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Title: York and Lancaster - 1399-1485
Author: Jones, William Garmon
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  Transcriber's Notes
  All obvious spelling errors have been corrected.
  The Greek word Ὠθεὰ has been corrected to Ὠ θεὰ.

  _General Editors_: +S. E. Winbolt+, M.A., and +Kenneth Bell+, M.A.



  _Volumes now Ready, 1s. net each._

  =449-1066.= =The Welding of the Race.= Edited by the Rev.
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  =1066-1154.= =The Normans in England.= Edited by +A. E.
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  =1154-1216.= =The Angevins and the Charter.= Edited by
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  =1216-1307.= =The Growth of Parliament, and the War with
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  =1307-1399.= =War and Misrule.= Edited by +A. A.

  =1399-1485.= =York and Lancaster.= Edited by +W. Garmon
  Jones+, M.A.

  =1485-1547.= =The Reformation and the Renaissance.= Edited
  by +F. W. Bewsher+, B.A.

  =1547-1603.= =The Age of Elizabeth.= Edited by +Arundell
  Esdaile+, M.A.

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  Edwards+, M.A., Christ's Hospital.

  =1837-1856.= =Commercial Politics.= By +R. H.

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  =1876-1887.= =Imperialism and Mr. Gladstone.= Edited by
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         *       *       *       *       *

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  Lecturer at Edinburgh University.


  =1637-1688.= =The Scottish Covenanters.= Edited by +J.
  Pringle Thomson+, M.A.

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  Pringle Thomson+, M.A.










This series of English History Source Books is intended for use with
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of England for Schools_, Part I., by Keatinge and Frazer, pp. 377-381.
However, we have no wish to prescribe for the teacher the manner in
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The order of the extracts is strictly chronological, each being
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We shall be most grateful to teachers and students who may send us
suggestions for improvements.



I have to thank Sir E. Maunde Thompson and the Council of the Royal
Society of Literature for so readily permitting me to quote from Sir
E. Maunde Thompson's edition of Adam of Usk's _Chronicle_. With three
exceptions, the sources quoted in this volume are contemporary, and,
where I have employed non-contemporary material, I have endeavoured to
justify its use in a prefatory note to the extract.

  W. G. J.

_Postscript._--Mr. C. L. Kingsford, in his valuable critical account,
_English Historical Literature in the Fifteenth Century_, recently
published, argues strongly against the accepted authorship of the _Vita
et gesta Henrici Quinti_ (quoted on pp. 15-19). Hearne erroneously
attributes it to Thomas Elmham. Mr. Kingsford shows that the date of
its composition lies between 1446 and 1449, and that its anonymous
author was, in all probability, a foreigner.


       +Introduction+                                                    v


 1399. +The Coronation of Henry IV.+     _Chronicle of Adam of Usk_      1

 1400. +Conspiracy of the Earls+         _Capgrave's Chronicle_          2

 1401. +De Heretico Comburendo+          _Statutes of the Realm_         3

 1401-2. +The Glendower War+             _Chronicle of Adam of Usk_      4

 1403. +The Peril of Henry+              _Ellis's "Original Letters"_    6

       +The Battle of Shrewsbury+        _Chronicle of Adam of Usk_      7

 1404. +French Aid for Glendower+        _Ellis's "Original Letters"_    8

 1406. +Election of Knights of the
           Shire+                        _Statutes of the Realm_         8

 1407. +Money-Grants to Initiate in
           the Commons+                  _Rotuli Parliamentorum_         9

 1410. +Prince Henry and the Heretic+    _Gregory's Chronicle_          11

 1413. +The Death of Henry IV.+          _Fabyan's "Chronicle"_         12

       +Electors and Elected to
           Parliament to be Resident+     _Statutes of the Realm_        13

 1414. +The Dauphin's Reply to Henry+    _Chronicle of Henry V._        13

       +The Commons and Legislation+     _Rotuli Parliamentorum_        14

 1415. +The Conspiracy of Cambridge+     _Nicolas's "Agincourt"_        15

       +The Battle of Agincourt+         _Elmham's "Vita et gesta
                                             Henrici Quinti"_           15

 1416. +Borough Customs+                 _Customs of Hereford_          19

 1417. +The Execution of Sir John        _Brief Chronicle of Sir John
          Oldcastle+                         Oldcastle_                 22

 1418. +The Siege of Rouen+              _Collections of a London
                                             Citizen_ (_Camden Soc._)   23

 1420. +The Treaty of Troyes+            _Rymer's "Fœdera"_             24

 1422. +The Death of Henry V.+           _Monstrelet's "Chronicles"_    26

       +A Begging Letter to Henry VI.+   _Ellis's "Original Letters"_   27

 1424. +The Battle of Verneuil+          _Waurin's "Chronicles"_        28

 1429. +To King Henry VI.+               _Wright's "Political Poems"_   30

       +The Battle of Herrings+          _Monstrelet's "Chronicles"_    31

       +Joan of Arc Raises the Siege
           of Orleans+                   _Waurin's "Chronicles"_        32

 1430. +The Forty-Shilling Franchise+    _Statutes of the Realm_        35

 1431. +The Condemnation of the Maid+    _Waurin's "Chronicles"_        36

 1432. +The Education of Henry VI.+      _Paston Letters_               40

 1439. +Precautions to Protect the
           King against Infection+       _Rotuli Parliamentorum_        43

 1445. +A Nobleman requests a Licence
           for a Ship+                   _Ellis's "Original Letters"_   44

       +Discomforts of Pilgrims at Sea+  _Early Naval Ballads_          44

       +Parliamentary Elections+         _Statutes of the Realm_        46

 1446. +Henry VI. Reforms the Grammar
           Schools+                      _Excerpta Historica_           47

 1449. +The French Recover Fougères+     _Reductio Normannie_           48

       +Capture of Verneuil+             _Reductio Normannie_           49

 1450. +The Battle of Formigny+          _Reductio Normannie_           51

       +A Father's Counsel+              _Paston Letters_               52

 1450. +Murder of Duke of Suffolk+       _Paston Letters_               54

       +Cade's Rebellion+                _Three 15th-Cent. Chronicles_  55

 1451. +Packing a Jury+                  _Paston Letters_               58

       +Partial Judges+                  _Paston Letters_               58

 1454. +Lawlessness+                     _Paston Letters_               59

       +The Condition of Ireland+        _Ellis's "Original Letters"_   62

       +Beginnings of Civil Strife+      _Ingulph's "Chronicles"_       63

       +The King's Madness+              _Paston Letters_               64

 1455. +The Battle of St. Albans+        _Archæologia_                  65

       +An Unruly Noble+                 _Rotuli Parliamentorum_        69

       +The Litigiousness of the Age+    _Gascoigne's "Loci e Libro
                                             Veritatum"_                70

 1457. +The Trial of Bishop Pecock+      _An English Chronicle_         70

 1458. +A Sea Fight+                     _Paston Letters_               72

       +The Evils in the Church+         _Gascoigne's "Loci e Libro
                                             Veritatum"_                73

 1459. +The Evils of Misgovernment+      _An English Chronicle_         75

 1460. +York's Popularity+               _An English Chronicle_         75

       +The Battle of Northampton+       _An English Chronicle_         76

       +The Wanderings of Margaret+      _Gregory's Chronicle_          78

       +The Battle of Wakefield+         _Hall's "Chronicle"_           79

       +Ravages of the Lancastrians+     _Ingulph's "Chronicles"_       80

 1461. +Battle of Mortimer's Cross+      _Collections of London
                                             Citizen_                   81

       +The Battle of Towton+            _Ingulph's "Chronicles"_       81

       +Accession of Edward IV.+         _Archæologia_                  83

 1463. +Mayor of London's Dignity+       _Collections of London
                                             Citizen_                   83

 1464. +Marriage of Edward IV.+          _Collections of London
                                             Citizen_                   84

 1465 (_circa_). +A Dinner of Flesh+     _Russell's "Boke of Nurture"_  85

 1469. +Private Wars+                    _Paston Letters_               86

 1470. +Restoration of Henry VI.+        _Chronicles of the White Rose_ 88

 1471. +The Arrival of Edward IV.+       _Chronicles of the White Rose_ 88

       +The Battle of Barnet+            _Chronicles of the White Rose_ 90

       +The Plague+                      _Paston Letters_               92

       +The Death of Henry VI.+          _Chronicles of the White Rose_ 92

 1472. +King Edward's Court+             _Archæologia_                  93

 1475. +An Englishman's Library+         _Paston Letters_               96

 1478. +The Death of Clarence+           _Ingulph's "Chronicles"_       97

 1479. +An Eton Boy's Letter+            _Paston Letters_              100

       +The University+                  _Paston Letters_              101

 1483. +Richard Usurps the Throne+       _Ingulph's "Chronicles"_      102

       +The Murder of the Princes+       _More's "History of King
                                             Richard III."_            106

       +Character of King Richard III+   _Harding's "Chronicle"_       108

 1484. +An Act against Benevolences+     _Statutes of the Realm_       109

 1485. +Henry Tudor and the Welsh+       _MSS. Sources_                110

       +Proclamation against Tudors+     _Ellis's "Original Letters"_  111

       +Henry's Landing+                 _Cambrian Biography_          113

       +Henry Summons Welsh Chiefs+      _Wynne's "Gwydir Family"_     115

       +The Journey to Bosworth+         _Cambrian Biography_          116

       +The Eve of Bosworth+             _Paston Letters_              117

       +The Battle of Bosworth Field+    _Ingulph's "Chronicles"_      118

       +The Last of the Plantagenets+    _Percy Folio MS._             120




=Source.=--_The Chronicle of Adam of Usk_, edited by Sir E.
Maunde Thompson, pp. 187, 188. (Royal Society of Literature, 1904.)

On the eve of his coronation, in the Tower of London and in the
presence of Richard late King, King Henry made forty-six new knights,
amongst whom were his three sons, and also the earls of Arundel and
Stafford, and the son and heir of the earl of Warwick; and with them
and other nobles of the land he passed in great state to Westminster.
And when the day of Coronation was come (13th October), all the peers
of the realm, robed finely in red and scarlet and ermine, came with
great joy to the ceremony, my lord of Canterbury ordering all the
service and duties thereof. In the presence were borne four swords,
whereof one was sheathed as a token of the augmentation of military
honour, two were wrapped in red and bound round with golden bands to
represent twofold mercy, and the fourth was naked and without a point,
the emblem of the executioner of justice without rancour. The first
sword the earl of Northumberland carried, the two covered ones the
earls of Somerset and Warwick, and the sword of justice the King's
eldest son, the prince of Wales; and the lord Latimer bore the sceptre,
and the earl of Westmoreland the rod. And this they did as well in the
coronation as at the banquet, always standing around the King. Before
the King received the crown from my lord of Canterbury, I heard him
swear to take heed to rule his people altogether in mercy and in truth.
These were the officers in the Coronation feast: The earl of Arundel
was butler, the earl of Oxford held the ewer, and the lord Grey of
Ruthin spread the cloths.

While the King was in the midst of the banquet, sir Thomas Dymock,
knight, mounted in full armour on his destrier,[1] and having his sword
sheathed in black with a golden hilt, entered the hall, two others,
likewise mounted on chargers, bearing before him a naked sword and a
lance. And he caused proclamation to be made by a herald at the four
sides of the hall that, if any man should say that his liege lord here
present and King of England was not of right crowned King of England,
he was ready to prove the contrary with his body, then and there, or
when and wheresoever it might please the King. And the King said:
"If need be, sir Thomas, I will in mine own person ease thee of this

  [1] Destrier = a charger, a war-horse.


=Source.=--Capgrave's _Chronicle of England_, pp. 275, 276 (Rolls

In the second year of this King the earls of Kent, Salisbury and
Huntingdon, unkind to the King, rose against him. Unkind were they, for
the people would have them dead and the King spared them. These men,
thus gathered, purposed to fall on the King suddenly at Windsor, under
the colour of mummeries in Christmas time. The King was warned of this
and fled to London. These men knew not that, but came to Windsor with
four hundred armed men, purposing to kill the King and his progeny,
and restore Richard again unto the crown. When they came to Windsor,
and thus were deceived, they fled to a town where the queen lay, fast
by Reading, and there, before the queen's household, he blessed him
this earl of Kent. "O benedicite," he said, "who may this be that
Harry of Lancaster hath taken the Tower at London, and our very King
Richard hath broken prison, and hath gathered a hundred thousand
fighting men." So gladded he the queen with lies, and rode forth to
Wallingford, and from Wallingford to Abingdon, warning all men by the
way that they should make them ready to help King Richard. Thus came he
to Cirencester, late at even. The men of the town had suspicion that
their tidings were lies, (as it was indeed,) rose and kept the entries
of the inns, that none of them might pass. There fought they in the
town from midnight unto nine of the clock in the morrow. But the town
drove them out of the Abbey and smote off many of their heads. The earl
of Salisbury was dead there; and worthy, for he was a great favourite
of the Lollards, and a despiser of the sacraments, for he would not
confess when he should die.

The earl of Huntingdon heard of this and fled unto Essex. And as often
as he assayed to take the sea, so often was he born off with the wind.
Then was he taken by the Commons and led to Chelmsford and then to
Pleshy, and his head smote off in the same place where he arrested the
Duke of Gloucester.


=Source.=--_Statutes of the Realm_, 2 Henry IV., c. xv.

Item, Whereas it is shewed to our Sovereign Lord the King on behalf
of the Prelates and Clergy of his realm of England in this present
Parliament, That although the Catholic Faith builded upon Christ and by
his Apostles and the Holy Church sufficiently determined, declared and
approved, hath hitherto by good and holy and most Noble Progenitors of
our Sovereign Lord the King ... [been] most devoutly observed, and the
Church of England most laudably endowed and in her Rights and Liberties
sustained.... Yet divers false and perverse People of a certain New
Sect of the Faith ... do perversely preach and teach these days, openly
and privily, divers new Doctrines, and wicked, heretical and erroneous
Opinions contrary to the same faith.... They make unlawful Conventicles
and Confederacies, they hold and exercise Schools, they make and write
Books, they do wickedly instruct and inform People, and, as much as
they may, incite and stir them to Sedition and Insurrection, and
maketh great Strife and Division among the people, and other Enormities
horrible to be heard daily do perpetrate and commit, in subversion of
the said Catholic Faith and Doctrine of the Holy Church.

_Then follow clauses forbidding the Lollards to preach without license,
or to hold Schools for teaching the new doctrines, and a clause
punishing by fine and imprisonment all offenders who abjure their
heresy; finally_:--

If any Person within the said Realm and Dominions, upon the said wicked
Preachings, Doctrines, Opinions, Schools and heretical and erroneous
Information ... be before the Diocesan, and do refuse duly to abjure,
or by the Diocesan of the same place or his commission, after the
abjuration made by the same person, fall into relapse so that according
to the Holy Canons he ought to be left to the secular Court, whereupon
credence shall be given to the Diocesan of the same place, or to his
Commissionaries in this behalf; then the Sheriff of the County of the
same place, and Mayor and Sheriffs or Sheriff, or Mayor and Bailiffs
of the City, Town and Borough of the same County shall be personally
present in preferring of such sentences; and they, the same persons
and every one of them, after such a sentence promulgate, shall receive
them, and before the People in an high place do them to be burnt; that
such punishment may strike in fear to the minds of others, whereby no
such wicked doctrines and heretical and erroneous opinions ... against
the Catholic Faith, Christian Law and Determination of Holy Church,
which God forbid, be sustained or in any wise suffered.

THE GLENDOWER WAR (1401-1402).

=Source.=--_Chronicle of Adam of Usk_, edited by Sir E. Maunde
Thompson, pp. 237, 238, 246, 247.

In this autumn (1401), Owen Glendower, all North Wales and Cardigan and
Powis siding with him, sorely harried with fire and sword the English
who dwelt in those parts, and their towns, and specially the town of
Pool. Wherefore the English, invading those parts with a strong power,
and utterly laying them waste and ravaging them with fire, famine,
and sword, left them a desert, not even sparing children or churches,
nor the monastery of Strata-Florida, wherein the King himself was
being lodged, and the church of which and its choir, even up to the
high altar, they used as a stable, and pillaged even the patens; and
they carried away into England more than a thousand children of both
sexes to be their servants. Yet did the same Owen do no small hurt to
the English, slaying many of them, and carrying off the arms, horses
and tents of the King's eldest son, the prince of Wales, and of other
lords, which he bare away for his own behoof to the mountain fastnesses
of Snowden.

In these days, southern Wales, and in particular all the diocese
of Llandaff, was at peace from every kind of trouble of invasion
or inroad.... The commons of Cardigan, being pardoned their lives,
deserted Owen, and returned, though in sore wretchedness, to their
homes, being allowed to use the Welsh tongue, although its destruction
had been determined on by the English, Almighty God, the King of Kings,
the unerring Judge of all, having mercifully ordained the recall of
this decree at the prayer and cry of the oppressed....

... On the day of St. Alban (22nd June, 1402) near to Knighton in
Wales, was a hard battle fought between the English under sir Edmund
Mortimer and the Welsh under Owen Glendower, with woeful slaughter
even to eight thousand souls, the victory being with Owen. And alas!
my lord, the said sir Edmund ... was by the fortune of war carried
away captive. And, being by his enemies in England stripped of all
his goods and hindered from paying ransom, in order to escape more
easily the pains of captivity, he is known by common report to have
wedded the daughter of the same Owen; by whom he had a son Lionel, and
three daughters, all of whom, except one daughter, along with their
mother are now dead. At last, being by the English host beleagured in
the castle of Harlech, he brought his days of sorrow to an end, his
wonderful deeds being to this day told at the feast in song.

In this year also the lord Grey of Ruthin,[2] being taken captive by
Owen, with the slaughter of two thousand of his men, was shut up in
prison; but he was set free on payment of ransom of sixteen thousand
pounds in gold. Concerning such an ill-starred blow given by Owen
to the English rule, when I think thereon, my heart trembles. For,
backed by a following of thirty thousand men issuing from their lairs
throughout Wales and its marches, he overthrew castles, among which
were Usk, Caerleon, and Newport, and fired the towns. In short, like
a second Assyrian, the rod of God's anger, he did deeds of unheard-of
cruelty with fire and sword.

  [2] Glendower's revolt arose out of a quarrel with Lord Grey of Ruthin.


=Source.=--Ellis's _Original Letters_, second series, vol. i., pp.
17-19. (London: 1827.)

 [_French._]--Our most redoubted and sovereign Lord the King, I
 recommend myself humbly to your Highness as your lowly creature and
 continual orator. And our most redoubted and sovereign Lord, please
 you to know that from day to day letters are arriving from Wales,
 containing intelligence by which you may learn that the whole country
 is lost, if you do not go there as quick as possible. For which reason
 may it please you to prepare to set out with all power you can muster,
 and march day and night for the salvation of these parts.... Written
 in great haste at Hereford, the 8th July.

  Your lowly creature

    +Richard Kingeston,+

      _Archdeacon of Hereford._

 [_Postscript in English._]--And for God's love, my liege Lord, think
 on yourself and your estate, or, by my troth, all is lost else; but
 and you come yourself with haste, all other will follow after. And
 note on Friday last Carmarthen town is taken and burnt, and the castle
 yielded by Roger Wigmore, and the castle Emlyn is yielded; and slain
 of the town of Carmarthen more than fifty persons. Written in
 right great haste on Sunday; and I cry you mercy and put me in your
 high grace that I write so shortly; for, by my troth that I owe to
 you, it is needfull.


=Source.=--_Chronicle of Adam of Usk_, edited by Sir E. Maunde
Thompson, pp. 252, 253.

In the next year, on behalf of the crown of England claimed for the
earl of March, a deadly quarrel arose between the King and the house
of Percy of Northumberland, as kin to the same earl, to the great
agitation of the realm...; and a field being pitched for the morrow
of Saint Mary Magdalene (23rd July), the King, by the advice of the
earl of Dunbar of Scotland, because the father of the lord Henry Percy
and Owen Glendower were then about to come against the King with a
great host, anticipating the appointed day, brought on a most fearful
battle against the said lord Henry and the lord Thomas Percy, then
earl of Worcester. And after that there had fallen on either side in
most bloody slaughter to the number of sixteen thousand men, in the
field of Berwick (where the King afterwards founded a hospice for the
souls of those who there fell) two miles from Shrewsbury, on the eve
of the said feast, victory declared for the king who had thus made the
onslaught. In this battle the said lord Percy, the flower and glory of
Christendom, fell, alas! and with him his uncle.... There fell also two
noble knights in the King's armour, each made conspicuous as though a
second King, having been placed for the King's safety in the rear line
of battle. Whereat the earl of Douglas of Scotland, then being in the
field with the said lord Henry, as his captive, when he heard victory
shouted for King Henry, cried in wonder: "Have I not slain two King
Henries (meaning the said knights) with mine own hand? 'Tis an evil
hour for us that a third yet lives to be our victor."


=Source.=--Ellis's _Original Letters_, second series, vol. i., pp.
33, 34. (London: 1827.)

+William Venables and Roger Brescy to the King.+

 Most puissant and redoubted liege Lord, we recommend us to your
 sovereign Lord in all ways respectful and revered. May it please your
 Royal Majesty to understand that Robert Parys, the deputy constable of
 Carnarvon Castle, has apprized us through a woman, because there was
 no man who dared to come--for neither man nor woman dare carry letters
 on account of the rebels of Wales,--that "Oweyn de Glyndour," with
 the French and all his other power, is preparing to assault the town
 and castle of Carnarvon, and to begin this enterprize with engines,
 sowes[3] and ladders of great length; and in the town and castle there
 are not in all more than twenty-eight fighting men, which is too small
 a force; for eleven of the more able men who were there at the last
 siege of the place are dead; some of the wounds they received at the
 time of the assault, and others of the plague; so that the said castle
 and town are in imminent danger, as the bearer of this will inform
 you by word of mouth, to whom your Highness will be pleased to give
 full faith and credence, as he can inform you most accurately of the
 truth.... Written at Chester the 16th day of January.

  Your poor lieges

    +William Venables of Kinnerton+

      and +Roger Brescy+.

  [3] A machine for mining the walls.


=Source.=--_Statutes of the Realm_, 7 Henry IV., c. xv.

Item our Lord the King, at the grievous complaints of his Commons
[in this present Parliament] of the undue election of the Knights of
Counties for the Parliament, which be sometimes made of affection of
the Sheriff, and otherwise against the form of the writs directed to
the Sheriff, to the great slander of the Counties and the hindrance of
the business of the Commonalty of the said County; Our Sovereign Lord
the King, willing therein to provide a remedy, by the assent of the
Lords spiritual and temporal and the Commons in this present Parliament
assembled, hath ordained and established, that from henceforth the
elections of such knights shall be made in the form that followeth:
That is to say at the next County to be holden after the delivery of
the writ of the Parliament, proclamation shall be made in the full
County of the day and place of the Parliament, and that all they
that be there present, as well suitors duly summoned for the same
cause as other, shall attend to the election of their knights for the
Parliament; and then, in the full County, they shall proceed to the
election freely and indifferently, notwithstanding any request or
command to the contrary; and after that they be chosen, the names of
the persons so chosen, be they present or absent, shall be written
in an Indenture under the Seal of all them that did choose them, and
tacked to the same Writ of Parliament; which indenture, so sealed and
tacked, shall be holden for the Sheriff's return of the said writ
touching the knights of the Shires. And in the writs of Parliament
to be made hereafter this Clause shall be put: _Et electionem tuam
in pleno Comitatu tuo factam distincte et aperte sub sigillo tuo et
sigillis eorum qui electioni illi interfuerint nobis in cancellaria
nostra ad diem et locum in brevi contentos certifices indilate_.[4]

  [4] And thy election in thy full county made, distinctly and openly
  under thy seal and the seals of those present at that election, certify
  without delay, to us in our chancery, at the day and place contained in
  the writ.


=Source.=--_Rotuli Parliamentorum_ (Record Commission), vol. iii.,
p. 611, § 21.

