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Title: Manual of Library Cataloguing
Author: Quinn, John Henry
Language: English
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                                 MANUAL
                                   OF
                           LIBRARY CATALOGUING

                                   BY
                             J. HENRY QUINN,
              LIBRARIAN, CHELSEA PUBLIC LIBRARIES, LONDON.
 (_Formerly Principal Cataloguing Assistant, Liverpool Free Libraries._)

                                 LONDON.
                         LIBRARY SUPPLY COMPANY,
                         4, AVE MARIA LANE, E.C.
                                  1899

          Printed by Marlborough, Pewtress & Co., London, E. C.



PREFACE


This little book does not claim to be a comprehensive treatise on the
art of cataloguing books, nor is it intended for the use of the expert
in bibliography. The rules embodied are those generally recognized as
necessary for the proper cataloguing of a collection of books. By simple
illustrations the author has endeavoured to deal with those difficulties
which he has found most frequently arise and call for careful
consideration. Information concerning the printing of catalogues has been
added in order to make the book more complete.

If this Manual should prove a help to the better understanding of
the true principles of cataloguing, and is found to be of practical
assistance to those engaged in library work, the object of its
compilation will have been attained.

                                                                 J. H. Q.

_March, 1899._



CONTENTS.


    CHAP.

       I.--INTRODUCTORY.

      II.--THE DICTIONARY CATALOGUE.

     III.--THE PRINCIPAL ENTRY: THE AUTHOR-ENTRY, 1.

      IV.--THE PRINCIPAL ENTRY: THE AUTHOR-ENTRY, 2.

       V.--THE PRINCIPAL ENTRY: THE AUTHOR-ENTRY, 3.

      VI.--THE PRINCIPAL ENTRY: THE AUTHOR-ENTRY, 4.

     VII.--THE PRINCIPAL ENTRY: CORPORATE AND OTHER FORMS, EDITORS
           AND TRANSLATORS.

    VIII.--SUBJECT. TITLE, AND SERIES ENTRIES.

      IX.--SUBJECT, TITLE, AND SERIES ENTRIES (continued).

       X.--TITLE-ENTRIES AND REPETITION DASHES.

      XI.--INDEXING CONTENTS.

     XII.--THE CLASSIFIED CATALOGUE.

    XIII.--ALPHABETIZATION AND ARRANGEMENT.

     XIV.--PRINTING.

    Appendix A.--LIST OF WORDS OR PHRASES OCCURRING IN CONNECTION
                 WITH BOOKS WITH ABBREVIATIONS.

        ”    B.--TABLE OF SIZES OF BOOKS.

        ”    C.--SOME MODERN PSEUDONYMS WITH THE REAL NAMES, INCLUDING
                 LADIES WITH NAMES CHANGED BY MARRIAGE.

        ”    D.--METHOD OF CORRECTING PRINTER’S PROOF.

        ”    E.--LIST OF SUBJECT-HEADINGS FOR A DICTIONARY CATALOGUE.

    INDEX.



MANUAL OF LIBRARY CATALOGUING.



CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY.


=1.=--Most people are satisfied to believe that there is no department of
a librarian’s work so easily managed as that of compiling catalogues. The
catalogue of a library is often regarded as a mere list of books, calling
for no more mental effort in its production than is required in that of
a furniture auctioneer, or similar trade list. Professor John Fiske, in
his essay on “A Librarian’s Work,”[1] says “Generally I find a library
catalogue is assumed to be a thing that is somehow ‘made’ at a single
stroke, as Aladdin’s palace was built, at intervals of ten or a dozen
years, or whenever a ‘new catalogue’ is thought to be needed,” instead
of, as he proceeds to show, being a never-ending work calling for the
exercise of all the power and knowledge at the command of the cataloguer.

=2.=--There are varieties of library catalogues, from the simple
inventories made by private persons for their own collection of books, to
the mammoth “Catalogue of Printed Books in the British Museum,” so great
in its size and extensive in the field it covers that its entries have
to be almost exclusively limited to a single item for each book.

The catalogues to be compiled upon the lines laid down in this work come
between these two extremes, and are intended to serve as a key to the
treasure-house of knowledge and disclose its contents in a ready, but
orderly, manner to all inquirers. Carlyle says, “a big collection of
books, without a good catalogue, is a Polyphemus with no eye in his head.”

=3.=--A good library is virtually useless without an adequate and
properly compiled catalogue, but even an indifferent collection of books
can be made to render good service by means of a good catalogue. In order
to compile such a catalogue it is necessary that certain particulars be
given descriptive of the books, but in such a way that, while the entries
afford all needful information to the person well-versed in books, they
shall at the same time be so simple in character as to be understood with
very little effort by anyone of average intelligence. At the same time
the particulars given should be so comprehensive that a searcher in the
catalogue may be able to obtain a clear idea of the nature and scope of
the book described without actually examining it, though the descriptions
in this respect are not expected to be of the very full order looked for
in special bibliographies intended only for the use of experts.

The value of a good catalogue does not depend upon its extent or size
any more than does a good book, but rather upon the exactness of the
method by which the information given is digested and concentrated.
There are library catalogues so elaborately compiled that they are most
imposing in appearance, and very often, as a consequence, are considered
to be most erudite productions by those who do not understand the art of
cataloguing, whereas the persons who have to use them too often find out
that they are so ill-arranged as to be little better than a hotch-potch
of book titles--pedantic without being learned. “Infinite riches in a
little room” might, on the other hand, be often adopted as the motto for
many an insignificant-looking catalogue.

=4.=--It is a common occurrence to find a small library with quite a big
catalogue. This does not always arise from the wish to make the most
of the library, but often from the fact that the compilation has been
undertaken by some over-zealous member of a committee who fancied he had
a _penchant_ for such work, or that it has been compiled by an amateur
with no experience, whose friends have secured him his appointment as
librarian. Such people do not know that it is as easy, if not easier,
to over-catalogue a library as to do it judiciously, and a fearful and
wonderful work is often the result. There would not be much trouble in
giving illustrative examples of this, but that catalogue may be cited
where Green’s “Short History of the English People” obtained five
entries, viz., under Green, Short, History, English History, and People
(English), instead of the two entries that would have sufficed. Many of
the first catalogues of the smaller free libraries are of this order.
This, however, is not always the result of the above-named causes, but as
often as not is brought about by committees of new libraries postponing
the appointment of a librarian, to save his salary, until a few weeks
before the library is announced to be opened, and then expecting him to
purchase the books and produce a printed catalogue in the meantime. The
conception of the matter is, far too often, that books can be selected,
arranged, and listed in bulk, as groceries are bought, displayed, and
ticketed, and in as short a time. The result, of course, is that the
librarian, being rushed, must select and buy the books as quickly as he
can, and relegate the work of cataloguing them to an assistant, who most
likely has no training, and the best has to be made of a bad job. In very
few instances can it be considered that the first catalogue of a new
library fairly represents the ability of the librarian as a cataloguer.

=5.=--With the rapid rise of the standard of education more exact and
better work is at present demanded in libraries than was the case during
the first quarter of a century after the Public Libraries’ Act came into
operation. The slipshod rule-of-thumb cataloguing at one time in vogue
does not pass muster unnoticed now, as it did then, and consequently
there is less use than ever before for the bald lists of books, compiled
upon no principle in particular, sent forth to bewilder and hinder
rather than help an inquiring public. The student, and that interesting
personage, “the general reader,” are each year coming to a better
understanding of the uses and peculiarities of books, and so look for
more precise information concerning them. No better evidence is needed of
the manner in which the demand for information about books has grown than
is found in the large place which the reviewing of them now takes in the
columns of the newspaper press, so that even minor journals cannot afford
to ignore it. The dictum that a cataloguer has no right to go behind
the information contained on the title-page of a book does not now find
acceptance, as it did in the past.

Those persons who are possessed of even a little experience in the
matter know that it is impossible to compile a catalogue in a hap-hazard
fashion, and that clear and definite rules must be laid down before any
part of the work is attempted, otherwise confusion and want of proportion
will result. Happily of late years the rules governing the proper
compilation of catalogues have been codified, particularly those for the
form at present in most general use, known as the “dictionary catalogue.”



CHAPTER II.

THE DICTIONARY CATALOGUE.


=6.=--The dictionary catalogue is not the idea or invention of any
individual, but has developed gradually from the requirements of
librarians in dealing with readers. The earlier catalogues were limited
to entries given under the authors’ names, as in the British Museum
Catalogue, or were in classified form, either under the large classes
into which a library was divided, or with very little other sub-division.
These were followed by what may be termed “dictionary index catalogues”
containing the first principles of the dictionary catalogue as now
understood. They consisted of very brief entries under authors, and the
simple turning about of a title to bring a certain word in it to the
front as conveying its subject, in this manner:--

    England under Victoria. Michelsen.

    Englefield (Sir H. C.) Walk through Southampton.

    English Antiquities. Eccleston. 1847.

    Ennui. Edgeworth.

    Entomology, Exotic. Drury. 1837.

    Episodes of Insect Life. 1851.

    Errand to the South. Malet.

By this method the real subject of the book was often missed, more
especially if the author had made use of a fanciful title, and one
subject would be found under many different entries, according to the
word used on the title-page, and without cross references to bind them
together. It must be confessed that to-day many of the dictionary
catalogues of public libraries are no more than this “index catalogue”
under the newer name. The entries may be a little fuller, but the
principles of compilation remain the same.

=7.=--Prior to 1876 there was no complete code of rules for the
preparation of a subject as well as author catalogue, though Prof. C. C.
Jewett’s “On the construction of Catalogues of Libraries” (Washington,
1853), with its subsequent modifications, was a step in this direction.
There were rules for author catalogues, for the most part based upon the
British Museum rules, as well as schemes of classification for classified
catalogues. In that year was published the now well-known “Rules for a
Dictionary Catalogue,” by Charles A. Cutter, Librarian of the Boston
Athenæum. It appeared as the second part of the “Special Report on the
Public Libraries in the United States of America,” issued under the
auspices of the United States Bureau of Education. A second edition
of these rules was separately issued in 1889. The third edition, with
further corrections and additions, appeared in 1891, and has been most
liberally distributed by the United States Government to the libraries of
the world. Since 1876 other rules have been formulated, principally with
Cutter’s as a basis. A consensus of these will be found in the “Eclectic
Card Catalog Rules, Author and Title Entries,” by K. A. Linderfelt,
Librarian of the Milwaukee Public Library, Boston (Charles A. Cutter)
1890. This most useful compilation, “based on Dziatzko’s ‘Instruction’
compared with the rules of the British Museum, Cutter, Dewey, Perkins,
and other authorities,” is not as well known to English librarians as it
should be. The present Manual is intended to serve as an introduction
to these two codes, and the instructions contained in it are based upon
them. When these have not been adhered to the changes made have obtained
authority in library practice. Mr. Henry B. Wheatley’s interesting little
book, “How to Catalogue a Library” (Stock, 1889), must also be mentioned,
and should be read as an introduction to the subject.

=8.=--The great merit of the dictionary catalogue is that it can be
made to supply most of the information usually asked for by those using
libraries, and by immediate reference without any preliminary study of
its arrangement. It obtains its name from the circumstance that all the
entries, irrespective of their nature, are put into a single alphabetical
sequence, and consulted as one would consult a dictionary. It is
considered to be the most acceptable form to the majority of those making
use of popular libraries, and experience has proved it to be so.

The dictionary catalogue is intended to answer all of the following
questions:

    What books are contained in the library by a given author, as,
    Hall Caine? The answer to this is called the _author-entry_.

    What books have you upon a specific subject, as the dynamo; or
    upon a particular topic, as the Eastern question? The entries
    answering such enquiries are the _subject-entries_.

    Have you a book called, “A Daughter of Eve?” The entry supplying
    this information would be the _title-entry_.

    Have you any volume of a series, as, “English men of letters?”
    This it will also answer, and the reply may be termed the
    _series-entry_.

There are questions, however, that the dictionary catalogue does not
ordinarily answer. It would not tell what books were in the library in a
particular language, say French, and it will not provide a complete and
definite list of books in a particular _form_, as fiction, or poetry;
or in a _class_ of literature as distinct from _subject_. For example,
it will not group together all the theological works, or the scientific
books, but will distribute them throughout the entire alphabet, according
to the divisions of these subjects, and these divisions will in their
turn be distributed according to lesser divisions and monographs.

A catalogue compiled upon the lines requisite to group such classes
completely, so that a general treatise and a monograph upon a minute
division will follow in natural order, would be a classified catalogue,
and that form is dealt with separately in Chapter XII.

To effect a combination of both forms in such a way that they would
answer any question, reasonable or otherwise, would necessitate so large
a number of entries for each book that its compilation would be barely
feasible, and if carried out it would be unsatisfactory, because the
simplicity of the alphabetical order would be destroyed, and the result
would not be worth the labour expended, to say nothing of its size and
costliness.

=9.=--Therefore choice must be made at the very outset between the two
forms, dictionary or classified. The point to be first considered is,
which form is most likely to best suit the needs of the particular class
who use the library; as a catalogue which would be most useful for a
college library, or that of a scientific society, would be unsuitable
for a free library in the midst of a working-class population. Then the
question of cost enters into the matter, and here the classified form
has the advantage, as apart from the brief index entries, one entry per
book mostly suffices, whereas in the dictionary form the average is
three entries. There is a still more important matter which materially
affects the older libraries, and that is the impossibility of keeping the
dictionary form within reasonable compass, even with curtailed entries
and closely-printed pages of small type. Borrowers from a public lending
library prefer to carry their catalogues with them when exchanging
books, but they cannot do so if it is in two or three volumes, or so
bulky as not to be portable. For this reason librarians with unbounded
belief in the superior advantages of the dictionary catalogue have
been compelled, against their will, to adopt the classified form. They
had no alternative, except the very unsatisfactory one of extensively
weeding their stock of books, and only those who have undertaken that
responsibility know how difficult it is to decide whether a book is worth
retaining or not. A very judicial statement of the merits of the two
styles of catalogues will be found in a paper by Mr. F. T. Barrett, of
the Mitchell Library, Glasgow, entitled “The Alphabetical and Classified
Forms of Catalogues Compared,” in the “Transactions of the Second
International Library Conference,” 1897. Mr. J. D. Brown’s views, as set
forth in Chapter v. of his “Manual of Library Classification” (Library
Supply Co., 1898), should also be carefully considered.


PRELIMINARIES.

=10.=--Presuming that the student is for the first time undertaking the
work of cataloguing a library, he will require to provide himself with
a supply of cards or slips of paper cut uniform in size. Almost any
size will do, but the most convenient and more commonly used measures
5 inches by 3 inches. If the catalogue is to be written for the use
of readers, then cards are necessary as they are more convenient for
turning over than the paper slips which serve well enough for “copy”
for a printed catalogue. If the cards or slips are to be written upon
with a pen they should be ruled “feint” across and have marginal rulings
to mark the “indent.” These rulings are only upon one side, as in no
case should an entry be continued to the other side. If an entry is so
long that it cannot be put on one card then it must be continued on
the face of a second, with the author or other heading repeated. For
the cataloguer’s own use or as printer’s copy, the card or slip may be
lengthened as required by pasting to it a strip of paper of the same
width, and folding it up within the compass of the size of the card, but
exposing the heading. This cannot be done when the cards are held in
place by a rod running through them. It need hardly be pointed out that
for a card catalogue meant for the use of many persons the quality of
the cards is of great importance, as those of a cheap, inferior material
will not bear much turning over without tearing. Card catalogues are not
invariably appreciated by the public, as some persons seem to experience
difficulty in turning over the cards. For this reason some librarians
prefer the sheaf form because it maintains the book shape, which everyone
understands, and it has the same advantages as the card catalogue in
allowing the insertion of additions in proper order at any time, and
permits unlimited expansion, besides taking up less room.

Upon each card or slip a separate entry of each book is made, and by
“book” is meant a work that may be in a single volume or in many volumes.
Two works even by the same author, appearing under his name, should be
entered on separate cards, as, if written together, it is usually found
that another book will later have to be inserted _between_ them.

=11.=--Printers are acknowledged, as a class, to be the most exact and
patient of men, but to those beginners who have not any large experience
of their ways it is well to say “be careful to write boldly and plainly,”
remembering always that it is a much more difficult work for a compositor
to set a catalogue than probably any other form of book, because the
matter does not “run on” and various types and languages commonly enter
into it. Apart from the mistakes easily made when the “copy,” as the
manuscript is called, is not clear and distinct, there is the risk
incurred of an extra charge for “author’s corrections”--a well-known
item in all printers’ bills. To write clearly is of even more importance
if the catalogue is to remain in manuscript for use by readers. A handy
little brochure upon this subject is “Library Handwriting,” issued by the
New York State Library School, April 1898, and the style of handwriting
therein shown should be studied and imitated. The specimen on the next
page is taken from it.

=12.=--It is in the preparation of “copy” and in writing card catalogues
for public use that the great value of the typewriter is experienced,
as clearness and uniformity are insured by its use as well as economy
of space. While it is hardly within the scope of this Manual to say
anything by way of recommendation of any particular make of typewriter,
yet experience shows that it would be a mistake to overlook the “Hammond”
when considering the merits of different machines. In cataloguing it
is found useful because a variety of types of a distinctive character,
including the accented letters most commonly required, can be used upon a
single machine.

[Illustration: SPECIMEN ALPHABETS AND FIGURES

Joined hand

Disjoined hand]



CHAPTER III.

THE PRINCIPAL ENTRY.--THE AUTHOR ENTRY, I.


=13.=--Whatever difference of opinion may exist upon various points that
arise in cataloguing books all authorities are agreed that the principal
or main entry giving the most particulars concerning a book should be
that under its author’s name. This, then, is the first entry to be made,
and the cataloguer having selected the book to be dealt with ignores any
title upon the binding and, passing by the preliminary, or “half title,”
turns to the title page proper, that containing the most information and
with the imprint (place of publication, publisher, and date) at foot, and
copies from it the following particulars, adding those not given upon the
title-page by an examination of the book, and in this order, viz.--

    1. The author’s surname.

    2. The author’s Christian name (or prenom).

    3. Titles of the author (when required for distinctive or
    distinguishing purposes).

    4. The title of the book.

    5. The editor’s name (if not the author or compiler) or the
    translator’s name (if to be given).

    6. The edition.

    7. The name of series (if any), or, if part of a book, the name
    of the book it is contained in.

    8. The collation (if to be given), or

    9. The number of volumes, when more than one.

    10. The size (if to be given).

    11. The place of publication.

    12. The place of printing or name of printer (when the book is
    typographically interesting only).

    13. The date of publication.

    14. The shelf, press, or other location or finding mark.

    15. Descriptive or explanatory note (when thought desirable).

    16. Contents (if set out).

The order is that most usually adopted, but Nos. 8 to 13 may be varied at
pleasure, if such variation is made at the commencement of the work and
adhered to in all cases afterwards.

=14.=--As the surname of the author leads, the Christian name must
follow, either enclosed in parentheses, as

    Dickens (Charles),

or preceded by a comma, as

    Emerson, Ralph Waldo.

The parentheses are more commonly used, but they have not so good an
appearance as the comma, and their use necessitates what a printer
calls “a run on sorts”--that is the use of a particular piece of type
to such an extent as to require a special supply beyond that ordinarily
furnished with a fount of type. This, after all, resolves itself more
into a question of taste than of expediency, and the cataloguer will
choose as he thinks best. It may be remarked in passing that the “cult of
the trivial” is not to be altogether despised in cataloguing, as careful
attention to apparently minor details ensures good and exact work.

=15.=--The points to be observed in copying the title-page and preparing
the author-entry can be shown more clearly by illustration than by
description. Let it be supposed that the title-page of the book in hand
reads in full:

    The Personal History of David Copperfield. By Charles Dickens.
    With eight illustrations. London: Chapman & Hall, Piccadilly.

We proceed to write the principal entry to read:--

    Dickens, Charles. The personal history of David Copperfield.

From the “fly-title” we learn that this is the “Charles Dickens’
edition.” We examine the book, and find it contains six prefatory pages,
these being paged in Roman numerals, and 533 others paged in Arabic, with
a portrait and seven other illustrations. This statement of the number
of pages and illustrations is known as the “collation,” as to examine a
book for the purpose of ascertaining that it is perfect is to collate
it. As the place of publication is London, it is the practice in English
catalogues to omit it from the entry, such omission signifying that
London is understood. The date of publication not being given, and as
there are no means of finding it out with certainty, the initials “n.d.,”
meaning “no date,” are added, and the full catalogue entry will be:

    DICKENS, CHARLES.

        The personal history of David Copperfield.
        (_Charles Dickens’ ed._) pp. vi., 533, port.,
        illus. 8vo. n.d.

                                                      K 1200

The author’s name should be written at the outside left hand of the card
at the top, the rest of the entry following with an indent at each side,
the press mark alone coming outside at the right hand, as shown in the
printed entry above.

=16.=--It is of the utmost importance that care be taken in transcribing
a title, as it is much easier to make a mistake than to detect it
afterwards, even at the time of printing. Errors of the hand and of the
eye creep in imperceptibly. Besides, a mistake having once been made is
likely to be repeated in all other entries, when copied from the first
one. A very common cause of error is to let the mind become so absorbed
in the consideration of a book in hand, that when a second comes to be
dealt with some word from the first will unwittingly be written into
its title, and if the result is not very obvious from its absurdity it
escapes notice altogether until printed, and bears permanent witness
against the cataloguer.

=17.=--The signs and abbreviations of words made use of in the above
illustration, and all others to follow, are those customary in
cataloguing, and as there is a number of well-understood abbreviations
used in connection with books, a list of the most useful of these is
given in Appendix A.

It is a commendable plan to take note of those it is intended to use, and
to keep a list of them written on a card always at hand for reference.
The list could then be put in the preface to the catalogue when printed,
as a help to its better understanding by those not versed in book
abbreviations. It is as well to remember that there is not very much
gained in the long run by abbreviating too closely, as “illus.” is easier
understood than “il.” or “ill.” and “transl.” than “tr.”

=18.=--In copying a title-page it is required that the spelling of it
should be closely followed, more especially if peculiar, but not the
punctuation. The punctuation in the illustrative entries throughout
this Manual is that most frequently made use of in catalogues, and will
be found convenient in practice. But if personal preference for other
forms comes in, and a change is made, all that is needed is that such
change should be uniformly carried out. Besides the ordinary rules of
punctuation there are but four well-defined which can be considered to
govern the matter, and these are:--

    A.--That alternative titles take a semi-colon after the first
    title, and a comma after the word “or;” as

        St. Winifred’s; or, the world of school.

    B.--That explanatory sub-titles be preceded by a colon; as

        The foundation of death: a study of the drink question.

    C.--When additional matter in the book occupies a subsidiary
    place in the title-page, in order not to detach it altogether
    from the rest of the title, that the word “with” be preceded by a
    semi-colon; as

        Life of Luther; with an account of the Reformation.

    D.--That when an editor’s or translator’s name appears upon
    the title-page the word “ed.” or “transl.” be preceded by a
    semi-colon, as

        Epictetus. Discourses; transl. by George Long.

        Green fairy book; ed. by Andrew Lang.

It is necessary to point out that in cataloguing it must not be left to
the printer to supply the punctuation, as is customary with other books,
and therefore the cataloguer must carefully supply it as he proceeds, and
not when the time comes to prepare the work for the press.

=19.=--The same rule holds good with respect to the use of capital
letters. Until recently it was the general fashion in printing
book-titles to give every word, or almost every word, an initial capital,
but the custom has fallen into disuse. Like other old-fashioned customs
it dies hard, and if not advised that the “copy” must be closely followed
in this respect, the printer will as likely as not put in the capitals
all the same, and this in spite of the fact that he may have to wait
until he has one sheet printed off before he can set another, on account
of the run on the capitals. All that is now expected is that capital
letters should be used in catalogue entries as they would be in any
ordinary book, viz., to proper names; to words coming after a full stop;
and to words derived from proper names. In the last-named a lower-case
(_i.e._ small) initial letter is sometimes used in catalogues, but such
words as “christian,” “pauline,” “lutheran,” “darwinism,” “ibsenism,”
have not a good appearance and should be avoided. In foreign titles the
usage of the language should be followed, so that there will be fewer
capitals used in Latin, French, or Italian than in English, and more in
German.

=20.=--All dates and numbers should be transcribed in Arabic figures,
even if they are in Roman numerals upon the title-page. Thus, “from the
XVIIth Century to the Present Time” becomes “from the 17th century to the
present time;” “MDCCCXCIX” becomes “1899;” and “Volume xliv.” is simply
“v. 44.” The only reasonable exception to this rule is that numbers to
the names of potentates be always in Roman, though in American catalogues
these also are put into Arabic. We on this side of the Atlantic are not
yet well enough accustomed to “Charles 2,” or even “Edward 6th,” to adopt
it.

=21.=--Sometimes figures form part of the title of a book, when it is
desirable for the sake of appearance to write them out in words: the
transcript, of course, being kept in the language of the title-page,
though “50 études pour le piano” has been seen entered in a catalogue as
“Fifty études pour le piano.”

=22.=--So far as languages printed in Roman are concerned, it is the
invariable rule to adhere to the language of the title-page, and not to
make a translation. In ordinary libraries Greek is usually transliterated
into Latin; if a Greek classic has both Greek and Latin titles, as is
commonly the case, then the Latin title is taken rather than the Greek.

=23.=--Upon this point of the translation of title-pages the question of
utility, in popular libraries especially, might very well be considered.
It does not often happen, but it is possible, that a person may be a
capable musician and not know a word of French, German, or Italian, and
it is likely therefore that many of the lesser-known compositions would
be made acceptable if a translation of the title-page were given as well
as the original. It is very certain that in the public libraries there
are many valuable foreign books upon ornament and the decorative arts,
consisting almost exclusively of illustrations, that are not used as they
should be. The catalogue entries of such books convey no meaning whatever
to many an artisan or craftsman, and a free translation might very well
be given for their benefit. If such a translation is not given, a note
descriptive of the nature of the book should be added.

=24.=--It is a safe rule that the date of publication should be given in
every case and in every entry, as it serves in some measure to show the
particular edition of the book, and more important still in scientific
and technical works, to show if the editions in a library are of recent
date or obsolete. It will, however, be found quite useless in popular
libraries to give the dates of publication in the entries of works of
fiction, for the simple reason that many of the books in this class of
literature are so often worn out and then replaced with new copies, which
are very seldom of the same dates as those printed in the catalogue, and
it soon becomes incorrect in this respect. Happily it is a matter of no
importance, as very few fiction readers are concerned about the date of
publication, and therefore it may be safely omitted from all entries.
This statement does not apply to first or other editions of novels of
special value, such as the first edition of “David Copperfield,” as these
would be fully described as well as carefully preserved.

=25.=--A suggestion worthy of consideration has been made that the
original dates of publication should be added to the entries of reprints.
This would increase the information given, and might prevent persons
mistaking an old book for a new one, though librarians are familiar with
the fact that old books are read with as much pleasure as the newest, if
got up with modern attractive illustrations and pretty bindings.

=26.=--In the illustrative entry we have marked the book as 8vo.--that
is octavo in size. This we learn either by experience in the sizes of
books, or by actual measurement, and it may be at once admitted that
the question of size notation is a vexed one and no absolute rule can
be laid down for guidance. Those who have studied the matter know that
there is no satisfactory solution of the difficulty beyond that of
measuring the book and giving its size in centimetres or in inches. But
this encumbers the catalogue entry too much, and for ordinary every-day
purposes the old signs suffice of 8vo. (octavo), 4to. (quarto), and fo.
(folio), and they give a rough idea of the size. These may be qualified,
if thought necessary, by la. (large), sm. (small), or obl. (oblong), if
the books are of a special size. The terms 12ᵒ., 16ᵒ., 32ᵒ., &c. are
sometimes used, but they do not convey any very precise information and
the additional terms of “demy,” “royal,” “imperial,” and others have
varying meaning nowadays, as there is no fixed standard in the sizes of
paper or books. Appendix B consists of a table taken from the “Report of
the Committee on Size Notation of the Library Association of the United
Kingdom,” and this may be studied as an introduction to the subject,
but is not to be taken as decisive. The full report of the Committee
is to be found in the Library Association Monthly Notes, vol. 3, 1882,
pp. 130-133. A scale made from this table will be found convenient to
cataloguers, as will also the handy and better known book-size scale
prepared by Mr. Madeley of the Warrington Museum. The pages of books are
to be measured and not their bindings. The sizes of books are not always
shown in the printed catalogues of free libraries and if they were it
is most likely that the signs would confuse rather than help, as the
majority of the public do not understand anything of the matter, besides
the proportion of books other than octavos is not large in a lending
library. The reference library usually contains a considerable number
of quartos and folios and the information upon this point would be more
useful in the catalogue of that department.

=27.=--The immense value of occasional explanatory or descriptive notes
to the entries in a catalogue is well known, but they are not as often
inserted as they might be. They should be added to author, subject, or
title entry, where necessary, desirable, or in any way helpful, as far
as possible briefly and to the point, and printed under the entry in a
smaller type, to show they are not part of the title. The following are a
few examples taken from various catalogues:

    ALBERT, MARY. Holland and her heroes. 1878

        Adapted from Motley’s “Dutch Republic.”

    BALL (Sir Robert S.) Elements of astronomy. 1886. ill.

        Knowledge of mathematics required for the study of this book.

    Ball, (William P.) Are the effects of use and disuse inherited?
    1890. _Nature series._

        NOTE.--The author taken a negative view and attempts to prove
        that no improvement in mankind can take place without the aid of
        natural or artificial selection.

    BOCCACCIO, Giovanni. Il decamerone; nuovamente correto et con
    diligentia stampato. pp. xii, 568. 8o. _Firenze_, 1527 [_Venice_,
    1729.]

        This is the counterfeit of the Giunta or “Ventisetana” Decameron
        of 1527.

    Dupont-Auberville, _M._ Art industrial: L’ornement des tissus. 1877

        Coloured designs suitable for all purposes taken from textile
        fabrics.

    Mariette, A. E., _called_ Mariette-Bey. Outlines of ancient Egyptian
    history. 1890

        The best brief manual.

=Persia.=

    Morier, J. Hajji Baba. 1895

        Remains yet a standard book upon Persian life and manners.

In adding notes of this nature it is a wise plan to keep to statements of
fact, and not indulge in expressions of opinion.



CHAPTER IV.

THE PRINCIPAL ENTRY.--THE AUTHOR ENTRY, 2.


=28.=--Having laid down some of the general principles to be followed in
making the author-entry in a complete form, we proceed to take further
examples selected because they happen to be at hand and not for any
difficulty they present. Any batch of ordinary books will contain some
that are troublesome to the beginner in cataloguing, and for this reason
nothing that can be regarded as of an out-of-the-way character has been
taken in illustration.

The next book is:

    Historic survey of German poetry, interspersed with various
    translations. By W. Taylor, of Norwich. London: Treuttel, &c.

The work is in three volumes, the first being dated 1828, the second
1829, and the third 1830. We ascertain by reference to a biographical
dictionary, or other likely work, that the author’s name is William, and
as Wm. Taylor is a somewhat common name we retain the description “of
Norwich,” so that he may be distinguished from any other author of the
same name. The author-entry then is:

    TAYLOR, William (_of Norwich_).

        Historic survey of German poetry, interspersed with various
        translations. 3 v. 8o. 1828-30

This book being in more than one volume a collation of each is not
given, as the statement of the number of volumes is considered to give
sufficient idea of its extent. If the work were illustrated this fact
would still be stated, not usually as “3 v., illus.” but “Illus. 3 v.” or
“illus. 3 v.” It will be seen that the date of publication of each volume
is not given but the first and last dates only. It is necessary to point
out that the earliest and latest dates are not always those of the first
and last volumes of a set, as it sometimes happens that they are not the
first or last issued. Often enough the volumes of a set are made up of
two or more editions with long intervals between the dates. In all cases
the earliest and latest dates are to be given, and any peculiarities of
the edition can be stated in the form of a note at the end of the entry.

Taking another book we find that the title-page reads:

    Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson, by Richard Garnett, LL.D. London,
    Walter Scott, &c. 1888

and after an exhaustive examination the entry comes out as

    GARNETT, Richard.

        Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson. (_Great writers._) pp. 200, xiv.
        sm. 8o. 1888

            With a bibliography by John P. Anderson.

=29.=--The desirability, or otherwise, of using initials instead of
giving the Christian name in full in an author-entry depends largely upon
the requirements of the library and the space taken up.

