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Title: The American Missionary — Volume 35, No. 12, December, 1881
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The American Missionary — Volume 35, No. 12, December, 1881" ***

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by Cornell University Digital Collections)

    Vol. XXXV.                                         No. 12.


                       AMERICAN MISSIONARY.

                 *       *       *       *       *

               “To the Poor the Gospel is Preached.”

                 *       *       *       *       *

                          DECEMBER, 1881.



    PARAGRAPHS         353
    GENERAL SURVEY      357


    ADDRESS OF REV. C. T. COLLINS      383
    ADDRESS OF REV. J. R. THURSTON       386


    ADDRESS OF REV. J. W. HARDING      397


    ADDRESS OF CAPT. R. H. PRATT      405



  RECEIPTS      412


                 *       *       *       *       *

                             NEW YORK:
         Published by the American Missionary Association,
                      ROOMS, 56 READE STREET.

                 *       *       *       *       *

                Price, 50 Cents a Year, in advance.

Entered at the Post Office at New York, N.Y., as second-class matter.

                 *       *       *       *       *

American Missionary Association,


       *       *       *       *       *


    HON. WM. B. WASHBURN, Mass.


    Hon. E. S. TOBEY, Mass.
    Hon. F. D. PARISH, Ohio.
    Hon. E. D. HOLTON, Wis.
    Rev. SAMUEL HARRIS, D.D., Ct.
    WM. C. CHAPIN, Esq., R.I.
    Rev. W. T. EUSTIS, D.D., Mass.
    Hon. A. C. BARSTOW, R.I.
    Rev. RAY PALMER, D.D., N.J.
    Rev. J. M. STURTEVANT, D.D., Ill.
    Rev. W. W. PATTON, D.D., D.C.
    Rev. CYRUS W. WALLACE, D.D., N.H.
    Rev. EDWARD HAWES, D.D., Ct.
    DOUGLAS PUTNAM, Esq., Ohio.
    Rev. M. M. G. DANA, D.D., Minn.
    Rev. H. W. BEECHER, N.Y.
    Gen. O. O. HOWARD, N.Y.
    Rev. G. F. MAGOUN, D.D., Iowa.
    Col. C. G. HAMMOND, Ill.
    Rev. WM. M. BARBOUR, D.D., Ct.
    Rev. W. L. GAGE, D.D., Ct.
    A. S. HATCH, Esq., N.Y.
    Rev. J. H. FAIRCHILD, D.D., Ohio.
    Rev. H. A. STIMSON, Mass.
    Rev. A. L. Stone, D.D., California.
    Rev. G. H. ATKINSON, D.D., Oregon.
    Rev. L. T. CHAMBERLAIN, D.D., Conn.
    Rev. J. E. RANKIN, D.D., D.C.
    Rev. A. L. CHAPIN, D.D., Wis.
    S. D. SMITH, Esq., Mass.
    Dea. JOHN C. WHITIN, Mass.
    Hon. J. B. GRINNELL, Iowa.
    Sir PETER COATS, Scotland.
    Rev. HENRY ALLON, D.D., London, Eng.
    WM. E. WHITING, Esq., N.Y.
    E. A. GRAVES, Esq., N.J.
    Rev. F. A. NOBLE, D.D., Ill.
    DANIEL HAND, Esq., Ct.
    Rev. A. F. BEARD, D.D., N.Y.
    Rev. E. P. GOODWIN, D.D., Ill.
    Rev. C. L. GOODELL, D.D., Mo.
    J. W. SCOVILLE, Esq., Ill.
    E. W. BLATCHFORD, Esq., Ill.
    C. D. TALCOTT, Esq., Ct.
    Rev. JOHN K. MCLEAN, D.D., Cal.
    Rev. RICHARD CORDLEY, D.D., Kansas.
    Rev. W. H. WILLCOX, D.D., Mass.
    Rev. G. B. WILLCOX, D.D., Ill.
    Rev. WM. M. TAYLOR, D.D., N.Y.
    Rev. GEO. M. BOYNTON, Mass.
    Rev. E. B. WEBB, D.D., Mass.
    Hon. C. I. WALKER, Mich.
    Rev. A. H. ROSS, Mich.
    Rev. ALEX. MCKENZIE, D.D., Mass.
    Hon. NELSON DINGLEY, Jr., Me.


    REV. M. E. STRIEBY, D.D., 56 _Reade Street, N.Y._


    H. W. HUBBARD, ESQ., 56 _Reade Street, N.Y._


    REV. C. L. WOODWORTH, _Boston_.
    REV. G. D. PIKE, D.D., _New York_.
    REV. JAS. POWELL, _Chicago_.


    A. S. BARNES,
    CHAS. L. MEAD,


    M. F. READING.
    W. R. NASH.


relating to the work of the Association may be addressed to the
Corresponding Secretary; those relating to the collecting fields to
the District Secretaries; letters for the Editor of the “American
Missionary,” to Rev. G. D. PIKE, D.D., at the New York Office.


may be sent to H. W. Hubbard, Treasurer 56 Reade Street, New York,
or when more convenient, to either of the Branch Offices, 21
Congregational House, Boston, Mass., or 112 West Washington Street,
Chicago, Ill. A payment of thirty dollars at one time constitutes a
Life Member.

       *       *       *       *       *


                       AMERICAN MISSIONARY.

                 *       *       *       *       *

           VOL. XXXV.      DECEMBER, 1881.      No. 12.

                 *       *       *       *       *

_American Missionary Association._

       *       *       *       *       *

We present our readers in this issue of the MISSIONARY, which
is a double number, an account of the proceedings of the 35th
Annual Meeting of this Association. For want of space we have only
given the important points of most of the papers and addresses,
endeavoring to preserve their spirit.

The paper of Pres. E. H. Fairchild will appear in the “Weekly
Witness” of Nov. 17, of which copies will be supplied gratuitously
to persons applying by postal card to the author at Berea, Ky.

Rev. Lysander Dickerman’s address may be looked for in the
“Congregationalist” at an early date.

The papers read by Miss Sawyer and Miss Emery will be reserved for
mention in the January MISSIONARY.

       *       *       *       *       *

We send this number of the MISSIONARY to some persons whose names
are not among our subscribers, with the hope that they will read
it, and that their interest in the work which it represents will
be deepened. We believe that if any such will send us their
subscription for the Magazine, they will find themselves amply
rewarded for the outlay.

       *       *       *       *       *

The inquiry is sometimes made as to the reasons for the steadily
increasing support given to the A. M. A. In answer we suggest:—1.
The increasing prosperity of the country. People have more to give
and they give more. 2. The careful management of the affairs of
the Association has probably given it a stronger hold upon the
confidence of the public. 3. The great reason, we believe, is
that the nation, after many fluctuating opinions in regard to the
Freedmen, has settled down to the conviction, voiced repeatedly
by Pres. Hayes and reiterated so emphatically in Pres. Garfield’s
inaugural, that the only safety for the nation and the Freedmen
is in their thorough education. The A. M. A. is now seen to have
steadily pressed forward from the beginning in this only true
method, and hence its work has come to be more fully appreciated.
The rapid growth of the colored population gives emphasis to the
demand for their Christian education. 4. Another reason is the
awakened conviction in Great Britain and America that the freed
people are destined by Divine Providence to take an important part
in the redemption of Africa. Our schools and churches, so well
fitted to prepare them for this work, are felt to deserve not only
support but enlargement.

       *       *       *       *       *


One year ago we asked our constituents to enlarge our receipts
_twenty-five_ per cent; the generous response was nearly _thirty_
per cent. We increased the appropriations of the year, but kept
safely within the income. At our recent Annual Meeting the appeal
was made for $300,000 this year—an increase over last of $56,000,
or 23 per cent. This appeal is based on no random figures. The
appropriations for this fiscal year are carefully made on the basis
of last year’s income, but in addition we most pressingly need the
means:—1. To finish and furnish two buildings, not provided for by
the Stone fund. They are nearly ready, but will be useless unless
completed. 2. To provide additional teachers, boarding and student
aid for the increased number of students in the new buildings in
Atlanta, Talladega, Tougaloo, New Orleans, Austin, Athens. 3. To
erect a boy’s dormitory at New Orleans, and a new building at
Memphis. As to the latter, Prof. Steele writes: “All the desks in
the lower rooms were filled at the end of the first week, and we
have been refusing admission to pupils in these rooms every day
since. Early last week the last seat in the Normal room was taken.
We seat 102 there. Since then I have placed small tables and chairs
in every foot of available space in the Normal room, raising the
number enrolled to 118. I am every day receiving letters from
young men and women in the country who wish to enter the school,
but I can in no way take more than two students in addition to
those now in the room. Of the 120 in the Normal department, 50
have taught school and all the rest expect to become teachers.”
Must we refuse education to more of such students and teachers?
The unexpended portion of the Stone fund is already appropriated
and is not available here. 4. To meet the urgent demands for
enlargement in the church work. 5. To increase our expenditures for
the Indians. The nation is aroused in their behalf and Congress
is ready to help. Now is the time for us to enlarge. 6. To double
our appropriation for the Chinese work. No outlay yields better
returns. 7. To build the John Brown steamer for the Mendi, and to
complete the $50,000 fund for the Arthington Mission.

These facts are our appeal. We add no words. The day has gone by
when our friends will be content with good speeches and resolutions
at the Annual Meeting. The hour has come for steady and effective
work. We are ready for it, and the tone of the meeting at Worcester
shows that our friends are also.

       *       *       *       *       *


The Thirty-fifth Annual Meeting of the American Missionary
Association was held in Plymouth Church, Worcester, Mass., on
Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, November 1st, 2d and 3d, 1881.

As the bells in the church-tower finished chiming the “Missionary
Hymn,” at three o’clock Tuesday afternoon, Secretary Strieby called
the meeting to order, and in the absence of the President and
Vice-Presidents, Rev. S. R. Dennen, D.D., of New Haven, was chosen
to preside. After devotional services, Rev. Marshall M. Cutter, of
Medford, was chosen Secretary, and Rev. John L. Ewell and Rev. C.
P. Osborne Assistant Secretaries.

A Nominating Committee was appointed consisting of Rev. E. H.
Byington, Rev. E. P. Marvin and C. L. Mead, Esq.; also a Business
Committee consisting of Rev. Geo. M. Boynton, Rev. G. R. M. Scott,
and Geo. P. Davis, Esq.

The Treasurer, H. W. Hubbard, Esq., read his report, which was
referred to a Committee on Finance. The Annual Report of the
Executive Committee was made through Rev. G. D. Pike, D.D.,
District Secretary, and was referred _seriatim_ to appropriate
Committees. An hour was then spent in prayer and conference, with
special reference to the work in the South.

Tuesday evening, after devotional services, led by Rev. E. G.
Porter, of Lexington, Rev. C. D. Hartranft, D.D., of Hartford,
Conn., preached for the Annual Sermon a discourse appropriate to
the Communion, which followed it, from Matthew xxvi, 27, l.c.,
“Drink ye all of it.” The Lord’s Supper was administered by Rev.
Geo. W. Phillips, pastor of Plymouth Church, and Rev. Geo. H.
Gould, D.D.

Wednesday morning, a prayer meeting, conducted by Rev. A. P.
Foster, of Jersey City, was held at eight o’clock. At nine o’clock
the regular session began, the chair being occupied in turn by
Rev. L. T. Chamberlain, D.D., of Norwich, Conn., and Gen. O. O.
Howard, of West Point, Vice-Presidents. John H. Washburn, Esq., in
behalf of the Executive Committee, to whom was referred the matter
of amending the Constitution of the Association at the last Annual
Meeting, reported certain recommendations, which were referred to
a Special Committee, to report Thursday morning. Richard Wright,
Esq., of Augusta, Ga., colored, read a paper on “The Colored Man:
His Strength, Weakness and Needs.” President E. H. Fairchild,
of Berea College, Kentucky, read a paper on “Review of the
Anti-Slavery Contest, and estimate of its meaning and value with
reference to the Civilization of Africa and the World.” Secretary
Strieby made an address on “The duty of America in the Conversion
of the World, and especially in the Conversion of Africa.”
President E. A. Wane, of Atlanta University, Ga., read a paper on
“Higher Education.”

Wednesday afternoon. Prayer was offered by Rev. H. A. Stimson, of
Worcester. Gen. O. O. Howard made an address on “Our Social Needs
and their Remedy.” Gen. S. C. Armstrong, of Hampton, Va., reported
for the Committee on Indian work, and was followed by Capt. R.
H. Pratt, of Carlisle, Penn. A report of the Committee on Church
work was read by Rev. Cyrus Hamlin, D.D., who also made an address
upon the subject. Rev. J. E. Roy, D.D., Field Superintendent of
the Association, supported the report by interesting statements
illustrating the influence of the work among the colored people.
The report of the Committee on Educational work was read by Rev.
Charles T. Collins, of Cleveland, Ohio, and supported by Rev. John
R. Thurston, of Whitinsville.

Wednesday evening. Hon. E. S. Tobey, of Boston, President of the
Association, in the chair. Rev. William M. Gage, D.D., of Hartford,
offered prayer. Addresses on “Christian Education at the South”
were made by Rev. L. O. Brastow, D.D., of Burlington, Vermont;
Prof. Cyrus Northrop, of Yale College, and Hon. Geo. F. Hoar, of
the U.S. Senate.

Thursday morning. The prayer meeting at eight o’clock was led by
Rev. O. H. White, D.D. The regular session at nine o’clock was
opened with prayer by Rev. I. P. Langworthy, D.D., of Boston. Col.
Franklin Fairbanks read the report of the Special Committee on the

The following amendments were adopted: In Art. vi. the words,
“Recording Secretary,” and “of which the Corresponding Secretaries
shall be advisory, and the Treasurer ex-officio members,” are
omitted; and after “Secretaries” the words, “who shall also keep
the records of the Association,” are inserted. In Art. vii. after
“dismissing,” the parenthesis is omitted. Article viii. is omitted,
and Arts. ix. and x. are respectively numbered viii. and ix. The
consideration of Arts. iii. and v. were referred to a special
committee of thirteen, Col. Franklin Fairbanks, chairman, to report
at next Annual Meeting.

A letter from Hon. E. S. Tobey, President, declining re-election on
account of the pressure of other duties, was read, and resolutions
of thanks for his faithful services were unanimously adopted by
a rising vote. The Nominating Committee recommended Hon. Wm. B.
Washburn, of Greenfield, Mass., for President, and presented a list
of other officers, who were duly elected.

On motion of Rev. C. T. Collins, it was voted to memorialize
Congress for immediate and increased appropriations for education
at the South.

The report of the Committee on Chinese Missions was read by Rev.
A. E. P. Perkins, D.D., of Ware. A paper on the subject was read
by Miss Harriette Carter, of Mt. Vernon Church, Boston, where more
than one hundred Chinamen have had Bible instruction, and addresses
were made by Rev. Lysander Dickerman, of California, and by Rev. C.
H. Pope, of Machias, Me.

Rev. G. W. Harding read the report of the Committee on African
work, and addresses were made by himself, by Col. H. G. Prout,
late in the service of the Khedive of Egypt, and by Rev. Geo. S.
Dickerman, of Lewiston, Me.

Thursday afternoon. On “Woman’s Work for Woman,” papers were read
by Miss M. L. Sawyer, of Boxford, and Miss E. B. Emery, of Gorham,
Me., and addresses delivered by Mrs. A. K. Spence, of Nashville,
Tennessee; by Rev. E. N. Packard, of Dorchester; Rev. A. H. Plumb,
of Boston, and Rev. E. S. Atwood, of Salem.

The report of the Finance Committee, in the absence of Hon. J. J.
H. Gregory, chairman, was read by Rev. E. S. Atwood, and asked for
$300,000 for the ensuing year. Addresses were made by Rev. Geo. F.
Stanton, of Weymouth, and Secretary Strieby. District Secretary
Woodworth made a statement of Mr. Gregory’s recent gifts, amounting
to $15,000. Rev. A. H. Plumb, in a happy little speech, announced
$2,000 from an unknown donor, which he passed to the Treasurer in a
sealed envelope. Of the amount, $500 was for Berea College and $500
for Hampton Institute.

Thursday evening, after prayer by Rev. Lewis Grout, Rev. O. H.
White, D.D., for six years Secretary of the Freedmen’s Missions
Aid Society in London, spoke of English co-operation and of the
miseries of the slave trade in Africa. Henry D. Hyde, Esq., of
Boston, pressed the claims of the Association to more liberal
support, and John B. Gough, Esq., in a series of incidents, told in
his inimitable style, illustrated the capacity of the colored race
to be educated and elevated.

After some parting words from President Tobey, resolutions of
thanks to the churches, committees, pastors, choir and railroads,
and to the hospitable people of Worcester, and addresses in
response by pastors Lamson and Phillips, the meeting closed with
the benediction by Dr. O. H. White, to meet next year in Cleveland,
Ohio. Near the close of the session a beautiful white dove entered
the church and suggestively perched in a high niche over the pulpit

Notwithstanding the prevailing dullness of the weather during our
Annual Meeting at Worcester, there was nothing like dullness in
the meetings. Daily the capacious church was thronged with deeply
interested listeners. The high character of the addresses, the
absorbing interest of subjects discussed, the excellent music of
the ample choir, the completeness of arrangements by the local
committee, and their uniform courtesy and unremitting attentions,
and last, but not least, the generous hospitality of the Christian
people of the city, all conspired to make the occasion one to be
long and delightfully remembered.

The American Missionary Association turns with fresh hope and new
inspiration to the work of the coming year.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *


The fortunes of the freed people during the current year indicate
a marked degree of progress. A healthy growth in all the branches
of our Southern work is quite discernible. It is strikingly evident
that the Freedmen are discovering the extent of the horizon
opening up before them through our educational institutions. At
one time, many of their leaders were attracted by the allurements
of political preferment, and counted nothing so good as position
in office, and many such, doubtless, there will be to the end of
time. There is, however, an increasing number among them who are
coming to realize that intelligence and character developed by
Christian education have a commanding worth and solid value that
cannot be conveyed by an appointment or imbibed during the sessions
of a legislature. This good result has been hastened by Teachers’
Institutes, conducted by Southern and Northern educators, among the
black and also the white citizens, sometimes large numbers of both
classes mingling in the same convention.

Possibly never have our missions been more richly blessed by the
outpourings of the Holy Spirit than during the past year. Whole
classes in a school have indulged the hopes of a new life, and the
rich experiences gathered during revivals have been borne forth
into the villages and the country during the summer months by our
students. Sabbath-schools have everywhere received due attention,
and temperance work has been well sustained and productive of much
good. Missionary meetings and societies have been encouraged,
and the gifts from the hard earnings of the poor to the cause of
missions abroad, indicate what may be hoped for when the colored
people become educated and prosperous.

       *       *       *       *       *


Our eight Chartered Institutions, including Berea College and
Hampton Institute, which were founded by this Association, have
experienced a year of unusual prosperity. The number pursuing
a higher grade of study has been continually on the increase,
and the quality of the work done, as testified to by many who
have witnessed it, indicates that the grade of teachers has been
improved, not only by self-culture on the part of those who have
been long in service, but also by accessions from among the best
educators in the country. Three of our teachers have received
honorary degrees from important colleges at the North, and others
have been encouraged by many tokens of appreciation and esteem.

During the year, the Tillotson Institute at Austin, Tex., took
possession of its new building, a brick structure one hundred and
four feet long, forty-two feet wide and five stories high. From the
first this school has met with the hearty approval and sympathy of
a large number of the best citizens of Austin. The new building
was opened in January, and before the close of the spring term 107
students had availed themselves of its advantages.