Be it remembered that on Monday the 21st day of November, the King our
sovereign lord being in the Council Chamber in the Abbey of Gloucester,
there being in his presence the lords spiritual and temporal at
this present Parliament assembled, there was a discussion among them
concerning the state of the realm and the defence of the same to
resist the malice of the enemies, who on every coast appeared to be
harassing the said realm and the faithful subjects of the same.... And
thereon it was demanded of the said lords, what aid would be sufficient
and necessary in this case. To which demand and question the lords
replied severally, that considering the necessity of the King on the
one part, and the poverty of his people on the other part, a less aid
could not suffice than to have a tenth and a half from the cities
and boroughs, and a fifteenth and a half from other laymen. Further,
to grant an extension of the subsidy on wool, leather and woolfels,
and three shillings on the ton, and twelve pence in the pound, from
Michaelmas next until Michaelmas in two years next ensuing. Thereon,
by command of the King our said lord, it was conveyed to the Commons
of this present Parliament that they should send to our said lord the
King and the said lords a certain number of persons of their company
to hear and to report to their colleagues what they should have as a
command of our said lord the King. And thereupon the said Commons sent
to the presence of the King our said lord, and the said lords, twelve
of their number: to whom, by command of our said lord the King, was
declared the question above-mentioned and the reply of the aforesaid
lords to it. This reply it was the will of our said lord the King that
they should convey to the rest of their colleagues [in the Commons];
finally that they (of the Commons) should conform as near as possible
to the purpose of the aforesaid lords. This report thus conveyed to the
said Commons, they were greatly perturbed by it, saying and affirming
this to be in great prejudice and derogation of their liberties; and
when our said lord the King heard this, not wishing that anything
should be done at present nor in the future, which could turn in any
wise against the liberty of the estate for which they were come to
Parliament, nor against the liberties of the lords aforesaid, willed
and granted and declared, with the advice of the said lords, in the
following manner: That is to say, that it is lawful for the lords to
debate among themselves in this present Parliament, and in every other
[Parliament] in time to come, in the absence of the King, touching the
state of the realm and the remedy necessary for it. And that, in like
manner, it is lawful for the Commons, on their part, to debate together
touching the state and remedy aforesaid. Provided always that the lords
on their part and the Commons on theirs, make no report to our said
lord the King of any grant granted by the Commons and assented to by
the lords, nor of the communications concerning the said grant, before
the said lords and Commons shall be of one assent and of one accord in
this matter, and then in the manner and form that is customary, that
is to say by the mouth of the Speaker of the said Commons for the time
being, so that the said lords and Commons should have the agreement of
our said lord the King. Also our said lord the King wills, also with
the assent of the aforesaid lords, that the communications held in this
present Parliament as aforesaid shall not be treated as an example for
the future, nor be turned to the prejudice or derogation of the liberty
of the estate for which the Commons are now come together, neither in
the present Parliament nor in any other in the future. But he [the
King] wills that the said, and all the other estates, be as free as
they had been before.


=Source.=--Gregory's Chronicle in the _Collections of a London
Citizen_ (Camden Society), pp. 105, 106.

And that year there was an heretic, that was called John of Badby,
that believed not in the Sacrament of the Altar, and he was brought
into Smithfield for to be burnt, and bound unto a stake; and Sir Harry
Prince of Wales counselled him to hold the very right belief of Holy
Church, and he should fail neither lack no good. Also the Chancellor
of Oxford, one Master Courteney, informed him in the faith of Holy
Church, and the Prior of Saint Bartholomew brought the Holy Sacrament
with twelve torches and brought it before him. And it was asked him how
that he believed. And he answered and said that he wist well that it
was holy bread, and not God's own blessed body. And then was the tonne
put over him and fire put unto him; and when he felt the fire he cried
mercy. And anon the prince commanded to take away the fire, and it was
done so anon. And then the prince asked him if that he would forsake
his heresy and believe on the faith of all Holy Church, and he would
give him his life and goods enough while he lived; but he would not,
but continued forth in his heresy. And then the prince commanded him up
to be burnt at once, and so he was. And John Gylott, vynter, he made
two weavers to be taken, the which followed the same way of heresy.


=Source.=--Fabyan's _Chronicle_, edited by Ellis, p. 576. (London:

In this year and 20th day of November, was a great council holden at
the White Friars in London, by the which it was among other things
concluded, that, for the King's great journey that he intended to make
in visiting of the holy sepulchre of our Lord, certain galleys of war
should be made, and other purveyance concerning the same journey.
Whereupon all hasty and possible speed was made; but after the feast of
Christmas, while he was making his prayers at Saint Edward's shrine, to
take there his leave, and so speed him upon his journey, he became so
sick that such as were about him feared that he would have died right
there, wherefore they for his comfort bore him into the Abbot's place
and lodged him in a chamber, and there upon a pallet laid him before
the fire, where he lay in great agony a certain of time. At length when
he was come to himself, not knowing where he was, he enquired, of such
as there were about him, what place that was; the which showed to him
that it belonged to the Abbot of Westminster, and for he felt himself
so sick, he commanded to ask if that chamber had any special name,
whereunto it was answered that it was named Jerusalem. Then said the
King: "Loving be to the Father of Heaven, for now I know that I shall
die in this chamber, according to the prophecy of me before said, that
I should die at Jerusalem"; and so after he made himself ready and died
shortly after.


=Source.=--_Statutes of the Realm_, 1 Henry V., c. 1.

... That the Knights and Esquires and others which shall be choosers
of those knights of the shires be also resident within the same shires
in manner and form as is aforesaid. And moreover it is ordained and
established, That the citizens and burgesses of the cities and boroughs
be chosen men, citizens and burgesses resident, dwelling and free in
the same cities and boroughs, and no other in any wise.


=Source.=--"Chronicle of King Henry V.," printed in Nicolas's
_Battle of Agincourt_, pp. viii-ix. (London: 1827.)

And his lords gave him [Henry V.] counsel, to send ambassadors unto
the King of France and his council, and that he should give up to him
his right heritage, that is to say Normandy, Gascony, and Guienne, the
which his predecessors had held before him, or else he would it win
with dint of sword, in short time, with the help of Almighty God. And
then the Dauphin of France answered our ambassadors, and said in this
manner, that the King was over young and too tender of age to make war
against him, and was not like yet to be no good warrior to do and to
make such a conquest there upon him; and somewhat in scorn and despite
he sent to him a tonne full of tennis balls because he would have
somewhat for to play withal for him and for his lords, and that became
him better than to maintain any war; and then anon our lords that was
ambassadors took their leave and came to England again, and told
the King and his Council of the ungoodly answer that they had of the
Dauphin, and of the present the which he had sent unto the King; and
when the King had heard their words and the answer of the Dauphin, he
was wondrous sore aggrieved ... and thought to avenge him upon them as
soon as God would send him grace and might, and anon made tennis balls
for the Dauphin, in all haste; and they were great gun-stones for the
Dauphin to play withal.


=Source.=--_Rotuli Parliamentorum_ (Record Commission), vol. iv.,
p. 22.

Item be it remembered, that the Commons presented to our sovereign lord
the King in this present Parliament a petition, the tenor of which
follows word for word.

Our sovereign Lord, your humble and true lieges that have come for the
Commune of your land beseech your right righteousness, That so it hath
ever been their liberty and freedom that there should no statute nor
law be made unless they give thereto their assent: Considering that the
Commune of your land, the which that is, and ever hath been, a member
of your Parliament, be as well assenters as petitioners, that from
this time forward, by complaint of the Commune of any mischief asking
remedy by the mouth of their Speaker or else by petition written, that
there never be no law made thereupon and engrossed as statute and law,
neither by addition, neither by diminutions, by no manner of term or
terms the which that should change the sentence and the intent asked by
the Speaker's mouth, or the petitions beforesaid given up in writing
by the manner aforesaid, without assent of the aforesaid Commune.
Considering our sovereign Lord, that it is not in no wise the intent
of your Communes, that it be so that they ask you, by speaking or by
writing, two things or three or as many as them lust: But that ever it
stand in the freedom of your high regality to grant which of those that
you lust, and to refuse the remnant.

The King of his grace especially granteth that from henceforth no
thing be enacted to the petitions of his Commune that be contrary to
their asking, whereby they should be bound without their assent. Saving
always to our liege Lord his real prerogative to grant and deny what
him lust of their petitions and askings aforesaid.


=Source.=--Nicolas's _Battle of Agincourt_, p. lxxvii. (London:

And then fell there a great disease and a foul mischief, for there
were three lords which the King trusted much on and through false
covetousness they had purposed and imagined the King's death and
thought to have slain him and all his brethren or that he had taken the
sea, which were named thus--Sir Richard, earl of Cambridge brother to
the duke of York, the second was the lord Scrope Treasurer of England,
the third was Sir Thomas Gray knight of the north country, and these
lords aforesaid, for lucre of money, had made promise to the Frenchmen
for to have slain King Henry and all his worthy brethren by a false
train suddenly or they had beware. But Almighty God of his great grace
held his holy hand over them and saved them from this perilous mien.
And for to have done this they received of the Frenchmen a million of
gold and that there was proved openly. And for their false treason
they were all judged unto the death. And this was the judgement, that
they should be led through Hampton and without Northgate there to be
beheaded, and thus they ended their life for their false covetousness
and treason.

THE BATTLE OF AGINCOURT (+October 25, 1415+).

=Source.=--Elmham's _Vita et gesta Henrici Quinti_, pp. 59 _et
seq._ (Oxford: 1727.)

A.--_The Disposition and Order of the English Army._

The night being spent but Titan not yet risen above the horizon, scarce
had Friday dawned (on which the day the martyrdom of the blessed
Crispin and Crispinian is celebrated) than the King neglected not to
lead out his troops into the field, having first said matins and heard
mass, and thinking that his enemies would be more engaged in fighting
than in plundering, he ordered the horses of his men and whatever other
things his army had brought with them except their arms, to be left in
the village in which they had been quartered in the night, and assigned
to the care of a few soldiers.... But in order that his army, which was
very small in comparison to the French, might be able to fight without
a wide separation, he arrayed it for battle in this wise: to the middle
battalion, which he himself led, and in which under the mercy of God
he proposed to fight, he assigned and chose a likely place about the
middle of the field, so that it might meet the middle battalion of the
enemy. On his right, at scarcely any distance, he placed the vanguard
of his army and joined it to the wing at his right hand. But on the
King's left was the rearward of the army, to which the left wing was
likewise joined. These being so placed the providence of the divine
grace was manifestly displayed, which provided for so small an army so
apt a field enclosed within hedges and bushes ... to protect them from
being surrounded by the ambuscades of the enemy. Now the King was clad
in strong and very glittering armour; on his head he bore a helmet with
a large resplendent crest and a crown of gold glistening with precious
stones; his body begirt with a surcoat with the arms of England and
France, from which heavenly splendour there sprang forth, on the one
side, three golden flowers in a field of azure, on the other side
three golden leopards sporting in a ruby field.... [He], seated on a
noble horse of snowy whiteness, having also horses following bedecked
in kingly fashion with the richest trappings, wondrously incited his
army to deeds of valour. The nobles also, by the King's side, were
arrayed with coats of arms as became those about to engage in conflict.
And when the King heard someone wishing that whatever nobles of the
realm of England, who were well-disposed thereto, were present at this
affair, with kingly steadfastness he thus replied, "Truly I would not
that by one single person the number of this army should be increased.
For if in the number of fighting men, we were equal to, or perhaps,
stronger than, our enemies, and they were delivered into our hands
by the hazards of war, our indiscreet judgement would attribute the
victory to the greatness of our strength, and so due praise would by
no means be accorded. But if, after God's own manifold chastisement
for our sins, the divine judgement should determine to deliver us into
the hands of the enemy,... certainly then our army would be too great
to be exposed (which God forbid!) to so great a calamity. But if the
divine mercy should deign to deliver so many adversaries to so trifling
a force of fighting men, we should deem so great a victory certainly
bestowed by God upon us and return thanks to Him and not to our own
numbers. Lo! he who is splendidly and safely defended and armed in body
is fortified in mind much more gloriously by stern hope and unbroken

B.--_The Disposition and Order of the French Army._

The enemy, despising the idleness and inaction of the King's army,
endeavoured to prepare their numerous formations in proper order for
battle.... They drew up their army after their own fashion, as the
King had drawn up his; nevertheless the breadth of the field was not
sufficient to draw up so numerous a host into proper battle array.
For whereas the English army, throughout all its lines, was scarcely
strengthened with files of four men, one behind another crosswise,
all the French lines throughout their length were strengthened with
files of twenty or more fighting men, one behind the other. Also, in
the outermost flank of their army were placed a thousand soldiers, to
break through the English lines with cavalry charges; also certain
_saxi-voma_,[5] which might scatter the English when about to engage
in battle, or at least throw them into disorder, were drawn up along
the flanks of the army. But the number of standards and other warlike
ensigns, which were displayed by the French army, fastened on the
points of lances and rustling in the wind, seemed to exceed the
multitude of lances in the English army....

  [5] Engines for hurling stones.

C.--_The Battle._

Thus drawn up across the fields on both sides and three bow shots, or
thereabouts, distant from each other, each army awaited the movements
of the other, but neither advanced against the other for some time.
Yet the French cavalry, advancing a little into the field, were by the
King's command forced to retreat hastily, through certain of the royal
archers, on to their army. Also certain French barons, by their own
wishes, came into the King's presence, and without being able to find
out anything the King proposed to do, were soon ordered to return to
their own army. Now King Henry, when he considered that a great part of
the short day was already passed, and readily believing that the French
were not disposed to move from their position, consulted the nobles and
experts as to what they should do, viz., whether he should advance with
his army, in the order in which it stood, against the enemy who refused
to move against him. They, having fully considered the circumstances of
so important a matter, decided that the King should advance with his
army towards the enemy, and mightily charge them in the name of God....
Without delay both men-at-arms, unheeding their heavy arms, and the
archers, leaving behind in the field their sharp stakes which they had
previously prepared to meet the French cavalry, all having bowed the
knee and taken lumps of earth in their mouths,[6] with a warlike shout
piercing the heavens and with wonderful dash, flew fiercely along the
plain, and their outward bearing shewed how much courage fired their
hearts. And when they had approached within twenty paces of the ranks
of the enemy, not far from Agincourt, and the sounds of the trumpets
rending the air had stirred the spirits of the warriors to battle, the
enemy, now for the first time moving, advanced to meet the English.
Immediately the battle commenced with such fury that at the first
attack of such brave warriors, by the dire shock of lances and the
violent blows of swords the joints of their strong armour were broken,
and the first rank on both sides dealt deadly wounds. But, on the other
side, the warlike band of archers, with their strong and numerous
volleys, darkened the air, shedding, like a cloud laden with rain, an
unbearable multitude of piercing arrows, and, inflicting wounds on
the horses, either threw to the ground the French cavalry who were
drawn up to charge them, or forced them to retreat.... In this deadly
conflict be it remembered among other things that that bright shining
Titan of Kings so much exposed the precious treasure of his person to
every chance of war that he thundered upon his enemies swift terrors
and intolerable attacks.... After a while all the King's battalions,
foremost and hindmost, were victorious, each wing having overthrown the
enemy.... And, by divine mercy, having gained so glorious a triumph,
the magnanimous King ... was gratefully minded to return thanks most
devoutly for so great a victory. And, because so great a victory was
vouchsafed to him on the feast of St. Crispin and Crispinian, every day
throughout his life he heard mention of them in one of his masses.

  [6] As a sign of their desire and an acknowledgment of their
  unworthiness to receive the Sacrament.

BOROUGH CUSTOMS (_circa_ 1416).

=Source.=--"Customs of Hereford," in the _Journal of the British
Archæological Association_, vol. xxvii., pp. 460 _et seq._ (London:

[The customs of Hereford were placed on record in the reign of Henry
V., and rewritten in 1486. Many of the customs were of much older date;
even in 1486 some were of a duration from "time immemorial."]

_Election of Bailiff._--First of all we use at the Feast of St. Michael
to choose unto us a bailiff of our fellow-citizens, by the whole
consent of the city, who is powerful to labour and discreet to judge,
holding some tenements or hereditaments in the fee of our Lord the
King; and he to be our head next under the King, whom we ought, in all
things touching our King or the state of our city, to obey chiefly in
three things,--first, when we are sent for, by day or by night, to
consult of those things which appertain to the King or the state of
the city; secondly, to answer if we offend in any point contrary to our
oath, or to our fellow-citizens; thirdly, to perform the affairs of our
city at our own charges, if so be they may be finished sooner or better
than by any other of our citizens.... And this shall be the oath of the
bailiff when he is chosen. He shall not have respect to anyone's person
who hath been heretofore elected.

_The Mayor's Oath._--First, that he shall be true to our Lord the King
in all things; secondly, that as much as in him lies, as well by day
as by night, he shall faithfully defend and keep the city of Hereford,
the city of our Lord the King; thirdly, he shall defend and maintain
the laws and customs of the city during his time;... fourthly, that he
shall administer justice and judgement to every one, not having respect
to any one's person; fifthly, that he shall not hold or keep the office
of his mayoralty but for one year after his election; sixthly, if so be
that he be a layman, he shall do all things belonging to his office by
the counsel of his faithful citizens....

_Concerning our courts_, we use to keep them on a Tuesday, from the
fifteenth day until fifteen days; unto which courts all citizens of
our Lord the King ought to come, and chiefly all those which hold any
tenement of our Lord the King; and especially to the two first courts
holden after the feasts of Michaelmas and Easter, at which two courts
the assize of bread and beer shall be ordained, and keepers to keep the
same assize; and unto the said courts and other courts [shall come] all
others who complain of any trespasses committed, or any other thing
touching the state of the city or themselves, and they ought to speak
the truth upon their own peril, not bringing with them any stranger ...
because we do not use that strangers shall come and implead amongst us,
and know the secrets of the courts, for divers dangers that thereby may

_Night-Walkers._--And it shall be commanded ... that, among other
things, it shall be proclaimed that no vagabond or night-walker be
within our city, nor in the suburbs, after the ringing of our common
bell; and if anyone be taken after the ringing of the bell, let him
be brought unto the gaol of our Lord the King, and there he shall
stay until the morrow.... Concerning our bell, we use to have it in
a public place, where our chief bailiff may come, as well by day as
by night, to give warning to all men living within the said city and
suburbs. And we do not say that it ought to ring unless it be for some
terrible fire burning any row of houses within the said city, or for
any common contention whereby the city might be terribly moved, or for
any enemies drawing near unto the city, or if the city be besieged,
or any sedition shall be between any, and notice thereof given by any
unto our chief bailiff.... Also we use that if any one of our citizens
hath any tenements situate in the High Street of the city, or having
over part of the pavement, and it be ruinous, so that danger may happen
to us or to our children, or to others going along the city; and
especially if the Lord our King, or any of his, should happen to pass
along that street ... in such case our chief bailiff shall cause them to
be warned that have such tenements, that they amend them in more safer
manner within three days; and unless they do so, let three days more be
given them, in the behalf of our Lord the King and the commonalty; and
unless it be then done, our chief bailiff, taking with him the power
of the city, if it be needful, shall go to such a tenement, and in his
presence let it be thrown down at the costs of him to whom the tenement
belongeth, or if needful, at the costs of the commonalty;...

_Brewers to the Cucking-Stools._--... And if any brewer hath brewed and
broken the assize of our Lord the King, allowed and publicly proclaimed
in the said city, she ought by the bailiff to be amerced the first and
the second time; and if she break the assize the third time, she ought
to be taken by the bailiff and to be led to the judgement which is
called the Gongestole....

_Scolds._--Also it was agreed upon concerning scolding women, that
by them many evils do arise in the city viz. by wrangling, fighting,
defaming, troubling by night those which are at rest, and often times
moving schisms between their neighbours, and by contradicting the
bailiff and ministers and others; and in their prison, by speaking ill
or cursing them,... wherefore, at all times when they shall be taken
and convicted, they shall have their judgement, without any redemption
to be made; and there they shall stand, with their feet bare, and their
hair hanging about their ears, by so much time as they may be seen of
all those which pass by that way ... and afterwards, the judgement being
finished, let her (the scold) be brought to the gaol of our Lord the
King, and there stay until she hath made redemption at the will of the
bailiff. And if she will not be amended by such punishment, let her be
cast out of the city.


=Source.=--_Brief Chronicle of Sir John Oldcastle._ ("Harleian
Miscellany," vol. ii., pp. 276, 277.)

And upon the day appointed he was brought out of the Tower with his
arms bound behind him, having a very cheerful countenance. Then was he
laid upon an hurdle, as though he had been a most heinous traitor to
the Crown, and so drawn forth into Saint Giles Field, where they had
set up a new pair of gallows. As he was come to the place of execution,
and was taken from the hurdle, he fell down devoutly on his knees,
desiring Almighty God to forgive his enemies. Then stood he up and
beheld the multitude, exhorting them, in most goodly manner, to follow
the laws of God written in the Scriptures and in any wise to beware of
such teachers as they see contrary to Christ in their conversation and
living; with many other special counsels. Then was he hanged up there
by the middle in chains of iron, and so consumed alive in the fire;
praising the name of God so long as his life lasted. In the end he
commended his soul into the hands of God, and so departed hence most
christianly, his body resolved into ashes.


=Source.=--John Page's "Poem on the Siege of Rouen" in the
_Collections of a London Citizen_. (Camden Society.)

+The Sufferings of the Inhabitants.+

    Meat and drink and other victual
    In that city began to fail.
    Save clean water they had enow,
    And vinegar to put thereto,
    Their bread was full nigh gone
    And flesh, save horse, had they none.
    They ate dogs, and they ate cats
    They ate mice, horses and rats.

           *       *       *       *       *

    Then to die they did begin,
    All that rich city within
    They died faster every day
    Than men might them in earth lay.
    There as was pride in ray before,
    Then was it put in sorrow full sore.
    There as was meat, drink and song,
    Then was sorrow and hunger strong.
    If the child should be dead,
    The mother would not give it bread.

+The Surrender.+

    On the feast of St. Wulstan it fell,
    That was upon a Thursday.
    Our king then in rich array,
    And royally in his estate
    As a conqueror there he sate,
    Within a house of Charity.
    To him the keys of that city
    Delivered unto him in fee.

           *       *       *       *       *

    There was neighing of many a steed,
    There was shewing of many a weed,
    There was many a jetton[7] gay,
    Much royalty and rich array.
    When the gates were opened there
    And they were ready in for to fare,
    Trumpetters blew their horns of brass,
    Pipes and clarions both there was,
    And as they entered they gave a shout
    With a voice, and that a stout,
    "St. George! St. George!" they cried on height,
    "Welcome to Rouen, our king's own right."

  [7] Jetton = a piece of metal or ivory bearing an inscription or device.


=Source.=--Rymer's _Fœdera_, vol. ix., pp. 916-920. (London: 1709.)

Henry by the grace of God, King of England, Heir and Regent of France,
and Lord of Ireland to perpetual mind, to all Christian people, and
to all that be under our obedience we notify and declare that ... we
have taken a treaty with our aforesaid father [Charles of France], in
the which treaty it is concluded and accorded after the manner that

First, it is accorded between our aforesaid father and us that: for as
much as, by the bond of matrimony between us and our most dear and most
beloved Catherine, the daughter of our said father and of our most dear
mother, Isabel his wife, the same Charles and Isabel having been made
our father and mother, we shall have and worship, as it fitteth such
and so worthy a Prince and Princess for to be worshipped, principally
before all other temporal persons of this world.

Also, we shall not disturb, disseize nor let our said father, but that
he hold and possess, as long as he liveth, as he holdeth and possesseth
at this time, the Crown and dignity royal of France, and rents, fruits,
and profits of the same....

Also, that the aforesaid Catherine shall take and have dower in our
Realm of England, as Queen of England, towards her wont for to take
and have--that is to say the sum of forty thousands scutes the year.

       *       *       *       *       *

Also, that, after the death of our said father, and from thenceforward
the Crown and realm of France, with all their rights and appurtenances,
shall remainder and abide and be of us and of our heirs for evermore.
Also, forasmuch as our said father is holden with divers sickness,
in such manner as he may not attend in his own person for to dispose
for the needs of the aforesaid realm of France, therefore, during the
life of our said father, the faculty and exercise of the governance
and disposition of the public good and common profit of the said realm
of France, with the counsel of the nobles and wise men of the same
realm,... shall be and abide to us....

Also that we, to our power, shall defend and keep all and every peers,
nobles, cities, towns, commonalties and singulars[8] now or in time
coming, subject to our said father, in his rights, customs, privileges,
freedoms and franchises.

  [8] Singulars = individuals as opposed to corporations.

       *       *       *       *       *

Also, that we, to our power and as soon as it may commodiously be done,
shall strive so to put into obedience of our said father all manner of
cities, towns, castles, places, countries and persons with the realm
of France, inobedient and rebel to our said father, holding the party
being, or have been, of that party commonly called Dauphin or Armagnac.

       *       *       *       *       *

Also, by God's help, when it happeneth us to come to the Crown of
France, the duchy of Normandy and also all other places conquered by us
in the said realm of France, shall be under the commandment, obedience
and monarchy of the crown of France.

       *       *       *       *       *

Also, that henceforward perpetually shall be still, rest and all
manner of wise shall cease all manner of dissensions, hates, rancours,
enemities and wars between the said realms of France and England....


=Source.=--Monstrelet's _Chronicles_, translated by Johnes, vol.
ii., pp. 371-372. (Hafod Press, 1809.)