There seems to be a growing practice to search out from any available
source all the names that an author was ever saddled with. The object
of this for catalogues, other than those of great libraries of national
importance, is not very obvious, and it should not concern the cataloguer
why Dickens chose to be known as Charles simply instead of Charles
John Huffam, or Du Maurier preferred to be called George rather than
George Louis Palmela Busson, or even why Hall Caine has dropped the use
of Thomas Henry from the fore part of his name. Yet these and other
persons have appeared with all the names set out at length even in minor
catalogues, and sometimes with the titles of the books cut down to the
finest limit in order that the whole name might be got in. The spirit of
infinite research is not always an advantage to the cataloguer.

=30.=--On the other hand, bare initials have a meagre appearance, and the
middle course should be adopted even when expense is a consideration, as
it adds very little to the cost of printing to give at least one name
in full. It must be admitted that in many instances where there are two
or more Christian names, the initials are distinctive enough for all
reasonable purposes, as E. A. Abbott, A. K. H. Boyd, E. A. Freeman, and
can be so used. Well-understood abbreviations, like Chas. Dickens, Geo.
R. Sims, Robt. Browning, Thos. Carlyle, can also be used, but the gain is
so trifling as not to be worth consideration. The first Christian name in
use should be given in full, unless it happens that some other is better
or specially known, as W. H. Davenport Adams, J. Percy Groves, J. Cotter
Morison, R. Bosworth Smith.

=31.=--With the commoner surnames, as Smith, Brown, Jones, and the rest,
there will be a number of authors who will have also the same Christian
name, when particular care must be exercised not to mix the works
together, and so attribute books to a wrong author. Some distinction
must be given, like that shown in the “Taylor of Norwich” entry (p. 27),
and these are better printed in italics. Examples of these, taken from a
catalogue, are

    Smith, John, _A. L. S._

    Smith, John, _of Kilwinning_.

    Smith, John, _of Malton_.

    Thomson, James (_poet_, 1700-48).

    Thomson, James (“B. V.”)

    Thomson, James (_Traveller_).

When father and son with the same name are authors, and the difference
between them appears in the book as “the elder,” “jun.,” “fils,” “aîné,”
&c., it should be given at the time the entry is made, even though not
then required for distinguishing purposes, the library only possessing
the works of one or the other. Frequently such a distinction is not shown
on the book, and the cataloguer must add it. Strange to say, entries like
the following have been seen in catalogues:--

    Frères, P. Modes et costumes historiques.

    Nassau, W., _sen._ Journals kept in France and Italy.

The first book being by the Paquet frères, and the other by Nassau W.
Senior.

=32.=--Biographical dictionaries of all kinds are useful to the
cataloguer, but for making distinctions like those referred to above, and
for general use, the most serviceable and handiest, because concise and
comprehensive, is “The dictionary of biographical reference, containing
one hundred thousand names,” by Lawrence B. Phillips (Sampson Low,
1871.) There is a later edition of this work, but it is merely a reprint
with no new matter. It should be superfluous to name the valuable and
indispensable “Dictionary of national biography” for British names.
Allibone’s “Critical dictionary of English literature and British and
American authors,” with its supplement by Kirk, is an every-day book of
reference for cataloguers. For German biography the “Allgemeine deutsche
Biographie” (Leipzig, 1875-98), is the most important, and for French
names the “Biographie universelle” (Paris, 1842-65) is very serviceable,
as well as for names generally. It should be supplemented by Vapereau’s
“Dictionnaire des contemporains.”

=33.=--The form for author-entry is clear and simple enough, and seems
easy to put into practice, but difficulties soon arise, and the amount
of knowledge the cataloguer possesses upon men in general and authors in
particular will be early put to the test. The next book coming before us
is

    Vice versâ; or, a lesson to fathers. By F. Anstey. New and
    revised ed. London, Smith, Elder, &c., 1883.

The author’s name in this instance is a pseudonym, and the mode of
treating such names has given rise to differences of opinion, and
consequently of practice. In many catalogues the real name of the author,
when known, is taken for the author-entry, and a reference given from
the pseudonym to it. This may be a good rule to follow in very special
catalogues, but there is no doubt that it is against the convenience of
the great majority of persons who use libraries; and therefore the best,
because most convenient and useful, plan is to make the entry under the
_best known name_, whether it be assumed or real. It has been often
said, and with much truth, that it is not the business of librarians
to discover the identity of an author by proving his use of an _alias_
unless for some sufficient reason. It has become quite a mania with some
cataloguers to hunt and pry until they find out whether a name is real
or not, and their zeal in this direction sometimes misleads them, as
witness the fact that “George Eliot” has been entered as Mrs. Lewes in
quite a number of catalogues, and Marie Corelli is called Marion Mackay.
The cataloguer, besides putting himself to the bother of being ever on
the look-out for real names, gives readers the trouble and vexation of
looking in several places in the catalogue before they can find the
author’s works they are in search of. People wanting books by “Ouida”
do not care to be told on turning to that name to “see De la Ramé,” or
“Ramée, L. de la,” or even “La Ramé.” It would be equally absurd, on the
other hand, to refer from Dickens to “Boz,” or Thackeray to “Titmarsh;”
therefore use the best known names. When the pseudonym is the most
familiar name, and the principal entry is accordingly given under that
form, then it is desirable, but not absolutely essential, to also give
the real name, when known with certainty, enclosing it in parentheses, as

    Anstey, F. (T. Anstey Guthrie).

    Hobbes, John Oliver (Mrs. P. M. T. Craigie).

Sometimes the pseudonym is printed in italics in all entries, but this
only serves to emphasise the name, without indicating that it is a
known pseudonym. If it is wished to point out that the name is assumed,
then the customary form of printing it in inverted commas is better
understood, as

    “Twain, Mark” (Samuel L. Clemens),

but this need only be in the author-entry. Upon these lines the book
before us appears as

    “ANSTEY, F.” (T. Anstey Guthrie).

        Vice versâ; or, a lesson to fathers. New ed. 1883

To perfectly complete the author-entry and to prevent any possibility of
mistake, we require a cross-reference pointing from the real name to the
pseudonym under which the entry is found, thus:

    Guthrie, T. Anstey. _See_ Anstey, F.

If space is of no consideration, and it is wished to make the entry as
exact as possible, then the form is

    Anstey, F. (_pseudonym of_ T. Anstey Guthrie),

and the reference reads

    Guthrie, T. Anstey. _See_ Anstey F. (_pseud._)

=34.=--Before leaving this question of the treatment of pseudonymous
books attention may be directed to other phases of it. There is the
difficulty that occasionally arises of an author publishing under a
pseudonym and under his real name and being equally as well-known
under both. Instances of this would be the Rev. John M. Watson, whose
theological works appear under his own name, and his stories under “Ian
Maclaren;” and J. E. Muddock, who publishes some stories under that name
and, it is said, his detective stories under the name of “Dick Donovan.”
Common-sense might offer the suggestion to adhere to the rule already
laid down and enter under both names, but this violates one of the first
principles of dictionary cataloguing, viz., that all works by an author
must be brought together under a single name. Therefore in such cases
there is no option but to adopt the real name, at the same time taking
care to remove all occasion of difficulty by giving cross-references, as

    “Maclaren, Ian.” _See_ Watson, John M.

    “Donovan, Dick.” _See_ Muddock, J. E.

=35.=--Then there are books that have a phrase for the pseudonym, like
“One who has kept a diary,” or “A whistler at the plough.” These, while
nominally pseudonyms, are virtually anonyms, and it is customary in full
and special catalogues to make the entry under the first word not an
article of such a phrase-name. It may be considered as very likely that
such an entry in the majority of catalogues would be quite superfluous.
Books like:

    “Five years penal servitude, by One who has endured it.”

    “Three in Norway, by Two of them.”

would be better dealt with if the title-entries, such as these, were
taken as the principal entries and the pseudonym ignored. This is a case
where the cataloguer will use his discretion as to the best course to
pursue, being guided by the requirements of the library, but it is a
mistake on the right side to give both forms if there is the least doubt.

=36.=--Books with initials only instead of the author’s name come between
the pseudonymous and anonymous. The initials may be those of a name or
indicate a title or profession. In all cases where the name veiled by the
initials cannot be discovered, or their meaning ascertained, then the
entry is given under the _last_ letter, but if the letters stand for a
known pseudonym, as “A.L.O.E.,” or a title or degree, as “by an M.P.,”
or “M.A. (Oxon),” then the first letter is taken instead of the last.
Occasionally an initialism will be given like, “by B.H.W., D.D.,” when,
the meaning being clear, the entry will be under the W., as

    W., B.H., _D.D._

If it is known what the name is that is covered by the initials, as
A.K.H.B., or L.E.L., then the entry is given under the name in full,

    Boyd, A.H.K.

    Landon, L.E.

but it is requisite that cross-references be given from the initialism, as

    B., A.K.H. _See_ Boyd, A.K.H.

    L., L.E. _See_ Landon, L.E.

The remark as to whether it is worth while in minor catalogues to give an
entry under a phrase-pseudonym applies equally to the initials, and is
open to the same doubts.

=37.=--In arranging the entries in alphabetical order it should be noted
that initials take precedence of all other names in each particular
letter, as

    B., A.K.H.

    B., G.W.

    Baar, Thomas.

    “Bab.”

The works most useful to the cataloguer in revealing real names are
Halkett and Laing’s _Dictionary of the anonymous and pseudonymous
literature of Great Britain_, Cushing’s _Initials and pseudonyms_,
and _Les supercheries littéraires dévoilées_, par Quérard. A list of
pseudonyms, mostly modern instances, with the real names, will be found
in Appendix C, by those who may require it.

=38.=--The next illustration is selected because it is distinctly
anonymous, that is the author is not shown in any form in the book,
either by a pseudonym or initialism, and the ordinary sources of
information do not enable the authorship to be discovered.

    Times and days: being essays in romance and history, pp. viii,
    215. sm. 8o. 1889

Upon such books, if they are worth it, the industry of the cataloguer
may very well be exercised, as librarians and the public feel that
they are fully justified in finding out who the author is if they can.
If the book is of any importance the name of the author is sure to be
revealed for general information sooner or later, and the possibility
of this adds zest to the search for the name at the moment it is needed
by the cataloguer. Besides the works of reference mentioned already,
Watt’s _Bibliotheca Britannica_ should be consulted (for the older
books), Barbier’s _Dictionnaire des ouvrages anonymes_, and any special
bibliographies or catalogues within reach, not forgetting the great
_British Museum Catalogue of Printed Books_. Local catalogues often prove
valuable in this work, as the identity of an author may be well-known
locally but not further. It is as well to point out that if a work is
merely “ascribed,” or “said to be” by a particular person it is better to
regard the book as altogether anonymous. To name a case in point, Halkett
and Laing ascribe the authorship of the, at one time, celebrated “red
pamphlets” on the _Mutiny of the Bengal Army_ to a Major Bunbury, whereas
the author is now known to have been the late Colonel G. B. Malleson.

In the event of the search after the author’s name proving futile, the
rule is that the principal entry be given under the first word of the
title _not an article_, in the same way as the entries follow in the
work of Halkett and Laing. Should the library be a small one of a general
character it would be somewhat pedantic to adhere rigidly to this rule,
more especially if the subject of the book is clearly stated upon its
title-page. For example, books like, _A short history of Poland_, and
_The rambler’s guide to Harrogate_, would be amply and satisfactorily
dealt with if entries were alone given under “Poland” and “Harrogate”
respectively, instead of under “Short” and “Rambler’s,” as required by
the rule.

=39.=--When books are said to be “by the author of --” and it cannot
be ascertained who the author is, then they are treated as altogether
anonymous and dealt with accordingly, as

    N. or M., by the author of “Honor bright.”

No entry would be made under “Honor bright” except, of course, for that
book itself if it happened to be in the library.



CHAPTER V.

THE PRINCIPAL ENTRY--THE AUTHOR-ENTRY, 3.


=40.=--There are further difficulties that arise from time to time
in making the author-entry owing to the great variety in the form of
authors’ names. The first book we take to illustrate one of these is:

    M. Tullii Ciceronis Orationes; with a commentary by George Long.
    (Bibliotheca classica; ed. by George Long and A. J. Macleane.) 4
    v. la. 8o. 1855-62

The rule is to transcribe Greek and Latin names either into the English
form, as Cicero, Horace, Livy, Ovid, or into the Latin nominative as M.
Tullius Cicero, and therefore the entry will be:

    CICERO, M. Tullius. Orationes; with a commentary, by George Long.
    (_Bibliotheca classica_). 4 v. la. 8o. 1855-62

Greek names are not simply transcribed in Roman characters, as Homeros,
but into the English or Latin form, as Homer, Homerus. All forms of
the name, irrespective of the language of the original book or its
translations, must be concentrated under the form adopted; thus the
following three books,

    The odes of Horace; transl. into English by the Rt. Hon. W. E.
    Gladstone, M.P. pp. xvi., 154. 8o. 1894

    Quinti Horatii Flacci Opera omnia; with a commentary by the Rev.
    Arthur John Macleane, M.A. 4th ed., revised by George Long, M.A.
    (1869). (_Bibliotheca classica._) pp. xxxii, 771. la. 8o. 1881

    Q. Orazio Flacco. Odi, epistole, satire; traduzione di
    Diocleziano Mancini. pp. 64. sm. 8o. _Castello_, 1897

are entered either under Horace or Horatius Flaccus (Quintus), and
therefore would appear as

    HORACE. Opera omnia; with a commentary, by Arthur J. Macleane.
    4th ed., revised by Geo. Long (1869). (_Bibliotheca classica._)
    pp. xxxii, 771. la. 8o. 1881

    ⸻ Odi, epistole, satire; trad. di Diocleziano Mancini. pp. 64.
    sm. 8o. _Castello_, 1897

    ⸻ Odes; transl. into English by W. E. Gladstone, pp. xvi, 154.
    8o. 1894

It is very rarely required to give cross-references from the one form
of name to the other, especially in the case of the classical authors.
It should be noted that absolute uniformity is necessary in the style
of such names in a single catalogue, be the form Latin or English, as
it would be inconsistent to have, say Virgilius in one place, and Livy
in another--in other words, it should be Virgil and Livy or Livius and
Virgilius, popular libraries adopting the English form as most suitable.

=41.=--The customary mode of arranging the entries in such a case as the
Horace given above, is to give first the whole works in the original,
then the whole works in translations, afterwards the portions in the
original followed by translations of these in their turn, the greater
parts taking precedence of the lesser, and those in the language of the
original coming before translations without regard to alphabetical order.

=42.=--There are classes of persons whose names come oftener under the
notice of the cataloguer for subject-than for author-entry, such as
sovereigns, princes, saints, and popes; but as one rule governs both
forms of entry, it may be referred to at this point. All such personages
are entered under the Christian names by which they are known and not
under family or titular names. With these names are included those of
ancient or mediæval use before the days of fixed surnames, or when they
were merely sobriquets. Omitting titles of books in illustration examples
of all these with the correct form would be:

    Albert, _Prince Consort_.

    Albert Edward, _Prince of Wales_.

    Augustine, _St._

    Giraldus Cambrensis.

    Leo XIII., _Pope_.

    Paul, _St._

    Thomas a’Becket.

    Thomas a’Kempis.

    Victoria, _Queen_.

    William _of Malmesbury_.

It would be safer to provide cross-references for such names as Thomas a’
Becket and Thomas a’ Kempis, thus:

    Becket, Thomas a’. _See_ Thomas a’ Becket.

    Kempis, Thomas a’. _See_ Thomas a’ Kempis.

=43.=--Strange to say, it is quite a common mistake in catalogues to
enter all the saints together under “Saint,” instead of under their
names, and it has even been attempted to justify such an obvious
absurdity by the contention that people naturally turn to the word
“Saint” for such names. This is very likely, but it would be just as
reasonable to expect to find Lord Beaconsfield’s books under “Lord” or
“Earl,” and Mr. Gladstone’s under “Mr.” Besides, if such a rule were
logically carried out in the case of every person canonized, Sir Thomas
More would now be entered under “Blessed,” and Thomas a’ Becket under
“Saint.”

=44.=--In the case of noblemen who are authors, the entry should be under
the title, and not under the family name, though it may be necessary
in some instances to give a cross-reference from the family name.
Illustrative examples of these would be:

    Beaconsfield, Earl of. Coningsby.

    Disraeli, Benjamin. _See_ Beaconsfield.

    Argyll, Duke of. The reign of law.

In full catalogues it is usual to give more particulars, as

    Beaconsfield, Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of.

    Argyll, George D. Campbell, 8th Duke of.

but even in concise catalogues, if the library happens to possess books
by noblemen of the same title, the distinction must be clearly shown as

    Albemarle, 6th Earl of. Fifty years of my life.

    Albemarle, 8th Earl of. Cycling.

or fuller still, as

    Derby, Edward, 14th Earl of. The Iliad of Homer, translated.

    Derby, Edward H., 15th Earl of. Speeches and addresses.

=45.=--In some exceptional and well-defined cases, it is better to place
the entries under the family name, for the reason that it is more in
common use and so is better known, as

    Bacon, Francis, Lord Verulam.

    Walpole, Horace, Earl of Orford.

It is important to remember that the title of the author to be used is
not that of the time when the book happened to be published, but the
highest attained to at the time the catalogue is prepared or issued.

=46.=--This brings us to the question as to the extent in which titles
of honour, of professional rank, or of scholastic attainment are to be
used in cataloguing, particularly in connection with authors’ names. This
is a matter that has been settled more by convenience and usage than
by fixed rules. It is usual to omit all titles of rank below that of a
knight, all such distinctions to a name as “Baronet,” “Knight,” “Right
Honourable,” and “Honourable,” as well as the initials of the various
orders of knighthood, as K.G., K.C.B., C.B., &c. University degrees and
initials of membership of learned or other societies, as D.D., M.A.,
F.R.S., F.R.Hist.S., &c., are ignored, and so are professional titles,
as Professor, Colonel, Doctor, Barrister-at-Law. For example, in the
“republic of letters,” as exemplified in cataloguing,

    The Right Honourable Sir Charles Wentworth Dilke, Bart., M.P.

becomes simply

    Dilke, Sir Charles W.

and

    The Right Honourable Professor F. Max Müller.

is

    Müller, F. Max.

Upon the same plan most of the ecclesiastical titles are passed over, or
at anyrate all under the rank of a dean, and all the prefixes as “Right
Reverend,” “Rev.” are left out. Thus

    The Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of London, Mandell Creighton,
    D.D., &c.

is reduced to

    Creighton, Mandell, _Bp. of London_.

or shorter still, if desired, to

    Creighton, Mandell, _Bp._

It has been found that simple treatment of this kind meets every
requirement, and it is quite unnecessary to waste space in a catalogue
by adding superfluous matter of this kind, besides the line must be
drawn somewhere, and, as the cataloguer has no reason, even for politic
motives, to indulge in snobbery, there is no occasion to swell a
catalogue to undue proportions.

=47.=--If it is desired, however, to include degrees or other distinctive
affixes, they must follow the Christian name, as

    Jones, Thomas, _LL.D._

and not

    Jones, _LL.D._, Thomas.

Prefixes would be inserted in their proper order, as

    Jones, _Dr._ Thomas.

Anything not actually part of the author’s name should be made
distinctive by being printed in italics as here shown.

=48.=--It cannot be too often impressed on the young cataloguer how
important it is to keep himself well posted in all changes occurring in
the world around, and, more particularly, in the literary and social
world. While many sources of information are available in a well-equipped
library, yet none of these can compensate for a retentive memory and a
mind keenly alive even for the comparatively trivial affairs that need
to be constantly noted if error is to be avoided, or at least if the
catalogue is to show the latest information. For instance, as each New
Year and Queen’s Birthday comes round the lists of new honours gazetted
have to be read, as an author or two may be among those raised to the
peerage or be made baronets or knights and their style in the catalogue
has to be altered accordingly. This may be considered unnecessary advice
because catalogues of libraries are supposed to, and do, cover the
whole field of human knowledge in all directions, and it is part of the
cataloguer’s business to keep his knowledge modernized if his services
are to be worth much. It is as well, however, to point this out to
beginners, otherwise, if attention be not paid to such details, they will
very soon find, or others will for them, that they have books written by
the same person under two names, sometimes three, in a single catalogue.
Many examples could be given of how this can be brought about, but it
will suffice to give one. The first edition, 1887, of the book on cycling
in the “Badminton Library” series has the names of Viscount Bury and G.
L. Hillier as the authors, and the new edition of 1895 is by the Earl of
Albemarle and G. L. Hillier. It would not do for a library possessing the
first edition only to now enter it under “Bury,” nor for a library with
both editions to enter one under “Bury” and the other under “Albemarle.”

=49.=--This point may be further emphasized by stating that
ecclesiastical changes in the higher orders of the clergy have to be
carefully observed from time to time, so that the very latest office is
shown at the time the catalogue is printed, or that the alteration is
made if in manuscript. It would not look well to continue to describe
Frederick Temple as Bishop of Exeter or even as Bishop of London,
Mandell Creighton as Bishop of Peterborough, or Frederick W. Farrar
as Archdeacon, though their names may so appear upon the books being
catalogued.

Occasionally books will be found by authors whose ecclesiastical office
and not their names appear upon the title-pages, as “by William, Bishop
of Chester,” “by the Archbishop of York,” when the name must be sought
out and care taken to give the credit of the book to the right person.
For instance, there is a book upon the Riviera, published in 1870,
“by the Dean of Canterbury,” which might easily be credited to Dean
Payne Smith instead of Dean Alford, and a very careless or unthinking
cataloguer might even add it to Dean Farrar’s books. In this connection
a very useful book of reference is _The book of dignities_, by Joseph
Haydn, continued by Horace Ockerby, 1894, and of course any back volumes
available of clerical directories or diocesan calendars will prove
useful.

=50.=--But the ladies have to be watched with much greater care, as
they are so much more apt to change their name, and that without any
evidence of such change being given upon the title-page. Many examples
might be given of ladies who have written under both their maiden and
their married names. If the ladies continue writing under their maiden
names, then the rule given for pseudonymous books would fitly apply, and
the more familiar name should be used, as M. E. Braddon, and not Mrs.
Maxwell, Florence Warden, and not Mrs. James. Where women authors are
better known under their husbands’ names with the prefix “Mrs.,” as Mrs.
Humphry Ward, Mrs. Coulson Kernahan, &c., it will be found that the best
known form is also the best for use in a general or popular catalogue,
though it would be more exact to give the ladies’ own names. If exactness
is of prime importance, then the distinction can very well be shown, as

    Ward, Mary A. (Mrs. Humphry Ward).

    Kernahan, Jeanie G. (Mrs. Coulson Kernahan).

When both the maiden and married names are given upon a title-page,
as “Katharine Tynan (Mrs. H. A. Hinkson),” then it is better to adopt
the married name for the entry, but a cross-reference should be given,
especially if books have been issued under the maiden name alone.
Accordingly the entry would be

    Hinkson, Katharine (Katharine Tynan).

and the reference

    Tynan, Katharine. _See_ Hinkson, Katharine.

=51.=--Peculiarities of form in surnames will next demand consideration,
and probably the first of these will be names with patronymic or other
prefixes. If the author is English, or has virtually become so (and
“English” is to be here understood in its widest sense), then the prefix
is simply regarded as a part of the name, and as such it will lead off.
The following are some examples of names in this form:

    St. John, Percy B.

    De Crespigny, E. C.

    D’Israeli, Isaac

    Fitz George, George

    Le Gallienne, Richard.

    L’Estrange, A. G.

    M’Crie, Thomas.

    MacDonald, George.

    O’Brien, William.

    Ap John, Lewis.

    Van Dyck, Sir A.

=52.=--In French names the entry should not be made under the prefix
“de,” but under the name next following it, unless the “de” has become so
much embodied in the surname as to be an integral part of it rather than
a prefix. If the prefix happens to be the definite article “le” or “la,”
or the article is comprised in it, as “du,” then the entry is to be given
under the prefix. The following names show the part of the name which
leads off:

    Maupas, C. E. de.

    Decourcelle, A.

    Delaroche, Paul.

    La Bruyère, Jean de.

    La Sizeranne, Robert de.

    Le Monnier, L.

    Du Boisgobey, F.

    Du Camp, Maximè.

In arranging such names for alphabetical order they are placed as if
the prefix were part of the name, and the last five would come in place
as Labr., Lasi., Lemo., Dubo., Duca. The English names are treated in
much the same manner, but contractions are to be placed as if spelt out
in full, and letters omitted by elision are to be ignored. In this way
the English names given above would come in order: St. John as Saint
John (not as Saintj, however, but _before_ Sainte, as Sainte-Beuve),
De Crespigny as Decre., D’Israeli as Disra., Le Gallienne as Legall.,
L’Estrange as Lestr., M’Crie as Maccrie, Mac Donald as Macdon., O’Brien
as Obri., Ap John as Apjohn, and Van Dyck as Vandyck. Of course, the
names must in no wise be altered from the form appearing upon the
title-pages even for the purpose of harmonising them with neighbouring
names in the alphabetical sequence.

=53.=--In German and Dutch names the “von” and “van” are entered after
the name similarly to the French “de” as:

    Ewald, G. H. A. von.

    Beneden, P. J. van.

Some cataloguers keep these and the French “de” in their place as
prefixes, at the same time ignoring them for alphabetical order, thus:

    von Ewald, G. H. A.

    van Beneden, P. J.

    de Cuvier, Georges, Baron.

of course, placing them under Ewald, Beneden, Cuvier. The effect is not
wholly satisfactory and it breaks the running line in the alphabet.

=54.=--The next difficulty is that of the compound names. It has
been already hinted that stereotyped uniformity is not always to be
recommended, but in dealing with names of this type it is as well to fix
a rule and adhere rigidly to it. In the case of English compound names
the best course to adopt is to give the entries under the _last_ name in
all cases. Examples of such names would be

    Phillipps, J. O. Halliwell.

    Turner, C. Tennyson.

    Dunton, Theodore Watts.

These are so well known to most people as changed names, that it would
not be quite correct to give merely an initial for the first name, as

    Phillipps, J. O. H.

    Turner, C. T.

    Dunton, Theodore W.

though in most cases of compound names, this would not signify.

Under some rules for cataloguing, it is recommended that where the author
has added to his name at a late period of his life, as the above-named
persons have, then the entry should be given under the first part of the
name. The objection to adopting this course is that two methods would be
in use, and they would likely lead to confusion, for the reason that it
is not always clearly or generally known that a compound name consists
in reality of the addition of a name to the original surname. It is more
frequently the case, owing to fashion or foible, that two names already
belonging by right to a person have simply been joined by a hyphen, and
so become “compounded.” Again, it is not always shown or known that a new
name has been taken, as for instance J. F. B. Firth so described himself
upon his books on London Government, and not as J. F. Bottomley-Firth,
though he was born Bottomley, and took the name of Firth afterwards.
Therefore, all things considered, it is wiser to adhere to the last name,
more especially as it is so easy to safeguard it in doubtful cases by the
useful cross-reference, such as

    Tennyson-Turner, C. _See_ Turner.

    Halliwell-Phillipps, J. O. _See_ Phillipps.

    Watts-Dunton, Theodore. _See_ Dunton.

Even these cross-references are seldom necessary, as it may reasonably be
presumed that if a person fails to find the entries under the one name he
turns to the other, thus if he wants books by the Rev. S. Baring-Gould,
and fails to find them under Baring, it is unlikely that he will
conclude they are not in the library without first looking under Gould.

=55.=--But while this rule for making use of the last part of a compound
name holds good for English authors, the reverse method must be adopted
as correct for foreign compound names, and the entry given accordingly
under the first part of such a name, as

    Dreux-Brézé, Marquis de.

    Martinengo-Cesaresco, Countess.

    Merle d’Aubigné, J. H.

    Tascher de la Pagerie, Comtesse de.

It will be seen that this form is principally governed by the custom of
the country to which the author happens to belong, and cataloguers will
make themselves acquainted with the usages of each country as far as they
can, either by reading or by constant reference to native biographical
dictionaries and authoritative catalogues.

=56.=--In an average British library oriental names will only
occasionally come under the notice of the cataloguer, and then for the
most part attached to English books. A general rule may be laid down that
the first part of such names should be taken for the author-entry, as

    Omar Khayyam. Rubàiyàt; transl. by Fitzgerald.

    Wo Chang. England through Chinese spectacles.

    Dosabhai Framji Karaka. History of the Parsis.

but a rule of this kind must not be blindly followed, as it is sure to
have exceptions. Some other part of the name may be the best known or
even correct form, as:

    Ranjitsinhji, K. S. The Jubilee book of cricket.

remembering always that the surname according to Western ideas, handed
on from one generation to another does not exist in the East. In every
case it is a wise plan to consult any available catalogues that have
been compiled by experts in oriental language and custom. Care is also
necessary in dealing with these names lest it should be found when too
late that the entry has been given under a title and not a name. On pages
76-97 of Linderfelt’s _Eclectic card catalog rules_ will be found a list
of oriental titles and occupations with their signification, and the use
of this will do much to prevent mistakes of the kind. Beale’s _Oriental
biographical dictionary_; revised by H. G. Keene (W. H. Allen, 1894) is
also a helpful work in this connection.



CHAPTER VI.

THE PRINCIPAL ENTRY.--THE AUTHOR-ENTRY, 4.


=57.=--When books are written in collaboration, the customary procedure
is to make the entry under the first-named author, if not more than two
are given on the title-page, followed by the name of the second. If there
are more than two authors, then the name of the first only is given,
followed by “and others,” or “&c.,” as

    Woods, Robert A., and others. The poor in great cities.

It is desirable to give a cross-reference from every joint-author to
the name under which the entry is placed, but it depends greatly upon
the style of the catalogue whether this is done or not. In most cases
it will be found that the references can be dispensed with if more
than two authors, and often enough from the second when but two. It
is unlikely, for example, that a reference is necessary from Rice to
Besant for the novels by Besant and Rice, or from Chatrian for those
by Erckmann-Chatrian. If, however, the second-named author is also the
single author of other books in the library, the reference is unavoidable
and must be given. In the principal entry it is unnecessary to reverse
the names of any author but the first, though this is sometimes done, as

    Besant, Sir Walter, and Rice, James;

but the better form is

    Besant, Sir Walter, and James Rice.

=58.=--The order of arrangement for books written by an author who is
also a joint-author is to give first those books written by him alone;
then those books in which he has collaborated, with his name occupying
the leading place upon the title-page; and lastly the references to other
authors with whom he has joined, but with his name in a secondary place.
The entries would be separately alphabetical in each of these divisions.
The following illustrates this point:--

    STEVENSON, Robert L. The black arrow.

    ⸻ Weir of Hermiston.

    ⸻ and Fanny. The dynamiter.

    ⸻ and Lloyd OSBOURNE. The ebb-tide.

    ⸻ The wrecker.

    ⸻ _See also_ Henley, W. E.

=59.=--As in this illustration the repeat dash has been used, it may be
here stated that its purpose is to save the repetition of the author’s
name in each entry after the first, and, as shown in the case of “The
wrecker,” it is unnecessary to give more than a single dash in any
instance, as the position of the entry denotes that it is by the same
authors as the preceding book. It was owing to the misuse of this dash
that the old catalogue joke arose of

    Mill, J. S. On liberty.

    ⸻ On the Floss.

and others equally ridiculous are to be found in catalogues where the
dash is not limited in use as a repeat for authors’ names, or as a
repeat to a subject-heading, but this point is further dealt with under
subject-cataloguing (Section 102). It must be noted that in the case
of authors’ or editors’ names the dash is strictly limited in use as a
repeat for second and further books by the same author, and not to repeat
all authors with the same surname, as

    Fletcher, Andrew.

    ⸻ Banister.

    ⸻ C. R. L.

    ⸻ Giles.

    ⸻ J. S.

    ⸻ J. W.

This bad form should be avoided, and the surname of each person given in
full, as

    Fletcher, Andrew.

    Fletcher, Banister.

    Fletcher, C. R. L.

=60.=--Music is not usually treated upon the supposition that the
librettist is joint-author with the composer. The latter is always
regarded as the author and the entry given under his name only. The
reason for this is that in the case of operas, oratorios, and the like
the libretto is a mere secondary matter and the books are placed in
libraries for the music only, and in the vocal scores of operas there is
seldom a complete libretto. In this way the Gilbert-Sullivan operas are
entered only under Sullivan, and if thought desirable a reference may be
given from Gilbert, but it is not essential. The following is from the
title-page of one of these operas.

    “An entirely new and æsthetic opera in two acts entitled
    ‘Patience; or, Bunthorne’s bride,’ written by W. S. Gilbert,
    composed by Arthur Sullivan, arranged from the full score by
    Berthold Tours. London.”