The college at Berea has added $50,000 to its permanent endowment
fund; the Fisk University has received $4,000 endowment for student
aid. At Hampton, two new buildings, one for Indian and one for
Negro girls, have been provided by the friends of the Institution,
and a new Academic Hall, in place of one that was burned, has been
dedicated. At Tougaloo, Miss., a boy’s dormitory of brick, with
accommodations for about 75 students, has been completed. This
building was made especially necessary by the ravages of fire,
which destroyed the wooden structure that had served in a very
inadequate way both for school rooms and boarding purposes.

Other buildings at Straight University, New Orleans; Fisk
University, Nashville, Tenn.; Talladega College, and Atlanta
University, provided by the gift of $150,000 by Mrs. Valeria G.
Stone, have either been completed, or are in a good state of
progress. At New Orleans, there was added to the half square of
land on Canal street, before owned by the A. M. A., the remaining
half. Upon this site has been erected a neat three-story building,
ninety-two feet on Canal street and ninety-one feet on Roche Blave
street, containing dining-room, kitchen and laundry for the whole
school, parlor, bath-room, apartments for teachers and dormitories
for about 60 girls.

At Talladega, Stone Hall, for boys, has been completed. It is
three stories high, with a basement, and contains printing office,
reading-room, bath-room and dormitories for 76 students. With a
portion of Mrs. Stone’s gift, supplemented by $1,000 from Mr.
Gregory, of Marblehead, $100 from Gen. Swayne and a few smaller
sums from others, Swayne Hall has been remodeled and thoroughly
repaired from pavement to bell-tower, including roofing, flooring,
blackboarding, etc. A house for the accommodation of the President
will soon be completed. With these improvements the college will be
ready for a great work.

At Fisk University, Nashville, Tenn., Livingstone Missionary Hall
is nearly inclosed. It is two hundred and four feet long, sixty-two
feet wide in the centre, and has four stories and a basement.
The foundation is of stone and the walls are of pressed brick. A
mansard roof with brick gables and ornamented chimneys crowns the
edifice. It will contain chapel, lecture-rooms, recitation-rooms,
teachers’ apartments and dormitories for 120 boys. Although planned
with a strict regard for economy, it will be a grand and stately
companion for Jubilee Hall. Several months will be required for its

At Atlanta, a new wing has been added to the girl’s dormitory,
and plans for a school building between the two dormitories have
been completed and some materials purchased. It is expected that
the building will be finished and ready for occupancy in a year
from this time. In planning these various buildings, it has been
the aim to provide the best facilities possible, but the claims
of architecture have not been wholly ignored. Some of the best
architects in the country have been consulted, and all the plans
have been examined carefully by your Executive Committee.

It will be seen by this review that each of our eight chartered
institutions has received permanent and substantial aid either in
funds or in buildings, and that never before were they so fully
equipped for the great work thrown upon them. The prayer of the
last half score of years for room has been wonderfully answered,
and the blessing of Heaven is crowning the labors of workers with
rich rewards.

Our other schools, 46 in all, normal and common, have met with
favor on every hand, and have experienced uninterrupted progress
throughout the year. At some of them the industrial work has been
pushed forward with gratifying success. Attention has been given to
household industries in two or three places. A class of girls at
Memphis, Tenn., has been carefully instructed with actual practice
in an experimental kitchen, on the nature, relative values, and
healthful methods, of cooking food. Classes in needle work,
knitting, and in the use of sewing machines, have had daily lessons
and practice.

We have had in all 230 teachers in the field, a gain of 30 over
last year. Of these, 14 have performed the duties of matrons and 15
have been engaged in the business departments.

The total number of students has been 9,108, a gain of 1,056 over
the previous year. They were classed as follows: theological, 104;
law, 20; collegiate, 91; collegiate preparatory, 131; normal,
2,342; grammar, 473; intermediate, 2,722; primary, 3,361; studying
in two grades, 136.

Our normal and common schools, like our chartered institutions,
are constantly sending up the call for more room. Permanent
accommodations have been provided at some points and temporary
ones at others. At Wilmington, N.C., by the gift of Hon. J.
J. H. Gregory, the school building has been remodeled for the
accommodation of a large number of students. A new mission home
has also been built by the munificence of the same gentleman. At
Athens, Ala., the colored people have done nobly toward furnishing
material for the school-house now under process of construction.
They have already made two hundred thousand bricks with their
own hands, and are placing them in the walls to represent their
interest in the property. It is hoped that the work will be
completed by January 1st, and that Miss Wells, who has been
Principal of the school for fifteen years, will be rewarded for
her labor and patient waiting by ample accommodation for all the
students who may seek the advantages of her excellent normal school.

During the year we have inaugurated work at Topeka, Kan., the chief
rendezvous of the refugees, where a lot has been purchased and a
building suitable for both church and school purposes erected.
Divine services are held on the Sabbath. A Sabbath-school with
an average attendance of 170 has been gathered, and a prosperous
night-school sustained. Much good has been done by our missionary
and others at this point in the distribution of supplies to the
destitute, and by speeding them on their way to homes among the
farmers and mechanics of the State. We have also resumed our church
work at Lawrence, Kan., with good results.

Commencement days, or the closing exercises at our different
institutions, are becoming more and more eventful as the years go
on. One feature of especial interest at Hampton was the delivery
of orations and the reading of papers by the alumni of the school.
These displayed an amount of character and culture on the part
of those who had been several years in the field since their
graduation which was very gratifying.

Commencement day at Berea College is unlike any other in the South
or elsewhere in the country. Hours before the exercises begin, the
streets are thronged with hundreds of people, black and white,
old and young, properly dressed or dressed in rags, some riding
on the finest steeds produced in Kentucky, some on plough horses,
mules and ponies, riding single, riding double, with a child or two
between. The exercises are held in a large open tabernacle seating
about three thousand persons. The building is usually decorated
with mottoes and banners, with plants and flowers and miniature
fountains. The college band furnishes the music. Not the least
interesting is the basket dinner on the college campus. The fame of
these days spreads far and wide for hundreds of miles, awakening an
enthusiasm on the part of the young for an education, and winning
words of praise and tokens of cheer from the very best people
throughout the State.

At the Emerson Institute, Mobile, Ala., eight hundred people
crowded into the Third Baptist Church to see and to hear of the
work for themselves; while, at Montgomery, on the theory that
what is good for a part is good for all, every scholar, from the
least to the greatest, was given a speech. As there were more than
three hundred to take part, the authorities decided that all the
exercises should not be crowded into a single day. Consequently, in
order that a good thing might last a good while, it was arranged to
devote three evenings to the speaking.

The growing interest in these anniversary occasions all along the
line of our work, the attendance of leading white citizens, and
their readiness to occupy seats on the platform with our teachers
and workers, the enthusiasm of the colored folks to throng in and
catch every word that is uttered, all combine to lift up the work
from the low place it has occupied among those at the South who
have looked unfavorably upon it, and to magnify in the minds of the
colored people, who have struggled so hard to send their children
to school, the dignity and importance of Christian education. With
a few more years of progress like the past, our educational work
will outrun and leave behind the obstacles and the enemies which
have stood in its way during the past years, and God is speeding
the day.

       *       *       *       *       *


Our Church Work is attaining a steady and healthful growth. We
do not seek to force the founding of churches where there is no
urgent demand for them; while this might swell our rolls, it would
only serve to weaken and discourage ultimately. Our purpose is
to establish churches where there is sufficient intelligence and
outlook to give reasonable hope that a Congregational church may
do good service for the Master, not only by the benefit accruing
to its own members, but also by its influence upon other and older
churches that have not had the advantages of an educated ministry.
Our whole number of churches is 78, being an addition of five
over last year. These have been organized at Washington, D.C.,
Louisville, Ky., Little Rock, Ark., Thibadeaux, La., and Houma,
La. The total number of church members is 5,472, a gain of 511 on
last year. The number in Sabbath-school, 8,130, a gain of 1,806.
New meeting houses have been constructed at Peteance, La., Little
Rock, Ark., Lassiter’s Mills, N.C., and Wilmington, N.C. At the
latter place a tasteful structure, with accommodations for 400,
was provided by the gift of Hon. Mr. Gregory, at a cost to him of
$3,600, and dedicated with fitting ceremonies, which were heartily
participated in by the leading white clergymen of the city. Church
buildings are under process of erection at Caledonia, Miss.,
Luling, Tex., Frausse Point, La. Parsonages have also been built at
Florence, Ala., Flatonia, Tex., and houses for the Presidents at
Tougaloo, Miss., and Talladega, Ala.

The material prosperity of our churches indicated by these
statements is very encouraging, but the spiritual activity and
growth is far more so. More than one-third of our churches have
reported revivals, with conversions numbering from seven to
forty-four, resulting in a large number of accessions to the

Our church work is gradually creating a demand for the services
of the students graduating at theological departments under our
supervision at Howard University, Talladega College, Fisk and
Straight Universities, and these are taking the places of white
clergymen from the North in many localities.

The growing interest in theological seminaries for Freedmen is
happily illustrated by the gift of $25,000 to us, for endowment of
the theological department at Howard University.

We have seven State Conferences, embracing the most of the
territory occupied by our schools and churches. These hold annual
conventions, at which large numbers assemble.

The Alabama Conference has associated with it a woman’s missionary
society, which reports the operation of its auxiliaries in
different parts of the State. It is an active, hard-working and
successful society, that does great credit to the missionary
workers connected with it. This Conference also has a Sabbath-school
convention representing many county organizations, and the
Sabbath-school interests of the State. The meetings of this
Conference, as well as those of the others, exert a beneficent and
wide-spread influence, which serves not only to cement, but to make
active and strong, the Congregational church work at the South.

The movement made a few years since on the part of a few leading
ladies at the North to send forth female missionaries to labor in
the homes of the poor and destitute colored people, and to assist
otherwise for their temporal and spiritual improvement, has met
with marked approval and encouraging success. We have commissioned
eleven in all during the past year, and their reports have been
full of interest. We believe the work they have been doing is a
vital necessity, and that it should be extended as rapidly as may
be consistent with the other interests we have in charge.

It is fitting before bringing to a conclusion the report of our
operations among the Freedmen, that proper recognition be made of
the improved sentiment among the whites at the South relative to
our work. We entered the South with right principles. We did not
inquire especially what was good policy, but what was required by
justice, and what was consistent with righteousness. To promote
these ends our missionaries were ready to sacrifice, if need be,
their lives. They never advanced to retreat, but to conquer. Amidst
hardship, ostracism and poverty, they toiled on; the Southern
people watched them; little by little they came to recognize their
worth; they saw massive structures rear themselves in choice
locations in the great capital cities of the South. They were led
to recognize the ability and integrity of the self-denying workers,
who pursued their toilsome way in leading young Freedmen up to
Christian manhood and womanhood; they saw church after church
founded with a pure and educated ministry; some of the best of
them ventured to visit the teachers and their schools. The work
grew on. The children who had been under the care of leading white
citizens in service or in household, exhibited the value of the
work done so strikingly as to remove all doubt of the purpose and
success of the teachers from the North. United States Senators, the
Governors of States, Legislative bodies and companies of good men,
out of interest, out of patriotism, out of curiosity sometimes,
attended anniversary occasions, and lent their interest and gave
their influence to promote the welfare of the institutions under
our care. The result of it all has been to emphasize and establish
the principles with which we started out, and to revolutionize the
sentiment of many leading minds throughout the Southern country;
and now halls of legislation and portions of the press of the
South sparkle with sentiments that would do honor to Northern
patriots, who battled early for the existence and success of this
Association. Governor Brown of Georgia wins his election to the
United States Senate after affirming before the Legislature, “We
must educate the colored race. They are citizens, and we must do
them justice.”

Governor Holliday, of Virginia, who lost an arm in the Confederate
service, comes forward and makes good use of the other in
expressive gestures while urging the claims of the colored people
for education at the anniversary at Hampton.

General Humes, a Major-General in the Southern army, consents to
give the oration at the anniversary of the Le Moyne Institute, and
conveys assurances of the active sympathy of the best citizens of
Memphis for the work carried on; while Dr. Atticus G. Haygood, the
President of Emory College, bursts forth with the exclamation,
“Suppose these Northern teachers had not come, that nobody had
taught the negroes, set free and citizens, the South would have
been uninhabitable by this time. Some may resent this; be it so,
they resent the truth.”

The utterances of the press are not less significant. An editorial
in the Memphis _Appeal_ affirms: “The Southern States have too
long stood aloof and allowed the stranger to do for the negro what
they should have done themselves.” “There is but one thing for
the people of the South to do, and this is, to throw themselves
into the work of educating the negro. We must go forward, and must
take the negro by the hand and make him feel that he is a part of
the great column of the people.” The Nashville _American_, the
most influential paper in the State, through its leading editor,
in giving a report of the anniversary of Fisk University, goes on
to say: “In the labor of regeneration of a race, no agency will
have so high a place as this conservative school.” The Vicksburg
_Herald_ strikes another note on the gamut and illustrates a
change of sentiment on this wise, in response to a narrow-minded,
complaining correspondent: “We are heartily in favor of the South
from the Potomac to the Rio Grande being thoroughly and permanently
Yankeeized. Yankee energy, Yankee schools, Yankee cultivation,
Yankee railroads and Yankee capital are badly needed in the South,
and will be welcomed by every Southern progressive patriot.”

We believe there is nothing to hinder this tidal wave of better
feeling from sweeping the entire South. For our part, we have only
to hold on and press on.

       *       *       *       *       *


The development of the work among the Freedmen, the interest taken
in African civilization by the most thoughtful people in the
country at large, and the enthusiasm awakened among the blacks for
the land of their ancestors, constantly remind us of the call we
have for mission work in Africa. We have paid much attention to
the consideration of this call. In accordance with the suggestion
of the last Annual Meeting, we have appointed a Superintendent of
African Missions, not only to supervise the work we have carried
on so long on the West Coast, but to lay the foundations of the
Arthington Mission on the Upper Nile. Great care was taken in
selecting a Superintendent, resulting in the choice of Rev. Henry
M. Ladd, the son of a missionary, who spent the first sixteen years
of his life in the East, after which he came to this country,
pursued a course of study and entered the ministry at Walton, N.Y.
Mr. Ladd left America for the Mendi Mission in February, reaching
the West Coast the last of March. He made a careful examination
of the methods of missionary work at Freetown, Sierra Leone,
under the care of our British brethren, and afterward proceeded
to Good Hope Station, where we have a church and school. Mr. Ladd
was accompanied to Africa by Mr. Kelly M. Kemp and his wife, from
Lincoln University. A council was called at Good Hope Station for
the ordination of Mr. Kemp, and representatives of the Shengay and
other missions were present. It was thought advisable that Mr. A.
E. White, who had acted as teacher at this point, should return
to America. He has since done so, and at present is pursuing his
studies at Oberlin College, with a view of preparing himself for
better service on the mission field. Mr. Nurse also retired from
the mission, giving place to Bro. Kemp, whose experiences and
education rendered himself a desirable person as pastor over the
church at this point. After arranging details of affairs at Good
Hope, Mr. Ladd visited the Avery Station, and was encouraged by
the good work under the supervision of Mr. Jackson at this inland

Our saw-mill, being the only one on the coast, can be brought into
service constantly. Logs are plentiful in the neighborhood, and the
people are willing to work. The coffee farm at Avery shows signs of
progress, and very soon we may hope for a yield that will test the
value of the experiment. The church and school have been kept up,
much attention being given in the church to rigorous discipline,
where the members had inclined too strongly toward the barbarous
customs of the heathen about them. We have long felt the need of
a business superintendent to manage the affairs of the mill and
farm at Avery, to take care of the property at Good Hope and Debia,
and to keep the temporary home at Freetown in readiness for the
missionaries on their way to and fro. Mr. I. J. St. John, a man of
considerable experience in business affairs, has been appointed
to fill this position. In common with other missionary societies,
laboring for the redemption of Africa, we find that where there
are no roads or domestic animals, but many rivers, a suitable
steamer would be quite serviceable in promoting the interests of
our civilizing operations, and in adding to the comfort of our
missionaries. We believe we ought to provide such a steamer for the
Mendi Mission as early as possible, and our appeals are already out
for $10,000 as a special fund for this purpose.

We were saddened early in the summer by the unexpected death of
Rev. Mr. Kemp, which was followed soon after by the death of his
wife, just as they were settling down to the life work they had
chosen. Both of these dear missionaries were unavoidably exposed
in open boats to the bad influences of the climate. By their death
they illustrate our need of more speed and better shelter in
transporting missionaries from station to station.

We have appointed Rev. J. M. Williams, a native of South America
and an experienced worker in Africa, to carry on the work at Kaw
Mendi, the first station occupied on the return of the Amistad

Rev. J. M. Hall, a graduate of Maryville College and of the
Theological Department of Howard University, has consented to fill
the place vacated by the death of Mr. Kemp, and he, with Mr. St.
John, left America in October for the mission.

Three lads from the Mendi country are at school in America, one at
Fisk University, and the others at Hampton Institute.

Early in December, Mr. Robt. Arthington, of Leeds, Eng., signified
his readiness to pay over the £3,000 he had pledged as a nucleus,
provided we would plant a mission on the Upper Nile. Already Dr.
O. H. White, Secretary of the Freedmen’s Missions Aid Society of
London, had made good progress in securing £3,000 additional to
Mr. Arthington’s pledge for the same purpose. It was evident to us
that the $30,000 asked for from Great Britain toward the $50,000
fund for this mission would be speedily made up. As we had pledged
ourselves to furnish $20,000 on condition that we received in all
from Great Britain $30,000, the question of the establishment of
the mission directly was thrown upon us. We felt that the call to
us was to go forward, and Mr. Ladd’s services were secured at the
earliest day possible with a view to this necessity. As the plan of
sending forward two men to look over the mission field, select a
site for the station, and to determine what supplies and facilities
would be needful for the mission, fully met Mr. Arthington’s view,
we determined to send forward Mr. Ladd early in the autumn for the
purpose mentioned. We were happy, also, in securing the services
of a former parishioner of Mr. Ladd, Dr. E. E. Snow, a physician
of much experience, to accompany him on his journey. These two
brethren left New York in September. They had provided themselves
with a valuable letter from Secretary Blaine, instructing the
Consul General of the United States at Cairo to further their
object as much as he might be able. On their way they purposed
to procure letters of introduction from the English Government,
hoping thereby to be assisted in making favorable arrangements
with the Khedive of Egypt for transportation to the field of their
destination, and also for the privilege of using a steamboat on
the waters of the Upper Nile. Their plan of route will be to visit
Cairo, and proceed from thence to Souakim, on the Red Sea; from
this point they will pursue a camel route a distance of 240 miles
to Berber, where they hope to find steamboat facilities for the
remainder of their journey. The point which they seek to reach is
about 1,500 miles in a direct line south of the Mediterranean and
near the mouth of the Sobat, where the people are in the depth of
barbarism. It is the hope of your Committee that Brothers Ladd
and Snow will be able to return in early summer, at which time
Dr. Snow will devote himself to procuring a suitable steamer for
mission purposes on the Nile, and other supplies and facilities
needful for the comfort and success of the enterprise. Supt. Ladd
will devote himself to organizing a suitable corps of missionaries
for the Arthington mission, two of whom are already under
appointment, with a view of proceeding up the Nile next autumn to
their field of labor. Our African work is not without its hazards,
its embarrassments and inevitable discouragements. We believe,
however, that the good tidings of great joy must be preached to the
millions of newly-discovered peoples in Central Africa, and that
the negro race with which we have so much to do has an urgent and
imperative call in this direction. We accept, therefore, cheerfully
and prayerfully, our part of the burden, trusting that the many
friends of the long despised and forgotten Africans will sustain us
by their prayers and by their contributions, while we go forward as
the Lord opens the way, performing our tasks as best we are able
until the day shall dawn.