King Henry, finding himself mortally ill, called to him his brother
the Duke of Bedford, his uncle of Exeter, the earl of Warwick, sir
Louis de Robesart and others, to the number of six or eight of those in
whom he had the greatest confidence, and said that he saw with grief
it was the pleasure of his Creator that he should quit this world. He
then addressed the Duke of Bedford:--"John, my good brother, I beseech
you, on the loyalty and love you have ever expressed for me, that you
show the same loyalty and affection to my son Henry, your nephew, and
that, so long as you shall live, you do not suffer him to conclude any
treaty with our adversary Charles, and that on no account whatever the
duchy of Normandy be wholly restored to him. Should our good brother
of Burgundy be desirous of the regency of the Kingdom of France, I
would advise that you let him have it; but should he refuse, then take
it yourself. My good uncle of Exeter, I nominate you sole regent of
the Kingdom of England, for that you well know how to govern it; and I
entreat that you do not, on any pretence whatever, return to France;
and I likewise nominate you as guardian to my son,--and I insist, on
your love to me, that you do very often personally visit and see him.
My dear cousin of Warwick, I will that you be his governor, and that
you teach him all things becoming his rank, for I cannot provide a
fitter person for the purpose. I entreat you all as earnestly as I can,
that you avoid all quarrels and dissensions with our fair brother of
Burgundy; and this I particularly recommend to the consideration of my
fair brother Humphrey,--for should any coolness subsist between you,
which God forbid, the affairs of this realm, which are now in a very
promising state, would soon be ruined." ... The King then sent for his
physicians, and earnestly demanded of them how long they thought he
had to live. They delayed answering the question directly; but, not
to discourage hope, they said that it depended solely on the will
of God whether he would be restored to health. He was dissatisfied
with this answer, and repeated his request, begging of them to tell
him the truth. Upon this they consulted together, and one of them, as
spokesman, falling on his knees, said, "Sire, you must think on your
soul; for, unless it be the will of God to decree otherwise, it is
impossible that you should live more than two hours." The King, hearing
this, sent for his confessor, some of his household and his chaplains,
whom he ordered to chant the seven penitential psalms. When they came
to "_Benigne fac Domine_" where mention is made "_Muri Hierusalem_,"[9]
he stopped them, and said aloud, that he had fully intended, after he
had wholly subdued the realm of France to his obedience, and restored
it to peace, to have gone to conquer the Kingdom of Jerusalem, if it
had pleased his Creator to have granted him a longer life. Having said
this, he allowed the priests to proceed, and shortly after, according
to the prediction of his physicians, gave up the ghost.

  [9] "Do good in thy good pleasure unto Zion: build thou the walls
  of Jerusalem" (Ps. li. 18). The king's words were: "Good Lord, thou
  knewest that my mind was to re-edify the walls of Hierusalem" (Leland's
  _Collectanea_, ii., 489).


=Source.=--Ellis's _Original Letters_, second series, vol. i., pp.
95-96. (London: 1827.)

_To the King our Sovereign Lord._

Beseecheth meekly your poor liegeman and humble orator Thomas Hostell,
that in consideration of his service done to your noble progenitors
of full blessed memory, King Henry IV. and King Henry V., whose souls
God assoil; being at the Siege of Harfleur, there smitten with a dart
through the head, losing one eye and his cheek-bone broken; also at the
battle of Agincourt, and after, at the taking of the Carracks[10] on
the sea, there with a rod of iron his plates smitten in sunder, and
sore hurt, maimed and wounded; by means whereof he being sore enfeebled
and bruised, now fallen to great age and poverty; greatly in debt, and
may not help himself; having not wherewith to be sustained nor relieved
but of men's gracious alms; and being for his said service never yet
recompensed nor rewarded:--it please your high and excellent Grace, the
premises tenderly considered, of your benign pity and grace, to relieve
and refresh your said poor orator, as it shall please you, with your
most gracious alms at the reverence of God and in work of charity; and
he shall devoutly pray for the souls of your said noble progenitors and
for your most noble and high estate.

  [10] Carracks = ships. The event took place at the siege of Harfleur,
  1416. "After a long fight the victory fell to the Englishmen, and they
  took and sunk almost the whole navy of France, in which there were many
  ships, hulks, and carracks, to the number of five hundred, of which
  three great carracks were sent to England" (Hall's _Chronicle_).


=Source.=--Waurin's _Chronicles_, 1422-1431, pp. 73-78. (Rolls

The Duke of Bedford, the regent, took the field in very fair array,
and rode on until he had passed the woods near Verneuil; and when he
found himself in the plain he beheld the town and all the force of
the French arranged and set in order of battle, which was a very fair
thing to see; for without doubt I, the author of this work, had never
seen a fairer company, nor one where there were so many of the nobility
as there were there, nor set in better order, nor showing greater
appearance of a desire to fight; I saw the assembly at Azincourt, where
there were many more princes and troops, and also that at Crevant,
which was a very fine affair, but certainly that at Verneuil was of all
the most formidable and the best fought.... At the onset there was a
great noise and great shouting with tumultuous sounds of the trumpets
and clarions; the one side cried "Saint Denis!" and the others "Saint
George!" And so horrible was the shouting that there was no man so
brave or confident that he was not in fear of death; they began to
strike with axes and to thrust with lances, then they put their hands
to their swords, with which they gave each other great blows and deadly
strokes; the archers of England and the Scots, who were with the
French, began to shoot one against the other so murderously that it was
a horror to look upon them, for they carried death to those whom they
struck with full force. After the shooting, the opponents attacked each
other very furiously, hand to hand; and this battle was on a Thursday,
the seventeenth day of August, commencing about two hours after
noon.... Many a capture and many a rescue was made there, and many a
drop of blood shed, which was a great horror and irreparable pity to
see Christian people so destroy one another, for during this pitiable
and deadly battle mercy had no place there, so much did the parties
hate each other; the blood of the slain stretched upon the ground, and
that of the wounded ran in great streams about the field. This battle
lasted about three-quarters of an hour, very terrible and sanguinary,
and it was not then in the memory of man to have seen two parties so
mighty for such a space of time in like manner fight without being able
to perceive to whom the loss or victory would turn.... Elsewhere, the
duke of Bedford, as I hear related, for I could not see or comprehend
the whole since I was sufficiently occupied in defending myself, did
that day wonderful feats of arms, and killed many a man, for with an
axe which he held in his two hands he reached no one whom he did not
punish, since he was large in body and stout in limb, wise and brave in
arms; but he was very greatly harassed by the Scots, especially by the
earl of Douglas and his troop, insomuch that one knew not what to think
nor to imagine how the affair would terminate, for the French, who had
more men by one-half than the English, fought only to conquer....

Then the French began to be dismayed, losing altogether the hope of
victory which a little while before they thought was in their hands,
but each one of them sought a place where he could save himself, taking
flight as best he might, and abandoning the rest; some drew towards the
town and others took the fields....

Finally, the English pursued the French so, that they obtained the
complete victory on that day and gained the battle, but not without
great effusion of their own blood.


=Source.=--Wright's _Political Poems_, pp. 141, 145. (Rolls

    Most noble prince of christian princes all,
      Flowering in youth and virtuous innocence,
    Whom God above list of his grace call
      This day to estate of knightly excellence,
      And to be crownéd with due reverence,
    To great gladness of all this region,
      Laud and honour to thy magnificence,
    And good fortune unto thy high renown.

           *       *       *       *       *

    God of his grace gave unto thy kindred
      The palm of conquest, the laurel of victory;
    They lovéd God and worshipped him indeed,
      Wherefore their names he hath put in memory,
      Made them to reign for virtue in his glory;
    And since thou art born of their lineage,
      Before all things that be transitory
    Love God and dread, and so 'gin thy passage.

           *       *       *       *       *

    And that thou mayst be resemblable found,
      Heretics and Lollards for to oppress,
    Like the emperor, worthy Sigismund;
      And as thy father, flower of high prowess,
      At the 'ginning of his royal nobless,
    Voided all cokil[11] far out of Sion,
      And Christes Spouse sat there in stableness,
    Outraging foreigns that came from Babylon.

           *       *       *       *       *

    Prince excellent, be faithfull, true and stable;
      Dread God, do law, chastize extortion;
    Be liberal of courage, unmutable;
      Cherish the church with holy affection;
      Love thy lieges of either region;
    Prefer the peace, eschew war and debate;
      And God shall send thee from the heaven down
    Grace and good hap to thy royal estate.

  [11] Cokil = weeds in corn.


=Source.=--Monstrelet's _Chronicles_, translated by Johnes, vol.
ii., pp. 495, 496. (Hafod Press, 1809.)

The regent duke of Bedford, while at Paris, had collected about
five hundred carts and cars from the borders of Normandy and from
the Isle of France, which different merchants were ordered to load
with provisions, stores and other things, and to have conveyed to
the English army before Orleans.... This armament left Paris on Ash
Wednesday, under the command of Sir John Falstaff, who conducted the
convoy with his forces in good order, by short marches, until he came
near the village of Rouvroi in Beauce, situated between Genville
and Orleans. Many French captains, having long before heard of his
coming, were there assembled to wait his arrival, namely Charles duke
of Bourbon, the two marshals of France, the constable of Scotland and
his son ... and others of the nobility, having with them from three to
four thousand men. The English had been informed of this force being
assembled from different garrisons which they had in those parts,
and lost no time in forming a square with their carts and carriages,
leaving but two openings, in which square they enclosed themselves,
posting their archers as guards to these entrances, and the men-at-arms
hard by to support them. On the strongest side of this enclosure
were the merchants, pages, carters, and those incapable of defending
themselves, with their horses. The English, thus situated, waited two
hours for the coming of the enemy, who at length arrived with much
noise, and drew up out of bowshot in front of the enclosure. It seemed
to them that, considering their superior numbers, the state of the
convoy, and that there were not more than six hundred real Englishmen,
the rest being composed of all nations, they could not escape falling
into their hands, and must be speedily conquered. Others, however, had
their fears of the contrary happening, for the French captains did
not well agree together as to their mode of fighting, for the Scots
would combat on foot, and the others on horseback.... In the meantime
the constable of Scotland, his son and all their men, dismounted and
advanced to attack their adversaries, by whom they were received
with great courage. The English archers, under the shelter of their
carriages, shot so well and stiffly that all on horseback within their
reach were glad to retreat with their men-at-arms. The constable of
Scotland and his men attacked one of the entrances of the enclosure,
but they were soon slain on the spot.... The other French captains
retreated with their men to the places whence they had come. The
English, on their departure, refreshed themselves and then marched away
in haste for their town of Rouvroi, where they halted for the night.
On the morrow they departed in handsome array with their convoy and
artillery, and in a few days arrived before Orleans, very much rejoiced
at their good fortune in the late attack from the French, and at having
so successfully brought provision to their countrymen.

This battle was ever afterward called the Battle of Herrings, because
great part of the convoy consisted of herrings and other articles of
food suitable to Lent.


=Source.=--Waurin's _Chronicles_, 1422-1431, pp. 171,172. (Rolls

... The troops in Orleans then seeing that they were very strongly
pressed by the diligence of the besiegers, both by their engines and
by the towers which they had made around the town, to the number of
twenty-two, and that by the continuance thereof they were in danger of
being placed in servitude and obedience to their enemies the English,
prepared themselves for all risks and decided to resist with all their
power and in all the ways that they well could, so that, the better to
help, they sent to King Charles to obtain aid in men and provisions;
and there were then sent to them from four to five hundred combatants,
and soon after fully seven thousand were sent to them, and some boats
loaded with provisions coming down the river under the guidance and
protection of these men-at-arms, in which company was the maid Joan,
who had not yet done anything for which she was held in much esteem.

Then the English captains holding the siege, knowing of the coming of
the said boats and of those who convoyed them, at once and in haste
endeavoured to resist by force in order to prevent them from landing
in the town of Orleans, and on the other hand the French exerted
themselves to bring them in by force of arms. On the vessels coming up
to pass there was many a lance broken, many an arrow shot, and many
a bolt shot by the engines, and so great a noise was made both by
the besieged and by the besiegers, both by defenders and assailants,
that it was horrible to hear them; but whatever force or resistance
the English could make there, the French in spite of them brought
their boats in safety into the town, at which the said English were
much troubled and the French joyful at their good fortune, so they
also entered the said town, where they were welcomed as well for the
provisions they had brought as for the maid whom they had taken back
with them, great rejoicings being made everywhere for the good succour
King Charles sent them, whence they plainly perceived the good will
that he had towards them, at which the inhabitants of the city rejoiced
greatly, making such a clamour that they were heard quite plainly by
the besiegers.

Then when the next day came, which was Thursday, when every one was
refreshed, the maid Joan, rising early in the morning, spoke in council
to some captains and chiefs of squadrons, to whom she showed by
forcible arguments how they had come there on purpose to defend that
city against the ancient enemies of the kingdom of France, who were
greatly oppressing it, and to such a degree that she saw that it was in
great danger if good provision were not speedily made for it; so she
admonished them to go and arm themselves, and effected so much by her
words that she induced them to do so, and said to them that if they
would follow her she doubted not that she would cause such damage that
it would ever be remembered, and that the enemy would curse the hour of
her coming.

The maid preached so well to them that they all went to arm themselves
with her; then they sallied out of the town in very fair array, and
setting out she said to the captains: "Lords, take courage and good
hope; before four days have passed your enemies will be vanquished."
And the captains and men-of-war who were there could not wonder
sufficiently at her words.

So they marched forward and came very fiercely to attack one of the
towers of their enemies that was called the tower of Saint Leu,
which was very strong, and therein were from three to four hundred
combatants, who in a very short time were overcome, captured, or slain,
and the tower burnt and demolished; then, this done, the maid and
her people returned joyfully into the city of Orleans where she was
generally honoured and praised by all kinds of people. Again the next
day, which was Friday she and her men sallied from the town, and she
went to attack the second tower which was also taken by a fine assault,
and those within all slain or captured; and after she had caused the
said tower to be broken down, set on fire, and entirely annihilated,
she withdrew into the town, where she was honoured and exalted more
than before by all the inhabitants thereof. The Saturday following, the
maid sallied forth again and went to attack the tower at the end of the
bridge, which was marvellously large and strong, and besides occupied
by a great number of the best and most tried combatants among the
besiegers, who long and valiantly defended themselves, but it availed
them nothing, for at last, like the others, they were discomfited,
taken, and slain; among whom died there the lord of Molines, Glacedale,
a very valiant esquire, the bailly of Evreux and many other noble men
of high rank.

After this brilliant conquest the French returned joyfully into the


=Source.=--_Statutes of the Realm_, 8 Henry VI., c. vii.

Item, Whereas the Elections of Knights of the shires to come to the
Parliaments of our Lord the King, in many counties of England have now
of late been made by very great, outrageous and excessive number of
people dwelling within the same Counties, of the which the most part
was of people of small substance and of no value, whereof every of
them pretended a voice equivalent, as to such elections to be made,
with the most worthy Knights and Esquires dwelling within the same
Counties; whereby manslaughters, riots, batteries and diversions among
the gentlemen and other people of the same counties shall very likely
rise and be, unless convenient remedy be provided in this behalf: Our
Lord the King, considering the premises, hath provided ordained and
established, by the authority of this present Parliament, that the
Knights of the Shires to be chosen within the same realm of England
to come to the Parliaments, shall be chosen in every County by people
dwelling and resident in the same, whereof every one of them shall have
free land or tenement to the value of forty shillings by the year, at
the least, above all charges; and that they which shall be so chosen
shall be dwelling and resident within the same Counties.... And every
sheriff of England shall have power to examine upon the Evangelists
every such chosen, how much he may expend by the year.


=Source.=--Waurin's _Chronicles_, 1422-1431, pp. 239-244. (Rolls

... "It is a sufficiently common report already spread abroad, as it
were everywhere, how this woman who caused herself to be called Joan
the maid, a false soothsayer, for two years or more, against the divine
law and the condition of her female sex, has clothed and conducted
herself in the dress and manner of man, a thing displeasing and
abominable to God, and in such condition was carried before our capital
enemy and yours, to whom and to those of his party she often gave it
out, and even to churchmen, nobles, and people, that she was sent by
God, presumptuously boasting herself that she often had personal and
visible communication with Saint Michael and a great multitude of other
angels and saints of Paradise, with Saint Katherine and Saint Margaret;
by which false givings-out, and by the hope of future victories which
she promised, she turned away the hearts of many men and women from
the truth, and turned them towards fables and lies: she also clothed
herself with armour suitable for knights and esquires, raised a
standard, and with too great excess, pride, and presumption demanded to
have the very excellent arms of France, which in part she obtained, and
bore them in many expeditions and assaults, that is to say, a shield
with two fleurs-de-lis of gold on a field azure, and a sword with the
point fixed upwards in a crown; and in this condition she has taken
the field, with the leadership of men at arms and archers, in armies
and great companies, to do and perpetrate inhuman cruelties, wickedly
shedding human blood, and causing also commotions and seditions of
the people, inciting them to perjuries, rebellions, superstitions,
and false beliefs, perturbing all good peace and renewing mortal
war, suffering herself to be revered and adored by many persons as a
sanctified soul, and otherwise acting damnably in many other matters
too long to express, which nevertheless have been well enough known
in many places, whereby nearly all Christendom has been greatly
scandalized. But the Divine Power having pity on His loyal people,
whom He has not long left in peril, nor suffered them to remain in the
vain, perilous, and novel cruelties into which they had thoughtlessly
thrown themselves, has been pleased to permit it in His great mercy and
clemency that the said shameful woman has been taken in your army and
siege which you were then maintaining on our behalf before Compiègne,
and put by your good help into our obedience and governance. And
because we were afterwards requested by the bishop in whose diocese
she had been taken that this Joan, branded and charged with crimes of
high treason against God, we would cause to be delivered to him as to
her ordinary ecclesiastical judge, as well for reverence of our mother
holy church, whose sacred ordinances we desire to prefer to our own
deeds and wishes as is right, as also for the honour and exaltation of
our true faith, we caused the said Joan to be given up in order that
he might try her, without wishing that any vengeance or punishment
should be inflicted upon her by our secular officers of justice, as
it was reasonably lawful for us to do, considering the great damages
and inconveniences, the horrible homicides and detestable cruelties
and evils, as it were innumerable, that she had committed against our
seignory and our loyal and obedient people. This bishop, the inquisitor
of errors and heresies being associated with him, and a great and
notable number of famous masters and doctors of theology and canon
law being summoned with them, commenced with great solemnity and due
gravity the trial of this Joan, and after he and the said inquisitor,
judges in this behalf, had on many different days questioned the
said Joan, they caused her confessions and assertions to be maturely
examined by the masters and doctors, and generally by all the faculties
of learning of our very dear and much loved daughter the University
of Paris, before which the said assertions and confessions were sent,
according to whose opinion and deliberation the said judges found this
Joan superstitious, a soothsayer by means of devils, a blasphemer of
God and of the saints, a schismatic, and erring many times from the law
of Jesus Christ. And to bring her back into the union and communion
of our holy mother the church, to cleanse her from such horrible and
pernicious crimes and sins, and to keep and preserve her soul from
perpetual torment and damnation, she was often, during a long time,
very lovingly and gently admonished that all her errors being rejected
by her should be put away, and that she should humbly return into the
way and straight path of truth, or otherwise she would put herself in
great peril of soul and body; but the very perilous and mad spirit
of pride and outrageous presumption, which is always exerting itself
to try to impede and disturb the path and way of loyal Christians,
so seized upon and detained in its bonds this Joan and her heart,
that for no holy doctrine, good counsels or exhortation that could be
administered to her, would her hardened and obstinate heart humble or
soften itself, but she often again boasted that all things that she
had done were well done, and she had done them at the commandment of
God through the angels and the said holy virgins who visibly appeared
to her: and what is worse, she recognized not, nor would recognize,
any upon earth save God only and the saints of Paradise, rejecting the
authority of our holy father the pope, the general council and the
universal church militant. And then the ecclesiastical judges, seeing
her said disposition pertinaciously, and for so long a space, remain
hardened and obstinate, caused her to be brought before the clergy
and people there assembled in very great multitude, in whose presence
her case, crimes, and errors were preached, made known, and declared
by a notable master and doctor of theology, for the exaltation of our
faith, the extirpation of errors, the edification and amendment of
Christian people. And there, again, she was lovingly admonished to
return to the union of holy church, correcting her faults and errors,
in which she still remained pertinacious and obstinate. This the judges
aforesaid seeing and considering, they proceeded further and pronounced
against her the sentence in such case by law prescribed and ordained;
but before the said sentence was read through she began seemingly to
change her disposition, saying that she wished to return to holy
church, which willingly and joyfully heard the aforesaid judges and
clergy, who thereto received her affectionately, hoping that her soul
and body were redeemed from perdition and torment. Then she submitted
herself entirely to the ordinance of the Church, and orally revoked
and publicly abjured her errors and detestable crimes, signing with
her own hand the schedule of the said revocation and abjuration; and
so our pitiful mother holy church rejoicing over the sinner showing
penitence, desiring to bring back to the shepherd, with the others,
the returned and recovered sheep which had wandered and gone astray
in the desert, condemned this Joan to prison to do salutary penance;
but she was hardly there any time before the fire of her pride, which
seemed to be extinguished, rekindled in her with pestilential flames
by the breathings of the enemy, and the said unhappy woman immediately
fell back into the errors and false extravagances which she had before
uttered and afterwards revoked and abjured, as has been said. For which
causes, according to what the judgements and institutions of holy
church ordain, in order that henceforward she might not contaminate the
poor members of Jesus Christ, she was again publicly preached to, and
as she had fallen back into the crimes and faults she was accustomed,
left to secular justice, which immediately condemned her to be burned.
And then she, seeing her end drawing near, recognized clearly that the
spirits which she had said had appeared to her many times before were
wicked and lying spirits, and that the promises which these spirits had
formerly made to her of delivering her were false, and so she confessed
it to have been a mockery and deceit; and she was taken by the said lay
justice to the old market-place in the town of Rouen, and was there
publicly burnt in the sight of all the people."

THE EDUCATION OF HENRY VI. (November 9, 1432).

=Source.=--_Paston Letters_, vol. i., No. 18.

For the good rule, demising and surety of the King's person, and
draught of him to virtue and cunning, and eschewing of anything that
might give hindrance or let thereto, or cause any charge, default,
or blame to be laid upon the Earl of Warwick at any time without his
desert, he, considering that peril and business of his charge about the
King's person groweth so that that authority and power given to him
before sufficeth him not without more thereto, desireth therefore these
things that follow.

First, that considering that the charge of the rule, demising and
governance, and also of nurture of the King's person resteth upon the
said Earl while it shall like the King, and the peril, danger, and
blame if any lack or default were in any of these, the which lack or
default might be caused by ungodly or unvirtuous men, if any such were
about his person; he desireth therefore, for the good of the King, and
for his own surety, to have power and authority to name, ordain, and
assign, and for that cause that shall be thought to him reasonable, to
remove those that shall be about the King's person, of what estate or
condition that they be, not intending to comprehend in this desire the
Steward, Chamberlain, Treasurer, Controller, nor Serjeant of offices,
save such as serve the King's person and for his mouth.

_Responsio._--As toward the naming, ordinance, and assignation
beforesaid, it is agreed, so that he take in none of the four knights
nor squires for the body without the advice of my Lord of Bedford, him
being in England, and him being out, of my Lord of Gloucester, and of
the remnant of the King's Council.

Item, the said Earl desireth that where he shall have any person in his
discretion suspect of misgovernance, and not behoveful nor expedient
to be about the King, except the estates of the house, that he may
put them from exercise and occupation of the King's service, till that
he shall more have speech with my Lords of Bedford or of Gloucester,
and with the other Lords of the King's Council, to that end that, the
default of any such person known unto him, [they] shall more ordain
thereupon as them shall think expedient and behoveful.

_Responsio._--It is agreed as it is desired....

Item, that considering how, blessed be God, the King is growing in
years, in stature of his person, and also in conceit and knowledge of
his high and royal authority and estate, the which naturally causing
him, and from day to day as he groweth shall cause him, more and more
to grudge with chastising, and to loath it, so that it may reasonably
be doubted lest he would conceive against the said Earl, or any other
that would take upon him to chastise him for his defaults, displeasure,
or indignation therefore, the which, without due assistance, is not
easy to be borne. It like, therefore, to my Lord of Gloucester, and to
all the Lords of the King's Council, to promise to the said Earl, and
assure him, that they shall firmly and truly assist him in the exercise
of the charge and occupation that he hath about the King's person,
namely in chastising of him for his defaults, and support the said Earl
therein; and if the King at any time would conceive indignation against
the said Earl, my said Lord of Gloucester, and Lords, shall do all
their true diligence and power to remove the King therefrom.

_Responsio._--It is agreed as it is desired.

Item, the said Earl desireth that forasmuch as it shall be necessary
to remove the King's person at divers times into sundry places, as the
cases may require, that he may have power and authority to remove the
King, by his discretion, into what place he thinketh necessary for the
health of his body and surety of his person.

_Responsio._--It is agreed as it is desired....

Item, forasmuch as the said Earl hath knowledge that in speech that
hath been had unto the King at part and in privy, not in the hearing
of the said Earl nor any of the knights set about his person, nor
assigned by the said Earl, he hath been stirred by some from his
learning, and spoken to of divers matters not behoveful, the said Earl
doubting the harm that might fall to the King, and the inconvenience
that might ensue of such speech at part as if it were suffered;
desireth that in all speech to be had with the King, he or one of
the four knights, or some person to be assigned by the said Earl, be
present and privy to it.

_Responsio._--This article is agreed, excepting such persons as for
nighness of blood, and for their estate, owe of reason to be suffered
to speak with the King.

Item, to the intent that it may be known to the King that it proceedeth
of the assent, advice and agreement of my Lord of Gloucester, and all
my Lords of the King's Council, that the King be chastised for his
defaults or trespasses, and that for awe thereof he forbear the more
to do amiss, and intend the more busily to virtue and to learning, the
said Earl desireth that my Lord of Gloucester, and my said other Lords
of the Council, or great part of them, that is to say, the Chancellor
and Treasurer, and of every estate in the Council, spiritual and
temporal, some come to the King's presence, and there to make to be
declared to him their agreement in that behalf.