Properly adapted this would appear in the catalogue as

    SULLIVAN, Sir Arthur S.

        Patience; or, Bunthorne’s bride: opera; arranged by Berthold
        Tours. (_Vocal score._) pp. 117. 4o. n.d.

It is hardly necessary to say that if on the other hand the libretto only
of an opera or similar work were in the library, the entry would be
given under the librettist, and the composer would be ignored, as there
would be none of his work in the book.

Occasionally an exception to these rules will arise, and would be found
in a book like

    Moore’s Irish melodies; with accompaniments by M. W. Balfe.

because it is likely enough that an edition of Moore’s Melodies with
music would be called for without regard to the composer, though the
book may have been placed in the library more on account of the music.
Therefore, both entries must be given, that under the arranger’s name
being the principal, as

    BALFE, Michael W.

        Moore’s Irish melodies; with accompaniments. pp. viii., 192.
        la. 8o. n.d.

    MOORE, Thomas.

        Irish melodies; with accompaniments by Balfe. n.d.

=61.=--When a book consists of a collection of essays or articles by a
number of authors, gathered together by an editor, it is proper to give
the principal entry under the editor’s name rather than under that of
the first-named author in the contents. If a book of this nature is of
sufficient importance, each of its divisions can be treated as a separate
work, and author-entries given, each author being credited with his share
only. As to how far books of the kind are to be so dealt with must rest
entirely with the cataloguer, space and utility being the two important
points for his consideration. It frequently happens that a single essay
or section of a book contains the essence of many volumes, and to a busy
man such essays may be of more real value than a whole book. Again, if
a person is interested in the work of a particular author, he will be
glad not only to have the complete books, but also his contributions
to miscellaneous works as well, and these are shown by indexing the
contents. To do this will add to the extent and cost of a catalogue, but
it will, at the same time, add to its value and usefulness. Of course
there are many volumes of this miscellaneous nature, the contents of
which are of a very slight or ephemeral value, and to so index them would
be a waste of energy and of space. It is quite as easy to overdo this
indexing of contents as to carry it out judiciously, as witness the fact
that some librarians have gone to the trouble of indexing the principal
contents of such obvious works of reference as the _Encyclopædia
Britannica_, and the _Dictionary of National Biography_. In this matter,
then, it will be seen that no fixed rule can be laid down. Sometimes the
setting out of the contents under the principal entry will be sufficient.
This does not imply that the contents of volumes of magazines, reviews,
and the like should be so treated, as is sometimes seen attempted, of
course with sorry results so far as completeness is concerned, because
at best but a selection can be given, and even this necessitates wading
through pages of closely-set small type; in fact, the only real purpose
it serves is to show what serial stories are in a particular volume. No
one can gainsay the fact that an enormous quantity of valuable material
lies hidden away in back volumes of magazines, but librarians must depend
upon such works as Poole’s _Index to Periodical Literature_, with its
supplements, and the _Review of Reviews’ Annual Index to Periodicals_ to
reveal it.

=62.=--In some libraries the contents of miscellaneous books are set out
as well as indexed, but it is doubtful if it is worth while doing both in
the majority of cases. The following entries show a well-known book fully
treated in this way so far as the principal and author entries only are
concerned:--

    Essays and reviews, pp. iv., 434. la. 8o. 1860

        _Contains_:--The education of the world, by Temple. Bunsen’s
        Biblical researches, by Williams. On the study of the
        evidences of Christianity, by Powell. Séances historiques
        de Genève: The national church, by Wilson. On the Mosaic
        cosmogony, by Goodwin. Tendencies of religious thought in
        England, 1688-1750, by Pattison. On the interpretation of
        scripture, by Jowett.

    TEMPLE, Frederick, _Archbp._

        The education of the world. (Essays and reviews). 1860

    WILLIAMS, Rowland.

        Bunsen’s Biblical researches. (Essays and reviews). 1860

    POWELL, Baden.

        On the study of the evidences of Christianity. (Essays and
        reviews). 1860

    WILSON, Henry B.

        Séances historiques de Genève: The national church. (Essays
        and reviews). 1860

    GOODWIN, C. W.

        On the Mosaic cosmogony. (Essays and reviews). 1860

    PATTISON, Mark.

        Tendencies of religious thought in England, 1688-1750.
        (Essays and reviews). 1860

    JOWETT, Benjamin.

        On the interpretation of scripture. (Essays and reviews). 1860

As these items would each require at least one subject entry besides,
it will be seen that this book must have fifteen distinct entries to be
effectually catalogued.

=63.=--The contents of collected works in more than one volume must be
set out in order that the catalogue may show in what volume a particular
work is to be found, in this way:--

    HAWTHORNE, Nathaniel.

        Complete works; with introductory notes by Geo. P. Lathrop.
        (_Riverside ed._) Illus. 12 v. 1883

            v. 1. Twice-told tales.

            v. 2. Mosses from an old manse.

            v. 3. The house of the seven gables. The snow image, and
            other twice-told tales.

and so on through the rest of the volumes. Wherever possible, the
tabulated contents of such works should be summarised when considered
sufficient for all reasonable purposes, as

    GRAY, Thomas.

        Works; ed. by Edmund Gosse. 4 v. 1884

            v. 1. Poems, journals, and essays.

            v. 2-3. Letters.

            v. 4. Notes on Aristophanes and Plato.

To give a list of the essays contained in the first volume is
unnecessary, as all Gray’s miscellaneous essays are in that volume.

=64.=--There are books, or rather editions of books, of a composite
nature, where an editor has joined together works by different authors
into one volume. Examples of these are

    The poetical works of Henry Kirke White and James Grahame; with
    memoirs, &c., by George Gilfillan. _Edin._, 1856

    The dramatic works of Wycherley, Congreve, Vanbrugh, and
    Farquhar; with biographical and critical notices by Leigh Hunt.
    1875

To be exact, the cataloguer may give the principal entry under the
editor, as already stated, but it does not obviate the necessity under
any circumstances of a separate entry under the name of each author.
There is no need to include the names of the other authors in the
entries, and just the same principle would apply as illustrated in the
_Essays and reviews_ above. It is as well, however, to add the name of
the editor to each author-entry, as it shows the particular edition. The
entries in full would appear as

    GILFILLAN, George (_Ed._)

        The poetical works of Henry Kirke White and James Grahame;
        with memoirs, &c. 8o. _Edin._, 1856

    WHITE, Henry Kirke. Poetical works; ed. by George Gilfillan. 1856

    GRAHAME, James. Poetical works; ed. by George Gilfillan. 1856

The second book would be dealt with after the same manner, but with the
Christian names supplied to the sub- or author-entries, as

    HUNT, Leigh (_Ed._)

        The dramatic works of Wycherley, Congreve, Vanbrugh, and
        Farquhar; with biog. and critical notices. la. 8o. 1875

    WYCHERLEY, Wm.

        Dramatic works; with biog., &c. notices by Leigh Hunt. 1875

and similar entries under Wm. Congreve, Sir John Vanbrugh, and George
Farquhar. The entries may be made a little more concise, as

    Congreve, Wm. Dramatic works; ed. by Hunt. 1875

It will be observed that neither of the above books would properly admit
of a principal entry under the first-named author, as it would bring the
authors’ names together in such a way as to lead to the supposition that
they were joint-authors, as

    White, Henry Kirke, and James Grahame. Poetical works.

    Wycherley, Wm., Wm. Congreve, and others. Dramatic works.

It is true that any person with the least knowledge of English literature
would know better than that these authors had collaborated, but the
cataloguer has to put himself in the position of the man who knows
nothing of the matter. Cross-references from one author’s name to the
other in such a case would be absurd.

=65.=--Anthologies or other compilations are to be entered under the
names of the editors or compilers, with the abbreviation _Ed._ (Editor)
or _Comp._ (Compiler) following the name, as

    Palgrave, Francis T. (_Ed._) Golden treasury of songs and lyrics.
    1887

The artist of a collection of drawings or other illustrations is to
be regarded as the author, and the writer of any descriptive text
accompanying them placed subordinately, as

    BURGESS, Walter W.

        Bits of old Chelsea: a series of forty-one etchings; with
        letterpress descriptions by Lionel Johnson and Richard Le
        Gallienne. fo. 1894

It would be as well to give cross-references from the writers of the
text, as

    Johnson, Lionel. _See also_ Burgess, W. W.

    Le Gallienne, Richard. _See also_ Burgess, W. W.

=66.=--The difference in references between “_See_” and “_See also_”
must be noted. If there are entries of any kind already in the catalogue
under the names of the persons referred from, then the reference is “_See
also_,” and not “_See_.” The best form for writing a cross-reference is

    Johnson, Lionel.

    ⸻ _See also_ Burgess, W. W.,

and, if it should happen that by the time the “copy” of the catalogue is
being got ready for printing there was no other entry under this author’s
name, it would be altered to

    Johnson, Lionel. _See_ Burgess, W. W.

=67.=--It occasionally happens that both the work of the artist and of
the writer of the text are of sufficient importance to warrant separate
entries, but only one of the entries should be the principal entry giving
the fullest particulars. A book of this kind is Ruskin’s edition of
Turner’s _Harbours of England_. As this particular edition is published
as one of Ruskin’s works, and Turner is more subject than author, then
the main entry is

    RUSKIN, John.

        The harbours of England; with … illustrations by J. M.
        W. Turner; ed. by Thos. J. Wise. pp. xxvi, 134. sm. 8o.
        _Orpington_, 1895

and the subordinate entry is

    TURNER, J. M. W.

        The harbours of England; [text] by John Ruskin. 1895

=68.=--When a word not on the title-page is added to an entry by the
cataloguer, it is customary to show this by enclosing it in brackets [
] as the word “text” in the above example. On the other hand, if words
have been left out from the transcript of the title-page as unnecessary
the omission is denoted by three points … as shown in the Ruskin entry
where the word “thirteen” has been passed over. In the smaller libraries
it will be found that it is unnecessary to denote either additions or
omissions in this way, but where perfect exactness is of importance this
is the understood form for the purpose.

This Ruskin entry also shows that if it is already stated in the title
that the book is illustrated there is no occasion to repeat “illus.”
in the collation. There are many books of which the value lies more in
the illustrations than in the text, such as those illustrated by Blake,
Bewick, Cruikshank, “Phiz,” and others. It is often found sufficient
in such cases to give a cross-reference from the artist to the author
illustrated, like

    CRUIKSHANK, George, Works illustrated by. _See_ Ainsworth, W. H.;
    Maxwell, W. H.

it being, of course, understood that it is stated in the author-entry
that the particular edition is illustrated by the artist from whose name
the reference is given, as

    MAXWELL, W. H.

        History of the Irish Rebellion, 1798; illus. by Geo.
        Cruikshank.

otherwise the reference would be worthless.

The extent to which these references are given depends altogether upon
the editions, as the cheap modern reprints of books like Ainsworth’s
novels do not call for notice of the illustrations, and there are not
many illustrators of books--especially in these days of “process”
reproduction--whose work calls for the special attention of the
cataloguer.

In making references like the foregoing, or of any kind, care should be
exercised to give all the names necessary, and not, as is sometimes done,
but two or three, and then finishing with a comprehensive “&c.” which is
less than no use, inasmuch as it only serves to show that there are other
books in the library illustrated by this particular artist, but what they
are the cataloguer has neglected to state and the inquirer is thus left
in vexatious doubt.



CHAPTER VII.

THE PRINCIPAL ENTRY.--CORPORATE AND OTHER FORMS.--EDITORS AND TRANSLATORS.


=69.=--In cataloguing the transactions, memoirs, proceedings and other
publications of the learned societies, the societies in their corporate
capacity are regarded as the authors and so treated, the principal entry
being placed under the first word of their names not an article, provided
they are societies of a national or general character, as

    Royal Society of London.

    Library Association.

    Linnean Society.

    Royal Geographical Society.

    Society of Antiquaries.

Societies of a strictly local character are to be entered under the name
of the place of meeting or publication, as for example the publications
of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle-on-Tyne are not
entered under “Literary,” but

    Newcastle-on-Tyne Literary and Philosophical Society,

such an entry of course being kept quite apart from the subject-heading
Newcastle-on-Tyne.

There are antiquarian and other societies whose work covers a much larger
area than the particular locality in which they hold meetings or their
offices happen to be situated, and they could not be fitly entered under
the name of the place. For instance, the publications of the Historic
Society of Lancashire and Cheshire emanate from Liverpool, but the place
of meeting or publication might be changed to Manchester or Chester
without in any way affecting the nature or scope of the Society’s work.
Therefore the entry in such a case should not be under Liverpool or even
“Historic,” but

    Lancashire and Cheshire, Historic Society of.

Almost similar are the publishing societies dealing with a limited area,
as the Chetham and Surtees Societies, but the specially distinctive
name settles the matter, and the entries would accordingly be under
those names. Societies of this class, however, are simply the publishers
of collections of books, and so, in addition to the entries under the
societies’ names, each book must have a separate author-entry. The
entries would be after this manner:--

    Navy Records Society, Publications of the. v. 1-9. la. 8o. 1894-7

        v. 9 The journal of Sir George Rooke, Admiral of the Fleet,
        1700-2; ed. by Oscar Browning.

(The first eight volumes would be set out in the same way in their place
as are the contents of collected works).

    ROOKE, Sir George, _Admiral of the Fleet_.

        Journal, 1700-2; ed. by Oscar Browning. (_Navy Records Soc._,
        v. 9.) 1897

It would be within the scope of most catalogues to separately enter
under authors and subjects any exceptionally important monographs
published with or supplementary to, the transactions of scientific or
other societies, but to go further than this and to catalogue in this
way each separate contribution to such transactions opens up so vast
a field of work that it need not be attempted. Special libraries used
only by special classes of the community will have to settle the length
to which they can go in this direction according to their several
requirements and the means at their disposal. Something towards this
end of making available the contents of transactions, proceedings,
and the like has been accomplished in the _Royal Society’s Catalogue
of Scientific Papers_, but there is infinitely more yet to be done and
the majority of libraries will choose to wait for the promised great
_International Catalogue of Scientific Literature_ rather than attempt
to index the contents of whatever transactions they happen to possess in
their libraries, though this great catalogue has up to the present got no
further than the conference-and-dinner stage of compilation.

The publications of foreign societies are usually entered under the names
of the countries if of national importance, or places where they meet
if of local importance, unless they have a specially distinctive title.
Government publications are entered under the names of the countries or
places, as

    France. Chambre des Députés.

    Paris. Prefecture de la Seine.

    United States Bureau of Education.

The publications of the home government cannot be grouped under one head
or title in this way, and must be distributed under the names of the
various departments as Board of Trade, Local Government Board, Historical
Manuscripts Commission, Charity Commission, &c.

The reports of Church Councils and official publications of religious
denominations occasionally call for some consideration. Important
ecclesiastical councils as the Council of Trent or the Westminster
Assembly of Divines are entered under the names of the places of meeting,
but in the case of denominational assemblies where the place of meeting
is a mere incident, the entry is to be made under the name of the
denomination, and not the place of meeting. Examples of such publications
are

    Official report of the Church Congress, Cardiff, 1889.

    Report of proceedings of the Presbyterian Alliance held in
    Philadelphia, 1880.

    Minutes of proceedings of the yearly meeting of Friends held in
    London, 1896.

and the form of entry is

    Church of England. Official report of the Church Congress,
    Cardiff, 1889.

    Presbyterian Alliance. Report of proceedings, Philadelphia, 1880.

    Friends, Society of. Minutes of proceedings of the yearly
    meeting, London, 1896.

In the same way reports or publications of particular societies meeting
in annual or occasional congress as Freemasons, Good Templars, Trades
Unions, or professional associations are entered under the names of the
societies irrespective of the places of meetings.

=70.=--There is still one form of principal entry to be considered, and
that is when there is no author, editor, or compiler whose name can be
used and a title-entry becomes a principal entry. The commonest form is
that of newspapers, magazines, and periodicals. These are invariably
entered under the first word of the title not an article, and never under
the editor’s name. The first and last volumes of the series contained in
the library with the earliest and latest dates (_i.e._ years) are given,
as

    Chambers’s Journal, v. 1-20. la. 8o. 1854-64

    Strand Magazine. Illus. v. 1-14. la. 8o. 1891-7

    Times, The. 47 v. la. fo. 1881-91

If the series is incomplete then the volumes wanting must be shown by the
entry, as

    Chambers’s Edinburgh Journal. New ser., v. 9-15, 17, 19-20. la.
    8o. 1848-54

this showing that volumes 1 to 8, 16, and 18 are not in the library.

=71.=--Another form of principal title-entry is that for the sacred
books, especially for the Bible in its various editions and translations.
It is customary to enter all editions in all languages of the complete
scriptures, or of portions of them, under the word “Bible,” arranging the
entries in this order in the first place--

    1 Old and New Testament (whether inclusive of the Apocrypha or
    not).

    2 Old Testament only.

    3 Parts of Old Testament.

    4 New Testament.

    5 Parts of New Testament.

Each of these divisions are then arranged according to language, and each
of the languages again chronologically according to the edition. When
a library contains a fair collection of versions and editions of the
scriptures it is as well to keep to the rule to place those first which
are in the original languages, but in the average English library it will
be found most convenient to lead off with the English versions, followed
by those in the original texts, and afterwards with those in modern
languages other than English. The entries would be after the following
style, but with such distinctive bibliographical particulars as may be
desirable according to the importance and interest of the collection.

    BIBLE, THE

                        _Old and New Testaments._

        _English._ The Bible in Englishe according to the translation
        of the great Byble. 1561

        ⸻ The parallel Bible. The Holy Bible: being the Authorised
        Version arranged in parallel columns with the Revised
        Version. 1885

        _French._ La sainte Bible. Ed. Ostervald. 1890

                            _Old Testament._

        _Greek._ The Septuagint version of the Old Testament; with an
        English translation, notes, &c. n.d.

This arrangement and sub-division is only applicable to the text, and
then only if the edition is simply a version or translation and is not
accompanied by a commentary. Commentaries are treated as any other
original work would be and entered under the author’s name, unless they
happened to be of a collective character, as _The Cambridge Bible for
schools and colleges_; ed. by Perowne, when the principal-entry would
be under “Bible” (_Subject_ sub-division “Commentaries”) preferably to
“Cambridge Bible,” with the contents of each volume of the series set
out, not alphabetically, but in the order of the books of the Bible, as

    BIBLE, THE:

                             _Commentaries._

        Cambridge Bible for schools and colleges; ed. by Perowne.

                            _Old Testament._

        Joshua, by G. F. Maclear. 1887

        Judges, by J. J. Lias. 1886

        Ezra and Nehemiah, by H. E. Ryle. 1893

A cross-reference would be necessary from

    Cambridge Bible for schools, &c. _See_ Bible (Commentaries)

and, if it were deemed desirable, references could be given from the
editors’ names in this form

    Maclear, G. F. _See_ Bible (Cambridge Bible).

=72.=--Sometimes the commentaries in a series are of sufficient
importance, or of such a character, that each is virtually a book
quite apart from its place as one of the series. The volumes of the
_Expositor’s Bible_, edited by W. Robertson Nicoll, are of this class,
and, while they should in the first place be dealt with as shown in the
_Cambridge Bible_ above, yet a mere reference under the author’s names
hardly suffices--they are not merely editors as in the _Cambridge Bible_
series--therefore, besides this principal-entry under Bible, entries are
required, as

    Farrar, F. W., _Dean_. The first Book of Kings. (_Expositor’s
    Bible_). 1893

    ⸻ The second Book of Kings. (_Expositor’s Bible_). 1894

    ⸻ The Book of Daniel. (_Expositor’s Bible_). 1895

or in a style more concise

    Farrar, F. W., _Dean_. Expositor’s Bible:

        I. and II. Kings. 2 v. 1893-4

        Daniel. 1895

Though coming more correctly under the remarks on subject-headings it may
be here noted in passing that commentaries in a series are regarded as a
single book and not entered separately under the name of each book of the
Bible throughout the catalogue, therefore the above items would not have
entries under “Kings” or “Daniel.” If, however, Dean Farrar had written
a separate work dealing with the Book of Daniel, it should be entered
under “Daniel,” and not under “Bible.” So commentaries, or any other
works upon the whole Bible, like the entire series of the Expositor’s
Bible, go under “Bible,” but if the commentaries deal with the Old or New
Testament, or any particular book of the Bible separately, such works
are placed under the headings of “Old Testament,” “New Testament,” or
under the name of the particular book dealt with, as the case may be,
and not under the heading “Bible,” as in the case of the text alone, or
any portion of it. There are exceptions even to this rule with regard
to translations, if special, and more particularly if accompanied by an
exposition, as in a case like

    JOWETT, Benjamin. The epistles of St. Paul to the Thessalonians,
    Galatians, and Romans. 3rd ed., ed. and condensed by Lewis
    Campbell. 2 v. 1894

        v. 1, Translation and commentary.

        v. 2, Essays and dissertations.

This work would not be put under “Bible” as its subject, but would be
entered either under “Paul, St.” (where all books upon his Epistles, not
part of a general commentary or including any other parts of the Bible,
might very well be grouped), or under the names of the churches to which
the Epistles were addressed, as

    Thessalonians, St. Paul’s Epistles to the.

In either case a cross-reference would be needed under the heading
“Bible,” sub-division “Commentaries,” thus:

    Bible.

                             _Commentaries._

        _See also_ Paul, St.

or

        _See also_ Thessalonians.

=73.=--The extent to which editors and translators are to be noticed in
cataloguing is a very important one, but it also depends largely upon
the requirements of the case. It should be taken for granted in large
reference libraries intended principally for use by scholars that every
name appearing upon a title-page, whether as author, editor, translator,
compiler, or adapter, would be noticed and receive an entry, either
in full or by way of cross-reference. But for an average library, and
particularly lending libraries, it would be waste of energy and of space
to adopt this system and fully carry it out. Thus, a work like

    Easy selections adapted from Xenophon; with a vocabulary, notes,
    and a map, by J. Surtees Phillpotts and C. S. Jerram.

would in the former case have references from Phillpotts and Jerram to
Xenophon, under which the principal entry should appear. But in most
cases a single entry will be found ample, as

    XENOPHON. Easy selections; adapted, &c. by Phillpotts and Jerram.

On the other hand, there are famous translations or editions that should
have in every case entries under the translator’s or editor’s name, as

    Chapman, George. Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey.

    Jowett, Benjamin. The Republic of Plato.

These are instances where two principal entries might be given with
advantage, firstly under “Homer” and “Plato,” and secondly under
“Chapman” and “Jowett,” as above.

Almost in the same category come those books which have been revised and
enlarged by an editor to such an extent as to leave but little of the
original author’s work. Sometimes the revision and additions may not be
so extensive, but still be important enough to command a separate entry
under the reviser’s name. Examples of these are

    PRESCOTT, Wm. H. History of the reign of the Emperor Charles V.,
    by Wm. Robertson, extended by W. H. P.

    TILDEN, Wm. A. Watts’ Manual of chemistry. v. 2, Organic
    chemistry. 2nd ed. 1886

these entries being in addition to those under “Robertson” and “Watts.”

=74.=--It occasionally occurs that a prefatory essay or biographical or
critical introduction to a book is of so much value as to be worth a
separate entry, as

    COURTHORPE, Wm. J. Life of Alexander Pope. (Pope’s Works, v. 5.)
    1889

The careful cataloguer will rarely overlook these important points,
though it too often happens that sets of books are lumped into a
catalogue without the least attention to details of this kind, leaving it
incomplete and so making the library less useful.



CHAPTER VIII.

SUBJECT, TITLE, AND SERIES ENTRIES.


=75.=--The form of author-entry, or its equivalent, having been
settled, the subject-entry now commands attention. The importance of
the author-entry is recognised, but it is well known to librarians
that, leaving fiction out of the question, most inquiries are made in
libraries for books upon a particular subject, or for a special class
of literature, rather than for the works of a particular writer, the
people who know many authors not being so numerous as might be supposed.
Therefore it is essential in all cataloguing work that the utmost
attention be paid to the subjects. Every volume dealt with should be
thoroughly examined for the purpose of ascertaining generally the nature
of its contents, and definitely the subject or subjects of which it
treats. This course should be pursued in every case, even if the subject
is so clearly defined upon the title-page that to go beyond the statement
there made would seem to be a sheer waste of time, otherwise the
“pitfalls” that lie in the cataloguer’s way cannot be avoided. Besides,
there may be some particularly valuable feature of the book hidden away
in an appendix, or even a separate book bound up in the same cover, which
the first title-page will not reveal.

=76.=--When the subject of the book has been clearly ascertained, an
entry taken from the book itself or from the principal entry already
written, is made under the name of the direct and definite _subject_ of
the book, not under the class of literature to which it belongs or even
the form in which it is written. It is of the first importance that the
cataloguer should definitely decide the particular subject-name he will
adopt in order to avoid the somewhat common blemish in catalogues of
synonymous headings. Having so decided, it will prevent future mistakes
if a cross-reference is immediately written and sorted into place with
the first lot of slips alphabetized when it at once serves as a pointer
in the right direction by preventing books upon a single subject being
placed under two headings. Thus if the book in hand is

    NEWTH, Samuel. A first book of natural philosophy. pp. viii.,
    136, illus. sm. 8o. 1867

and the cataloguer has decided in favour of the heading “Physics,” he
will at once write a cross-reference

    Natural philosophy. _See_ Physics.

which when put in its alphabetical sequence will point out if slips
have been inadvertently written under “Natural Philosophy” that the
chosen heading is “Physics,” and that the entries must be so altered and
arranged. The subject-entry in this instance would be

    Physics:

        Newth, S. First book of natural philosophy. 1867

It will be here noted that under the subject-heading the author’s
surname leads off as it directs to the principal entry where the fullest
particulars concerning the book are to be found, and consequently it is
most unusual to give the collation, size, and other information in all
sub-entries. It is advisable, however, to give the date of publication
in every entry excepting in the case of works of fiction under the
circumstances referred to in paragraph 24.

=77.=--The forms of subject entries in dictionary catalogues can be much
better shown by means of example with explanations than by statement
alone, and for this reason a number of ordinary books, not selected for
any difficulty they present, are given. These have been fully worked
out in the dictionary system, and are accompanied in each case by the
principal entry, so that the complete series of entries can be seen. The
styles of types in printing commonly made use of to mark distinctions are
also shown.

    ABNEY, W. de W.

        Colour measurement and mixture. (_Romance of science ser._)
        pp. 207, illus. sm. 8o. 1891

    Colour.

        Abney, W. de W. Colour measurement and mixture. 1891

    Romance of Science series:

        Abney, W. de W. Colour measurement and mixture. 1891

    Science.

        _See also_ Romance of science series.

It is an excellent rule to follow that a subject must have at least two
books upon it before it is entitled to a “heading,” such as the second of
the above entries has. In the event of the library possessing but this
one book upon the subject by the time the “copy” has to be sent to the
printer, it would then be reduced to title form, as

    Colour measurement and mixture. Abney, W. de W. 1891

=78.=--The third entry is under the name of the series. Where space is
a consideration, and only brief entries can be given, the cataloguer
can omit either the name of the series from the principal entry and
retain the entries under the title heading of the series, or he may
reverse the process and leave out this third entry, as he may deem most
expedient, but if possible both should be retained, as they afford
useful information--in the first entry showing that the book is one of
a particular series, and thereby giving some idea of its character and
scope, indeed it would not be amiss for the same reason to include it in
the second entry, and the third entry form furnishes a list of the books
of this particular series in the library.

=79.=--BAILLON, Henry E. The natural history of plants; transl. by Marcus
M. Hartog. Illus. 8v. la. 8o. 1871-88

This work should neither be placed under “Natural History” nor “Plants,”
as some might suppose, as its subject is “Botany,” and the further
entries would therefore be

    Botany:

        Baillon, H. E. The natural history of plants. 8v. 1871-88.

    Plants. _See_ Botany.

    HARTOG, Marcus M. (_Transl._) _See_ Baillon, H. E.

Besides the curtailment of information given in the principal entry
already shown, the Christian names of authors are reduced to simple
initials, and the names of translators and editors are omitted in all
sub-entries. It is important to notice the difference between “_See_” and
“_See also_” in cross-references; the first would prevent any entries
being placed under the subject-heading where it is given, as already
stated, but the second is intended to guide to lesser or closely-related
divisions of the subject under which it appears. There may be a number
of these _see alsos_ under a single heading by the time the catalogue is
ready for printing, when they are to be embodied into one entry, as in
the following illustration, where nine are so amalgamated

    Botany.

        _See also_ Algæ. Cryptogamia. Ferns. Flowers. Fungi. Grasses.
        Lichens. Mosses. Trees.

Of course, references of any kind must never be made in anticipation, but
at the moment when the book to which they refer is being catalogued;
otherwise a series of references will be the result that lead nowhere, as
would be the case in the above example if the library had no books upon
Algæ or the other subjects named.

=80.=--TAYLOR, Wm. (_of Norwich_). Historic survey of German poetry.
8 v. 8o. 1828-30

The subject-entries for a book such as this call for careful
consideration. A title-entry under “Historic” is uncalled for, as the
subject is clearly defined in the full title. But a choice of headings
must be made under which the entries are to be given. The mind will waver
between some of these:

    German poetry.

    Poetry, German.

    German literature.

    Literature, German.

    Germany. (Sub-division Literature)

and upon a right decision hangs the usefulness and correctness of the
catalogue, as it is possible that other entries will be affected by it
later. An exact analysis shows that the book is specifically upon the
first-named subject, but it is so clearly a part of the third-named as
to be entitled to come under it in some form, either by way of entry or
cross-reference. It is true that, if treated logically, the book has
no absolute right of inclusion under a heading “German literature,”
inasmuch as it only deals with poetical literature, but it may be taken
for granted that a book with the title of “Historic survey of German
prose” would be placed under such a heading without much questioning; and
therefore, as concentration and convenience count for something, and are
often of more moment than literal exactness, the entries might very well
be

    German literature.

        Taylor, W. Historic survey of German poetry. 8 v. 1828-30.

    German poetry. _See_ German Literature.

Catalogued in strict observance of rule, the entries would be

    German poetry, Historic survey of. Taylor, W. 3 v. 1828-30

with a possible reference:

    German literature.

        _See also_ German poetry.

The second and fourth headings would not be chosen, for the reason that
the book is neither upon “Poetry” nor “Literature” generally or in the
abstract, and it is much better to reserve those headings for books of
that nature or of a miscellaneous kind, putting books upon the literature
of particular countries under their distinctive name. An inquirer wanting
a book upon German literature is more likely to turn to “German” than
to “Literature.” A general cross-reference will put the matter beyond
possibility of mistake, as

    Literature.

        _See also the names of national literatures, as_ English,
        French, German, Greek, Latin.

=81.=--The fifth heading is merely another form of the third heading,
but it is given among the rest because in the larger catalogues of
reference libraries the whole of the books upon a particular country are
often grouped together under the name of the country, these again being
sub-divided for convenience of reference according to the number of
entries under the heading, in divisions like these:

    Antiquities, architecture, and art.

    Description and social life.

    Education.

    History and politics.

    Religion.

    Miscellaneous.

=82.=--The next book coming under notice is

    BOOTH, Wm. (_“General” of the Salvation Army_). In darkest
    England, and the way out. pp. 285, xxxi, frontis. la. 8o. [1890]

Whether a title-entry is needed is open to doubt, but as the title
of the book is enigmatical it is safer to give one. The rule for all
title-entries is to give them under the first word not an article, and it
would accordingly be

    In darkest England. Booth, W. [1890]

but the probability is that nine men out of ten would remember the book
as “Darkest England,” and look for it under “Darkest,” and therefore it
might be more useful if the entry were

    Darkest England, In. Booth, W. [1890]

=83.=--The subject of the book requires that it be entered under whatever
heading may be adopted for the social question, say

    Poor and poor relief.

        Booth, W. In darkest England. [1890]

No entry is called for under “England,” unless everything relating
directly or indirectly to the home-country is to be brought together
under that heading or “Great Britain.” If this is so, and it is to be
faithfully and literally carried out, it will become so large as to need
very elaborate sub-division, and even then, in the catalogue of a British
library at anyrate, its extent will make it of little practical value. In
large catalogues page after page would be filled to no great advantage,
and therefore the best course to adopt is to make the entry under the
exact subject, as shown, ignoring “England” if the book deals with the
country generally and not a particular corner of it. By this plan a book
upon the “Poor of Essex” would be entered both under “Essex” and “Poor,”
but books like

    Ruskin. The art of England.

    Stephen. General view of the criminal law of England.

    Hobkirk. British mosses.

    Fairholt. Costume in England.

    Oliphant. Literary history of England.