       *       *       *       *       *


We believe that the Peace Policy of General Grant, which was
continued by President Hayes, has been productive of great and
lasting good to the Indians. Some infelicities have occurred
between the Government representatives and those of the religious
bodies having nominations intrusted to them, and these, together
with other reasons, have served to diminish the interest once
taken by the officials at Washington in the co-operation of the
religious bodies. We have no wish to discuss the subject, nor to
press upon the Administration the question of the continuance of
the Peace Policy. We content ourselves, therefore, with giving a
few statements relative to the Indian work under our care.

The general improvement of the Indians at the S’Kokomish Agency is
indicated from the fact that the white employés, with the exception
of the clerks, physicians, and those connected with the schools,
have been discharged and their places filled by Indians. At this
Agency, the long desired titles to their land have at last been
granted to the Indians by the Government, and they have, therefore,
additional inducements to become thrifty and make themselves homes.
At Dunginess Station, where a few members of the S’Kokomish church
reside, there is a church building, the only one in the county.
This has been furnished recently with a bell and melodeon. An
average attendance of forty on divine services at this point and
of eighty at S’Kokomish is of much encouragement. Their gifts,
also, to benevolent objects for the year, amounting to $614.67,
indicate that the Indian may be counted upon to help on the world’s
conversion. Good work has been done for Indians at Hampton and
Carlisle, and we have the question under serious consideration of
providing suitable accommodations for Indian youth in connection
with other institutions.

       *       *       *       *       *


The work among the Chinese on the Pacific Coast has been carried
on under the able and energetic superintendence of Rev. W. C.
Pond with unabated interest and success. Here there has been
enlargement. The excess of teachers for the past year over the
previous year has been six, that of pupils 76, and of hopeful
conversions 13. A comparison of the statistics and work shows an
improvement at all points. The total enrollment last year was
1,556; this year, 1,632. The number last year who gave evidence of
conversion was 127; this year, 140. All reports that have come to
us are exceedingly encouraging, and not the least among them is
the repeated expression of the need there is of some well chosen
point in Southern China for a mission station from which converted
Chinamen returning to their fatherland may go forth to preach to
their countrymen. We do not purpose to act hastily upon suggestions
of this kind. We seek, however, to learn clearly the will of the
Master, and to expand His work whenever and wherever it is evident
He is leading the way.

       *       *       *       *       *


The financial success reported at our last Annual Meeting, while
full of encouragement, cast upon us a shade of anxiety. It was
not certain that the additional funds made necessary by the large
gifts we had received for new buildings, and the plans we had
adopted for enlargement at different points, would be forthcoming.
Efforts were made throughout that meeting to impress upon all those
present the urgent necessity we were under for at least 25 per
cent. of increase in receipts over the previous year for current
expenses. The same necessity was also set forth at the National
Council at St. Louis, in our publications and in the pulpits, and
at conferences and conventions wherever opportunity was afforded.
We felt that God had called us to do an enlarged work, and that if
we could convey the information to His people, and share with them
the burden we felt ourselves, the responses would be sufficiently
liberal to meet all demands. In this we were not disappointed. The
receipts reported for the fiscal year closing Sept. 30, 1880, were,
for current work, $187,480.02; this year, $243,795.23, a gain of
$56,315.21. This shows an advance of 30 per cent. mainly in the
ordinary subscriptions over last year, and indicates the people’s
hearty appreciation and indorsement of our work. For this we return
profound gratitude to Almighty God. The fiscal year was closed free
from debt, and with a balance in our treasury of $518.80. We are
sure that the liberality displayed augurs well for the future. We
believe the money received was expended wisely. We do not see how
we could have done justice to our work without it. But additional
outlay for current expenses is sure to be needful. The Stone Hall
just finished at Straight University will afford accommodations
for the teachers and sixty girls. The cost, however, for student
aid, for insurance and the care of the building, will require
additional receipts. What is true at New Orleans is equally true at
Talladega College, with its new dormitory for a hundred boarders,
and at Tougaloo, Miss., with the facilities of its new Hall. When
Livingstone Missionary Hall, at Nashville, is done, and Stone Hall,
at Atlanta University, completed, two hundred additional boarding
students will make new demands which must be met.

To all we have mentioned must be added the consideration that we
are laying foundations for a mission in Africa on the Upper Nile,
at a point further remote from the coast than any occupied by
other societies, either home or foreign, and that the outlay for
this, if carried forward, will be considerable in the near future.
We believe, therefore, that it is our duty to ask the friends of
this Association to give us during the coming year not less than
$300,000 for the support and enlargement of the varied work we have
in charge.

       *       *       *       *       *


Some of the demands indicated above may be summarized as follows:

1. The increase of students this year over last year is 1,056. A
considerable number of these were boarding students, but with our
additional accommodations we shall require the coming year from
five to ten thousand dollars more than usual for student aid.

2. We have no boys’ dormitory at Straight University, the new
Stone Hall being exclusively for the teachers and girls. We need
immediately fifteen thousand dollars to supply this want.

3. Funds also are necessary for libraries in at least ten of our
different institutions. An advanced school without a sufficient
library labors under great disadvantages, and especially so when
located amid a people who have but very few books of their own.
From ten to twenty thousand dollars for libraries could be used
very profitably at once.

4. Our theological departments need better facilities and an
increased corps of instructors. The number of students graduating
from the different schools at the South is rapidly increasing.
Many of these would enter the Christian ministry if sufficiently
encouraged to do so. We need funds for the endowment of professors’
chairs at least at three different points south of the Ohio.

5. We need also endowment funds for all our chartered institutions.
No colleges thrive for a great length of time without endowments.
The work of a missionary society primarily is to plant churches and
religious institutions, and to sustain them until they can care for
themselves. Its business is, and must be, aggressive. As soon as
may be, its churches and its educational institutions must become
self-sustaining by their own endeavors, while the society goes
forward to new fields. We need now, we surely ought to have in the
near future, not less than five hundred thousand dollars for the
endowment of our different institutions.

6. We need also ten thousand dollars at once for a suitable steamer
for our Mendi Mission.

The negroes in the West Indies, the millions in South America, the
two hundred millions in Africa, have their claims upon us. We are
of them as a missionary society, and they are of us as our brethren
in distress, awaiting such benefits as we have been blessed in
bestowing on the few representatives in our own country.

Finally, this Association needs, most of all, the prayers of God’s
people everywhere for the guidance of His Holy Spirit, and the
sufficiency of His grace to direct its affairs in days to come, and
for this your Committee puts forth its most urgent appeal.

       *       *       *       *       *



  From Churches, Sabbath Schools,
       Missionary Societies and
       Individuals                 $159,035.21
  From Estates and Legacies          46,710.34
  From Income, Sundry Funds           7,495.65
  From Tuition and Public Fund       21,449.92
  From Sale of Property               2,250.00
  From Rents                          1,208.40
  From Donations for Tillotson C.
       and N. Institute Building               5,645.71
       Balance on hand, Sept. 30, 1880           783.73


  THE SOUTH.—For Church and
      Educational Work             $180,753.26
    For Tillotson C. and N.
      Institute Building              5,645.71
  THE CHINESE.—For Supt., Teachers
      and School Expenses                       8,858.50
  THE INDIANS.—For Missionaries
      and Teachers and Student Aid              1,703.24
      Mission, Missionaries and
      Teachers                       12,187.86
    For Jamaica Mission                 250.00
                                     ————————— 12,437.86
  PUBLICATIONS.—For American
      Missionary, Annual Report,
      Pamphlets, Postage, &c.                   8,795.04
  COLLECTING FUNDS.—Boston Office.
      Dist. Sec., Agent, Traveling
      Expenses, Rent, Clerk-hire,
      Printing, Postage, &c.          5,715.91
    Middle District. Dist. Sec.,
      Traveling Expenses,
      Clerk-hire. Printing,
      Postage, &c.                    2,953.50
    Chicago Office. Dist. Sec.,
      Traveling Expenses,
      Clerk-hire, Printing,
      Postage, &c.                    3,513.09
                                      ———————— 12,182.50
  ADMINISTRATION.—New York Office.
      Cor. Sec., Treasurer,
      Traveling Expenses, Clerk-hire,
      Rent, Printing, Stationery,
      Postage, &c.                             11,943.89
  MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS.—Annual Meeting   335.51
    Wills and Estates                   251.32
    Annuitants bal.                     679.90
    Traveling Expenses of Cor. Sec.
      as Delegate to England, and
      in other services abroad          473.43
                                      ————————  1,740.16
      Balance on hand, Sept. 30, 1881             518.80


      Sanford, Lebanon Springs, N.Y.                      $1,000.00
      UNIVERSITY.—By Mrs. A. M. Haley,
      Buda, Ill., in memory of Samuel
      Gordon Haley, deceased, Two
      Scholarships                             $2,000.00
    Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Plumb, Streator,
      Ill., Two Bonds, $1,000 each, of
      Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific R. R.       2,000.00
                                                ————————   4,000.00
      UNIVERSITY.—Mrs. Valeria G. Stone,
      Malden, Mass.                                       25,000.00


  Collections to Sept. 30, 1879     $    45.00
  Collections Oct. 1, 1879, to
    Sept. 30, 1880                    6,576.48
  Collections Oct. 1, 1880, to
    Sept. 30, 1881                   26,289.62
                                     —————————            32,911.10
  Amount expended to Sept. 30, 1881             7,433.57
  Amount unexpended                            25,477.53
                                               —————————  32,911.10


  Received of Mrs. Valeria G.                            150,000.00
    Stone, Sept., 1880,
  Expended as follows:
    Straight University, Stone
      Hall and Lot, in full        $ 25,000.00
    Talladega College, Stone
      Hall and improvements, in
      full                           15,000.00
    Fisk University, Livingstone
      Missionary Hall, in part       22,476.50
    Atlanta University, Stone
      Hall, in part                  14,000.00
    Supt. of Construction, in part      655.47
                                      ———————— 77,131.97
        Amount unexpended                      72,868.03
                                               ————————— 150,000.00


  A. M. A. Current Fund                      $243,795.23
  Endowment Funds                              30,000.00
  Arthington Mission Fund, expended             7,433.57
  Stone Fund                                   77,131.97

       *       *       *       *       *

The receipts of Berea College, Hampton N. and A. Institute and
State appropriations of Georgia to Atlanta University, are added
below, as presenting at one view the contributions of the same
constituency for the general work in which the Association is

  A. M. A.                                   $358,360.77
  Berea College                                60,106.69
  Hampton N. and A. Institute                 102,578.77
  Atlanta University                            8,000.00

       *       *       *       *       *



I suppose your Secretary was well warranted in announcing my name,
for early in the summer I made an engagement to prepare a paper
to be read here to-night on Christian education in the South; but
the occupations of the last four weeks, as imperative as they were
unexpected, have put it entirely out of my power to comply with
my engagement, as I informed your Secretary yesterday. But with a
persistence which certainly affords a very good illustration of the
doctrine of the “perseverance of the saints,” he has compelled me
to come here to make my excuse in person.

I have not come at this late hour of the evening to enter upon an
argument in favor of what I am sure every person within the sound
of my voice is now thoroughly convinced of, but rather to express
my gratitude and honor at the great work which is now going on in
this country for a Christian education in the West and South, in
which the American Missionary Association is so nobly taking the
lead. I do not think you yourselves are entirely conscious of the
sublimity of what you are doing and what you are helping to do.
Why, take the $321,000 which, including the expenditure from the
Stone fund, your treasurer reports you have expended during the
past year: at the present rates at which the Government can borrow
money, that represents the income of a capital of $9,000,000—the
income of a capital which, I suppose, is greater than the entire
aggregate of all the productive funds of the American colleges
forty years ago, and which I know is more than fifteen times the
entire productive fund of Harvard College as it was estimated by
President Quincy in 1840. Gen. Eaton made an imperfect estimate of
the amount given for education by voluntary contribution in this
country, and in 1872 it amounted to $8,000,000 and upwards; in
1873, the last year before the great depression in business, it
amounted to more than $11,000,000; and I am informed on credible
and high authority that in this year of grace 1881, it will amount
to more than $18,000,000—the income of a capital, at present rates,
of more than $500,000,000—a vast national school fund invested
not where thieves break through and steal and where moth doth
corrupt, but invested in the patriotism and sense of religious
duty of a Christian people. There is nothing in statesmanship,
there is nothing in the opportunities for political effort, which
the highest honors of the State can hold out to any of her public
servants, which surpasses in dignity the opportunity to help and to
bid God-speed to a work like this.

My friends, it is not strange that the wealth and the conscience
of New England should arouse itself to the opportunities which
God has held out to you in the present age. There are persons
within the sound of my voice within whose lifetime twenty new
states will be admitted to this Union from territory which now is
scarcely settled. That “ancient, primitive and heroical work,” as
Lord Bacon calls it, which he ranks as the highest work which is
vouchsafed to man to take part in, is being performed in your day
and by your hands, if you choose, in a manner unparalleled in human
history; and the sixteen states now reconstructed, within which,
until lately, slavery had bolted the door against every form of
popular education, now, thank God, have their doors unfolded and
afford a field of scarcely less interest than the other. How can
the manufacturer, how can the merchant of Massachusetts fail to
respond to the appeal of these good men and these good women for
help in the great work of educating these communities? Combined,
they are very soon to be the majority, both in states and in
population, they are to determine every question of peace and war,
every policy of finance or of tariff; they are to enact, they are
to furnish the men who expound and the men who execute the laws
under which you and I and our children are to live, and upon which
depends the value of all property and the prosperity of all labor.
Will the manufacturer or the merchant, who gladly taxes himself
to insure his property against fire or against crime, hesitate a
moment when you ask him to insure it against being governed by laws
which are to be made by and rest upon ignorance?

But there is a better reason even than this. I think the
opportunity to take part in such a great benefaction is enough
to stimulate every ingenuous soul. I think there is no more
beautiful memorial among men than to have your name remembered or
your picture hang on the walls of an institution of learning as
one of its founders or benefactors. What gratitude is there like
that which men feel for the college or the founder of the college
where they were bred and educated? Now you have an opportunity to
attach to you the coming generations of the South by this tie, a
tie which will be far stronger than all the hatreds or the passions
engendered by civil war, or which have grown up under years of
misunderstanding and hatred.

I have been gratified in what I have heard and read of the speeches
of this Annual Meeting, and what I have read in the reports of
your Association, in seeing what theory it is upon which all your
efforts seem to rest. The foundation of this American Missionary
Association’s work seems to me to be—if I were to state it in a
single phrase—_reverence for the individual soul_; that doctrine
which Christ preached, for which Christ died—the doctrine
without which there can be neither education, freedom, republic
or self-government in the world—that every human soul, whether
contained in a casket of ivory or a casket of bronze, is a precious
thing in the sight of God, entitled to its equal right, to its
equal opportunity, to its equal share in government with every

Now, my friends, you have got a great deal still to do to teach the
people of this commonwealth of Massachusetts to believe and act
upon that doctrine, whether they profess it or not. We avowed it,
and pledged our lives and fortunes and sacred honor to support it
on the fourth of July, 1776, and under it we grew up from a weak
to a strong and mighty people. The doctrine crossed the water.
When Mr. Webster, in his speech in 1843, at the completion of the
Bunker Hill monument, undertook to sum up what it was that America
had done for mankind in the seventy years, nearly, that had then
elapsed, he mentioned a few inventions and a few new plants and
new animals which had been contributed by this continent, and then
he said that the one thing which we had done for the world was
the avowal and illustration of this doctrine, that however poor
or however humble a man might be, or whatever was his occupation,
he was the equal in rights, the equal in dignity, the equal in
capacity for improvement, in the presumption of the law, to every
other man. Well, Europe began to adopt the doctrine. France
established a republic; England becomes nothing but a republic,
“hooped,” as somebody has said of her. In Spain, Italy and Germany,
the doctrine is spreading; and lo and behold, 75,000 Chinamen
landed on our shores and the great republic has struck its flag!
Men are not free and equal any longer! God has not made of one
blood all the nations of the earth any more!

My friends, there is nothing in this world, if there is any lesson
of history to be depended upon, which God visits with a surer and
a severer punishment than the violation of this law. Just think
how we have undertaken to violate it in the case of the negro;
and think of the terrible retribution in desolated homes, in debt
and squandered treasure, and in the loss of precious human life,
He exacted of us. Just think of our dealing with the Indians! Why,
excluding the five civilized nations in this country, there are
about 170,000 Indians, all told, including those in the states and
including those on the plains. There are 34,000 Indian children,
according to the estimate of the Indian Bureau, which I think is
a little underestimated—certainly not more than 40,000 Indian
children of school age in this country. I suppose Gen. Armstrong
could tell you he could take the whole of them and educate them
at one hundred and fifty or two hundred dollars apiece. Why, that
number of Indians is less than one-two-hundred-and-fiftieth part
of the population of this country to-day. If you should gather
them all into a city they would not form a city the tenth in
population among the cities of America; they would not make two
average Congressional districts out of our 293. And yet, in the
mode in which this country has dealt with them, considering that
good faith, honor, honesty, respect for property, respect for
its own word, was out of place, from the time when Washington
said that was our policy, almost in the words I have uttered,
down to the time when the Ponca Indians were driven from their
homes, and half Boston rushed to make itself an accomplice to the
crime, our history has been marked by a disregard of this law,
and has been marked by the terrible retribution which God has
exacted of us. The Indian wars and the cost of supporting the
Indians, of transportation and of military police, are estimated
by a very thorough and careful estimate which I received from the
statistician in the Treasury department the other day, at between
five hundred and six hundred millions of dollars. I think it
amounts to a thousand millions. The interest on the interest of
what we have paid for Indian wars would take every Indian child of
school age and give him a competent education.

Now, my friends, we have gained one thing in the history of our
treatment of the Indian, and we have gained one thing in the
history of our treatment of the negro. It has been demonstrated by
a sufficient number of individual instances that both these races,
having their own peculiarities and their own defects, as the white
man has his own peculiarities and his own defects, are fit for
civilization, for law, for education, for the family, for the home,
for the arts and the industries which belong to civilization and
peace. Take the case of the negro, whom we have not all learned to
respect as we should. I sat in the House of Representatives with
seven members of the negro race, and you could not find seven men
in that House, chosen on any principle of selection, who were the
equals of those seven men, or who certainly were their superiors,
in everything that indicated the conduct of an honorable, sensible
and capable representative of the people. I should like to have
you take the Congressional Record, and read the speeches of the
old slave-masters, and then put by their side the speeches of
the slaves! Why, the great orator and statesman of the Southern
Confederacy, Alexander H. Stephens, when he came back to the public
service, announced weeks beforehand a speech that he proposed
to make upon a political question of the day. The House and the
country were in expectation. Mr. Stephens gave months of his best
thought and his best care to the preparation of that speech; and
when he finished delivering it, a full-blooded negro got up, and,
on the moment, answered the argument which had been made by the
great champion of the slave-holding race and overthrew it. When our
illustrious senator died, his eulogy was pronounced throughout the
land from the lips of orator and poet and friend. Massachusetts
called to her service, perhaps, the two most brilliant and
accomplished orators in the country, Mr. Curtis and Mr. Schurz;
and still the one eulogy of Charles Sumner which more than any
other deserves to go down into literature and to be found in the
school-books of coming generations, is that pronounced by Robert B.
Elliot, of South Carolina. It is too late. If you do not educate
these black people, it is not because they are your inferiors;
it is because, in your selfishness and greed, you prefer to do
something else with your money than to expend it for the benefit of
these American citizens.

