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Title: Historical record of the Seventh Regiment, or The Royal Fusiliers - Containing an Account of the Formation of the Regiment in - 1685, and of its subsequent services to 1846.
Author: Cannon, Richard
Language: English
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  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  A superscript is denoted by ^{xx}, for example IV^{TH} or Esq^{re}.

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[Illustration:

  BY COMMAND OF His late Majesty WILLIAM THE IV^{TH}.
  _and under the Patronage of_
  Her Majesty the Queen.

  HISTORICAL RECORDS,
  _OF THE_
  British Army

  _Comprising the_
  _History of every Regiment_
  _IN HER MAJESTY'S SERVICE_.

  _By Richard Cannon Esq^{re}._

  _Adjutant General's Office, Horse Guards._

  London.

  _Printed by Authority_:
]



GENERAL ORDERS.


  _HORSE-GUARDS_,
  _1st January, 1836_.

His Majesty has been pleased to command that, with a view of doing
the fullest justice to Regiments, as well as to Individuals who
have distinguished themselves by their Bravery in Action with the
Enemy, an Account of the Services of every Regiment in the British
Army shall be published under the superintendence and direction
of the Adjutant-General; and that this Account shall contain the
following particulars, viz.:--

  ---- The Period and Circumstances of the Original Formation of
  the Regiment; The Stations at which it has been from time to time
  employed; The Battles, Sieges, and other Military Operations
  in which it has been engaged, particularly specifying any
  Achievement it may have performed, and the Colours, Trophies,
  &c., it may have captured from the Enemy.

  ---- The Names of the Officers and the number of Non-Commissioned
  Officers and Privates Killed or Wounded by the Enemy, specifying
  the Place and Date of the Action.

  ---- The Names of those Officers who, in consideration of their
  Gallant Services and Meritorious Conduct in Engagements with the
  Enemy, have been distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other
  Marks of His Majesty's gracious favour.

  ---- The Names of all such Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers,
  and Privates, as may have specially signalized themselves in
  Action.

And,

  ---- The Badges and Devices which the Regiment may have been
  permitted to bear, and the Causes on account of which such Badges
  or Devices, or any other Marks of Distinction, have been granted.

  By Command of the Right Honourable
  GENERAL LORD HILL,
  _Commanding-in-Chief_.

  JOHN MACDONALD,
  _Adjutant-General_.



PREFACE.


The character and credit of the British Army must chiefly depend
upon the zeal and ardour by which all who enter into its service
are animated, and consequently it is of the highest importance that
any measure calculated to excite the spirit of emulation, by which
alone great and gallant actions are achieved, should be adopted.

Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment of this desirable
object than a full display of the noble deeds with which the
Military History of our country abounds. To hold forth these bright
examples to the imitation of the youthful soldier, and thus to
incite him to emulate the meritorious conduct of those who have
preceded him in their honourable career, are among the motives that
have given rise to the present publication.

The operations of the British Troops are, indeed, announced in the
"London Gazette," from whence they are transferred into the public
prints: the achievements of our armies are thus made known at the
time of their occurrence, and receive the tribute of praise and
admiration to which they are entitled. On extraordinary occasions,
the Houses of Parliament have been in the habit of conferring on
the Commanders, and the Officers and Troops acting under their
orders, expressions of approbation and of thanks for their skill
and bravery; and these testimonials, confirmed by the high honour
of their Sovereign's approbation, constitute the reward which the
soldier most highly prizes.

It has not, however, until late years, been the practice (which
appears to have long prevailed in some of the Continental armies)
for British Regiments to keep regular records of their services
and achievements. Hence some difficulty has been experienced in
obtaining, particularly from the old Regiments, an authentic
account of their origin and subsequent services.

This defect will now be remedied, in consequence of His Majesty
having been pleased to command that every Regiment shall in future
keep a full and ample record of its services at home and abroad.

From the materials thus collected, the country will henceforth
derive information as to the difficulties and privations which
chequer the career of those who embrace the military profession. In
Great Britain, where so large a number of persons are devoted to
the active concerns of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and
where these pursuits have, for so long a period, been undisturbed
by the _presence of war_, which few other countries have escaped,
comparatively little is known of the vicissitudes of active
service, and of the casualties of climate, to which, even during
peace, the British Troops are exposed in every part of the globe,
with little or no interval of repose.

In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which the country
derives from the industry and the enterprise of the agriculturist
and the trader, its happy inhabitants may be supposed not often to
reflect on the perilous duties of the soldier and the sailor,--on
their sufferings,--and on the sacrifice of valuable life, by which
so many national benefits are obtained and preserved.

The conduct of the British Troops, their valour, and endurance,
have shone conspicuously under great and trying difficulties; and
their character has been established in Continental warfare by the
irresistible spirit with which they have effected debarkations in
spite of the most formidable opposition, and by the gallantry and
steadiness with which they have maintained their advantages against
superior numbers.

In the official Reports made by the respective Commanders, ample
justice has generally been done to the gallant exertions of the
Corps employed; but the details of their services, and of acts of
individual bravery, can only be fully given in the Annals of the
various Regiments.

These Records are now preparing for publication, under His
Majesty's special authority, by Mr. RICHARD CANNON, Principal Clerk
of the Adjutant-General's Office; and while the perusal of them
cannot fail to be useful and interesting to military men of every
rank, it is considered that they will also afford entertainment and
information to the general reader, particularly to those who may
have served in the Army, or who have relatives in the Service.

There exists in the breasts of most of those who have served, or
are serving, in the Army, an _Esprit de Corps_--an attachment
to everything belonging to their Regiment; to such persons a
narrative of the services of their own Corps cannot fail to prove
interesting. Authentic accounts of the actions of the great, the
valiant, the loyal, have always been of paramount interest with
a brave and civilized people. Great Britain has produced a race
of heroes who, in moments of danger and terror, have stood "firm
as the rocks of their native shore;" and when half the World has
been arrayed against them, they have fought the battles of their
Country with unshaken fortitude. It is presumed that a record of
achievements in war,--victories so complete and surprising, gained
by our countrymen, our brothers, our fellow-citizens in arms,--a
record which revives the memory of the brave, and brings their
gallant deeds before us, will certainly prove acceptable to the
public.

Biographical memoirs of the Colonels and other distinguished
Officers will be introduced in the Records of their respective
Regiments, and the Honorary Distinctions which have, from time to
time, been conferred upon each Regiment, as testifying the value
and importance of its services, will be faithfully set forth.

As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record of each Regiment
will be printed in a distinct number, so that when the whole shall
be completed, the Parts may be bound up in numerical succession.



INTRODUCTION

TO

THE INFANTRY.


The natives of Britain have, at all periods, been celebrated for
innate courage and unshaken firmness, and the national superiority
of the British troops over those of other countries has been
evinced in the midst of the most imminent perils. History contains
so many proofs of extraordinary acts of bravery, that no doubts can
be raised upon the facts which are recorded. It must therefore be
admitted, that the distinguishing feature of the British soldier is
INTREPIDITY. This quality was evinced by the inhabitants of England
when their country was invaded by Julius Cæsar with a Roman army,
on which occasion the undaunted Britons rushed into the sea to
attack the Roman soldiers as they descended from their ships; and,
although their discipline and arms were inferior to those of their
adversaries, yet their fierce and dauntless bearing intimidated
the flower of the Roman troops, including Cæsar's favourite tenth
legion. Their arms consisted of spears, short swords, and other
weapons of rude construction. They had chariots, to the axles of
which were fastened sharp pieces of iron resembling scythe-blades,
and infantry in long chariots resembling waggons, who alighted and
fought on foot, and for change of ground, pursuit, or retreat,
sprang into the chariot and drove off with the speed of cavalry.
These inventions were, however, unavailing against Cæsar's
legions: in the course of time a military system, with discipline
and subordination, was introduced, and British courage, being
thus regulated, was exerted to the greatest advantage; a full
development of the national character followed, and it shone forth
in all its native brilliancy.

The military force of the Anglo-Saxons consisted principally of
infantry: Thanes, and other men of property, however, fought on
horseback. The infantry were of two classes, heavy and light. The
former carried large shields armed with spikes, long broad swords
and spears; and the latter were armed with swords or spears only.
They had also men armed with clubs, others with battle-axes and
javelins.

The feudal troops established by William the Conqueror consisted
(as already stated in the Introduction to the Cavalry) almost
entirely of horse; but when the warlike barons and knights, with
their trains of tenants and vassals, took the field, a proportion
of men appeared on foot, and, although these were of inferior
degree, they proved stout-hearted Britons of stanch fidelity. When
stipendiary troops were employed, infantry always constituted a
considerable portion of the military force; and this _arme_ has
since acquired, in every quarter of the globe, a celebrity never
exceeded by the armies of any nation at any period.

The weapons carried by the infantry, during the several reigns
succeeding the Conquest, were bows and arrows, half-pikes, lances,
halberds, various kinds of battle-axes, swords, and daggers. Armour
was worn on the head and body, and in course of time the practice
became general for military men to be so completely cased in steel,
that it was almost impossible to slay them.

The introduction of the use of gunpowder in the destructive
purposes of war, in the early part of the fourteenth
century, produced a change in the arms and equipment of the
infantry-soldier. Bows and arrows gave place to various kinds of
fire-arms, but British archers continued formidable adversaries;
and owing to the inconvenient construction and imperfect bore of
the fire-arms when first introduced, a body of men, well trained
in the use of the bow from their youth, was considered a valuable
acquisition to every army, even as late as the sixteenth century.

During a great part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth each company
of infantry usually consisted of men armed five different ways; in
every hundred men forty were "_men-at-arms_," and sixty "_shot_;"
the "men-at-arms" were ten halberdiers, or battle-axe men, and
thirty pikemen; and the "shot" were twenty archers, twenty
musketeers, and twenty harquebusiers, and each man carried, besides
his principal weapon, a sword and dagger.

Companies of infantry varied at this period in numbers from 150
to 300 men; each company had a colour or ensign, and the mode of
formation recommended by an English military writer (Sir John
Smithe) in 1590 was:--the colour in the centre of the company
guarded by the halberdiers; the pikemen in equal proportions, on
each flank of the halberdiers; half the musketeers on each flank
of the pikes; half the archers on each flank of the musketeers;
and the harquebusiers (whose arms were much lighter than the
muskets then in use) in equal proportions on each flank of the
company for skirmishing.[1] It was customary to unite a number
of companies into one body, called a REGIMENT, which frequently
amounted to three thousand men; but each company continued to carry
a colour. Numerous improvements were eventually introduced in the
construction of fire-arms, and, it having been found impossible to
make armour proof against the muskets then in use (which carried
a very heavy ball) without its being too weighty for the soldier,
armour was gradually laid aside by the infantry in the seventeenth
century: bows and arrows also fell into disuse, and the infantry
were reduced to two classes, viz.: _musketeers_, armed with
matchlock muskets, swords, and daggers; and _pikemen_, armed with
pikes from fourteen to eighteen feet long, and swords.

In the early part of the seventeenth century Gustavus Adolphus,
King of Sweden, reduced the strength of regiments to 1000 men; he
caused the gunpowder, which had heretofore been carried in flasks,
or in small wooden bandoliers, each containing a charge, to be
made up into cartridges, and carried in pouches; and he formed
each regiment into two wings of musketeers, and a centre division
of pikemen. He also adopted the practice of forming four regiments
into a brigade; and the number of colours was afterwards reduced to
three in each regiment. He formed his columns so compactly that his
infantry could resist the charge of the celebrated Polish horsemen
and Austrian cuirassiers; and his armies became the admiration of
other nations. His mode of formation was copied by the English,
French, and other European states; but so great was the prejudice
in favour of ancient customs, that all his improvements were not
adopted until near a century afterwards.

In 1664 King Charles II. raised a corps for sea-service, styled
the Admiral's regiment. In 1678 each company of 100 men usually
consisted of 30 pikemen, 60 musketeers, and 10 men armed with light
firelocks. In this year the king added a company of men armed with
hand-grenades to each of the old British regiments, which was
designated the "grenadier company." Daggers were so contrived as to
fit in the muzzles of the muskets, and bayonets similar to those
at present in use were adopted about twenty years afterwards.

An Ordnance regiment was raised in 1685, by order of King James
II., to guard the artillery, and was designated the Royal Fusiliers
(now 7th Foot). This corps, and the companies of grenadiers, did
not carry pikes.

King William III. incorporated the Admiral's regiment in the Second
Foot Guards, and raised two Marine regiments for sea-service.
During the war in this reign, each company of infantry (excepting
the fusiliers and grenadiers) consisted of 14 pikemen and 46
musketeers; the captains carried pikes; lieutenants, partisans;
ensigns, half-pikes; and serjeants, halberds. After the peace in
1697 the Marine regiments were disbanded, but were again formed on
the breaking out of the war in 1702.[2]

During the reign of Queen Anne the pikes were laid aside, and every
infantry soldier was armed with a musket, bayonet, and sword; the
grenadiers ceased, about the same period, to carry hand-grenades;
and the regiments were directed to lay aside their third colour:
the corps of Royal Artillery was first added to the army in this
reign.

About the year 1745, the men of the battalion companies of infantry
ceased to carry swords; during the reign of George II. light
companies were added to infantry regiments; and in 1764 a Board of
General Officers recommended that the grenadiers should lay aside
their swords, as that weapon had never been used during the seven
years' war. Since that period the arms of the infantry soldier have
been limited to the musket and bayonet.

The arms and equipment of the British troops have seldom differed
materially, since the Conquest, from those of other European
states; and in some respects the arming has, at certain periods,
been allowed to be inferior to that of the nations with whom they
have had to contend; yet, under this disadvantage, the bravery and
superiority of the British infantry have been evinced on very many
and most trying occasions, and splendid victories have been gained
over very superior numbers.

Great Britain has produced a race of lion-like champions who have
dared to confront a host of foes, and have proved themselves
valiant with any arms. At _Crecy_, King Edward III., at the head
of about 30,000 men, defeated, on the 26th of August, 1346, Philip
King of France, whose army is said to have amounted to 100,000
men; here British valour encountered veterans of renown:--the
King of Bohemia, the King of Majorca, and many princes and nobles
were slain, and the French army was routed and cut to pieces. Ten
years afterwards, Edward Prince of Wales, who was designated the
Black Prince, defeated, at _Poictiers_, with 14,000 men, a French
army of 60,000 horse, besides infantry, and took John I., King of
France, and his son Philip, prisoners. On the 25th of October,
1415, King Henry V., with an army of about 13,000 men, although
greatly exhausted by marches, privations, and sickness, defeated,
at _Agincourt_, the Constable of France, at the head of the flower
of the French nobility and an army said to amount to 60,000 men,
and gained a complete victory.

During the seventy years' war between the United Provinces of the
Netherlands and the Spanish monarch, which commenced in 1578 and
terminated in 1648, the British infantry in the service of the
States-General were celebrated for their unconquerable spirit and
firmness;[3] and in the thirty years' war between the Protestant
Princes and the Emperor of Germany, the British troops in the
service of Sweden and other states were celebrated for deeds of
heroism.[4] In the wars of Queen Anne, the fame of the British
army under the great MARLBOROUGH was spread throughout the world;
and if we glance at the achievements performed within the memory
of persons now living, there is abundant proof that the Britons
of the present age are not inferior to their ancestors in the
qualities which constitute good soldiers. Witness the deeds of
the brave men, of whom there are many now surviving, who fought in
Egypt in 1801, under the brave Abercromby, and compelled the French
army, which had been vainly styled _Invincible_, to evacuate that
country; also the services of the gallant Troops during the arduous
campaigns in the Peninsula, under the immortal WELLINGTON; and
the determined stand made by the British Army at Waterloo, where
Napoleon Bonaparte, who had long been the inveterate enemy of Great
Britain, and had sought and planned her destruction by every means
he could devise, was compelled to leave his vanquished legions to
their fate, and to place himself at the disposal of the British
Government. These achievements, with others of recent dates in the
distant climes of India, prove that the same valour and constancy
which glowed in the breasts of the heroes of Crecy, Poictiers,
Agincourt, Blenheim, and Ramilies, continue to animate the Britons
of the nineteenth century.

The British Soldier is distinguished for a robust and muscular
frame,--intrepidity which no danger can appal,--unconquerable
spirit and resolution,--patience in fatigue and privation, and
cheerful obedience to his superiors. These qualities, united with
an excellent system of order and discipline to regulate and give
a skilful direction to the energies and adventurous spirit of
the hero, and a wise selection of officers of superior talent to
command, whose presence inspires confidence,--have been the leading
causes of the splendid victories gained by the British arms.[5]
The fame of the deeds of the past and present generations in the
various battle-fields where the robust sons of Albion have fought
and conquered, surrounds the British arms with an halo of glory;
these achievements will live in the page of history to the end of
time.

The records of the several regiments will be found to contain a
detail of facts of an interesting character, connected with the
hardships, sufferings, and gallant exploits of British soldiers in
the various parts of the world where the calls of their Country
and the commands of their Sovereign have required them to proceed
in the execution of their duty, whether in active continental
operations, or in maintaining colonial territories in distant and
unfavourable climes.

The superiority of the British infantry has been pre-eminently set
forth in the wars of six centuries, and admitted by the greatest
commanders which Europe has produced. The formations and movements
of this _arme_, as at present practised, while they are adapted
to every species of warfare, and to all probable situations
and circumstances of service, are calculated to show forth the
brilliancy of military tactics calculated upon mathematical and
scientific principles. Although the movements and evolutions have
been copied from the continental armies, yet various improvements
have from time to time been introduced, to ensure that simplicity
and celerity by which the superiority of the national military
character is maintained. The rank and influence which Great Britain
has attained among the nations of the world have in a great measure
been purchased by the valour of the Army, and to persons who have
the welfare of their country at heart, the records of the several
regiments cannot fail to prove interesting.


FOOTNOTES:

[1] A company of 200 men would appear thus:--

                                 __|
                                |  |
                                |__|
                                   |
       20     20     20     30    2|0     30     20     20     20

  Harquebuses.    Muskets.      Halberds.      Muskets.    Harquebuses.
           Archers.       Pikes.         Pikes.       Archers.

The musket carried a ball which weighed 1/10 of a pound; and the
harquebus a ball which weighed 1/25 of a pound.

[2] The 30th, 31st, and 32nd Regiments were formed as Marine corps
in 1702, and were employed as such during the wars in the reign
of Queen Anne. The Marine corps were embarked in the Fleet under
Admiral Sir George Rooke, and were at the taking of Gibraltar, and
in its subsequent defence in 1704; they were afterwards employed at
the siege of Barcelona in 1705.

[3] The brave Sir Roger Williams, in his Discourse on War, printed
in 1590, observes:--"I persuade myself ten thousand of our nation
would beat thirty thousand of theirs (the Spaniards) out of the
field, let them be chosen where they list." Yet at this time the
Spanish infantry was allowed to be the best disciplined in Europe.
For instances of valour displayed by the British Infantry during
the Seventy Years' War, see the Historical Record of the Third Foot
or Buffs.

[4] Vide the Historical Record of the First, or Royal Regiment of
Foot.

[5] "Under the blessing of Divine Providence, His Majesty ascribes
the successes which have attended the exertions of his troops in
Egypt to that determined bravery which is inherent in Britons; but
His Majesty desires it may be most solemnly and forcibly impressed
on the consideration of every part of the army, that it has been a
strict observance of order, discipline, and military system, which
has given the full energy to the native valour of the troops, and
has enabled them proudly to assert the superiority of the national
military character, in situations uncommonly arduous, and under
circumstances of peculiar difficulty."--_General Orders in 1801._

In the General Orders issued by Lieut.-General Sir John Hope
(afterwards Lord Hopetoun), congratulating the army upon the
successful result of the Battle of Corunna, on the 16th of January,
1809, it is stated:--"On no occasion has the undaunted valour of
British troops ever been more manifest. At the termination of a
severe and harassing march, rendered necessary by the superiority
which the enemy had acquired, and which had materially impaired
the efficiency of the troops, many disadvantages were to be
encountered. These have all been surmounted by the conduct of the
troops themselves; and the enemy has been taught, that whatever
advantages of position or of numbers he may possess, there is
inherent in the British officers and soldiers a bravery that knows
not how to yield,--that no circumstances can appal,--and that will
ensure victory when it is to be obtained by the exertion of any
human means."



  HISTORICAL RECORD

  OF

  THE SEVENTH REGIMENT,

  OR

  THE ROYAL FUSILIERS:

  CONTAINING

  AN ACCOUNT OF THE FORMATION OF THE REGIMENT
  IN 1685,

  AND OF ITS SUBSEQUENT SERVICES
  TO 1846.


  COMPILED BY

  RICHARD CANNON, ESQ.,
  ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE, HORSE-GUARDS.


  ILLUSTRATED WITH PLATES.


  LONDON:
  PARKER, FURNIVALL, & PARKER,
  30 CHARING CROSS.

  MDCCCXLVII.



  LONDON: Printed by W. CLOWES and SONS, Duke Street, Stamford Street,
  For Her Majesty's Stationery Office.



  THE SEVENTH REGIMENT,

  OR

  THE ROYAL FUSILIERS,

  BEARS IN THE CENTRE OF ITS REGIMENTAL COLOUR,
  THE _ROSE_ WITHIN THE _GARTER_ AND THE _CROWN_ OVER IT;
  AND IN THE CORNER _THE WHITE HORSE_;

  ALSO THE WORD

  "MARTINIQUE,"

  FOR ITS GALLANT CONDUCT AT THE CAPTURE OF THAT ISLAND IN 1809;

  AND THE WORDS

  "TALAVERA," "ALBUHERA," "BADAJOZ,"
  "SALAMANCA," "VITTORIA," "PYRENEES," "ORTHES,"
  "TOULOUSE," "PENINSULA,"

  TO COMMEMORATE ITS DISTINGUISHED SERVICES IN THE
  PENINSULA AND SOUTH OF FRANCE
  FROM 1809 TO 1814.



CONTENTS.


  YEAR                                                          PAGE

  1685  Formation of the Regiment                                  1

  ----  Names of Officers                                          3

  ----  Uniform of the Regiment                                    4

  1688  Augmentation of the Establishment                          6

  1689  Proceeds to Holland                                        8

  ----  Battle of Walcourt                                         -

  1690  Returns to England                                         9

  ----  Proceeds to Ireland, and is engaged in the Sieges
            of Cork and Kinsale                                   10

  1691  Embarks for Flanders                                      --

  ----  Serves the Campaign under King William III.               11

  1692  Battle of Steenkirk                                       --

  1693  Battle of Landen                                          13

  1694  Reviewed by King William III.                             15

  1695  Siege of Namur                                            16

  1696  Arrives at Gravesend, but returns to Flanders
            without landing in England                            18

  ----  Joins the Army of Flanders under the Prince of
            Vaudemont                                             --

  1697  Returns to England                                        --

  ----  Placed on a Peace Establishment                           --

  1698  Proceeds to Jersey and Guernsey                           --

  1702  Forms part of the force employed in the Expedition
            under the Duke of Ormond against Cadiz                19

  1702  Capture of the Towns of Rota, Port St. Mary's, and
            Fort St. Catherine                                    19

  ----  Sails for England, after having destroyed the Enemy's
            Shipping at Vigo                                      20

  1703  Employed as Marines on board the Fleet                    --

  1705  Stationed at Plymouth                                     --

  1706  Proceeds to Barcelona                                     21

  1707  Stationed in Spain                                        --

  ----  Capture of Lerida                                         22

  1708  Returns to England                                        --

  1709  Proceeds to Spain                                         23

  1710 }
   TO  } Stationed at Minorca                                     --
  1719 }

  ----  Returns to England                                        --

  1719 }
   TO  } Stationed in Ireland                                     --
  1727 }

  1734  Proceeds to Gibraltar                                     --

  1749  Returns to Ireland                                        --

  1751  Authorized by Royal Warrant to continue to bear
            certain Distinctions                                  24

  1755  Arrives in England from Ireland                           --

  1756  Serves as Marines on board the Fleet under
            Admiral Byng                                          --

  ----  Engaged with the French Fleet off Minorca                 --

  ----  Forms part of the Garrison of Gibraltar                   --

  1763  Embarks for England                                       --

  1765  Proceeds to Scotland                                      --

  1770  Returns to England                                        --

  1773  Embarks for Canada                                        --

  1775  Forms part of the Garrison of St. John's and Fort
            Chambly                                               25

  ----  Siege of Quebec                                           26

  1776  Operations in Canada                                      27

  ----  Proceeds to New York                                      --

  1777  Action at Staten Island                                   --

  ----  Capture of Forts Montgomery, Clinton, and
            Constitution                                          29

  ----  Engaged with the Americans at Philadelphia                30

  1779  Capture of Newhaven                                       --

  ----  Expedition against Fairfield and Norwalk                  31

  1780  Capture of Charleston                                     32

  1781  Engagement at Cow-Pens                                    33

  1782  Stationed in South Carolina and New York                  --

  1783  Returns to England                                        34

  ----  Reduction of Establishment                                --

  1786  Proceeds to Scotland                                      --

  1790  Embarks for Gibraltar                                     --

  1791  Proceeds to Canada                                        --

  1794  Stationed in Nova Scotia                                  --

  1795  Formed into two Battalions                                35

  1796  Incorporated into one Battalion                           --

  1802  Proceeds to Bermuda and the Bahamas                       36

  1804  A second Battalion added                                  --

  1806  Returns to England                                        37

  1807  The First Battalion proceeds to Ireland                   --

  ----  ------------------- embarks for Denmark                   --

  ----  Siege of Copenhagen                                       --

  ----  The First Battalion returns to England                    --

  1808  ------------------- embarks for Nova Scotia               38

  ----  The Second Battalion proceeds to Ireland                  --

  1809  Capture of Martinique                                     --

  ----  Authorized to bear the word "MARTINIQUE" on its Colours   41

  ----  Returns to Nova Scotia                                    --

  ----  The Second Battalion proceeds to Portugal                 45

  ----  Expulsion of the French from Oporto                       --

  1809  Battle of Talavera                                        46

  ----  Authorized to bear the word "TALAVERA" on its Colours     48

  1810  Removal of the First Battalion from North America
            to the Peninsula                                      49

  ----  Battle of Busaco                                          50

  1811  Siege of Olivenza                                         53

  ----  Blockade of Badajoz                                       --

  ----  Battle of Albuhera                                        54

  ----  Authorized to bear the word "ALBUHERA" on its Colours     62

  ----  Blockade of Ciudad Rodrigo                                65

  ----  Action at Aldea de Pont                                   --

  1812  Capture of Ciudad Rodrigo                                 66

  ----  Siege of Badajoz                                          67

  ----  Authorized to bear the word "BADAJOZ" on its Colours      69

  ----  Battle of Salamanca                                       71

  ----  Authorized to bear the word "SALAMANCA" on its Colours    72

  1813  Attack on the village of Montevite                        74

  ----  Battle of Vittoria                                        75

  ----  Authorized to bear the word "VITTORIA" on its Colours     --

  ----  Blockade of Pampeluna                                     76

  ----  Battle of the Pyrenees                                    --

  ----  Authorized to bear the word "PYRENEES" on its Colours     79

  ----  Passage of the Bidassoa                                   --

  1814  Battle of Orthes                                          80

  ----  Authorized to bear the word "ORTHES" on its Colours       --

  ----  Battle of Toulouse                                        81

  ----  Returns to England                                        82

  1814  First Battalion proceeds to North America                 83

  1815  Operations against New Orleans                            84

  ----  Attack on Mobile and Capture of Fort Bowyer               87

  ----  Embarks for England                                       --

  ----  Proceeds to Flanders                                      --

  ----  Advances to Paris                                         --

  ----  Second Battalion disbanded                                88

  ----  A Recruiting Company added to the First Battalion         --

  1816  Forms part of the Army of Occupation in France            --

  1817 }
       } Reduction of Establishment                               89
  1818 }

  1818  Returns to England                                        90

  ----  Proceeds to Ireland                                       --

  1820  Embarks for Scotland                                      --

  1821  Marches to England                                        --

  1825  Divided into Service and Depôt Companies                  91

  ----  Service Companies embark for the Ionian Islands           --

  1828  Stationed at Malta                                        --

  1833  Depôt Companies proceed to Ireland                        --

  1836  Service Companies return to England                       --

  ----  Presentation of a piece of plate by command of
            His Majesty King William IV.                          --

  1837  Service Companies proceed to Ireland                      92

  1839  Service Companies embark for Gibraltar                    --

  1841  Depôt Companies proceed to England                        --

  1844  Service Companies embark for the West Indies              --

  1845  Depôt Companies return to Ireland                         --

  1846  The Conclusion                                            93



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS.