    Green. Short history of the English people,

are sufficiently dealt with if, apart from the author-entry, they
appear under “Art,” “Law,” “Mosses,” “Costume,” “English literature,”
and “English history,” respectively, leaving the headings “England” and
“Great Britain” for books _descriptive_ of the country generally and not
some special aspect of it. As already shown, books upon even special
features of _other countries_ should be entered under the name of the
country. In most cases it is also desirable, even necessary, to enter
under the subject likewise. Thus the double subject-entries of books, like

    Griffis. The religions of Japan.

    Perkins. Historical handbook of Italian sculpture.

    Gray. Birds of the West of Scotland.

would be under “Japan” and “Religions,” “Italy” and “Sculpture,” and
“Scotland” and “Birds.” If space cannot be afforded for both entries,
judgment would then have to be exercised in making choice of the best
single subject-heading, and it would be found that for the above the most
useful are “Japan,” “Sculpture,” and “Birds.”

In catalogues of the larger libraries a heading like “Birds” would
have so many items to it that it should be sub-divided to facilitate
reference, first the books upon birds generally, followed by those upon
the birds of particular countries or localities like that above-named
upon the birds of the West of Scotland. The arrangement under the
general division would be alphabetically by authors, but it has been
found convenient to arrange the “local” by the name of the place, also
alphabetically, after this manner

    Birds.

                         _Countries and local._

        Africa, South, Birds of. Layard, E. L.

        Asia, Birds of. Gould, J.

        British. Our rarer birds. Dixon, C.

            History of British birds. Seebohm, H.

        Scotland. Birds of the W. of Scotland. Gray, R.

=84.=--The desirability, or otherwise, of using scientific terms for
subject-headings in catalogues is governed altogether by the people
for whom the library is intended. In a library used by all classes of
the community, the simpler and more widely known term is the best,
and therefore “Birds” is preferable to “Ornithology,” “Fishes” to
“Ichthyology,” and “Insects” to “Entomology.” In a library of a college
or scientific institution the reverse method would possibly prove
the best, but it is essential that perfect uniformity be maintained
whatever form is decided upon, as it would be somewhat ridiculous to
use scientific terms in some cases and popular names in others. The
cross-reference comes in most usefully in any style of catalogue as it
removes all doubt, thus

    Ornithology. _See_ Birds.

Catalogues compiled upon very exact lines occasionally reserve the
popular name for books of a popular or miscellaneous nature, and the
scientific for those intended for the scientist, but the dividing line
between the two classes of books cannot always be clearly seen, and it is
much better to bring all together under the same heading, marking there
any differences in the character of the books by means of sub-division.

In some few instances the use of the scientific term is unavoidable
as there may be no popular name that meets the case. For example, it
would not be correct to put a book upon the fresh-water algæ under a
heading “Sea-weeds,” and a book upon the _tunicata_ cannot be put under
any other name. The fact may be again emphasised that in a dictionary
catalogue a book is entered under its _definite_ subject and never under
its class or general subject. Thus a book like

    White, W. F. Ants and their ways,

does not go under “Insects,” or even “Hymenoptera,” but directly under
“Ants,” though such a book as

    Lubbock, Sir John. Ants, bees, and wasps.

would be sufficiently entered in the catalogue of a scientific library,
if placed under “Hymenoptera,” but in the catalogue of a popular library
should go under all three names, “Ants,” “Bees,” and “Wasps,” just as a
book like

    Meyrick, E. British lepidoptera.

is better placed under “Butterflies” and “Moths” with a cross-reference

    Lepidoptera. _See_ Butterflies. Moths.

It would be a waste of space, however, to enter a work so comprehensive
in character as

    Bath, W. H. Ants, bees, dragon-flies, earwigs, crickets and flies.

under each of these as, even though it omits the butterflies, moths, and
beetles, it would be well enough dealt with if entered under “Insects.”

As it is a well-understood principle that a book must be entered under
the exact subject of which it treats, so a work upon the natural history
of animals while coming within the popular notion of “natural history,”
and may be so called by its author, as

    Lydekker, Richard (_Ed._) The royal natural history. Illus. 6 v.
    la. 8o. 1893-6

yet from the cataloguer’s standpoint it would not be altogether correct
to enter it under “Natural History,” as that term is properly held to
include the flora as well as fauna, and therefore the heading should be
either “Zoology” or “Animals.” This last term is frequently reserved for
books dealing only with animals, and apart from birds, reptiles, etc.,
and for books upon animals, not written from the naturalist’s point of
view. Correctness is again ensured by cross-references, as

    Natural history of animals. _See_ Zoology.

    Animals, Natural history of. _See_ Zoology.

=85.=--The next books are selected for the purpose of showing the
difference in treatment of works similar in character:

    Milman, Henry H., _Dean_. Annals of S. Paul’s Cathedral. 2nd ed.
    pp. xiv, 540, ports., illus. 8o. 1869

    Loftie, W. J. Kensington Palace, pp. 76, illus. 8o. 1898

    Hiatt, Charles. The Cathedral Church of Chester. (_Bell’s
    Cathedral ser._) pp. viii, 96, illus. sm. 8o. 1897

    Routledge, C. F. The Church of St. Martin, Canterbury. pp. 101,
    illus. sm. 8o. 1898

Those upon buildings of a more national than local character situated in
London are entered under the name of the buildings and not the locality,
as

    St. Paul’s Cathedral.

        Milman, H. H. Annals of S. Paul’s Cathedral. 1869

unless the locality is embodied in the title as

    Kensington Palace. Loftie, W. J. 1898

Neither of these books should be placed under a heading “London,” but a
cross-reference may be given:

    London.

        _See also the names of buildings, as_ Kensington Palace, St.
        Paul’s Cathedral.

The other books should lead off with the name of the place where the
building is situated, though not entered under the place-heading, as they
are not books upon Chester or Canterbury. Therefore the form is

    Chester, The Cathedral Church of. Hiatt, C. 1897

    Canterbury, The Church of St. Martin. Routledge, C. F. 1898

or in shorter fashion:

    Chester Cathedral. Hiatt, C. 1897

    Canterbury, St. Martin’s Church. Routledge, C. F. 1898

Upon the same principle a history of a London parish is not entered under
“London,” but under its particular name with a cross-reference from
London to the places, as

    London.

        _See also the names of parishes, as_ Chelsea, Kensington,
        Southwark, Westminster.

Monographs upon buildings of national importance in foreign countries are
however always entered under the name of the city where situated and not
under the name of the building. Works upon St. Mark’s, Venice, or Notre
Dame de Paris being entered under Venice and Paris respectively, as

    Venice, St. Mark’s.

    Paris, Notre Dame.

To give heed to details of this kind is not “hair-splitting,” as the
novice may be disposed to imagine--it is the very essence of good
cataloguing. Even with most careful attention the cataloguer may well
congratulate himself if at the conclusion of his work, and especially
when in print, it comes out faultless, because the perfect catalogue
absolutely free from error has not yet been seen.



CHAPTER IX.

SUBJECT, TITLE, AND SERIES ENTRIES (_continued_).


=86.=--There remain other varieties of double or treble entries to
consider. A book such as

    BAKER, W. R.

        Intemperance the idolatry of Britain. 3rd ed. pp. 62. sm. 8o.
        n.d.

has no appearance of difficulty, as it is so obviously upon intemperance,
but the question of concentration of books _pro_ and _con_ upon such a
subject as this must be looked into. It is most undesirable to send an
inquirer to a number of headings to find all the books upon the “drink
question.” To effectively group them together, developes the heading into
a class rather than subject, but even so, it has more justification than
the grouping of say “Natural history” would have, because it is more
distinctly a single subject regarded from several standpoints, and while
“temperance” cannot be “intemperance,” yet to bring the two aspects of
the question together adds more to the utility of the catalogue than to
separate books with these words upon their title-pages under different
headings. In looking into this matter, the subject was followed up in
a good catalogue compiled upon strictly orthodox lines, and was found
up and down under headings like Alcohol, Drink, Inebriety, Teetotalism,
Temperance, Total Abstinence, Licensed Victuallers, Public Houses, Sunday
Drinking. Most of the books under these various headings might have been
brought together with advantage under a general term-heading like “Drink
question,” with cross-references from the other topics to bind the whole
together beyond possibility of mistake. There are other questions that
admit of concentration in this way, as for example books upon Free Trade,
Fair Trade, Reciprocity, and Protection can all safely be entered under
“Free Trade” with references from the others.

Some books, on the other hand, must have several entries, as

    Ruddock, E. H. Modern medicine and surgery on homœopathic
    principles. 1874

requires three entries, viz., under “Medicine,” “Surgery,” “Homœopathy.”
The only method of avoiding this would be to enter the book under
“Homœopathy,” with cross-references from the other headings, as

    Medicine. _See also_ Homœopathy.

In a small general library it would be possible to bring together all
books upon subjects so closely allied as medicine and surgery under that
heading, with a cross-reference,

    Surgery. _See also_ Medicine and surgery.

Another example of a book needing several entries, is

    Garner, R. L. Gorillas and chimpanzees.

As this is not a work upon Monkeys generally, or even upon Apes, the
correct procedure is to enter it under “Gorillas” and “Chimpanzees”
respectively, as

    Gorillas.

        Garner, R. L. Gorillas and chimpanzees.

In a small library there would most likely be other books upon Gorillas,
but hardly a second upon Chimpanzees, therefore the second entry would be

    Chimpanzees, Gorillas and. Garner, R. L.

To bring this book fully under the notice of those interested in the
monkey tribe cross-references are necessary. Presuming that there were
already entries under “Monkeys” (generally) and “Apes” (particularly),
then all the entries would be bound together by

    Monkeys.

        _See also_ Apes.

    Apes.

        _See also_ Gorillas.

No cross-reference being called for to “Chimpanzees,” as they are
included in the title of the book under “Gorillas.” In the event,
however, of there being a second book upon Chimpanzees, then the
cross-reference becomes

    Apes.

        _See also_ Chimpanzees. Gorillas.

=87.=--At the risk of repetition, and to make the matter clear, it may be
again stated that a book must not be entered under every important word
appearing upon its title-page. There is much rule-of-thumb cataloguing
done that would cause a book like

    Ihering, Rudolph von. The evolution of the Aryan,

to be entered under “Evolution,” whereas not even a title-entry under the
word “evolution” is required, and the single subject-entry is

    Aryans, The

        Ihering, R. von. The evolution of the Aryan.

It may be considered unnecessary advice to say that a book so
unmistakably upon the Aryan peoples should not be put under “Evolution,”
when the accepted meaning of that term as a subject has nothing to do
with it, yet there are catalogues at present in force of important town
libraries with much worse forms. One has a heading “Natural history,”
under which there are sixteen items that include such diverse matters
as “Natural method of curing diseases,” “Natural theology,” “Natural
philosophy,” “Nature and art,” “Drawing from nature,” because the word
“natural” or “nature” happened to occur in the titles of the books.
Another has a heading “School, Schoolmasters, and Schools,” which
includes Molière’s “School for wives” and his “School for husbands.” Any
number of examples equally ridiculous could be quoted from present-day
catalogues to prove the contention that this is a common form of error.
Therefore the advice to “get at the subject of the book, and never
mind the particular words used on the title-page,” cannot be too often
impressed upon the cataloguer.

=88.=--Books in a number of languages dealing with a single subject must
all be entered under the English name for that subject. Books like

    Kohlrausch, F. Kurze Darstellung der deutschen Geschichte. 1864

    Green, S. G. Pictures from the German fatherland. n.d.

    Breton, J. Notes d’un étudiant français en Allemagne. 1895

are to be found entered in a catalogue under Deutschen, Germany, and
Allemagne, without a single binding reference. Another has books upon
the United States under America, États-Unis, and United States. In one
catalogue there is a reference in the following form:

    États-Unis--_see_ L’Univers,

which is most flattering to our American cousins. In this connection
it should be observed that references of this kind are quite wrong. In
the first place there is no occasion for a reference or entry of any
kind under “États-Unis” in an English catalogue, and in the second the
principle of referring from a lesser to a greater subject is incorrect;
the reference must always be from a greater to a lesser. In the same
catalogue there are numbers of references from subjects to authors,
which are also wrong in principle, as a reference should never be given
in this form:

    Indigestion. _See_ Douglas (Dr. Jas.),

or its reverse, equally erroneous:

    Duncan, Dr. Andrew. _See_ Consumption,

otherwise the curious humour of references of this kind will soon show
itself. In both cases entries were required and not references. Therefore
the only references to be used are

    (1) Subject to subject (connected or synonymous only).

    (2) Greater subject to lesser division of the same subject.

    (3) Author to author (joint-authors).

    (4) Translator, editor, or compiler to author.

    (5) Translator, editor, or compiler to title not containing
    the name of an author or not treated as author (as editor of a
    series).

=89.=--The next illustration is

    GARNETT, Richard.

        Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson. (_Great writers._) pp. 300, xiv.
        sm. 8o. 1888

            With a bibliography by John P. Anderson.

No entry is needed under the word “Life,” or under “Biographies,” as that
is a class-heading and not a subject, and the book goes under the name of
its direct subject, making a heading of it, as the library will contain
Emerson’s works as well as other biographies of him, as

    Emerson, Ralph W.

        Garnett, R. Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson. (_Great writers._) 1888


An entry is required under the name of the series, and to be strictly
accurate the name of the author should lead, as

    Great writers; ed. by Eric S. Robertson.

    (_Note_:--Each volume contains a bibliography of the subject by
    John P. Anderson.)

        Garnett, R. Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson. 1888

though it will be found more useful in the case of a series of a
biographical nature to lead off with the subject, instead of the author,
as

    Great writers:

        Emerson, Ralph Waldo, by R. Garnett. 1888

References to complete the matter fully may be given as

    Robertson, Eric S. (_Ed._) _See_ Great writers (series).

    Anderson, John P. _See_ Great writers (series).

In case of series like the Bampton, Hulsean, and Hibbert Lectures, the
most convenient method is to arrange them in chronological order of the
delivery of the lectures (not the date of publication) after this style:

    Bampton Lectures:

        1876. Alexander. The witness of the Psalms to Christ and
        Christianity. 1877

        1880. Hatch. The organization of the early Christian
        churches. 1888

        1891. Gore. The incarnation. 1891

The question is raised now and then as to whether it is worth while
giving the list of works forming a series under the first word, other
than an article, of the title of the series instead of under some other
leading word. There is no occasion to lay down a hard and fast rule in
the matter, but all things considered, it will be found safer to treat
all series in the manner indicated and to enter them uniformly under this
first word as Great artists, Great writers, Story of the nations, Leaders
of religion, International scientific series, under “Great,” “Story,”
“Leaders,” and “International” respectively rather than under “Artists,”
“Writers,” “Nations,” “Religion,” or “Scientific.” The fact cannot be
overlooked that the entry is only given because it is a series-entry
and not as a make-shift form of subject-entry, and for this very reason
it would be as erroneous to enter all the series of “Great artists”
under the subject-heading “Artists” as to put the “Leaders of religion”
under “Religion.” The difficulty is fully met by cross-references where
required, as

    Science. _See also_ International scientific series.

    Authors. _See also_ Great writers (series).

    Scots, Famous (series). _See_ Famous Scots.

If the series-entry is to be converted into a semi-subject entry, it
should be by the simple transposition of the title of the series and then
kept altogether apart from the subject-heading.

In a library catalogue, as distinct from a bookseller’s, it is only those
series of a special and limited character that receive entries under
the names of the series, and this form should not be extended so as to
include long lists of books in series under publisher’s names, as Weale’s
series, Pitt Press series, Macmillan’s Manuals for students. Where very
full information is given, these names may be added to the principal
entry and not carried further.

=90.=--Already it has been stated that in many libraries it is of the
utmost importance that a catalogue should be compiled with short entries
and within narrow limits so as to reduce both the size and the cost of
production. To do this judiciously does not interfere in the least with
the principles of good and adequate cataloguing, care only being required
in curtailing the entries so as not to lose their correct character.
The majority of readers in popular libraries are little concerned with
precise bibliographical information provided they get a list of the books
by the author, or upon the subject they want. The title of Dr. Garnett’s
book mentioned above can, for example, be shortened into entries like
these:--

    Garnett, Richard. Life of Ralph W. Emerson. 1888

    Emerson, Ralph W.

        Garnett, R. Life of Emerson 1888

    Great writers:

        Emerson, by R. Garnett. 1888

The references from Robertson and Anderson can be dispensed with.
Shorter entries than the foregoing would not be looked for, and would be
worthless. Very brief entries imply little or no information, as witness
the following _complete_ entries from the catalogue of a large library:

    “Church’s Lament.”

    Conspiracy. Ritualistic.

    Workhouse. Union. Bowen.

=91.=--The next illustration is taken to further show the method of
regarding a book for its subject-entry:

    SAINTSBURY, George.

        A history of Elizabethan literature. 1887

This is neither a book upon literature generally nor in the abstract, nor
upon English literature as a whole, but only upon a particular period
of it. Such a book could very properly be placed under “Elizabethan
literature” with a reference from “English literature.” It might even
go under the name of Elizabeth where all books pertaining to her reign
in every particular could be gathered, but this is not so satisfactory.
After all the most useful place for a book of this kind would be under
“English literature,” and its inclusion could be better justified if the
books under such a heading were sub-divided, if sufficient in number,
into periods arranged chronologically as a heading like “English History”
is often usefully divided. This would necessitate a cross-reference like

    Elizabethan literature. _See_ English literature.

To further illustrate this point it may be said that a book like

    BREWER, J. S.

        The reign of Henry VIII. 2 v. 8o. 1884

is better treated in the reverse way and entered under the name of the
monarch, in common with other books of a strictly historical nature
dealing with a particular reign. In the first case the book is thought
to be more usefully catalogued as a contribution to the larger subject
of “English literature,” and in the second the book is looked upon as
being more particularly concerned with Henry VIII. than with “English
history”--hence the difference in the treatment. In this last instance
the safe-guarding cross-reference is

    English History.

        _For the histories of particular reigns see under the names
        of monarchs, as_ Charles I., Henry VIII., Victoria.

=92.=--The following group is given (in brief form) in order to show the
difference of treatment of books apparently alike in subject:

    Farrar, F. W., _Dean_ (_Ed._) With the poets.

    James, Henry. French poets and novelists.

    Johnson, Samuel. Lives of the English poets.

    Keats, John. Poetical works.

    Shairp, J. C. Aspects of poetry.

    Sharp, Wm. Life of Shelley.

    Tennyson, Lord. Demeter and other poems.

The first entry would be placed under a heading “Poems,” because it is
an anthology. This heading “Poems” should be reserved for collections of
miscellaneous poems by many authors and would not include a book like
the Keats, which should be entered under the name of the author only.
It does not require any entry under “Poetical works,” as that is simply
a form, and can no more be justified than a heading “Prose works” could
be. If, however, the book has a definite title, like the Tennyson, then a
title-entry must be given as

    Demeter and other poems. Tennyson, Lord.

Librarians sometimes consider it necessary to give a series of references
under the heading “Poems” or “Poetry” to the names of the authors
represented in the catalogue, but this is on an equality with the
practice of grouping all the fiction under a heading “Novels.” These
being class-headings are not strictly accurate but, no doubt, are a
convenience to a section of readers. So much cannot be said for all such
grouping in a dictionary catalogue, and it is better to avoid it if
possible. A catalogue of a very important library has a heading “Essays,”
under which an attempt has been made to enter all books written in the
form of essays, as well as with the word “essay” upon the title-pages,
and the result is a mere jumble of titles, absolutely useless, including
as it does works so widely apart in character as Baring Gould’s _Old
country life_, Barrie’s _Auld licht idylls_, Doran’s _In and about
Drury Lane_, and Lang’s _Books and bookmen_. To attempt this in a
classified catalogue would be bad enough, but in a dictionary catalogue
it shows that the first principles governing its compilation are wholly
misunderstood.

The book by Henry James would be fitly placed under “French literature”
and the words “poets” and “novelists” ignored. Dr. Johnson’s book should
go under “Poets,” together with any other lives of poets in collected
form, but the life of an individual poet, like that of Shelley, would not
be so entered, as lives of individuals are entered under their names,
and not under the class to which they belong. Shairp’s book being upon
“Poetry” in the abstract would accordingly go under that heading, as
would any book of a miscellaneous character upon poetry which could not
well be placed under a more definite subject-heading.

=93.=--Sometimes in the case of biographies it will be found unnecessary
to give both author and subject-entries because the biographies are
written or edited by a son or other relative bearing the same name, and
accordingly both entries come together in the catalogue, therefore, while
it is quite correct to give both entries, yet one suffices. If the single
entry is adopted it is better to make choice of the subject for the
entry, not the author, as

    Stokes, William: his life and works, 1804-1878, by his son [Sir]
    Wm. Stokes. (_Masters of medicine._) 1898

=94.=--Volumes of sermons are dealt with in the same manner as poetical
works, avoiding, as far as possible, an entry under the form “Sermons.”
An illustration is

    Kingsley, Charles. All Saints’ Day, and other sermons. 1890

    ⸻ The gospel of the Pentateuch: sermons. 1890

    ⸻ Sermons on national subjects. 2v. 1872

    ⸻ Sermons for the times. 1890

    ⸻ Village sermons. 1890

The first and last of these simply require title-entries, as

    All Saints’ Day, and other sermons. Kingsley, C. 1890

    Village sermons. Kingsley, C. 1890

The second, instead of receiving a title-entry, is better placed as a
contribution to its subject, as

    Pentateuch, The.

        Kingsley, C. The gospel of the Pentateuch: sermons. 1890

The third and fourth will also require title-entries unless there happens
to be a general reference under the word, “Sermons,” after this fashion

    Sermons. _For volumes of sermons with specific titles or upon
    definite subjects see those titles and subjects. Books with the
    general title of sermons will be found under the names of the
    following authors_:

    (Here follows a list of the names, including Kingsley.)

If this form is not considered suitable then there is no alternative but
to give title-entries, because a heading cannot be correctly made. The
form then is:

    Sermons. Le Bas, C. W. 2 v. 1828

    Sermons for the times. Kingsley, C. 1890

    Sermons in the East. Stanley, A. P. 1863

    Sermons on national subjects. Kingsley, C. 2v. 1872

The arrangement is alphabetically by the words of the titles as in the
case of any other title-entries, and not by the names of the authors.

=95.=--Dramas, Dramatic Works, are also forms calling for similar
treatment to Poems, Essays, or Sermons. Collections of letters by
individuals are simply entered under the names of the writers with
references from the editors.

=96.=--There is a form of entry occasionally seen in catalogues that is
so obviously absurd that it scarcely needs to be more than referred to,
viz., a heading “Pamphlets.” Here, presumably, all the thin or unbound
books in a library are entered. Under an arrangement of this description,
work should be facilitated, as but two headings would be requisite--one
“Books” and the other “Pamphlets”--the dividing line between the two to
be fixed by the number of pages.

Almost in a line with such a ridiculous heading is the lazy cataloguer’s
method of taking volumes consisting of a number of pamphlets bound
together, whether upon the self-same subject or as many different
subjects as there are pamphlets in the volumes, and lumping them with
entries like these:

    Miscellaneous pamphlets. v.d.

    Pamphlets, Miscellaneous. 37 v. v.d.

    Sermons, Miscellaneous. v.d.

    Political pamphlets. v.d.

Of course, each pamphlet must be dealt with in precisely the same way
as if it were a separate book, the fact that it is a thin book not
entering into the question, unless it happens to be of so very trifling
or ephemeral a character as to be unworthy of an entry, when it should
either be withdrawn from the library (unless the fact of its being bound
up with others prevents) or properly catalogued.

=97.=--The prolix titles of many pamphlets, especially the polemical
tracts of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, often need
abbreviation. For example:

    The succession of Solomon to the throne of David consider’d in a
    sermon on the occasion of the sudden death of His Majesty King
    George I., June 18, 1727, by Thomas Bradbury. 2nd ed. 1727

may very well be cut down to

    Bradbury, Thomas. Sermon on the death of George I. 1727

and

    An ordinance of the Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament,
    together with rules and directions concerning suspention from
    the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper in cases of ignorance and
    scandall; also the names of such ministers and others that are
    appointed triers and judges of the ability of elders within the
    province of London. 1645

may be safely curtailed in most cases to

    Lord’s Supper. An ordinance of Parliament, with rules and
    directions concerning suspention from the sacrament. pp. ii., 14.
    sm. 4o. 1645

Pamphlets are frequently collected and stored in libraries for some
special reason--perhaps because they are of local interest--when this
fact should be brought out in the catalogue. Accordingly a pamphlet
entitled

    A sermon preached in Chelsea Church at the funeral of the Hon.
    Mrs. Elizabeth Roberts, by Thomas Knaggs. 1710

would be entered under

    Chelsea Church, Sermon preached in, at the funeral of the Hon.
    Mrs. Eliz. Roberts. Knaggs, T. 1710

this entry being additional to that under “Knaggs” and another under
“Roberts,” if the person happened to be of some local importance in her
day.



CHAPTER X.

TITLE-ENTRIES AND REPETITION DASHES.


=98.=--The extent to which title-entries, as distinct from
subject-entries, are called for in a dictionary catalogue has in some
measure been already shown. Works of fiction, plays, poems, volumes of
essays, and sometimes sermons, nearly all demand such entries, they being
for the most part sought for by their titles. Examples of each of these
are

    Far from the madding crowd. Hardy, T.

    Michael and his lost angel: a play. Jones, H. A.

    Aurora Leigh: poem. Browning, E. B. 1890

    Obiter dicta. Birrell, A. 2v. 1887-96

    Discipline, and other sermons. Kingsley, C. 1890

These are apart from the title-as-subject entries, such as

    Miners and their works underground. Holmes, F. M. n.d.

    Moravian Church, Short history of the. Hutton, J. E. 1895.

There are very few books outside the above classes that really require
title-entries, and, as a rule, this feature of cataloguing is overdone.
Books like

    Finck, H. T. Lotos-time in Japan. 1895

    Hollingshead, John. My lifetime. 2 v. 1895

    Adams, W. H. D. The Maid of Orleans. 1889

    Marsh, George P. Lectures on the English language. 1874

do not require entries under “Lotos,” “My Lifetime,” “Maid of Orleans,”
or “Lectures,” besides those necessary under “Japan,” “Hollingshead,”
“Joan of Arc,” and “English language,” yet it is quite customary to see
such entries.

=99.=--It must be carefully noted that in title-entries the articles (A,
An, The) are absolutely ignored, and any other first word is the leading
word under which the entry is to be given. It is often desirable to
include the article, especially the definite article, in such entry, when
it must be got in as soon as it can be consistent with sense and sound,
or at the end of the phrase, as

    Guardian angel, The. _Not_ Guardian, The, angel.

    Clyde, The, to the Jordan. _Not_ Clyde to the Jordan, The.

    Noble life, A. _Not_ Noble, A, life.

    Evil, The genesis of. _Not_ Evil, genesis of, The.

The articles are occasionally left out of such entries as

    Guardian angel.

    Clyde to the Jordan.

    Noble life.

    Evil, Genesis of.

but this applies only to the article preceding the first word of the
title and _no other_.

    Chariot of the flesh, The.

cannot be correctly entered as

    Chariot of flesh.

The general omission of the leading article means very little, if any,
saving of space, and has a bald effect, reading often like the wording of
a telegram. Besides losing the clearness which its inclusion gives, it
may alter the sense, as

    Day’s ride. _Is not the same as_ Day’s ride, A.

    Phyllis of the Sierras. _Is not the same as_ Phyllis, A, of the
    Sierras.

    Soldier born. _Is not the same as_ Soldier born, A.

In transposing the article or any other leading word from the beginning
of the title the capital initial letter must be retained, as shown in the
above entries, and not in this way,

    Animal’s friend, the.

    Priestcraft, popular history of.

    Primeval life, relics of.

In order to prevent a break in the alphabetical sequence, the articles
are sometimes transposed under the authors’ names, as

    “Hobbes, John Oliver.”

    ⸻ Bundle of life, A.

    ⸻ Herb-moon, The.

    ⸻ Sinner’s comedy, The.

but so little is gained by this form of entry that it hardly compensates
for the awkwardness of it.

It is incorrect in any form, author or title, to leave out the article
in foreign languages, and to do so can only be justified by usage rather
than exactness. As in English the entry-word is never under the article,
as

    Petite paroisse, La. _Not_ La petite paroisse.

    Aventure d’amour, Une. _Not_ Une aventure d’amour.

    Karavane, Die. _Not_ Die Karavane.

=100.=--Many works of fiction with proper names in their titles are
better known by those names, and are rarely looked for under the first
word of the title. Books so well known as,

    The personal history of David Copperfield.

    Mr. Midshipman Easy.

    History of Pendennis.

    Confessions of Harry Lorrequer.

    Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.

will oftener be sought for under “David,” “Midshipman,” “Pendennis,”
“Harry,” and “Huckleberry,” than “Personal,” “Mr.” “History,”
“Confessions,” “Adventures,” therefore judgment should be exercised,
and either a single entry given under the most likely place, or both
title-entries given. If space is a consideration always omit the
less-known entry. It will be seen that names in fiction are never
regarded as real names, and entries must not be given under the surnames
as “Copperfield,” “Easy,” “Lorrequer,” “Finn.”

=101.=--For the sake of brevity title-entries are sometimes given with
the surname only of the author, after this manner

    Two hundred pounds reward, by Payn.

    Two in the bush, by Moore.

    Two kisses, by Smart.

    Two little wooden shoes, by Ouida.

and occasionally in this style:

    Afloat and ashore. Cooper.

    Afloat in the forest. Reid.

    After dark. Collins.

In works of fiction like these there is no very great objection to the
plan other than the bald appearance of the entries, but to carry it into
effect with all other title and subject entries is to revert to the dark
ages of cataloguing. The following selected specimens prove that such
entries can have very little value for the uninitiated. The complete
entry other than the shelf mark is given:

    Holland, Through. By Wood.

    Horace. By Martin.

    Childs, George W. (1874). Grosart.

    Christ, With (Sermon). Kemble.

    Church, Of the (1847). Field.

    Electricity. By Ferguson.

    Epic of Hades. By Morris.

    Essays. By Cowley.

    Faraday. By Gladstone.

=102.=--This leads to the matter of repetition dashes, to which some
reference has already been made in paragraph 59 upon the author-entry,
and no better advice can be given to the young cataloguer than that to
_avoid repetition dashes wherever possible_, and, at most, only use them
in one of the following instances:

    _a._ To save repeating an author’s name in author-entry (as
    already illustrated) or under subject-heading.

    _b._ To save repeating a title-entry or title-as-subject-entry
    where a second copy or another edition of the _same_ work is
    entered.

    _c._ To save repeating a subject-heading.

Illustrations of the second form are

    Condé, Princes de, History of the. Aumale, Duc d’. 2 v. 1872

    ⸻ (French ed.) 2 v. 1863-4

    Food and feeding. Thompson, Sir H. 1891

    ⸻ (Enlarged ed.) 1898

    Household of Sir Thomas More. Manning, A. 1887

    ⸻ (Illus. ed.) 1896

and of the third form:

    Insanity.

    ⸻ Hill, R. G. Insanity, its past and present. 1870

    ⸻ Maudsley, H. The pathology of mind. 1895

but most cataloguers are dispensing with this form, as the indent under
the heading is sufficient to denote that all the entries belong to such
heading. If it is used, a second dash will occasionally be needed in
cases similar to this:

    Ireland.

    ⸻ Froude, J. A. The English in Ireland in the 18th century. 3
    v. 1886.

    ⸻ ⸻ Ireland since the Union. 1886.

    ⸻ Hickson, M. Ireland in the 17th century. 2 v. 1884.

Nothing is lost by avoiding this dash under headings, and some find that
the indent alone, even under author’s names, is so clear that the dash
can be altogether discarded, and that this will be no disadvantage the
following typical and genuine examples of what has been sarcastically
called the “dot and dash system” of cataloguing will show:

    China Painting. By Florence Lewis.

    ⸻ Old highways in. By Williamson.

    English Church Composers. By Barrett.

    ⸻ ⸻ History of the. By Perry.

    Law and the Lady: a Novel. By Collins.

    ⸻ International. By Levi.

    ⸻ Physical and Moral, Difference between. By Arthur.

    ⸻ Reign of. By Argyll.

    ⸻ Science of. By Amos.

    Moors, The, and the Fens. By Mrs. Riddell.

    ⸻ ⸻ in Spain. By S. L. Poole.

    Workshop Appliances. By Shelley.