But, my friends, as I have said, I did not come here to enter
upon an argument in behalf of a cause in which this audience,
at least, is already enlisted. I come to express to you nothing
but gratitude, nothing but hope. It is no time for despair. I
notice that our friends, especially the clergymen who spoke to
us, reexamined, somewhat, the foundations of our religious faith
in their speeches, as if they thought that science or unbelief
had shaken a little the strength of the old faith in the minds of
men. I don’t believe it. Undoubtedly, modern science has stripped
our religious faith of some of the frame-work, of some of the
imagery, of some of the associations with which the vision and
the imagination of our early childhood had surrounded it; but it
seems to me that, judging as we should judge of the progress of
mankind, by the state and depth of its religious faith, and by the
perfectness of its obedience to the moral law, humanity reached its
high-water mark on the day of President Garfield’s funeral. Three
thousand millions of mankind, at the same hour, in this country
and across the sea, bowed their heads in a common grief and rose
up to do a common honor to the simple qualities of love, courage,
religious faith, obedience to the will of God, exhibited by one man
and by one woman whom freedom had called to her high places.

Why, my friends, you know how it is. Every speaker and every
auditor knows how an emotion is multiplied by the size of the
audience that feels it. You utter a jest to your neighbor which
will hardly create a smile, or you make a remark with pathos in
it, which will hardly move him; but say the same thing to a great
audience of three or four thousand people, and in every man’s heart
that feeling is multiplied and intensified by the knowledge that
the same feeling is experienced by every other person. You all know
how that is. Now, science, the telegraph and the press enabled the
emotion of human sorrow, at the time of Garfield’s funeral, to be
felt over the entire civilized world. Do you think, speaking of
science having injured the cause of religion or Christianity, that
the telegraph and the printing-press are the products of cold, hard
science—that there is no religion or morality in them? Yet, of what
evil passion would they have rendered the service of conveying it
to the whole of mankind at once? Could any base man, could any mere
intellectual power, could any man of wealth, could any Napoleon,
could any conqueror, have swayed mankind as this simple President
of ours and his wife did on that day? The power in this universe
that makes for evil, and the power in this universe that makes for
righteousness, measured their forces. A poor, feeble fiend shot off
his feeble bolt; a single human life was stricken down; and, lo, a
throb of Divine love thrills a planet!

But, my friends, those of us, young or old, who are enlisted in the
service of God’s moral law, who pour out their wealth or do their
work in life in obedience to the doctrine, “He that hath done it
unto the least of one of these, hath done it unto Me,” works in the
service of the Master, who never will be shaken on His throne, and
whose rewards are sure.

       *       *       *       *       *


VALUE OF CONSECRATION.—Christ honors alabaster boxes that are
broken, and in a moment their costly ointment is shed forth and
lost forever. He honors a service not according to its commercial
value, not according to the results that appear in the reports
of societies, but he honors a sacrifice for the purity of the
principle in which it is made and the completeness of soul with
which it is rendered. I believe that the church is a unit; I
believe that the church is one—the body of Christ, and that Christ
calls upon his body to be a living sacrifice to himself. As any
blemish on the lamb that was brought to the temple for offering
neutralized its value, so any blemish in our hearts, in the
withholding of a complete self-sacrifice, is a blemish on that
“living sacrifice” which the Lord Jesus Christ calls upon us and
prompts us to make. Nay, more, I believe that the very offering
of one has its effect upon all, and that there is this vicarious
suffering and this vicarious holiness, and that God Almighty looks
down into the dark places of the world, and He regards those places
a little less dark and a little less dreadful when He sees the
light of one poor flame burning upon one solitary altar.

Let this, then, be the principle on which you go. You can do very
little; we individually do very little in this world; but you can
put yourself into it, you can give yourself to it, and then you
have made the grandest possible consecration and offering.—_Rev. E.
N. Packard._

       *       *       *       *       *

THE REWARD OF WORK FOR THE LOWLY.—I remember to have read of a
traveler who was shipwrecked. He seemed to have been a dissolute,
young Englishman, though of culture enough to read and write. He
was held captive on one of the South Sea islands for several years,
the natives keeping him out of sight whenever a vessel was near-by.
They saw that he was of a superior culture to themselves, and they
had built him a hut and given him everything to make him happy.
They waited on his instructions and he taught them many things,
and for years he had blessed them as much as a dissolute, immoral
man could. Finally, however, he managed to escape. One day he saw
a ship approaching the island, and he got behind some rocks and
put off in a canoe. The natives saw him and made after him. It
was a race for life. He finally succeeded in getting so near the
vessel that they threw him a rope and pulled him on board—a strange
looking creature, all his clothes in tatters and his hair unshorn.
He was in great agitation, but as soon as he could speak he told
them his story, and there was this fleet of canoes crowding around
the vessel to corroborate his account. And the natives took up a
wail, that he was going away from them, he, their only link to the
civilized world, was going to leave them, and their hearts were
full of sorrow. They wanted him to come back and give them one
farewell embrace; but he would not trust himself in their midst.
But they did this: the sailors tied a rope around him and lowered
him over the side of the ship, and then the natives rowed by in
their canoes and kissed the poor scoundrel’s feet in token of

Oh, what a blessing it is to be permitted to lift others! How
thankful those colored people at the South are for their teachers
and helpers! It is a success, thank God! See the gratitude that
swells up in their hearts; see their eagerness to follow their
instructions; see the endeavors they make to copy the examples that
are set before them.

* * * We are enabled to be personal sharers in this work; and we
can, by prayer and alms, thus express to Him who is over all, God,
blessed forever, our thanksgiving.—_Rev. A. H. Plumb._

       *       *       *       *       *

HOPE FOR THE FUTURE.—[This veteran friend of the Freedman, after
enlarging upon the evils to which the country is exposed by
prevailing ignorance and vice, continued as follows:]

Is there any light? When Judge Tourgee wrote his first book, “The
Fool’s Errand,” there appeared to be a sort of hopelessness in all
the air; but the next book, “Bricks without Straw,” let the light
through the crevices. He discovered and unfolded the remedy. It is
educate! Educate the masses by educating the children! It is the
fear of God and the love of man in active operation which make the
individual his brother’s keeper, his brother’s helper. It is by
expanding the individual conscience to take in fully and largely
his individual responsibility, and re-awakening it among those who
are more or less enlightened already.

The American Missionary Association is the mother of a big
household. She is pure, sweet-tempered, patient and persevering.
She entered the field of contest early and is proud of her scars.
She has stood at the doors of church pews which would not open,
and endured the contempt and derision of the unthinking in her
school-house receptions; her sons have lost arms and legs and lives
in her service; but she looks ever forward for her final reward,
when vast multitudes shall rise up to call her blessed. My friends,
give help to this Association, and you help in the most direct way
the cause of Universal Education.

But let me say a word for Howard University. It has received
pronounced commendation from both the friends and the enemies of
colored men. A representative friend says of it: “It recognizes the
complete manhood of a man and the complete womanhood of a woman.”
An enemy says: “It makes gentlemen and ladies of niggers!”

It duly claims for itself equality of rights for all men, and
limits knowledge not to color but to capacity. May the Lord bless
and prosper it till its students and graduates shall be honored in
all the world!

The Fisk University will ever be memorable for the wonderful
struggle, perseverance and final success of the Jubilee Singers.
Theirs is the history, in a brief compass, of their race. It is
a prophecy to which we of this generation should take heed. Here
were slavery, emancipation, want; then journeyings almost without
hope—none except in God; then the dawn, broadening and widening
till the full day came! Turned out of hotels in hate; pushed from
railways in disgust and blasphemy; then received with delight and
honor by kings and princes, queens and princesses everywhere; men,
women and children crying with joy at the plaint of their song, and
clapping their hands by the thousands in their praise!

May we not take this bright history as a harbinger of good—as a
spur to more and more activity to the pupils’ foster-mother, the
American Missionary Association—as a call to individual duty on
the part of us who make up its membership—yea, as in some degree
an offset to the grievous evils that afflict our land? Ah, may we
not, resolving to be better and do better ourselves, look steadily
forward, and, like your own poet, say:

    “I have not seen, and may not see,
      My hopes for man take form in fact;
    But God will give the victory
      In due time; in that faith I act”?

                                            —_Gen. O. O. Howard._

       *       *       *       *       *

ELEVATION OF THE DEGRADED.—When I received an invitation to speak
at this meeting, I had arranged my business engagements for the
week, and I sent word back that I could not come; but I was asked
to reconsider it, and so I have canceled two of my engagements for
the purpose of being here, not that I am to interest you with a
speech, but to show my earnest love for the great movement carried
on by this society.

When a man steps out from his own specialty, he generally makes
a failure of it; and I don’t know but I shall make a failure in
attempting to speak to you on this theme to-night.

But this meeting and all these meetings are a grand contradiction
to the infidel utterance, that those who love God the best love
their fellow-men the least. We give such a sentence as that the
flat contradiction as an abominable and outrageous falsehood. What
is it that prompts men to endeavor to ameliorate the condition of
their fellow-men? There is no benevolence worth anything that does
not come from the New Testament Christianity. Love for Christ, it
is that which induces us to bring those who are straying away into
the fold. And this is the idea of this society, if I understand it.

Now you know as well as I do that a reformed drunkard can operate
upon a drunkard better than a man who never was an intemperate man;
and a converted thief will do more good among thieves than a man
who has always been honest; and one who has been converted from the
lowest grade of sin can go down into the very depths to lift up
those who are as debased as he or she was.

With regard to educating the colored people, I have heard people
say: “O, there is no use trying to educate them.” I have heard the
remark that they are “a stupid lot.” No, they are not! If you know
anything about them, you know they are not stupid. They will say
wonderful things. I grant you a good many of them are ignorant;
but I tell you, although they may be ignorant, utterly ignorant,
yet you will hear brighter, smarter things from them than you will
hear from the ignorant in the North, as a general thing. Why, what
do you think of the negro who, when asked why he didn’t fight in
the time of the war, said, “Because I don’t want to fight.” “Well,
but they are fighting for the negro.” “I know they are; but did you
ever see two dogs fighting for a bone?” “Yes.” “Well, did you ever
see the bone fight?”

There is something, I say, in the education of the colored
man—though why they call him “colored,” I don’t know. A man
was once asked if he was colored; he said no, he was “born
so”—something to build on in themselves. And then there is their
desire for education. We here in the North can hardly conceive the
earnest desire of those people to learn. When Straight University
was burned, I received a letter asking me for some books; and I had
the privilege of sending some two or three hundred volumes to them.
I was told in the letter that on the very morning after the fire
the scholars assembled, and, standing among the ruins, they sang,
“Hold the Fort,” and then formed themselves into classes all around
about the ruins that they might not lose their lessons.

I have an idea—I shall get bewildered here a little, because I
am talking about education, and I never was educated myself—that
education may not make a man a better Christian, but it will make
him a more useful Christian. One poor woman, living in a smoky
cabin, when asked how she could endure to live in such a smoke,
said: “Why, honey, I’se thankful to de good Lord to get anything to
make a smoke of.” There was a good deal of ignorance, but there was
true thanksgiving. Another one said: “God whips you and leaves you
alone sometimes, to see if you won’t work; but la, it’s just like
a baby—as soon as you cry He hears ye!” Some of the most beautiful
sentiments have been uttered by those who are the most ignorant;
but when we are appointing men to preach the Gospel, my opinion is
that education is needed, and we must so arrange the machinery of
the American Missionary Association that hundreds of thousands of
men who are now waiting the opportunity to preach the everlasting
Gospel intelligently shall be brought into the field of labor.

O, it is a glorious work, this lifting, lifting up of the low, this
ministering to those who are poor, this helping those who have no
helper! It is a grand work, and I thank God that there is such an
Association as this, stretching out its hands and its arms in every
direction to lay hold on those for whom the world has cared so
little.—_John B. Gough, Esq._

       *       *       *       *       *

THE NEGRO WORTH SAVING.—It may be put down as a sure thing that our
estimate of men, in the long run, determines what we do for them.
Our theories of human nature are the measure of our philanthropies.
I am not going to sacrifice much for any man whom I reckon as
utterly and hopelessly insignificant. Christian philanthropy is
not a sentiment, nor an emotion, but a practical principle; and
principles are ideas vitalized and set in movement by convictions.
Suppose, for instance, that you assume that men are incapable and
cannot be made capable of self-government. I think your political
philanthropy will not take a very democratic type. If a colored
man—black, red, or whatever—is not fit, and cannot be made fit, for
the political suffrage, then we shall have white men’s suffrage,
and the question of fitness will inevitably determine the whole
matter. If negro suffrage had any rational ground, and was not a
wild and desperate venture, it was grounded in the theory that
the negro could be made capable for the exercise of the political
suffrage, and the men who had faith enough in him to give him the
suffrage, assumed that there would be found men who would have
faith enough in him to fit him for the exercise thereof.

Again, suppose you assume that the Christian churches are
incompetent to manage their own ecclesiastical affairs within the
limits of a true Christian and ecclesiastical fellowship. I think
your ecclesiastical fellowship will not take a very Congregational
type. Of course, we must have a strong central government that
will manage the affairs of such incompetence. It has been assumed
that the colored people of the South are unfit for the superior
intelligence of our Congregationalism, or that Congregationalism is
not sufficiently spectacular and sensational to fit the primitive
wants of the colored people. I will not characterize such heresy as
that as it seems to me it ought to be characterized. At any rate, I
think it a most beggarly begging of the whole question; and if it
be true, then the occupation, ecclesiastically at least, of this
society is gone.

The truth is, friends, our ecclesiastical, like our political
philanthropy, is grounded on faith in men—intelligent, Christian
faith in the manhood, capacities and possibilities of men; and
when that faith is gone, the bottom is out and we must have new

Or suppose we assume that the children in our homes are only
animals, or are fit only for the mechanical drudgery of life. I
think our domestic and educational philanthropy will not take, to
say the least of it, a very civilized type. Yung Pow says that it
is of far more importance whether an angel or a devil educate the
child than whether a learned doctor or a simpleton teach him; that
is, the virtue that educates is of far more importance than the
intelligence that instructs—which, in a certain way, of course, is
true. But what is the use of debating the relative importance of
virtue and intelligence where they are co-ordinate? The highest
virtue demands intelligence, and the highest intelligence demands
virtue. But suppose it to be true that the child is very likely to
find the doctor or the simpleton, as well as the angel or the evil
demon, what then? Of course, we want the angel in our homes and
in our schools; but I submit that we want the doctor, too, or his
equivalent. We have got to look out for the devil in our homes and
in our schools; but I submit that we have got to look out for the
simpleton, too. It is not virtue, it is not goodness alone that
educates; it is intelligence as well; and what we want is a broad,
noble, manly and Christian intelligence that estimates aright the
manhood possibilities of every man—that will assume the Christian
standard of estimate, which is not, I submit, the materialist’s
estimate, nor the secularist’s estimate, nor the politician’s
estimate, nor the Pharisee’s estimate. We want a faith in men
that will not prejudge either case against them, and undertake
to determine on _à priori_ grounds just the precise measure of
men’s capacity, and just what they are able to accomplish. We want
a faith that understands that we are not dealing with material
substances nor merely mechanical aptitudes, but with a higher range
of powers that are to fit the coming man or woman for a worthy
service in the social and political world, and in the kingdom of
our God.—_Rev. L. O. Brastow, D.D._

       *       *       *       *       *

A GLANCE AT THE SOUTH.—There is something interesting, as you go
through the South at the present time, in watching the progress of
events. It is a region, speaking of it as a whole, that strikes
the Northern man with many peculiarities. One is, where is the
population that made that stern resistance to the Northern arms?
The cities are all small; there are no villages; whence came that
force that withstood us so many years, and withstood us with such
might? And then again, you are struck with many things so different
from what we find at the North. You may ride whole days and find
very few Southern people with whom you can have any opportunity of
conversing. There is usually a car on the train which the colored
people devote to themselves, but they only ride from station to
station. You find but few of the white people traveling, and yet
since the close of the war there has been a visible growth; and I
am a firm believer in a new South that is dawning. There is coming
to be a gradually renewed intercourse between the people of the
North and the people of the South, and step by step we shall find
new interests awakening and a closer linking than there has been
for many a year.

But one of the most interesting phases of the South, from whatever
stand-point, is the colored population. They are a remarkable
people. They number six and a half millions by the last census.
You know that it used to be said that when slavery should take
away its fostering care, we should find large inroads made upon
their numbers, and like the Indians, they would gradually waste
and disappear. But what is the story of the two censuses of 1870
and 1880? The increase of the whole population of this country for
the past ten years has been a little over 30 per cent. Of this,
the white population has increased 28 per cent. and a fraction
over, and the colored population 34 per cent. and a fraction over.
So that, although the white population has been benefited by the
enormous immigration, of which we so often speak and boast, yet by
almost six per cent. the colored population has won in the race.

I met the president of a railroad within a month, who has recently
constructed a long road in the South against time. I asked him,
“With what help did you construct this road?” He said, “With
colored men entirely.” “Were they satisfactory?” “Entirely so.”
“Would they do as much work per man as the railroad laborers of the
North?” “Not quite as much per man, but there was no danger of a
strike. They were cheerful, hearty and willing, and I was entirely
satisfied with them. I completed my road many days before the time
given me, with every man in the South prophesying it was impossible
to accomplish that result.”

I said to a policeman not long since in the city of Savannah, “Have
you any colored men on your force?” “Not one; and if a colored man
were placed here, every one of us would resign.” I then asked him
about the colored people in the South and in that city. He said,
“They are orderly and well-behaved; we have no fault to find with
them.” “How are they getting on in the schools?” “They are beating
our white children in the public schools.” “How is that?” “Well,
our people do not altogether patronize the public schools, and the
colored mothers take much more pains to have their children prompt
and constant in attendance than the white mothers; and when the
children of this generation come to stand up face to face ten years
hence, we are going to be put to shame by the intelligence of many
a black boy that to-day walks our streets barefooted and ragged.”
That is the statement of a man who said he would resign if a
colored man was put upon the police force of which he was a member.

There are many things about the colored people we must be patient
with. They are ignorant, and ignorant beyond what we realize. It is
an ignorance which we must not be surprised at; it is an ignorance
which we must be patient with. It is our duty to give them
education—and not merely the duty of us who are here to-night, not
merely of this generation, but of generations to come. It is a duty
that is patriotic beyond what we are apt to consider. At the close
of the war we gave to the colored population the ballot; but it has
been the proud claim of New England always that back of the ballot
must be intelligence, and that it is not safe in a republic that
he who casts the vote that decides the fate of the nation shall
cast a vote that he cannot read. Yet to-day there is that enormous
vote of the South, a vote which the man casting it cannot read. We
sometimes wonder that, in a state like South Carolina, where the
colored population is almost double the white, it is possible that
they should be deprived of the franchise; but you can judge how
timid a man is as to his rights when he cannot read his ballot nor
count it after it is cast. Therefore, as I say, that question must
be a slow one as it works itself out; but it is as citizens of this
nation, as patriots, that we must see to it that intelligence is
furnished to that people at the earliest possible day, to enable
them to both read and count the ballots which they cast.

                                             _—Henry D. Hyde, Esq._

  [THE COLORED MAN.—Fifteen years ago Gen. O. O. Howard asked
  a colored school, “What message will you send to the friends
  North?” Richard Wright, at that time a lad of thirteen,
  responded, “_Tell ’em we’s risin’ sir_.” Mr. Wright has since
  graduated from Atlanta University, and for several years has
  been engaged in teaching and editing a local paper in Georgia.
  Those who heard his admirable address had abundant evidence
  that his statement has been verified in his own case, at least.
  We regret that we can give our readers so small a part of it.]