  YEAR                                                          PAGE

  1685  George Lord Dartmouth                                     95

  1689  John Earl of Marlborough                                  98

  1692  Lord George Hamilton                                     103

  1692  Edward Fitzpatrick                                       104

  ----  Sir Charles O'Hara                                       105

  1713  The Honourable James O'Hara                              106

  1739  William Hargrave                                         107

  1751  John Mostyn                                               --

  1754  Lord Robert Bertie                                       108

  1776  Richard Prescott                                          --

  1788  The Honourable William Gordon                             --

  1789  His Royal Highness The Duke of Kent                      109

  1801  Sir Alured Clarke                                        113

  1832  Sir Edward Blakeney                                       --



PLATES.


  Colours of the Regiment                           To face page   1

  Costume of the Regiment in 1742                                 24

  ----------------------- in 1846                                 92


[Illustration: Colours of the Seventh Royal Fusiliers.]



HISTORICAL RECORD

OF

THE SEVENTH REGIMENT,

OR

THE ROYAL FUSILIERS.


[Sidenote: 1685]

The invention of gunpowder was speedily followed by the
introduction of cannon; but many years elapsed before a corps of
artillery was added to the army. The guns were fired by men hired
for the purpose, under the direction of a master-gunner, and an
officer styled the Master of the Ordnance, and the whole were under
the orders of the Master-general of the Ordnance. Non-commissioned
officers and private soldiers of infantry regiments were frequently
employed as gunners; and the care and protection of the guns were
confided to particular corps. On the augmentation of the army
during the rebellion of JAMES DUKE OF MONMOUTH, in the summer of
1685, King James II. resolved, that the first infantry corps raised
on that occasion should be an ORDNANCE REGIMENT, for the care and
protection of the cannon; of which corps His Majesty appointed
GEORGE LORD DARTMOUTH, then Master-general of the Ordnance,
colonel, by commission dated the 11th of June, 1685.

The regular regiments of foot were composed, at this period, of
MUSKETEERS,--men armed with muskets and swords; PIKEMEN,--armed
with long pikes and swords; and GRENADIERS,--armed with
hand-grenades, muskets, bayonets, swords, and small hatchets; but
in the ORDNANCE REGIMENT every man carried a long musket called a
_fusil_, with a sword and bayonet, from which peculiarity in the
arming, the regiment obtained the designation of "FUSILIERS;" and
the King being desirous of appearing publicly to patronize this new
corps, conferred upon it the title of "ROYAL FUSILIERS."[6]

Regiments of infantry had, originally, a colour to each _company_,
which was called an _ensign_, and was carried by the junior
subaltern officer of each company, who was styled "ancient," and
afterwards "ensign," which term signified "colour-bearer." The
regiments of fusiliers did not have colours or ensigns to each
company, consequently the title of ensign or colour-bearer was
not given to the junior subaltern officer of each company; but
having, in consequence of the peculiar services they were called
upon to perform, a care and responsibility equal to that of a
lieutenant, both the subaltern officers of each company were styled
lieutenants. They were both placed on the same rate of pay; but the
terms _first lieutenant_ and _second lieutenant_ were used in their
commissions for several years, and afterwards discontinued.

The regiment consisted of thirteen companies,--twelve of fusiliers
and one of miners; each company consisting of three officers,
three serjeants, three corporals, two drummers, and one hundred
private men. The two first companies were of very old date; having
been independent companies in the Tower of London many years; the
other ten companies were raised in London and its vicinity by
GEORGE LORD DARTMOUTH,[7] Lieutenant-Colonel THOMAS TALMASH or
Tollemache, afterwards colonel of the fifth foot and second foot
guards; Richard Fowler, Major Beckman, Henry Cornwall, Sir John
Morgan, John Boyce, Thomas Whalley, Charles Fitzwilliams, and Henry
Vaughan; and the company of miners by Captain James Adams. THOMAS
TALMASH was appointed to the lieutenant-colonelcy; and Robert St.
Clair, who commanded one of the old independent companies, obtained
the commission of major. The uniform was scarlet coats, lined with
yellow; grey breeches and grey stockings; and the men wore yellow
cloth caps, ornamented with military devices similar to those
afterwards adopted for grenadiers; the other regiments of foot wore
round hats with broad brims turned up on one side.

The regiment was speedily raised, and on the 4th of July the
several companies were directed to proceed to the Tower of London,
and perform the duties of that fortress. The rebellion being soon
afterwards suppressed, and the Duke of Monmouth beheaded, the
regiment was reduced to eleven companies of fusiliers, of three
officers, three serjeants, three corporals, two drummers, and fifty
private soldiers each; and one company of miners, of two officers,
one serjeant, two corporals, one drummer, and forty miners.

After the suppression of the rebellion, King James formed a camp
on Hounslow-heath; where the Scots brigade in the service of
Holland, and a numerous body of English cavalry and infantry,
were assembled, and the ROYAL FUSILIERS proceeded to the camp in
charge of the train of artillery. When the camp was broken up,
the regiment returned with the guns to the Tower of London, from
whence three companies were detached to Sheerness, where they were
directed to remain in garrison.[8]

[Sidenote: 1686]

During the summer of 1686 the ROYAL FUSILIERS were again encamped
in charge of the train of artillery on Hounslow-heath. The corps
assembled on the heath consisted of three troops of life guards,
nine regiments of cuirassiers, three of dragoons, and thirteen
battalions of foot. In a description of the camp, written at
the time, and published in the Antiquarian Repertory, it is
stated:--"The horse, foot, and dragoons are encamped in a straight
line; the intervals between the foot is seventy paces, the
intervals between each regiment of horse about fifty paces, and the
interval between the horse on the left and the dragoons (because
of the ground) is near half mile. The lieutenants' and ensigns'
tents are in the rear of the respective companies in a direct line,
seventeen paces from the soldiers' huts or tents; the captains'
tents twelve paces behind the lieutenants'; the colonels' tents
behind the captains', ten paces; the lieutenant-colonel on the
right of the colonel, and the major on the left in a direct line.
The brigadier-generals have their tents twenty paces behind the
colonels'. The King's tent and chappel is in the rear of the left
of the horse on the left, and the general officers' tents behind
the King's. The FUSILIERS are encamped in the rear of the line,
a good distance behind the interval between the Earl of Craven's
regiment and the Scots guards; and in several parties about the
horse carriages. The guns are planted about a hundred paces before
the line, before the interval between the Scots guards and Prince
George's regiment, guarded by a party of FUSILIERS; each gun having
two gunners and a matrosse to attend it. The suttling booths are
about two hundred paces in the rear of the line."

In August the ROYAL FUSILIERS struck their tents, and, returning to
the Tower with the guns, were stationed at that fortress during the
remainder of the year.

[Sidenote: 1687]

The establishment was again augmented to thirteen companies in the
spring of 1687, as appears by the following warrant:--

  "JAMES R.

"Whereas we have thought fit to add one company more to Our
ROYAL REGIMENT OF FUSILIERS, and to apply the pay of one of the
non-regimented companies mentioned in Our establishment to the
entertainment of the said company of Fusiliers, with the addition
of one shilling per diem to the youngest lieutenant, and one
shilling and sixpence for the pay of one serjeant, and one shilling
for one drummer more, Our will and pleasure is, that you include
the pay of the said company, and additional allowances, within the
certificates or debentures you shall from time to time make out
for the pay of Our said ROYAL REGIMENT OF FUSILIERS, to commence
from the 1st of January last; and for so doing this shall be your
sufficient warrant.

"Given at Our Court at Whitehall this 12th day of March, 1686-7, in
the third year of Our reign.

"By His Majesty's Command.

    (Signed)     "SUNDERLAND P.      SHEP. FOX.
                 "BELLASIS.          J. ERNLE.

  "_To the Paymaster-General_,
  _&c. &c. &c._"


[Sidenote: 1688]

In the summer of 1687 and 1688, the ROYAL FUSILIERS were again
encamped on Hounslow-heath. On the 1st of September, 1688, an
augmentation of ten men per company was made to the establishment,
which consisted, at this period, of eleven companies of fusiliers,
one of grenadiers, and one of miners.

The King having manifested a determination to establish papacy and
arbitrary government, many noblemen and gentlemen solicited the
aid of William Henry Prince of Orange to enable them to oppose the
proceedings of the court. On the receipt of information of warlike
preparations in Holland, a strong detachment of the ROYAL FUSILIERS
embarked on board of men-of-war, to serve as marines, and sailed
to the Nore. The fleet was commanded by their colonel, Admiral
Lord Dartmouth, whose loyalty to King James II. was not doubted;
but the rear-admiral, Sir John Barry, and many of the captains,
inferior officers, and seamen, entertained sentiments favourable to
the Prince of Orange; no collision, however, took place. While the
English fleet was wind-bound at the mouth of the Thames, the Dutch
armament passed along the British Channel with little molestation;
the wind becoming more favourable, the English navy put to sea; but
the Prince of Orange was so far in advance, that he landed on the
Devonshire coast, on the 5th of November, without interruption;
and the wind changed immediately afterwards, and blew with such
violence, that the English fleet was driven into Portsmouth harbour
in a damaged condition. The sentiments entertained in the navy were
also prevalent in the army; the troops refused to fight in the
cause of Papacy and arbitrary government, and King James fled to
France. The ROYAL FUSILIERS landed and were ordered by the Prince
of Orange to occupy quarters at Barnet.

From this period the ROYAL FUSILIERS ceased to be considered
exclusively as an ORDNANCE REGIMENT, and took their turn of duty
with the regular regiments of the line: the regiment was not,
however, furnished with a division of pikemen; but every man
continued to be armed with a fusil.

[Sidenote: 1689]

Six companies were removed from Barnet to Yarmouth, where they took
part, in February, 1689, in the proclamation of the accession of
King William III. and Queen Mary to the throne. Shortly afterwards
the regiment embarked for Holland, forming part of the force under
Lieutenant-General the Earl of Marlborough, sent to assist the
Dutch in their war with France in the place of the troops which the
Prince of Orange had brought with him to England.

The ROYAL FUSILIERS joined the Dutch army at Tongres, and served
the campaign of this year under Prince Waldeck. On the 25th of
August a piquet under Colonel Hodges was attacked by the French
forces under Marshal de Humières near _Walcourt_, and a sharp
action ensued, in which the English infantry evinced firmness
and intrepidity. The French were defeated with the loss of two
thousand men killed and wounded; and King William, writing to the
Earl of Marlborough on this subject, observed,--"I am very happy
that my troops behaved so well at Walcourt. It is to you that this
advantage is principally owing."[9] In a few days after this event
King William conferred the colonelcy of the ROYAL FUSILIERS, which
had been vacant some time, in consequence of the removal of Lord
Dartmouth for adhering to the interests of King James, on the EARL
OF MARLBOROUGH, who held also the colonelcy of the third troop of
life guards.

[Sidenote: 1690]

Before the following campaign the regiment returned to England,
where it was stationed while King William was in Ireland,
endeavouring to rescue that country from the power of King James,
who had proceeded thither with a body of troops from France.

King William having defeated the Irish forces and their French
allies at the Boyne, besieged Limerick. "During the time His
Majesty was before the town, it was proposed by the Earl of
Nottingham to My Lord Marlborough, and afterwards approved of in
council, as very advantageous to their Majesties' affairs, to send
a party from England, who, joining with a detachment from the
King's army, might reduce the two important garrisons of _Cork_
and _Kinsale_, and arrangements were made accordingly; but not
being ready so soon as was designed, His Majesty, upon his return
to England, sent the EARL OF MARLBOROUGH, with his own regiment
of FUSILIERS, Brigadier Trelawny's (now fourth), Princess Anne's
(eight), Colonel Hastings' (thirteenth), Colonel Hales', Sir David
Collier's, Colonel Fitzpatrick's, one hundred of the Duke of
Bolton's, two hundred of Monmouth's under Major Johnston, with Lord
Torrington's and Lord Pembroke's marine regiments, to undertake
this service."[10] Arriving at _Cork_ roads on the 21st of
September, the fleet entered the harbour on the following day, and
the co-operation of part of the army on shore having been secured,
the ROYAL FUSILIERS and other corps landed and commenced the siege.
A breach having been made, the ROYAL FUSILIERS and three other
English regiments, commanded by Brigadier-General Churchill, and a
body of Danes, passed the river wading up to the arm-pits to the
east marsh, in order to storm the wall on that side. The grenadiers
led the attack; but before they gained the breach, the Irish hung
out a white flag, and agreed to surrender; the garrison, consisting
of six regiments, became prisoners of war.

From Cork the ROYAL FUSILIERS advanced towards _Kinsale_; the
garrison vacated the town and retired to two strong forts. One of
these forts was speedily reduced; the other held out until the
middle of October, when the garrison surrendered on the condition
of being permitted to proceed to Limerick.

The ROYAL FUSILIERS were afterwards placed in garrison at Kinsale,
where they remained three months.

[Sidenote: 1691]

The loss of the battle of Fleurus on the 21st of June, 1690, by the
Dutch troops under Prince Waldeck, gave the French the ascendancy
over the confederates in Flanders; and the ROYAL FUSILIERS were
selected to augment the forces in that country, where His Majesty
resolved to command in person. The regiment embarked from Cork
in January 1691, and sailing for Flanders experienced very
severe weather at sea, and two vessels, having on board part of
the FUSILIERS, were wrecked on the English coast, and many men
perished. The remainder of the regiment landed at Ostend and went
into quarters in West Flanders, where it was joined by a fine
body of recruits and by a number of men who had been left sick at
Kinsale.

When the army took the field, the ROYAL FUSILIERS were formed in
brigade with the regiments of Bath (tenth), Hodges (sixteenth), and
Fitzpatrick (afterwards disbanded), commanded by Brigadier-General
Churchill, and served the campaign of this year with the main army
commanded by King William; but no general engagement occurred.
The regiment passed the winter in cantonments among the Belgic
peasantry.

[Sidenote: 1692]

The Earl of Marlborough, having fallen under the displeasure of
King William, was removed from his commands, and was succeeded in
the colonelcy of the ROYAL FUSILIERS by Lord GEORGE HAMILTON by
commission dated the 23rd of January, 1692.

On the army taking the field, the regiment was again placed in the
brigade commanded by Brigadier-General Churchill, and it served
at the battle of _Steenkirk_ on the 24th of July, 1692. On this
occasion the leading column attacked the French forces commanded by
Marshal Luxemburg with signal gallantry and success; but owing to
the thick woods, with narrow and difficult defiles, which the army
had to pass, together with the tardiness of Count Solms in obeying
His Majesty's commands, some delay occurred. The ROYAL FUSILIERS
and a few other corps hastened through the defiles, and formed
line at the skirts of the wood, where they were exposed to a heavy
cannonade, and lost several men. In consequence of the delay which
had occurred, the King ordered a retreat, and the French did not
venture to attack the army in its retrograde movement.

Sir Robert Douglas having been killed in the act of rescuing the
colours of the first battalion of the Royals from the enemy,
was succeeded in the colonelcy of that regiment by Lord George
Hamilton; and the command of the ROYAL FUSILIERS was conferred on
Colonel EDWARD FITZPATRICK, from a newly-raised regiment, which had
been disbanded.

On the 22nd of August the regiment was detached from the main army,
with several other corps, under Lieutenant-General Talmash, to
Furnes, where the troops encamped until the fortifications were put
in a state of defence; the ROYAL FUSILIERS afterwards proceeded to
Dixmude, and were employed in repairing the works;[11] and after
the completion of this service, they marched into quarters at
Ghent, where they passed the winter.

[Sidenote: 1693]

Leaving Ghent in May, 1693, the regiment was in line at the
celebrated position of Parck camp, where it was formed in brigade
with the Royals (first), Queen Dowager's (second), Prince George
of Denmark's (third), and the Queen's (fourth) regiments under
Brigadier-General Churchill. After several movements the army was
posted near the village of _Landen_, where it was attacked on
the 19th of July by a French army of very superior numbers under
Marshal Luxemburg.

The ROYAL FUSILIERS were posted near the right of the confederate
army, where a slight entrenchment had been made during the
preceding night. As the first rays of morning light appeared in
the horizon, waving masses of glittering arms, traversing the
undulating grounds in front, gave indication of an approaching
enemy, when the artillery opened a heavy fire, and the battle
began. For some time the FUSILIERS were spectators of the
action, while much fighting took place at the villages of Laér,
Neer-Winden, Neer-Landen, and the fortune of the day was everywhere
in favour of the confederates; but eventually the position was
forced at the village of Neer-Winden, and the Hanoverian Cavalry
were broken. Heavy columns of pikemen and musketeers, consisting
of the French brigades of Vermandois, Nice, Roussillon, and Sare,
flanked by dragoons, and preceded by a cloud of grenadiers,
approached the ground where the ROYAL FUSILIERS were posted.
Colonel Fitzpatrick was at the head of the regiment, and directed
the men to reserve their fire until the near approach of their
opponents. As the French soldiers sprang forward with their
characteristic energy, and threw a shower of hand-grenades over
the breast-work, a well-directed volley from the FUSILIERS rent
chasms in the French ranks; but the survivors, being supported by
an immense superiority of numbers, and urged forward by Marshal
Villeroy, renewed the attack; while the marshal led a chosen body
of men to the charge, and forced the right of the entrenchment.
The ROYAL FUSILIERS, and other corps at this part of the field,
were attacked in front and flank, and a sanguinary conflict ensued.
Colonel Fitzpatrick was carried from the field wounded, yet the
FUSILIERS stood their ground; ranks of opponents ascended the
breast-work, and were speedily cut down or forced back. At length
the British battalions were overpowered and driven from their
ground. Stung with resentment at this disaster, they speedily
rallied, and, rushing sword in hand upon their opponents, they
once more regained the lost ground. A momentary pause ensued; but
soon a fresh body of opponents renewed the fight, and the British
regiments were again overpowered by superior numbers. The FUSILIERS
evinced the stern valour of British soldiers; their commanding
officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Whalley, fell mortally wounded; Major
Wilson was removed bleeding to the rear; yet they disputed the
ground with sanguinary tenacity until all chance of ultimate
success had passed away, when they withdrew from the field,
and joining a large body of infantry under Lieutenant-General
Talmash, retired by the brook Beck upon Dormal, and thence to
Lewe. The enemy attempted to interrupt the retreat; but the
British battalions facing about to confront their pursuers, the
French halted, and the retrograde movement of this body of men
was performed with trifling loss; the remainder of the army had,
however, to pass the river Gheet by a narrow bridge, and the
defiles becoming choked with gun-carriages, the rear was severely
handled by the French, and the King narrowly escaped being taken
prisoner.

The loss of the regiment on this occasion was very severe: among
the killed were Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Whalley, an officer
of distinguished merit, who raised one of the companies of the
regiment at its formation in 1685, and Lieutenants Fairbrother,
Cooper, and Blackmore; Captain Ruthwin died of his wounds: among
the wounded were Colonel Edward Fitzpatrick, Major Wilson, Captains
Harte, Betsworth, and Withers, and Lieutenant Fletcher; the loss in
non-commissioned officers and private soldiers was very great; but
the exact number has not been ascertained.

The regiment was employed in the movements of the main army until
the end of the campaign, when it returned to Ghent, where it was
stationed during the winter, together with three battalions of
foot-guards, and the Queen Dowager's regiment of foot.

[Sidenote: 1694]

In the spring of 1694 a numerous body of recruits from England
replaced the losses of the preceding campaign, and when the
regiment took the field, it was reviewed by King William, and
complimented on its martial appearance, and the steadiness with
which it performed the simple manœuvres practised at that period.
It served in the brigade under the orders of Brigadier-General
Erle, and performed many long and toilsome marches in Flanders and
Brabant; but no general engagement occurred, and it passed another
winter in barracks at Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1695]

When the season for taking the field, in the spring of 1695,
arrived, the British monarch appeared at the head of a splendid
army of British, Spaniards, Dutch, and Germans; in the preceding
years His Majesty had been satisfied with arresting the progress
of the French arms; but in 1695 he resolved to wrest the strong
and important fortress of _Namur_ from the power of Louis XIV.
Colonel Fitzpatrick, having been eighteen months in England to
recover of his wounds, rejoined the army on the 19th of June, and
was placed at the head of a brigade, of which his own regiment of
FUSILIERS formed part. King William attacked Fort Kenoyne, and
having drawn the French forces to the Flanders side of their line
of entrenchments, he invested _Namur_. The ROYAL FUSILIERS were
detached from the army at Wonterghem to take part in the siege,
and pitched their tents at Templeaux, a post about five miles from
the town. On the 6th of July they were on duty in the trenches; on
the 8th they marched into the lines of circumvallation, and in the
evening of the same day a detachment was engaged in a successful
attack on the covered way upon the hill of Bouge. The attack was
made about seven in the evening; and such were the spirit and
energy with which the British soldiers rushed upon their opponents,
that the palisades were speedily broken down,--the covered way
carried,--the French overpowered and chased among the works, many
of them throwing themselves into stone pits to escape the fury of
their assailants.

This success stimulated the soldiers to fresh exertions, and on
the 17th of July, when the ROYAL FUSILIERS were directed to take
part in the storming of the counterscarp, they engaged in this
service with a cheerful alacrity, which proved the ardour which
glowed in every breast. The grenadiers led the assault, and,
rushing to the glacis, cast their grenades over the palisades into
the covered way. Following up this attack with spirit, the French
were overpowered, the counterscarp was carried in gallant style,
and the ROYAL FUSILIERS were thanked by King William for their
distinguished bravery. They had Lieutenant Dancy killed and Captain
Negus wounded; also a number of private men killed and wounded.
The siege was prosecuted with vigour, and with such success that
before the end of July the town was delivered up, Marshal Boufflers
retiring with the garrison into the castle.

One hundred and thirty-six pieces of cannon and fifty mortars
opened their fire on the castle of _Namur_ on the 11th of August,
and being continued without intermission, breaches were made in the
Terra Nova and Cohorne, and on the night of the 20th of August, a
detachment of the ROYAL FUSILIERS was engaged under Lord Cutts in
the attack of the counterscarp and breach of Terra Nova, and had
several men killed and Captain Groves, Lieutenant Rainsford, and
a number of men wounded. The fire of the artillery was continued,
and preparations were made for another assault; but the further
effusion of blood was prevented by the surrender of the place.
After the repair of the works, the King, being satisfied with the
capture of so important a place, dismissed the army to its winter
quarters, and the FUSILIERS returned to their usual station at
Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1696]

During the following winter a conspiracy was formed in England for
the assassination of King William: at the same time an insurrection
was organised, and a French army was assembled near the coast
to aid in the replacing of King James on the throne. A body of
troops was immediately ordered to return from Flanders; and the
ROYAL FUSILIERS embarked at Sas van Ghent, sailed from thence to
Flushing, where the transports were placed under the convoy of
Dutch men-of-war, and, afterwards resuming the voyage, arrived at
Gravesend in March, 1696. The plot had, however, been discovered,
the conspirators arrested, and the British fleet was manned and
sent to sea; the French monarch's designs were thus frustrated, and
the FUSILIERS returned to Flanders without landing in England.

During the campaign of 1696 the regiment served with the Brabant
army commanded by King William; but no fighting took place. In
the beginning of September it joined the army of Flanders under
the Prince of Vaudemont, and, encamping near the village of St.
Michael, was employed in constructing works for the protection of
Bruges. In October it marched to Ghent.

