses 2 and 4 are by John Wesley, and the third verse was altered
by him. For comments on John Wesley see Hymn 170.

George Herbert, noted English poet and minister in the Church of
England, was born in Wales; educated at Cambridge; and became a great
pastor and preacher, serving, during his all too brief career, churches
at Layton Ecclesia in 1626, and at Bemerton from 1630 to his death in
1632. His spare moments were given to the cultivation of sacred music.
His principal work is _The Temple_, a book of poems. His popularity was
greatly increased through the publication of his _Life_, written by
Isaak Walton.

_MUSIC._ MORNINGTON is an arrangement of a chant written about 1760 by
the Earl of Mornington, whose name was Garret Wellesley (or Wesley),
1735-81. He was the father of the Duke of Wellington. The name was
changed from Wesley to Wellesley about 1790. A composer of much secular
and sacred music, he lived most of his life in Dublin, and was the first
Professor of Music at Dublin University.


227. When thy heart with joy o’erflowing          _Theodore C. Williams_

A hymn setting forth the spirit of brotherhood in terms of sharing.
Information regarding the author, Rev. Theodore C. Williams, has not
been traced.

_MUSIC._ BULLINGER was written in 1874 by Ethelbert William Bullinger,
1837-1913, an English clergyman who made the study of music his
avocation. He is remembered principally as the composer of this tune
with its last phrase somewhat awkward due to the long, tied initial
note.


228. Who is thy neighbor?                      _William Cutter_, 1801-87

Based on the parable of the Good Samaritan. The hymn first appeared in
_The Christian Mirror_, Portland, Me., 1838, in seven stanzas. One of
the omitted stanzas reads:

  Thy neighbor? Yonder toiling slave,
    Fettered in thought and limb;
  Whose hopes are all beyond the grave,
    Go thou, and ransom him.

The author, William Cutter, was an editor and publisher, born at
Yarmouth, Me., a graduate of Bowdoin College, and member of the
Congregational Church. He was in business in Portland, Me., for several
years and then in Brooklyn, N. Y. He has been described as “a deserving
writer who has hitherto missed his due meed of acknowledgement.”

_MUSIC._ BURFORD, a very good tune in triple time, written in the minor
mode, is of uncertain authorship, though it is credited in some books to
Henry Purcell, _c._ 1658-95, one of England’s great composers and
organists. It is set to Psalm 42 in _A Book of Psalmody_, 1718, by John
Chetham, and appears in a large number of other 18th century psalmodies,
invariably without composer’s name.


229. O brother man, fold to thy heart thy brother        _John Greenleaf
                                                      Whittier_, 1807-92

A hymn of brotherly love and service, taken from a poem of 15 stanzas,
entitled, “Worship,” to which was affixed the scriptural reference,
James 1:27: “Pure religion and undefiled before God the Father is this,
To visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep
himself unspotted from the world.” A concern for the well being of his
fellow man was to Whittier a vital part of the Christian faith, as
witness his championship of the cause of the slaves.

For comments on John Greenleaf Whittier see Hymn 173.

_MUSIC._ COMFORT. The tune appears anonymously in the “Supplement” to
_Hymns of the Spirit_, 1937.


230. Rise up, O men of God                   _William P. Merrill_, 1867—

A hymn challenging the _men_ of the church to loyal service to Christ.
It is widely used in America and has found a place in English and
Canadian hymnals. Concerning the origin of the hymn, Dr. Merrill says,
in a letter to the writer, dated, April 18, 1947:

  I was asked back in 1911 to write a hymn to be used in the
  “Brotherhood Movement,” then going strong. I had come upon an article
  by Gerald Stanley Lee, entitled, “The Church of the Strong Men”; and
  that gave me a start. I can give no interesting details as to how I
  wrote it; I just did it.

  Highchurchmen have objected to the hymn, because they have said that
  only God can make the church great. To that I have answered that if
  anyone can show me a single instance in history where God has made the
  church great without using MEN OF GOD to do it, I should be
  interested. No answer has ever come. I heard that hymn sung in Europe,
  in India, China, and Japan.

For comments on the author, William P. Merrill, see Hymn 183.

_MUSIC._ LEIGHTON was composed by Henry Wellington Greatorex, 1811-58,
an Englishman by birth. Coming to the United States in 1839, he served
as organist at Central Congregational Church, Hartford, Conn., in St.
Paul’s and Calvary Churches, New York City, and finally in an Episcopal
Church at Charleston, S. C. He edited the _Greatorex Collection_ of 1856
and did much to improve the standards of music used in the worship
service. He composed a widely used setting for the “Gloria Patri” (606).
Dr. Merrill’s hymn has been set to various tunes, the one generally used
and preferred by the author being “Festal Song,” by William H. Walter.


231. Go, labor on; spend and be spent          _Horatius Bonar_, 1809-89

A hymn to encourage Christian workers. It was published in _Songs for
the Wilderness_, 1843, under the title, “Labour for Christ.” In _Hymns
of Faith and Hope_, 1867, it was entitled, “The Useful Life.”

Regarding the origin of the hymn, Rev. H. N. Bonar, son of the author
wrote:

  It was probably in the year 1836 that my father first wrote a hymn not
  primarily intended for the young. To encourage his faithful fellow
  workers in his mission district, he wrote, to the tune of the “Old
  Hundredth,” the now-familiar hymn, “Go, labour on.”

For comments on Horatius Bonar see Hymn 129.

_MUSIC._ ERNAN was written for _Cantica Laudis_, 1850, one of the books
which Mason published with the assistance of Geo. J. Webb. For comments
on the composer, Lowell Mason, see Hymn 12.


                             THE INNER LIFE


232. O have you not heard of that beautiful stream      _R. Torrey, Jr._

Based on Rev. 22:1, 17: “And he showed me a pure river of water of life,
clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.”

“And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say,
Come. And let him that is athirst come. And whosoever will, let him take
the water of life freely.”

It is reminiscent also of Ezek. 47:1-12, the vision of the healing
stream of water flowing from the house of God to the Dead Sea, causing
new life to flourish. “Everything shall live whither the river cometh.”
(v. 9).

An omitted stanza reads:

  With murmuring sound doth it wander along
    Through fields of eternal green;
  Where songs of the blest, in their haven of rest
    Float soft on the air serene.

The poem, with the present music, appeared in Asa Hull’s, _The Casket_,
published in Philadelphia, 1865, where it is credited to R. Torrey, Jr.
To date, no information has come to light concerning the author. He
lived a generation earlier than the well known preacher and teacher, R.
A. Torrey. In 1868, the hymn was published, anonymously, in _Spiritual
Harp_, Boston, a book of songs for congregational use dedicated by the
authors to “the Spiritualists and Reformers of the world, love of truth
and progress.” Two years later, in 1870, the words and music appeared in
England, in the _Sunday School Hymnary_, published by the National
Sunday School Union in London.

The German version is a free translation made by Ernst Heinrich
Gebhardt, 1832-99, a Methodist minister and evangelist, known in
Germany, the place of his birth, as the father of German revivalistic
and holiness songs. It is superior, in poetic quality and evangelistic
appeal, to the English original.

Gebhardt was born in Ludwigsburg, Württemberg, July 12, 1832. He
prepared to be an apothecary but later decided to go to Chile, South
America, to live with relatives. After spending five years on a farm in
Chile, he returned to Germany to visit his mother. A shipwreck on the
return voyage resulted in a deep spiritual awakening. Arriving in
Ludwigsburg, he accompanied his mother to the Sylvester service on New
Year’s night, 1859, in the Methodist Church, where he dedicated his life
to Christian work. Having decided to become an evangelist, he attended
the school for ministers in the Methodist Church at Bremen where his
zeal and musical gifts were quickly recognized. He was appointed
_Reiseprediger_ and in this capacity served in Ludwigsburg (1860-62),
Heilbronn (1862-66), Pforzheim (1866-68), Bremen (1868-71), Ludwigsburg
(1871-74), Zurich (1874-77), Strassburg i. E. (1877-81), Biel, Kt. Bern
(1880-84), Zwickau (1884-88) and finally in Karlsruhe (1888-99).
Gebhardt was married and had a family of nine children.

His activities included a trip to the United States, 1881-83, during
which he travelled through 30 States. In Brighton, England, he took part
in holiness meetings held there, and later travelled with R. Pearsall
Smith, of Philadelphia, through Germany and Switzerland, serving as song
leader in the evangelistic meetings conducted by Smith.

Gebhardt is the author of many original hymns and made over 50
translations from the English, most of them from the Moody and Sankey
songs. He compiled numerous song books where his works appeared. “Ich
weiss einen Strom” was published in his _Frohe Botschaft_, 1875, a
popular book of gospel songs drawn mostly from English sources, both
words and music. The third stanza, omitted here, reads:

  Der Strom ist gar tief und sein Wasser ist klar,
  Es schmecket so lieblich und fein;
  Es heilet die Kranken und stärkt wunderbar,
  Ja, machet die Unreinsten rein!

_MUSIC._ ICH WEISS EINEN STROM, originally entitled, “Beautiful Stream,”
and written in 6/8 time, first appeared in _Casket of Sunday School
Melodies_, 1865, published by the composer, Asa Hull, in Philadelphia.
The tune is wedded inseparably to Torrey’s words. It is very popular
among General Conference of Mennonites churches where it is usually sung
in the slow tempo and dignity of a chorale. Neither the words nor the
music, with its refrain, have the characteristics of a chorale. It is a
useful song, especially for evangelistic services.

Asa Hull was born January 18, 1828, in Keene, N. Y. He studied harmony
and composition with B. F. Baker and Geo. J. Webb in Boston, and at the
age of 20 became organist and choirmaster at Watertown, Mass. He
composed many church tunes. Hull, a pioneer publisher of Sunday school
and gospel song books, was also known as a shrewd business man. His
publications numbered 30 books and about 100 pamphlets. _Gem of Gems_,
published in 1881, sold over 300,000 copies. On the fly leaf of his
_Casket of Sunday School Melodies_ is found this advertisement:

  Asa Hull, Philadelphia agent for the Hallett and Cumston Piano Fortes,
  will keep a variety of styles and exhibits at his store, which he will
  sell at lower prices for cash than any other first class instrument
  can be bought in the city. 240 S. Eleventh Street, Philadelphia, Pa.


233. O holy Savior, Friend unseen         _Charlotte Elliott_, 1789-1871

A hymn which is best understood by those who have had experience in
suffering and sorrow. Entitled, “Clinging to Christ,” it was written in
1834, shortly after the death of the author’s father and published in
the 1834 edition of her _Invalid’s Hymn Book_.

Charlotte Elliott, a member of the Church of England, was born and
reared amid refined, cultured, Christian surroundings. Her grandfather,
Rev. Henry Venn, was an “eminent Church of England divine of apostolic
character and labors,” and the author of _The Whole Duty of Man_.
Charlotte was a woman of keen intellect and was gifted in music and art.
Unfortunately, she became an invalid at 32 and remained so till the end
of her long life, oftentimes enduring great suffering. This may account
for the note of tenderness found in all her hymns. In spite of her
invalidism, she did a large amount of literary work, publishing four or
five volumes of poetry. She was a modest woman, publishing all her books
anonymously. A large number of her 150 hymns are still in use, the most
popular being “Just as I am, without one plea” (458).

_MUSIC._ INTEGER VITAE (FLEMMING). For comments on this tune see Hymn
59.


234. Thou true Vine, that heals the nations                     _T.S.N._

Based on John 15:1-5: “I am the true vine, and my Father is the
husbandman. Every branch in me that beareth not fruit he taketh away:
and every branch that beareth fruit, he purgeth it, that it may bring
forth more fruit. Now are ye clean through the work which I have spoken
unto you. Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of
itself, except it abide in the vine; no more can ye, except ye abide in
me. I am the vine, ye are the branches; He that abideth in me and I in
him, the same bringeth forth much fruit: for without me ye can do
nothing.”

The hymn was composed for _Songs of Praise_, 1933, London. The author is
not identified except by the initials T.S.N.

_MUSIC._ PLEADING SAVIOUR, a folk-song type of tune, is from the
_Plymouth Collection of Hymns and Tunes_, New York, 1855, which Henry
Ward Beecher compiled for use in the Plymouth Congregational Church,
Brooklyn, of which he was pastor. The musical editors were John Zundel
(178) and the Rev. Charles Beecher.


235. God of my heart                                         _Anonymous_

A hymn celebrating the believer’s life in God. It was taken from _St.
Basil’s Hymnal_ compiled by the Basilian Fathers, published in 1918. The
musical editors were Healey Willan and Jules Brazil. The authorship of
the hymn is anonymous.

_MUSIC._ CARMEN NATURAE is an arrangement from a melody in Donizetti’s
opera, _Carmen_.

Gaetano Donizetti, 1797-1848, son of an Italian weaver, studied music in
Naples. He composed 66 operas, 6 masses, 12 string quartets, a requiem,
songs, and other compositions.


236. Since Jesus is my Friend                   _Paul Gerhardt_, 1607-76
                                   _Tr. by Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

A hymn of consolation and joy to give strength and courage to troubled
hearts. It is based on Romans 8:31: “If God be for us, who can be
against us?” The original has 15 stanzas. The lines translated here are
as follows:

  Hab ich das Haupt zum Freunde
    Und bin geliebt bei Gott,
  Was kann mir tun der Feinde
    Und Widersacher Rott’?

  Sein Geist spricht meinem Geiste
    Manch süsses Trostwort zu,
  Wie Gott dem Hülfe leiste
    Der bei ihm suchet Ruh.

  Mein Herze geht in Sprüngen
    Und kann nicht traurig sein,
  Ist voller Freud’ und Singen,
    Sieht lauter Sonnenschein.

  Die Sonne, die mir lachet
    Ist mein Herr Jesus Christ,
  Das, was mich singen machet,
    Ist, was im Himmel ist.

For comments on the author, Paul Gerhardt, see Hymn 134.

The translation by Miss Winkworth appeared in her _Lyra Germanica_,
first series, 1855.

Catherine Winkworth, an English poet, was the foremost translator of
German chorales. She made a special study of the German hymns and hymn
writers and is the author of _Lyra Germanica_, 1st. ser., 1855; 2d.
ser., 1858; _The Chorale Book for England_, 1863; and _Christian Singers
of Germany_, 1869. Twenty-five of her works are found in the _Hymnary_.
She was a member of the Church of England.

_MUSIC._ GREENWOOD was composed for the hymn beginning, “We lift our
hearts to Thee,” in a _Collection of Church Music_, 1849, by Root and
Sweetser.

The composer, Joseph Emerson Sweetser, 1825-73, was an English organist
and composer of vocal music. A part of his life was spent in New York
City as organist at the Church of the Puritans.


237. O heart of God!                                      _F. Stanfield_

A hymn of confidence and trust resulting from the mystical repose in the
heart of God.

The words and tune are found in _St. Basil’s Hymnal_, compiled by the
Basilican Fathers, and published in Chicago, 1918.

The author, Francis Stanfield, a Roman Catholic priest, was born in
London, November 5, 1836, the son of Clarkson Stanfield, an artist. He
was educated at St. Edmund’s College, near Ware. After ordination, he
spent most of his time conducting missions and retreats, though he was
stationed for brief periods in several parishes. He is the author of
numerous hymns which were collected and published by the Benedictine
Fathers, at Ramsgate, England. The present hymn is an adaptation, made
by the editors of the _Hymnary_, of his “O Sacred Heart, our home lies
deep in Thee.” The original is too Catholic for Protestant use.

No information is at hand concerning the composer of the tune.


238. Life of all that lives below              _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88
                                            _Samuel Longfellow_, 1819-92

This hymn, a prayer for a fuller life nurtured by Christ, the living
Bread, is of composite authorship, but no information is at hand
concerning the part which Wesley and Longfellow, respectively, had in
it. It is not listed in Julian’s _Dictionary of Hymnology_.

For comments on Charles Wesley see Hymn 6.

For comments on Longfellow see Hymn 28.

_MUSIC._ PLEYEL is taken from the _Andante_ movement of the composer’s
_Fourth String Quartet, Op. 7_. It appeared as a long-meter tune in
_Arnold and Callcott’s Psalms_, 1791, set to Addison’s hymn, “The
spacious firmament on high.”

Ignace Josef Pleyel, 1757-1831, 24th child of an Austrian schoolmaster,
was a favorite pupil of Haydn and gained fame as a composer and
conductor. Mozart spoke highly of his quartets. Later in life he engaged
in business, publishing and selling music, and manufacturing pianos of
high quality. The manufacturing house of Pleyel and Company is still
well and favorably known in Europe.


239. There is a place of quiet rest       _Cleland B. McAfee_, 1866-1944

The heart of the message of this popular devotional hymn, according to a
statement made by the author to the present writer, is in the second
stanza, “There is a place of comfort sweet, near to the heart of God.”
Cleland B. McAfee was a distinguished preacher, author, and teacher in
the Presbyterian Church. He was accustomed to write an original hymn for
the communion service in his church. It was in 1901, during his
pastorate in Chicago, that a great sorrow came into his life occasioned
by the death of his nephew. The communion was to be held the following
Sunday and the members of the congregation came to the church tense with
speculation about the service and the kind of hymn their pastor had
composed for the day. These simple words and tune were offered them and
seemed to fit the occasion perfectly. Since then the hymn has been
translated into many languages and gone all over the world. It was not
included in the new _Presbyterian Hymnal_, 1933, because the words and
music were considered to be more of the nature of a gospel song than a
hymn.

Cleland M. McAfee received his education at Park College and Union
Theological Seminary, New York. From 1888 to 1901, he was pastor and
professor at Park College; pastor of the First Presbyterian Church,
Chicago, 1901-04; and of the Lafayette Avenue Presbyterian Church,
Brooklyn, 1904-12. He later was connected with McCormick Theological
Seminary in Chicago, first as Professor of Systematic Theology and then
as president of the institution. He is the author of several books on
religious subjects, and also wrote extensively on foreign missions, a
subject in which he had a keen interest.


                          COURAGE AND COMFORT


240. Come unto Me, ye weary                    _William C. Dix_, 1837-98

Based on some of the precious promises of Christ, especially Matt.
11:28: “Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy-laden and I will
give you rest.” It may be compared with Bonar’s hymn, “I heard the voice
of Jesus say” (142) on the same text.

The author gives the story of the hymn as follows:

  I was ill and depressed at the time, and it was almost to idle away
  the hours that I wrote the hymn. I had been ill for many weeks, and
  felt weary and faint, and the hymn really expresses the languidness of
  body from which I was suffering at the time. Soon after its
  composition I recovered, and I always look back to that hymn as the
  turning point in my illness.

For comments on the author, William Chatterdon Dix, see Hymn 78.

_MUSIC._ ICH WEISS AN WEN ICH GLAUBE is taken from the _Gesangbuch mit
Noten_ (206) where it is used with a hymn by Ernst Moritz Arndt,
beginning with these words.


241. When in the madd’ning maze of things     _John Greenleaf Whittier_,
                                                                 1807-92

Preëminently an experienced person’s meditation on trust in God. The
hymn is taken from a poem of 22 stanzas entitled, “The Eternal
Goodness,” written apparently without any thought of their being sung.
In the first line the editors substituted the initial word “when” for
the original “yet.”

For comments on John Greenleaf Whittier see Hymn 173.

_MUSIC._ ES IST EIN BORN. For comments on this tune see Hymn 99.


242. Thy way is in the deep, O Lord         _James Martineau_, 1805-1900

Based on Psalm 77:19: “Thy way is in the sea, and thy path in the great
waters.”

James Martineau, English Unitarian, was a man of letters, a philosopher,
a theologian, and the most eloquent and distinguished preacher of his
church in his time. He served churches in Liverpool and London and was
Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy in Manchester New College. He
edited _Hymns for the Christian Church and Home_, 1840, a book widely
used among Unitarians in England.

_MUSIC._ GRÄFENBERG, sung somewhat slowly, is a tune of fine stateliness
and dignity. It is from the 5th edition of Crüger’s _Praxis Pietatis
Melica_, Berlin, 1653. It is also known as “_Nun Danket All_.”

Johann Crüger, 1598-1662, one of the most distinguished musicians of his
time, was born near Brandenburg. He received a thorough musical training
under Paulus Homberger in Regensburg and in 1622 he was appointed cantor
of the St. Nicholas Lutheran Church, in Berlin, and one of the masters
of the Greyfriars Gymnasium. He founded the noted choir of St. Nicholas
Church. Crüger was a tune-writer of the first rank and composed some of
the most famous and favorite chorales. He published various collections
of hymns, among them the celebrated _Praxis Pietas Melica_, 1644, which
passed through more than fifty editions. He died in Berlin, February 23,
1662.


243. Come, ye disconsolate                     _Thomas Moore_, 1779-1852
                                                 _Thomas Hastings_, v. 3

A hymn of consolation by an author whose life was far from exemplary. It
may be the hymn should on this account have been omitted; but something
in his heart enabled the author, through his lyrics, to touch the heart
of humanity, and his songs have been widely used and admired in spite of
the strange chapters and romantic incidents in his life.

Thomas Moore, Irish poet, was born in Dublin, studied at Trinity
College, and then moved to London and began the study of law. He held a
government position in Bermuda for some time and during his life
published many volumes of prose and poetry. He will always be remembered
by his songs, “Believe me if all those endearing young charms,” “The
last rose of summer,” and “Oft in the stilly night.”

The third stanza is by Thomas Hastings, coeditor with Lowell Mason of
_Spiritual Songs for Social Worship_, in which the hymn first appeared.
Moore’s third stanza, omitted in all hymn books, reads:

  Go ask the infidel what boon he brings us,
    What charm for aching hearts he can reveal,
  Sweet as that heavenly promise Hope sings us—
    Earth has no sorrow that God cannot heal.

It is a good stanza, but, then, good hymns do not argue.

For comments on Thomas Hastings see Hymn 120.

_MUSIC._ CONSOLATOR, also known as “Consolation,” “Webbe,” “Alma” or
“Alma Redemptor,” is an adaptation of a tune by Samuel Webbe.

For comments on Samuel Webbe see Hymn 22.


244. I look to Thee in every need           _Samuel Longfellow_, 1819-92

A hymn, much-needed, to express the effect of religious faith and trust
upon mental and bodily health. The idea, so essential to the Gospel, has
been too largely neglected in most Protestant Churches. The hymn is
representative of the fine literary and devotional quality of the
author’s poetry. Though an American hymn, it was introduced into the
church’s worship in England before it was used in this country.

For comments on Samuel Longfellow see Hymn 28.

_MUSIC._ O JESU appeared in _J. B. Reimanns Org. v. Hirschb. alter und
neuer Melodien Evangel. Lieder_, etc., 1747, where it was set to the
hymn, “_O Jesu, warum legst du mir_.” In the original, the first and
last notes of each line were half-notes. It is a tune “of a simple,
familiar pattern but with a certain quiet dignity.”

The composer, Johann Balthaser Reimann, 1702-47, was a German cantor and
organist in churches in Neustadt, Breslau, and Hirschberg, Schleswig.


245. My God and Father, while I stray     _Charlotte Elliott_, 1789-1871

A hymn written by one who had disciplined herself to accept with
patience and resignation the bitter cross of ill health which was laid
upon her.

She writes of her experience:

  Oh, many struggles and apparently fruitless ones it has cost me to
  become resigned to the appointments of my Heavenly Father. But the
  struggle is now over. He knows, and he alone, what it is, day after
  day, hour after hour, to fight against bodily feelings of almost
  overpowering weakness, languor, and exhaustion; to resolve not to
  yield to slothfulness, depression, and instability, such as the body
  causes me to long to indulge, but to rise every morning determined to
  take for my motto: “If any man will come after Me, let him deny
  himself, take up his cross daily and follow Me.”

The hymn is based on Matt. 26:42: “O my Father, if this cup may not pass
away from me, except I drink it, thy will be done.” It is a hymn of
humble resignation. Another hymn, setting forth the will of God as
demanding active co-operation, is found at No. 342. Some fine stanzas
have been omitted here:

  Though Thou hast called me to resign
  What most I prized, it ne’er was mine;
  I have but yielded what was Thine—
    “Thy will be done.”

  Should grief or sickness waste away
  My life in premature decay,
  My Father, still I strive to say,
    “Thy will be done.”

  Let but my fainting heart be blest
  With Thy sweet Spirit for its Guest;
  My God, to Thee I leave the rest—
    “Thy will be done.”

For comments on Charlotte Elliott see Hymn 233.

_MUSIC._ HANFORD was written for “Jesus, my Saviour, look on me,”
another of Miss Elliott’s hymns. The composer, who often stayed in the
home of Mrs. Gertrude Clay-Ker-Seymer at Hanford, in Dorsetshire, wrote
the tune there, hence its name.

For comments on the composer, Arthur Sullivan, see Hymn 113.


246. Give to the winds thy fears                _Paul Gerhardt_, 1607-76
                                           _Tr. by John Wesley_, 1703-91

A hymn of comfort to the afflicted and courage to the dying. It is a
part of Paul Gerhardt’s poem, “_Befiehl du deine Wege_” (558). These are
stanzas 9, 10, 12, 13, unaltered, of Wesley’s translation, which
contains 16 four-line stanzas. Gerhardt passed through the agonies of
the Thirty Years’ War, and suffered, in addition, the loss of his wife
and four children. He gives expression in this hymn to his own deep
feelings of trust and assurance. His words have helped many anxious
souls maintain faith in God who “sitteth on the throne, and ruleth all
things well.”

For comments on Paul Gerhardt see Hymn 134.

For comments on John Wesley, who translated the hymn, see No. 170.

_MUSIC._ STATE STREET is a popular tune, scarcely any hymn book missing
it, but it is not wedded to any single hymn. The composer, J. C.
Woodman, 1813-94, born at Newbury, Mass., became one of Lowell Mason’s
assistants in introducing music into the public schools of Boston. He
was one of the first soloists of the Boston Academy of Music and served
for a time as organist of the First Presbyterian Church of Brooklyn. In
1858, Woodman compiled _The Musical Casket_, which contained many of his
songs, sacred and secular. “State Street” is the last tune in the book,
set to Watts’ lyric, “Blessed are the sons of peace.”


247. Day by day the manna fell                _Josiah Conder_, 1789-1855

A hymn of confidence that God will supply daily strength for daily
needs, based on Exodus 16:12-21 and the petition in the Lord’s Prayer,
“Give us this day our daily bread.”

The hymn suggests a Jewish story quoted by W. F. Tillett in _The Hymns
and Hymn Writers of the Church_:

  The pupils of Rabbi Ben Jochai once asked him with regard to the manna
  sent to the Israelite host in the wilderness: “Why did not the Lord
  furnish enough manna to Israel for a year all at one time?” “I will
  answer you with a parable,” responded the teacher. “Once there was a
  king who had a son to whom he gave a yearly allowance, paying him the
  entire sum on a fixed day. It soon happened that the day on which the
  allowance was due was the only day in the year when the father ever
  saw the son. So the king changed his plan and gave his son day by day
  that which sufficed for the day. And now the son visited his father
  every morning. Thus God dealt with Israel.”

The author, Josiah Conder, born in London, was an editor and publisher.
His friends included a large number of eminent literary and church men
of the early 19th century. He was a member of the Congregationalist
Church. A devout and earnest believer who knew what it was to struggle
for daily bread, he had the occasion to practice the gospel of daily
trust. He wrote many hymns, published more than a dozen scholarly books,
and edited _The Congregational Hymn Book_ in 1836, a work which attained
wide popularity in England.

_MUSIC._ SEYMOUR. For comments on this tune see Hymn No. 36.


248. One thought I have, my ample creed           _Frederick L. Hosmer_,
                                                               1840-1929

Several of Hosmer’s hymns express his “thought of God,” this being one
of the finest. It relates all of life and its needs to the thought of
God.

For comments on Frederick L. Hosmer see Hymn 72.

_MUSIC._ PRAETORIUS is from _Harmoniae Hymnorum Scholae Gorlicensis_,
Görlitz, 1599. It is supposed to have been written by M. Praetorius, for
it appeared in his _Musae Sionae_, Pt. VI, 1609, and hence its name.

Michael Praetorius, 1571-1621, was born in Kreuzburg, Thuringia. He was
educated at the University of Frankfurt-an-der-Oder and became
Kapellmeister at Lüneburg. Praetorius was a prolific composer, but his
fame rests chiefly on a four-volume work on musical theory entitled,
_Syntagma musicum_.


249. Father, to Thee we look in all our sorrow    _Frederick L. Hosmer_,
                                                               1840-1929

A hymn of comfort written in 1881 on the death of a member of the
author’s congregation. The hymn was published in Hosmer’s _Thought of
God_, 1st series, 1885. The last lines are particularly striking:

  “Yet shalt thou praise Him when these darkened furrows,
    Where now He ploweth, wave with golden grain.”

_MUSIC._ STRENGTH AND STAY. For comments on J. B. Dykes, the composer of
this tune, see Hymn 1.


250. My Jesus, as Thou wilt               _Benjamin Schmolck_, 1672-1737
                                           _Tr. Jane Borthwick_, 1813-97

Based on Mark 14:36: “Abba, Father, all things are possible unto Thee;
take away this cup from me: nevertheless not what I will, but what thou
wilt.” The hymn was originally published in eleven stanzas in his
_Heilige Flammen_, 1704. We give here five stanzas of the original, our
hymn being the usual selection of 1, 3, and 5.

  Mein Jesu, wie du willt,
    So lass mich allzeit wollen;
  Wenn Trübsal, Angst und Leid
    Mich hier betreffen sollen,
  So gib, dass allezeit
    Dein Wille werd’ erfüllt,
  Ich leb’ und sterbe dir;
    Mein Jesu, wie du willt!

  Mein Jesu, wie du willt!
    Soll ich in Armut leben,
  So mach hingegen du
    Die Seele reich, daneben
  Gib, dass dein Wort mir nur
    Den Hunger allzeit stillt,
  Und nimm sonst alles hin:
    Mein Jesu, wie du willt!

  Mein Jesu, wie du willt!
    Soll ich in Tränen schwimmen,
  So lass mein Fünklein Trost
    Nicht ganz und gar verglimmen.
  Hast du doch selbst geweint;
    Drum, wenn’s nicht anders gilt,
  So wein’ ich auch mit dir.
    Mein Jesu, wie du willt!

  Mein Jesu, wie du willt!
    Soll ich denn endlich sterben,
  Ich weiss, du lässt mich auch
    Im Sterben nicht verderben,
  Wenn meine Seele sich
    In deine Wunden hüllt;
  Drum soll’s gestorben sein,
    Mein Jesu, wie du willt!

  Mein Jesu, wie du willt!
    So bin ich auch zufrieden;
  Hast du mir Lieb’ und Leid,
    Not oder Tod beschieden,
  So nehm’ ich’s auf dein Wort,
    Dein Wille werd’ erfüllt.
  Drum sag’ ich noch einmal:
    Mein Jesu, wie du willt!

Schmolck was known all over Germany for his many hymns and spiritual
songs. A number of them have been translated into English. This one
reflects his fervent love for Christ and bears a message of trust and
comfort which grew out of his own exhausting labors and physical
suffering.

For further comments on Benjamin Schmolck see Hymn 505.

The translation is by Jane Borthwick in her _Hymns from the Land of
Luther_, 1854. For comments on Jane Borthwick see Hymn 54.

_MUSIC._ JEWETT is from a melody in Weber’s opera _Der Freischütz_. The
present arrangement was made by Joseph Holbrook, in 1862. The tune has
become associated almost exclusively with this hymn in America.

Joseph Holbrook, 1822-88, born near Boston, was a tune writer of the
school of Mason, Hastings, and Bradbury. He compiled several hymn books
and was musical editor of _Songs of the Sanctuary_, a popular Methodist
book under the editorship of the eminent hymnologist, Charles S.
Robinson.


251. Father, whate’er of earthly bliss            _Anne Steele_, 1716-78

Based on I Tim. 6:6-8: “But godliness with contentment is great gain.
For we brought nothing into this world, and it is certain we can carry
nothing out. And having food and raiment let us be therewith content.”

Anne Steele was the first woman writer of English hymns. Her father was
a timber merchant who for 30 years was deacon and occasional preacher in
the Baptist Church in Hampshire, England, and then for 30 years more he
was pastor, without salary, of the same church. On the day before Miss
Steele was to be married, at the age of 21, her fiance met accidental
death through drowning. Out of this bitter experience in her early life
and a succession of other trials, came this lyric of resignation and
hope. The original has 10 stanzas, the last three of which have been
edited by Augustus Toplady to make this her best hymn. Miss Steele is
the foremost of Baptist hymn writers.

_MUSIC._ NAOMI, a tune brought to America by Lowell Mason, was set to
this hymn in his _Modern Psalmist_, 1839. It at once gained popularity
and was included in many hymn books.

For comments on the composer, Hans Nägeli, see Hymn 41.


252. Thy way, not mine, O Lord                 _Horatius Bonar_, 1808-89

An admirable hymn of submission, faith, and love, based on Matt. 26:39:
“Not as I will, but as Thou wilt.”

It was published in 7 stanzas in the author’s _Hymns of Faith and Hope_,
1st series, 1857 under the title, “Thy way, not Mine.”

The omitted stanza (No. 6) reads:

  Choose Thou for me my friends,
    My sickness or my health:
  Choose Thou my cares for me,
    My poverty or my wealth.

For comments on Horatius Bonar see Hymn 129.

_MUSIC._ O LEIDE, LEIDE GERN is from the _Gesangbuch mit Noten_, where
it appears anonymously set to the words, “_O leide, leide, gern! Es ist
der Will’ des Herrn_.”


253. Lord, it belongs not to my care           _Richard Baxter_, 1615-91

A hymn of love, trust, and hope, based on Phil. 1:21: “For me to live is
Christ, and to die is gain.”

Richard Baxter, English Presbyterian, was born in Shropshire, England.
He took holy orders in the Church of England, but withdrew from this
church to become one of the outstanding Nonconformists of his time.
Though he never attended university, he published over 250 volumes,
among them several classics, _The Reformed Pastor_ and _The Saints’
Everlasting Rest_. A fearless man and willing to suffer for what he
believed to be right, Baxter did not hesitate to rebuke Cromwell for his
assumption of supreme power of the State. Once, when falsely charged of
libeling the Church, Chief Justice George Jeffreys taunted him by,
“Richard, I see the rogue in thy face.” Baxter replied, “I had not known
before that my face was a mirror.” After an infamous trial, Baxter was
condemned and thrown into prison where he remained for 18 months.

As to music in the church, he did not share the views of the large
number of his fellow Puritan clergymen who disapproved of it. “I have
made a psalm of praise in the holy assembly the chief delightful
exercise of my religion and my life, and have helped to bear down all
the objection which I have heard against church music.” He also took a
stand for the use of original hymns to supplement psalm singing, and
favored the use of the organ, though he did not introduce the latter
where it led to disputes.

_MUSIC._ EVAN. For comments on this tune and its composer, William H.
Havergal, see Hymn 153.


254. Holy Father, cheer our way           _Richard H. Robinson_, 1842-92

Based on Zech. 14:7: “But it shall come to pass, at evening time it
shall be light.” The hymn was written in 1869 for the author’s
congregation, to be sung at evening prayer. It appeared in _Church
Hymns_, 1871, published by the Society for Propagating Christian
Knowledge, London.

Richard Hayes Robinson, a clergyman of the Church of England, was born
in London. He was educated at King’s College, London, and served as
minister in various churches. On the day of his second wedding, he was
taken ill on the train and died the next day. He published several
volumes of sermons.

_MUSIC._ MÜDE BIN ICH, GEH ZUR RUH is a well-known German melody in the
_Gesangbuch mit Noten_, where it appears anonymously, set to Louise
Hensel’s hymn from which the tune derives its name. The melody, in
slightly different form, appeared in 1842 in _Lieder-Buch für
Kleinkinder-Schulen ... con Theodor Fliedner_. It is used in the
_Methodist Hymnal_ (1935) set to the words, “Jesus, tender Shepherd,
hear.”


255. O Lord, how happy should we be            _Joseph Anstice_, 1808-36

Based on I Peter 5:7: “Casting all your care upon Him; for He careth for
you,” and on the Scripture lesson in Matthew 6:24-34. The original poem
was in five stanzas. The hymn was written out of experiences of
sickness, pain, and trial.

Joseph Anstice, a friend of Gladstone during student days at Oxford, was
appointed Professor of Classical Literature at King’s College, London,
at the age of 22. Within three years his health failed, and he died at
the age of 28, whereupon Gladstone, who had been deeply influenced by
him at Oxford, wrote in his _Diary_, “Read to my deep sorrow of
Anstice’s death on Monday. His friends, his young widow, the world can
spare him ill.” This and 53 other hymns were dictated to his wife in the
afternoons during his last illness.

_MUSIC._ MERIBAH. For comments on the composer, Lowell Mason, see Hymn
12.


256. Peace, perfect peace             _Edward H. Bickersteth_, 1825-1906

This hymn on perfect peace is based on Isaiah 26:3: “Thou wilt keep him
in perfect peace whose mind is stayed on Thee: because he trusteth in
Thee.”

The origin of the hymn was furnished Dr. Julian by Rev. S. Bickersteth,
a son of the author:

  This hymn was written by Bishop Edward Henry Bickersteth while he was
  spending his summer holiday in Harrogate in the year 1875. On a Sunday
  morning in August the Vicar of Harrogate, Canon Gibbon, happened to
  preach from the text, “Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace, whose mind
  is stayed on thee,” and alluded to the fact that in the Hebrew the
  words are “peace, peace,” twice repeated and happily rendered in the
  1611 translations by the phrase “perfect peace.” This sermon set my
  father’s mind working on the subject. He always found it easiest to
  express in verse whatever subject was uppermost in his mind, so that
  when on the afternoon of that Sunday he visited an aged and dying
  relative, Archdeacon Hill, of Liverpool, and found him somewhat
  troubled in mind, it was natural to him to express in verse the
  spiritual comfort which he desired to convey. Taking up a sheet of
  paper, he then and there wrote down the hymn just exactly as it now
  stands and read it to this dying Christian.

  It is not always noticed that the first line in each verse is in the
  form of a question referring to some one or other of the disturbing
  experiences of life, and the second line in each verse endeavors to
  give the answer.... The hymn has been translated into many tongues,
  and for years I doubt if my father went many days without receiving
  from different people assurances of the comfort which the words had
  been allowed to bring to them. The most touching occasion on which,
  personally, I ever heard it sung was round the grave of my eldest
  brother, Bishop Edward Bickersteth, of South Tokyo, at Chiselden in
  1897, when my father himself was chief mourner.

_MUSIC._ PAX TECUM was written for this hymn by George Thomas Caldbeck,
1852-?, concerning whose life one reads contradictory statements. Some
writers say he was a missionary in China when he wrote this tune;
others, including James Moffatt, give the account essentially as
follows: that Caldbeck, while a student in London, was compelled through
ill health to give up his purpose of becoming a missionary, went to
Ireland to teach school and engage in independent missionary work. Later
he returned to London where he did much open-air preaching, making a
meagre living by selling Scripture text-cards from door to door. For
selling without a license, he was arrested one day but dismissed by the
judge on being informed that the defendant was the composer of this
well-known hymn tune.

The tune was arranged by Charles John Vincent, born 1852, English
organist, composer and editor of much church music.


257. God is the refuge of His saints            _Isaac Watts_, 1674-1748

Based on Psalm 46:1-5: “God is our refuge and our strength; a very
present help in time of trouble,” etc., and was entitled by Watts, “The
Church’s Safety and Triumph.” It is interesting to compare this free
rendering of the Psalm with that of the _Scotch Psalter_, 1650, (588),
where the thought of the psalm and the stately King James version
combine to make up the greatest metrical form of the psalm. Martin
Luther’s version of the same Psalm is found in his great hymn “_Ein
feste Burg ist unser Gott_” (549).

For comments on Isaac Watts see Hymn 11.

_MUSIC._ WARRINGTON was composed by Ralph Harrison, 1748-1810, an
Englishman and son of a Presbyterian minister. Educated at Warrington
Academy, he became a noted teacher of ancient languages, but maintained
a keen interest in sacred music. He compiled _Sacred Harmony_, 2 vols.,
1784-1791, a collection of psalm tunes, ancient and modern, in which
were found some of his own compositions, including this tune.


258. Awake, our souls! away, our fears          _Isaac Watts_, 1674-1748

A free rendering of Isaiah 40:28-31.

The hymn is from Watts’ _Hymns and Spiritual Songs_, 1707, where it is
headed, “The Christian Race.”

For comments on Isaac Watts see Hymn 11.

_MUSIC._ SAMSON. This tune is an adaptation, a very considerable one,
from Chorus 31: “Then round about the starry throne,” in Handel’s
oratorio, _Samson_. The tune is taken from various parts of the chorus.

For comments on Handel see Hymn 70.


259. There is no sorrow, Lord, too light        _Jane Crewdson_, 1809-63

Another of the “songs in the night,” written by one who, like Charlotte
Elliott (See 245), was an invalid the greater part of her life and
suffered much pain.

Jane Fox was born in Cornwall, England. In 1836 she married Thomas D.
Crewdson, a Manchester manufacturer. Always delicate, she became a
confirmed invalid, but her sufferings served to deepen her spiritual
life. She was a woman of fine intellectual power and poetic gifts and
through her writings testified gloriously to the all-sufficiency of her
Savior’s love. Her attitude toward her suffering is well expressed in
the beautiful third verse of the hymn:

  There is no secret sigh we breathe
    But meets Thine ear divine:
  And every cross grows light beneath
    The shadow, Lord, of thine.

This was the favorite hymn of Dr. John Henry Jowett, at one time
minister of the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church, New York City.

_MUSIC._ COOLING first appeared in _The American Choir_, 1858. No
information has been obtained concerning the composer, Alonzo Judson
Abbey, 1825-87.


                              ETERNAL LIFE


260. Hark, hark, my soul! angelic songs are swelling       _Frederick W.
                                                         Faber_, 1814-63

A lovely song of the journey of life—the Christian’s pilgrimage to
heaven, the heart’s true home. “The Pilgrims of the Night” was the title
given this hymn by its author, F. W. Faber, the warm-hearted Roman
Catholic hymn writer. The phrases of the poem are wrapped in mystery and
loveliness. Their meaning is not always clear but the rhythm and musical
ring of the hymn are effective and its popularity is genuine and
wide-spread.

For comments on F. W. Faber see Hymn 44.

_MUSIC._ PILGRIMS was written for this hymn for the appendix to the
original edition of _Hymns Ancient and Modern_.

For comments on the composer, Henry Smart, see Hymn 46.


261. Forever, with the Lord!               _James Montgomery_, 1771-1854

From Montgomery’s poem of twenty-two 4-line stanzas, in two parts,
published in the _Amethyst_, 1835. It is based on I Thess. 4:17: “Then
we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in
the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with
the Lord.” Canon Farrar once said, “I can scarcely ever join in singing
‘Forever with the Lord’ without tears.”

The hymn voices the aspirations of multitudes of Christians. In time of
sorrow and death it points to the life beyond as the true goal of all
our earthly striving.

For comments on James Montgomery see Hymn 62.

_MUSIC._ NEARER HOME, also called “Montgomery,” was composed for this
hymn and was published in _The Choral Advocate_, 1852. The composer,
Isaac Baker Woodbury, 1819-58, was an American singer, teacher of music,
composer of hymn tunes and sacred songs, and editor of _Musical Review_.
His career was cut short by his death at the early age of thirty-nine.


262. Jerusalem the golden               _Bernard of Cluny_, 12th century
                                            _Tr. John M. Neale_, 1818-66

“And the city was pure gold” Rev. 21:21.

This hymn is from a Latin manuscript of 3,000 lines entitled “_De
Contemptu Mundi_” (On Contempt of the World), written by Bernard of
Cluny while he was a monk at the famous monastery of Cluny, France, _c._
1145. Practically nothing is known of him except his authorship of this
poem. Two other hymns, “Brief life is here our portion,” and “For thee,
O dear, dear country,” not in the _Hymnary_, are taken from the same
poem. The original was not written as a hymn at all but as a “bitter
satire on the fearful corruption of the age,” especially of the Church
of Rome, in contrast to which the author paints the joys of the new
Jerusalem. The author employed throughout the unusually difficult meter
known as “dactylic hexameter with tailed rhymes,” of which Bernard
himself says: “Unless the Spirit of wisdom and understanding had flowed
in upon me, I could not have put together so long a work in so difficult
a meter.” The reading of the Latin stanzas best reveal the rhythm and
music of the original:

                                   1.
  Urbs Sion aurea, patria lactea,
      Cive decora,
  Omne cor obruis, omnibus obstruis
      Et cor et ora.

                                   2.
  Nescio, nescio, quae iubilatio,
      Lux tibi qualis,
  Quam socialia gaudia, gloria
      Quam specialis.

                                   3.
  Sunt Sion atria coniubilantia,
      Martyre plena,
  Cive micantia, principe stantia,
      Luce serena.

                                   4.
  Sunt ibi pascua mentibus afflua
      Praestita sanctis;
  Regis ibi thronus, agminis et sonus
      Est epulantis.

                                   5.
  Gens duce splendida, contio candida
      Vestibus albis,
  Sunt sine fletibus in Sion aedibus,
      Aedibus almis. Amen.

For comments on the translator, John M. Neale, see Hymn 67.

_MUSIC._ EWING, composed for “For thee, O dear, dear country” (see
above), was originally in triple time and named, “St. Bedes.” In _Hymns
Ancient and Modern_, 1861, it was set to the present words and the tune
changed to common time without the consent of the composer. Ewing
disliked the change and expressed himself thus: “In my opinion the
alteration of the rhythm has very much vulgarized my little tune. It now
seems to be a good deal like a polka. I hate to hear it.” In spite of
the composer’s opinion, the tune is generally accepted in its revised
form and considered preferable to the original.

Alexander Ewing, 1830-95, of Aberdeen, Scotland, was a skilled musician.
One evening after choir practice, he modestly introduced what he called
his first effort at writing a hymn tune, offering copies of the voice
parts, and asking the choir to sing it over. This was done, the choir
liked it, and the tune EWING was launched on its long and popular
career.


263. Jerusalem the golden               _Bernard of Cluny_, 12th century
                                            _Tr. John M. Neale_, 1818-66

For comments on this hymn see No. 262.

_MUSIC._ URBS BEATA (The City Beautiful) was composed in 1887 for these
words. The composer found words for the refrain by repeating lines 1, 6,
7, and 8 of the first stanza. It makes a first-rate choir number. To
keep up the proper tempo it should be sung with two beats to the
measure. When the tune is used for congregational singing, the high
notes in the refrain are intended to be sung by the sopranos in the
choir.

The composer, George LeJeune, 1842-1904, was the son of a well-known
musical family in London. He began his musical career in Canada; later
he studied with Joseph Barnby. His great work was done as church
organist and organ recitalist at St. John’s Chapel of Trinity Parish,
New York City, where he served 28 years.


264. One sweetly solemn thought                   _Phoebe Cary_, 1824-71

A poem in contemplation of heaven, written in 1852, entitled, “Nearer
Home,” with no thought of its being used as a hymn. In fact its original
irregular rhythm hardly permitted it to be sung. The words have been
changed to fit the short-meter tune, and have become popular as a hymn.
Upon reading the story of how the hymn was instrumental in the
conversion of two gamblers in China, who, after betting and drinking and
card playing, decided upon a change of life and consecrated themselves
to Christian work, Miss Cary wrote to a friend:

  I enclose the hymn and story for you, not because I am vain of the
  notice, but because I thought you would feel a peculiar interest in
  them when you knew the hymn was written eighteen years ago (1852) in
  your house. I composed it in the little, back, third-story bedroom on
  Sunday morning after coming from church, and it makes me happy to
  think that any word I could say has done a little good in the world.

Phoebe Cary was born on a farm near Cincinnati, Ohio. Her early days
were a struggle with hardship and poverty. “I have cried in the street
because I was poor,” she wrote in her later and more prosperous years,
“and the poor always seem nearer to me than the rich.” With her sister
Alice Carey, she published a small volume of verse in 1849, then the two
moved to New York City where they became quiet but influential leaders
in literary society. Their friendship with Whittier was a noted factor
in the lives of the Carey sisters. Phoebe was a member of the Church of
the Pilgrims in New York, and later attended the Church of the Stranger
in the same city.

_MUSIC._ DULCE DOMUM is an arrangement from the composer’s popular song,
“One sweetly solemn song,” later published as an anthem.

Robert Steele Ambrose, 1824-1908, born in England, came with his parents
to Canada in his first year. He prepared himself for the musical
profession and became organist successively in churches in Guelph,
Kingston, and Hamilton, Ontario. He is known best by the above-mentioned
song.


265. Sunset and evening star                  _Alfred Tennyson_, 1809-92

A song of immortality, written in ten minutes in the author’s
eighty-first year. It is always printed at the end of Tennyson’s poems.
Tennyson once said: “I can hardly understand how any great, imaginative
man, who has lived, suffered, thought and wrought, can doubt of the
soul’s continuous progress in the after life.”

The poem was written on an October day in 1889, as the poet was crossing
from Aldworth to Farringford. Tennyson’s son wrote in his _Memoir_ of
his father, concerning its origin:

  Before he reached Farringford he had the moaning of the bar in his
  mind, and after dinner he showed me this poem written out. I said:
  “That is the crown of your life’s work.” He answered: “It came in a
  moment.” He explained the “Pilot” as “that Divine and Unseen who is
  always guiding us.” A few days before my father’s death, in 1892, he
  said to me: “Mind you put ‘Crossing the Bar,’ at the end of all
  editions of my poems.” My father considered Edmund Lushington’s
  translation into Greek of “Crossing the Bar” one of the finest
  translations he had ever read.

_MUSIC._ CROSSING THE BAR was composed for these words. The tune, in the
nature of an unaccompanied quartet anthem, may be sung with freedom in
regard to time and shading.

For comments on the composer, Joseph Barnby, see Hymn 21.


266. Blest be the everlasting God               _Isaac Watts_, 1674-1748

A paraphrase of I Peter 1:3-5.

The original by Watts was published in his _Hymns and Spiritual Songs_,
1707, from which it was taken over unchanged into the _Scottish
Paraphrases_ of 1745 and of 1751. In the final 1781 edition, the third
stanza was omitted and the fourth altered from

  There’s an inheritance divine
    Reserved against that day;
  ’Tis incorrupted, undefiled,
    And cannot waste away.

The improvements are attributed to William Cameron, 1751-1811, who, as a
young licentiate, was entrusted with the final revision of the _Scottish
Paraphrases_.

For comments on Isaac Watts see Hymn 11.

_MUSIC._ ST. STEPHEN (ABRIDGE) is described by Archibald Jacob as a
“beautifully fluent and graceful melody ... in the best 18th-century
style of this class of tune.” It appeared originally in _A Collection of
Psalm Tunes in Three Parts_ ... by Isaac Smith, _c._ 1770, under the
name ABRIDGE, by which it continues to be known in England. In _Sacred
Harmony for Use in St. George’s_, Edinburgh, 1820, it appeared under the
name ST. STEPHEN, with slight modification of the last line.

Isaac Smith, _c._ 1725-_c._ 1800, was a London linen-draper with a taste
for music. He composed and published a number of Psalm-tunes which long
remained popular, though ABRIDGE is almost the only one now left of his
compositions. Smith named his tunes after localities in and about
London. ABRIDGE was the name of a small village near Epping Forest, in
Essex.


                           THE KINGDOM OF GOD


267. Forward through the ages           _Frederick L. Hosmer_, 1840-1929

A hymn expressing the unity of God’s people in their labor for the
Kingdom through the ages. “The goodly fellowship of the prophets” is set
forth here with power and poetic beauty.

For comments on Frederick L. Hosmer see Hymn 72.

_MUSIC._ ONWARD, with its strong rhythm and moving power, lends itself
well for processional use, resembling in this respect the tune “St.
Gertrude” (225), for which the present hymn was written.

No information is at hand concerning the composer, J. W. Barrington.


268. Thy Kingdom come, on bended knee   _Frederick L. Hosmer_, 1840-1929

One of the few hymns written on the petition, “Thy Kingdom come,” in the
Lord’s Prayer. Canon Percy Dearmer speaks of this as “one of the noblest
hymns in the language.” It is a fervent prayer for the day when there
shall be more justice, knowledge, peace, and righteousness on the earth.

The hymn was written June 21, 1891, for the commencement of the
Meadville Theological School, Pennsylvania.

For comments on Frederick L. Hosmer see Hymn 72.

_MUSIC._ IRISH, also called “Dublin,” appeared first in _Hymns and
Sacred Poems_, published in Dublin in 1749. The composer is not known.
It is a smooth, triple-time tune which young people love to sing. Its
name is misleading, for there is no indication of an Irish origin other
than, as stated, its appearance in a book published in Dublin.


269. Come, Kingdom of our God                      _John Johns_, 1801-47

A prayer for the coming of the Kingdom of God on earth, based on the
petition in the Lord’s Prayer, “Thy Kingdom come, thy will be done.”

Rev. John Johns, English Presbyterian minister, was known for many years
in Liverpool as the “minister to the poor.” He was a man of fine poetic
gifts and published several volumes of poetry but is remembered for his
life of service among the poor.

_MUSIC._ ST. THOMAS is one of the oldest and best tunes of the church.
It has good rhythm, graceful form, and a strong forward movement to give
it unusual singing merit.

The composer, Aaron Williams, of Welsh descent, was born in London in
1731, and died there in 1776. He was composer, engineer, publisher,
music teacher, and clerk of the Scotch Church, London Wall. He published
a number of important collections of tunes: _The Universal Psalmodist_,
1763, and _New Universal Psalmodist_, 1770, in which the above tune
appeared.


270. Thy Kingdom come, O Lord           _Frederick L. Hosmer_, 1840-1929

Another hymn on the petition, “Thy Kingdom come,” in the Lord’s Prayer,
setting forth its coming in relation to the unity of nations. Compare
Hosmer’s other hymn on the Kingdom (268) where the emphasis is on
righteousness and justice. This is an appropriate hymn for use in
gatherings concerned with Christian unity and world friendship.

For comments on Frederick L. Hosmer see Hymn 72.

_MUSIC._ INVITATION. For comments on the composer of this tune see Hymn
112.


271. Thy Kingdom come, O God                  _Lewis Hensley_, 1824-1905

Another of the few hymns that have been written on the petition in the
Lord’s Prayer, “Thy Kingdom come.” See Hymns 268, 269, 270.

Lewis Hensley had a distinguished career at Trinity College, Cambridge,
England, as student and then six years as fellow and tutor. He became a
minister in the Church of England and for a time was Rural Dean.

_MUSIC._ ST. CECILIA was composed for Dr. Bonar’s hymn, “Thy way, not
mine, O Lord” (252), appearing with these words in _The Merton Tune
Book_, Oxford, 1863.

The composer, Rev. Leighton George Hayne, 1836-83, was educated at
Oxford, took holy orders in 1861, was appointed conductor of the chorus
of the University and public examiner in the School of Music, and then
served for a time as organist of Eton College. The last 12 years of his
life were spent as minister in various churches. He wrote many hymn
tunes and edited, with Rev. H. W. Sargeant, _The Merton Tune Book_.


272. Before Jehovah’s awful throne              _Isaac Watts_, 1674-1748

A paraphrase of Psalm 100, revised by John Wesley.

The original text by Watts began:

  Sing to the Lord with joyful voice;
    Let every land his name adore;
  The British Isles shall sound the noise
    Across the ocean to the shore.

Wesley, considering this an unpromising initial stanza, omitted it, and
changed the second stanza, lines 1 and 2, from

  Nations attend before his throne
    With solemn fear, with sacred joy

to

  Before Jehovah’s awful throne
    Ye nations bow with sacred joy.

Wesley severely condemned the practice of changing another’s hymns, but
in this case his own “transgression” resulted in a greatly improved
hymn.

The word “awful” in the first line is spelled “awe-full” in some hymnals
in order to convey more nearly its original meaning.

For comments on Isaac Watts, see Hymn 11.

_MUSIC._ PARK STREET was composed by Frederick M. A. Venua, 1788-1872,
an eminent French organist, a native of Paris. It is a favorite tune in
America where it is invariably associated with this hymn by Watts.


                               THE CHURCH


273. The Church’s one foundation            _Samuel J. Stone_, 1839-1900

A truly great hymn, honoring the church of Christ and longing for its
prosperity. The author, then a young curate of 27 years in the Church of
England, was so stirred by the attacks made on the church in his time
that he determined to write a series of twelve hymns on the Apostles’
Creed. This one is based on the article, “I believe in the holy Catholic
Church, the communion of saints.” The controversy which then raged in
England concerning the nature of the inspiration of the Scriptures is
reflected in the third stanza, the author leaning strongly on the
conservative side.

Samuel J. Stone was a clergyman of the Church of England, born in
Staffordshire, and educated at Oxford. He served various churches,
finally succeeding his father at St. Paul’s, Haggerston, London. For
twenty years he had a fruitful ministry in this East End parish among
the poor and depraved, before moving to another part of the city to
another church. He is the author of many hymns and translations and
published several volumes of poetry.

_MUSIC._ AURELIA (signifying “golden”) one of our most stately tunes,
combining ease of singing with churchly dignity, was written for the
hymn, “Jerusalem the golden” (262). It was set to the present hymn in
_Hymns Ancient and Modern_ and did much to carry the hymn into the
churches. It has become one of the great processional hymns of the
church.

Samuel Sebastian Wesley, 1810-76, grandson of Charles Wesley, was like
his father, Samuel Wesley, a great English composer and organist. He had
a consuming love of the outdoors, as well as of music, and was
passionately fond of fishing. He was outspoken in his demands for reform
in the music of the church and was, consequently, frequently at odds
with his superiors. Wesley received inadequate recognition for the
contributions he made to the music of his time.


274. Glorious things of thee are spoken         _John Newton_, 1725-1807

Based on Psalm 87:3: “Glorious things are spoken of thee, O city of
God,” and other passages, especially Isaiah 33:20, 21, and Exodus 13:22.

It is one of our best hymns on the Church and, says Julian, “It ranks
with the first hymns in the language.” In ordinary use the omission of
the third stanza is desirable. Augustine Smith suggests in _Lyric
Religion_ that “the last score should always be repeated, the second
time sung broader and fuller, building into a superb climax.”

John Newton is remembered among the hymn writers because of the radical
change that took place in his life at conversion. Born in London, his
only schooling was from his eighth to his tenth year. He went to sea at
eleven, his godly mother following the profligate youth with her
prayers. As a midshipman in the navy he deserted his post, was captured,
and reduced to a common seaman, and later became a servant of a slave
dealer in Africa. He was converted at 23 after an awful night steering a
water-logged ship in the face of death. Though converted, he retained
certain blind spots in his social outlook and he continued as a slave
dealer. This hymn was written when he was on a voyage from Sierra Leone,
Africa, with a load of slaves shackled closely together and being taken
to London or America to be sold. “I have never had such sweet communion
with Jesus as I had on that voyage,” he wrote. This may seem like
hypocrisy, but it must be remembered that slavery was a common practice
and that only a few people of the time understood clearly its complete
denial of the spirit of Christ. It may be that future generations will
see in our times evils that flourished unchallenged while we prayed and
sang according to the light we had. In 1750, Newton married Mary
Catlett, a noble and pious woman, and a godsend in his life. In 1755, he
settled down as customs officer in Liverpool, becoming at the same time
greatly interested in Wesley and Whitefield and other evangelical
leaders. Three years later he became a minister in the Church of
England, and in 1764, he began a distinguished career as curate at
Olney, where he was associated with his friend, William Cowper, the
poet. The two were joint authors of the _Olney Hymns_, 1779. After
sixteen years in Olney, he moved to London where for 28 years he did
faithful and successful work as rector of St. Mary Woolnoth. He wrote
his own epitaph which is found on a plain marble tablet near the vestry
door of his church in London:

                           John Newton, Clerk
                     Once an Infidel and Libertine,
                     A servant of slaves in Africa,
             Was, by the rich mercy of our Lord and Saviour
                              Jesus Christ
                   Preserved, restored, and pardoned,
                   And appointed to preach the Faith
                    He had long labored to destroy,
                    Near 16 years at Olney in Bucks
                      And ... years in this church
                      On Feb. 1, 1750, he married
                                 Mary,
                  Daughter of the late George Catlett
                            Of Catham, Kent.
                He resigned her to the Lord who gave her
                       On 15th of December, 1790

_MUSIC._ AUSTRIAN HYMN is founded on a Croatian melody. It was used in
Germany as the tune of “Deutschland über alles.” Joseph Haydn,
1732-1809, made a setting of it to be sung at the Emperor’s birthday,
Feb. 12, 1797, to the words, “Gott erhalte Franz der Kaiser.” The tune
was a great favorite of Haydn and he used it as a theme in one of the
movements in his famous “_Emperor Quartet_,” No. 76.

For comments on Franz Joseph Haydn, see Hymn 27.


275. I love Thy Kingdom, Lord                _Timothy Dwight_, 1752-1817

Based on Psalm 137:5, 6: “If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right
hand forget her cunning. If I do not remember thee, let my tongue cleave
to the roof of my mouth; if I prefer not Jerusalem above my chief joy.”
It is rated high among all the hymns on the church and is probably the
earliest American hymn in use today.

Timothy Dwight, the great president of Yale, was the grandson of
Jonathan Edwards and shared in a large measure the intellectual
brilliance of the Edwards family. A precocious youth, he entered Yale
College at 13 and graduated at 17. An outstanding personality of his
time, he was honored for his sound scholarship, elected a member of the
Massachusetts legislature, and served as minister of the Congregational
Church at Greenfield, Conn. From 1795 until his death in 1817, he was
President of Yale, simultaneously holding the Chair of Theology. His
presence at Yale changed the whole moral and religious attitude of the
campus, there having been only four or five professed Christians at the
college, according to Prof. W. W. Sweet, when he became president. At
the request of the General Association of Congregational Churches in
Connecticut and with the concurrence of the Presbyterian General
Assembly, he revised _The Psalms of David_, by I. Watts, a work which
was used in the Presbyterian and Congregational Churches of Connecticut
for over 30 years.

Dwight did a prodigious amount of work in spite of a serious physical
handicap. His eyesight, for the greater part of forty years, was so poor
that his reading was done only with the greatest of difficulty and with
frequent and agonizing pain behind the eyeballs.

_MUSIC._ STATE STREET. For comments on this tune see Hymn 246.


276. O where are kings and empires now         _Arthur C. Coxe_, 1818-96

From a larger poem by Coxe, entitled “Chelsea,” containing ten stanzas
of eight lines each. It is a hymn of confidence that the church, built
on a solid foundation, will survive all earthly kings and empires and
will be able to withstand every earthly foe.

Arthur Cleveland Coxe was born at Clifton Springs, N. Y.; graduated from
the University of New York and General Theological Seminary; and then
became the rector successively of St. John’s Church, Hartford, Conn.;
Grace Church, Baltimore; and Calvary Church, New York City. In 1865, he
was elected Bishop of Western New York. He was a member of the Hymnal
Commission for the Protestant Episcopal Church, which compiled the
_Hymnal_ of 1872, but refused, out of modesty, permission to include in
that work any of his own hymns.

_MUSIC._ ST. ANNE. For comments on this tune see Hymn 61.


277. Christ is made the sure foundation      _Latin, 6th or 7th century_
                                            _Tr. John M. Neale_, 1818-66

From Part II of an ancient Latin hymn of the 6th or 7th century
beginning: “_Urbs beata Hierusalem_.” The author is not known. The first
verse reflects Ephesians 2:20-21: “And are built upon the foundation of
the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief
cornerstone; in whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto
an holy temple in the Lord.”

The hymn is often used at the dedication of churches, stanzas 3 and 4
being especially appropriate for that purpose.

Dr. Neale’s translation of the hymn, in nine stanzas, appeared in his
_Medieval Hymns_, 1851. Our hymn is a selection of stanzas 5, 6, 7, and
8, of his translation, with some changes in the words. The Latin of our
first three stanzas is as follows:

  Angularis fundamentum
    lapis Christus missus est
  Qui compage parietis
    in utroque nectitur,
  Quem Sion sancta suscepit,
    In quo credens permanet.

  Hoc in templo, summe Deus,
    exoratus adveni,
  Et clementi bonitate
    precum vota suscipe;
  Largam benedictionem
    his infunde iugiter.

  Hic promereantur omnes
    petita adquirere
  Et adepta possidere
    cum sanctis perenniter,
  Paradisum introire,
    translati in requiem.

For comments on John M. Neale see Hymn 67.

_MUSIC._ REGENT SQUARE. For comments on this tune see Hymn 81.


                            THE HOUSE OF GOD


278. Lord of our life, and God of our salvation          _Philip Pusey_,
                                                               1799-1855
                           _Based on Matthäus von Löwenstern_, 1594-1648

One of the “songs of the night,” the original of which was written out
of the bitter experiences of the Thirty Years’ War in Germany. It tells
of the peril to which the Reformed Church was then exposed but expresses
confidence that the church, founded upon the Rock, will prevail against
evil.

Matthäus Apelles von Löwenstern, son of a saddler, had musical and
business ability which won him recognition and employment by the Duke of
Münsterberg and the Emperors Ferdinand II and his son Ferdinand III. He
wrote about 30 hymns and set them to melodies of his own composition.
His hymn, named “Sapphic Ode. For Spiritual and Temporal Peace,” in
1644, is as follows:

  Christe, du Beistand deiner Kreuzgemeine,
  Eile, mit Hilf’ und Rettung uns erscheine;
  Steure den Feinden, ihre Blutgerichte
    Mache zunichte!

  Streite doch selber für uns arme Kinder,
  Wehre dem Teufel, seine Macht verhinder’;
  Alles, was kämpfet wider deine Glieder,
    Stürze danieder!

  Frieden bei Kirch’ und Schulen uns beschere,
  Frieden zugleich der Obrigkeit gewähre,
  Frieden dem Herzen, Frieden dem Gewissen
    Gib zu geniessen!

  Also wird zeitlich deine Güt’ erhoben,
  Also wird ewig und ohn’ Ende loben
  Dich, o du Wächter deiner armen Herde,
    Himmel und Erde.

The English version by Pusey is not a translation of the German but
rather a free paraphrase. Philip Pusey, brother of Edward Pusey, the
famous leader in the Oxford Movement, was educated at Oxford. After
graduating he settled on his estate and devoted himself largely to
agriculture. He wrote extensively on agricultural subjects and was one
of the founders of the Royal Agriculture Society. Later he became a
member of Parliament. He wrote this hymn to portray the state of the
Church of England at the time, which he described as being “assailed
from without, enfeebled and detracted from within, but on the eve of a
great awakening.”

_MUSIC._ INTEGER VITAE. For comments on this tune see Hymn 59.


279. Dear Shepherd of Thy people                _John Newton_, 1725-1807

A hymn composed for a prayer meeting.

John Newton and William Cowper, the English poet, instituted prayer
meetings at Olney where the two labored together in a famous ministry,
Newton as minister of the church, and Cowper as his voluntary assistant.
The prayer meetings were attended in such large numbers that it became
necessary to move the services into a large room. For the first meeting
in this new room, each of the men prepared a special hymn, the one by
Newton being our hymn, with his first, third, and seventh stanzas
omitted.

For further comments on John Newton see Hymn 274.

_MUSIC._ DURHAM appeared in _Ravenscroft’s Psalter_, 1621, set to Psalms
28 and 76, and marked as a “Northern Tune.” The _Scottish Psalter_ of
1635 includes it among the Common Tunes.


280. Again, as evening’s shadow falls       _Samuel Longfellow_, 1819-92

“Vesper Hymn” is the title which this hymn bears in the author’s volume,
_Vespers_, 1859, a small book of songs prepared for use in evening
services. In a letter dated Feb. 11, 1890, Longfellow wrote, “My two
favorites among my hymns are the vesper hymn, ‘Again, as evening’s
shadow falls,’ and the one beginning, ‘I look to Thee in every need’”
(244).

For comments on Samuel Longfellow see Hymn 28.

_MUSIC._ GERMANY. For comments on this tune see Hymn 222.


281. We love the place, O God               _William Bullock_, 1798-1874
                                               _Henry W. Baker_, 1821-77

Based on Psalm 26:8: “Lord, I have loved the habitation of thy house,
and the place where thine honor dwelleth.” The hymn was written by
William Bullock, then a young sailor-missionary, for the dedication of a
mission chapel at Trinity Bay, Newfoundland, in 1827. Seventy years
later, when a new church located on the same site was dedicated, this
hymn as revised by H. W. Baker, was once more sung. The sermon preached
by Bullock at the opening of the chapel was read to the people.