_Responsio._--When the King cometh next to London, all his Council
shall come to his presence, and there this shall be declared to him.

Item, the said Earl, that all his days hath, above all other earthy
things, desired, and ever shall to keep his truth and worship
unblemished and unhurt, and may not for all that let [prevent]
malicious and untrue men to make informations of his person, such as
they may not, nor dare not, stand by, nor be not true, beseecheth
therefore my Lord of Gloucester and all my said Lords of the Council,
that if they, or any of them, have been informed of anything that may
be laid to his charge or default, and namely in his occupation and rule
about the King's person, that the said Earl may have knowledge thereof,
to the intent that he may answer thereto, and not dwell in heavy or
sinister conceit or opinion, without his desert and without answer.

_Responsio._--It is agreed.

  +J. Ebor.+
  +W. Lincoln+
  +J. Huntington.+
  +H. Gloucester.+
  +P. Elien.+
  +J. Bathon. Canc.+
  +J. Roffen.+
  +H. Stafford.+


=Source.=--_Rotuli Parliamentorum_, vol. v., p. 31. (Record

To the King our Sovereign Lord; Shewen meekly your true liege people,
here by your authority royal in this present Parliament for the Commons
of this your noble realm assembled; how that a sickness called the
Pestilence, universally through this your realm runneth more commonly
than hath been usual before this time, the which is an infirmity most
infective; and the presence of such so infect most to be eschewed, as
by noble physicians and wise philosophers before this time plainly it
hath been determined and as experience daily sheweth. Wherefore we
your poor liege people, above all earthly thing tendering and desiring
the health and welfare of your most noble person, beseech your most
noble grace, in conserving of your most noble person and in comfort of
us all, in eschewing of any such infection to you to fall, which God
defend, graciously to conceive how where that any of your said Commons,
holding of you by Knight's service, oweth in doing you homage, by your
gracious sufferance, to kiss you, to ordain and grant by the authority
of this present Parliament, that every of your said lieges, in doing of
their said homage, may omit the said kissing of you....


=Source.=--Ellis's _Original Letters_, Second Series, vol. i., pp.
110, 111.

+To the King our Sovereign Lord.+

Please it unto your Royal Majesty of your grace especially to grant
unto John Earl of Oxford, owner under God of a ship called the _Jesus
of Orwell_, that the said ship, without any fine or fee to be paid unto
you, may have licence, in the worship of God and of St. James, to make
the first voyage unto St. James[12] with as many persons as therein
would thitherward take their passage. Considering that by cause of the
loss of another ship ... the said Earl hath done upon the said ship
great cost to make it the more able to do you service and to withstand
your enemies in time of need.

_Endorsed_--Donné à n're Palais de Westm. le xxviij jour de Feverer,
l'an etc xxiij. [February 28, 1445.]

  [12] The shrine of St. James of Compostella.


=Source.=--_Early Naval Ballads_, vol. ii., pp. 1-4. (Percy

    Man may leve all gamys,
    That saylen to Seynt Jamys;
    For many a man hit gramys,[13]
        When they begyn to sayle.
    For when they have take the sea,
    At Sandwyche or at Wynchylsee,
    At Brystow,[14] or where that hit bee,
        Theyr herts begyn to fayle.

    Anone the mastyr commaundeth fast
    To hys shyp-men in all the hast,
    To dresse hem soon about the mast
        Theyr takeling to make.
    With "howe! hissa!" then they cry,
    "What, howte! mate, thou stondyst too ny,
    Thy fellow may not hale the by;"
        Thus they begyn to crake.

           *       *       *       *       *

    Thus menewhyle the pylgryms ly,
    And have theyr bowls fast theym by,
    And cry after hot malvesy,
        "Thow helpe for to restore."

    And some wold have a saltyd tost,
    For they myght ete neyther sode ne rost;
    A man myght soon pay for theyr cost,
        As for one day or twayne.
    Some layde theyr bookys on theyr knee,
    And read so long they myght nat see,
    "Allas! myne head woll cleve in three!"
        Thus seyth another certayne.

    Then commeth owre owner lyke a lorde,
    And speketh many a royall worde,
    And dresseth hym to the hygh borde,
        To see all things be well
    Anone he calleth a carpentere
    And biddeth hym bryng his gere,
    To make cabans here and there
        With many a fabyl cell.

    A sak of straw were there ryght good,
    For some must lyg them in theyr hood;
    I had as lefe be in the wood,
        Without mete or drynk,
    For when that we shall go to bedde,
    The pump was nygh our bedde hede,
    A man were as good to be dede,
        As smell thereof the stynk.

  [13] Troubles.

  [14] Bristol.


=Source.=--_Statutes of the Realm_, 23 Henry VI., c. 14.

_The statute recites 1 Henry V. c. 1 (see p. 13), and 8 Henry VI. c. 7
(see p. 35), then proceeds_:

... By force of which statutes elections of knights to come to
Parliament sometimes have been duly made and lawfully returned until
now of late that divers sheriffs, for their singular avail and lucre,
have not made due elections of knights, nor in convenient time, nor
good men and true returned, and sometime no return of the knights,
citizens and burgesses lawfully chosen to come to the Parliaments;
but such knights, citizens, and burgesses have been returned which
were never duly chosen, and other citizens and burgesses than those
which by the mayors and bailiffs were to the said sheriffs returned;
and sometimes the sheriffs have not returned the writs which they
had to make elections of knights to come to the Parliaments, but the
said writs have imbesiled, and moreover made no precept to the mayor
and bailiffs, or to the bailiffs or bailiff, where no mayor is, of
cities and boroughs, for the elections of citizens and burgesses to
come to the Parliaments, by colour of these words contained in the
same writs--"_Quod in pleno comitatu tuo eligi facias pro comitatu
tuo duos milites, et pro qualibet civitate in comitatu tuo duos cives
et pro quolibet burgo in comitatu tuo duos burgenses_;" and also
because sufficient penalty and convenient remedy for the party in
such case grieved is not ordained in the said statutes against the
sheriffs, mayors, and bailiffs, which do contrary to the form of the
said statutes: The King considering the premises hath ordained by
Authority aforesaid, that the said statutes shall be duly kept in all
points: and moreover that every sheriff, after the delivery of any such
writs to him made, shall make and deliver without fraud a sufficient
Precept under his seal to every mayor and bailiff, or to bailiffs
or bailiff where no mayor is, of the cities and boroughs within his
county, reciting the said writ, commanding them by the same precept, if
it be a city, to choose by citizens of the same city, citizens; and
in the same manner and form, if it be a borough, by burgesses of the
same to come to the Parliament. And that the same mayor and bailiffs,
or bailiffs or bailiff where no mayor is, shall return lawfully the
precept to the same sheriffs by indenture betwixt the same sheriffs,
and them to be made of the said elections, and of the names of the said
citizens and burgesses by them so chosen; and thereupon every sheriff
shall make a good and rightful return of every such writ, and of every
return by the mayors and bailiffs, or bailiffs or bailiff where no
mayor is, to him made.


=Source.=--_Excerpta Historica_, p. 5. (London: 1833.)

Henry by the grace of God King of England and of France and Lord of
Ireland: To our Chancellor of England greeting. Forasmuch as the right
reverend father in God the Archbishop of Canterbury and the reverend
father in God the bishop of London, considering the great abuses that
have been of long time within our city of London that many and divers
persons, not sufficiently instructed in grammar, presuming to hold
common grammar schools in great deceit as well unto their scholars as
unto the friends that find them to school, have of their great wisdom
set and ordained five schools of grammar, and no more, within our
said city. One within the churchyard of St. Paul's, another within
the collegiate church of St. Martin, the third in Bow church, the
fourth in the church of St. Dunstan in the East, the fifth in our
hospital of St. Anthony within our said city; the which they have
openly declared sufficient, as by their letters patent thereupon made
it appeareth more at large. We, in consideration of the premises,
have thereunto granted our royal will and assent. Wherefore we will
and charge you that hereupon ye do make our letters patent under our
great seal in due form, declaring in the same our said will and assent,
giving furthermore in commandment by the same our letters unto all
our subjects of our said city that they nor none of them trouble nor
hinder the masters of the said schools in any wise, but rather help
and assist them inasmuch as in them is. Given under our privy seal at
Guildford the 3rd day of May, the year of our reign xxiiij.


=Source.=--"Le recouvrement de Normendie," par Berry, Herault du
Roy, printed in _Reductio Normannie, pp. 245 et seq._ (Rolls Series,

[+Note.+--The author of this and other extracts relating to the
loss of Normandy was Jacques le Bouvier, surnamed Berry, the first
King-of-Arms of Charles VII. of France.]

The duke of Bretagne everywhere sent to all his subjects, well-wishers,
friends and allies, asking them to be so good as to help him to avenge
himself upon the English, and to help him to recover his town of
Fougères. And on this occasion to please the said duke of Bretagne, M.
Jehan de Bressay, knight, a native of the country of Anjou, Robert de
Flocques, esquire of the country of Normandy, bailly of Evreux, Jacques
de Clermont, esquire of the country of Dauphiné and lord of Mannay, and
Guillaume le Vigars, esquire, made the attempt to take the town and
castle of Pont de l'Arche, on the river Seine, by means of a merchant
of Louviers who often took a cart by the said Pont de l'Arche to go
to Rouen, which is about four short leagues above it.... And the said
merchant, with two others, upon a day in the month of May, being the
Thursday before the Ascension of our Lord, set out from Louviers and
went to take his cart, as he had often done, through the town of Pont
de l'Arche, pretending that he was taking merchandize to Rouen; and
in passing he asked the porter of the castle to be so good as to open
the gate of the castle for him very early next morning, and he would
give him a good gratuity, for he made him believe that he wished to
return speedily to Louviers for some merchandize. And so the merchant
passed through the town; and he returned about the hour of midnight,
accompanied by many of the said ambuscade on foot; and they lodged at
an inn in the country, adjoining the castle. They entered into the
said inn secretly, where they found the wife in bed alone, (who was
exceedingly terrified), for her husband was absent on his business.
And when it drew near daybreak, the said merchant went all alone to
call the said porter, who came to open the gate of the castle and the
bulwark for him, as he had promised the day before; and immediately
two persons came out of the inn to come to the bulwark along with the
merchant, of whom the said porter was apprehensive when he saw them
approach. But the said merchant told him that they were people of
Louviers, and then he was satisfied. Then the merchant entered with all
his wares, leaving the cart upon the bridge until such time as he had
thrown upon the ground for his (the porter's) reward, two bretons and
a placque; and as he was stooping to gather them, the merchant killed
him with a dagger.... The men of the castle heard the noise, and an
Englishman came down in his night-shirt, (a handsome fellow, young and
brave), who attempted to raise the bridge of the said castle, because
he saw that the said bulwark was already lost; but the said merchant
hastened to go to him, and killed him before he could raise the bridge,
which was a pity, for he was one of the bravest and most active young
men of his party. And thus the castle was won.

And then all the foot-soldiers went along the bridge making great
shouts, to enter the town which they took; for the greater part of
the inhabitants were still in their beds, excepting one Englishman,
who valiantly and for a long time defended the gate of the bridge, to
hinder them from entering; but in the end he was killed and the town


=Source.=--"Le recouvrement de Normandie," printed in _Reductio
Normannie, pp. 254 et seq._ (Rolls Series, 1863.)

The King of France was duly informed of the war which the English made
upon the realm of Scotland, which was comprehended in the truce; and
also of the war which they made by sea upon the King of Spain, his
ally, who was also in the said truce; and in like manner upon his
subjects of La Rochelle and Dieppe, and elsewhere.... For as long as
the truce had continued, the English came from Mantes, Verneuil and
Loigny upon the roads from Paris and Orleans, robbing and murdering the
merchants and the honest people who were travelling along the roads ...
and they went by night to their houses in the open country, and took
prisoners in their beds the gentlemen who were of the party of the
King of France, cut their throats and murdered them vilely in their
beds. And it was their custom to cut the throats of these gentlemen
during the said truce. And these malefactors were called _False-Faces_,
because, when they did these things, they disguised themselves with
disorderly and frightful dresses and headpieces, painted with various
colours, and other clothes, so that they should not be known....

At this time a miller of the town of Verneuil who had his mill opposite
the walls of the town, was beaten by an Englishman who was going the
rounds, because he was asleep at his post. And for revenge he went
to the bailly of Evreux, and, after a certain treaty made between
them, he promised that he would admit him within the said town.
Hereupon assembled messire Pierre de Bressay, seneschal of Poitou, the
said bailly of Evreux, Jacques de Clermont and others. They came on
horseback and found themselves on Sunday 19th July in this year, at
break of day, near the walls of the said town. The said miller (who had
been on watch that night) made the others who kept watch with him go
down from the wall sooner than usual, because (in order to accomplish
his purpose) he made them believe that, as it was Sunday, they should
hasten to go, the bell having rung for Mass. By the help of the miller
the French placed their ladders to the right of the wall, and entered
the town without anyone noticing them. Six score Englishmen were
within, of whom some were slain and taken prisoners, and the others
betook themselves in great haste to the keep of the castle.


=Source.=--"Le recouvrement de Normendie," in _Reductio
Normannie_, pp. 333 _et seq._ (Rolls Series.)

... On the fifteenth of April they (the French) came up with the
English in a field near a village named Formigny, between Carentan
[Triviers] and Bayeux. And when the said English saw and perceived
them, they put themselves in order of battle, and sent very hastily
for the said Matthew Gough, who had left them that morning to go to
Bayeux, and he immediately returned. And then the French and the
English were one in the presence of the other, for the space of three
hours, skirmishing. And in the meantime the English made large holes
and trenches with their daggers and swords before them, in order that
the French and their horses should stumble if they attacked them. And
at the distance of a long bowshot behind the English there was a little
river between them, with a great abundance of gardens full of various
trees, as apples, pears, elms, and other trees; and they encamped in
this place because they could not be attacked in the rear.

And in the meantime the lord of Richmond, Constable of France, the lord
of Laval, the lord of Loheac, marshal of France, the lord of Orval,
the marshal of Bretaigne, the lord of Saint-Severe, and many others
set out from Triviers, where they had slept that night, and joined
them, to the number of three hundred lances, and the archers. And when
the said English saw them come, they left the field, and the troops
marched and came to the river to place it behind them; for they were
afraid of the Constable's company, who had slept the night at a village
named Triviers, and had put himself in order of battle upon the arrival
of the said English at a wind-mill above the said Formigny. And then
marched the troops of the said lord of Clermont and his company, in
which were from five to six hundred lances and the archers, and they
charged the said English, as did also those of the said Constable, who
crossed the river by a ford and a little bridge of stone. And there
they attacked the English on both sides very bravely, so that in the
end they discomfited them close by the said river.

And there there were killed, by the report of the heralds who were
there, and of the priests and good people who buried them, three
thousand seven hundred and seventy-four English.

A FATHER'S COUNSEL (+April 30, 1450+).

=Source.=--_Paston Letters_, vol. i., No. 91.

["Whoever has read this affecting composition will find it difficult to
persuade himself that the writer could have been either a false subject
or a bad man."--+Lingard.+]

_The Duke of Suffolk to his Son._

+My dear and only well-beloved Son+,

I beseech our Lord in Heaven, the maker of all the world, to bless
you, and to send you ever grace to love him, and to dread him; to the
which, as far as a father may charge his child, I both charge you, and
pray you to set all spirits and wits to do, and to know his holy laws
and commandments, by the which ye shall with his great mercy pass all
the great tempests and troubles of this wretched world. And that also,
wittingly, ye do nothing for love or dread of any earthly creature
that should displease him. And there as any frailty maketh you to
fall, beseech his mercy soon to call you to him again with repentance,
satisfaction, and contrition of your heart never more in will to offend

Secondly, next him, above all earthly thing, to be true liege man
in heart, in will, in thought, in deed unto the King our most high
and dread Sovereign Lord, to whom both ye and I be so much bound
to; charging you, as father can and may, rather to die than be the
contrary, or to know any thing that were against the welfare or
prosperity of his most royal person, but that as far as your body and
life may stretch, ye live and die to defend it, and to let his highness
have knowledge thereof in all the haste ye can.

Thirdly, in the same wise, I charge you, my dear son, as ye be bound
by the commandment of God to do, to love, to worship your lady and
mother, and also that ye obey always her commandments, and to believe
her counsels and advices in all your works, the which dread not but
shall be best and truest to you. And if any other body would stir you
to the contrary, to flee the counsel in any wise, for ye shall find it
nought and evil.

Furthermore, as far as father may and can, I charge you in any wise
to flee the company and counsel of proud men, of covetous men, and of
flattering men, the more especially and mightily to withstand them, and
not to draw, nor to meddle with them, with all your might and power.
And to draw to you and to your company good and virtuous men, and such
as be of good conversation, and of truth, and by them shall ye never
be deceived, nor repent you of. Moreover, never follow your own wit
in no wise, but in all your works, of such folks as I write of above,
ask your advice and counsel; and doing thus, with the mercy of God, ye
shall do right well, and live in right much worship, and great heart's
rest and ease. And I will be to you as good lord and father as my heart
can think.

And last of all, as heartily and as lovingly as ever father blessed his
child in earth, I give you the blessing of our Lord and of me, which of
his infinite mercy increase you in all virtue and good living. And that
your blood may by his grace from kindred to kindred multiply in this
earth to his service, in such wise as after the departing from this
wretched world here, ye and they may glorify him eternally among his
angels in heaven.

Written of mine own hand

The day of my departing from this land

  Your true and loving father


=Source.=--_Paston Letters_, vol. i., No. 93.

+Right worshipful Sir+,

I recommend me to you, and am right sorry of that I shall say, and so
washed this little bill with sorrowful tears, that on these ye shall
read it.

As on Monday next after May day there come tidings to London that on
Thursday before the Duke of Suffolk come unto the coast of Kent full
near Dover with his two ships and a little spinner; the which spinner
he sent with certain letters to certain of his trusted men unto Calais
wards, to know how he should be received; and with him met a ship
called _Nicolas of the Tower_, with other ships waiting on him, and by
them that were in the spinner the master of the _Nicolas_ had knowledge
of the duke's coming. And when he espied the duke's ships, he sent
forth his boat to know what they were, and the duke himself spake to
them, and said, he was by the King's commandment sent to Calais wards,

And they said he must speak with their master. And so he, with two or
three of his men, went forth with them in their boat to the _Nicolas_;
and when he come, the master bade him "Welcome, Traitor," as men say;
and further the master desired to know if the shipmen would hold with
the duke, and they sent word they would not in no wise; and so he was
in the _Nicolas_ till Saturday next following.

Some say he wrote much things to be delivered to the King, but that is
not verily known. He had his confessor with him, etc.

And some say he was arraigned in the ship on their manner upon the
impeachments and found guilty, etc.

Also he asked the name of the ship, and when he knew it, he remembered
Stacy that said, if he might escape the danger of the Tower, he should
be safe; and then his heart failed him, for he thought he was deceived,
and in the sight of all his men he was drawn out of the great ship in
to the boat; and there was an axe and a block, and one of the lewdest
of the ship bid him lay down his head, and he should be fair fared
with and die on a sword; and took a rusty sword, and smote off his head
within half a dozen strokes, and took away his gown of russet, and his
doublet of velvet mailed, and laid his body on the sands of Dover; and
some say his head was set on a pole by it....

And the sheriff of Kent doth watch the body, and sent his under-sheriff
to the judges to know what to do, and also to the King what shall be


=Source.=--_Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles_, pp. 66-68 _and_
94-99. (Camden Society.)

A.--+A Proclamation made by Jack Cade, Captain of the Rebels in

These be the points, causes and mischiefs of gathering and assembling
of us the King's liege men of Kent, the iiij day of June the year
of our Lord +M+iiijcl, the which we trust to Almighty God to
remedy, with the help and the grace of God and of our sovereign lord
the King, and the poor commons of England, and else we shall die

We, considering that the King our sovereign lord, by the insatiable
covetous malicious pomps, and false and of nought brought up certain
persons, that daily and nightly is about his highness, and daily inform
him that good is evil and evil is good, as Scripture witnesseth, _Ve
vobis qui dicitis bonum malum et malum bonum_.

Item, they say that our sovereign lord is above his laws to his
pleasure, and he may make it and break it as him list, without any
distinction. The contrary is true, and else he should not have sworn to
keep it, the which we conceived for the highest point of treason that
any subject may do to make his prince run into perjury.

Item, they say that the commons of England would first destroy the
King's friends and afterwards himself, and then bring the Duke of York
to be King....

Item, they say the King should live upon his commons and that their
bodies and goods be the King's; the contrary is true, for then needed
him never parliament to sit to ask good of his commons.

       *       *       *       *       *

Item, it is to be remedied that the false traitors will suffer no man
to come into the King's presence for no cause without bribes where none
ought to be had, nor no bribery about the King's person, but that any
man might have his coming to him to ask him grace or judgement in such
case as the King may give.

       *       *       *       *       *

Item, the law serveth of nought else in these days but for to do

Item, we say our sovereign lord may understand that his false council
hath lost his law, his merchandise is lost, his common people is
destroyed, the sea is lost, France is lost, the King himself is so set
that he may not pay for his meat and drink, and he oweth more than
ever any King of England owed, for daily his traitors about him, where
anything should come to him by his laws, anon they ask it from him.

       *       *       *       *       *

Item, his true commons desire that he will avoid from him all the false
progeny and affinity of the Duke of Suffolk ... and to take about his
noble person his true blood of his royal realm, that is to say, the
high and mighty prince the Duke of York, exiled from our sovereign
lord's person by the noising of the false traitor, the Duke of Suffolk
and his affinity.

       *       *       *       *       *

Item, taking of wheat and other grains, beef, mutton, and other
victual, the which is unbearable hurt to the commons, without provision
of our sovereign lord and his true council, for his commons may no
longer bear it.

Item, the statute upon the labourers and the great extortioners of

B.--+The Capture and Death of Cade.+

... Then the commons of Kent arose and had chosen them a captain the
which named himself John Mortimer, whose very true name was John Cade,
and he was an Irishman, and so he come to Blackheath with the commons
of Kent. And the King with all his lords made them ready with all their
power for to withstand him.... And the Mayor of London with the commons
of the city came unto the King beseeching him that he would tarry in
the city and they would live and die with him and pay for the cost of
his household an half year; but he would not, but took his journey to
Kenilworth. And when the King was gone, the captain with the commons of
Kent came again to Blackheath. And the iij^{rd} day of July he came to
London; and as soon as they came to London they robbed Phillip Malpas.
And the iiij^{th} day of July he beheaded Crowmer and another man at
Mile End; and the same day at afternoon the Lord Say was fetched out of
the Tower to the Guild Hall for the mayor to have judgement, and when
he came before the mayor he said he would be judged by his peers. And
then the commons of Kent took him from the officers and led him to the
Standard in Cheap and there smote off his head. And then the captain
did draw him through London, and over London Bridge to Saint Thomas,
and there he was hanged and quartered, and his head and Crowmer's head
and another man's head were set on London Bridge.... And the v^{th} day
of July at night (and being Sunday) the commons of London set upon the
commons of Kent, for they began to rob.... Then the xij^{th} day of
July was in every shire proclaimed that what man that could take the
aforesaid captain and bring him to the King quick or dead, should have
a thousand marks, and as for any man that belonged to him x marks; for
it was openly known that his name was not Mortimer, his name was John
Cade.... And so one Alexander Iden, a squire of Kent, took him in a
garden in Southsea the xiij^{th} day of July; and in the taking of him
he was hurt and died that same night, and on the morrow he was brought
into the King's Bench, and after was drawn through London and his head
set on London Bridge.


=Source.=--_Paston Letters_, vol. i., No. 155.

Master Paston, we commend us unto you, letting you know the Sheriff
is not so whole as he was, for now he will show but a part of his
friendship. And also there is great press of people and few friends, as
far as we can feel yet.... Also the Sheriff informed us that he hath
writing from the King that he shall make such a panel to acquit Lord
Molynes. And also he told us, and as far as we can conceive and feel,
the Sheriff will panel gentlemen to acquit the lord, and jurors to
acquit his men; and we suppose that this is by the motion and means of
the other party. And if any means of treaty be proferred, we know not
what means should be to your pleasure. And therefore we would fain have
more knowledge, if ye think it were to do.

No more at this time, but the Holy Trinity have you in his keeping.
Written at Walsingham, in haste, the second day of May,

  By your true and faithful friends,
    +Debenham, Tymperley and White+.


=Source.=--_Paston Letters_, vol. i., No. 158.