In November, 1696, Brigadier-General Sir Charles O'Hara was
appointed colonel of the ROYAL REGIMENT OF FUSILIERS, in succession
to Brigadier-General Fitzpatrick, drowned.

[Sidenote: 1697]

Leaving Ghent on the 13th of March, 1697, the regiment proceeded
into village quarters between Brussels and Malines. Two companies
were detached to form part of the garrison of Oudenarde, and the
remainder subsequently encamped behind the forest of Soignies,
where the men suffered much from wet weather and from the want of
their clothing, which was due, but had not arrived from England.

The ROYAL FUSILIERS took part in the operations of this campaign.
In September a treaty of peace was signed at Ryswick, and during
the winter the regiment returned to England; at the same time its
numbers were reduced to a peace establishment.

[Sidenote: 1698]

In August, 1698, the regiment proceeded to Jersey and Guernsey, to
relieve a corps of marines which was ordered to be disbanded.

[Sidenote: 1701]

[Sidenote: 1702]

The regiment remained in Jersey and Guernsey until 1702, when the
accession of Philip Duke of Anjou (grandson of Louis XIV.) to the
throne of Spain, to the prejudice of the House of Austria, had
involved Europe in another war. This violation of existing treaties
was followed by the Courts of France and Spain acknowledging the
Pretender as King of Great Britain. Queen Anne declared war against
France and Spain, and in the summer of 1702 three companies of
the ROYAL FUSILIERS were called from Jersey and Guernsey to take
part in an expedition, under the Duke of Ormond, against the city
of _Cadiz_; their colonel, Major-General Sir Charles O'Hara, was
also employed in this enterprise. The fleet arrived off the coast
of Andalusia in Spain, and a landing was effected in the middle
of August, within a short distance from Cadiz. The wind being
high, about thirty boats crowded with soldiers were overturned
by the surge, and above twenty men of the ROYAL FUSILIERS were
drowned. The towns of _Rota_, and Port St. Mary's with _Fort St.
Catherine_, were captured; but the fortress of Cadiz was found too
strong, and the garrison too numerous to be reduced by the small
expedition sent against it. The wealthy and flourishing town of
Port St. Mary's was found deserted by the inhabitants, the houses
well furnished, and much valuable merchandise in the warehouses.
Strict discipline not being preserved, the town was plundered,
and a great quantity of property was removed on board the fleet.
Several officers were charged with participating in the plunder,
and Sir Charles O'Hara was implicated and brought to trial, but
was acquitted. The capture of Cadiz being found impracticable,
the troops re-embarked, and sailed for England; but while at
sea, information was received of the arrival of a valuable
Spanish fleet under a French convoy, at the harbour of _Vigo_,
and the expedition immediately proceeded thither. A landing was
effected on the south side of the river, above _Vigo_; a strong
fort and a battery were captured; the British fleet forced an
entrance, and the French and Spanish shipping were all captured or
destroyed. The fleet afterwards returned to England; and the Duke
of Ormond received the thanks of parliament for his success in
this enterprize. The three companies of the FUSILIERS were landed
and placed in garrison at Tilbury, excepting fifty men, who were
sent to the West Indies to complete Brigadier-General Gustavus
Hamilton's regiment.

[Sidenote: 1703]

[Sidenote: 1704]

[Sidenote: 1705]

The war being continued, the ROYAL FUSILIERS were employed during
the summer of 1703 as marines on board the fleet: they afterwards
landed, and were placed in garrison at Portsmouth, from whence a
detachment was sent to the Isle of Wight in August, 1704. In 1705
the regiment was stationed at Plymouth.

[Sidenote: 1706]

In the meantime several regiments had been sent to Portugal; an
armament under the Earl of Peterborough had captured _Barcelona_,
and Catalonia and Valencia had declared in favour of Archduke
Charles of Austria, who was acknowledged as sovereign of Spain
by Great Britain, Holland, &c. The house of Bourbon assembled a
well-appointed army and a powerful fleet to retake Barcelona,
which was besieged by King Philip in April, 1706. King Charles
remained in the city, that his presence might inspire confidence
in the garrison, which was weak and ill provided with the means of
defence. Succours were sent from England, and the ROYAL FUSILIERS
were embarked for this service. On the approach of the British
squadron the French fleet retired. The ROYAL FUSILIERS landed at
Barcelona on the 8th of May, and immediately marched to the breach
to repel an expected attack by storm, which did not, however, take
place. The arrival of the British fleet with reinforcements decided
the fate of the town; and the army of King Philip raised the siege
and retired, leaving its battering train and magazines behind.

From Barcelona the ROYAL FUSILIERS marched a distance of
forty-seven miles, to Gironne, a fortified town of Catalonia,
situated at the base of a steep mountain, with the river Tar
running through the town. Here the regiment passed in comfortable
quarters among the Spaniards the remainder of the year 1706 and
the early part of 1707. Provisions and wine were abundant, and the
regiment was preserved in a state of efficiency.

[Sidenote: 1707]

While the ROYAL FUSILIERS were at Gironne, the allied British,
Portuguese, and Dutch army, was overpowered on the plains of
Almanza on the 25th of April, 1707. Soon after this disaster the
ROYAL FUSILIERS traversed the country from Gironne to _Lerida_
(anciently called _Ilerda_), a place celebrated in history for the
beauty of its situation, the fertility of the adjacent country, and
for having been the capital of the country of the Ilergetes long
before the first invasion of Spain by the Romans. At this pleasant
city, situated on the declivity of a hill on the west bank of the
Segra, the ROYAL FUSILIERS remained a short time, expecting the
approach of the victorious French and Spanish forces. The officers
and soldiers could view the ground where Scipio defeated Hanno,
the Carthaginian general, and where Julius Cæsar conquered the
lieutenants of Pompey; but no hope of victory could be entertained
by the ROYAL FUSILIERS in the approaching contest, the disparity of
numbers being too great.

The garrison of Lerida consisted of the ROYAL FUSILIERS, Wills's
marines (now thirtieth regiment), with one Portuguese and two
Dutch battalions, commanded by Prince Henry of Hesse d'Armstadt
and Major-General Wills. A powerful French and Spanish army under
His Royal Highness the Duke of Orleans and the Duke of Berwick
invested the town on the 10th of September, and, having effected a
breach, gave a general assault on the 12th of October. The garrison
defended its post with admirable courage and resolution, and the
firmness and steady valour of the ROYAL FUSILIERS were conspicuous.
The enemy having made a lodgment, the garrison vacated the town,
and retired to the castle at the top of the hill, where a vigorous
defence was continued until the water and provisions were expended,
when the fortress was surrendered on honourable terms. The garrison
marched, out on the 12th of November with colours flying, taking
with them all their baggage and two pieces of cannon, and proceeded
to join the army under the Earl of Galway.

[Sidenote: 1708]

The ROYAL FUSILIERS, having sustained considerable loss in the
defence of Lerida, returned to England in the spring of 1708 to
recruit, and their colonel, Major-General Sir Charles O'Hara, was
advanced to the peerage by the title of BARON TYRAWLEY.

[Sidenote: 1709]

During the winter of 1708 and spring of 1709 the regiment occupied
extensive cantonments in Devonshire and Somersetshire, and its
ranks were rapidly recruited.

This year Lieut.-General Stanhope formed the design of surprising
Cadiz, and concerted measures with Admiral Sir George Byng, on
board of whose squadron he embarked from Port Mahon with two
regiments of foot, and sailed to Gibraltar to await the arrival of
a body of troops from England. The ROYAL FUSILIERS were selected
to take part in this enterprise, and they embarked at Portsmouth
on board of the squadron commanded by Rear-Admiral Baker; but the
fleet was detained so long by contrary winds, that it did not reach
Portugal until October, when the season was too far advanced for
prosecuting this adventure, and the regiment sailed to Barcelona.

[Sidenote: 1710]

[Sidenote: 1711]

[Sidenote: 1712]

[Sidenote: 1713]

The island of Minorca having been captured in 1708, the ROYAL
FUSILIERS were selected to form part of the garrison of that
important place during the remainder of the war, which was
terminated in 1713 by the Treaty of Utrecht. By this treaty Minorca
was ceded to Great Britain, and the regiment was one of the corps
destined to remain on the island.

On the 29th of January, 1713, the colonelcy was conferred on the
Honourable James O'Hara, in succession to his father, James Lord
Tyrawley.

[Sidenote: 1714]

[Sidenote: 1719]

The ROYAL FUSILIERS remained at Minorca until the spring of 1719,
when they were relieved, and arrived at Plymouth in May of that
year; in July they proceeded to Ireland, where they continued until
1727.

[Sidenote: 1727]

In 1727, when the Spaniards besieged Gibraltar, the regiment was
ordered to return to England, and it was subsequently held in
readiness to join the Dutch in their war with Austria; but no
embarkation took place.

[Sidenote: 1728]

[Sidenote: 1734]

The regiment remained in Great Britain until 1734, when it
proceeded to Gibraltar.

[Sidenote: 1739]

Lord Tyrawley having been removed to the fifth horse (now fourth
dragoon guards) in August, 1739, his lordship was succeeded in the
colonelcy by Major-General William Hargrave, from the ninth foot.

[Sidenote: 1749]

Leaving Gibraltar in 1749, the regiment proceeded to Ireland, where
it was stationed six years.

[Sidenote: 1751]

In the royal warrant dated 1st July, 1751, the ROYAL FUSILIERS
are authorized to bear the following distinctions. "In the centre
of their colours, the ROSE within the GARTER, and the CROWN over
it; the WHITE HORSE in the corners of the second colour. On the
grenadier caps the Rose within the Garter, and Crown as in the
colours. White Horse and motto over it, _Nec aspera terrent_. The
same device of the Rose within the Garter, and Crown on their drums
and bells of arms, with the rank of the regiment underneath."

[Sidenote: 1754]

On the decease of General Hargrave in January, 1751, the command
of the ROYAL FUSILIERS was conferred on Colonel John Mostyn, who
was removed, in August, 1754, to the thirteenth dragoons, and was
succeeded by Colonel Lord Robert Bertie.

[Sidenote: 1755]

[Sidenote: 1756]

In the spring of 1755 the regiment embarked from Dublin, and,
having landed at Liverpool, occupied quarters in England until the
breaking out of the Seven Years' War, when it was embarked on board
the fleet commanded by Admiral Byng, in March, 1756, to serve as
marines, and sent to the Mediterranean to endeavour to preserve
_Minorca_ from the power of the French. It served at the engagement
with the French fleet off Minorca on the 20th of May; but the
enemy had previously landed an army, and captured the whole island
excepting Fort St. Philip, and the relief of this fort was not
attempted. The admiral was afterwards brought to trial and shot.

[Sidenote: 1763]

[Sidenote: 1765]

[Sidenote: 1773]

The ROYAL FUSILIERS landed at Gibraltar, and were stationed at that
fortress during the remainder of the war. In 1763 they embarked
for England; in 1765 they proceeded to Scotland; but returned to
England in the spring of 1770, and in April, 1773, they embarked
for Canada.

[Illustration: Private Bn. Coy., 1742.]

[Sidenote: 1774]

After performing garrison duty at Quebec several months, the
regiment embarked for Montreal, and occupied several posts in Lower
Canada.

[Sidenote: 1775]

While the ROYAL FUSILIERS were in Lower Canada, the
misunderstanding between Great Britain and her North American
colonies, on the subject of taxes, attained a crisis; thirteen
states united against the mother-country, and, hostilities having
commenced, the Congress resolved to attempt the conquest of Canada.
The only regular forces in Lower Canada, at this period, were the
SEVENTH and twenty-sixth regiments, and their number being weak,
they were unequal to the defence of this extensive province against
the very superior numbers of the enemy: the eighth foot were in
upper Canada.

In May, 1775, a body of Americans surprised and captured the posts
of Ticonderoga and Crown-point; and this success was followed by
the advance of two divisions of the American army at different
points. The British governor, Lieut.-General Carlton, sent the
ROYAL FUSILIERS and twenty-sixth from Montreal to _St. John's_,
where they were employed in constructing two redoubts.

In the autumn one division of the American army, under Colonel
Montgomery (a native of Ireland, who had quitted the British
service a short time before, and settled at New York), besieged
_St. John's_. The garrison, consisting of five hundred and fifty
men of the SEVENTH and twenty-sixth, and a few Canadian volunteers,
commanded by Major Charles Preston of the twenty-sixth, had but a
small supply of ammunition and provision, and the works were in an
imperfect state, yet a most gallant resistance was made.

The American commander turned the siege into a blockade, and
invested _Fort Chambly_, where Major the Honourable Joseph
Stopford of the ROYAL FUSILIERS, and about eighty men, were in
garrison. This post kept up the communication between St. John's
and Montreal; but the works were not in a good condition; the place
was not deemed capable of resisting artillery, and no effectual
resistance could, consequently, be made against the very superior
numbers of the enemy. The garrison surrendered on the 20th of
October.

After this success Colonel Montgomery resumed the siege of _St.
John's_, and the SEVENTH and twenty-sixth regiments made a
determined resistance. The hardships they endured were borne with
patience; they were often knee-deep in mire, and were reduced to
half-allowance of provision; yet they held out with the most heroic
bravery until their strength was exhausted, and no chance of being
relieved remained, when they surrendered. Thus at the commencement
of the war the ROYAL FUSILIERS were nearly all made prisoners.

The enemy subsequently advanced upon Montreal, and Lieut.-General
Carlton, being deserted by the Canadians, and without the means of
defence, retired down the river St. Lawrence to Quebec, accompanied
by a party of the ROYAL FUSILIERS.

_Quebec_ was besieged by two divisions of Americans under Colonels
Montgomery and Arnold, and the garrison, of which sixty men of the
ROYAL FUSILIERS formed part, defended the place with firmness and
intrepidity; the winter was particularly severe, and the soldiers
of both sides served amidst ice and snow. About five o'clock on the
morning of the 31st of December, during a storm of sleet and snow,
the Americans made a general assault with the view of carrying the
place by storm; but the garrison withstood the tempest of war with
such determined resolution, that the storming party was repulsed
with the loss of between six and seven hundred men; Colonel
Montgomery was killed, and Colonel Arnold wounded. The garrison
only lost one officer and four private soldiers killed, and seven
private soldiers wounded.

[Sidenote: 1776]

After this repulse the Americans turned the siege into a blockade,
and placed their troops in village cantonments: in April, 1776,
they resumed the siege, and the British defended the place with
resolution. In the early part of May reinforcements arrived from
England, and on the 6th of that month Lieut.-General Carlton
marched out of the fortress at the head of the garrison to attack
the American camp, when the besieging army made a precipitate
retreat, leaving its artillery, stores, scaling ladders, &c.,
behind. The British followed their opponents up the country,
recovered Montreal, and drove the Americans out of Canada.

In the meantime a detachment of the regiment had arrived at Boston
from England, and on the evacuation of Boston, it proceeded to
Halifax in Nova Scotia.

In October, 1776, Lord Robert Bertie was appointed to the command
of the second troop (now second regiment) of life guards; and
the colonelcy of the ROYAL FUSILIERS was conferred on their
lieut.-colonel, William Prescott, by commission dated the 12th of
November, 1776.

In the autumn of this year the ROYAL FUSILIERS transferred their
services from Canada to New York; as the men taken prisoners were
exchanged, the numbers of the regiment were increased; clothing
and appointments arrived from England, and the regiment occupied
quarters for the winter at Amboy in Middlesex county.

[Sidenote: 1777]

From Amboy the ROYAL FUSILIERS were removed to _Staten Island_,
which was attacked in August, 1777, by the Americans under General
Sullivan, who were repulsed with loss.

At this period a British force under Lieut.-General Burgoyne
was advancing from Canada upon Albany; at the same time another
British army under General Sir William Howe was proceeding against
Philadelphia; and Lieut.-General Sir Henry Clinton, who commanded
at New York, resolved to penetrate into Jersey for a diversion in
favour of both armies. The ROYAL FUSILIERS, with several other
corps, were accordingly embarked for this service, and on the 12th
of September effected a landing at four different places without
meeting with serious opposition. The SEVENTH, twenty-sixth, and
fifty-second regiments, with a body of German grenadiers and three
hundred provincials under Brigadier-General Campbell, landed at
Elizabeth-Town-Point, at about four in the morning, and advanced
up the country: the enemy opposed the march, and a sharp firing
was kept up throughout the day. The King's forces, however, had
the advantage; they took Newark, and were advancing on Aquakinack,
when they received orders to halt and wait the advance of the
troops which had effected a landing at the other points. The enemy
afterwards appeared in force, and several skirmishes occurred, but
the British succeeded in capturing four hundred head of cattle,
four hundred sheep, and a few horses. On the 16th of September the
ROYAL FUSILIERS marched to Bergen Point, where they re-embarked
and returned to Staten Island, without the loss of one man in this
expedition, and with only Lieutenant Haymer and one private soldier
wounded.

In October of the same year the ROYAL FUSILIERS were embarked to
join an expedition against the enemy's forts up _Hudson's River_.
About three thousand men were collected for this service from New
York and the lines at Kingsbridge; and having embarked on board
of transports, were convoyed up the river by some frigates and
other armed vessels under Commodore Hotham. The troops landed at
day-break on the 6th of October at Stony-point, and arrangements
were immediately made for the attack of _Forts Montgomery_ and
_Clinton_. The troops had to march a distance of twelve miles
over mountains, and to overcome many obstructions; they, however,
surmounted every difficulty, and attacked the forts by storm on the
same day. As the Americans were prepared, and their works strong,
they made an obstinate defence; but nothing could withstand the
ardour of the royal troops, and every corps gained a share in the
glory. _Fort Constitution_ was also taken on the 7th of October.
Not far from these forts was a new settlement called _Continential
Village_, where there was a barrack for fifteen hundred men. The
ROYAL FUSILIERS, with two German corps and two three-pounders, were
sent against this place, and having destroyed the settlement and
burnt the barrack and stores, the troops returned.

Notwithstanding these successful diversions, Lieut.-General
Burgoyne experienced great difficulties in his advance, and
eventually, his troops being exhausted with fatigue and privation,
his advance opposed by superior numbers, and his retreat cut off,
he capitulated. The army under General Sir William Howe had better
success, and captured Philadelphia. The enemy having despatched
part of the force originally opposed to Lieut.-General Burgoyne, to
join their army of the south under General Washington, the ROYAL
FUSILIERS were sent from the vicinity of New York to reinforce the
army in Pennsylvania, and in the early part of December they were
engaged in a skirmish with the Americans in front of Philadelphia;
but only lost one man.

[Sidenote: 1778]

Louis XVI. having acknowledged the independence of the revolted
British States in America, and concluded a treaty of alliance with
them, Great Britain declared war against France; and as the French
had agreed to assist the Americans, a concentration of the British
forces was deemed advisable. The army accordingly retired in June,
1778, from Philadelphia, and crossed the Delaware, and proceeded
through the Jerseys, from whence it embarked for New York. Numerous
obstacles had to be overcome in this retreat, and the troops
suffered much from the excessive heat of the weather: some sharp
skirmishing also took place, but the ROYAL FUSILIERS do not appear
to have sustained any loss.

[Sidenote: 1779]

The regiment remained at the lines near New York until the summer
of 1779, when it was employed in an expedition commanded by
Major-General Tyron, sent into East Sound with a view of drawing
General Washington from the strong post which he occupied in the
mountains into Connecticut for the defence of the towns on that
coast. The fleet arrived at the harbour of _Newhaven_ on the 5th
of July, and the first division of the Army, which consisted of
the flank companies of the guards, ROYAL FUSILIERS, fifty-fourth
regiment, and a detachment of Jagars, with four field-pieces,
under Brigadier-General Garth, landed about five o'clock in the
morning a mile south of the town, and advanced, making a circuit of
seven miles to gain the head of the creek on the western side of
the place. Some skirmishing occurred on the march, but the King's
troops overcame all opposition and took possession of the town:
at the same time the second division landed and took post at Rock
Fort. On the following day the troops destroyed all the public
stores, and part of the ordnance, with a number of vessels, and
afterwards re-embarked, bringing off six field-pieces and an armed
privateer. On the 7th of July the fleet anchored off the village
of _Fairfield_; the British troops landed and defeated a party
of Americans; the enemy kept firing from windows and the tops of
houses, which provoked a band of loyal emigrants to set the place
on fire, by which the town and a number of boats were destroyed.
On the 11th of July the fleet sailed to the bay of _Norwalk_. The
troops landed on the following day and advanced against the town.
"The FUSILIERS, supported by the light infantry of the guards,
began the attack, and soon cleared the quarters--pushing the main
body of the enemy and an hundred cavalry from the northern heights,
and taking one piece of their cannon. After many of the salt-pans
were destroyed, whale-boats carried away on board the fleet, and
the magazines, stores, and vessels set in flames, with the greatest
part of the dwelling-houses, the advanced-corps were drawn back,
and the troops retired in two columns to the place of our first
debarkation, and, unassaulted, took ship and returned to Huntingdon
bay."[12] This expedition did not produce the desired effect in
the movements of the American general. The troops were ordered to
return to New York. Major-General Tyron stated in his despatch--"I
should do injustice if I closed this report without giving every
praise to the troops I had the honour to command."[13]

The ROYAL REGIMENT OF FUSILIERS lost five men in this expedition,
and had three serjeants and nineteen men wounded.

During the autumn of this year the operations of the army were
limited to defensive measures; but in December an attack on the
opulent province of South Carolina was determined on, and the ROYAL
FUSILIERS formed a part of the force employed on this service,
which was commanded by General Sir Henry Clinton.

[Sidenote: 1780]

The troops having embarked, the fleet and convoy sailed from
New York on the 26th of December, and after experiencing much
tempestuous weather, which separated the fleet and occasioned the
loss of several transports, arrived at the Savannah about the end
of January, 1780, and gained the harbour of North Edisto, on the
coast of South Carolina, in February. The troops were immediately
landed, and took possession of John's and James's Island, the
ROYAL FUSILIERS taking post at Stono-ferry on John's Island. The
passage of the Ashley River was effected on the 29th of March, and
on the 1st of April the army besieged _Charlestown_. The works
were carried on with perseverance and judgment, and, on the 11th
of May, all things being ready for a general assault, the governor
capitulated, and ten American regiments, with three battalions of
artillery, and the town and county militia, became prisoners of war.

The loss of the royal army in this siege was only seventy-six
killed and one hundred and ninety wounded, including all ranks. The
ROYAL FUSILIERS had one man killed and two wounded.

[Sidenote: 1781]

The regiment appears to have been in garrison during the remainder
of this year; and in January, 1781, it was ordered to proceed to
Fort Ninety-Six, which place was then besieged by the Americans;
but when on the march, the regiment received orders to join a body
of troops under Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton, and march against
General Morgan, who was posted at Pacolet with a strong division of
the American army. "The progress of the King's troops was greatly
impeded by heavy rains, which swelled the rivers and creeks; yet
Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton conducted his march so well, and got so
near to General Morgan (who was retreating before him), as to make
it dangerous for him to pass the Broad-River, and came up with him
at eight o'clock A.M. on the 17th of January, at a place called
_Cow-Pens_. The attack was begun by the first line of infantry,
consisting of the SEVENTH regiment, the infantry of the legion, and
the corps of light infantry annexed to it: a troop of cavalry was
placed on each flank: the first battalion of the seventy-first,
and the remainder of the cavalry, formed the reserve. The enemy's
line soon gave way, and their militia quitted the field; but our
troops having been thrown into some disorder by the pursuit,
General Morgan's corps faced about and gave them a heavy fire: this
unexpected event occasioned the utmost confusion in the first line.
The two three-pounders were taken, and I fear the colours of the
SEVENTH regiment shared the same fate."[14]

In this unfortunate engagement the Royal Fusiliers sustained a very
serious loss in killed, wounded, and taken prisoners.

[Sidenote: 1782]

[Sidenote: 1783]

The regiment was subsequently placed in garrison in South Carolina,
where it remained until 1782; when, the British Government having
been induced to concede the independence of the United States,
pacific overtures were made, which were succeeded by a cessation of
hostilities. South Carolina was evacuated, and the ROYAL FUSILIERS
proceeded to New York, where they remained until the conclusion of
the treaty of peace in 1783, when they returned to England; at the
same time the establishment was reduced to eight companies.

[Sidenote: 1784]

[Sidenote: 1785]

[Sidenote: 1786]

After occupying quarters at Gloucester and Plymouth, the regiment
proceeded to Scotland in the spring of 1786.

[Sidenote: 1788]

[Sidenote: 1789]

On the decease of General Prescott in the autumn of 1788, the
colonelcy was conferred on Major-General the Honourable William
Gordon, who was removed in April, 1789, to the seventy-first
regiment, and the colonelcy of the ROYAL FUSILIERS was conferred on
PRINCE EDWARD (fourth son of King George III.), afterwards DUKE OF
KENT.

[Sidenote: 1790]

In 1790 the regiment embarked from Leith and the Isle of Man for
Gibraltar, and, arriving at that important fortress in August,
occupied the King's barracks, under the command of its colonel, His
Royal Highness PRINCE EDWARD.

[Sidenote: 1791]

[Sidenote: 1792]

[Sidenote: 1793]

From Gibraltar the regiment embarked, in May, 1791, for
Canada,--the right wing under PRINCE EDWARD on board His Majesty's
ship "Ulysses," and the left wing under Captain Shuttleworth in
the "Resistance;" both wings landed in August at Quebec, where the
regiment was stationed, under PRINCE EDWARD'S command, nearly three
years: His Royal Highness afterwards proceeded to the West Indies,
and acquired a reputation for valour and intrepidity at the capture
of Martinique, St. Lucie, and Guadaloupe.

[Sidenote: 1794]

Two companies of the regiment were detached in June, 1794, from
Quebec to Halifax, in Nova Scotia, and in October of the same year
the regiment proceeded to that station.