Wm. Bullock was educated at Christ’s Hospital and then entered the Royal
Navy. While on a survey of the coast of Newfoundland, he decided to
devote himself to missionary work in that colony. He did this and served
32 years under the Society for Propagating the Gospel. He became Dean of
Nova Scotia at Halifax. In 1854, he published _Songs of the Church_
which, he said, were “written amid the various scenes of missionary
life, and are intended for the private and domestic use of Christians in
new countries deprived of all public worship.”

For comments on Henry W. Baker, reviser of the hymn see Hymn 143.

_MUSIC._ QUAM DILECTA was composed for this hymn in _Hymns Ancient and
Modern_, 1861.

The composer, Henry L. Jenner, 1820-98, was a curate in the Anglican
Church. After serving various churches in England, he was consecrated
first Bishop of Dunedin, New Zealand, 1866. He was one of the Cambridge
group which revived interest in ecclesiology, ancient hymnology,
plainsong, etc.


282. Unto Thy temple, Lord, we come          _Robert Collyer_, 1823-1912

A hymn describing the church as the home of “rich and poor, bond and
free, great and small.” It is suitable for the general worship service
and especially for the dedication of a church.

Information concerning the author, Robert Collyer, has not been traced.
_Julian’s Dictionary_ notes a William Collyer, 1782-1854, eminent
English evangelical preacher who was ordained for a small church of ten
communicant members. He is described as a man of “amiable disposition,
polished manners, Christian courtesy, and popular with rich and poor
alike; who labored in the church with great success and honor until his
death.” He wrote numerous hymns. Was our hymn written by a son brought
up with his father’s noble conception of the church?

_MUSIC._ MENDON. For comments on this tune see Hymn 211.


                             THE LORD’S DAY


283. The dawn of God’s dear Sabbath                  _Ada Cross_, 1844-?

A hymn on the Sabbath, picturing the day as a time when weary souls may
turn from daily toil to refresh themselves with the water of life drawn
from the wells of salvation.

Ada Cross was born in England, November 21, 1844, the daughter of Henry
Cambridge. She married an Australian, the Rev. George F. Cross, and
spent most of her life in Australia where her husband was minister of
the Anglican Church in Coleraine, Victoria. She was interested in the
liturgy of the Church and issued several collections of hymns.

_MUSIC._ ENDSLEIGH is credited to Salvatore Ferretti, 1817-74,
concerning whom no information has been traced. The arrangement was made
by James Turle, 1802-82, an English teacher of music, a distinguished
organist, and composer of hymn tunes, chants, and anthems. For
sixty-three years he was connected with Westminster Abbey in London. He
was endowed, it is said, with unusually large hands so that he could
easily span an octave and a half with one hand. His sole musical
interest was in serving the church.


284. Safely through another week                _John Newton_, 1725-1807

This hymn was composed by Newton for use on Saturday evening. To give it
wider usefulness, the verses were slightly changed to make them suitable
for the Sunday morning service.

For comments on John Newton see Hymn 274.

_MUSIC._ SABBATH was written for this hymn in 1824.

For comments on the composer, Lowell Mason, see Hymn 12.


285. O day of rest and gladness        _Christopher Wordsworth_, 1807-85

A hymn which serves to keep vividly before us the meaning and value of
the Lord’s Day. It appears as the opening hymn in the author’s _The Holy
Year_, 1862, where it is entitled “Sunday.” It is based on Psalm 118:24:
“This is the day which the Lord hath made; we will rejoice and be glad
in it.”

For comments on Christopher Wordsworth see Hymn 174.

_MUSIC._ MENDEBRAS was written for this hymn in 1839. It is an
arrangement by Lowell Mason of a German folk song.

For comments on Lowell Mason see Hymn 12.


286. Again returns the day of holy rest         _William Mason_, 1725-97

The author of this Lord’s Day hymn was the Rev. William Mason, an
English Episcopalian, born at Kingston-on-Hull. He graduated with honors
from St. John’s College, Cambridge; received ordination, served as one
of the chaplains of King George III, and at the time of death he had
been for 32 years the Precentor and Canon of York. A man of high
literary attainments, and a friend of Thomas Gray, he edited that poet’s
works in 1775 and later wrote the memoirs of Gray. The latter was done
in the gossiping style, imitated later by Boswell when he wrote the
_Life of Samuel Johnson_. Mason wrote four volumes of poetry and won
recognition from Johnson as one of the British poets.

The present hymn, by which the author is best remembered, is found at
the end of Volume I of the _Works of William Mason, M. A., Precentor of
York and Rector of Aston_, 1811.

Our author is not to be confused with his contemporary of the same name,
1719-91, who succeeded Toplady in the editorship of _The Gospel
Magazine_ and who was also a minister and hymn writer.

_MUSIC._ ELLERS. For comments on this tune and its composer, Edward J.
Hopkins, see Hymn 43.


287. This is the day of light                   _John Ellerton_, 1826-93

A worshipful Sabbath day hymn, breathing the spirit of rest, light, and
peace, written in 1867.

For comments on the author, John Ellerton, see Hymn 43.

_MUSIC._ FRANCONIA. For comments on this tune see Hymn 205.


288. Break Thou the bread of life          _Mary A. Lathbury_, 1841-1913

This gem, entitled, “Study Song,” was written for the Chautauqua
Literary and Scientific Circle and for Bible Study groups, but it also
has a wider use. Dr. G. Campbell Morgan used this hymn every Sunday for
many years immediately before the sermon. It is not a communion hymn
although it is often used for that purpose. The breaking of bread refers
to the feeding of the multitude beside the Sea of Galilee and not to the
Last Supper; and the “bread of life” is the teaching of Jesus.

For comments on Mary Lathbury see Hymn 31.

_MUSIC._ BREAD OF LIFE is a popular American tune, sincere and simple in
style, written for this hymn and indissolubly associated with it.

For comments on the composer, William F. Sherwin, see Hymn 31.


                          THE HOLY SCRIPTURES


289. O Word of God Incarnate                        _W. W. How_, 1823-97

A hymn addressed to Christ, the Word of God Incarnate, setting forth in
a succession of beautiful figures—a lantern, the golden casket, a
banner, a beam, chart and compass—the value of the written word, and the
duty of the Church to carry the light of God’s word, both as incarnate
and written, to the nations. It was written in 1867, headed by the text
Prov. 6:23: “For the commandment is a lamp; and the law is light; and
reproofs of instruction are the way of life.” The author himself was a
living witness to the power of the Word. His definition of a minister
shows the high ideal he had of the preacher of the Word, and,
incidentally, is an accurate description of his own life:

  A man pure, holy, and spotless in his life; a man of much prayer; in
  character meek, lowly, and infinitely compassionate; of tenderest love
  to all; full of sympathy for every pain and sorrow, and devoting his
  days and nights to lightening the burdens of humanity; utterly patient
  of insult and enmity; utterly fearless in speaking the truth and
  rebuking sin; ever ready to answer every call, to go wherever bidden
  in order to do good; wholly without thought of self; making himself
  the servant of all; patient, gentle, and untiring in dealing with the
  souls he would save; bearing with ignorance, wilfulness, slowness,
  cowardice in those of whom he expects most; sacrificing all, even life
  itself, if need be, to save some.

For further comments on W. W. How, see Hymn 144.

_MUSIC._ MUNICH, “one of the most beautiful and perfectly constructed of
tunes,” is of German origin and is known in Germany as “Königsberg
Choral.” It appeared first in _Lobsingende Harffe_, 1682. The composer
is unknown. Mendelssohn used the tune as the basis for his fine chorale,
“Cast thy burden on the Lord,” in his oratorio, _Elijah_.


290. Thy Word is like a garden, Lord           _Edwin Hodder_, 1837-1904

The metaphors used in this hymn to describe the Word of God are very
suggestive: “a garden,” “a deep, deep mine,” “a starry host.”

Edwin Hodder was born in England but migrated at 19 years of age to New
Zealand where he was one of a pioneer group of idealists who introduced
progressive sociological ideas for which that country is noted. He
returned to England where he was engaged in the civil service from 1861
until his retirement in 1897. Hodder wrote biographies and devotional
works, and in 1863 issued _The New Sunday School Hymn Book_ which
contained twenty-seven of his own hymns, including this one.

_MUSIC._ FOREST GREEN is an arrangement of an English folk song called,
“The Ploughboy’s Dream.” R. Vaughan Williams, 1872-, who arranged the
tune is England’s leading living composer. He has collected and edited
for publication many folksongs and carols, written several symphonies
for the orchestra, and has composed numerous choral works.

Some good hymnals use this tune as the setting for Phillips Brooks’
popular Christmas carol, “O little town of Bethlehem.”


291. The heavens declare Thy glory, Lord        _Isaac Watts_, 1674-1748

Here is an unusual rendering of Psalm 19, which Watts entitled, “The
Books of Nature and of Scripture.” In the Psalm itself we find the Book
of Nature in the first half and the Book of Scripture in the second half
of the psalm. Instead of following this order, Watts sets the one over
in couplets against the other, so that the first two lines of each
stanza have to do with nature, the last two with Scripture.

For comments on Isaac Watts, see Hymn 11.

_MUSIC._ UXBRIDGE. This tune is by the American composer and teacher of
music, Lowell Mason. The psalm tune “Burford” (228) is also named
“Uxbridge” in some books.

For comments on Mason see Hymn 12.


292. Lord, Thy word abideth                    _Henry W. Baker_, 1821-77

A hymn on the Scriptures, written for _Hymns Ancient and Modern_, 1861.

For comments on Henry W. Baker see Hymn 143.

_MUSIC._ RAVENSHAW is from _Ein Neu Gesangbüchlein_, 1531, the earliest
German hymn book of the Bohemian Brethren, edited by Michael Weisse. The
melody is older and was associated with a Latin hymn, _Ave Hierarchia,
coelestis et pia_. The present arrangement is by William H. Monk. For
comments on Monk see Hymn 40.

For a note on the Bohemian Brethren and Michael Weisse see Hymn 544.


                              THE MINISTRY


293. Shine Thou upon us, Lord                   _John Ellerton_, 1826-93

A hymn for teachers.

For comments on John Ellerton, see Hymn 42.

_MUSIC._ BROUGHTON. For comments on the composer of this melody, Thomas
Hastings, see Hymn 120.


294. O still in accents sweet and strong    _Samuel Longfellow_, 1819-92

The author’s title of this hymn is, “Behold the Fields are White.”

For comments on Samuel Longfellow see Hymn 28.

_MUSIC._ BELMONT. For comments on this tune see Hymn 197.


295. Pour out Thy Spirit from on high      _James Montgomery_, 1771-1854

Written in 1833 for the Rev. J. Birchell, clergyman in the Church of
England, who published it in his _Selection of Hymns_. It was printed in
the same year in Edward Bickersteth’s _Christian Psalmody_. For comments
on Bickersteth see Hymn 256. The hymn’s original title was, “For a
Meeting of Clergy.” It is not intended to be sung by a body of people as
a prayer for ministers but as a prayer hymn to be sung by ministers
themselves.

For comments on James Montgomery see Hymn 62.

_MUSIC._ MELCOMBE. For comments on this tune see Hymn 22.


296. Lord, speak to me, that I may speak          _Frances R. Havergal_,
                                                                 1836-79

“A Worker’s Prayer” is Miss Havergal’s title of this hymn and the text
associated with it is Rom. 14:7: “None of us liveth to himself and no
one dieth to himself.” It was composed April 28, 1872, at Winterdyne.

For comments on Frances Havergal see Hymn 126.

_MUSIC._ CANONBURY, a favorite tune found in nearly all hymn books, is
from Robert Schumann’s _Nachtstücke_, Op. 23.

Robert Schumann, 1810-56, greatest of the early German Romantics, was
born in Zwickau, Saxony. He wrote symphonies and chamber music but is
known best for his amazingly fine piano works and songs. His wife, Clara
Wieck Schumann, one of the greatest piano players the world has
produced, was devoted to him, as were also his children. Schumann became
mentally ill, attempted unsuccessfully to drown himself in the Rhine,
and was cared for in a hospital for two years before his death. He had a
gift for journalism and wrote books and magazine articles on music.


297. Thou who Thyself didst sanctify            _George Rawson_, 1807-89

An appropriate hymn for use in ordination to the Christian ministry or
dedication to other forms of Christian service.

George Rawson, an English Congregational layman, was born at Leeds where
he practiced law many years. He had a considerable knowledge of music
and was a gifted hymn writer. He rendered valuable assistance to his own
denomination as well as to the Baptists in the preparation of hymn books
for use in the church. A shy, retiring man, of sincere piety, he at
first published his hymns, a considerable collection, anonymously, but
later had to acknowledge his identity. About 50 of his hymns are still
in use.

(The name is misspelled “Dawson” in the Hymnary.)

_MUSIC._ DUNDEE (or FRENCH) is one of the twelve Common Tunes appearing
in the _Scottish Psalter_, _The CL Psalms of David, &_, Edinburgh, 1615,
where it is named “French Tune.” Its first appearance in an English
Psalter is in Ravencroft’s _Whole Book of Psalms_, 1621, where it is
called “Dundy.” It is one of the best known of the psalm tunes and its
smooth, flowing melody has enjoyed great popularity.

For comments on the _Scottish Psalter_ see Hymn 575.


                        CONSECRATION OF CHILDREN


298. Gracious Savior, gentle Shepherd     _Jane Eliza Leeson_, 1807-1882
                                                 _John Keble_, 1792-1866

A hymn for the children’s consecration service, evolved by John Keble
from three hymns—“Shepherd in thy bosom, folded,” “Loving Shepherd of
Thy sheep” (429), and “Infant sorrow, infant weakness,” written by Jane
Eliza Leeson. Keble took the main ideas of these hymns and rewrote them
into a hymn of five stanzas, two of which are omitted here.

Jane Eliza Leeson was born in London and died there. She had rare gifts
in writing for children, and published several books of hymns—_Infant
Hymnings_, and _Hymns and Scenes of Childhood_—specially for children.
Very little is known of her life, except that she was a prominent figure
in the Catholic Apostolic Church and that some of her hymns were
supposedly “prophetical utterances,” prompted by the Holy Spirit, at
public services, which she “delivered slowly with short pauses between
the verses.” Late in life she united with the Roman Catholic Church.

For comments on John Keble, see Hymn 22.

_MUSIC._ MANNHEIM is from the source mentioned in the note on Hymn 174.
The present form of the melody is much altered from the original.


299. All hidden lie the future ways     _Frederick L. Hosmer_, 1840-1929

A lyrical phrasing of the emotions that arise in the hearts of parents
as they contemplate the faring forth of little children into the hidden
future.

For comments on the author, Frederick L. Hosmer, see Hymn 72.

_MUSIC._ NUN SICH DER TAG GEENDET HAT is a tune set to various hymns in
the _Gesangbuch mit Noten_.

For comments on the composer, Aaron Williams, see Hymn 269.


300. A little child the Savior came         _William Robertson_, 1820-64

A Scotch Presbyterian minister, William Robertson, contributed this hymn
to the Church of Scotland’s _Hymns for Public Worship_ in 1861. The
author, keenly interested in hymnody and Scotch psalmody, was a member
of the Hymnal Committee of the Church of Scotland in 1851, 1853, and
1857.

_MUSIC._ ALSTONE was composed by C. E. Willing, 1830-1904, for the
children’s hymn, “We are but little children weak,” in _Hymns Ancient
and Modern_, Appendix, 1868. Willing was chorister of Westminster Abbey
and held various responsible positions as organist and choral conductor
in England.


                                BAPTISM


301. Come, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost         _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88

The original poem of six stanzas is from _Hymns and Sacred Poems_, 1749,
where it was entitled, “At the Baptism of Adults.”

Wesley’s second line of the first stanza read

  “Honor the means injoin’d by Thee,”

which was changed to “ordained by Thee” for the _Collection_ of 1780.
The awkward expression, “Effectuate now the sacred sign,” Wesley’s
second line of stanza 3, was changed to “Effectual make the sacred
sign,” by the editors of the hymn book in 1849.

For comments on Charles Wesley see Hymn 6.

_MUSIC._ SO LANGE JESUS BLEIBT DER HERR is a familiar melody, of unknown
origin, from the _Gesangbuch mit Noten_.


302. I’m not ashamed to own my Lord             _Isaac Watts_, 1674-1748

This hymn is based on II Timothy 1:8-12.

James Moffatt writes that when Henry Drummond was on his death bed, Nov.
7, 1897, his friend, Dr. Hugh Barbour, played several hymn tunes to him
without gaining any response. Then he tried the Old Scots melody of
“Martyrdom” to which Drummond beat time with his hand and joined in the
words, “I’m not ashamed to own my Lord.” When the hymn was done, he
said, “There’s nothing to beat that, Hugh.”

For comments on Isaac Watts see Hymn 11.

_MUSIC._ DEDHAM. The tune is attributed to William Gardiner, 1770-1853,
an Englishman of whom nothing much of importance is known except that he
published _Sacred Melodies_ in 1812, a collection of excellent tunes,
which was expanded to six volumes published in 1815.


                           THE LORD’S SUPPER


303. Here, O my Lord, I see Thee face to face          _Horatius Bonar_,
                                                                 1808-89

Entitled by the author, “This Do in Remembrance of Me.”

It is a famous communion hymn, emphasizing, in keeping with the Reformed
tradition, the thought that Christ Himself presides at His Table. All
His followers are therefore welcome.

Three members of the Bonar family became eminent ministers in the Free
Church of Scotland (Presbyterian)—Andrew in Glasgow; John in Greenock;
and Horatius in Edinburgh. Horatius was accustomed to visit his brother
John once a year at the communion service. Hymns were still not
permitted to be sung in the church, but an original poem was invariably
read after the communion. This hymn was written by Horatius Bonar at the
request of his brother John for the occasion of such a visit in October,
1855. It has become a widely used communion hymn in all churches.

For further comments on Horatius Bonar see Hymn 129.

_MUSIC._ LANGRAN, known in England as “St. Agnes,” is named after the
composer, James Langran, 1835-1909, London organist and composer, who
wrote this music for “Abide with me” (40). It was published separately
in 1861 and two years later appeared in _Psalms and Hymns adapted to the
services of the Church of England, with accompanying tunes selected and
revised by John Foster_.

The hymn is also sung to “Ellers” (See 43 or 286).


304. Bread of the world, in mercy broken     _Reginald Heber_, 1783-1826

“A quiet communion hymn full of loveliness and warm reality of
faith.”—Reeves.

This popular communion hymn by Bishop Heber was published posthumously
with the title, “Before the Sacrifice.”

For comments on Reginald Heber see Hymn 1.

_MUSIC._ EUCHARISTIC HYMN, a tune “beautiful in its simplicity,” has
always been associated with this hymn by Heber. The composer, John
Sebastian Bach Hodges, 1830-1915, son of the illustrious organist,
Edward Hodges, was born in Bristol, England, but came to America when
eight years old. He received his education at Columbia University and
General Theological Seminary, New York City, and became a noted minister
in the Protestant Episcopal Church. He had excellent musical knowledge
and founded in Baltimore the earliest choir school in the United States.
He also did much work on the various revisions of the Episcopal hymnal.


305. According to Thy gracious word        _James Montgomery_, 1771-1854

One of the best-loved and most useful of communion hymns, profound, yet
simple. It appeared first in Montgomery’s _Christian Psalmist_, 1825,
and has since passed into the hymn books of all denominations of
evangelical Christians. The words of Luke 22:19 furnish the scriptural
basis of the hymn: “This do in remembrance of me.”

For comments on James Montgomery see Hymn 62.

_MUSIC._ ST. JOHN, more properly called “St. John’s, Westminster,” was
composed by James Turle, 1802-82.

For comments on James Turle see Hymn 283.


306. Bread of the world, in mercy broken     _Reginald Heber_, 1783-1826

The _Church Hymnary_, London, 1927, has the following practical note at
the bottom of the page where this hymn appears:

  As this hymn consists of one verse only, it is suggested that it be
  sung twice over: once by the choir alone, and again by choir and
  people in unison. It may also be used as a short motet for
  unaccompanied singing by the choir.

For further comments on this hymn see No. 304.

_MUSIC._ RENDEZ À DIEU was composed or adapted by L. Bourgeois for the
_French Genevan Psalter_, where it was set to Psalm 118. In the
_Scottish Psalter_ of 1564, the tune was again used to John Craig’s
version of the same Psalm. It is described in _Songs of Praise
Discussed_ as being “in some ways the finest of all the early psalm
tunes ... perfectly proportioned ... a tune which gives the true ‘spinal
thrill’; of its kind it is unsurpassed.”

For comments on L. Bourgeois see Hymn 34.


307. Come, risen Lord, and deign to be our guest     _George W. Briggs_,
                                                                   1875—

Based on the account of the supper at Emmaus, Luke 24:28-31:

  And they drew nigh unto the village, whither they went: and he made as
  though he would have gone further. But they constrained him saying,
  Abide with us: for it is toward evening, and the day is far spent. And
  he went in to tarry with them. And it came to pass, as he sat at meat
  with them, he took bread, and blessed it, and brake, and gave to them.
  And their eyes were opened, and they knew him; and he vanished out of
  their sight.

It stresses the doctrine that Christ Himself is the celebrant at the
Lord’s Supper.

George Wallace Briggs is a Cambridge scholar, an outstanding preacher,
educator, writer, and editor in the Anglican church. He has composed a
number of hymns (See 570) and hymn tunes.

_MUSIC._ BIRMINGHAM is from F. Cunningham’s _A Selection of Psalm
Tunes_, 2d ed., 1834, where it is set to the words, “Come, gracious
Spirit, heavenly dove.” Cunningham published an earlier collection of
psalm tunes in 1826.


308. I hunger and I thirst                 _John S. B. Monsell,_ 1811-75

A simple, tender, communion hymn which ought to have a wider use.

John Samuel Bewley Monsell was educated at Trinity College, Dublin;
labored for a number of years in the church in Ireland; and then became
vicar of Egham in the Diocese of Worcester, England, and finally rector
of St. Nicholas, Guildford. His home life at Guildford is described as
having been “full of the beauty of holiness, with genial brightness and
gaity playing like sunshine over all the troubles of life.” His life
came to a tragic end when he fell from the roof of the church while it
was being rebuilt. He composed about 300 hymns and is the author of many
other poetic works.

_MUSIC._ MAINZ (MARIA JUNG UND ZART) originally appeared in a Catholic
book, _Ausserlesene Catholische, Geistliche Kirchengesänge von
Pfingsten, biss zum Advent_, Cologne, 1632. It was slightly changed and
printed in its present form in _Psalteriolum Harmonicum Sacrarum
Cantilenarum_, 1642.


309. Author of life divine                     _Charles Wesley,_ 1707-88

This fine communion hymn is from _Hymns on the Lord’s Supper_, 1745, by
John and Charles Wesley. It is attributed in many hymnals to Charles,
but there is no conclusive evidence to show which of the two brothers
wrote it. The thought of the hymn is said to be in full accord with
John’s teaching concerning the Holy Communion.

For comments on Charles Wesley see Hymn 6.

_MUSIC._ WESLEY. The original source of this tune has not been traced.
In the _English Hymnal_ it is set to the words, “Behold a little child.”
The tune should not be confused with Lowell Mason’s of the same name
(See 332).


310. By Christ redeemed, in Christ restored     _George Rawson_, 1807-89

Written in 1857 and published first in a Baptist book, _Psalms and
Hymns_, 1858.

Julian comments: “It is a hymn of more than usual excellence and has
attained to a greater position in modern hymnals than any other of the
author’s numerous compositions.”

The refrain, “Until He come,” is reminiscent of I Cor. 11:26: “For as
oft as ye eat this bread and drink this cup, ye do shew forth the Lord’s
death, till he come.”

For comments on George Rawson see Hymn 297.

_MUSIC._ IN MEMORIAM. For comments on the composer of this tune,
Frederick Charles Maker, 1844-1927, see Hymn 112.


311. Bread of heaven, on Thee we feed         _Josiah Conder_, 1789-1855

The hymn appeared in the author’s _Star of the East_, 1821, as “Bread of
heaven, on Thee I feed.” The first person singular was altered to the
plural throughout, and other changes made, improving the original.

For comments on Josiah Conder see Hymn 247.

_MUSIC._ ALETTA is by the American composer of popular church and Sunday
school music, William B. Bradbury, 1816-68. For further comments on
Bradbury see Hymn 103.

Conder’s hymn may also be sung to “_Nicht so traurig_” (538).


                                MARRIAGE


312. O perfect Love, all human thought transcending             _Dorothy
                                            Blomfield Gurney_, 1858-1932
                              _Doxology added by John Ellerton_, 1826-93

A singularly appropriate hymn for a Christian wedding. The author,
Dorothy Gurney, born near London in 1858, was the daughter of Rev.
Frederick Blomfield, a minister of the Anglican Church. She married a
minister’s son, Gerald Gurney, and with her husband, united with the
Roman Catholic Church in 1919. Mrs. Gurney has given the following
account of the writing of this popular hymn for holy matrimony:

  We were all singing hymns one Sunday evening and had just finished “O
  Strength and Stay,” the tune to which was an especial favorite of my
  sister’s, when someone remarked what a pity it was that the words
  should be unsuitable for a wedding. My sister, turning suddenly to me,
  said: “What is the use of a sister who composes poetry if she cannot
  write me new words to this tune?” I picked up a hymn-book and said:
  “Well, if no one will disturb me, I will go into the library and see
  what I can do.” After about fifteen minutes I came back with the hymn,
  “O perfect Love,” and there and then we all sang it to the tune of
  “Strength and Stay.” It went perfectly, and my sister was delighted,
  saying that it must be sung at her wedding. For two or three years it
  was sung privately at many London weddings, and then it found its way
  into the hymnals. The writing of it was no effort whatever after the
  initial idea had come to me of the twofold aspect of perfect union,
  love and life; and I have always felt that God helped me to write it.

It is the most popular wedding hymn extant.

For comments on John Ellerton, who added the third stanza, see Hymn 42.

_MUSIC._ PERFECT LOVE is from an anthem composed by Joseph Barnby for
the marriage of Princess Louise of Wales to the Duke of Fife, July 27,
1889. The anthem has been sung at many subsequent royal weddings.

For comments on Joseph Barnby see Hymn 21.


                           BURIAL OF THE DEAD


313. Safe in the arms of Jesus              _Fanny J. Crosby_, 1820-1915

Written April 30, 1868, at the request of W. H. Doane, composer of the
tune to which it was to be sung. The hymn and tune were published first
in _Songs of Devotion for Christian Associations_, 1870. It is a tender
lyric which has given peace and satisfaction to many who have faced
death and especially to mothers who have lost children.

Fanny Crosby, born in Putnam County, N. Y., became blind when six weeks
old as the result of an application of a warm poultice to her eyes. She
was educated in the New York (City) Institute for the Blind and there
served as a teacher for a time. In 1858, she was married to Alexander
van Alstyne, a blind musician. Miss Crosby began writing verses when a
child of eight years and throughout her long life showed a marvelous
facility for expression in poetry, which resulted in the writing of
nearly 6,000 hymns besides many secular poems. Many of her hymns were
written for W. H. Doane, Robert Lowry, Philip Phillips, Ira Sankey, and
others who were editors of evangelistic song books. She is best known by
her maiden name but also wrote under her married name and 216 _noms de
plume_. She was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Ten of her
hymns are in the _Hymnary_.

_MUSIC._ SAFE IN THE ARMS, also known as “Refuge,” was composed by
William Howard Doane, 1832-1916, a manufacturer of wood-working
machinery in Cincinnati, Ohio. He was a member of the Baptist Church and
served many years as superintendent of the Sunday school in his church.
A music enthusiast, he published 35 collections of song books and
composed numerous hymn tunes, anthems, and cantatas. In 1875, Denison
University, Granville, Ohio, conferred on him the degree of Doctor of
Music.


314. Asleep in Jesus....                      _Margaret Mackay_, 1802-87

Written by Margaret Mackay, wife of a distinguished officer in the
English army. She composed numerous hymns and poems, but none is so
widely known as this tender lyric so often used as a funeral hymn, which
she entitled, “Burial of the Dead.” The hymn was suggested by an
inscription she saw on a tombstone in the burying ground of Pennycross
Chapel, a rural spot in Devonshire:

  “Sleeping in Jesus.”

One stanza, the fifth, has been omitted. It reads:

  Asleep in Jesus: time nor space
  Debars this precious “hiding place.”
  On Indian plains or Lapland snows
  Believers find the same repose.

The hymn was first published in _The Amethyst_, 1832, in Edinburgh.

_MUSIC._ REST. For comments on the composer, William B. Bradbury, see
Hymn 103.


315. Now the laborer’s task is o’er             _John Ellerton_, 1826-93

Written for _Church Hymns_, 1871, by John Ellerton, distinguished
hymnist of the Church of England. His biographer has written concerning
this hymn:

  We now come to the loveliest and most loved of Mr. Ellerton’s hymns.
  It has been sung and will continue to be sung at the graveside of
  princes, divines, statesmen, poets, artists, authors, as well as many
  a Christian labourer of humble life.

For comments on John Ellerton see Hymn 42.

_MUSIC._ REQUIESCAT was written for this hymn. It appeared first in
_Hymns Ancient and Modern_, 1875. For comments on the composer, John B.
Dykes, see Hymn 1.


316. O Lord of life, where’er they be   _Frederick L. Hosmer_, 1840-1929

This hymn, a source of comfort and courage to many mourners, was
composed by Hosmer in 1888 for the Easter service in his own church in
Cleveland, Ohio.

The note of triumph runs throughout the hymn, each stanza ending with a
jubilant “Allelujah.” It was written to be sung with Palestrina’s tune,
“Victory.”

For comments on Frederick Hosmer see Hymn 72.

_MUSIC._ VICTORY. For comments on this tune see Hymn 116.


                           BURIAL OF THE DEAD


317. For all the saints                        _William W. How_, 1823-97

The original, in eleven stanzas, was published in 1864 in _Hymns for
Saints’ Days_, by a layman, Lord Nelson. One of the omitted stanzas
reads:

  For the Apostles’ glorious company
  Who, bearing forth the Cross o’er land and sea,
  Shook all the mighty world, we sing to Thee.

For comments on William How see Hymn 144.

_MUSIC._ SARUM. The tune was composed for the _Sarum Hymnal_, 1869, for
these words by Bishop How. It is also known as “St. Philip” and “For All
the Saints.”

For comments on the composer, Joseph Barnby, see Hymn 21.


318. We cannot think of them as dead    _Frederick L. Hosmer_, 1840-1929

Written in 1876 after the death by drowning of a young member of the
church of which the author was minister.

For comments on the author, Frederick L. Hosmer, see Hymn 72.

_MUSIC._ ST. FLAVIAN is from the _English Psalter_ of 1562 which was
printed by John Day in London. The present is the first half, with some
alterations, of the tune set to Psalm 132.


319. Come, let us join our friends above       _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88

The first of a group of _Funeral Hymns_, published in 1759. It sets
forth the assurance that friends gone before are not lost to those who
mourn,

  For all the servants of the King
    In earth and heaven are one.

This hymn, one of Wesley’s greatest, has had wide use throughout the
English speaking world in times of sorrow and loss of loved ones. It is
an exposition of the words of the ancient Creed, “I believe in the
communion of saints.”

The third and fourth verses, containing the idea of One Church, are
among the finest in the whole range of hymnody.

The hymn was a great favorite of John Wesley. It so happened that he
gave it out to be sung at a service he was conducting, at the very hour
of the death of his brother Charles, giving the hymn a peculiarly
pathetic interest.

For comments on Charles Wesley see Hymn 6.

_MUSIC._ DUNDEE. For comments on this tune see Hymn 297.


                              CHURCH UNITY


320. In Christ there is no East or West        _John Oxenham_, 1852-1941

A poem of human brotherhood, carrying a fine missionary message much
needed in our day. It is written in the spirit of St. Paul—“where there
is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision, Barbarian,
Scythian, bond nor free: but Christ is all and in all,” Col. 3:11. It
stands in striking contrast to Kipling’s more narrow nationalism in his
“East is East, and West is West, and never the twain shall meet.”

This hymn which has now found its way into most modern hymn books was
written for a missionary pageant, _The Pageant of Darkness and Light_,
which the London Missionary Society asked the author to write, for use
in connection with a great missionary exhibition in London, an affair
which ran for a month and did much to stimulate interest in missions in
all the churches. Oxenham wrote the _libretto_ and planned the scenes
for the pageant. The composer of the music, Hamish MacCunn, sent to him
in a hurry one day for a few verses to fill in a gap. To this request
Oxenham responded with the beautiful, simple lines, “No East or West.”

John Oxenham, English publisher, poet, and novelist, was born in
Manchester. He wrote this poem in 1908; and in 1939 sent the hymn,
“Peace in our time” (357) with a personal letter to the editors of the
_Hymnary_. The name John Oxenham is a _nom de plume_ for William Arthur
Dunkerley. For some years Dunkerley was engaged in business, in the
interest of which he travelled extensively in Europe and Canada, and
lived in France and the United States. He once investigated the
possibilities of cotton growing and sheep raising in the Southern States
but decided against the venture. He began writing as a relief from
business, and then, later, dropped business in favor of writing.

_MUSIC._ ST. PETER, also known as “St. Peter’s, Oxford,” was composed
for Psalm 118, by Alexander R. Reinagle, 1799-1877, distinguished
organist for thirty-one years in St. Peter’s-in-the-East Church, Oxford.
The tune derives its name from the church which the composer served so
long. It appeared in _Psalm Tunes for the Voice and the Pianoforte_,
published by Reinagle in 1830. It is a majestic tune and should be sung
in moderate time with strong rhythmic accent.


321. Jesus, Lord, we look to Thee              _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88

Four simple, lovely stanzas setting forth the unity of believers in
Christ.

For comments on Charles Wesley see Hymn 6.

_MUSIC._ MÜDE BIN ICH, GEH ZUR RUH. For comments on this tune see Hymn
254.


322. All praise to our redeeming Lord          _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88

A favorite and appropriate hymn for use at religious reunions and
conference gatherings. Wesley entitled it, “At meeting of Friends.”

For comments on Charles Wesley see Hymn 6.

_MUSIC._ ARMENIA was composed by Sylvanus Billings Pond, 1792-1871,
Albany, N. Y., a piano manufacturer. Billings wrote many fine tunes and
in 1841 issued the _United States Psalmody_, in which this tune
appeared.


323. How sweet, how heavenly is the sight        _Joseph Swain_, 1761-96

A beautiful hymn of Christian love, suggesting lines by Alice Carey:

  He who loves best his fellowman
    Is loving God the holiest way he can.

It appeared in the author’s _Walworth Hymns_, 1792, entitled, “The Grace
of Christian Love.”

Joseph Swain, English Baptist minister and hymn writer, lost his parents
early in life and was apprenticed to an engraver. He led a careless,
frivolous life until his conversion at the age of twenty-two, when he
became a fervent Christian. He qualified for the Baptist ministry and
began serving as minister of a congregation in East Street, Walworth, in
1791. His poetic gifts, formerly given worldly and superficial
expression, were now turned with great effect to his evangelistic
appeals. His short ministry of five years, cut off by a lamented early
death, was very successful.

_MUSIC._ REMEMBER ME. For comments on Asa Hull, composer of the tune,
see Hymn 232.


                                MISSIONS


324. The morning light is breaking            _Samuel F. Smith_, 1808-95

A great missionary hymn, though a little too optimistic. It was written
in 1832 while the author was a student in Andover Theological Seminary.
After reading an inspiring account by Adoniram Judson of his great
missionary work in Burma, Smith put his enthusiasm for missions into
these verses, now sung in all the churches.

Rev. Samuel F. Smith, Harvard graduate in the class with Oliver Wendell
Holmes, became the foremost American Baptist hymn writer of the 19th
century. He is the author of numerous hymns but is best known by “My
country, ’tis of thee” and the present hymn. His desire to be a
missionary himself was never fulfilled, but his son volunteered for the
service and became the successor to Judson in the great work in Burma.
“The morning light is breaking” has been translated into many tongues.
In a letter dated March 17, 1883, the author said of this hymn: “I have
heard versions of it sung in Karen, Burman, Italian, Spanish,
Portuguese, Swedish, German, and Telegu.” Dr. Smith was a great
linguist. He taught modern languages for a time in Colby College and had
a familiarity with no less than fifteen languages. It is said that at
the age of 86 he was seeking a suitable textbook to use in the study of
the Russian language. He served as minister of Baptist churches at
Waterville, Me., and Newton Center, Mass., and was secretary of the
Baptist Missionary Union for 15 years.

_MUSIC._ WEBB. For comments on this tune and its composer, George J.
Webb, see Hymn 65.


325. Far and near the fields are teeming                _J. O. Thompson_

A popular missionary hymn based on Luke 10:2: “The harvest truly is
great, but the laborers are few: pray ye therefore the Lord of the
harvest, that he would send forth laborers into his harvest.”

No information has been found concerning the author, J. O. Thompson, or
the composer of the tune, J. B. O. Clemm. The song appeared in _The
Epworth Hymnal_, edited by John H. Vincent, afterward a Bishop, and
published by Phillips and Hunt, Methodist Publishers, New York, in 1885.
It was copyrighted by them as of that year.


326. Father, whose will is life and good             _Hardwicke Drummond
                                                    Rawnsley_, 1851-1920

A prayer for the sick, and for physicians engaged in medical missionary
work.

The hymn first appeared in _A Missionary Hymn Book_, 1922, published by
the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, in London. The
author, Rev. Hardwicke Drummond Rawnsley, was an influential minister
and educator in the Church of England. He spent much of his life in the
Lake District in northern England, and, being a man of public spirit and
a lover of nature, he championed the rights of the people in securing
for public use in perpetuity many beautiful tracts of the Lake District
and other parts of the country. His friends remembered him as one “who,
greatly loving the fair things of nature and of art, set all his love to
the service of God and man.”

_MUSIC._ “TALLIS,” says William H. Havergal in _Notes on Certain Tunes_,
is “simplicity itself. A child may sing the tune, while manly genius
will admire it.”

For comments on the composer, Thomas Tallis, see Hymn 33.


327. Christ for the world we sing              _Samuel Wolcott_, 1813-86

The author of this hymn, Samuel Wolcott, born at South Windsor, Conn.,
graduated from Yale at 20, spent two years in Syria as a missionary, and
then, on account of failing health, returned to the United States where
he served as pastor in various Congregational churches. The hymn was
suggested to him by a motto, “Christ for the World and the World for
Christ,” made from branches of evergreen, in a Cleveland church where a
Y.M.C.A. convention was held. One night, walking home from the
convention to which he was a delegate, the words of the hymn took form.
Yankton College, South Dakota, has adopted it as the opening hymn for
each term of school.

_MUSIC._ MALVERN. For comments on this tune and its composer, John
Roberts, see Hymn 131.


328. O Zion, haste, thy mission high fulfilling       _Mary A. Thomson_,
                                                               1834-1923

One of the strongest and most useful missionary hymns in the English
language.

Mary Ann Faulkner was born in London but came to this country as a girl
and became the wife of John Thomson, Librarian of the Free Library, in
Philadelphia. A member of the Protestant Episcopal Church, her hymns,
about forty in all, were published in _The Churchman_, New York, and in
_The Living Age_, Chicago.

Of the origin of this missionary hymn, Mrs. Thomson has written:

  I wrote the greater part of the hymn, “O Zion, haste,” in the year
  1868. I had written many hymns before, and one night, while I was
  sitting up with one of my children who was ill of typhoid fever, I
  thought I should like to write a missionary hymn to the tune of the
  hymn beginning, “Hark, hark, my soul, angelic songs are swelling,” as
  I was fond of that tune; but as I could not then get a refrain I
  liked, I left the hymn unfinished, and about three years later I
  finished it by writing the refrain which now forms part of it. By some
  mistake 1891 is given instead of 1871 as the date of the hymn in the
  (Episcopal) _Hymnal_. I do not think it is ever sung to the tune for
  which I wrote it. Rev. John Anketell told me, and I am sure he is
  right, that it is better for a hymn to have a tune of its own, and I
  feel much indebted to the composer of the tune TIDINGS for writing so
  inspiring a tune to my words.

She was mistaken in the last sentence, for Walch’s tune, strangely
enough, was composed for the words “Hark, hark my soul” (260).

_MUSIC._ TIDINGS was written, as stated above, for the hymn, “Hark, hark
my soul! Angelic songs are swelling” (260), by James Walch, 1837-1901,
an English composer and organist. The tune was never accepted for that
hymn, because there already were several good tunes for it in use. In
the providence of God, it found this hymn. The union was favored from
the beginning and continues so today.


329. Word of Life, most pure, most strong       _Jonathan F. Bahnmaier_,
                                                               1774-1841
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

One of the best and most useful hymns for foreign missions.

The original poem has six stanzas, our hymn comprising the last three,
translated by Catherine Winkworth. The German text is found at No. 551,
the hymn there being a free translation by Percy Dearmer.

For comments on Catherine Winkworth see Hymn 236.

Jonathan F. Bahnmaier was born at Oberstenfeld where his father, J. C.
Bahnmaier, was town preacher. He received his education at Tübingen and
became assistant, in 1798, to his father. Later he had an appointment as
Professor of Education and Homiletics at Tübingen but resigned in 1819
to become dean and town preacher at Kirchheim-unter-Teck, a post he held
until his death. Bahnmaier was greatly interested in education,
missions, and Bible societies and was on the committee which compiled
the _Württemberg Gesangbuch_, published after his death in 1842. One
other of his hymns, “_Jesu als du wiederkehrtest_,” entitled, “Prayer
after School,” has been translated into English.

_MUSIC._ MOZART is adapted from the “Kyrie” of the _Twelfth Mass_ by the
famous composer, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, 1756-91.

For comments on Mozart see Hymn 179.


330. O Spirit of the living God            _James Montgomery_, 1771-1854

One of the greatest missionary hymns in the English language. It was
composed for a missionary service held in Leeds, England, June 4, 1823,
and was entitled, “The Spirit Accompanying the Word of God.” Its lyric
beauty, its burning passion for the spread of the gospel, combined with
its dignity and healthy-mindedness make it an extraordinarily useful
hymn. Setting forth and emphasizing the relation of the Holy Spirit to
the work of missions, it fills an important place in the _Hymnary_.

For comments on James Montgomery see Hymn 62.

_MUSIC._ ALSTONE. For comments on this tune see Hymn 300.


331. Fling out the banner! let it float     _George W. Doane_, 1799-1859

A stirring missionary hymn entitled, “Missions, Home and Foreign.”

It is based on Psalm 60:4: “Thou hast given a banner to them that fear
thee, that it may be displayed because of the truth.”

The hymn was written in response to a request from the young women at
St. Mary’s Hall, Burlington, N. J., a girls’ college founded by Bishop
Doane, to be sung at a flag raising. The author, writing what has become
a widely known hymn, gave the occasion a far wider significance than the
girls had foreseen.

Bishop George Doane, a zealous advocate of missions, was known in his
own church as “the missionary bishop of America.” The modern missionary
movement arose and spread in his lifetime. The hymn reflects Doane’s
enthusiasm and aggressive missionary leadership.

For further comments on the author see Hymn 36.

_MUSIC._ WALTHAM—also known as “Doane” and “Camden”—was written by John
Baptiste Calkin, 1827-1905, English pianist and organist, professor of
music, and composer of church music, both instrumental and vocal. The
tune with its martial swing lends itself well for use as a processional.


332. Hail to the brightness of Zion’s glad morning    _Thomas Hastings_,
                                                               1784-1872

A missionary hymn written in 1832, at the beginning of the modern
missionary movement. It was first published in _Spiritual Songs for
Social Worship_, 1833, a volume compiled jointly by Hastings and Mason,
set to the present tune by Lowell Mason. _Spiritual Songs_ was a notable
volume, publishing for the first time such well-known hymns as “The
morning light is breaking,” “My faith looks up to Thee,” and introducing
in America, Toplady’s famous “Rock of Ages.”

For comments on Thomas Hastings see Hymn 120.

_MUSIC._ WESLEY, also called “Hail to the Brightness,” was written by
Lowell Mason for this hymn. It is a simple, straightforward melody,
whose merit as a hymn tune is unquestionable.

For comments on Lowell Mason see Hymn 12.


333. From Greenland’s icy mountains          _Reginald Heber_, 1783-1826

One of the most famous missionary hymns ever written. An interesting
story is attached to its origin, a detailed account of which was written
by Thomas Edgeworth on the fly-leaf of a facsimile of the original
manuscript as follows:

  On Whitsunday, 1819, the late Dr. Shipley, Dean of St. Asaph, and
  Vicar of Wrexham, preached a sermon in Wrexham Church in aid of the
  Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. That day
  was also fixed upon for the commencement of the Sunday evening
  lectures intended to be established in the church, and the late Bishop
  of Calcutta (Heber), then rector of Hodnet, the Dean’s son-in-law
  being together in the vicarage, the former requested Heber to write
  “something for them to sing in the morning”; and he retired for that
  purpose from the table where the Dean and a few friends were sitting
  to a distant part of the room. In a short time the Dean enquired,
  “What have you written?” Heber having then composed the three first
  verses, read them over. “There, there, that will do very well,” said
  the Dean. “No, no, the sense is not complete,” replied Heber.
  Accordingly he added the fourth verse, and the Dean being inexorable
  to his repeated request of “Let me add another; oh, let me add
  another!” thus completed the hymn of which the annexed is a facsimile
  and which has since become so celebrated. It was sung the next morning
  in Wrexham Church the first time.

The tune to which it was sung was “’Twas when the seas were roaring,”
from _The Beggar’s Opera_—a fine but somewhat incongruous selection.

The words of the hymn reflect the enthusiasm and zeal of consecrated
youth, eager, like Livingstone, to go out to a distant people needing
help and to sacrifice life for the cause. Greatly interested in
missions, Heber was offered the Bishopric of Calcutta and accepted it
against the advice of his friends. After three years of strenuous,
devoted labor, he was stricken with apoplexy and found dead in his bath
on the evening of a busy day in which he had baptized forty-two native
converts.

The much-discussed second stanza, omitted in the _Hymnary_ because of
its seeming low estimate of man, is as follows:

  What though the spicy breezes
    Blow soft o’er Ceylon’s isle;
  Though every prospect pleases
    And only man is vile;
  In vain with lavish kindness
    The gifts of God are strown;
  The heathen in his blindness
    Bows down to wood and stone.

The hymn is widely used among German speaking people in the following
translation made by Dr. Ch. G. Barth, 1799-1862:

  Von Grönlands eis’gen Zinken,
    China’s Korallenstrand,—
  Wo Ophirs Quellen blinken,
    Fortströmend goldnen Sand,—
  Von manchem alten Ufer,
    Von manchem Palmenland
  Erschallt das Fleh’n der Rufer:
    “Löst unsrer Blindheit Band!”

  Gewürzte Düfte weben
    Sanft über Ceylons Flur;
  Es glänzt Natur und Leben
    Schlecht sind die Menschen nur.
  Umsonst sind Gottes Gaben
    So reichlich ausgestreut;
  Die blinden Heiden haben
    Sich Holz und Stein geweiht.

  Und wir, mit Licht im Herzen,
    Mit Weisheit aus den Höh’n,
  Wir könnten es verschmerzen,
    Dass sie im Finstern geh’n?
  Nein, nein! das Heil im Sohne
    Sei laut und froh bezeugt,
  Bis sich vor Christi Throne
    Der fernste Volkstamm beugt!

  Ihr Wasser sollt es tragen,
    Ihr Winde, führt es hin,
  Bis seine Strahlenwagen
    Von Pol, zu Pole ziehn;
  Bis der versöhnten Erde,
    Das Lamm, der Sünderfreund,
  Der Herr und Hirt’ der Heerde
    In Herrlichkeit erscheint!

_MUSIC._ MISSIONARY HYMN, like the hymn to which it is sung, was written
in a few minutes time. Miss Mary W. Howard of Savannah, Ga., read the
words in the American edition of _The Christian Observer_, of February,
1823, and was so impressed with them that she requested a young bank
clerk who had gone to Georgia from New England, to write a tune for
them. He complied, and in a half hour handed her the tune which is now
sung all over the world. The clerk was Lowell Mason. For further
comments on Mason see Hymn 12.


334. We have heard the joyful sound   _Priscilla Jane Owens_, 1829—c. 99

A missionary hymn written for the anniversary of a Sunday school in
Baltimore in which the author had been a worker for many years.

Priscilla Jane Owens, of Scottish and Welsh descent, was born and died
in Baltimore where she was a public school teacher and an untiring
worker in the Sunday school. Most of her hymns were written for
children’s services.

_MUSIC._ JESUS SAVES was composed by William J. Kirkpatrick, 1838-1921,
a native of Duncannon, Pa. He was a regimental musician during the Civil
War and was skilled as an organist, gospel singer, and composer, and was
editor and publisher of gospel songs.


335. We’ve a story to tell to the nations      _Colin Sterne_, 1862-1928

A popular missionary hymn, breathing the spirit of Christ’s great
commission: “Go ye therefore, and make disciples of all nations,
baptizing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the
Holy Spirit: teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I commanded
you: and lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world.”

The message of the hymn, in which lies the hope of the nations, is
summarized in the chorus.

The words and music are by the same person, Henry Ernest Nichol, who was
born at Hull, England, December 10, 1862. He always signed his correct
name to a tune, and the anagram “Colin Sterne,” to a hymn. Oxford
University gave him his degree in music. His compositions, many of them
for the church, have the simplicity and directness of the folk song. The
tune here forms a splendid musical setting for the words and may be sung
variously, as a solo, duet, all the voices in unison, or in four parts.


336. On the mountain top appearing             _Thomas Kelly_, 1769-1854

Based on Isa. 52:7: “How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of
him that bringeth good tidings.” The hymn was written after the good
news came from the island of Tahiti that the first little band of
mission workers sent there by the London Missionary Society, was kindly
received by the natives, their message heard and welcomed, and that
there was every prospect for the success of the mission. Hearing the
news, Rev. Thomas Kelly wrote this hymn, entitling it, “On the Good News
from Tahiti.” The London Missionary Society met soon afterward for an
enthusiastic gathering where this hymn was first sung.

For comments on Thomas Kelly see Hymn 119.

_MUSIC._ ZION. This tune is also used with the hymn, “Guide me, O Thou
great Jehovah,” but it is better suited to the present hymn.

For comments on the composer, Thomas Hastings, see Hymn 120.


337. Ye Christian heralds, go proclaim     _Bourne H. Draper_, 1775-1843

A hymn, originally of four stanzas, written as a farewell to
missionaries.

The author, Rev. Bourne H. Draper, was born of a Church of England
family, near Oxford, England. He joined the Baptist Church while
employed as a printer’s apprentice at the Clarendon Press, Oxford. He
trained himself for the Baptist ministry and became pastor of the
Baptist Church at Chipping-Norton. A man of great piety and poetic gift,
he wrote numerous books for children as well as devotional works and
volumes of sermons.

_MUSIC._ MISSIONARY CHANT appeared in the composer’s _American Harp_,
1835, where it was identified with this hymn. Concerning the composition
of the tune, Zeuner said: “I was sitting on one of those seats on Boston
Commons on a most beautiful moonlight evening, all alone, with all the
world moving about me, and suddenly ‘Missionary Chant’ was given me. I
ran home as fast as ever I could and put it on paper before I should
forget.”

Charles Heinrich Christopher Zeuner, 1795-1857, a native of Germany,
came to America at the age of 29 and settled in Boston. His musical
ability was soon recognized, and he was made president of the Handel and
Haydn Society, and later its conductor. He published a book, _American
Harp_, of nearly 400 pages of tunes, in 1832, mostly his own
compositions. He moved to Philadelphia where he served as organist of
St. Anne’s Episcopal Church and later of the Arch Street Presbyterian
Church. Due to harsh criticism of his playing, he became despondent and
took his own life one November day at a lonely spot in the woods. Zeuner
was never married and had no relatives in this country.


338. How are Thy servants blest              _Joseph Addison_, 1672-1719

A hymn of the Christian traveller, particularly descriptive of the
experience of many Christian missionaries. It is known as the
“Traveller’s Hymn” and has been found useful as a part of the daily
devotions by Christians journeying in foreign lands.

It appeared in ten stanzas in the _Spectator_ for September 20, 1712, at
the end of an article on “Greatness,” with special reference to the
greatness and awesomeness of the sea. The hymn was “made by a gentleman
upon the conclusion of his travels.” Returning in 1700 from the terrors
of a voyage on the Mediterranean Sea, Addison gives here, years
afterwards, a picture of his own trying experiences. The second stanza
describes some of the hardships through which he passed. The omitted
stanzas (3, 4, 5, 7, 8) of the hymn picture the storm at sea, its
subsidence, and the traveller’s trust in God. They are as follows:

                                   3.
  Thy mercy sweetened every soil,
    Made every region please:
  The hoary Alpine hills it warmed,
    And smoothed the Tyrrhene seas.

                                   4.
  Think, O my soul, devoutly think
    How with affrighted eyes
  Thou sawest the wide-extended deep
    In all its horrors rise!

                                   5.
  Confusion dwelt in every face,
    And fear in every heart;
  When waves on waves, and gulfs on gulfs,
    O’ercame the pilot’s art.

                                   7.
  When by the dreadful tempest borne
    High on the broken wave,
  They know Thou art not slow to hear,
    Nor impotent to save.

                                   8.
  The storm is laid, the winds retire,
    Obedient to thy will;
  The sea, that roars at thy command,
    At thy command is still.

For comments on Joseph Addison see Hymn 50.

_MUSIC._ KILMARNOCK appeared in England as a Psalm tune in _Parochial
Psalmody: a New Collection of the Most Approved Psalm Tunes.... By J. P.
Clark, Second Edition_, 1831.

The composer, Neil Dougall, 1776-1862, son of a shipwright, went to
school until he was 15, then took to the sea. Three years later he met
with an accident which resulted in the loss of his eyesight and his
right arm. He then took up the study of music and for 45 years was a
successful teacher of singing classes. He wrote about 100 psalm and hymn
tunes.


339. See how great a flame aspires             _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88

A rousing missionary hymn which Wesley wrote after preaching to the coal
miners at Newcastle. The imagery of the great flame was suggested by the
night scene—the glow in the sky from the blazing fires connected with
the mines. The climax of the hymn, stanza 4, was inspired by an incident
in the life of Elijah. When his servant returned the seventh time from
looking toward the sea from the housetop, he reported: “Behold there
ariseth a little cloud out of the sea like a man’s hand!... And it came
to pass in the meantime that the heaven was black with clouds and wind,
and there was a great rain” (I Kings 18:41-45).

For comments on Charles Wesley see Hymn 6.

_MUSIC._ BENEVENTO is an adaptation from a motet on the words, “_Tibi
omnes angeli_” by Samuel Webbe, 1740-1816, a London organist and
composer.


340. The whole wide world for Jesus       _J. Dempster Hammond_, 1719-83

The watchword, “the whole wide world for Jesus,” brings to mind the
motto, “The evangelization of the world in this generation,” which
served to inspire the Student Volunteer Movement in the days of John R.
Mott, Robert E. Speer, and Sherwood Eddy. Two world wars have shaken the
foundations of the missionary enterprise, but those closest to the
movement still declare the motto to be both a possibility and an
obligation. The missionary forces are making resolute plans for giving
the Gospel to the entire world.

No information is at hand concerning the author, J. Dempster Hammond.

_MUSIC._ THE WHOLE WIDE WORLD. The composer, John H. Maunder, was born
in Chelsea, England, in 1858, and died in 1920. He received his musical
education at the Royal Academy of Music in London; held various musical
appointments and became a well-known and popular accompanist for
vocalists. As a composer, he was widely known for his anthems, cantatas,
and services which have met with wide approval. His _A Song of
Thanksgiving_, a cantata, has been quite popular in this country, as
have several of his anthems. In the secular field he has written much
excellent choral music, one of the best being his “The Song of Thor.”


341. Jesus shall reign where’er the sun         _Isaac Watts_, 1674-1748

Founded on the last part of Psalm 72, this is the earliest of the great
English hymns on missions. It is sung by all Christian congregations in
the homelands and has probably been translated into a greater number of
languages and dialects than any other English hymn.

Watts did not hesitate to use the name of Jesus in interpreting the
Psalm. On this point, he wrote in the preface to his Psalms:

  Where the original runs in the form of prophecy concerning Christ and
  his salvation, I have given an historical turn to the sense; there is
  no necessity that we should always sing in the obscure and doubtful
  style of prediction, when the things foretold are brought into the
  open light by a full accomplishment.

“Peculiar honors” in stanza 5 means honors appropriate to the various
peoples who bring them.

For comments on Isaac Watts see Hymn 11.

_MUSIC._ DUKE STREET. This is a psalm tune by John Hatton (d. 1793), a
native of Warrington, England, of whom little is known. The tune
appeared first in _A Select Collection of Psalm and Hymn Tunes_,
Glasgow, 1793. It has long been associated with this hymn, although
other tunes—“Old Hundredth,” “Warrington,” and “Truro”—have also been
used with it.


342. Lord of light, whose name outshineth    _Howell Elvet Lewis_, 1860—

Based on the petition, “Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven.”

The hymn was written for the _Congregational Hymnary_ (England), 1916. A
note by the author explains his purpose in the hymn:

  The hymn was written to declare that in doing God’s will, active
  co-operation is as much needed as humble resignation. Charlotte
  Elliott, in her hymn, “My God and Father, while I stray,” had
  expressed the latter thought beautifully. My hope was to supplement
  her hymn as best I could.

(Miss Elliott’s hymn is found at No. 245).

Howell Elvet Lewis, of Welsh birth, became an influential leader in
English Congregationalism. He served as minister of the Welsh
Tabernacle, King’s Cross, London, and was at one time chairman of the
Congregational Union of England and Wales. He is the author of a number
of volumes of poems and biography.

_MUSIC._ HAST DU JESU RUF VERNOMMEN appears anonymously in the
_Gesangbuch mit Noten_, set to a missionary hymn beginning with these
words. By repeating the first four lines of the first stanza of the
present hymn the refrain was made possible.

The tune was written by John R. Sweney, 1837-99, a native of West
Chester, Penna., who received his degrees of Mus. Bac. and Mus. Doc. at
the Pennsylvania Military Academy, Chester, Penna. Sweney was a skilled
choir leader, violinist, and pianist. He collaborated with Wm. J.
Kirkpatrick in the production and publishing of numerous gospel hymn
tunes and hymnals. After the Civil War, he taught music in the school
from which he received his degrees and became well known as a
song-leader at summer religious assemblies, especially at Ocean Grove,
N. J.


               NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LIFE—THE NATION


343. O beautiful for spacious skies     _Katharine Lee Bates_, 1859-1929

A beautiful poem expressing genuine love for America and faith in human
brotherhood. The historical accuracy of the second and third stanzas may
be questioned. To one familiar with New England theocracy, it is clear
that the Pilgrims were not, as the poet suggests, the champions of
freedom of thought and religion. On the contrary, they were intolerant
of any form of opposition, whether religious or political.

The hymn is less limited to the New England landscape than “My country,
’tis of thee,” and probably for that reason has overshadowed the latter
as a popular national hymn.

Katharine Lee Bates, born in Falmouth, Mass., was educated at Wellesley
College where she later became Professor of English. She is the author
of many books.

A folder published by the author, giving the exact title and words of
the hymn, also contains interesting data concerning its origin and
history:

  _America the Beautiful_ was written in its original form, more
  literary and ornate than the present version, in the summer of 1893. I
  was making my first trip west. After visiting at Chicago the World’s
  Fair, where I was naturally impressed by the symbolic beauty of the
  White City, I went on to Colorado Springs. Here I spent three weeks or
  so under the purple range of the Rockies, which looked down with
  surprise on a summer school. This had called to its faculty several
  instructors from the east, Dr. Rolfe coming from Cambridge to teach
  Shakespeare, Professor Todd from Amherst for lectures on Astronomy,
  Professor Katharine Coman from Wellesley for a course in Economics. My
  own subject, which seemed incongruous enough under that new and
  glowing sky, was English Religious Drama.

  We strangers celebrated the close of the session by a merry expedition
  to the top of Pike’s Peak, making the ascent by the only method then
  available for people not vigorous enough to achieve the climb on foot
  nor adventurous enough for burro-riding. Prairie wagons, their
  tail-boards emblazoned with the traditional slogan, “Pike’s Peak or
  Bust,” were pulled by horses up to the half-way house, where the
  horses were relieved by mules. We were hoping for half an hour on the
  summit, but two of our party became so faint in the rarified air that
  we were bundled into the wagons again and started on our downward
  plunge so speedily that our sojourn on the peak remains in memory
  hardly more than one ecstatic gaze. It was then and there, as I was
  looking out over the sea-like expanse of fertile country spreading
  away so far under those ample skies, that the opening lines of the
  hymn floated into my mind. When we left Colorado Springs the four
  stanzas were pencilled in my note-book, together with other memoranda,
  in verse and prose, of the trip. The Wellesley work soon absorbed time
  and attention again, the note-book was laid aside, and I do not
  remember paying heed to these verses until the second summer
  following, when I copied them out and sent them to _The
  Congregationalist_, where they first appeared in print July 4, 1895.
  The hymn attracted an unexpected amount of attention. It was almost at
  once set to music by that eminent composer, Silas G. Pratt, and
  re-published with his setting, in _Famous Songs_, issued in 1895 by
  the Baker and Taylor Company. Other tunes were written for the words
  and so many requests came to me, with still increasing frequency, to
  permit its use in various publications and for special services that,
  in 1904, I re-wrote it, trying to make the phraseology more simple and
  direct.

  The new form first appeared in the _Evening Transcript_ of Boston,
  November 19, 1904. After the lapse of a few years, during which the
  hymn had run the gauntlet of criticism, I changed the wording of the
  opening quatrain of the third stanza. The hymn as printed above is the
  final version, of which I retain the copyright, not as a matter of
  money-making, for I have given hundreds, perhaps thousands, of free
  permissions for its use, but in order to protect it from misprints and
  conscious alterations.

  But here comes a difficulty. Over sixty original settings, some of
  them by distinguished musicians, have been written for the hymn, which
  thus suffers from an embarrassment of riches. It is associated with no
  one tune. The original setting which has, thus far, won widest
  acceptance is that of the former Municipal Organist of Portland, Will
  C. MacFarlane (sold by Cressey and Allen, 534 Congress Street,
  Portland, Maine). His tune, which is played on the city chimes of
  Springfield, Mass., he has made the theme of a spirited march,
  _America the Beautiful_, arranged for band music. In an octavo
  published by Oliver Ditson Company are included four settings, one by
  Clarence G. Hamilton, professor of music at Wellesley College, and
  another by W. W. Sleeper, formerly pastor of the Wellesley
  Congregational Church. Both these settings have found favor with
  choruses and made their way into various hymnals. This octavo carries,
  also, settings by William Arms Fisher, musical editor of the Boston
  house of Ditson. Other tunes that have a strong following are those of
  the celebrated composer, Horatio W. Parker (in the _Methodist Sunday
  School Hymnal_), Charles S. Brown (in _Junior Carols_, Society of
  Christian Endeavor), John Stainer (in the _Pilgrim Hymnal_), J. A.
  Demuth, professor of music at Oberlin (in _Oberlin’s Favorite Hymns_,
  published by Arthur P. Schmidt), and Herbert G. Peabody of Fitchburg,
  Mass., (published by H. W. Gray Company of New York). Other attractive
  settings, published, privately printed or yet in manuscript, have
  their special circles, and the words have been fitted to various old
  tunes, as those of _Auld Lang Syne_, _The Harp that Once through
  Tara’s Halls_, _The Son of God goes forth to War_ and _O Mother Dear
  Jerusalem_. To this last, Materna, by S. A. Ward, in many hymnals and
  well known throughout the country, _America the Beautiful_ is at
  present most often sung.

  That the hymn has gained, in these twenty odd years, such a hold as it
  has upon our people, is clearly due to the fact that Americans are at
  heart idealists, with a fundamental faith in human brotherhood.

                                                     Katharine Lee Bates

  (Quoted by permission.)

_MUSIC._ MATERNA (Mother) was composed for “O mother dear, Jerusalem.”
The composer, Samuel Ward, 1847-1903, resided at Newark, N. J., where he
operated a successful music business and was for 14 years the director
of the Orpheus Club. The tune has by popular preference become
inseparably associated with the words.


344. My country, ’tis of thee                 _Samuel F. Smith_, 1808-95

The best loved of our patriotic hymns, widely used, and deeply imbedded
in the American soul.

His Harvard classmate, Oliver Wendell Holmes, saluted Smith in a poem
written for their class reunion on the 30th anniversary of their
graduation as follows:

  And there’s a nice youngster of excellent pith—
  Fate tried to conceal him by naming him Smith:
  But he shouted a song for the brave and the free—
  Just read on his medal, “My country,” “of thee.”

The inspiration for this hymn came from the reading of a German
patriotic poem sent him by Lowell Mason (See 348). The author, then a
young student at Andover Theological Seminary, says:

  I instantly felt the impulse to write a patriotic hymn of my own,
  adapted to the tune. Picking up a scrap of waste paper which lay near
  me, I wrote at once, probably within half an hour, the hymn,
  “America,” as it is now known everywhere. The whole hymn stands today
  as it stood on the bit of waste paper.

The hymn was first sung at a children’s festival in Park Street Church,
Boston, July 4, 1832.

For comments on the author, Samuel F. Smith, see Hymn 324.

_MUSIC._ AMERICA is also the tune used with the national anthem of
Britain, “God save the king.” The melody is of obscure origin. It has
been known in England for several centuries. In Denmark it was used
toward the end of the 18th century for a national hymn, “_Heil dir dem
liebenden_,” and in Germany it was widely used in Prussian and other
northern states to patriotic words. In earlier days in the United
States, the words, “Come Thou Almighty King,” were sung to this tune.
The tune has thus nearly come to be an International Anthem.

Henry Carey, 1692-1743, an English musician of considerable ability,
known as the composer of the song, “Sally in Our Alley,” is sometimes
credited with this tune but the evidence is disputed. He wrote songs and
poems for light and burlesque operas but always with regard for decency
and good manners. His life was ended by suicide.


345. Judge Eternal, throned in splendor           _Henry Scott Holland_,
                                                               1874-1918

A prayer for the nation.

The hymn was written with the English Empire in mind, but its message
and concern for the removal of national evils are such as to make it
appropriate for use nearly everywhere.

Henry Scott Holland had a distinguished career at Oxford and attained to
numerous positions of responsibility in the Church of England. He was
Professor of Divinity at Oxford and later Canon of St. Paul’s Cathedral.
The two chief interests of his fruitful life were social reform and
missionary work, both of which are embodied in this, his only hymn. The
poem was published in July, 1902, in _The Commonwealth_, a Christian
social magazine which Dr. Holland edited, and was included in the
_English Hymnal_ in 1906.

_MUSIC._ SICILIAN MARINERS. For comments on this tune see Hymn 45.


346. Once to every man and nation        _James Russell Lowell_, 1819-91

A powerful hymn of national righteousness, taken from Lowell’s poem
called “The Present Crisis,” 1845, the crisis being the war with Mexico
which the author held to be unjust and would only result in enlarging
the area of slavery. To make the meter of the poem regular enough to be
sung, some alteration was inevitable.

James Russell Lowell graduated from Harvard in 1838 and was admitted to
the bar two years later. He succeeded Longfellow as Professor of Modern
Languages and Literature in Harvard, in 1855. From 1857 to 1862 he
edited the _Atlantic Monthly_ and the nine years following that he was
editor of the _North American Review_. In 1877 he was appointed minister
to Spain, and in 1881, to England, remaining at the latter post four
years. He wrote various volumes of poetry and was a prominent
anti-slavery writer both in verse and prose.

_MUSIC._ TON-Y-BOTEL, also known as “Ebenezer,” is a “solemn tune, of
very simple structure, being formed, throughout, of imitations of the
first bar.” A letter from the copyright owners, W. Gwenlyn Evans and
Son, Caernarvon, Wales, written by A. Vaughan Evans, throws interesting
light on this tune and the origin of the fictitious story which gave
rise to the name TON-Y-BOTEL. It reads, in part:

  ... We have pleasure in granting permission to use the tune Ebenezer
  (Ton-Y-Botel) free of charge in the Mennonite Hymn Book.... It is an
  original Welsh composition by T. J. Williams ... and was part of a
  Memorial Anthem ‘_Goleu yn y Glyn_’ (Light in the Vale) in memory of a
  friend of the composer....