_Sir Thomas Howys to Sir John Fastolf._

Right reverend and worshipful master, I recommend me lowly unto
you.... The more special cause of my writing at this time is to give
you relation of the untrue demeaning of this our _determiner_, by the
partiality of the judges of it; for when the council of the city of
Norwich, of the town of Swafham, yours, my master Inglos, Pastons,
and many other plaintiffs had put in and declared, both by writing
and by word before the judges, the lawful exceptions in many wise,
the judges by their wilfullness might not find in their heart not as
much as a beck nor a twinkling of their eye toward, but took it to
derision. God reform such partiality.... It was the most partial place
of all the shire, and thither were called all the friends, knights and
squires and gentlemen that would in no wise do otherwise than they
would. And the said Tudenham, Heydon and other oppressors of their set
came down hither with four hundred horse and more; and considering how
their well-willers were there assembled at their instance, it had been
right jeopardous and fearful for any of the plaintiffs to have been


=Source.=--_Paston Letters_, vol. i., No. 201.

       *       *       *       *       *

These be divers of the riots and offences done in the hundred of
Blofeld in the county of Norfolk, and in other towns by Robert Ledham,
of Wytton by Blofeld, in the county of Norfolk.

       *       *       *       *       *

_In primis_, on the Monday next before Easter day and the shire day,
the thirtieth year of our sovereign lord the King, ten persons of the
said rioters, with a brother of the wife of the said Robert Ledham, lay
in wait in the highway under Thorpe wood upon Phillip Berney, esquire,
and his man coming from the shire, and shot at him and smote the horse
of the said Phillip with arrows, and then overrode him, and took him
and beat him and spoiled him. And for their excuse of this riot, they
led him to the Bishop of Norwich, asking surety of the peace where they
had never warrant him to arrest. Which affray shortened the life-days
of the said Phillip, which died within short time after the said affray.

Item, three of the said riotous fellowship the same day, year, and
place, lay in wait upon Edmond Brown, gentleman, and with naked swords
and other weapons fought with him by the space of one quarter of an
hour, and took and spoiled him, and kept him as long as they list, and
after that let him go.

Item, forty of the said riotous fellowship, by the commandment of the
same Robert Ledham, jacked and saletted, with bows and arrows, bills,
and glaives upon Maundy Thursday, at four of the clock at afternoon,
the same year, coming to the White Friars in Norwich, and would have
broken their gates and doors, feigning them that they would hear their
evensong. Where they were answered such service was none used to be
there, nor within the said city at that time of the day, and prayed
them to depart; and they answered and said that afore their departing
they would have some persons out of that place, quick or dead, inasmuch
the said friars were fain to keep their place with force. And the mayor
and the sheriff of the said city were fain to arraign a power to resist
the said riots, which to them on that holy time was tedious and heinous
considering the loss and letting of the holy service of that holy
night. And thereupon the said rioters departed.

Item, the said Robert Ledham on the Monday next after Easter day, the
same year, took from one John Wilton four cattle for rent arrear as he
said, and killed them, and laid them in salt, and afterwards ate them.

       *       *       *       *       *

Item, in likewise the said Robert Ledham and his men assaulted one
John Coke of Witton, in breaking up his doors at eleven of the clock
at night, and with their swords maimed him and gave him seven great
wounds, and took from him certain goods and chattels, of which he had,
nor yet hath, no remedy nor restitution.

Item, the same day and year they beat the mother of the same John Coke,
she being four score years of age and more, and smote her upon the
crown of her head with a sword; of which hurt she might never be healed
to the day of her death.

       *       *       *       *       *

Item, on Mid Lent Sunday, the thirtieth year of our sovereign Lord the
King that now is, Robert Dallyng, Robert Church, Robert Taillor, Henry
Bang, Adam at More, with others unknown, by the commandment and assent
of the said Robert Ledham, made affray upon Henry Smith and Thomas
Chamber at South Birlingham, the said Henry and Thomas at that time
kneeling to see the using of the mass, and then and there would have
killed the said Henry and Thomas at the priest's back, unless they had
been prevented.

       *       *       *       *       *

Item, the said Robert Ledham, continuing in this wise, called unto him
his said misgoverned fellowship, considering the absence of many of
the well-ruled of the said hundred, of afore-cast malice concocted,
purposed and laboured to the Sheriff of the shire that the said Robert
Church, one of the said riotous fellowship, was made baillie of the
hundred; and after caused the same Roger to be beginner of arising
and to take upon him to be a captain and to excite the people of the
country thereto. And thereupon, by covin of the said Robert Ledham, to
impeach all these said well-ruled persons, and as well other divers
substantial men of good fame and good governance that was hated by the
said Robert Ledham, and promising the said Roger harmless and to sue
his pardon by the men of Danyell; to the which promise the said Roger
agreed, and was arrested and taken by the said Ledham by covin betwixt
them, and impeached such persons as they list, to the intent that the
said substantial men of the country should be by that means so troubled
and endangered that they should not be of power to let and resist the
misrule of the said Ledham and his misgoverned fellowship, the which
matter is confessed by the said Robert Church.

       *       *       *       *       *

Item, six or seven of the said Ledham's men daily, both work day and
holy day, use to go about in the country with bows and arrows, shooting
and playing in many closes among men's cattle, going from alehouse
to alehouse and menacing such as they hated, and sought occasion to
quarrel and debate.

Item, notwithstanding that all the livelihood that the said Ledham hath
passeth not £20, besides the repairs and out-charges, and that he hath
no cunning nor true means of getting of any good in this country, as
far as any man may conceive, and yet keepeth in his house daily twenty
men, besides women and great multitude of such misgoverned people as
[have] been resorting to him, as is above said, to the which he giveth
clothing, and yet beside that he giveth to others that be not dwelling
in his household; and of the said men there passeth not eight that use
occupation of husbandry; and all they that use husbandry, as well as
other, be jacked and saletted ready for war, which in this country is
thought right strange, and is verily so conceived that he may not keep
this countenance by no good means.

Item, the said Ledham, hath a _supersedeas_ out of the Chancery for
him and divers of his men, that no warrant of justice of peace may be
served against him.

       *       *       *       *       *


=Source.=--Ellis's _Original Letters_, Second Series, vol. i., pp.
117 _et seq._ (London: 1827.)

[_A report, drawn up by the chief persons in the County of Kildare, to
Richard Duke of York, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland._]

Right high and mighty Prince and our right gracious lord, Richard Duke
of York, we recommend us unto you as lowly as we can or may; and please
your gracious Highness to be advertised that the land of Ireland was
never at the point finally to be destroyed, since the conquest of this
land, as it is now, for the true liege people in these parts dare nor
may not appear to the King our sovereign lord's courts in the said
land, nor none of the true liege people there to go nor ride to market
towns nor other places, for dread of being slain, taken or spoiled of
their goods; also the misrule and misgovernance had, done and daily
continued by divers gentlemen of the county and your liberty of Meath
and the county of Kildare, and namely because of a variance between the
earl of Wiltshire, lieutenant of the said land, and Thomas Fitzmaurice
of the Geraldines for the title of the manors of Maynooth and Rathmore
in the county of Kildare.... For Henry Bonyn knight, constituted
Treasurer of the said land under the great Seal, assembling with him
Edmund Butler cousin germane to the said Earl of Wiltshire and William
Butler, cousin to the said Earl, with their following, of the which
the most part was Irish enemies and English rebels, came unto the said
County of Kildare and there burnt and destroyed divers and many towns
and parish churches of the true liege people, and took divers of them
prisoners and spoiled them of their goods. And after the departure of
the said Henry and Edmund, the said William ... did so great oppression
in the said county of Kildare and in the county and liberty of Meath
that twenty-seven towns and more which was well inhabited on the feast
of St. Michael's last passed are now wasted and destroyed.... Also
please your Highness to be advertised that the said William Butler,
Nicolas Wogan, David Wogan and Richard Wogan came, with divers Irish
enemies and English rebels to the castle of Rathcoffy there, as Ann
Wogan sometime wife to Oliver Eustace, then being the King's widow,[15]
was dwelling, and burnt the gates of the said place, and took her with
them and Edward Eustace, son and heir to the said Oliver ... of the age
of eight years, and yet holdeth them prisoners, and took goods and
chattels of the said Anne to the value of five hundred marks.

  [15] Ellis notes "disposable in marriage by the King."


=Source.=--Ingulph's _Chronicles_, p. 419. (Bohn Edition.)

In the meantime, you might plainly perceive public and intestine broils
fermenting among the princes and nobles of the realm, so much so,
that in the words of the Gospel, "Brother was divided against brother
and father against father"; one party adhering to the King, while the
other, being attached to the said duke by blood or by ties of duty,
sided with him. And not only among princes and people had such a spirit
of contention arisen, but even in every society, whether chapter,
college, or convent, had this unhappy plague of division effected
an entrance; so much so, that brother could hardly with any degree
of security admit brother into his confidence, or friend a friend,
nor could any one reveal the secret of his conscience without giving
offence. The consequence was that, from and after this period of time,
the combatants on both sides, uniting their respective forces together,
attacked each other whenever they happened to meet, and quite in
accordance with the doubtful issue of warfare, now the one and now the
other for the moment gained the victory, while fortune was continually
shifting her position. In the meantime, however, the slaughter of men
was immense; for besides the dukes, earls, barons, and distinguished
warriors who were cruelly slain, multitudes almost innumerable of the
common people died of their wounds. Such was the state of the kingdom
for nearly ten years.


=Source.=--_Paston Letters_, vol. i., Nos. 195, 226.

A.--+January, 1454.+

As touching tidings, please it you to wit that at the Prince's coming
to Windsor, the Duke of Buckingham took him in his arms and presented
him to the King in godly wise, beseeching the King to bless him; and
the King gave no manner of answer. Nevertheless the Duke abode still
with the Prince by the King; and when he could no manner answer have,
the Queen come in, and took the Prince in her arms and presented him
in like form as the Duke had done, desiring that he should bless it;
but all their labour was in vain, for they departed thence without any
answer or countenance saving only that once he looked on the Prince and
cast down his eyes again, without any more.

B.--+January, 1455.+

_Edmund Clere to John Paston._

To my well-beloved Cousin, John Paston, be this delivered.

Right well-beloved cousin, I recommend me to you, letting you wit such
tidings as we have.

Blessed be God, the King is well amended, and hath been since
Christmasday, and on Saint John's day commanded his almoner to ride to
Canterbury with his offering, and commanded the Secretary to offer at
Saint Edward's.

And on the Monday afternoon the Queen came to him, and brought my Lord
Prince with her. And then he asked what the Prince's name was, and the
Queen told him Edward; and then he held up his hands and thanked God
thereof. And he said he never knew till that time, nor wist not what
was said to him, nor wist not where he had been while he hath been sick
till now. And he asked who were godfathers, and the Queen told him, and
he was well pleased.

And she told him that the Cardinal[16] was dead, and he said he knew
never thereof till that time; and he said one of the wisest Lords in
this land was dead.

  [16] Kemp, Archbishop of Canterbury.

And my Lord of Winchester and my Lord of Saint John were with him on
the morrow after Twelfth day, and he speak to them as well as ever he
did; and when they come out they wept for joy.

And he saith he is in charity with all the world, and so he would all
the Lords were. And now he sayeth Matins of Our Lady and evensong, and
heareth his Mass devoutly; and Richard shall tell you more tidings by

THE BATTLE OF ST. ALBANS (+May 21, 22, 1455+).

=Source.=--_Archæologia_, vol. xx., p. 519.

Be it known and had in mind that the 21st day of May the twenty-third
year of the reign of King Henry the sixth, our Sovereign Lord the King
took his journey from Westminster toward Saint Albans, and rested at
Watford all night; and on the morrow betimes he came to Saint Albans,
and with him ... gentlemen and yeomen to the number of two thousand and
more. And upon the twenty-second day of the said month above rehearsed
assembled the Duke of York, and with him came in company the Earl of
Salisbury, the Earl of Warwick with divers knights and squires unto
their party into the field, called the Key Field, beside Saint Albans.
Furthermore, our said sovereign Lord the King, hearing and knowing of
the said Duke's coming with other Lords aforesaid, pitched his banner
at the place called Boslawe in Saint Peter Street, which place was
called aforetime Sandiford, and commandeth the ward and barriers to be
kept in strong wise; the aforesaid Duke of York abiding in the field
aforesaid from seven of the clock in the morning till it was almost
ten without any stroke smitten on either party. The said Duke sent to
the King our sovereign Lord, by the advice of his Council, praying and
beseeching him to take him as his true man and humble subject; and
to consider and to tender at the reverence of Almighty God, and in
way of charity the true intent of his coming--to be good and gracious
sovereign Lord to his liegemen, which with all their power and might
will be ready at all times to live and die with him in his right.

"Moreover, gracious Lord, please it your Majesty Royal of your great
goodness and righteousness to incline your will to hear and feel the
righteous party of us your subjects and liegemen; first, praying and
beseeching to our Lord Jesus of his high and mighty power to give unto
you virtue and prudence, and that through the mediation of the glorious
martyr Saint Alban to give you very knowledge to know the intent of our
assembling at this time; for God that is in Heaven knoweth that our
intent is rightful and true. And therefore we pray unto Almighty Lord
Jesus, these words--_Domine sis clipeus defensionis nostræ_. Wherefore,
gracious Lord, please it your high Majesty to deliver such as we will
accuse, and they to have like as they have deserved and done, and ye to
be honoured and worshipped as most rightful King, our governor. For
and we shall now at this time be promised, as afore this time is not
unknown, of promises broken which full faith fully hath been promised,
and there upon great oaths made, we will not now cease for none such
promise, surety, nor other, till we have them which have deserved
death, or else we to die therefore."

And to that answered the King our sovereign Lord and said: "I, King
Henry, charge and command that no manner of person, of what degree, or
state, or condition that ever he be, abide not, but void the field, and
not be so hardy to make any resistance against me in mine own realm;
for I shall know what traitor dare be so bold to raise a people in mine
own land, wherefore I am in great distress and heaviness. And by the
faith that I owe to Saint Edward, and to the Crown of England, I shall
destroy them every mother's son, and they be hanged, and drawn, and
quartered, that they may be taken afterward, of them to have example to
all such traitors to beware to make any such rising of people within my
land, and so traitorously to abide their King and governor. And for a
conclusion, rather than they shall have any Lord here with me at this
time, I shall this day, for their sake, and in this quarrel myself live
or die."

Which answer come to the Duke of York, the which Duke, by the advice
of the Lords of his Council, said unto them these words: "The King our
sovereign Lord will not be reformed at our beseeching nor prayer, nor
will not understand the intent that we be come hither and assembled
for and gathered at this time; but only his full purpose, and there
none other way but that he will with all his power pursue us, and if
taken, to give us a shameful death, losing our livelihood and goods,
and our heirs shamed for ever. And therefore, since it will be none
otherwise but that we shall utterly die, better it is for us to die
in the field than cowardly to be put to a great rebuke and a shameful
death; moreover, considering in what peril England stands in at this
hour, therefore every man help to help power for the right thereof,
to redress the mischief that now reigneth, and to quit us like men
in this quarrel; praying to that Lord that is King of Glory, that
reigneth in the Kingdom celestial, to keep us and save us this day
in our right, and through the help of His holy grace we may be made
strong to withstand the great, abominable and cruel malice of them that
purpose fully to destroy us with shameful death. We therefore, Lord,
pray to Thee to be our comfort and Defender, saying the word aforesaid,
_Domine sis clipeus defensionis nostræ_."

And when this was said, the said Duke of York, and the said Earl of
Salisbury, and the Earl of Warwick, between eleven and twelve of the
clock at noon, they broke into the town in three divers places and
several places of the aforesaid street. The King being then in the
place of Edmond Westby hundredor of the said town of Saint Albans,
commandeth to slay all manner men of lords, knights, and squires and
yeomen that might be taken of the foresaid Duke of York. This done,
the foresaid Lord Clifford kept strongly the barriers that the said
Duke of York might not in any wise, with all the power that he had,
enter nor break into the town. The Earl of Warwick, knowing thereof,
took and gathered his men together, and furiously brake in by the
garden sides between the sign of the Key and the sign of the Chequer
in Holwell street; and anon as they were within the town, suddenly
they blew up trumpets, and set a cry with a shout and a great voice,
"A Warwick! A Warwick! A Warwick!" and unto that time the Duke of
York might never have entry into the town; and they with strong hand
kept it, and mightily fought together, and anon, forthwith after the
breaking in, they set on them manfully. And of them that were slain
and buried in Saint Albans, forty-eight. And at this same time were
hurt Lords of name--the King, our sovereign Lord, in the neck with an
arrow; the Duke of Buckingham, with an arrow in the visage; the Lord
of Stafford in the hand, with an arrow; the lord of Dorset, sore hurt
that he might not go, but he was carried home in a cart; and Wenlock,
knight, in like wise in a cart sore hurt; and other divers knights and
squires sore hurt. The Earl of Wiltshire, Thorpe, and many others fled,
and left their harness behind them cowardly, and the substance of the
King's party were despoiled of horse and harness. This done, the said
Lords, that is to wit, the Duke of York, the Earl of Salisbury, the
Earl of Warwick, come to the King, our Sovereign Lord, and on their
knees besought him of grace and forgiveness of that they had done in
his presence, and besought him of his Highness to take them as his
true liegemen, saying that they never intended hurt to his own person,
and therefore the King our sovereign Lord took them to grace, and so
desired them to cease their people, and that there should no more harm
be done; and they obeyed his commandment, and let made a cry in the
King's name that all manner of people should cease and not so hardy to
strike any stroke more after the proclamation of the cry; and so ceased
the said battle, _Deo gratias_.


=Source.=--_Rotuli Parliamentorum_, vol. v., p. 285.

... There be great and grievous riots done in the West Country at the
city of Exeter by the earl of Devonshire, accompanied with many riotous
persons, as it is said, with eight hundred horsemen and four thousand
footmen, and there have robbed the church (cathedral) of Exeter, and
taken the canons of the same church and put them to ransom, and also
have taken the gentlemen in that country, and done and committed many
other great and heinous inconveniences; that in abridging of such
riots ... a Protector and Defensor must be had ... and that he, in
abridging of such riots and offences, should ride and labour into that
country, for but if the said riots and inconveniences were resisted,
it should be the cause of the loss of that land, and if that land were
lost, it might be the cause of the subversion of all this land.


=Source.=--Gascoigne's _Loci e Libro Veritatum_, edited by Rogers,
pp. 108, 109. (Oxford: 1881).

Formerly, when there were many good and mature rectors of churches
resident there, the quarrels and dissensions which arose within a
parish or between parishioners, were generally settled by the good
handling and advice of such rectors, and there were few pleas and
actions through lawyers.... But now, by the lack of such good rectors,
strifes, quarrels, dissensions, actions and pleas are multiplied and
prolonged, and thus the money, which might have gone to good works,
owing to the number of the quarrels goes to the lawyers, advocates, and
counsel; whence by the multiplication of such dissensions and actions,
the number of these lawyers, jurists, advocates and defenders of evil
(who defend evil for love or for fear of evil) is far greater than it
need be. And yet many times the cause which has been pleaded long and
at great expense is settled and concluded by the interference of the


=Source.=--_An English Chronicle_, edited by Davies, pp. 75-77.
(Camden Society, 1856.)

And this same year, and the year of our Lord 1457, master Reginald
Pecock, bishop of Chichester, a secular doctor of divinity that had
laboured for many years for to translate Holy Scripture into English;
passing the bonds of divinity and of Christian belief, was accused of
certain articles of heresy, of the which he was convicted before the
archbishop of Canterbury and other bishops and clerks, and utterly
abjured, revoked and renounced the said articles openly at [St.] Paul's
Cross in his mother tongue, as followeth hereafter: "In the name of the
Holy Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Ghost, I, Reginald Pecock, bishop
of Chichester unworthy, of my own power and will, without any manner
of coercion or dread, confess and acknowledge that I here before this
time, presuming of my natural wit, and preferring my judgement and
natural reason before the New and the Old Testament, and the authority
and determination of our Mother, Holy Church, have held, written and
taught otherwise than the holy Roman and universal church teacheth,
preacheth or observeth ... and specially these heresies and errors
following, that is to say:

'In primis, quod non est de necessitate fidei credere quod Dominus
noster Ihesus Christus post mortem descendit ad inferos.

'Item, quod non est de necessitate salutis, credere in sanctorum

'Item, quod ecclesia universalis potest errare in illis quæ sunt fidei.

'Item, quod non est de necessitate salutis credere et tenere illud
quod consilium generale et universalis ecclesia statuit, approbat, seu
determinat in favorem fidei et ad salutem animarum, est ab universis
Christi fidelibus approbandum, credendum et tenendum.'[17]

  [17] "First, that it is not necessary to faith to believe that our Lord
  Jesus Christ, after His death, descended into hell.

  _Item_, that it is not necessary to salvation to believe in the
  communion of saints.

  _Item_, that the Church universal can err in matters of faith.

  _Item_, that it is not necessary to salvation to believe and to hold
  that whatever a general Council of the Church ordains, approves, or
  determines in matters of faith and for the salvation of souls, ought to
  be approved, believed, and held by all faithful Christians."

"Wherefore I, miserable sinner which here before long time have
walked in darkness, and now by the mercy and infinite goodness of God
reduced into the right way and light of truth, and considering myself
grievously to have sinned and wickedly have informed and infected the
people of God, return and come again to our Mother, Holy Church; and
all heresies and errors written and contained in my said books, works
and writings here solemnly and openly revoke and renounce ... submitting
myself, being now very contrite and penitent sinner, to the correction
of the Church and of my said lord of Canterbury.... And over this
declaration of my conversion and repentance, I here openly assert
that my said books, works and writing, for declaration and cause above
rehearsed, be deputed unto the fire and openly burnt in example and
terror of all other.

    'Why wonder that reason not tell can,
    How a maid is a mother, and God is man,
    Flee reason and follow the wonder,
    For belief hath the mastery, and reason is under.'"

This made the said Pecock, as it was said.

And after this he was deprived of his bishopric, having a certain
pension assigned unto him for to live on in an abbey, and soon after he

A SEA FIGHT (+June 1, 1458+).

=Source.=--_Paston Letters_, vol. i., No. 317.

_John Jerningham to Margaret Paston._

... Right worshipful cousin, if it please you for to hear of such
tidings as we have here, the embassy of Burgundy shall come to Calais
the Saturday after Corpus Christi day, as men say five hundred horse
of them. Moreover, on Trinity Sunday in the morning, came tidings unto
my Lord of Warwick that there were twenty-eight sails of Spaniards
on the sea, and whereof there was sixteen great ships of forecastle;
and then my Lord went and manned five ships of forecastle, and three
carvels, and four pinnaces, and on the Monday, on the morning after
Trinity Sunday, we met together afore Calais at four at the clock in
the morning, and fought that gathering till ten at the clock; and there
we took six of their ships, and they slew of our men about four score,
and hurt two hundred of us right sore; and there were slain on their
part about twelve score; and hurt five hundred of them.

And it happed me, at the first aboarding of us, we took a ship of 300
ton, and I was left therein and twenty-three men with me; and they
fought so sore that our men were fain to leave them, and then come they
and boarded the ship that I was in, and there I was taken, and was
prisoner with them six hours, and was delivered again for their men
that were taken before. And as men say, there was not so great a battle
upon the sea this forty winter. And forsooth, we were well and truly
beat; and my Lord hath sent for more ships, and like to fight together
again in haste.

THE EVILS IN THE CHURCH (+Written before+ 1458).

=Source.=--Gascoigne's _Loci e Libro Veritatum_, edited by Rogers.
(Oxford: 1881.)

_Unworthy promotions_ [pp. 13, 14].

It is notorious now in the realm of England that boys, youths and
men dwelling in the courts of the worldly are placed in churches, in
high offices and in prelacies, others being set aside who have long
been occupied in study and preaching and in the guiding of the people
without thought of worldly lucre.... Among others unworthily promoted,
one foolish youth, eighteen years of age, was promoted to twelve
prebends and a great archdeaconry of the value of a hundred pounds, and
to one great rectory, and a certain layman received the rents of all
the said benefices, and spent upon the youth just as much as he, the
layman, pleased, and never rendered an account, and that youth was the
son of a simple knight, and, like an idiot, was drunk almost every day.

_Non-residence_ [pp. 3, 149].

Some never or seldom reside in their cures, and he to whom a church is
appropriated and who is non-resident, comes once a year to his cure,
or sends to the church at the end of the autumn, and having filled
his purse with money and sold his tithes, departs again far away from
his cure to the court where he occupies himself in money-making and
pleasures.... O Lord God! incline the heart of the Pope, Thy vicar, to
remedy the evils which arise through the appropriation of churches, and
by the non-residence of good curates in the same. For now in England a
time draweth nigh when men will say, "Formerly there were rectors in
England, and now there are ruined churches in which cultured men cannot
decently live...."

_Church dues oppressive_ [p. 13].

For Rome, like a singular and principal wild beast, hath laid waste
the vineyards of the church, reserving to herself the elections of
bishops, that none may confer an episcopal church on anyone unless they
first pay the annates or first-fruits and rent of the vacant church.
Also she hath destroyed the vineyard of God's church in many places,
by annulling the elections of all the bishops in England. Also she
destroys the church by promoting wicked men according as the King and
the Pope agree.

_The abuse of the Sacraments_ [pp. 197].

It is now known that many infants die without baptism because the
parish churches have no fonts, and divers abbeys have licence and
custom that everyone of certain parishes should baptise in their
monasteries, and yet they cannot come conveniently by night, or at
other times to the font there.

_Proud Prelates_ [pp. 22, 23].