[Sidenote: 1795]

[Sidenote: 1796]

A strong draft of recruits arrived from England in September,
1795, and the regiment was formed into _two battalions_. Both
battalions were, however, incorporated, in April, 1796, into
_one_,--consisting of fifty-four serjeants, twenty-two drummers,
and a thousand rank and file; and the supernumerary men were
transferred to the fourth, or the King's own regiment.

[Sidenote: 1797]

[Sidenote: 1798]

[Sidenote: 1799]

PRINCE EDWARD, having returned from the West Indies, was appointed
Commander of the Forces in Nova Scotia and its dependencies, and
was subsequently promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General. The
ROYAL FUSILIERS experienced the advantage of His Royal Highness's
assiduous attention to their interests; his military virtues,--his
liberality,--his care to bring merit into notice, and to procure
suitable rewards for the well-conducted,[15] with his constant
attention to everything calculated to promote the welfare of the
regiment, endeared his name in the grateful remembrance of the
officers and soldiers; at the same time, the facility with which
he procured a constant supply of fine recruits for his corps,
with his indefatigable efforts to inculcate the true principles
of subordination in the regiment, and to bring it into a state of
perfection in discipline, occasioned the ROYAL FUSILIERS to become
one of the most efficient corps in the service,--distinguished
alike for its uniform and warlike appearance,--excellent conduct
in quarters,--and the superior style in which it performed its
exercises and field movements. His Royal Highness having returned
to England on account of ill health, was created, on the 23rd
of April, 1799, EARL of DUBLIN in Ireland, and DUKE of KENT and
STRATHEARN in Great Britain.

[Sidenote: 1801]

In August, 1801, the DUKE of KENT was removed to the first
or the royal regiment; and was succeeded in the colonelcy by
Lieut.-General Sir Alured Clarke from the fifth foot, who had
commanded the ROYAL FUSILIERS during a great part of the American
war.

[Sidenote: 1802]

After passing eleven years in the protection of the British North
American provinces, the regiment embarked from Nova Scotia, the
right wing under Lieut.-Colonel Layard, for Bermuda, and the left
wing under Brevet Lieut.-Colonel Burrows for the Bahamas; and both
wings arrived at their destinations in October and November, 1802.

[Sidenote: 1804]

[Sidenote: 1805]

While the regiment was in the West Indies, a _second battalion_ was
added to its establishment, and formed of men raised for limited
service in the West Riding of Yorkshire, under the provisions
of the Additional Force Act, passed in July, 1804. The second
battalion was placed on the establishment on the 25th of December,
1804, and in 1805 it marched from Yorkshire to Winchester.[16]

[Sidenote: 1806]

[Sidenote: 1807]

In July, 1806, five companies embarked from Bermuda, and landed at
Plymouth in August; they were followed by the five companies from
the Bahamas, which landed at Plymouth in November and December.
The first battalion, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel the Honourable E.
M. Pakenham, received a draft of between four and five hundred men
from the second, and, embarking at Liverpool for Ireland, landed
at Dublin in the beginning of January, 1807: the second battalion,
commanded by Lieut.-Colonel William J. Myers, remained in England.

Information having been obtained that Napoleon, Emperor of France,
purposed employing the navy of Denmark against Great Britain, an
armament was prepared for obtaining possession of the Danish fleet
by treaty or force. The first battalion of the ROYAL FUSILIERS,
having been inspected by Major-General Leith, and commended
for its appearance and discipline, was withdrawn from Ireland
to take part in this enterprise. It embarked from Dublin in
July,--landed at Liverpool,--marched to Hull, from whence it sailed
to Denmark, and, disembarking on the island of Zealand, joined
the army under General Lord Cathcart, and was employed in the
siege of _Copenhagen_. After a bombardment of three days the city
surrendered, and the Danish fleet was delivered up. The British
troops afterwards returned to England; the ROYAL FUSILIERS landed
in November at Portsmouth, from whence they proceeded to Lewes,
where another draft of nearly four hundred men was received from
the second battalion.

[Sidenote: 1808]

Returning to Portsmouth in January, 1808, the first battalion
embarked immediately for Nova Scotia; the fleet called at Bermuda
to leave the thirteenth regiment, and afterwards proceeding direct
to Nova Scotia, the ROYAL FUSILIERS landed at Halifax in the middle
of April.

In May, 1808, the second battalion embarked at Tilbury Fort for
Ireland, and landed at Monkstown in the middle of June.

Soon after its arrival at Nova Scotia, the first battalion was
selected to proceed, with other corps under the command of
Lieut.-General Sir George Prevost, to the West Indies to take part
in an expedition against the French island of _Martinique_.

[Sidenote: 1809]

The armament assembled at Carlisle-bay in Barbadoes, under the
command of Lieut.-General Beckwith, and sailing on the 28th of
January, 1809, arrived off Martinique on the following day. At
four o'clock on the afternoon of the 30th the ROYAL FUSILIERS
landed at Malgré Tout, in Bay Robert, and marched that evening
through difficult roads to De Manceaux's estate. After a few hours'
repose the troops resumed their march to Papin's, where part of
the division halted; but the ROYAL FUSILIERS and grenadier company
of the first West India regiment pushed forward to the heights on
De Bork's estate, where they passed the night. On the following
day they were joined by the Royal Welsh Fusiliers and the light
infantry battalion; when Lieut.-Colonel Pakenham advanced with the
ROYAL FUSILIERS, supported by the light battalion, to the heights
of _Morné Bruno_. From this post the ROYAL FUSILIERS, with the
rifle company of the twenty-third, and grenadiers of the first
West India regiment, advanced, supported by the Welsh Fusiliers,
against the height of _Desfourneaux_. The French, under General
De Houdelot, were advantageously posted on the declivity of the
hill, with a river in their front, and their left protected by
artillery. Lieut.-Colonel Pakenham, with the flank companies of
the SEVENTH, and rifle company of the twenty-third, turned the
enemy's right; the light battalion moved against the enemy's
left; and the battalion companies of the SEVENTH, and grenadiers
of the first West India regiment, advanced against the front.
Animated by a spirit of emulation and a thirst for glory, the
British troops rushed onward with enthusiasm; the ROYAL FUSILIERS
forded the river under a heavy fire, and attacking their more
numerous antagonists with signal gallantry, drove the French from
their formidable position in disorder. Lieut.-Colonel Pakenham
continued his victorious career against the heights of _Surirey_,
and being gallantly supported by the twenty-third regiment, the
soldiers under his orders, animated by the zeal and ardour of
their brave leaders, overcame obstacles of a formidable character
with heroic valour; they carried the hill, and, by a spirited
charge, forced the French to take shelter under the guns of their
redoubts. In this attack the valour and judgment of Lieut.-Colonel
Pakenham, and the excellence of the FUSILIER BRIGADE, were
conspicuous. Lieut.-General Sir George Beckwith observed in
General Orders:--"The Commander of the Forces desires to express
his entire approbation of the manly conduct of the troops engaged
yesterday, and desires that the general officers and soldiers will
be pleased to accept his thanks, and to assure them that he will
not fail to lay their merit before the King. Lieutenant-General
Sir George Prevost having reported the unremitting exertions of
Lieutenant-Colonel the HONOURABLE EDWARD MICHAEL PAKENHAM, of the
ROYAL FUSILIERS, the Commander of the Forces feels great pleasure
in making this known to the army."

The regiment had Captain Taylor (acting Deputy
Quarter-Master-General) and nine rank and file killed; two
serjeants, one drummer, and fifty-six rank and file wounded; four
rank and file missing.

The French occupied a second position, strengthened by two
redoubts connected by an entrenchment. On the 2nd of February
the British made a movement to extend their right, and the ROYAL
FUSILIERS were again engaged, and manifested the same heroic
ardour and superiority over the enemy as on the preceding day.
Lieutenant-Colonel Pakenham led the FUSILIERS, supported by the
light battalion, against the enemy's advanced redoubt, in open
day, and the spirited conduct of the officers and men was again
eminently displayed: but it appearing to the commander of the
expedition that the redoubts would be gained with a loss beyond the
value of the acquisition, the FUSILIERS were ordered to desist.
The loss of the regiment was one serjeant and twenty rank and file
killed; Lieutenant-Colonel Pakenham, Captains Row and Cholwich, one
serjeant, one drummer, and fifty-eight rank and file wounded, three
men missing. The enemy afterwards abandoned the redoubt and spiked
the cannon.

On the following day a general order was issued, in which it was
stated--"The benefit the advanced corps under Lieutenant-General
Sir George Prevost have produced to His Majesty's service, from
the gallant and successful attack made upon Morné Bruno and the
heights of Surirey, on the 1st instant, by the first brigade of
the army and the light battalion under Brigadier-General Hoghton,
demands from the Commander of the Forces a reiteration of his
acknowledgments, and his assurance to the brigadier-general, and
to the commanding officer of the ROYAL FUSILIERS, of the Royal
Welsh Fusiliers, and of the light battalion, also to the officers,
non-commissioned officers, and soldiers of those regiments, that he
will not fail to lay their meritorious exertions before the King.
The exertions of all the corps engaged yesterday were conspicuous;
and although the state of the works possessed by the enemy did not
admit of their being carried by the bayonet, which rendered it
the general's duty to direct the corps employed to retire, they
manifested a spirit and determination which, when tempered by less
impetuosity, will lead to the happiest results."

_Fort Bourbon_ was afterwards besieged; and on the surrender of
this place the French marched out (7th March) and laid down their
arms; the ROYAL FUSILIERS and the two other battalions of the first
brigade receiving each an EAGLE from the French regiments, with a
proportion of brass drums, &c.

The capture of this valuable island having been achieved, the
troops were again commended in general orders for their excellent
conduct: and the ROYAL FUSILIERS were subsequently honoured with
the privilege of bearing the word "MARTINIQUE" inscribed on
their colours, as a mark of royal favour and approbation. Brevet
Lieutenant-Colonel Blakeney received a gold medal for his conduct
in this service.

After the completion of this brilliant enterprise, the ROYAL
FUSILIERS returned to Nova Scotia; before embarking they were again
commended in general orders. They sailed from Martinique on the
15th of March, and arrived at Halifax in April.

Lieutenant-Colonel Pakenham being anxious to stimulate the ROYAL
FUSILIERS to good conduct by distinguishing merit, assembled a
board of officers for that purpose, and the names of the following
non-commissioned officers and soldiers were recorded in the "BOOK
OF MERIT."

Serjeant Thomas Simpson for meritorious and gallant conduct at
Martinique. Quarter-Master-Serjeant Timothy Meagher, Serjeants John
Ledsam, John Henry, John Day, William Harris, William Inchbold,
Joshua Redshaw, Thomas Beale, Thomas Miller, George Kenney, ----
Willson, George Clementson, Corporal Dove, Drummer Thomas Maud,
Privates William Vagg, Mark Ewing, Benjamin Price, James Haughney,
Nathaniel Moss, and James Delamy for general good conduct;
Serjeants Meagher and Henry were afterwards promoted to commissions.

In April, 1809, Lieutenant and Adjutant Orr, a most meritorious
officer, was promoted to a company, on which occasion the
serjeants presented him with an address, expressive of their
regard and gratitude for the manner in which he had performed
the duty of adjutant. This circumstance was, however, deemed a
departure from strict discipline, and the Commander-in-Chief
in North America, General Sir James Craig, declared in General
Orders, that the serjeants had been guilty, unintentionally,
of an act of insubordination.[17] The sentiments expressed in
this order obtained the concurrence of the Commander-in-Chief
of the Army, who stated in orders;--"The reason for which the
Commander-in-Chief has directed the circulation of this Order,
is, that he may avail himself of this opportunity of declaring to
the army his most perfect concurrence in the sentiments therein
expressed by the distinguished and experienced officer by whom it
was framed, on a subject which appears to have been by some very
much misunderstood.--The circumstance of inferiors of any class of
military men assembling for the purpose of bestowing praise and
public marks of approbation on their superiors, implies a power of
deliberation on their conduct which belongs to the Sovereign alone,
or to those officers who may be intrusted with the command and
discipline of the troops. It is a procedure equally objectionable
whether in the higher or lower ranks of the army; and as the
Commander-in-Chief cannot but regard it as a principle subversive
of military discipline, he trusts it is a practice which will be
for ever banished the British service: and he directs commanding
officers to act accordingly.

"By command of the Right Honourable the Commander-in-Chief,

  "HARRY CALVERT,
  "Adjutant-General."

       *       *       *       *       *

In the meantime the second battalion had embarked from Cork to
join the British army in Portugal under Lieutenant-General Sir
John Craddock; it landed at Almeda, opposite to Lisbon, in April,
and mustered upwards of six hundred and fifty officers and men,
commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Sir William Myers, baronet:
the ROYAL FUSILIERS and second battalion of the fifty-third
regiment, with one company of the sixtieth, formed a brigade
under Brigadier-General Alexander Campbell. Soon afterwards
Lieutenant-General Sir Arthur Wellesley arrived in Portugal to
command the army.

In May the combined British and Portuguese forces advanced against
the French under the celebrated Marshal Soult, who had captured
_Oporto_ by assault about five weeks previously, and occupied that
city with a numerous body of veterans. The British general advanced
upon Oporto, and the ROYAL FUSILIERS had the honour of taking part
in the masterly movements by which the legions of Napoleon were
driven from that city on the 12th of May, pursued through the wild
and mountainous districts in the north of Portugal, and forced to
abandon their artillery and ammunition, and to save themselves by a
precipitate flight.

After this success the army retired to Abrantes, where the ROYAL
FUSILIERS were encamped nearly three weeks; they subsequently
advanced into Spain to aid the patriotic Spaniards in their
attempts to expel the French from their country, the British being
joined by a Spanish force under General Cuesta. Having entered
Spain, the army proceeded along the valley of the Tagus, and halted
near _Talavera de la Reyna_. The Spaniards pushed forward, but were
speedily driven back by the advance-guard of the French army under
Joseph Buonaparte, who bore the title of King of Spain. A British
brigade covered the retreat of the Spaniards, and the allied army
went into position near Talavera, the Spaniards occupying the
strong ground on the right, and the British extending to the left
along the more exposed part of the field. In the centre, between
the two armies, there was a commanding spot on which a redoubt
had been commenced, with some open ground in its rear; at this
important post the ROYAL FUSILIERS were stationed, with several
other corps under Brigadier-General Campbell, and they proved
themselves worthy of the trust reposed in them.

The French attacked the left of the British position on the evening
of the 27th of July, and were repulsed. The attack was renewed at
daylight on the following morning, and British skill and valour
were again triumphant. A short respite ensued while the French
generals held a council of war; but soon after mid-day their army
was seen in motion. The British stood to their arms and calmly
awaited the approach of the hostile legions; a cloud of light
troops covered the front of the French army; they were followed
by four dense columns, protected by eighty guns; and the ROYAL
FUSILIERS beheld the torrent of battle advancing towards them
with the fury of a tempest, threatening instant destruction to
all opposition. The fourth corps came rushing forward with such
impetuosity that it speedily cleared the intersected ground in
front, and attacked the ROYAL FUSILIERS and other corps on the
right of the British line with terrific violence. The British
regiments met the storm of war with unshaken firmness, and breaking
in on the front of the advancing columns, and assailing their wings
with a heavy fire, forced them back with a terrible carnage: the
ROYAL FUSILIERS rushed gallantly forward to the muzzles of the
French artillery, and, after an obstinate resistance, captured
seven guns, which the enemy endeavoured to re-capture, but in
vain. The French veterans rallied on their supports, and appeared
resolute on another attack, but they were assailed by so tremendous
a fire of artillery and musketry, that they retired in disorder,
and thus victory was secured in this part of the field. Sir Arthur
Wellesley observed in his despatch,--"I was highly satisfied
with the manner this part of the position was defended;" he also
mentioned the second battalion of the ROYAL FUSILIERS, commanded
by Lieutenant-Colonel SIR WILLIAM MYERS, among the corps which had
particularly distinguished themselves, and thanked the battalion
and its commanding officer in orders. The French were repulsed at
every point of attack, and they withdrew from a contest in which
the superiority of the British troops was eminently displayed.

The ROYAL FUSILIERS had Lieutenant Beaufoy and six rank and file
killed; Lieutenants Kerwan and Muter, Adjutant Page, one serjeant,
two drummers, and fifty-one rank and file wounded; one private
soldier missing. Their commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Sir
William Myers, was rewarded with a gold medal; and the regiment was
subsequently authorised to bear the word "TALAVERA" inscribed on
its colours as an honorary distinction for its gallantry on this
occasion.

In the subsequent part of this campaign the battalion sustained
considerable loss from disease; but it was not engaged in actual
conflict with the enemy.

During the summer Lieutenant-Colonel the Honourable EDWARD MICHAEL
PAKENHAM, commanding the first battalion in Nova Scotia, was placed
on the staff of the army in Portugal. The affable deportment,
amiable disposition, and liberality of this brave and zealous
officer, with his gallantry in the field, and his assiduous
attention to the interests, comfort, reputation, and efficiency
of the regiment during the series of years he had served with the
ROYAL FUSILIERS, had procured him the regard and esteem of every
member of the corps. Previously to his leaving the battalion, the
officers obtained his consent to have his portrait taken, and
presented him with a sword valued at two hundred guineas, as a mark
of their sincere regard for him as an officer and a gentleman,
and of their admiration of his manly virtues and zeal for the
service. The command of the first battalion devolved on Brevet
Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Blakeney, who devoted himself to the
good of the service, and preserved the battalion in its high state
of discipline and efficiency; it was employed at the out-posts of
Nova Scotia, and occupied George's Island, Melville Island, Point
Pleasant, York Redoubt, &c.

[Sidenote: 1810]

On the 1st of January, 1810, the first battalion mustered upwards
of a thousand officers and soldiers, and events occurred soon
afterwards which occasioned the removal of this fine body of men
from North America to the theatre of war in the Peninsula, where
the Spaniards and Portuguese were struggling for independence
against the forces of France, and where a British army sent to aid
the patriots was acquiring never-fading laurels under Sir Arthur
Wellesley, who had been created Viscount Wellington.

The French army in Spain having received numerous reinforcements, a
powerful and well-appointed force advanced under Marshal Massena,
Prince of Esling, to complete the conquest of Portugal; and the
very superior numbers of the enemy rendered it necessary for
the British army to limit itself to the defence of Lisbon. Lord
Wellington, however, resolved to maintain a forward position as
long as possible, and among the reinforcements sent to his aid
was the first battalion of the ROYAL FUSILIERS. On this occasion,
Lieutenant-General Sir George Prevost stated in orders:--"On the
departure of the ROYAL FUSILIERS the Lieutenant-General commanding
acknowledges with pride and pleasure that this corps is an instance
among British soldiers of the union of regularity and good conduct
in quarters with patience and valour in the field of battle.
Lieutenant-General Sir George Prevost has that opinion of the
commanding officer, the officers, non-commissioned officers, and
privates of this already distinguished corps which induces him to
pronounce his confidence that the ROYAL FUSILIERS will maintain
their reputation on whatever service they may be employed, and that
when called upon to face the enemy of their country, they will
again add to their own fame, and exalt the glory of the British
arms."

The first battalion landed at Lisbon on the 27th of July, every
man in health and under arms, and after a short repose advanced
up the country to join the army in the field. On passing Thomar,
the battalion halted a few days, and was reviewed by Major-General
Leith and the Portuguese General, Miranda, who expressed their
admiration of the appearance of the officers and men, and of the
ease and steadiness with which they manœuvred in battalion and
performed light infantry movements. After the review the battalion
advanced to Villa Cortez; and on the surrender of Almeida the army
withdrew to the rocks of _Busaco_, where it took up a position
to oppose the superior numbers of the enemy, whose commander
vaunted he would drive the English into the sea, and plant the
eagles of France on the towers of Lisbon. The first battalion of
the ROYAL FUSILIERS was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Blakeney,
and formed in brigade with the seventy-ninth, under Colonel the
Honourable Edward M. Pakenham, in the first division commanded by
Lieutenant-General Sir Brent Spencer; the second battalion was
commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Sir William Myers, Baronet.

The British and Portuguese troops were in line on the ridge of
the lofty and precipitous hills of Busaco; in front lay the army
of Massena on another range of heights, and the dark mountains
were crowned with the bivouac fires of the opposing bands. On the
morning of the 27th of September, as the light appeared, the fire
of musketry commenced between the advanced posts stationed in the
deep hollows which separated the two armies: shortly afterwards the
French columns of attack appeared, and throwing forward crowds
of skirmishers, they speedily emerged from the hollow beneath,
and assailed the British position with that impetuosity which
distinguishes the first onset of French soldiers. They were opposed
by the unconquerable firmness of British soldiers; the heads of
columns were pierced by musketry, and charged with the bayonet;
and the formidable masses of veteran Frenchmen were overthrown
and driven down the mountain sides with a terrible clamour and
confusion, leaving crowds of killed, wounded, and prisoners behind.
Being unable to overcome the steady valour of the British infantry,
the French commander desisted, and the allied army stood triumphant
on the contested heights. The ROYAL FUSILIERS were stationed on a
portion of this range of rocks which was not seriously attacked,
and their loss was limited to two private soldiers killed,
Lieutenant Mair, and twenty-two rank and file wounded. Colonel
Pakenham, commanding the brigade, was rewarded with a gold medal.
After this vain attempt to force the rocks of Busaco, the French
commander made a flank movement to turn the left of his opponent's
position; when the allied army withdrew to the lines of _Torres
Vedras_, and there opposed a resistance which the French marshal
did not attempt to force.

While the opposing armies confronted each other, several sharp
actions took place between the advanced posts; and on the 13th of
October a company of the ROYAL FUSILIERS was ordered to drive back
a reconnoitring party of the enemy which had entered the village
of _Burlada_, situate between the two armies. This service was
performed with distinguished gallantry, and the French were driven
back at the point of the bayonet.

After searching in vain for a vulnerable part in the British
lines, the French commander, instead of driving the English
leopards into the sea, retired to the strong position of Santarem;
Lord Wellington advanced, and, establishing a series of posts to
watch his opponents, placed his army in cantonments.

The twenty-third, or Royal Welsh Fusiliers, having arrived from
America, the two battalions of the SEVENTH and first battalion of
the twenty-third were constituted a brigade under the command of
Colonel the Honourable Edward M. Pakenham: it was designated the
"FUSILIER BRIGADE," and attached to the fourth division commanded
by Major-General the Honourable Lowry Cole: the first battalion of
the SEVENTH was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Sir William Myers,
and the second by Lieut.-Colonel Blakeney.

[Sidenote: 1811]

In January, 1811, Colonel the Honourable E. M. Pakenham was placed
at the head of the Adjutant-General's department, and the command
of the FUSILIER BRIGADE was intrusted to Major-General Houstoun.
The brigade was stationed, at this period, at Aveiras de Cima.

At length disease, want of provisions, and the impregnable lines
of Torres Vedras, turned the vain boasting of the French commander
into defeat; he retraced his steps towards Spain, covering
wantonly, and with brutal cruelty, the line of his retreat with
rapine, bloodshed, devastation, and burning villages. The ROYAL
FUSILIERS moved forward in pursuit; several skirmishes occurred,
and, on the 12th of March, the brigade was in line near _Redinha_
(a town in the central part of Portugal, in the province of Beira),
and advancing to attack the rear column of the French army under
one of Napoleon's most active and enterprising generals, NEY; but
as the British ranks moved majestically forward in firm array, the
French fired a volley and instantly fled under the cover of the
smoke towards Condexia.

In the meantime Marshal Soult, being at the head of another French
army, had captured _Badajoz_, the capital of Spanish Estremadura;
also _Olivenza_, another fortified town on the west frontier of
Spain; and a detachment from his army had besieged _Campo Mayor_,
a barrier fortress of Portugal, in the province of Alemtejo;
and on the 14th of March the ROYAL FUSILIERS were detached to
the Alemtejo, to join the forces under Marshal Sir William Carr
Beresford, and take part in the relief of Campo Mayor, and in the
re-capture of Badajoz and Olivenza. While on the march, Campo Mayor
surrendered; and the British, continuing their route, arrived
before the town on the 25th of March, as the French columns
were marching out, when the thirteenth light dragoons and some
Portuguese cavalry charged with great gallantry, and threw the
enemy into confusion.

The ROYAL FUSILIERS were stationed at Campo Mayor about a
fortnight, and were subsequently employed in the siege of
_Olivenza_, which was terminated in seven days by the surrender of
the garrison on the 15th of April. The loss of the regiment was
limited to one man killed and one wounded.

This success was followed by the siege of the strong fortress
of _Badajoz_, situated on a beautiful plain on the Guadiana,--a
noble river five hundred yards broad; and the ROYAL FUSILIERS were
employed in this service. Marshal Soult, who had retired after the
capture of this fortress in March, quitted Seville, and, assembling
a powerful force, advanced to its relief. The allied army turned
the siege into a blockade, and moving forward to meet the advancing
foe, took up a position at _Albuhera_. The ROYAL FUSILIERS formed
part of the blockading force, but were subsequently ordered to
join the army; and they arrived in position about nine o'clock on
the morning of the 16th of May, at the moment when the French were
advancing to commence one of the most obstinate and sanguinary
actions in which British troops were ever engaged. The FUSILIER
BRIGADE, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Sir WILLIAM MYERS, of the
SEVENTH, was ordered to form in an oblique line behind the right;
the first battalion of the SEVENTH was commanded by Major John
Mervin Nooth, and the second by Lieut.-Colonel Edward Blakeney.

Being favoured by a height which the allies had neglected to
occupy, the French commander concentrated behind it fifteen
thousand men and forty guns, within ten minutes' march of the right
wing of the allied army, without his opponent's knowledge; at the
same time he extended the remainder of his forces along the woody
banks of the Feria, towards its confluence with the Albuhera. A
little before nine on the morning of the 16th of May, these troops
issued from the woods in one massive column, supported by a second,
flanked by cavalry and preceded by artillery, and attacked the
bridge, where they met with a formidable resistance. The British
general, anticipating the principal effort would be against his
right, directed the Spaniards under General Blake to change front,
and the second division to support them: but the Spanish general
delaying to execute the movement, the enemy was among his troops
before they were completely formed. A destructive cannonade, a
heavy fire of musketry, and the approach of some French squadrons
menacing to charge, put the Spaniards into disorder, and they fell
back fighting. The French columns pushed forward; their reserves
mounted the heights in their rear, and their batteries were brought
into line.