  You will have noticed above that the correct name of the tune is
  Ebenezer and it may be of interest to learn how it acquired the
  ‘nickname’ Ton-Y-Botel (the bottle tune). Not long after the Welsh
  Revival of 1904 the tune spread all over Wales and then England and
  Scotland ‘by ear.’ There were no written or printed copies of it. A
  crowd of young men were singing it on a hilltop just outside this town
  of Caernarvon and the usual questions were asked: Who was the
  composer, etc., when a lad for a joke said the tune had been found in
  a bottle washed up by the tide on the beach at Dinas Dinlle (a small
  bathing place in the Irish Sea near here). Ever since the tune has
  been called by the Welsh equivalent of “Bottle Tune.” One of the young
  men made a written copy of the music as it was sung all over the
  country, and brought it to us to print. The demand was enormous and we
  published hundred of thousands of copies.... We purchased the
  copyright and now the tune appears in hymnals all over the
  world—except in Wales, the country of its origin. I do not think it is
  a case of the prophet being without honour in his own country, but
  rather that the popularity was so great that it was sung everywhere—in
  taverns and public houses, non-religious words were sung to it,
  etc.—with the result that the tune was regarded as not quite
  ‘respectable’ by the generation which produced it. No doubt it will be
  valued by later generations of Welsh people. This has happened with
  several of the best-known Welsh hymns as many of them 200 years ago
  were of secular origin.

  I am giving the above details so that something of its history may be
  on record in the United States, and hope they may be of interest.


347. God of our fathers, whose Almighty hand        _Daniel C. Roberts_,
                                                               1841-1907

A hymn of broadminded patriotism, called forth by the “Centennial”
Fourth of July celebration in 1876, held at Brandon, Vt. It was
published in various papers at the time and included in the _Hymnal_ of
the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1894. Since then it has appeared in a
number of other church hymnals.

The hymn was written by Daniel C. Roberts, a graduate of Kenyon College,
and a clergyman in the Episcopal Church.

_MUSIC._ NATIONAL HYMN was used at the Columbian celebration service at
St. Thomas’ Church, New York City, Sunday morning, October 9, 1892. It
is one of the finest processional tunes in the hymn book. The trumpet
introduction and the interludes, making it unique among hymn tunes,
gives it a quickening martial rhythm yet without losing its spirit of
sanctity and reverence.

The composer, George William Warren, 1828-1902, was an American
organist, born at Albany, N. Y. Though self-taught, he held responsible
positions as organist in Albany and then at Holy Trinity and St. Thomas’
churches in New York.


348. God bless our native land        _Siegfried A. Mahlmann_, 1771-1826
                                 _Stanza 3, William E. Hickson_, 1803-70

The first two stanzas are a free translation of Stanzas 1 and 3 of the
following patriotic song for Saxony:

                                   1.
  Gott segne Sachsenland,
  Wo fest die Treue stand
    In Sturm und Nacht!
  Ew’ge Gerechtigkeit,
  Hoch überm Meer der Zeit,
  Die jedem Sturm gebeut,
    Schütz uns mit Macht!

                                   2.
  Blühe, du Rautenkranz
  In schöner Tage Glanz
    Freudig empor!
  Heil, Friedrich August, dir!
  Heil, guter König, dir!
  Dich, Vater, preisen wir
    Liebend im Chor!

                                   3.
  Was treue Herzen flehn
  Steigt zu des Himmels Höh’n
    Aus Nacht zum Licht.
  Der unsre Liebe sah,
  Der unsre Tränen sah,
  Er ist uns huldreich nah,
    Verlässt uns nicht.

A fourth stanza, identical with the first, follows.

It was written by the German song writer, Siegfried Augustus Mahlmann,
and published in G. W. Fink’s _Musikalischer Hausschatz_, 1842. The hymn
was first sung Nov. 13, 1815, in the presence of the King of Saxony. The
hymn was also the inspiration for Samuel F. Smith’s, “My country ’tis of
thee.”

The translation was made in 1834 by Charles T. Brooks, while a student
at the Divinity School at Cambridge, Mass. It was revised by John
Sullivan Dwight, 1813-93, to form our version. Dwight was a graduate of
Harvard Divinity School and became a Unitarian minister in Northampton,
Mass., but gave up the ministry to devote himself to literature and
music. For thirty years he owned and edited Dwight’s _Journal of Music_.

The third stanza, raising the hymn above any narrow patriotism, was
added by William E. Hickson, an English shoe manufacturer who retired
from that business to pursue literary and philanthropic interests. Much
interested in the musical culture of his people, he published various
books on music and composed numerous musical works of merit. For a time
he was editor of the _Westminster Review_.

_MUSIC._ DORT. For comments on the composer of this tune, Lowell Mason,
see Hymn 12.


349. Great God of nations, now to Thee     _Alfred A. Woodhull_, 1810-36

Entitled “Thanksgiving Hymn,” this poem was written in 1828 when the
author was only eighteen years old. It was published in the Presbyterian
_Psalms and Hymns_, 1829, Princeton, N. J. There have been many
alterations of the lines.

Alfred Alexander Woodhull, son of a Presbyterian minister, graduated
from Princeton at 18 years of age, and then took a medical course at the
University of Pennsylvania. He began the practice of medicine at
Marietta, Pennsylvania, then moved to Princeton where within a year he
contracted a fever which occasioned his death. Known as a fine Christian
man as well as a skilled physician, his early death was greatly
lamented. He was a member of the Presbyterian Church.

_MUSIC._ MENDON. For comments on this tune see Hymn 211.


                       WORLD FRIENDSHIP AND PEACE


350. O God, we pray for all mankind       _Howard J. Conover_, 1850-1925

A prayer for all the nations.

The author, Howard J. Conover, was born in New Jersey, the son of devout
Christian parents. He was educated at Pennington Seminary, Pennington,
N. J., and Dickinson College. He took up the ministry and was known to
be a studious, devout, and thoroughly faithful pastor, serving a number
of churches in his native state. A nephew, Elbert M. Conover, is the
director of The Interdenominational Bureau of Architecture, with offices
in New York City, serving twenty-five denominations.

_MUSIC._ ORTONVILLE. For comments on this tune see Hymn 120.


351. God the All-Merciful                    _Henry F. Chorley_, 1808-72

A touching cry for peace, based on the Russian national hymn by Chorley.
This paraphrase was written by John Ellerton, in 1870, during the
Franco-Prussian War. It was published in _Church Hymns_ in 1871.

Henry F. Chorley, an English man of letters, received his education at
the Royal Institution, Liverpool. He was a literary and music critic and
a friend and great admirer of Charles Dickens. For 34 years he was on
the editorial staff of the _Athenaeum_, published in London.

_MUSIC._ RUSSIAN HYMN was composed for the words, “God save the Czar,”
the national Russian anthem written in 1833. It is a stately, powerful
tune which most congregations love to sing, especially after it has been
used often enough to overcome certain of its difficulties. It was
written at the command of the Czar who ordered it adopted for the army.
But there is nothing about the tune itself to render it inappropriate
for the churches. In his _Memoirs_, Lwoff says that in composing this
tune he “felt and fully appreciated the necessity of accomplishing
something which would be robust, stately, stirring, national in
character, something worthy to reverberate either in a church, through
the soldiers’ ranks, or amongst a crowd of people, something which would
appeal alike to the lettered and the ignorant.”

The composer, Alexis T. Lwoff, 1799-1871, was an eminent Russian
musician, succeeding his father in St. Petersburg as head of the
imperial choir where he not only maintained the traditions of that great
organization, but raised it to still greater heights of eminence. He
composed violin concertos, operas, and church music. Lwoff had a
thorough understanding of the canonical services of the Russian Church,
and his collection of ritual chants is still considered authoritative.


352. O God of love, O King of peace            _Henry W. Baker_, 1821-77

An ardent prayer for universal peace. This noble hymn was contributed by
the author to _Hymns Ancient and Modern_, London, 1861, a notable book
of which Baker was chief editor.

For comments on the author, Henry W. Baker, see Hymn 143.

_MUSIC._ QUEBEC. For comments on this tune and its composer see Hymn
171.


353. Let there be light, Lord God of hosts     _William Merrill Vories_,
                                                                   1880—

A good peace hymn.

The author, William Merrill Vories, was born in Leavenworth, Kansas. He
is the founder of an independent mission in the province of Omi, Japan.
Vories published the present poem February, 1909, in the _Advocate of
Peace_. Since that time, it has found a place in a number of hymn books.
The copyright, appropriately enough, is held by the American Peace
Society.

_MUSIC._ PENTECOST, a dignified tune, simple in structure, was first
used with the hymn, “Veni Creator,” and appeared in _Thirty-two Hymn
Tunes, Composed by Members of the University of Oxford_, 1868. It was
revised by Arthur Sullivan who set it to Monsell’s hymn, “Fight the good
fight with all thy might,” for the tune lends itself to spirited
rendition as well as the more devotional and contemplative as required
by the present hymn.

The composer, Rev. William Boyd, 1847-1928, was born in Jamaica and
educated at Oxford where Baring-Gould was his tutor. The latter asked
him to compose a tune to “Come, Holy Ghost, our souls inspire,” for a
meeting of Yorkshire coal miners on the Day of Pentecost. The result was
this tune to which he gave the name PENTECOST. Boyd was ordained priest
in 1882 and from 1893 until his retirement in 1918, he was vicar of All
Saints, Norfolk Square, London.


354. Father eternal, Ruler of creation         _Laurence Housman_, 1865—

One of the hymns of our time in which, characteristically, the
international note is struck. It was written at the request of the Rev.
H. R. L. (Dick) Sheppard, minister of St. Martin’s-in-the-Fields,
London, for the Life and Liberty movement after World War I. The bitter
experiences of that war, with the subsequent fear and distrust among the
nations, had intensified the longing for the realization of the petition
in the Lord’s Prayer, “Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven.”
This hymn gives utterance to that longing.

Laurence Housman is an English artist known chiefly for his book
illustrations, but he is also known as a writer of poetry and prose of
merit. A contemporary wrote of him: “He has the heart of compassion for
the little ones of the earth, the dumb and the helpless, that ought to
be, but is not always, an essential part of poetry. His is the true
Franciscan spirit.”

_MUSIC._ OLD 124TH is from the _Genevan Psalter_, 1551, where it is set
to Psalm 124. It is commonly attributed to L. Bourgeois (See 34). The
tune has always been popular in England with the non-conformist churches
and is one of the few surviving tunes from the _Old Version Psalter._


355. Not alone for mighty empire        _William Pierson Merrill_, 1867—

A hymn of thanksgiving and of the higher patriotism, glorying not in
empire nor in battleship and fortress but in the things of the spirit
which have made America great. It was first printed in _The Continent_,
a Presbyterian paper, now defunct, published in Chicago.

Concerning the origin of the hymn, Dr. Merrill wrote in a letter dated
April 18, 1947:

  The occasion for the writing of this hymn was a Union Thanksgiving
  Service in Chicago, where Jenkin Lloyd Jones made a prayer, in which
  he thanked God more for spiritual values in our national life than for
  any temporal ones. That prayer inspired my hymn.

Howard Chandler Robbins, Professor of Pastoral Theology in the General
Theological Seminary, New York City, says: “On Thanksgiving Day we all
ought to be singing Dr. Merrill’s great Thanksgiving hymn, one of the
greatest national hymns in the English language.”

For comments on William Pierson Merrill see Hymn 183.

_MUSIC._ IN BABILONE. For comments on this tune see Hymn 122.


356. Thy Kingdom come! O Lord, we daily cry           _Henry W. Hawkes_,
                                                               1843-1917

One of our few hymns on the petition, “Thy Kingdom come.” It is an
earnest prayer for social righteousness and peace. The hymn was written
by Henry Warburton Hawkes, an English Unitarian.

No further information is at hand concerning the author.

_MUSIC._ FFIGYSBREN. For comments on this tune see Hymn 183.


357. Peace in our time, O Lord                 _John Oxenham_, 1852-1941

A beautiful prayer for the peace which is “based upon Thy will and built
in righteousness.” The author, having learned that a new hymnary was to
be published, and aware of the Mennonite position on war and peace, sent
this hymn from England for inclusion in this book with the request that
it be used with the tune “Diademata.”

For comments on the author, John Oxenham, see Hymn 320.

_MUSIC._ DIADEMATA. For comments on this tune and its composer, George
J. Elvey, see Hymn 118.


                     THE CHRISTIAN HOME AND FAMILY


358. O happy home, where Thou art loved the dearest          _Carl J. P.
                                                        Spitta_, 1801-59
                                     _Tr. Sarah L. Findlater_, 1823-1907

  O selig Haus, wo man dich aufgenommen,
    Du wahrer Seelenfreund, Herr Jesu Christ;
  Wo unter allen Gästen, die da kommen,
    Du der gefeiertste und liebste bist;
  Wo aller Herzen dir entgegenschlagen
    Und aller Augen freudig auf dich sehn;
  Wo aller Lippen dein Gebot erfragen
    Und alle deines Winks gewärtig stehn!

  O selig Haus, wo Mann und Weib in _einer_,
    In deiner Liebe _eines_ Geistes sind,
  Als beide _eines_ Heils gewürdigt, keiner
    Im Glaubensgrunde anders ist gesinnt;
  Wo beide unzertrennbar an dir hangen
    In Lieb’ und Leid, Gemach und Ungemach,
  Und nur bei dir zu bleiben stets verlangen
    An jedem guten wie am bösen Tag!

  O selig Haus, wo man die lieben Kleinen
    Mit Händen des Gebets ans Herz dir legt,
  Du Freund der Kinder, der sie als die Seinen
    Mit mehr als Mutterliebe hegt und pflegt;
  Wo sie zu deinen Füssen gern sich sammeln
    Und horchen deiner süssen Rede zu
  Und lernen früh dein Lob mit Freuden stammeln,
    Sich deiner freun du lieber Heiland, du!

  O selig Haus, wo du die Freude teilest,
    Wo man bei keiner Freude dein vergisst!
  O selig Haus, wo du die Wunden heilest
    Und aller Arzt und aller Tröster bist,
  Bis jeder einst sein Tagewerk vollendet,
    Und bis sie endlich alle ziehen aus
  Dahin, woher der Vater dich gesendet,
    Ins grosse, freie, schöne Vaterhaus!

Based on Luke 19:9: “This day is salvation come to this house,” the poem
originally bore the title, “Salvation is come to this house.” It is
probably the best hymn ever written on the Christian home.

The author of the hymn enjoyed a singularly happy and peaceful home
life, not only under the parental roof, but also after he was married
and had established his own home. Carl Spitta, Lutheran minister and
greatest German hymn writer of the nineteenth century, was born in
Hannover. His father came from a Huguenot family that fled France during
the Catholic persecutions and died when Carl was only four years old.
His mother was a Christian Jewess whose loving care no doubt inspired
the son to write this hymn on the home. After completing his theological
studies in 1824, Spitta taught school for four years and then was
ordained in 1828 to the Lutheran ministry. He passed through a deep
spiritual experience about this time which resulted in the composition
of his finest hymns. “In the manner in which I formerly sang,” he wrote
a friend in 1826, “I sing no more. To the Lord I dedicate my life, my
love, and likewise my song. He gave to me song and melody. I give it
back to Him.”

His hymns were received with enthusiasm and held in the same esteem in
Germany as Keble’s _Christian Year_ in England. His collection of hymns,
_Psalter und Harfe_, first published in 1833, passed through more than
50 editions and a second collection printed in 1843 had by 1887 passed
through 42 editions.

Spitta had a family of seven children, one of whom became Professor of
New Testament Exegesis and Practical Theology in the University of
Strassburg, and another, John August Spitta, wrote the monumental
four-volume work on the life of J. S. Bach.

The translator of the hymn, Sarah Findlater, also knew the blessings of
a happy home. Her daughter wrote concerning her mother:

  Her home life with my father was almost idyllically happy, in the
  small manse at Lochearnhead, where there never was enough of money,
  yet where my parents exercised unceasing hospitality—almost foolish
  hospitality. They were both great readers, and used to read aloud to
  each other for hours. My mother was an excellent linguist, and her
  German translations were a great pleasure to her. That simple little
  hymn of hers which begins “O happy home,” is really an epitome of her
  home life with my father—they were so single-eyed in their longing to
  serve God: it came first with them always.

For further comments on Sarah Findlater, see comments on her sister,
Jane Borthwick, Hymn 54.

_MUSIC._ O SELIG HAUS is a popular German melody written in 1854 by
Edward Niemeyer. Information concerning the composer has not been
traced.


359. Thou gracious God, whose mercy lends       _Oliver Wendell Holmes_,
                                                                 1809-94

Written by Oliver Wendell Holmes in 1869 to be read or sung at the
annual meeting of the 1829 college class of Harvard University, of which
he was a member. The famous class included in its membership J. Freeman
Clarke, founder of the Disciples, and Samuel F. Smith, author of
“America.” The forty years of retrospect, mingled with sunshine and
shadow, are touched here with tenderness and grace.

For comments on Oliver W. Holmes see Hymn 172.

_MUSIC._ ES KAM DIE GNADENVOLLE appears in the _Gesangbuch mit Noten_ to
the words, “Früh Morgens da die Sonn’ Aufgeht.”

The composer, Johann Heinrich Egli, 1741-1810, was born in Seegräben,
Switzerland. He was a pupil of Pastor Schmiedli at Wetzikon, and became
a music teacher in Zurich, where he died. His compositions for voice,
both sacred and secular, won great popularity in Switzerland.


360. There is beauty all around               _John H. McNaughton_, 1863

A tender lyric in praise of the home where love dwells. Especially fine
are the lines,

  All the earth is filled with love
  When there’s love at home,

for it recognizes the wide influence of the home, the primary social
institution where the first lessons of the Christian life are learned. A
nation’s peace and prosperity is rooted in the quality of life found in
its homes.

The words and music are by John Hugh McNaughton, who was born 1829, in
Caledonia, N. Y., of Scottish parentage. His lyrics have some literary
qualities and Henry W. Longfellow once wrote to McNaughton: “Your poems
have touched me very much.” He composed many popular songs, including
“The Blue and the Gray,” and “Faded Coat of Blue,” which sold by the
hundreds of thousands of copies. He is the author of a _Treatise on
Music and Onnalinda_, a metrical romance.


361. Happy the home when God is there       _Henry Ware_, Jr., 1794-1843

One of the strongest hymns on the Christian home. It first appeared in
_Selections of Hymns and Poetry_, Boston, 1846, compiled by Mrs. Herbert
Mayo, where it was entitled, “The Happy Home.”

For comments on the author, Henry Ware, Jr., see Hymn 13.

_MUSIC._ ST. AGNES. For comments on this tune see Hymn 155.


362. Bless the four corners of this house            _Arthur Guiterman_,
                                                               1871-1943

A poem for use in the dedication of a Christian home, first printed in
_House and Garden_ magazine about thirty years ago. Since then it has
become widely known both here and abroad. Its first use as a hymn was in
the _Methodist Hymnal_ of 1935, edited by Dr. Robert McCutchan.

The author, Arthur Guiterman, was a writer, poet, and speaker. He was
born in Vienna, Austria, November 20, 1871, of American parents, his
mother being a native of Ohio. Most of his education was received in New
York City, his college course having been completed in the City College.
Guiterman was a frequent contributor to _Harper’s Magazine_, _The
Saturday Evening Post_, _The Youth’s Companion_, _Ladies Home Journal_,
and other leading magazines. His poetry is written on a large variety of
subjects. Joyce Kilmer characterized him as “the most American of
poets.”

_MUSIC._ ICH SINGE DIR is a familiar melody in the _Gesangbuch mit
Noten_ where it appears anonymously, set to the words, “_Ich singe Dir
mit Herz und Mund_,” by Paul Gerhardt.


363. Lord of life and King of glory             _Christian Burke_, 1859—

A mother’s prayer, written by Miss Burke in December, 1903, and
published the following February in _The Treasury_, where it was headed,
“Prize Hymn for Mothers’ Union Service.” It was included in _The English
Hymnal_, 1906.

Miss Christian Burke was born in London. She contributed poems to
various periodicals and in 1896 published a collection of her poetic
writings, with the title, _The Flowering of the Almond Tree_.

_MUSIC._ The tune was found in _St. Basil’s Hymnal_, published by the
Basilian Fathers, Chicago, 1918. It bears no name and the composer is
not identified. The hymn is also sung to the tune “Silician Mariners”
(45).


                              MOTHER’S DAY


364. Motherhood, sublime, eternal              _J. S. Cutler_, 1856-1930

Suitable for Mother’s Day.

The hymn and tune are found in _Hymns of the Spirit_, published in
Boston, 1937.

Julian Stearns Cutler, born at Thomaston, Maine, graduated from Tufts
Theological School, Tufts College, Mass., in 1885, and served
Universalist churches in Marblehead, Melrose, and Orange, Mass.,
1896-1904; in Little Falls, N. Y., 1904-10; and in Pawtucket, R. I.,
1910-26. He wrote a good deal of occasional verse published in
newspapers, especially in the _Boston Transcript_, and his collected
poems were privately printed under the title, _Songs of Cheer_, about a
year after his death. His hymn, “Motherhood, sublime, eternal,” written
about 1910, was adapted for use in Universalist hymn books and in
slightly altered form in _Hymns of the Spirit_, 1937. It was taken from
the latter for use in the _Hymnary_.

_MUSIC._ MOTHERHOOD. No information has been traced concerning the
origin of this tune or its composer, Willis A. Moore, except that Moore
was a member of the Universalists but left their fellowship some years
ago. The Universalist Publishing House, Boston, from whom inquiry was
made, has no further information at hand.


                            FAREWELL SERVICE


365. God be with you till we meet again            _Jeremiah E. Rankin,_
                                                               1828-1904

Written for the purpose of a Christian good-by.

The author, Jeremiah E. Rankin, was pastor of the First Congregational
Church in Washington, D. C., when he wrote this hymn. Later, in 1889, he
became president of Howard University, a Negro institution in the same
city. He was always a friend of the colored people and did what he could
for their advancement.

He has given us the origin of the hymn as follows:

  Written in 1882 as a Christian good-by, it was called forth by no
  person or occasion, but was deliberately composed as a Christian hymn
  on the basis of the etymology of “good-by,” which is “God be with
  you.” The first stanza was written and sent to two composers—one of
  unusual note, the other wholly unknown and not thoroughly educated in
  music. I selected the composition of the latter, submitted it to J. W.
  Bishoff (the musical director of a little book we were preparing), who
  approved of it but made some criticisms which were adopted. It was
  sung for the first time one evening in the First Congregational Church
  in Washington, of which I was then the pastor and Mr. Bishoff the
  organist. I attributed its popularity in no little part to the music
  to which it was set. It was a wedding of words and music, at which it
  was my function to preside; but Mr. Tomer should have his full share
  of the family honor.

_MUSIC._ FAREWELL was composed by William G. Tomer, 1832-96, an American
journalist who made music his avocation. In early life he taught school,
later becoming the editor of the _Hunterdon Gazette_ at High Ridge, New
Jersey. The hymn he helped make famous was sung at his funeral by a
large assembly of friends and neighbors.


                            OUR FOREFATHERS


366. Uplift the song of praise          _Frederick L. Hosmer,_ 1840-1929

A hymn of praise for God’s leading of our forefathers. The author traced
his own descent from the Pilgrim Fathers, one of his ancestors, James
Hosmer, having come to Concord in 1635. In writing the hymn, he had the
Pilgrims in mind, but his words are fully as applicable to other
immigrant groups such as the Mennonites who came at different times from
Europe to settle here in “lands untrod.”

For comments on Frederick L. Hosmer see Hymn 72.

_MUSIC,_ LEONI (Yigdal). For comments on this tune see Hymn 14.


367. O God, beneath Thy guiding hand            _Leonard Bacon_, 1802-81

Written for the 200th anniversary of the founding of New Haven, Conn.,
celebrated April 25, 1833, in Center Church where the author was pastor.
Dr. Bacon delivered the main historical address on this occasion and
used the theme of the sermon for the basis of this hymn.

Leonard Bacon, son of missionaries to the Indians at the then frontier
trading post of Detroit, graduated from Yale and Andover Theological
Seminary. He was minister of the Center Congregational Church, New
Haven, for the forty-one years from 1825 to 1866 and professor and
lecturer at Yale Divinity School from 1866 till his death in 1881.
Always interested in sacred music, he rendered a great service to the
church by the hymns he wrote as well as his compilations of hymns.

_MUSIC._ DUKE STREET. For comments on this tune see Hymn 341.


368. In pleasant lands have fall’n the lines    _James Flint_, 1779-1855

A fine memorial hymn.

The author, James Flint, was born in Reading, Mass. After graduating
from Harvard, he served as pastor of the Unitarian Church at East
Bridgewater, Mass., 1806-1821, and at the East Church, Salem, Mass.,
from 1821 until his death in 1855. His hymns were published in his
_Collection of Hymns for the Christian Church and Home_, 1840, the
present being the single one which survives today.

_MUSIC._ WAREHAM. For comments on this tune see Hymn 208.


369. Eternal One, Thou living God           _Samuel Longfellow_, 1819-92

A hymn of the Church Universal, the great company of faithful souls of
every age and land. The God who led our fathers, still leads His people
into new truth and sets before them new goals.

For comments on Samuel Longfellow see Hymn 28.

_MUSIC._ WINCHESTER NEW. This tune is also used extensively with
Milman’s hymn, “Ride on! Ride on in majesty” (101). It was set to the
hymn, “_Wer nur den lieben Gott lässt walten_,” in the _Musikalisches
Handbuch_, printed in Hamburg, 1690. The earlier history of the tune is
obscure, and its composer is unknown. It appeared in various collections
under the name “Frankfurt” and “Crasselius.” In a volume published in
Glasgow, 1762, entitled, _The Psalm-Singer’s Delightful Pocket
Companion_, it was used in long meter and named “Winchester.” It should
not be confused with “Winchester Old” (191).


                            HOSPITAL SUNDAY


370. Thou to whom the sick and dying         _Godfrey Thring_, 1823-1903

A hospital hymn written in 1870 under the text, “And they brought unto
Him all sick people ... and He healed them” (Matt. 4:24).

It was first published in _Hymns for the Church Service_, 1871, by W. H.
Hutton. Later it was revised for the author’s _Hymns and Sacred Lyrics_,
1874.

For comments on Godfrey Thring, see Hymn 89.

_MUSIC._ WALTHAM. The tune appears with its original name, “Gott des
Himmels und der Erden,” at Hymn 573, which see for comments on the tune
and the composer. The original form of the melody is in triple time.
Bach thought enough of the tune to use it in his _Christmas Oratorio_.


                           TEMPERANCE SUNDAY


371. Now to heav’n our pray’r ascending    _William E. Hickson_, 1803-70

A crusading hymn full of assurance that the cause of right, though
delayed by its foes, will surely succeed in God’s own time.

For comments on the author, William E. Hickson, see Hymn 348.

_MUSIC._ GOD SPEED THE RIGHT is attributed to Ernst Moritz Arndt,
1769-1860, a German preacher, editor, professor of history, and writer
of sacred and secular songs. Julian speaks of him as a “man of learning,
a true patriot, a distinguished poet ... a man of deep religious
feeling, and a true-hearted and earnest witness of the Evangelical
Faith.” The _Dictionary_ notes a number of his hymns but makes no
mention of musical compositions.


                               LABOR DAY


372. Jesus, Thou divine Companion            _Henry van Dyke_, 1852-1933

A fine hymn on the dignity of labor, holding up the ideal of Christian
service.

For comments on the author, Henry van Dyke, see Hymn 10.

_MUSIC._ HYFRYDOL. For comments on this Welsh tune see Hymn 69.


373. O Son of Man, Thou madest known            _Milton S. Littlefield_,
                                                               1864-1934

A hymn on the sacredness of work, connecting Jesus with the labor of
mankind. The emphasis on the social aspect of religion in terms of our
common life is a dominant note in twentieth-century hymnody.

The author, Milton S. Littlefield, was born in New York City; educated
at Johns Hopkins and Union Theological Seminary; and became an honored
and prominent Presbyterian minister. Recognized as an authority in the
field of hymnology, he edited two hymn books and was elected president
of the American Hymn Society, 1927-28. Besides the present hymn, he
wrote another beginning with the line, “Come, O Lord, like morning
sunlight.” Both are serviceable hymns, and it is singular that neither
found its way into the Presbyterian _Hymnal_, 1933.

_MUSIC._ BROOKFIELD. This tune first appeared in the _Congregational
Church Hymnal_, London, 1887, edited by Dr. E. J. Hopkins (See 43). The
book contained the best hymn tunes for congregational singing then
available.

The composer, Thomas Bishop Southgate, 1814-68, received his musical
education under Sir John Goss and Samuel S. Wesley. For many years he
was organist at St. Anne’s Church, London.


374. Though lowly here our lot may be         _William Gaskell_, 1805-84

A hymn on the dignity of all work which is done through faith and trust
in Christ.

The author, William Gaskell, studied at Glasgow University and
Manchester College, York, and became a Unitarian minister. His one and
only charge was Cross Street Chapel, Manchester. He became Professor of
English History and Literature in Manchester New College and was an
influential leader in the community in the promotion of education and
culture. His denomination bestowed upon him its highest honors. Mrs.
Gaskell, a woman of brilliance and unusual literary gifts was encouraged
by her husband to engage in literary work to distract her mind from the
grief caused by the death of their little son. She turned out to be a
popular writer, publishing works of fiction and the life of Charlotte
Brontë. A memorial to her bears testimony to her genius, and to the
“tenderness and fidelity” with which she adorned the minister’s home.
Gaskell, a pioneer in social reform, wrote this hymn sometime before
1860.

_MUSIC._ ABRIDGE is also known as “ST. STEPHEN” (See 266 and 590).

For comments on the tune see Hymn 266.


                        HARVEST AND THANKSGIVING


375. We plow the fields, and scatter      _Matthias Claudius_, 1740-1815

This is one of the finest harvest hymns.

In 1783 Claudius wrote a sketch called, “Paul Erdman’s Feast,” in which
there is an interesting picture of a harvest thanksgiving celebration in
the home of a North German farmer. The farm folk gather at the house of
Erdman and as they do so they sing:

  Wir pflügen und wir streuen
  Den Samen auf das Land,
  Doch Wachstum und Gedeihen
    Steht nicht in unserer Hand.
    Alle gute Gabe
    Kommt oben her, von Gott
  Vom schönen blauen Himmel herab.

Matthias Claudius, son of a Lutheran pastor in Germany, became
distinguished in journalism and literature. He studied theology with a
view of entering the ministry; but through the influence of the
rationalistic teachings in Germany at the time, he lost interest in
religion and decided to take up journalism. Later, stricken with a
critical illness, he realized the spiritual emptiness of the life he had
been living, and again turned to his childhood faith. In the lyrics he
wrote, though not composed as church hymns, there may be observed a
transition from the spiritual impoverishment of the rationalistic period
to a new type of religious poetry giving expression to a turning once
more to the rugged faith of evangelicalism.

The hymn was translated by Jane Campbell, 1817-78, a successful teacher
of music to children. She published a _Handbook for Singers_ in which
are found the musical exercises the author used in her work with London
children. The original hymn is in 17 four-line verses.

_MUSIC._ WIR PFLÜGEN appeared in _Lieder für Volksschulen_, a collection
of melodies for public schools, published, 1800, in Hannover. It was set
to an arrangement of verses 3-10 of Claudius’ song, with the chorus sung
by peasants, altered to suit the melody. The hymn has ever since been
extraordinarily popular throughout Germany. “The tune, in spite of its
wide compass, has become one of the best known and favored of all hymn
tunes, and fully deserves its popularity.”


376. Thank the Lord                           _G. N. Fischer_, 1748-1800
                                         _Tr. C. E. Krehbiel_, 1869-1948

Based on Jeremiah 33:11,

  Give thanks to the Lord of hosts,
  For the Lord is good,
  For his kindness endures forever.
                                                       (Am. Trans.)

  Dankt dem Herrn! mit frohen Gaben
    Füllet er das ganze Land!
  Alles, Alles, was wir haben,
    Kommt aus seiner Vaterhand.

  Dankt dem Herrn! er giebt uns Leben
    Giebt uns Nahrung und Gedeihn.
  O wer wollt ihn nicht erheben
    Und sich seiner Güte freun!

  Dankt dem Herrn! vergisz, O Seele,
    Deines guten Vaters nie!
  Werd ihm ähnlich und erzähle
    Seine Wunder spät und früh.

The author, Gottlob Nath. Fischer, was born at Graba, near Saalfeld. At
the time of his death he was head master of the cathedral school and
counselor of the consistory at Halberstadt.

The translation was made by C. E. Krehbiel, Mennonite minister and
editor who was born at Summerfield, Ill., the son of Rev. Christian and
Susanna Ruth Krehbiel. After completing his education at the
Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Bloomfield, N. J., 1898-99, and in
Berlin University, Germany, 1899-1901, Krehbiel became a member of the
business firm, The Herald Publishing Co., Newton, Kansas, serving in the
editorial and business offices for a period of 20 years. He served as
editor of _Der Christlicher Bundesbote_, 1930-46, and as president of
the General Conference of Mennonites for the two trienniums, 1935-41.
Krehbiel was also a member of the committee that compiled the _Hymnary_.

_MUSIC._ RINGE RECHT. For comments on this tune see Hymn 563.


377. Come, ye thankful people, come              _Henry Alford_, 1810-71

A popular and widely used hymn at harvest festivals, especially in
England. It was first published under the title “After Harvest,” in
1844. In 1867, it was revised by the author, the form here being this
revised version.

For comments on Henry Alford see Hymn 152.

_MUSIC._ ST. GEORGE’S WINDSOR has long been associated with these words,
to which it is well suited in every way. Originally, however, the tune
was set to the hymn “Hark! the song of jubilee.”

For comments on the composer, George J. Elvey, see Hymn 118.


378. To Thee, O Lord, our hearts we raise      _William Chatterdon Dix_,
                                                                 1837-98

A popular thanksgiving hymn, written in the author’s most facile and
musical style. The hymn was published in St. Raphael’s _Hymns for the
Service of the Church_, Bristol, 1864.

For comments on the author, William Chatterdon Dix, see Hymn 78.

_MUSIC._ ST. GALL is from _Katolisches Gesangbuch zum Gebrauch bei dem
öffentlichen Gottesdienste_, 1863, the revised edition of the old hymn
book used in the Benedictine Monastery founded in 614 A.D. by the Irish
monk, St. Gall. It is a fine tune with a good swinging rhythm when sung
at a fairly lively tempo.


                                NEW YEAR


379. Ring out, wild bells                     _Alfred Tennyson_, 1809-92

From Sec. 106 of the poem “In Memoriam” (See 149).

After tracing his grief through successive Christmas celebrations, the
poet bursts into this song of confident faith in God at the opening of
the new year. The poet turns from the past and rises above his private
grief to sing of the future and its hopes for mankind.

For comments on Alfred Tennyson see Hymn 149.

_MUSIC._ WILD BELLS was written for this poem by Henry Lahee, 1826-1912,
organist at the Holy Trinity Church, Brompton, England, for about 30
years. Lahee, a versatile composer, won many prizes for his glees,
madrigals, and part songs.

The tune is very effective but too difficult for ordinary congregational
singing. It was included in the _Hymnary_ for use by singing groups
preparing for special celebrations of New Year.


380. Another year is dawning          _Frances Ridley Havergal_, 1836-79

A prayer for the New Year, hailing its advent as another opportunity for
progress, service, and training in close fellowship with God.

The poem was written in five stanzas of four lines each as the text of a
New Year’s card and distributed by Miss Havergal among friends under the
title, “A Happy New Year! Ever Such May It Be!”

The omitted fifth stanza reads:

  Another year is dawning
    Dear Father, let it be
  On earth, or else in heaven
    Another year for Thee.

For comments on Frances R. Havergal see Hymn 126.

_MUSIC._ CRUCIFIX, of anonymous composition, was taken from the _Hymns
of the Spirit_, Boston: Beacon Press, 1938, where it is used as a second
tune to Miss Havergal’s hymn.


381. Another year of setting suns          _John W. Chadwick_, 1840-1904

This poem came from the Unitarian stream of hymnody which was so strong
during the middle of the nineteenth century. Chadwick, born at
Marblehead, Mass., graduated from Harvard in 1864 and the following 40
years served as minister of the Second Unitarian Church in Brooklyn. He
wrote biographies of Channing and Parker and is the author of
considerable poetry. It has been noted that many of his hymns possess
the simplicity and spirit of the writings of Whittier, the Quaker poet,
and might easily pass for his.

_MUSIC._ HOLY CROSS. The source of this tune is not clear. It is
ascribed in various hymnals to Thomas Hastings, to Mendelssohn, to John
Stainer, and to Mozart. James Love, who was well informed on English
hymn tunes, says that it was adapted from an anonymous organ “Andante”
which was said to be based on a theme by Mozart. The tune, in 3-4 time,
appears in the _Methodist Hymnal_, 1935, the arrangement credited to
James C. Wade, an organist and conductor of choral groups, born in
Staffordshire, England, 1847.


382. The year is gone beyond recall                              _Latin_
                                                _Tr. F. Pott_, 1832-1909

From a Latin hymn, _Lapsus est annus_, found in a Breviary of Meaux,
1713 and 1734. It was used for compline after the first vespers of the
Festival of the Circumcision, which is the last office sung on December
31. The original reads as follows:

  Lapsus est annus: redit annus alter:
  Vita sic mutis fugit acta pennis:
  Tu, Deus, cursum moderaris, unus
      Arbiter, aevi.

  Gens tuis plaudit cumulata donis:
  Te simul votis Dominum precatur,
  Servet intactum fidei verendae
      Patriae munus.

  Supplices poscunt alimenta cives:
  Finibus morbos patriis repellas:
  Larga securae referas, benignus
      Commoda pacis.

  Postulant culpas venia relaxes:
  Limites arctos vitiis reponas;
  Past graves pugnas tua dat salubrem
      Dextera palmam.

  Noxiae vitae maculas perosi
  Cor, Deus, nostrum tibi devovemus:
  Da bonos annos, facilemque Patris
      Indue vultum.

  Dum dies currunt, redeunt et anni,
  Et gradu certo sibi saecla cedunt,
  Debitas laudes Triadi supremae
      Concinat orbis.

Text from Daniel, H. A., _Thesaurus hymnologicus_, 5 vols.; Lipsiae:
1855-1856, IV, 319.

The translation was made by Francis Pott, M. A., Curate of Ticehurst,
Sussex, and one of the editors of _Hymns Ancient and Modern_, London,
1861. The original form of Pott’s translation appeared first in a hymnal
compiled by him, _Hymns Fitted to the Order of Common Prayer, etc._,
London, 1864. It reads as follows:

  The year is gone beyond recall;
  ’Tis gone—with all its hopes and fears,
  With all its joys for those new born,
  With all its troubled mourners’ tears.

  We thank Thee, Lord, for countless gifts,
  For dangers we have passed unscathed;
  We thank Thee for Thy Church preserved;
  Oh! seal to us her ancient Faith.

  Again we ask Thy goodness, Lord;
  The coming year in mercy bless;
  Guard Thou our land from pestilence;
  And give us grace and plenteousness.

  Forgive this nation’s many sins;
  Destroy the strength that sin has gained;
  And give us grace with sin to strive;
  And give us crowns through strife attained.

  We hate the sins that stain the past;
  We would henceforth from them be free;
  O grant us peaceful years, good Lord;
  And we will spend them all to Thee.

  We would that our good Father’s eye
  Should look on us—but not in wrath;
  And we, Thy children, year by year,
  A purer song of praise pour forth. Amen.

When the hymn was selected for _Hymns Ancient and Modern_, the
translation was altered into its present form. The last stanza is
omitted in the _Hymnary_. The English and Latin are published in _Hymns,
Ancient and Modern_, Historical Edition, London, Clowes, 1909.

_MUSIC._ TALLIS, also called “Tallis’ Ordinal,” is from _The Whole
Psalter translated into English Metre, which contayneth an hundreth and
fifty Psalmes_, a work by Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury,
printed about 1561. At the end of the book are nine tunes in four parts
by Thomas Tallis. This is the last of the nine and is set to the version
of _Veni Creator Spiritus_, which appears in the _English Prayer Book
Ordinal_. The tune was evidently derived by Tallis from a 15th-century
English carol tune, “This endris Nyght”—for it is an adaptation to
common time of the first two lines of this carol melody.

For comments on Thomas Tallis, see Hymn 33.


383. Great God, we sing that mighty hand     _Philip Doddridge_, 1702-51

A New Year’s hymn from the posthumous edition of Doddridge’s _Hymns
founded on various texts in the Holy Scriptures_, 1745, where it is
headed, “Help obtained from God. Acts 26:22. For the New Year.”

It is based on Acts 26:22: “Having therefore obtained help of God, I
continue unto this day, witnessing both to small and great, saying none
other things than those which the prophets and Moses did say should
come.”

Most of Doddridge’s hymns were composed for use in his own congregation
in connection with his sermons. None of them were published during his
life time.

For further comments on Doddridge see Hymn 56.

_MUSIC._ GERMANY. For this tune see Hymn 222.


                                 WINTER


384. ’Tis winter now                        _Samuel Longfellow_, 1819-92

A “delicately etched winter hymn” which appeared in _Hymns of the
Spirit_, 1864, by Samuel Longfellow and Samuel Johnson.

For comments on the author, Samuel Longfellow, see Hymn 28.

_MUSIC._ MELROSE. For comments on the composer, Frederick C. Maker, see
Hymn 112. This combination of hymn and tune was made by the editors of
the _Hymnary_.


                                 SPRING


385. The glory of the spring, how sweet        _Thomas Hornblower Gill_,
                                                               1819-1906

Based on Psalm 104:30: “... thou renewest the face of the earth,” and
Ephesians 4:23: “... be renewed in the spirit of your mind.”

It is an exquisite lyric, expressing not only the glory of the
springtime with its newborn life, but depicting also, with rare beauty
and power, the renewal of life which God works in the soul—a new birth
of faith and love, prayer and song. The author himself wrote that, as a
result of the study of the New Testament, “truth upon truth brake upon
my gaze and God put a new song into my mouth.”

Thomas Hornblower Gill, born in Birmingham, England, was brought up a
Unitarian, but, unsatisfied with the Unitarian view of the person of
Christ, he withdrew from that church and joined the Evangelical party in
the Church of England. One of the major influences leading him to this
decision was his study of the hymns of Isaac Watts. He saw “the contrast
between their native force and fulness and their shrunken and dwindled
presentation in the mutilated version in Unitarian hymnbooks.” Gill
published a number of books of poems which R. W. Dale, in compiling a
hymnbook for his congregation at Carr’s Lane, Birmingham, found “a very
mine of wealth.”

_MUSIC._ KING’S LANGLEY, “a delightfully gay tune,” is an arrangement of
a traditional English May-day carol. It appeared in the _English Hymnal_
of 1906. The arrangement is by Miss L. E. Broadwood, an English lady of
considerable musical talent.


                                 SUMMER


386. Summer suns are glowing                   _William W. How_, 1823-97

One of the most welcome of the hymns of the changing year. It was
written for _Church Hymns_, 1871.

The author wrote a hymn for each of the four seasons, another appearing
at No. 387.

For comments on W. W. How see Hymn 144.

_MUSIC._ RUTH, composed by Samuel Smith, privately printed in 1865, was
set to the present hymn in 1874 by Arthur Sullivan when he was editing
the music for _Church Hymns_.

Samuel Smith, 1821-1917 (not to be confused with the author of “My
country, ’tis of thee”), was an English organist, serving Trinity
Church, Windsor, for 34 years. He succeeded Sir George Elvey as
conductor of the Windsor and Eton Choral Society.


                                 AUTUMN


387. The year is swiftly waning                _William W. How_, 1823-97

A hymn for the autumn season. Like No. 386, it was written for the
author’s _Church Hymns_, 1871.

For comments on W. W. How see Hymn 144.

_MUSIC._ WAS KANN ES SCHÖN’RES GEBEN is from the _Gesangbuch mit Noten_
where it appears anonymously, set to a hymn by Philipp Spitta, “Was kann
es schön’res geben.”


                          SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES


388. Father of men, in whom are one           _Henry Cary Shuttleworth_,
                                                               1850-1900

A deeply sympathetic Christian hymn, written for the Friendly Societies
of the Church of England, but may appropriately be used for many
occasions of a more general character. It is especially useful in the
life of a college campus.

The author, Henry Cary Shuttleworth, was educated at Oxford for the
Anglican ministry. He was a minor canon in St. Paul’s Cathedral,
1876-84, and rector of St. Nicholas Cole Abbey, London, from 1883.
Concerned for the poor and down-trodden of London, Shuttleworth became a
prominent member of the Christian Social movement. For a time he was
Professor of Pastoral and Liturgical Theology in King’s College, London.
An able musician, he wrote many carols and hymns and published a book,
_The Place of Music in Public Worship_. The present hymn appeared in the
St. Nicholas Cole Abbey _Hymnal Appendix_, 1897, and in the _Church
Monthly_, 1898, with music by the author.

_MUSIC._ ST. LO is a unique melody, constructed on three phrases of
three measures each. It is a simple, diatonic tune, moving within the
pitch range of a sixth, with the third phrase a repetition of the first.
It should be sung in a quiet manner, and is well adapted for unison
singing. The tune, an old Breton melody, appeared in _School Worship_,
London, 1926, from whence it was introduced into the _Presbyterian
Hymnal_ of 1935 and from thence to the _Hymnary_.


389. O grant us light that we may know      _Lawrence Tuttiett_, 1825-97

A prayer for the light from God to illuminate the mind in its search for
truth.

The author wrote many of his hymns on returning from visiting the sick
and bereaved, expressing in them thoughts of consolation for families in
sorrow and trouble. That this hymn may have had a similar origin is
indicated by the omitted Stanzas 4 and 5, which are as follows:

  O grant us light, in grief and pain,
    To lift our burdened hearts above,
  And count the very cross a gain,
    And bless our Father’s hidden love.

  O grant us light, when, soon or late,
    All earthly scenes shall pass away,
  In Thee to find the open gate
    To deathless home and endless day.

Lawrence Tuttiett, son of a surgeon in the English Royal Navy, at first
intended to follow his father into the medical profession, but, after
studying at Christ’s Hospital and King’s College, London, he decided to
become a minister. He was ordained in 1848 and devoted his life to the
Episcopal Church, ministering in various parishes in England and
Scotland. His publications include _Hymns for Churchmen_, 1854; _Hymns
for Children of the Church_, 1862; and _Gems of Thought on the Sunday
Services_, 1864. The present hymn appeared in the last-named
publication.

_Music._ CANONBURY. For comments on this tune see Hymn 296.


390. Almighty Lord, with one accord        _Melancthon Woolsey Stryker_,
                                                               1851-1929

“A College Hymn” was the title given this poem, first printed in _The
New York Evangelist_, February 27, 1896. It was included in _The College
Hymnal_, New York, the same year and in the _Methodist Hymnal_ of 1905.

The author, Melancthon Woolsey Stryker, a prominent Presbyterian
minister, was educated at Hamilton College, New York, and Auburn
Theological Seminary. After serving churches in Auburn and Ithaca, New
York; Holyoke, Mass.; and Chicago, Ill., he became president of his Alma
Mater, Hamilton College. A student of hymnology, he compiled several
hymnals and books of sacred songs.

The hymn is appropriately used for commencement programs at Christian
colleges. On such occasions it is often sung to the familiar tune
“Azmon” (397).

_MUSIC._ PATTEN was written for this hymn for use in _The Methodist
Hymnal_, 1905. The composer, Peter C. Lutkin, 1858-1931, the youngest of
six children, was born of Danish parents, at Thompsonville, Wis., March
27, 1858. He was only a lad when both his parents died, shortly after
the family had moved to Chicago. His ability at the organ and his
success as boy soloist at the Protestant Episcopal Cathedral in Chicago
opened to him attractive opportunities for the study of music, and he
advanced rapidly. After teaching piano at Northwestern University for
several years, he left for Europe to study music in Berlin, Paris, and
Vienna, returning after four years to Chicago where he held various
positions as organist and choirmaster. In 1896, he organized the
Northwestern University School of Music and was given the title of
“Dean.” An authority in the field of church music and hymnology, Dean
Lutkin did much through his teaching and writing to raise the standards
of music throughout all the churches.


                                 YOUTH


391. I feel the winds of God today                 _Jessie Adams_, 1863—

For many years the authorship of this hymn was unknown since the writer
preferred to remain anonymous. It finally came to light that the lines
were penned by Miss Jessie Adams, a member of the Society of Friends in
England. She was a progressive teacher and a leader of the local Adult
School at Frimley, England, where she long resided. Miss Adams wrote the
hymn after a long period of service as teacher in which she felt a
considerable measure of disappointment and failure, as if tugging and
laboring at the oars of a boat without making much headway. She wrote:

  If then, quitting the labors at the oars, we humbly believe that God’s
  Spirit still leads us aright, we shall pass the point of danger and
  helplessness. Some little act of kindness may be as the upturned sail
  which that spirit waits to fill, in spite of past and future.

The message of the hymn is for our time. Many in our day labor at the
oars, in their own strength, only to find themselves worn and
discouraged. Progress comes by lifting the sails and permitting the
invisible power of God to carry life forward.

_MUSIC._ HARDY NORSEMEN is an anonymous Norse melody, the origin of
which has not been traced. It is a popular tune among the Dutch
Mennonites where it is often sung at their young people’s gatherings.


392. “Are ye able,” said the Master                _Earl Marlatt_, 1892—

Written for a consecration service at Boston University School of
Religious Education, in 1926, where the author was Professor of
Religious Education.

It is based on Jesus’ question of James and John, and their answer: “Are
ye able to drink of the cup that I shall drink of and to be baptized
with the baptism that I am baptized with? They say unto Him, Lord, we
are able” (Matt. 20:22).

The second verse came to the author’s mind as a result of seeing the
Passion Play at Oberammergau, where he was greatly moved by the scene
where the dying thief turned to Jesus and said, “Remember me when Thou
contest into Thy Kingdom.” “As Anton Lang, playing the part of Christ,
said, ‘Today, shalt thou be with me in paradise,’” the author writes,
“Immortality suddenly became as real to me as the sunlight at that
moment driving the clouds from the mountains, and I knew that nothing,
nothing could ever shake my faith in that vision.”

The hymn was written for the tune “Beacon Hill.” The combination of
words and tune was adopted as one of the school songs of Boston
University School of Theology, whose students have carried it all over
the world. It was incorporated into the _Methodist Hymnal_ of 1935, from
whence it came into the _Hymnary_.

Earl Bowman Marlatt, son of a Methodist minister, was born at Columbus,
Indiana. He graduated from De Pauw University and then studied at Boston
University, Harvard, Oxford, and the University of Berlin, becoming
Professor of Philosophy at Boston University in 1923 and later Professor
of Religious Education in that institution.

_MUSIC._ BEACON HILL received its name from Beacon Hill, Boston, where
Marlatt resided when he wrote the words for this tune. The composer,
Harry Silvernale Mason, born in 1881, was a student at Boston University
when he wrote the tune. He is now serving as instructor in Fine Arts in
Religion at Auburn Theological Seminary, Auburn, N. Y.


393. Just as I am, Thine own to be           _Marianne Hearn_, 1834-1909

A young people’s consecration hymn, contributed to _The Voice of
Praise_, 1887, published by the Sunday School Union of London. Verses 5
and 6, omitted here, read as follows:

  With many dreams of fame and gold,
  Success and joy to make me bold,
  But dearer still my faith to hold,
    For my whole life I come.

  And for Thy sake to win renown,
  And then to take the victor’s crown,
  And at Thy feet to cast it down,
    O Master, Lord, I come.

It was written by an Englishwoman, Marianne Hearn (_nom de plume_,
Marianne Farningham), who, in early life, was a teacher in the primary
schools, and later became a successful writer of articles for various
periodicals, including _The Christian Herald_, published by James Clarke
and Co. For a time she edited the London _Sunday School Times_. Miss
Hearn published a half dozen or more volumes of poetry and an
autobiography, _A Working Woman’s Life_.

_MUSIC._ JUST AS I AM. For comments on the composer, Joseph Barnby, see
Hymn 21.


394. Savior, while my heart is tender        _John Burton, the younger_,
                                                                 1803-77

A hymn of dedication to Christian service, suitable for use with young
people’s groups.

The author, John Burton, usually called “the younger” to distinguish him
from another English hymn writer of the same name, was born and died in
Stratford, England. From his 15th to 25th year he suffered greatly from
ill health but recovered sufficiently to spend the next 50 years in
business as a cooper and basket-maker in his home town. A devout
Congregationalist, he served as deacon in his church and as a Sunday
school teacher for 27 years. While visiting a poor chimney sweeper, he
contracted small pox and died of that disease. He published several
volumes of religious works, including _One Hundred Original Hymns for
the Young_, 1850, in which the present hymn is found.

_MUSIC._ LILLE is an old French melody, the origin of which has not been
traced.

(Correction: second last soprano note in the first score should be on B,
not A as in the earlier editions of the _Hymnary_.)


395. Savior, like a shepherd lead us     _Dorothy Ann Thrupp_, 1779-1847

Published anonymously in the author’s _Hymns for the Young_, 1836.
Dorothy Ann Thrupp was born and reared in London where she spent all her
life. She had a special gift for writing hymns suited to the worship
experiences of children. A modest person, always avoiding personal
publicity. Miss Thrupp did not always receive full credit for her work.
This hymn is sometimes wrongly credited to H. F. Lyte.

_MUSIC._ BRADBURY was written for this hymn and derives its name from
the composer. It first appeared in a popular Sunday school book,
_Oriola_, published in 1859 by W. B. Bradbury.

For comments on the composer, W. B. Bradbury, see Hymn 103.


396. O Son of man, our hero                  _Frank Fletcher_, 1870-1936

A hymn deeply sympathetic with the aspirations and needs of young
Christians, and appealing to the heroism of youth.

Frank Fletcher was Head Master of Charterhouse School, Godalming,
England, the first layman elected to such a position. He wrote these
words in 1921, while on a motor drive between London and Charterhouse.
After having been sung for some time in Charterhouse School, the poem
was sent to a church newspaper, _The Challenge_, and from thence it
found its way into the hymnals of England and America. The word “mate”
in the last line comes from an explanation of the trinity given by a
Bishop in answer to a working man’s question on that subject: “God our
Father, God our Brother, God our Mate.” Fletcher heard the Bishop give
this answer and the phrase stuck in his mind.

_MUSIC._ LONDONDERRY, the famous Irish traditional melody, is a tune
which every congregation loves to sing. It rises gradually and skilfully
to an effective climax near the end. The tune, unfortunately, has
suffered at the hands of arrangers who have employed it, with various
degrees of merit, for many different combinations of voices and
instruments. Its appropriateness for church use is questioned only by
those who have long associated it with secular words and occasions.


397. Lord in the fulness of my might           _Thomas Hornblower Gill_,
                                                               1819-1906

A consecration hymn for young people, much used in schools and colleges.
It was written by Gill in 1855 and published in his _Golden Chain of
Praise_, 1869, under the title, “Early Love. ‘How good it is to close
with Christ betimes!’ Oliver Cromwell.” The original poem has eight
stanzas.

For comments on Thomas Hornblower Gill see Hymn 385.

_MUSIC._ AZMON. For comments on this tune see Hymn 12.


398. Shepherd of eager youth      _Clement of Alexandria_, _c._ 170-_c._
                                                                     220
                                          _Tr. Henry M. Dexter_, 1821-90

A hymn to Christ, based on a Greek poem attributed to Clement of
Alexandria, beginning with the line

  Στόµιον πώλων ἀδαῶν.

The poem is one of two which Clement attached to his book, _The Tutor_.
Some say it is the earliest Christian hymn extant. (But see comments on
Hymn 34).

Titus Flavius Clemens, known as St. Clement of Alexandria, _c._ 170-_c._
220, remains something of an enigmatic figure in church history. It is
not known where or exactly when he was born. He was a pagan philosopher
in his younger days. After his conversion to Christianity, he became
head of the Cathedral School at Alexandria, then the center of Christian
scholarship. Here he remained until A.D. 203 when he was driven out by
persecution under Septimus Severus. Clement then became a wanderer and
nothing is known of his later life.

Henry Martyn Dexter was a graduate of Yale and Andover Theological
Seminary, a Congregational minister and editor. He translated the text
of Clement’s hymn into prose and then made a free rendering of it into
verse, in 1846. The hymn was written for use in a service in Dexter’s
church in which he preached on the text, Deut. 32:7: “Remember the days
of old,” his sermon topic being, “Some Prominent Characteristics of the
Early Christians.”

Hymnbook editors have made a few changes in the text: “eager youth” for
“tender youth” in the first stanza; and “let all the holy throng” for
“infants and the glad throng” in Stanza 4. The third stanza, omitted
here, reads as follows:

  Thou art the great High Priest;
  Thou hast prepared the feast
    Of holy love;
  And in our mortal pain
  None calls on Thee in vain;
  Help Thou dost not disdain,
    Help from above.

_MUSIC._ KIRBY BEDON was composed by Edward Bunnett, 1834-1923, a
prominent English organist and composer of church music. The tune first
appeared in _The Congregational Hymnary_ of the Congregational Union of
England and Wales.


399. Lead on, O King Eternal            _Ernest W. Shurtleff_, 1862-1917

Written upon request of the author’s classmates at Andover Theological
Seminary, as a hymn for their graduation in 1887. It has come into wide
use as a processional and a recessional on baccalaureate and other
occasions.

Ernest W. Shurtleff, graduate of Harvard University and Andover
Theological Seminary, held Congregational pastorates in Massachusetts
and at Minneapolis, Minn. He then went to Frankfurt, Germany, where he
did his finest work as founder and pastor of the American Church at that
place. He also served as spiritual counselor to a large group of
American students in Paris. During the first World War, he and his wife
were active in relief work in Europe. Besides his gifts as preacher, and
pastor, Shurtleff also possessed ability as musician and writer, and
published several volumes of poetry.

_MUSIC._ LANCASHIRE. For comments on this tune see Hymn 115.


400. Give of your best to the Master            _Howard B. Grose_, 1851—

A challenge to youth to give heart and strength to the service of the
Master.

The author, Howard B. Grose, was born in Millerton, N. Y. After
graduating from the University of Rochester, he served successively as
pastor of the First Baptist Church, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., the First
Baptist Church, Pittsburgh, Pa.; president of the University of South
Dakota; and teacher of history in the University of Chicago. In 1910 he
became editor of the Baptist magazine, _Missions_. He was a leader in
the Christian Endeavor movement and wrote this hymn for a Christian
Endeavor hymnal that he was then editing.

_MUSIC._ BARNARD was composed by Charlotte A. (Mrs. Charles C.) Barnard,
1820-69, an Englishwoman who after her marriage in 1851 began composing
songs and ballads under the pseudonym of “Claribel.” These were very
popular in their day. She composed a hymn tune, “Brocklesbury,” which is
widely used with the hymn, “Jesus, tender Shepherd, hear me.”

The descant was written by Professor W. H. Hohmann, head of the music
department of Bethel College. The “descant” is an old variation in the
use of tunes. It consists of a second melody over that of the tune and
is to be sung by a few sopranos. It is only an embellishment and should
be no more than audible, otherwise it will detract from the melody which
should remain as the main center of interest.


401. Father in heav’n who lovest all        _Rudyard Kipling_, 1865-1936

“The Children’s Hymn,” in Kipling’s _Puck of Pook’s Hill_, published in
1906. It was written for boys, but is suitable also for adults.
Permission to use the hymn in the _Hymnary_ was granted by Mrs. Kipling
on condition that all eight stanzas, unaltered, be used.

Rudyard Kipling, famous English writer, was born in Bombay, India, and
died in Sussex, England. After receiving his education in England, he
returned to India to engage in journalism and became widely known for
his short stories, novels, children’s books, histories, and books of
travel. The Nobel Prize for Literature was awarded him in 1907, and he
received honorary degrees from universities all over the world. His
_Jungle Book_, _Just-So Stories_, _Puck of Pook’s Hill_, _Rewards and
Fairies_ made him beloved of all children. His writings extol the
virtues of clean living and manly duty which make a nation great.
However, his passionate patriotism made him pen the unfortunate lines:

  “O East is East and West is West
    And ne’er the twain shall meet”

a prophecy completely discredited by the world events of recent years.

_MUSIC._ HEBRON. For comments on Lowell Mason, the composer of this
tune, see Hymn 12.


402. Lord, through changing days, unchanging   _W. Russell Bowie_, 1882—

This hymn was written originally for the hymn book of the Hill School,
of Pottstown, Pa., from which the author graduated as a boy in 1900, and
where he afterward taught for a year. The motto of the school is
“Whatsoever things are true” (Phil. 4:8). The hymn is built around that
theme.

W. Russell Bowie was born in Richmond, Va. After taking an A.B. and an
A.M. at Harvard and teaching for a year at the Hill School, he spent
most of three years at the Theological Seminary of Virginia, near
Alexandria, graduating with the B.D. degree in 1908. Part of his senior
year was spent in special study at Union Theological Seminary in New
York. For many years he was rector of Grace Church (Episcopal) in New
York, a post he resigned in 1939 to become Jesup Graduate Professor of
Practical Theology and Dean of Students at Union Seminary. He is the
author of a number of books, the most widely known of which is the
_Story of the Bible_, published by the Abingdon-Cokesbury Press. Among
his other volumes are _The Children’s Year_, _The Inescapable Christ_,
_The Master: A Life of Christ_ (1928) and _Which Way Ahead_ (1943). In
the late 1920’s he was elected Bishop Coadjutor of Pennsylvania, but did
not accept.

_MUSIC._ REGENT SQUARE. For comments on this tune see Hymn 81.



                                BOOK II
                           Hymns for Children


403. A gladsome hymn of praise we sing          _Ambrose N. Blatchford_,
                                                               1842-1924

Written by the pastor of the Lewin’s Mead Unitarian Church, Bristol,
England, for use in a Sunday school anniversary, 1876, in his church.
The hymn is suitable for adults as well as for children.

Ambrose N. Blatchford, born in Devonshire, England, was educated at
Tavistock Grammar School and Manchester New College, London. After
serving as assistant minister at Lewin’s Mead Unitarian Church for ten
years, he took full charge in 1876 and continued until his retirement in
1915, an unusual record of nearly 50 years of service in one church. He
was a man of sympathy with all classes of people, possessed unusual
vitality, and was a trusted friend and pastor. Blatchford was interested
in the life and progress of the community and became one of the most
influential and most-loved men in the city.

_MUSIC._ CANAAN. The tune was taken from the _Hymnary_ of the United
Church of Canada. The composer is unknown. It is a good, fluent melody
constructed on a straightforward melodic line which is repeated three
times.


404. Children of Jerusalem                        _John Henley_, 1800-42

A children’s hymn of praise, based on Matthew 21:15-16:

  And when the chief priests and scribes saw the wonderful things that
  he did, and the children crying in the temple, and saying, Hosanna to
  the son of David; they were sore displeased, and said unto him,
  Hearest thou what these say? And Jesus saith unto them, Yea; have ye
  not read, Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings thou hast perfected
  praise?

The hymn was written by Rev. John Henley, an English Methodist minister,
known widely for his deep spirituality and entire consecration to
Christ. Henley gave much of his time and energy in behalf of the
suffering and poor in his parishes.

_MUSIC._ INFANT PRAISE, also known as “Children of Jerusalem,” first
appeared in John Curwen’s _Tune Book to the Hymns and Chants for Sunday
Schools_, published in 1842. The hymn and tune appeared a year later in
_The Juvenile Harmonist: A Selection of Tunes and Pieces for Children_,
by Thomas Clark of Canterbury.

John Curwen, 1816-80, was a minister in the Independent Church in
England, and an ardent advocate of congregational singing. He developed
and promoted the Tonic Sol-Fa method of teaching to sing, using it in
his own church and schools, and lecturing upon it in various parts of
the country. Resigning his ministry on account of ill health, in 1867,
he established a printing and publishing business and assisted in the
founding of a Tonic Sol-Fa Association for the promotion of that method
of singing. Curwen compiled and edited popular collections of songs for
use in Sunday schools.


405. Around the throne of God in heaven         _Anne Shepherd_, 1809-57

The author of this hymn was born on the Isle of Wight, the daughter of
Rev. Edward H. Houlditch, a minister in the Church of England. In 1843
she married S. Saville Shepherd. The hymn, originally in five stanzas,
is one of 64 hymns written by Mrs. Shepherd and published in 1836 under
the title, _Hymns Adapted to the Comprehension of Young Minds_.

_MUSIC._ GLORY was published in England in Curwen’s _Tune Book to the
Hymns and Chants for Sunday Schools_, 1842, with these words. The
combination of hymn and tune has continued to the present.


                                 NATURE


406. A little seed lay fast asleep             _Clara Writer_, 1859-1915

A song of growth under God’s daily care.

The lyric is a poetic description of the development of a seed from its
first awakening to life under the touch of God’s sunshine, to the tall,
fair plant with its golden ear of corn.

No biographical information is at hand concerning the author, Clara
Writer.

_MUSIC._ KING’S LANGLEY. For comments on this tune see Hymn 385.


407. See the shining dewdrops                                _Anonymous_

No information is at hand concerning the origin of this children’s poem
on the theme, “God is good.”

_MUSIC._ The melody appeared anonymously in _Kleiner Liederschatz_, a
small but useful book of songs for use in German schools and homes. The
book was compiled and edited by several Kansas teachers and school
friends who preferred to withhold their names. It was first published in
1901, Newton, Kansas.

The arrangement was made especially for the _Hymnary_, by E. Shippen
Barnes, in 1939.

For comments on Barnes see Hymn 48.


408. God sees the little sparrow fall            _Maria Straub_, 1838-98

A hymn of God’s love, based on Jesus’ teaching that God notes the fall
of the sparrow and arrays the flowers in beauty and loveliness.

No information has been traced concerning the author, Maria Straub, or
her contemporary, S. W. Straub, 1842-99, who composed the music.


409. Birds are singing, woods are ringing                   _L. F. Cole_

A joyous song of praise. No information has been found concerning L. F.
Cole, author of the words.

_MUSIC._ The tune, BIRDS ARE SINGING, is anonymous.


410. All things bright and beautiful          _Cecil Frances Alexander_,
                                                               1823-1895

A nature song. It was written, as were Hymns 104, “There is a green hill
far away,” and 412, “Once in royal David’s city,” to illustrate the
Apostle’s Creed, the present being a comment on the phrase, “Maker of
heaven and earth.” It is based on Gen. 1:31: “And God saw everything
that He had made, and, behold, it was very good.”

One of her stanzas,

  The rich man in his castle
    The poor man at his gate;
  God made them high and lowly
    And ordered their estate

is omitted in most hymn books because it is obviously not in keeping
with Christian teachings concerning wealth and poverty. (_Cf._ the
Parable of Dives and Lazarus). The author grew up in the wealthy
atmosphere of an Irish estate where her father was a land agent.

For further comments on Mrs. Alexander see Hymn 104.

_MUSIC._ GREYSTONE. The first stanza, which serves as a “refrain,” is to
be sung after each verse. The hymn is an interesting study in metre. In
the refrain, the first line is trochaic (— -), but the second changes to
the more common iambic (- —). The tune is written to take care of this.
It owes its unique effect to this refrain, which keeps coming in with
this change of metre accompanied by a change of key from C to G.

No information is at hand concerning the composer.


                               CHRISTMAS


411. The happy Christmas comes once more      _Nikolai F. S. Grundtvig_,
                                                               1783-1872

A charmingly fresh Christmas hymn written by the greatest of Danish hymn
writers. An omitted stanza reads:

  O let us go with quiet mind,
    The gentle Babe with shepherds find,
  To gaze on him who gladdens them,
    The loveliest flower of Jesse’s stem.