Bishops were wont, as is manifest in the Life of St. Cuthbert, to
talk humbly and familiarly with their inferiors and every day to
give everyone of their flock an audience if he sought to speak with
his bishop. Recently a poor man came to the servant of a certain
archbishop, the son of a lord, and said "I marvel that the archbishop
does not give audience in his own person to his flock as his
predecessor was wont to do." The servant replied "My lord the present
archbishop was not bred in the same way as his predecessor" (meaning by
this that his lord the archbishop, who was so strange and distant to
his flock, was the son of a lord, and his predecessor was the son of a
poor man); the poor man answered the said servant, "Truly the present
archbishop and his predecessor were bred in different fashions, but it
is manifest that the predecessor was the better man and more useful to
his flock and to their souls and to the whole diocese."


=Source.=--_An English Chronicle_, edited by Davies, pp. 79, 80.
(Camden Society, 1846.)

In this same time the realm of England was out of all good governance,
as it had been many days before, for the King was simple and led by
covetous counsel, and owed more than he was worth. His debts increased
daily, but payment there was none; all the possessions and lordships
that pertained to the Crown the King had given away, some to lords and
some to other simple persons, so that he had almost nought to live on.
And such impositions as were put to the people, as taxes, tallages and
quinzimes (fifteenths), all that came from them were spent in vain, for
he held no household nor maintained no wars. For these misgovernances,
and for many other, the hearts of the people were turned away from them
that had the land in governance, and their blessing was turned into
cursing. The queen with such as were of her affinity ruled the realm as
they liked, gathering riches innumerable. The officers of the realm,
and especially the earl of Wiltshire, treasurer of England, for to
enrich himself, peeled the poor people and disinherited rightful heirs
and did many wrongs. The queen was defamed and slandered, that he that
was called Prince was not her son.... Wherefore she, dreading that he
should not succeed his father in the crown of England, allied unto her
all the knights and squires of Cheshire, for to have their benevolence,
and held open household among them ... trusting through them to make her
son King.


=Source.=--_An English Chronicle_, edited by Davies, p. 93.
(Camden Society, 1846.)

+Ballad set upon the Gates of Canterbury.+

    Send home most gracious Lord Jesu most benign,
      Send home thy true blood unto his proper vein,
    Richard duke of York, Job thy servant insign,
      Whom Satan not ceaseth to set at care and disdain,
    But by Thee preserved he may not be slain;
      Set him _ut sedeat in principibus_, as he did before,
    And so to our new song, Lord, thine ears incline,
      _Gloria, laus et honor Tibi sit Rex Christe Redemptor_!

    Edward Earl of March, whose fame the earth shall spread,
      Richard Earl of Salisbury named prudence,
    With that noble knight and flower of manhood,
      Richard Earl of Warwick, shield of our defence,
    Also little Falconberg, a knight of great reverence;
      Jesu them restore to their honour as they had before,
    And ever shall we sing to thine High Excellence,
      _Gloria, laus et honor Tibi sit Rex Christe Redemptor_!

              The dead man greeteth you well,
              That is just true as steel,
                  With very good intent.
              Also the Realm of England,
              Soon to loose from Sorrow's bond
                  By right indifferent judgement.


=Source.=--_An English Chronicle_, edited by Davies, pp. 96-98.
(Camden Society, 1846.)

The King at Northampton lay at Friars, and had ordained there a strong
and mighty field in the meadows, armed and arrayed with guns, having
the river at his back. The earls [March and Warwick] with the number of
sixty thousand, as it was said, came to Northampton and sent certain
bishops to the King beseeching him that, in eschewing of effusion of
Christian blood, he would admit and suffer the earls for to come into
his presence to declare themselves as they were. The duke of Buckingham
that stood beside the King, said unto them, "Ye come not as bishops for
to treat for peace, but as men of arms;" because they brought with them
a notable company of men of arms. They answered and said, "We come
thus for surety of our persons, for they that be about the King be not
our friends."

"Forsooth!" said the duke, "the Earl of Warwick shall not come to the
King's presence, and if he come he shall die." The messengers returned
again and told this to the earls....

Then on the Thursday the x^{th} day of July, the year of our Lord 1460,
at two hours after noon, the said earls of March and Warwick let cry
through the field, that no man should lay hands upon the King nor on
the common people, but only on the lords, knights, and squires: then
the trumpets blew up, and both hosts encountered and fought together
half an hour,... The duke of Buckingham, the earl of Shrewsbury, the
lord Beaumont, the lord Egremont were slain by the Kentishmen besides
the King's tent, and many other knights and squires. The ordinance of
the King's guns availed not, for that day was so great rain that the
guns lay deep in water, and so were quenched and might not be shot.
When the field was done, and the earls through mercy and help had the
victory, they came to the King in his tent, and said in this wise:
"Most noble Prince, displease you not, though it hath pleased God of
his Grace to grant us the victory of our mortal enemies, the which by
their venomous malice have untruly steered and moved your highness to
exile us out of your land. We come not to that intent for to inquiet
nor grieve your said highness, but for to please your most noble
person, desiring most tenderly the high welfare and prosperity thereof,
and of all your realm, and for to be your true liegemen while our
lives shall endure." The King of their words was greatly recomforted,
and anon was led into Northampton with procession, where he rested
him three days, and then came to London, the xvj day of the month
abovesaid, and lodged in the bishop's palace. For the which victory
London gave to Almighty God great laud and thanking.


=Source.=--Gregory's "Chronicle" in the _Collections of a London
Citizen_, pp. 208, 209. (Camden Society.)

And that same night the King [Henry VI.] removed unto London, against
his will, to the bishop's palace of London, and the Duke of York come
unto him that same night by torch-light and took upon him as King and
said in many places that "this is ours by very right." And then the
Queen, hearing this, voided unto Wales, but she was met beside the
Castle of Malpas, and a servant of her own that she had made both
yoeman and gentleman and after appointed for to be in office with her
son the prince, spoiled her and robbed her and put her so in doubt
of her life and son's life also. And then she come to the castle of
Hardelowe [Harlech] in Wales, and she had many great gifts and [was]
greatly comforted, for she had need thereof. And most commonly she
rode behind a young poor gentleman of fourteen year age, his name was
John Combe, born at Amysbery in Wiltshire. And there hence she removed
full privily unto the Lord Jasper, Lord and Earl of Pembroke, for she
durst not abide in no place that was open, but in private. The cause
was that counterfeit tokens were sent unto her as though they had come
from her most dread lord the King Harry the VI.; but it was not of his
sending, neither of his doing, but forged thing;... for at the King's
departing from Coventry toward the field of Northampton, he kissed her
and blessed the prince, and commanded her that she should not come unto
him till that he send a special token unto her that no man knew but the
King and she. For the lords would fain had her unto London, for they
knew well that all the workings that were done grew by her, for she was
more wittier than the King, and that appeareth by his deeds.


=Source.=--Hall's _Chronicle_, pp. 250, 251. (London: 1809.)

[+Note.+--Hall's _Chronicle_ was first published in 1542, and
therefore the following extract is by no means contemporary with the
events it describes. But it is the only account of the battle of
Wakefield, and it derives some authority from the fact that Hall had an
ancestor who was slain in the fight.]

The duke of York with his people descended down the hill in good order
and array and was suffered to pass forward, toward the main battle:
but when he was in the plain ground between his castle and the town
of Wakefield, he was environed on every side, like a fish in a net or
a deer in a buckstall: so that he, manfully fighting, was within half
an hour slain and dead, and his whole army discomfited.... While this
battle was in fighting a priest called Sir Robert Aspall, chaplain
and schoolmaster to the young earl of Rutland, second son to the
abovenamed duke of York, of the age of twelve years, a fair gentleman
and a maidenlike person, perceiving that flight was more safeguard than
tarrying, both for him and his master, secretly conveyed the earl out
of the field ... but or he could enter into a house the lord Clifford
espied, followed and taken, and by reason of his apparell demanded
what he was. The young gentleman, dismayed, had not a word to speak,
but kneeled on his knees imploring mercy and desiring grace both with
holding up his hands and making dolorous countenance, for his speech
was gone for fear. "Save him," said the Chaplain, "for he is a prince's
son, and peradventure may do you good hereafter." With that word the
Lord Clifford marked him and said, "By God's blood, thy father slew
mine, and so will I do thee and all thy kin," and with that word stuck
the earl to the heart with his dagger, and bade the chaplain bear
the earl's mother and brother word what he had done.... This cruel
Clifford and deadly blood-supper, not content with this homicide or
child-killing, came to the place where the dead corpse of the duke of
York lay, and caused his head to be stricken off, and set on it a crown
of paper and so fixed it on a pole and presented it to the Queen, not
lying far from the field, in great despite and much derision, saying,
"Madame, your war is done; here is your King's ransom."


=Source.=--Ingulph's _Chronicles_, pp. 421, 422. (Bohn Edition.)

The duke being thus removed from this world, the north-men, being
sensible that the only impediment was now withdrawn, and that there
was no one now who could care to resist their inroads, again swept
onwards like a whirlwind from the north, and in the impulse of their
fury attempted to overrun the whole of England. At this period
too, fancying that everything tended to insure them freedom from
molestation, paupers and beggars flocked forth from those quarters
in infinite numbers, just like so many mice rushing forth from their
holes, and universally devoted themselves to spoil and rapine, without
regard of place or person. For, besides the vast quantities of property
which they collected outside, they also irreverently rushed, in their
unbridled and frantic rage, into churches and the other sanctuaries of
God, and most nefariously plundered them of their chalices, books, and
vestments, and, unutterable crime! broke open the pixes in which were
kept the body of Christ, and shook out the sacred elements therefrom.
When the priests and the other faithful of Christ in any way offered
to make resistance, like so many abandoned wretches as they were, they
cruelly slaughtered them in the very churches or church yards. Thus
did they proceed with impunity, spreading in vast multitudes over a
space of thirty miles in breadth, and, covering the whole surface of
the earth just like so many locusts, made their way almost to the very
walls of London; all the moveables which they could possibly collect in
every quarter being placed on beasts of burden and carried off. With
such avidity for spoil did they press on, that they dug up the precious
vessels, which, through fear of them, had been concealed in the earth,
and with threats of death compelled the people to produce the treasures
which they had hidden in remote and obscure spots.


=Source.=--Gregory's "Chronicle," in the _Collections of a London
Citizen_, p. 211. (Camden Society.)

Also Edward Earl of March, the Duke of York's son and heir, had a great
journey at Mortimer's Cross in Wales the second day of February next
so following, and there he put to flight the Earl of Pembroke,[18]
(and) the Earl of Wiltshire. And there he took and slew of knights and
squires to the number of 3,000.

  [18] Jasper Tudor.

And in that journey was Owen Tudor taken and brought unto Hereford, and
he was beheaded at the market place, and his head set upon the highest
grice[19] of the market cross, and a mad woman combed his hair and
washed away the blood of his face, and she got candles and set them
about him, burning more than a hundred. This Owen Tudor was father unto
the Earl of Pembroke, and had wedded Queen Catherine, King Harry the
VI.'s mother, thinking and trusting all the way that he should not be
beheaded until he saw the axe and the block, and when that he was in
his doublet he trusted on pardon and grace till the collar of his red
velvet doublet was ripped off. Then he said: "That head shall lie on
the stock that was wont to lie on Queen Catherine's lap," and put his
heart and mind wholly unto God, and full meekly to his death.

  [19] Grices = steps upon which crosses are placed.


=Source.=--Ingulph's _Chronicles_, pp. 425, 426. (Bohn Edition.)

Edward pursued them as far as a level spot of ground, situate near
the castle of Pomfret and the bridge at Ferrybridge, and washed by
a stream of considerable size; where he found an army drawn up in
order of battle, composed of the remnants of the northern troops of
King Henry. They, accordingly, engaged in a most severe conflict,
and fighting hand to hand with sword and spear, there was no small
slaughter on either side. However, by the mercy of the Divine clemency,
King Edward soon experienced the favour of heaven, and, gaining the
wished-for victory over his enemies, compelled them either to submit to
be slain or to take to flight. For, their ranks being now broken and
scattered in flight, the King's army eagerly pursued them, and cutting
down the fugitives with their swords, just like so many sheep for the
slaughter, made immense havoc among them for a distance of ten miles,
as far as the city of York. Prince Edward, however, with a part of his
men, as conqueror, remained upon the field of battle, and awaited the
rest of his army, which had gone in various directions in pursuit of
the enemy.

When the solemnities of the Lord's day, which is known as Palm
Sunday, were now close at hand, after distributing rewards among such
as brought the bodies of the slain, and gave them burial, the King
hastened to enter the before-named city. Those who helped to inter the
bodies, piled up in pits and in trenches prepared for the purpose,
bear witness that eight-and-thirty thousand warriors fell on that day,
besides those who were drowned in the river before alluded to, whose
numbers we have no means of ascertaining. The blood, too, of the slain,
mingling with the snow, which at this time covered the whole surface of
the earth, afterwards ran down in the furrows and ditches along with
the melted snow, in a most shocking manner, for a distance of two or
three miles.


=Source.=--_Archæologia_, vol. xxix., p. 130.

"_On Thursday the first week in Lent came Edward to London with thirty
thousand men, and so in field and town everyone called Edward King of
England and France._"

    Since God hath chosen thee to be his Knight,
    And possessed thee in this right,
    Then him honour with all thy might,
          _Edwardus Dei gratia!_

    Out of the stock that long lay dead,
    God hath caused thee to spring and spread,
    And of all England to be the head,
          _Edwardus Dei gratia!_

    Since God hath given thee through his might,
    Out of that stock bred in sight,
    The flower to spring and rose so white,
          _Edwardus Dei gratia!_

    Then give him laud and praising,
    Thou virgin Knight of whom we sing,
    Undefiled since thy beginning,
          _Edwardus Dei gratia!_

    God save thy countenance,
    And so prosper to his pleasance,
    That ever thine estate thou mayst enhance,
          _Edwardus Dei gratia!_


=Source.=--Gregory's "Chronicle" in the _Collections of a London
Citizen_, pp. 222, 223. (Camden Society.)

This year, about Midsummer, at the royal feast of the Sergeants of
the Coif, the Mayor of London was desired to be at that feast. And
at dinner time he came to the feast with his officers, agreeing and
according unto his degree. For within London he is next unto the King
in all manner [of] thing. And in time of washing the Earl of Worcester
was taken before the mayor and set down in the midst of the high table.
And the mayor seeing that his place was occupied held him content,
and went home again without meat or drink or anything, but reward him
he did as his dignity required of the city. And took with him the
substance of his brethren the aldermen to his place, and were set and
served as soon as any man could devise, both of cygnet and of other
delicacies enough, that all the house marvelled how well everything was
done in so short a time....

Then the officers of the feast, full evil ashamed, informed the masters
of the feast of this mishap that is befallen. And they, considering
the great dignity and costs and charge that belonged to the city, anon
sent unto the mayor a present of meat, bread and wine and many divers
subtleties. But when they that come with the presents saw all the gifts
and the service that was at the board, he was full sore ashamed that
should do the message, for the present was not better than the service
of meat was before the mayor and throughout the high table. But his
demeaning was so that he had love and thanks for his message and a
great reward withal. And thus the worship of the city was kept and not
lost for him. And I trust that never it shall, by the grace of God.


=Source.=--Gregory's "Chronicle" in the _Collections of a London
Citizen_, pp. 226, 227. (Camden Society.)

Now take heed what love may do, for love will not nor may not cast no
fault nor peril in nothing.

That same year, the first day of May, our sovereign lord the King
Edward IV. was wedded to the Lord Rivers' daughter; her name is Dame
Elizabeth that was wife unto Sir John Grey.... And this marriage was
kept full secretly long and many a day, that no man knew it; but men
marvelled that our sovereign lord was so long without any wife, and
were ever feared that he had been not chaste of his living. But on All
Hallows' day at Reading there it was known, for there the King kept his
common council, and the lords moved him and exhorted him in God's name
to be wedded and to live under the law of God and Church, and (that)
they would send into some strong land to inquire a queen of good birth
according to his dignity. And then our sovereign might no longer hide
his marriage, and told them how he had done, and made that the marriage
should be opened unto his lords.

A DINNER OF FLESH (_circa_ 1465).

=Source.=--_The Boke of Nurture_, by John Russell (1460-1470).
(Roxburghe Club, 1867.)

+The furst Course.+

    Furst set for the mustard and brawne of boore, the wild swyne,
    Such potage as the cooke hathe made of yerbis spice and wyne,
    Beeff, moton, stewed feysaund, Swan with the Chawdyn,[20]
    Capoun, pigge, vensoun bake, lech lombard,[21] frutur veaunt[22] fyne.
    And then a Sotelte:                    }
    Maiden mary that holy virgyne,         } A Sotelte.[23]
    And Gabrielle gretynge hur with an Ave }

  [20] A sauce for swans.

  [21] A dish of pork, eggs, cloves, currants, dates, and sugar powdered

  [22] Meat fritter.

  [23] Made of sugar and wax.

+The Second Course.+

    Two potages, blanger mangere and also Jely
    For a standard vensoun rost kyd, faun or cony,
    bustard, stork, crane pecock in hakille ryally,[24]
    Partriche, wodcock plovere, egret, Rabettes sowkere,[25]
    Great birds, larks gentille, Creme de mere,
    dowcettes,[26] payne puff with lech Jely ambere.

  [24] Sewn in the skin.

  [25] Sucking rabbits.

  [26] Sweet cakes.

      ... A sotelte followynge in fere,
      the course for to fullfylle,
      An angelle goodly can appere,
      And syngynge with a mery chere
      Unto iij shepperds upon an hille.

+The iij Course.+

    Creme of almondes and mameny the iij course in coost,
    Curlew brew, snipes, quayles, sparows, martenettes rost,
    Perche in gely, Crevise[27] dewe dough, pety perveis[28] with the
    Quinces bake, leche dugard, Fritter sage, I speke of cost,
                      And soteltees fulle solemn:
    that lady that conceived by the holygost,
    him that distroyed the fiends boost,
    presented plesauntly by the Kynges of Coleyn.
                      After this, delicates mo.
    Blaunderelle, or pepyns with carawey in confite,
    Wafers to eat, ypocras[29] to drink with delite.
    Now this fest is fynysched voyd the table quyte.

  [27] Cray-fish.

  [28] Pies.

  [29] Spiced wine.

PRIVATE WARS (+September, 1469+).

=Source.=--_Paston Letters_, vol. ii., No. 620.

_Margaret Paston to Sir John Paston._

I greet you well, letting you wit that your brother and his fellowship
stand in great jeopardy at Caister, and lack victuals; and Dawbeney and
Berney be dead, and divers others greatly hurt; and they fail gunpowder
and arrows, and the place sore broken with guns of the other party, so
that, but they have hasty help, they be like to lose both their lives
and the place, to the greatest rebuke to you that ever came to any
gentleman, for every man in this country marvelleth greatly that ye
suffer them to be so long in so great jeopardy without help or other

The Duke hath been more fervently set there upon, and more cruel,
since that Wretyll, my Lord of Clarence's man, was there, than he was
before, and he hath sent for all his tenants from every place, and
others, to be there at Caister at Thursday next coming, that there is
then like to be the greatest multitude of people that came there yet.
And they purpose them to make a great assault--for they have sent for
guns to Lynn and other place by the seaside--that, with their great
multitude of guns, with other shoot and ordnance, there shall no man
dare appear in the place. They shall hold them so busy with their great
people, that it shall not lie in their power within to hold it against
them, without God help them, or have hasty succour from you.

Therefore, as ye will have my blessing, I charge you and require you
that ye see your brother be helped in haste. And if he can have no
means, rather desire writing from my Lord of Clarence, if he be at
London, or else of my Lord Archbishop of York, to the Duke of Norfolk,
that he will grant them that be in the place their lives and their
goods; and in eschewing of insurrections with other inconveniences that
be like to grow within the shire of Norfolk, this troublous world,
because of such conventicles and gatherings within the said shire for
cause of the said place, they shall suffer him to enter upon such
appointment, or other like taking by the advise of your council there
at London, if ye think this be not good, till the law hath determined
otherwise; and let him write another letter to your brother to deliver
the place upon the same appointment....

Do your devoir now, and let me send you no more messengers for this
matter; but send me by the bearer here of more certain comfort than ye
have done by all other that I have sent before. In any wise, let the
letters that shall come to the Earl of Oxenford come with the letters
that shall come to the Duke of Norfolk, that if he will not agree to
the tone, that ye may have ready your rescue that it need no more to
send therefore. God keep you.

Written the Tuesday next before Holy Rood Day.

In haste by your mother.


=Source.=--_Chronicles of the White Rose_ (Warkworth's Chronicle),
pp. 117-118. (Bohn, London: 1845.)

Here is to know, that in the beginning of the month of October in the
year of our Lord 1470, the bishop of Winchester, by the assent of the
Duke of Clarence and the Earl of Warwick, went to the Tower of London,
where King Harry was in prison, (by King Edward's commandment,) which
was not worshipfully arrayed as a prince, and not so cleanly kept as
should beseem such a prince. They had him out and new arrayed him,
and did to him great reverence, and brought him to the palace of
Westminster, and so he was restored again to the Crown.... Whereof all
his good lovers were full glad, and the more part of people also....
[For] when King Edward the Fourth reigned the people looked after ...
prosperities and peace, but it came not; but one battle after another,
and much trouble and great loss of goods among the common people; as
first the fifteenth of all their goods, and then a whole fifteenth,
and yet at every battle [they had] to come far out of their countries
at their own cost; and these and such other causes brought England
right low, and many men said King Edward had much blame for hurting
merchandize, for in his days they were not in other lands, nor within
England, taken in such reputation and credence as they were before.


=Source.=--_Chronicles of the White Rose_, pp. 37, 38, 50, 51.
(Bohn, London: 1845.)

The same night following upon the morn, Wednesday and Thursday, the
14th day of March fell great storms, winds and tempests upon the
sea, so that the said 14th day, in great torment, he came to Humber
Head, where the other ships were dissevered from him, and every from
other, so that of necessity they were driven to land, every one far
from the other. The King, with his ship alone, wherein was the Lord
Hastings, his Chamberlain, and others to the number of five hundred
well chosen men, landed within Humber on Holderness side at a place
called Ravenspurne. The King's brother, Richard Duke of Gloucester, and
in his company three hundred men landed at another place, four miles
from thence. The Earl Rivers, and the fellowship being in his company,
to the number of two hundred, landed at a place called Powle, fourteen
miles from whence the King landed, and the remainder of the fellowship
where they might best get land. That night the King was lodged at a
poor village two miles from his landing, with a few with him; but that
night, and in the morning, the residue that were coming in his ship,
the rage of the tempest somewhat appeased, landed, and alway drew
towards the King.

... The King at that time being at Warwick, and understanding his near
approaching, upon an afternoon issued out of Warwick, with all his
fellowship, by the space of three miles, into a fair field towards
Banbury, where he saw the Duke [of Clarence], his brother, in fair
array come towards him, with a great fellowship. And when they were
together within less than half a mile, the King set his people in
array, the banners displayed, and left them standing still, taking with
him his brother of Gloucester, the Lord Rivers, Lord Hastings, and a
few others, and went towards his brother of Clarence. And in like wise
the Duke for his part, taking with him a few noblemen, and leaving his
host in good order, departed from them towards the King. And so they
met betwixt both hosts, where there was right kind and loving language
betwixt them two, with perfect accord knit together for ever hereafter,
with as heartily loving cheer and countenance as might be betwixt two
brethren of so great nobility and estate.


=Source.=--_Chronicles of the White Rose_, pp. 63-68. (Bohn,
London: 1845).

On the morrow, betimes, the King, understanding that the day approached
near, betwixt four and five of the clock, notwithstanding there was
a great mist, and hindered the sight of each other, yet he committed
his cause and quarrel to Almighty God, advanced his banners, did blow
on trumpets, and set upon them, first with shot, and then, and soon,
they joined and came to hand-strokes, wherein his enemies manly and
courageously received them, as well in shot as in hand-strokes, when
they joined; which joining of their both battles (armies) was not
directly front to front, as they so should have joined, had it not
been for the mist, which suffered neither party to see the other, but
for a little space; and that of likelihood caused the battle to be the
more cruel and mortal; for so it was that the one end of their battle
overreached the end of the King's battle, and so at that end they were
much mightier than was the King's battle at the same end, that joined
with them, which was the west end, and therefore, upon that part of
the King's battle they had a greater distress upon the King's party;
wherefore many fled towards Barnet, and so forth to London, ere ever
they left off; and they (the Earl's party) fell into the chase of them
and did much harm. But the other parties, and the residue of neither
battle, might see that distress, neither the fleeing, nor the chase,
because of the great mist that was, which would not suffer any man to
see but a little from him; and so the King's battle, which saw none
of all that, was thereby in nothing discouraged, for, save only a few
that were near unto them, no man wist thereof; also the other party
by the same distress, flight, or chase, were therefore the greater
encouraged. And in likewise at the east end, the King's battle, when
they came to joining, overreached their battle, and so distressed them
there greatly, and so drew near towards the King, who was about the
midst of the battle, and sustained all the might and weight thereof.
Nevertheless upon the same little distress at the west end, anon
ran the news to Westminster, and to London, and so further to other
countries, that the King was distressed, and his field lost; but the
laud be to Almighty God! it was otherwise; for the King, trusting
verily in God's help, our blessed Lady's and Saint George, took to
him great hardiness and courage, for to suppress the falsehood of all
them that so falsely and so traitorously had conspired against him,
wherethrough, with the faithful, well-beloved, and mighty assistance of
his fellowship, that in great number dissevered not from his person,
and were as well assured unto him as to them was possible, he manly,
vigorously, and valiantly, assailed them in the midst and strongest of
their battle, where he, with great violence, beat and bare down before
him all that stood in his way, and then turned to the range, first on
that hand, and then on that other hand, in length, and so beat and bare
them down, so that nothing might stand in the sight of him, and the
well assured fellowship that attended truly upon him; so that, blessed
be God! he won the field there, and the perfect victory remained unto
him, and to his rebels the discomfiture of thirty thousand men, as they
numbered themselves. In this battle was slain the Earl of Warwick....