The retrograde of the Spaniards laid open the position of the
allied army, and the only good road by which a retreat could
be conducted was exposed. To remedy this disaster, the leading
brigade of the second division rushed forward; it was speedily
under a destructive fire; a heavy rain concealing distant objects;
and four regiments of French lancers and hussars having turned
the right flank in the obscurity, charged the British battalions
in the rear at the moment when they developed their attack, and
slew or took prisoners nearly two-thirds of their numbers: one
battalion, being in column, maintained its ground, while the French
horsemen overthrew all other opposition, and captured six guns.
A lancer attacked Marshal Beresford, who pushed the lance aside,
and, grappling with the lancer, threw him from his horse. Another
British brigade came boldly into the fight, repelling a charge of
lancers on its flank; the remaining brigade of the second division
arrived; a Spanish corps moved forward, and the enemy's infantry
recoiled; but soon recovering, renewed the conflict with greater
violence than before. The fighting became vehement, and more than
two-thirds of every British corps engaged had fallen, when their
ammunition began to fail, and the enemy established a column in
advance upon the right flank. The tide of success was evidently
flowing in favour of the French, when the fourth division was
ordered to the heat of the conflict, and a brigade of the second
division, which had only been slightly engaged, rushed forward into
the fight. At this moment a number of captured British soldiers
were being hurried to the rear of the French army; the enemy's
reserves were pushing forward to reinforce their front;--the field
was covered with heaps of dead bodies;--the lancers were riding
furiously about the upper part of the hill spearing wounded men,
and six pieces of artillery were in the hands of the French.

A crisis had arrived, and a mighty--a determined--a
desperate--effort alone could save the allied army from defeat;
at this critical moment Major-General Sir Lowry Cole led the
FUSILIER BRIGADE up the contested heights to stem the torrent
of battle and wrest the palm of victory from Napoleon's veteran
legions. The FUSILIERS--admired for their appearance--applauded
for their order and discipline--moved forward with a resolute
step to confront a host of foes; they felt the importance of the
task which devolved upon them, and knew the high character of the
troops they had to contend with; and national pride,--an _esprit de
corps_,--a noble enthusiasm to rival the regiments which triumphed
at Busaco,--and to exceed their own achievements at Martinique and
Talavera,--animated every breast; they were flanked by a battalion
of the Lusitanian legion; and mounting the hill at the moment
when a regiment of Spanish cavalry was fleeing before a body of
French dragoons, they soon drove the lancers from the contested
height, and recovered five of the captured guns. Encouraged by this
presage of victory, the FUSILIERS marched sternly onward in line,
over heaps of killed and wounded, to encounter three heavy columns
of French infantry, supported by cavalry and artillery, and each
column mustering about twice the numbers of the FUSILIER BRIGADE.

Gallantly issuing from amidst the smoke and broken fragments of
discomfited corps, the FUSILIERS marched with a firm and solemn
step over the carcases of men and horses which obstructed their
way, and their bearing was that of men determined to decide the
fortune of a battle. The French columns were pressing onward to
complete the overthrow of the allied army, when suddenly the
surprising spectacle of a majestic line of FUSILIERS burst upon
their sight; they halted; fired a volley; then endeavoured to
deploy; and their numerous artillery sent a storm of bullets
against the British ranks. The commander of the brigade,
Lieutenant-Colonel Sir WILLIAM MYERS of the ROYAL FUSILIERS, was
killed; the commander of the division, Major-General Sir LOWRY
COLE, Lieutenant-Colonel BLAKENEY, commanding a battalion of the
ROYAL FUSILIERS, and a number of other officers, fell wounded; the
colour staves of the SEVENTH were shattered, and the colours torn;
at the same time chasms were rent in the ranks of the brigade; a
momentary pause ensued: but instantly recovering, the FUSILIERS
braved the tempest of iron and lead, and boldly confronted the
fierce and numerous bands opposed to them. As the smoke cleared,
the French beheld a line of bayonets coming upon them, and the next
moment, the thundering volleys of the FUSILIERS broke the heads
of formations. The French commander urged his veterans forward;
individuals, spurred on by an unavailing intrepidity, sacrificed
their lives to gain time for their companions to deploy;--the
columns responded to the calls of their leader, and, striving to
extricate themselves, fired on friends and foes;--the lancers on
the flanks threatened to charge; but British intrepidity could
not be shaken;--the FUSILIERS knew not how to quail! The brigade
preserved its firm array; the murderous volleys of the FUSILIERS
swept down hundreds of Frenchmen, and suddenly raising a loud
shout, they precipitated themselves upon the opposing multitudes,
and plunging fearlessly into the crowds, they closed with desperate
energy upon their opponents. The fortune of the day was no
longer doubtful; British prowess prevailed, and the French were
overpowered, slaughtered, and forced back in irremediable confusion
upon their reserves. The supporting columns endeavoured to stem
the torrent of British valour; but in vain;--the whole were driven
headlong down the ascent;--the key of the position was thus nobly
recovered, and the FUSILIERS,--breathless,--besmeared with sweat
and mud and gore,--stood triumphant upon the contested height,
surrounded with heaps of dying and dead, and wondering at the
brilliant success which crowned their manly efforts.

While the FUSILIERS were contending on the height, fresh men were
brought forward; the French generals perceived that the day was
irretrievably lost, and withdrew their broken masses beyond the
river.[18] Numerous instances of individual gallantry occurred,
and Serjeant Gough of the first battalion having recovered the
regimental colour of the third foot, or buffs, which corps had
been nearly annihilated by the charge of the lancers, was rewarded
with a commission in the second West India regiment.

To the ROYAL FUSILIERS, the honour of having triumphed over
superior numbers of Napoleon's veteran bands, and the glory of
having added lustre to the British arms, were justly due; but
the splendour of victory was shrouded with grief at the loss of
many brave officers and soldiers. Among others, the fall of their
commander, the brave, the chivalrous Sir WILLIAM MYERS, caused a
sense of deep sorrow. His career, though short, had been brilliant;
his manners were those of a finished gentleman and scholar, and
every action was marked with the enthusiasm of a soldier whose
noblest pride was his profession, and whose solicitude was always
alive to the interests and honour of his corps. At the early age of
twenty-eight he closed a life of honour in a death of glory.

Return of killed and wounded of the ROYAL FUSILIERS at the battle
of ALBUHERA.

  Battalion.      Officers.  Sergeants.  Drummers.  Rank & File.  Total.
  1st.    { Killed     5         3           ..           59         67
          { Wounded   10        14           ..          263        287

  2nd.    { Killed     3         1           ..           46         50
          { Wounded   14        16            1          270        301
                     ___       ___          ___          ___        ___
                      32        34            1          638        705

Names of officers of the ROYAL FUSILIERS present at the battle of
Albuhera.

  _First Battalion._
  Lieut.-Col. Sir William Myers, killed.
  Major J. M. Nooth.
  Captains Thos. Woodridge.
      "    Wm. F. Cholwich, wounded.
      "    Geo. King.
      "    Jas. Singer, wounded.
      "    Jno. Crowder, wounded.
  Lieutenant Hy. Prevost, killed.
      "      A. C. Wylly.
      "      Thos. Moultrie, killed.
      "      Jno. Mair.
      "      Chas. J. Wemyss, wounded.
      "      Paul St. Paul.
      "      S. B. Johnstone, killed.
      "      T. T. A. Mullins, wounded.
      "      Digby Mackworth.
      "      T. Moses, wounded.
      "      Anth. Baldwin.
      "      Jas. Anderson.
      "      H. F. Devey.
      "      G. Henry, wounded.
      "      John Ormsby.
      "      H. J. Jones, killed.
      "      E. Morgan, wounded.
      "      Pitt Hannam.
      "      Johnson, wounded.
      "      F. Gibbons, wounded.
  Adjutant Jas. Hay.
  Pay-Master Jno. Armstrong.
  Quarter-Master Jno. Hogan.
  Assistant Surgeon Wm. Armstrong.
         "          M. Mahony.

  _Second Battalion._
  Major Edw. Blakeney, Lieut.-Col., wounded.
  Captain Wm. Despard.
      "   G. Erek, killed.
      "   Jno. Orr, wounded.
      "   A. Fernie.
      "   Henry Tarleton, wounded.
      "   Richard Magines, wounded.
  Lieut. Jno. Healy, wounded.
      "      Holt Archer, killed.
      "      Edward Penrice, wounded.
      "      W. A. Pyke.
      "      Ed. Irwin, killed.
      "      Tho. F. Wray, wounded.
      "      Thos. Hartley.
      "      H. R. Wallace.
      "      Wm. Green.
      "      Jos. Hutchison.
      "      T. Y. Lester, wounded.
      "      Geo. Seton, wounded.
      "      Chas. Lorentz, wounded.
      "      M. Orr, wounded.
      "      Wm. Dalgairnes.
      "      J. B. Fraser, wounded.
      "      Jno. F. Holden, wounded.
  Acting Adjutant T. Meagher, wounded.
  Pay-Master T. Berkeley.
  Quarter-Master Crawford.
  Surgeon J. Williamson.
  Assistant Surgeon Duigenan.
          "         Sweney.

The list of killed and wounded, containing about seven hundred
officers and soldiers, proclaims with dreadful eloquence the
sanguinary character of the contest in which the ROYAL FUSILIERS
were engaged. Their heroic conduct was subsequently rewarded with
the privilege of bearing the word "ALBUHERA" inscribed on their
colours. Major Blakeney was promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy
vacant by the death of Sir William Myers; Major Nooth was rewarded
with the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the army, and Captain
Despard (who succeeded to the command of the second battalion after
the fall of Lieutenant-Colonel Blakeney), with that of major.
A gold clasp was sent to the relatives of Sir William Myers;
Lieutenant-Colonel Blakeney was rewarded with a gold clasp, and
Major Nooth and Captain Despard with gold medals.

After the battle, the brigade was attached to the remains of the
second division commanded by Major-General the Honourable William
Stewart, whose estimation of the conduct of the FUSILIERS is
attested by the following letter.

  "_Almandrelejo, 26th May, 1811._

"SIR,

"As you have been so kind as to permit me to transmit to you the
names of the officers of my division who commanded corps on the
16th instant, it may not be deemed irregular if, during the absence
of Major-General Cole, I forward to you the names of the officers
of the FUSILIER BRIGADE who were similarly situated.

"The remains of that _gallant corps_ having been attached to the
second division, immediately after the action of _Albuhera_, and
the major-general of the second division having been obliged to
leave the field from a wound, I am induced to lay before you, for
such favourable report on the subject as you may deem expedient
to the Commander of the Forces, the enclosed returns which have
been put in my possession by the officer now in command of the
FUSILIER BRIGADE, and who commanded the same in action, after the
successive incapacity from wounds of his four senior officers.
_I am afraid lest by further delay the exertions of that brigade
be not sufficiently known._ From the circumstance of the FUSILIER
BRIGADE having been joined with my third brigade in the hard-fought
defence of our centre position for above three hours, and from
the severe loss sustained by the FUSILIERS on the spot, and from
the _testimony of the surrounding allied army_, I feel myself
authorised in stating that _the conduct of the Fusilier Brigade on
the 16th instant was admirable, and such as effectually secured the
victory of that day_.

"It is a duty, moreover, which I owe to the brave soldiers under my
temporary command, to report that the second division is indebted
to the ROYAL FUSILIERS for the recapture of a six pounder, and of
a regimental colour of the third, or buffs, both of which had been
lost in the too successful attack of the enemy's cavalry, on my
first brigade, in the beginning of that day.

  "I am, &c.
  "WILLIAM STEWART,
  "Major-General.

  "To Marshal Beresford."

Both battalions having sustained so severe a loss, the second
battalion transferred its men to the first, and the officers and
staff serjeants returned to England to recruit.

After the victory at Albuhera the siege of _Badajoz_ was resumed,
the SEVENTH forming part of the covering army. A concentration of
the enemy's force having taken place, the allies withdrew behind
the Caya, where they awaited the attack of their opponents. The
French generals had drained the provinces of troops to assemble
a powerful army; but the stern character of British soldiers had
been proved, and, having relieved Badajoz, they retired without
hazarding an engagement.

The allied army broke up from the Caya in July, and the ROYAL
FUSILIERS moved towards the northern frontiers of Portugal; they
halted a short period at the village of Aldea de Santa Margaritta,
and afterwards marched to Aldea de Bispo. Meanwhile Lord Wellington
blockaded _Ciudad Rodrigo_.

Marshal Marmont assembled sixty thousand men, and advanced
to relieve Ciudad Rodrigo. Lord Wellington's forces were not
sufficiently numerous to warrant his hazarding a general
engagement, excepting under very advantageous circumstances;
he however held his positions; and on the 25th of September
the FUSILIER BRIGADE, under Major-General the Honourable E.
M. Pakenham, advanced to sustain a small body of troops under
Major-Generals Colville and Alten, which had been attacked at _El
Bodon_ by forty squadrons of French cavalry and fourteen battalions
of infantry with cannon. This portion of the allied army having
retrograded, the French cavalry menaced the FUSILIERS; but were
deterred charging by the steady and determined countenance of the
brigade.

During the night Lord Wellington strengthened his position; but
afterwards withdrew to a post twelve miles behind Guinaldo. The
enemy coming forward with overwhelming numbers, his lordship
withdrew during the night of the 26th of September, covered by the
FUSILIERS and a body of cavalry.

The French, pressing the British rear during the retrograde
movement on the 27th of September, attacked the FUSILIERS, who
were halted on a height behind the village of _Aldea de Pont_.
Lord Wellington directed the SEVENTH to charge in line down the
hill, and supported them with some Portuguese infantry. The ROYAL
FUSILIERS dashed forward in line with the steadiness of old
soldiers at a review, routed the French, and drove them down the
height, to the admiration of all present; Lord Wellington witnessed
the firm conduct of the ROYAL FUSILIERS, and expressed his
approbation of their steady and gallant bearing. The French were
afterwards repulsed in an attempt to turn the flank of the brigade
by a wood: the twenty-third Fusiliers and Portuguese Caçadores
turned the French left, and Aldea de Pont was again occupied by
the allies. It was, however, subsequently abandoned, and the army
went into position on the Coa. The French withdrew, and the ROYAL
FUSILIERS went into quarters at Villa Ciervo. The regiment had
been joined, a short time before, by three hundred and sixty-four
young soldiers from England: its loss at Aldea de Pont was nine men
killed; Captain Wylly, Lieutenants Barrington, Wallace, and Seaton,
one Serjeant, and thirty-six private soldiers wounded.[20]

[Sidenote: 1812]

On the 1st of January, 1812, the first battalion mustered upwards
of thirteen hundred officers and soldiers, and it was immediately
afterwards employed in the siege of _Ciudad Rodrigo_, which was
undertaken in the winter. This fortress was captured by storm
during the night of the 19th of January, 1812, while the French
marshal was assembling an army to advance to its relief. The loss
of the ROYAL FUSILIERS, during the siege, was limited to two men
killed and eight wounded. After the capture of Ciudad Rodrigo the
regiment remained at the village of Cileçes el Chico, where it was
detained several days by the swelling of the Agueda from heavy
rains: it subsequently retired and went into cantonments.

After withdrawing from before Ciudad Rodrigo, the regiment was
allowed only a short period of repose before it was called upon to
march to Spanish Estremadura, to take part in wresting the strong
fortress of _Badajoz_ from the enemy. Leaving its cantonments near
Fuentes d'Onor on the 27th of February, it proceeded southwards;
boats were laid over the Guadiana on the 15th of March, and on
the following day Badajoz was invested by the third, fourth, and
light divisions; the ROYAL FUSILIERS, forming part of the fourth
division, were engaged in the siege. The batteries were opened,
and, notwithstanding the sallies of the French garrison under the
resolute General Phillipon, inundations from heavy rains, and other
obstructions, practicable breaches were ready in the early part
of April; and on the evening of the 6th of that month the ROYAL
FUSILIERS were under arms to take part in the storming of that
stupendous fortress. The fourth and light divisions were to march
against the breaches; the light division was to assault the bastion
of Santa Maria, and the fourth, the Trinidad, with the breach in
the curtain connecting the two bastions; one body of the grenadiers
of the fourth division, under Captain John Mair, of the ROYAL
FUSILIERS, led the attack against the bastion of Trinidad; and
another body, under Captain William Francis Cholwick, also of the
SEVENTH, led the assault on the breach in the curtain.

Moving silently from their camp-ground along the left of the river
Rivillas and the inundations, the fourth and light divisions made
a short detour, and arrived at the glacis at the moment the third
division attacked the castle. Ladders were placed, and about five
hundred men of the light division had descended into the ditch with
the most heroic bravery, cheering as they went, when suddenly a
loud report like thunder was heard, and the storming parties were
blown to pieces by the explosion of hundreds of shells and powder
barrels. Undismayed by this terrific destruction, the men of the
light and fourth divisions raised a loud shout and plunged into
the ditch, where many men perished in the inundations; others,
after overcoming numerous difficulties, approached the breach
exposed to a most destructive fire. As they ascended, loose planks
studded with sharp iron points wounded their feet and produced
great mischief, and a range of sword-blades with sharp points
and keen-edges, firmly fixed in beams chained together and set
deep in the ruins, arrested the progress of the soldiers; at the
same time a terrible fire of musketry thinned their ranks. Again
the assailants rushed up the breaches with the most determined
resolution; but the sword-blades stopped their career, and the
thundering powder-barrels and hissing shells exploded continually.
Numerous and astonishing efforts of valour and intrepidity were
made, and the most heroic bravery displayed, yet the obstacles
were such as could not be overcome; and about midnight, when two
thousand brave soldiers had fallen, the survivors received orders
to retire, and re-form for a second attack. In the meantime the
third division had captured the castle, and a brigade had carried
the bastion of San Vincente; the town was thus forced; partial
actions afterwards took place in various places; and the governor
escaped to the fort of St. Christoval, where he surrendered.
Thus, by the union of ability, energy, and valour, two important
fortresses were captured in three months, in the face of two French
armies: the British commander was enabled to enlarge the sphere
of his operations, and these successes appeared as the first rays
of the coming glory which was about to shine resplendently on the
British arms.

The ROYAL FUSILIERS were subsequently honoured with the
royal authority to bear the word "BADAJOZ" on their colours;
Lieutenant-Colonel Blakeney and Captain John Mair received medals;
but the regiment had to regret the loss of many brave men; the
casualties among the officers were so great that the command of
the division devolved on a major, all the general officers and
lieutenant-colonels being wounded. The loss of the SEVENTH may be
seen in the following returns.

List of the Officers of the ROYAL FUSILIERS at the siege of BADAJOZ.

  Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Blakeney, wounded.
  Major James Singer, killed.
  Captain Wm. F. Cholwick, killed.
     "    George King.
     "    A. C. Wylly.
     "    John Mair, wounded.
     "    W. M. Hamerton.
     "   [21]Robt. Cuthbert, killed.
  Lieutenant Paul St. Paul, killed.
      "      T. Moses, wounded.
      "      A. Baldwin, wounded.
      "      James Anderson.
      "      H. F. Devey, wounded.
      "      G. Henry, wounded.
      "      Pitt Hannam.
      "      W. A. Pyke, killed.
      "      Charles Barrington, wounded.
      "      T. F. Wray, killed.
      "      T. Hartley, wounded.
      "      R. F. Fowler, killed.
      "      H. R. Wallace.
      "      T. Y. Lester, wounded.
      "      R. Knowles, wounded.
      "      Honourable F. Russel, wounded.
      "      John George, wounded.
  Adjutant James Hay.
  Quarter-Master John Hogan.
  Surgeon Wm. Armstrong.
  Assistant-Surgeon Martin Mahony.
         "          William Williams.

           Officers.  Serjeants.  Drummers.  Rank & File.  Total.
  Killed        7          2         ..          57           66
  Wounded      11         12         ..         143          166
              ___        ___        ___         ___          ___
  Total        18         14         ..         200          232

From Estremadura the ROYAL FUSILIERS retraced their steps to the
Agueda, and the army, advancing into Spain in June, drove the
French from Salamanca. The inhabitants of this city illuminated
their houses, shouted, sang, and wept for joy as the British troops
took up a position on the mountain of St. Christoval, about five
miles in advance; at the same time the forts (fortified convents)
at Salamanca were besieged.

The French general, Marmont, advanced with a powerful army, and
a series of manœuvres followed; but he was unable to relieve the
forts, and they fell into the hands of the allies towards the
end of June, when he withdrew beyond the Douro, followed by Lord
Wellington.

On the night of the 16th of July the ROYAL FUSILIERS marched to
_Castrejon_, to which place the fourth and light division and a
brigade of cavalry proceeded, preparatory to the assembling of
the army on the Guarena; but the French commander, having been
reinforced, passed the Douro, and attacked the troops at Castrejon
on the morning of the 18th of July. Some sharp skirmishing
occurred, and the ROYAL FUSILIERS had two men killed and fourteen
wounded; but this small body of British, being opposed to the whole
French army, withdrew behind the Guarena. A series of manœuvres
brought the allied army back to the position of St. Christoval, in
front of _Salamanca_, in the vicinity of which city the two armies
confronted each other on the 22nd of July.

In the early part of this day about five hundred French gained
possession of a village in front of the fourth division, and
Captain JOHN CROWDER advanced with two companies of the ROYAL
FUSILIERS to dislodge them, which service was performed with such
distinguished firmness and resolution, that Lord Wellington, who
witnessed the affair, requested to know the name of the officer,
and Captain CROWDER was rewarded with the rank of major in the army.

During the day, as the enemy attempted to gain the road leading to
Ciudad Rodrigo, his left wing was separated, during a complicated
manœuvre, from the remainder of his army; Lord Wellington was
watching the movements of his opponents from the summit of a rock,
and, detecting the fault, ordered his divisions to attack. Thus the
two armies came in contact under circumstances which proved the
superior abilities of the British commander; the ROYAL FUSILIERS,
under Major John Walwin Beatty, were soon hotly engaged, and they
steadily gained ground on the French forces opposed to them,
driving their opponents from one height to another. Eventually a
numerous body of French made a determined stand against the fourth
division; but after a severe contest they were obliged to give way.
An eminence in the centre of the enemy's position, on which he had
planted thirty pieces of artillery, was carried by the FUSILIER
BRIGADE with the most distinguished gallantry. Finally the French
were overthrown and driven from the field with great loss; and
they were indebted to the darkness of the night, the advantage of
a thick wood, and other circumstances, for the safety of those who
escaped the field of battle.

_List of Officers of the_ ROYAL FUSILIERS _at the Battle of_
SALAMANCA.

  Major J. W. Beatty.
    "   Geo. King.
  Captain Jno. Crowder.
     "    Geo. Prescott, killed.
     "    H. English.
     "    W. M. Hamerton, wounded.
  Lieutenant A. Baldwin.
       "     Jas. Anderson.
       "     G. Henry, wounded.
       "     P. Hannam, wounded.
       "     Johnson, wounded.
       "     T. Hartley, wounded.
       "     R. Nantes, wounded.
       "     H. R. Wallace, wounded.
       "     J. Hutchinson, wounded.
       "     D. Cameron.
       "     R. Knowles, wounded.
       "     E. W. Bell.
  Adjutant James Hay, wounded.
  Surgeon J. Williamson.
  Assistant Surgeon M. Mahony.
       "      W. Williams.

           Officers.  Serjeants.  Drummers.  Rank & File.  Total.
  Killed        1         2          ..          17           20
  Wounded      11         6          ..         162          179
              ___       ___         ___         ___          ___
  Total        12         8          ..         179          199

The distinguished bravery of the regiment on this occasion was
subsequently rewarded with the royal authority to bear the word
"SALAMANCA" inscribed on its colours; and Major Beatty was
presented with a gold medal.

Following up the advantages gained on the plains of Salamanca, the
army advanced boldly into the heart of Spain, and the French were
driven from Madrid, at which city Lord Wellington arrived on the
12th of August amidst the joyful acclamations of the people. The
ROYAL FUSILIERS were stationed at Madrid, and afterwards occupied
quarters for about eight weeks at the fine palace of the Escurial,
about twenty-two miles from Madrid, from whence they were removed
in the early part of October to Val de Moro and Campo; meanwhile
the siege of Burgos had been undertaken by the main body of the
allied army. The concentration of the enemy's forces having given
him so great a superiority of numbers that a retrograde movement
was necessary on the part of the British commander, the ROYAL
FUSILIERS quitted Val de Moro and Campo, and the troops retired on
Salamanca. The army went into position; but on the enemy menacing
the communication with Ciudad Rodrigo, the allies withdrew to the
Agueda, the soldiers suffering extreme hardship from the want of
food and inclement weather. The fourth division moved to St. Joā de
Pisquiera, where the ROYAL FUSILIERS remained until the beginning
of the following year.[22]

[Sidenote: 1813]

On the 1st of January, 1813, the battalion mustered upwards of
twelve hundred men, including about three hundred in hospital from
wounds, &c. On the 3rd of that month sixteen serjeants and three
hundred and eleven rank and file joined from England; on the 7th
the battalion moved to Arvidiza, and in February to Castello Melhor
on the right bank of the Coa, where it remained until the army took
the field in May.

Advancing from the banks of the Coa towards the interior of Spain,
the ROYAL FUSILIERS once more confronted the legions of Napoleon;
the battalion was strong in numbers, bringing into the field a
fine body of men on whose natural strength and valour the qualities
of order, subordination, and discipline had been engrafted, which
rendered them fit for any service.