You cannot imagine how much it rejoices me to stand before those
who helped to shape the events whose tremendous logic forced the
great patriot and philanthropist, Abraham Lincoln, to sign that
necessary war measure which resulted in striking the shackles from
the four million unfortunate human beings whom I have the honor to
represent at this meeting.

I come to tell you that your labors have not been in vain. The
colored man, whose cause you have espoused, is worthy of your
efforts. Numerically, the colored people form about one-seventh of
this great nation. Their natural increase is greater, probably,
than that of any other branch of the American family. In the
South they constitute nearly one-half of the population, and in
the cotton states even more. Nine-tenths of the manual or menial
labor of the South is done by colored men. Freedom has not made
them lazy, as has been stated by their enemies. Besides making
ten million more bales of cotton than during any fifteen years
of slavery, they have, during the last fifteen years of freedom,
acquired in the South over one hundred million dollars worth of
property. That eagerness for an education which characterized them
when your first missionaries were put in the field has not left
them. In 1878, Gen. Eaton reported as being in the public schools
of the South 675,150 colored children, and about 100 schools
devoted to secondary, normal, collegiate and professional training
among the six and a-half million colored citizens. Such, in brief,
is the strength of a people who are to help shape the destiny of
this republic.

Ignorance, intellectual and moral, is our main weakness, a curse
for which our forefathers were not responsible, but for which we,
of the rising generation, are compelled to atone under the manacles
of political proscription and religious and social ostracism.

It could hardly be expected that the slaveholders of the South
would in their straitened circumstances undertake the education of
those whom they had looked upon as their property taken violently
from them. So the North, as it has abolished slavery, must also
abolish ignorance.

The first need of the colored man is Christian training. The old
preachers, fettered by slave habits and filled with superstition
and sectarianism, will hardly be able to make their flocks much
better than themselves. The colored people need spiritual advisers
whose lips and lives express the holy gospel they profess. There
are in the South thousands of colored preachers, controlling large
congregations, too, who are unable to read correctly a single text
from the book which they undertake to expound to their followers.
The colored people are naturally religious and nominally Christian.
They are ready to be led by the Christian teacher or the scheming
Romanist, by the true patriot or the plotting demagogue. As clay
in the hand of the potter, they can be made vessels fit for the
Master’s kingdom, or they can be left to grow more vicious and more
corrupt, and thus be lost to Christianity.

The colored man needs the facilities for becoming educated. He
has the inclination, but not the means, to make a good and useful
citizen. The A. M. A. has done much, and will, I hope, do more to
arouse this whole nation to see the threatening danger that lurks
in the ignorant masses of the South, and to feel the necessity
of removing the danger by educating this element. The black man
is not to blame for his hard lot, nor is he of his own accord an
American; but 250 years of toil and hardship have wedded him to
this soil, and here he means to stay. Docile and tractable, his
industry has made the Southern wilderness productive and beautiful.
He has produced the cotton, tobacco and cane of this country. Any
attempt to supply his place as a laborer in the South will prove
utterly futile. He is there a laborer, citizen and voter, part and
parcel of the American nation, and I trust the American nation
will recognize him as such. The full, complete recognition of
the right and privilege of the colored man to be and do whatever
any other citizen is and does, is what the republic must settle
down to. The question whether the colored man shall live in this
republic, on terms of perfect equality, protected in the enjoyment
of every privilege and immunity accorded to any other American,
is a question which has postponed the progress of the South, and
will continue to until the nation shall have solved this problem.
Sooner or later the republic must see its solution. Like Banquo’s
ghost, down at your beck or wane it will not. It will present
itself at your churches, your theatres, your legislative councils
and your court rooms. It is the one question that will not and
cannot be settled until it is settled rightly. It is a question
embracing the development of an irrepressible race, one that cannot
be starved out, driven out or killed out. When the people of the
South, together with the people of the North, shall approach
this subject, under the guidance of intelligent reason and an
enlightened conscience, they will see that the true way to solve
this vexing question is to educate the colored man and treat him
as a citizen. But, aided or unaided, helped or hindered, the negro
will have an influence in the government of this country, and there
is now no power in the arm of the American people to keep him down.
He will rise to help make this republic the grandest and noblest
that has ever dotted the face of this globe, or he will sleep on
a common burying-ground with his white oppressors, amid the ruins
and ashes of this republic. Inseparably united with the fate and
fortune of America, the words of the Hebrew maiden to Naomi express
his adhesion to the white man. “Whither thou goest, I will go; and
where thou lodgest, I will lodge; thy people shall be my people,
and thy God my God; where thou diest I will die, and there will I
be buried.”—_Richard Wright, Esq._

       *       *       *       *       *

AFRICA AND THE AFRICANS.—Mr. President: Africa and the Africans is
the subject assigned me. But before entering upon it directly, it
is fitting, perhaps, that I should say that for the last six and
a half years I have been in Great Britain as the Secretary of the
Freedmen’s Missions Aid Society, of which the Earl of Shaftesbury
is President and Lord Kinnaird is Treasurer. The British people
have been largely interested in aiding the American Missionary
Association in preparing and sending out to Africa colored
teachers, missionaries and general helpers for that great work
so wonderfully opened up in that dark land. And it is well known
that the Jubilee Singers, who went through Great Britain under
the patronage of the Freedmen’s Aid Society, or we may say its
President, the noble Earl of Shaftesbury, received very generous
aid for Fisk University from our British friends. They have also
aided liberally in the support of colored missionaries at the Mendi
Mission on the West Coast of Africa. But latterly they have become
greatly interested in the Arthington Mission, projected for the
Upper Nile valley, toward which field two white missionaries have
gone forth, Rev. H. M. Ladd, and Dr. Snow, of Western New York. For
this mission, Robert Arthington, Esq., of Leeds, England, has given
$15,000; others in Great Britain have given $15,000 more; so we
have $30,000 of the $50,000 needed for the mission from our British
friends. One London gentleman, after hearing a statement of the
case in Scotland, sent for the speaker and gave him $5,000, as he
said, instead of a legacy. Note that. A young man, who is a butler
in a gentleman’s family, sent at another time $50. When asked if
that was not too much for him he said, “I gave £10 a little ago,
to help a friend out of a difficulty, and I can give £10 for the
good of a vast continent.” A good woman, who had been a governess
for some years, also handed to the Secretary £10 for herself, and
her sister gave £10 more; and they agreed to give together £15
($75) a year right on for colored missionaries for Africa. These
were deeds of self-sacrifice. Are there not generous young men,
and older men, and noble women in America, who will do as well for
that dark continent, which our ancestors so cruelly plundered? We
need, _we must have_ $20,000 more, very soon, for that Arthington
Mission. We want a steamer on the Upper Nile waters also. We must
besides have a steamer, the John Brown memorial steamer, for the
Mendi Mission on the West Coast at once. In that country there are
no roads, there are no beasts of burden. Human beings have to be
the carriers of all burdens for hundreds of miles. And our dear
missionaries have fallen, many of them, in early death, in those
perilous journeys through swamp and jungle, on their errands of
love to the poor suffering millions of Africa. We cannot believe
that their friends and our friends will hesitate and delay their
giving for this steamer for the increase of good and the saving of
precious lives.

If we recall the abuse and the needs of Africa, we can but see and
feel our duty and privilege in this connection. Africa has been
for five hundred years the hunting-ground for the bondmen of the
whole world, and to this day the slave trade covers an area nearly
equal to all Europe, in Northern, Central and Southern Africa.
This accursed trade is to the East, and mainly to the Mohammedan
countries; and it is said that from some of the Eastern ports a
traveler may wend his way, without a guide, into the very heart of
Africa, by following the line of human bones and the skin-covered
skeletons of the poor slave victims who have fallen in that
terrible march to the sea. And that this crime should have been
permitted by the Christian nations down to the closing part of this
19th century is an astounding fact! And it ought not to need an
argument to show any man that a people who still demand slaves, and
buy human beings therefor, ought to be hounded out of the very pale
of the civilized nations; for it is generally known that for every
slave delivered in any country, four and often six human beings
have fallen in death in the attempts to capture them, or in the
cruel journey to their doom. And this trade will never be stopped
till the better nations learn to treat the demand for slaves as a
huge crime, as well as the act of supply. To meet and combat this
crime boldly and persistently in both demand and supply is the call
of God to the Christian nations out on the morning and the midnight

Now we may do both. Africa is open to us, and travelers are
penetrating her vast territories; the steamer’s screw and
paddle-wheels of reform are stirring her waters and also the
thought of her people; commerce is tapping her mines of wealth;
geographers are correcting her maps; scientists are studying her
various climates and testing her remedial agents. Christianity,
of which it was said in a meeting of the International Society
for Africa, made up of distinguished travelers, learned and
scientific men, “History shows that Christianity has special
virtue for rescuing savage races from barbarism, causing
them rapidly to over-step the first barriers in the way of
civilization”—Christianity, we say, is now challenging Paganism,
the Moslem curse, and the accursed slave trade, on that long
plundered continent of Africa. And now we have a potent factor
for the work not available a little ago. We have more than six
millions of Africa’s sable children, from which people we may
select educated Christian young men and women for the great work
given us to do. And these are the people for Africa. They can live
in hot climates; they are by blood relations and common sufferings
in sympathy with the people to be reached and saved; they can touch
the heart, stir the thought and lift up their own race as no other
people can ever do it.

For this they are developing a peculiar type of piety on a grander
scale than we have yet seen among the Anglo-Saxon race. The Pauline
we have had—the intellect and conscience carried by an intense
conviction of duty, so that the man would go to the stake for
his principles. But the loving, trustful type of piety belongs
to these sable children of the sunnier and more genial climes.
Shall we, then, know our day and dare to take our opportunity
with these ex-slaves for the redemption of Africa from ignorance,
superstition, slavery, war and woe? We want the John Brown mission
steamer. We want, we must have, in addition to all the generous
and noble gifts for our Southern work, the sum of $20,000, already
pledged by the committee of the A. M. A., for the Arthington
Mission in the Upper Nile valley, frightfully ravaged by the
villainous slave trade to this very day!

Who, then, of all God’s dear people, _will rally to this standard,
and come at the call of the Divine King to this momentous work,
with hand and heart and money, to take possession of that vast
continent of Africa, with its 200,000,000 of people, for Christ,
and for the good of all nations_?—_Rev. O. H. White, D.D., Sec. F.
M. A. Soc., London, Eng._

       *       *       *       *       *



       *       *       *       *       *


Your Committee upon the educational work of this Association would
congratulate its friends upon the great prosperity which has marked
the past year, and which gives such rich promise for the years to

We find as causes for thankfulness:

1st. The permanent improvements to our various educational
institutions in new and better buildings and increased endowments.

2d. The growing appreciation by the colored people of these
educational privileges.

3d. The increasing confidence and sympathy of the Southern whites
in the education of the Freedmen, and in the schools founded for
them by the North, as shown by the words and deeds of prominent
individuals and the articles in leading journals.

4th. And lastly, we are devoutly thankful that the Holy Spirit has
been so manifestly present in the labors of the year, and that
revivals of religion have given evidence of God’s favor on the
work, and promise of men and women for the great missionary work
lying before the American Freedmen.

Your Committee feel constrained to urge the importance of the
following measure:

1st. This Association should concentrate its efforts upon its work
in the States, among the negro, the Indian and the Chinese, as
offering its distinctive missionary field.

2d. The friends of the Association should redouble their efforts
to put its schools upon a permanent endowed basis, and thoroughly
equip them for giving a high Christian education to the Freedmen.

3d. In view of the vast educational structure to be built from the
very foundations, the pressing importance of immediate education
for millions of illiterate children, the poverty of the South, and
the insufficiency of benevolent contributions from the North, the
National Government should be urged to immediately inaugurate some
additional and more adequate system of national aid.

                                        C. T. COLLINS, _Chairman_.

       *       *       *       *       *


On the staircase of the Berlin Museum, the great artist Kaulbach
has represented the intensity of the battle of the Huns by
picturing the spirits of the dead warriors rising up in a cloud
above that battle-field and prolonging the contest in a spiritual
war. It seems to me a type of all great moral strifes. After the
roar of the cannon has died away, and the dead have been laid in
their graves, the spirits and the principles involved in the battle
grapple with one another for victory.

For four long years North and South met in the crash of material
strife, and now, for sixteen years, Northern principles and
Southern principles have been meeting in a death grapple, and the
victory will not be won until Northern principles conquer. For four
years North and South met in the crash of battle, setting four
million slaves free from chattel bondage, and for sixteen years
North and South have met in the silent strife of spiritual warfare,
to set what are now over six millions free from the grosser bondage
of ignorance. When, in 1865, four and a half million Freedmen
knocked at the school-house of the South for admittance, you are
most of you aware of the prejudice and opposition that met them;
but are you aware what the school-house was at which they knocked?
The South never had provided an education for the masses. Its
theory was to educate the higher classes and leave the masses
alone, even those of the whites. It never had an adequate school
system before the war. North Carolina was the only state in the
Confederacy that kept up anything like public schools during
the war, and at its close her permanent school fund of nearly
$3,000,000 was lost.

After sixteen years’ replenishment, the entire school property
of the eight Southern States, reported by the Commissioner of
Education in his last report in 1879—the value of the sites,
buildings and all other school property—does not amount to much
over seven millions, or, leaving Kentucky out, much over five
millions. Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, Texas and Georgia, which
do not report, are poor in school property. Leaving Kentucky and
West Virginia out, with their four millions, in all the States
south of them there are probably not to-day $7,000,000 of school
property. New York, with her $30,000,000, has four times as much
as all this South. Your Massachusetts, although it does not fully
report, has doubtless the same multiple; and eight states of the
North have each more school property to-day than all the school
property of this South.

Moreover, these poorly equipped states, indifferent to the
education of the poor whites, and prejudiced against the education
of the poor blacks, were awfully, bitterly poor. In 1870, after
recovering from the worst shock of the war, there was nearly $1,500
in Massachusetts for every man, but there was in Alabama, Georgia
and North Carolina only a little over $200 for every man. Do you
realize that $2,000,000,000 had been put into Confederate bonds to
support that war, and that it was all gone? What would have been
the state of the North if our public debt had been repudiated?
And besides that, everything was in ruin, industries prostrated,
society convulsed, and this poor stricken country had to lift
up the debt of the Union as well as the North itself. We said
bitterly, “They do not educate.” We said angrily, “They _won’t_
educate;” and, brethren, we ought to have said charitably, “Alas,
O God, they _can’t_ educate!” Such, briefly, was the condition
sixteen years ago. Now what has been done? Northern aid leaped
to the rescue, as you well know. Millions have been given. That
black form, lying blinded by ignorance at our feet, was bent over
by patient, tender Christian sympathy, and the cataract lifted
from his eyes with a golden, jeweled knife. Why, I look at the car
of educational progress in the South, and under it I see 50,000
glittering wheels, on which it is rolling on, and those wheels
are each one of them a ten dollar gold piece given last year by
the North. There was, in the last report of the Commissioner of
Education, 129 schools of higher education for colored youth and
over 14,000 scholars in them; and almost without exception each of
these schools has against it a name indicative that it sprung up
out of Northern Christian benevolence. This is only a part of what
the North has done.

But, friends, we hear a great deal about this and we hear very
little of what the South has done. Twenty years ago it was the law
of the land that the negro should not be educated; and now in every
state in the South it is the constitutional law that he shall be
educated; and furthermore, the commissioners of these states say
they will devote every energy within them to carry out this law.

Kentucky (shame on her!) and Delaware (shame on her!) give to the
negro what he pays in taxes, and they are pretty far North; all the
rest of the South give of the school fund _per capita_ to the negro
and to the white; and the constitutions of the states which enjoin
this have been endorsed since the war by conventions in which
the majority were white and originally secessionists. Oh yes! we
Northerners gave, I know, $500,000 last year to educate the negro;
Southern tax payers gave over $4,000,000 to educate him. I am
comparing not the spirit in giving, but the amounts actually given.
In our 129 schools we have 14,000 scholars. In the 14,000 colored
public schools of the South there are nearly 700,000 scholars.

But that is not all. In sixteen years, Northern principle has
conquered this and it has conquered Southern approval as well. I
know the great bulk do not feel as Orr feels, the Commissioner of
Georgia; as Brown feels, Senator and ex-Governor of Georgia; as
Curry feels, administrator of the Peabody fund and ex-Senator of
the Confederate Congress; as, above all, Haygood feels. I wish
every man in this house would read “Our Brother in Black,” by
President Haygood, of Emory College, Oxford, Ga., and so learn the
true situation. I have been told, since that book was written,
that that man went into a colored school in his native place,
and leaning on his cane, wept tears during all the examinations,
and, rising up, in a trembling voice begged pardon of the colored
teacher and the colored scholars because he had misunderstood and
opposed a movement so Christian. Ah, friends, let us recognize it
to-day. The South is waking up. These are exceptions; they are
leaders. But the great masses follow on. There are hundreds of
thousands of white Christians in the South who love Christ as you
and I do. They have the Bible; they have the Holy Spirit; they
have missionary societies. President Haygood says it is absurd,
and I say it is impossible, that a man who believes in sending
missionaries to Africa should prolong opposition to missionaries
for the Freedmen. He says truly that the battle never will be won
until Southern white women sit before dusky faces and teach such
scholars how to read. A school surrounded by a hostile community is
a fortress and not a school, and crippled in all its usefulness.

Under the crape-hung flag of the Union, mourning the loss of a
Northern President who set slaves free before the Emancipation
Proclamation declared them free, and with his sword helped cut
down the Southern cause, ex-Confederate generals have cried out of
the South to the North, “He is _our_ President!” O, let us cease
the old war cry of ’65; let us wipe out of all our reports and
papers, as an Association, everything calculated to excite the old
animosities, and cry back in a spirit of full fraternal charity,
“Our brethren, by that sign of sorrow.”

Now in view of this work and spirit of the South, what must be
done? We, as an Association, must redouble our efforts. There is
every reason to help the South trying to help itself. There is
only one scholar, in every colored school, supported by the North,
and suppose every single one graduates, to supply one teacher
for every public colored school in the South. Think of it! And
that leaves out of calculation one and one half million of church
members pleading for preachers. According to the last report of the
Commissioner of Education, the North gave to the higher schools
of education at the South in 1879 less than $500,000. It gave to
the same schools in the North, benevolently, charitably, about
$5,000,000. We hear much about $50,000 given to Berea College.
We hear little about $500,000 to the college in Cleveland.
One-fortieth of all negroes in the world are in the United States;
one-fifteenth are in North and South America.

But I will leave others to speak of that, and pass in closing to
speak of what our National Government must do now. Millions of
dollars are needed to do it. No agency but the central Government
can or should meet this need. It cannot be done by Northern
benevolence; that is inadequate, utterly inadequate. The North
would only pauperize the South, if it could and did do it. It
cannot be done by the Southern states. These Southern states
(leaving out Maryland, Missouri, Delaware and District of Columbia)
contributed in 1879 to public school education only eight and a
half millions. Of the North, Illinois gave eight, Ohio seven,
Pennsylvania eight, New York ten millions to their public schools.
This contribution of the South seems and is very niggardly, but it
is a question how much increase we can expect. The South is loaded
down with poverty, debts and heavy taxes. The other day a prominent
platform speaker made a comparison between Arkansas and Kansas
in order to illustrate the inferiority of Southern education. He
said that in 1877 Kansas sent 87 per cent of her children to the
schools, and Arkansas 8 per cent. Kansas raised $5.65 for each
scholar, and Arkansas raised 50 cents. Then he went on to say that
Kansas and Arkansas were in about the same financial condition.
I looked that up this morning, and I found that Arkansas had a
debt of five millions, and Kansas had a debt of one million; that
Arkansas had $87,000,000 taxable property with which to pay her
debt of five millions, while Kansas had $160,000,000 to pay her
debt of one million; and that Arkansas was paying a state tax of 65
cents on every hundred, and Kansas was paying 55 cents.