On the morrow after, the King commanded that the bodies of the dead
lords, the Earl of Warwick, and his brother, the Marquis, should be
brought to St. Paul's in London, and, in the church there, openly
shewed to all the people; to the intent that after that the people
should not be abused by feigned seditious tales, which many of them,
that were wont to be towards the Earl of Warwick, had been accustomed
to make; and, peradventure, so would have made after that, had not
the dead bodies there been shewed, open and naked and well known;
for, doubtless, else the rumour should have been sown about in all
countries that they both, or else at the least, the Earl of Warwick was
yet alive, upon the cursed intent thereby to have caused new murmurs,
insurrections and rebellions amongst indisposed people.

THE PLAGUE (1471).

=Source.=--_Paston Letters_, vol. iii., Nos. 675, 681.

_Sir John Paston to John Paston._

... I pray you send me word if any of our friends or well-doers be
dead, for I fear that there is great death in Norwich, and in other
borough towns in Norfolk, for I assure you it is the most universal
death that ever I wist in England; for, by my troth, I cannot hear by
pilgrims that pass the country nor none other man that rideth or goeth
[through] any country, that any borough town in England is free from
that sickness; God cease it when it please Him. Wherefore, for God's
sake, let my mother take heed to my young brethren that they be not in
any place where that sickness is reigning, nor that they disport not
with any young people which resort where any sickness is, and if there
be any of that sickness dead or infect in Norwich, for God's sake, let
her send them to some friend of hers in the country....

_Margaret Paston to her son John._

... As for tidings here, your cousin Barney of Wichingham is passed to
God, him God assoil. Veyly's wife and London's wife, and Pycard the
baker of Twmlond be gone also; all this household and this parish is as
ye left it, blessed be God; we live in fear, but we know not whether to
flee, for to be better than we be here.

THE DEATH OF HENRY VI. (+May 21, 1471+).

A. =Source.=--_Chronicles of the White Rose_ (Warkworth's
"Chronicle"), p. 131. (Bohn, London: 1845).

And the same night that King Edward came to London, King Harry, being
in ward, in prison in the Tower of London, was put to death, the
twenty-first day of May, on a Tuesday night, betwixt eleven and twelve
of the clock; being then at the Tower the Duke of Gloucester, brother
to King Edward, and many others; and on the morrow he was coffined and
brought to St. Paul's, and his face was open that every man might see
him. And in his lying, he bled on the pavement there; and afterward
at the Black Friars was brought, and there he bled anew and afresh;
and from thence he was carried to Chertsey Abbey in a boat, and buried
there in our Lady Chapel.

B. =Source.=--_Chronicles of the White Rose_ (Fleetwood's "Arrival
of King Edward IV."), p. 93. (Bohn, London: 1845.)

Here it is to be remembered, that from the time of Tewkesbury-field,
where Edward, called Prince, was slain, then, and soon after, were
taken and slain at the King's will, all the noblemen that came from
beyond the sea with the said Edward, called Prince, and others also
their partakers as many as were of any might or puissance. Queen
Margaret herself was taken and brought to the King, and in every part
of England, where any commotion was begun for King Henry's party, anon
they were rebuked, so that it appeared to every man at once, the said
party was extinct and repressed for ever, without any manner of hope
of again quickening; utterly deprived of any manner of hope or relief.
The certainty of all which came to the knowledge of the said Henry,
late called King, being in the Tower of London. Not having before that
knowledge of the said matters, he took it to so great despite, ire,
and indignation, that of pure displeasure and melancholy, he died
the twenty-third day of the month of May. Whom the King did order to
be brought to the friars preachers at London, and there his funeral
service done, to be carried by water to an Abbey upon Thames' Side,
sixteen miles from London, called Chertsey, and there honourably


=Source.=--_Archæologia_, vol. xxvi., pp. 276 _et seq._ (London:

_The coming into England of the Lord Gruthuyse from the right high and
mighty Prince Charles duke of Burgundy._

When he [Gruthuyse] came to the castle of Windsor, into the quadrant,
my lord Hastings, chamberlain to the King, Sir John Parr, Sir John Don
with divers other lords and nobles received him to the King. The King
had caused to be imparrailled on the far side of the quadrant three
chambers richly hanged with cloths of Arras and with beds of state,
and when he had spoken with the King's grace and the queen, he was
accompanied to his chamber by the lord chamberlain and Sir John Parr
with divers more, which supped with him in his chamber; also there
supped with him his servants. When they had supped, my lord chamberlain
had him again to the King's chamber. There incontinent the King had
him to the queen's chamber where she had there her ladies playing at
morteaulx,[30] and some of her ladies and gentlemen at the closheys[31]
of ivory, and dancing. And some at divers other games accordingly. The
which sight was full pleasant to them. Also the King danced with my
lady Elizabeth, his eldest daughter. That done, the night passed over,
they went to his chamber. The lord Gruthuyse took leave, and my lord
chamberlain with divers nobles accompanied him to his chamber, where
they departed for that night. And in the morning when Matins was done,
the King heard in his own chapel our Lady's mass, which was melodiously
sung, the lord Gruthuyse being there present. When the mass was done,
the King gave the said lord Gruthuyse a cup of gold garnished with
pearl. In the midst of the cup is a great piece of unicorn's horn,[32]
to my estimation, seven inches compass. And in the cover was a great
sapphire. Then went he to his chamber where he had his breakfast. And
when he had broken his fast, the King came to the quadrant. My lord
prince also, borne by his chamberlain called Master Vaughan, which bade
the aforesaid lord Gruthuyse welcome. Then the King had him and all his
company into the little Park, where he made him to have great sport.
And there the King made him ride on his own horse, a right fair hobby,
the which the King gave him.... The King's dinner was ordained in the
lodge, and before dinner they killed no game save a doe; the which the
King gave to the servants of the lord Gruthuyse. And when the King
had dined, they went a-hunting again. And by the castle were found
certain deer lying; some with greyhounds and some run to death with
buck-hounds.... By that time it was near night, yet the King shewed
him his garden and Vineyard of Pleasure, and so turned into the castle
again where they heard evensong in their chambers.

  [30] A game resembling bowls.

  [31] Nine-pins.

  [32] A charm against poison in the cup.

The queen ordained a great banquet in her own chamber. At which banquet
were the King, the queen, my lady Elizabeth the King's eldest daughter,
the lord Gruthuyse (etc).... There was a side table at which sat a
great view of ladies, all on the one side. Also in the outer chamber
sat the queen's gentlewomen, all on one side. And on the other side of
the table over against them, as many of the lord Gruthuyse's servants,
as touching to the abundant welfare like as it is according to such a
banquet. And when they had supped, my lady Elizabeth danced with the
Duke of Buckingham and divers other ladies also. Then about nine of the
clock the King and the queen, with all her ladies, brought the said
lord Gruthuyse to three chambers of Pleasance, all hanged with white
silk and linen cloth, and all the floors covered with carpets. There
was ordained a bed for himself, of as good down as could be gotten,
the sheets of Rennes, also fine fustians; the counterpoint cloth of
gold, furred with ermine, the tester and celer also shining cloth of
gold, the curtains of white sarcent; as for his head suit and pillows,
they were of the queen's own ordering. The second chamber was another
of state, the which was all white. Also in the same chamber was made
a couch with feather beds, hanged with a tent knit like a net, and
there was a cupboard. In the third chamber was a bath or two, which
were covered with tents of white cloth. And when the King and the
queen, with all her ladies, had showed him these chambers, they turned
again to their own chambers, and left the said lord Gruthuyse there,
accompanied with my lord chamberlain, which disrobed him, and went both
to the bath.... And when they had been in their baths as long as was
their pleasure they had green ginger, confits and ypocras, and then
they went to bed.


=Source.=--_Paston Letters_, vol. iii., No. 869.

[+Note.+--The original manuscript is much decayed, and the
portions between brackets represent attempted reconstructions of the

_The inventory of the English books of John [Paston] made the fifth day
of November, anno regni regis E. iiij...._

1. A book had of mine hostess at the George ... of _The Death of Arthur
beginning at Cassab[elaun_, _Guy Earl of] Warwick_; _King Richard Cœur
de Lion_;[33] A chronicle ... to Edward III.

2. Item, a book of Troilus[34] which William Bra ... hath had near ten
years, and lent it to Dame ... Wyngfeld, and _ibi ego vidi_.

3. Item, a black book with _the legend of Lad[ies,[35] la Belle Dame]
saunce Mercye_; _the Parliament of Bird[s_;[36] _the Temple of]
Glass_;[37] _Palatyse and Scitacus_; _the Me[ditations]_; _the Green

4. Item, a Book in print of the Play of the [Chess].

5. Item, a book lent Midelton, and therein is _Belle Da[me sans]
Mercy_; _the Parliament of Birds_; _Ballad ... of Guy and Colbronde_;
_of the Goose_ ... _the Disputation between Hope and Despair_; _... Mare
haunts_; _the Life of Saint Cry[stofer]_.

6. A red book that Percival Robsart gave me _... of the Meeds of
the Mass_; _the Lamentation of Childe Ypotis_;[39] _a prayer to the
Vernicle_;[40] [a book] called _the Abbey of the Holy Ghost_.

  [33] A romance of the fourteenth century, first printed by Wynkyn de
  Worde (1509-1528).

  [34] Chaucer's _Troilus and Cressida_.

  [35] Possibly Chaucer's _Legend of Good Ladies_.

  [36] Possibly Chaucer's _Parliament of Fowls_.

  [37] A poem by Lydgate (_circa_ 1370-1451). For a text of this poem see
  Early English Text Society, Extra Series, lx. (1891).

  [38] An anonymous ballad of the fourteenth century.

  [39] In this ballad Ypotis = Epictetus (see Horstmann's _Altenglische
  Legenden_ (1881)).

  [40] The "Vernicle," or "Veronica Kerchief" was one of the most popular
  legends of the Middle Ages. Veronica, a lady of Jerusalem (afterwards
  identified with the woman that had an issue of blood), seeing Christ
  sinking beneath the burden of the Cross, wiped His face with a veil.
  After this work of mercy the face of Christ was found imprinted on the

7. Item, in quires:--Tully _de Senectute_[41] in divers [places] whereof
there is no more clear written.

  [41] Cicero's _De Senectute_.

8. Item, in quires:--Tully or Cypio[42] _de Ami[citia]_ left with
William Worcester.

  [42] Scipio. In Cicero's dialogue, _De Amicitia_, the friendship of the
  chief speaker, Gaius Lælius, with the younger Scipio, is taken as the
  model of the theme. "Equidem ex omnibus rebus, quas mihi aut fortuna
  aut natura tribuit, nihil habeo quod cum amicitia Scipionis possim

9. Item, in quires, a book of _the Policy of In[gelond]_.

10. Item, in quires, a book _de Sapientia_[43] ... wherein the second
person is likened to Sapi[ence].

  [43] Lydgate's _Werke of Sapience_.

11. Item, a Book _de Othea_,[44] text and gloss ... in quires.
Memorandum, mine old Book of Blazonings of Arms.

    Item, the new Book portrayed and blazoned.

    Item, a copy of Blazonings of Arms and the names to
    be found by letter.

    Item, a book with arms portrayed in paper....

Memorandum, my Book of Knighthood and the man[ner] of making of
Knights, of Jousts, of Tour[nements], fighting in lists, paces holden
by so[ldiers] ... and challenges, statutes of war, and _De Regim[ine

  [44] A treatise on _Wisdom_. Dr. Gairdiner notes that the name is
  derived from the Greek Ὠ θεὰ but was used in the Middle Ages as the
  name for the Goddess of Wisdom (_Paston Letters_, vol. ii., p. 335, n.

  [45] Thomas Hoccleve (1370?-1449) wrote the _Regement of Princes_,
  based on the _De Regimine Principum_ of Ægidius Colonna (see Early
  English Text Society, Extra Series, lxxii., 1897).

Item, a new Book of new Statutes from Edward IV.


=Source.=--Ingulph's _Chronicles_, pp. 479, 480. (Bohn Edition.)

Now each began to look upon the other with no very fraternal eyes. You
might then have seen (as such men are generally to be found in the
courts of all princes) flatterers running to and fro, from the one side
to the other, and carrying backwards and forwards the words which had
fallen from the two brothers, even if they had happened to be spoken
in the most secret closet. The arrest of the duke for the purpose of
compelling him to answer the charges brought against him happened under
the following circumstances. One Master John Stacy, a person who was
called an astronomer, when in reality he was rather a great sorcerer,
formed a plot in conjunction with one Burdet, an esquire, and one of
the said duke's household; upon which he was accused, among numerous
other charges, of having made leaden images and other things to procure
thereby the death of Richard, Lord Beauchamp, at the request of his
adulterous wife. Upon being questioned in a very severe examination as
to his practice of damnable arts of this nature, he made confession
of many matters, which told both against himself and the said Thomas
Burdet. The consequence was, that Thomas was arrested as well; and at
last, judgment of death was pronounced upon them both, at Westminster,
from the Bench of our lord the king, the judges being there seated,
together with nearly all the lords temporal of the kingdom. Being drawn
to the gallows at Tyburn, they were permitted briefly to say what they
thought fit before being put to death; upon which, they protested their
innocence, Stacy indeed but faintly; while, on the other hand, Burdet
spoke at great length, and with much spirit, and as his last words
exclaimed with Susanna, "Behold! I must die; whereas I never did such
things as these."

On the following day, the Duke of Clarence came to the council-chamber
at Westminster, bringing with him a famous Doctor of the Order of
Minorites, Master William Goddard by name, in order that he might read
the confession and declaration of innocence above-mentioned before the
lords in the said council assembled; which he accordingly did, and
then withdrew. The king was then at Windsor, but when he was informed
of this circumstance, he was greatly displeased thereat, and recalling
to mind the information formerly laid against his brother, and which
he had long kept treasured up in his breast, he summoned the duke to
appear on a certain day in the royal palace of Westminster: upon which,
in presence of the Mayor and aldermen of the city of London, the king
began, with his own lips, amongst other matters, to inveigh against
the conduct of the before-named duke, as being derogatory to the laws
of the realm, and most dangerous to judges and jurors throughout the
kingdom. But why enlarge? The duke was placed in custody, and from that
day up to the time of his death never was known to have regained his

The circumstances that happened in the ensuing Parliament my mind
shudders to enlarge upon, for then was to be witnessed a sad strife
carried on before these two brethren of such high estate. For not a
single person uttered a word against the duke except the King; not one
individual made answer to the King except the duke. Some parties were
introduced, however, as to whom it was greatly doubted by many, whether
they filled the office of accusers rather, or of witnesses; these
two offices not being exactly suited to the same person in the same
cause. The duke met all the charges made against him with a denial, and
offered, if he could only obtain a hearing, to defend his cause with
his own hand. But why delay in using many words? Parliament being of
opinion that the informations which they had heard were established,
passed sentence upon him of condemnation, the same being pronounced by
the mouth of Henry, duke of Buckingham, who was appointed Seneschal
of England for the occasion. After this, execution was delayed for a
considerable time; until the Speaker of the Commons, coming to the
upper house with his fellows, made a fresh request that the matter
might be brought to a conclusion. In consequence of this, in a few days
after, the execution, whatever its nature may have been, took place
(and would that it had ended these troubles!) in the Tower of London,
it being the year of our Lord, 1478, and the eighteenth of the reign of
King Edward.


=Source.=--_Paston Letters_, vol. iii., No. 827.

_William Paston Junior to John Paston._

Right reverend and worshipful brother, after all duties of
recommendation, I recommend me to you, desiring to hear of your
prosperity and welfare, which I pray God long to continue to His
pleasure, and to your heart's desire; letting you wit that I received a
letter from you, in the which letter was eight pence with the which I
should buy a pair of slippers.

Furthermore certifying you, as for the 13s. 4d. which ye sent by a
gentleman's man, for my board, called Thomas Newton, was delivered
to mine hostess, and so to my creditor, Mr. Thomas Stevenson; and he
heartily recommended him to you.

Also ye send me word in the letter of 12 lbs. figs and 8 lbs. raisins.
I have them not delivered, but I doubt I shall have, for Alwedyr told
me of them, and he said that they came after in another barge.

And as for the young gentlewoman, I will certify you how I first fell
in acquaintance with her. Her father is dead; there be two sisters of
them; the elder is just wedded; at the which wedding I was with mine
hostess, and also desired by the gentleman himself, called William
Swanne, whose dwelling is in Eton.

So it fortuned that mine hostess reported on me otherwise than I was
worthy; so that her mother commanded her to make me good cheer, and
so in good faith she did. She is not abiding where she is now; her
dwelling is in London; but her mother and she come to a place of
hers five miles from Eton, where the wedding was, for because it was
nigh to the gentleman which wedded her daughter. And on Monday next
coming, that is to say, the first Monday of Clean Lent, her mother
and she will go to the pardon at Sheen, and so forth to London, and
there to abide in a place of hers in Bow Church Yard; and if it please
you to inquire of her, her mother's name is Mistress Alborow; the
name of the daughter is Margaret Alborow; the age of her is by all
likelihood eighteen or nineteen year at the furthest. And as for the
money and plate, it is ready whensoever she were wedded; but as for the
livelihood, I trow not till after her mother's decease; but I cannot
tell you for very certain, but you may know by inquiring. And as for
her beauty, judge you that when ye see her, if so be that ye take the
labour, and specially behold her hands; for and if it be as it is told
me, she is disposed to be plump.

And as for my coming from Eton, I lack nothing but versifying, which I
trust to have with a little continuance.

    Quomodo non valet hora, valet mora. Unde deductum
    Arbore iam videas exemplum. Non die possunt,
    Omnia suppleri: sed tamen illa mora."

And these two verses aforesaid be of mine own making. No more to you at
this time, but God have you in His keeping. Written at Eton, the even
of Saint Mathew the Apostle.


=Source.=--_Paston Letters_, vol. iii., No. 829.

_Edmund Alyard to Margaret Paston._

Right worshipful mistress, I recommend me unto you as lowly as I can,
thanking you for your goodness at all times; God grant me to deserve
it, and do that may please you.

As for your son Walter, his labour and learning hath been and is in
the Faculty of Art, and is well sped therein, and may be Bachelor at
such time as shall like you, and then to go to law. I can think it to
his preferring, but it is not good he know it until the time he shall
change; and as I conceive there shall none have that Exhibition to the
Faculty of Law. Therefore move the executors that at such time as he
shall leave it, ye may put another in his place, such as shall like
you to prefer. If he shall go to law, and be made Bachelor of Art
before, and ye will have him home this year, then may he be Bachelor
at Midsummer, and be with you in the vacation, and go to law at
Michaelmas. What it shall like you to command me in this or any other,
ye shall have mine service ready.

I pray you by the next messenger to send me your intent, that such as
shall be necessary may be purveyed in season.

And Jesu preserve you.

Written at Oxford, the iv day of March.

  Your scholar,
    +Edmund Alyard+.


=Source.=--Ingulph's _Chronicles_, pp. 485-90. (Bohn Edition.)

The body of the deceased King [Edward IV.] being accordingly interred
with all honour in due ecclesiastical form, in the new collegiate
Chapel of Windsor, which he had erected of the most elaborate
workmanship from the foundations; all were most anxiously awaiting the
day of the new King's coronation, which was to be the first Lord's
day in the month of May, which fell this year on the fourth day of
the said month. In the meantime the duke of Gloucester wrote the most
soothing letters in order to console the queen, with promises that
he would shortly arrive, and assurances of all duty, fealty, and due
obedience to his King and lord Edward the Fifth, the eldest son of
the deceased King, his brother, and of the queen. Accordingly, on his
arrival at York with a becoming retinue, each person being arrayed in
mourning, he performed a solemn funeral service for the King, the same
being accompanied with plenteous tears. Constraining all the nobility
of those parts to take the oath of fealty to the late King's son, he
himself was the first of all to take the oath. On reaching Northampton,
where the duke of Buckingham joined him, there came thither for the
purpose of paying their respects to him, Antony, earl of Rivers, the
King's uncle, and Richard Grey, a most noble knight, and uterine
brother to the King, together with several others who had been sent
by the King, his nephew, to submit the conduct of everything to the
will and discretion of his uncle, the duke of Gloucester. On their
first arrival, they were received with an especially cheerful and
joyous countenance, and, sitting at supper at the duke's table, passed
the whole time in very pleasant conversation. At last, Henry, duke
of Buckingham, also arrived there, and, as it was now late, they all
retired to their respective lodgings.

When the morning, and as it afterwards turned out, a most disastrous
one, had come, having taken counsel during the night, all the Lords
took their departure together, in order to present themselves before
the new King at Stony Stratford, a town a few miles distant from
Northampton; and now, lo and behold! when the two dukes had nearly
arrived at the entrance of that town, they arrested the said earl of
Rivers, and his nephew Richard, the King's brother, together with some
others who had come with them, and commanded them to be led prisoners
into the north of England. Immediately after, this circumstance being
not yet known in the neighbouring town where the King was understood
to be, they suddenly rushed into the place where the youthful King was
staying, and in like manner made prisoners of certain others of his
servants who were in attendance on his person. One of these was Thomas
Vaughan, an aged knight and chamberlain of the prince before-named.

The duke of Gloucester, however, who was the ringleader in this
outbreak, did not omit or refuse to pay every mark of respect to the
King, his nephew, in the way of uncovering the head, bending the
knee, or other posture of the body required in a subject. He asserted
that his only care was for the protection of his own person, as he
knew for certain that there were men in attendance upon the King who
had conspired against both his own honour and his very existence.
Thus saying, he caused proclamation to be made, that all the King's
attendants should instantly withdraw from the town, and not approach
any place to which the King might chance to come, under penalty of
death. These events took place at Stony Stratford on Wednesday, on the
last day of April, in the year above-mentioned, being the same in which
his father died.

These reports having reached London on the following night, queen
Elizabeth betook herself, with all her children, to the sanctuary at
Westminster. In the morning you might have seen there the adherents
of both parties, some sincerely, others treacherously, on account of
the uncertainty of events, siding with the one party or the other. For
some collected their forces at Westminster in the queen's name, others
at London under the shadow of the lord Hastings, and took up their
position there....

... On the Monday following, they came with a great multitude by
water to Westminster, armed with swords and staves, and compelled the
cardinal lord archbishop of Canterbury, with many others, to enter the
sanctuary, in order to appeal to the good feelings of the queen and
prompt her to allow her son Richard, duke of York, to come forth and
proceed to the Tower, that he might comfort the King his brother. In
words, assenting with many thanks to this proposal, she accordingly
sent the boy, who was conducted by the lord cardinal to the King in the
said Tower of London.

From this day, these dukes acted no longer in secret, but openly
manifested their intentions. For, having summoned armed men, in fearful
and unheard-of numbers, from the north, Wales, and all other parts then
subject to them, the said Protector Richard assumed the government
of the kingdom, with the title of King, on the twentieth day of the
aforesaid month of June; and on the same day, at the great Hall at
Westminster, obtruded himself into the marble chair. The colour for
this act of usurpation, and his thus taking possession of the throne,
was the following:--It was set forth, by way of prayer, in an address
in a certain roll of parchment, that the sons of King Edward were
bastards, on the ground that he had contracted a marriage with one
Lady Eleanor Boteler, before his marriage to queen Elizabeth; added
to which, the blood of his other brother, George, duke of Clarence,
had been attainted; so that, at the present time, no certain and
uncorrupted lineal blood could be found of Richard duke of York, except
in the person of the said Richard, duke of Gloucester. For which
reason, he was entreated, at the end of the said roll, on part of the
lords and commons of the realm, to assume his lawful rights. However,
it was at the time rumoured that this address had been got up in the
north, whence such vast numbers were flocking to London; although, at
the same time, there was not a person but what very well knew who was
the sole mover at London of such seditious and disgraceful proceedings.

These multitudes of people, accordingly, making a descent from the
north to the south, under the especial conduct and guidance of Sir
Richard Ratcliffe; on their arrival at the town of Pomfret, by command
of the said Richard Ratcliffe, and without any form of trial being
observed, Antony, earl of Rivers, Richard Grey, his nephew, and Thomas
Vaughan, an aged knight, were, in presence of these people, beheaded.
This was the second innocent blood which was shed on the occasion of
this sudden change.