Nikolai F. S. Grundtvig was born in Udby, Denmark, 1783, the son of a
Lutheran pastor. He lived in a day when rationalistic “new theology” had
dried up the stream of spirituality in the church. The church worship
had lost its evangelical glow, and the sermons had deteriorated into
lectures on science and domestic economy. Young Grundtvig, in the course
of his studies for the ministry, had come under the influence of this
rationalism and for a time lost all interest in religion. Various
influences opened his eyes to the spiritual poverty existing in the
church, and he became an indefatigable worker for the dawn of a new day
in the life of the people. His zeal sometimes led him into extravagances
which put him at odds with his fellow ministers, but his preaching and
writings, nevertheless, became a powerful influence in Denmark and
resulted in fresh stirring of the Spirit in the church. His poems and
hymns, entitled _Hymns and Spiritual Songs_, were published in five
volumes.

_MUSIC._ The melody is found in a book, _Children’s Voices_, published
by the Augsburg Press (Lutheran). No information is at hand regarding
the composer, C. Belle. The arrangement was made by E. Shippen Barnes
for the _Hymnary_.

For comments on Barnes see Hymn 48.


412. Once in royal David’s city       _Cecil Frances Alexander_, 1823-95

One of a series of children’s songs written by Mrs. Alexander to
illustrate the Apostles’ Creed, this being a comment on the second
clause, “And in Jesus Christ his only Son, our Lord, who was conceived
by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary.” Others in the series are
“There is a green hill far away” (No. 104) and “All things bright and
beautiful” (No. 410).

_MUSIC._ IRBY was written for this hymn to be sung by voices in unison,
with harmonized accompaniment. It has become one of the best-known hymn
tunes for children, and is always associated with these words.

Henry John Gauntlett, 1805-76, the composer, was an English musician who
gave up law in 1844 to devote himself to music. He became a noted
organist and prolific composer, his tunes running into thousands. He was
much in demand for editing the music of hymn books and made a notable
contribution to the promotion of hymnody of the church. Mendelssohn said
of him: “His literary attainments, his knowledge of the history of
music, his acquaintance with acoustical laws, his marvelous memory, his
philosophical turn of mind, as well as his practical experience,
rendered him one of the most remarkable professors of the age.”


413. Come hither, ye children             _Christian Schmidt_, 1768-1854

A popular Christmas song which all children love to sing.

Christian Schmidt was born in Dinkelsbühl, the oldest son of the city
clerk. In 1791, he was ordained to the ministry and given the headship
of the school and made school inspector in Thannhausen at Mindel. His
was a singularly fruitful ministry in which he devoted most of his
talent to the benefit of the young people. He was in the habit of using
the hours from four until eight in the morning in writing for young
people, this being the only time of the day that he considered his own.
As a child of ten years, he was greatly impressed with the nativity
scenes which had been built in the corridors of the state church in
Dinkelsbühl and which he saw daily during the Advent season. The vivid
recollection of this childhood experience resulted in the composition of
this beloved Christmas song for children:

  Ihr Kinderlein, kommet, o kommet doch all’!
    Zur Krippe her kommet, in Bethlehems Stall,
  Und seht, was in dieser hoch-heiligen Nacht
    Der Vater im Himmel für Freude uns macht.

  O seht in der Krippe, im nächtlichen Stall,
    Seht hier bei des Lichtleins hellglänzendem Strahl,
  In reinlichen Windeln das himmlische Kind,
    Viel schöner und holder als Engel es sind.

  O betet: du liebes, du göttliches Kind,
    Was leidest du Alles für unsere Sünd’!
  Ach, hier in der Krippe schon Armut und Not,
    Am Kreuze dort endlich den bitteren Tod!

  Was geben wir Kinder, was schenken wir dir,
    Du bestes und liebstes der Kinder, dafür?
  Nichts willst du von Schätzen und Reichtum der Welt;
    Ein Herz nur voll Demut allein dir gefällt.

Our translation, appearing anonymously, employs the first stanza and two
others from the original not given here.

The poem first appeared in the second edition of _Christliche Gesänge
zur öffentlichen Gottesverehrung_, Augsburg, 1811.

_MUSIC._ IHR KINDERLEIN KOMMET should be sung with lively tempo. No
information is at hand concerning the composer of the tune.


414. Away in a manger                                        _Anonymous_

A beautiful Christmas carol which has long been ascribed to Martin
Luther. However, many of our best hymnologists—among them Percy Dearmer,
James Moffatt, and Robert McCutchan—hold that it has never been traced
to any of Luther’s works, and that it does not resemble anything that
Luther ever wrote. The words must, therefore, be classed “anonymous”
until more information is forthcoming.

_MUSIC._ The music, too, is of unknown origin. The name of the composer,
Carl Mueller, to whom it is attributed, is German and the tune is in the
style of a German folk song. Other than this there seems to be no
information regarding the composer or the tune.


                                 EASTER


415. Joy dawned again on Easter Day                              _Latin_
                                         _Tr. John Mason Neale_, 1818-66

The Latin original of this hymn comprises stanzas 9, 10, and 11 of
_Aurora lucis rutilat_, one of the most ancient Easter hymns in
existence. It is found in the earliest monastic hymnaries of the sixth
to the ninth centuries with a wide diffusion in continental as well as
Anglo-Saxon and Celtic sources. Its authorship is unknown.

The Latin text may be found in _Analecta Hymnica Medii Aevi_, v. 51, p.
89; A. S. Walpole, _Early Latin Hymns_, Cambridge University Press,
1922, p. 356; or _Hymns Ancient and Modern, Historical Edition_, London:
Clowes, 1909, p. 199.


                         _Aurora lucis rutilat_

                               Stanza  9.
  Claro paschali gaudio
  Sol mundo nitet radio,
  Cum Christum iam apostoli
  Visu cernunt corporeo.

                                  10.
  Ostensa sibi vulnera
  In Christi carne fulgida
  Resurexisse Dominum
  Voce fatentur publica.

                                  11.
  Rex Christe clementissime,
  Tu corda nostra posside,
  Ut tibi laudes debitas
  Reddamus omni tempore.

                                Doxology
  Quaesumus, auctor omnium,
  In hoc paschali gaudio
  Ab omni mortis impetu
  Tuum defendas populum.

  Gloria tibi, Domine,
  Qui surrexisti a mortuis,
  Cum Patre et sancto Spiritu
  In sempiterna saecula.

The full hymn was used at first as a morning hymn throughout the Easter
season. Later it was broken up into parts for various services during
the day, as follows: _Aurora lucis rutilat_, stanzas 1-4; _Tristes erant
apostoli_, stanzas 5-8; _Claro paschali gaudio_, stanzas 9-11. A
traditional double doxology of two stanzas which varies in form but
which is always present, completes the third hymn. The subject matter
follows the Biblical narrative of the events of Easter morning.

The entire hymn was translated by John Mason Neale, _Collected Poems of
John Mason Neale_, London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1914, pp. 121-122, and
published in _The Hymnal Noted_, in 1852. The full translation which has
been greatly altered may also be found in _Hymns Ancient and Modern_,
pp. 198-199, in a traditional form.

Those who sing this hymn at Eastertide may be assured that it has been
in unbroken use for fourteen centuries, a universal expression of the
season’s unchanging faith and joy.

_MUSIC._ PUER NOBIS. For comments on this tune see Hymn 87.


                        LOYALTY AND CONSECRATION


416. Hushed was the evening hymn               _James D. Burns_, 1823-64

Based on the incident of the call of Samuel in I Samuel 3. The verses
were published in _The Evening Hymn_, 1857, a small volume consisting of
an original hymn and an original prayer for every evening of the month,
by Burns when he was minister of the Hampstead Presbyterian Church,
London. The hymn lends itself well to dramatization.

James Drummond Burns received his training for the ministry at the
University of Edinburgh. When the Disruption took place in the Scottish
Church, he followed his teacher, Dr. Chalmers, into the Free Church in
1843. For reasons of health he went to France and some years later, his
health improved, he returned to London and built up a strong
congregation at Hampstead where a church had been newly organized. His
winsome character and broadmindedness, together with an especially
beautiful voice, made his work unusually effective. He published several
books and is the author of an article on “Hymns” in the eighth edition
of the _Encyclopaedia Brittanica_.

_MUSIC._ SAMUEL was composed for this hymn, the original arrangement,
made in 1874, being for treble voices in unison, with organ
accompaniment. The composer later made the present four-part arrangement
in which form it has come into many church hymnals.

For comments on Arthur Sullivan see Hymn 113.


417. In our work and our play      _Whitefield Glanville Wills_, 1841-91

A beautiful prayer of consecration.

The author, Whitefield Glanville Wills, an Englishman, was born in
Bristol. He published a small collection, _Hymns for Occasional Use_ in
1881. The present hymn, entitled “Children of God,” was contributed by
him to _School Hymns_, England, 1891.

_MUSIC._ ROSSLYN is an English melody taken from the Supplement to the
_Primitive Methodist Hymnal_, 1912. The composer is not known.


418. The wise may bring their learning                       _Anonymous_

A hymn setting forth the important lesson that children, however poor,
may bring useful gifts to the King. It appeared anonymously in _The Book
of Praise for Children_, published in England, 1881.

_MUSIC._ ELLON is a perfectly adapted tune for these words, though it
was written originally for another hymn. The tune is popular with
children and is sung with interest also by adults.

The composer, George F. Root, 1820-95, an American musician, studied
music in Boston and then became a teacher and organist. In 1841, he
became associated with Lowell Mason in teaching music in the public
schools of Boston. Three years later he moved to New York, where he
taught in various institutions, including Union Theological Seminary and
the New York Institution for the Blind. In the latter place, the blind
hymn writer, Fanny Crosby, was one of his pupils. Root organized and
conducted many music institutes and joined his brother, E. T. Root, and
C. M. Cady in the publishing of music in Chicago under the firm name,
Root and Cady. He composed many tunes for religious and secular use, and
during the Civil War wrote numerous “war songs” which became popular. He
also wrote cantatas—_Under the Palms, David, the Shepherd Boy_, and
others—which have been used by singing organizations all over America.


419. Tell me the stories of Jesus              _W. H. Parker_, 1845-1929

A hymn for children on the life of Christ. It first appeared in _The
Sunday School Hymnary_, published in England, 1885. It was written by
William Henry Parker, a member of the General Baptist Church in England,
a layman, interested especially in Sunday school work. He was a
machinist by trade, working nearly all his life in a large lace-making
plant in Nottingham. For many years he composed hymns for anniversary
festivals in the Sunday school. These were published in 1882 in a volume
entitled, _The Princess Alice and Other Poems_.

_MUSIC._ STORIES OF JESUS was written for these words and included in a
volume published by the National Sunday School Union, London.

The composer, Frederic Arthur Challinor, was born in Staffordshire,
England, 1866, the son of a miner. Poverty compelled him in childhood to
seek employment to supplement the family income. At the age of ten he
began working in a brick yard. Two years later he found employment in a
coal mine and then in a china manufacturing plant. All the while he was
interested in music and spent his spare time studying harmony. By hard
work and perseverance, he finally won his Mus. Bac. degree in 1903.
Challinor has composed several popular cantatas and published more than
four hundred compositions for voices.


420. Jesus bids us shine                         _Susan Warner_, 1819-85

A hymn for small children, which first appeared, anonymously, in _The
Little Corporal_, Chicago.

The author, Susan Warner, sister of Anna B. Warner (see Hymn 201), was
the daughter of a reputable attorney in New York State. Her father fell
into undeserved misfortune which left the daughters as the breadwinners
of the household. This burden they fulfilled by writing stories and
books. Susan’s first book, _The Wide, Wide World_, published in 1865
under the pseudonym of “Elizabeth Wetherall,” became one of the most
widely read of American novels, second in popularity only to _Uncle
Tom’s Cabin_. It was translated into French and German and became a
best-seller on both sides of the Atlantic. She also wrote a number of
definitely religious books for children. Like her sister, Anna, she was
buried at West Point, where the two had conducted a Bible class for many
years for the cadets of the U. S. Military Academy.

_MUSIC._ The tune is by Edwin O. Excell, 1851-1921, an American composer
of Gospel song tunes. In England, the hymn is sung to “Lumetto,” a tune
by Edward Arthur, composed in 1927.


421. Here we come with gladness               _Julia H. Johnston_, 1852—

Intended to be sung as a collection march.

The author, Julia Harriette Johnston, born at Salineville, Ohio, was
educated at Gettysburg and Peoria, Illinois, High School. She was much
interested in missions and Sunday-school work and frequently contributed
articles to magazines, on those subjects. Among her publications were
_The School of the Master_, _Bright Threads_, and the _Life of Adoniram
Judson_.

_MUSIC._ AUS DEM HIMMEL FERNE is a traditional German melody of unknown
authorship. It appeared in the _Gesangbuch mit Noten_ and in _Kleiner
Liederschatz_, and is a well known children’s tune.


                                 PRAYER


422. We thank Thee, O our Father               _Catherine Mary McSorley_

A prayer of thanksgiving, especially for the flowers which, growing in
the most unlikely places, make the world so bright and fair and reveal
the power and love of God.

Julian attributes the hymn to Catherine Mary McSorley but gives no
information concerning her. The hymn appeared in the Appendix of the
Irish _Church Hymnal_, 1891, and was published in _Church Hymns_,
England, 1903.

_MUSIC._ ENDSLEIGH. For comments on this tune see Hymn 283.


423. Father, we thank Thee for the night       _Rebecca J. Weston_, _c._
                                                                    1890

A morning prayer. The words were written by Rebecca J. Weston, about
1890, but no information concerning her has been traced. This seems to
be her only hymn. It appeared in a music-book, _The Tonic Sol-fa
Course_, published by the Oliver Ditson Company. The editor of that book
was the Rev. D. Batchellor, who composed the tune. The hymn was included
in _Songs of Praise_, London, 1933.


424. Savior, teach me, day by day           _Jane Eliza Leeson_, 1807-82

“Love’s sweet lesson” has never been presented more beautifully to the
young than in this lyric from Miss Leeson’s _Hymns and Scenes of
Childhood_, 1842, where it is entitled “Obedience.” The Scriptural basis
is I John 4:19: “We love him because he first loved us.”

For comments on the author, Jane Eliza Leeson, see Hymn 298.

_MUSIC._ POSEN is a short, vigorous tune which children, as well as
adults, love to sing. The bass is no less interesting than the melody.

The composer, George C. Strattner, 1650-1705, was an able German
musician whose most important work consisted in editing the fifth
edition of Joachim Neander’s _Collected Hymns_, with music, published
1691, in which POSEN first appeared.


425. Jesus, tender Shepherd, hear me           _Mary L. Duncan_, 1814-40

A beautiful evening prayer, written by the author for her own children.

Mrs. Mary Duncan was the daughter of Rev. Robert Lundie, minister at
Kelso, England. In 1836, she married the Rev. William Wallace Duncan,
minister of the Scottish parish of Cleish. Between July and December of
1839, the year before her death, she wrote a number of hymns for her
small children. These were published in a _Memoir_ by her mother and
later issued separately—twenty-three in all—as _Rhymes for My Children_,
1842. Mrs. Duncan, whose life ended so prematurely, was a woman of fine
intellect and lovable character, the memory of whom has been described
as one of the “aids to the devout life” of Scotland in the last
generation. Her sister married Dr. Horatius Bonar (Hymn 129), minister
and hymn writer.

_MUSIC._ EVENING PRAYER. For comments on the composer, John Stainer, see
Hymn 111. The tune was composed for this hymn in the first edition of
_The Church Hymnary_, London.


426. Praise Him! Praise Him!                                 _Anonymous_

A simple song, of unknown origin, which tiny tots love to sing. The
truth the song enforces—“God is love”—is one the child will carry into
adulthood and into eternity.

The tune is an arrangement by Hubert P. Main, 1839-1925, American
composer of popular Sunday school and evangelistic music, and editor of
many hymn books. For sixty years, Main was connected with the Bigelow
and Main publishing house in Chicago, now out of business. His private
library of song and hymn books, consisting of over 7,000 volumes, is one
of the largest of its kind to be found anywhere. Nearly one-half of it
is in the Chicago Public Library where it is known as the “Main
Collection.” Among his most popular tunes are: “We shall Meet Beyond the
River,” “The Bright Forever,” and “In the Fadeless Springtime.”


427. I think when I read that sweet story       _Jemima Luke_, 1813-1906

A hymn that has gone all over the world and has been learned by a
countless number of children of many nations and races. Concerning its
origin, Mrs. Luke has written:

  I went one day on some missionary business to the little town of
  Wellington, five miles from Taunton, in a stage coach. It was a
  beautiful spring morning, it was an hour’s ride, and there was no
  other inside passenger. On the back of an old envelope I wrote in
  pencil the first two of the verses now so well known, in order to
  teach the tune to the village school supported by my stepmother, and
  which it was my province to visit. The third verse was added
  afterwards to make it a missionary hymn.

Jemima Luke was the daughter of Thomas Thompson, one of the founders of
the British and Foreign Sailors’ Society and a “friend of every good
cause.” She volunteered to do missionary work in India, but ill health
made that impossible. All her life, however, she maintained an active
interest in foreign missions. In 1843, she married the Rev. Samuel Luke,
a Congregational minister in Clifton, England.

_MUSIC._ SWEET STORY is an arrangement by Wm. B. Bradbury (see Hymn 103)
of a Greek tune known as “Salamis” or “Athens.” Mrs. Luke heard the
melody (in its original form) used as a marching song by a group of
children in a school near her home where she had gone to learn something
of the teaching methods used. She was intrigued by the tune and wrote
the words to fit it. The words and music are inseparably associated, the
original form of the melody being used in England, and Bradbury’s
adaptation (easier but less interesting) in America.


428. Jesus loves me! this I know             _Anna B. Warner_, 1820-1915

A hymn beloved by all the children. It was composed about 1860.

For comments on the author, Anna Bartlett Warner, see Hymn 201.

_MUSIC._ JESUS LOVES ME. Bradbury’s tune was composed for this hymn in
_The Golden Choir_, 1861.

For comments on William B. Bradbury, see Hymn 103.


429. Loving Shepherd of Thy sheep           _Jane Eliza Leeson_, 1807-82

From Miss Leeson’s _Hymns and Scenes of Childhood_, 1842. Based on John
10:27: “My sheep hear my voice, and I know them and they follow me.”

For comments on the author, Jane Eliza Leeson, see Hymn 298.

_MUSIC._ INNOCENTS. For comments on this tune, see Hymn 64.


430. I am Jesus’ little lamb         _Henriette Luise von Hayn_, 1724-82

A song of the Good Shepherd’s care of His lambs, based on Isa. 40:11:
“He shall feed his flock like a shepherd: he shall gather the lambs with
his arm, and carry them in his bosom.”

Henriette Luise von Hayn, born in Idstein, Nassau, early in life gave
her heart to Christ and often rose at night to spend hours on her knees
in prayer. Influenced by the writings of Zinzendorf, she became
interested in joining the “Brotherhood,” against the wishes of her
parents. One morning, after reading Matthew 10:37, “He that loveth
father or mother more than me is not worthy of me,” she decided to leave
home and did so, mailing a letter in the neighboring village to her
parents explaining her intention to go to Herrnhag to join the Moravian
colony at that place. However, she was detained at Frankfurt and
returned to her home. Her parents now granted her wish to join the
Moravians and the rest of her life was spent as a useful and influential
member of the Brotherhood, first at Herrnhag and later at Herrnhut,
where she received spiritual instruction from Zinzendorf himself. On
August 8, 1776, she wrote “Weil ich Jesu Schäflein bin,” a poem of seven
stanzas, in honor of Sister Christine Petersen’s thirty-sixth birthday.
Our hymn is a selection of three stanzas from this poem.

The German version of the poem is as follows:

  Weil ich Jesu Schäflein bin
    Freu ich mich nur immerhin
  Ueber meinen guten Hirten
    Der mich wohl weiss zu bewirten,
  Der mich liebet, der mich kennt
    Und bei meinem Namen nennt.

  Unter seinem sanften Stab
    Geh’ ich aus und ein, und hab’
  Unaussprechlich süsse Weide
    Dass ich keinen Mangel leide;
  Und so oft ich durstig bin,
    Führt Er mich zum Brunnquell hin.

  Sollt’ ich denn nicht fröhlich sein,
    Ich beglücktes Schäfelein?
  Denn nach diesen schönen Tagen
    Werd’ ich endlich heimgetragen
  In des Hirten Arm und Schoss:
    Amen, ja mein Glück ist gross!

No information concerning the translator, William F. Stevenson, has been
traced.

_MUSIC._ WEIL ICH JESU SCHÄFLEIN BIN is a popular melody, from the
_Gesangbuch mit Noten_ where it appears anonymously. It also appears
with the same words and translation in the United Lutheran _Common
Service Book_, 1918, where the tune is credited to Dölker’s _Geistliche
Lieder_, 1876.


431. Sleep, baby, sleep                         _Ferdinand F. Buermeyer_

The author of this lullaby, Ferdinand F. Buermeyer, has not been traced.
The words were written in 1876.

_MUSIC._ SCHLAF’, KINDLEIN, SCHLAF’ is a German melody composed by
Louise Reichardt, 1788-1826, a German musician, born in Berlin. Her
father, Johann Friedrich Reichardt, was a composer of operas and other
music, and editor of a number of musical periodicals. Louise was a
singing teacher in Hamburg from 1814 until her death. She composed many
songs, a collection of which was published by G. Rheinhardt, Munich,
1922.


432. When He cometh, when He cometh          _Wm. O. Cushing_, 1823-1903

Based on Malachi 3:17: “They shall be mine, saith the Lord of hosts, in
that day when I make up my jewels.”

The author, William Orcutt Cushing, was a minister of the Christian
Church and served congregations of that denomination in various cities
in New York State. Towards the close of his life, however, he joined the
Methodist church. He is the author of more than 300 hymns of the gospel
song type.

_MUSIC._ JEWELS. For comments on the composer of this tune, George F.
Root, see Hymn 418.


433. From yon distant heaven                         _W. Hey_, 1789-1854
                                       _Tr. J. R. Thierstein_, 1867-1941

  Aus dem Himmel ferne,
    Wo die Englein sind,
  Schaut doch Gott so gerne
    Her auf jedes Kind.

  Höret seine Bitte
    Treu bei Tag und Nacht,
  Nimmt’s bei jedem Schritte
    Väterlich in Acht.

  Gibt mit Vaterhänden
    Ihm sein Täglich Brot
  Hilft an allen Enden
    Ihm aus Angst und Not.

  Sagt’s den Kindern allen
    Dass ein Vater ist,
  Dem sie wohlgefallen,
    Der sie nie vergisst.

A popular song for children which appeared originally in the author’s
_Noch 50 Fabeln für Kinder, nebst einem ernsthaften Anhang_, 1857.

Wilhelm Hey was born in Laucha, near Gotha, where he later became
minister of the local parish. He received his education at Jena and
Göttingen Universities and became a well-known writer, minister, and
teacher. His stories for children and young people were widely read. As
a minister he was especially helpful to the poor and sick in the
parishes he served, and took much interest in the distribution of Bibles
where needed.

The translation was made by John R. Thierstein, Ph.D., Professor of
German and French, Bethel College, North Newton, Kansas. Dr. Thierstein
was born in Bowil, Bern, Switzerland. In addition to his work as college
professor, he served the church for a time as editor of _The Mennonite_,
and at the time of his death he was chairman of the Board of
Publications of the General Conference of Mennonites, a position he held
for some years. In the latter capacity it became his duty to see the
_Mennonite Hymnary_, 1940, through the press, a responsibility he
discharged with efficiency and enthusiasm.

_MUSIC._ AUS DEM HIMMEL FERNE. For comments on this tune see Hymn 421.


434. Lo! the heavens are breaking                            _Anonymous_

A spring song, setting forth the love and goodness of God.

Both words and melody are anonymous.


435. Can a little child like me          _Ascribed to Mary Mapes Dodge_,
                                                               1831-1905

A children’s hymn of thanksgiving.

Mary Mapes Dodge, to whom the poem is ascribed, wrote stories and poetry
for children. _Hans Brinker of the Silver Skates_ is her best-known
work. She was also first editor of _St. Nicholas_ magazine.

No information has been traced concerning the composer of the tune, W.
K. Basswood. Words and music were taken from _The Hymnary_, Toronto,
1930, published by the United Church of Canada.


                                MISSIONS


436. Remember all God’s children              _Percy Dearmer_, 1867-1936

A missionary hymn for children, but suitable also for adults. It was
written at the request of the Church Missionary Society (London) for
their children’s magazine, _The Round World_. A few months later,
January 1, 1930, it was reprinted in _Songs of Praise for Boys and
Girls_. The original is in three stanzas of eight lines each. The first
stanza and the first half of the second, omitted in the _Hymnary_, are
as follows:

  Remember all the people
    Who live in far-off lands
  In strange and lovely cities,
    Or roam the desert sands,
  Or farm the mountain pastures,
    Or till the endless plains
  Where children wade through rice-fields
    And watch the camel-trains:

  Some work in sultry forests
    Where apes swing to and fro,
  Some fish in mighty rivers,
    Some hunt across the snow.

Percy Dearmer, prominent figure in the Church of England, was educated
at Oxford, served important posts as minister, and in 1919 became
Professor of Ecclesiastical Art in King’s College, London. He was editor
of two epoch-making hymn books in England—_The English Hymnal_ and
_Songs of Praise_—and wrote an unexcelled handbook to the latter,
entitled _Songs of Praise Discussed_. He is the author of a number of
religious books.

_MUSIC._ EINTRACHT is a melody from the _Gesangbuch mit Noten_, arranged
for unison or two-part singing by Prof. W. H. Hohmann, head of the Music
Department of Bethel College.

Walter H. Hohmann, born at Halstead, Kansas, received his education at
Bethel College and Bush Conservatory of Music, Chicago, the latter
granting him the degree of Bachelor of Music in 1922, and Master of
Music in 1928. After teaching several years at Freeman Junior College,
and one year at Nebraska State Teachers College, he joined the Bethel
College faculty in 1923. In recognition of his long years of service,
Bethel College gave him the honorary degree of Doctor of Music, in 1947.
He has composed a number of songs and served as co-editor of the
_Mennonite Hymnary_, 1940. He is the author of a booklet, _Outlines in
Hymnology with Emphasis on Mennonite Hymnology_, 1941.



                                BOOK III
                              Gospel Songs


437. We praise Thee, O God                   _Wm. Paton Mackay_, 1839-85

A popular song in the Moody and Sankey revivals. It has few equals as a
“rouser” in a revival or prayer meeting. To create interest and add
variety in a special song service, Rodeheaver suggests that the leader
try having the choir sing the chorus all the way through, the
congregation joining only in the “Hallelujah,” and the last phrase,
“Revive us again.”

The author, Wm. Paton Mackay, received his education in the University
of Edinburgh. For some time he was interested in medicine but gave that
up to become the minister of the Prospect Street Presbyterian Church,
Hull, England. He came to an untimely death through an accident.
Seventeen of his hymns appeared in W. Reid’s _Praise Book_, 1872. Among
these was the present hymn, the author’s most widely known work.

_MUSIC._ REVIVE US AGAIN is well suited to the text, though it is also
used with Horatio Bonar’s hymn:

  Rejoice and be glad! for our King is on high;
  He pleadeth for us on his throne in the sky.

  Rejoice and be glad! for He cometh again;
  He cometh in glory, the Lamb that was slain.

  Refrain: Sound His praises! tell the story of Him who was slain!
  Sound His praises! tell with gladness, “He liveth again.”

The composer, John Jenkins Husband, 1760-1825, born in Plymouth,
England, was clerk at Surrey Chapel. In 1809, he came to the United
States and settled in Philadelphia, where he taught music and served as
clerk of St. Paul’s Protestant Episcopal Church. Husband is the
composer, also, of several anthems.


438. Praise Him! Praise Him!                _Fanny J. Crosby_, 1820-1915

One of the many fine lyrics by the blind poet, Fanny Crosby, first
published in Bigelow and Main’s _Bright Jewels_, 1869. A useful and
popular praise song.

For comments on Fanny Crosby, see Hymn 313.

_MUSIC._ ALLEN, a favorite tune wherever gospel songs are in use, was
composed by Chester Allen, 1812-77, who belongs to an American group of
popular hymn-tune writers composed of Lowry, Bliss, Webb, H. P. Main,
and others. No biographical information concerning him is at hand.


439. Come, let us all unite to sing                          _Anonymous_

A hymn built around the theme “God is love,” I John 4:8, 16.

The author is unknown.

_MUSIC._ GOD IS LOVE. This tune was composed by Rev. Edmund S. Lorenz, a
prolific writer of gospel hymn-tunes, and founder and president of the
Lorenz Publishing Company, Dayton, Ohio. Lorenz was born in Stark
County, Ohio, July 13, 1854, and received his education at Otterbein
University, Union Theological Seminary, Yale Divinity School, and the
University of Leipzig. He was a pastor in the United Brethren Church for
a time and then became president of Lebanon Valley College, a post he
was compelled to resign on account of illness. Regaining his health, he
went into the publishing business. He prepared _The Church Hymnal_ for
the United Brethren in Christ in 1935. His publications include
_Practical Church Music_, _The Singing Church_, 1937, and other volumes
on sacred music.


440. There is no name so sweet on earth     _George W. Bethune_, 1805-62

A hymn honoring the name of Jesus. John Wesley always objected to words
like “dear” and “sweet” applied to Jesus, as being too sentimental, and
the terms are never so used in the New Testament. But the gospel song
writers have employed them frequently and many good Christians have no
hesitancy in singing them.

George W. Bethune was the son of a prominent merchant, philanthropist,
and churchman in New York City. On the day of his birth he was dedicated
to God by his godly parents, their prayer being that the child may “be
made a faithful, honored and zealous minister of the everlasting
gospel.” The son was given many educational advantages and made good use
of them. He was admitted to college at 14 and graduated from Princeton
Theological Seminary when only 20 years of age. After serving for a year
as chaplain to the seamen in the port of Savannah, he returned north to
accept the pastorate of a Dutch Reformed Church and later served
churches in Philadelphia, Brooklyn, and elsewhere. A man of fine
literary taste and good scholarship, he was offered, but declined, the
Provostship of the University of Pennsylvania and the Chancellorship of
New York University. He preferred to be a preacher of the Gospel. To his
son and sons-in-law, he gave this dying charge: “My sons, preach the
Gospel. Tell dying sinners of a Saviour. All the rest is but folly.” He
went to Florence, Italy, for his health and died there on a Sunday night
after having preached in the Scottish Church in the morning on the text,
“Be of good cheer: thy sins be forgiven thee.” The following poem, found
in his portfolio, was written on the Saturday before his death:

  When time seems short and death is near,
    And I am pressed by doubt and fear,
  And sins, an overflowing tide,
    Assail my peace on every side,
  This thought my refuge still shall be,
    I know the Saviour died for me.

  His name is Jesus, and he died,
    For guilty sinners crucified;
  Content to die that he might win
    Their ransom from the death of sin:
  No sinner worse than I can be,
    Therefore I know he died for me.

  If grace were bought, I could not buy;
    If grace were coined, no wealth have I;
  By grace alone I draw my breath,
    Held up from everlasting death;
  Yet, since I know his grace is free,
    I know the Saviour died for me.

  I read God’s holy Word, and find
    Great truths which far transcend my mind;
  And little do I know beside
    Of thoughts so high, so deep, so wide:
  This is my best theology,
    I know the Saviour died for me.

  My faith is weak, but ’tis Thy gift;
    Thou canst my helpless soul uplift,
  And say, “Thy bonds of death are riven,
    Thy sins by Me are all forgiven;
  And thou shalt live from guilt set free,
    For I, thy Saviour, died for thee.”

His body was brought to New York for burial. Among the directions he had
left for his funeral was this: “Sing my own hymn, ‘It is not death to
die,’ to a cheerful tune.” The request was carried out. The hymn
referred to is a translation he had made of a poem by the distinguished
Swiss preacher, César Malan.

_MUSIC._ SWEETEST NAME. The name of the tune is obviously derived from
the words for which it was composed. For comments on the composer, Wm.
B. Bradbury, see Hymn 103.


441. Take my heart, O Father, take it                        _Anonymous_

A simple hymn of consecration and devotion whose author evidently
preferred to remain anonymous.

_MUSIC._ DORRNANCE. The tune is simplicity itself. Concerning his tunes,
Woodbury wrote in the preface to his _New Lute of Zion_, 1856:

  The music is not designed for the fastidious and scientific musician
  whose highest delight, and perhaps sole worship, is music as an art,
  but for those who love to worship God in the simple song of praise.

For comments on the composer, Isaac B. Woodbury, 1819-58, see Hymn 261.


442. ’Tis the promise of God, full salvation to give          _Philip P.
                                                         Bliss_, 1838-76

A hymn with a curious origin which became popular in revival meetings.
It voices the spontaneous thanksgivings that break out at the
announcement of a conversion. Bliss wanted to include “Hallelujah! Thine
the glory” (No. 437) in his _Gospel Songs_, 1874. The owner of the
copyright refused permission whereupon Bliss wrote “Hallelujah! ’tis
done”—both words and music—as a substitute.

Philip P. Bliss, a Congregationalist, born in Rome, Pa., was reared in
the country. He had only the meagerest early advantages for the
development of his musical talents but he made the most of them and
became one of the greatest leaders and writers of evangelistic songs.
Combining the gift of poet and musician, he succeeded in putting gospel
truths in poetic and singable form, usually writing both words and
music. In his early career he conducted musical conventions throughout
the Middle West, served as director of music for the First
Congregational Church in Chicago, and was connected with the music
publishing house of Root and Cady in Chicago. Through the influence of
D. L. Moody, he gave up his business and professional pursuits and
entered the evangelistic field. He assisted Sankey in the editing of the
series called _Gospel Hymns_, in which some of his own celebrated hymns
and songs first appeared. His rare gifts as a singer and leader,
combined with an impressive personality, made him one of the outstanding
leaders in the evangelistic movement. His life came to an early and
tragic end December 29, 1876, in a railroad disaster near Ashtabula,
Ohio, while he and Mrs. Bliss were returning to Chicago from Rome, Pa.,
where the two had spent Christmas. A railroad bridge gave way, resulting
in a wreck which took the lives of one hundred passengers. Bliss had
escaped unhurt, but going back to rescue his wife, he was evidently
overcome by the flames which had spread and was not seen again. His
premature death at the age of 38 was widely lamented.


443. Come, we that love the Lord                _Isaac Watts_, 1674-1748

This hymn, entitled by Watts, “Heavenly Joy on Earth,” appeared in his
_Hymns and Sacred Songs_, 1707.

For comments on Isaac Watts, see Hymn 11.

_MUSIC._ The tune is by Robert Lowry, 1826-99, a Baptist minister who
held a pastorate in Brooklyn, N. Y., and did much to promote the gospel
song movement. He edited a series of eight books for Bigelow and Main,
with such titles as _Bright Jewels_ and _Pure Gold_, to which he added a
large number of tunes of his own composition. The public bought these
books by the hundreds of thousands. Lowry had no serious training in
music and did not take up composition until middle life. He was
concerned mostly with the production of music which was popularly
effective.

Watts’ hymn appears in many hymn books with the more dignified tune,
“St. Thomas,” by Williams (No. 269).


444. I lay my sins on Jesus                    _Horatius Bonar_, 1808-89

The hymn, entitled “The Fulness of Jesus,” was written for children in a
desire to provide something which children could sing and appreciate in
divine worship. It is generally supposed to be the first hymn Bonar
wrote. He used to say of this hymn that it might be good gospel but that
it was not good poetry. Bonar loved children and for them his first
hymns were written.

For further comments on Horatius Bonar see Hymn 129.

_MUSIC._ PRYSGOL, composed by W. Owen, 1814-93, was taken from the
_Hymnary_ of the United Church of Canada. No information regarding the
composer or the origin of the hymn has been traced.


445. I’ve found a Friend, O such a Friend      _James G. Small_, 1817-88

This hymn was written by a minister of the Free Church of Scotland and
appeared in _The Revival Hymn Book_, 2d series, 1863, and later in the
author’s _Psalms and Sacred Songs_, 1866.

James Grindlay Small was educated at Edinburgh University where Dr.
Thomas Chalmers was one of his professors. He became minister of a
church in 1847, but owing to peculiarities of voice and manner, he never
succeeded well as a preacher. However, he was a man of fine Christian
character and had the confidence of his brethren. Small was interested
in hymnology and is the author of a number of hymns and poems.

_MUSIC._ FRIEND. The tune was written by Stebbins while he and Dr.
Pentecost were conducting an evangelistic campaign in Providence, R. I.
It was first published in _Gospel Hymns No. 3_, one of a series of
popular books with which the composer’s name was associated as
co-editor.

For comments on George Stebbins see Hymn 38.


446. I have found a Friend in Jesus                          _C. W. Fry_

A song of the friendship of Jesus and its meaning to one who experiences
it. The words are based on Song of Songs 2:1-2:

  “I am the rose of Sharon, and the lily of the valleys. As the lily
  among the thorns, so is my love among the daughters.” Also on
  Revelation 22:16: “I am the root and offspring of David, and the
  bright and morning star.”

The author, C. W. Fry, was prominent in Salvation Army circles in
London.

_MUSIC._ LILY OF THE VALLEY is an English melody of anonymous
composition.


447. One is kind above all others             _Marianne Nunn_, 1778-1847

A hymn on the love of Jesus, which has been used extensively as a song
for children, especially in England. It was originally written to adapt
John Newton’s hymn:

  “One there is above all others,
  Well deserves the name of friend,”

to the Welsh air, “Ar hyd y nos” (No. 35), and the hymn may well be sung
to this tune.

Marianne Nunn was an English woman of refinement and culture. She is the
author of _The Benevolent Merchant_, and of several hymns. The latter
were published in _Psalms and Hymns_, 1817, a collection compiled by her
brother, Rev. John Nunn, who also contributed some of his own hymns to
the same volume.

_MUSIC._ CARITAS. No information has been traced concerning Richard W.
Beaty, 1799-1883, composer of the tune. The editors of the _Hymnary_
found the tune and words in the _Hymnary_ of the United Church of
Canada.


448. Brightly beams our Father’s mercy        _Philip P. Bliss_, 1838-76

A song which is best understood by people living on the sea-coast or
lakeshore, or whose lives are spent in work which keeps them upon the
water.

The words were suggested by an illustration given by D. L. Moody in one
of his sermons:

  On a dark, stormy night, when the waves rolled like mountains and not
  a star was to be seen, a boat, rocking and plunging, neared the
  Cleveland harbor. “Are you sure this is Cleveland?” asked the captain,
  seeing only one light from the lighthouse. “Quite sure, sir,” replied
  the pilot. “Where are the lower lights?” “Gone out, sir.” “Can you
  make the harbor?” “We must, or perish, sir!” With a strong hand and a
  brave heart the old pilot turned the wheel. But, alas, in the darkness
  he missed the channel, and with a crash upon the rocks the boat was
  shivered, and many a life lost in a watery grave. Brethren, the Master
  will take care of the great lighthouse; let us keep the lower lights
  burning.

_MUSIC._ LOWER LIGHTS. There is awakening power in the tune and
congregations love to sing it. It is especially effective when sung by a
large number of voices. The chorus lends itself to interesting
antiphonal effects in a special song service. Let the whole congregation
sing the first phrase, a smaller group the second; the whole
congregation again the third phrase, and the smaller group the last.

For comments on the author and composer, Philip P. Bliss, see Hymn 442.


449. Lead me gently home, Father           _Will L. Thompson_, 1847-1909

Written by the author of “Softly and tenderly, Jesus is calling.”

For comments on Will L. Thompson, who wrote both words and music, see
Hymn 456.


450. I know whom I have believed          _Daniel W. Whittle_, 1840-1901

The hymn is built around the verse: “I know whom I have believed, and am
persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed to him
against that day” (II Tim. 1:12), which serves as a refrain. The general
structure of the hymn is similar to Farrington’s “I know not how that
Bethlehem’s Babe” (No. 99).

Daniel W. Whittle was born in Chicopee Falls, Mass. At the age of 15, he
went to Chicago to work in a bank, but at the outbreak of the Civil War
he became attached to the Illinois Infantry and served for the duration,
going with Sherman, as a lieutenant, on his “March to the Sea.” At the
close of the war he was promoted to the rank of major. He was the
treasurer of a business firm, when, in 1873, he heeded the call of God
to enter the evangelistic field where he became associated with D. L.
Moody. He was a powerful speaker and lecturer; and frequently, with the
assistance of singers like P. P. Bliss, James McGranahan, and George
Stebbins, continued evangelistic campaigns begun by Moody, under the
latter’s direction. Whittle was a great friend of children and knew how
to put evangelical truth in words they understood, supplementing his
talks with wall maps, illustrations, and chemical experiments. His
daughter, Mary, became the wife of Will L. Moody, son of the evangelist.
He was a member of the Congregational Church. His hymns, written after
1877, mostly for McGranahan, reveal true poetic talent, though he made
no claim to be a poet. Among his best known hymns are: “I know whom I
have believed,” “Dying with Jesus,” “Moment by moment,” “Fierce and
wild.” The latter was translated into German by Ernst Gebhardt,
translator of “_Ich weiss einen Strom_.”

_MUSIC._ The tune is by James W. McGranahan, 1840-1907, who succeeded
the lamented P. P. Bliss as song leader in the evangelistic campaigns
conducted by Major Whittle. Between 1881 and 1885, Whittle and
McGranahan made two successful tours of England, Scotland, and Ireland,
and the chief cities of America. McGranahan, born at Adamsville, Pa.,
received only an elementary-school education. His native musical talent
and some assistance from men like Bassini, Webb, Root, and Zerrahn
enabled him to make rapid progress in music; and he soon taught music
classes of his own. He was gifted with a beautiful tenor voice and an
impressive personality to add to his power as a song leader.


451. O Christ, in Thee my soul hath found                    _Anonymous_

The authorship of this hymn remains unknown. That “gospel songs” are
often appreciated by highly educated and cultured people is illustrated
by the fact that this hymn was a favorite of Professor Henry Drummond,
who used it frequently at meetings for university students in Edinburgh,
1885-89.

_Music._ NONE BUT CHRIST was composed for this hymn and published in
McGranahan’s _Sacred Songs and Solos_, 1883.

For comments on James McGranahan see Hymn 450.


452. Low in the grave He lay                     _Robert Lowry_, 1826-99

The words and music of this Easter song are by Rev. Robert Lowry,
written while he was pastor of a Baptist church in Brooklyn, N. Y.

Lowry was a faithful and successful minister of the Gospel, but is more
widely known as a composer of sacred music. “I felt a sort of meanness
when I began to be known as a composer,” he said. His first love was
preaching. Music was to him a “side issue,” and the making and delivery
of a sermon ranked far above the writing of a hymn. He is the author of
the popular song, “Where is my wandering boy tonight,” and wrote the
tune to “I need Thee every hour,” and edited many successful Sunday
school and evangelistic hymn books.

For further comments on Lowry see Hymn 187.


453. I know that my Redeemer liveth         _Jessie H. Brown_, 1861-1921

A popular Easter song based on Job 19:25: “I know that my redeemer
liveth, and that he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth.”

Jessie H. Brown was born in Hiram, a college suburb of Cleveland, Ohio.
Due to ill health in childhood, she gained most of her education at
home. At 15 years of age, she began to write for Cleveland newspapers
and religious weeklies and for many years wrote hymns for Fillmore Bros.
In 1896 she married Rev. John E. Pounds, at that time pastor of the
Central Christian Church in Indianapolis, and later college pastor at
Hiram. Her early poems bear her maiden name, while the later ones (No.
498, for example) are signed “Jessie B. Pounds.” She is the author of 9
books, 50 librettos for cantatas and operettas, and nearly 400 hymns.
Her best known song poems are “Anywhere with Jesus, I can safely go,”
“The way of the Cross leads home,” “Beautiful Isle of Somewhere,” and
the present, “I know that my Redeemer liveth.” The latter appeared first
in an Easter cantata entitled, _Hope’s Messenger_.

_MUSIC._ FILLMORE was composed by James H. Fillmore who was born June 1,
1849, in Cincinnati, Ohio, into a musical family. After his father’s
death, James headed the Fillmore music publishing business in Cincinnati
for many years. His compositions include numerous popular titles: “I am
resolved,” “I know that my Redeemer liveth,” “Only waiting,” and many
more.


454. O the unsearchable riches of Christ    _Fanny J. Crosby_, 1820-1915

The well-known fact that Fanny Crosby was blind all her life adds pathos
to the power of her songs. The hymn reveals the spiritual riches in her
life notwithstanding the cross of affliction laid on her through the
loss of her eyesight. Frances Ridley Havergal (See Hymn 126), the gifted
English poet and hymn writer, paid her tribute to Fanny Crosby in the
following lines:

  How can she sing in the dark like this?
  What is her fountain of light and bliss?
  With never the light of a loving face
  Must not the world be a desolate place?

  O, her heart can see, her heart can see!
  And its sight is strong and swift and free.
  Never the ken of mortal eye
  Could pierce so deep and far and high
  As the eagle vision of hearts that dwell
  In that lofty, sunlit citadel.

  For the King himself, in his tender grace,
  Hath shown her the brightness of his face;
  She can read his law as a shining chart,
  For his finger hath written it on her heart;
  And she reads his love, for on all her way
  His hand is writing it every day.
  O, this is why she sings so free:
  Her heart can see, her heart can see!

_MUSIC._ For comments on the composer, John R. Sweney, 1837-99, see Hymn
342.


455. It may be at morn, when the day is awaking           _H. L. Turner_

A song of the imminent return of our Lord, based on I Thess. 5:2: “The
day of the Lord so cometh as a thief in the night,”—and the lengthier
passage in I Thess. 4:15-18.

Information concerning the author, H. L. Turner, has not been traced.

_MUSIC._ CHRIST RETURNETH. For comments on the composer, James
McGranahan, see Hymn 450.


456. Softly and tenderly Jesus is calling            _Will L. Thompson_,
                                                               1847-1909

A song which has wide use as an invitational hymn at revival meetings.

Will Lamartine Thompson was born at East Liverpool, Ohio, and made his
home there all his life. He attended Mt. Union College, Alliance, Ohio,
and studied music at the Boston Conservatory of Music. His greatest
interest was in sacred song, but he also wrote secular songs, among them
the popular, “Come where the lilies bloom.” A successful businessman and
song writer, Thompson was known also as a man of beautiful and sterling
Christian character. “Simplicity, sincerity, humility, and righteousness
marked his life.” He once called to inquire of D. L. Moody at a time
when the latter lay very ill and visitors were forbidden. Moody insisted
that Thompson be admitted and said to him in the course of their brief
conversation: “I would rather have written ‘Softly and tenderly Jesus is
calling’ than anything I have been able to do in my whole life.”


457. Come, every soul by sin oppressed       _John H. Stockton_, 1813-77

An invitation hymn that has been a help and blessing to many. The
original refrain:

  “Come to Jesus, come to Jesus,
    Come to Jesus now.”

was changed by Ira Sankey to

  “Only trust Him, only trust Him.”

In leading this song, Sankey sometimes changed the chorus to

  “I will trust Him,” or “I do trust Him.”

John H. Stockton, composer of words and music, was born at New Hope,
Pa., and reared in a Presbyterian family. At the age of 19 he was
converted in a Methodist camp meeting and became a Methodist preacher.
After many years of pastoral and evangelistic work, as a member of the
New Jersey Annual Conference, he retired in 1874. He had considerable
musical ability and published two gospel song books, _Salvation
Melodies_, 1874, and _Precious Songs_, 1875. He rendered valuable
assistance in the Moody and Sankey meeting held in Philadelphia, after
which Sankey wrote him:

  I thank my Heavenly Father for enabling you to write so much sweet
  music, as well as words; and I hope you may long be spared to bless
  the world with your “precious songs.” I wish you to accept our regards
  for one whose songs have been blessed to tens of thousands in the
  lands beyond the seas.

Stockton died suddenly while talking to friends just after having
attended the morning service at Arch Street Church, Philadelphia, on
March 25, 1877.


458. Just as I am, without one plea       _Charlotte Elliott_, 1789-1871

An immortal hymn expressing the feelings and needs of all penitent
believers. It has been a source of comfort and help to multitudes of
people.

“You must come to Christ just as you are.” These words, spoken to Miss
Elliott by Dr. César Malan of Geneva, at a time when she was suffering
and spiritually depressed, resulted in a new birth and formed the basis
of her hymn, written twelve years later, in 1834, and now known all over
the world. The hymn was first published in the author’s _Invalids’ Hymn
Book_, 1836, headed with the text, John 6:37: “All that the Father
giveth me shall come to me; and him that cometh to me I shall in no wise
cast out.”

The words were written one day when other members of her family were
busy arranging for a bazaar to be held for a school banquet. The
immediate circumstances are related by Dr. Handley C. G. Moule, Bishop
of Durham, as follows:

  The night before the bazaar she was kept wakeful by distressing
  thoughts of her apparent uselessness; and these thoughts passed into a
  spiritual conflict till she questioned the reality of her whole
  spiritual life and wondered whether it were anything better, after
  all, than an illusion of the emotions—an illusion ready to be
  sorrowfully dispelled. The next day, the busy day of the bazaar, the
  troubles of the night came back upon her with such force that she felt
  they must be met and conquered in the grace of God. She gathered up in
  her soul the grand certainties, not of her emotions, but of her
  salvation: her Lord, his power, his promise. And taking pen and paper
  from the table, she deliberately set down in writing for her own
  comfort the formulae of her faith. So in verse she restated to herself
  the gospel of pardon, peace, and heaven. As the day wore on, her
  sister-in-law, Mrs. H. V. Elliott, came in to see her and bring news
  of the work. She read the hymn and asked (she well might) for a copy.
  So it first stole out from that quiet room into the world, where now
  for sixty years it has been sowing and reaping till a multitude which
  only God can number have been blessed through its message.

Though a helpless invalid, Miss Elliott probably did more that day for
her Lord and the upbuilding of His Kingdom than the rest of the family,
all strong in body.

The hymn was sent to Dora Wordsworth, daughter of the poet, while she
was on her death bed. Her husband, Edward Quillinan, has written of the
incident in a letter to Miss Elliott, dated July 28, 1847. He tells of
Dora’s appreciation of the hymn and her continual use of it during her
last days on earth.

After Miss Elliott died, more than a thousand letters, thanking her for
this hymn, were found.

For further comments on Charlotte Elliott see Hymn 233.

A translation of this hymn has had wide use in Germany where it is sung
to the tune, “Jesus, meine Zuversicht.”

  Wie ich bin, komm’ ich zu dir—
  Nichts hat mir die Tür erschlossen,
  Als dein Ruf: “Kommt her zu mir,”
  Und dein Blut, für mich geflossen;
  Diesz allein ermutigt mich—
    Gotteslamm, hier komme ich!

  Wie ich bin, komm’ ich zu dir!
  Auch nicht einen meiner Fehle
  Auszutilgen, steht bei mir;
  Meine schuldbefleckte Seele
  Wird gereinigt nur durch dich,
    Gotteslamm, hier komme ich!

  Wie ich bin, komm’ ich zu dir,
  Ob auch Zweifel mich umfangen;
  Umgetrieben bin ich hier
  Von so manchem Kampf und Bangen,
  Trübsal in—und äuszerlich—
    Gotteslamm, hier komme ich!

  Wie ich bin, tret’ ich herzu—
  Elend, arm, am Geist erblindet;
  Meinen Mangel stillest du;
  Heilung, Reichtum, der nicht schwindet,
  Alles finde ich durch dich—
    Gotteslamm, hier komme ich!

  Wie ich bin, komm’ ich zu dir,
  Deine Liebe sonder Gleichen
  Ist zu stark geworden mir,
  Alle Schranken müssen weichen;
  Dir, nur dir verschreib’ ich mich—
    Gotteslamm, hier komme ich!

_MUSIC._ WOODWORTH was first published in Hastings’ and Bradbury’s
hymnal, _The Third Book of Psalms_, 1849, set to the words, “The God of
love will surely indulge.” The tune became widely known after its
association with “Just as I am, without one plea.” It is the most
popular of Bradbury’s tunes and appears in nearly all American hymnals.

For comments on Wm. Bradbury see Hymn 103.


459. Come, ye sinners, poor and needy             _Joseph Hart_, 1712-68

An evangelistic song, written by a Congregational minister. Hart, born
in London and brought up in a devout Christian home, was well educated
and taught the classics for many years. Early in life he departed from
his religious training and fell into a life of “carnal and spiritual
wickedness, irreligious and profane.” After continuing in this state for
a long period of years, during which he exerted a pernicious influence
upon all with whom he associated, Hart became deeply convicted, in his
fortieth year, and betook himself to daily prayer and Bible reading. He
was finally converted upon hearing a sermon on Rev. 3:10: “Because thou
hast kept the word of my patience, I also will keep thee from the hour
of temptation, which shall come upon all the world, to try them that
dwell upon the earth”—preached in the Moravian Chapel in Fetter Lane,
London. Becoming an earnest and consecrated Christian, and writer of
hymns, he was importuned to become a preacher, which he did, although in
his 48th year. From 1760 till his death in 1768, he preached regularly
as pastor of an Independent Congregation in London, drawing large
crowds. He died in the midst of labors and successes almost
unprecedented, and it is said that 20,000 people came to his funeral. He
is remembered chiefly, however, for his hymns, most of them of the
evangelistic type.

_MUSIC._ GREENVILLE, a beautifully quaint and popular tune, was not
written for sacred use but for a little song in the opera _Le Devin du
Village_, by Rousseau. It was once popular in a piano arrangement known
as “Rousseau’s Dream.”

Jean Jacques Rousseau, 1712-78, philosopher and musician, was born at
Geneva. Though not a religious man, he greatly influenced education in
Europe and became one of the great forces in modern literature. A
political radical, he was forced to leave France and for a time lived in
England. His opera, _Le Devin du Village_, was a success, but none of
his later musical efforts came to anything. He lived an unhappy life and
is thought to have committed suicide. His death occurred near Paris,
July 3, 1778.


460. I have a Savior, He’s pleading in glory          _S. O’Maley Cluff_

A favorite prayer-meeting hymn for many years, in many churches.

Sankey came across these words in a printed leaflet while he was on his
first visit with D. L. Moody to Ireland in 1874. It was the second hymn
to which he wrote music and was much used in later Moody-Sankey revival
services.

No definite information has been traced by hymnologists concerning
Samuel O’Malley Clough to whom the words are attributed. He is believed
to have been an Irish clergyman who left the Established Church to unite
with the Plymouth Brethren in Ireland; later (1881) seceding from that
body to lead a “holiness” schism which has since become extinct. Julian
and others spell the name “Clough”; Sankey spells it “Cluff.”

_MUSIC._ CLUFF derives its name from the author of the words to which
Sankey set the tune.

Ira David Sankey, 1840-1908, famous singer of “gospel songs,” was born
in Edinburg, Pa., and was a member of the Methodist Church. For many
years he was associated with D. L. Moody in evangelistic work in America
and England. He composed many gospel tunes, the most popular of which is
his “Ninety and Nine,” and edited numerous songbooks. Concerning his own
gift of singing and songs suited to his purpose, he wrote:

  I am no musician, I am no singer; I was never taught to sing.... As to
  my singing there is no art or conscious design in it. I never touch a
  song that does not speak to me in every word and phrase. Before I sing
  I must feel, and the hymn must be of such a kind that I know I can
  send home what I feel into the hearts of those who listen. I find it
  much more difficult to get good words than good music. Our best words
  come from England; the music which best suits our purpose comes from
  America. Your composers, apparently, do not care to write simple songs
  such as we need. We can get plenty of the grand and solid style, but
  though that is useful now and again, our services could not thrive on
  it.

Homer Rodeheaver has used this song with antiphonal effects by letting
the choir sing the first phrase of the refrain, the audience responding
with the second; or, if the audience is large, letting one side, then
the other side, then the whole congregation, then the gallery sing,
successively, one phrase each of the refrain.


461. A ruler once came to Jesus by night                 _W. T. Sleeper_

Based on our Lord’s words to Nicodemus: “Verily, verily, I say unto you,
... ye must be born again” (John 3:3-7).

The hymn was written by Rev. W. T. Sleeper, one of the pastors in the
city of Worcester, Mass., upon the request of Geo. C. Stebbins, who was
assisting Dr. Pentecost in a revivalistic campaign in that city. One of
the latter’s sermon themes was “The New Birth.” As the truth of this
great theme was being enforced and illustrated, it occurred to Stebbins
that a musical setting of this Scripture passage in John 3 would be an
effective means of emphasizing the truth of the new birth. He asked the
Rev. Sleeper to write some verses on the subject and the result was this
hymn. Before the meetings closed, Stebbins had composed this tune for
the words. The song was published in _Gospel Hymns, No. 3_, and has been
widely used as solo, choir number, and congregational song in revival
meetings and otherwise.

_MUSIC._ BORN AGAIN. For comments on George C. Stebbins, 1846-1945, a
composer of the tune, see Hymn 38.


462. I hear the Savior say                      _Elvina M. Hall_, 1818-?

A much-used and much-loved revival hymn which came into use, especially
in Methodist churches, several years before Moody’s great revivalistic
movement.

Mrs. Elvina M. Hall (later Mrs. Myers), author of the words, was born in
Alexandria, Va., in 1818. She composed this hymn, strangely enough,
while sitting in the choir of the M. E. Church, Baltimore, pencilling
the first draft on a fly-leaf of a hymn book, _The New Lute of Zion_,
during the pastor’s prayer! It is the only hymn known that can be traced
to such an origin. The author’s mind, indeed, wandered from the
immediate service of worship, but it did not stray from God and prayer.

_MUSIC._ ALL TO CHRIST. John T. Grape, born in Baltimore, Md., 1833, was
choir director in his church when he wrote the tune, after having made
it “a matter of prayer and study.” He writes that “it was pronounced
very poor by my choir and my friends, but my dear wife persistently
declared it was a good piece of music and would live.” Mrs. Grape’s
faith was justified by the wide reception and use the tune has enjoyed.
The minister of the church, Rev. Mr. Schrick, liked the tune upon
hearing it and suggested that it be used with the words written by Mrs.
Elvina M. Hall. This was done, and the song started on its career. It
was first published in a volume called, _Sabbath Chords_.


463. Amazing grace! how sweet the sound         _John Newton_, 1725-1807

The original has six stanzas and is entitled, “Faith’s Review and
Expectation.”

The hymn reminds one of Newton’s words: “I can never forget two things:
first, that I was a great sinner, and second, that Jesus is a great
Saviour.” It is based on I Chron. 17:16, 17:

  Who am I, O Lord God, and what is mine house, that Thou hast brought
  me hitherto? And yet this was a small thing in thine eyes, O God; for
  thou hast also spoken of thy servant’s house for a great while to
  come, and hast regarded me according to the estate of a man of high
  degree, O Lord God.

For comments on John Newton, see Hymn 274.

_MUSIC._ MCINTOSH, also known as “Amazing Grace,” is believed to be an
old Southern melody. It appeared in _Southern Harmony_, by William
Walker, 1835, anonymously. Dr. Robert McCutchan thinks it may be a
variant of an old tune called “Loving Lamb.”

For comments on Edwin O. Excell, 1851-1921, who arranged the tune, see
Hymn 420.


464. Down at the cross where my Savior died         _Elisha A. Hoffman_,
                                                                  1839-?

The words are by the Rev. Elisha A. Hoffman who was born of Pennsylvania
German parents. Hoffman became a Congregational minister and served
churches of his denomination in Lebanon, Pa., and other places, and
wrote a number of hymns and tunes.

_MUSIC._ GLORY TO HIS NAME. For comments on the composer of this tune,
Rev. John H. Stockton, see Hymn 457.


465. O happy day, that fixed my choice       _Philip Doddridge_, 1702-51

This hymn, reflecting spiritual joy, is often used at baptismal services
and is also one of the best revival hymns. It is based on II Chron.
15:15: “And all Judah rejoiced at the oath; for they had sworn with all
their heart, and sought him with their whole desire; ... and the Lord
gave them rest round about.”

The original title was “Rejoicing in our covenant engagements to God.”
It was published in 1819, by the author’s great-grandson, John Doddridge
Humphreys.

The hymn was chosen by Prince Albert, the consort of Queen Victoria, to
be sung always on occasions when members of the royal family were
confirmed. It reflects a deep and rich experience of God. “Blessed is
the man,” says James Montgomery, “who can take the words of the hymn and
make them his own from similar experience.”

For comments on Philip Doddridge see Hymn 56.

_MUSIC._ HAPPY DAY is an adaptation from a work by E. F. Rimbault,
1816-76, a London scholar, musician and writer. He became organist at
Swiss Church, Soho, London, and was offered, but declined, the chair of
professor of music at Harvard University. The tune was originally a
popular secular melody. The English _Hymnary_ uses this hymn set to a
tune called “Heaton Norris,” with refrain omitted.


466. Sinners Jesus will receive          _Arr. from Erdmann Neumeister_,
                                                               1671-1756
                                    _Tr. Emma Frances Beaven_, 1827-1909

An English version of a popular German hymn which appeared first in the
author’s _Evangelische Nachklänge_, Hamburg, 1719. The hymn is
appropriate for missionary services. The original in eight stanzas,
written by Neumeister as a conclusion to a sermon on Luke 15:1, “Then
drew near to him all the publicans and sinners for to hear him,” is as
follows:

                                   1.
  Jesus nimmt die Sünder an;
    Saget doch dies Trostwort allen,
  Welche von der rechten Bahn
    Auf verkehrten Weg verfallen!
  Hier ist, was sie retten kann:
  Jesus nimmt die Sünder an.

                                   2.
  Keiner Gnade sind wir wert,
    Doch hat er in seinem Worte
  Eidlich sich dazu erklärt
    Sehet nur, die Gnadenpforte
  Ist hier völlig aufgetan:
  Jesus nimmt die Sünder an.

                                   3.
  Wenn ein Schaf verloren ist,
    Suchet es ein treuer Hirte;
  Jesus, der uns nie vergisst,
    Suchet treulich das Verirrte,
  Dass es nicht verderben kann:
  Jesus nimmt die Sünder an.

                                   4.
  Kommet alle, kommet her,
    Kommet, ihr betrübten Sünder!
  Jesus rufet euch, und er
    Macht aus Sündern Gottes Kinder.
  Glaubet’s doch und denket dran:
  Jesus nimmt die Sünder an.

                                   5.
  Ich Betrübter komme hier
    Und bekenne meine Sünden.
  Lass, mein Heiland, mich bei dir
    Gnade zur Vergebung finden,
  Dass dies Wort mich trösten kann:
  Jesus nimmt die Sünder an.

                                   6.
  Ich bin ganz getrostes Muts.
    Ob die Sünden blutrot wären,
  Müssten sie kraft deines Bluts
    Dennoch sich in Schneeweiss kehren
  Da ich gläubig sprechen kann:
  Jesus nimmt die Sünder an.

                                   7.
  Mein Gewissen beisst mich nicht,
    Moses darf mich nicht verklagen;
  Der mich frei und ledig spricht,
    Hat die Schulden abgetragen,
  Dass mich nichts verdammen kann:
  Jesus nimmt die Sünder an.

                                   8.
  Jesus nimmt die Sünder an,
    Mich hat er auch angenommen
  Und den Himmel aufgetan,
    Dass ich selig zu ihm kommen
  Und auf den Trost sterben kann:
  Jesus nimmt die Sünder an.

The four stanzas of our text correspond to stanzas 1, 4, 7, and 8 of the
original. The translation is by Mrs. Emma Frances Beaven, 1827-1909,
concerning whom no biographical information has been traced. Her work
was altered somewhat to fit McGranahan’s tune.

Erdmann Neumeister was a distinguished student and afterwards lecturer
at Leipzig University. Later he achieved fame as a court preacher and as
pastor of St. James’ Church, Hamburg. An eloquent preacher and a strong
High Lutheran, he opposed the Moravians and the Pietists of his day,
holding that their teachings were too subjective. Besides being a gifted
preacher, he was also a musician of ability and eminence. He originated
the cantata form of church music and composed a number of works in that
form. He is the author of 650 hymns, many of them of the highest rank
and still in general use in Germany though only a few have been
translated into English.

_MUSIC._ NEUMEISTER. For comments on the composer of this popular gospel
tune with its change of rhythm in the refrain, James McGranahan, see
Hymn 450.

The German words are set to the tune, “_Grosser Gott wir loben Dich_” in
the _Gesangbuch mit Noten_.


467. The whole world was lost                 _Philip P. Bliss_, 1838-76

Based on the incident in John 9, in which Jesus restored the sight to
the man born blind, and the saying of Jesus, “I am the light of the
world” (John 9:5).

For comments on Philip P. Bliss, author and composer, see Hymn 442.


468. Jesus, my all, to heaven is gone            _John Cennick_, 1718-55

A hymn which has had wide use in prayer-meeting and camp-meeting
assemblies. A hearty unison “crescendo” on the last stanza is
impressive:

  “Then will I tell to sinners round
  What a dear Savior I have found;
  I’ll point to His redeeming blood,
  And say, ‘Behold, the way to God.’”

The author had known the joy of finding Christ and his hymn reflects his
personal experience. While frequenting London, as a youth, in a vain
search for employment,

  He became addicted, in consequence, to sight-seeing, song-singing,
  play-going, card-playing, horse-racing, ball-frequenting, and the
  like. But on an Easter visit to London, in 1735, he was seriously
  impressed as he was walking hastily in Cheapside. He became greatly
  distressed on account of his sins, broke off from his sinful course,
  and walked softly before God; but he found no peace until September 6,
  1737, in his nineteenth year, when he was enabled to trust in Christ
  alone and find joy and peace in believing.

For further comments on John Cennick, see Hymn 130.

_MUSIC._ DUANE STREET, a stirring revival tune, was composed by Rev.
George Coles, in 1835, for one of James Montgomery’s hymns, but has been
associated with this hymn for many years.

George Coles, 1792-1858, was born in Stewkley, England, and died in New
York City. He came to America as a young man and spent all his life in
the Methodist ministry. He was editor of the _New York Christian
Advocate_ and the _Sunday School Advocate_, for some years, and was a
composer of ability, besides being a good singer.


469. Lord Jesus, I long to be perfectly whole     _James Nicholson, 19th
                                                                  cent._

A hymn that has brought joy and release to many sin-burdened souls,
especially encouraging with its promise in stanza 4:

  “To those who have sought Thee
  Thou never saidst, No.”

It is built around the verse

  “Wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow” (Psalm 51:7).

The hymn appeared in Sankey’s _Songs and Solos_.

The author, James Nicholson, was an American Methodist minister of the
19th century.

_MUSIC._ FISCHER. The composer, William Gustavus Fischer, 1835-1912, was
born in Baltimore, Md. Moving to Philadelphia in early life, he received
a good musical education and became a teacher of piano and singing, and
conductor of choral groups and Welsh singing societies in that city. For
ten years he was Professor of Music at Girard College, and at the same
time became associated with J. E. Gould in a flourishing piano business,
under the firm name of Gould and Fischer. In 1876, he led the Moody and
Sankey choir in the great building at Thirteenth and Market Streets in
Philadelphia.


470. O Thou, in whose presence my soul takes delight     _Joseph Swain_,
                                                                 1761-96

Swain entitled this hymn, “A Description of Christ by His Grace and
Power,” which was suggested to him by the description of the “Shepherd”
in Solomon’s Song 1:7. The original poem has nine stanzas of eight lines
each.

For comments on the author, John Swain, see Hymn 323.

_MUSIC._ MY BELOVED, also called “Beloved” and “Meditation,” is of
uncertain origin. It appeared in a book, _The Beauties of Harmony_,
compiled by Freeman Lewis in 1813 and was arranged by Hubert P. Main in
1869. Lewis, 1780-1859, was by profession a surveyor at Uniontown, Pa.
Music was his avocation.

For comments on Hubert P. Main see Hymn 426.


471. I do not ask, O Lord, that life may be       _Adelaide A. Proctor_,
                                                                 1825-64

A hymn reflecting the quiet strength resulting from faith and trust in
God. It is the most admired of Miss Proctor’s hymns.

For comments on Adelaide Anne Proctor, see Hymn 177.

_MUSIC._ SUBMISSION, a tune well suited to the meaning and spirit of the
poem, was composed for this hymn.

For comments on the composer, Albert L. Peace, see Hymn 175.


472. More love to Thee, O Christ           _Elizabeth Prentiss_, 1818-78

A simple prayer put into verse, written hastily, as many hymns have
been, and, after some years, printed as a leaflet. It was then included
by Dr. Doane in his _Songs of Devotion_, in four stanzas, the third
being omitted here. In form and sentiment, the hymn is an echo of
“Nearer, my God, to Thee,” and is more explicitly Christian, for the
latter omits the name of Christ completely.