Now we must remember that the South is bitterly taxed, awfully
in debt, and very poor. I will read one more statistic and stop.
Louisiana has 330,930 school children (those who ought to be);
Massachusetts, 303,836. The school income in Louisiana is $613,453;
in Massachusetts, $4,399,801. The value of school property in
Louisiana is $700,000; in Massachusetts you cannot estimate it;
it is not estimated. You say Louisiana is not doing anything for
her children as compared with Massachusetts. True; but carry the
comparison farther. The whole taxable property of Louisiana is not
$150,000,000; and the whole taxable property of Massachusetts is
$1,500,000,000. The debt of Louisiana is about $16,000,000; your
debt, deducting the sinking fund, is $21,000,000. The amount raised
by taxes in Louisiana is half that raised in Massachusetts. You pay
3½ cents state tax on every $100, and Louisiana pays 60 cents.
Have you, paying 3½ cents, the face to ask her to increase her 60
cents, when this evil at the South springs out of a national sin
and involves a national peril? Not one million of the Southern
population are in cities. The problem is one of educational
facilities in poor sparsely settled agricultural districts. The
South unquestionably needs a different spirit in educational
matters; but even with the best spirit, it needs national aid.

       *       *       *       *       *


MR. PRESIDENT AND FRIENDS: We have six and a quarter millions
of Freedmen at the South and three-quarters of a million at the
North. They belong to a strong and prolific race that does not
waste at the contact of civilization, neither does it waste under
oppression. They numbered but four millions in 1860, and have
increased 55 per cent. in the past twenty years. Since 1870, if the
statistics are correct, they have increased 33 per cent. If this
rate of increase goes on at 55 per cent. for twenty years, in 1900,
which many of us expect to see, they will be nearly ten millions;
and if the increase of the last ten years continues, they will be
more than eleven millions.

It becomes, then, a matter of exceeding moment for us, as a nation,
to consider their condition and their future. Several things are at
least now clear: that for a long series of generations they are to
remain a distinct people. They will not amalgamate so much at the
South, Dr. Haygood and others say, as they did before the war. The
other elements that come to us from abroad—the German, the Celtic
and all—we expect soon to be lost, and they will not retain their
individuality; but this race will for generations remain a distinct
colored race; so that it becomes a problem of peculiar difficulty
to deal with them. We may think we are strong enough to throw them
off. We cannot. God Almighty is on their side, and with the welfare
of these growing millions our welfare is interlocked.

Again, they will remain, too, doubtless, at the South. We thought
that they might scatter over the North. The failure of the
migration to the North last year does not favor that theory. What
is to bring them up to a Christian civilization? We all say at once
a Christian education.

There are 700,000 in their common schools. I will simply give the
outlines as to the higher schools. Of higher schools there are
45, scattered in different parts of the South; 42 normal schools,
four of them state institutions, the rest under the auspices
of religious organizations like this. There are 21 colleges, 21
schools of theology, four of medicine and three of law. That
sounds well; but it would be wise to ask what these colleges are,
scattered over the South. I asked an officer of one of these
institutions this afternoon, “Is Talladega a college? It was
referred to as such, but was not reported by the Commissioner
of Education in 1879 as a college.” “O yes, it is a chartered
institution, and soon they expect to have a college curriculum.”
Many of these 21 colleges at the South are much in the same
condition. They are high and normal schools, with possibly a
theological school, which, however, is not as high as a college

Now the question is, what are we to do with them?—what are we
expecting to accomplish by them? Several things are manifest.
First, that this higher education at the South is to be dependent
upon benevolence for its continuance and success. Nor is this any
exception to the case of higher education at the North. We little
realize that all our colleges have been founded by benevolent men,
and have been continued in their endowments by benevolent men. We
little realize that our young men who attend our colleges do not
pay for their education, in many cases not one-half of the expense
of it. Secondly, it is manifest that this work must be very largely
a denominational work. Now this morning we had a presentation of
what it would be well for us to have at the South—denominational
unity. That cannot be. Men will not work upon any principle of
that kind. If ever there was a time when we might say we had a
clean slate, we had that time when we began our work. All united
in support of this Association; but very soon we found our Baptist
friends, our Methodist friends, our Presbyterian friends and our
Episcopal friends withdrawing. Nor could we complain. The Baptists
had thousands of colored people in their churches there and the
Methodists had hundreds. To-day the Baptists report 800,000 in
their colored churches, and the Methodists report 412,000. These
colored churches said to them, “You must educate ministers for
us;” and hence they have established their schools and higher
schools. The Presbyterians had churches among the whites, and those
churches, waking up, said, “You must help us in our work for the
colored people;” and so they went into the work.

Again, the question is asked, why so many of these higher
educational institutions?—why so many colleges?—why need of
anything higher than the normal and high school? And this question
is asked by people who have given largely for this work and who
love it. Now what is the object—to educate all the colored people
in colleges? No; but to educate those who have a desire for it and
a profound capacity for it. We have graduated probably less than
five hundred from all the colleges at the South so far, so there
isn’t much danger of an over-supply at present of teachers and
preachers. But isn’t there need of a revision of our idea of this
whole matter of what the negro is to be? Let us not make at present
an ideal, but ask rather what we can do for and with the negro; and
as we do this, let us remember what material we have to work with,
and how he has been educated by two hundred years of slavery.

In the first place, where did he come from? Not from Northern
Africa; not from Southern Africa; but from the negro belt of Africa
where is found the most degraded condition of the human race on the
face of the globe.

He has been educated two hundred years in slavery, and not without
influence upon his mental make-up. The day that the first colored
regiment went from Boston in the war to the front, there was a
convention of anti-slavery friends in Music Hall. There had been
very severe criticism upon our Gov. Andrews because he had not put
more black officers in that regiment. As Frederick Douglass was
about leaving the hall, they called him back. He stood with his
crumpled hat and leaned upon a chair, and talked more sense in five
minutes than his white brethren had in all those hours. He said:
“Gentlemen, I have as much interest in that regiment as any one
here, for I have two sons in it; but I am glad that Gov. Andrews
has not put more black officers into it. Here you have educated
us for two hundred years for the position of servants. You have
taught us that we could not guide our own steps, much less rule
our fellow-men. You have wrought into the very fibre of our being
a servile spirit, so that we are not fit for rule. All I ask is
that when a man proves his capacity to rule, then he shall have an

Now, I say, in reference to the negro, let us see what we can do
with him without reference to an ideal. Let us not only remove
his restrictions, so that he can rise all that his upward force
will impel him to rise, but put into him the mighty forces of a
Christian education for forty or fifty years—several generations,
in fact—and then see what we can make of the negro.

Especially do we need this higher education in order that we may
train preachers. We do not want to send a man with an imperfect
education as a missionary to Africa. Why should we send to
their black brethren in this country men imperfectly educated
as preachers to them? They, surrounded as they are by all the
stimulating influences of our modern civilization, need all of
this higher education which we can possibly induce them to take
on. Doing this for a series of years, we may at last realize
the triumph of Christianity among them. The greatest problem of
Christianity which our generation sees is the question how these
two races, so linked together, shall treat each other; but I
believe that the time is to come when we shall see them living
together in perfect harmony; when we shall see the blacks supplying
their peculiar elements to a higher civilization, and we, the white
race, shall have risen to a position exercising a true Christian
spirit, which, without the negro linked with us, we never shall
find; and then shall we see the triumph of Christianity dealing
with this now dark problem, but then showing the glory of a grand

       *       *       *       *       *



Great battles sometimes settle the fate of a country, and transfer
in a day whole provinces from one dominion to another. There are
no such decisive battles in the struggle for the intellectual
and moral elevation of man. By no stroke of policy and by no
combination of forces can you revolutionize the individual
character of a whole people at once. It happens occasionally,
however, in the contest between good and evil, that some convulsion
occurs which in its influence on the mental and moral condition
of a whole people is hardly less decisive than those political
contests by which provinces are transferred from the control of one
nation to that of another. Such a convulsion was our late civil
war. It left the States where it found them, parts of the Union.
It left all races morally and intellectually where it found them.
But for the colored people of the South it had swept away in every
direction, from zenith to horizon, the impenetrable clouds of more
than Egyptian darkness which had brooded over them, and it had made
it possible for the light of the sun to reach even these slaves.
Then, indeed, the people which sat in darkness saw a great light,
and to them which sat in the region and shadow of death, to them
did light spring up.

The civil war made it possible for us to educate and Christianize
the colored race at the South. It remained for us to take up the
burden which the providence of God had laid upon us, and to do what
we could to lift up these people to our level of civilization.

But need this education be _Christian_ education? I answer
emphatically, yes. The world undoubtedly is making great progress
in thought, in discovery, in invention. More and more the dominion
of nature is being conquered and her methods understood. Education
is not the same as it was a century ago. Even religion is not to us
quite the same that it was to our fathers. But whatever discoveries
may be made or whatever progress attained, there are some things
which the world can never advance so far as to be able to do
without, and I but voice the sentiment of this audience when I say
that one of these is Christianity.

And now who are these that in our Southern States are stretching
forth their hands and begging us to come over and help them? They
are those whose minds and hearts are not pre-occupied, but like
those of children, receptive, ready for the seed which may be
sown, and promising, if good seed is sown, a bountiful harvest at
no distant day. They are placed, in the providence of God, at our
very door, and are made a part of the governing force of this great
republic. For them Christian education cannot be secured through
the family, for there is little Christian family life; the father
and the mother are as ignorant as the child; all are children. It
cannot be secured through the State, for the State has no business
to teach religion as these millions need to have it taught. It
can be secured only through organized charity—by the help of such
agencies as the American Missionary Association. What the fathers
and mothers of New England have done for the Christian education of
their children, the American Missionary Association must do for the

I have emphasized the word Christian as I have spoken of Christian
education. Let me not in any less degree emphasize _education_.
Matthew Arnold is not far wrong when he says that the object of
religion is conduct, and that conduct is three-fourths of life. It
is simply doing what we ought. But one of the things which a man
ought to do is to make the most of himself as a power for good in
the world, and that he cannot do without education. Man, without
education, is a clumsy machine. The educated man is force which
drives machines. This force, if uncontrolled, becomes destructive.
The educated man, without principles, is more dangerous than the
uneducated. The latter may become at the worst a brute; it takes
the former to be a demon. But we do not on this account think less
of education; we only insist that the force it generates shall be
controlled by Christian principle. Thus controlled it is always
beneficent, like fire and water and air, which, nevertheless, when
uncontrolled, may become agents of the most fearful destruction.

The necessity for Christian education at the South may be looked
at and clearly seen from two different points of view. To the
Christian, these millions of the South are human beings, for whom
Christ died and to whom He has commanded us to carry the Gospel.
Properly developed, intellectually, morally and spiritually, they
will be a part of the Kingdom of God, and will become powerfully
influential in establishing that kingdom throughout the world. They
are accessible, eager for knowledge, ready to accept the truths
of Christianity, peculiarly impressible, lacking stability only
because undeveloped, and they offer to us an assured hope of a more
complete, immediate and glorious harvest than seems likely to be
gathered in any other part of the world. Nowhere else on the round
globe will your money or your efforts bring such returns as they
will at the South. You have not to contend with an impregnable
hostile faith, as among the Mohammedans or Buddhists. You have
only to lift the clouds of ignorance, and to overcome the natural
depravity of man—a depravity greater, perhaps, than in some other
places, but on that very account more easily recognized, felt and
repented of.

Nor can the necessity for Christian education at the South appear
less imperative to the patriot. There is no element so dangerous to
the stability of the republic as ignorance and its associated lack
of principle. It is by votes that rulers are elected, laws made and
the country governed. Just so long as we have a large element of
ignorance in the republic, whose votes can be bought at the caucus
or at the polls, will the most unscrupulous men rise to prominence
in our politics, for they are the only men who will utilize this

And now what of the future? We have tried all sorts of
reconstruction measures with the South and all kinds of policies
with the South, and all have proved in a greater or less degree
failures. They stand as monuments of our lack of the keenest
foresight. The best reconstruction measure which we can now adopt
is to fill the treasury of the American Missionary Association full
to overflowing, that it may carry forward at once and triumphantly
this work of Christian education in the South. What it has done is
sufficient assurance of what it will do, if the means are placed in
its hands. It cannot establish throughout the South a common school
system like that which blesses the North; it cannot carry education
to every cabin in the South, nor open college halls, free of
expense, to all who may desire a liberal education; but it can and
will qualify large numbers of these people to carry education and
Christianity to the rest; and that, after all, is the best thing
possible, for no lesson is more needed by these people than that of
self-reliance. Teach them to take care of themselves in the best
way, and we shall have done for them the best that is possible. The
day will not be far distant, then, when the common schools of the
South will provide education for the white and the black alike as
at the North, and when the church of God in the South shall hear
the voice of God saying, “All souls are mine. Take heed that ye
despise not one of these little ones.”

       *       *       *       *       *



This paper, recognizing the importance of normal and industrial
education, claims for higher education simply the place accorded
to it in other sections in the educational system for the South.
Its right to that place is widely questioned. The _Journal
of Education_ recently had the following: “In spite of the
youthfulness of colored education, some of their schools are graced
with a reprint of a Northern College curriculum. What nine-tenths
of the pupils in these classes want of Latin and Greek, fails of
our comprehension.” We are constantly hearing about “educating them
out of their place.” It will hardly be claimed that the colored man
_cannot_ be educated, when several have graduated with honor from
Northern colleges; when one has passed the fiery ordeal of West
Point; when one, below the middle of a class of six in a Southern
school, graduated above the middle of a class of thirty at Andover
Seminary; and when a Southern examining board say: “We were
impressed with the fact that the colored people, whether of pure
or mixed blood, can receive the education usually given in such

Perhaps the frequent remark about “their place” means that they
ought not to be educated. Now and then we see what might have been
a good barber spoiled by the attempt to make him a minister, and a
hasty generalization leads many to say: “_They_, instead of _he_,
ought not to be educated.” Allowing for this folly, this talk about
“their place” raises several questions. Who determines and assigns
the place for six millions of American citizens? Who will keep them
in their assigned places? Are our Declaration of Independence and
Constitution “glittering generalities?” Are the life and teachings
of Christ a vain thing? Pres. Woolsey thanked God for the war to
rid us of slavery before it had so sapped the virtue of the whole
people that we should not be worth saving. Surely He sent it none
too soon. How few are color-blind; how many are color-blinded!

Higher education is needed because time is required for the
mental, and especially the moral, development and furnishing of
pupils, who neither inherit nor receive from home and church
such furnishing. It is needed to continue the work to which it
has already contributed so much, of the adjustment of the former
owner and property to their new relations of brother and man, of
fellow-citizens. The owner could not see the citizen till the man
was developed. He needs higher education that he may take some
part, other than with pick and shovel in, and may have his share
of, the rich benefits of the development of the vast resources of
the South. Again, it is often asked, “Would it not be well for the
negro to keep out of politics?” Would it not be well for Niagara to
run up-hill? He has the ballot, and the duty presses not simply to
fit him to read it, but to furnish leaders who will teach him the
sacredness of that ballot; who will teach him that the interests
of labor and capital are one; the duty of debt paying, personal,
state and national; the sacredness of law and the duty to obey it;
that the United States is a nation and not a confederacy. The law
and medicine should be open to him. The need of thoroughly educated
physicians for these people can hardly be overestimated, and is
second only, if indeed it be second, to the need of ministers.
Higher education should be open to him, that here, if nowhere else,
he may feel that he is like other people; that there may be one
door that is not forever shut in his face with the words, “This is
for white folks.”

Finally, an educated ministry is needed. Pres. Gillman says: “There
is no greater curse to a community than an ignorant ministry.” Dr.
Haygood, in “Our Brother in Black,” says: “The hope of their race
in this country is largely in its pulpit. How urgent the need,
how sacred the duty, of preparing those whom God has called to
preach to this people!” The few ministers who have received partial
training, and others who are making heroic efforts at self-culture
that they may aid their people, are worthy of all praise; but
their number is pitifully small, serving by their light to make
the surrounding darkness visible and to show the need of the best
training. This is needed to remove the mass of crude notions and
superstitions that almost hide the truth. It is often harder to
bring a benighted Christian than a heathen to the light. It is
needed to remove the bitter sectarianism which usurps the place
of the Gospel. This feeding upon ignorance can only be removed
by those whose minds and hearts, broadened by generous culture,
hold the great common truths of Christianity superior to the petty
differences of sects. It is needed to ward off skepticism, which
is to be feared from two sources: the memory of the injuries of
centuries, and the continued experience of many evils, even at
the hands of professed Christians; and, second, the revelation,
as they grow in knowledge, of the emptiness of what is preached
as religion and the ignorance and ofttimes wickedness of their
ministers leading them to loss of respect, to ridicule and to
unbelief. There is abundant testimony to the growth of these evils.

What machinery is needed? In the towns, the three months’ free
school should be so supplemented as to continue nine months. In
the larger towns and cities there should be high and preparatory
schools, with normal classes. At convenient points should be
boarding schools, with preparatory, normal and industrial
instruction. Then, supported and fed by, and inspiring all below,
should be the college, the school of higher education. Justice to
a race long oppressed, obligation to meet more than half way those
states that make generous appropriations to this end, and safety
to the nation, demand that these should be liberally furnished
with such buildings and grounds as health and comfort require,
with libraries and apparatus equal to the best, and an efficient
corps of teachers, so paid that their best energies may be given to

       *       *       *       *       *


Your Committee on that part of the General Survey referring to
Church work, report that they consider it most encouraging and
inspiring. Seventy-eight churches formed; 5,472 members admitted;
8,130 scholars in Sabbath-schools! But the great question is, have
we a spirit of power and development in all these organizations?
for if they are dead they are worthless. Significant facts give us
the answer. Five churches were added the past year; five hundred
and eleven members were added to the churches; one thousand eight
hundred scholars to the Sabbath-school; seven church buildings
erected, or in the process of erection—one the gift of Mr. Gregory
(upon whom be peace)—two parsonages and two President’s houses.
One-third of these churches have had revivals indicating future
enlargement. There are seven State Conferences; Woman’s Home
Missionary Societies in active work; Sabbath-school Conventions;
female missionaries sent forth into the houses of the poor, eleven
commissioned the past year, and a revolutionized public sentiment
set in so that Southern governors, generals, editors, have
generously recognized the value of the work.

Now it has sometimes been questioned whether a Congregational
organization, working on thoroughly Congregational principles,
could so well plant the Christian church among an ignorant,
degraded people, needing guidance, oversight, care, government.
But how did the primitive churches in apostolic days succeed?
They were all Congregational, and for the most part composed of
ignorant people. Did they have apostles to guide them? So have we.
Dr. Strieby and his associates and helpers are successors to the
apostles in this work. They have the oversight, and the churches
have freedom of expansion and growth.

What is the path, let us inquire, through which a feeble church
or churches may safely become strong? It is, it must be, through
self-government, self-development and self-support. As to the
first, churches composed of illiterate Freedmen are, doubtless,
unfit to govern themselves. But how shall they ever become fit?
How shall they learn, except by trial, failure and correction
under kind but faithful leadership? We have given our colored
citizens the largest civil and political freedom, with no guidance
but that of unscrupulous politicians. Shall we now say that they
cannot be trusted in the church?—that they can be free citizens
in the republic, with all the duties, trusts and responsibilities
of citizenship, but that they cannot be Freedmen in the republic
of God? Our church organization is in perfect harmony with the
genius of our Government, and is the best possible school of good
citizenship. It teaches liberty, regulated by law and love.