After these events, the said Richard, duke of Gloucester, having
summoned Thomas, the cardinal archbishop of Canterbury, for the
purpose, was on the sixth day of the month of July following anointed
and crowned King, at the conventual church of Saint Peter at
Westminster, and, on the same day and place, his queen, Anne, received
the Crown. From this day forward, as long as he lived, this man was
styled King Richard, the third of that name from the Conquest.


=Source.=--_The History of King Richard the Third_, by Sir Thomas
More, pp. 67 _et seq._ (London: 1557.)

[+Note.+--More's life of Richard III. was written about 1513. It
has, however, almost the value of a contemporary authority, as much of
the information was derived from Cardinal Morton.]

But in the mean time for this present matter I shall rehearse you the
dolorous end of those babes, not after every way that I have heard, but
after that way that I have so heard by such men and by such means, as
methinks it were hard but it should be true. King Richard, after his
coronation, taking his way to Gloucester to visit in his new honour
the town of which he bore the name of his old, devised as he rode to
fulfill that thing which he before had intended. And forasmuch as his
mind gave him that, his nephews living, men would not reckon that he
could have right to the realm, he thought therefore without delay to
rid them, as though the killing of his kinsmen could amend his cause,
and make him a kindly king. Whereupon he sent one John Green, whom he
specially trusted, unto sir Robert Brackenbury, Constable of the Tower,
with a letter and credence also, that the same sir Robert should in
any wise put the two children to death. This John Green did his errand
unto Brackenbury kneeling before our Lady in the Tower, who plainly
answered that he would never put them to death, with which answer John
Green returning recounted the same to King Richard at Warwick, yet in
his way. Wherewith he took such displeasure and thought, that the same
night he said unto a secret page of his: "Ah! whom shall a man trust?
Those that I have brought up myself, those that I had thought would
most surely serve me, even those fail me, and at my commandment will
do nothing for me." "Sir," quoth the page, "there lieth one on your
pallet without that I dare well say, to do your grace pleasure, the
thing were right hard that he would refuse,"--meaning by this sir James
Tyrrell, which was a man of right goodly personage, and for nature's
gifts worthy to have served a much better prince, if he had well
served God, and by grace obtained as much truth and goodwill as he had
strength and wit. The man had a high heart, and sore longed upward,
not rising yet so fast as he had hoped, being hindered and kept under
by the means of sir Richard Ratcliff and sir William Catesby, which
longing for no more partners of the prince's favour, and namely not
for him whose pride they wist would bear no peer, kept him by secret
drifts out of all secret trust. Which thing this page well had marked
and known. Wherefore this occasion offered, of very special friendship
he took his time to put him forward, and by such wise do him good that
all the enemies he had, except the devil, could never have done him so
much hurt. For upon this page's words King Richard rose ... and came out
into the pallet chamber, on which he found in bed sir James and sir
Thomas Tyrrell, of persons alike and brethren of blood, but nothing of
kin in conditions. Then said the King merely unto them: "What, sirs! be
ye in bed so soon?" And calling up sir James broke to him secretly his
mind in this mischievous matter. In which he found him nothing strange.
Wherefore on the morrow he sent him to Brackenbury with a letter, by
which he was commanded to deliver sir James all the keys of the Tower
for one night, to the end he might there accomplish the King's pleasure
in such thing as he had given him commandment. After which letter
delivered and the keys received, sir James appointed the night next
ensuing to destroy them, devising before and preparing the means. The
prince, as soon as the protector left that name and took himself as
king, had it showed unto him that he should not reign, but his uncle
should have the Crown. At which word the prince, sore abashed, began to
sigh and said: "Alas! I would my uncle would let me have my life yet,
though I lose my kingdom." Then he that told him the tale used him with
good words, and put him in the best comfort he could. But forthwith was
the prince and his brother both shut up, and all other removed from
them, only one called Black Will or William Slaughter excepted, set to
serve them and see them sure. After which time the prince never tied
his points[46] nor ought heeded of himself, but with that young babe
his brother, lingered in thought and heaviness until this traitorous
death delivered them of that wretchedness. For sir James Tyrrell
devised that they should be murdered in their beds. To the execution
whereof he appointed Miles Forest, one of the four that kept them, a
fellow fleshed in murder beforetime. To him he joined one John Dighton,
his own horse keeper, a big, broad, square, strong knave. Then all the
others being removed from them, this Miles Forest and John Dighton,
about midnight (the innocent children lying in their beds) came into
the chamber and suddenly lapped them up among the clothes, so bewrapped
them and entangled them, keeping down by force the feather bed and
pillows hard unto their mouths, that within a while, smothered and
stifled, their breath failing, they gave up to God their innocent souls
into the joys of heaven, leaving to the tormentors their bodies dead in
the bed. Which, after the wretches perceived, first by the struggling
with the pains of death, and after long lying still to be thoroughly
dead, they laid their bodies naked out upon the bed, and fetched sir
James to see them. Which upon the sight of them, caused those murderers
to bury them at the stair foot, fairly deep in the ground under a heap
of stones.

  [46] Lace fastenings.


=Source.=--Harding's _Chronicle_, pp. 547, 548. (London: 1812.)

... He was but of a small stature having but a deformed body; the one
shoulder was higher than the other; he had a short face and a cruel
look which did betoken malice, guile and deceit. And while he did
muse upon anything standing, he would bite his under lip continually,
whereby a man might perceive his cruel nature, within his wretched
body, strove and chafed alway within himself; also the dagger which he
bore about him, he would always be chopping of it in and out. He had
a sharp and pregnant wit, subtle, and to dissimulate and feign very
fit. He had also a proud and cruel mind, which never went from him to
the hour of his death, which he had rather suffer by the cruel sword,
though all his company did forsake him, than by shameful flight he
would favour his life, which after might fortune by sickness or other
condign punishment shortly to perish.


=Source.=--_Statutes of the Realm_, 1 Richard III., c. ii.

The King remembering how the Commons of this his realm by new and
unlawful inventions and inordinate covetise, against the laws of this
realm, have been put to great thraldom and importable charges and
exactions, and in especial by a new imposition named a benevolence,
whereby divers years the subjects and Commons of this land against
their wills and freedom have paid great sums of money to their almost
utter destruction; For divers and many worshipfull men of this realm
by occasion thereof were compelled by necessity to break up their
household and to live in great penury and wretchedness, their debts
unpaid and their children unpreferred, and such memorials as they had
ordained to be done for the wealth of their souls were anentised and
annulled to the great displeasure of God and to the destruction of
this realm. Therefore the King will it be ordained, by the advice and
assent of his lords spiritual and temporal and the Commons of this
present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, that
his subjects and the commonalty of this his realm from henceforth in no
wise be charged by none such charge or imposition called benevolence,
nor by any such like charge; And that such exactions called benevolence
before this time taken, be taken for no example to make such or anylike
charge of any his said subjects of this realm hereafter, but it be
damned and annulled for ever.


=Sources.=--(_a_) Llanstephan MSS. 136, f. 80. (National Library
of Wales.) (_b_) _Ceinion Llenyddiaeth Gymreig_, i., pp. 220, 221.
(London, n.d.). (_c_) _Gwaith Lewis Glyn Cothi_, p. 477, lines 3-12.
(Oxford: 1837.)

[+Note.+--The following extracts are translated from
contemporary Welsh poems. The first two are selected as examples of the
'bruts' or vaticinatory poems, written and circulated to stir up the
Welsh chieftains to support Henry. The third extract illustrates the
excitement among his countrymen on the eve of Henry's landing.]

(_a_) The knell of the Saxon shall be our satisfaction; a prince shall
we have of our own race.... Cadwaladr[47] will come to his own again
with his eightfold gifts and his doughty deeds.... Woe to the black
host beside the wave if misfortune should come to the strangers.
Jasper[48] will breed for us a Dragon; of the fortunate blood of
Brutus[49] is he. The Bull of Anglesey[50] is our joy; he is the hope
of our race. A great grace was the birth of Jasper from the stock of
Cadwaladr of the beautiful [spear] shaft.

  [47] The last King of Britain. The Tudors claimed descent from

  [48] Jasper Tudor, uncle of the Earl of Richmond.

  [49] The mythical founder of the British race.

  [50] Henry Tudor. The home of the Tudors was at Penmynydd, in Anglesey.

(_b_) We are waiting for him [Henry] to show, when he comes, the Red
Rose in high pomp. The Thames will run with blood on that day, and
there shall we be satisfied.... There is longing for Harry, there
is hope for our race. His name comes down from the mountains as a
two-edged sword; and his descent from the high places; and his sword
wins the day. He will win, ere his life be done, the unbelieving to the
Creed of the Cross.

+To Jasper Tudor.+

(_c_) In what seas are thy anchors, and where art thou thyself? When
wilt thou come to land and how long must we tarry? On the feast of the
Virgin[51] fair Gwynedd,[52] in her songs, watched the seas. In the
month of May she awaited, expecting thy coming from afar. God! August
has come,[53] and yet thou hast delayed ... Lord of Pembroke, awake thou!

  [51] March 25.

  [52] The Principality of North Wales.

  [53] Henry and Jasper Tudor landed at Milford on August 7 or 8, 1485.


=Source.=--Ellis's _Original Letters_, Second Series, vol. i., pp.
162-166. (London: 1827.)

Forasmuch as the King our Sovereign Lord hath certain knowledge that
Piers, Bishop of Exeter, Jasper Tudor son of Owen Tudor calling himself
Earl of Pembroke, John late Earl of Oxford and Sir Edward Woodeville,
with other divers his rebels and traitors, disabled and attainted by
authority of the High Court of Parliament, of whom many be known for
open murderers, adulterers and extortioners, contrary to the pleasure
of God and against all truth, honour and nature, have forsaken their
natural country, taking them first to be under the obedience of the
Duke of Brittany, and to him promised certain things which by him and
his Council were thought things too greatly unnatural and abominable
for them to grant, observe keep and perform, and therefore the same
utterly refused. The said traitors seeing that the said Duke and his
council would not aid and succour them, nor follow their ways, privily
departed out of his country into France, there taking themselves to
be under the obedience of the King's ancient enemy Charles, calling
himself King of France; and to abuse and blind the commons of this
Realm, the said rebels and traitors have chosen to be their captain
one Henry Tudor, son of Edmund Tudor, son of Owen Tudor, which of
his ambitions and insatiable covetousness encroacheth and usurpeth
upon him the name and title of royal estate of this Realm of England,
whereunto he hath no manner [of] interest, right, title or colour,
as every man well knoweth;... and if he should achieve this false
intent and purpose, every man's life, livelihood and goods should
be in his hands, liberty and disposition; whereby should ensue the
disheriting and destruction of all the noble and worshipful blood of
this realm for ever. And to the resistance and withstanding whereof,
every true and natural Englishman born must lay to his hands for his
own surety, and well. And to the intent that the said Henry Tudor might
the rather achieve his said false intent and purpose by the aid ...
of the King's said ancient enemy of France, [he] hath covenanted and
bargained with him, and with all the Council of France, to give and
release in perpetuity all the right, title and claim that the Kings
of England have had and might have to the crown and realm of France,
together with the duchies of Normandy, Anjou and Maine, Gascony and
Guienne, the castles and towns of Calais, Guisnes, Hammes, with the
marches appertaining to the same, and to dissever and exclude the
arms of France out of the arms of England for ever.... And over
this ... the said Henry Tudor and other the King's rebels and traitors
aforesaid, have intended at their coming, if they can be of power,
to do the most cruel murders, slaughters, robberies and disherisons
that were ever seen in any Christian realm. For the which and other
inestimable dangers to be eschewed ... the King our Sovereign Lord
desireth, willeth and commandeth all and every of the natural and true
subjects of this his realm, to call the premises into their minds, and
like good and true Englishmen to endeavour themselves with all their
powers for the defence of themselves, their wives, children, goods
and hereditaments.... And our said Sovereign Lord, as a well-willed,
diligent and courageous Prince, will put his royal person to all
labour and pain necessary in this behalf ... and our Sovereign Lord
willeth and commandeth all his said subjects to be ready in their
most defensible array, to do his Highness service of war, when they
by open proclamation or otherwise shall be commanded so to do for the
resistance of the King's said rebels, traitors and enemies.

HENRY'S LANDING (+August, 1485+).

=Source.=--_A Short View of the Long Life of that ever wise,
valiant and fortunate Commander, Rice ap Thomas, Knight._ (Cambrian
Register, 1795.)

[+Note.+--The original manuscript, from which this account is
taken, was written about the year 1605, and therefore cannot claim to
have the value of a contemporary authority. But the continuator of the
Croyland Chronicle, the only contemporary account, is extremely meagre
in its details of Henry's journey through Wales; and this biography was
based on contemporary materials, the traditions of the Welsh bards and
similar matter. Moreover, in representing Rees as a confederate with
Richmond before the landing, it agrees with the contemporary English
ballad of the Lady Bessy.]

The Earl [of Richmond] having received Rice ap Thomas's answer, with
other joyful and comfortable advertisements from Morgan of Kidwelly, he
was so greatly encouraged therewith that no hopes of auxiliary forces
from the French King or any other necessary provisions whatsoever,
could make him any longer to disappoint his friends and confederates
with an expectation of his coming, and therefore with all convenient
speed furnishing himself with such men, money and munition as he could
readily procure, he enshipped himself and weighed anchor from Harfleur,
having but two thousand men in all, and they, God wot, poorly provided,
and so in seven days, with a prosperous gale, he landed at Milford.

In the interim, Rice ap Thomas stood all upon thorns, as conceiving
there might be some private compact and underhand working between the
usurper and the French King, whereby the just pretences of Richmond
should be for ever confounded.... Hereupon Rice musters up all his
forces, calls all his friends about him, and where he found any want
among them either of arms or other necessaries for the war, he supplied
with his own store, whereof he had sufficient as well for ornament as
for use; so that in few days he had gathered together to the number
of two thousand horse and upward, of his own followers and retainers,
bearing his name and livery. His kinsmen and friends who came besides
with brave companies to do him honour were Sir Thomas Perrott, Sir
John Wogan, and John Savage.[54] ... Arnold Butler, Richard Griffith,
John Morgan and two of his own brothers, David the younger and John,
all of them worthy soldiers and very expert commanders, with divers
others.... There came likewise out of North Wales to this service many
worthy gentlemen both of name and note, especially of the Salisburies,
under the conduct of Robert Salisbury, a fast friend of Rice ap Thomas
in the French wars.... He [Rice] then set forth in most martial manner
towards the Dale, as his prophet whilom had advised him, a place not
far from his castle of Carew, from whence at that time he led his army,
and there meeting with the Earl of Richmond ready to take land, he
received him ashore, to whom he made humble tender of his service, both
in his own and in all their names who were there present, and laying
him down on the ground, suffered the Earl to pass over him, so to make
good his promise to King Richard that none should enter in at Milford
unless he came first over his belly.... Rice ap Thomas having made an
end of what he would say, the Frenchmen, lying aboard all this while,
were sent for to land; who upon their coming were marvellously well
received by the Welshmen, and entreated with all courtesy, (for that
sole virtue of courtesy towards strangers I think the Welsh go beyond
all nations of the world); every man, I say, striving to give them all
contentment, and cheering them up with fresh victuals.... The Earl of
Richmond then entreated the Earls of Oxford and Pembroke to muster the
French, and to take a view of their defects, who, upon inquiry, found
they wanted both necessary furniture of arms and other munition,
besides that they were very raw and ignorant in shooting, and handling
of their weapons; men, as it seemed, raised out of the refuse of the
people and clapped upon the Earl to avoid his further importunities.
Rice ap Thomas ... in his heart wished them back again in France, there
being not one man of quality among them.... This being done they
(Richmond and Rice) with the Earls of Oxford and Pembroke drew aside to
consider of their present state and condition, and what course was best
to be taken for their putting forward. In fine they concluded the Earl
should shape his course by Cardigan, and Rice ap Thomas by Carmarthen,
that so going several ways, the Welsh and the French might be kept
asunder, to prevent such jars and quarrels as commonly arise between
strangers; appointing Shrewsbury for their place of meeting.

  [54] Sir Gilbert Talbot's ten thousand dogs
       In one hour's warning for to be,
       And Sir John Savage's fifteen hundred white hoods,
       Which would fight and never flee.

             *       *       *       *       *

       Sir Rees ap Thomas, a knight of Wales certain,
       Eight thousand spears brought he.
       Sir John Savage he hath no peer,
       He will be wing to thee,
       Sir Rees ap Thomas shall break the array,
       For he will fight and never flee.

       _The Song of the Lady Bessy._


=Source.=--Wynne's _History of the Gwydir Family_, pp. 55, 56.
(London: 1770.)

[+Note.+--On his landing in Wales, the Earl of Richmond, relying
on the promises of support he had received, wrote letters to his Welsh
friends and kinsmen. The following summons was sent to his relative,
John ap Meredith, a powerful chieftain of South Carnarvonshire.]

  By the King

 Right trusty and well-beloved, we greet you well. And whereas it is so
 that, through the help of Almighty God, the assistance of our loving
 and true subjects, and the great confidence that we have to the nobles
 and commons of this our principality of Wales, we be entered into the
 same, purposing by the help above rehearsed, in all haste possible,
 to descend into our realm of England, not only for the adoption of
 the crown, unto us of right appertaining, but also for the oppression
 of the odious tyrant, Richard late Duke of Gloucester, usurper of our
 said right; and moreover to reduce as well our said realm of England
 into its ancient estate, honour and property, and prosperity, as this
 our said principality of Wales, and the people of the same to their
 erst liberties, delivering them of such miserable servitude as they
 have piteously long stood in: We desire and pray you, and upon your
 allegiance strictly charge and command you, that immediately upon sight
 hereof, with all such power as ye may make, defensibly arrayed for the
 war, ye address you towards us, without any tarrying upon the way,
 until such time as ye be with us, wheresoever we shall be, to our aid,
 for the effect above rehearsed, wherein ye shall cause us in time to
 come to be your singular good lord; and that ye fail not hereof as ye
 will avoid our grievous displeasure, and answer it unto your peril.
 Given under our signet at our [_place and date omitted in the MS._].

To our trusty and well-beloved John ap Meredith ap Jevan ap Meredith.


=Source.=--_Life of Rice ap Thomas._ (Cambrian Register, 1795).

The Earl having taken Livery and Seisin of part of his kingdom, and
now in the way of possessing himself with the whole, Rice ap Thomas
forthwith commanded the beacons to be set on fire, thereby to give
notice to all the countries adjacent of his landing, and withal to
summon his friends and kinsmen from all parts where his power was
extended, to come in with their forces, some in one place and some in
another, in his way to Shrewsbury.... Being in this glorious equipage
and so strongly provided on all hands, Rice ap Thomas made with all
speed for Shrewsbury, and, as he went, met with the Earl of Richmond
in his way, to whom he made humble obeisaunce, vowing to follow him
through all dangers, to the utter subversion both of the tyrant and
his wicked accomplices.... When the Earl was, as I said, in his way to
Shrewsbury, met and saluted by Rice ap Thomas with so goodly a band of
Welshmen, it was no small joy to him.... For you must know the Earl
all this while was much appalled and troubled in his mind, not knowing
well what to think of Rice ap Thomas, there being divers rumours
dispersed up and down through his army that the said Rice meant to side
with Richard, and for that purpose was ready to give him battle; which
rumour indeed, Rice himself, out of policy, had caused to be blown
abroad, to hoodwink the tyrant until he were in his full strength.[55]
And this his device he acquainted the Earl withal, at their first
meeting, and so together they marched on to Shrewsbury, where the Earl
was received with an _Ave_ cheer and "_God speed thee well_," the
street being strewed with herbs and flowers, and the doors adorned
with green boughs in testimony of a true hearty reception.... From
Shrewsbury they went to a small village called Newport, and there Sir
George Talbot came unto the Earl with two thousand tall men.... After
this for Stafford they go; thence to Lichfield and so to Atherstone,
where he and his father-in-law, the Lord Stanley, met and consulted
touching the ordering of their affairs, and how to give battle to King
Richard, which done they departed each to his charge.

  [55] The English chroniclers represent Rice as joining Henry for the
  first time at Shrewsbury.

THE EVE OF BOSWORTH (+August, 1485+).

=Source.=--_Paston Letters_, vol. iii., No. 884.

_The Duke of Norfolk to John Paston._

_To my well beloved friend, John Paston, be this bill delivered in

 Well beloved friend, I commend me unto you, letting you to understand
 that the King's enemies be a-land, and that the King would have set for
 the assumption Monday but only for Our Lady Day;[56] but for certain he
 goeth forward assumption Tuesday, for a servant of mine brought to me
 the certainty. Wherefore I pray you that ye meet with me at Bury ... and
 that ye bring with you such company of tall men as ye may goodly make,
 at my cost and charge, beside that ye have promised to the King; and I
 pray you ordain them jackets of my livery, and I shall content you at
 your meeting with me.

  Your lover
    +J. Norfolk+.

  [56] The Assumption of Our Lady, August 15.


=Source.=--Ingulph's _Chronicles_, pp. 503-504. (Bohn Edition.)

At daybreak on the Monday following there were no chaplains present to
perform Divine service on behalf of King Richard, nor any breakfast
prepared to refresh the flagging spirits of the King; besides which,
as it is generally stated, in the morning he declared that during
the night he had seen dreadful visions, and had imagined himself
surrounded by a multitude of demons. He consequently presented a
countenance, which, always attenuated, was on this occasion more livid
and ghastly than usual, and asserted that the issue of this day's
battle, to whichever side the victory might be granted, would prove
the utter destruction of the kingdom of England. He also declared that
it was his intention, if he should prove the conqueror, to crush all
the supporters of the opposite faction; while, at the same time, he
predicted that his adversary would do the same towards the well-wishers
to his own party, in case the victory should fall to his lot.

At length, the prince and knights on the opposite side now advancing at
a moderate pace against the royal army, the King gave orders that the
Lord Strange[57] should be instantly beheaded. The persons, however,
to whom this duty was entrusted, seeing that the issue was doubtful in
the extreme, and that matters of more importance than the destruction
of one individual were about to be decided, delayed the performance of
this cruel order of the King, and, leaving the man to his own disposal,
returned to the thickest of the fight.

  [57] Stanley's eldest son, who was a hostage with Richard.

A battle of the greatest severity now ensuing between the two sides,
the earl of Richmond, together with his knights, made straight for
King Richard, while the earl of Oxford, who was next in rank to him
in the whole army and a most valiant soldier, drew up his forces,
consisting of a large body of French and English troops, opposite
the wing in which the duke of Norfolk had taken up his position. In
the part where the earl of Northumberland was posted, with a large
and well-provided body of troops, there was no opposition made, as
not a blow was given or received during the battle. At length a
glorious victory was granted by heaven to the said earl of Richmond,
now sole King, together with the crown, of exceeding value, which
King Richard had previously worn on his head. For while fighting and
not in the act of flight, the said King Richard was pierced with
numerous deadly wounds, and fell in the field like a brave and most
valiant prince; upon which, the duke of Norfolk before mentioned, Sir
Richard Ratclyffe, Sir Robert Brackenbury, keeper of the Tower of
London, John Kendall, secretary, Sir Robert Percy, controller of the
King's household, and Walter Devereux, lord Ferrers, as well as many
others, chiefly from the north, in whom King Richard put the greatest
confidence, took to flight without engaging; and there was left no
part of the opposing army of sufficient importance or ability for the
glorious conqueror Henry the Seventh to engage, and so add to his
experience in battle.

Through this battle peace was obtained for the entire kingdom, the
body of the said King Richard being found among the dead. Many insults
were also heaped upon it, and, not exactly in accordance with the laws
of humanity, a halter being thrown round the neck, it was carried to
Leicester; while the new King also proceeded to that place, graced with
the crown which he had so gloriously won.

While these events were taking place, many nobles and others were
taken prisoners; and in especial, Henry, Earl of Northumberland, and
Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey.... There was also taken prisoner William
Catesby, who occupied a distinguished place among all the advisers of
the late King, and whose head was cut off at Leicester as a last reward
for his excellent offices. Two gentlemen, also, of the western parts
of the kingdom, father and son, known by the name of Brecher ... were
hanged. As it was never heard, nor yet stated in writing or by word of
mouth, that any other persons, after the termination of the warfare,
were visited with similar punishments, but that, on the contrary, the
new prince had shown clemency to all, he began to receive the praises
of all, as though he had been an angel sent down from heaven, through
whom God had deigned to visit His people, and to deliver it from the
evils with which it had hitherto, beyond measure, been afflicted.


=Source.=--_Bosworth Field_, in Percy Folio MS., iii. 256, 257.

    Then to King Richard there came a knight,
      And said, "I hold it time for to flee;
    For yonder Stanley's dints they be so might,
      Against them no man may dree.
    Here is horse at thy hand ready;
      Another day thou may thy worship win,
    And for to reign with royalty,
      To wear the crown and be our king."
    "Nay! give me my battle-axe in my hand,
      Set the crown of England on my head so high,
      For by him that made both sea and land,
        King of England this day will I die.
      One foot will I never flee
        Whilst the breath is my breast within."
      As he said, so did it be;
      If he lost his life, he died a King.


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