    ⸻ Receipts for the Use of Manufacturers, Mechanics, and
    Scientific Amateurs. By Spon

    ⸻ ⸻ ⸻ ⸻ ⸻ ⸻ ⸻ ⸻ ⸻ ⸻ ⸻ _Second
    series._ By Haldane.

These are quite as absurd in their way as that from a recent index to
publishers’ catalogues, viz.:

    Lead, Silver and.

    ⸻ Kindly Light.

and attention is drawn to them simply for the purpose of showing how
ridiculous such entries can be made, and that they are more hindrance
than help to the users of a catalogue needs no further demonstration.
Therefore it can be confidently recommended to the cataloguer to make a
very limited use of these dashes, in all cases of doubt it being much
better to repeat the word. The eleven dashes under “Workshop” above are
unnecessary, and the proper form of entry is:

    Workshop appliances. Shelley, C. P. B. 1885

    Workshop receipts for the use of manufacturers, &c. Spon, E. 1885

    ⸻ (Second ser.) Haldane, R. 1885



CHAPTER XI.

INDEXING CONTENTS.


=103.=--The mode of setting-out the contents of books of a miscellaneous
or collective character has been referred to in sections 61-62 and
it has been pointed out that frequently an essay or article is more
useful--even more valuable--than a whole book, as it may give the pith
of the matter it deals with, and be sufficiently full for the needs of
most people. Under these circumstances, it is most desirable that not
only shall each subject-heading in a catalogue have all the books in the
library set out under it, but also portions of books, within reasonable
limits. How far these limits are to extend is a nice question, and it
is certainly one that demands the consideration of English librarians,
with a view to co-operation in the production of a work upon the lines
of the _“A. L. A.” Index: an index to general literature, by Wm. I.
Fletcher, with the coöperation of many librarians_ (Boston, 1893), to
fill the place for this class of literature that Poole’s and other
indexes do for periodical literature. The “A.L.A. Index” is distinctly
American, and does not fit in so well with the collections in English
libraries, though its value cannot be gainsaid. Pending the settlement
of this question librarians must do what they can to open up for the use
of their readers the valuable material hidden away in volumes of essays
and others of a miscellaneous character. All the rules previously laid
down for cataloguing come into application in dealing with books of this
kind, because they sometimes consist of sections by a number of authors
upon one subject, or of many authors upon many subjects, or by a single
author on many subjects. The method usually employed of completely
carrying out this indexing is shown in the following series of examples:

    STEVENSON, Robert L. Familiar studies of men and books. 3rd ed.
    pp. xxi., 397. sm. 8o. 1888

        _Contents_:--Preface, by way of criticism. Victor Hugo’s
        romances. Some aspects of Robert Burns. Walt Whitman. H.
        D. Thoreau: his character and opinions. Yoshida-Torajiro.
        François Villon, student, poet, and housebreaker. Charles of
        Orleans. Samuel Pepys. John Knox and women.

    Hugo, Victor.

        Stevenson, R. L. Victor Hugo’s romances. (Men and books.) 1888

    Burns, Robert.

        Stevenson, R. L. Some aspects of Robert Burns. (Men and books.)
        1888

    Whitman, Walt.

        Stevenson, R. L. Walt Whitman. (Men and books.) 1888

    Thoreau, Henry D.

        Stevenson, R. L. Thoreau: his character and opinions. (Men and
        books.) 1888

    Yoshida-Torajiro. Stevenson, R. L. (Men and books.) 1888

    Villon, François, student, poet, and housebreaker. Stevenson, R. L.
    (Men and books.) 1888

    Charles of Orleans. Stevenson, R. L. (Men and books.) 1888

    Pepys, Samuel.

        Stevenson, R. L. Samuel Pepys. (Men and books.) 1888

    Knox, John.

        Stevenson, R. L. John Knox and women. (Men and books.) 1888

The sixth, seventh, and eighth entries are in title form, upon the
presumption that the library will have no other items upon these persons
or books by them. The remainder are headings, because the probability is
that there will be other books by or upon these authors.

There are alternative methods of treating books of this nature. It has
already been said that the list of contents can be omitted under the
principal entry, and thereby effect a slight saving. It would also
be quite possible to give only the title of the whole book under the
subject-heading, omitting the title of the particular essay or article, as

    Hugo, Victor.

        Stevenson, R. L. Men and books. 1888

The fact that the entry is given under Hugo would show that there was
something in the book about him, but not that it concerned his romances
only. There is also the reverse process of giving simply the title of the
essay, as

    Hugo, Victor.

        Stevenson, R. L. Victor Hugo’s romances. 1888

The disadvantage of this form is that it would be taken for a whole book
instead of an essay, but this difficulty could be got over by inserting
the explanatory word “essay,” as

    Hugo, Victor.

        Stevenson, R. L. Victor Hugo’s romances [essay.] 1888

There is also the cross-reference form, like

    Hugo, Victor.

        _See also_ Stevenson, R. L. Men and books.

which is the least desirable because it is vague and also extravagant so
far as space is concerned.

The next illustration is

    COLLINS, John Churton.

        Essays and studies. pp. xii, 369. la. 8o. 1895

            _Contents_:--John Dryden. The predecessors of Shakspeare.
            Lord Chesterfield’s Letters. The Porson of Shaksperian
            criticism. Menander.

The fact that these essays are principally reviews of books necessitates
a consideration of their interest in this respect as well as that which
attaches to their value as contributions to the subjects, and after
examination it will be found that the essays are best placed under
“Dryden,” “Symonds, J. A.”; “Chesterfield”; “Theobald, Lewis”; and
“Menander,” in this manner:

    Dryden, John.

        Collins, J. C. John Dryden. (Essays and studies.) 1895

    Symonds, J. A.

        Collins, J. C. The predecessors of Shakspeare. (Essays and
        studies.) 1895

            A review of Symonds’ work on this subject.

If it were thought necessary to give the second and fourth essays under
“Shakespeare” also, they could be amalgamated into one entry in this form:

    Shakespeare, William.

        Collins, J. C. The predecessors of Shakspeare. The Porson of
        Shakspearian criticism. (Essays and studies.) 1895

A further book of the kind is

    NOBLE, J. Ashcroft.

        The sonnet in England, and other essays. pp. x, 211. sm. 8o.
        1893

            _Contents_:--The sonnet in England. A pre-Raphaelite
            magazine. Leigh Hunt: the man and the writer. The poetry of
            common sense. Robert Buchanan as poet. Hawker of Morwenstow.

The word “contents” may be changed to “contains” or “containing,” or even
omitted altogether, as the position or style of type would sufficiently
indicate that the list was that of the contents. Due regard being paid
to the exact subject of each of the essays, the entries would be given
under “Sonnet” (title-entry); “Germ, The”; “Hunt, Leigh”; “Pope, Alex.”;
“Buchanan, Robert”; “Hawker, Robert S.”

=104.=--It must be clearly understood that while there is a certain
option in indexing the contents of books like the above, there is none
whatever in dealing with collected works. That a library happens to
possess say the set of the Ashburton edition of Carlyle’s Works does not
imply that they are sufficiently entered if set out under “Carlyle,” and
therefore they must be fully catalogued in precisely the same manner
as if each book had been purchased separately in various editions.
Under the author’s name they would be entered as shown in the Hawthorne
illustration (section 63), and each book dealt with upon the lines
already laid down, as for example

    Cromwell, Oliver.

        Carlyle, T. Oliver Cromwell’s letters and speeches
        elucidated. (Works, _Ashburton ed._, v. 6-8). 3 v. 1885-6

=105.=--There is a well understood though not formulated rule, that the
contents of the great classical works do not require indexing, and upon
this principle a work, say upon “Hamlet,” would simply be entered under
“Shakespeare,” and not even a cross-reference is needed from “Hamlet.” So
with the ancient classics. The _Iliad_ or _Odyssey_, the _Æneid_, or the
_Agamemnon_ are not usually entered in any other place than under Homer,
Virgil, and Æschylus respectively. This rule would also be extended
according to the nature of the library. One that had a particular
collection say of editions of More’s _Utopia_ would not require any entry
under _Utopia_ further than a cross-reference to More, where all the
editions would be set out with every necessary particular.

=106.=--The remarks made in section 103 upon the need for a co-operative
index to essays and the like also applies to the need, which is probably
not so much felt, for an index to plays, and further indexes might
even be looked for to volumes of sermons arranged under subjects and
texts. More pressing still is the want of an index to the many portraits
contained in books.



CHAPTER XII.

THE CLASSIFIED CATALOGUE.


=107.=--The difference between the dictionary and classified forms
of catalogues already referred to in sections 8 and 9 may be further
demonstrated by taking the two well-known railway guides, “Bradshaw”
and the “A.B.C.,” in illustration. Both guides have merits of their
own, yet are very unlike. The “A.B.C.” will show by ready reference and
without any previous study of its arrangement, the times of departure
for and arrival at a particular railway station, but it does not show
the stoppages at intervening stations on the journey, or supply the
exhaustive information that “Bradshaw” does. But before “Bradshaw” can be
satisfactorily used its arrangement and order must be studied, and so it
is with the classified catalogue. Its arrangement, that is the system of
classification adopted, must first be understood, and then the order of
sub-division of the classes must be ascertained before it can be properly
used, unless such division happens to be alphabetical rather than natural
or logical. Having mastered the classification and arrangement, the user
of the classified catalogue has the advantage of an exhaustive list of a
whole class of literature, then of a particular subject in the aggregate
and afterwards in detail, and with all its collateral subjects brought
together. That at least is the theory of its compilation. This form has
the further advantage, already alluded to, of economy in production, as
a book seldom calls for more than a single entry other than a reference
in the index, whereas the number of entries to each book in a dictionary
catalogue is seldom less than three.

Again a classed catalogue can be issued in sections, a class or more at
the same time, and in large or small editions of each section, according
to the demand for them. To be of any real service the dictionary
catalogue must be published complete, as if issued in instalments it
is of no value until completed because each section is not complete in
itself as a class-list is.

Having said so much for the classed catalogue, it may be pointed out
that the whole of the books contained in a library by a particular
author cannot be ascertained by it without some trouble, unless it has
a brief-title author-index as shown in section 112, nor can the books
upon a stated country, say China, be found together in one place, those
upon the religions of China would not be grouped with those upon its
social customs, those upon its natural history would not be with either
of these, and a book dealing with all of these together, inclusive of a
description of the country, would be in a separate place.

=108.=--The arguments for and against the two styles of catalogue
being carefully weighed, more especially from the point of view of
general usefulness to the public concerned, and with due regard to
cost of production, and choice having been made of the classified form
of catalogue, the cataloguer will first decide upon the scheme of
classification to be adopted, presuming that the library in hand is not
already classified or its system of main classes is unsatisfactory for
cataloguing purposes. This having been accomplished by means of Brown’s
_Manual of Library Classification_, which summarises all the various
systems, the author-entry is made upon the general principles already
laid down in Chapters III. to VII. of the present work which are all
equally applicable.

A line or two must be left at the top of the slip on which the entry is
written for the purpose of marking the classification, division, and
sub-division either by their names or by numbers, if the scheme adopted
has a numerical notation. Supposing for example the book is

    Ward, James. Historic ornament: treatise on decorative art and
    architectural ornament. Illus. 2 v. 8o. 1897

the slip or card would be marked as follows on the right hand top corner,
as being the most convenient for sorting,

    Fine Arts. [The class].

    Ornament. [The division.]

or if the well-known Dewey Classification[2] is used, the number 745
would be written in the same place, signifying the class “Fine Arts,” the
division “Drawing, Decoration, Design,” and the sub-division or definite
subject, “Ornamental design.”

Under Brown’s Adjustable Classification,[3] the entry would be marked C
76, denoting the class, “Fine Arts,” the division “Decoration,” and the
sub-division “General practice and examples.” In the dictionary catalogue
this book would be entered under “Ward” and “Ornament.”

Another example is

    Willmott, Robt. A. (_Ed._) The poets of the 19th century:
    [selections]. pp. xx, 620, port., illus. 8o. n.d.

This would be marked “Literature,” division “English Literature,”
sub-division “Poetry,” and left for more detailed sub-division when it
comes to be arranged with kindred works at the time of preparation for
the press. The Dewey number would be 821.08 or according to Brown’s
method of marking J 12.

A further illustration is

    Bird, Robert. Jesus, the carpenter of Nazareth. 8th ed. pp. xii,
    498. sm. 8o. 1894

This would be marked “Theology” or “Religion,” division “Bible,”
sub-division “Christ”; the Dewey number being 232.9, and that in Brown’s
notation E168.

=109.=--The next illustration is one of some difficulty, inasmuch as it
can be placed in three classes:

    Macpherson, H. A., A. J. Stuart-Wortley, and Alex. I. Shand. The
    pheasant: natural history, shooting, cookery. (_Fur and feather
    ser._) pp. x, 265, illus. 1895

Having regard to the series in which the book appears, it cannot very
well be placed under “Natural History,” nor is there much contained in
it that appeals to the scientific naturalist, though a reference from
the division “Game birds” in that class would be most desirable. As the
pheasant has first to be shot before it can be cooked, and there are
many more pages devoted to the shooting than to the cooking, the book
is placed among sporting books: class “Fine Arts,” division “Recreative
Arts,” sub-division “Field Sports,” further division “Shooting.” The
Dewey number is accordingly 799, and the Brown mark C632.

In the dictionary catalogue a book like

    Bernard, Henry M.

        The apodidæ. (_Nature ser._) pp. xx. 316, illus. sm. 8o. 1892

is readily dealt with, as it is simply entered under “Apodidæ” for the
subject. In the classified catalogue, however, it must be worked out to
its full limits, as class “Science,” section “Natural History,” division
“Zoology,” sub-division “Arthropoda” or “Articulata,” lesser division
“Crustacea.” The Dewey number is 595.3, and the Brown notation is A152.

Upon a like principle, a book upon a very different subject, viz.,

    Loftie, W. J.

        Westminster Abbey. New ed., revised, pp. xii, 319, illus. 8o.
        1891

is treated in the same manner. The class is “History,” the division
“Europe,” sub-division “British Isles,” further division “England,” and
lesser division “London”; the Dewey number being 942.1, and that of
Brown is F742. This arrangement is upon the presumption that the book
is written from the historical and topographical standpoint. It is,
however, written as much from the architectural point of view, and the
heading might be entirely different; as then the class would be “Fine
Arts,” the division “Architecture,” and the sub-division “Ecclesiastical
Architecture,” with a further section devoted to “Monographs.” This is
one of those books of a composite character that can be very suitably
placed in two classes, so far as the catalogue is concerned, as against
shelf arrangement.

Even in cataloguing it is unusual and not easy to split up into classes
and sub-divisions those books of a miscellaneous character, as volumes
of essays, which are “indexed” section by section in the dictionary
catalogue. These, therefore, are brought together in one place, unless
the whole or the greater number of the essays or sections are upon a
particular subject, when they are placed in their proper class. Though
there may be no division of the contents of miscellaneous books, as
distinct from collected works, this in no wise obviates the necessity for
setting out in full the _contents_ of such books in the entry under the
main class. Apart from the little difficulty and it not being customary,
there is no very sufficient reason why these contents should not be
split up in classified cataloguing and inserted in the proper classes
throughout, even as they would be treated to subject-entries in the
dictionary catalogue; indeed, fairly looked at, it is the only right
method of procedure to adopt.

The under-mentioned books are grouped together because they are
all comprised in the single class of “History” under the Dewey
classification. By the Brown method “Biography and Correspondence” is
separated from “History and Geography” and made into another class,
though it is often very difficult to find the dividing line between
history and biography in the lives of monarchs and other historical
memoirs. The classes and divisions are given to each item in the form
which it is advised that the catalogue slips should be marked for sorting
until the time arrives for them to be prepared for printing.

                                                                 History.
                                                     Voyages and travels.
                                                          Arctic Regions.
                                                           N.-E. Passage.

    Nordenskiöld, A. E.

        The voyage of the Vega round Asia and Europe; transl. by
        Alex. Leslie, pp. viii, 414, ports., maps, illus. sm. 8o. 1886

If the Dewey or Brown classifications were in use, instead of marking
with class and subject headings as above, the entry would simply be
marked 919 or F1356.

                                                                 History.
                                                                  Europe.
                                                                 Ireland.

    Bagwell, Richard.

        Ireland under the Tudors. 3 v. 8o. 1885-90

        (Dewey number 941.55. Brown mark F826.)

                                                                 History.
                                                 Biography of Literature.

    Fitzgerald, Percy.

        The life of Lawrence Sterne. Port. 2 v. sm. 8o. 1896

        (Dewey number 928. Brown mark G88-Sterne.)

                                                                 History.
                                                     Voyages and travels.
                                                                  Europe.
                                                                  Russia.

    Hapgood, Isabel F.

        Russian rambles. pp. xiv, 369. sm. 8o. 1895

        (Dewey number 914, 7. Brown mark F 1168.)

=110.=--As already pointed out, the principal difficulty with classified
catalogues, more especially if the classification is extended to its
fullest limits, is that persons using the catalogue must familiarise
themselves with its arrangement before they can make an adequate use of
it. Thus to find a book upon Russia, the geographical order has to be
thought out, and to find a life of Sterne it must first be remembered
that as he was an author he will come into the literary division of
biography, or if a life of William Penn is wanted, it must be found out
whether it is placed in the biography of religion or of history according
to the point of view from which it is regarded.

Mr. Brown’s system removes some of these difficulties, as he for the most
part arranges his countries alphabetically under continents, and his
biographies of individuals altogether alphabetically by the subjects. In
some recent classified catalogues this idea has been carried further,
and all continents and countries of the world arranged in one alphabet,
as Abyssinia, Afghanistan, Africa, Algeria, Asia, and so on with such
suitable sub-division under each as may be called for. This alphabetical
arrangement has also been carried out under the main divisions of the
classes “Fine Arts” and “Useful Arts,” and it certainly facilitates
reference, though it must be admitted that it breaks away from the
important principle of giving a complete view of a subject in all its
bearings, first generally, then in particular down to its finest limits.
This principle may very well be waived in dealing with _individual_
biography, and in such case the form of entry would be reversed, as

    Biography.

        Sterne, Laurence, The life of, by Percy Fitzgerald. Port. 2
        v. sm. 8o. 1896

By the Dewey system works of fiction fall into place under languages,
epochs, and authors in the main class “Literature” as they should, but
most libraries have to make a separate class for this kind of literature.
This has been allowed for in the Brown Adjustable Classification, the
arrangement being alphabetically by authors with a separate section of
books for juveniles, this being further divided for books specially
written for boys and again for books for girls. These two main divisions
of works of fiction (_i.e._ novels) and story books for children will
be found sufficient in cataloguing, the entries being alphabetically
by authors. The dictionary principle of a title-entry may be added
with advantage, and the titles given either in separate alphabetical
order or more conveniently in their place in the same alphabet with the
author-entries, of course keeping all the entries together in their
particular class.

=111.=--The more elaborate the classification in a classified catalogue
the more need there is for an adequate index to authors and subjects. The
index may be a simple reference under the author’s name to the page upon
which the entry is to be found, as

    Ward, James 130

but this necessitates a hunt from page to page, and almost from line
to line on each page if the author has written a number of books which
appear in different parts of the catalogue. For example, this is the
index-entry to a catalogue so indexed:

    Hamerton, P. G., 42, 84, 86, 119, 125, 149, 151, 163, 165, 174,
    175, 176, 190, 213, 215, 252, 330, 366.

The only method of obviating this is to give a brief title of each book,
just sufficient to identify it, and while it must be admitted this method
takes up some space, yet it is worth it. The following is the form
referred to:

    Hamerton, P. G. Drawing and engraving, 86.

    ⸻ French and English, 119.

    ⸻ Human intercourse, 42.

    ⸻ Modern Frenchmen, 149.

    ⸻ Thoughts about art, 84.

The same difficulty would not arise in indexing subjects because
the whole subject would be grouped in one place or almost so, and
reference to the page or pages would be easy enough. An example of this
subject-index entry taken from the same catalogue is

    France (History), 124, 126, 136.

    ⸻ (Descriptive) 215.

    ⸻ The Church in, 139.

    ⸻ Language and Literature, 246, 280.

    Franco-German War, 136.

With the Dewey and Brown notations the indexing would be by class and
topic number, and not by pages, as

    Ornament, 745.

    Poetry, English. 821.

    Christ, Lives of. E 168.

Irrespective of the system of classification made use of each separate
section of a class could be numbered consecutively for indexing purposes
(as this present book is) and unless the sections were unusually large,
reference would thereby be much simpler and more direct than by the page.

If the section or class of prose fiction were arranged under authors
alphabetically, there would be no occasion to include the authors of that
section in the index, and a mere general statement at the commencement
of the index, pointing to the fact that they were not so included would
meet the case. Upon a similar principle it would hardly be necessary
to index the _subjects_ of individual biography if they were arranged
alphabetically as suggested, though it must be remembered that many of
these would appear in the index as authors.

It is customary to keep the author and subject-indexes separate,
sometimes printing one at the beginning and the other at the end of the
catalogue. There does not seem to be any important reason for adopting
this course, and both indexes might very well be amalgamated, and so add
one feature of the dictionary form to the classified catalogue, besides
it would be easier to refer to. In no case should a summary of the
classification adopted, showing the order of its arrangement, be omitted,
and this is better placed at the beginning than at the end where the
index will be.

The index entries can be made, if desired, at the time of writing the
main entry for the catalogue, when a smaller-sized slip should be used
for them; but it is found convenient to compile the index from the
printer’s proofs as the work passes through the press. With the Dewey and
Brown numbering there is no occasion to wait until the work is so far
advanced, and the index can be as easily compiled before any portion of
the “copy” is sent to the printer as when it is in type.

=112.=--It may be necessary to add that the main entries of a classified
catalogue are arranged by class and topic names or numbers, as shown in
the examples, and not by authors, as in the dictionary catalogue, though
the authors of books coming together under a single definite topic would
be arranged alphabetically as a matter of course.



CHAPTER XIII.

ALPHABETISATION AND ARRANGEMENT.


=113.=--On the face of it, it seems a simple affair to arrange slips in
alphabetical order--“as easy as a, b, c”--but, judging by the mistakes
made, and the small number of persons who when put to it can alphabetise
properly, it is not so simple as it appears. The arrangement is, of
course, to be according to the English alphabet, and irrespective of the
language of the entries, I and J and U and V to be kept apart as distinct
letters, and then by each separate word.

One of the first principles is to arrange all entries leading off with
the same word in accordance with what is understood as precedence and
importance of entry, viz., (1) author and other personal names; (2)
subject names; (3) titles of books; as, for example:

    Ireland, Alex. (_Ed._) The book-lover’s enchiridion.

            (Author.)

    Ireland.

        Bagwell, R. Ireland under the Tudors.

            (Subject.)

    Ireland: a tale. Martineau, H.

           (Title.)

It has already been shown that initial letters precede all words with the
same initial, and under the same rule all names with a particular initial
for the Christian name are placed before those with the Christian name in
full, as

    Fitzgerald, P. F.

    Fitzgerald, Percy.

    Fitzgerald, S. J. A.

    Fitzgerald, Samuel.

Where there are a number of persons of the same surname and initial in
the catalogue it is as well, for the sake of clearness, to try and find
out the full name for which the initial stands and give it. When this
cannot be done it is very important to take care and not attribute books
by different authors to one, or by an individual to different authors.
These are mistakes much more commonly made than might be supposed.

Monarchs, as authors or as subjects, having similar names are arranged in
chronological order, but with British sovereigns leading, as

    William I., the Conqueror.

    William III., Prince of Orange.

    William IV.

    William II., Emperor of Germany.

These would be followed by persons with a single name, as

    William _of Malmesbury_,

and then by other persons with William as a surname, arranged in order
alphabetically by their Christian names or initials. When titles are used
and appear in the name, as Lord, Lady, Sir, Rev., Dr., they are ignored
and not allowed to affect the arrangement in the least, not even if it
happens that there is no other means of distinguishing a person, and if
the Christian name cannot be ascertained such a name would be placed
before that of all others of the same name and treated in precisely the
same way as if the surname only were known and no title existed, as

    Lamb, Lady.

    Lamb, Arthur.

    Lamb, Charles.

If two noblemen of the same title have the same Christian name they
should be placed in order of succession with their order shown, as

    Derby, Edward, 14th Earl of.

    Derby, Edward, 15th Earl of.

and parents and children with similar names are arranged according to
seniority, like

    Dumas, Alexandre.

    Dumas, Alexandre, _fils_.

It is sometimes recommended to place distinctions of this nature with the
surname, as

    Johnson _senior_, Thomas.

    Johnson _junior_, Thomas.

but this is not a very happy form.

Names of a person in different forms must not be alphabetised under
those forms, but one selected and all concentrated under it, as it would
be foolish to have separate entries under say Shakspere, Shakespeare,
Shakspear, Shakspeare, though the variety in the name can be shown _in
the different entries_ under the form adopted.

=114.=--It has already been shown that different editions of the same
work are to be arranged in order of publication as far as possible,
and that editions in the language of the original are placed before
translations, and complete works before parts or selections. These would
in turn be followed by works _upon_ the author as subject, _i.e._,
biographical and critical, when there is no occasion to repeat his name
as a subject-heading, as the repeat dash may be omitted to show that he
is not the author of a book upon himself, a mistake that is not likely to
be made by the dullest person if the name of the author of the book upon
the author in question leads off, thus

    Lamb, Charles. The essays of Elia.

    ⸻ Mrs. Leicester’s school.

        Ainger, A. Charles Lamb.

        Martin, B. E. In the footprints of Lamb.

This order of arrangement may be tabulated in full in this way:--

    1st. Complete works in the original (by date of publication).

    2nd. Complete works in translation (by date of publication).

    3rd. Semi-complete works (_i.e._ more than a single work).

    4th. Single works, arranged alphabetically by titles, first in
    the original, and then translations of each immediately following.

    5th. Works where the author is a joint-author.

    6th. Works when he is only editor or compiler.

    7th. References _from_ the person as _author_.

    8th. Works relating to him, alphabetically by authors.

    9th. References _from_ the person as _subject_.

As already stated in section 52, names with prefixes are taken as part
of the name, and arranged accordingly. If the prefix is abbreviated as
M’, or Mc, or St., it is placed in order as if spelled out Mac or Saint.
This does not imply that the name must be so altered in the catalogue,
and refers to the order only. Names like Müller should be arranged as
Muller, taking care that other entries are not under Mueller, but this is
a matter that can be best dealt with according to the circumstances of
the case, as, for instance, Goethe should be so alphabetised, and not as
Göthe. Diphthongs are alphabetised as separate letters.

=115.=--Abbreviated words in title-entries are also treated as if given
in full, and consequently “Dr. Thorne” and “Mr. Isaacs” do not come
immediately before “Drab” and “Mud,” but with “Doctor” and “Mister”
respectively. It need hardly be said that “Mrs. Bligh” or any other Mrs.
is not alphabetised in either the abbreviated or colloquial form, but as
“Mistress,” and therefore does not come between “Mozley” and “Muddock.”
Other abbreviated words are arranged upon the same plan. “Fo’c’s’le
yarns” appearing as “Forecastle,” though the exception to this rule is
found in other elisions contained in such entries, as

    ’Twas in Trafalgar’s Bay.

    ’Tween snow and fire.

    Who was Philip?

    Who’s to blame?

which are alphabetised as here shown, and not under “It,” “between,” or
“Who is.”

Compound words, whether divided by a hyphen or printed as one word, are
arranged to follow the single word, after this fashion:

    Book for the hammock.

    Book of nonsense.

    Bookbinding.

    Book-buying.

    Book-keeping.

    Book-plates.

    Books.

    New South Wales.

    New Testament.

    New Zealand.

    Newcastle.

    Newfoundland.

    Newgate.

When numerals lead off in a title-entry they are alphabetised as if
written or printed in words; thus

    £1,000,000 bank-note, The.

    97th Regiment, History of the.

    £200 reward.

are put in order as, “One million,” “Ninety-seventh,” and “Two hundred”
respectively.

=116.=--It is necessary to repeat the instructions to ignore the articles
“A,” “An” and “The” in alphabetical arrangement, when they lead in a
title or are transposed for alphabetical purposes, but not otherwise.
In the middle of a title they must be reckoned with, and therefore
“Under a strange mask” comes before “Under Drake’s flag,” and “Mr. and
Mrs. Faulconbridge” before “Mr. Baker’s money.” The possessive is to be
treated as spelled, and so “Miners and their works” comes before “Miner’s
right, The,” and “Boys’ and Girls’ Book of Games” comes between “Boys’
adventures” and “Boys and I.”

Sometimes entries upon quite different subjects, which are spelled alike
are, in the work of sorting, inadvertently amalgamated under a single
heading, and so books like “_The Great Seals of England_” by Wyon;
“_Seals of the British Seas_” by Southwell; and “_Catalogue of seals in
the British Museum_” by Birch, are brought together to the confusion of
the naturalist or the antiquarian. Fortunately there are not many such
subjects, or the rule-of-thumb mechanical cataloguer would oftener create
laughter than he now does.

Occasionally it will be found advisable to ignore the alphabetical order
of the titles of the books under an author’s name, as in the case where
a number of books with varying titles are intended to be read in a
particular order when it is of more advantage to so arrange them than to
adhere to the alphabetical order. A note should be added, stating that
the arrangement is according to sequence.



CHAPTER XIV.

PRINTING.


=117.=--The slips being sorted into alphabetical order if a dictionary
catalogue, or into classes and divisions if a classified catalogue,
are to be laid down on sheets of paper to send to the printer. These
sheets of paper should be thin, tough, and uniform in size, but the
colour and quality is of little importance and brown or cheap printing
paper will do. The slips are first prepared by cutting away any part
of the entry not to be printed, as the author’s name from the second
and subsequent entries under his name, and in the same way cutting off
the subject-heading from those slips where there are more entries than
one under the subject. This is better than laying all down, and then
afterwards marking out what is not to be printed. The sheets of paper
should be first pasted all over, the slips laid upon them in order,
usually in two columns, and then all pressed over. A little marginal
space should be left for the insertion of additional entries.

If the entries are written upon cards, and it is wished to avoid the
work of laying them down on sheets of paper, the names and headings not
to be printed should be scored through, and the cards strung together in
batches of a hundred or so by means of the hole usually perforated in
them, numbering them through from beginning to end for order and safety.
If the “copy” consists of the printed pages of a former catalogue with
new additions to be inserted, the page should first be laid down on the
sheet and the new entries below, these being numbered consecutively on
each sheet separately with a corresponding number marked upon the page at
the exact place where the new entry goes. Should there be a comparatively
large number of such insertions, it is a much safer plan and fairer to
the printer to cut up the printed page and place the additional entries
in their correct order before laying them down on the sheet of paper.

=118.=--The sheets as they are got ready must be consecutively numbered
throughout with a bold figure on the right hand top corner, and before
sending them to the printer they should be finally looked through for
revision. This is the most convenient time for marking the “copy,” for
variations in type. The marking is usually as follows:

    For CAPITALS underline three times in black ink.

    For SMALL CAPITALS underline twice in black ink.

    For _Italics_ underline once in black ink.

    For =Clarendon= or other heavy type underline as above in red.

    For smaller type than the body of the catalogue mark the portions
    down the margin in red and black, or red and blue.

Before the catalogue can be sent to be printed, its form must be
decided upon as to the size of pages, quality and colour of paper, the
types to be used, and the style of binding, and these being settled, a
specification must be prepared to guide the printer in his work, or to
obtain tenders upon if the work of printing is open to competition, as
is most usual with all work done for public bodies. Personal preferences
govern many matters in connection with the “get up” of a catalogue,
though in most instances there is a limit imposed by the necessity for
economy in cost of printing, just as there so often is for economy of
compilation. The styles ordinarily adopted in the catalogues of the
lending departments of the rate-supported libraries may be referred to.

=119.=--The most economical and commonest form is royal octavo in
size, printed with two columns on the page in brevier type, with the
subject-headings in a heavier type, and notes and list of contents in
nonpareil. Sometimes the authors’ names in the principal entry are
printed in capitals and small capitals, and this serves very well for
distinctive purposes. Occasionally a catalogue is seen in which the
subject-headings are in capitals and the authors’ names printed in
heavier type, with the result that the authors are too prominent and the
subjects not prominent enough. If the authors’ names in all entries are
printed in blacker type and the shelf or other finding numbers as well,
the appearance is greatly marred, the page having a spotted look most
unrestful to the eye, and the purpose for which the heavy type is adopted
is defeated. Altogether it will be found that the heavier type to be
effective must be used sparingly, and as subject-headings are much less
numerous than authors’ names, the most dignified and satisfactory page is
obtained by the use of heavier type for the headings rather than for the
authors’ names. While this refers mainly to the dictionary catalogue, it
is also the best style to adopt for the classified catalogue. All type
used should be as plain as possible, either old or modern-faced, without
fancy letters, and the heavier type should be similar in style and size
to that used in the body of the catalogue. When two sizes of type are
used for distinctive purposes, it is customary to pass over a size in
order that the distinction may be clearer, thus if the body type were
long primer, the contents and notes should be set in brevier and not
bourgeois, and nonpareil should be used with brevier, and not minion. The
following specimens of types will be found useful, especially as it shows
the line space occupied by each size:


SIZES OF TYPE.