By a daring advance the French were once more driven from
Salamanca; by combinations evincing consummate skill, and by
efforts of an extraordinary character, the enemy's positions on
the Douro were turned; the field was then clear for the shock of
battle, and the British commander, seeing the way of victory open,
ordered forward his divisions; but the French evaded the torrent of
war, and withdrew behind the Pisuerga, and afterwards behind the
Ebro. Pressing onward with a conquering violence, the allied army
traversed rocks and mountains, and marched through regions deemed
impracticable for an army, and the French were forced back upon
Vittoria, where they prepared for a determined effort to stem the
tide of war.

Arriving at the Bayas on the 19th of June, the British found a
division of the French army posted behind the river, and an action
was commenced. The ROYAL FUSILIERS were directed to attack the
village of _Montevite_. Approaching this rural seclusion through
a rocky mountainous country, abounding with trees, the foliage of
which concealed their advance, they arrived close to the village
unperceived; a few musket-shots alarmed the French, who instantly
fled, leaving their cooking utensils and dinner on the fire, and
some arms and accoutrements. The ROYAL FUSILIERS pursued, some
skirmishing took place, and several men fell in the conflict. The
loss of the SEVENTH was limited to three wounded. The enemy was
driven from the position on the Bayas, and forced back upon the
Zadora.

From the banks of the Bayas the allied army advanced on the morning
of the 21st of June, to fight the French under Joseph Buonaparte
in position in front of _Vittoria_. The ROYAL FUSILIERS formed
part of the force destined for the attack of the enemy's centre
under the immediate direction of Lord Wellington. They moved from
Montevite down by Olabarre, along the valley in the centre. The
ROYAL FUSILIERS advanced in line under fire, through fields of
corn more than breast high, the French retreating before them;
and they overcame numerous obstructions and difficulties with a
regularity which excited great admiration. Arriving at the Zadora,
they were posted opposite the bridge of Nanclares; and when ordered
to cross the bridge they sprang forward with cheerful alacrity and
perfect order. The French were eventually driven from the field
with the loss of their artillery, baggage, and an immense quantity
of treasure. Many soldiers of different corps quitted their ranks
to plunder; but it was observed that, when the ROYAL FUSILIERS,
pursuing the enemy, passed the French baggage and treasure-waggons,
they were so impressed with a sense of the necessity of preserving
order, so accustomed to perfect obedience, and jealous of the
honour of their corps, that they refrained from irregularities,
and followed the enemy with unbroken ranks. A decisive victory was
gained: and the excellent conduct of the regiment was rewarded
with the honour of bearing the word "VITTORIA" on its colours.
Lieutenant-Colonel Blakeney was also rewarded with an honorary
distinction. The loss of the battalion was only two men killed and
two wounded.

The ROYAL FUSILIERS pursued the French army in the direction of
_Pampeluna_, and when the enemy had effected his escape through
the Pyrenean mountains, they were employed in the blockade of
Pampeluna, a fortress of great strength, and provided with an
efficient garrison. They were, however, soon relieved from this
duty, and detached against a French division under General Clausel,
which was at Logroño when the battle of Vittoria was fought; after
a forced march of six days the FUSILIERS halted;--the enemy having
effected his escape by the pass of Jaca. The regiment afterwards
returned to the vicinity of Pampeluna, where it remained a few
days, and subsequently penetrated the Pyrenean mountains; the
fourth division taking post at Viscayret, in the valley of Urroz,
and the ROYAL FUSILIERS being at Espinal, two miles in advance.

Thus the British army, after years of toil and conflict, endured
to procure liberty for the oppressed inhabitants of the Peninsula,
had forced the intrusive monarch of Spain from his throne, and
stood triumphant on the lofty pinnacles of the _Pyrenees_; but
another mighty struggle was at hand, in which the innate valour
and hardihood of the British soldiers were about to be tested. The
French army had been re-organized by Marshal Soult, who pushed his
divisions boldly forward to drive the British from the mountains.
The enemy having made a demonstration of an attack on the front
posts, two companies of the ROYAL FUSILIERS advanced on the 24th
of July to a height westward of Roncesvalles, where they were
joined by the remainder of the battalion during the night; on the
following morning the enemy attacked Major-General Byng's post in
Roncesvalles, and the fourth division was ordered to advance. A
detachment of the twentieth regiment evinced signal gallantry in
its attacks on the head of a French column; but was forced back by
superior numbers. Some sharp fighting occurred during the day,
and the ROYAL FUSILIERS had Lieutenant Knowles and six men killed;
one serjeant and twenty-three rank and file wounded. The British
maintained their positions during the day; but being opposed to
very superior numbers, they withdrew after sunset: the FUSILIER
BRIGADE being in the rear of the column, under Major-General
Ross, the SEVENTH underwent a night of incessant toil and intense
anxiety among the mountains. At day-light they fell in with posts
of Major-General Byng's brigade, and the retrograde movement was
continued, with short intermissions, until the allies gained a
position in front of Pampeluna, where a determined stand was made.

Posted on the heights in front of the village of Villalba, the
ROYAL FUSILIERS awaited the approach of their opponents, resolving
to perform their duty to their King and country in whatever
circumstances they might be placed. Privations, and violent
rains soaking the bleak hills, on which the soldiers were posted
without any shelter, did not damp their courage, and on the 28th
of June they witnessed the approach of the massy columns of the
enemy without dismay. The heights occupied by the fourth division
were attacked with great fury: the ROYAL FUSILIERS were hotly
engaged, and sternly, and with sanguinary tenacity, was the ground
contested. Appalling shouts smote the ears of the French soldiers
as they stormed the position, and the next moment ranks of British
bayonets met them in mid-onset, and in the shock of steel the
French soldiers were forced back with a horrid carnage. Four
times the ROYAL FUSILIERS precipitated themselves on the hosts
of opponents which assailed their post, and on every occasion
they proved victorious. The Marquis of Wellington observed in
his despatch:--"In the course of this contest the gallant fourth
division, which has so frequently been distinguished in this
army, surpassed their former good conduct. Every regiment charged
with the bayonet,--the fortieth, the SEVENTH, twentieth, and
twenty-third, four different times. Their officers set them an
example; and Major-General Ross had two horses killed under him."
The battle was renewed on the 29th and 30th of July, and the French
commander, being foiled in every attempt by superior skill and
unconquerable valour, retired towards France, closely pursued by
the victorious allied army.

Officers present at the battle of the 28th of July.

  Lieutenant-Colonel E. Blakeney.
  Major William Despard, killed.
  Captain J. Crowder, wounded.
     "    A. Fernie, killed.
     "    Jno. Orr, wounded.
     "    Hy. Tarleton.
     "    C. J. Wemyss, killed.
     "    W. M. Hamerton, wounded.
  Lieutenant J. Anderson.
      "      W. Wilkinson
      "      R. Johnson.
      "      G. Loggan, wounded.
      "      Wm. Payne.
      "      Thos. Hartley.
      "      J. Huchinson.
      "      J. B. Fraser, killed.
      "      W. Dalgairnes.
      "      C. Lorentz.
      "      Martin Orr.
      "      J. L. Nunn, wounded.
      "      A. L. Estrange.
      "      D. Cameron.
      "      R. Haggup.
      "      J. D. King, wounded.
      "      Hon. F. Russel.
      "      R. Garrett, wounded.
  Adjutant Jas. Hay.
  Quarter-Master Jno. Hogan.
  Surgeon Mahony.
  Assistant-Surgeon W. Williams.
          "         H. Fisher.

          Officers.  Serjeants.  Drummers.  Rank and File.  Total.

  Killed       4          3           ..          40           47
  Wounded      7         11           ..         148          166
             ___        ___          ___         ___          ___
  Total       11         14           ..         188          213

This display of valour on the part of the ROYAL FUSILIERS was
rewarded with the honour of bearing the word "PYRENEES" on their
colours as a mark of royal favour and approbation; and their
commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Blakeney, was also
rewarded with an honorary distinction.

The ROYAL FUSILIERS took part in the movements by which the enemy
was driven through the Pyrenean mountains back to France; they were
also engaged, on the 7th of October, in the operations connected
with the passage of the _Bidassoa_, when the French were forced
from several strong mountain positions defended with field-works.
The light and fourth divisions advanced against the posts of Vera
and Liran, and the attack was successful.

After the passage of the Bidassoa the SEVENTH were encamped about
a month near the bridge of Lezaca and heights of Liran; and drafts
amounting to about two hundred serjeants and rank and file were
received from the second battalion, then quartered in the isle of
Jersey.

On the 10th of November the allied army drove the enemy from his
positions on the river _Nivelle_; the British now stood triumphant
and firmly established in France, and the admirers of unprincipled
aggression beheld the day of retribution overtake a country which
had been vainly styled "sacred;" the deep wrongs of insulted
nations were, however, not avenged on the French peasantry, who
received less harsh treatment from the allies than from their own
countrymen in arms; but the tyrant who had hurled the thunders
of war against the unoffending nations of the Peninsula saw them
recoil with accumulated fury upon his own head.

Major-General the HONOURABLE EDWARD MICHAEL PAKENHAM,
Lieutenant-Colonel of the ROYAL FUSILIERS (an officer of such
distinguished valour and ability that the regiment was truly proud
of its lieutenant-colonel), was promoted on the 21st May, 1813, to
the colonelcy of the sixth West India regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel
EDWARD BLAKENEY, who had so often and so nobly headed the regiment
in the field of battle, obtained permission to return to England,
and the command devolved on Major JOHN BEATTY.[23]

[Sidenote: 1814]

A train of military and political events, not immediately affecting
the fame or testing the valour of the ROYAL FUSILIERS, took place
in December, 1813, and January 1814. The passage of the Adour
and Gave d'Oleron, with the blockade of Bayonne, took place in
February, and the French withdrew to a position at _Orthes_, where
they were attacked on the 27th of February. The ROYAL FUSILIERS
advanced against the enemy's right at St. Boës, and were thrown
forward to commence the action as light troops, and to cover the
advance of the columns of attack, a service which the nature of the
ground particularly favoured. The brigade, composed of the SEVENTH,
twentieth, and twenty-third regiments, was warmly engaged until
two in the afternoon, when the fifth division arrived and took the
brunt of the action at that point. Finally the French Marshal was
forced to retire with severe loss.

The ROYAL FUSILIERS had one serjeant and five rank and file killed;
Lieutenants Burke, Nantes, Lorentz, and Cameron, four serjeants,
and fifty-two rank and file wounded; and their gallantry procured
them the honour of bearing the word "ORTHES" on their colours.
Major JOHN WALWIN BEATTY, commanding the battalion, was rewarded
with a gold clasp.

In March the ROYAL FUSILIERS were detached, with other corps,
towards Bourdeaux: the French garrison fled at the approach of the
British, and the inhabitants declared in favour of the Bourbon
dynasty.

The ROYAL FUSILIERS returned to the army, and had the honour to
take part in the battle of _Toulouse_ on the 10th of April, when
the French were once more defeated. The battalion was not seriously
engaged on this occasion, and its loss was limited to one man
killed and three wounded. Its gallant bearing was conspicuous,
and was rewarded with the word "TOULOUSE" on its colours, and an
honorary distinction for its commander, Major JOHN W. BEATTY, who
was also promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. Major S.
B. Auchmuty, commanding the light companies of the brigade, was
rewarded with a medal and the rank of lieutenant-colonel.

The French army withdrew within the town, with the view of
defending the place to the last extremity, but subsequently
retired, and hostilities were soon afterwards terminated by the
abdication of Napoleon and the restoration of Louis XVIII. to the
throne of France.

Thus years of toil and bloodshed, which had developed--in vast
combinations--in astonishing exhibitions of skill, firmness,
iron hardihood, heroic valour--the true character of WELLINGTON
and the soldiers he led from kingdom to kingdom, from victory to
victory, and had forced all the nations of Europe to confess the
glory of the British arms, terminated in the restoration of peace
to the troubled states of Europe. The ROYAL FUSILIERS had fought
and toiled for the good of other countries; at this glorious
termination of their labours, they were placed in quarters of
refreshment among the French peasantry, and they received the
blessings of the people they had delivered from usurpation and
tyranny.

Among the numerous instances in which a very excellent spirit had
been displayed by individuals during this arduous struggle, the
Record Book of the ROYAL FUSILIERS bears extraordinary testimony
of the most laudable and indefatigable exertions of Adjutant JAMES
HAY, who, making the duties of his appointment the business of
his life, aided with praiseworthy zeal his commanding officer in
maintaining the efficiency, discipline, and reputation of his
corps, in which he took a lively interest; he was never absent
from his regiment during the whole of the Peninsular campaigns,
excepting from wounds, and he thus earned an imperishable fame in
the annals of the ROYAL FUSILIERS.

At the end of May the regiment was withdrawn from its cantonments,
and, proceeding towards Bourdeaux, was encamped a few days near
that city; on the 14th of June it was embarked at Pouillac in
transport brigs, and conveyed down the Garonne to the "Clarence"
(a British seventy-four), lying in Verdun roads. In this ship the
regiment sailed to England, where it arrived, after an absence of
nearly seven years, towards the end of June, and on landing at
Plymouth was greeted with the hearty cheers of crowds of countrymen
assembled on the occasion, who testified their admiration of the
brilliant career of the regiment in a most lively manner.

After landing, the regiment occupied quarters at Totness for
several weeks; it subsequently proceeded to Portsmouth, where both
battalions were stationed in garrison; the second battalion having
returned in August from Jersey, where it had been stationed since
November, 1811.

At the termination of the Peninsular War, Lieutenant-Colonel EDWARD
BLAKENEY was honoured with the dignity of Knight of the Tower and
Sword by the Prince Regent of Portugal; he was also rewarded with a
cross and clasp for his services at Martinique, Albuhera, Badajoz,
Vittoria, and in the Pyrenees.

The ROYAL FUSILIERS were not long permitted to enjoy repose,
before an order from the Horse Guards summoned them to engage in
scenes of conflict beyond the Atlantic ocean. The impressing of
British seamen on board of American vessels, with the enforcing of
certain Orders in Council, designed to counteract the decrees of
Buonaparte, who, in the height of his power, endeavoured to destroy
the commerce of Great Britain, had been followed by a war with the
United States, and the SEVENTH were selected to proceed with the
forty-third light infantry under Major-General Lambert, to join
the troops engaged in active service against the American coast.
The first battalion was completed to a thousand rank and file from
the second, and embarked on the 4th of October, under the command
of Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Blakeney; it proceeded, in the first
instance, to Plymouth, from whence it sailed to the West Indies.[24]

[Sidenote: 1815]

From the West Indies the regiment sailed towards the southern
states of North America, and arrived, on the first of January,
1815, off the coast of Louisiana; it was there removed into small
boats, to proceed along Lake Barque to join the army commanded
by Major-General the Honourable Sir Edward Michael Pakenham,
K.C.B., near _New Orleans_, a place of some note, situate on the
eastern bank of the Mississippi. After a difficult navigation of
eighty miles in small boats, the regiment landed (having lost a
serjeant and sixteen men by the sinking of a boat on the lake);
and on the following day joined the army at its camp on the bank
of the Mississippi. Arrangements had previously been made for the
attack by storm of a line of entrenchments and redoubts which the
Americans had constructed behind a canal to cover the approach to
_New Orleans_, and behind which they had collected an army treble
the numbers of the British. A short time before day-light, on
the morning of the 8th of January, the ROYAL FUSILIERS were at
their post, and forming, with the forty-third, the reserve to the
storming party. Some delay occurred; the ladders were not ready at
the proper moment; and when the soldiers rushed forward to storm
the enemy's works, difficulties were encountered which it was found
impossible to overcome. A serious loss had been sustained in killed
and wounded; the commander-in-chief had fallen;[25] and no chance
of ultimate success remained: when the storming parties fell back,
the SEVENTH and forty-third, deploying into line, and making a
forward motion, presented the appearance of a renewed attack, by
which the Americans were so much awed that they did not venture to
pursue the retreating soldiers; at the same time the two regiments
presented so steady and confident a front under a heavy fire as
to excite great admiration, and the storming parties rallied and
formed in support. No prospect of ultimate success appearing,
the troops withdrew to their camp. The loss of the SEVENTH on
this occasion was Major King, Captain Henry, one serjeant, and
twenty-three rank and file killed; Captains Mullins and Page,
Lieutenant Lorentz and Higgins, six serjeants, and sixty-two rank
and file wounded.

The ROYAL FUSILIERS were subsequently employed in occupying
posts close to the enemy's position; meanwhile a temporary road
was constructed through a morass to the lake, and the British,
withdrawing by a night march, embarked in boats and returned to
the fleet: the FUSILIERS and piquets remained before the enemy
until the morning of the 19th of January, when they retired. During
the few days the ROYAL FUSILIERS had been before _New Orleans_,
privations and sufferings of every kind had been endured with a
cheerfulness which redounded to the honour of the officers and
soldiers.

The FUSILIERS were afterwards landed on Isle Dauphin, north of
Mobile Bay, West Florida. An attack on _Mobile_ was resolved on,
and _Fort Bowyer_, which commanded the entrance to the harbour,
was besieged and captured, and two companies of the SEVENTH
garrisoned the fort. Further hostilities were, however, prevented
by a treaty of peace; and in March the regiment embarked from the
Isle Dauphin, West Florida, for England; two vessels were delayed
on the voyage; the remainder, landing at Deal, occupied the barrack
at that place until the middle of June. Napoleon Buonaparte had,
in the meantime, regained the throne of France: a British army had
assembled in the Netherlands, under the Duke of Wellington, to wage
war against the usurper; and the ROYAL FUSILIERS were ordered to
embark for Flanders to share in the conflict. The first division of
the regiment, consisting of the head-quarters and four companies,
landed at Ostend on the 18th of June, the day the French army was
overthrown at _Waterloo_, and proceeded in boats up the canal to
Bruges. These companies were afterwards assembled at Ghent, from
whence they advanced up the country, in charge of treasure for the
allied army, and arrived in the vicinity of Paris on the 6th of
July. The war had terminated; the Bourbon dynasty was restored; and
the ROYAL FUSILIERS were encamped near Paris three months, during
which time the remainder of the battalion arrived at the camp. The
regiment was present at several reviews of the British forces, in
the presence of the Emperor of Russia, King of Prussia, and other
sovereigns. In September the regiment occupied a temporary barrack
beyond the town and forest of St. Germain. In December it returned
to Paris and occupied a large public building, which was fitted up
for a barrack, the officers being quartered on the inhabitants.

On the 24th of December the _second battalion_ transferred its men
fit for service to the first, and was _disbanded_ at Dover; at the
same time a recruiting company was added to the establishment of
the first battalion.

Honorary distinctions were this year conferred on many officers of
the army. Colonel Sir Edward Blakeney, of the ROYAL FUSILIERS, was
honoured with the dignity of Knight Commander of the Order of the
Bath, and the following officers were appointed Companions of the
Order of the Bath:--Lieutenant Colonels John Walwin Beatty, Samuel
Benjamin Auchmuty, and Alexander Campbell Wylly.

[Sidenote: 1816]

On the 1st of January, 1816, the effective strength was one
thousand and twenty-eight; the regiment left Paris on the 16th
of January, and marching to the Pas de Calais, was placed in
village-cantonments in the vicinity of Bapaume, forming part of the
Army of Occupation in France.

The ROYAL FUSILIERS were highly commended at the half-yearly
inspection on the 22nd of May: they were reviewed by
Lieutenant-General Lord Hill in August, and obtained his lordship's
approbation; and in September Lieutenant-General Sir Lowry Cole
made a minute inspection of the regiment, and expressed his entire
satisfaction of its appearance and discipline.

In September the regiment was removed to the vicinity of Cambray,
and was subsequently encamped near Denain, with the remainder
of the first division, the other divisions being encamped about
two miles distant. On the 22nd of October the British, Saxon,
and Danish contingents of the Army of Occupation were reviewed
by the Duke of Wellington, in presence of their Royal Highnesses
the Dukes of Kent and Cambridge, who expressed their admiration
of the appearance and discipline of the troops. After the review
the regiment returned to its village cantonments, and at the
half-yearly inspection in November, Major-General Sir James Kempt
expressed his satisfaction at its appearance and condition.

[Sidenote: 1817]

In the early part of 1817 the establishment was reduced to
eight hundred and sixty seven non-commissioned officers and
private soldiers; and in April the regiment marched to the
city of Valenciennes, and with the twenty-third, forty-third,
fifty-seventh, and ninety-first, formed the garrison of that
fortress.

On the 6th of September the ROYAL FUSILIERS were present at
the review of the British and Danish contingents by the King
of Prussia; on the 9th of that month they were reviewed by
Lieutenant-General Lord Hill; and on the 15th of October, by his
Grace the Duke of Wellington.

[Sidenote: 1818]

Having passed the winter at Valenciennes, the SEVENTH were
reviewed, in June, near that fortress with the British, Danish,
and Saxon contingents, by the Grand Duke Michael of Russia, for
whom the regiment furnished a guard of honour. The British troops
were subsequently reviewed by Lieutenant-General Lord Hill on the
3rd of September; by the Duke of Wellington in presence of their
Royal Highnesses the Duke and Duchess of Kent, on the 10th of that
month; and on the 23rd of October by the Emperor of Russia, King of
Prussia, Prince of Orange, &c. &c.

Soon after this review the establishment was reduced to seven
hundred and forty-six officers and soldiers; and the Army of
Occupation being withdrawn from France, the regiment marched to
Calais, where it embarked for England, and landed at Dover on the
2nd of November.

After occupying Dover Castle barracks a few days, the regiment
marched to Deal, where it embarked for Ireland, and landed on the
26th and 27th of November at the Cove of Cork, from whence it
proceeded to Fermoy, and, in December, to Dublin.

[Sidenote: 1819]

[Sidenote: 1820]

[Sidenote: 1821]

The regiment remained at Dublin until August, 1820, and its
appearance, discipline, and interior economy were commended at
the half-yearly inspections made by Major-Generals White, Buller,
and Sir Colquhoun Grant. It subsequently occupied extensive
cantonments, the head-quarters being at Londonderry, where it was
inspected by Lieutenant-General Sir David Baird, and Major-General
Sir Sidney Beckwith, and obtained the approbation of these
distinguished officers. In November it embarked at Belfast for
Scotland, and landing at Port Patrick, marched from thence to
Edinburgh and Glasgow: its appearance and discipline were commended
at the half-yearly inspection made by Major-General Sir Thomas
Bradford; and in June, 1821, when it was ordered to march to
England, this general-officer "expressed his warmest approbation of
the uniform good conduct and regularity in quarters, as well as of
the high state of discipline in the field and excellent interior
economy;" at the same time requesting "Colonel Sir Edward Blakeney
to convey these sentiments to the officers, non-commissioned
officers, and soldiers."

Leaving Scotland in July, the regiment proceeded to
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Carlisle, Tynemouth, and Sunderland; and in
August the establishment was reduced to six hundred and fifty
officers and men.

[Sidenote: 1822]

In the spring of 1822 the regiment marched to Chatham and
Sheerness; from whence it was removed in June and July to Brighton
and Windsor, and had the honour of performing the King's duty
during the residence of King George IV. at the Royal Pavilion,
Brighton.

[Sidenote: 1825]

[Sidenote: 1828]

In the summer of 1825 the regiment was divided into six service and
four depôt companies; the service companies embarked at Gosport on
the 14th and 15th of June for the Ionian Islands, where they were
stationed until September 1828, when they were removed to Malta.

[Sidenote: 1832]

On the decease of General Sir Alured Clarke, the colonelcy of the
ROYAL FUSILIERS was conferred on Major-General Sir Edward Blakeney,
K.C.B., G.C.H., by commission dated the 20th of September, 1832.

[Sidenote: 1833]

[Sidenote: 1834]

[Sidenote: 1835]

In December, 1833, the depôt companies embarked at Portsmouth for
Ireland, where they arrived in January, 1834; they returned to
England in October, 1835, and landed at Portsmouth.

[Sidenote: 1836]

The service companies remained at Malta until the early part of
1836, when they returned to England, and landing at Portsmouth,
were stationed at that fortress until June, when they removed to
Winchester.

In July the regiment marched to Windsor, and had the honour of
performing the King's duty during the residence of His Majesty King
William IV. at Windsor Castle.

While on duty at Windsor, a superb piece of plate for the officers'
mess-table was directed by His Majesty King William IV. to be
presented to the regiment, with the following inscription:--

_"The Gracious Gift of King William the Fourth, July 1836."_

"His Majesty remembers with satisfaction, that he became a
member of the Mess of the ROYAL FUSILIERS at Plymouth in the
year 1786, and he has directed his son, _Colonel Lord Frederick
Fitz Clarence_, who had the advantage of commanding the Regiment
during some years,[26] to present this piece of plate as a mark of
His Majesty's approbation;--of his high sense of the gallant and
admirable services, and of the exemplary discipline and gentlemanly
conduct, which have uniformly distinguished the _Royal Fusiliers_."

[Sidenote: 1837]

[Sidenote: 1838]

[Sidenote: 1839]

Leaving Windsor in August, the regiment proceeded into Lancashire,
and the head-quarters were stationed at Bolton until the autumn of
1837, when the regiment proceeded to Ireland. During the year 1838
the ROYAL FUSILIERS were stationed at Dublin; in May, 1839, they
were removed to Kilkenny, and in August following to Cork.

In the autumn six companies of the regiment embarked for Gibraltar,
and arrived at that fortress in November, leaving four depôt
companies in Ireland.

[Sidenote: 1840 to 1844]

The service companies remained at Gibraltar until the 19th
December, 1844, when they embarked for the West Indies, under
the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Farquharson, on board of Her
Majesty's Troop Ship "Resistance," and arrived at Barbadoes on the
18th January, 1845.

[Sidenote: 1845]

The depôt companies remained in Ireland from the embarkation of the
service companies for Gibraltar until November, 1841, when they
proceeded from Cork to Dover, and remained in England until June,
1845, when they returned to Ireland, where they have remained to
the present year, 1846.

[Illustration: 7th Fusiliers, 1846.]

[Sidenote: 1846]

The service companies at the end of the year 1846, when this Record
concludes, were in the West Indies, the head-quarters at St.
Vincent.