Elizabeth Payson Prentiss was born in Portland, Maine, the daughter of
the famous minister, Rev. Edward Payson. After teaching school for some
years, she married Dr. George L. Prentiss, eminent Presbyterian
clergyman, and professor at Union Theological Seminary in New York City,
who published her _Life and Letters_ soon after her death. Mrs. Prentiss
wrote poetry and prose for the _Youths’ Companion_ and published several
volumes of poems.

_MUSIC._ MORE LOVE TO THEE was written for this hymn and published in
Dr. Doane’s _Songs of Devotion_, 1870.

For comments on Wm. Howard Doane see Hymn 313.


473. What a wonderful Savior                         _Elisha A. Hoffman_

A hymn on the atonement.

Words and music are by the Rev. Elisha A. Hoffman.

For comments on Hoffman, see Hymn 464.


474. Pass me not, O gentle Savior           _Fanny J. Crosby_, 1820-1915

One of Fanny Crosby’s best and most popular songs. Ira D. Sankey says of
it: “No hymn in our collection was more popular than this at our
meetings in London in 1874.” Miss Crosby wrote it in 1868 at the request
of Dr. W. H. Doane, who gave her the first line as a theme. Doane
published the hymn in his _Songs of Devotion_, 1870.

For comments on Fanny Crosby see Hymn 313.

_MUSIC._ PASS ME NOT was written for this hymn. For comments on the
composer, W. H. Doane, see Hymn 313.


475. I am Thine, O Lord                     _Fanny J. Crosby_, 1820-1915

A song of consecration, based on Heb. 10:22, “Let us draw near with a
true heart.” It was written one evening while Miss Crosby was visiting
in the home of Dr. William H. Doane in Cincinnati, Ohio. The latter
composed for it the tune by which the song has become familiar to a
multitude of worshippers.

For comments on Fanny Crosby and W. H. Doane see Hymn 313.


476. Are you weary, are you heavy-hearted          _Jeremiah E. Rankin_,
                                                               1828-1904

A song that has touched many a burdened heart, written by the author of
“God be with you till we meet again.” For comments on Jeremiah E.
Rankin, see Hymn 365.

_MUSIC._ TELL IT TO JESUS. For comments on the composer, E. S. Lorenz,
see Hymn 439.


477. Yield not to temptation              _Horatio R. Palmer_, 1834-1907

A song that has been a source of strength to many in time of temptation.

The words and tune are by Horatio Richmond Palmer, Mus. Doc., an
American musician born at Sherburne, New York. He studied music in
Berlin and Florence and became the director of the Rushford Academy of
Music, New York, in 1857. In 1884, he took charge of the Church Choral
Union in New York, an organization which grew to a membership of 4,000
singers devoted to the improvement of church music. He was dean, for a
time, of the school of music at Chautauqua, N. Y., and compiled a number
of popular choral collections. He is the author of _A Theory of Music_
and _A Manual for Teachers_.

Concerning the composition of this hymn and tune, Dr. Palmer wrote:

  This song is an inspiration. I was at work on the dry subject of
  “Theory” when the complete idea flashed upon me, and I laid aside the
  theoretical work and hurriedly penned both words and music as fast as
  I could write them. I submitted them to the criticism of a friend
  afterward, and some changes were made in the third stanza, but the
  first two are exactly as they came to me. The music was first written
  in A flat; but I soon saw that B flat was better, and for many years
  it has appeared in that key. I am reverently thankful it has been a
  power for good.

_MUSIC._ YIELD NOT TO TEMPTATION. The tune, composed for the hymn by Dr.
Palmer himself, appeared in _Sabbath School Songs_ (1868). It is also
named “Fortitude.”


478. He leadeth me, O blessed thought     _Joseph H. Gilmore_, 1834-1918

A widely used hymn, based on Psalm 23:2: “He leadeth me beside the still
waters.” “It has the true hymn quality, combining all the simplicity of
spontaneous thought and feeling with perfect accent and liquid rhythm”
(Brown and Butterworth).

Joseph Henry Gilmore, a Baptist minister, was born in Boston, the son of
Joseph A. Gilmore. He graduated from Brown University in 1858 and from
Newton Theological Seminary in 1861. In 1863-64 he served as private
secretary to his father, then governor of New Hampshire. From 1865 to
1867, he was pastor of the Second Baptist Church at Rochester, N. Y.,
and Acting Professor of Hebrew in Rochester Theological Seminary,
1867-68. In 1868, he became Professor of Logic, Rhetoric, and English
Literature in the University of Rochester, a position he held for about
forty years. One of his published volumes is _Outlines of English and
American Literature_, 1905.

The hymn was written after Dr. Gilmore had conducted the Wednesday
evening service at the First Baptist Church, Philadelphia, where he
expounded the twenty-third Psalm. After the service, the discussion of
the subject was continued in the home where he was stopping. The author
says:

  During the conversation, the blessedness of God’s leadership so grew
  upon me that I took out my pencil, wrote the hymn just as it stands
  today, handed it to my wife, and thought no more about it. She sent
  it, without my knowledge, to the _Watchman and Reflector_. Three years
  later, I went to Rochester to preach for the Second Baptist Church. On
  entering the chapel, I took up a hymn book, thinking: “I wonder what
  they sing.” The book opened at “He Leadeth Me,” and that was the first
  I knew my hymn had found a place among the songs of the Church.

_MUSIC._ HE LEADETH ME. Finding the hymn in a Christian periodical,
Bradbury composed for it this popular tune with which it has since been
associated. In singing the tune, holds should be observed at the end of
lines 2, 3, and 4 of the stanzas, and at the end of lines 2 and 4 of the
refrain. “Few composers have so exactly caught the tone and spirit of
their text as Bradbury did when he vocalized the gliding measures of ‘He
Leadeth Me.’”

For comments on the composer, Wm. Bradbury, see Hymn 103.


479. Joys are flowing like a river                      _M. P. Ferguson_

A song of comfort and joy useful for the quiet hour. The presence of
Jesus brings to the trusting soul a blessed quietness as it did to the
disciples on the stormy lake when He awoke and spoke the word of peace
(Mark 4:37-41).

No information has been traced concerning the author of the words, M. P.
Ferguson, or the composer, W. S. Marshall, from whose work the tune is
an arrangement.


480. Blessed assurance, Jesus is mine       _Fanny J. Crosby_, 1820-1915

Another of Fanny Crosby’s fine lyrics, sung the world over, in which is
revealed the secret of the author’s own serene trust and cheerful faith.
In her _Memories of Eighty Years_, Miss Crosby makes the following
reference to this hymn:

  Often I take in my mind some tune already well known as a model or,
  perhaps, more accurately speaking, as a guide, and work to it. This,
  however, does not imply that the tune will ultimately be chosen as the
  companion of the words; for it has probably already its own true and
  lawful mate, with which it is to be happy and useful. Sometimes a tune
  is furnished me for which to write the words. The hymn titled “Blessed
  Assurance” was made in this manner. My dear friend, Mrs. Joseph F.
  Knapp, so well-known as a writer and singer of most excellent music
  and as an aid and inspiration to all who knew her, had composed the
  tune; and it seemed to me one of the sweetest I had heard for a long
  time. She asked me to write a hymn for it, and I felt while bringing
  the words and tones together that the air and the hymn were intended
  for each other. In the many hundred times that I have heard it sung,
  this opinion has been more and more confirmed.

For comments on Fanny Crosby, see Hymn 313.

_MUSIC._ ASSURANCE was written by Mrs. Joseph Fairchild Knapp,
1839-1908, the daughter of Dr. Walter and Mrs. Phoebe Palmer. Her
husband was the founder of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company in
New York City. Both Mr. and Mrs. Knapp were members of the Methodist
Episcopal church and gave much of their wealth to charitable and
religious work. Mrs. Knapp, a close friend of Fanny Crosby, was an
excellent singer, an accomplished organist, and an earnest Christian
worker.


481. Sweet are the promises                      _Wm. A. Ogden_, 1841-97

The third stanza is based on Matt. 11:28: “Come unto me, all ye that
labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest,” but the author has
substituted “weary” for the word “labor.”

Wm. A. Ogden, who wrote the words and music of this song, was born in
Franklin County, Ohio. At the age of six, he moved with his parents to
Indiana where he enlisted, at the outbreak of the Civil War, in the 13th
Indiana Volunteer Infantry. After the close of the war, he resumed his
musical studies under Lowell Mason, Thomas Hastings, E. E. Bailey, and
B. F. Baker, President of the Boston School of Music. In 1870, he
published _Silver Song_ which reached the enormous sale of 500,000
copies. Ogden won distinction as a teacher and conductor of large
convention choruses. For six years he was director of music at Iowa
Normal School but his greatest musical work was done at Toledo, Ohio,
where he moved in 1881 and served as superintendent of public school
music from 1887 until his death. He loved children and enjoyed teaching
them. His training of 3,000 children in 1894 was the distinct triumph of
the great _Saengerfest_ held that year in Toledo. Ogden wrote scores of
popular songs, always composing both the words and music.


482. Will your anchor hold            _Priscilla J. Owens_, 1829-_c._ 99

A hymn setting forth life in terms of the sea and its billowing waves,
and the confidence one may have if anchored to the Rock, which is
Christ.

For comments on the author, Priscilla Jane Owens, and the composer of
the tune, William J. Kirkpatrick, 1838-1921, see Hymn 334.


483. Hide me, O my Savior, hide me          _Fanny J. Crosby_, 1820-1915

For comments on Fanny Crosby and Wm. H. Doane who wrote tunes for many
of Miss Crosby’s hymns, see Hymn 313.


484. When peace, like a river, attendeth my way              _Horatio G.
                                                      Spafford_, 1828-88

A hymn of resignation and submission, written out of bitter experiences
of loss and suffering.

Horatio Gates Spafford, born in New York State, was a lawyer who had
established himself in Chicago. He lost most of his fortune during the
great fire in that city. Then on November 22, 1873, to add to his
trials, he lost four of his children when the French steamer, “Villa de
Havre,” on which Mrs. Spafford and the children were sailing for Europe,
sank in mid-ocean, half an hour after colliding with a large sailing
vessel. Mrs. Spafford was rescued and, landing at Cardiff, Wales, ten
days later, cabled her husband, “Saved Alone.” Spafford started
immediately for Europe to bring his wife to Chicago. D. L. Moody, under
whose preaching the Spafford children had been converted in North
Chicago shortly before sailing, travelled from Edinburgh to Liverpool to
comfort the bereaved parents and was pleased to hear them say, “It is
well: the will of God be done.”

Mr. and Mrs. Spafford later became much interested in the second coming
of Christ, becoming so enthusiastic that in 1881 they went to Jerusalem
with their remaining daughter, to witness the coming of the Lord. After
seven years in Palestine, Spafford died there, September 5, 1888, his
widow continuing to live there as the head of a communistic society with
headquarters in a building outside of Jerusalem. The daughter, very
popular among the natives, became the teacher of a large body of
children, instructing them in English and in American ways.

_MUSIC._ IT IS WELL WITH MY SOUL. The music, “a gentle, gliding melody
that suits the mood of the words,” was written especially for Spafford’s
words and published in _Gospel Hymns No. 3_. The hymn and tune
immediately became popular.

For comments on the composer, P. P. Bliss, see Hymn 442.


485. Take the name of Jesus with you             _Lydia Baxter_, 1809-74

A popular gospel song widely used in the Moody and Sankey revivals.

Lydia Baxter, born in Petersburg, New York, was converted under the
preaching of a Baptist missionary, the Rev. Eben Tucker, and, with her
sister, became a leader in the organization of a Baptist Church in her
native town. After her marriage she moved to New York City. Though an
invalid for many years, she was known for her astonishing cheerfulness
and to her home came many a Christian worker for inspiration and advice.
A volume of her poems, _Gems by the Wayside_, was published in 1855.

_MUSIC._ PRECIOUS NAME was written for this hymn. It is inseparably
associated with these words and has done much to give the hymn the
widespread popularity which it enjoys.

For comments on the composer, W. H. Doane, also a Baptist, see Hymn 313.


486. When we walk with the Lord               _James H. Sammis_, d. 1919

The origin of this hymn is related in Ira Sankey’s _Story of the Gospel
Hymns_:

  “Some years ago,” says Professor Towner, musical director of Moody
  Bible Institute, “Mr. Moody was conducting a series of meetings in
  Brockton, Mass., and I had the pleasure of singing for him there. One
  night a young man rose in a testimony meeting and said, ‘I am not
  quite sure—but I am going to trust and obey.’ I just jotted that
  sentence down, and sent it with the little story to the Rev. J. H.
  Sammis, a Presbyterian minister. He wrote the hymn and the tune was
  born. The chorus,

  ‘Trust and obey
  For there’s no other way
  To be happy in Jesus
  But to trust and obey.’

  was written before the hymn was.”

James H. Sammis was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., and became a business man
in Logansport, Indiana. As an active Christian layman, he was much
interested in the Young Men’s Christian Association, and finally gave up
his business connections to serve as a General Secretary in the “Y”.
After further education at Lane and McCormick Seminaries, he entered the
ministry and served as pastor of Presbyterian churches in Indiana,
Michigan, and Minnesota. In 1909, he went to California as a teacher in
the Bible Institute of Los Angeles, continuing there until his death,
June 12, 1919.

_MUSIC._ TRUST AND OBEY. The composer of this tune, D. W. Towner,
1850-1919, was born in Rome, Pa., and became a member of a group of
singers and evangelists associated with D. L. Moody. He was a capable
leader of choirs and large assemblies. In 1893, he became director of
the musical department of Moody Bible Institute in Chicago, a position
he held until his death. In recognition of his services, the University
of Tennessee honored him with the degree of Doctor of Music, in 1900.


487. My hope is built on nothing less           _Edward Mote_, 1797-1874

“A grand hymn of faith” is the characterization given by Bishop
Bickersteth of this poem. Written in 1834, and printed as a leaflet, it
was later included in the author’s _Hymns of Praise_, 1836, entitled,
“The Immutable Basis of a Sinner’s Hope.” The hymn is reminiscent of the
words of Paul: “Other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which
is Jesus Christ” (I Cor. 3:11).

Edward Mote, born in London, worked as a cabinet-maker for some years
but at length entered the ministry and from 1852 until his death in 1874
served the Baptist Church at Horsham, Essex.

The refrain of this hymn came into his mind one morning as he was
walking up Holborn Hill on his way to work. Four stanzas were completed
that day and two more were added the following Sunday.

_MUSIC._ SOLID ROCK. For comments on the composer of this tune, Wm. B.
Bradbury, see Hymn 103.


488. ’Tis so sweet to trust in Jesus                _Louisa M. R. Stead_

A hymn of simple trust. Information concerning the author, Louisa M. R.
Stead, has not been traced.

_MUSIC._ TRUSTING was composed for these words by the gospel singer and
composer, Wm. J. Kirkpatrick, 1838-1921.

For comments on Kirkpatrick see Hymn 334.


489. What a fellowship, what a joy divine            _Elisha A. Hoffman_

For comments on the author, Elisha A. Hoffman, see Hymn 464.

_MUSIC._ LEANING ON JESUS was composed by Anthony J. Schowalter, who was
born at Cherry Grove, Pa., May 1, 1858. The following from his pen tells
the story of the origin of this hymn and tune:

  While I was conducting a singing-school at Hartsells, Alabama, I
  received a letter from two of my former pupils in South Carolina,
  conveying the sad intelligence that on the same day each of them had
  buried a wife. I tried to console them by writing a letter that might
  prove helpful in their hour of sadness. Among other Scriptures, I
  quoted this passage, “Underneath are the everlasting arms.” Before
  completing the writing of the sentence, the thought came to me that
  the fact that we may lean on these everlasting arms and find comfort
  and strength, ought to be put in a song; and before finishing that
  letter, the words and music of the refrain were written. The
  manuscript was sent to Elisha Hoffman ... in a few days his completion
  of the poem was received.


490. Jesus, keep me near the cross          _Fanny J. Crosby_, 1820-1915

A hymn on “the cross.” The refrain suggests the words of Paul: “God
forbid that I should glory save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ”
(Gal. 6:14). This is another instance in which the words of the blind
hymn writer and the music of Mr. Doane were combined to make a popular
gospel song.

For comments on Fanny Crosby and Wm. H. Doane, composer of the tune, see
Hymn 313.


491. Nearer the cross                          _Fanny Crosby_, 1820-1915

For comments on the author of these words, Fanny Crosby, see Hymn 313.

For Mrs. J. F. Knapp, composer of the tune, see Hymn 480.


492. There is a fountain filled with blood   _William Cowper_, 1731-1800

The imagery in the first verse is drawn from Zechariah 13:1: “In that
day there shall be a fountain opened to the house of David and to the
inhabitants of Jerusalem for sin and for uncleanness.” The dislike which
some have for this Old Testament phraseology has given rise to much
dispute concerning the hymn, but all attempts to revise it have been
without success. It is excellent poetry and should be left as Cowper
wrote it.

The hymn was published in Conger’s _Collection of Psalms and Hymns_,
1772, and later in the _Olney Hymns_ (See Hymn 60).

For comments on William Cowper see Hymn 60.

_MUSIC._ CLEANSING FOUNTAIN, also called “Western Melody” in some of the
older books, is a stirring tune reminiscent of the early American camp
meeting songs. It is attributed here to Lowell Mason, but it is not
certain whether he wrote it or whether it is an adaptation from his
tune, “Cowper,” which it resembles and to which the hymn is set in _The
Hymnal_, 1933 (Presbyterian).

For comments on Lowell Mason see Hymn 12.


493. I love to tell the story              _Katherine Hankey_, 1834-1911

A simple song which became popular and has been translated into several
different languages, because it expresses what is in the hearts of
multitudes of people.

The words are from a long poem of 50 stanzas, in two parts, on the life
of Jesus. Part I, dated January 29, 1866, is entitled, “The Story
Wanted.” Part II, dated November 18, 1866, is entitled, “The Story
Told.” The author composed the poem during a long period of convalescing
after a serious illness. This hymn and “Tell me the old, old story” (No.
495) are selections from Part II and Part I, respectively, of the
above-mentioned poem.

Katherine Hankey, born in Clapham, England, was the daughter of a
banker. She was a refined, consecrated woman, a Sunday school teacher,
and organizer of Bible classes among working girls. She travelled in
South Africa to look after an invalid brother and became so interested
in mission work that she devoted thereto the income from her writings.

_MUSIC._ HANKEY was composed for these words. For comments on the
composer, Wm. G. Fischer, see Hymn 469. The melody, written in 1869, was
harmonized by Hubert P. Main (No. 426) and became popular at revival
meetings. It is one of the gospel song tunes that is included in the
more dignified church hymnals.


494. Sing them over again to me               _Philip P. Bliss_, 1838-76

Written especially for use in the first issue of _Words of Life_, a
Sunday school paper published by Fleming H. Revell. Two years later,
George Stebbins introduced the song in an evangelistic campaign which he
and Dr. Pentecost were conducting in New Haven, Conn., the two men
singing the song as a duet. The song was received with enthusiasm and
immediately became popular. It was published in _Gospel Hymns, No. 3_
and has had a wide use in evangelistic services and in the Sunday
schools throughout the country.

For comments on Philip P. Bliss, author and composer, see Hymn 442.


495. Tell me the old, old story            _Katherine Hankey_, 1834-1911

For comments on the author, Katherine Hankey, and an account of the
origin of this hymn, see Hymn 493.

_MUSIC._ Dr. W. H. Doane heard the poem read at a Y.M.C.A. Conference at
Montreal in 1867 and was so impressed by it that he copied it and later
set it to music while riding on a stage coach during a vacation in the
White Mountains.

For comments on W. H. Doane, see Hymn 313.


496. There is a Name I love to hear     _Frederick Whitfield_, 1829-1904

A hymn on the name of Jesus which was published in 1855 in hymn-sheets
and leaflets in various languages. In 1861, it appeared in the author’s
_Sacred Poems and Prose_, a volume containing twenty-six hymns.

Frederick Whitfield, born at Threapwood, Shropshire, was a minister in
the Anglican Church. Educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where he took
his B.A. degree in 1859, he became, successively, curate of Otley, vicar
of Kirby-Ravensworth, senior curate of Greenwich, and vicar of St.
John’s, Bexley. He is the author of nearly thirty volumes of prose and
poetry.

_MUSIC._ O HOW I LOVE JESUS is a traditional melody of unknown
authorship.


497. Rescue the perishing                   _Fanny J. Crosby_, 1820-1915

A rallying song for Christian workers in all parts of the world. This is
the only one of Fanny Crosby’s hymns to be included in the famous
English publication, _Hymns Ancient and Modern_. It was a great favorite
of Frances E. Willard and Frances Murphy, temperance crusaders, and D.
L. Moody was very fond of it.

The hymn had its origin in a visit which the blind poet made to one of
the worst slum districts in New York City. When she addressed the men at
a rescue mission, Miss Crosby heard harrowing tales of lost and
perishing people. She wrote:

  “While I sat there that evening the line came to me, ‘Rescue the
  perishing, care for the dying.’ I could think of nothing else that
  night. When I arrived at my home, I went to work at once, and before I
  retired the entire hymn was ready for a melody.”

For comments on Fanny J. Crosby see Hymn 313.

_MUSIC._ RESCUE was composed by Dr. Doane for this hymn. The hymn and
tune have resounded through many thousands of mission services.

For comments on Wm. H. Doane see Hymn 313.


498. O scatter seeds of loving deeds    _Jessie Brown Pounds_, 1861-1921

For comments on Jessie Brown Pounds, see Hymn 453.

Her song poem has gone around the world on the wings of this tune
composed by Fred A. Fillmore, of the musically famous Fillmore brothers.
See comments at Hymn 453. Fred A. was born May 15, 1856, at Paris,
Illinois.


499. Judge me, God of my salvation                            _Psalm 43_

A metrical version of Psalm 43 which may be compared with the version
from the Scottish Psalter at No. 587. The fifth verse of the Psalm is
made to serve as the refrain. The poet who made the version has not been
identified. The hymn and tune were taken from the _Psalter_ of the
United Presbyterian Church.

_MUSIC._ AMARA was composed by William O. Perkins, concerning whom no
information has been found.


500. I can hear my Savior calling                         _E. W. Blandy_

An intimate hymn of personal consecration. The repetition of the phrases
and the close harmony of the music have made the use of this song, even
without the aid of an accompanying instrument, easy and enjoyable. No
information has been found concerning the author, E. W. Blandy
(misspelled Blandly in the _Hymnary_).

_MUSIC._ WHERE HE LEADS ME is admirably suited to the words. No
information has come to light concerning the composer, J. S. Norris.


501. And must I be to judgment brought         _Charles Wesley_, 1707-88

The hymn, originally in eight stanzas, was entitled “A Thought on
Judgment” and was written for children! Why Wesley wrote such
serious-minded hymns for children is explained in his preface to _Hymns
for Children_, from which this hymn is taken:

  There are two ways of writing or speaking to children. The one is to
  let ourselves down to them; the other, to lift them up to us. Dr.
  Watts wrote in the former way, and has succeeded admirably well,
  speaking to children as children and leaving them as he found them.
  The following hymns are written on the other plan. They contain strong
  and manly sense, yet expressed in such plain and easy language as even
  children may understand. But when they do understand them, they will
  be children no longer—only in years and in stature.

For comments on Charles Wesley, see Hymn 6.

_MUSIC._ MARLOW was composed by Rev. John Chetham, 1700-63, an English
clergyman, curate of Skipton.


502. Savior, lead me lest I stray              _Frank M. Davis_, 1839-96

The words and music were written on the deck of a steamer that plied
between Baltimore and Savannah.

Frank M. Davis was born on a farm near Marcellus, New York, the youngest
of a family of ten children. He began composing tunes at an early age
and became a teacher of vocal and instrumental music. He travelled
extensively through the eastern and southern states, directing chorus
choirs and teaching vocal classes. He compiled several Sunday school
collections, among them _New Pearls of Song_, 1877, and _Notes of
Praise_, of which more than 100,000 copies were sold. Davis is the
author of over 100 vocal and instrumental compositions. He died suddenly
of heart failure at Chesterfield, Indiana, where he was attending a camp
meeting.


503. My days are gliding swiftly by            _David Nelson_, 1793-1844

A hymn written by a preacher while hiding from pursuing slave-holders
whose anger and violence were aroused by Nelson’s aggressive
anti-slavery views.

David Nelson, a surgeon in the U. S. Army during the war of 1812, left
his profession to become a minister, meanwhile owning and operating a
plantation in Missouri. After listening to an address on slavery, he
declared himself in favor of freeing the slaves and advocated the plan
of colonizing them in Africa. This so enraged some of the slave-holders
that they drove Nelson from his home. To avoid mob violence, he escaped,
reaching, after three days and nights of wandering, the Mississippi
River opposite Quincy, Illinois. Hiding there in the bushes, with his
pursuers near but unable to find him, the river gliding swiftly before
him, he wrote this hymn on the back of old letters he had in his pocket.
He was finally rescued by members of the Quincy Congregational Church
who, having learned of his plight, took him on a fishing canoe and rowed
him across the river, still pursued, to safety and friends, on the
hospitable shore of a free state.

_MUSIC._ SHINING SHORE, one of the composer’s most popular tunes, has
been given various arrangements for voice and instruments. Root has
written concerning the origin of the tune:

  One day, I remember, as I was working at a set of graded part-songs
  for singing classes, mother passed through the room and laid a slip
  from one of the religious newspapers before me, saying, “George, I
  think that would be good for music.” I looked at the poem which began,
  “My days are gliding swiftly by,” and a simple melody sang itself in
  my mind as I read. I jotted it down and went on with my work. That was
  the origin of the music of “The Shining Shore.” Later, when I took up
  the melody to harmonize it, it seemed so very simple and commonplace,
  that I hesitated about setting the other parts to it. I finally
  decided that it might be useful to somebody, and I completed it,
  though it was not printed until some months afterward. In after years
  I examined it in an endeavor to account for its great popularity—but
  in vain. To the musician there is not one reason in melody or harmony
  scientifically regarded, for such a fact. To him hundreds of others,
  now forgotten, were better.

For comments on George F. Root, 1820-95, see Hymn 418.


504. There’s a land that is fairer than day     _S. F. Bennett_, 1836-98

“It’ll be all right _by and by_.” This trivial remark by Webster, when
one morning, seemingly depressed, he was asked by his partner, Bennett,
what was wrong with him, was the occasion for the writing of this hymn.
The author and composer were friends and partners in the music
publishing business in the village of Elkhorn, Wis. Webster, the
musician of the firm, was inclined to be nervous and subject to periods
of depression. His partner understood this and often effected a cure, as
on this occasion, by putting him to work on a new song. Upon Bennett’s
suggestion, the two agreed that morning to make a hymn out of the idea,
“The sweet by and by.” Bennett penned the words and handed them to
Webster, who promptly wrote the music. Words and music were thus
produced in the incredibly short time of about thirty minutes. The song
was published soon afterward in a Sunday school song book, _The Signet
Ring_, which the two men were compiling. From there it found its way
into numerous collections of songs until today “it is translated into
various foreign languages and sung in every land under the sun.”

Sanford Filmore Bennett was a native of the West. He settled in Elkhorn,
Wis., in 1861, to devote himself to music but later studied medicine and
practiced in Richmond, Ill.

_MUSIC._ SWEET BY AND BY. Joseph Philbrick Webster, 1819-75, composer of
this tune, was born in New Hampshire. He was an active member of the
Handel and Haydn Society and various other musical organizations. He
lived in Madison, Indiana, and Racine, Wisconsin, before finally moving
to Elkhorn, in 1857.



                                BOOK IV
                     The Christian Year in Chorales


                            CALL TO WORSHIP


505. Open now Thy gates of beauty         _Benjamin Schmolck_, 1672-1737
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  Tut mir auf die schöne Pforte,
    Führt in Gottes Haus mich ein!
  Ach, wie wird an diesem Orte
    Meine Seele fröhlich sein!
  Hier ist Gottes Angesicht,
  Hier ist lauter Trost und Licht.

                                   2.
  Herr, ich bin zu dir gekommen;
    Komme du nun auch zu mir!
  Wo du Wohnung hast genommen
    Ist der Himmel hell vor mir.
  Zeuch in meinem Herzen ein,
  Lass es deinen Himmel sein!

                                   3.
  Mache mich zum guten Lande,
    Wenn dein Saatkorn auf mich fällt;
  Gib mir Licht in dem Verstande,
    Und was mir wird vorgestellt,
  Präge du dem Herzen ein;
  Lass es mir zur Frucht gedeihn.

                                   4.
  Stärk in mir den schwachen Glauben,
    Lass dein teures Kleinod mir
  Nimmer aus dem Herzen rauben,
    Halte mir dein Wort stets für;
  Ja, das sei mein Morgenstern,
  Der mich führet zu dem Herrn!

                                   5.
  Rede, Herr, so will ich hören,
    Und dein Wille werd’ erfüllt!
  Lass nichts meine Andacht stören,
    Wenn der Brunn’ des Lebens quillt.
  Speise mich mit Himmelsbrot,
  Tröste mich in aller Not!

A beautiful worship hymn, first published in the author’s
_Kirchen-Gefährte_, 1732, in seven stanzas, entitled, “The First Step
into the Church.” Its joyous spirit is characteristic of many of
Schmolck’s poems.

Benjamin Schmolck, the most popular and prolific hymn writer of his
time, was born in Silesia, and educated in the University of Leipzig. He
was ordained to become his father’s assistant in the church at
Brauchitzchdorf, his birthplace. Later he became the pastor of
Friedenskirche at Schweidnitz, in Silesia, where he labored patiently
for a period of 35 years, beloved of his people for his understanding
and sympathy. He had rare poetic gifts and published a number of volumes
of devotional books in which his hymns were included. His contemporary,
Johann Sebastian Bach, 1685-1750, greatest of all church musicians,
helped to make the poems of Schmolck immortal.

Catherine Winkworth translated five stanzas of this hymn; three of which
are used here.

For comments on Miss Winkworth see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ NEANDER. For comments on this tune, and the composer, Joachim
Neander, see Hymn 127.


506. God reveals His presence            _Gerhard Tersteegen_, 1697-1769
                                    _Tr. Frederick W. Foster_, 1760-1835
                                                _John Miller_, 1756-1810
                                               _William Mercer_, 1811-73

                                   1.
  Gott ist gegenwärtig!
    Lasset uns anbeten,
    Und in Ehrfurcht vor ihn treten.
  Gott ist in der Mitte;
    Alles in uns schweige,
    Und in Ehrfurcht vor ihn beuge.
  Wer ihn kennt, wer ihn nennt,
  Schlagt die Augen nieder;
  Kommt, ergebt euch wieder!

                                   2.
  Gott ist gegenwärtig,
    Dem die Cherubinen
    Tag und Nacht mit Ehrfurcht dienen;
  Heilig, heilig singen
    Alle Engelchören,
    Wenn sie Gott mit Jauchzen ehren.
  Herr, vernimm unsre Stimm’,
  Da auch wir Geringen
  Unsre Opfer bringen.

                                   4.
  Majestätisch Wesen!
    Möcht’ ich dich recht preisen,
    Und im Geist dir Dienst erweisen
  Möcht’ ich wie die Engel
    Immer vor dir stehen
    Und dich gegenwärtig sehen!
  Lass mich dir für und für
  Trachten zu gefallen,
  Liebster Gott, in Allen.

First published in the author’s _Geistliches Blumengärtlein_, entitled
“Remembrance of the glorious and delightful presence of God,” 1729.

Gerhard Tersteegen, one of the greatest of German hymn writers, was born
at Mörs in Westphalia, the son of a tradesman. He was educated at the
grammar school of his native place, and then bound as an apprentice to
an elder brother, a shop-keeper at Mülheim. When his time was out, he
left his brother and moved to a little cottage near Mülheim where for
some years he supported himself by weaving silk ribbons, giving his
money to the poor, and living a life so simple that it brought upon him
the contempt of his thriving and money-getting relatives. For a time,
due to various disappointments, he lived in a “state of darkness,” a
five year period of spiritual depression, during which he doubted the
love, if not the existence, of God. He at last, as in a moment, regained
peace and joy, whereupon he signed, with his own blood, a covenant with
God to devote himself to His service. Soon he was found speaking at
prayer meetings and other places and became popular as a religious
teacher and counsellor. From far and wide people came to him for
personal interviews, and his public meetings were always crowded.

Tersteegen was never ordained. Grieved by the open sin of the church
people of his time, he early dissociated himself from the organized
church and absented himself from the communion service. Though he had a
wide following, he never organized a sect of his own, and, after his
death, most of his disciples reunited with the Reformed Church. Like all
great leaders, he pled the cause of the underprivileged. He was a mystic
of the purest type, yet his faith was practical. He provided food and
simple medicines for the poor and became widely known as the physician
to the poor and forsaken. Tersteegen had many friends among the
Mennonites and often preached in their church at Krefeld.

He is the author of 111 hymns, many of which have been rendered into
English.

Frederick Foster and John Miller, translators of stanzas one and two,
respectively, were both members of the Moravian Church. William Mercer,
translator of stanza three, was an English scholar who translated and
paraphrased many of the Latin and German hymns into English, but is best
known for his successful work as editor of _The Church Psalter and Hymn
Book_, 1857, the most popular hymn book of the Church of England.
Another translation of this hymn appears at No. 508.

_MUSIC._ ARNSBERG, also called “Wunderbarer König,” and “Gott ist
gegenwärtig,” was composed by the poet and musician, Joachim Neander,
1650-80. It appeared in his collection, _Glaub- und Liebesübung_,
Bremen, 1680, set to the hymn, “Wunderbarer König.”

For comments on Neander see Hymn 127.


507. Jehovah! Jehovah! Jehovah!     _Gottlieb Konrad Pfeffel_, 1736-1809
                                                _Tr. C. Haas_, 1862-1928
                          _Stanzas 2 and 3, G. F. W. Schultz_, 1774-1842
                                         _Tr. C. E. Krehbiel_, 1869-1948

  Jehova! Jehova! Jehova!
  Deinem Namen sei Ehre, Macht, und Ruhm!
      Amen. Amen.
  Bis einst der Tempel dieser Welt
  Auf dein Wort in Staub zerfällt,
  Soll in unsern Hallen,
  Das Heilig, Heilig, Heilig, erschallen.
      Halleluja! Halleluja!

The original is a one-stanza hymn. The author, Gottlieb Pfeffel, was
born at Colmar in Alsace. His literary work consisted primarily of the
writing of fables and hymns for instruction in the Colmar schools. At
the age of 21 he became totally blind, but carried on, despite the
handicap, a magnificent life work as president of the schools at Colmar.
He was also the founder of a nursery for Protestant children.

Christian George Haas, translator of the hymn, was a minister in the
Evangelical Church. After graduating from Eden Theological Seminary, he
held pastorates in St. Paul and in Buffalo, and edited the _Hymnal of
the Evangelical Church_, 1898.

Two stanzas were added to Pfeffel’s hymn, by G. F. W. Schultz:

  Sohn Gottes! Sohn Gottes! Sohn Gottes!
  Deinen Namen preist unser Lobgesang!
      Amen. Amen.
  Du kamst aus Lieb’ zu uns herab,
  Siegtest über Tod und Grab,
  Alle zu erlösen,
  O Heiland, Heiland, Heiland, vom Bösen!
      Sei hochgelobt! Sei hochgelobt!

  Geist Gottes! Geist Gottes! Geist Gottes!
  Deinen Namen erhebet unser Lied!
      Amen. Amen.
  Du heiligst, führ’st in’s Vaterland,
  Bist des Gnadenerbes Pfand.
  Deiner die Erlösten
  Du Heil’ger, Heil’ger, Heil’ger, sich trösten!
      Halleluja! Halleluja!

No information has been traced concerning the author.

For comments on C. E. Krehbiel who translated stanzas 2 and 3, see Hymn
376.

_MUSIC._ JEHOVAH. No information is at hand concerning Johann C. Gerold,
composer of this somewhat long, but dignified and effective tune, with
its peculiar meter.


508. Lo, God is here! let us adore       _Gerhard Tersteegen_, 1697-1769
                                              _Tr. John Wesley_, 1703-91

The most widely used of Tersteegen’s hymns. The German version and
another translation are found at No. 506.

For comments on Tersteegen see Hymn 506.

The present translation was made by John Wesley, the founder of
Methodism. For comments on Wesley see Hymn 170.

_MUSIC._ MACH’S MIT MIR GOTT, also called “Schein,” and “Eisenach,” was
composed by J. H. Schein, 1586-1630, for the hymn “Mach’s mit mir Gott.”
Schein was the son of a Lutheran pastor and became one of the most
distinguished musicians of his time. For a number of years he held the
honored position of cantor of St. Thomas’ Church and School in Leipzig,
and composed many hymn tunes. He is best known by the great hymn book he
edited for the Lutheran Church, _Cantional, oder Gesangbuch
Augsburgischer Confession_, Leipzig, 1627.

The present form of the melody is an adaptation of the original and is
the one used by J. S. Bach in his _St. John’s Passion_. “The tune is not
one of the ‘grand’ chorales, but retains, even in its later version, a
suave, song-like character.”


                                 PRAISE


509. O that I had a thousand voices          _Johann Mentzer_, 1658-1734
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  O dass ich tausend Zungen hätte
    Und einen tausendfachen Mund,
  So stimmt’ ich damit in die Wette
    Vom allertiefsten Herzensgrund
  Ein Loblied nach dem andern an
  Von dem, was Gott an mir getan!

                                   2.
  O dass doch meine Stimme schallte
    Bis dahin, wo die Sonne steht,
  O dass mein Blut mit Jauchzen wallte,
    So lang es noch im Laufe geht!
  Ach wäre jeder Puls ein Dank,
  Und jeder Odem ein Gesang!

                                   3.
  Was schweigt ihr denn, ihr meine Kräfte?
    Auf, auf, braucht allen euren Fleiss
  Und stehet munter im Geschäfte
    Zu Gottes, meines Herren, Preis!
  Mein Leib und Seele, schicke dich
  Und lobe Gott herzinniglich!

                                   4.
  Ihr grünen Blätter in den Wäldern,
    Bewegt und regt euch doch mit mir!
  Ihr schwanken Gräschen in den Feldern,
    Ihr Blumen, lasst doch eure Zier
  Zu Gottes Ruhm belebet sein
  Und stimmet lieblich mit mir ein!

                                   5.
  Ach alles, alles, was ein Leben
    Und einen Odem in sich hat,
  Soll sich mir zum Gehilfen geben,
    Denn mein Vermögen ist zu matt
  Die grossen Wunder zu erhöhn,
  Die allenthalben um mich stehn.

                                   6.
  Dir sei, o allerliebster Vater,
    Unendlich Lob für Seel und Leib;
  Lob sei dir, mildester Berater,
    Für allen edlen Zeitvertreib,
  Den du mir in der ganzen Welt
  Zu meinem Nutzen hast bestellt.

                                   7.
  Mein treuster Jesu, sei gepriesen,
    Dass dein erbarmungsvolles Herz
  Sich mir so hülfreich hat erwiesen,
    Und mich durch Blut und Todesschmerz
  Von aller Teufel Grausamkeit
  Zu deinem Eigentum befreit.

                                   8.
  Auch dir sei ewig Ruhm und Ehr
    O heiligwerter Gottes-Geist,
  Für deines Trostes süsse Lehre,
    Die mich ein Kind des Lebens heisst.
  Ach wo was Gut’s von mir geschicht,
  Das wirket nur dein göttlich Licht.

                                   9.
  Wer überströmet mich mit Segen?
    Bist du es nicht, o reicher Gott?
  Wer schützet mich auf meinen Wegen?
    Du, du, o starker Zebaoth.
  Du trägst mit meiner Sündenschuld
  Unsäglich gnädige Geduld.

                                  10.
  Vor andern küss ich deine Rute,
    Die du mir aufgebunden hast.
  Wie viel tut sie mir doch zu Gute,
    Und ist mir eine sanfte Last;
  Sie macht mich fromm und zeigt dabei,
  Dass ich von deinen Liebsten sei.

                                  11.
  Ich hab es ja mein Lebetage
    Schon so manch liebes Mal gespürt,
  Dass du mich unter viele Plage
    Recht wunderbarlich hast geführt.
  Denn in der grössesten Gefahr
  Ward ich dein Trostlicht stets gewahr.

                                  12.
  Wie sollt ich nun nicht voller Freuden
    In deinem steten Lobe stehn?
  Wie sollt ich auch im tiefsten Leiden
    Nicht triumphierend einhergehn?
  Und fiele auch der Himmel ein,
  So will ich doch nicht traurig sein.

                                  13.
  Drum reisz ich mich jetzt aus der Höhle
    Der schnöden Eitelkeiten los,
  Und rufe mit erhöhter Seele:
    Mein Gott, du bist sehr hoch und gross;
  Kraft, Ruhm, Preis, Dank und Herrlichkeit
  Gehört dir jetzt und allezeit.

                                  14.
  Ich will von deiner Güte singen,
    Solange sich die Zunge regt,
  Ich will dir Freudenopfer bringen,
    Solange sich mein Herz bewegt.
  Ja, wenn der Mund wird kraftlos sein,
  So stimm’ ich doch mit Seufzen ein.

                                  15.
  Ach nimm das arme Lob auf Erden,
    Mein Gott, in allen Gnaden hin!
  Im Himmel soll es besser werden,
    Wenn ich bei deinen Engeln bin.
  Da sing’ ich dir im höhern Chor
  Viel tausend Halleluja vor.

A popular hymn of praise and thanksgiving, written in 1704, shortly
after the author’s home was destroyed by fire! Our version is a
selection of stanzas 1, 4, 5, and 15, of the original 15.

The author, Johann Mentzer, was for 38 years a pastor at Kemnitz,
Saxony, and belonged to the more conservative Pietistic school of hymn
writers. He is the author of 34 hymns, many of them of high merit.

For comments on the translator, Catherine Winkworth, see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ O DASS ICH TAUSEND ZUNGEN HÄTTE was composed by Johann
Balthasar König, 1691-1758, director of music in several churches in
Frankfurt-am-Main. The tune appeared in _Harmonischer Liederschatz_,
Frankfurt, 1738, where it is set to the hymn, “Ach sagt mir nichts von
Gold und Schätzen.” The _Harmonischer Liederschatz_, edited by König, is
the most comprehensive chorale-book of the 18th century. It contains
1940 tunes, including several of König’s own compositions.


510. Heav’n and earth, the sea, the air       _Joachim Neander_, 1650-80
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78
                                                  _Frances Cox_, 1812-97

                                   1.
  Himmel, Erde, Luft und Meer,
  Aller Welten zahllos Heer
  Jauchzen Gott, dem Schöpfer, zu;
  Meine Seele, sing’ auch du!

                                   2.
  Ihn erhebt das Sonnenlicht,
  Wann es durch die Wolken bricht.
  Mondesglanz und Sternenpracht
  Loben Gott in stiller Nacht.

                                   3.
  Seht, wie er das Land erquickt
  Und mit Luft und Segen schmückt!
  Wälder, Flur und jedes Tier
  Zeigen Gottes Finger hier.—

                                   4.
  Seht, wie fleugt der Vögel Schaar
  In den Lüften frisch und klar!
  Donner, Blitz, Dampf, Hagel, Wind
  Seines Willens Diener sind.

                                   5.
  Seht der Wasserwellen Lauf,
  Wie sie steigen ab und auf!
  Von der Quelle bis zum Meer
  Rauschen sie des Schöpfers Ehr’.

                                   6.
  Ach, mein Gott, wie wunderbar
  Stellst du dich der Seele dar!
  Drücke stets in meinen Sinn,
  Was du bist, und was ich bin!

Based on Psalm 19 and Acts 14:17. The hymn sings of God’s revelation to
man in nature. It once had a footnote: “Is also a traveler’s hymn by
land and water,” to which we might add, “and air.” The hymn first
appeared in the author’s _Glaub- und Liebesübung_, Bremen, 1680.

For comments on Joachim Neander see Hymn 127.

The translation is mainly from Catherine Winkworth, but partly from
Frances Cox.

For comments on Miss Winkworth see Hymn 236. For Miss Cox, Hymn 512.

_MUSIC._ GOTT SEI DANK, also known as “Lübeck,” “Berlin,” and
“Carintha,” is by an unknown composer. The tune, since slightly altered,
first appeared in J. A. Freylinghausen’s _Neues Geistreiches
Gesangbuch_, Halle, 1704, an important collection described as “the only
book which can, as a collection, be set alongside with _Praxis Pietatis
Melica_.” It is a lively, spirited tune, its moderate range making it
especially suitable for unison singing.


511. Lord, with glowing heart I’d praise Thee       _Francis Scott Key_,
                                                               1779-1843

The author of this hymn, Francis Scott Key, is known to every American
child as the man who wrote our national anthem, “The Star Spangled
Banner.” Born in Frederick County, Virginia, he was educated at St.
John’s College, Annapolis. He practiced law in Washington, D. C., and
served as United States District Attorney for three terms, till his
death on January 11, 1843. As a member of the Protestant Episcopal
Church, he held a lay reader’s license and for many years read the
service and visited the sick. He taught a Bible class and conducted
family prayers twice a day, requiring all members of the household,
including the servants, to be present. He did much for the negroes of
the south and although he lived in a slave state, he was moved by
conscientious scruples to free his own slaves. The hymn, as he wrote it,
had four stanzas. The second and third stanzas, omitted here, read as
follows:

  Praise, my soul, the God that sought thee,
    Wretched wanderer, far astray;
  Found thee lost, and kindly brought thee
    From the paths of death away;
  Praise, with love’s devoutest feeling,
    Him who saw thy guilt-born fear,
  And, the light of hope revealing,
    Bade the blood-stained cross appear.

  Praise thy Saviour God that drew thee
    To that cross, new life to give,
  Held a blood-sealed pardon to thee,
    Bade thee look to Him and live.
  Praise the grace whose threats alarmed thee,
    Roused thee from thy fatal ease,
  Praise the grace whose promise warmed thee,
    Praise the grace that whispered peace.

Among his other hymns is, “Before the Lord we bow,” a thanksgiving hymn
written by Key in 1832 for a Fourth of July celebration.

_MUSIC._ WOMIT SOLL ICH DICH WOHL LOBEN is by Justin H. Knecht,
1752-1817, who was born in Biberach, Swabia. He studied music under
Kramer and became one of the great organists of his time. His most
valuable production was the _Württemberg Choralbuch_ which he edited
along with J. F. Christmann, and to which he contributed 97 tunes of his
own composition.


512. Sing praise to God who reigns above     _Johann J. Schütz_, 1640-90
                                           _Tr. Frances E. Cox_, 1812-97

                                   1.
  Sei Lob und Ehr’ dem höchsten Gut,
    Dem Vater aller Güte,
  Dem Gott, der alle Wunder tut,
    Dem Gott, der mein Gemüte
  Mit seinem reichen Trost erfüllt,
  Dem Gott, der allen Jammer stillt;
    Gebt unsrem Gott die Ehre!

                                   2.
  Es danken dir die Himmelsheer’,
    O Herrscher aller Thronen;
  Und die in Lüften, Land und Meer
    In deinem Schatten wohnen,
  Die preisen deine Schöpfersmacht,
  Die Alles also wohl bedacht.
    Gebt unsrem Gott die Ehre!

                                   3.
  Was unser Gott geschaffen hat,
    Das will er auch erhalten,
  Darüber will er früh und spat
    Mit seiner Gnade walten.
  In seinem ganzen Königsreich
  Ist Alles recht und Alles gleich;
    Gebt unsrem Gott die Ehre!

                                   4.
  Ich rief dem Herrn in meiner Not:
    “Ach Gott, vernimm mein Weinen!”
  Da half mein Helfer mir vom Tod
    Und liess mir Trost erscheinen.
  Drum dank’ ich, Gott, drum dank’ ich dir;
  Ach danket, danket Gott mit mir,
    Gebt unsrem Gott die Ehre!

                                   5.
  Der Herr ist nun und immer nicht
    Von seinem Volk geschieden;
  Er bleibet ihre Zuversicht,
    Ihr Segen, Heil und Frieden.
  Mit Mutterhänden leitet er
  Die Seinen stetig hin und her.
    Gebt unsrem Gott die Ehre!

                                   6.
  Wenn Trost und Hülfe mangeln muss,
    Die alle Welt erzeiget,
  So kommt, so hilft der Ueberfluss,
    Der Schöpfer selbst, und neiget
  Die Vateraugen denen zu,
  Die nirgendwo sonst finden Ruh.
    Gebt unsrem Gott die Ehre!

                                   7.
  Ich will dich all mein Lebenlang,
    O Gott, von nun an ehren;
  Man soll, Gott, meinen Lobgesang
    In allen Orten hören.
  Mein ganzes Herz ermuntre sich,
  Mein Geist und Leib erfreue dich;
    Gebt unsrem Gott die Ehre!

                                   8.
  Ihr, die ihr Christi Namen nennt,
    Gebt unsrem Gott die Ehre;
  Ihr, die ihr Gottes Macht bekennt,
    Gebt unsrem Gott die Ehre!
  Die falschen Götzen macht zu Spott;
  Der Herr ist Gott, der Herr ist Gott!
    Gebt unsrem Gott die Ehre!

                                   9.
  So kommet vor sein Angesicht,
    Mit Jauchzen Dank zu bringen,
  Bezahlet die gelobte Pflicht
    Und lasst uns fröhlich singen:
  Der Herr hat Alles wohl bedacht,
  Und Alles, Alles recht gemacht!
    Gebt unsrem Gott die Ehre!

The hymn is based on Deut. 32:3: “Because I will publish the name of the
Lord: ascribe ye greatness unto our God.” The original poem of nine
stanzas, Schütz’s only hymn, first appeared in his _Christliches
Gedenkbüchlein_. Our hymn is a translation of stanzas 1, 3, 5, and 7 of
the original.

The author, Johann Jakob Schütz, born at Frankfurt-am-Main, was a lawyer
by profession. He was a man of deep religious convictions and a close
friend of P. J. Spener and Joachim Neander, early leaders of the Pietist
movement in Germany. Schütz left the Lutheran church and became a
separatist. He died at Frankfurt-am-Main.

The translation is by Frances Cox, 1812-97, an English woman of culture
and learning who is second only to Catherine Winkworth as a translator
of German hymns.

_MUSIC._ MIT FREUDEN ZART, one of our finest hymn tunes, was used by the
Bohemian Brethren, and is probably much older than their _Gesangbuch_ of
1566 in which it first appeared. The tune is a joyous one, as the name
indicates, and should not be sung too slowly. All the voices are to sing
the melody, the accompanying instrument bringing out the harmonization.


513. Praise thou the Lord, O my soul           _Johann D. Herrnschmidt_,
                                                               1675-1723
                                                  _Tr. Lester Hostetler_

                                   1.
  Lobe den Herren, o meine Seele!
    Ich will ihn loben bis zum Tod;
  Weil ich noch Stunden auf Erden zähle,
    Will ich lobsingen meinem Gott.
  Der Leib und Seel’ gegeben hat,
  Werde gepriesen früh und spat.
    Halleluja! Halleluja!

                                   2.
  Fürsten sind Menschen, vom Weib geboren,
    Und kehren um zu ihrem Staub;
  Ihre Anschläge sind auch verloren,
    Wenn nun das Grab nimmt seinen Raub.
  Weil denn kein Mensch uns helfen kann,
  Rufe man Gott um Hilfe an!
    Halleluja! Halleluja!

                                   3.
  Selig, ja selig ist der zu nennen,
    Des Hilfe der Gott Jakobs ist.
  Welcher vom Glauben sich nicht lässt trennen
    Und hofft getrost auf Jesum Christ.
  Wer diesen Herrn zum Beistand hat,
  Findet am besten Rat und Tat.
    Halleluja! Halleluja!

                                   4.
  Dieser hat Himmel, Meer und die Erden,
    Und was darinnen ist, gemacht.
  Alles muss pünktlich erfüllet werden,
    Was er uns einmal zugedacht.
  Er ist’s, der Herrscher aller Welt,
  Welcher uns ewig Glauben hält.
    Halleluja! Halleluja!

                                   5.
  Zeigen sich welche, die Unrecht leiden,
    Er ist’s, der ihnen Recht verschafft.
  Hungrigen will er zu Speis’ bescheiden,
    Was ihnen dient zur Lebenskraft.
  Die hart Gebundnen macht er frei,
  Seine Genad’ ist mancherlei.
    Halleluja! Halleluja!

                                   6.
  Sehende Augen gibt er den Blinden;
    Erhebt, die tief gebeuget gehn.
  Wo er kann gläubige Seelen finden,
    Die lässt er seine Liebe sehn.
  Sein Trostwort ist des Fremdlings Trutz
  Witwen und Waisen hält er im Schutz.
    Halleluja! Halleluja!

                                   7.
  Aber der Gottesvergessenen Tritte
    Kehrt er mit starker Hand zurück,
  Dass sie nur machen verkehrte Schritte
    Und fallen selbst in ihren Strick.
  Der Herr ist König ewiglich,
  Zion, dein Gott sorgt stets für dich!
    Halleluja! Halleluja!

                                   8.
  Rühmet, ihr Menschen, den hohen Namen
    Des, der so grosse Wunder tut!
  Alles, was Odem hat, rufe Amen!
    Und bringe Lob mit frohem Mut.
  Ihr Kinder Gottes, lobt und preist
  Vater und Sohn und Heil’gen Geist!
    Halleluja! Halleluja!

The hymn is a poetic version of Psalm 146. It was first published in the
second part of Freylinghausen’s _Gesangbuch_, Halle, 1714, the original
having 8 stanzas. The translation here given is a free rendering of
stanzas 1 and 8, and was made especially for the _Hymnary_.

The author of this hymn, Johann Daniel Herrnschmidt, a learned and
devout man, was born in Bopfingen, in Württemberg, where his father was
pastor. He was a pupil and for a time assistant of pastor August Francke
in Halle. Later he became minister in Bopfingen, then superintendent and
councilman at Nassau-Idstein. In 1715 he became teacher and pastor in
Halle where he died 8 years later.

_MUSIC._ LOBE DEN HERREN, O MEINE SEELE, inseparably united with this
hymn, is one of the most brilliant and striking gems in our chorale
treasury. The composer is unknown. The tune first appeared in _Anhang
der Seelen-Harpff_, Onolzbach, 1665, and later in Freylinghausen’s
_Gesangbuch_, 1714.


514. Now thank we all our God                _Martin Rinkart_, 1586-1649
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  Nun danket alle Gott
    Mit Herzen, Mund und Händen,
  Der grosse Dinge tut
    An uns und allen Enden,
  Der uns von Mutterleib
    Und Kindesbeinen an
  Unzählig viel zugut
    Und noch jetzund getan!

                                   2.
  Der ewig reiche Gott
    Woll’ uns bei unserm Leben
  Ein immer fröhlich Herz
    Und edlen Frieden geben
  Und uns in seiner Gnad’
    Erhalten fort und fort
  Und uns aus aller Not
    Erlösen hier und dort!

                                   3.
  Lob, Ehr, und Preis sei Gott,
    Dem Vater und dem Sohne
  Und dem, der beiden gleich
    Im höchsten Himmelsthrone,
  Dem dreieinigen Gott,
    Als es im Anfang war
  Und ist und bleiben wird
    Jetzund und immerdar!

The _Te Deum_ of Germany. It is the most celebrated hymn coming out of
the second period (1570-1648) of German hymnody.

The first two stanzas of the hymn were composed as a _Tischlied_, a
grace after meat, to be sung by the author’s household. The third stanza
was added as a doxology. The hymn was sung at the conclusion of the
Peace of Westphalia which ended the Thirty Years’ War, and has been used
since on many national occasions of thanksgiving, not only in Germany
but in England and America as well.

Martin Rinkart was born in Eilenburg, Saxony, the son of a cooper. After
graduating from the University of Leipzig, he held appointments as
Master at the Gymnasium and Cantor of St. Nicholas Church in Eisleben,
then became, in 1617, Archidiaconus at Eilenburg, a position he held the
rest of his life. Rinkart was poet, dramatist, and musician, as well as
pastor. During the Thirty Years’ War, his church at Eilenburg became an
asylum for refugees from all parts. The suffering from famine and
pestilence was indescribable. For some time, Rinkart was the only
clergyman in the town, and he frequently conducted as many as forty
funeral services in one day. A man of sympathy and generosity, he
strained his own resources in his efforts to keep others from starving.

The translation is from Miss Winkworth’s _Lyra Germanica_, 1858.

For comments on Catherine Winkworth see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ NUN DANKET was composed by Johann Crüger, 1598-1662. It
appeared in his famous collection, _Praxis Pietatis Melica_, which was
issued in more than fifty editions during the century after its first
publication in 1644. Mendelssohn used the tune in his _Lobgesang_, in
six-part harmony.

For comments on Crüger see Hymn 242.


515. Praise to the Lord, the Almighty         _Joachim Neander_, 1650-80
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-75

                                   1.
  Lobe den Herren, den mächtigen König der Ehren!
  Meine geliebete Seele, das ist mein Begehren.
  Kommet zuhauf!
  Psalter und Harfe, wacht auf!
  Lasset die Musikam hören!

                                   2.
  Lobe den Herren, der alles so herrlich regieret,
  Der dich auf Adelers Fittichen sicher geführet,
  Der dich erhält,
  Wie es dir selber gefällt.
  Hast du nicht dieses verspüret?

                                   3.
  Lobe den Herren, der künstlich und fein dich bereitet,
  Der dir Gesundheit verliehen, dich freundlich geleitet!
  In wie viel Not
  Hat nicht der gnädige Gott
  Ueber dir Flügel gebreitet!

                                   4.
  Lobe den Herren, der deinen Stand sichtbar gesegnet.
  Der aus dem Himmel mit Strömen der Liebe geregnet!
  Denke daran,
  Was der Allmächtige kann,
  Der dir mit Liebe begegnet!

                                   5.
  Lobe den Herren, was in mir ist lobe den Namen!
  Alles, was Odem hat, lobe mit Abrahams Samen!
  Er ist dein Licht,
  Seele, vergiss es ja nicht!
  Lobende, schliesse mit Amen!

The hymn is based on Psalm 103:1-6 and Psalm 150. It is “a magnificent
song of praise, probably the finest there is, when we consider the tune,
and certainly the finest production of Neander’s.”

Neander was the first prominent writer of hymns in the Reformed Church
of Germany which for a long time used only metrical versions of the
Psalms in public worship. After a brief and stormy ministry, he died at
the age of thirty.

For further comments on Neander see Hymn 505.

For comments on Miss Winkworth see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ LOBE DEN HERREN is a tune of great vigor and strength, yet
simple of structure. It is very usable in a service of praise and
thanksgiving and has been sung with great effect by large chorus choirs.
The origin of the tune is uncertain. It appeared anonymously in _Ander
Theil des Erneuerten Gesangbuch_, Stralsund, 1665, to the words, “Hast
du denn, Liebster, dein Angesicht gänzlich verborgen,” by Ahasuerus
Fritsch, which suggests a secular origin of the melody. It is believed,
by some authorities, that Neander himself adapted it from an earlier
chorale. The tune appears with many variants of melody and harmonization
in different hymn books. The present form has been used since 1708.


516. How great, Almighty, is Thy kindness        _Christian F. Gellert_,
                                                                 1715-69
                                       _Tr. Margarete Münsterburg_, 1917

                                   1.
  Wie gross ist des Allmächt’gen Güte!
    Ist der ein Mensch, den sie nicht rührt,
  Der mit verhärtetem Gemüte
    Den Dank erstickt, der ihm gebührt?
  Nein, seine Liebe zu ermessen,
    Sei ewig meine grösste Pflicht;
  Der Herr hat mein noch nie vergessen,
    Vergiss, mein Herz, auch seiner nicht!

                                   2.
  Wer hat mich wunderbar bereitet?
    Der Gott, der meiner nicht bedarf.
  Wer hat mit Langmut mich geleitet?
    Er, dessen Rat ich oft verwarf.
  Wer stärkt den Frieden im Gewissen?
    Wer gibt dem Geiste neue Kraft?
  Wer lässt mich so viel Guts geniessen?
    Ist’s nicht sein Arm, der Alles schafft?

                                   3.
  Blick’, O mein Geist! in jenes Leben,
    Zu welchem du erschaffen bist,
  Wo du, mit Herrlichkeit umgeben,
    Gott ewig sehn wirst, wie Er ist.
  Du hast ein Recht zu diesen Freuden,
    Durch Gottes Güte sind sie dein.
  Sieh, darum musste Christus leiden,
    Damit du könnest selig sein.

                                   4.
  Und diesen Gott sollt’ ich nicht ehren,
    Und seine Güte nicht verstehn?
  Er sollte rufen, ich nicht hören?
    Den Weg, den er mir zeigt, nicht gehn?
  Sein Will’ ist mir ins Herz geschrieben,
    Sein Wort bestärkt ihn ewiglich:
  Gott soll ich über Alles lieben,
    Und meinen Nächsten gleich als mich.

                                   5.
  Dies ist mein Dank, dies ist sein Wille,
    Ich soll vollkommen sein, wie er.
  So lang ich dies Gebot erfülle,
    Stell’ ich sein Bildnis in mir her.
  Lebt seine Lieb’ in meiner Seele,
    So treibt sie mich zu jeder Pflicht;
  Und ob ich schon aus Schwachheit fehle,
    Herrscht doch in mir die Sünde nicht.

                                   6.
  O Gott! lass deine Güt’ und Liebe
    Mir immerdar vor Augen sein!
  Sie stärk’ in mir die guten Triebe,
    Mein ganzes Leben dir zu weihn;
  Sie tröste mich zur Zeit der Schmerzen,
    Sie tröste mich zur Zeit des Glücks,
  Und sie besieg’ in meinem Herzen
    Die Furcht des letzten Augenblicks!

The hymn was first published in Leipzig, 1757, in six stanzas, entitled,
“The Goodness of God.”

Gellert was one of the most popular writers in German literature. Born
in Saxony, the son of a Lutheran country preacher, he attended
Fürstenschule at Meissen, and then went to the University of Leipzig
where he studied philosophy and theology. Later he lectured at that
university on poetry, elocution, and moral philosophy. He was beloved by
all his classes, the lectures sometimes being attended by four hundred.
Outside the university he was even more popular. A poor peasant once
unloaded a cart full of wood before Gellert’s house, begging him to
accept the gift as thanks for his beautiful fables. The keynote of his
popularity is expressed in one of his letters:

  Mein grösster Ehrgeiz besteht darin, dasz ich den Vernünftigen dienen
  und gefallen will, und nicht den Gelehrten im engen Verstande. Ein
  kluges Frauenzimmer gilt mir mehr als eine gelehrte Zeitung, und der
  niedrigste Mann von gesundem Verstande ist mir würdig genug, seine
  Aufmerksamkeit zu suchen, sein Vergnügen zu befördern und ihm in einem
  leicht zu behaltenden Ausdrucke gute Wahrheiten zu sagen und edle
  Empfindungen in seiner Seele rege zu machen.

Gellert’s reputation rests chiefly on his fables and stories. His best
religious poems are “Wie gross ist des Allmächt’gen Güte,” “Dies ist der
Tag, den Gott gemacht,” and “Jesus lebt, mit ihm auch ich” (543).

No information is at hand concerning the translator, Margarete
Münsterberg.

_MUSIC._ WIE GROSS IST DES ALLMÄCHT’GEN GÜTE is ascribed here to C. F.
Richter. The Canadian _Gesangbuch_ credits the tune to J.
Freylinghausen.

Christian Friedrich Richter, 1676-1711, born at Sorau, in Niederlausitz,
studied medicine and theology in Halle and became practicing physician
in the Orphanage in Halle. A deeply religious man with poetic insight,
he wrote 33 hymns, and is the author of a treatise on the Crucifixion of
Christ.


517. O Pow’r of love, all else transcending        _Gerhard Tersteegen_,
                                                               1697-1769
                                               _Tr. H. Brueckner_, 1883—

                                   1.
  Ich bete an die Macht der Liebe,
    Die sich in Jesu offenbart;
  Ich geb’ mich hin dem freien Triebe,
    Mit dem ich heiss geliebet ward;
  Ich will, anstatt an mich zu denken,
  Ins Meer der Liebe mich versenken.

                                   2.
  Wie bist du mir so hoch gewogen,
    Und wie verlangt dein Herz nach mir!
  Durch Liebe sanft und stark gezogen,
    Neigt sich mein Alles auch zu dir.
  Du, teure Liebe, gutes Wesen,
  Du hast mich, ich hab’ dich erlesen!

                                   3.
  Ich fühl’s, du bist’s, ich muss dich haben;
    Ich fühl’s, ich muss für dich nur sein;
  Nicht im Geschöpf, nicht in den Gaben,
    Mein Leben ist in dir allein!
  Hier ist die Ruh’, hier ist Vergnügen;
  Drum folg’ ich deinen sel’gen Zügen.

                                   4.
  Dein ewig ist mein Herz und Leben,
    Erlöser, du, mein einzig Gut!
  Du hast für mich dich hingegeben
    Zum Heil durch dein Erlösungsblut.
  Du Heil des schweren, tiefen Falles,
  Für dich ist ewig Herz und Alles!

                                   5.
  Ich liebt’ und lebte recht im Zwange,
    Als ich mir lebte ohne dich.
  Ich wollte dich nicht, ach so lange!
    Doch liebtest du und suchtest mich!
  O wenn doch dies der Sünder wüsste,
  Sein Herz wohl bald dich lieben müsste!

                                   6.
  O Jesu, dass dein Name bliebe
    Im Geist mir; drück ihn tief hinein!
  Lass deine süsse Jesusliebe
    In Herz und Sinn gepräget sein!
  In Wort and Werk, in allem Wesen
  Sei Jesus und sonst nichts zu lesen!

                                   7.
  In deinem teuren, heil’gen Namen
    Eröffnet sich des Vaters Herz,
  Da find’ ich lauter Ja und Amen,
    Und Trost und Heilung für den Schmerz.
  O dass dies jeder Sünder wüsste,
  Sein Herz gar bald dich lieben müsste!

                                   8.
  Preis sei dem hohen Jesusnamen,
    In dem der Liebe Quell entspringt,
  Von dem hier alle Ströme kamen,
    Aus dem die sel’ge Schaar dort trinkt!
  Wie beugen sie sich ohne Ende,
  Wie falten sie die frohen Hände!

One of the great hymns by the German mystic, Gerhard Tersteegen.

For comments on Tersteegen see Hymn 506.

Our version is a free translation of stanzas 1, 2, and 4 of the original
8.

Herman Brueckner, translator of the hymn, was born in Eisenach, Germany,
and was educated at the Universities of Leipzig, Greifswald, and Jena.
The latter gave him the doctor’s degree in theology in 1923. Coming to
America, Brueckner served a year as Lutheran Seaman’s Pastor for the
Port of New York. From 1915 to 1931 he was pastor of St. Matthaeus
Lutheran Church, Hoboken, N. J., and since that time has served as
Professor of Church History in Hartwick Seminary. He is the author of a
number of volumes on ecclesiastical and historical subjects, among them,
_Church and State in Germany_, published in 1934.

Brueckner’s translation was slightly altered by the editors of the
_Hymnary_, at two points:

Stanza 1, line 4: “And sign of thy celestial lore,” to “Thy name to
honor and adore.”

Stanza 2, line 5: “Thy love, so tender, and caressing,” to “Thy love, so
tender, so possessing.”

_MUSIC._ ST. PETERSBURG, also known as “Wells,” “Wellspring,” and
“Shangana,” is adapted from a portion of a mass by the Russian composer,
Dimitri S. Bortniansky, 1752-1825.

For comments on Bortniansky see Hymn 28.

The “Don Cossacks” sing this melody with thrilling effect to “Kol
slaven,” a Russian folk song. The tune, slightly altered, has in recent
years been introduced into a number of American hymnals.


518. Lord, who can be with Thee compared     _Johann A. Cramer_, 1723-88
                                           _Tr. Harriet R. Spaeth_, 1913

  Herr! Dir ist Niemand zu vergleichen!
    Kein Lob kann deine Gröss erreichen,
  Kein noch so feuriger Verstand.
    Pracht, Majestät und Ruhm umgeben,
  Dich, aller Wesen Quell’ and Leben;
  Licht ist dein strahlenvoll Gewand.
    In hohen, unermess’nen Fernen,
  Wohin kein sterblich Auge schaut,
    Hast du, weit über allen Sternen,
  Dir deinen hohen Sitz erbaut.