[Illustration:

    This line of type is modern-faced          (Pica.)
    This line of type is modern-faced    (Small Pica.)
    This line of type is modern-faced   (Long Primer.)
    This line of type is modern-faced     (Bourgeois.)
    This line of type is modern-faced       (Brevier.)
    This line of type is modern-faced        (Minion.)
    This line of type is modern-faced     (Nonpareil.)

    This line of type is old-faced             (Pica.)
    This line of type is old-faced       (Small Pica.)
    This line of type is old-faced      (Long Primer.)
    This line of type is old-faced        (Bourgeois.)
    This line of type is old-faced          (Brevier.)
    This line of type is old-faced           (Minion.)
    This line of type is old-faced        (Nonpareil.)]

=120.=--Another style of catalogue often seen is demy octavo in size,
printed across the page in long primer with “Clarendon” or “De Vinne”
subject-headings and brevier notes and contents. This is a very effective
form for a class-list or for the first catalogue of a new library, as it
has the advantage of giving an imposing appearance to the catalogue, no
matter how poor the collection of books is. Of course it is much easier
to read and altogether gives a better page, but it adds considerably
to the bulk and cost of the catalogue, besides giving the printer more
“fat,” as the white or unprinted portions of the page are called. This
style is preferable for the reference library, where the size of the
catalogue is unimportant, as it has not to be carried about.

There are variations from these sizes and types ranging from a super
royal octavo and crown quarto down to duodecimo, with type from small
pica to nonpareil. The number of copies in the edition depends upon the
number or probable number of purchasers of the catalogue during a given
term of years, local circumstances alone deciding in this matter.

=121.=--Before sending out a specification for printing estimates, it
is a safer, more satisfactory, and fairer plan to all concerned to
have a specimen page set up, containing in it all the types to be used
in something near their proportionate quantities. The cost of such a
page is trifling, but the librarian then knows precisely what he is
asking for and what to expect, and the printer better understands what
he is tending for. All other points it is thought are included in the
following illustrative specification, which is not taken from that of any
particular library, but embodies concisely what are considered to be the
best features of several specifications.

                        CORPORATION OF LAMBWELL.

       _Specification for Printing the Public Library Catalogue._

    The Committee of the Free Public Library invite tenders for
    printing a catalogue of their Lending Library upon the following
    conditions:

    _Edition and Size._--The edition to consist of three thousand
    copies, royal octavo in size (say 9¼ × 6 when bound).

    _Paper._--To be at least 30lbs. to the ream, of good finish,
    white, uniform in tint throughout.

    _Type and Setting._--Old-style brevier, with occasional small
    capitals, italics, and clarendon or antique, with nonpareil for
    notes and contents, and the proper accented letters in foreign
    languages. To be set solid, two columns to the page, seventy
    lines to the column, each fifteen ems wide, with double division
    rules between. Turnover lines to be indented two ems, the repeat
    dash to be a one em rule, the class-letter and number to stand
    clear four ems, the nonpareil indent to be two ems. Spaces
    between the end of the book-entry and the class-letter to be
    filled with leaders. The type must not be worn or broken, and
    must be free from wrong founts.

    _Machining._--The sheets to be well worked in perfect register,
    with good ink, and afterwards rolled or pressed.

    _Time._--From the first receipt of copy, the work to be proceeded
    with at not less than two sheets of sixteen pages each per week
    until completed, or in default thereof the printer to pay a sum
    of two pounds per week as damages.

    _Proofs._--Two copies of proof in galley and two copies of a
    revise in page to be furnished for reading and correction. The
    Librarian to have the right to demand a revise in galley and
    such revises in page as he shall deem necessary. No sheet to be
    sent to press until ordered by the endorsement of the Librarian
    thereon.

    _Additions and corrections._--The Librarian to have the right to
    insert additional matter in galley but not in page. No charge to
    be allowed for author’s corrections unless pointed out and priced
    at the time they are made.

    _Number of pages._[4]--The number of pages is estimated to be 250
    more or less, but the number is not guaranteed.

    _Covers._--Three thousand covers to be printed upon coloured
    paper, of an approved tint, not less than 34lbs. to the ream
    (royal). The front of this cover to be printed with the title of
    the catalogue.

    _Binding._--The whole edition to be bound in good straw boards of
    suitable thickness, strongly sewn with thread, with cloth strip
    backs, the covers pasted on the sides and cut flush. Fourteen
    days will be allowed for binding beyond the time when the last
    sheet is sent to press.

    _Delivery._--The catalogues when completed, to be tied in brown
    paper parcels of fifty each, and delivered to the Public Library,
    High Street, Lambwell.

    _Tender._--The tender is to be at per page for brevier type and
    for nonpareil type respectively, the price to include all charges
    for press corrections, covers, binding, and delivery.

    _Other conditions._--The work is to be carried out to the entire
    satisfaction of the Librarian, and if he is dissatisfied with
    its execution he shall have power to stop the work and refer the
    matter to the Library Committee, whose decision shall be final
    and binding.

    The Committee will require the firm whose tender is accepted to
    enter into a contract to execute the work in accordance with this
    specification and its conditions.

    When completed, the work to be measured up and charges allowed
    according to the quantity of brevier and nonpareil used, and
    payment made within three months afterwards.

    The Committee do not bind themselves to accept the lowest or any
    tender.

    Tenders, with samples of the paper to be used, to be sent in
    sealed envelopes endorsed “Catalogue,” to the undersigned on or
    before the 20th day of November, 1898.

                                        JOHN E. BURKETT, _Librarian_.

=122.=--The printer and price having been fixed a supply of “copy” is
sent and in due time proofs in “galley,” _i.e._ in long columns before
the matter is “broken up” into pages, are received. The first proofs
will not comprise the title-page, preface, and other preliminary pages,
which are invariably printed last though first in order when the work is
completed, and therefore the copy for this part of the catalogue need
not be sent to the printer until the work is nearing its completion.
The manuscript or other “copy” will be returned with the proofs and
should be carefully and clearly read aloud by some qualified person to
the cataloguer, who will correct the proofs by marking the corrections
on the margin. When the proofs in hand have been so read over, it is
advisable for the cataloguer to again read them carefully through apart
from the copy before returning to the printer, as it is a much simpler
matter to correct in galley than in page. At this point any additions
to be inserted must be given, as they cannot be added to proofs in
page without very great trouble, entailing the upsetting of work done,
and consequently delay. The proofs after being fully corrected, will
be returned by the printer with a clean proof (or “revise” as a proof
after correction is termed) in page when all the corrections marked on
the galley must be compared with the entries or the revise, to see that
they have been properly attended to. At this time the headings, catch
words, and numbering of the pages must be checked, and when the entries
under a subject-heading have been divided by the end of a page or column
the repeated headings upon the next column or page must be carefully
examined. When books under an author’s name are so divided, his name
should be repeated in the same way at the top of the next column or page.

These being attended to, the whole sheet should again be read through
before finally sending it to press, and even with the care already
expended, it is remarkable how many mistakes will then be discovered for
the first time. If the corrections in page are somewhat numerous, or if
any doubt exists as to their receiving proper attention, or a particular
correction is one of some moment, it is as well to have another “pull” of
the sheet when corrected, and make quite certain before marking it to “go
to press.”

=123.=--In correcting proofs there are other mistakes to look for besides
the misspelling, misplacing, or omission of words. It is of the utmost
importance that the numbers or other marks whereby the books are asked
for or found should be as correct as possible, as mistakes of this kind
lead to vexation both on the part of the readers and officials. Attention
is also required to the proper dividing of words in turning over lines,
the use of letters of the right fount of type as others get sorted in,
and if not changed mar the look of the page when printed, the removal of
broken letters, the correct guage for indents and parts “standing clear,”
the removal of quadrats or space pieces, so that they do not stand up in
evidence on the printed page, and other items of this nature. The column
of catalogue matter given in Appendix D has most of the errors usually
made upon it with the signs used in correcting it, and is accompanied by
explanations of them. The corrections are to be marked in the margins as
shown in the specimen, and not upon the printed matter, else they will be
overlooked. The same page as corrected is given.

If after due attention to all these details the cataloguer is enabled
to produce a work free from blemish of compilation or printing he may
heartily congratulate himself, though the public who use the library
having such a catalogue will even then not fully appreciate the care and
anxiety expended on it, and will soon after prove this by asking when “a
new one will be out.”



FOOTNOTES


[1] Darwinism and other essays, by John Fiske. (Macmillan, 1879.)

[2] Decimal classification and relative index, by Melvil Dewey, 15th ed.
_Boston_, 1894.

[3] Manual of library classification and shelf arrangement, by James D.
Brown. (Library Supply Co.) 1898. (pp. 105-160).

[4] Even a careful estimate made from the “copy” is liable to turn
out wrong when the work is in type and the tendency is to overstate
the number of pages, when the printer is within his rights, according
to trade usages, in claiming for profit upon the full number of pages
upon which his estimate was based, therefore it is better to have a
saving clause as well as to leave a safe margin on the lesser side when
calculating the number of pages.



APPENDIX A.

List of words or phrases occurring in connection with books, with
the abbreviations of them used in cataloguing. When an alternative
abbreviation is given, that placed first is recommended.


AUTHORS, EDITORS, AND TITLES.

  Editor, Edited                        ed.
  Herausgegeben                         hrsg. herausg.
  Translator, Translated                transl. tr.
  Traduit, Tradotto                     trad.
  Compiler, Compiled                    comp.
  Illustrator                           illus.
  Introduction, Introductory            intro.
  Anonym, Anonymous                     anon.
  Pseudonym, Pseudonymous               pseud.
  Born                                  b.
  Died                                  d.
  Society                               Soc. (In names of societies,
                                          as _Camden Soc._)
  Thus                                  (_sic_). Inserted sometimes
                                          to emphasize peculiarity
                                          of spelling or phrase.


VOLUMES AND COLLATIONS.

  Volume, Volumes                       v.
  Band                                  bd.
  Part, Parts                           Pt., pts.
  Number, Numbers                       No., nos.
  Series                                ser.
  New series                            n.s.
  Pamphlet, Pamphlets                   pamph.
  Pages                                 pp.
  Leaves                                ll.
  Folios                                ff.
  Illustrated, Illustrations            illus., ill., il.
  Coloured                              col.
  Portrait, Portraits                   port., ports.
  Frontispiece                          front., frontis.
  Plate, Plates                         pl., pls.
  Large paper                           l.p.
  Advertisements                        advts.
  No title-page                         n.t.p.
  Title-page wanting                    t.p.w.


IMPRINT.

  No date                             n. d., N.D., s.a. (i.e., _sine
                                        anno_.)
  No place                            n.p.
  No place or date                    s.a. et l.
  Various dates                       v.d.
  About (Circa, followed by a date)   c.
  Printed, Printer                    pr.
  Published, Publisher                pub.
  Manuscript, Manuscripts             MS., MSS.
  Reprint                             repr.
  Specimen abbreviations for places   _Lon._, _Dub._, _Edin._, _Oxf._,
  of publication (only)                 _Camb._, _L’pool_, _M’chester_,
                                        _B’ham_, _N. York_.
  Edition                             ed.


BINDING.

  Cloth                               cl.
  Morocco                             mor.
  Calf                                cf.
  Half                                hf.
  Bound                               bd.
  Binding                             bdg.
  Gilt edges                          g.e.


SIZES OF BOOKS.

  Sextodecimo                         16o., 16mo., S
  Duodecimo                           12o., 12mo., duo., D.
  Octavo                              8o., 8vo., O.
  Quarto                              4o., 4to., Q.
  Folio                               fo., fol., F.
  Small                               sm.
  Large                               la.
  Super                               sup.
  Atlas                               atl.
  Imperial                            imp.
  Royal                               roy.
  Demy                                dy.
  Crown                               cr.
  Oblong                              obl.



APPENDIX B.

LIBRARY ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM.

COMMITTEE ON SIZE-NOTATION.

TABLE OF SIZES OF BOOKS.


  --------------------------+--------+-------+-------------+--------------
                            | Height |       |  Leaves to  | Wire line in
           Notation.        |   in   | Width.|  Signature. | laid or hand
                            | Inches.|       |             | made Papers.
  --------------------------+--------+-------+-------------+--------------
            FOLIO.          |        |       |             |
                            |        |       |             |
  Atlas fᵒ               (1)|Circa 30|}      |{    In     }|
  La. fᵒ { Imp. fᵒ       (5)|21½-23  |}      |{   twos,   }|
    or   { Roy. fᵒ       (5)|18½-21  |}⅔ to ¾|{  fours,   }|Perpendicular
  Fᵒ                     (2)|13½-18  |}      |{sixes, and }|
  Sm. fᵒ              (3)(4)|8½-13   |}      |{  eights.  }|
                            |        |       |             |
            QUARTO.         |        |       |             |
                            |        |       |             |
  La. 4ᵒ or { Imp. 4ᵒ    (5)|13½-16  |}      |{    In     }|
            { Roy. 4ᵒ    (5)|11½-13  |}⅘     |{  fours,   }|Horizontal
  4ᵒ                     (2)|9½-11   |}      |{sixes, and }|
  Sm. 4ᵒ                 (3)|7½-9    |}      |{  eights.  }|
                            |        |       |             |
       OCTAVO ET INFRA.     |        |       |             |
                            |        |       |             |
  La. 8ᵒ or { Imp. 8ᵒ    (5)|10½-11  |⅔ to ¾ |{In eights, }|
            {               |        |       |{    and    }|Perpendicular
            { Roy. 8ᵒ    (5)|9½-10   |  ”    |{ som’t’mes }|
                            |        |       |{   fours.  }|
                            |        |       |             |
  8ᵒ                     (2)|8-9     |  ”    |In eights    |Perpendicular
                            |        |       |             |
  Sm. 8ᵒ                 (3)|6½-7½   |  ”    |In eights    |Perpendicular
                            |        |       |             |
  12ᵒ                       |        |  ”    |In sixes and |
                            |        |       |  twelves    |Horizontal
                            |        |       |             |
  16ᵒ                    (6)|⅔ to ⅘  |}      |In eights & }|Horizontal &
                            |⅔ to ¾  |}5½-6  |  sixteens  }|Perpendicular
                            |        |       |             |
  18ᵒ                       |        |       |In sixes,    |
                            |        |       |  twelves and|
                            |        |       |  eighteens  |Horizontal
                            |        |       |             |
  24ᵒ                       |}       |{ ”    |In sixes and |
                            |}4-5    |{      |  twelves    |Perpendicular
                            |}       |{      |             |
  32ᵒ                       |}       |{ ”    |In eights and|
                            |        |       |  sixteens   |Perpendicular
  48ᵒ or mᵒ              (7)|under 4 |  ”    |             |
  --------------------------+--------+-------+-------------+--------------

  1. Including “elephant,” “columbia,” &c.

  2. Including “medium,” “demy” and “crown.”

  3. Including “copy,” “post,” “foolscap” and “pot.”

  4. Of preceding centuries.

  5. Of this century.

  6. Including sq. 16ᵒ, and all books of this size, in eights.

  7. Including 48ᵒ, 64ᵒ, &c. “Minimo” for the smallest books.



APPENDIX C.

SOME MODERN PSEUDONYMS WITH THE REAL NAMES, INCLUDING LADIES WITH NAMES
CHANGED BY MARRIAGE.


  PSEUDONYM.                REAL NAME.

  A.L.O.E.                      Charlotte M. Tucker.
  Acheta Domestica              L. M. Budgen
  Adams, Mrs. Leith             Mrs. R. S. de Courcy Laffan
  Adeler, Max                   Charles H. Clark
  Ainslie, Noel                 Edith Lister
  Alexander, Mrs.               Annie E. Hector
  Alien                         Mrs. L. A. Baker
  Allen, F. M.                  Edmund Downey
  Amateur Angler, The           Edward Marston
  Amyand, Arthur                Andrew Haggard
  Andom, R.                     Alfred W. Barrett
  Anstey, F.                    Thos. Anstey Guthrie
  Argles, Mrs.                  Mrs. Hungerford
  Audley, John                  Mrs. E. M. Davy
  Aunt Judy                     Mrs. Margaret Gatty
  B., A. K. H.                  A. K. H. Boyd
  B., E. V.                     Eleanor V. Boyle
  Barker, Lady                  Lady Broome
  Basil                         Richard Ashe King
  Bede, Cuthbert                Edward Bradley
  Bell, Nancy                   Mrs. Arthur Bell
  Belloc, Marie A.              Mrs. Lowndes
  Bickerdyke, John              C. H. Cook
  Billings, Josh                Henry W. Shaw
  Bird, Isabella L.             Mrs. I. L. Bishop
  Blackburne, E. Owens          Elizabeth Casey
  Boldrewood, Rolf              Thos. A. Browne
  Braddon, M. E.                Mrs. Maxwell
  Breitmann, Hans               Charles G. Leland
  Brenda                        Mrs. Castle Smith
  Buckley, Arabella B.          Mrs. Fisher
  Caballero, Fernan             Cecilia B. de. F. Arrom
  Cambridge, Ada                Mrs. G. F. Cross
  Carmen Sylva                  Elizabeth, Queen of Roumania
  Carroll, Lewis                Charles L. Dodgson
  Cavendish                     Henry Jones
  Cellarius                     Thos. W. Fowle
  Champfleury                   Jules F. F. Husson-Fleury
  Chester, Norley               Emily Underdown
  Cleeve, Lucas                 Mrs. Kingscote
  Collingwood, Harry            Wm. J. C. Lancaster
  Colmore, George               Mrs. Gertrude C. Dunn
  Connor, Marie                 Marie C. Leighton
  Conway, Derwent               Henry D. Inglis
  Conway, Hugh                  F. J. Fargus
  Coolidge, Susan               Sarah C. Woolsey
  Cooper, Rev. Wm. M.           James G. Bertram
  Craddock, C. E.               Mary N. Murfree
  Crawley, Captain              G. F. Pardon
  Cromarty, Deas                Mrs. R. A. Watson
  Dale, Darley                  Francesca M. Steele
  Dall, Guillaume               Madame Jules Lebaudy
  D’Anvers, N.                  Mrs. Arthur Bell
  Dean, Mrs. Andrew             Mrs. Alfred Sidgwick
  Donovan, Dick                 J. E. Muddock
  Dowie, Ménie M.               Mrs. Henry Norman
  Duncan, Sara J.               Mrs. Everard Cotes
  Egerton, George               Mrs. Clairmonte
  Eha                           Edward H. Aitken
  Eliot, George                 Mary Ann Evans (afterwards Mrs. Cross)
  Elbon, Barbara                Leonora B. Halsted
  Elizabeth, Charlotte          Charlotte E. Tonna
  Ellis, Luke                   J. Page Hopps
  Fane, Violet                  Lady Philip Currie
  Farningham, Marianne          Mary A. Hearne
  Fin Bec                       W. B. Jerrold
  Fleming, George               Julia C. Fletcher
  France, Anatole               Anatole François Thibault
  Francis, M. E.                Mrs. M. Blundell
  Free Lance, A                 F. H. Perry Coste
  G. G.                         -- Harper
  Garrett, Edward               Isabella F. Mayo
  Gaunt, Mary                   Mrs. Miller
  Gerard, Dorothea              Mdme. Longard de Longgarde
  Gerard, Emily                 Mdme. de Lazowski
  Gift, Theo.                   Theodora Boulger
  Grand, Sarah                  Mrs. M’Fall
  Gray, Maxwell                 M. G. Tuttiett
  Grier, Sydney C.              Hilda Gregg
  Gréville, Henry               Alice M. C. Durand
  Grove, Lilly                  Mrs. J. G. Frazer
  Gubbins, Nathaniel            Edward Spencer
  Gyp                           La comtesse de Martel de Janville
  Haliburton, Hugh              J. L. Robertson
  Hall, Eliza Calvert           Lina Calvert Obenchain
  Hamst, Olphar                 Ralph Thomas
  Hayes, Henry                  Mrs. E. O. Kirk
  Hertz-Garten, Theodor         Mrs. de Mattos
  Hieover, Harry                Charles Bindley
  Hobbes, John Oliver           Mrs. Pearl M. T. Craigie
  Hoffman, Professor            A. J. Lewis
  Holdsworth, Annie             Mrs. E. Lee Hamilton
  Hope, Andrée                  Mrs. Harvey
  Hope, Anthony                 Anthony H. Hawkins
  Hope, Ascott R.               Robt. H. Moncreiff
  Ingoldsby, Thomas             Richard H. Barham
  Iota                          Mrs. Mannington Caffyn
  Iron, Ralph                   Mrs. O. Cronwright-Schreiner
  James, Croake                 James Paterson
  Janus                         Johann J. I. von Döllinger
  K., O.                        Mdme. Olga Novikoff (née Kireft)
  Keith, Leslie                 Mrs. G. L. Keith Johnston
  Kipling, Alice                Mrs. Fleming
  L., L. E.                     Letitia E. MacLean (née Landon)
  Laffan, May                   Mrs. W. N. Hartley
  Larwood, Jacob                L. R. Sadler
  Law, John                     Miss M. E. Harkness
  Leander, Richard              R. Volkmann
  Lee, Holme                    Harriet Parr
  Lee, Vernon                   Violet Paget
  Legrand, Martin               James Rice
  Lennox                        Lennox Pierson
  Loti, Pierre                  Louis M. J. Viaud
  Lyall, Edna                   Ada E. Bayly
  Maartens, Maarten             J. M. W. van der Poorten Schwartz
  Maclaren, Ian                 John M. Watson
  Malet, Lucas                  Mrs. M. St. L. Harrison (née Kingsley)
  Manning, Anne                 Mrs. A. M. Rathbone
  Markham, Mrs.                 Mrs. Eliz. Penrose
  Marlitt. E.                   Henriette F. C. E. John
  Marlowe, Charles              Harriet Jay
  Marryat, Florence             Mrs. F. Lean
  Marvell, Ik.                  Donald G. Mitchell
  Mathers, Helen                Mrs. H. Reeve
  Meade, L. T.                  Mrs. Toulmin Smith
  Meredith, Owen                Earl Lytton
  Merriman, Henry Seton         H. S. Scott
  Miller, Joaquin               C. H. Miller
  Montbard, G.                  Charles A. Loyes
  Morice, Chas.                 Morice Gerard
  Morris, May                   Mrs. Sparling
  Mulholland, Rosa              Lady Gilbert
  Nesbit, E.                    Edith Bland
  Nimrod                        C. J. Apperley
  Nordau, Max                   M. S. Südfeld
  North, Christopher            Prof. John Wilson
  North, Pleydell               Mrs. Egerton Eastwick
  Nye, Bill                     E. W. Nye
  Old Boomerang                 J. R. Houlding
  Oldcastle, John               Wilfred Meynell
  Oliver, Pen                   Sir Henry Thompson
  Optic, Oliver                 Wm. T. Adams
  O’Rell, Max.                  Paul Blouët
  Otis, James                   J. O. Kaler
  Ouida                         Louise de la Ramée
  Owen, J. A.                   Mrs. Owen Visger
  Page, H. A.                   Alex H. Japp
  Pansy                         Isabella M. Alden
  Parallax                      Samuel B. Robotham
  Parley, Peter                 Wm. Martin
  Paston, George                Miss E. M. Symonds
  Pattison, Mrs. Mark           Lady E. F. S. Dilke
  Paull, M. A.                  Mrs. John Ripley
  Percy, Sholto and Reuben      Joseph C. Robertson and Thomas Byerley
  Phelps, Eliz. S.              Mrs. H. D. Ward
  Plain Woman, A                Miss Ingham
  Prevost, Francis              H. F. P. Battersby
  Pritchard, Martin J.          Mrs. Augustus Moore
  Prout, Father                 F. Mahony
  Q.                            A. T. Quiller Couch
  Raimond, C. E.                Elisabeth Robins
  Rapier                        A. E. T. Watson
  Ridley, Mrs. Edward           Lady Alice Ridley
  Rita                          Mrs. W. Desmond Humphreys
  Rives, Amélie                 Mrs. A. R. Chandlers
  Robert (“A City Waiter”)      John T. Bedford
  Robins, G. M.                 Mrs. L. Baillie Reynolds
  Robinson, A. Mary F.          Mde. A. M. F. Darmesteter
  Rogers, Halliday              Miss Reid
  Rutherford, Mark              W. Hale White
  St. Aubyn, Alan               Frances Marshall
  Saint-Patrice                 James H. Hickey
  Saintine, X. B. de            Joseph H. Boniface
  Sand, George                  Mde. A. L. A. Dudevant
  Scalpel, Æsculapius           Edward Berdoe
  Scott, Leader                 Lucy E. Baxter
  Seafield, Frank               Alex. H. Grant
  Séguin, L. G.                 L. G. Strahan
  Setoun, Gabriel               Thos. N. Hepburn
  Sharp, Luke                   Robert Barr
  Shirley                       Sir John Skelton
  Sigerson, Dora                Mrs. Clement Shorter
  Sketchley, Arthur             Geo. Rose
  Slick, Sam                    T. C. Haliburton
  Son of the Marshes, A         Denham Jordan
  Son of the Soil, A            J. S. Fletcher
  Spinner, Alice                Mrs. Fraser
  Stendhal, M. de               Marie Henri Beyle
  Stepniak, S.                  S. M. Kravchinsky
  Stonehenge                    John H. Walsh
  Strathesk, John               John Tod
  Stretton, Hesba               Hannah Smith
  Stuart, Esmé                  Miss Leroy
  Swan, Annie S.                Mrs. Burnett Smith
  Tasma                         Madam J. Couvreur
  Thanet, Octave                Alice French
  Thomas, Annie                 Mrs. Pender Cudlip
  Thorne, Whyte                 Richard Whiteing
  Tomson, Graham R.             Rosamund M. Watson
  Travers, Graham               Margt. G. Todd
  Turner, Ethel                 Mrs. H. R. Curlewis
  Twain, Mark                   Samuel L. Clemens
  Tynan, Katharine              Mrs. H. A. Hinkson
  Tytler, Sarah                 Henrietta Keddie
  Uncle Remus                   Joel C. Harris
  Vivaria, Kassandra            Mrs. M. Heinemann
  Walker, Patricius             Wm. Allingham
  Wallis, A. S. C.              Miss Opzoomer
  Wanderer                      E. H. d’Avigdor
  Ward, Artemus                 Chas. F. Browne
  Warden, Florence              Mrs. Florence James
  Waters                        Wm. Russell
  Webb, Mrs.                    Mrs. Webb Peploe
  Wells, Charles J.             H. L. Howard
  Werner, E.                    Elisabeth Bürstenbinder
  Wetherell, Eliz.              Susan Warner
  Wharton, Grace and Philip     John C. and Katharine Thomson
  Whitby, Beatrice              Mrs. Philip Hicks
  Wiggin, Kate D.               Mrs. J. C. Rigg
  Wilcox, E. G.                 Mrs. Egerton Allen
  Winchester, M. E.             M. E. Whatham
  Winter, John Strange          Mrs. H. E. V. Stannard
  Worboise, Emma J.             Mrs. E. Guyton
  Yorke, Curtis                 Mrs. S. Richmond Lee
  Z. Z.                         Louis Zangwill
  Zack                          Gwendoline Keats



APPENDIX D.

Explanations of some of the Marks used in Correcting Proof.


Transcriber’s Note: It is not possible to give some of these marks in
plain text; they are substituted with [symbol]. Refer to the HTML version
for an illustration.

  [symbol]      Delete; to remove a letter or word not wanted.

  _l.c._        Lower case; to be a small letter, and not a capital.

  _cap._        Capital; to be a capital letter, and not a small.

  _w.f._        Wrong fount; the letter is not the same type as the rest.

  _trs._        Transpose; to alter the position of a line or word.

  [symbol]      Marks a broken letter.

  #             Space to be inserted.

  =             A hyphen to be inserted.

  [symbol]      A dash to be inserted.

  [symbol]      A full stop to be inserted.

  [symbol]      To join a word which it is not intended to divide.

  [symbol]      A quadrat, or some other piece not wanted, to be made not
                  to print.

  _Indent._     To set back the line to the place marked.

  _Gauge._      To bring up an indented line to the place marked.

  [symbol]      To straighten a line which has been wrongly
  or              leaded perpendicularly or has something
  [symbol]        making the line crooked horizontally.

  [symbol]      Marks a letter which has been turned upside down or
                  otherwise.

  _Stet._       A word marked through by mistake and to be retained is
                  underlined with dots ......... and “stet” written in
                  the margin.

[Illustration: Specimen Page showing Marked Proof.]

[Illustration: Specimen Page Corrected.]



APPENDIX E.


A list of the principal subject-headings for a dictionary catalogue of an
average general library, with references and cross-references, excepting
to geographical headings. Biographical subject-headings are not included.
The reference “See” implies that the heading from which it refers must
not be used as it is synonymous. A more exhaustive list with a fuller
series of references from greater to lesser and related divisions of
subjects (_i.e._, “see alsos,”) will be found in the _List of subject
headings for use in dictionary catalogues, prepared by a Committee of the
American Library Association_. Boston (Library Bureau), 1895.


    Abbeys

    Abraham

    Abyssinia

    Acoustics. _See_ Sound

    Acting

    Actors
      _See also_ Drama _and the names of actors_

    Acts of the Apostles

    Admirals

    Æronautics. _See_ Ballooning

    Æsthetics

    Afghanistan

    Africa
      Generally
      North
      West
      East and Central (or Equatorial)
      South

    Agnosticism

    Agriculture
        _See also_ Land, Soils

    Air
        _See also_ Meteorology, Pneumatics

    Alaska

    Albania

    Alcohol

    Algæ

    Algebra

    Algeria and Algiers

    Alloys

    Almanacs

    Alphabets

    Alps, The

    Alsace-Lorraine

    Amazon, River

    America
      North
      Central
      South

    America, United States of. _See_ United States

    American Indians

    Amusements
        _See also_ Games

    Anatomy
      Human
      Comparative
        _See also_ Embryology, Osteology, Physiology
      Artistic

    Andes, The

    Anecdotes

    Angling. _See_ Fishing

    Anglo-Saxon language and literature

    Anglo-Saxons

    Animal intelligence
        _See also_ Instinct

    Animal locomotion

    Animal magnetism

    Animals

    Animals, Natural history of. _See_ Zoology

    Annelida. _See_ Worms

    Antarctic Regions

    Anthropology. _See_ Man

    Antiquities
        _(Generally only). See also the names of countries and places for
          national or local antiquities_

    Ants

    Apes

    Aphorisms

    Apocrypha
        _See also_ Bible

    Apostles, The

    Apostles’ Creed

    Aquaria
        _See also_ Pond Life

    Arabia

    Arachnida. _See_ Spiders

    Archæology, Pre-historic
        _See also_ Antiquities

    Archery

    Architecture
      Generally (including periodicals and transactions)
      Classical
      Ecclesiastical
      Monumental
      Domestic
      (or otherwise according to material and requirements)

    Arctic Regions
        _See also_ North-East Passage, North-West Passage

    Ardennes, The

    Argentina

    Arithmetic

    Armenia

    Arminianism

    Arms and armour

    Arms, Coats of. _See_ Heraldry

    Army, British
        _See also the names or numbers of Regiments as_ Royal Artillery,
         21st Lancers

    Art
      General
      Historical
      Treatises
        _See also_ Architecture, Christian Art, Painting, Sculpture

    Art, Ornamental. _See_ Ornament

    Artillery

    Artists
        _See also_ Painters, Sculptors

    Arts, Industrial

    Aryans

    Ashantee

    Asia
      Generally
      Western
      Central
      Eastern

    Asia Minor

    Assyria
        _See also_ Nineveh

    Astrology

    Astronomers

    Astronomy
        _See also_ Moon, Sun, _and the names of planets_

    Athanasian Creed

    Atheism
        _See also_ Scepticism

    Athens

    Athletics
        _See also_ Exercise, Gymnastics

    Atlantic Ocean

    Atlases

    Atonement, The. _See_ Christ

    Australasia

    Australia
      Generally
      Southern
      Western

    Austria

    Authors


    Babylon

    Bacteria

    Bahamas, The

    Balkans, The

    Ballads. _See_ Songs and Ballads

    Ballooning

    Baltic, The

    Banking

    Bankruptcy

    Baptism

    Barbadoes

    Barbary

    Bashan

    Baths and bathing

    Battles

    Bees

    Beetles

    Belgium

    Belief
        _See also_ Scepticism

    Bells

    Bengal

    Berlin

    Bermudas, The

    Bible
      The Text
      Concordances & Dictionaries
      Commentaries & Expositions
      Authenticity & Inspiration
      History & Antiquities
      Miscellaneous

    Bible and science

    Bibliography. _See_ Books

    Bicycling. _See_ Cycling

    Billiards

    Bimetallism

    Biography (General)
        _See also under the names of classes, as_ Actors, Authors, _and
         the names of individuals_

    Biology
        _See also_ Botany, Evolution, Heredity, Zoology

    Birds
        _See also_ Eggs, _and the names of birds, as_ Hummingbirds

    Birds, Cage
        _See also_ Canaries, Parrots

    Bishops

    Black Forest

    Black Sea

    Blind, The

    Boating
      Sailing
      Rowing

    Boilers

    Book illustration. _See_ Illustration

    Book of Common Prayer. _See_ Prayer Book

    Bookbinding

    Book-keeping

    Book-plates (ex libris)

    Books

    Boots and shoes

    Borneo

    Bosnia

    Boston, U.S.A.