       *       *       *       *       *

The foregoing pages contain a faithful history of the ROYAL
FUSILIERS from the period of their formation in the year 1685, and
of the peculiar service for which this Regiment was originally
established. The introduction of artillery, and the expert and
proper management of field-guns, rendered it necessary that a
suitable description of officers and men should be selected
for such an important and scientific branch of the service,
in order to ensure its usefulness; hence it may be inferred,
that as qualifications of a superior kind were requisite, the
_Subaltern Officers in the Royal Fusiliers_ obtained, on their
first appointment, the rank of LIEUTENANT, a distinction which is
continued to the present time.

During a period exceeding one hundred and sixty years, the ROYAL
FUSILIERS have proved themselves to be a faithful and zealous
Regiment in the cause of Royalty, and in the interests of their
country. Their services in various parts of Europe and America,
when war has required their presence and exertions, have, on all
occasions, been conspicuous; and their conduct on home-service,
when relieved from their tour of duty abroad, has been marked by
a strict adherence to the rules of order and discipline: these
qualities have rendered them a valuable corps to the Government
of the country, and have obtained for them a continuance of the
approbation of their Sovereign.

1846.


FOOTNOTES:

[6] "Our Royal Regiment of Fusiliers to have snap-hance musquets,
strapt, with bright barrels of three feet eight inches long, with
good swords, cartouch-boxes, and bionetts."--_King James IInd's
orders for arming the Royal Fusiliers._

[7] "JAMES R.

"These are to authorise you, by beat of drum or otherwise, to
raise volunteers to serve for soldiers in your own company in Our
Royal Regiment of Fusiliers, which we have appointed to be raised,
and whereof you are colonel; which company is to consist of one
hundred private soldiers, three serjeants, three corporals, and two
drummers. And as the said soldiers shall be respectively raised in
the said company, they are to be produced to muster, to the intent
that they may be received into our pay and entertainment; and when
that number shall be fully or nearly completed, they are to march
to the general rendezvous of their regiment, where they are also
to be mustered. And you are to appoint such person or persons as
you shall think fit to receive arms for the said soldiers, and
halberts for the said serjeants, out of the stores of Our Ordnance.
And we do hereby require all magistrates, justices of the peace,
constables and others, Our officers, whom it may concern, at
the places where you shall raise, march, or rendezvous our said
company, to be assisting therein as there shall be occasion.

"Given at our Court at Whitehall the 20th day of June, 1685.

  "By His Majesty's Command."
  "WILLIAM BLATHWAYTE.

"_To our trusty and well-beloved Councillor, George Lord Dartmouth,
Colonel of our Royal Regiment of Fusiliers, and Captain of a
Company in the said Regiment._"

[8]  "_Windsor, 7th September, 1685._

"SIR,

"The King having ordered three companies of the Royal Regiment of
Fusiliers to remain in garrison at Sheerness, instead of the three
companies that were usually there, and the quarters being too
strait, unless some of the officers be lodged in the Navy Dock, His
Majesty thinks fit that you signify his pleasure to the officers of
the dock that they afford quarters to such of the officers of those
companies as need them. Being all I have in command.

  "I remain, &c.
  "WILLIAM BLATHWAYTE.

"To _Mr. Pepys_."

[9] Coxe's Life of Marlborough.

[10] Story's History of the Wars in Ireland.

[11] 12th September. "This day the ordinary detachments of the
Earl of Bath's regiment and of the FUSILIERS being at work at
the bastion, part, in enlarging the ditch, found an old hidden
treasure, which quickly stopped the soldiers' working, who fell
all a scrambling in a heap, one upon another, some bringing off a
very good booty, some gold, and some silver, several Jacobuses and
Sovereigns being found by the soldiers, and a great many old pieces
of silver of Henry II., Charles IX., Henry III., and Henry IVth's
coin, which are now hardly to be found in France. The people of
the town supposed this money belonged to one Elfort, a gentleman
who died many years ago, and who buried his treasure (when the
Mareschal de Rantzau took the town) in the Bernardine Nuns' garden
(the ground where the money was found having formerly been part
of the garden), which Count de Monteroy caused to be demolished,
and they think there might have been about 900 pound groat, which
makes the value of 450 guineas English. This Elfort left it by will
to his children with the marks where to find it; but his children
could never discover it."--_D'Auvergne._

[12] Major-General Tyron's despatch.

[13] Ibid.

[14] Earl Cornwallis's despatch.

[15] The following non-commissioned officers were rewarded with
commissions at the recommendation of PRINCE EDWARD during the
period His Royal Highness commanded the regiment in North America:--

  1795 Serjeant Walter Beavan, Ensign in the Nova Scotia Fencibles.
  1796 Serjeant-Major Joseph Parkes, Quarter-Master in the Royal
           Fusiliers.
  ---- Serjeant Christopher Taylor, Lieutenant in ditto.
  ---- Quarter-Master Serjeant John Opinslaw, Ensign in the Invalids.
  ---- Serjeant James Colledge, Ensign in St. John's Island Provincials.
  1797 Serjeant James Turner, Ensign 31st Regiment.
  ---- Serjeant-Major Frederick Plansker, Ensign in the Fencibles.
  1802 Serjeant-Major John Robertson, Ensign in the first, or the royal
           regiment.

[16] The following non-commissioned officers were rewarded with
commissions:--

  1804 Serjeant Francis Gilliman, Quarter-Master, Nova Scotia Fencibles.
  1805 Serjeant-Major George Galbraith, Ensign and Adjutant, First Royal
           Foot.
  ---- Quarter-Master-Serjeant John Hogan, Quarter-Master, Seventh Royal
           Fusiliers.

[17] A General Order was issued to the army on the 18th January,
1810 (No. 182), by direction of the Commander-in-Chief, containing
the substance of the following General Order, issued in North
America, on this subject:--

  "GENERAL ORDER.      QUEBEC, _4th October, 1809_.

"The Commander of the Forces has lately had occasion to see in a
Halifax newspaper a copy of an address presented by the serjeants
of the 1st battalion ROYAL FUSILIERS to Captain ORR, on that
officer relinquishing the Adjutancy in consequence of being
promoted to a company. So novel a circumstance could not fail to
draw the attention of His Excellency, it being the first of the
kind that has come to his knowledge during the forty-six years that
he has been in the service; and as the first instance has thus (so
far as he is aware, at least) occurred on the part of the army with
the charge of which the King has been pleased to intrust him, he
feels himself called on by every obligation of duty to His Majesty
and the service to bear his testimony against it by a public
expression of disapprobation.

"His Excellency does not mean in this instance to ascribe any
improper motive to the serjeants. He has no doubt that their sole
view was to express their regard and gratitude towards an officer
who, in the intimate connexion that had officially subsisted
between them, had very commendably conducted himself with kindness
to them without departing from that strictness of discipline which
was indispensable to the discharge of his duty.

"But while His Excellency thus does justice to the intention of the
serjeants of the ROYAL FUSILIERS, he desires at the same time very
seriously to observe to them, that in presuming to meet, in order
to deliberate on the conduct of their superior officer, they have
in fact, however unintentionally, been guilty of an act of great
insubordination.

"It matters not that the design of the meeting, or in whatever
manner the address was unanimously assented to, was solely to
express their respect and esteem; the very circumstance implies
discussion, and by that discussion they rendered themselves
obnoxious to the imputation alluded to.--Who, indeed, shall say
where such a practice, if once introduced, shall end? If the
non-commissioned officers of a regiment are permitted to express
their approbation of the conduct of the Adjutant, why may they not
exercise the same right with respect to their commanding officer?
Or what reason can be given why they should not be equally entitled
to express their disapprobation? Indeed, should the practice become
general, the merely withholding the former would imply the latter.

"General Sir JAMES CRAIG is more desirous that his sentiments on
this subject should be distinctly understood in the FUSILIERS,
because it appears on the face of the address of the serjeants in
question that it has been countenanced by the officer who then
commanded the regiment. The Commander of the Forces does no more
than justice to the character and services of that officer when
he admits that, feeling as he does the dangerous tendency of the
practice which he is censuring, he also feels himself the more
bound to oppose it, in the first instance, from the strength which
it might otherwise derive from the sanction which he appears
to have given to it.--Lieutenant-Colonel PAKENHAM will however
believe that, though it was impossible the General should avoid
this observation upon his error, yet his doing so can by no means
detract from the esteem with which he has been taught to view his
character as an officer, or the confidence which he should be
disposed to place in his service.

  (Signed)    "EDWARD BAYNES,
  "Adjutant-General to the
  "British army serving in North America."

[18] _British Troops engaged at the Battle of Albuhera on the 16th
May, 1811._

Cavalry under Major-General the Honourable Sir William Lumley; 3rd
Dragoon Guards, 4th Dragoons, and 13th Light Dragoons.

                  { Lieut.-Col. Colborne, { 3rd Foot, 1st Battalion,
                  {                       { 31st ditto, 2nd ditto,
                  {                       { 48th ditto, 2nd ditto,
  SECOND          {                       { 66th ditto, 2nd ditto,
  DIVISION.       {                       { 60th, one Company 5th ditto.
  HON.            {
  MAJOR-GEN.      { Major-Gen. Hoghton.   { 29th Foot,
  W. STEWART.     {                       { 48th ditto, 1st Battalion,
                  {                       { 57th ditto, 1st ditto,
                  {                       { 60th, one Company 5th ditto.
                  {
                  { Hon. Lt.-Col.         { 28th Foot, 2nd Battalion,
                  { Abercromby.           { 34th ditto, 2nd ditto,
                  {                       { 39th ditto, 2nd ditto,
                  {                       { 60th, one Company 5th ditto.

                  { Brigadier     { 27th Foot, 3rd Battalion,
                  { General       { 40th ditto, 1st ditto,
  FOURTH          { Kemmis.[19]   { 97th ditto, (or Queen's Own.)
  DIVISION.       {               { 60th, one Company 5th ditto.
  HON. M.-GEN.    {
  L. COLE.        {               { 7th Foot, 1st Battalion,
                  {  Fusilier     { 7th ditto, 2nd Battalion,
                  {  Brigade.     { 23rd ditto, 1st ditto,
                  {               { Brunswick Oels, 1 Company.

  Major-Gen. Baron Chas.      { 1st Light Battalion German
  Alten.                      {   Legion,
                              { 2nd ditto, ditto.

The following description of the charge of the FUSILIER BRIGADE at
Albuhera is extracted from Colonel Napier's admirable history of
the Peninsular War.

"The fourth division was composed of two brigades; the one of
Portuguese, under General Harvey; the other, commanded by Sir
William Myers, consisted of the seventh and twenty-third regiments,
and was called the Fusilier Brigade. Harvey's Portuguese being
immediately pushed in between Lumley's dragoons and the hill, were
charged by some French cavalry, whom they beat off, and meanwhile
General Cole led the Fusiliers up the contested height. At this
time six guns were in the enemy's possession, the whole of Werle's
reserves were coming forward to reinforce the front column of
the French, the remnant of Hoghton's brigade could no longer
maintain its ground, and the field was heaped with carcases, the
lancers were riding furiously about the captured artillery on the
upper parts of the hill, and behind all, Hamilton's Portuguese
and Alten's Germans withdrawing from the bridge, seemed to be in
full retreat. Cole's Fusiliers, flanked by a battalion of the
Lusitanian legion under Colonel Hawkshawe, soon mounted the hill,
drove off the lancers, recovered five of the captured guns and one
colour, and appeared on the right of Hoghton's brigade exactly as
Abercrombie passed it on the left.

"Such a gallant line issuing from the midst of the smoke, and
rapidly separating itself from the broken multitude, startled the
enemy's heavy masses, which were increasing and pressing onwards as
to an assured victory: they wavered, hesitated, and then vomiting
forth a storm of fire, hastily endeavoured to enlarge their front,
while a fearful discharge of grape from all their artillery
whistled through the British ranks. Myers was killed; Cole, the
three colonels--Ellis, Blakeney, and Hawkshawe--fell wounded; and
the Fusilier battalions, struck by the iron tempest, reeled and
staggered like sinking ships. But suddenly and sternly recovering,
they closed on their terrible enemies, and then was seen with what
a strength and majesty the British soldier fights! In vain did
Soult, by voice and gesture, animate his Frenchmen; in vain did the
hardiest veterans, extricating themselves from the crowded columns,
sacrifice their lives to gain time for the mass to open out on such
a fair field; in vain did the mass itself bear up, and, fiercely
striving, fire indiscriminately upon friends and foes, while the
horsemen hovering on the flanks threatened to charge the advancing
line. Nothing could stop that astonishing infantry! No sudden
burst of undisciplined valour, no nervous enthusiasm, weakened the
stability of their order; their flashing eyes were bent on the dark
columns in their front; their measured tread shook the ground;
their dreadful volleys swept away the head of every formation;
their deafening shouts overpowered the dissonant cries that broke
from all parts of the tumultuous crowd, as foot by foot, and with
a horrid carnage, it was driven by the incessant vigour of the
attack to the farthest edge of the hill. There the French reserve,
mixing with the struggling multitude, endeavoured to sustain the
fight; but the effort only increased the irremediable confusion,
the mighty mass gave way, and like a loosened cliff, went headlong
down the ascent. The rain flowed after in streams discoloured
with blood, and fifteen hundred unwounded men, the remnant of six
thousand unconquerable British soldiers, stood triumphant on the
fatal hill!"

"The Fusiliers exceeded anything that the usual word 'Gallantry'
can convey."--_Colonel Sir Henry Hardinge._

"In this attack, and carrying the enemy's position, the Fusilier
brigade lost 1000 out of 1500 men and 45 officers; among whom
three were commanding officers;--and exhibited an example of
steadiness and heroic gallantry which history, I believe, cannot
surpass."--_Major-General Sir G. Lowry Cole._

[19] Brigadier-General Kemmis's brigade, being on the north side of
the Guadiana, was left in that position in order to secure the safe
removal of the stores to the town of Elvas on the siege of Badajoz
being raised, and was prevented, on that account, from joining the
fourth division until the morning of the 17th of May.

[20] During the year 1811 the following non-commissioned officers
were rewarded with commissions.

  Serjeant-Major Timothy Meagher, Lieutenant Seventh Fusiliers.
  Serjeant-Major William Johnson, Ensign Fifty-seventh Regiment.
  Quarter-Master Serjeant Arthur Byrne, Ensign and Adjutant
                 Twenty-seventh Regiment.
  Serjeant William Gough, appointed Ensign, Second West India
                 Regiment, on 14th November, 1811; promoted
                 to a Lieutenantcy on 12th August, 1813; and
                 died in September, 1817.

[21] This officer was aide-de-camp to Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas
Picton, and was mortally wounded on the 19th March.

[22] In July, 1812, Serjeant William Harris of the Royal Fusiliers
was rewarded with the commission of Ensign and Adjutant in the
twenty-seventh regiment.

[23] Serjeant Joseph Wood was this year rewarded with a commission
in the thirteenth veteran battalion formed at Lisbon.

[24] The following non-commissioned officers were this year
rewarded with commissions:--

  Serjeant John Henry, Ensign and Adjutant Ninety-first Regiment.
  Quarter-Master Serjeant William Greenwood, Quarter-Master
                 Seventh Regiment.
  Serjeant John Day, Ensign Sixtieth Regiment.

[25] MAJOR-GENERAL THE HONOURABLE SIR EDWARD MICHAEL PAKENHAM,
G.C.B., brother of the Earl of Longford, was appointed Captain in
May, 1794, in the ninety-second regiment, a corps raised on the
breaking out of the French Revolutionary War in 1793, and disbanded
soon afterwards. In December, 1794, he was appointed major in the
thirty-third light dragoons, and when this corps was disbanded,
he obtained the majority of the twenty-third light dragoons,
from which he was promoted, in 1799, to the lieutenant-colonelcy
of the sixty-fourth foot: in May, 1804, he was appointed
lieutenant-colonel in the ROYAL FUSILIERS. He assumed the command
of the first battalion of the SEVENTH at Weymouth in 1806, and by
his amiable deportment and attention to the welfare of his corps,
he soon won the affection and esteem of the officers and soldiers.
He commanded the regiment in the expedition to Copenhagen in 1807,
and at the capture of Martinique in 1809, when he gave presage of
that noble ardour and contempt of danger which were afterwards most
signally displayed under the great Duke of Wellington in Portugal
and Spain. While in Nova Scotia, he established a book of merit in
the SEVENTH; and when, on leaving the regiment to serve under Lord
Wellington, the officers presented him with a valuable sword, he
sent the following answer to their address.

"I received your letter, caused by my proposed departure, with
warmth equal to its tenor, with satisfaction few men have had a
right to experience.

"Friendship formed at ease, confirmed in danger, becomes too sacred
to need professions.

"Your cordial zeal, however, anticipated my wishes towards the
prosperity of the corps, which your generosity has too much
attributed to my exertions. Let my actions speak a continuance of
attachment.

"Your gift, and desire of recollection hereafter, to me will serve
as professional impellants.

"In leaving the FUSILIERS, I separate from the best comrades, from
the chief source of my soldier's pride; yet it is for the object of
duty:--here draw the line.

"Do you, by usual energy, continue ripe for service; it is for me
to improve to become the more honourable to lead you."

From this period (1809) he served at nearly every action fought by
the British troops in the Peninsula; and was rewarded with honorary
distinctions for the battles of Busaco and Fuentes d'Onor. In
October, 1811, he was promoted to the local rank of major-general
in Spain and Portugal, and in 1812 to the rank of major-general in
the army.

At the battle of Salamanca he commanded the third division, and
acquired additional honour by the spirited manner in which he
assailed the enemy's left, overthrowing all opposition, and was
rewarded with another honorary distinction. In May, 1813, he was
appointed colonel of the Sixth West India regiment, and he was
employed as Adjutant-General to the army commanded by the Marquis
of Wellington until the colossal power of Napoleon was destroyed,
and the Bourbon dynasty restored to the throne of France. After
the peace of 1814 he was honoured with the dignity of knight grand
cross of the order of the bath. He was subsequently appointed to
the command of the expedition against _New Orleans_, where he
encountered the most extraordinary difficulties. At the storming of
the enemy's works, when he saw the prowess of his troops unable to
overcome the obstructions, he rode forward to encourage them by his
presence, and fell a victim to his bravery. He lived an ornament to
his profession, admired, beloved, and esteemed by all who knew him,
and died regretted in the thirty-sixth year of his age.

[26] _From 1825 to 1832._



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS

OF

THE SEVENTH REGIMENT;

OR,

THE ROYAL FUSILIERS.


GEORGE LORD DARTMOUTH,

_Appointed 11th June, 1685._

LORD DARTMOUTH was the son of Colonel William Legge, a zealous
royalist, who was with King Charles I. at the battle of Newbury and
other engagements, was also in the design of the Earl of Holland to
restore His Majesty in 1648, and was wounded and taken prisoner.
The King was so sensible of Colonel Legge's services, and esteemed
him so highly for his fidelity, that a short period before his
execution, his Majesty requested the Duke of Richmond to inform
the Prince of Wales (afterwards Charles II.) "that whenever he was
restored to his rights, he should be sure to take care of _honest
Will Legge_, for he was the faithfullest servant that ever any
prince had."

Colonel Legge also displayed great devotion to the cause of King
Charles II., and was one of the commissioners appointed by the
King, in 1659, to promise pardon to all who should endeavour to
effect His Majesty's restoration; excepting the individuals who sat
as judges on his royal father. After the restoration His Majesty
informed Colonel Legge of the message of King Charles I. by the
Duke of Richmond; but the colonel declined being advanced to the
peerage, at the same time expressing a hope that his sons might
deserve his Majesty's favour.

GEORGE LEGGE (the eldest son of Colonel William Legge) went to
sea at the age of seventeen, under the care of Sir Edward Spragg,
a distinguished officer who commanded the rear squadron of the
combined English and French fleets against Holland in 1673, and
fought the Dutch Admiral Tromp, ship to ship, until both their
ships were so disabled that they quitted them, and, hoisting their
flags in other vessels, renewed the battle with incredible fury.
Sir Edward Spragg's ship being terribly torn, he designed to go on
board of a third vessel; but his boat was struck by a shot and he
was drowned. Under this gallant preceptor George Legge acquired
a knowledge of his profession; in 1667 he commanded the Pembroke
man-of-war; in 1671 the Fairfax; and in the following year the
Royal Catherine. In 1672 he was appointed lieutenant-governor of
Portsmouth; in 1673 he was appointed governor of that fortress;
also master of the horse and gentleman of the bedchamber to His
Royal Highness the Duke of York (afterwards King James II.). At
the augmentation of the army in 1678 he was appointed colonel of a
newly-raised regiment of foot, which was disbanded after the peace
of Nimeguen; he was also lieutenant-general of the ordnance, and
was sworn a member of the privy council in 1681; in 1682 he was
constituted master-general of the ordnance, and was commissioned to
inspect all the forts and garrisons in England.

On the 2nd of December, 1682, he was advanced to the dignity of
BARON OF DARTMOUTH, with remainder, in default of issue, to his
brother William; which remainder the King particularly ordered
himself "in justice" (as he was pleased to say) "to the memory
of old Colonel Legge, whose modesty ought not to prejudice his
children."

The preamble of the patent imports--"That His Majesty, remembering
the great merits of WILLIAM LEGGE, one of the grooms of the royal
bedchamber to his late father King Charles I., especially in that
unparalleled rebellion raised against him, in which, being a
person of singular skill and experience in military affairs, and
also a valiant and expert commander, he faithfully served His
Majesty in most of the battles and sieges of those unhappy times;
that he also performed several eminent services to King Charles
II. since his most happy restoration; and further, considering
that GEORGE LEGGE, eldest son of the said WILLIAM LEGGE, following
his father's example in divers military employments, especially
in sundry sharp and dangerous naval fights, wherein he did freely
hazard his life, for which respect, being made general of the
ordnance and artillery, and one of His Majesty's most honourable
privy council, His Majesty has thought fit to dignify him with some
further honour. &c."

In 1683 LORD DARTMOUTH was sent with the fleet to Africa, to
destroy the works of Tangier and bring home the garrison and
English inhabitants; on his return he was rewarded by his Majesty
with a grant of ten thousand pounds. On the accession of King James
II. his lordship was continued as master-general of the ordnance,
and one of the privy council; he also held the appointment of
constable of the Tower of London; and on the augmentation of the
army in 1685, he was appointed Colonel of the ROYAL REGIMENT OF
FUSILIERS. In 1687, when King James II. was making a tour through
part of his dominions, the city of Coventry presented His Majesty
with a large gold cup and cover, which he immediately delivered
to LORD DARTMOUTH, telling him, "There was an acknowledgment from
the citizens of Coventry for his father's sufferings in their
town:"--Colonel Legge having endured a long imprisonment there,
after being wounded and taken prisoner at the battle of Worcester,
in 1651, and he escaped from thence by a stratagem on the part of
his wife, in woman's attire.

When the Prince of Orange prepared an armament for a descent on
the English coast, LORD DARTMOUTH was appointed admiral of the
fleet of England sent out in the autumn of 1688 to intercept the
Dutch. He accepted this employment out of gratitude to the King,
"who," as Bishop Burnet observes, "loved him, and in whose service
he had long been." The bishop adds,--"He was, indeed, one of the
worthiest men of his court, and, although much against the conduct
of his affairs, he was resolved to stick to him at all hazards."
His conduct while in command of the fleet has been variously
represented; but it appears evident he was only prevented fighting
the Dutch fleet by unfavourable weather.

On the accession of the Prince of Orange to sovereign power,
LORD DARTMOUTH was deprived of his appointments, and in 1691 he
was imprisoned in the Tower of London for corresponding with
King James. After three months' confinement, he died suddenly of
apoplexy, and King William commanded the same honours to be paid at
his lordship's funeral which would have been due to him if he had
died possessed of all his late employments. He was interred near
his father, in a vault in Trinity Chapel, in the Minories.


JOHN, EARL OF MARLBOROUGH,

_Appointed 26th August, 1689._

This talented and brave nobleman attained the summit of military
fame, and was equally celebrated for sound judgment in the cabinet,
and for persuasive eloquence in conversation; while he swayed the
councils of foreign courts, and reconciled conflicting interests
among the states of Christendom, he led their armies to battle
and to victory, acquiring a renown which will live in the page of
history to the remotest ages, and the record of his achievements
serves as a monument to commemorate the national glory. He was
born on the 24th of June, 1650, and before he was sixteen years of
age he was page of honour to the Duke of York, who procured him
the commission of ensign in the first foot guards in 1666. Being
an enthusiast in his profession, he resigned the pleasures of the
court to engage in actual warfare on the shores of Africa, and
distinguished himself as a volunteer against the Moors under the
walls of Tangier. In 1672 he was appointed captain of a company
in the Duke of Monmouth's regiment of foot, and served with the
French army, commanded by Louis XIV. in person, against the Dutch,
where he signalized himself by a regular attention to duty, and
volunteered his services on every occasion of difficulty and
danger. He soon attracted the attention of the celebrated Marshal
Turenne; distinguished himself at the siege of Nimeguen in 1672;
and, in 1673, added to his rising honours by his gallantry at
the siege of Maestricht, where he was wounded. In the following
campaign he served with the French army on the Rhine, and was
rewarded on the 3rd of April, 1674, with the colonelcy of an
English regiment in the pay of Louis XIV., with which corps he
continued to serve in the German war. In 1678 his regiment was
recalled from France; and he proceeded to Flanders in command of
a brigade of infantry; but the peace of Nimeguen taking place, he
returned to England, and his regiment was disbanded. He continued
in the suite of the Duke of York, whose constant attendant he
became, and was employed in several delicate missions between
His Royal Highness and the King, in which he evinced signal
address. In 1633, he raised a troop of dragoons, and was appointed
colonel of the royal regiment of dragoons,--a corps formed of two
newly-raised troops of dragoons and four troops of Tangier horse.
He was also elevated to the peerage of Scotland by the title of
Baron Churchill of Aymouth; and soon after the accession of the
Duke of York to the throne, he was created an English peer by the
title of Baron Churchill of Sundridge, and promoted to the rank of
brigadier-general. On the breaking out of the rebellion of the Duke
of Monmouth, in June, 1685, Lord Churchill was detached with a body
of troops against the insurgents, and his excellent conduct at the
battle of Sedgemoor was rewarded with the colonelcy of the third
troop of Life Guards, which gave him the privilege of taking the
court duty of gold stick; but his devotion to the Protestant cause
having induced him to join the standard of the Prince of Orange at
the revolution in 1688, he was deprived of his appointment.