But the second essential principle of Congregationalism,
self-development, is no less eminent. This necessitates
organization and co-operation. Each church cultivates its own
field, but its field expands into all the world. It looks over
into the Dark Continent, and sends forth some of its young men and
women to win, perchance, the martyr’s crown. Every such effort
is development, strength. It brings in health and power. The
working church alone grows and thrives. This is the nature of the
Congregational church. Without this element of self-development
into active Christian graces, the church, of whatever material
formed, will remain in the weak and callow state of permanent and
persistent chickenhood, and in cold nights it must be wrapped
in cotton wool to keep it from dying. Now these churches of our
Association have gone vigorously to work. They have done well.
The facts enumerated in the Report, and to which we have briefly
referred, prove this. Let us cheer them and urge them on to greater
effort. The whole race will rise just so far as it shall put forth
what strength it has.

The third great requisite of the Congregational church is
self-support. From the way in which missionary churches come into
existence, this is apt to be the most difficult principle to apply.
They are weak at the beginning and must be aided. Their real wants
are pressing—a pastor, church building, school-house, school. But
all these are so precious to them, to their children and their
posterity, that great exertion and self-denial on their part should
be called forth. No one should be admitted to church membership who
will not do something for these great objects. It is safe to follow
the teachings of Paul to the poor Corinthians.

Let it be well understood that church membership in a
Congregational church means the true Christian manhood of
self-support. Let them be taught systematic giving. This will
consecrate all duties and all true enterprise. This will bind
the church and the pastor together, and will help them to have
the spirit of Him who pronounced it more blessed to give than to
receive. This will purify the church. Give alms of such things as
ye have, and behold all things shall be clean unto you. As in the
foreign field, so in the home, with all due safeguards, let us
raise the banner, self-government, self-development, self-support.
This is true Congregationalism and true Christianity.—_Cyrus
Hamlin, Chairman._

       *       *       *       *       *


In the few remarks, Mr. Chairman, which I have to make on this
most important subject, I shall draw chiefly from my missionary
experience of thirty-five years in the Turkish empire, with those
feeble churches formed among a people oppressed, persecuted,
despised and ignorant, and yet churches that have come up in many
cases from great weakness and great doubt into noble strength and
manhood. This may be received as a general fact of the result of
church organization. Gather from these poor materials churches
enough to be trusted to their own self-government and care:
organize the church; give to that church a native pastor, and place
upon it all the responsibilities of Christian growth and Christian
work. You give it, of course, the Bible, and “the entrance of His
word giveth light; it giveth understanding unto the simple.” With
the Bible always comes, and must come, the common school; and from
the common school the high school; and from the high school the
college; and from the college the professional school; and thus you
have that necessary provision for preparing the native pastorate,
and every church must have its pastor from its own race. I believe,
in the entire field of the American Board, among all nations and
races, there never has been a single instance of real success and
growth of a church except under its native pastor, a pastor of its
own race. And so you have in this Association the most sacred and
solemn duty—duty to the church of Christ, duty to the great Head of
the church, to educate for these churches competent pastors; and
just so far as this great duty is neglected, our whole work will
grow weak and be a failure.

I do not think it is possible to emphasize too strongly the
necessity of having an educated pastorate from the people of the
churches to which the pastors themselves belong—of the same race.
The church and the college go together; you cannot separate them.
Separate them, and they will both perish; unite them, and they
will both succeed; for wherever you introduce a true evangelic
work, there will be a demand for the very highest education. What
a tremendous and almost tragic demonstration of this was the grand
effort of the great Secretary of the American Board, to confine
missionary churches to education in their own tongue—to lay aside
all science, to lay aside all study of languages, and to confine
education to the vernacular of each people! If anybody on this
earth could, by any possibility, have carried that demonstration
to successful result, it would have been our revered and beloved
Dr. Anderson; but the failure was absolute and terrible. I do
not believe there is a missionary now under the American Board,
or under any other Board, that will contend for a thus limited
education, a vernacular education, as sufficient for the pastorate
or the ministry of any people, and especially of an ignorant and
degraded people, where the elevating and educating force must come
so largely from the pastor himself.

Now in these churches in the East, by necessity, the first pastors
were not thus educated. The missionaries were compelled to get
themselves such pastors as they could find, just as the apostles
ordained elders in every place. They had to ordain just such elders
as they could find, and the missionaries did the same. But these
pastors have all been growing men; they have all been put into a
way of study; they have all been kept under exciting influences;
and pastors and churches have gone on together. And I think, from
my personal knowledge of the pastors of those churches in the
Turkish empire, that they are a noble, faithful and progressive
company of laborers in the vineyard of our Lord. It must also
be remembered that, in forming these churches and bringing them
forward, they will commit great errors; there will be great
immoralities breaking out among these church members. I have known
such sins committed by church members in whom I had had confidence,
that I would at the first impulse have immediately expelled them
from the churches, and denied to them all possibility of knowing
or having known anything of a true and pure Christianity; and yet
those same men, when faithfully and patiently dealt with, have
come to repentance, have returned to faithful Christian life in
the church, and I have been at the bedside of some of them when
they died in faith and joy, and in hope of a glorious and blessed

Now, I have great confidence in these churches which this
Association has formed; I have great confidence in their progress,
in their purification, in the elevation and competency and energy
of the native pastorate; and it seems to me that this is the very
centre, the fountain source, of the safe and onward progress of
your great work.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *


Your Committee, to whom is referred that portion of the Executive
Committee’s Report relating to the Foreign work of the Association,
beg leave to report as follows:

The experience of the past and Providential indications of the
future seem clearly to call upon this Association to concentrate
their foreign work upon two fields—the Mendi mission on the West
coast, and the proposed Arthington mission in East Central Africa,
in the region of the Sobat River.

The experience of the Mendi mission has been a sad history of the
sacrifice of many lives, and of meagre results when measured by
that sacrifice, in any narrow view of the past or present. But
when we stretch our gaze into the future, and think of the “must
needs be,” which is the law of suffering that accomplishes great
results, and lays the foundations of many generations, the Mendi
mission already justifies its past. It is the key of a future
that seems full of promise. It opens the door to a wider and more
salubrious region, reaching back from the malarious coast towards
the highlands of the head waters of the Niger, and inviting the
extension of mission outposts with better conditions of success.
Meanwhile, Good Hope station, on Sherbro island, is favorably
situated as a base of supplies and easy communication with Sierra
Leone and the civilized world.

The past experience of the Mendi mission has taught some valuable
lessons. 1. That the white missionary cannot be depended on for
permanent work, by reason of the deadly climate. 2. That the pure
black, of good constitution, although born in America, can endure
the climate, and is to be the future African missionary. 3. That
a competent superintendence is desirable for this African work.
4. That extreme and deliberate care is demanded in the selection
of missionaries to Africa, in respect both to physical health and
thorough character. 5. That when such selections have been made,
our missionaries should be better equipped and provided for than
they have been in the past, for efficient and progressive work. A
false economy has involved too much loss. The supporters of the
Association have only need of intelligent and exact information to
see and remedy this defect. A mission steamer for the Mendi work is
greatly needed to save time, health, labor, and in the end, money.
So are other industrial equipments that might be named, fairly
essential to the highest and speediest spiritual results. Your
Committee recommend that the Mendi mission be put in good repair,
that, any dropped stitches be taken up, that the things which
remain be strengthened, particularly in respect to its sanitary and
industrial basis, and better conditions for pushing its stations
further into the interior.

As to the Arthington mission, in its connection with the other
generous and thoughtful projects of this enthusiastic friend of
Africa, and in connection also with other Christian missions, and
particularly that of the United Presbyterians on the Lower Nile,
already dotting that Eastern coast, we approve of the measures
under progress by Superintendent Rev. Henry M. Ladd and Dr. E. E.
Snow for exploring the Sobat region, and getting all possible light
on a desirable location and all other matters involved in a wise
prosecution of the work proposed. Should it prove feasible, we
advise, as in the case of the Mendi mission, a generous equipment,
the providing of a good physical basis, particularly in the
procurement of a steamer of light draft, adapted to such rivers as
the Sobat and the Jub.

Also at no distant day, the establishment somewhere on African
soil, in a salubrious quarter and with favorable contacts with
civilization, of an educational institution for young native
Africans, combining the best features of the Lovedale School in
South Africa, and the Hampton School in Virginia. We believe
that such a school will be essential to the best development of
our future work in Africa, not only for the training of native
missionaries, but for the fundamental lessons of industry and
self-help that should be woven from the start into a Christian

It would also prove a stimulus and an outlet for the various gifts
of our educated Freedmen in this country, and furnish a wise
direction to their growing enthusiasm for that African work sooner
or later to demand them, when princes shall come out of Egypt, and
“Ethiopia,” as Dr. Edward Blyden renders it, “shall _suddenly_
stretch out her hands unto God.”

It is also incumbent upon this Association, as the peculiar
helper of these Freedmen, to bend its utmost and untiring efforts
to develop in them that prime, indispensable, and, by reason
of their past limitations, sadly deficient prerequisite for
missionary success—a thorough character—builded on the only sure
foundations—that “fear of the Lord” which is “the beginning of
wisdom,” and the love which fulfills His law.

As it appears that the foothold of future success for the
Arthington mission will largely depend upon the good-will of the
Egyptian Government, it is evident that vigilant care should be
taken in all possible ways to secure that good-will, and the
alliance of all moral and diplomatic aids from our own and European
governments which are interested in projects like that of the
“International Association” for the civilization of Africa.

In making the above suggestions we would not be understood to
reflect upon the Executive Committee as lacking proper care or
enterprise in the pursuance of the African work. We are aware of
their past limitations, the sudden exigencies of the civil war, the
vast responsibilities thrown upon them by the emancipation of the
slaves, and that the immediate sympathies of the Christian public
on which the Association relies for its support have demanded prime
attention to the home work; but now that the logic of events more
clearly defines the important relations of the home work to the
foreign, the appeal should be strongly made for such an increase
of contributions as shall warrant the Association to push its work
abroad with fresh vigor.

                                        J. W. HARDING, _Chairman_.

       *       *       *       *       *


The romance of African exploration is rapidly passing by. We must,
in this missionary work, take into account fully the great and
peculiar difficulties in the way—difficulties beginning with the
physical geography of that continent, its lack of bays and harbors,
its generally unnavigable rivers, choked by sand-bars, impeded by
rapids and cataracts and masses of floating soil; and then the
deadly climate, the rank and putrescent vegetation, the fetid
odors poisoning the air. Will you plunge with me for a few minutes
into the African forest, starting with the latest travelers,
Keith Johnston, son of the great geographer, and Joseph Thompson,
a young man of twenty, a graduate of Edinburgh University and a
good botanist and geologist? They plunge into that African forest
opposite Zanzibar, following a path only eighteen inches wide, for
all means of conveyance by beasts of burden—horses, mules, camels,
elephants—have failed in that country, and travelers are forced
back upon the narrow foot-paths. The grass, cane-like, interwoven
with thorny creepers, is from ten to twenty feet high. They have
to cut their way with hatchets and cutlasses, it is so soon choked
by the rank growth. They are drenched with the dew for the first
two hours through and through; then they are scorched by the sun.
By and by comes a pouring shower and they are drenched again. At
night they lie down in their little shelter tents, breathing the
steamy, stuffy, poisoned air; and before they get 200 miles, Joseph
Thompson, the young man of twenty, buries under a mangrove tree his
friend Keith Johnston. He was only thirty-four, an athletic fellow,
proud of his English training, of a splendid constitution. But that
is a deadly climate. Young Thompson staggers along, often falling
in his tracks. His men have to lift him up and he has to hold on to
their belts; but, after fourteen months and fifteen hundred miles
of travel, only losing one man, no plundering, no desertions, not a
shot fired offensive or defensive, not a drop of blood shed, though
under the most intense provocations, he brings all his men back to
Zanzibar—a hearty, merry, jovial set.

This gives you a little idea of the inevitable difficulties of
African exploration. As to the encouragements, the first one I
think of (and it is a great one) is that our Lord, who leads us to
victory, has made Africa and told us to go there. The next is the
testimony of our latest travelers to the grand success of mission
work. Thompson says that while the Belgian expeditions have failed,
while the stations of the International Association have failed
because of the lack of character in the men who have led them, the
Livingstonian mission, the Free Church of Scotland mission, the
London Missionary Society’s mission, and various other missions
have all proved solid civilizing centres. Desolating wars have
ceased; the slave trade in their region is ended; the moral tone of
the natives has been evidently already lifted up.

But we must have in this missionary work more regard to a physical
basis. It is wrong, brethren, to send such men as Henry M. Ladd and
Edward P. Smith, and let them travel in open boats, exposed with
their native boatmen to almost certain death. The fact is that the
sentinel of death stands five miles out from the coast of Africa
to warn almost every traveler not to sleep on its shores in such
a region as that. If we send out these noble men who hazard their
lives for this work, we must give them these steamers—the “John
Brown” steamer at the Mendi mission, and the “Charles Sumner”
steamer at the Nile Basin station.

       *       *       *       *       *


As we review the past, we delight to see how the various movements,
which, at the time, seem to be wholly disconnected, move on in
converging lines, and how, finally, those movements come together
to produce some sublime result. During this centennial period we
have been looking back over the past history of our nation, and at
the same time over the past history of Europe, and we have found
these two histories blended all the way through. From the time of
the Crusades, and the awakening of the spirit of enterprise, and
the creating of that great restlessness throughout Europe which
led to the spirit of exploration and discovery, down through the
subsequent periods, during which our country was colonized, we see
everywhere how movements on this side of the water and movements
on the other side were playing together. * * * * * * * * * And now
we stand at another period, and we see two continents, lying side
by side across the same ocean. We have heard God’s voice saying,
“Let my people go,” and this has been followed by God’s providence
breaking off the fetters of an oppressed race and bidding them go
forth into a land of freedom. And we have seen, in connection with
this, God calling His people to labor and lift up these brethren to
a higher intelligence, to a purer, faith, to a nobler aspiration,
and to a grander enterprise; and we have seen these efforts
fruiting most wonderfully. And all the time that this has been
going on, away off there across the ocean, in that new continent
hitherto unexplored, Baker, Livingstone and Stanley, with untiring
industry, have been prosecuting their work; and “the great dark
continent” is being made a light continent in one respect—light to
our knowledge, only that something greater and grander may follow.
Are these lines parallel—the lines of God’s movements in America
and the lines of God’s movements in Africa? They _converge_; and,
in the distance, these lines on which God is moving will come
to their focus, and we shall see there on African soil sublime
results, of which these here on American soil give to us but the

       *       *       *       *       *



In what I have to say I shall not try to give any large picture
of African travel or life; I shall try only to give some accurate
notions of a limited area.

The Soudan is not a definite geographical term. Bellad es Soudan
is the country of the blacks, and is merely a general term like
Central Africa. An Egyptian Governor-General of the Soudan rules
a vast territory, extending in Gordon’s time from the Tropic of
Cancer on the north to near the equator on the south, about 1,640
miles; and from the Red Sea on the east to the western boundary
of Darfour, averaging about 660 miles in width. This territory
includes Upper and Lower Nubia, the fertile and little known
Sennaar, the wastes north of Abyssinia, the provinces of Darfour
and Kordofan, and the mysterious regions of the White Nile and its

Nowhere else in the explored world is there an equal area so
uniform in climate and surface. The sad result of this uniformity
you see in the condition of the people. In your effort to help the
people, you must fight against these facts of nature. A monotony of
savage tribes live in a bad climate, uniform in its badness; they
inhabit a land which throughout great regions gives no variety of
surface. From these conditions they have no escape. I do not say
that no great improvement of people so situated is possible; but I
do say that man has seldom found himself in a worse position.

In the northern zone of the Soudan, down to about the twelfth
degree of latitude, the climate has admitted of a feeble
development of Mohammedan civilization; further south the
conditions are desperate.

The Arab officers of the Khedive, the Nubian slave hunters, the few
European traders and travelers who have gone as far as Gondokoro,
the handful of American and English officers who, in late years,
have tried to carry law and light into that unhappy country—every
man of them would tell you the same story of more or less rapid
failure of his own vital powers, and of the terrible mortality
among his comrades. We, at this distance, only hear of those who
go up the Nile and come back. One has but to spend a few weeks in
Khartoum to learn a long list of names of men who have gone as far
as Khartoum or Fashoda, or the Sobat or Lado, only to come back,
broken in health, often to die before getting to the sea.

Let us now glance briefly at the physical geography of the Nile
basin south of Khartoum. Below the tenth degree of latitude, the
steppe country is no longer seen. Vast marshes stretch away on
either hand, broken by peninsulas and islands of dry land. For 790
miles this is the character of the immediate valley of the White
Nile. Between latitudes 5 and 6 the swamps end and the face of
the country becomes more like our own land. From this latitude to
the equator is a charmingly diversified country, with mountains,
valleys, creeks, meadows, and not an extraordinary proportion of
swamps. Of course, this region is more healthy than the marshes of
the White Nile, but even it has a trying climate.

Here the Nile is a rapid stream, with numerous wooded and rocky
islands and long stretches of rapids and cataracts. The forests are
neither so vast nor so dense as we imagine tropical forests to be;
nor do we find here the majestic trees and the luxuriant vegetation
of the Central American forests. The herbage grows with wonderful
rapidity, and during the summer months much of the country is
covered with grass of amazing height and strength.

On the west and south the great swamp basin seems to end at a crest
of high land running northwesterly from the Nile at about latitude
5, crossing the eighth degree of latitude at 150 or 200 miles west
of the Nile, and keeping something the same general direction to
the steppes of Darfour and Wadai.

The eastern limit of the swamp region is even more conjectural than
the western, but we may expect that it will be found within 100
miles of the Nile, and that it is a line running south by west from
near the mouth of the Sobat. The total area of the swamp basin may
be 25,000 square miles.

Khartoum is the point of rendezvous and departure for all routes
into the Soudan. It may be reached from Cairo by two principal
routes; one up the Nile valley, the other by the Red Sea and by
caravan to Berber on the Nile, 250 miles north of Khartoum. The
quicker and probably the cheaper route is by the Red Sea, Suakim
and Berber. The journey by this route, allowing three days each at
Suakim and Berber, may be made in 32 days. By this route there are
but two days of hard marching necessary. The rest of the journey
can be made at a comfortable pace. Both of these routes into
the Soudan are much frequented. Special difficulties in getting
transportation may operate against one or the other of them at
different times. This is something to be decided at Cairo.

Khartoum, the capital of the Soudan, is a town of about 30,000
people, with many and fairly good shops, at which the traveler
can procure anything really necessary, except arms, ammunition
and medicines. At this great African city all lines of traffic
converge. Here boats can be procured, manned, provisioned and
stored to go up the White or Blue Nile, the Sobat or the Bahr el
Ghazalle. Here camels may be hired and caravans fitted out to go to
the East or the West.

From Khartoum to Fashoda, in the tenth degree of latitude, about
450 miles, the White Nile is practically Mohammedan. Though
the Shillooks rove considerably north of that point, they are
continually harassed by their enemies, the Bagarra Arabs from
Kordofan and the government tax-gatherers from the Nile, and lead
a very unsettled life. On the eastern bank of the Nile, also,
the Mohammedan tribes have driven the negroes south of the tenth

South of Fashoda, however, for more than 100 miles along the west
bank of the Nile, past the mouth of the Sobat, and extending back
many miles into the interior, is the country held by the great
tribe of the Shillooks. Their huts in this region are like one vast
village. They are a powerful and spirited tribe, numbering over a
million souls, it is estimated. They have resisted the Egyptian
Government with tenacity and considerable success. Indeed, I cannot
say how much of their territory is actually subjugated to-day; but
it is probable the Egyptian power is not acknowledged far from

The Shillooks are one of the finest negro tribes of which we know
anything. They are prosperous cultivators of the soil and great
hunters. Although they are greatly exasperated by the wars of the
government and the plundering of the passing slave-traders, it
is likely that they could soon be led to feel confidence in men
whom they found to be neither officials nor slavers. With their
light canoes they cross the river constantly, hunting, fishing
and raiding on the neighboring Dinkas and Nouers. Although they
have been so badly treated by the government and the traders, yet
they have learned to discriminate among white men, and it is quite
possible that they might be found more open to the influence of
Christian missionaries than the tribes farther away from the route
of travel.