    Botany
      Text-books
      Economic
      British (and other countries as needed)
      Habits, fertilization
      Periodicals
        _See also_ Algæ, Ferns, Fungi, Grasses, Mosses, Palæontology, Trees

    Boxing

    Boys

    Brahmanism

    Brain, The

    Brass founding

    Brazil

    Bread

    Brewing

    Brickwork

    Bridges

    Britain, Ancient
        _See also_ Anglo-Saxons, English History

    British Columbia

    British Empire
        _See also_ Colonies

    British Isles

    British Museum

    Brittany

    Broads, The

    Bryology. _See_ Mosses

    Buccaneers

    Buddha and Buddhism

    Building

    Bulgaria

    Burmah

    Business

    Butterflies

    Byzantine Empire


    Cabinet making
        _See also_ Furniture

    Cage-birds. _See_ Birds (Cage)

    Calculus (_Mathematics_)

    California

    Calvinism

    Cambridge and the University

    Canada
      History
      Description and social life
      Politics and miscellaneous

    Canals

    Canaries

    Candles

    Canon law

    Canterbury

    Cape Colony

    Capital
        _See also_ Labour

    Capital punishment

    Card playing.
        _See also_ Whist

    Caricature

    Carpentry and joinery
        _See also_ Handrailing

    Carthage

    Cashmere

    Caspian Sea

    Castles
        _See also the names of castles_

    Cathedrals
        _See also the names of cathedrals_

    Catholic emancipation

    Cats

    Cattle

    Caucasus

    Celts, The

    Cements

    Cetacea
        _See also_ Whales

    Ceylon

    Chaldæa

    Chance. _See_ Probabilities

    Channel Islands

    Character

    Cheirosophy. _See_ Hand

    Chelsea

    Chemistry
      History
      General
      Inorganic
      Organic
      Analysis, special and miscellaneous
      Periodicals and societies

    Cheshire

    Chess

    Children

    Chili

    China
      History
      Description and social life
      Politics
      Religions and missions

    China painting

    Chivalry

    Christ.
      _Sub-divide as necessary into divisions, as_
        Lives
        Teaching
        Divinity
        Incarnation
        Resurrection
        The Atonement

    Christian art

    Christian Church. _See_ Church.

    Christian evidences. _See_ Christianity.

    Christian unity

    Christianity
      History
      Evidences
      Miscellaneous
        _See also_ Church history

    Chronicles

    Chronology

    Church, The

    Church history.
      _Sub-divide into epochs if required._

    Church history
        _See also the names of particular churches and countries._

    Church of England
      History
      Polity, ritual, &c.
        _See also_ Disestablishment, Oxford movement, Prayer Book

    Church and State

    Church music. (As _subject_ only.)
        _See also_ Music

    Churches (_i.e._, generally, not particular sects)

    Civil War, The (1642-49)

    Civil Service

    Civilisation

    Classical geography. _See_ Geography

    Clergy.
        _See also_ Preachers

    Climate

    Climbing mountains. _See_ Mountaineering

    Clocks. _See_ Watches and clocks

    Clothing

    Clouds

    Coach-building

    Coaching

    Coal, Coal-mining

    Coins and medals

    Coleoptera. _See_ Beetles

    Collieries. _See_ Coal

    Colonies, British.
        _See also the names of colonies_

    Colour

    Comets

    Commandments, The

    Commerce.
        _See also_ Free trade

    Commons, House of. _See_ Parliament

    Commonwealth, The
        _See also_ Cromwell

    Communism

    Companies, Commercial

    Comparative anatomy. _See_ Anatomy

    Composers. _See_ Musicians

    Conchology. _See_ Shells

    Confectionery

    Confucius and Confucianism

    Congo, The

    Congregationalism

    Conic sections

    Conjuring

    Conscience

    Conservatism

    Constantinople

    Consumption

    Conversation

    Conversion

    Cookery

    Co-operation

    Corals and coral-reefs

    Corea

    Corinthians, Epistles to the

    Corn laws

    Cornwall

    Corsica

    Costume

    Cotton

    Country life

    Creation

    Creeds

    Cremation

    Cricket

    Crime

    Crimean War

    Criminal law

    Criticism, Literary

    Crusades

    Crustacea

    Cryptogamia.
        _See also_ Algæ, Ferns, Fungi, Mosses

    Crystallography

    Cuba

    Culture
        _See also_ Education

    Cumberland

    Curves

    Customs. _See_ Manners and customs

    Cycling

    Cyprus

    Dairy, The

    Dancing

    Daniel the Prophet

    Darwinism.
        _See also_ Evolution

    David

    Deafness

    Death

    Decoration. _See_ Ornament

    Deer

    Deism

    Democracy

    Denmark

    Dentistry

    Derbyshire

    Descent. _See_ Evolution

    Design. _See_ Ornament

    Devil, The

    Devonshire

    Diamonds

    Diatoms

    Diet. _See_ Food

    Digestion

    Disease.
        _See also_ Medicine

    Disestablishment

    Divorce. _See_ Marriage law

    Doctors

    Doctrine

    Dogs

    Domestic economy.
        _See also_ Cookery, Dressmaking, Needlework, Washing

    Dorsetshire

    Drainage
        _See also_ Hygiene, Plumbing

    Drama, The

    Dramatists

    Drawing and sketching.
        _See also_ Illustration, Perspective

    Dreams

    Dress. _See_ Costume

    Dressmaking

    Drink, Intoxicating. _See_ Temperance question

    Driving

    Dublin

    Duelling

    Durham

    Dyeing

    Dynamics
        _See also_ Mechanics, Hydrostatics, Pneumatics

    Dynamos


    Ear, The
        _See also_ Deafness

    Earth, The

    Earthquakes.
        _See also_ Volcanoes

    East, The
        _See also the names of Eastern countries_

    Eastern Empires, Ancient. _See_ History, Ancient

    Eastern Question, The

    Ecclesiastical architecture. _See_ Architecture

    Ecclesiastical history. _See_ Church history

    Echinoderms

    Economics. _See_ Political economy

    Edinburgh

    Education.
        _See also_ Culture, Kindergarten, Mind, Schools, Teaching,
         Technical education

    Eggs, Birds’

    Egypt.
      Ancient. (_Sub-divide_: Art. Antiquities, inscriptions and
        language. History. Religion)
      Mediæval
      Modern. (_Sub-divide as required._)
        _See also_ Soudan

    Elections

    Electric lighting

    Electrical engineering.
        _See also_ Dynamos

    Electricians

    Electricity and magnetism

    Electro-metallurgy. _See_ Metallurgy

    Electro-plating

    Elijah the Prophet

    Elocution.
        _See also_ Recitations

    Emblems

    Embroidery

    Embryology

    Emigration

    Emotions, The

    Enamels

    Encyclopædias

    Energy

    Engineering
      General
      Civil
      Mechanical
      Marine
        _See also_ Electrical engineering, Gas engines, Locomotive engine,
         Machinery, Steam engine, Strength of materials

    Engineers

    England
      Description
      Social life
        _See also the names of counties and of towns_

    English composition

    English Constitution
        _See also_ English history (Constitutional)

    English history
      General
      (Divide into epochs as may be deemed expedient)
        _For the histories of particular reigns see under the names of
          monarchs_
      Constitutional
      Ecclesiastical
        _See also_ Church of England, _and the names of denominations_
      Social and Industrial

    English language
      History
      Dictionaries
      Grammar

    English literature
      History and manuals
      Miscellaneous

    Engraving
      Wood and metal
        _See also_ Etching, Process

    Entomology

    Ephesus

    Epigrams

    Eschatology. _See_ Future state

    Essays
        _For Essays upon particular subjects or with specific titles see
         the names of those subjects and titles. Works with the general
         title of “Essays” will be found under the names of the following
         authors_:--(Then give list of authors)

    Etching

    Ethics

    Ethnology. _See_ Man

    Etiquette

    Eton

    Etruria

    Euclid

    Europe
      History
      Descriptive
      Politics

    Evil

    Evolution
        _See also_ Biology, Creation, Heredity

    Exercise, Physical. _See_ Gymnastics

    Expression
        _See also_ Emotions, Physiognomy

    Eye, The
        _See also_ Sight


    Fables

    Factories

    Fair trade. _See_ Free trade

    Fairy tales
        _See also_ Folk lore

    Faith

    Family, The

    Fanaticism

    Farming. _See_ Agriculture

    Farriery

    Fathers, The

    Fenianism

    Fermentation

    Ferns

    Feudalism

    Fever

    Fiction
        (N.B.--This heading is for books upon fiction as _subject_ only)

    Fiji

    Fine arts. _See_ Art

    Fish

    Fisheries

    Fishing (including Angling)
        _See also the names of sporting fishes, as_ Salmon, Trout

    Flags (_i.e._, Standards, colours, signals, &c.)

    Florence

    Flour

    Flower painting. _See_ Painting

    Flowers

    Folk lore
      General
      Local
      Special

    Folk songs

    Food
        _See also_ Cookery

    Football

    Foraminifera

    Forestry

    Formosa

    Fossils. _See_ Palæontology

    France
      History
        _See also_ Franco-German War, French Revolution, _and the names of
         French monarchs_
      Description and social life.
        _See also the names of French provinces and places_
      Politics
      Miscellaneous

    Franchise
        _See also_ Women’s suffrage

    Franco-German War, 1870-71

    Free thought

    Free trade question

    Free will

    Freemasonry

    French art. _See_ Art

    French language

    French literature

    French polishing

    French Revolution, The

    Fret-cutting

    Friendly societies

    Friends, Society of (“Quakers”)

    Frogs

    Fruit

    Fuel

    Fungi

    Furniture

    Future state


    Gambling

    Games and sports (generally)
        _See also the names of games, as_ Billiards, Chess, Cricket, &c.

    Gardening

    Gas engines

    Gas lighting

    Gases

    Gems. _See_ Precious stones

    Genealogy

    Genesis, Book of
        _See also_ Pentateuch

    Genius

    Geography
      Ancient
      Modern
      Commercial
        _See also_ Atlases _and the names of continents and countries_

    Geography, Physical. _See_ Physiography

    Geological Survey of the U.K.
      Maps
      Memoirs
      Other publications

    Geology
      General and miscellaneous
      Periodicals and societies
      Local
        _See also_ Ice age, Palæontology, Physiography

    Geometry
        _See also_ Euclid

    German language

    German literature

    Germany
      History
      Description and social life
      Politics
      Miscellaneous

    Ghosts

    Gilds

    Gipsies

    Girls

    Glaciers
        _See also_ Ice age

    Glasgow

    Glass

    Gloucestershire

    God
        _See also_ Christ, Holy Spirit, Revelation

    Gold

    Gold and silver work

    Golf

    Gorillas

    Gospels, The

    Gothic architecture. _See_ Architecture

    Goths, The

    Government
      General
      Special
      Utopias
        _See also_ Democracy, Local government, Politics

    Grammar, English. _See_ English language

    Grasses

    Great Britain
      Descriptive, etc.
        _See also_ England, Scotland, Wales

    Great Britain and Ireland. _See_ British Isles

    Greece, Ancient
      History
      Antiquities and art
      Mythology

    Greece, Modern

    Greek language

    Greek literature and philosophy

    Greenland

    Guiana

    Guilds. _See_ Gilds

    Gunnery. _See_ Artillery

    Gunpowder Plot, The

    Gymnastics and physical exercise


    Hair, The

    Hampshire

    Hampton Court Palace

    Hand, The

    Handrailing and staircasing

    Harbours

    Harmony. _See_ Music

    Harrow

    Harvard University, U.S.A.

    Hawaii. _See_ Sandwich Islands

    Hayti

    Health. _See_ Hygiene

    Health resorts

    Heat

    Heaven

    Hebrew language

    Hebrew religion, Hebrews. _See_ Jews

    Hebrews, Epistle to the

    Hebrides, The

    Hell

    Heraldry

    Herculaneum

    Heredity

    Herefordshire

    Hertfordshire

    Hieroglyphics
        _See also_ Egypt (Ancient)

    Himalayas, The

    Hinduism

    Hindustani language

    Histology

    History
      Universal
      Ancient
      Modern
      Miscellaneous
        _For national histories see under the names of countries and
         peoples_

    History of England. _See_ English history

    Hittites, The

    Hoisting machinery

    Holland. (_Sub-divide as required_)

    Holy Land. _See_ Palestine

    Holy Spirit, The

    Homœopathy

    Horses
        _See also_ Driving, Farriery, Hunting, Racing, Riding

    Horticulture. _See_ Gardening

    Hospitals

    House decoration

    House painting

    Hudson’s Bay Territory

    Huguenots, The

    Human species. _See_ Man

    Humour. _See_ Wit

    Hungary

    Hunting and hunting adventures

    Hydraulics

    Hydropathy

    Hydrophobia

    Hydrostatics

    Hygiene

    Hymenoptera
        _See also_ Ants, Bees, Wasps

    Hymns

    Hypnotism
        _See also_ Animal magnetism, Mesmerism


    Ice age, The

    Iceland

    Ichthyology. _See_ Fish

    Illuminating

    Illusions

    Illustration
        _See also_ Engraving

    Imagination

    Immortality

    Imperial federation. _See_ Colonies, British

    Incarnation, The. _See_ Christ

    Indexing

    India
      History
        _See also_ Indian Mutiny
      Description and social life
        _See also_ Bengal, Himalayas, Parsees
      Natural history
      Religions and missions
        _See also_ Hinduism, Mohammedanism
      Miscellaneous

    India, Languages of. _See_ Hindustani, Pali, Sanskrit

    Indian Mutiny, The

    Individualism

    Indo-China. _See_ Malay Peninsula

    Industrial Arts. _See_ Arts, Industrial

    Industrial remuneration. _See_ Wages

    Industry. _See_ Labour

    Infection

    Infidelity
        _See also_ Scepticism

    Infusoria

    Inquisition, The

    Insanity

    Insects
        _See also_ Ants, Bees, Beetles, Butterflies, Moths

    Instinct

    Insurance

    Intellect. _See_ Mind

    Intemperance. _See_ Temperance question

    International law. _See_ Law

    Invertebrates

    Ireland
      History
      Description and social life
      Art, literature, and folk lore
      Politics and religion
      Miscellaneous

    Irish language

    Iron and steel

    Ironwork

    Isaiah

    Islam. _See_ Mohammedanism

    Israel. _See_ Jews

    Italian language

    Italian literature

    Italy
      History
      Description and social life
        _See also_ Florence, Venice
      Miscellaneous


    Jacob (Patriarch)

    Jacobite Rebellion, The

    Jamaica

    Japan
      Art and industries
      Description and social life
      Religions and missions

    Java

    Jeremiah (Prophet)

    Jerusalem

    Jesuits

    Jews
      History
      Religion
      Political position

    Job, Book of

    John, St., Gospel of

    Joseph

    Joshua, Book of

    Judges, Book of

    Jupiter (Planet)

    Jurisprudence. _See_ Law

    Justification


    Kashmir. _See_ Cashmere

    Kensington

    Kent

    Khiva

    Kindergarten

    Kings

    Kings, Books of

    Knighthood

    Koran
        _See also_ Mohammed

    Kurdistan


    Labour question

    Labrador

    Lace

    Lake District, English

    Lake dwellings

    Lambeth Palace

    Lancashire

    Lancaster and York, Houses of

    Land question

    Language
        _See also under the names of languages._

    Lapland

    Latin language

    Latin literature

    Latter-day saints. _See_ Mormonism

    Law
      Theoretical
      History
      General and administrative
      International
        _See also the law of special subjects, as_ Criminal, Labour,
         Licensing, _and of special countries_

    Lawn tennis

    Leather
        _See also_ Tanning

    Leicestershire

    Lepidoptera. _See_ Butterflies, Moths

    Letter painting
        _See also_ Alphabets

    Letter-writing

    Letters, Miscellaneous and collected. _See under authors’ names_

    Liberalism

    Liberty
      General
      Of conscience
      Of the subject

    Liberty of the press. _See_ Newspapers

    Liberty, Religious. _See_ Religious liberty

    Libraries

    Licensing

    Lichens

    Life
        _See also_ Biology

    Lifeboats

    Light

    Lighthouses

    Lighting
        _See also_ Electric light, Gas lighting

    Limes, Cements

    Liquor traffic. _See_ Temperance question

    Literature
      (General and miscellaneous only)
        _See also the names of literatures, as_ English, French, &c.

    Liturgies

    Liverpool

    Local government

    Locomotion, Animal. _See_ Animal locomotion

    Locomotive engine

    Logarithms

    Logic

    London
      History
      Description
      Religious life
      Social life
      Government
      Miscellaneous
      Environs
        _See also the names of parishes, as_ Chelsea, Clerkenwell,
         Westminster, _and of institutions and places, as_ British
         Museum, Hyde Park, St. Paul’s Cathedral

    Longevity

    Lord’s Prayer, The

    Lord’s Supper, The

    Louisiana

    Lourdes

    Love

    Luke, St., Gospel of

    Lungs, The


    Machinery and millwork
        _See also_ Engineering, Mechanics

    Madagascar

    Madeira

    Magnetism. _See_ Electricity

    Mahomet. _See_ Mohammed

    Malay Archipelago

    Malay Peninsular

    Malta

    Mammalia

    Man

    Man, Isle of

    Manchester

    Manitoba

    Manners and customs
        _See also_ Folk lore

    Manual training

    Manufactures
      (Generally only)
        _See also under the names of particular manufactures_

    Maori Land. _See_ New Zealand

    Maps. _See_ Atlases _and the names of places_

    Marine engineering. _See_ Engineering (Marine)

    Marine insurance

    Maritime law

    Mark, St., Gospel of

    Marriage

    Marriage law

    Mars (Planet)

    Martyrs

    Mary, The Virgin

    Masai-Land

    Mashonaland

    Masonry. _See_ Stone

    Mass, The. _See_ Lord’s Supper

    Massage

    Masses. _See_ Music

    Materialism

    Mathematics
        _See also_ Algebra, Arithmetic, Calculus, Conic sections,
         Equations, Euclid, Geometry, Logarithms, Mensuration

    Matter

    Matthew, St., Gospel of

    Maxims

    Measures. _See_ Weights and measures

    Mechanical engineering. _See_ Engineering, Machinery

    Mechanics
        _See also_ Hydrostatics, Pneumatics

    Mechanism. _See_ Machinery

    Medals. _See_ Coins and medals

    Medicine
        _See also_ Disease, Homœopathy, Surgery

    Mediterranean, The

    Melanesia

    Mensuration

    Mesmerism

    Metal work
        _See also_ Ironwork

    Metallurgy

    Metaphysics. _See_ Mind

    Meteorology

    Methodism. _See_ Wesleyan Methodism

    Mexico

    Michigan

    Microbes
        _See also_ Bacteria

    Microscope, The, and microscopic life

    Middle Ages, The

    Middlesex

    Midian

    Milk

    Millennium, The

    Millwork. _See_ Machinery

    Mind

    Mineralogy

    Mining
        _See also_ Coal

    Minnesota

    Miracle plays

    Miracles

    Missions

    Mohammed & Mohammedanism

    Mollusca
        _See also_ Shells

    Monasticism
        _See also_ Nuns

    Money
        _See also_ Banking, Bimetallism, Capital

    Mongolia

    Monkeys

    Monks. _See_ Monasticism

    Montana

    Monuments

    Moon, The

    Moral philosophy. _See_ Ethics

    Mormonism

    Morocco

    Morphology

    Moses
        _See also_ Genesis, Pentateuch

    Mosses

    Moths

    Mountaineering
        _See also_ Alps

    Mountains

    Muscles

    Museums

    Music
      History
      Miscellaneous literature
      Dictionaries
      Theory (including Sol-fa)
      Singing
      _Instrumental_
        Instruments
          (_Instruction and practice_)
        Instrumental for organ
        Instrumental for pianoforte
        Instrumental for violin, &c.
      _Vocal_
        Oratorios, cantatas, anthems, masses, &c.
        Operas (vocal scores)
        Songs, with music

    Musical instruments
        _See also the names of instruments, as_ Organ, Pianoforte, Violin
        (_Note._--Music for particular instruments goes under “Music” in
          its sub-division, but historical works or upon the making of
          instruments are distributed under the names of instruments
          throughout the catalogue)

    Musicians

    Mysticism

    Mythology
        _See also_ Folk lore


    Names, Personal

    Names of places. _See_ Place-names

    Naples

    Natal

    National Gallery, The

    Natural history of animals. _See_ Zoology

    Natural history
        _See also_ Biology, Botany, Microscope, Zoology

    Natural philosophy. _See_ Physics

    Natural theology. _See_ Theology

    Navies

    Navigation and seamanship

    Navy, British
      History
      Description and administration

    Needlework

    Negro, The

    Nehemiah, Book of

    Nerves

    Netherlands, The

    Nevada

    New Church, The. _See_ Swedenborgianism

    New England

    New Forest, The

    New Guinea

    New Mexico

    New South Wales

    New Testament
      Commentaries and illustrative works
      Critical
      Miscellaneous
        _See also the names of the gospels, epistles, &c._

    New York (City)

    New Zealand

    Newfoundland

    Newgate Gaol

    Newspapers

    Niagara

    Nicaragua

    Nile, The
        _See also_ Egypt, Soudan

    Nineveh

    Nonconformity

    Norfolk

    Norman Conquest, The

    Normandy

    Normans, The

    North-East Passage

    North-West Passage

    Norway

    Nottinghamshire

    Numismatics. _See_ Coins and medals

    Nursing (Invalid)

    Nursing of children. _See_ Children


    Oceania. _See_ Malay Archipelago, Pacific Ocean

    Ohio

    Oils

    Old Testament, The. (_Sub-divide as New Testament_)
        _See also under the names of the various books of the O. T._

    Ontario

    Oology. _See_ Eggs (Birds’)

    Operas, with music. _See_ Music

    Opium

    Optics. _See_ Sight

    Orchids

    Oregon

    Organ, The

    Ornament and design

    Ornithology. _See_ Birds

    Osteology

    Oxford City

    Oxford Movement, The

    Oxford University

    Oxfordshire


    Pacific Ocean and Islands

    Paganism

    Painters
        _See also_ Artists

    Painting
      Historical and critical
      Theory

    Painting, House. _See_ House painting

    Painting, Oil

    Painting, Water-colour
      General
      Landscape and marine
      Flowers and trees
      Figure and animals

    Paints

    Palæography

    Palæontology
      General
      Palæobotany
      Palæozoology

    Palestine

    Palmyra

    Pamirs, The

    Pantheism

    Papacy, The. _See_ Popes, Roman Catholicism

    Paper

    Parables, The

    Paraguay

    Parasites

    Paris

    Parliamentary representation

    Parrots

    Parsees

    Parthenon, The

    Pastimes. _See_ Games

    Patagonia

    Patents

    Pathology. _See_ Disease, Medicine

    Pattern-making

    Paul, St.

    Peace question
        _See also_ War

    Pedigrees. _See_ Genealogy

    Peerages

    Peninsular War, The

    Pennsylvania

    Pensions, Old age

    Pentateuch, The

    Persia

    Perspective
        _See also_ Projection

    Peru

    Pessimism

    Peter, St.

    Petrology. _See_ Rocks

    Petroleum

    Philippines, The

    Philology. _See_ Language

    Philosophy
      Histories
      General and miscellaneous
        _See also_ Eclecticism, Ethics, Logic, Mind, Pessimism

    Phœnicia

    Phonetics

    Phonography
      Instruction books
      Works in phonography

    Photography

    Photography, Röntgen

    Phrenology

    Physical education. _See_ Gymnastics

    Physical geography. _See_ Physiography

    Physicians. _See_ Doctors

    Physics
        _See also_ Dynamics, Electricity, Heat, Hydrostatics, Light,
         Mechanics, Pneumatics, Sound

    Physiognomy

    Physiology
        _See also_ Anatomy, Biology, Histology

    Pianoforte, The

    Pianoforte music. _See_ Music

    Pigeons

    Pigs

    Pilgrim Fathers, The

    Place-names

    Plants. _See_ Botany

    Plata River

    Plate

    Platinotype. _See_ Photography

    Plays. _See_ Drama

    Plumbing
        _See also_ Drainage, Sanitation

    Pneumatics

    Poems. Poetical works.
        _For works bearing these general titles see the following names
         (Poems with specific titles will be found under those titles and
         the authors’ names)_:

    Poetry (Anthologies)

    Poets and poetry

    Poisons

    Poland

    Polar Regions. _See_ Arctic Regions

    Police

    Political economy
        _See also_ Capital, Commerce, Free trade, Government, Labour,
         Land, Money, Poor, Population, Prices, Property, Taxation, Wages

    Politics

    Polynesia. _See_ Pacific Ocean and Islands

    Polyzoa

    Pompeii

    Pond life

    Poor and poor relief
        _See also_ Pensions

    Popes, The
        _See also the names of popes as_ Pius IX., Leo XIII.

    Population

    Port-Royal

    Portraits

    Portugal

    Positivism

    Post Office, The

    Pottery

    Prayer

    Prayer Book, The

    Prayers

    Preachers and preaching

    Precious metals

    Precious stones

    Predestination
        _See also_ Calvinism

    Prehistoric man. _See_ Man

    Presbyterians

    Prices

    Priests. _See_ Clergy

    Printing

    Prisons

    Probabilities

    Progress

    Projection

    Pronunciation

    Property

    Prophecy

    Protection. _See_ Free trade question

    Protestantism

    Provence

    Proverbs

    Proverbs, Book of

    Psalms, The

    Psychology. _See_ Mind

    Pugilism. _See_ Boxing

    Purgatory

    Puritans, The

    Pyramids, The

    Pyrenees


    Quakers. _See_ Friends, Society of

    Quantities (Building)

    Queens

    Queensland

    Quotations


    Racing, Horse

    Railways
        _See also the names of railways, as_ Great Northern

    Rain

    Rating. _See_ Taxation

    Rationalism

    Reciprocity. _See_ Free trade question

    Recitations

    Recreations. _See_ Games

    Red Sea, The

    Reform

    Reformation, The

    Religion
        _See also_ Revelation

    Religion and science

    Religions
        _See also the names of religions, as_ Christianity, Buddhism

    Religious liberty

    Religious thought

    Renaissance, The

    Repoussé. _See_ Metal work

    Representation. _See_ Parliamentary representation

    Reptiles
        _See also_ Frogs, Snakes

    Resurrection, The. _See_ Christ

    Resurrection of the dead

    Revelation

    Revelation, Book of

    Revolution, The, 1688

    Rhetoric

    Rhine, The

    Rhodesia
        _See also_ Mashonaland, Matabeleland

    Riding

    Rings

    Ritualism

    Rituals. _See_ Liturgies

    Rivers
        _See also the names of rivers_

    Riviera, The

    Rocks

    Rocky Mountains

    Roman Catholicism

    Roman law

    Romance

    Romances

    Romans, Epistle to the

    Rome, Ancient
      History
      Antiquities
      Miscellaneous

    Rome, Medieval and Modern

    Roofs

    Roses

    Roumania

    Rowing. _See_ Boating

    Royal Academy of Arts

    Royal Navy. _See_ Navy

    Royal Society of London

    Russia
      History
      Description and social life
      Churches and religious life
      Government and politics
      Miscellaneous

    Russian language

    Rye House Plot


    Sabbath, Christian. _See_ Sunday

    Sacraments
        _See also_ Baptism, Lord’s Supper

    Sailing. _See_ Boating, Yachting

    Sailors

    St. Albans

    St. Paul’s Cathedral

    St. Petersburg

    Saints

    Salmon

    Salt

    Salvation

    Samoa

    Sandwich Islands

    Sanitation. _See_ Drainage, Hygiene, Plumbing, Sewage

    Sanscrit language

    Saracens, The

    Scandinavia

    Scepticism

    Schools

    Science
        (General and miscellaneous only)

    Science and religion. _See_ Religion and science

    Scotland
      History
      Description and social life
      Language, literature, and folk lore
      Miscellaneous

    Scotland, Church of

    Screw propeller

    Scriptures, The. _See_ Bible

    Sculptors

    Sculpture

    Sea, The

    Sea-weeds. _See_ Algæ

    Seals (Animals)

    Seals (Personal, &c.)

    Seamanship. _See_ Navigation

    Secularism

    Semites, The

    Senses, The

    Sepulchral monuments. _See_ Monuments

    Sermons
        _For collections of sermons by various authors see their names.
         Volumes of sermons with specific titles or on definite subjects
         will be found under those titles and subjects_

    Servia

    Sewage

    Shan States

    Sheep

    Shells
        _See also_ Mollusca

    Ships and shipping
        _See also_ Navy, Sailors, Steamships

    Shipwrecks

    Shorthand
        _See also_ Phonography

    Siam

    Siberia

    Sicily

    Sight

    Silk

    Silver

    Sin

    Sinai

    Singing. _See_ Music (Singing)

    Skating

    Sketching. _See_ Drawing

    Skin, The

    Slavery

    Sleep

    Smoking

    Soap

    Socialism

    Sociology

    Soils

    Solomon Islands

    Somali-land

    Song birds. _See_ Birds

    Songs and ballads

    Songs with music. _See_ Music (Songs)

    Soudan, The

    Soul, The

    Sound

    South Africa. _See_ Africa, South

    South Kensington Museum

    South Sea. _See_ Pacific Ocean

    Spain
      History
      Description, &c.
      Miscellaneous

    Spanish Armada, 1588

    Spanish language

    Speaking. _See_ Voice

    Spectrum analysis

    Speech. _See_ Elocution, Voice

    Speeches (Collections only)
        _For speeches by particular persons see under their names_

    Spiders

    Spinning

    Spiritualism

    Sporting adventures. _See_ Hunting

    Sports. _See_ Games

    Stage, The. _See_ Drama

    Stars. _See_ Astronomy

    Statesmen

    Statics

    Statistics

    Steam

    Steam engine

    Steamships

    Steel. _See_ Iron and steel

    Stone and stonemasonry

    Strains. _See_ Strength of materials

    Stratford-upon-Avon

    Strength

    Strength of materials

    Stuarts, The

    Style (Literary)

    Sugar

    Suicide

    Sun, The

    Sunday

    Supernatural, The
        _See also_ Ghosts, Spiritualism

    Superstition

    Surnames. _See_ Names

    Surrey

    Surveying
        _See also_ Building, Quantities

    Sussex

    Sweden

    Swedenborgianism

    Swimming

    Switzerland

    Symbols

    Syria


    Table talk

    Tailoring

    Talmud, The

    Tanning

    Taouism

    Tapestry

    Tariffs

    Tasmania

    Taste. _See_ Æsthetics

    Taxation

    Taxidermy

    Tea

    Teaching
        _See also_ Education

    Technical education

    Teetotalism. _See_ Temperance question

    Telegraphy

    Telephone, The

    Telescopy

    Temperance question

    Temple, The

    Tennis
        _See also_ Lawn tennis

    Texas

    Textile fabrics
        _See also_ Dyeing, Spinning, Weaving

    Thames, River

    Theatre, The. _See_ Actors, Drama

    Theatricals, Amateur

    Theism

    Theology

    Theosophy

    Thermics. _See_ Heat

    Thibet

    Thirty Years’ War, The

    Thrift

    Tibet. _See_ Thibet

    Tides

    Tiles

    Timber

    Tithes

    Tobacco
        _See also_ Smoking

    Tonic sol-fa. _See_ Music (Singing)

    Tonquin

    Tools

    Tower of London

    Towns

    Toxicology. _See_ Poisons

    Trade

    Trades unions
        _See also_ Gilds, Labour

    Transubstantiation. _See_ Lord’s Supper

    Transvaal, The

    Trees
        _See also_ Timber

    Trials (Collections only)
      _Note._--Single trials are usually entered under the name of the
      _defendant_

    Trigonometry

    Trinitarianism

    Trinity, The

    Trout

    Troy

    Tunis

    Turkey

    Turning

    Tuscany

    Typewriting


    Ulster

    Understanding, The. _See_ Mind

    Unitarianism

    United States. (_Sub-divide as required_)

    Universities

    Utilitarianism


    Vaccination

    Vases

    Vatican, The

    Vaudois, The

    Vegetarianism

    Venice

    Ventilation

    Vertebrates

    Vestments, Church

    Veterinary surgery
        _See also_ Dogs, Horses

    Victoria, N.S.W.