    Als du allmächtig sprachst: “Es werde!”
    Da gründetest du fest die Erde,
    Vor Alters war die Tief ihr Kleid.
  Auf allen Bergen standen Wasser
  Du schalt’st sie, da enfloh’n die Wasser,
    Durch deines Donners Kraft zerstreut.
  Der Berge Gipfel, Herr erschienen,
    Erhoben durch dein mächtig Wort,
  Die Täler sanken unter ihnen
    An den für sie bestimmten Ort.

    Erheb’, erheb’ o meine Seele,
  Gott, meinen Schöpfer, und erzähle,
    Verkündige sein Lob der Welt!
  Ihm singe deine Jubellieder;
  Der Fromme halle sie ihm wieder,
    Dem Mächtigen, der uns erhält!
  Frohlockt ihm, alle seine Heere,
    Ihm weihet euren Lobgesang!
  Der Herr ist würdig, Preis und Ehre
    Zu nehmen, Lob und Ruhm und Dank!

A hymn in praise of God, the Creator of heaven and earth, originally in
10 stanzas. It is based on Psalm 104, one of the great nature Psalms.

Johann Andreas Cramer was the son of a Lutheran pastor. He was educated
at Leipzig and became famous as a preacher and teacher, later serving as
Professor of Theology and Chancellor of the University of Kiel in
Germany. He wrote numerous religious lyrics and psalm versions, a number
of which passed into the hymnbooks of his time, and several of which
have been translated into English.

The present hymn is a translation of stanzas 1 and 10 of the German
original. No information has been traced concerning Harriett R. Spaeth,
the translator.

_MUSIC._ HERR, DIR IST NIEMAND VERGLEICHEN derives its name from the
first line of the hymn with which it is associated. The composer, Justin
Heinrich Knecht, 1752-1817, was an eminent German organist and music
director of the town of Biberach, Swabia. He edited the _Württemberg
Choralbuch_, an important collection of tunes, to which he contributed
97 of his own compositions.


519. Holy God, we praise Thy name                 _Ignaz Franz_, 1719-90
                                      _Tr. Clarence Walworth_, 1820-1900

                                   1.
  Grosser Gott, wir loben dich!
  Herr, wir preisen deine Stärke!
  Vor dir neigt die Erde sich
  Und bewundert deine Werke.
  Wie du warst vor aller Zeit,
  So bleibst du in Ewigkeit!

                                   2.
  Alles, was dich preisen kann,
  Cherubim und Seraphinen,
  Stimmen dir ein Loblied an;
  Alle Engel, die dir dienen,
  Rufen dir in selger Ruh:
  Heilig, heilig, heilig zu.

                                   3.
  Heiliger Gott Zebaoth!
  Heil’ger Herr der Himmelsheere!
  Starker Helfer in der Not!
  Himmel, Erde, Luft und Meere
  Sind erfüllt mit deinem Ruhm;
  Alles ist dein Eigentum!

                                   4.
  Der Apostel heilger Chor,
  Der Propheten grosse Menge
  Schickt zu deinem Thron empor
  Neue Lob- und Dankgesänge;
  Der Blutzeugen grosse Schar
  Lobt und preist dich immerdar.

                                   5.
  Auf dem ganzen Erdenkreis
  Loben Grosse dich und Kleine.
  Dir, Gott Vater, dir zum Preis
  Singt die heilige Gemeinde,
  Und verehrt auf seinem Thron
  Deinen eingebornen Sohn.

                                   6.
  Sie verehrt den heil’gen Geist,
  Welcher uns mit seinen Lehren
  Und mit Troste kräftig speist,
  Dich, den Herrscher voller Ehren
  Der mit dir, O Jesu Christ,
  Und dem Vater Eines ist!

                                   7.
  Du, des Vaters ew’ger Sohn,
  Hast die Menschheit angenommen,
  Bist, O Herr, von deinem Thron
  Zu uns in die Welt gekommen!
  Du hast uns dein Reich gebracht:
  Uns von Sünde frei gemacht!

                                   8.
  Nun kann zu der Gnade Thron
  Jeder freien Zugang finden:
  Wer da glaubet an den Sohn,
  Hat Vergebung seiner Sünden;
  Denn des Lammes teures Blut
  Spricht für uns beim Vater gut.

                                   9.
  Stehe denn, O Herr, uns bei,
  Die wir dich in Demut bitten:
  Sprich von aller Schuld uns frei,
  Da du auch für uns gelitten;
  Nimm uns nach vollbrachtem Lauf
  Zu dir in den Himmel auf!

                                  10.
  Alle Tage wollen wir
  Deinen heil’gen Namen preisen,
  Und zu allen Zeiten dir
  Ehre, Lob und Dank erweisen.
  Gib dass wir in allem Tun
  Nur in deinem Willen ruhn!

                                  11.
  Herr, erbarm, erbarme dich!
  Ueber uns, Herr, sei dein Segen!
  Deine Güte zeige sich,
  Dass wir lauter preisen mögen!
  Auf dich hoffen wir allein,
  Lass uns nicht verloren sein!

The words are a rhymed form of the _Te Deum_ which Luther, in strict
ecclesiastical style, translated from the Latin. The hymn is popular
among Roman Catholics, Lutherans, and Anglicans, as a post-communion
hymn, and is a great favorite among Mennonite churches. It sounds a
universal note of praise that can be sung by Christians of all
denominations. The hymn was used at the opening of the first World
Assembly of Churches, held at Amsterdam, August 22 to September 4, 1948,
where it was sung simultaneously in different tongues.

The author, Ignaz Franz, was born at Protzan, Kr. Frankenstein, in
Silesia. He first was priest in Schlowa, and then became rector of a
graduate school for priests in Breslau. In 1772, under the influence of
the Enlightenment, he published a Catholic hymnbook. He is described as
a man filled with zeal for the good things in religion and the church.

Note: The _Te Deum_ is a long Latin hymn of uncertain origin,
constituting the supreme expression of rejoicing in the Roman Catholic,
Anglican, and other Christian Churches. It is sometimes called the
“Canticle of Ambrose and Augustine,” from the legend that at the baptism
of Augustine by Ambrose it was sung antiphonally, extempore, by the two
men. It dates back to the fourth or fifth century. Its contents are
drawn from different sources: the Apostles’ Creed, the “Gloria in
Excelsis,” and the Psalms (e.g. 28:9, 31:1, 33:22, 123:3, 145:2).
Luther, who translated it into German, praised it as a “fine symbol or
confession, not only for confessing the right faith but also for
praising and thanking God withal.” A real confession of faith ought to
be sung, and as such the _Te Deum_ has been on the lips of the Church,
in one form or another, ever since it was composed.

_MUSIC._ GROSSER GOTT, WIR LOBEN DICH is of unknown composition. The
tune first appeared in the _Katholisches Gesangbuch_, a book undated but
not earlier than 1774, set to the words, “Grosser Gott.” Its first
appearance in a Protestant hymn book was in Schicht’s _Choral-Buch_,
Leipzig, 1819. It was set to English words in _Melodia Sacra_, Dublin,
1844, to the hymn, “Jesus, and shall it ever be,” where the tune was
modified to fit the words and named, “Stillorgan.” Later, under the
name, “Hursley”, it became widely associated with Keble’s evening hymn,
“Sun of my Soul” (No. 30). _St. Basil’s Hymnal_ (Roman Catholic, 1918),
as well as the _Gesangbuch mit Noten_, attribute the tune to Peter
Ritter; _Glaubensharfe_, to J. Haydn. There seems to be no good evidence
for either. The English _Church Hymnary_, London, 1935, has set the
tune, naming it “Pascal”, to Toplady’s “Rock of Ages.” In some of the
books the last score is marked with a repeat sign for the sake of
emphasis and climax.


520. Holy Lord, holy Lord                                    _Anonymous_

The notes of thanksgiving and praise are dominant. The origin of the
hymn has not been traced.

_MUSIC._ FAHRE FORT, attributed erroneously in the _Hymnary_ to Johann
E. Schmidt, is of anonymous origin. It appeared in Freylinghausen’s
_Gesangbuch_, Halle, 1704, with the well-known hymn, “Fahre fort, fahre
fort,” by Johann E. Schmidt, 1669-1745. The tune derived its name from
this hymn.


521. All glory be to God on High       _Nikolaus Decius_, _c._ 1490-1541
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  Allein Gott in der Höh’ sei Ehr’
    Und Dank für seine Gnade,
  Darum dass nun und nimmermehr
    Uns rühren kann kein Schade.
  Ein Wohlgefall’n Gott an uns hat,
  Nun ist gross’ Fried’ ohn’ Unterlass,
    All’ Fehd’ hat nun ein Ende.

                                   2.
  Wir loben, preis’n, anbeten dich
    Für deine Ehr’; wir danken,
  Dass du, Gott Vater, ewiglich
    Regierst ohn’ alles Wanken.
  Ganz ungemess’n ist deine Macht,
  Fort g’schieht, was dein Will’ hat bedacht;
    Wohl uns des feinen Herren!

                                   3.
  O Jesu Christ, Sohn eingebor’n
    Deines himmlischen Vaters,
  Versöhner der’r, die war’n verlor’n,
    Du Stiller unsers Haders.
  Lamm Gottes, heil’ger Herr und Gott,
  Nimm an die Bitt’ von unsrer Not,
    Erbarm’ dich unser aller!

                                   4.
  O heil’ger Geist, du höchstes Gut,
    Du allerheilsamst’ Tröster,
  Vor’s Teufels G’walt fortan behüt’,
    Die Jesus Christ erlöset
  Durch grosse Mart’r und bittern Tod,
  Abwend all unsern Jamm’r und Not!
    Darauf wir uns verlassen.

An example of what a good, popular hymn should be—“neither didactic nor
introspective, but natural, strong, and churchly.”

The author, Nikolaus Decius, was a contemporary of Luther. (The date,
“1626,” in the _Hymnary_ is obviously wrong.) He was a monk in the Roman
Catholic Church but became a follower of Luther, leaving the cloister at
Steterburg, in 1519, to become a teacher and evangelical preacher. His
work was carried on under constant opposition from the Church of Rome.
He died suddenly in 1541 with some suspicion of having been poisoned by
his enemies. Three hymns are ascribed to Decius: versions of the
_Sanctus_, the _Gloria in excelsis_, and the _Agnus Dei_ (No. 540). The
present hymn is a translation of the second, the _Gloria in excelsis_.
It became very popular, though Luther did not use it in any of his
collections.

For comments on Catherine Winkworth see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ NUN FREUT EUCH is also attributed to Decius who was a good
musician as well as a popular preacher. It is often called “Luther’s
Hymn” but there is no evidence that he wrote it. The tune appeared in
_Geistliche Lieder_, Wittenberg, 1535, where it was set to Luther’s
hymn, “Nun freut euch, liebe Christengemein.”


                                 ADVENT


522. Wake, awake, for night is flying       _Philipp Nicolai_, 1556-1608
                               _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78 _Alt._

                                   1.
  Wachet auf! ruft uns die Stimme
  Der Wächter sehr hoch auf der Zinne,
    Wach auf, du Stadt Jerusalem!
  Mitternacht heisst diese Stunde;
  Sie rufen uns mit hellem Munde:
    Wo seid ihr klugen Jungfrauen?
  Wohlauf, der Bräut’gam kömmt,
  Steht auf, die Lampen nehmt!
    Halleluja!
  Macht euch bereit zu der Hochzeit,
  Ihr müsset ihm entgegengehn!

                                   2.
  Zion hört die Wächter singen,
  Das Herz tut ihr vor Freuden springen,
    Sie wacht und stehet eilend auf.
  Ihr Freund kommt vom Himmel prächtig,
  Von Gnaden stark, von Wahrheit mächtig,
    Ihr Licht wird hell, ihr Stern geht auf.
  Nun komm, du werte Kron’,
  Herr Jesu, Gottes Sohn!
    Hosianna!
  Wir folgen all’ zum Freudensaal
  Und halten mit das Abendmahl.

                                   3.
  Gloria sei dir gesungen
  Mit Menschen- und mit Engelzungen,
    Mit Harfen und mit Zimbeln schön.
  Von zwölf Perlen sind die Pforten
  An deiner Stadt, wir sind Konsorten
  Kein Aug hat je gespürt,
  Kein Ohr hat mehr gehört
    Solche Freude.
  Das sind wir froh, i-o, i-o,
  Ewig in dulci iubilo.

This hymn, with its magnificent tune, has long been known as the “King
of Chorals.” (For the “Queen of Chorals” see No. 529). Percy Dearmer
writes of this choral: “There is no other hymn like this, surely the
grandest and most thrilling, both in words and music—and both words and
music by the same man.” It is based on the parable of the wise and
foolish virgins in Matt. 25:1-13, and on Rev. 19:6-9 (the marriage of
the Lamb); 21:22; 1 Cor. 2:9; Ezek. 3:17; and Isa. 52:8.

Nicolai, an ardent Lutheran and influential preacher, was fierce in his
denunciation of both Calvinism and Roman Catholicism. He held pastorates
in various places. From 1601 until his death, he was chief pastor of St.
Katherine’s, Hamburg. It was during his five years at Unna, Westphalia,
that a terrible pestilence swept through the community, claiming the
lives of over 1300 people. Nicolai’s parsonage overlooked the church
yard where the burial of the victims was taking place continually. These
scenes of sorrow and death moved him to write this great judgment hymn
which he entitled, “Of the Voice at Midnight, and the Wise Virgins who
meet their Heavenly Bridegroom.”

For comments on Miss Winkworth, translator, see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ WACHET AUF, one of the greatest and most solemn melodies of
evangelical Christendom, was composed by Nicolai. The present setting is
by Michael Praetorius, 1571-1621, a writer on the theory of music and a
composer of note. The melody was used by Bach in one of his cantatas and
Mendelssohn used it in his _St. Paul_. Handel used the seventh and
eighth lines of the melody with great effect in the “Hallelujah Chorus,”
with the phrase, “The kingdom of this world.”


523. Lift up your heads, ye mighty gates      _Georg Weissel_, 1590-1635
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  Macht hoch die Tür, die Tor’ macht weit,
  Es kommt der Herr der Herrlichkeit,
  Ein König aller Königreich’,
  Ein Heiland aller Welt zugleich,
  Der Heil und Leben mit sich bringt;
  Derhalben jauchzt, mit Freuden singt;
    Gelobet sei mein Gott,
    Mein Schöpfer, reich von Rat!

                                   2.
  Er ist gerecht, ein Helfer wert,
  Sanftmütigkeit ist sein Gefährt,
  Sein Königskron’ ist Heiligkeit,
  Sein Zepter ist Barmherzigkeit.
  All unsre Not zum End’ er bringt,
  Derhalben jauchzt, mit Freuden singt:
    Gelobet sei mein Gott,
    Mein Heiland, gross von Tat!

                                   3.
  O wohl dem Land, o wohl der Stadt,
  So diesen König bei sich hat!
  Wohl allen Herzen insgemein,
  Da dieser König ziehet ein!
  Er ist die rechte Freudensonn’,
  Bringt mit sich lauter Freud’ und Wonn’.
    Gelobet sei mein Gott,
    Mein Tröster, früh und spat!

                                   4.
  Macht hoch die Tür, die Tor’ macht weit,
  Eu’r Herz zum Tempel zubereit’t,
  Die Zweiglein der Gottseligkeit
  Steckt auf mit Andacht, Lust und Freud’!
  So kommt der König auch zu euch.
  Ja Heil und Leben mit zugleich,
    Gelobet sei mein Gott,
    Voll Rat, voll Tat, voll Gnad’!

                                   5.
  Komm, o mein Heiland Jesu Christ,
  Mein’s Herzens Tür dir offen ist!
  Ach zeuch mit deiner Gnade ein,
  Dein’ Freundlichkeit auch uns erschein’,
  Dein heil’ger Geist uns führ’ und leit’
  Den Weg zur ew’gen Seligkeit!
    Dem Namen dein, o Herr,
    Sei ewig Preis und Ehr’!

One of our finest German Advent hymns, based on Psalm 24. It was written
for use on the first Sunday in Advent.

Georg Weissel was born at Domnau, Prussia. He was a student of theology,
a teacher, and, from 1623, until his death in 1635, the pastor of
Roszgärt’schen Church in Königsberg. He is the author of twenty hymns,
this being probably the best and most widely used. Our version is a
translation of stanzas 1, 2, 3, and 5 of the original.

For comments on Catherine Winkworth see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ MACHT HOCH DIE TÜR is one of several chorale tunes, probably
the most popular, to which this hymn is set.

The composer, Johann Freylinghausen, 1670-1739, was born at Gandersheim,
the son of the town’s burgomaster. He was educated at Jena. After the
death of his father-in-law, August Francke, Pietist leader, he became
the latter’s successor as director of the Paedagogium and the Orphanage
in Halle and pastor in full charge of St. Ulrich’s. Freylinghausen was a
musician and wrote some 22 church melodies but his outstanding work
consists of his two collections of hymns: _Geistreiches Gesangbuch,_
1704, and _Neues Geistreiches Gesangbuch,_ 1714. The former contains 683
hymns and 173 melodies, and the latter, 815 hymns and 154 melodies.


524. O Son of God, we wait for Thee       _Philipp F. Hiller,_ 1699-1769
                                        _Tr. Joseph A. Seiss,_ 1823-1904

                                   1.
  Wir warten dein, O Gottes Sohn,
    Und lieben dein Erscheinen;
  Wir wissen dich auf deinem Thron,
    Und nennen uns die deinen.
      Wer an dich glaubt
      Erhebt sein Haupt,
  Und siehet dir entgegen,
  Du kommst uns ja zum Segen.

                                   2.
  Wir warten deiner mit Geduld
    In unsern Leidenstagen;
  Wir trösten uns, dass du die Schuld
    Für uns am Kreuz getragen.
      So können wir
      Nun gern mit dir
  Uns auch zum Kreuz bequemen,
  Bis du’s hinweg wirst nehmen.

                                   3.
  Wir warten dein; du hast uns ja
    Das Herz schon hingenommen.
  Du bist zwar unserm Geiste nah,
    Doch wirst du sichtbar kommen;
      Da willst uns du
      Bei dir auch Ruh’,
  Bei dir auch Freude geben,
  Bei dir ein herrlich Leben.

                                   4.
  Wir warten dein, du kommst gewiss,
    Die Zeit ist bald vergangen;
  Wir freuen uns schon über dies
    Mit kindlichem Verlangen.
      Was wird geschehn,
      Wenn wir dich sehn,
  Wenn du uns heim wirst bringen,
  Wenn wir dir ewig singen!

In clear and concise language, the hymn voices the hope for the coming
of Christ.

Phillipp Friedrich Hiller, son of a Lutheran Pastor, was born at
Mühlhausen, Württemberg. To escape the French invaders, he fled with his
parents, at the age of 8, to Heidenheim. In 1713, he went to the
Klosterschule, Denkendorf, where Bengel had a decided influence upon
him. In 1748, he became the pastor in Steinheim, where, after three
years of faithful service, a throat disease afflicted him, resulting in
the loss of his voice. No longer able to preach, he gave himself to
Bible study and writing, composing more than 100 hymns, and publishing a
volume of religious poetry, _Geistliches Liederkästlein_.

The translation is by Joseph Augustus Seiss, a Lutheran minister, born
at Graceham, Md., and educated at Gettysburg College and Seminary. Seiss
was a noted pulpit orator in his denomination and held pastorates in
Virginia, Maryland, and, finally, in Philadelphia.

_MUSIC._ GASTORIUS is ascribed by some authorities to Johann Pachelbel
of Nürnberg, a contemporary of Gastorius. The melody appeared in the
_Auserlesenes Weimarisches Gesangbuch_, 1681. Zahn, on the basis of
careful study of the sources, does not hesitate to credit its
composition to Gastorius, about 1675. It was originally set to a hymn by
Samuel Rodigast, “Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan.”

Severus Gastorius, cantor in Jena, was born about 1650. Details
concerning his life are not available.


                             CHRISTMASTIDE


525. All my heart this night rejoices           _Paul Gerhardt_, 1607-76
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  Fröhlich soll mein Herze springen
    Dieser Zeit, da vor Freud’
  Alle Engel singen.
    Hört, hört, wie mit vollen Chören
  Alle Luft laute ruft:
    Christus ist geboren!

                                   2.
  Heute geht aus seiner Kammer
    Gottes Held, der die Welt
  Reisst aus allem Jammer.
    Gott wird Mensch dir, Mensch, zugute.
  Gottes Kind, das verbind’t
    Sich mit unserm Blute.

                                   3.
  Sollt’ uns Gott nun können hassen,
    Der uns gibt, was er liebt
  Ueber alle Massen?
    Gott gibt, unserm Leid zu wehren,
  Seinen Sohn aus dem Thron
    Seiner Macht und Ehren.

                                   4.
  Sollte von uns sein gekehret,
    Der sein Reich und zugleich
  Sich uns selbst verehret?
    Sollt’ uns Gottes Sohn nicht lieben,
  Der jetzt kömmt, von uns nimmt,
    Was uns will betrüben?

                                   5.
  Hätte vor der Menschen Orden
    Unser Heil einen Greu’l,
  Wär’ er nicht Mensch worden.
    Hätt’ er Lust zu unserm Schaden,
  Ei, so würd’ unsre Bürd’
    Er nicht auf sich laden.

                                   6.
  Er nimmt auf sich, was auf Erden
    Wir getan, gibt sich an,
  Unser Lamm zu werden,
    Unser Lamm, das für uns stirbet
  Und bei Gott für den Tod
    Gnad’ und Fried’ erwirbet.

                                   7.
  Nun, er liegt in seiner Krippen,
    Ruft zu sich mich und dich,
  Spricht mit süssen Lippen:
    Lasset fahr’n, o liebe Brüder,
  Was euch quält, was euch fehlt,
    Ich bring’ alles wieder.

                                   8.
  Ei, so kommt und lasst uns laufen!
    Stellt euch ein, gross und klein,
  Eilt mit grossem Haufen!
    Liebt den, der vor Liebe brennet;
  Schaut den Stern, der uns gern
    Licht und Labsal gönnet.

                                   9.
  Die ihr schwebt in grossen Leiden,
    Sehet, hier ist die Tür
  Zu den wahren Freuden.
    Fasst ihn wohl, er wird euch führen
  An den Ort, da hinfort
    Euch kein Kreuz wird rühren.

                                  10.
  Wer sich fühlt beschwert im Herzen,
    Wer empfind’t seine Sünd’
  Und Gewissensschmerzen,
    Sei getrost, hier wird gefunden,
  Der in Eil’ machet heil
    Die vergift’ten Wunden.

                                  11.
  Die ihr arm seid und elende,
    Kommt herbei, füllet frei
  Eures Glaubens Hände!
    Hier sind alle guten Gaben
  Und das Gold, da ihr sollt
    Euer Herz mit laben.

                                  12.
  Süsses Heil, lass dich umfangen,
    Lass mich dir, meine Zier,
  Unverrückt anhangen!
    Du bist meines Lebens Leben;
  Nun kann ich mich durch dich
    Wohl zufrieden geben.

                                  13.
  Meine Schuld kann mich nicht drücken,
    Denn du hast meine Last
  All’ auf deinem Rücken.
    Kein Fleck ist an mir zu finden,
  Ich bin gar rein und klar
    Aller meiner Sünden.

                                  14.
  Ich bin rein um deinetwillen;
    Du gibst g’nug Ehr, und Schmuck,
  Mich darein zu hüllen.
    Ich will dich ins Herze schliessen;
  O mein Ruhm, edle Blum’,
    Lass dich recht geniessen!

                                  15.
  Ich will dich mit Fleiss bewahren,
    Ich will dir leben hier,
  Dir will ich abfahren;
    Mit dir will ich endlich schweben
  Voller Freud’ ohne Zeit
    Dort im andern Leben.

Paul Gerhardt’s beautiful Christmas poem, in 15 stanzas, appeared in
Johann Crüger’s _Praxis Pietatis Melica_, Berlin, 1653, together with a
tune composed for it by Crüger. The present hymn is a selection of
stanzas 1, 7 and 8, from Catherine Winkworth’s translation. The original
15 stanzas are printed here in full for the benefit of those who may
wish to read the whole hymn and study its structure.

For comments on Paul Gerhardt see Hymn 134.

For comments on Miss Winkworth see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ WARUM SOLLT ICH MICH DENN GRÄMEN, also called, “Ebeling,” and
“Bonn,” soon superseded Crüger’s tune. It was originally set to another
of Gerhardt’s hymns, “Warum sollt ich mich denn grämen,” from whence the
tune derives its name. The composer, Johann Georg Ebeling, 1620-76, was
cantor of St. Nicholas Cathedral, Berlin, and director of music at the
Grayfriars Gymnasium there, succeeding Johann Crüger to these positions,
in 1662. Six years later, he became Professor of Music at the Carolinen
Gymnasium, Stettin.

The harmonization is by W. H. Hohmann, Professor of Music, Bethel
College, and co-editor of the _Hymnary_.


526. A great and mighty wonder                   _St. Germanus_, 634-734
                                            _Tr. John M. Neale_, 1818-66

This is one of a half dozen or more hymns in our book that have come
down from the ancient Eastern or Greek Church. (Other hymns from this
period are Nos. 34, 113, 115, 143, and 398.)

St. Germanus was born and died in Constantinople. He lived to be a
hundred years old. He became an influential leader in the church, and
served, for a time, as Patriarch, or Bishop of Constantinople.

For this translation, we are indebted to John M. Neale, English
hymnologist and classical scholar. Neale possessed extraordinary
linguistic skill and did more than anyone else to make available to
English speaking people some of the rich treasure of Greek and Latin
hymnody.

_MUSIC._ ES IST EIN’ ROS’ ENTSPRUNGEN, also known as “Rosa Mystica,” is
a traditional German melody, originally set to a well-known carol
beginning with the stanza:

  Es ist ein Reis entsprungen
    Aus einer Wurzel zart,
  Als uns die Alten sungen,
    Von Jesse kam die Art,
  Und hat ein Blümlein bracht
    Mitten im kalten Winter
  Wohl zu der halben Nacht.

It is an attractive and interesting tune, of irregular rhythm. The
present setting was made by Michael Praetorius, 1517-1621, German
composer and Kapellmeister.

For comments on Praetorius see Hymn 248.


527. From heaven above to earth I come        _Martin Luther_, 1483-1546
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  Vom Himmel hoch, da komm’ ich her,
  Ich bring’ euch gute neue Mär,
  Der guten Mär bring’ ich so viel,
  Davon ich sing’n und sagen will.

                                   2.
  Euch ist ein Kindlein heut’ gebor’n
  Von einer Jungfrau auserkor’n,
  Ein Kindelein, so zart und fein,
  Das soll eur Freud’ und Wonne sein.

                                   3.
  Es ist der Herr Christ, unser Gott,
  Der will euch führ’n aus aller Not,
  Er will eu’r Heiland selber sein,
  Von allen Sünden machen rein.

                                   4.
  Er bringt euch alle Seligkeit,
  Die Gott der Vater hat bereit,
  Dass ihr mit uns im Himmelreich
  Sollt leben nun und ewiglich.

                                   5.
  So merket nun das Zeichen recht,
  Die Krippe, Windelein so schlecht,
  Da findet ihr das Kind gelegt,
  Das alle Welt erhält und trägt.

                                   6.
  Des lasst uns alle fröhlich sein
  Und mit den Hirten gehn hinein,
  Zu sehn, was Gott uns hat beschert,
  Mit seinem lieben Sohn verehrt.

                                   7.
  Merk auf, mein Herz, und sieh dorthin!
  Was liegt dort in dem Krippelein?
  Wer ist das schöne Kindelein?
  Es ist das liebe Jesulein.

                                   8.
  Bist willekomm, du edler Gast!
  Den Sünder nicht verschmähet hast
  Und kommst ins Elend her zu mir,
  Wie soll ich immer danken dir?

                                   9.
  Ach Herr, du Schöpfer aller Ding’,
  Wie bist du worden so gering,
  Dass du da liegst auf dürrem Gras,
  Davon ein Rind und Esel asz!

                                  10.
  Und wär’ die Welt vielmal so weit,
  Von Edelstein und Gold bereit’t,
  So wär sie doch dir viel zu klein,
  Zu sein ein enges Wiegelein.

                                  11.
  Der Sammet und die Seide dein,
  Das ist grob Heu und Windelein,
  Darauf du König gross und reich
  Herprangst, als wär’s dein Himmelreich.

                                  12.
  Das hat also gefallen dir,
  Die Wahrheit anzuzeigen mir:
  Wie aller Welt Macht, Ehr’ und Gut
  Vor dir nichts gilt, nichts hilft noch tut.

                                  13.
  Ach mein herzliebes Jesulein,
  Mach dir ein rein, sanft Bettelein,
  Zu ruhen in mein’s Herzens Schrein,
  Dass ich nimmer vergesse dein!

                                  14.
  Davon ich allzeit fröhlich sei,
  Zu springen, singen immer frei
  Das rechte Susaninne schon,
  Mit Herzenslust den süssen Ton.

                                  15.
  Lob, Ehr’ sei Gott im höchsten Thron,
  Der uns schenkt seinen ein’gen
  Sohn! Des freuen sich der Engel Schar
  Und singen uns solch neues Jahr.

This children’s Christmas carol, based on the second chapter of Luke,
was written by Martin Luther for his little son Hans for the Christmas
celebration in his own home, 1534. Luther’s instructions were that the
first seven verses were to be sung by a man dressed as an angel,
whereupon the children would greet him with the singing of verses eight
to fifteen. The present hymn is a selection of stanzas 1, 2, 3, 8, 13,
and 15.

For comments on the translator, Miss Winkworth, see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ VOM HIMMEL HOCH, also by Luther, was early associated with the
words of the carol and has become one of the best known chorales. J. S.
Bach made several settings of the tune, one of them in his _Christmas
Oratorio_.


                                NEW YEAR


528. For Thy mercy and Thy grace                   _H. Downton_, 1818-85

Originally in seven stanzas, this hymn was first published, 1843, in the
_Church of England Magazine_, under the title, “A Hymn for the
Commencement of the Year.” It is a first-rate quality hymn for the New
Year.

The author, Henry Downton, was born in Pulverbatch, Shropshire, England.
In 1840, he graduated from Cambridge where his father was sub-librarian
of Trinity College. After serving as curate of St. John’s Chatham,
Downton became English chaplain at Geneva in 1857, returning to England
in 1873 to become rector of Hopton, Suffolk. In Geneva, he had become
acquainted with the hymnody of the Swiss and French Churches, and
translated a number of their hymns into English. He published _Hymns and
Verses, Original and Translated_, 1873.

_MUSIC._ CULBACH appeared in _Heilige Seelenlust_, Breslau, 1657, set to
the hymn, “Ach wann kommt die Zeit heran.” The melody, simple in
structure and well within the pitch range of all voices, is admirably
adapted to congregational singing, in unison or in parts. The composer
is unknown.


                                EPIPHANY


529. How brightly shines the Morning Star   _Philipp Nicolai_, 1556-1608
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern
  Voll Gnad’ und Wahrheit von dem Herrn,
    Die süsse Wurzel Jesse!
  Du Sohn Davids aus Jakobs Stamm,
  Mein König und mein Bräutigam,
    Hast mir mein Herz besessen,
        Lieblich, freundlich,
  Schön und herrlich, gross und ehrlich,
  Reich von Gaben,
  Hoch und sehr prächtig erhaben!

                                   2.
  Ei meine Perl’, du werte Kron’,
  Wahr’r Gottes- und Mariensohn,
    Ein hochgeborner König!
  Mein Herz heisst dich ein Lilium,
  Dein süsses Evangelium
    Ist lauter Milch und Honig.
        Ei mein Blümlein,
  Hosianna, himmlisch Manna,
  Das wir essen,
  Deiner kann ich nicht vergessen!

                                   3.
  Geuss sehr tief in mein Herz hinein,
  Du heller Jaspis und Rubin,
    Die Flamme deiner Liebe
  Und erfreu’ mich, dass ich doch bleib’
  An deinem auserwählten Leib
    Ein’ lebendige Rippe!
        Nach dir ist mir,
  Gratiosa coeli rosa,
  Krank und glimmet
  Mein Herz, durch Liebe verwundet.

                                   4.
  Von Gott kommt mir ein Freudenschein,
  Wenn du mit deinen Aeugelein
    Mich freundlich tust anblicken.
  O Herr Jesu, mein trautes Gut,
  Dein Wort, dein Geist, dein Leib und Blut
    Mich innerlich erquicken!
        Nimm mich freundlich
  In dein’ Arme, dass ich warme
  Werd’ von Gnaden!
  Auf dein Wort komm’ ich geladen.

                                   5.
  Herr Gott Vater, mein starker Held,
  Du hast mich ewig vor der Welt
    In deinem Sohn geliebet.
  Dein Sohn hat mich ihm selbst vertraut,
  Er ist mein Schatz, ich bin sein’ Braut,
    Sehr hoch in ihm erfreuet.
        Eia, eia,
  Himmlisch Leben wird er geben
  Mir dort oben!
  Ewig soll mein Herz ihn loben.

                                   6.
  Zwingt die Saiten in Zithara
  Und lasst die süsse Musika
    Ganz freudenreich erschallen,
  Dass ich möge mit Jesulein,
  Dem wunderschönen Bräut’gam mein,
    In steter Liebe wallen!
        Singet, springet,
  Jubilieret, triumphieret,
  Dankt dem Herren!
  Gross ist der König der Ehren!

                                   7.
  Wie bin ich doch so herzlich froh
  Dass mein Schatz ist das A und O
    Der Anfang und das Ende!
  Er wird mich doch zu seinem Preis
  Aufnehmen in das Paradeis,
    Des klopf’ ich in die Hände.
        Amen! Amen!
  Komm, du schöne Freudenkrone,
  Bleib nicht lange,
  Deiner wart’ ich mit Verlangen!

Known as the “Queen of the Chorales.” The words and music were written
in 1527 by the Lutheran pastor, Philipp Nicolai, during the same
pestilence that inspired “Wachet auf,” the “King of Chorales” (No. 522).
Nicolai, in deep meditation concerning the suffering around him, started
writing the hymn one morning, and forgetting his noonday meal, worked on
till he had finished it in the late afternoon. It was first published in
the author’s _Freuden-Spiegel_, Frankfurt, 1599, under the title, “A
Spiritual bridal song of the believing soul, concerning her Heavenly
Bridegroom, founded in the 45th Psalm of the prophet David.” Catherine
Winkworth wrote of the chorale:

  So popular did it soon become, that its tune was often chimed by city
  chimes, lines and verses from it were printed by way of ornament on
  the common earthenware of the country, and it was invariably used at
  weddings and certain festivals.

For comments on Miss Winkworth see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ NICOLAI is usually known by the first line of the words for
which it was written, “Wie shön leuchtet der Morgenstern.” It is a
magnificent chorale tune. Mendelssohn used the tune in his _Christus_,
and Bach made a harmonization of it.


530. As with gladness men of old       _William Chatterdon Dix_, 1837-98

A popular Epiphany hymn, written on Epiphany Day, about 1858, while the
author was sick in bed. After reading the Gospel of the day, Dix started
writing this hymn and finished it by evening.

For comments on William Chatterdon Dix, see Hymn 78.

_MUSIC._ DIX is an abridgement of a melody written by Conrad Kocher and
first published in his _Stimmen aus dem Reiche Gottes_, Stuttgart, 1838.

For comments on Kocher see Hymn 51.


                                  LENT


531. Out of the depths I cry to Thee          _Martin Luther_, 1483-1546
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  Aus tiefer Not schrei’ ich zu dir,
    Herr Gott, erhör mein Rufen;
  Dein’ gnädig’ Ohren kehr zu mir
    Und meiner Bitt sei offen!
  Denn so du willst das sehen an,
  Was Sünd’ und Unrecht ist getan,
    Wer kann, Herr, von dir bleiben?

                                   2.
  Bei dir gilt nichts denn Gnad’ und Gunst,
    Die Sünde zu vergeben;
  Es ist doch unser Tun umsonst
    Auch in dem besten Leben
  Vor dir niemand sich rühmen kann,
  Des muss dich fürchten jederman
    Und deiner Gnade leben.

                                   3.
  Darum auf Gott will hoffen ich,
    Auf mein Verdienst nicht bauen;
  Auf ihm mein Herz soll lassen sich
    Und seiner Güte trauen,
  Die mir zusagt sein wertes Wort,
  Das ist mein Trost und treuer Hort,
    Des will ich allzeit harren.

                                   4.
  Und ob es währt bis in die Nacht
    Und wieder an den Morgen,
  Doch soll mein Herz an Gottes Macht
    Verzweifeln nicht noch sorgen.
  So tu’ Israel rechter Art,
  Der aus dem Geist erzeuget ward
    Und seines Gott’s erharre.

                                   5.
  Ob bei uns ist der Sünden viel,
    Bei Gott ist viel mehr Gnade,
  Sein’ Hand zu helfen hat kein Ziel,
    Wie gross auch sei der Schade.
  Er ist allein der gute Hirt,
  Der Israel erlösen wird
    Aus seinen Sünden allen.

A metrical version of Psalm 130. It is considered by many to be Luther’s
best production and Julian ranks it with the finest German psalm
versions. The hymn was first published in Luther’s _Etlich Cristlich
Lider_, Wittenberg, 1524, and in his _Eyn Enchiridion_, Erfurt, 1524, in
four stanzas. It was then rewritten and expanded into five stanzas and
in this form published in Johann Walther’s _Geystliche Gesangk
Buchleyn_, Wittenberg, 1524, and again in Luther’s later work,
_Christliche Geseng zum Begrebnis_, Wittenberg, 1542. It is appropriate
for use at a Christian burial, as well as other occasions, and was sung
at Halle, in 1546, while Luther’s body was being brought from Eisleben
to Wittenberg for burial.

The “depths” from which the psalmist cries to God for deliverance, are
not so much physical and psychical as moral and spiritual. The writer is
conscious of his sinfulness, as well as the sinfulness of his people and
sees that there is no help except through penitence and acceptance of
the mercy and forgiveness of God.

The first three stanzas from Catherine Winkworth’s translation were
selected for use here.

For comments on Miss Winkworth see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ AUS TIEFER NOT, also called “De Profundis,” and “Luther’s
130th,” is attributed to Luther himself. J. S. Bach’s cantata, _Aus
tiefer Not schrei’ ich zu Dir_, is built on this tune. Luther believed
in the power of music to drive away the Evil One and frequently, when
anxious about the fate of his cause, he would say to his companions,
“Come, let us confound the devil and all his followers, by singing
together the psalm, ‘Aus tiefer Not.’”


532. Out of the depths I cry to Thee          _Martin Luther_, 1483-1546
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

For comments on this hymn see No. 531.

_MUSIC._ AUS TIEFER NOT became popular in our churches through its
inclusion in the _Gesangbuch mit Noten_. The tune is credited to J. M.
Biermann, an American writer of tunes of the gospel hymn type. He was
musical editor of _Hosianna_, Cleveland, 1876, published by the
Evangelical Church. The composer seems to have borrowed from the tune
“Macht Hoch die Tür,” No. 523. _Hosianna_ contains about 35 of his tunes
and arrangements.


533. Jesus, I never can forget                  _Paul Gerhardt_, 1607-76
                                               _Tr. J. Gambold_, 1711-71

                                   1.
  Ein Lämmlein geht und trägt die Schuld
    Der Welt und ihrer Kinder;
  Es geht und träget in Geduld
    Die Sünden aller Sünder;
  Es geht dahin, wird matt und krank,
  Ergibt sich auf die Würgebank,
    Verzeiht sich aller Freuden;
  Es nimmet an Schmach, Hohn und Spott,
  Angst, Wunden, Striemen, Kreuz und Tod
    Und spricht: Ich will’s gern leiden.

                                   2.
  Mein Lebetage will ich dich
    Aus meinem Sinn nicht lassen;
  Dich will ich stets, gleich wie du mich,
    Mit Liebesarmen fassen.
  Du sollst sein meines Herzens Licht,
  Und wenn mein Herz im Tode bricht,
    Sollst du mein Herz verbleiben.
  Ich will mich dir, mein höchster Ruhm,
  Hiemit zu deinem Eigentum
    Beständiglich verschreiben.

                                   3.
  Ich will von deiner Lieblichkeit
    Bei Nacht and Tage singen,
  Mich selbst auch dir zu aller Zeit
    Zum Freudenopfer bringen.
  Mein Born des Lebens soll sich dir
  Und deinem Namen für und für
    In Dankbarkeit ergiessen;
  Und was du mir zu gut getan
  Das will ich stets, so tief ich kann,
    In mein Gedächtnis schliessen.

These are stanzas 1, 5, and 6 of the original ten. The hymn is based on
John 1:29: “Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the
world”; and Isa. 53:7: “He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he
opened not his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a
sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth.” It was
published in the third edition of Johann Crüger’s _Praxis Pietatis
Melica_, in 1648.

For comments on Paul Gerhardt see Hymn 134.

Our hymn consists of stanzas 5 and 6, translated by J. Gambold.
Biographical data concerning Gambold has not been found.

_MUSIC._ EIN LAMM GEHT HIN, also called “An Wasserflüssen Babylon,”
first appeared in the third part of the Strassburg _Kirchenampt_, 1525,
where it is set to Wolfgang Dachstein’s hymn on Psalm 137, beginning
with the stanza:

  An Wasserflüssen Babylon,
    Da sassen wir mit Schmerzen;
  Als wir gedachten an Zion,
    Da weinten wir von Herzen.
  Wir hingen auf mit schwerem Mut
  Die Orgeln und die Harfen gut
    An ihren Bäum’ und Weiden,
  Die drinnen sind in ihrem Land,
  Da mussten wir viel Schmach und Schand’
    Täglich von ihnen leiden.

The tune appeared anonymously but may have been composed, as some
authorities believe, by Dachstein himself.


534. Ah, dearest Jesus, how hast Thou offended        _Johann Heermann_,
                                                               1585-1647
                                         _Tr. Robert Bridges_, 1844-1930

                                   1.
  Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen,
  Dass man ein solch scharf Urteil hat gesprochen?
    Was ist die Schuld? in was für Missentaten
      Bist du geraten?

                                   2.
  Du wirst gegeisselt und mit Dorn’n gekrönet,
  Ins Angesicht geschlagen und verhöhnet,
    Du wirst mit Essig und mit Gall’ getränket,
      Ans Kreuz gehenket.

                                   3.
  Was ist doch wohl die Ursach’ solcher Plagen?
  Ach, meine Sünden haben dich geschlagen!
    Ich, ach Herr Jesu! habe dies verschuldet,
      Was du erduldet.

                                   4.
  Wie wunderbarlich ist doch diese Strafe!
  Der gute Hirte leidet für die Schafe;
    Die Schuld bezahlt der Herr selbst, der Gerechte,
      Für seine Knechte.

                                   5.
  Der Fromme stirbt, der recht und richtig wandelt;
  Der Böse lebt, der wider Gott misshandelt;
    Der Mensch verwirkt den Tod und ist entgangen;
      Gott wird gefangen.

                                   6.
  Ich war von Fuss auf voller Schand’ und Sünden,
  Bis zu dem Scheitel war nichts Gut’s zu finden;
    Dafür hätt’ ich dort in der Hölle müssen
      Ewiglich büssen.

                                   7.
  O grosse Lieb’, o Lieb, ohn’ alle Masse!
  Die dich gebracht auf diese Marterstrasse;
    Ich lebte mit der Welt in Lust und Freuden,
      Und du musst leiden!

                                   8.
  Ach grosser König! gross zu allen Zeiten;
  Wie kann ich g’nugsam deine Lieb’ ausbreiten?
    Kein Menschenherz vermag es auszudenken,
      Was dir zu schenken.

                                  15.
  Wenn so, Herr Jesu! dort vor deinem Throne
  Wird stehn auf meinem Haupt die Ehrenkrone,
    Da will ich dir, wenn Alles wohl wird klingen,
      Lob und Dank singen.

Based on 1 Peter 3:18: “For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the
just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God.”

Robert Bridges included this hymn in his _Yattendon Hymnal_, 1899,
London, and later it became known to a wider public by its appearance in
the _English Hymnal_, 1906, and in _Songs of Praise_, 1933.

Johann Heermann, a distinguished scholar and one of the greatest of
German hymn writers, was a Lutheran minister and pastor, in Silesia. On
account of ill health, he retired and devoted himself to literary work.
This hymn, written during the miseries of the Thirty Years’ War, was
composed for Passiontide and was entitled, “The Cause of the Bitter
Sufferings of Jesus Christ and Consolations from His Love and Grace.”
The author experienced much suffering himself. First came the death of
his wife in 1617, then the failure of his own health, and then the war.
His hymns are characterized by tenderness and depth of feeling, and
illustrate the truth that real poets “learn in suffering what they teach
in song.”

For comments on the translator, Robert Bridges, see Hymn 32. His first
two stanzas are translations of 1 and 2 of the original; while stanzas 3
and 4 contain suggestions, only, of 6 and 7 and the rest of Heermann’s
poem.

_MUSIC._ HERZLIEBSTER JESU is a grandly impressive tune, composed by the
distinguished musician and writer of chorales, Johann Crüger, 1598-1662.
It has been observed that nearly five-sevenths of this whole melody has
a downward movement, which accounts for some of its intensely solemn
character. J. S. Bach used the tune in his _St. Matthew’s Passion_.

For comments on the composer, Johann Crüger, see Hymn 242.


535. Christ, the Life of all the living      _Ernst C. Homburg_, 1605-81
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  Jesu, meines Lebens Leben,
    Jesu, meines Todes Tod,
  Der du dich für mich gegeben
    In die tiefste Seelennot,
  In das äusserste Verderben,
  Nur dass ich nicht möchte sterben;
    Tausend-, tausendmal sei dir,
    Liebster Jesu, Dank dafür!

                                   2.
  Du, ach, du hast ausgestanden
    Lästerreden, Spott und Hohn,
  Speichel, Schläge, Strick’ und Bande,
    Du gerechter Gottessohn,
  Mich Elenden zu erretten
  Von des Teufels Sündenketten!
    Tausend-, tausendmal sei dir,
    Liebster Jesu, Dank dafür!

                                   3.
  Du hast lassen Wunden schlagen,
    Dich erbärmlich richten zu,
  Um zu heilen meine Plagen
    Und zu setzen mich in Ruh’!
  Ach, du hast zu meinem Segen
  Lassen dich mit Fluch belegen!
    Tausend-, tausendmal sei dir,
    Liebster Jesu, Dank dafür!

                                   4.
  Man hat dich sehr hart verhöhnet,
    Dich mit grossem Schimpf belegt
  Und mit Dornen gar gekrönet:
    Was hat dich dazu bewegt?
  Dass du möchtest mich ergötzen,
  Mir die Ehrenkron’ aufsetzen.
    Tausend-, tausendmal sei dir,
    Liebster Jesu, Dank dafür!

                                   5.
  Du hast dich hart lassen schlagen
    Zur Befreiung meiner Pein,
  Fälschlich lassen dich anklagen,
    Dass ich könnte sicher sein;
  Dass ich möchte trostreich prangen,
  Hast du sonder Trost gehangen.
    Tausend-, tausendmal sei dir,
    Liebster Jesu, Dank dafür!

                                   6.
  Du hast dich in Not gestecket,
    Hast gelitten mit Geduld,
  Gar den herben Tod geschmecket,
    Um zu büssen meine Schuld;
  Dass ich würde losgezählet,
  Hast du wollen sein gequälet.
    Tausend-, tausendmal sei dir,
    Liebster Jesu, Dank dafür!

                                   7.
  Deine Demut hat gebüsset
    Meinen Stolz und Uebermut,
  Dein Tod meinen Tod versüsset,
    Es kommt Alles mir zu gut;
  Dein Verspotten, dein Verspeien
  Muss zu Ehren mir gedeihen.
    Tausend-, tausendmal sei dir,
    Liebster Jesu, Dank dafür!

                                   8.
  Nun, ich danke dir von Herzen,
    Jesu, für gesamte Not:
  Für die Wunden, für die Schmerzen,
    Für den herben, bittern Tod,
  Für dein Zittern, für dein Zagen,
  Für dein tausendfaches Plagen,
    Für dein’ Angst und tiefe Pein
    Will ich ewig dankbar sein.

The most popular of Homburg’s hymns. It was first published in his
_Geistliche Lieder_, _Jena_, 1659, for Passiontide, entitled, “Hymn of
Thanksgiving for his Redeemer and Saviour for His bitter sufferings.”

Ernst Christoph Homburg, born near Eisenach, was a lawyer by profession,
and a poet of high rank. His life was not without its cup of bitterness.
Domestic troubles, arising from the illness of himself and of his wife,
and other difficulties, bore heavily upon him and he was led, as a
result, to turn to God and place all his confidence in Him. In the
preface to one of his hymn collections, he wrote: “I was especially
induced and compelled to their composition by the anxious and sore
domestic afflictions by which God ... has for some time laid me aside.”
He is the author of 148 hymns.

For comments on Miss Winkworth see Hymn 236. Her translation of stanzas
1, 2, and 8 comprises our hymn.

_MUSIC._ JESU MEINES LEBENS LEBEN appeared in _Kirchengesangbuch_,
Darmstadt, 1687. The composer is not known.


536. Jesus, Refuge of the weary           _Girolamo Savonarola_, 1452-98
                                            _Tr. Jane F. Wilde_, 1826-96

               The original hymn is in Italian, entitled,
                          Laude al Crucifisso

                                   1.
  Iesù, sommo conforto,
    Tu se’ tutto el mio amore;
    El mio beato porto,
    E santo redentore.
        O gran bontà,
        Dolce pietà,
        Felice quel che teco unito sta!

                                   2.
  O quante volte offeso
    T’ha l’alma e’l cor meschino!
    E tu sei in croce esteso
    Per salvar me tapino.
        O gran bontà etc.

                                   3.
  Iesù, qual forza ha spinto
    L’immensa tua bontade?
    Dhe! qual amor t’ha vinto
    Patir tal crudeltade?
        O gran bontà etc.

                                   4.
  A te fui sempre ingrato,
    E mai non fui fervente;
    E tu per me impiagato
    Sei stato crudelmente.
        O gran bontà etc.

                                   5.
  Iesù, tu hai el mondo
    Suavemente pieno
    D’amor dolce e iocondo,
    Che fa ogne cor sereno.
        O gran bontà etc.

                                   6.
  Iesù, fammi morire
    Del tuo amor vivace;
    Iesù, fammi languire
    Con te, Signor verace.
        O gran bontà etc.

                                   7.
  Iesù, fuss’io confitto
    Sopra quell’alto ligno
    Dove ti veggo afflitto,
    Iesù, Signor benigno.
        O gran bontà etc.

                                   8.
  O Croce, fammi loco,
    E le mie membra prendi,
    Che del tuo sancto foco
    El cor e l’alma accendi.
        O gran bontà etc.

                                   9.
  Infiamma el mio cor tanto
    Del tuo amor divino,
    Si ch’arda dentro tanto
    Che paio un serafino.
        O gran bontà etc.

                                  10.
  La Croce e’l Crucifisso
    Sia nel mio cor scolpito;
    Et io sia sempre affisso
    In gloria ove egli è ito.
        O gran bontà etc.

The hymn is based on Mark 15:29, 30: “And they that passed by railed on
him, wagging their heads, and saying, Ah, thou that destroyest the
temple, and buildest it in three days, Save thyself, and come down from
the cross.”

Savonarola of Florence, one of the greatest of medieval preachers and
reformers in the Catholic Church, was destined by his parents to enter
the medical profession, but after a careful study of the Scriptures and
the writings of Thomas Aquinas, he decided to enter a Dominican
monastery. Here he spent many years in further study and thinking out
his preaching message. Living in a time when the moral tone of
Christianity was at a very low ebb, Savonarola preached boldly and
eloquently against the sins of a corrupt world and a corrupt church. His
relentless denunciation of the pope and priests resulted in his
excommunication by Pope Alexander VI, and on May 23, 1498, he was
publicly executed on one of the streets of Florence. His death as a
martyr proved to Luther, across the Alps, that it is “hopeless to hope
in the purification of Rome,” and gave to the reformation movement a
powerful impulse.

The translation of the hymn is by Jane Elgee, daughter of Archdeacon
Elgee, of Ireland. In 1851 she married Sir William Wilde, an oculist
living in Dublin.

_MUSIC._ O DU LIEBE MEINER LIEBE comes from Johann Thommen’s
_Erbaulicher Musikalischer Christenschatz_, Basel, 1745, where it is set
to the hymn, “O du Liebe meiner Leibe,” by Johann Scheffler (See 565).
The tune is also called, “Cassel,” and “Lucerne.” Like numerous other
chorale tunes, it was originally a folk tune, and had been in use by the
Moravian Brethren at Herrnhut. It is one of the well-known tunes in the
_Gesangbuch mit Noten_, deserving of its popularity.


537. Man of Sorrows, now my soul shall greet Thee    _Christian Renatus,
                                           Graf von Zinzendorf_, 1727-52
                                                _Tr. J. C. Hansen_, 1916

                                   1.
  Marter Gottes, wer kann dein vergessen
    Der in dir sein Wohlsein findt?
  Unser Herze wünscht sich unterdessen
    Stets noch mehr zum Dank entzündt.
  Unsre Seele soll sich daran nähren,
  Unsre Ohren nie was Lieb’res hören;
    Alle Tage kommt er mir
    Schöner in dem Bilde für.

                                   2.
  Tausend Dank, du unser treues Herze!
    Leib und Geist bet’ drüber an,
  Dass du unter Martern, Angst und Schmerze
    Hast genug für uns getan.
  Lass dich jedes um so heisser lieben,
  Als es noch im Glauben sich muss üben,
    Bis es einst als deine Braut
    Dich von Angesichte schaut.

                                   3.
  Mein kranke und bedürftge Seele
    Eilt auf deine Wunden zu;
  Denn sie findt in deiner Seitenhöhle
    Trost und Labsal, Fried und Ruh.
  Lass mich nur die Kreuzesluft anwehen,
  Und dein Marterbild stets vor mir stehen,
    So geht mir bis in mein Grab
    Nichts an Seligkeiten ab.

                                   4.
  Die wir uns allhier beisammen finden,
    Schlagen unsre Hände ein,
  Uns auf deine Marter zu verbinden,
    Dir auf ewig treu zu sein;
  Und zum Zeichen, dass dies Lobgetöne,
  Deinem Herzen angenehm und schöne,
    Sage Amen und zugleich:
    Friede, Friede sei mit euch!

A heart-searching passion hymn, from the pen of Christian Renatus, Graf
von Zinzendorf, second son of the renowned Nikolaus Ludwig, Graf von
Zinzendorf, founder of the Moravian Brüdergemeinde at Herrnhut. (See
Hymn 574.) Born at Herrnhut, and educated by his parents, he became his
father’s assistant in 1744, continuing until 1749. Illness overtook him
and he spent the last years of his life, an invalid, in London where he
died at the age of 25. Zinzendorf was a young man of maturity and deep
Christian convictions, and composed a number of hymns. The present hymn,
probably his best production, was first published in the appendix of the
_London Hymn Book_, 1755.

The translation is by J. C. Hansen, formerly Professor of Classical
Languages at Eden Seminary and now of Elmhurst College, Elmhurst, Ill.,
and a member of the Evangelical Church.

_MUSIC._ MARTER CHRISTI, with its considerable length, its irregular
meter, and repetition of phrases, is a typical chorale tune, deserving
of its popularity. Its origin is unknown.


538. Dark the day on Calvary’s Cross      _Lauchlan MacLean Watt_, 1867—

A Scottish hymn composed by Lauchlan MacLean Watt who was born in
Scotland and educated in the Edinburgh University. Watt entered the
ministry of the Scottish Presbyterian Church and attained the charge of
Glasgow Cathedral in 1923, remaining until his resignation in 1934. In
1933 he was Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.
He is the author of numerous books and served on the Committee for the
Revision of the _Church Hymnary_, Edinburgh, 1927.

_MUSIC._ NICHT SO TRAURIG, also called “Pressburg,” is from
Freylinghausen’s _Neues Geistreiches Gesangbuch_, 1714, where it is set
to Gerhardt’s hymn, “Nicht so traurig, nicht so sehr.” The melody has
been simplified somewhat from the original to fit the English words. It
was included in the _Hymnary_ for choir use during the season of Lent.


539. O sacred Head, now wounded        _Bernard of Clairvaux_, 1091-1153
                                            _Tr. Paul Gerhardt_, 1607-76
                                       _Tr. James W. Alexander_, 1804-59

                                   1.
  O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden,
    Voll Schmerz und voller Hohn,
  O Haupt, zum Spott gebunden
    Mit einer Dornenkron’,
  O Haupt, sonst schön gezieret
    Mit höchster Ehr’ und Zier,
  Jetzt aber höchst schimpfieret:
    Gegrüsset sei’st du mir!

                                   2.
  Du edles Angesichte,
    Davor sonst schrickt und scheut
  Das grosse Weltgewichte,
    Wie bist du so bespeit!
  Wie bist du so erbleichet!
    Wer hat dein Augenlicht,
  Dem sonst kein Licht nicht gleichet,
    So schändlich zugericht’t?

                                   3.
  Die Farbe deiner Wangen,
    Der roten Lippen Pracht
  Ist him und ganz vergangen;
    Des blassen Todes Macht
  Hat alles hingenommen,
    Hat alles hingerafft,
  Und daher bist du kommen
    Von deines Leibes Kraft.

                                   4.
  Nun, was du, Herr, erduldet,
    Ist alles meine Last;
  Ich hab’ es selbst verschuldet,
    Was du getragen hast.
  Schau her, hier steh’ ich Armer,
    Der Zorn verdienet hat;
  Gib mir, o mein Erbarmer,
    Den Anblick deiner Gnad’!

                                   5.
  Erkenne mich, mein Hüter,
    Mein Hirte, nimm mich an!
  Von dir, Quell aller Güter,
    Ist mir viel Gut’s getan.
  Dein Mund hat mich gelabet
    Mit Milch und süsser Kost;
  Dein Geist hat mich begabet
    Mit mancher Himmelslust.

                                   6.
  Ich will hier bei dir stehen,
    Verachte mich doch nicht!
  Von dir will ich nicht gehen,
    Wenn dir dein Herze bricht;
  Wenn dein Haupt wird erblassen
    Im letzten Todesstoss,
  Alsdann will ich dich fassen
    In meinen Arm und Schoss.

                                   7.
  Es dient zu meinen Freuden
    Und kommt mir herzlich wohl,
  Wenn ich in deinem Leiden,
    Mein Heil, mich finden soll.
  Ach, möcht’ ich, o mein Leben,
    An deinem Kreuze hier
  Mein Leben von mir geben,
    Wie wohl geschähe mir!

                                   8.
  Ich danke dir von Herzen,
    O Jesu, liebster Freund,
  Für deines Todes Schmerzen,
    Da du’s so gut gemeint.
  Ach gib, dass ich mich halte
    Zu dir und deiner Treu’
  Und, wenn ich nun erkalte,
    In dir mein Ende sei!

                                   9.
  Wenn ich einmal soll scheiden,
    So scheide nicht von mir;
  Wenn ich den Tod soll leiden,
    So tritt du dann herfür;
  Wenn mir am allerbängsten
    Wird um das Herze sein,
  So reiss mich aus den Aengsten
    Kraft deiner Angst und Pein!

                                  10.
  Erscheine mir zum Schilde,
    Zum Trost in meinem Tod,
  Und lass mich sehn dein Bilde
    In deiner Kreuzesnot!
  Da will ich nach dir blicken,
    Da will ich glaubensvoll
  Dich fest an mein Herz drücken.
    Wer so stirbt, der stirbt wohl.

A profound hymn coming originally out of the golden age of Latin
hymnody. _Salve caput cruentatum_ is the last of a series of seven poems
on the crucified Savior, each poem addressing itself to a separate
member of Christ’s body—feet, knees, hands, side, breast, heart, and
head. The work is attributed to Bernard of Clairvaux, preacher of the
Second Crusade, and one of the most brilliant of Latin hymn writers.
Luther wrote of him: “If there has ever been a pious monk who feared God
it was St. Bernard, whom alone I hold in much higher esteem than all
other monks and priests throughout the globe.” Bernard founded a
monastery in Wormwood, a robber-infested valley in France. He changed
the name to “Clara Vallis,” (Beautiful Valley), from which is derived
the designation “Clairvaux.”

Though composed in the twelfth century, the hymn did not achieve fame
until five centuries later when it was translated into German by Paul
Gerhardt, who, next to Luther, was the greatest of all German hymn
writers. His translation, a free paraphrase, appeared in Crüger’s
_Praxis_, 1656, and is considered by Philip Schaff to be “fully equal to
the original.”

For comment on Gerhardt see Hymn 134.

The translation into English was made in 1849 by James W. Alexander of
Princeton, a Presbyterian. Schaff wrote that “Dr. Alexander is beyond
doubt one of the best translators of German hymns into idiomatic
English.” He also wrote concerning this hymn that it has “shown an
imperishable vitality in passing from the Latin into the German and from
the German into the English, and proclaiming in three tongues and in the
name of three confessions—the Catholic, the Lutheran, and the
Reformed—with equal effect, the dying love of our Savior, and our
boundless indebtedness to Him.”

Our hymn is a selection of stanzas 1, 4, 8, and 10. In the first stanza,
the line, “I marvel at the story,” is substituted for Alexander’s
original which read, “Yet though despised and gory.” Stanza 10 has been
frequently used as a prayer for the dying.

_MUSIC._ PASSION CHORALE was originally set to a love song entitled,
“Mein G’müt ist mir verwirret.” The tune was composed by the
distinguished organist, Hans Leo Hassler, and first appeared in his
_Lustgarten Neuer Teutscher Gesäng_, 1601. In 1613 it appeared in
_Harmoniæ Sacræ_, set to the hymn, “Herzlich thut mich verlangen,” and
later it became associated with “O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden.” It was a
favorite melody with Bach, who used it five times in his _St. Matthew
Passion_.

Hans Leo Hassler, 1564-1612, was born at Nürnberg and died at Frankfurt
at the age of 47. He was a member of a distinguished musical family.
After an early career as organist, he was sent to Venice to study under
Andrea Gabriele, organist of St. Mark’s, becoming the earliest of
important German composers to receive an Italian training. Returning to
Germany, Hassler held positions in Augsburg, Nürnberg, and elsewhere.
His numerous compositions for voice and organ are of such a standard as
to give him a high place in German music, and most of them have been
reprinted in modern times.

J. S. Bach, 1685-1750, who arranged the tune, is by far the greatest
musician the Protestant Church has produced. Most of his life was spent
in Leipzig where he labored from 1723 until his death in 1750, as cantor
of the Thomas School and director of music at the Thomas and Nicolai
churches. His genius as a master of the organ and composer of chorales
and passion music has never been equaled. Though he lived in an age when
opera flourished in Europe, he paid no attention to it, devoting all his
talent to church music. There is something in his music that touches the
deepest chords of religious emotion.


540. Lamb of God most holy    _Nikolaus von Hofe_ (_Decius_), 1490?-1541

  O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig
    Am Stamm des Kreuzes geschlachtet,
  Allzeit funden geduldig,
    Wiewohl du warest verachtet:
  All’ Sünd’ hast du getragen,
  Sonst müssten wir verzagen.
    Erbarm dich unser, O Jesu!

  O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig
    Am Stamm des Kreuzes geschlachtet,
  Allzeit funden geduldig,
    Wiewohl du warest verachtet:
  All’ Sünd’ hast du getragen,
  Sonst müssten wir verzagen.
    Erbarm dich unser, O Jesu!

  O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig
    Am Stamm des Kreuzes geschlachtet,
  Allzeit funden geduldig,
    Wiewohl du warest verachtet:
  All’ Sünd’ hast du getragen,
  Sonst müssten wir verzagen.
    Gib uns dein’n Frieden, o Jesu!

Based on John 1:29: “Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin
of the world.” The hymn, called the _Agnus Dei_ in liturgical
literature, is a prayer for God’s mercy and peace, and a confession that
Christ alone is able to take away the sin of the world. It is an ancient
song which has been in use in the church since 701 A.D. and originally
was chanted antiphonally by clergy and laity. Since the 12th century the
custom has been to repeat the chant three times. In some churches it is
always sung just before the communion of the Lord’s Supper.

For comments on Decius see Hymn 521.

The translation is composite.

_MUSIC._ O LAMM GOTTES, UNSCHULDIG is based on an ancient Gregorian
setting for the _Agnus Dei_ and may have been arranged by Decius
himself, for he was a musician as well as a preacher. The word
“Gregorian” stems from Gregory the Great, who was Pope from 590 to 604
A.D. He was distinguished for his public service and his contribution to
church music, developing the use of the plain chant (also called “plain
song” and “Gregorian chant”) which is identified with his name.


                               EASTERTIDE


541. Jesus Christ my sure defense     _Luise Henriette von Brandenburg_,
                                                                 1627-67
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  Jesus, meine Zuversicht
    Und mein Heiland, ist im Leben;
  Dieses weiss ich, sollt’ ich nicht
    Darum mich zufrieden geben.
  Was die lange Todesnacht
  Mir auch für Gedanken macht?

                                   2.
  Jesus, er, mein Heiland, lebt;
    Ich werd’ auch das Leben schauen,
  Sein, wo mein Erlöser schwebt;
    Warum sollte mir denn grauen?
  Lässet auch ein Haupt sein Glied,
  Welches es nicht nach sich zieht?

                                   3.
  Ich bin durch der Hoffnung Band
    Zu genau mit ihm verbunden;
  Meine starke Glaubenshand
    Wird in ihn gelegt befunden,
  Dass mich auch kein Todesbann
  Ewig von ihm trennen kann.

                                   4.
  Ich bin Fleisch und muss daher
    Auch einmal zu Asche werden;
  Das gesteh’ ich, doch wird er
    Mich erwecken aus der Erden,
  Dass ich in der Herrlichkeit
  Um ihn sein mög’ allezeit.

                                   5.
  Dann wird eben diese Haut
    Mich umgeben, wie ich gläube,
  Gott wird werden angeschaut
    Dann vor mir in diesem Leibe,
  Und in diesem Fleisch werd’ ich
  Jesum sehen ewiglich.

                                   6.
  Dieser meiner Augen Licht
    Wird ihn, meinen Heiland, kennen;
  Ich, ich selbst, kein Fremder nicht,
    Werd’ in seiner Liebe brennen;
  Nur die Schwachheit um und an
  Wird von mir sein abgetan.

                                   7.
  Was hier kranket, seufzt und fleht,
    Wird dort frisch und herrlich gehen;
  Irdisch werd’ ich ausgesät.
    Himmlisch werd’ ich auferstehen;
  Hier geh’ ich natürlich ein,
  Nachmals werd’ ich geistlich sein.

                                   8.
  Seid getrost und hocherfreut.
    Jesus trägt euch, meine Glieder!
  Gebt nicht Raum der Traurigkeit!
    Sterbt ihr, Christus ruft euch wider,
  Wenn die letzt’ Drommet’ erklingt,
  Die auch durch die Gräber dringt.

                                   9.
  Lacht der finstern Erdenkluft,
    Lacht des Todes und der Höllen;
  Denn ihr sollt euch durch die Luft
    Eurem Heiland zugesellen!
  Dann wird Schwachheit und Verdruss
  Liegen unter eurem Fuss.

                                  10.
  Nur dass ihr den Geist erhebt
    Von den Lüsten dieser Erden
  Und euch dem schon jetzt ergebt,
    Dem ihr beigefügt wollt werden
  Schickt das Herze da hinein,
  Wo ihr ewig wünscht zu sein!

An Easter hymn of the first rank, an “acknowledged masterpiece of
Christian poetry that will ever remain a treasure among the hallowed
songs of the Evangelical Church.” It is based on I Cor. 15:35 ff and Job
19:25-27.

Luise Henriette, a woman of noble Christian character and a member of
the Reformed Church, was born in The Hague, Holland. She was married to
Elector Friedrich Wilhelm of Brandenburg. Interested in the economic as
well as religious welfare of her people, she founded model farms,
introduced the culture of the Irish potato, and was helpful in many ways
in the restoration of the country after the ravages of the Thirty Years
War. Luise Henriette is credited with numerous hymns but Julian points
out that there is uncertainty whether she actually wrote all of them or
selected them as her favorites. She had a great admiration for Paul
Gerhardt and his poetry.