On the accession of King William III. and Queen Mary, Lord
Churchill was restored to the command of the third troop of
Life Guards; advanced to the title of EARL OF MARLBOROUGH;
and subsequently appointed colonel of the ROYAL REGIMENT OF
FUSILIERS. He commanded the troops on the continent in 1689; gained
additional laurels at the battle of Walcourt; and was appointed
commander-in-chief in June, 1690. In the autumn of the same year
he reduced Cork and Kinsale in Ireland;--and served at the head of
the British infantry under King William III. in Flanders, in 1691;
but, in May, 1692, he was sent prisoner to the Tower on a charge
of high treason, which was not substantiated. In 1698 he was again
received into royal favour; and in 1701 King William III. appointed
him to the command of the British troops in the Netherlands, and
to negotiate the treaties to be formed with foreign powers on the
prospect of a war with France; he also appointed him, on the 12th
of February, 1702, colonel of the twenty-fourth regiment of foot.
On the accession of Queen Anne, he was appointed captain-general
of the forces, and to the chief command of the English, Dutch,
and auxiliary armies employed against the French; and all his
operations were crowned with success. He took Venloo, Ruremonde,
Stevenswaert, and Liege with surprising rapidity;--extended
and secured the Dutch frontiers, and forced the enemy to seek
shelter behind their lines. His great ability had become so
conspicuous that on his return to England he was raised to the
rank of DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH. In the spring of 1703 he once more
took the field;--forced Bonn, Huy, and Limburg; but was impeded
in his brilliant career by the jealousy or timidity of the Dutch
generals. In April, 1704, he was appointed colonel of the first
foot guards;--and in the succeeding campaign his grace led the army
from the Ocean to the Danube;--he attacked the enemy on the 2nd
of July, 1704, and forced the intrenchments at Schellenberg with
distinguished gallantry. The decisive battle of Blenheim was fought
on the 13th of August following, and the legions of France and
Bavaria were overthrown;--there, the heaps of slain gave dreadful
proofs of British valour; and whole legions of prisoners were
proofs of their mercy. This victory, which exalted the reputation
of the DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH, and displayed in its true light the
distinguished character of the British troops, produced the most
important results;--Bavaria was subdued:--Ratisbon, Augsburg,
Ulm, Meminghen,--all were recovered. From the Danube he marched
towards the Rhine and Moselle. Landau, Treves, and Traerback were
taken; and the British commander was created a PRINCE OF THE
EMPIRE. His abilities in the field were equalled by his judgment
in the cabinet; and his council guided the confederate princes
of Europe. In the spring of 1705 he once more took the field,
and menaced the French in Alsace. From the Moselle he proceeded
to the Maese. Liege was relieved, Huy retaken, and the boasted
impregnable French lines were forced at Helixem and Neer-Hespen;
but his career of victory was again impeded by the opposition he
met with from the Dutch generals. These difficulties were however
removed. In the spring of 1706 another campaign opened,--when the
discipline he had introduced, and the confidence he inspired,
again proved invincible. He met, attacked, and triumphed over
the French and Spaniards at Ramilies on the 23rd of May, 1706.
This decisive victory was followed by the surrender of Louvain,
Brussels, Malines, Liere, Ghent, Oudenarde, Antwerp, Damme,
Bruges, and Courtray: in the meantime Ostend, Menin, Dendermond,
and Aeth, were taken:--places which had resisted the greatest
generals for months--for years:--provinces disputed for ages
were the conquests of a summer. So great was the reputation of
the armies of the allies, and of their distinguished commander,
that throughout the campaign of 1707 the enemy avoided a general
engagement; but in the following summer a gallant French army,
led by the princes of the blood, was overcome at Oudenarde:--new
armies and new generals appeared; but the career of MARLBOROUGH
could not be stopped. The barriers of France on the side of the Low
Countries, the work of half a century, were attacked. A numerous
French army were spectators of the fall of Lisle,--the bulwark
of their barriers. Every campaign added new conquests. Tournay
was taken. The French army--posted near Malplaquet, in a position
covered by thick woods, defended by treble entrenchments--was
attacked. The battle was bloody--the event decisive. The woods were
pierced. The fortifications were trampled down. The enemy fled.
After this victory Mons was taken; and in the succeeding years,
Douay, Bethune, Aire, St. Venant, Bouchain,--all underwent the same
fate. Nothing availed against a general whose sagacity foresaw
everything, whose vigilance attended to everything, whose constancy
no labour could subdue, whose courage no danger could dismay,
and whose intuitive glance always caught the decisive moment
and insured victory; while the discipline he maintained and the
confidence he inspired were equivalent to an army. The ambitious
Louis XIV. saw his generals over-matched,--his armies beaten and
dispirited,--his possessions wrested from him,--the barriers of
his kingdom trampled down, and a powerful army ready to carry the
horrors of war into the heart of his kingdom. The disasters of
ten campaigns having proved that MARLBOROUGH was invincible, the
French monarch sued for peace. The din and calamities of war were
succeeded by the smile of plenty, tranquillity, and enjoyment: but,
for some political cause, the gallant MARLBOROUGH was divested
of all his offices dependent on the British crown. Continuing a
stedfast adherent to the Protestant succession, he retired to the
continent until the accession of George I., and was then replaced
in his former posts, in which he continued until his decease in
1722. His unremitting exertions to inculcate the principles of
order and discipline; his discernment in bringing merit into
notice; his impartiality; and a series of glorious victories by
which he upheld the national honour, and proved himself a valuable
servant of the crown and kingdom, occasioned his memory to be
deeply engraved on the hearts of the brave men who had fought under
his command.


LORD GEORGE HAMILTON,

_Appointed 23rd January, 1692._

LORD GEORGE HAMILTON, fifth son of William Duke of Hamilton, was
an officer in the Royal Regiment in the reign of Charles II.,
and also of James II., and, adhering to the Protestant interest
at the Revolution in 1688, he was advanced to the rank of
lieutenant-colonel, and on the 1st of March, 1690, to the brevet
rank of colonel. He served under King William III. in Ireland,
and distinguished himself at the battle of the Boyne; and in
1691 he was at the siege of Athlone, at the battle of Aghrim,
and the capture of Limerick. In January, 1692, he was appointed
colonel of the ROYAL FUSILIERS, at the head of which corps he
distinguished himself at the battle of Steenkirk, and his gallantry
was rewarded with the colonelcy of the Royal Regiment. Continuing
to serve under King William in the Netherlands, he distinguished
himself in 1693 at the unfortunate battle of Landen, and in
1695 at the siege of Namur, and while engaged in this service
he was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general. On the 3rd of
January, 1696, he was advanced to the peerage by the titles of
Baron Dechmont, Viscount of Kirkwall, and EARL OF ORKNEY; and in
March, 1702, he was promoted to the rank of major-general. He
served the campaign of this year under the Earl of Marlborough,
and was engaged in the siege of Stevenswaert. He commanded a
brigade of infantry during the campaign of 1703, was advanced to
the rank of lieutenant-general, and invested with the order of
the Thistle in 1704; and, having proceeded with the army into the
heart of Germany, took part in gaining the glorious victories of
Schellenberg and Blenheim. In 1705 he distinguished himself at the
siege and capture of Huy; and in the following year at the battle
of Ramilies, and the siege of Menin. He also took a distinguished
part in the battle of Oudenarde in covering the siege of Lisle;
and in forcing the passage of the Scheldt in 1708. In 1709 he
distinguished himself in the movements which preceded and led to
the battle of Malplaquet, and during this hard-contested action he
signalized himself at the head of fifteen battalions of infantry.
He also signalized himself at the siege of Douay in 1710; and in
the beginning of the following year he was promoted to the rank
of general. He was also engaged in passing the French lines in
1711, and commanded twenty battalions of infantry at the siege of
Bouchain.

On these occasions the EARL OF ORKNEY had evinced personal bravery
and military talents of a superior character. At the close of the
war he was a member of the privy council, and governor of Edinburgh
Castle. On the accession of George I. he was appointed one of the
lords of the bedchamber to his Majesty, and governor of Virginia;
and in January, 1736, he was promoted to the rank of field marshal.
He was many years one of the sixteen representatives of the
Scottish peerage; and died in January, 1737.


EDWARD FITZPATRICK,

_Appointed 1st August, 1692._

EDWARD FITZPATRICK was many years an officer of the Holland
Regiment, now third foot or buffs, in which corps he rose to the
rank of captain, and was so distinguished for a regular attention
to duty, and for devotion to the Protestant interest, that at
the revolution in 1688 he was promoted to the colonelcy of a
regiment of foot (afterwards disbanded) with which he served in
King William's wars. He was at the battle of Walcourt in 1689; and
at the siege of Cork and Kinsale in 1690; and having signalized
himself at the battle of Steenkirk in 1692, he was rewarded with
the colonelcy of the ROYAL FUSILIERS. In 1693 he was wounded at
the battle of Landen; and in 1694 he was promoted to the rank of
brigadier general. In 1695 he commanded a brigade of infantry
at the siege of Namur, and he acquired the confidence of his
sovereign, and the esteem of his companions in arms. He was drowned
on the 10th November, 1696.


SIR CHARLES O'HARA,

_Appointed 12th November, 1696._

CHARLES O'HARA was an officer of the English brigade in the Dutch
service in the time of King Charles II., and commanded a company in
the Earl of Ossory's regiment. He subsequently held a commission in
the first foot guards, was promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy of
the regiment, and was knighted by King William III. at Whitehall
in 1689. He subsequently served under His Majesty in Flanders;
was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general in 1695, and was
rewarded with the colonelcy of the ROYAL FUSILIERS in 1696. On the
breaking out of the war of the Spanish succession, he was advanced
to the rank of major-general, and he commanded a brigade under
the Duke of Ormond in the expedition against _Cadiz_ in 1702, on
which occasion he was charged with participating in the plunder of
Port St. Mary's, and brought to trial, but acquitted: in 1704 he
was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general. In 1706 Queen Anne
advanced him to the dignity of a peer of Ireland by the title of
BARON OF TYRAWLEY in the county of Mayo; and proceeding to Spain,
he commanded the left wing of the allied army at the battle of
Almanza, in 1707, where he was wounded. His Lordship was sworn a
member of the privy council of Queen Anne in 1710; and also of
King George I. in 1714; and in November, 1714, he was promoted to
the rank of general. He had previously resigned the colonelcy of
the ROYAL FUSILIERS in favour of his son; and on the breaking out
of the rebellion in 1715 he raised a regiment of foot in Ireland;
this corps was, however, disbanded in 1718. He held, for several
years, the appointment of commander-in-chief in Ireland; also the
government of Minorca, and of the Royal Hospital near Dublin. He
died on the 8th of June, 1724.


THE HONOURABLE JAMES O'HARA,

_Appointed 29th January, 1713._

THE HON. JAMES O'HARA was appointed lieutenant in the ROYAL
FUSILIERS, commanded by his father, on the 15th of March, 1703, and
in 1706 he proceeded with his regiment to the relief of Barcelona.
In the following year he served on the staff of the army in Spain,
and was wounded at the battle of Almanza, where, it is said, he
was instrumental in saving the Earl of Galway's life. He served
several years at Minorca, and in 1713 he succeeded his father
in the colonelcy of the ROYAL FUSILIERS. In 1721 King George I.
advanced him to the dignity of BARON OF KILMAINE; and in 1724 he
succeeded his father in the title of BARON OF TYRAWLEY, and was
sworn a member of the privy council in the same year. The rank of
brigadier-general was conferred on his lordship on the 23rd of
November, 1735; that of major-general on the 2nd of July, 1739;
and in August of the latter year he was removed from the ROYAL
FUSILIERS to the fifth horse, now fourth dragoon guards. In March,
1743, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general, and in
the following month obtained the colonelcy of the second troop of
horse grenadier guards, from which he was removed, in 1745, to the
third troop of life guards, which gave him the privilege of taking
the court duty of Gold Stick. In 1746, when King George II. had
resolved to disband the third and fourth troops of life guards, his
lordship was removed to the tenth foot; he was again removed, in
1749, to the fourteenth dragoons; in 1752, to the third dragoons;
and, in 1755, to the second, or Coldstream regiment of foot guards.
He was appointed governor of Portsmouth on the 1st of May, 1759,
and was promoted to the rank of general on the 7th of March, 1761.
He held the appointment of governor of Minorca for several years;
and was employed as envoy and ambassador to the courts of Portugal
and Russia. He died at Twickenham on the 13th of July, 1773.


WILLIAM HARGRAVE,

_Appointed 27th August, 1739._

This Officer entered the army in April, 1694, and served under King
William in Flanders. He also served with distinction in the wars
of Queen Anne; was major of the thirty-sixth regiment, with the
rank of colonel in the army, at the battle of Dumblain in 1715;
and in 1730 he was appointed to the colonelcy of the thirty-first
foot: from which he was removed to the ninth foot in 1737, and in
1739 King George II. gave him the colonelcy of the ROYAL FUSILIERS,
which he retained until his decease in January, 1751.


JOHN MOSTYN,

_Appointed 26th January, 1751._

JOHN MOSTYN obtained a commission in the army in February, 1732;
he rose to the rank of captain in the thirty-first foot, and was
appointed captain-lieutenant in the second foot guards in 1742.
He served with his regiment on the continent; was wounded at
the battle of Fontenoy, and in December, 1747, he was appointed
aide-de-camp to the King, who gave him the colonelcy of the ROYAL
FUSILIERS in 1751. In 1754 he was removed to the thirteenth
dragoons; in 1757 he was promoted to the rank of Major-General;
in 1758 he obtained the colonelcy of the fifth dragoons, and
was removed to the seventh dragoons in 1760. He had previously
been promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general, and he highly
distinguished himself at the head of the British cavalry in
Germany in numerous actions and skirmishes in 1759, and the three
succeeding years. In 1763 he obtained the colonelcy of the first
dragoon guards, and he was promoted to the rank of general in 1772.
He died in 1779.


LORD ROBERT BERTIE,

_Appointed 20th August, 1754._

LORD ROBERT BERTIE, son of the Duke of Ancaster, entered the army
in July, 1737, as ensign in the second foot guards, and in 1744
he was promoted to the rank of captain and lieutenant-colonel.
He was wounded at the battle of Fontenoy in 1745, and appointed
aide-de-camp to the King in 1752: in 1754 he obtained the colonelcy
of the ROYAL FUSILIERS. He accompanied his regiment on board the
fleet in 1756, and was in the engagement off the island of Minorca.
In 1758 he was promoted to the rank of major-general; in 1760 to
that of lieutenant-general; in 1776 he obtained the colonelcy of
the second troop (now second regiment) of life guards; and was
promoted to the rank of general in 1777. He died in 1782.


RICHARD PRESCOTT,

_Appointed 12th November, 1776._

This Officer entered the army in the reign of George II. He saw
much service; and on the augmentation, in 1755, he was appointed
major of the fiftieth foot. In 1761 he was promoted to the
lieutenant-colonelcy of the ROYAL FUSILIERS, and the zeal and
attention with which he performed the duties of commanding officer
during the succeeding fifteen years was rewarded with the colonelcy
of the regiment in 1776. In 1777 he was promoted to the rank of
major-general, and in 1782 to that of lieutenant-general. He died
in 1788.


THE HONOURABLE WILLIAM GORDON,

_Appointed 20th October, 1788._

This Officer was appointed captain in the sixteenth light dragoons
in 1759; he subsequently held the commission of major in the
eighty-fourth, and lieutenant-colonel in the one hundred and fifth
regiment, which was disbanded at the peace in 1763. In 1777 he was
appointed colonel of the eighty-first regiment, and was promoted
to the rank of major-general in 1781: in 1783 his regiment was
disbanded; in 1787 he was appointed colonel commandant in the
sixtieth, and in 1788 he obtained the colonelcy of the ROYAL
FUSILIERS, from which he was removed in the following year to the
seventy-first regiment. In 1793 he was promoted to the rank of
lieutenant-general. He obtained the colonelcy of the twenty-first
regiment in 1803, which he retained until his decease in 1816.


HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS PRINCE EDWARD,

_Afterwards_ DUKE OF KENT,

_Appointed 9th April, 1789._

During the early part of this century the ROYAL FUSILIERS had
the honour of being commanded by a Prince who was distinguished
alike for his social and military virtues:--namely, PRINCE EDWARD,
afterwards FIELD MARSHAL HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE DUKE OF KENT AND
STRATHEARN, the father of HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY THE QUEEN
VICTORIA.

Prince Edward, fourth son of His Majesty King George III., was born
on the 2nd of November, 1767. Being destined for the profession of
arms, in the eighteenth year of his age he proceeded to Germany
for the completion of his studies, and resided successively at
Lunenberg and Hanover, and was appointed, on the 30th of May,
1786, colonel of the Hanoverian Guards. During the succeeding
year he removed to Geneva, and while pursuing his studies at this
place, His Majesty conferred upon him the Colonelcy of the 7th
ROYAL FUSILIERS. Early in 1790 he returned to England; and after
passing a few days with his family he embarked, in obedience to the
King's commands, for Gibraltar, in order to acquire a knowledge of
garrison duty under Major-General O'Hara. While at Gibraltar he
commanded for several months the 2nd, or Queen's Regiment, until
the arrival of the 7th ROYAL FUSILIERS, as a reinforcement to the
garrison, in August, 1790. In 1791 he sailed with his regiment from
Gibraltar for Quebec; and while serving in Canada he was promoted
to the rank of major-general. From North America he proceeded,
during the winter of 1793-4, through the United States to Boston,
where he embarked for the West Indies, and joined the army under
General Sir Charles Grey, at the commencement of the siege of Fort
Bourbon, in the island of Martinique, and commanded the detached
camp at La Coste, above Point Petre. During the several attacks His
Royal Highness's conduct excited the admiration of the army; his
life was frequently exposed to the most imminent peril; and his
aides-de-camp, Captain, the late General Sir Frederick Wetherall,
and Lieutenant Vesey, were wounded near his Royal Highness's
person.[27] In compliment to the gallantry evinced by His Royal
Highness on this occasion, the lower fort, called Fort Royal, was
subsequently named FORT EDWARD.

After the capture of Martinique the array proceeded to St.
Lucie; and His Royal Highness commanded the grenadier brigade,
which, in conjunction with the light infantry brigade, under
Major-General Thomas Dundas, formed the storming-party which
carried Morné Fortuné. From St. Lucie the army proceeded to the
island of Guadaloupe; and the flank companies were detached under
Prince Edward and Major-General Dundas, who succeeded in gaining
possession of Morné Marscot, and Fleur D'Epée, commanding Point
à Petre. His conduct during this course of active and perilous
service again excited admiration, and His Royal Highness received
the thanks of Parliament. After the capture of the French West
India Islands[28] His Royal Highness returned to North America, and
was shortly afterwards appointed Commander of the Forces in Nova
Scotia and its dependencies. On the 12th of January, 1796, he was
promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General; and, having returned
to England on account of ill health, he was created, on the 23rd
of April, 1799, _Earl of Dublin_, in Ireland, and DUKE OF KENT
AND STRATHEARN, in Great Britain; in the following month he was
promoted to the rank of General, and appointed Commander-in-Chief
of all the forces in British North America. On his return to
North America his arrival was greeted by all ranks; and during
his stay in that country he introduced numerous improvements in
the system of conducting public business. In August, 1800, His
Royal Highness returned to England; and in the following year he
was appointed to the Colonelcy of the Royal Regiment of Foot.
In 1802 he was appointed Governor of the important fortress of
Gibraltar, whither he immediately proceeded. His habits were
abstemious and regular; and he was himself a model of that strict
attention to duty and discipline which he required from others; but
while attempting to effect the removal of several long existing
abuses and irregularities, His Royal Highness experienced that
opposition which has attended every attempt to remedy evils, when
the private interests and privileges of individuals are concerned.
The Duke of Kent returned in 1803 to England, where he continued
to reside upwards of fifteen years. He was promoted to the rank of
Field-Marshal on the 5th of September, 1805; he was also elected a
Knight of the Garter, constituted a Knight Grand Cross of the Most
Honourable Military Order of the Bath, and appointed Keeper and
Ranger of Hampton Court Park.

During the period His Royal Highness resided in England, the
Royal Regiment of Foot experienced the advantage of his constant
care and anxiety for its interests, and of his influence in the
kingdom; and the service was benefited by the care he bestowed
in the introduction of regimental schools. His concern, however,
embraced the welfare of all His Majesty's subjects, and there was
scarcely a public charity in the metropolis which did not derive
benefit from his patronage, personal eloquence, and contributions,
and over many he presided. His private acts of benevolence in the
cases of widows and orphans who were known to His Royal Highness as
deserving objects of relief were very numerous, and the instances
of his charity and philanthropy were attested by the grateful
acknowledgments of those who had no claim on His Royal Highness's
bounty beyond the circumstance of a husband, father, or other
relative having performed faithful service under his command. The
provision made by His Majesty's Government for His Royal Highness
had not been equal to his necessary expenditure to support the
dignity of a Prince of the royal blood; particularly for the
periods he was on foreign service; and in 1816 economical views
induced him to proceed to the Continent. In May, 1818, he was
married at Coburg, according to the Lutheran rites, to Her Serene
Highness Victoria Maria Louisa, youngest daughter of the late
reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg. Shortly after the solemnities the
royal pair proceeded to England, and were remarried at Kew Palace
on the 11th of July, 1818, according to the rites of the Church of
England. In a few weeks after this ceremony the Duke returned with
his bride to the Continent; in the succeeding year they revisited
England; and on the 24th of May, 1819, the Duchess gave birth, at
Kensington Palace, to a daughter, named Alexandrina Victoria, Her
present Majesty.

In a few months after this happy event this amiable Prince, whose
social, private, and public virtues endeared him to his family
and friends, and procured him a place in the affections of the
British people, was attacked by pulmonary inflammation, produced by
accidental cold, and he died at his temporary residence at Sidmouth
on the 23rd of January, 1820. The remains of His Royal Highness
were removed from Sidmouth and deposited in the royal vault at St.
George's Chapel, in Windsor Castle, on the 12th of February, 1820,
with the usual honours and solemnity observed at the funerals of
the members of the Royal family.


SIR ALURED CLARKE, G.C.B.,

_Appointed 21st August, 1801._

Alured Clarke was appointed ensign of the fiftieth foot in 1755,
and lieutenant of the same corps in 1760. He served under Prince
Ferdinand of Brunswick in Germany, in the Seven Years' War; and
was appointed to the command of a company in the fifth foot in
1767; in 1771 he was promoted to the majority of the fifty-fourth
regiment, and in 1777 to the lieutenant-colonelcy of the ROYAL
FUSILIERS, with which corps he served in America, and obtained the
rank of colonel in 1781. In 1790 he was promoted to the rank of
major-general, and in 1794 he was rewarded with the colonelcy of
the fifth foot. In 1795 he commanded the land force at the capture
of the Cape of Good Hope; his services were afterwards transferred
to the East Indies, in which country he obtained the local rank of
lieutenant-general in 1796, and he was promoted to the rank of
lieutenant-general in the army in 1797. In 1801 he was removed to
the ROYAL FUSILIERS, and in 1802 he was promoted to the rank of
general: he was advanced to the rank of field-marshal on the 22nd
July, 1830. He died in 1832.


SIR EDWARD BLAKENEY, G.C.B.

_Appointed 20th September, 1832._


FOOTNOTES:

[27] When Prince Edward was ordered to storm Morné, Tartisson,
and Fort Royal on the 17th March, 1794, he placed himself at
the head of his brigade of grenadiers, and addressed them as
follows:--"_Grenadiers! This is St. Patrick's day; the English
will do their duty in compliment to the Irish, and the Irish in
compliment to the Saint!_--FORWARD GRENADIERS!"

[28] In commemoration of the important captures in the West Indies,
at the period above stated, an anniversary dinner takes place at
the United Service Club on the 17th of March (St. Patrick's day),
as it was on that Saint's day his late Royal Highness the Duke of
Kent, at the head of his grenadier brigade, carried Fort Royal
by escalade, when both his aides-de-camp, General Sir Frederick
Wetherall, and the late Major-General Vesey, were severely wounded
close to his Royal Highness. The following officers attended on
the 17th March, 1838:--The Marquis of Thomond, General Viscount
Lorton, Admiral Lord Colville, General Sir Lowry Cole, G.C.B.,
General Lord Howden, G.C.B., General Sir Fitzroy Maclean, Bart.,
Lieutenant-General Sir H. S. Keating, K.C.B., Sir William Pym,
K.C.H., and Major-General Reeves, C.B. All these officers, with the
exception of the Admiral, served in the Grenadier brigade under the
orders of their illustrious commander, His Royal Highness the Duke
of Kent.



LONDON: Printed by W. CLOWES and SONS, Stamford Street, For Her
Majesty's Stationery Office.



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Footnote [19] is referenced from inside Footnote [18].

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  Except for those changes noted below, all misspellings in the text,
  and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained. For example,
  daylight, day-light; muskets, musquets; fusil; piquets; intrusted.

  Pg 25, 'posts of Ticonderago' replaced by 'posts of Ticonderoga'.
  Pg 33, 'unexpected even' replaced by 'unexpected event'.
  Pg 78, the number '166' was missing and has been added into the table.
  Pg 107, 'April, 1774' replaced by 'April, 1694'.
  Pg 113, 'in the the Seven' replaced by 'in the Seven'.





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