    Vienna

    Violin, The

    Violin music. _See_ Music

    Vivisection

    Voice, The

    Volcanoes

    Voyages and travels (Collections, generally, and round the world only)


    Wages

    Wales. (_Sub-divide as required_)

    War

    Warwickshire

    Washington (City)

    Wasps

    Watches and clocks

    Water

    Water supply

    Waterloo, Battle of

    Wealth

    Weather. See _Meteorology_

    Weaving

    Weights and measures

    Wells

    Wesleyan Methodism

    West Indies

    Westminster Abbey

    Westminster Assembly

    Whales

    Whist

    Wight, Isle of

    Will, The

    Wills

    Winchester

    Winds

    Windsor Castle

    Wine

    Winter

    Wit and humour

    Witchcraft

    Woman

    Women’s suffrage

    Wood carving

    Wood engraving. _See_ Engraving

    Woodwork
        _See also_ Carpentry

    Wool

    Work. Working classes. _See_ Labour

    Workshop appliances
        _See also_ Tools

    Worms

    Wrestling

    Writing


    Yachting

    Yorkshire


    Zoology
      General
      Local
      Periodicals and societies
        _See also_ Palæontology

    Zoophytes

    Zoroastrianism

    Zululand



INDEX.


N.B.--_The references are to the sections, not to the pages._

    Abbreviated entries, 90, 97, 101

    Abbreviated words, Arrangement of, 115

    Abbreviated words, List of, Appendix A

    Abbreviations, 17

    Additions to title, 68

    Alphabetical order. See Arrangement

    Amateur cataloguing, 4

    Annotations, 27

    Anonymous books, 38, 39

    Anthologies, 65, 92

    Arrangement of entries, Alphabetical, &c., 37, 41, 52, 58, 113-116

    ⸻ Classified catalogues, 112

    ⸻ Author-entry, tabulated, 114

    Articles (a, an, the), Use and transposition of, 99

    ⸻ Arrangement of, 116

    Artists, 65, 67

    Author-entry, The, 13-68

    ⸻ Arrangement of, 114

    ⸻ Artists, 65

    ⸻ Composers, 60

    ⸻ Compound names, 54, 55

    ⸻ defined, 8

    ⸻ Initialisms, 36

    ⸻ Noblemen, 44, 45

    ⸻ Order of information given, 13

    ⸻ Oriental names, 56

    ⸻ Patronymic, or other prefix, 51-53

    ⸻ Pseudonyms, 33-35

    ⸻ Saints, 43

    ⸻ Sovereigns, princes, &c., 42

    ⸻ Surname to lead, 14

    ⸻ Women with changed names, 50

    Authors of same name, 28, 31

    Authors, Joint, 57

    Authors’ surnames only, 101


    Barrett, Mr. F. T., on dictionary and classified catalogues, 9

    Bible, The, 71

    Bible commentaries, 72

    Biographical dictionaries, 32

    Biographies, 93

    Brown, Mr. J. D., on classified catalogues, 9

    Brown’s adjustable classification applied, 108-110

    Buildings, Monographs on, 85


    Canonized persons, 43

    Capitals, Use of, 18

    Card catalogues, 10

    Catalogues, Amateur, 4

    ⸻ Early forms, 6

    ⸻ Need for rules, 5

    ⸻ Popular notions of, 1

    ⸻ Requirements of, 3, 5

    ⸻ Varieties of, 2

    Christian names, Fullest, 29

    ⸻ Initials of, 30

    ⸻ Place of, 14

    ⸻ used for author-entry, 42

    Church councils, 69

    Classical works, contents not indexed, 105

    Classified _v._ dictionary catalogues considered, 9, 107

    Classified catalogue, Form of entry, with examples, 108-110

    ⸻ Arrangement of entries, 112

    ⸻ Index to, 111

    Collation, The, 15, 28

    Collected essays & works, 61-63

    ⸻ Indexing, 103-104

    Compilations, 65

    Compilers, 73

    Composers, Music, 60

    Composite books, 64

    Compound names, 54, 55

    Contents, Setting out and indexing, 61-63, 103-105

    Corporate bodies, 69

    Cross-references. _See_ References

    Cutter’s Rules, 7


    Dash, Repetition, Use of, 59, 102

    Dates of publication, 24

    ⸻ Earliest and latest, 28

    ⸻ Not given (n.d.), 15

    ⸻ Omitted in works of fiction, 24

    ⸻ Original, in reprints, 25

    ⸻ Roman numerals, 20

    Degrees, University, 46-47

    Descriptive notes, 23, 27

    Dewey’s Classification applied, 108-110

    Dictionary catalogue, Merits of, 8

    ⸻ Development of, 6

    ⸻ Information it will and will not supply, 8

    ⸻ _v._ Classified catalogue, 9, 107

    ⸻ General compilation of, 13-106

    ⸻ List of subject-headings for, Appendix E

    Distinction between authors of similar names, 31

    Dramas, 95

    Dutch names, 53


    Ecclesiastical dignities, 46

    Ecclesiastical titles, Changes in, 49

    Editors, 61, 64, 73

    “England” as subject-heading, 83

    Entry, Form of, 15

    Errors in cataloguing, 16

    Essays, Collected, 61-62

    ⸻ Indexing, 103-105

    ⸻ as subject-heading, 92

    Explanatory notes, 27


    Fiction, Works of, in classified catalogues, 110

    ⸻ Dates of publication, 24

    ⸻ Proper names in titles of, 100

    Figures and dates, Transcription of, 21

    Fiske, Prof., on catalogues, 1

    Foreign works under English headings, 88

    Form of principal entry, 15

    French names with prefixes, 52


    Geographical subject-headings, 83

    German names, 53

    Government publications, 69

    Greek title-pages, 22

    ⸻ names, 40


    Handwriting, 11

    Headings. _See_ Subject-headings


    Illustrators, 65, 67-68

    Indexing contents (Authors), 61-62

    ⸻ (Subjects), 103-104

    Indexing classified catalogue, 111

    Initialisms, 36, 37

    Initials for Christian names, 29, 30

    Introductions, 74


    Jewett’s _Construction of catalogues_, 7

    Joint-authors, 57


    Ladies’ names changed by marriage, 50

    Language of title-page, 22

    Latin names, 40

    Library Assoc. _Report on size-notation_, 26; Appendix B

    Librettists, 60

    Linderfelt’s _Eclectic card catalog rules_, 7

    Local pamphlets, 97


    Madeley’s book-size scale, 26

    Marriage names of ladies, 50

    Materials for cataloguing, 10

    Mistakes, How made, 16

    Monarchs’ names, 42

    ⸻ Arrangement of, 113

    Monographs in societies’ transactions, 69

    Music, Composer of, 60


    Names, Compound, 54-55

    ⸻ Oriental, 56

    ⸻ as titles, 100

    ⸻ Arrangement, 113

    Newspapers, 70

    Noblemen, Titles and family names of, 44-45

    Notes, Descriptive, &c., 23, 27

    Numbers, Transcription of, 20, 21

    Numbers in title, Arrangement of, 115


    Official publications, 69

    Omissions, 68

    Order of entries. _See_ Arrangement

    Oriental names, 56


    Pamphlets, 96-97

    Patronymics, 51

    Periodicals, 70

    Phrase-names, 34

    Place of publication, 15

    Plays, Need for index to, 106

    Poems, poetical works, 92

    Popular terms for subject-headings, 84

    Portraits, Need for index to, 106

    Potentates, Names of, 42

    Prefatory essays, 74

    Prefixes to names, 51-53

    ⸻ Arrangement of, 114

    Princes, Names of, 42

    Principal entry, The, 13-74

    ⸻ Order in which particulars are given, 13

    Printers and catalogues, 13

    Printing, Preparation for, 117-123

    ⸻ Specification for, 121

    Proof-reading and correction, 122-123

    Proof, Specimen, with corrections, Appendix D

    Pseudonyms, 33-35

    ⸻ List of, Appendix C

    Publication, Dates of. _See_ Dates

    Publication, Place of, 15

    Publication societies, 69

    Punctuation, 18


    References and cross-references, Forms of, 54, 65, 66, 68, 76, 79,
      86, 88, 89

    ⸻ Use of, tabulated, 88

    Religious societies, 69

    Repeat dash, 59, 102

    Reprints, Original dates to, 25

    Revised editions, 73

    Roman numerals, 20


    Sacred books, 71

    Saints, Names of, 42-43

    Scientific terms for subject-headings, 84

    “See” and “See also”, Difference between (Author) 66, (Subject) 79

    Series entry defined, 8

    Series entries, 75, 89

    Sermons, 94

    ⸻ Need for index to, 106

    Sheaf catalogues, 10

    Short entries, 90, 101

    Signs and abbreviations, 17

    Sizes and styles of catalogues, 119-120

    Sizes of books, 26

    ⸻ Table of, Appendix B

    Social changes, Necessity for noting, 48

    Societies’ transactions, &c., 69

    Sovereigns, Names of, 42

    Specification for printing a catalogue, 121

    Subject entries defined, 8

    Subject-headings, Alternative, 80

    ⸻ Choice of, 80, 91

    ⸻ Concentration of, 86

    ⸻ Curtailment of entry under, 79

    ⸻ Errors of, 87

    ⸻ Exact, 75

    ⸻ Foreign works, 88

    ⸻ Forms of, 77, 90

    ⸻ Grouping, 86

    ⸻ Illustrative examples, 77, 79-83, 89, 91

    ⸻ Importance of, 75

    ⸻ List of, for a dictionary catalogue, Appendix E

    ⸻ Method of regarding books for, 91, 92

    ⸻ Reduction to title-entry, 77

    ⸻ Scientific _v._ popular terms for, 84

    ⸻ Sub-division of, 81, 83

    ⸻ Synonymous, 76

    Surnames, Similar, 31

    ⸻ with prefixes, 51-53

    Synonymous subject-headings, 76


    Title-as-subject entries, 98

    Title-entry defined, 8

    Title-entries, 98-101

    ⸻ as principal entries, 35

    Title-pages, 13-15

    ⸻ Abbreviation of, 97

    ⸻ Additions, 68

    ⸻ Numbers on, 20-21

    ⸻ Omissions, 68

    ⸻ Peculiar, 18

    ⸻ Prolix, 97

    ⸻ Transcription of, 16

    ⸻ Translations of, 22-23

    Titles of honour, &c., 46

    Transactions, &c., of societies, 69

    Translations of title-pages, 22-23

    Translators, 73

    Types for printing, Styles of, 119-120

    ⸻ Marking for, 118

    ⸻ Specimens tabulated, 119

    Typewriter, The, 12


    Volumes, Number of, 28


    Wheatley’s _How to catalogue_, 7

    Word entries, Erroneous, 87

    Writing, Style of, 11

    ⸻ Specimens of, _page_ 16



THE LIBRARY SUPPLY CO.


DESIGNERS, PATENTEES, AND MAKERS OF

[Illustration]

Mechanical Appliances, Fittings, Furniture, and Supplies for Libraries,
Museums and Offices.

Office and Showroom: 4, AVE MARIA LANE, PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON, E.C.

       *       *       *       *       *

Card Indexing for Libraries.

[Illustration]

_The Life of a Card Catalogue never ends. Additions can be made at any
time, and in any place._

In all libraries, whether private or public, the Card Catalogue is an
essential. In a large public library, where the stock of books is being
constantly added to, it is necessary, in order to save a weary search
through pages of MSS. and numerous printed supplements to have a complete
index on cards carefully kept up-to-date, where the public or the staff
can readily ascertain by one reference whether any particular book is in
the library. In the reference library the necessity of the Card Catalogue
cannot be questioned. To print a catalogue of the reference library is
an expensive proceeding, as the sales seldom reach one-tenth part of the
cost; and frequently the printed catalogue suffers in usefulness by the
need of keeping it within certain limits.

We recommend the “Libraco” Tray Cabinets for use in Libraries, as they
divide up a catalogue into many parts, and allow several persons to
consult the Catalogue at one time.

_Send for full descriptive list of the Applications of the Card
System--Sectional Catalogue, No. 10._

       *       *       *       *       *

“LIBRACO” TRAY CABINETS.

The enormous advantages of the Card Indexing System for Libraries are
beyond question. The only disadvantage alleged against the system is that
only a limited number of people can consult the card catalogue at one
time. The Cabinet illustrated on this page holds 18,000 cards, and is
suitable for a library of 6,000 volumes. The Cabinet therefore divides
the catalogue into 15 parts and allows 15 persons to use it. The trays
are removable and may be carried to a counter for consultation. In a
reference library it is seldom that at any given time during the day
more than three or four people are desirous of consulting the catalogue,
therefore the one and only disadvantage alleged against the Card System
is imaginary. A properly guided Card Catalogue is easier to handle than
the MSS. book. Stout cards and perfect arrangement render consultation a
pleasure.

[Illustration: NO. 15A. FIFTEEN TRAY CABINET.

=In Oak. £8 net.=

_With 18,000 Thin Linen Cards, and 1,000 Guides, £16 6s. 6d._]

       *       *       *       *       *

“LIBRACO” TRAY CABINETS.

Made in OAK, WALNUT, or MAHOGANY.

_SINGLE TRAY, No. 1a._

A handsome case, with cover lid, suitable for small catalogues.

[Illustration]

Price, Case only, 10s. 6d.

Case with 1,000 Thin Linen Cards and one set of A-Z Guides, complete, £1
1 0

_FOUR TRAY CABINET, No. 4a._

A finely finished Cabinet with four trays, each holding 1,000 cards, used
for indexes to borrowers, additions to the lending library, &c.

[Illustration]

Price, Cabinet only, £2 5 0

Cabinet with 4,000 Thin Linen Cards and 200 Guides complete, £4 3 0

MADE IN VARIOUS SIZES.

       *       *       *       *       *

“LIBRACO” SLIDE CABINETS.

The “Libraco” Slide Cabinets are thoroughly constructed of oak, mahogany
or walnut throughout. They are provided with extension slides, which
prevent the drawer coming out entirely, but allow it to pull out to the
full extent. A full view of the contents is thus obtained. Every detail
has been carefully considered and worked out, so that a loaded drawer
runs noiselessly and with ease. Built in various sizes.

[Illustration: THREE DRAWER SLIDE CABINET.

In Oak, Mahogany, or Walnut, £4 0 0.

_Holds 9,000 Thin Linen Cards._]

The “Libraco” Slide Cabinets have been supplied to Science and Art Dept.
(3 ten-drawer Cabinets for 100,000 cards), St. Paul’s Cathedral Library,
Oxford Union Society (21 Drawer Cabinet for 84,000 cards), Hull Public
Library, Bishopsgate Institute (2 eight-drawer Cabinets for 58,000
cards), Cripplegate Institute, Hove, West Ham, Carlisle, and many other
public libraries.

       *       *       *       *       *

PRICE LIST OF “LIBRACO” INDEX CARDS.

[Illustration]

THE BEST ENGLISH LINEN CARDS.

The material from which these cards are cut is manufactured by an English
Mill to the order of the Library Supply Co. It is prepared expressly to
meet the requirements of the Card System, and is not carried in stock by
any Paper Merchant. The “Libraco” Index Cards are exact in height and
the edges will be found true and square. The machinery for cutting these
cards has been specially adapted for the purpose.

The “Libraco” Index Cards are made in three weights, thin, medium, and
thick. The thin cards are mostly used because they occupy less space,
and therefore reduced the cost of storage. But in all important indexes,
medium and thick cards are adopted.

Price List.

    =D= =Thin Linen= Cards,   Ruled & Punched  10s. per 1,000.
    =B=    ”    ”      ”      Plain      ”      7s.      ”

    =Z= =Medium Linen= Cards, Ruled & Punched  12s.      ”
    =Y=    ”      ”      ”    Plain       ”    10s.      ”

    =H= =Thick Linen= Cards,  Ruled & Punched  15s.      ”
    =F=    ”     ”      ”     Plain      ”     12s.      ”

MANILLA CARDS.

For temporary lists--in four colours, drab, red, yellow and blue.

Price 3s. 6d. per 1,000, Plain and Punched.

CATALOGUING SLIPS.

    Of good Cartridge Paper       1s. 3d. per 1,000.

“LIBRACO” SECOND GRADE CARDS.

Are principally intended for temporary lists. They are cut as accurately
and as truly as the best English linen cards, but are inferior in
durability. They are made in two thicknesses--thin and thick. Stocked in
ten colours:--white, salmon, green, grey, primrose, rose, fawn, lemon,
silurian and celestial.

Price List.

    =M= =Thin= Cards,  Ruled and Punched     7s. per 1,000.
    =K=    ”     ”      Plain         ”      4s. 6d.  ”

    =Q= =Thick= Cards, Ruled and Punched     9s.      ”
    =O=    ”      ”    Plain         ”       6s. 6d.  ”

GUIDE CARDS.

Made from strong and tough material. Cut so as to form a projection above
the ordinary card, one-fifth, third, or half the length of the card,
according to the amount of writing desired on projecting tab. They are of
great importance in a card catalogue, and should be used freely, as they
enable the user to turn instantly to any desired topic, name, or title in
the index, thereby reducing the wear and tear of the cards.

    Blank Guides (fifths, thirds, or halves)      1s. 6d. per 100.
    A-Z Guides (Printed)                          1s. 0d. per set.
    Month Guides   ”                              0s. 8d.   ”
    Week Guides    ”                              0s. 6d.   ”
    Day Guides     ”                              1s. 6d.   ”

       *       *       *       *       *

ADJUSTABLE SHEAF CATALOGUES.

For certain index purposes these sheaf binders are admirably suited, and
appeal to those in favour of the book form of cataloguing. The sheaf
catalogues are in the form of screw binders, which hold loose slotted
slips. The slips can be arranged alphabetically and maintained in
strict order. The screws are turned by means of a key, and thus release
contents, when insertions or withdrawals can be made. When screwed up the
slips are clamped firmly, and it is impossible to remove or tear out an
entry without leaving a counterfoil.

[Illustration: ADJUSTABLE CATALOGUE HOLDER.

_Size of Slips, 6¾ × 3¾. Half Pigskin, finished in gilt._]

=Price 8s. net. Xylonite Label Holders, 3d. each extra.=

_Cabinets to hold these binders are made in Oak. Prices on application._

       *       *       *       *       *

ADJUSTABLE PERIODICALS LIST.

Titles of papers, magazines, directories, &c., printed on separate slips
of card, and inserted in proper place in frame. Of great convenience to
the librarian and to the public. When ordering send list of papers.

[Illustration]

=Frames of any size are Made.=

=Prices complete, from 15s.= _Oak or Walnut frames as desired._

The same titles can be used for Periodical indicators. Frames containing
list of papers to be found on each table are supplied at cheap rates.
Send particulars and we will quote price.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE YALE BOOK SUPPORT.

A new invention for supporting books on the shelves. Can be attached to
top or underside of shelf. Made of steel, nicely japanned. The support
slides along shelf, but is secured or released by a turn of the set
screw. Absolutely rigid. The most effective book-support in the market.

[Illustration]

NET PRICES:

1/-each.

9/6 per 10. 46/-per 50.

90/-per 100.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE YALE BOOK CARRIER.

Consists of Polished Wood base, 2-ft. long × 6¾-ins wide, and two Yale
Book Supports. Exceedingly convenient to the cataloguer, and for holding
ledgers on desk, etc.

=Net Price, 5/6.=

=Carriage 6d. extra.=

       *       *       *       *       *

THE “LIBRACO” PERFORATING STAMP.

Cuts the name into the paper by means of a series of needles, and thus
establishes the ownership of books beyond question. The impression
does not mar the appearance of the printed page, or interfere with the
legibility of the reading matter. It is effective and cannot be removed.
The “Libraco” Perforating Stamp is absolutely essential on art plates and
valuable books.

[Illustration: CORK PUBLIC LIBRARY]

=Price 38s. net.=

[Illustration: SANDEMAN PUBLIC LIBRARY PERTH]

=Price £2 net.=

       *       *       *       *       *

GOLD BLOCKED NAME TABLETS.

(_For Newspapers Stands, Magazine Racks, Table Indicators, Magazine
Covers_)

Consists of a red leatherette label blocked in gold, fitted in japanned
metal frame, and covered with transparent material to protect label.

[Illustration: ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS]

Large Size, 15in., by 1½in., for Newspaper Stands

[Illustration: STRAND MAG]

Small Size, 6in. by ¾in., for Tables, etc.

PRICES:

    Large Size Label, frames and screws complete  1/9 each.
    Small   ”    ”       ”         ”       ”      10d. ”
    Large Size Label only                         1/3  ”
    Small   ”    ”     ”                           6d. ”

=NEAT, PERMANENT AND EFFECTIVE.=

       *       *       *       *       *

A SUCCESSFUL SERIES OF ACCOUNT BOOKS for LIBRARIES and MUSEUMS.

[Illustration]

_Adopted by all the latest and most important libraries._

  =The “Libraco” Stock Book for 10,000 entries.= A
  handsomely bound folio (17-in. × 11-in.) volume, half
  morocco, cloth sides. Ruled and printed on sound linen
  paper. Contains 18 headings suitable for all purposes.
  Very carefully designed.                              Price =30s.= net.

  =Library Accessions.= Foolscap folio. A Stock book for
  small Libraries of 5,000 vols. Bound in half leather,
  cloth sides. Ruled and printed on sound linen paper.  Price =10s.= net.

  =Shelf Register.= Foolscap folio. Uniform with above.
  Ruled and printed for 10 years use.                   Price =10s.= net.

  =Library Register.= Foolscap folio. For recording
  issues.                                               Price =10s.= net.

  =Bindery Book.= Foolscap folio. For recording books
  sent to the Binder. Loose sheets, 2/- per quire.      Price =10s.= net.

  =Borrowers’ Register.= Foolscap folio. For numerically
  registering of borrowers, to be supplemented by an
  alphabetical card index of names.                     Price =10s.= net.

  =Library Statistics.= Foolscap folio. For recording
  statistics of issue for each month.                   Price =12s.= net.

  =Periodicals Register.= Foolscap folio. For checking
  the supply of periodicals to the library.             Price =12s.= net.

  =Proposition Book.= Foolscap folio. For recording
  proposals of readers.                                 Price =10s.= net.

  =Library Catalogue.= Foolscap folio. Index cut
  through. For alphabetical catalogue of small
  libraries.                                            Price =12s.= net.

  =Books Overdue.= Foolscap folio. For recording books
  overdue.                                              Price =10s.= net.

  =Donation Book.= Foolscap folio. For recording full
  particulars of donations of books, pictures, &c., to
  the library.                                          Price =10s.= net.

  =Visitors’ Book.= Demy folio (15 × 9¾-in.) A
  beautifully bound book. Ruled and printed on sound
  linen paper.                                          Price =15s.= net.

  =Museum Accessions.= Foolscap folio.                  Price =10s.= net.

       *       *       *       *       *

LIBRARY AND MUSEUM NUMBERS.

_Gold Blocked Numbers and Letters on Leatherette._

These numbers and letters are easily and permanently affixed to the
backs of books by means of fish glue, and whilst they cost less than
one-sixth of the sum charged by a bookbinder, they are, in the opinion
of many librarians, better and more effective than numbering direct on
to the books, as the contrast between the colour of the leatherette and
the colour of the binding emphasises the number. Besides cheapness, they
are time savers, as new books can be numbered as purchased. Their neat
and uniform appearance are pleasing recommendations, and sufficient to
warrant the discarding of the unsightly draper’s labels commonly used.

_Numbers supplied in strips of 10, on dark green Leatherette._

_Numbers 0 to 9999._

=For any set of 100 numbers between=

       0 to 1999    1/2 per 100
    2000 to 3999    1/3   ”
    4000 to 5999    1/4   ”
    6000 to 7999    1/5   ”
    8000 to 9999    1/6   ”

=For any set of 500 numbers between=

       0 to 1999    5/6 per 500
    2000 to 3999    6/-   ”
    4000 to 5999    6/6   ”
    6000 to 7999    7/-   ”
    8000 to 9399    7/6   ”

_Numbers 10,000 to 999,999._

For any complete set of numbers between

     10000 and  99999  22/- per 1000
    100000 and 999999  27/6 per 1000

_Smaller Quantities supplied at Special Prices._

=For each complete 1000 Numbers.=

       0 to  999  10/- per set.
    1000 to 1999  10/6 ”
    2000 to 2999  11/- ”
    3000 to 3999  11/6 ”
    4000 to 4999  12/- ”
    5000 to 5999  12/6 ”
    6000 to 6999  13/- ”
    7000 to 7999  13/6 ”
    8000 to 8999  14/- ”
    9000 to 9999  15/- ”

=For each complete Set.=

    0 to  999  10/- per set.
    0 to 1999  20/- ”
    0 to 2999  30/- ”
    0 to 3999  40/- ”
    0 to 4999  50/- ”
    0 to 5999  60/- ”
    0 to 6999  70/- ”
    0 to 7999  80/- ”
    0 to 8999  90/- ”
    0 to 9999  100/- ”

=Letters=, put up singly in boxes of 100: A to K, 10d. 100; L to Z, 1/-100

_Letters on various coloured leatherette and strips of even numbers for
the Adjustable Classification Scheme._

=Cheap Printed Numbers= from 1 to 6,000 on grey gummed paper, from 2d.
per 100.

BEST FISH GLUE--6d. per Bottle.

       *       *       *       *       *

SHELF LABEL HOLDERS.

[Illustration: SHELF LABEL HOLDER

Simplest, Cheapest and Best.]

Shelf Label Holders are useful in every library, especially in libraries
where books are classified on the shelves. Our Label Holders are made of
japanned metal, having a long flange which rests on the shelf. The edges
of the holder are so turned that they hold a stout card bearing the name
of subject or author. This card may be removed or renewed at pleasure.
Where desired, transparent slips, to cover the cards and protect them
from dust, are supplied at an extra charge. Card Labels are supplied free
with our holders. Hundreds of these holders are now in use, and have
practically demonstrated their usefulness and many advantages. They take
the place of the unsightly labels of many colours and shapes hitherto
pinned to the shelves, which were so detrimental to the woodwork.

PRICES.

    5 inches wide                25/0 per 100
    4    ”    ”                  24/0    ”
    3    ”    ”                  23/0    ”
    2½   ”    ”                  22/0    ”

Supplied with Stout Labels.

TRANSPARENT SLIPS, 5/-per 100 extra.

       *       *       *       *       *

MARLBOROUGH PAMPHLET CASES.

These Cases supply a means of preserving pamphlets from dust and
destruction, and meet with the approval of librarians, clergymen, and
others desirous of preserving any kind of unbound literature or MSS., in
a form at once easily accessible and secure.

[Illustration]

SIZES AND PRICES.

    No.            Size.        s.   d.
      1.--     7¾ × 5¼  × 1½    1    0
      2.--     9  × 6   × 1½    1    3
      3.--    10¼ × 6½  × 1½    1    4
      4.--    11¼ × 7¾  × 1½    1    6
      5.--    11¼ × 7¾  × 3½    2    0
      6.--     8¾ × 7   × 1½    1    6
      7.--    11⅝ × 9   × 1½    2    0
      8.--    13¾ × 8¾  × 1½    2    0
      9.--    14½ × 10¾ × 2½    2    6
     10.--    17¼ × 12¾ × 2½    3    0
     11.--     9  × 5¾  × 3½    1    9
     12.--     9½ × 6½  × 3½    2    0
     13.--    10¼ × 7⅛  × 3½    2    0
     14.--    13¾ × 9   × 3½    2    9
     15.--    13½ × 10¼ × 3½    2   10
     16.--     9⅛ × 7   × 2½    2    0
     17.--    12½ × 9¾  × 3½    2    6
     18.--    10¼ × 7⅞  × 3½    2    0
     19.--    10½ × 8¼  × 3½    2    6
     20.--    11¾ × 9   × 3½    2    9
     21.--    13⅜ × 9¼  × 3½    2    9
     22.--    11  × 8   × 3½    2    6
     23.--    10½ × 7¾  × 3½    2    6
     24.--    11½ × 9   × 3½    2    9
     25.--    12¾ × 9½  × 3½    2    9
     26.--    12¾ × 8¼  × 3½    2    9
     27.--    12¾ × 10¼ × 3½    2    9
     28.--    10⅝ × 7¼  × 3½    2    0
     29.--    11½ × 8   × 3½    2    6
     30.--    15½ × 11¾ × 2½    2    9
     31.--    18  × 12  × 4     4    0
     32.--    12  × 8⅛  × 2½    2    6
     33.--     9⅞ × 6   × 2     1    8

_The sizes given are the clear inside measurements of the inner cases. In
ordering, please quote the distinctive number._

       *       *       *       *       *

“LIBRACO” PAMPHLET CASES.

THE CHEAPEST BOX IN THE MARKET.

A cheap, handy, and convenient box for storing pamphlets, papers, &c.
Covered in special marble paper. Made with hinged half-lids, shouldered
sides, and fall-down fronts. Provided with a contents label. They are
dust proof, and have the advantage of taking up less space than any other
form of Pamphlet Case.

[Illustration: CLOSED.]

[Illustration: OPEN.]

PRICE LIST.

                                                  Paper    Cloth
                                                 Covered. Covered.

    No.  60, Size   5¼  × 3¼ × 2½  for Cards, &c.   4d.      --
     ”   62,   ”    9   × 6  × 2   Demy 8vo.        7d.     1/6
     ”   67,   ”    11⅝ × 9  × 2½  Demy 4to.       11d.     2/0
     ”  614,   ”    13¾ × 9  × 3   Fcap. fol.       1s.     2/4
     ”  616,   ”    9⅛  × 7  × 2½  Fcap. 4to.       9d.     1/8
     ”  624,   ”    11  × 9  × 2½  Large 4to.      10d.     2/0

=Loose Alphabetical Index Leaves, to fit No. 624, price 11d.=

_In ordering quote distinctive No.; clear inside measurements are given._

       *       *       *       *       *

LIBRARY PUBLICATIONS.

=The Library World=: Monthly. Illustrated. Subscription, 5s. 6d. per
annum. Single copies, 6d. each, post free. _Established July, 1898._

SOME IMPORTANT FEATURES.

_Studies in Library Practice_:--

I. The History and Description of Library Charging Systems, by JAMES D.
BROWN, Clerkenwell Public Library.

II. Classified and Annotated Cataloguing: Suggestions and Rules. By L.
STANLEY JAST, Croydon Public Library

_Library Extension Work_:--

I. Lectures. Symposium.

The Library Rate.

Librarian’s Workshop: Practical Notes.

Practical Points in Library Administration.

Select Subject Lists.

&c., &c., &c.

_“Libraco” Series of Text Books on Library Economy._

=Manual of Library Classification and Shelf Arrangement.= By JAMES D.
BROWN, Librarian, Clerkenwell Public Library, London. Cr. 8vo., Cloth,
4s. net, postage 3d.

=Adjustable Classification for Libraries=; with index. By JAMES D. BROWN,
Librarian, Clerkenwell Public Library. (Abstracted from “MANUAL OF
LIBRARY CLASSIFICATION.”) 66 pp., interleaved, Cr. 8vo., Paper Covers,
1s. 6d. net, postage 3d.

=Manual of Library Cataloguing.= By J. HENRY QUINN, Librarian, Chelsea
Public Libraries, London. Cr. 8vo., Cloth, 5s., net, Postage 3d.

=Souvenir of the Annual Meeting of the Library Association= held at
Southport--Preston--Wigan, 1898. Royal 8vo., 46 portraits and other
illustrations, bound in Cloth. 3s. 6d. net. Post free.

    PUBLISHED BY
    _LIBRARY SUPPLY Co., 4, Ave Maria Lane, London, E.C._





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