The hymn is a selection of stanzas 1, 2, 3, and 10. For comments on
Catherine Winkworth, translator, see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ For comments on the tune, GROSSER GOTT WIR LOBEN DICH, see Hymn
519.


542. Welcome, Thou Victor in the strife   _Benjamin Schmolck_, 1672-1737
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  Willkommen, Held im Streite,
    Aus deiner Grabes Kluft!
  Wir triumphieren heute
    Um deine leere Gruft!

                                   2.
  Der Feind’ wird Schau getragen,
    Und heisst nunmehr ein Spott;
  Wir aber können sagen:
    Mit uns ist unser Gott!

                                   3.
  Der Fried’ ist uns erstritten,
    Und jeder Schrecken flieht;
  In der Gerechten Hütten
    Erschallt das Siegeslied.

                                   4.
  Teil’ uns des Sieges Beute,
    Den Trost nun reichlich aus;
  Ach komm, und bring’ noch heute
    Dein Heil in Herz und Haus!

                                   5.
  In deines Grabes Staube
    Liegt unsre Schuld bedeckt;
  Des tröstet sich der Glaube,
    Dass ihn kein Feind mehr schreckt.

                                   6.
  Du hast das Heil erworben;
    Wir preisen dich dafür.
  Sind wir mit dir gestorben,
    So leben wir mit dir.

                                   7.
  Wir wollen ohne Grauen
    Mit dir zu Grabe gehn,
  Wenn wir nur dort dich schauen,
    Und selig auferstehn.

                                   8.
  Schwing’ deine Siegesfahnen
    Auch über unser Herz,
  Und zeig’ uns einst die Bahnen
    Vom Tode himmelwärts.

                                   9.
  Was kann uns denn noch schaden?
    Des Todes Pfeil ist stumpf!
  Wir sind bei Gott in Gnaden,
    Und rufen schon: Triumph!

An Easter hymn, first published in the author’s _Lustiger Sabbath_,
1712, entitled, “Easter Triumphal Arch. At Midday on Easter Day.” In
1746, it was included in Burg’s _Gesangbuch_, Breslau.

For comments on Benjamin Schmolck see Hymn 505.

Our hymn is composed of Miss Winkworth’s translation of stanzas 1, 2, 3,
and 8.

For comments on Catherine Winkworth see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ DIE HELLE SONNE IST DAHIN was composed by Sigmund Gottlieb
“Theophil” Staden, 1607-1655. He was born and died in Nürnberg. Staden
composed _Seelewig_, the first comic opera to be printed. He also
composed chorales and wrote an instruction book for singing.


543. Jesus lives! thy terrors now        _Christian F. Gellert_, 1715-69
                                           _Tr. Frances E. Cox_, 1812-97

                                   1.
  Jesus lebt, mit ihm auch ich,
    Tod, we sind nun deine Schrecken?
  Jesus lebt und wird auch mich
    Von den Toten auferwecken.
  Er verklärt mich in sein Licht:
  Dies ist meine Zuversicht.

                                   2.
  Jesus lebt. Ihm ist das Reich
    Ueber alle Welt gegeben.
  Mit ihm werd’ ich auch zugleich
    Ewig herrschen, ewig leben.
  Gott erfüllt, was er verspricht:
  Dies ist meine Zuversicht.

                                   3.
  Jesus lebt! wer nun verzagt,
    Sündigt an des Mittlers Ehre.
  Gnade hat er zugesagt,
    Dass der Sünder sich bekehre.
  Gott verstösst in Christo nicht;
  Dies ist meine Zuversicht.

                                   4.
  Jesus lebt. Sein Heil ist mein:
    Sein sei auch mein ganzes Leben;
  Reines Herzens will ich sein
    Und der Lüsten widerstreben.
  Er verlässt den Schwachen nicht:
  Dies ist meine Zuversicht.

                                   5.
  Jesus lebt. Ich bin gewiss;
    Nichts soll mich von Jesu scheiden,
  Keine Macht der Finsternis,
    Keine Herrlichkeit, kein Leiden.
  Er gibt Kraft zu jeder Pflicht:
  Dies ist meine Zuversicht.

                                   6.
  Jesus lebt. Nun ist der Tod
    Mir der Eingang in das Leben.
  Welchen Trost in Todesnot
    Wird er meiner Seele geben,
  Wenn sie gläubig zu ihm spricht:
  Herr, Herr, meine Zuversicht!

Based on John 14:19: “Yet a little while and the world seeth me no more;
but ye see me: because I live, ye shall live also.”

The hymn was first published in Gellert’s _Geistliche Oden und Lieder_,
1757, with the title, “Easter Hymn.” It soon became popular in Germany
and is widely used now among English speaking people. The hymn is often
used at funerals, and sometimes at the dedication of a cemetery.
Gellert, a saintly Professor of Philosophy and Poetry at Leipzig, had no
fear of death. In the period of the so-called Enlightenment, when
religion had become cold and rationalistic, and the old hymns had been
watered down, he wrote one of our best and most evangelical hymns.

For comments on the translator, Frances E. Cox, see Hymn 512.

The original poem was without the “Hallelujah.”

_MUSIC._ CHRIST IST ERSTANDEN is a traditional German melody dating to
the 13th century. It was used with words beginning, “Christ ist
erstanden.” Luther said of this tune: “after a time one tires of singing
all other hymns, but the ‘Christ ist erstanden’ one can always sing
again.” It is within easy range of all voices and therefore well adapted
for unison singing, though it need not be limited to that.


544. Christ the Lord is risen again!    _Michael Weisse_, _c._ 1480-1534
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  Christus ist erstanden
  Von des Todes Banden,
  Des freuet sich der Engel Schaar,
  Singend im Himmel immerdar,
      Hallelujah!

                                   2.
  Der für uns sein Leben
  In Tod hat gegeben,
  Der ist nun unser Osterlamm,
  Des wir uns freuen allesammt;
      Hallelujah!

                                   3.
  Der am Kreuz gehangen,
  Kein’n Trost konnt’ erlangen,
  Der lebet nun in Herrlichkeit,
  Uns zu vertreten stets bereit!
      Hallelujah!

                                   4.
  Der, so ganz verschwiegen
  Zur Hölle gestiegen,
  Den wohlgerüst’ten Starken band:
  Der wird nur in der Höh’ erkannt.
      Hallelujah!

                                   5.
  Der da lag begraben,
  Der ist nun erhaben,
  Und sein Tun wird kräftig erweist,
  Und in der Christenheit gepreist.
      Hallelujah!

                                   6.
  Er lässt nun verkünden
  Vergebung der Sünden,
  Und wie man die durch rechte Buss’
  Nach seiner Ordnung suchen muss.
      Hallelujah!

                                   7.
  O Christe, Osterlamm,
  Speis’ uns heut’ allesammt!
  Nimm weg all’ unsre Missetat,
  Dass wir dir singen früh und spat:
      Hallelujah!

An Easter song, based on I Cor. 5:7, 8 and Rev. 19:6:

  For even Christ our passover suffered for us: therefore let us keep
  the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and
  wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.

  Alleluia! for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth.

Weisse’s poem is based on “Christ is erstanden von der Martyr alle,” the
oldest German Easter hymn, found in four versions as early as the 12th
century.

Michael Weisse, born at Neisse, Silesia, about 1480, became a priest,
and for a time was a monk at Breslau. Influenced by the writings of
Luther, he left the monastery to join the Bohemian Brethren, the
followers of John Hus, and became their pastor at Landskron and Fulneck,
Moravia. Weisse was a man of great influence among the Brethren and was
appointed a member of their council. Of a deeply spiritual nature and
possessing rare poetic gifts, he translated the old songs of the
Bohemian Brethren into German and composed many original poems. He
edited the first Brethren hymnbook in German, _Ein Neu Gesengbuchlen_,
1531, in which the present hymn first appeared. The book, proclaimed by
Luther as “the work of a good poet,” contains 155 hymns, all apparently
either translations or originals by Weisse himself.

Our translation is by Catherine Winkworth, with stanza 4 omitted.

For comments on Miss Winkworth see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ MACHE DICH, MEIN GEIST, BEREIT is an adaptation of a chorale
tune, “Straf mich nicht,” published in _Kirch- und Hausbuch_, Dresden,
1694. The composer is not known. Refrains are not commonly used with
German chorales. The present setting of the tune and words, with a
refrain, was made by the editors especially for the _Hymnary_. It is
suitable for children’s choirs as well as for congregational use.


545. Lo, the day of days is here        _Frederick L. Hosmer_, 1840-1929

A joyous Easter song in which the springtime awakening in nature
symbolizes the newness of spiritual life.

For comments on Frederick L. Hosmer see Hymn 72.

_MUSIC._ SALZBURG appeared in the 19th edition of Crüger’s _Praxis
Pietatis Melica_, 1678, a work which contained the main stream of
Lutheran hymnody in the middle of the 17th century. The tune was set to
the hymn, “Alle Menschen müssen sterben.”

The composer, Jacob Hintze, 1622-1702, was born in Bernau, Brandenburg.
He became court musician to the Elector of Brandenburg, in Berlin, in
1666, and in the year 1662 succeeded Crüger, upon the latter’s death, as
editor of the _Praxis_. The present version, slightly altered from the
original, is from J. S. Bach’s _Choralgesänge_. The tune is also
associated with Stopford Brooke’s hymn, “Let the whole creation cry.”
(No. 49).


                              WHITSUNTIDE


546. O Holy Spirit, enter in                 _Michael Schirmer_, 1606-73
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  O heil’ger Geist, kehr bei uns ein
  Und lass uns deine Wohnung sein,
    O komm, du Herzenssonne!
  Du Himmelslicht, lass deinen Schein
  Bei uns und in uns kräftig sein
    Zu steter Freud’ und Wonne,
  Dass wir in dir
  Recht zu leben uns ergeben
  Und mit Beten
  Oft deshalben vor dich treten.

                                   2.
  Gib Kraft und Nachdruck deinem Wort,
  Lass es wie Feuer immerfort
    In unsern Herzen brennen,
  Dass wir Gott Vater, seinen Sohn,
  Dich, beider Geist, in einem Thron
    Für wahren Gott bekennen.
  Bleibe, treibe
  Und behüte das Gemüte,
  Dass wir glauben
  Und im Glauben standhaft bleiben!

                                   3.
  Du Quell, draus alle Weisheit fleusst,
  Die sich in fromme Seelen geusst,
    Lass deinen Trost uns hören,
  Dass wir in Glaubenseinigkeit
  Auch können alle Christenheit
    Dein wahres Zeugnis lehren!
  Höre, lehre,
  Herz und Sinnen zu gewinnen,
  Dich zu preisen,
  Gut’s dem Nächsten zu erweisen!

                                   4.
  Steh uns stets bei mit deinem Rat
  Und führ uns selbst den rechten Pfad,
    Die wir den Weg nicht wissen!
  Gib uns Beständigkeit, dass wir
  Getreu dir bleiben für und für,
    Wenn wir nun leiden müssen!
  Schaue, baue,
  Was zerrissen und geflissen,
  Dir zu trauen
  Und auf dich allein zu bauen!

                                   5.
  Lass uns dein’ edle Balsamkraft
  Empfinden und zur Ritterschaft
    Dadurch gestärket werden,
  Auf dass wir unter deinem Schutz
  Begegnen aller Feinde Trutz,
    Solang wir sind auf Erden!
  Lass dich reichlich
  Auf uns nieder, dass wir wieder
  Trost empfinden,
  Alles Unglück überwinden!

                                   6.
  Du starker Fels und Lebenshort,
  Lass uns dein himmelsüsses Wort
    In unsem Herzen brennen,
  Dass wir uns mögen nimmermehr
  Von deiner weisheitreichen Lehr’
    Und reinen Liebe trennen!
  Fliesse, giesse
  Deine Güte ins Gemüte,
  Dass wir können
  Christum unsern Heiland nennen!

                                   7.
  Du süsser Himmelstau, lass dich
  In unsre Herzen kräftiglich
    Und schenk uns deine Liebe,
  Dass unser Sinn verbunden sei
  Dem Nächsten stets mit Liebestreu’
    Und sich darinnen übe!
  Kein Neid, kein Streit
  Dich betrübe, Fried’ und Liebe
  Müssen schweben;
  Fried’ und Freude wirst du geben!

                                   8.
  Gib, dass in reiner Heiligkeit
  Wir führen unsre Lebenszeit,
    Sei unsres Geistes Stärke,
  Dass uns forthin sei unbewusst
  Die Eitelkeit, des Fleisches Lust
    Und seine toten Werke!
  Rühre, führe
  Unser Sinnen und Beginnen
  Von der Erden,
  Dass wir Himmelserben werden!

This hymn for Whitsuntide, addressed to the Holy Spirit, went through
various alterations in German hymnbooks until it finally appeared in 8
stanzas, as here. It is a beautiful New Testament paraphrase of Isa.
11:2:

  And the spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom
  and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of
  knowledge and of the fear of the Lord.

Michael Schirmer, born in Leipzig, received his education at the
University of Leipzig, graduating with an M.A. degree in 1630. He was
appointed assistant rector of the Greyfriars Gymnasium in Berlin, but on
account of ill health was compelled to resign. Besides the hardships of
the Thirty Years’ War, Schirmer experienced added sorrows in the death
of his wife and two children. At times deep melancholy fell upon him,
lasting for years at a time. Schirmer was crowned court poet in 1637.
His published works include a metrical version of _Ecclesiasticus_,
1655; a scriptural play, _Der verfolgte David_, 1660; and versions of
the Songs of the Old and New Testaments, _Biblische Lieder und
Lehrsprüche_, 1650. Five of his hymns came into wide use in Germany but
only this one passed into English.

The translation is by Catherine Winkworth in her _Chorale Book for
England_, 1863. The present hymn is composed of stanzas 1, 4, 6, and 8.

For comments on Miss Winkworth see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ NICOLAI, better known as “Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern,”
has long been known as the “Queen of Chorales.” (For the “King of
Chorales,” see Hymn 522.) It is a magnificent tune. In Germany it was
set on many city chimes.

For comments on the composer, Philipp Nicolai, see Hymn 522.


547. O Spirit of Life, O Spirit of God           _Johann Niedling_, 1651
                                         _Tr. John C. Mattes_, 1876-1948

                                   1.
  O heiliger Geist, o heiliger Gott,
  Du Tröster wert in aller Not,
    Du bist gesandt vom Himmelsthron
  Von Gott dem Vater und dem Sohn,
  O heiliger Geist, o heiliger Gott.

                                   2.
  O heiliger Geist, o heiliger Gott,
  Gib uns die Lieb zu deinem Wort,
    Zünd an in uns der Liebe Flamm,
  Dass wir uns lieben allesamt,
  O heiliger Geist, o heiliger Gott.

                                   3.
  O heiliger Geist, o heiliger Gott,
  Mehr unsern Glauben immerfort,
    An Christum niemand glauben kann,
  Es sei denn durch dein Hilf getan,
  O heiliger Geist, o heiliger Gott.

                                   4.
  O heiliger Geist, o heiliger Gott,
  Erleucht uns durch dein göttlich Wort,
    Lehr uns den Vater kennen schon,
  Dazu auch seinen lieben Sohn,
  O heiliger Geist, o heiliger Gott.

                                   5.
  O heiliger Geist, o heiliger Gott,
  Du zeigest uns die Himmelspfort,
    Lass uns hier kämpfen ritterlich
  Und zu dir kommen seliglich,
  O heiliger Geist, o heiliger Gott.

                                   6.
  O heiliger Geist, o heiliger Gott,
  Verlass uns nicht in Not und Tod;
    Wir sagen dir Lob, Ehr und Dank
  Jetzund und unser Leben lang,
  O heiliger Geist, o heiliger Gott.

The original hymn, in six stanzas, first appeared in Johann Niedling’s
_Lutherisches-Altenburgisches Handbüchlein_, Naumburg, 1651. Some of the
hymns in this collection are original with Niedling, and bear his name.
This hymn, however, appears anonymously, leaving doubt as to its
authorship. The _Common Service Book_ of the United Lutheran Church
credits it to Niedling.

The English translation was made especially for the _United Lutheran
Hymnal_, in 1913, employing the first four stanzas of the original.

The translator, John Casper Mattes, was born in Easton, Pa. After
graduating from Lafayette College and Mt. Airy Theological Seminary, he
served as pastor of the Church of the Saviour, Trenton, N. J., 1901-15,
and St. John Lutheran Church, Scranton, Pa., 1915-38. From 1939 until
his death in 1948 he was a teacher at the Wartburg Theological Seminary,
Dubuque, Iowa. Mattes was a frequent contributor to Lutheran
publications and served on the United Lutheran Church Common Service
Book Committee. He was a member of the Intersynodical Committee on
translation of Luther’s _Small Catechism_, and is translator of
Koberle’s _Rechtfertigung und Heiligung_.

_MUSIC._ O HEILIGER GEIST, O HEILIGER GOTT, also called “O Jesulein
Süss,” first appears in _Auserlesene Catholische Geistliche
Kirchengesäng_, Cologne, 1623, set to the hymn, “Ist das der Leib, Herr
Jesu Christ.” In _Christliche Seelenharfe_, Halle, 1650, it is set to
“Komm heiliger Geist, mit deinen Genad” while in S. Scheldt’s _Tabulatur
Buch_, Görlitz, 1650, it is used with the hymn, “O Jesulein süss, O
Jesulein mild.” The melody appears in many later collections, both
Catholic and Protestant. Its present form, a variant of Scheldt’s,
appeared in the _Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch_, Leipzig, 1682, set to the
hymn, “O heiliger Geist, O heiliger Gott.” It is an attractive tune in
triple time, of the type associated with early German carols.

Samuel Scheidt, 1587-1654, the composer, was born at Halle, the son of
Conrad Scheidt, overseer of the salt works. He had for his teacher the
famous Peter Sweelinck of Amsterdam, and became a noted organist and
composer. His _Tabulatura Nova_, 1624, set a new standard in organ
playing, by showing how to make it less ostentatious and more meaningful
and coherent. His great work, _Tablaturbuch_, is a series of harmonized
chorales, published in three parts, 1624-53.


548. Come, O come, Thou quickening Spirit          _Heinrich Held_, _c._
                                                                 1620-59
                                     _Tr. Charles W. Schaeffer_, 1813-96

                                   1.
  Komm, o komm, du Geist des Lebens,
    Wahrer Gott von Ewigkeit!
  Deine Kraft sei nicht vergebens,
    Sie erfüll’ uns jederzeit;
  So wird Geist und Licht und Schein
  In dem dunkeln Herzen sein.

                                   2.
  Gib in unser Herz und Sinnen
    Weisheit, Rat, Verstand und Zucht,
  Dass wir anders nichts beginnen,
    Denn was nur dein Wille sucht!
  Dein’ Erkenntnis werde gross
  Und mach uns von Irrtum los!

                                   3.
  Zeige, Herr, die Wohlfahrtsstege!
    Das, was wider dich getan,
  Räume ferner aus dem Wege;
    Schlecht und recht sei um und an!
  Wirke Reu’ an Sünden Statt,
  Wenn der Fuss gestrauchelt hat!

                                   4.
  Lass uns stets dein Zeugnis fühlen,
    Dass wir Gottes Kinder sind,
  Die auf ihn alleine zielen,
    Wenn sich Not und Drangsal find’t;
  Denn des Vaters liebe Rut’
  Ist uns allewege gut.

                                   5.
  Reiz uns, dass wir zu ihm treten
    Frei mit aller Freudigkeit;
  Seufz auch in uns, wenn wir beten,
    Und vertritt uns allezeit!
  So wird unsre Bitt’ erhört
  Und die Zuversicht gemehrt.

                                   6.
  Wird auch uns nach Troste bange,
    Dass das Herz oft rufen muss:
  Ach, mein Gott, mein Gott, wie lange?
    Ei, so mache den Beschluss;
  Sprich der Seele tröstlich zu
  Und gib Mut, Geduld und Ruh’!

                                   7.
  O du Geist der Kraft und Stärke,
    Du gewisser, neuer Geist,
  Fördre in uns deine Werke,
    Wenn der Satan Macht beweist;
  Schenk uns Waffen in dem Krieg
  Und erhalt in uns den Sieg!

                                   8.
  Herr, bewahr auch unsern Glauben,
    Dass kein Teufel, Tod noch Spott
  Uns denselben möge rauben!
    Du bist unser Schutz und Gott.
  Sagt das Fleisch gleich immer nein,
  Lass dein Wort gewisser sein.

                                   9.
  Wenn wir endlich sollen sterben,
    So versichre uns je mehr,
  Als des Himmelreiches Erben,
    Jener Herrlichkeit und Ehr’,
  Die uns unser Gott erkiest
  Und nicht auszusprechen ist.

A fine hymn of invocation to the Holy Spirit, written for Whitsuntide,
in 9 stanzas.

The author, Heinrich Held, a lawyer by profession, was born in Guhrau,
Silesia. After receiving his education at the Universities of
Königsberg, Frankfurt a. Oder, and Leyden, he practiced law in his home
town of Guhrau where he lived all his life. He became one of the best
Silesian poets and hymn writers, probably because he was taught in the
school of affliction and suffering, brought about by the Thirty Years’
War.

The translation is by Charles W. Schaeffer, a native of Hagerstown,
Maryland. After graduating from the University of Pennsylvania and the
Theological Seminary at Gettysburg, he held several pastorates and then
became a teacher in the Lutheran Theological Seminary in Philadelphia.
Our hymn is a selection of stanzas 1, 2, 7, and 8.

_MUSIC._ EISENACH, also known as “St. Leonard,” and “Komm, O komm, du
Geist des Lebens,” is an attractive melody, composed by Johann Christoph
Bach, 1642-1703, an excellent musician, and a first cousin of the father
of the eminent Johann Sebastian Bach. He was organist at Eisenach where
he spent most of his life. The name of the tune is derived from Bach’s
town. Much of the music he composed is extant, mostly in manuscript, but
some keyboard and choral music is in print. His motet, _I wrestle and
pray_, was published by Novello.


                               THE CHURCH


549. A Mighty Fortress is our God             _Martin Luther_, 1483-1546
                                       _Tr. Frederick H. Hedge_, 1805-90

                                   1.
  Ein’ feste Burg ist unser Gott,
    Ein’ gute Wehr und Waffen;
  Er hilft uns frei aus aller Not,
    Die uns jetzt hat betroffen.
  Der alt’ böse Feind,
  Mit Ernst er’s jetzt meint,
  Gross’ Macht und viel List
  Sein’ grausam’ Rüstung ist,
    Auf Erd’ ist nicht seinsgleichen.

                                   2.
  Mit unsrer Macht ist nichts getan,
    Wir sind gar bald verloren;
  Es streit’t für uns der rechte Mann,
    Den Gott hat selbst erkoren.
  Fragst du, wer der ist?
  Er heisst Jesus Christ,
  Der Herr Zebaoth,
  Und ist kein andrer Gott,
    Das Feld muss er behalten.

                                   3.
  Und wenn die Welt voll Teufel wär’
    Und wollt’ uns gar verschlingen,
  So fürchten wir uns nicht so sehr,
    Es soll uns doch gelingen.
  Der Fürst dieser Welt,
  Wie sau’r er sich stellt,
  Tut er uns doch nicht,
  Das macht, er ist gericht’t,
    Ein’ Wörtlein kann ihn fällen.

                                   4.
  Das Wort sie sollen lassen stahn
    Und kein’n Dank dazu haben;
  Er ist bei uns wohl auf dem Plan
    Mit seinem Geist und Gaben.
  Nehmen sie den Leib,
  Gut, Ehr’, Kind und Weib:
  Lass fahren dahin,
  Sie haben’s kein’n Gewinn,
    Das Reich muss uns doch bleiben.

Based on Psalm 46:

  God is our refuge and strength,
  A very present help in trouble.
  Therefore will we not fear, though the earth do change,
  And though the mountains be shaken into the heart of the seas;
  Though the waters thereof roar and be troubled,
  Though the mountains tremble with the swelling thereof.
      The Lord of hosts is with us.
      The God of Jacob is our refuge.

James Moffatt names this the “greatest hymn of the greatest man in the
greatest period of German history.” More than any other, this hymn has
transcended all national boundaries and denominational lines, and has
become a truly ecumenical church song. It has been translated into
nearly two hundred languages. “Ein feste Burg” was sung over Luther’s
grave at Wittenberg in the Schloss-Kirche, on the door of which some 30
years before, he had nailed his 95 theses against Roman Indulgences. The
hymn has been used at many historic occasions and conventions. In 1925,
at the meeting of Christians from all parts of the world in Stockholm,
the opening hymn was “Ein’ feste Burg ist unser Gott.” Each delegate
sang in his own tongue, but it was the same tune, the same hymn and the
same spirit; and the great conference, assembled to consider the life
and mission of the church, adopted the hymn as an ecumenical symbol. It
was adopted as the Conference hymn for the fourth Mennonite World
Conference held at Goshen, Ind., and North Newton, Kan., August 3-10,
1948.

The hymn arose out of the writer’s conflict with the evil forces of the
world and the corrupt hierarchy of a corrupt church. When Luther was
summoned to the Diet of Worms, he was warned by his friends not to go.
He ignored their advice, and, standing before that assemblage of
emperors and principalities and powers, he spoke these memorable words:

  It is neither safe nor prudent to do aught against conscience. Till
  such time as either by proof from holy Scripture or by fair reason or
  argument I have been confuted and convicted, I cannot and will not
  recant. Here I stand. I cannot do otherwise. God be my help. Amen.

It is against this background of opposition and trouble that the great
hymn was penned.

There are more than sixty versions of the hymn in the English language.
The translation used here is by Frederick H. Hedge, then Professor of
Ecclesiastical History, and later of German Literature, at Harvard. It
is the commonly accepted version in America. In England, the translation
by Thomas Carlysle is the most widely used.

For ordinary occasions the use of the first two stanzas is sufficient.

_MUSIC._ EIN’ FESTE BURG IST UNSER GOTT, also by Luther, is one of the
great chorales destined to be sung to the end of time. It is perfectly
adapted to the words and especially effective with large congregations.
The musical merits of the tune have been recognized by the great
masters. Mendelssohn used the tune in the last movement of his
_Reformation Symphony_ and Bach used it in several of his cantatas.

Albert Schweitzer writes of this melody:

  “Ein feste Burg” is woven out of Gregorian reminiscences. The
  recognition of this fact deprives the melody of none of its beauty and
  Luther of none of the credit for it. It really takes considerable
  talent to create an organic unity out of fragments.


550. The work is Thine, O Christ our Lord           _Stanzas 1 and 2, S.
                                                   Preiswerk_, 1799-1871
                                       _Stanza 3, F. Zaremba_, 1794-1874
                                            _Tr. Julius Henry Horstmann_

                                   1.
  Die Sach’ ist dein, Herr Jesu Christ,
    Die Sach’ an der wir steh’n,
  Und weil es deine Sache ist,
    Kann sie nicht untergeh’n.
      Allein das Weizenkorn, bevor
      Es fruchtbar sprosst zum Licht empor,
  Muss sterben in der Erde Schoss
  Zuvor vom eig’nen Wesen los.
        Durch Sterben los,
    Vom eig’nen Wesen los.

                                   2.
    Du gingst, O Jesu, unser Haupt,
    Durch Leiden himmelan,
  Und führest Jeden, der da glaubt,
    Mit dir die gleiche Bahn.
  Wohlan, so nimm uns allzugleich
  Zum Teil am Leiden und am Reich;
  Führ uns durch deines Todes Tor
  Samt deiner Sach’ zum Licht empor,
    Zum Licht empor,
    Durch Nacht zum Licht empor!

                                   3.
    Du starbest selbst als Weizenkorn
    Und sankest in das Grab;
  Belebe denn, o Lebensborn,
    Die Welt, die Gott dir gab.
  Send Boten aus in jedes Land,
  Dass bald dein Name werd’ bekannt,
  Dein Name voller Seligkeit;
  Auch wir steh’n dir zum Dienst bereit
  In Kampf und Streit,
  Zum Dienst in Kampf und Streit.

A missionary hymn written at the request of students at the Basel
Mission House, Basel, Switzerland. The students wanted a good missionary
poem to use with the present tune, then erroneously ascribed to J.
Michael Haydn. Preiswerk supplied the first two stanzas. They were first
sung June 17, 1829, at an anniversary festival. The third stanza was
added by Count Felician von Zaremba, since it was felt that the first
two did not have enough emphasis on foreign missions.

The hymn was sung at the laying of the cornerstone of Bethel College and
again at the sixtieth anniversary of that event, celebrated October 12,
1948.

Samuel Preiswerk was born in Rümlingen, Switzerland, the son of the
pastor of the Reformed Church at that place. He was educated at the
Universities of Basel, Tübingen, and Erlangen. After serving in a curacy
at Benken and on the staff of the Basel Orphanage, he taught Hebrew at
the Basel Mission House, later accepting a pastorate at Muttenz, and a
professorship at the Ecole de Théologie in Geneva. In 1840 he was called
to the St. Leonhardt Church in Basel, where he became the main pastor in
1843. Finally he was made Antistes or Superintendent of the Reformed
Churches in the Basel Area. Preiswerk was one of the editors of the
_Baseler Gesangbuch_ of 1854 and was otherwise active as a hymnologist.

Felician von Zaremba, author of the third stanza, was born at Zaroy,
Poland, and died in Basel. A descendant of an old Polish noble family,
he received a good education at the University of Dorpat, excelling in
languages. Although he prepared himself for the diplomatic service to
Russia, he became greatly interested in the missionary work centering in
Basel, and eventually entered the work carried on among the Mohammedans
and Nestorians in South Russia and the Caucasus regions. For many years
he was an itinerant preacher in Germany and Switzerland.

The translator, Julius Henry Horstmann, was born at Naperville, Ill.,
and is living in retirement at Maplewood, Mo. He was educated at
Northwestern College, Elmhurst College and Eden Theological Seminary. He
served churches in Indiana and Texas and from 1906 to 1936 was editor of
the _Evangelical Herald_.

_MUSIC._ DIE SACH’ IST DEIN, a popular, effective melody, is of
uncertain origin. It was formerly attributed, without evidence, to
Haydn.


551. Spread, still spread, thou mighty word           _J. F. Bahnmaier_,
                                                               1774-1841
                                          _Tr. Percy Dearmer_, 1867-1936

                                   1.
  Walte, walte nah und fern,
  Allgewaltig Wort des Herrn,
  Wo nur seiner Allmacht Ruf
  Menschen für den Himmel schuf;

                                   2.
  Wort vom Vater, der die Welt
  Schuf und in den Armen hält
  Und aus seinem Schoss herab
  Seinen Sohn zum Heil ihr gab;

                                   3.
  Wort von des Erlösers Huld,
  Der der Erde schwere Schuld
  Durch des heil’gen Todes Tat
  Ewig weggenommen hat;

                                   4.
  Kräftig Wort von Gottes Geist,
  Der den Weg zum Himmel weist
  Und durch seine heil’ge Kraft
  Wollen und Vollbringen schafft.

                                   5.
  Auf zur Ernt’ in alle Welt!
  Weithin wogt das weisse Feld;
  Klein ist noch der Schnitter Zahl,
  Viel der Garben überall.

                                   6.
  Herr der Ernte, gross und gut,
  Wirk zum Werke Lust und Mut;
  Lass die Völker allzumal
  Schauen deines Lichtes Strahl!

One of the best and most useful hymns for Foreign Missions. It has been
rendered into English by such eminent translators as Frances Cox, H. J.
Buckoll, and Catherine Winkworth. But in order to make a freer and more
modern use of the original, Percy Dearmer made this new translation for
_Songs of Praise_, London, 1931, of which he was the editor.

For comments on J. F. Bahnmaier see Hymn 329.

Percy Dearmer was born in London and educated at Oxford. After serving
as vicar in the church of St. Mary the Virgin, Primrose Hill, he became
Professor of Ecclesiastical Art at King’s College, London. He was an
authority on hymnology and liturgies, and wrote extensively on these
subjects. His works include _The New Reformation_, _A Short Handbook of
Public Worship_, _The Story of the Prayer Book_, and _Songs of Praise
Discussed_.

_MUSIC._ GOTT SEI DANK appeared in Freylinghausen’s _Geistreiches
Gesangbuch_, Halle, 1704, where it is set to the hymn, “Gott sei Dank in
aller Welt.” It is also called “Lübeck,” “Berlin,” and “Carinthia.” The
composer is unknown.


                           THE LORD’S SUPPER


552. Deck thyself, my soul, with gladness       _Johann Franck_, 1618-77
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele,
  Lass die dunkle Sündenhöhle,
  Komm ans helle Licht gegangen,
  Fange herrlich an zu prangen!
  Denn der Herr, voll Heil und Gnaden,
  Will dich jetzt zu Gaste laden;
  Der den Himmel kann verwalten,
  Will jetzt Herberg’ in dir halten.

                                   2.
  Eile, wie Verlobte pflegen.
  Deinem Bräutigam entgegen,
  Der da mit dem Gnadenhammer
  Klopft an deine Herzenskammer!
  Oeffn’ ihm bald des Geistes Pforten,
  Red ihn an mit schönen Worten:
  Komm, mein Liebster, lass dich küssen,
  Lass mich deiner nicht mehr missen!

                                   3.
  Zwar in Kaufung teurer Waren
  Pflegt man sonst kein Geld zu sparen;
  Aber du willst für die Gaben
  Deiner Huld kein Geld nicht haben,
  Weil in allen Bergwerksgründen
  Kein solch Kleinod ist zu finden,
  Das die blutgefüllten Schalen
  Und dies Manna kann bezahlen.

                                   4.
  Ach, wie hungert mein Gemüte,
  Menschenfreund, nach deiner Güte!
  Ach, wie pfleg’ ich oft mit Tränen
  Mich nach dieser Kost zu sehnen!
  Ach, wie pfleget mich zu dürsten
  Nach dem Trank des Lebensfürsten!
  Wünsche stets, dass mein Gebeine
  Sich durch Gott mit Gott vereine.

                                   5.
  Beides Lachen und auch Zittern
  Lässet sich in mir jetzt wittern;
  Das Geheimnis dieser Speise
  Und die unerforschte Weise
  Machen dass ich früh vermerke,
  Herr, die Grösse deiner Werke.
  Ist auch wohl ein Mensch zu finden,
  Der dein’ Allmacht sollt’ ergründen?

                                   6.
  Nein, Vernunft, die muss hier weichen,
  Kann dies Wunder nicht erreichen,
  Dass dies Brot nie wird verzehret,
  Ob es gleich viel Tausend’ nähret,
  Und dass mit dem Saft der Reben
  Uns wird Christi Blut gegeben.
  O der grossen Heimlichkeiten,
  Die nur Gottes Geist kann deuten!

                                   7.
  Jesu, meines Lebens Sonne,
  Jesu, meine Freud’ und Wonne,
  Jesu, du mein ganz Beginnen,
  Lebensquell und Licht der Sinnen,
  Hier fall’ ich zu deinen Füssen;
  Lass mich würdiglich geniessen
  Dieser deiner Himmelsspeise
  Mir zum Heil und dir zum Preise!

                                   8.
  Herr, es hat dein treues Lieben
  Dich vom Himmel hergetrieben,
  Dass du willig hast dein Leben
  In den Tod für uns gegeben
  Und dazu ganz unverdrossen,
  Herr, dein Blut für uns vergossen,
  Das uns jetzt kann kräftig tränken,
  Deiner Liebe zu gedenken.

                                   9.
  Jesu, wahres Brot des Lebens,
  Hilf, dass ich doch nicht vergeben
  Oder mir vielleicht zum Schaden
  Sei zu deinem Tisch geladen!
  Lass mich durch dies Seelenessen
  Deine Liebe recht ermessen,
  Dass ich auch, wie jetzt auf Erden,
  Mög’ dein Gast im Himmel werden.

The finest of all German communion hymns. It expresses the reverent joy
that should accompany the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper. The hymn is
sung, invariably, in many German churches on communion occasions.

Johann Franck was born at Guben, Brandenburg, the son of a lawyer, and
was himself educated for the law. At the University of Königsberg he was
greatly influenced by Simon Dach, Professor of Poetry, and, in spite of
his law practice and the holding of public offices, he became an
important poet and hymn writer of his time, second only to Paul
Gerhardt. The dominant theme of his hymns is the mystical union of the
soul with the Savior. Franck’s hymns had appeared in the works of his
friends Weichman and Crüger, and later were published, 110 in all, at
Guben, in 1674, in a volume entitled _Geistliches Sion_.

The hymn is a selection of stanzas 1, 2, 7, and 9 of the original.

For comments on the translator, Catherine Winkworth, see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ SCHMÜCKE DICH is a beautifully expressive tune by Johann
Crüger, 1598-1662, first published in the composer’s _Praxis Pietatis
Melica_, 1644. J. S. Bach used the tune for an organ setting which
constitutes one of the most beautiful of Bach organ chorales. Upon
hearing it played by Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann wrote concerning the
chorale:

  Round the _cantus firmus_ hung golden garlands of leaves, and such
  blissfulness was breathed from within it, that you yourself avowed
  that if life was bereft of all hope and faith, this one chorale could
  renew them for you. I was silent and went away dazed into God’s acre,
  feeling acutely pained that I could lay no flower on his urn.

For comments on Johann Crüger see Hymn 242.


                                MORNING


553. Light of Light enlighten me          _Benjamin Schmolck_, 1672-1737
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  Licht vom Licht! erleuchte mich
    Bei dem neuen Tageslichte!
  Gnadensonn’, enthülle dich
    Segnend meinem Angesichte;
  Lass durch deinen hellen Schein
  Meinen Sabbath heilig sein!

                                   2.
  Brunnquell aller Sussigkeit,
    Lass mir deine Ströme fliessen!
  Mache Mund und Herz bereit,
    Dich in Andacht recht zu grüssen.
  Streu’ das Wort mit Segen ein,
  Lass es hundertfältig sein.

                                   3.
  Zünde selbst das Opfer an,
    Das auf meinen Lippen lieget.
  Sei mir Weisheit, Licht und Bahn,
    Dass kein Irrtum mich betrüget,
  Und kein fremdes Feuer brennt,
  Welches dein’ Altar nicht kennt.

                                   4.
  Lass mich heut’ und allezeit:
    Heilig, heilig, heilig! singen
  Und mich in die Ewigkeit
    Mit des Geistes Flügeln schwingen.
  Gib mir einen Vorschmack ein,
  Wie es mag im Himmel sein.

                                   5.
  Ruh’ in mir und ich in dir!
    Bau’ ein Paradies im Herzen.
  Offenbare dich doch mir,
    Schenke meiner Andacht Kerzen
  Oel des Lebens immerzu,
  O du Liebesflamme du!

                                   6.
  Dieser Tag sei dir geweiht,
    Weg mit allen Eitelkeiten!
  Ich will deiner Herrlichkeit
    Einen Tempel zubereiten,
  Nichts sonst wollen, nichts sonst tun,
  Als in deiner Liebe ruh’n.

                                   7.
  Du bist mehr als Salomon,
    Lass mich deine Weisheit hören!
  Ich will deinen Gnadenthron
    Mit gebeugten Knieen ehren,
  Bis mir deine Sonne lacht,
  Und den schönsten Sonntag macht.

A hymn for the Sabbath morning, reflecting the light, joy, and peace
that the day of rest brings to the worshipper. It is one of the finest
chorales in our collection.

For comments on Benjamin Schmolck see Hymn 505.

The translation is from _Lyra Germanica_, published by Catherine
Winkworth, 1855. Our hymn is a selection of stanzas 1, 2, 4, and 3, in
that order, of the original seven stanzas.

For comments on Miss Winkworth see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ LIEBSTER JESU appeared in the _Alterdorfer Gesangbuch_, 1671,
set to the words, “Liebster Jesus, wir sind hier,” by Tobias
Clausnitzer. J. S. Bach made a setting for the tune, used in some hymn
books, and also arranged it as a chorale prelude for the organ.

The composer of the tune, Johann Rudolph Ahle, 1625-73, received his
education at the Universities of Göttingen and Erfurt. He was elected
Cantor of St. Andreas’ Church, and director of the music school, at
Erfurt. Interested also in civic affairs, he was elected to the town
council at Mühlhausen in 1656, and made mayor in 1661. He became one of
the most radical reformers of church music, cultivating the simple
chorale style and avoiding the polyphonic counterpoint then in use. Ahle
wrote over 400 songs, many of which are still in use among the
Protestant churches of England and America.


553a. Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier         _Tobias Clausnitzer_, 1619-84

                                   1.
  Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier,
    Dich und dein Wort anzuhören;
  Lenke Sinnen und Begier
    Auf die süssen Himmelslehren,
  Dass die Herzen von der Erden
    Ganz zu dir gezogen werden!

                                   2.
  Unser Wissen und Verstand
    Ist mit Finsternis umhüllet,
  Wo nicht deines Geistes Hand
    Uns mit hellem Licht erfüllet;
  Gutes wollen, tun und denken,
    Muss uns deine Gnade schenken.

                                   3.
  O du Glanz der Herrlichkeit—
    Licht vom Licht, aus Gott geboren,
  Mach uns allesamt bereit,
    Oeffne Herzen, Mund und Ohren!
  Unser Bitten, Fleh’n und Singen
    Lass, Herr Jesu, wohl gelingen!

Based on Acts 10:33: “Now therefore are we all here present before God,
to hear all things that are commanded thee of God.” The third stanza is
reminiscent of a phrase in the Nicene creed: “God of God, Light of
Light, begotten, not made.” The hymn, written to be sung by the
congregation just before the reading of the Scripture lesson, has had
wide use among German speaking churches.

Tobias Clausnitzer was born at Thum, Saxony. He graduated from the
University of Leipzig in 1643 and became a chaplain in the Swedish army,
for a time, during the Thirty Years’ War. In 1649 he became minister at
Weiden where he remained until his death.

_MUSIC._ See 553 above.


554. Come, Thou bright and morning Star      _Christian Knorr, Baron von
                                                     Rosenroth_, 1636-89
                                           _Tr. Richard Massie_, 1800-87

                                   1.
  Morgenglanz der Ewigkeit,
    Licht vom unerschöpften Lichte,
  Schick uns diese Morgenzeit
    Deine Strahlen zu Gesichte
  Und vertreib durch deine Macht
        Unsre Nacht!

                                   2.
  Deiner Güte Morgentau
    Fall’ auf unser matt Gewissen,
  Lass die dürre Lebensau
    Lauter süssen Trost geniessen
  Und erquick uns, deine Schar,
        Immerdar!

                                   3.
  Gib, dass deiner Liebe Glut
    Unsre kalten Werke töte,
  Und erweck uns Herz und Mut
    Bei entstandner Morgenröte,
  Dass wir, eh’ wir gar vergehn,
        Recht aufstehn!

                                   4.
  Ach du Aufgang aus der Höh’,
    Gib dass auch am Jüngsten Tage
  Unser Leichnam aufersteh’
    Und, entfernt von aller Plage,
  Sich auf jener Freudenbahn
        Freuen kann!

                                   5.
  Leucht uns selbst in jene Welt,
    Du verklärte Gnadensonne,
  Führ uns durch das Tränenfeld
    In das Land der ew’gen Wonne,
  Wo die Lust, die uns erhöht,
        Nie vergeht!

One of the best and most spirited of morning hymns, “as if born from the
dew of the sunrise.”

The author, Christian Knorr, Baron von Rosenroth, was the son of a
Silesian pastor. After years of study and travel, he also settled down
to a pastorate in Silesia. He was well versed in philosophy and
chemistry, as well as theology, and his memory was so remarkable that he
knew nearly the whole Bible by heart. He took special interest in the
study of the Jewish Kabbala, the so-called secret wisdom of the rabbis,
and his writings on this literature made him world famous. Knorr wrote
seventy hymns, the present being the only one now in general use among
English speaking people.

The translator, Richard Massie, was the son of the Rev. R. Massie, a
minister in the Anglican church. A man of wealth and leisure, he was
able to devote himself to literature and gardening. His rock garden, a
rare thing in those days, attracted wide attention. Massie and his
mother and sisters are remembered for their quiet spirituality and
saintliness.

_MUSIC._ MORGENGLANZ DER EWIGKEIT is an adaptation of an air by Johann
Rudolph Ahle. The tune appeared in Freylinghausen’s _Gesangbuch_, Halle,
1704, set to this hymn. Its beauty of melody and rhythm is
extraordinary. For comments on the composer see Hymn 553.


555. Evening and morning, sunset and dawning    _Paul Gerhardt_, 1607-70
                                           _Tr. Richard Massie_, 1800-87

                                   1.
  Die güldne Sonne,
  Voll Freud’ und Wonne,
  Bringt unsern Grenzen
  Mit ihrem Glänzen
  Ein herzerquickendes, liebliches Licht.
  Mein Haupt und Glieder,
  Die lagen danieder;
  Aber nun steh’ ich,
  Bin munter und fröhlich,
  Schaue den Himmel mit meinem Gesicht.

                                   2.
  Mein Auge schauet,
  Was Gott gebauet
  Zu seinen Ehren,
  Und uns zu lehren,
  Wie sein Vermögen sei mächtig und gross,
  Und wo die Frommen
  Einst sollen hinkommen,
  Wann sie mit Frieden
  Von hinnen geschieden
  Aus dieser Erde vergänglichem Schoss.

                                   3.
  Lasset uns singen,
  Dem Schöpfer bringen
  Güter und Gaben!
  Was wir nur haben,
  Alles das sei Gott zum Opfer gesetzt.
  Die besten Güter
  Sind unsre Gemüter;
  Lieder der Frommen,
  Von Herzen gekommen,
  Sind Opferrauch, der ihn am meisten ergötzt.

                                   4.
  Abend und Morgen
  Sind seine Sorgen;
  Segnen und mehren,
  Unglück verwehren
  Sind seine Werke und Taten allein.
  Wann wir uns legen,
  Ist er zugegen;
  Wann wir aufstehen,
  So lässt er aufgehen
  Ueber uns seiner Barmherzigkeit Schein.

                                   5.
  Ich hab’ erhoben
  Zu dir hoch droben
  All’ meine Sinnen:
  Lass mein Beginnen
  Ohn’ allen Anstoss und glücklich ergehn!
  Laster und Schande,
  Lucifers Bande
  Fallen und Tücke
  Treib’ ferne zurücke;
  Lass mich auf deinen Geboten bestehn!

                                   6.
  Lass mich mit Freuden,
  Ohn’ alles Neiden
  Sehen den Segen,
  Den du wirst legen
  In meines Bruders und Nähesten Haus!
  Geiziges Brennen,
  Unchristlich Rennen
  Nach Gut mit Sünde
  Das tilge geschwinde
  Aus meinem Herzen, und wirf es hinaus!

                                   7.
  Menschliches Wesen,
  Was ist’s gewesen!
  In einer Stunde
  Geht es zu Grunde,
  Sobald das Lüftlein des Todes drein weht;
  Alles in Allem
  Muss brechen und fallen;
  Himmel und Erden,
  Die müssen das werden,
  Was sie gewesen, eh’ Gott sie erhöht.

                                   8.
  Alles vergehet;
  Gott aber stehet
  Ohn’ alles Wanken;
  Seine Gedanken,
  Sein Wort und Wille hat ewigen Grund.
  Sein Heil und Gnaden,
  Die nehmen nicht Schaden,
  Heilen im Herzen
  Die tödtlichen Schmerzen,
  Halten uns zeitlich und ewig gesund.

                                   9.
  Gott, meine Krone,
  Vergib und schone!
  Lass meine Schulden
  In Gnad’ und Hulden
  Aus deinen Augen sein abgewandt.
  Sonsten regiere
  Mich, lenk’ und führe
  Wie dir’s gefället!
  Ich habe gestellet
  Alles in deine Beliebung und Hand!

                                  10.
  Willst du mir geben,
  Womit mein Leben
  Ich kann ernähren,
  So lass mich hören
  Allzeit im Herzen dies heilige Wort:
  “Gott ist das Grösste,
  Das Schönste, Beste!
  Gott is das Süss’ste,
  Das Allergewiss’ste
  Von allen Schätzen, der edelste Hort!”

                                  11.
  Willst du mich kränken,
  Mit Galle tränken,
  Und soll von Plagen
  Ich auch was tragen:
  Wohlan denn, so mach’ es, wie dir es beliebt!
  Was gut und tüchtig,
  Was schädlich und nichtig
  Meinem Gebeine,
  Das weisst Du alleine,
  Hast niemals einen zu bitter betrübt.

                                  12.
  Trübsal und Zähren
  Nicht ewig währen;
  Nach Meeresbrausen
  Und Windessausen
  Leuchtet der Sonne verklärtes Gesicht.
  Freude die Fülle,
  Und selige Stille
  Hab’ ich zu warten
  Im himmlischen Garten;
  Dahin sind meine Gedanken gericht’t!

“A splendid hymn of our poet, golden as the sun going forth in his
beauty, full of force and of blessed peace in the Lord, full of
sparkling thoughts of God.” (Lauxmann). Our hymn is a selection of
stanzas 4, 8, and 12 of the original twelve.

For comments on Paul Gerhardt see Hymn 134.

This excellent translation by Richard Massie has come into general use.

For comments on Massie see Hymn 554.

_MUSIC._ DIE GÜLDNE SONNE, also called “Franconia,” is a beautiful
melody by Johann G. Ebeling, 1620-76. A number of his chorales are still
in high favor. The name of the tune is derived from the title of
Gerhardt’s hymn for which it was written.

For comments on Ebeling see Hymn 525.


                                EVENING


556. The duteous day now closeth          _Stanzas 1, 2, Paul Gerhardt_,
                                                                 1607-76
                                         _Tr. Robert Bridges_, 1844-1930
                                           _Stanzas 3,4, Robert Bridges_

                                   1.
  Nun ruhen alle Wälder,
  Vieh, Menschen, Städt’ und Felder,
    Es schläft die ganze Welt.
  Ihr, aber, meine Sinnen,
  Auf, auf! ihr sollt beginnen,
  Was eurem Schöpfer wohlgefällt.

                                   2.
  Wo bist du, Sonne, blieben?
  Die Nacht hat dich vertrieben,
    Die Nacht, des Tages Feind.
  Fahr him, ein’ andre Sonne,
  Mein Jesus, meine Wonne,
  Gar hell in meinem Herzen scheint.

                                   3.
  Der Tag ist nun vergangen,
  Die güldnen Sterne prangen
    Am blauen Himmelssaal.
  Also werd ich auch stehen,
  Wann mich wird heissen gehen
  Mein Gott aus diesem Jammertal.

                                   4.
  Der Leib eilt nun zur Ruhe,
  Legt Kleider ab und Schuhe,
    Das Bild der Sterblichkeit.
  Die zieh ich aus; dagegen
  Wird Christus mir anlegen
  Das Kleid der Ehr’ und Herrlichkeit.

                                   5.
  Das Haupt, die Füss und Hände
  Sind froh, dass nun zum Ende
    Die Arbeit kommen sei.
  Herz, freu dich! du sollst werden
  Vom Elend dieser Erden,
  Und von der Sünden Arbeit frei.

                                   6.
  Nun geht, ihr matten Glieder,
  Geht hin und legt euch nieder,
    Des Bettleins ihr begehrt.
  Es kommen Stund’ und Zeiten,
  Da man euch wird bereiten
  Zu Ruh’ ein Bettlein in der Erd’.

                                   7.
  Die Augen stehn verdrossen,
  Im Nu sind sie geschlossen;
    Wo bleibt dann Leib und Seel’?
  Nimm sie zu deinen Gnaden,
  Sei gut für allen Schaden,
  Du Aug’ und Wächter Israel!

                                   8.
  Breit’ aus die Flügel beide,
  O Jesu, meine Freude,
    Und nimm dein Küchlein ein!
  Will mich der Feind verschlingen,
  So lass die Engel singen:
  “Dies Kind soll unverletzet sein!”

                                   9.
  Auch euch, ihr meine Lieben,
  Soll heute nicht betrüben
    Ein Unfall noch Gefahr;
  Gott lass’ euch selig schlafen,
  Stell’ euch die güldnen Waffen
  Ums Bett und seiner Engel Schar!

Gerhardt’s hymn appeared in nine stanzas in Crüger’s _Praxis Pietatis
Melica_, 3d ed., 1648. The hymn became known everywhere in Germany and
was a favorite of the poet Schiller.

For comments on Paul Gerhardt see Hymn 134.

Stanzas 1 and 2 are free translations by Robert Bridges who added
stanzas 3 and 4, his own work, for his _Yattendon Hymnal_, 1899.

For comments on Bridges see Hymn 32.

_MUSIC._ INNSBRUCK is commonly attributed to Heinrich Isaak, _c._
1460-_c._ 1527, a German or Dutch (it is not certain which) born
musician who spent most of his life in Italy, an eminent organist and
composer. Isaak was kapellmeister of Lorenzo the Magnificent and later
of Maximilian of Vienna. The tune was first published, so far as is
known, in Nürnberg, 1539, in a different version, set to the words,
“Innsbruck ich muss dich lassen.” Later it was adapted to the hymn, “O
Welt ich muss dich lassen,” and then to Gerhardt’s evening hymn, “Nun
ruhen alle Wälder.” The melody has appeared in many different forms in
German collections. The arrangement here is that made by J. S. Bach and
used in his _St. Matthew Passion_ and elsewhere.


557. Now cheer our hearts this eventide    _Nikolaus Selnecker_, 1532-92
                                         _Tr. Robert Bridges_, 1844-1930

                                   1.
  Ach bleib’ bei uns, Herr Jesu Christ,
  Weil es nun Abend worden ist;
  Dein göttlich Wort, das helle Licht,
  Lass ja bei uns auslöschen nicht!

                                   2.
  In dieser letzten, bösen Zeit
  Gib uns des Glaubens Beständigkeit,
  Dass wir dein Wort und Sakrament
  Rein b’halten bis an unser End’.

                                   3.
  Herr Jesu, hilf, dein’ Kirch’ erhalt’!
  Wir sind sicher, arg, träg’ und kalt;
  Gib Glück und Heil zu deinem Wort,
  Dass es erschall’ an jedem Ort.

                                   4.
  Erhalt’ uns nur bei deinem Wort,
  Und wehr’ des Teufels Trug und Mord;
  Gib deiner Kirche Gnad’ und Huld,
  Fried’, Einigkeit, Mut und Geduld.

                                   5.
  Ach Gott, es geht gar übel zu,
  Auf dieser Erd’ ist keine Ruh’!
  Viel Sekten und viel Schwärmerei
  Auf einen Haufen kommt herbei.

                                   6.
  Den stolzen Geistern wehre doch,
  Die sich mit Macht erheben hoch,
  Und bringen stets was Neues her,
  Zu fälschen deine rechte Lehr’.

                                   7.
  Die Sach’ und Ehr’, Herr Jesu Christ,
  Nicht unser, sondern dein ja ist;
  Darum so steh’ du denen bei,
  Die sich auf dich verlassen frei.

                                   8.
  Dein Wort ist unsers Herzens Trutz
  Und deiner Kirche wahrer Schutz;
  Dabei erhalt’ uns, lieber Herr,
  Dass wir nichts Andres suchen mehr!

                                   9.
  Gib, dass wir leben in dem Wort,
  Und darauf fahren ferner fort
  Von hinnen aus dem Jammertal
  Zu dir in deinen Freudensaal!

The author, Nikolaus Selnecker, an ardent Lutheran, was a scholar and
accomplished musician. He became church organist when only twelve years
old and afterwards, in succession, lecturer at the University of
Wittenberg, Professor of Theology at Jena, and pastor of St. Thomas’
Church at Leipzig. He wrote Latin verse and composed many German hymns
but is chiefly known through this evening hymn. The English rendering of
it we owe to Robert Bridges’ _Yattendon Hymnal_. It was made to suit
Bach’s setting of the Proper tune, and freely though finely expands
stanzas 1 and 9 of the original.

For comments on Robert Bridges see Hymn 32.

_MUSIC._ ACH BLEIB BEI UNS, “one of the most famous of German chorales,”
appeared in _Geistliche Lieder_, Leipzig, 1589, and in other
contemporary collections.

The composer, Seth Calvisius, 1556-1615, was the son of poor parents,
but succeeded in obtaining an education at the Universities of Helmstedt
and Leipzig. He was an astronomer and chronologer, besides being a
musician, and was offered the Chair of Mathematics at Wittenberg in
1611. Calvisius refused the offer in order to devote himself to music.
After holding various musical posts in churches in Leipzig and
Schulpforta, he became music director at the Thomaskirche in the former
city. Calvisius wrote treatises on the theory of music and published
several collections of his own and others’ music, among them _Hymni
Sacri Latini et Germanici_, 1594, in which this tune appears in the alto
as a descant to another melody. The present version is from J. S. Bach’s
_Vierstimmige Choralgesänge_, 1769.


                                GENERAL


558. Commit thou all thy griefs                 _Paul Gerhardt_, 1607-76
                                              _Tr. John Wesley_, 1703-91

                                   1.
  Befiehl du deine Wege,
    Und was dein Herze kränkt,
  Der allertreusten Pflege
    Des, der den Himmel lenkt!
  Der Wolken, Luft und Winden,
    Gibt Wege, Lauf und Bahn,
  Der wird auch Wege finden,
    Da dein Fuss gehen kann.

                                   2.
  Dem Herren musst du trauen,
    Wenn dir’s soll wohlergehn;
  Auf sein Werk musst du schauen,
    Wenn dein Werk soll bestehn.
  Mit Sorgen und mit Grämen
    Und mit selbsteigner Pein
  Lässt Gott sich gar nichts nehmen,
    Es muss erbeten sein.

                                   3.
  Dein’ ew’ge Treu’ und Gnade,
    O Vater, weiss und sieht,
  Was gut sei oder schade
    Dem sterblichen Geblüt;
  Und was du dann erlesen,
    Das treibst du, starker Held,
  Und bringst zum Stand und Wesen,
    Was deinem Rat gefällt.

                                   4.
  Weg’ hast du allerwegen,
    An Mitteln fehlt dir’s nicht;
  Dein Tun ist lauter Segen,
    Dein Gang ist lauter Licht,
  Dein Werk kann niemand hindern,
    Dein’ Arbeit darf nicht ruhn,
  Wenn du, was deinen Kindern
    Erspriesslich ist, willst tun.

                                   5.
  Und ob gleich alle Teufel
    Hier wollten widerstehn,
  So wird doch ohne Zweifel
    Gott nicht zurückegehn;
  Was er sich vorgenommen,
    Und was er haben will,
  Das muss doch endlich kommen
    Zu seinem Zweck und Ziel.

                                   6.
  Hoff, o du arme Seele,
    Hoff und sei unverzagt!
  Gott wird dich aus der Höhle,
    Da dich der Kummer plagt,
  Mit grossen Gnaden rücken;
    Erwarte nur die Zeit,
  So wirst du schon erblicken
    Die Sonn’ der schönsten Freud’.

                                   7.
  Auf, auf, gib deinem Schmerze
    Und Sorgen gute Nacht!
  Lass fahren, was dein Herze
    Betrübt und traurig macht!
  Bist du doch nicht Regente,
    Der alles führen soll;
  Gott sitzt im Regimente
    Und führet alles wohl.

                                   8.
  Ihn, ihn lass tun und walten,
    Er ist ein weiser Fürst
  Und wird sich so verhalten,
    Dass du dich wundern wirst,
  Wenn er, wie ihm gebühret,
    Mit wunderbarem Rat
  Die Sach’ hinausgeführet,
    Die dich bekümmert hat.

                                   9.
  Er wird zwar eine Weile
    Mit seinem Trost verziehn
  Und tun an seinem Teile,
    Als hätt’ in seinem Sinn
  Er deiner sich begeben,
    Und sollt’st du für und für
  In Angst und Nöten schweben,
    Frag’ er doch nichts nach dir.

                                  10.
  Wird’s aber sich befinden,
    Dass du ihm treu verbleibst,
  So wird er dich entbinden,
    Da du’s am mind’sten gläubst;
  Er wird dein Herze lösen
    Von der so schweren Last,
  Die du zu keinem Bösen
    Bisher getragen hast.

                                  11.
  Wohl dir, du Kind der Treue!
    Du hast und trägst davon
  Mit Ruhm und Dankgeschreie
    Den Sieg und Ehrenkron’.
  Gott gibt dir selbst die Palmen
    In deine rechte Hand,
  Und du singst Freudenpsalmen
    Dem, der dein Leid gewandt.

                                  12.
  Mach End’ o Herr, mach Ende
    An aller unsrer Not,
  Stärk unsre Füss’ und Hände
    Und lass bis in den Tod
  Uns allzeit deiner Pflege
    Und Treu’ empfohlen sein,
  So gehen unsre Wege
    Gewiss zum Himmel ein.

This “Hymn of Trust” is Gerhardt’s finest lyric. It is based on Psalm
37:5: “Commit thy way unto the Lord; trust also in him; and he shall
bring it to pass.” The initial words of each stanza form an acrostic of
the German version: “Befiehl dem Herrn deine Wege, und hoff auf ihn; er
wird es wohlmachen.” The hymn first appeared in Crüger’s _Praxis_, 1646.
It expresses the simple trust in God that supported Gerhardt through the
troubles that arose out of the Thirty Years’ War, as well as his own
personal sorrows.

For comments on Gerhardt see Hymn 134.

Of the many translations of this hymn, this one by John Wesley remains
the most popular. It was published in 16 four-line stanzas in his _Hymns
and Sacred Poems_, 1739, with the title, “Trust in Providence.” Since
the hymn was written in Short Meter, the editors of the _Hymnary_ had to
abridge the third line of each stanza to fit this tune with its 7.6.7.6.
meter, a practice which Wesley himself would have heartily condemned.
Wesley’s unaltered version of his eight stanzas used here are as
follows:

                                   1.
    Commit thou all thy griefs
    And ways into His hands,
  To His sure truth and tender care
    Who earth and heaven commands.

                                   2.
    Who points the clouds their course,
    Whom winds and seas obey,
  He shall direct thy wandering feet,
    He shall prepare thy way.

                                   3.
    Thou on the Lord rely,
    So safe shalt thou go on;
  Fix on His work thy steadfast eye,
    So shall thy work be done.

                                   4.
    No profit canst thou gain
    By self-consuming care;
  To Him commend thy cause; His ear
    Attends the softest prayer.

                                   5.
    Thy everlasting truth,
    Father, Thy ceaseless love,
  Sees all Thy children’s wants, and knows
    What best for each will prove.

                                   6.
    And whatsoe’er Thou will’st
    Thou dost, O King of kings;
  What Thy unerring wisdom chose,
    Thy power to being brings.

                                   7.
    Thou everywhere hast sway,
    And all things serve Thy might;
  Thy every act pure blessing is,
    Thy path unsullied light.

                                   8.
    When Thou arisest, Lord,
    Who shall Thy work withstand?
  When all Thy children want, Thou giv’st;
    Who, who, shall stay Thy hand?

The latter part of the hymn, in Wesley’s translation, is found at No.
246.

For comments on John Wesley see Hymn 170.

_MUSIC._ The tune, BEFIEHL DU DEINE WEGE, appears anonymously in the
_Gesangbuch mit Noten_. It is probably of American origin.


559. Abide with us, our Savior               _Josua Stegmann_, 1588-1632
                                                         _Tr. Anonymous_

                                   1.
  Ach bleib mit deiner Gnade
  Bei uns, Herr Jesu Christ,
  Dass uns hinfort nicht schade
  Des bösen Feindes List!

                                   2.
  Ach bleib mit deinem Worte
  Bei uns, Erlöser wert,
  Dass uns beid’ hier und dorte
  Sei Güt’ und Heil beschert!

                                   3.
  Ach bleib mit deinem Glanze
  Bei uns, du wertes Licht;
  Dein’ Wahrheit uns umschanze,
  Damit wir irren nicht!

                                   4.
  Ach bleib mit deinem Segen
  Bei uns, du reicher Herr!
  Dein’ Gnad’ und all’s Vermögen
  In uns reichlich vermehr!

                                   5.
  Ach bleib mit deinem Schutze
  Bei uns, du starker Held,
  Dass uns der Feind nicht trutze,
  Noch fäll’ die böse Welt!

                                   6.
  Ach bleib mit deiner Treue
  Bei uns, mein Herr und Gott!
  Beständigkeit verleihe,
  Hilf uns aus aller Not!

A simple and beautiful hymn, having as its keynote the saying of the two
disciples at Emmaus: “Abide with us: for it is toward evening, and the
day is far spent” (Lk. 24:29). It originally appeared in the author’s
_Christliches Gebetsbüchlein_, Rinteln, 1627, and later in his
_Erneuerte Hertzen-Seufzer_, 1630, under the title, “For the Blessing
and Support of the Ministry,” to be used as a closing hymn after the
“Prayer for the Preservation of the Doctrine, and of the Church of God.”

Our version is a free translation of stanzas 1 to 3 as it appeared,
anonymously, in the Dalston Hospital _Hymn Book_, 1848, and as repeated
in the Pennsylvania Lutheran _Church Book_, 1868.

Josua Stegmann, son of a Lutheran pastor, was born at Sülzfeld, Germany.
He was educated at the Universities of Leipzig and Wittenberg. After
holding several positions as teacher and pastor, he became Professor of
Theology at Rinteln. With the outbreak of the Thirty Years’ War, he was
forced to flee but returned after several years. He suffered much at the
hands of his Catholic opponents. Benedictine monks claimed to be the
rightful professors and demanded the restoration of certain church
properties. At one time soldiers were sent into Stegmann’s house,
demanding a refund of his salary, compelling him to a public
disputation, and otherwise subjecting him to humiliation.

_MUSIC._ ACH BLEIB MIT DEINER GNADE is a simple but lovely tune,
permeated with a feeling of deep serenity, fitting the present hymn
perfectly. It appeared in the composer’s _Ein Schön Geistlich
Gesangbuch_, Jena, 1609, set to the hymn, “Christus, der ist mein
Leben,” by which name the tune is also known. J. S. Bach used the melody
in his chorale cantata, _Christus, der ist mein Leben_.

The composer, Melchior Vulpius, c. 1560-1616, was precentor at Weimar
about 1600. He composed a number of tunes and published them in his _Ein
schön geistlich Gesangbuch, &c., durch M.V. Cantorem zu Weymar_. Others
of his tunes were published after his death.


560. God is my Light              _Johann H. K. Hengstenberg_, 1770-1634
                                      _Tr. Ernst Wm. Hengstenberg_, 1835

                                   1.
    Gott ist mein Licht!
  Verzage nicht, mein Herz
    In banger, dunkler Zeit!
  Die Sonne sinkt,
  Die Nacht bringt Furcht und Schmerz,
    Mein Licht strahlt allezeit!
  Es schimmert an dem Tag der Freuden;
  Es leuchtet durch die Nacht der Leiden:
    Gott ist mein Licht!

                                   2.
    Gott ist mein Heil!
  O Seele, fürchte nichts!
    Dein Helfer ist getreu.
  Er lässt dich nicht,
  Sein Vaterwort verspricht’s.
    Er steht dir mächtig bei.
  Er will mich bis ins Alter tragen,
  Kein wahres Gut mir je versagen:
    Gott ist mein Heil!

                                   3.
    Sein ist die Kraft!
  Er spricht und es geschieht,
    Gebeut und es steht da.
  Und wenn mein Blick
  Noch keine Hoffnung sieht,
    Ist schon die Rettung nah.
  Wo schwache Menschen nichts vermögen,
  Da kommt uns stärkend Gott entgegen.
    Sein ist die Kraft!

                                   4.
    Sein ist das Reich!
  Er herrscht im Weltgebiet
    Mit Weisheit, Huld und Macht.
  Die Sterne ziehn;
  Der Strom der Zeiten flieht,
    Von seinem Arm bewacht.
  Und alles lenket er im stillen
  Zum Ziel nach seinem heilgen Willen.
    Sein ist das Reich!

                                   5.
    Gott ist mein Schild!
  Mein Schirm in der Gefahr,
    Die er nur wenden kann.
  Er deckt mein Haupt,
  Und ohn ihn fällt kein Haar.
    Er nimmt sich aller an.
  Ob Tausende, die mit mir wallen,
  Zur Rechten oder Linken fallen—
    Er ist mein Schild!

                                   6.
    Gott ist mein Lohn!
  Drum geh ich unverzagt
    Die Bahn, die er nur zeigt.
  Der Gang sei schwer—
  Er wird mit Gott gewagt,
    Der dort die Palme reicht.
  Froh wird gekämpft, um Sieg gerungen
  Voll Mut der Widerstand bezwungen.
    Gott ist mein Lohn!

The hymn was written by Johann Heinrich Karl Hengstenberg, a Lutheran
pastor in the town of Wetter in Westphalia. His literary work is
_Psalterion_ published in Essen, 1825, a collection of his hymns,
several of which passed into general use in the Lutheran churches of
Germany.

The translator has not been identified.

_MUSIC._ GOTT IST GETREU is a melody contributed by J. R. Ahle, in his
_Geistliche Arien_, 1662, where it is set to the hymn, “Es ist genug,”
by Franz Burmeister.

For comments on Ahle see Hymn 553.


561. Take Thou my hand, O Father        _Julie von Haussmann_, 1825-1901
                                                      _Tr. H. Brueckner_

                                   1.
  So nimm denn meine Hände
    Und führe mich
  Bis an mein selig’ Ende
    Und ewiglich!
  Ich kann allein nicht gehen,
    Nicht einen Schritt;
  Wo du wirst geh’n und stehen,
    Da nimm mich mit.

                                   2.
  In Deine Gnade hülle
    Mein schwaches Herz,
  Und mach’ es endlich stille
    In Freud’ und Schmerz;
  Lass ruh’n zu deinen Füssen
    Dein schwaches Kind,
  Es will die Augen schliessen
    Und folgen blind.

                                   3.
  Wenn ich auch gar nichts fühle
    Von deiner Macht,
  Du bringst mich doch zum Ziele
    Auch durch die Nacht;
  So nimm denn meine Hände
    Und führe mich
  Bis an mein selig’ Ende
    Und ewiglich!

Julie von Haussmann, born in Mitau, in the province of Kurland, was the
second youngest of a family of six daughters. Her father had been a
teacher in a Gymnasium at Riga, later moving to Mitau where he held a
government position. Julie, never in vigorous health, was a shy,
retiring young woman, but keen of intellect. On several occasions she
accepted positions as governess in private homes but was always
compelled to give up on account of her health. She finally dismissed all
thoughts of a career and devoted herself to the care of her father who
had become blind, until the latter’s death in 1864. The following two
years she lived with a married sister in Germany and Switzerland and
then accompanied her younger sister to Biarritz in southern France where
the latter held a position as organist. In 1870 both went to St.
Petersburg to be with two other sisters, one of them employed as
Director of St. Annenschule. The family circle was broken in 1896 and
1898 upon the death of the youngest and oldest sister. In 1901 Julie
settled with relatives near Wösso in Estonia. In spite of old age and
weak eyesight, she was busily engaged, until her death, with charities
and literary work. She published a devotional book, _Hausbrot_, and,
upon the insistence of a friend, Gustav Knak, her lyrics were published
in three volumes, entitled, _Maiblumen. Lieder einer Stillen im Lande_.
“So nimm denn mein Hände” appeared in _Maiblumen_, 1862, Vol I. It has
been translated into many languages.

For comments on the translator, H. Brueckner, see Hymn 517.

_MUSIC._ SO NIMM DENN MEINE HÄNDE first appeared with the present hymn
in 1883. The tune was composed by Friedrich Silcher, 1789-1860, a German
musician, born at Schnaith, Württemberg. For 43 years Silcher was the
director of music and organist at the University of Tübingen. He
composed popular songs and hymns, and a cantata.


562. What mercy and divine compassion     _Philipp F. Hiller_, 1699-1769
                                         _Tr. Frieda Kaufman_, 1883-1944

                                   1.
  Mir ist Erbarmung widerfahren,
  Erbarmung, deren ich nicht wert!
  Das zähl’ ich zu dem Wunderbaren;
    Mein stolzes Herz hat’s nie begehrt.
    Nun weiss ich das, und bin erfreut,
  : Und rühme die Barmherzigkeit:

                                   2.
    Ich hatte nichts als Zorn verdienet,
    Und soll bei Gott in Gnaden sein;
  Gott hat mich mit sich selbst versühnet,
    Und macht durchs Blut des Sohn’s mich rein,
    Nicht durch Verdienst der Kreatur,—
  : Erbarmung ist’s, Erbarmung nur:

                                   3.
    Das musz ich dir, mein Gott, bekennen,
    Das rühm’ ich, wenn ein Mensch mich fragt;
    Ich kann es nur Erbarmung nennen,
    So ist mein ganzes Herz gesagt;
    Ich beuge mich, und bin erfreut,
  : Und rühme die Barmherzigkeit:

                                   4.
  Dies lass ich kein Geschöpf mir rauben,
  Dies soll mein einzig Rühmen sein;
  Auf dies Erbarmen will ich glauben;
  Auf dieses bet’ ich auch allein;
    Auf dieses duld’ ich in der Not;
  : Auf dieses hoff’ ich noch im Tod:

                                   5.
    Gott, der du reich bist an Erbarmen,
    Nimm dein Erbarmen nicht von mir,
  Und führe durch den Tod mich Armen
  Durch meines Heilands Tod zu dir;
    Da bin ich ewig hoch erfreut,
  : Und rühme die Barmherzigkeit:

Based on I Tim. 1:13: “aber mir ist Barmherzigkeit widerfahren” (“but I
obtained mercy”).

The hymn appeared first in Hiller’s _Geistliches Liederkästlein_, Part
II, 1767, with the following note by the author:

  An unconverted person is much too proud to say these words sincerely
  from the heart; but the converted person confesses them freely before
  God and man.

For comments on the author, Philipp Friedrich Hiller, see Hymn 524. The
hymn is credited, erroneously, to Gerhard Tersteegen, in the _Hymnary_.

A number of Hiller’s hymns have been translated but this one apparently
had never before been put into English. Our translation, consisting of
stanzas 1, 2, 4, and 5, was made especially for the _Hymnary_ by Sister
Frieda Kaufman who was for many years associated with the Bethel
Deaconess Hospital, Newton, Kansas. Sister Frieda was born near Basel,
Switzerland; came with her parents to Halstead, Kansas; and attended
Bethel College. After graduating from a nursing course in Cincinnati,
Ohio, she received her deaconess garb and has since been known as
“Sister Frieda.” From 1908 to 1943 she served as sister-in-charge of the
hospital and during much of that time served also as its superintendent.
She had much to do with the planning of the Home for the Aged which is
operated in connection with the hospital. To these two institutions she
devoted her rare gifts and set for them a high standard of Christian
service. Sister Frieda had unusual literary and artistic endowments and
translated several German hymns into English.

_MUSIC._ ERBARMUNG is a popular Swiss melody which appeared anonymously
in the _Gesangbuch mit Noten_. It was composed by Johann Gottfried
Schicht, 1753-1823, who was born in Zittau. Schicht composed 3
oratorios, church and chamber music, and edited Bach’s motets. He became
cantor of the Thomasschule in Leipzig in 1810.


563. Strive aright when God doth call thee         _Johann J. Winckler_,
                                                               1670-1722
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  Ringe recht, wenn Gottes Gnade
  Dich nun ziehet und bekehrt,
  Dass dein Geist sich gantz entlade
  Von der Last, die ihn beschwert.

                                   2.
  Ringe, denn die Pfort’ ist enge,
  Und der Lebensweg ist schmal;
  Hier bleibt alles im Gedränge,
  Was nicht zielt zum Himmelssaal.

                                   3.
  Kämpfe bis aufs Blut und Leben,
  Dring’ hinein in Gottes Reich;
  Will der Satan widerstreben,
  Werde weder matt noch weich.

                                   4.
  Ringe, dass dein Eifer glühe,
  Und die erste Liebe dich
  Von der ganzen Welt abziehe,
  Halbe Liebe hält nicht Stich.

                                   5.
  Ringe mit Gebet und Schreien,
  Halte damit feurig an;
  Lass dich keine Zeit gereuen,
  Wär’s auch Tag und Nacht getan.

                                   6.
  Hast du dann die Perl’ errungen,
  Denke ja nicht, dass du nun
  Alles Böse hast bezwungen,
  Das uns Schanden pflegt zu tun.

                                   7.
  Nimm mit Furcht ja deiner Seele,
  Deines Heils mit Zittern wahr,
  Denn in dieser Leibeshöhle
  Schwebst du stündlich in Gefahr.

                                   8.
  Halt ja deine Krone feste,
  Halte männlich, was du hast.
  Recht beharren ist das Beste,
  Rückfall wird zur schweren Last.

                                   9.
  Lass dein Auge ja nicht gaffen
  Nach der schnöden Eitelkeit;
  Bleibe Tag und Nacht in Waffen,
  Fliehe träge Sicherheit.

                                  10.
  Lass dem Fleische nicht den Willen,
  Gib der Lust den Zügel nicht;
  Willst du die Begierden stillen,
  So verlischt das Gnadenlicht.

                                  11.
  Fleisches Freiheit macht die Seele
  Kalt und sicher, frech und stolz;
  Frisst hinweg des Glaubens Oele,
  Lässt nichts, als ein faules Holz.

                                  12.
  Wahre Treu führt mit der Sünde
  Bis ins Grab beständig Krieg,
  Richtet sich nach keinem Winde,
  Sucht in jedem Kampf den Sieg.

                                  13.
  Wahre Treu liebt Christi Wege,
  Steht beherzt auf ihrer Hut,
  Weiss von keiner Fleischespflege,
  Hält sich selber nichts zu gut.

                                  14.
  Wahre Treu hat viel zu weinen,
  Spricht zum Lachen: du bist toll;
  Weil es, wenn Gott wird erscheinen,
  Lauter Heulen werden soll.

                                  15.
  Wahre Treu kommt dem Getümmel
  Dieser Welt niemals zu nah;
  Denn ihr Schatz ist in dem Himmel,
  Drum ist auch ihr Herz allda.

                                  16.
  Dies bedenket wohl, ihr Streiter!
  Streitet recht und fürchtet euch;
  Geht doch alle Tage weiter,
  Bis ihr kommt in’s Himmelreich.

                                  17.
  Denkt bei jedem Augenblicke,
  Ob’s vielleicht der letzte sei;
  Bringt die Lampen in’s Geschicke,
  Holt stets neues Oel herbei.

                                  18.
  Liegt nicht alle Welt in Bösen?
  Steht nicht Sodom in der Glut?
  Seele, wer soll dich erlösen?
  Eilen, eilen ist hier gut.

                                  19.
  Eile, wo du dich erretten,
  Und nicht mit verderben willst;
  Mach dich los von allen Ketten,
  Fleuch, als ein gejagtes Wild!

                                  20.
  Lauf der Welt doch aus den Händen;
  Dring’ in’s stille Zoar ein;
  Eile, dass du mögst vollenden
  Mache dich von allem rein.

                                  21.
  Lass dir Nichts am Herzen kleben,
  Fleuch vor dem verborg’nen Bann,
  Such in Gott geheim zu leben,
  Dass dich nichts beflecken kann.

                                  22.
  Eile, zähle Tag und Stunden,
  Bis der Heiland dir erscheint,
  Und wenn du nun überwunden,
  Ewig sich mit dir vereint!

                                  23.
  Eile, lauf’ ihm doch entgegen,
  Sprich: mein Licht, ich bin bereit
  Nun mein Hüttlein abzulegen,
  Mich dürst’t nach der Ewigkeit.

                                  24.
  Mich verlangt bei dir zu wohnen,
  Jesu! teurer Gottes Sohn,
  Ach führ mich zum Himmelsthrone,
  Setz’ mir auf die Lebenskron’.

Based on the following scripture passages: (1) Stanzas 1 to 5, Luke
13:24: “Strive to enter in at the strait gate; for many, I say unto you,
shall seek to enter in, and shall not be able;” (2) stanzas 6 to 15,
Philippians 2:12: “Work out your own salvation with fear and trembling;”
(3) stanzas 16 to 24, Genesis 19:15-22: “Haste thee, escape thither,”
and the story of Lot’s flight from Sodom.

Johann J. Winckler was a Lutheran pastor of the early Pietistic group.
After receiving his education in the University of Leipzig, he held
important church posts in the city of Magdeburg, climaxed by his
appointment as chief preacher at the Cathedral. He made enemies in
Magdeburg on several occasions, first, by his stand against
theater-going, and afterwards, by his well-meant though futile attempt
to bring about a closer union between the Lutheran and Reformed Churches
in Prussia. But he bore his opposition with Christian patience and
fortitude. His hymns, all of them lengthy, are distinguished by a firm
faith and earnestness. They represent the better productions of the
early Pietistic writers of Germany.

Our version is a translation of stanzas 1, 13, and 16, by Miss
Winkworth, from her _Chorale Book for England_, 1863. For comments on
Catherine Winkworth see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ RINGE RECHT first appeared in Freylinghausen’s _Gesangbuch_,
1714, and later in Johann Thommen’s _Musikalischer Christenschatz_,
Basel, 1745, set to Winckler’s hymn from which it derives its name. The
tune appears in a number of hymn books, sometimes with slight
adaptations, and given such names at “Batty,” “Turnan,” and
“Invitation.” The composer remains anonymous.


564. Jesus, priceless Treasure                  _Johann Franck_, 1618-77
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  Jesu, meine Freude,
  Meines Herzens Weide,
    Jesu, meine Zier,
  Ach, wie lang, ach lange
  Ist dem Herzen bange
    Und verlangt nach dir!
  Gotteslamm, mein Bräutigam,
  Ausser dir soll mir auf Erden
  Nichts sonst Liebers werden!

                                   2.
  Unter deinem Schirmen
  Bin ich vor den Stürmen
    Aller Feinde frei.
  Lass den Satan wittern,
  Lass die Welt erschüttern,
    Mir steht Jesus bei.
  Ob es jetzt gleich kracht und blitzt,
  Obgleich Sünd’ und Hölle schrecken,
  Jesus will mich decken.

                                   3.
  Trotz dem alten Drachen,
  Trotz dem Todesrachen,
    Trotz der Furcht dazu!
  Tobe, Welt, und springe,
  Ich steh’ hier und singe
    In gar sichrer Ruh’;
  Gottes Macht hält mich in acht;
  Erd’ und Abgrund muss verstummen,
  Ob sie noch so brummen.

                                   4.
  Weg mit allen Schätzen,
  Du bist mein Ergötzen,
    Jesu, meine Lust!
  Weg, ihr eitlen Ehren,
  Ich mag euch nicht hören,
    Bleibt mir unbewusst!
  Elend, Not, Kreuz, Schmach und Tod
  Soll mich, ob ich viel muss leiden,
  Nicht von Jesu scheiden.

                                   5.
  Gute Nacht, o Wesen,
  Das die Welt erlesen,
    Mir gefällst du nicht!
  Gute Nacht, ihr Sünden,
  Bleibet weit dahinten,
    Kommt nicht mehr ans Licht!
  Gute Nacht, du Stolz und Pracht,
  Dir sei ganz, du Lasterleben,
  Gute Nacht gegeben!

                                   6.
  Weicht, ihr Trauergeister,
  Denn mein Freudenmeister,
    Jesus, tritt herein!
  Denen, die Gott lieben,
  Muss auch ihr Betrüben
    Lauter Zucker sein.
  Duld’ ich schon hier Spott und Hohn,
  Dennoch bleibst du auch im Leide,
  Jesu, meine Freude.

In its depth of spiritual experience, this hymn by Franck resembles
Wesley’s “Jesus, lover of my soul.” It has made a wide appeal and the
words have been translated into various tongues. Peter the Great, the
irreligious Czar of Russia, of all people, had the hymn done into the
Russian language, and it has also been translated into Estonian.

For comments on the author, Johann Franck, see Hymn 552.

For comments on the translator, Catherine Winkworth, see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ JESU MEINE FREUDE is an adaptation of a traditional melody
found in J. Crüger’s _Praxis Pietatis Melica_, 1653, where it is set to
the present hymn. Our version of the melody and the harmony is by J. S.
Bach. It is a superb tune and rates as one of the finest of all German
chorales.

For comments on Johann Crüger see Hymn 242.

For comments on J. S. Bach see Hymn 539.


565. I am the Lord, O hear my voice          _Johann Scheffler_, 1624-77
                                                     _Tr. Joanna Andres_

                                   1.
  Mir nach! spricht Christus, unser Held,
    Mir nach, ihr Christen alle!
  Verleugnet euch, verlasst die Welt,
    Folgt meinem Ruf und Schalle,
  Nehmt euer Kreuz und Ungemach
  Auf euch, folgt meinem Wandel nach!

                                   2.
  Ich bin das Licht, ich leucht’ euch für
    Mit heil’gem Tugendleben.
  Wer zu mir kommt und folget mir,
    Darf nicht im Finstern schweben.
  Ich bin der Weg, ich weise wohl,
  Wie man wahrhaftig wandeln soll.

                                   3.
  Mein Herz ist voll Demütigkeit,
    Voll Liebe meine Seele;
  Mein Mund, der fleusst zu jeder Zeit
    Von süssem Sanftmutsöle;
  Mein Geist, Gemüte, Kraft und Sinn
  Ist Gott ergeben, schaut auf ihn.

                                   4.
  Ich zeig’ euch das, was schädlich ist,
    Zu fliehen und zu meiden,
  Und euer Herz von arger List
    Zu rein’gen und zu scheiden.
  Ich bin der Seelen Fels und Hort
  Und führ’ euch zu der Himmelspfort’.

                                   5.
  Fällt’s euch zu schwer, ich geh’ voran,
    Ich steh’ euch an der Seite;
  Ich kämpfe selbst, ich brech’ die Bahn
    Bin alles in dem Streite.
  Ein böser Knecht, der still darf stehn,
  Sieht er voran den Feldherrn gehn!

                                   6.
  Wer seine Seel zu finden meint,
    Wird sie ohn’ mich verlieren;
  Wer sie hier zu verlieren scheint,
    Wird sie nach Hause führen.
  Wer nicht sein Kreuz nimmt und folgt mir,
  Ist mein nicht wert und meiner Zier.

                                   7.
  So lasst uns denn dem lieben Herrn
    Mit Leib und Seel’ nachgehen
  Und wohlgemut, getrost und gern
    Bei ihm im Leiden stehen!
  Denn wer nicht kämpft, trägt auch die Kron’
  Des ew’gen Lebens nicht davon.

Based on Matt. 16:24: “If any man will come after me, let him deny
himself, and take up his cross and follow me.” The hymn has been called
a “masterpiece of scriptural didactic poetry.” It appeared first in the
author’s _Heilige Seelenlust_, 1668.

Johann Scheffler, author of the hymn, holds a high place in the first
rank of German poets. Born in Breslau, Silesia, the son of Lutheran
parents, he studied in the Universities of Strassburg, Leyden, and
Padua, graduating with the degrees of Ph.D. and M.D. Early in life he
became deeply interested in the famous shoemaker, Jacob Böhme, a mystic
and writer of popular books on the inner life. As a result of his
studies in mysticism, Scheffler left the Lutherans and became a priest
in the Roman Catholic Church. He then gave up the medical profession to
devote himself to writing and the priesthood. Scheffler’s hymns, on the
whole, are, however, not distinctly Roman Catholic in sentiment, and
they became much more popular among the Lutherans and Moravians than
among the Catholics. Scheffler wrote under the nom de plume, “Angelus
Silesius,” “Angelus” being the name of a Spanish mystic who influenced
him greatly, to which he added “Silesius” to indicate his native
country.

The translation was made especially for the _Hymnary_, by Mrs. Joanna
Andres, Newton, Kansas. The hymn is unusual in its use of the personal
pronoun “I” in the first three stanzas.

_MUSIC._ MIR NACH! SPRICHT CHRISTUS UNSER HELD is a popular tune
composed by Johann Hermann Schein (misspelled “Rhein” in the _Hymnary_
and the _Gesangbuch mit Noten_).

For comments on Schein see Hymn 508.


566. O God, Thou faithful God               _Johann Heermann_, 1585-1647
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  O Gott, du frommer Gott,
    Du Brunnquell guter Gaben,
  Ohn’ den nichts ist, was ist,
    Von dem wir alles haben:
  Gesunden Leib gib mir,
    Und dass in solchem Leib
  Ein’ unverletzte Seel’
    Und rein Gewissen bleib’.

                                   2.
  Gib, dass ich tu’ mit Fleiss,
    Was mir zu tun gebühret,
  Wozu mich dein Befehl
    In meinem Stande führet!
  Gib, dass ich’s tue bald,
    Zu der Zeit, da ich soll,
  Und wenn ich’s tu’, so gib,
    Dass es gerate wohl!

                                   3.
  Hilf, dass ich rede stets,
    Womit ich kann bestehen,
  Lass kein unnützes Wort
    Aus meinem Munde gehen;
  Und wenn in meinem Amt
    Ich reden soll und muss,
  So gib den Worten Kraft
    Und Nachdruck ohn’ Verdruss!

                                   4.
  Find’t sich Gefährlichkeit,
    So lass mich nicht verzagen;
  Gib einen Heldenmut,
    Das Kreuz hilf selber tragen!
  Gib, dass ich meinen Feind
    Mit Sanftmut überwind’
  Und, wenn ich Rats bedarf,
    Auch guten Rat erfind’!

                                   5.
  Lass mich mit jedermann
    In Fried’ und Freundschaft leben,
  Soweit es christlich ist.
    Willst du mir etwas geben
  An Reichtum, Gut und Geld,
    So gib auch dies dabei,
  Dass von unrechtem Gut
    Nichts untermenget sei!

                                   6.
  Soll ich auf dieser Welt
    Mein Leben höher bringen,
  Durch manchen sauern Tritt
    Hindurch ins Alter dringen,
  So gib Geduld. Vor Sünd’
    Und Schanden mich bewahr’,
  Auf dass ich tragen mag
    Mit Ehren graues Haar!

                                   7.
  Lass mich an meinem End’
    Auf Christi Tod abscheiden,
  Die Seele nimm zu dir
    Hinauf zu deinen Freuden,
  Dem Leib ein Räumlein gönn’,
    Bei frommer Christen Grab,
  Auf dass er seine Ruh’
    An ihrer Seite hab’.

                                   8.
  Wenn du an jenem Tag
    Die Toten wirst aufwecken,
  So tu auch deine Hand
    Zu meinem Grab ausstrecken;
  Lass hören deine Stimm’
    Und meinen Leib weck auf
  Und führ ihn schön verklärt
    Zum auserwählten Hauf’!

First published in the author’s _Devoti Musica Cordis_, Breslau, 1630,
where it was entitled “Daily Prayer.” Regarding the hymn, originally
appearing in 18 stanzas, Fischer writes in his _Kirchenlieder Lexicon_,
1878:

  It is one of the most widely used and signally blessed hymns and has
  not unjustly been called his “Master Song.” If it is somewhat “home
  baked” yet it is excellent, nourishing bread. It gives a training in
  practical Christianity and especially strikes three notes—godly
  living, patient suffering, and happy dying.

For comments on Johann Heermann see Hymn 534.

For comments on the translator, Miss Winkworth, see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ O GOTT, DU FROMMER GOTT, also known as “Darmstadt,” is
attributed to Ahasuerus Fritsch, a German poet and composer who lived in
the second half of the 17th century. The music appeared in his
_Himmels-Lust und Welt Unlust_, Jena, 1679. The present version is from
J. S. Bach’s _Vierstimmige Choralgesänge_, 1765-9.


567. Whate’er my God ordains is right       _Samuel Rodigast_, 1649-1708
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan!
  Es bleibt gerecht sein Wille.
  Wie er fängt meine Sachen an,
  Will ich ihm halten stille.
  Er ist mein Gott, der in der Not
  Mich wohl weiss zu erhalten;
  Drum lass’ ich ihn nur walten.

                                   2.
  Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan!
  Er wird mich nicht betrügen;
  Er führet mich auf rechter Bahn,
  Drum lass’ ich mir genügen
  An seiner Huld, und hab Geduld;
  Er wird mein Unglück wenden,
  Es steht in seinen Händen.

                                   3.
  Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan,
  Er wird mich wohl bedenken;
  Mein Arzt, der alles heilen kann,
  Wird mich mit Gift nicht tränken.
  Er ist getreu, und steht mir bei;
  Auf ihn nur will ich bauen,
  Und seiner Güte trauen.

                                   4.
  Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan!
  Er ist mein Licht, mein Leben,
  Der mir nichts Böses gönnen kann;
  Ihm will ich mich ergeben
  In Freud und Leid; es kommt die Zeit,
  Da öffentlich erscheinet,
  Wie treulich er’s gemeinet.

                                   5.
  Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan!
  Muss ich den Kelch gleich schmecken.
  Der bitter ist nach meinem Wahn,
  Lass’ ich mich doch nichts schrekken,
  Weil er zuletzt, mich doch ergötzt,
  Mit süssem Trost im Herzen;
  Da weichen alle Schmerzen.

                                   6.
  Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan!
  Dabei will ich verbleiben;
  Es mag mich auf die rauhe Bahn
  Not, Tod und Elend treiben:
  So wird Gott mich, ganz väterlich,
  In seinen Armen halten;
  Drum lass’ ich ihn nur walten.

Based on Deut. 32:4: “He is the Rock, his work is perfect: for all his
ways are judgment; a God of truth and without iniquity, just and right
is he.”

Samuel Rodigast, Professor of Philosophy at the University of Jena, and
later rector of the Greyfriars Gymnasium in Berlin, wrote this hymn for
his friend Severus Gastorius, precentor of the church at Jena, when
Gastorius was ill. Gastorius in turn composed the tune on his sick bed,
requesting that the hymn be sung at his funeral. The condition of his
health turned for the better whereupon Gastorius ordered his choir to
sing the hymn at the door of his house once each week during the period
of his convalescence. The music and words became widely known and are
used throughout the whole of German Protestantism. The hymn appeared
first in _Hannoversches Gesangbuch_, 1676. The melody appeared in the
_Auserlesenes Weimarisches Gesangbuch_, 1681.

The translation, stanzas 1, 2, and 6 of the original, is Miss
Winkworth’s in her _Chorale Book for England_, 1863.

For comments on Catherine Winkworth see Hymn 236.


568. Lord, Thou hast been Thy people’s rest          _James Montgomery_,
                                                               1771-1854

A metrical version of the 90th Psalm.

For comments on James Montgomery see Hymn 62.

_MUSIC._ ALLEIN GOTT IN DER HÖH’ SEI EHR’ appeared in _Geistliche
Lieder_, Leipzig, 1539, where it is set to the hymn, “Allein Gott in der
Höh sei Ehr,” by Nikolaus Decius. The tune is of pre-Reformation origin.
It is an adaptation from an Easter _Gloria_ of anonymous composition,
and appears with variants in different collections. Many settings of the
tune have been made by Bach and other great composers, the one here
being by Mendelssohn, used in his oratorio, _St. Paul_.


569. Jehovah, let me now adore Thee           _Bartholomäus Crasselius_,
                                                               1667-1724
                                      _Tr. Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  Dir, dir Jehova, will ich singen,
    Denn wo ist doch ein solcher Gott wie du?
  Dir will ich meine Lieder bringen,
    Ach gib mir deines Geistes Kraft dazu,
  Dass ich es tu’ im Namen Jesu Christ,
  So wie es dir durch ihn gefällig ist.

                                   2.
  Zeuch mich, o Vater, zu dem Sohne,
    Damit dein Sohn mich wieder zieh’ zu dir;
  Dein Geist in meinem Herzen wohne
    Und meine Sinne und Verstand regier’,
  Dass ich den Frieden Gottes schmeck’ und fühl’
  Und dir darob im Herzen sing’ und spiel’.

                                   3.
  Verleih mir, Höchster, solche Güte,
    So wird gewiss mein Singen recht getan,
  So klingt es schön in meinem Liede,
    Und ich bet’ dich im Geist und Wahrheit an,
  So hebt dein Geist mein Herz zu dir empor,
  Dass ich dir Psalmen sing’ im höhern Chor.

                                   4.
  Denn der kann mich bei dir vertreten
    Mit Seufzern, die ganz unaussprechlich sind,
  Der lehret mich recht gläubig beten,
    Gibt Zeugnis meinem Geist, dass ich dein Kind
  Und ein Miterbe Jesu Christi sei,
  Daher ich Abba, lieber Vater! schrei’.

                                   5.
  Wenn dies aus meinem Herzen schallet
    Durch deines heil’gen Geistes Kraft und Trieb,
  So bricht dein Vaterherz und wallet
    Ganz brünstig gegen mich vor heisser Lieb’,
  Dass mir’s die Bitte nicht versagen kann,
  Die ich nach deinem Willen hab’ getan.

                                   6.
  Was mich dein Geist selbst bitten lehret,
    Das ist nach deinem Willen eingericht’t
  Und wird gewiss von dir erhöret,
    Weil es im Namen deines Sohns geschicht,
  Durch welchen ich dein Kind und Erbe bin
  Und nehme von dir Gnad’ um Gnade hin.

                                   7.
  Wohl mir, dass ich dies Zeugnis habe,
    Drum bin ich voller Trost und Freudigkeit,
  Und weiss, dass alle gute Gabe,
    Die ich von dir verlanget jederzeit,
  Die gibst du und tust überschwenglich mehr,
  Als ich verstehe, bitte und begehr.

                                   8.
  Wohl mir, ich bitt in Jesu Namen,
    Der mich zu deiner Rechten selbst vertritt;
  In ihm ist alles Ja und Amen,
    Was ich von dir im Geist und Glauben bitt.
  Wohl mir, Lob dir jezt und in Ewigkeit,
  Dass du mir schenkest solche Seligkeit!

A prayer for the spirit of grace rightly to praise and worship God,
based on John 16:23-28. The hymn was first published in _Geistreiches
Gesangbuch_, Halle, 1697, and appeared again in Freylinghausen’s
_Gesangbuch_, 1704.

Bartholomäus Crasselius, son of a cooper, was born in Wernsdorf, Saxony.
He became an ardent disciple of A. H. Francke, leader of the Pietistic
movement at Halle. Crasselius was an aggressive advocate of the new
life. As Lutheran pastor at Nidda, and later at Düsseldorf, he was known
for his unrestrained testimony against the people and the times.
Crasselius was nearly always in conflict with the authorities and at one
time was suspended four weeks from his office and punished with fines
and imprisonment.

The translation, consisting of stanzas 1 and 2, is somewhat altered from
Catherine Winkworth’s as it appeared in her _Chorale Book for England_,
1863.

For comments on Catherine Winkworth see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ DIR, DIR JEHOVAH has been coupled with this text since its
first publication in 1704 in Freylinghausen’s _Gesangbuch_. It is an
altered form of a melody set to “Wer nur den lieben Gott lässt walten,”
published in the _Musikalisches Handbuch_, Hamburg, 1690. The composer
is not known. In England the tune was altered to fit the long meter
hymn, “Ride on, ride on in majesty,” and is called “Winchester New.” See
Hymn 369.


570. The Spirit of the Lord revealed           _George W. Briggs_, 1875—

A hymn on the Scriptures, setting forth the truth that what the Spirit
of God revealed dimly in the Old Testament was fulfilled in the New
Testament by the Incarnate Word which is Jesus Christ. George W. Briggs
wrote the hymn for _Songs of Praise_, London, 1931.

For comments on Briggs see Hymn 307.

_MUSIC._ AUS MEINES HERZENS GRUNDE, also known as “Wolder,” is a
traditional tune of anonymous origin. It is found in D. Wolder’s _Neu
Catechismus Gesangbüchlein_, Hamburg, 1588, but is doubtless much older
than this book. In the _Gesangbuch mit Noten_ the tune is set to the
words, “Aus meines Herzens Grunde,” by J. Matthesius, from which it
derives its name.


571. He who would be in God confiding           _Georg Neumark_, 1621-81
                                                        _Tr. J. J. Voth_

                                   1.
  Wer nur den lieben Gott lässt walten
    Und hoffet auf ihn allezeit,
  Den wird er wunderlich erhalten
    In allem Kreuz und Traurigkeit.
  Wer Gott, dem Allerhöchsten, traut,
  Der hat auf keinen Sand gebaut.

                                   2.
  Was helfen uns die schweren Sorgen?
    Was hilft uns unser Weh und Ach?
  Was hilft es, dass wir alle Morgen
    Beseufzen unser Ungemach?
  Wir machen unser Kreuz und Leid
  Nur grösser durch die Traurigkeit.

                                   3.
  Man halte nur ein wenig stille
    Und sei nur in sich selbst vergnügt,
  Wie unsers Gottes Gnadenwille,
    Wie sein’ Allwissenheit es fügt.
  Gott, der uns sich hat auserwählt,
  Der weiss auch gar wohl, was uns fehlt.

                                   4.
  Er kennt die rechten Freudenstunden,
    Er weiss wohl, wann es nützlich sei.
  Wenn er uns nur hat treu erfunden
    Und merket keine Heuchelei,
  So kommt Gott, eh’ wir’s uns versehn,
  Und lässet uns viel Gut’s geschehn.

                                   5.
  Denk nicht in deiner Drangsalshitze,
    Dass du von Gott verlassen sei’st,
  Und dass der Gott im Schosse sitze,
    Der sich mit stetem Glücke speist.
  Die Folgezeit verändert viel
  Und setzet jeglichem sein Ziel.

                                   6.
  Es sind ja Gott sehr leichte Sachen
    Und ist dem Höchsten alles gleich,
  Den Reichen arm und klein zu machen,
    Den Armen aber gross und reich.
  Gott ist der rechte Wundermann,
  Der bald erhöhn, bald stürzen kann.

                                   7.
  Sing, bet und geh auf Gottes Wege
    Verricht das Deine nur getreu
  Und trau des Himmels reichem Segen,
    So wird er bei dir werden neu;
  Denn welcher seine Zuversicht
  Auf Gott setzt, den verlässt er nicht.

One of the most popular of the German hymns. The heading given it by the
author was:

  A Song of Comfort. God will care for and help every one in His own
  time. Cast thy burden on the Lord and He shall sustain thee. Psalm
  55:22.

The hymn arose out of the author’s personal need and suffering. On his
way to Königsberg, to attend the University at that place, Neumark was
robbed of his money and stripped of all his possessions except his
prayer book and a small amount of cash which, he had sewn into his
clothing. He was therefore destitute and in despair, with no prospect of
going to school or making a living. After many privations, he at last
received an appointment as private tutor in the family of a judge at
Kiel, “which good fortune, coming suddenly and as if fallen from
heaven,” he wrote, “greatly rejoiced me, and on that very day I composed
to the honour of my beloved Lord the hymn, well known here and there,
‘Wer nur den lieben Gott lässt walten,’ and had certainly cause enough
to thank the Divine compassion for such unlooked-for grace shown to me.”

Neumark was now able to enter the University and became a student of law
and poetry. After years of hardship, he finally had the good fortune of
being appointed court poet, librarian, and registrar to Duke Wilhelm II
of Saxe-Weimar, and custodian of the ducal archives. Shortly before his
death in 1681 he became blind. The hymns he wrote during his prosperous
years were markedly inferior to those written during his earlier years
of hardship and privation.

The translation was made by Rev. J. J. Voth, North Newton, Kansas, then
a member of the Bethel College staff, and pastor of the Gnadenberg
Mennonite Church near Whitewater, Kansas. There is also a fine
translation of this hymn, by Catherine Winkworth.

_MUSIC._ WER NUR DEN LIEBEN GOTT is wrongly attributed in the _Hymnary_
to the author of the words. Neumark wrote an extraordinarily fine tune,
in the minor mode, for these words, used in many collections, including
the Canadian Mennonite _Gesangbuch_, 1942. The present tune is simpler
and more popular than Neumark’s. The composer is not known.


572. Our Lord, His passion ended             _Francis C. Burkitt_, 1864—

A hymn for Whitsuntide.

Francis Crawford Burkitt, born in London, is a scholar of wide repute in
England, the author of many linguistic and theological works. He holds
honorary degrees from the Universities of Edinburgh, Dublin, St.
Andrews, and Oxford. Burkitt was, for many years, Professor of Divinity
in Cambridge University.

The meter of the hymn is unique in that the second quatrain of each
stanza changes from the common lambic (- —) to the Trochaic (— -).

_MUSIC._ FORTEM VIRILI PECTORE, of unknown origin, has much of the
character of a German folk tune. It appears in various editions of the
_Catholisches Gesangbuch_, Strassburg, 1697 and onwards, set to a German
version of the words, “Fortem virili pectore.”


573. God who madest earth and heaven          _Heinrich Albert_, 1604-51
                                      _Trs. Johann C. Jacobi_, 1670-1750
                                            _Arthur T. Russell_, 1806-74
                                          _Catherine Winkworth_, 1829-78

                                   1.
  Gott des Himmels und der Erden,
    Vater, Sohn und Heil’ger Geist,
  Der es Tag und Nacht lässt werden,
    Sonn’ und Mond uns scheinen heisst,
  Dessen starke Hand die Welt
  Und was drinnen ist, erhält.

                                   2.
  Gott, ich danke dir von Herzen,
    Dass du mich in dieser Nacht
  Vor Gefahr, Angst, Not und Schmerzen
    Hast behütet und bewacht,
  Dass des bösen Feindes List
  Mein nicht mächtig worden ist.

                                   3.
  Lass die Nacht auch meiner Sünden
    Jetzt mit dieser Nacht vergehn!
  O Herr Jesu, lass mich finden
    Deine Wunden offen stehn,
  Da alleine Hilf’ und Rat
  Ist für meine Missetat!

                                   4.
  Hilf, dass ich mit diesem Morgen
    Geistlich auferstehen mag
  Und für meine Seele sorgen.
    Dass, wenn nun dein grosser Tag
  Uns erscheint und dein Gericht,
  Ich davor erschrecke nicht.

                                   5.
  Führe mich, o Herr, und leite
    Meinen Gang nach deinem Wort!
  Sei und bleibe du auch heute
    Mein Beschützer und mein Hort!
  Nirgends als von dir allein
  Kann ich recht bewahret sein.

                                   6.
  Meinen Leib und meine Seele
    Samt den Sinnen und Verstand,
  Grosser Gott, ich dir befehle
    Unter deine starke Hand.
  Herr, mein Schild, mein’ Ehr’ und Ruhm,
  Nimm mich auf, dein Eigentum!

                                   7.
  Deinen Engel zu mir sende,
    Der des bösen Feindes Macht,
  List und Anschläg von mir wende,
    Und mich halt in guter Acht;
  Der auch endlich mich zur Ruh
  Trage nach dem Himmel zu.

                                   8.
  Da die Auserwählten alle
    Dich, Gott Vater, Sohn und Geist,
  Loben mit fröhlichem Schalle,
    Gott! der du Zebaoth heisst.
  Heil’ger, heil’ger, heil’ger Herr!
  Dir gebührt Lob, Preis und Ehr’.

                                   9.
  Höre, Gott! was ich begehre;
    Vater, Sohn und heil’ger Geist,
  Meine Bitte mir gewähre,
    Der du selbst mich bitten heisst;
  So will ich dich hier und dort
  Herzlich preisen fort und fort.

A morning hymn. Stanzas 2, 3, and 5 were special favorites in Germany,
stanza 5 having been adopted by children, by brides, by old and young,
as a morning prayer. Concerning this hymn, Dr. Cosack, a Königsberg
writer, says:

  For two hundred years it is hardly likely that a single day has
  greeted the earth that has not, here and there, in German lands, been
  met with Albert’s hymn. Hardly another morning hymn can be compared
  with it, as far as popularity and intrinsic value are concerned, if
  simplicity and devotion, purity of doctrine and adaptation to all the
  circumstances of life are to decide.

The author, Heinrich Albert, was the son of a tax collector at
Lobenstein, Voigtland. He began the study of music under his uncle,
Heinrich Schütz, Court Kapellmeister at Dresden, but abandoned it, at
the desire of his parents, to become a lawyer. The profession of law
had, however, little interest for him and he returned to his first love,
accepting, in 1631, the position of organist of the Cathedral of
Königsberg. Albert wrote several hundred secular and sacred poems and
composed in all 78 sacred melodies. Most of the former were published in
his _Etliche Arien_.

The hymn has been rendered into English by five or six eminent
translators. Johann Christian Jacobi, a native of Germany who was Keeper
of the Royal German Chapel, St. James Palace, London, for 42 years, made
a translation of this hymn which he included in his _Divine Hymns_,
1720. Our second stanza, slightly altered, is the work of his hand.

Arthur Tozer Russell, an Anglican clergyman and prolific writer,
translated many hymns and composed about 140 original hymns besides a
large number of chants and hymn tunes. To him belongs the credit for our
3d stanza which is a translation of stanza 6 of the original. Russell’s
translations, on the whole, are “vigorous and strong, but somewhat
ultra-faithful to the original metres.”

Catherine Winkworth made a full translation of Albert’s hymn for her
_Lyra Germanica_, 1st Ser. 1855. Our first verse is taken from this
work.

For comments on Miss Winkworth see Hymn 236.

_MUSIC._ GOTT DES HIMMELS UND DER ERDEN was composed by Albert, author
of the words. The tune is known too by the names “Godesberg,” and
“Waltham.” (See Hymn 370). J. S. Bach used the melody in his _Christmas
Oratorio_.


574. Jesus, still lead on          _Nicolaus L. von Zinzendorf_, 1700-60
                                        _Tr. Jane L. Borthwick_, 1813-97

                                   1.
  Jesu, geh voran
  Auf der Lebensbahn,
    Und wir wollen nicht verweilen,
    Dir getreulich nachzueilen.
  Führ uns an der Hand
  Bis ins Vaterland!

                                   2.
  Soll’s uns hart ergehn,
  Lass uns feste stehn
    Und auch in den schwersten Tagen
    Niemals über Lasten klagen;
  Denn durch Trübsal hier
  Geht der Weg zu dir.

                                   3.
  Rühret eigner Schmerz
  Irgend unser Herz,
    Kümmert uns ein fremdes Leiden,
    O so gib Geduld zu beiden;
  Richte unsern Sinn
  Auf das Ende hin!

                                   4.
  Ordne unsern Gang,
  Jesu, lebenslang!
    Führst du uns durch rauhe Wege,
    Gib uns auch die nöt’ge Pflege.
  Tu uns nach dem Lauf
  Deine Türe auf!

Entitled, “Following Christ.” The hymn has become a great favorite in
Germany, especially as a children’s hymn. Stanzas 1, 3 and 4 are from
Zinzendorf’s “Seelenbräutigam, O du Gotteslamm,” a poem of 11 stanzas,
written September 1721. The second stanza is from “Glanz der Ewigkeit,”
a 15-stanza poem, dated Berlin, May 1721.

Nicolaus Ludwig, Graf von Zinzendorf, was born at Dresden of a noble,
wealthy and religious family. Early in life he came under the teaching
of influential Pietists, having Philipp Spener for his godfather and
Augustus Francke for his tutor. From his earliest years he had strong
religious impressions. As a child his favorite play was “preaching;” as
a boy in school he organized the “Order of the Mustard Seed,” the
members of which bound themselves in a special manner to the service of
Christ, and above all to promote the conversion of the heathen. Upon the
insistence of non-pietistic relatives, he attended the University of
Wittenberg to study law and to acquire such accomplishments as dancing,
fencing, and shooting, but he himself would have preferred the study of
theology.

At the age of 21, Zinzendorf bought an estate in Saxony with the view of
gathering a number of truly religious persons into a community, which
should be a source of new religious life. He invited a group of Moravian
exiles, a religious body which sprang from the work of John Hus, to
settle on the estate. Thus was formed, in 1722, the Moravian settlement
which took the name Herrnhut, “Shelter of the Lord.” The colony grew
rapidly and attracted to its numbers not only immigrants from Moravia
but many others. In 1727 Zinzendorf gave up his post as an official at
the Court of the King of Saxony, to join the Moravian colony and
superintend the growing community. Accusing him of spreading false
doctrines, his opponents secured an edict from the king, banishing
Zinzendorf from Saxony. During this exile, which lasted 10 years, he was
engaged in unceasing missionary efforts, from St. Petersburg to the West
Indies.

In 1741, Zinzendorf came to America to visit the Moravians in
Pennsylvania to organize them into congregations and encourage them to
do missionary work among both whites and Indians. Under his leadership,
the Moravians became a famous missionary group. As early as 1731, two of
the Brethren were sent to the West Indies and two to Greenland. And in
Zinzendorf’s lifetime Moravians were at work in Europe, Asia, Africa,
North and South America. In a few years, the little colony at Herrnhut
had sent out more missionaries than had gone from all European
Protestantism during two centuries. They went to the hardest and most
dangerous places and the most unpromising peoples. Everywhere they were
strengthened by the joyful, confident faith and loyalty to Christ
expressed in Zinzendorf’s hymn, “Jesu geh voran.”

The Moravians had a powerful influence on hymnology. Zinzendorf himself,
all the members of his family, and most of the early leaders wrote
hymns. Singing was a prominent part of their worship and they early
began publishing hymnbooks. Concerning Zinzendorf’s hymns, Catherine
Winkworth says in her _Christian Singers of Germany_:

  His hymns, of which he wrote more than two thousand, are of
  exceedingly different value; some are fantastic and irreverent, some
  mere rhymed prose, others again have a real sweetness, fervour, and
  song in them.

She cites “Jesu geh voran” as one of his best hymns.

For comments on the translator, Jane Borthwick, see Hymn 54.

_MUSIC._ SEELENBRÄUTIGAM is a tune of a “pleasingly ingenious tinge,
very simply constructed.” It is found in many English hymnbooks.

The composer, Adam Drese, 1620-1701, was born in Thuringia. He became
director of music at the Court of Count Wilhelm IV of Saxe-Weimar; then
was appointed kapellmeister in Weimar, and later at Arnstadt, living
meanwhile a life of selfish indulgence in the atmosphere of the courts.
Upon reading the works of Spener and Luther’s _Introduction to the
Epistle to the Romans_, Drese experienced a spiritual awakening which
led him to aggressive missionary efforts and the organization of prayer
meetings in the community. He wrote hymns and tunes which were sung at
the meetings of pious persons in his house, before they came into print.

The tune was first published in the _Hallesches Gesangbuch_, 1695, but
it was used in manuscript form as early as 1690, in the composer’s home.



                                 BOOK V
                            Metrical Psalms


575. That man hath perfect blessedness                         _Psalm I_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 1. The Tree and the Chaff.

The psalm embodies a fundamental teaching of the Old Testament, namely,
that true happiness is to be found only in knowing and serving God.

_MUSIC._ DUNFERMLINE is a Scottish tune of unknown origin. The name is
that of a town in Scotland. It appeared as one of the twelve “Common
Tunes” (tunes not attached to any particular psalms) in _The CL Psalms
of David, &c._, Edinburgh, 1615. In England the tune was included in
Ravencroft’s _Whole Book of Psalms_, 1621.


                   Note on the Scottish Psalter, 1650

The origin of the _Scottish Psalter_, 1650, which is the source of
nearly all the metrical psalms in Book Five of the _Hymnary_, may be
briefly summarized as follows:

The church in Scotland, at the time of the Reformation, modeled its
service after Calvin’s in Geneva. No hymns were permitted to be sung;
only the Words of inspired Scripture were allowed for use in worship.
For two hundred years after Luther had inspired a rich treasury of
“man-made” poems for use in congregational singing, the Calvinistic
churches were still using only psalms and paraphrases of Scripture.

In compiling a Psalter, the Scottish reformers adopted the entire
_Anglo-Genevan Psalter_ used by John Knox, to which they added
selections from the English _Old Version_ by Sternhold and Hopkins, and
21 more by Scottish writers. Tunes, over 100 in all, were adopted from
the Anglo-Genevan, French, and English Psalters, in each case the melody
only being printed. In 1635 an edition was published with the tunes in
harmony, the work of Edmund Millar.

In 1643, the House of Commons and the Westminster Assembly, interested
in establishing uniformity of worship between the churches of England
and Scotland, voted to adopt Francis Rous’ version of the psalms for use
throughout the kingdom, after extensive revisions of the work. The
Scottish church, not satisfied with the Rous’ version, appointed a
commission of four men to revise it still farther, largely to satisfy
the Puritan demand for more literalness to the Hebrew original. The
result of this revision was the classic _Scottish Psalter_ of 1650,
still in use in Scottish Presbyterianism and in American Covenanter
Churches. The renderings are quaint and rude in spots but their
faithfulness and vigor cannot be denied. It is in this form that
millions of people have learned to love the psalms and all attempts to
improve or modernize them have so far failed.

Unfortunately, no tunes were provided with the _Scottish Psalter_ of
1650. This limited the singing to such tunes as precentor and people
knew by heart, resulting in a long period of decline in church music in
the Church of Scotland. Later editions corrected this defect. In 1929,
the General Assemblies of the Church of Scotland and the United Free
Church of Scotland, then entered into union, published a new edition of
the _Scottish Psalter_, with 192 tunes.


576. Lord, Thou shalt early hear my voice                      _Psalm V_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 5:3, 4, 7, 11. A Prayer for Divine Aid.

A morning prayer in which the Psalmist confidently looks to God, assured
of an answer. He shows a deep concern for ethical purity and sincerity
in worship.

_MUSIC._ For comments on WARWICK see Hymn 20.


577. Within Thy tabernacle, Lord                              _Psalm XV_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 15. The Friend of God.

The psalm speaks of the type of life that brings man into the Divine
Presence and makes of him a good citizen.

_MUSIC._ TALLIS’ ORDINAL. For comments on this tune see Hymn 326.


578. God’s law is perfect, and converts                      _Psalm XIX_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 19:7-11. God’s Praise in the Moral Universe.

The psalm describes God’s revelation to man. God is revealed to us “in
the starry heavens above and in the moral law within,” (to use the
phrase of Immanuel Kant). The hymn, composed of verses 7-11, deals only
with the latter, the law in the heart.

_MUSIC._ ST. ANDREW appeared in _The New Harmony of Sion_ by William
Tans’ur, in 1764, where it was set to Psalm 150, and inscribed “Barby
Tune, composed in four parts, W.T.” The initials may mean only that the
harmony was by Tans’ur.

For comments on William Tans’ur see Hymn 74.


579. The Lord’s my Shepherd, I’ll not want                 _Psalm XXIII_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 23. The Good Shepherd Psalm. It has probably been translated and
paraphrased more frequently than any other piece of literature in the
world, yet always carries the same joyous and sure faith in the Good
Shepherd. A version by James Montgomery is found at No. 62.

_MUSIC._ MARTYRDOM. For comments on this tune see Hymn 108.


580. Ye gates, lift up your heads on high                   _Psalm XXIV_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 24:7-10. A Marching Chorus and Triumphant Song of Victory.

The procession escorting the ark, symbol of God’s presence, has now
reached the city gates and Jerusalem is called upon to open wide its
gates to its true King. “Raise up your arches, O gates, and open wide
your ancient doors, that the King of Glory may enter in.” The full glory
of God can come into our lives only as we enlarge the receiving
facilities of our hearts and minds.

_MUSIC._ ST. GEORGE’S, EDINBURGH was composed especially for these words
by Dr. Andrew Thomson, minister of the church by the above name in
Edinburgh. It became the custom in many places in Scotland for the
congregation to sing this psalm at Communion while ministers and elders
in solemn procession brought the bread and wine into the church before
the administration of the sacrament.

Andrew Thomson, 1778-1831, trained in the University of Edinburgh, was
an outstanding Scottish Presbyterian preacher and leading public figure
in Edinburgh. He had musical gifts and set himself to improve the
psalmody of his church and composed a number of tunes. In collaboration
with his precentor, R. A. Smith, he compiled several collections of
psalms and hymns. He also published books of sermons and lectures and
wrote numerous magazine articles. Thomson died suddenly within a few
steps of his own door when returning from a Presbytery meeting. His son
became professor of music in the University of Edinburgh.


581. Show me thy ways, O Lord                                _Psalm XXV_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 25:4-7. A Prayer to God for Guidance and Forgiveness.

_MUSIC._ ST. BRIDE appeared in _Parochial Harmony; consisting of a
collection of Psalm tunes in three and four parts, &c._, by William
Riley, 1762, where it was set to the new version of Psalm 130 and headed
“St. Bridget’s Tune by Mr. Sam’l Howard.” The tune is in strict
psalm-tune style and therefore simple in structure. But it has strength
and high quality and is deserving of its wide and continuous use.

Samuel Howard, 1710-82, London musician, was organist of St. Clement
Danes and of St. Bride’s churches. He was a popular composer of both
sacred and secular music.


582. The Lord’s my light and saving health                 _Psalm XXVII_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 27:1-5. A Song of Assurance.

These verses reflect a confidence that knows no fear in the midst of
danger, because of God’s protecting care.

_MUSIC._ ST. MAGNUS, also called “Nottingham,” is a “good solid melody,
built on familiar lines.” It appeared, anonymously, in 1709 in a book
called _The Divine Companion: or David’s Harp new tuned. Being a choice
collection of New and Easy Psalms, Hymns and Anthems._ In 1762 the tune,
bearing its present name and assigned to Jeremiah Clark, appeared in W.
Riley’s _Parochial Harmony_. In Gawthorn’s _Harmonia Perfecta_, 1730, it
is named “Nottingham.”

The composer, Jeremiah Clark, 1670-1707, a Londoner of keen sensibility
and gifted musicianship, wrote operatic music, a cantata, numerous
songs, and church music-anthems and psalm tunes. In a mood of
despondency he took his own life.


583. Through all the changing scenes of life               _Psalm XXXIV_
                                     _New Version, Tate and Brady_, 1698

Psalm 34:1-10, 22. The Goodness of God.

A hymn of praise to God for his care and protection in time of great
need.

Most of our metrical psalms in the _Hymnary_ are from the _Scottish
Psalter_, 1650. (See under Hymn 575.) But this one is from the revised
edition of 1698, of the _New Version of the Psalms_ first published in
England in 1696, by the two Irishmen, Tate and Brady. This version
partly supplanted in England the older version of Sternhold and Hopkins.

Nahum Tate, 1652-1715, son of an Irish clergyman, was a literary man,
playwright, and a poet. Finally, to the surprise of everyone, he became
poet laureate, by appointment of William III.

Nicholas Brady, 1659-1726?, received the degree of D.D. from Dublin
University and had a varied clerical career in Ireland and England,
finally becoming chaplain to King William. Brady and Tate collaborated
to produce the _New Version_, a work which received royal endorsement
and was officially adopted in England. Though better in smoothness and
literary grace than the versions of Sternhold and Hopkins, very little
of it remains in modern hymnals. This hymn and “As pants the hart,”
(586), are among the gems still in use. “While shepherds watched their
flocks by night” (73 and 74) a masterly adaptation of the Nativity
story, appeared in the supplement of the _New Version_, 1703, and is
found today in nearly all hymnals.

_MUSIC._ WILTSHIRE, known in Scotland as “New St. Ann,” appeared first
in _Divine Amusement_, by Sir G. Grant, set to Psalm 48. The tune
appears with variants in other collections.

The composer, George Thomas Smart, 1776-1867, was an organist and
composer and a popular conductor of choral groups in London. He gave
lessons in singing and harpsichord and composed anthems, chants and
psalm tunes.


584. O children, hither do ye come                         _Psalm XXXIV_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 34:11-19. The Goodness of God.

The psalmist here becomes a teacher, instructing his listeners in the
right paths of life.

_MUSIC._ ARNOLD was first published in _The Psalms of David for the Use
of Parish Churches. The Music celected, adapted, and composed by Dr.
Arnold ... assisted by J. W. Callcott_, 1791. The tune was set to Psalm
15, arranged so that the first two lines should be sung as a duet by
soprano and alto, repeated as a duet by tenor and bass, and then the
third and fourth lines sung in full chorus. The present form of the tune
is first found in Scotland in Robert Gilmore’s _Psalm Singer’s
Assistant_ (undated, but before 1793).

Samuel Arnold, 1740-1802, after ventures and heavy losses in the theater
business, received the degree of Mus. Doc. from Oxford and then became
organist and composer to the Royal Chapel. Later he became conductor at
the Academy of Ancient Music, and in 1789 was appointed organist of
Westminster Abbey. He wrote numerous songs, four oratorios and many
anthems and edited important musical works, including _The Works of
Handel_, in thirty-six volumes, at the request of King George III.


585. I waited for the Lord my God                             _Psalm XL_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 40:1-5. A Prayer for Speedy Relief from Trouble.

After long and patient waiting, the psalmist’s prayer for relief from
trouble has been answered, giving occasion for fresh thanksgiving for
His mercy.

_MUSIC._ BALLERMA. For comments on this tune see Hymn 57.

Robert Simpson, 1790-1832, who adapted this tune from a melody by F. H.
Barthélemon (See Hymn 57) was a weaver by trade, but of good education
and fine musical taste. He was choir-leader in a Congregational Church
in Glasgow, then became precentor and session-clerk of the East Parish
church at Greenock, at a salary of forty pounds a year, and from that
time onward made music his profession. Of weak constitution, he fell
victim of one of the cholera epidemics.


586. As pants the hart for cooling streams                  _Psalm XLII_
                                     _New Version, Tate and Brady_, 1698

Psalm 42:1, 2, 5, 9, 11. Exiled from the House of God.

The psalmist, alone among taunting heathen strangers, yearns to return
to the place of worship where he may again commune with God. His faith
is sorely tried but it does not fail him. He recalls the mercy of God
and renews his hope in God.

For comments on _New Version_, Tate and Brady, see Hymn 583.

_MUSIC._ SPOHR is an adaptation from the solo and chorus, “Though all
thy friends forsake thee,” in _Calvary_, an oratorio by Spohr.

Ludwig Spohr, 1784-1859, a German musician, born at Brunswick, was a
composer and noted violinist. He went annually on concert tours
throughout Europe, with brilliant success. Few musicians have enjoyed so
high a reputation with their contemporaries. Many musicians of his time
considered Spohr a greater composer than Beethoven. His reputation,
however, did not stand the test of time, partly because his compositions
are characterized by a peculiar chromaticism. Most of his numerous
works, including operas, oratorios, 34 string quartets, violin
concertos, etc., have been forgotten. His oratorios, _Calvary_ and _The
Last Judgment_, lasted longest.

The tune, “St. Anne,” now fittingly sung to “O God our help in ages
past,” (No. 61), was composed for this psalm, and may be used as an
alternative tune. The Psalm has also been set to “Martyrdom” (579).


587. O send Thy light forth and Thy truth                  _Psalm XLIII_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 43:3-5. Exiled from the House of God (continued).

Psalm 43 is clearly a continuation of Psalm 42. The same spirit,
language and situation are to be found in both and each ends with the
same refrain. Psalm 42 speaks of God as a fountain of living water;
Psalm 43, as a guiding light. These vivid metaphors are combined in
Psalm 36:9: “For with Thee is the fountain of life; in Thy light do we
see light.”

_MUSIC._ FARRANT is adapted from an air in the anthem, “Lord, for thy
tender mercies’ sake.” usually attributed to the English organist and
composer, Richard Farrant, c. 1530-1580, but by some to John Hilton, and
by others to William Mundy.


588. God is our refuge and our strength                     _Psalm XLVI_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 46:1-5. The Mighty God.

Psalm 46 has been a source of strength in time of dire distress,
sustaining the spirit of the persecuted and dying, in all ages.

One should compare this version from the _Scottish Psalter_ with that of
Isaac Watts (No. 257), and of Martin Luther in his classic hymn of the
Reformation, “Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott” (No. 549).

_MUSIC._ WINCHESTER OLD is from _Este’s Psalter_ which was entitled
“_The Whole Booke of Psalmes with their wonted Tunes, as they are song
in churches, composed into foure parts ... compiled by sondry authors_,”
London, Thomas Este, 1592, where it is set to Psalm 84.

Thomas Este, 1540?-1608?, was a London printer and music publisher. He
printed an important edition of the psalter in 1592 in which the tunes
were harmonized in four parts by ten eminent musicians of the time. In
his dedicatory word Este wrote: “In this booke the Church Tunes are
carefully corrected, and other short tunes added, which are sung in
London and other places of this Realme.” The Church Tunes (known also as
Proper Tunes), forty-six in all, were attached to their proper psalms
and the remaining psalms were set to short, four line tunes, Common
Tunes, not attached to any particular psalms. Este’s book is the
earliest example in which the voice parts are printed on opposite
pages—“Cantus and Tenor (i.e. the Melody) on the left-hand page, and the
Altus and Bassus on the right”—instead of in separate books as was then
the custom. New editions of _Este’s Psalter_, with slight changes, were
published in 1594, 1604, and 1611. In the 19th century it had the honor
of being reprinted by the Musical Antiquarian Society of England.


589. After Thy loving-kindness, Lord                          _Psalm LI_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 51:1-3, 10, 17. A Prayer for Pardon.

The psalmist prays for pardon and cleansing, confessing the greatness of
his sins, and offering the sacrifice of a broken heart. Psalm 51 is the
fourth of the seven psalms known from ancient times as the Penitential
Psalms. The others are 6, 32, 38, 102, 130, and 143.

_MUSIC._ DUNDEE, also known as “Windsor,” is first found in Damon’s
_Psalter_, which was entitled, _The Booke of the Musicke of M. William
Damon, late one of her maiestes Musitions: conteining all the tunes of
David’s Psalmes, as they are ordinarily sung in the Church; most
excellently by him composed into 4 parts_, 1591. The tune, DUNDEE, is
there set to Psalm 116.

Damon’s _Psalter_ was one of the many private editions through which the
_Old Version_ of Sternhold and Hopkins went, besides numerous official
editions. William Damon, c.1540-c.91, was organist of the Chapel Royal
under Queen Elizabeth but is best known for the collection of psalms
which he published in four parts. The work is in eight books, the first
four of which have the melody in the tenor, and the second four in the
soprano. Copies of Damon’s _Psalter_ are rare. A few are to be found in
the British Museum.


590. Praise waits for Thee in Zion, Lord                     _Psalm LXV_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 65:1-4. A Liturgy.

A hymn of praise and thanksgiving to God for an exceptionally abundant
harvest.

_MUSIC._ ST. STEPHEN (ABRIDGE).

For comments on this tune see Hymn 266.


591. His name forever shall endure                         _Psalm LXXII_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 72:17-19. A Description of the Ideal King.

A universal hymn of praise.

_MUSIC._ For comments on the tune, DUNFERMLINE, see Hymn 575.


592. How lovely are Thy dwellings fair                    _Psalm LXXXIV_
                                                  _John Milton_, 1608-74

Psalm 84:1-7, 12. The Joy of the Godly.

One of the Songs of the Sanctuary, expressing the joy and happiness of
the pilgrim who, coming from afar, has at last arrived at the sanctuary
of his God at Jerusalem. The vale of Baca (v. 6), a waterless, barren
valley through which he passed on the journey to Jerusalem, became, to
the devoted pilgrim, a place of springs and refreshment.

The version here is by John Milton and constitutes an improvement over
that in the _Scottish Psalter_.

For comments on Milton see Hymn 64.

_MUSIC._ SALZBURG. For comments on this tune by J. Haydn see Hymn 167. A
different tune by J. Hintze bears the same name (No. 545).


593. The Lord doth reign, and clothed is He                _Psalm XCIII_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 93. The Ruler of the Universe.

A Song of Thanksgiving in which the psalmist celebrates God’s
sovereignty, not only over Israel, but over the whole world.

_MUSIC._ IRISH. For comments on this tune see Hymn 268.


594. All people that on earth do dwell                         _Psalm C_
                                              _William Kethe_, _c._ 1561
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 100. The Faithful God.

The Psalm was used as a processional hymn to be chanted by the people as
they went up to the temple for worship.

Sclater, in _The Public Worship of God_, discussing opening hymns of
adoration, says: “There is none better than that grand old Puritan
anthem, the 100th Psalm, set to Louis Bourgeois’ noble tune,” and adds
that “those who are in perplexity to find hymns which precisely fit into
various parts of the service might do a great deal worse than take a
look at the Scottish Metrical Psalms. They will find them peculiarly
rich in the noblest and simplest form of opening adoration.”

In verse 4 the printer has omitted the question mark (?) after the word
“why,” in the early editions of the _Hymnary_.

William Kethe, to whom this version is ascribed, was one of the exiles
with John Knox in Geneva during the persecutions of Mary, Queen of the
Scots. Little is known of him but his name has been immortalized by this
justly renowned paraphrase of Psalm 100.

_MUSIC._ OLD HUNDREDTH is the most famous of all Psalm tunes. It was
adapted from a secular source by L. Bourgeois for Psalm 134 in the
_Genevan Psalter_ of 1551. In later collections—the Genevan _Fourscore
and Seven Psalms of David_, and John Day’s _Whole Book of Psalms_, both
published in 1561—the tune was attached to Kethe’s version of Psalm 100
and has remained associated with this Psalm ever since. The tune is one
of 46 known as “Proper” or “Church” tunes which are distinguished by the
adjective “Old” prefixed to the number of the psalm to which they were
attached. A later form of the melody, introduced about the middle of the
18th century, is widely used with the “Doxology” (No. 618).

For comments on Louis Bourgeois see Hymn 34.


595. Thou shalt arise, and mercy yet                         _Psalm CII_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 102:13-22. The Everlasting God.

One of the Penitential Psalms. (See under Hymn 589.)

Zion is in ruins and her people in exile, but God, who is unchangeable,
will yet fulfill His promises to His people and make Jerusalem the
center of a world-wide worship.

_MUSIC._ DUKE STREET. For comments on this tune see Hymn 341.


596. O thou my soul bless God the Lord                      _Psalm CIII_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 103:1-5. The Goodness of God.

The psalm sets forth with exquisite beauty and tenderness the enduring
goodness and mercy of God. It is a song of thanksgiving to God for his
many benefits and blessings.

It was the custom in Scotland to sing the opening verses of this psalm
as a song of thanksgiving and praise after the communicants had received
the bread and wine of the Lord’s Supper. The people poured evangelical
content into the words, thinking as they sang, of the great redemption
through Jesus Christ: “who doth redeem thy life, etc.”

_MUSIC._ ST. PAUL. The origin of this tune is unknown. It appeared first
in _A Collection of Twenty Church Tunes_, 1749, published by James
Chalmers, c. 1700-64, Aberdeen, Scotland, who was printer to the Town
Council and publisher of _The Aberdeen Journal_. Only one copy of this
small book is known to survive.


597. I love the Lord, because my voice                      _Psalm CXVI_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 116:1-7. Votive Song of the Worshipper.

A Song of Thanksgiving to God for favors received and an expression of
triumphant faith in the Helper of the poor and needy.

_MUSIC._ ST. ANDREW. For comments on this tune see Hymn 578.


598. Unto the hills around do I lift up                     _Psalm CXXI_
                                              _John Campbell_, 1845-1914

Psalm 121. The Guardian God.

A splendid picture of the fatherly goodness of God and His watchful
Providence over His people.

The version is by John Campbell, Duke of Argyll, who married Princess
Louise, the daughter of Queen Victoria. At one time he was the
Governor-General of Canada and Commander-in-Chief of Prince Edward
Island. He was keeper of the seal of Scotland. Though engaged in many
and varied activities, he was an earnest Christian and found pleasure in
the study of the Psalms and in making them available for use in
Christian worship.

_MUSIC._ SANDON. For comments on this tune see Hymn 163.


599. I joyed when to the house of God                      _Psalm CXXII_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 122. A Prayer for Jerusalem.

A song of the pilgrims who, having arrived at the gates of Jerusalem,
are filled with admiration for the Holy City. They are moved at its
beauty and strength, recall its past stories, and pray for its peace and
welfare.

In the church of Scotland it has been the traditional practice to sing
verses 3, 4, and 5 of this hymn immediately before the Benediction which
closes the General Assembly. Sung to the stately tune of “St. Paul,” it
leaves an indelible impression on the mind.

_MUSIC._ ST. PAUL. For comments on this tune see Hymn 596.


600. O Lord, Thou art my God and King                       _Psalm CXLV_
                                                _Scottish Psalter_, 1650

Psalm 145:1-7. A Festal Anthem.

A praise song celebrating the greatness and goodness of God as
manifested in all creation. The praise of God and of His marvelous works
shall go on forever. The psalm has been called the _Te Deum_ of the Old
Testament and this version is worthy of its original.

_MUSIC._ DUKE STREET. For comments on this tune see Hymn 341.



                                BOOK VI
                               Responses


601. Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of hosts

Known as the _Ter Sanctus_ or _Trisagion_. It is an anonymous 2d century
reproduction of a Jewish synagogue “Doxology,” based on Isaiah 6:3:

  And one cried unto another, and said, Holy, holy, holy is the Lor