On the west bank of the Nile, north of the Sobat, is a branch of
the great Dinka tribe. These people have fared even worse than the
Shillooks at the hands of the slavers, and have almost abandoned
the banks of the streams. They will probably return with the
decline of slave-hunting, if indeed they are not already occupying
again their old lands. These are docile and intelligent negroes,
and are favorite slaves. The black regiments of the Soudan were
mostly recruited from the Dinkas. Like the Shillooks, the Dinkas
are pure heathen and great cattle-breeders. The immediate southern
bank of the Sobat is now occupied by the Nouer tribe, who have also
pushed over to the north of that stream and are found far up its
course. They go to the west as far as the Gazelle River and their
southern limit is ill-defined. They are a very numerous tribe, but
perhaps inferior in intelligence to either the Shillooks or the
Dinkas, although Poncet speaks of them as clean, well-housed, and
valiant warriors and hunters.

The little that we know of the country and people up the Sobat is
not encouraging. The land is flat, and in the rainy season marshy.
On the banks of the streams are forests of the talch acacia. The
people have been hostile, and Col. Gordon withdrew his station from
that region before I went to the provinces of the Equator.

The mouth of the Sobat, and the great east and west reach of the
Nile which flows here east by south for about 100 miles, mark the
southern limit of the steppe country. South of this one should not
rest till he reaches the high lands of the Bahr el Gebel, below
latitude 5. The characteristic features of that region are truly
charming to one who has crossed the deserts, steppes and marshes on
his way from the Mediterranean.

Here are found various tribes of negroes, the Bohr, the Shir, the
Madi, and finally, to the south, the great Wanyoro and Waganda
tribes, who are thought by Speke not to be negroes. On the east
are the Latookas and the Lungo; on the west the Niambara. For our
purposes it is not necessary to discriminate very closely between
them. They are all naked heathen, given to warfare and pillage,
detesting work, and certainly not spiritually minded.

All of these people had been greatly exasperated by the
slave-traders and by the garrison left at Gondokoro by Baker. The
policy of the slave-traders had been to keep one tribe at war with
another, and by allying themselves with one and the other to get
much of the fighting done for them and to carry off the spoils in
slaves, cattle and ivory. The Egyptian garrison had imitated the
traders, and when Gordon went up it was practically besieged at
Gondokoro. In two years and a half Gordon had reduced the garrison
at Gondokoro to a sergeant and ten men, and his strongest garrison,
that at Moogi, was but 90 men. He had established stations for
300 miles at a day’s march, or less, apart, and over much of this
distance one courier could pass unharmed. The chiefs about the
stations paid tribute of corn and furnished porters readily. On the
Albert Lake he put a steamer and two large iron life-boats, which
traversed without danger or difficulty the 125 miles of river south
of Dufli. The Moogi family, for some distance on the east bank
of the river, was still hostile, but all the other river people
had great confidence in the wonderful white man who had been just
and truthful with them. How much of this condition still exists
I do not know, but the fact that it did exist in 1877 shows what
missionaries might hope to do there.

The negroes of the far Nile country, like the Shillooks, the
Dinkas, and the Nouers below, breed cattle, raise their poor
breadstuffs and a few vegetables, and hunt but little. Were it not
for the tribal wars, they would seldom suffer for food, although
local famines from drought do occur. Like the negroes farther down
the Nile, they are, too, a simple and happy people, only asking to
be let alone. They want nothing that our civilization can give them
except bright beads and wire. Therefore, to establish relations of
trade with them is not easy.

I began by promising to give you somewhat accurate notions of
certain limited regions. I find that I have been able to skim but
hastily over even the area to which I have confined myself.

I will conclude with a few words about that area as a missionary
field. I need not tell you that the poor people are densely
ignorant of Christianity, as they are of all religion. I need
not tell you again that like all savages they make each other as
miserable as they can with their poor knowledge of the art and
means of war; or that the slave-traders and the Khedive’s troops
are adding daily to their capacity in that way. I hardly need tell
you that I believe them to be human beings whose happiness might
be increased by teaching them peaceful industries and by inducing
them to give up idleness and fighting. In short, there is no
doubt that the condition of the people of Central Africa and the
Soudan is deplorable, and there is a possibility that Christian
missionaries might make it better. The question is how and where
you can do the most with the means at your command. Probably the
most can be done by working steadily up the Nile, and to moderate
distances east and west of the water-way, with a base in the more
healthful regions of the north, and a steamer to carry people back
and forth. I believe it would be a mistake to plant an isolated
mission anywhere south of the swamp region. The essential thing is
to be able to take a man away as soon as you find that he can no
longer resist the fevers, recruit him in the desert air, and then
hurry him back before he and his people have forgotten each other.
If you plant a colony in the heart of Africa and leave it for three
years, at the end of that time there will probably not be a man
of it living—almost certainly he will not be living and working
there. But it will take an ordinary man at least three years to fit
himself for really good work amongst a people whose language and
ways are so new to him.

A valuable lesson may be drawn from the experiences of Gordon and
Baker in the same country. Baker isolated himself in Unyoro, with
no base and no line of communications. He was obliged to burn his
baggage and retreat, with great courage and skill it is true,
but with the absolute waste of his expedition. Gordon kept up
fortnightly steamers to Khartoum, established his little garrisons
step by step, and when he left the Provinces the power of the
government was firmly fixed there.

The idea of the Roman Catholic mission is excellent so far as it
goes. They have built comfortable houses at Khartoum and El Obeid;
have established schools, gardens and hospitals; have a corps
of people trained in Arabic and some of the negro dialects, and
somewhat acclimated, and—there they stop and sit in their gardens.
They are capital financiers, and their mission will not be apt to
break up for want of money or recruits; but as a means of practical
good in Africa, it is nearly worthless without a chief of heroic

The scheme that I should strongly advise is a sanitarium and school
in the north, with your own steamer on the Nile; a mission near
the Sobat; and if the White Nile is found to keep open, another at
the head of navigation. In the course of years such a scheme would
probably make a mark in the countries it reached; but to succeed
it must have at its head a man of courage and brains, a man of
sleepless energy, a man hungry and thirsty for work, and he must be
a diplomat as well, for he will be terribly worried on all sides.
I have suggested a point near the Sobat for a mission, because at
that point relations could be established with some of the largest
tribes—the Shillooks, Dinkas and Nouers—and because it is the last
point at which a colony could be planted north of the great swamp
basin. A colony south of that is liable to be cut off for months
and even years, by the formation of the “sud” or grass barrier
in the Nile. Undoubtedly the Sobat region is inferior in land
and climate to the high lands south of Gondokoro; but, as I have
pointed out, to isolate your mission so that it cannot be rapidly
recruited and supplied will be fatal. Of this I am positive. When
you find that the Soudan authorities are sure or even likely to
keep communications open up the Nile, _then_ a mission should be
sent up to Gondokoro or farther south. All the dangers in and
obstacles to this noble work should be measured and faced, and
the work so organized that a real retreat need never be made.
True progress must be very slow, and you must not look for quick
results. When you have done your best you must not be disappointed
if you seem to have done very little. To plant a mission on a solid
foundation, with the right chief at its head and the right material
at his hand, will be a great work.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *


Your Committee on work for the Indians recognize with gratitude the
greatly increased general interest in the welfare of the red race,
a change to more encouraging ideas in respect to its future, and a
disposition to make increased efforts for its redemption.

They point to the fact that to Christianize the aborigines was a
deep-seated purpose of the Pilgrim Fathers, and that the duty is
greater now than ever from the wrongs they have suffered at our
hands; and to the fact that the destruction of buffalo and other
game has compelled a large class of Indians to seek white men’s
means of support, thus bringing thousands of their children within
reach, and creating conditions of successful evangelizing work
among them far more favorable than they have ever been in the past
three centuries.

They urge action because civilization is rapidly surrounding them;
many tribes are increasing in numbers, and the alternative is
either Christian education or a terrible, bloody, costly struggle
with a powerful race. Education or extermination is the issue. They
point to the success already achieved in Indian education at Fort
Berthold, Lake Superior and S’kokomish Agencies, by the American
Missionary Association; to the grand results of missionary effort
during the past forty years at the West; and to the hopeful work at
Carlisle and at Hampton, as affording every encouragement.

They recognize the great need of legislation that shall encourage
citizenship among the Indians and afford means of attaining the
conditions of citizenship.

Your Committee would therefore recommend for adoption the following

Res. I. That the Association shall do all in its power for the
education of Indian youth at their own homes, and in its colored
schools at the South.

Res. II. That the Executive Committee of this Association be
charged with the duty of pressing upon the general public and
the Government their responsibility for the Indian race, and by
co-operation with other societies, and by direct effort, exert its
influence at the seat of government in behalf of legislation that
shall secure citizenship to the Indian; to that end a legal status
and education to fit him for it.

                                      S. C. ARMSTRONG, _Chairman_.

       *       *       *       *       *


The Indian question is this: education in its broadest sense or
extermination. But at least one white man must fall for every
Indian who is shot, and it takes as much money to kill one red man
as it would to train a hundred of their children in civilized ways.
To educate is economy.

Fifty thousand Indians receive every day from the Government a
pound and a half of fresh beef, with flour and coffee and sugar
and tobacco to match, and a fair outfit for all purposes of decent
living and good farming, and the number will increase. An agency
warehouse is a huge store filled with utensils of every kind, from
which the ex-warrior draws gratuitously at the agent’s discretion.
There is no treatment like this in any other country on the globe—a
stupendous wholesale charity to a people, of whom a large portion
are thus hired to keep the peace.

When first fed they are modest and satisfied, gradually they get
importunate, and finally become most grievous beggars. There is
an unevenness of treatment in this matter, based chiefly on the
varying difficulties of settlement; the strong and wicked Sioux
getting the maximum in return for their good behavior. The quiet
and thrifty Fort Berthold Indians, who are doing as much, if not
more _per capita_ than any others, complain; for Indians visit much
and discuss things; they have not yet discovered that virtue is its
own reward.

Yet I have seen and heard of agencies where, notwithstanding
gratuities, there has been steady improvement in houses, crops and
herds. Good management on the one hand and the good sense of the
better class of Indians on the other hand, at certain points led
to remarkable results; but a forward move along the whole line
of the Indian population is not to be looked for till they shall
have the same motives to industry that other men have and that all
men need. Agencies, reservations and rationing are and long will
be a necessity, lessening only as by wise use of public bounty,
and by proper legislation and care, the Indians shall approach
self-support and citizenship. The persistently indolent should
not remain as they are now, unless the nation has pledged itself,
by solemn treaty, to feed forever the savage who squats on his
haunches and refuses to work.

First-class men, and no others, can settle the Indian question. The
want of them is the bottom fact in our Indian troubles. Government
pays the market price for good beef and sugar and tobacco, but will
not pay for good men. There is only one answer to the question,
“Can a superior man afford to be an Indian agent?” No! There are
excellent Indian agents, thanks to their noble impulses, but
Government should buy and not beg what it is bound to get. Salaries
are from $900 to $2,200, depending principally upon the number of
Indians under the agent’s care. Hence, the more liberally he feeds,
the more the roving bands of the plains seek his care and swell his
income. Pressing self-support upon them may scatter them and lessen
his salary.

Congress will appropriate hundreds of thousands of dollars to feed
Indians, millions to fight them, but will not give the nominal
additional sum necessary to induce men who can make a living in
any other way to become Indian agents. We tell the Indians to take
the white man’s road and refuse to open it. He needs ideas; he
is capable of citizenship, but is unfit to hold lands or manage
property till he can read and write, and knows something of our

Of the forty thousand wild children of the plains who are looking
to the nation for education, not over eight thousand are enrolled
at school. The average is far less. We are rich and paying all our
debts but those to the illiterate of the land, whose ignorance is
not their fault. The little children will one day lead. Honor and
interest demand a care for their welfare. The point of sending
children to Carlisle and Hampton should not be that they may learn
trades so much as to acquire our language and habits, and see and
comprehend civilization—a temporary sojourn away from their people,
that all interested in them declare to be most desirable. Settling
Indians on homesteads, encouraging mechanic arts, agriculture,
and especially cattle-raising, for which this race is peculiarly
adapted, and has, at the beginning, in its fitness for it, an
advantage over white men, turns more than anything else on the
wisdom, skill and perseverance of the agent.

It should be said that there has been for the past ten years
a steady improvement in the morals of the agencies, the ideas
and habits of Indians, and in the character and efficiency of
Government employees. The chief who once said, “We can’t eat
schools and teachers, and don’t want them,” and afterward sent his
son to Hampton, illustrates the change in Indian thought that is
steadily going on. Progressive Indians have suffered persecutions.
To abandon the dance, put away wild costumes, and rub the paint off
his face, has cost many an Indian suffering and loss. The “white
man way” is not even more fashionable or comfortable, ridicule
being one penalty, which, to an Indian is hard to bear.

The quiet missionary work done for the red race during the past
forty years is the seed sowing, of which it and the nation will
reap a harvest of good results. The Indian is a worshiper; “the
blue sky and high bluffs are their church edifice, the medicine man
being their minister.” With selfishness and vindictiveness running
through their religion, it contains a recognition of one God, a
Spirit which may be readily expounded by Christian teaching into
an adequate conception of the true God. No heathen in the world
offer so little to obstruct and so much to encourage the work of
the missionary. Four years’ experience at Hampton has shown them
to be remarkably open to truth, and not to be in any marked degree
revengeful. They are like other people, their special weakness
being physical. Christians of America have a duty to the Indian
that they have not done. Their work in the West should be doubled
at once. United effort by the great religious societies would do
much for the welfare of this race, through persistent pressure upon
Congress for a proper legal status.

In citizenship is the salvation of the Indian; wardship tends to
emasculate him. The effect of the ballot would be to make a man
of him as it did of the negro. To be brought out of his present
condition into fitness to vote is a work of the utmost delicacy
and difficulty, but it can be done. They are not dying out—at any
rate, the 50,000 Sioux are not. Twenty-eight Sioux Indian youth,
who had spent three years at Hampton, have just been returned
to their Dakota home. Of these young men six are farmers and
assist in general work, getting from fifteen to twenty dollars
per month; two are employed in offices at the same wages; six are
teachers, getting twenty dollars a month; two are blacksmiths,
two are shoemakers, and seven are carpenters, getting a dollar
a day apiece; all have rations besides. All refused to go to
camp life, and have been provided by the Government agents with
separate buildings, which they have cleaned and fitted up as best
they could. The Indian Department has seconded their efforts very
heartily. The next twelve months will decide their success. Their
course will be watched with interest, as a test of the methods at
Carlisle and Hampton schools, and indeed of the Indian’s ability to
make good use of our education.

The “General Survey” for the year suggests suitable accommodations
for Indians in some other of our institutions. This would be wise.
The 370 negro youth at Hampton are a wonderful help to their 90
Indian schoolmates both directly and indirectly. The mingling of
the races has proved a success, reacting happily on both. Increase
the good work of your institutions and they will grow in favor with
God and man.

       *       *       *       *       *


Last summer, at Carlisle, during the vacation period, we put
out in good families among the farmers, 109 of our children.
They all came back (except 29 who are to stay during the winter)
immensely advantaged by it, speaking better English, with the
Indian diffidence rooted out to a degree that it would have been
impossible for us to have accomplished in the same time even at
Carlisle, which, from its advantages of contact with civilization,
is immensely superior to any agency school. But we went farther. We
found that the boys and girls had made such good impressions among
the citizens that many desired them to stay, and so the Department
was asked to allow a few to remain out for the winter, and go to
the public schools with the white children and live in families.
The Department gave its consent provided it would cost nothing. So
arrangements were made, and we have out for this winter six girls
and twenty-three boys.

To make the completest success of Eastern education for the
Indians, I would use Carlisle as a sort of cleanser, a bath-tub
or something of that kind, where we could wash them, clean them
up, get a little understanding of our ways into them, and some
understanding of English, and then scatter them out over the
country to come in contact with our life. In that way they would
learn best how to become citizens of the United States.

But we can rest it here. Whenever Congress gets ready to educate
the Indian children as a whole, it will be no difficult matter to
determine upon the best methods. Three to five thousand scattered
around through the East would still leave forty-five to forty-seven
thousand for the agency schools to work upon. That number in
schools through the East, just as your Association proposes,
sending them into your mission schools, where they may learn right
from our life by comparison with theirs, by daily contact, will be
found to be the most rapid plan. Make them work, and do not forget
to make them fill their places, which they will gladly do when they
find they must.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *


Although in the Report of your Committee very brief mention is made
of the work among the Chinese of this country, it is not therefore
to be inferred that that work is being neglected, nor that it is
failing in the ends for which it was undertaken. Rather is there a
deepened conviction of its importance and increased encouragement
in the prosecution of it; but in estimating the importance of the
work we are not to consider alone the Chinese in this country,
though they are a body of men of sufficient number to call for
all, and more than all, that has been done for them. But we look
beyond the 75,000 Chinese in California to the 400,000,000 in their
own land. The Christian world through their missionaries, and by
personal intercourse, are coming to understand this people better
than they once did. Instead of the race of barbarians, stupid
and immovable, which they were once thought to be, those who are
well-informed accept the assertion of the Rev. John Ross, who says,
“They are beyond comparison the most intelligent of non-Christian
peoples; if any race surpasses them in industry, it is only the
Anglo-Saxon.” * * * * *

But how is the Christian church to have a part in remodeling the
institutions and customs of that vast nation? Not by any one method
alone, but one of those which Providence has opened, is doubtless
to be through the agency of Chinamen converted here and returning
to their homes to preach the Gospel to their countrymen. It cannot
be questioned that there will be a place and need for those trained
under the institutions of the Gospel to go to China and plant the
same institutions there; yet the converted Chinamen can do some
things and exert an influence in some directions not open to others.

The career of Yung Wing furnishes a striking illustration of this.
Of humble parentage, converted while at school in this country, he
conceived the plan of bringing Chinese youth of promise to this
country to be educated. He returned to China in 1855, without
money, without influential friends, having almost forgotten his
own language. For sixteen years he studied, taught, served the
government, worked his way upward, and won to his views officers
high in authority. In 1871 his plan was adopted by the government,
$1,500,000 placed at his disposal, and more than 100 selected
Chinese youth were brought to this country. Though his experiment
has now received a check, and perhaps will not be carried on
further, even its success so far is a standing proof of influence
exerted by a Christianized native such as no other could hope to
exert. And not only so, it has by no means been a failure even in
itself considered. The young men who have gone back to China from
our colleges and schools and Christian families have gone back far
other than they came.

It is even a question whether they may not be more to be feared
by the Chinese government as revolutionists than as though they
had returned thoroughly converted Christians. But all will have
received new ideas. Even those who have been chased through the
streets by the hoodlums of San Francisco have learned some new
ideas. They can distinguish between a Christian and a politician
and know who are their friends and what makes them so.

If in a generation we could send back to China a score of Yung
Wings we should do more for the conversion of China than by any
other method open to us.

The Report speaks of a plan for establishing a new mission in
Southern China as being under consideration. To your Committee
it would seem the part of wisdom to move slowly in this matter
so long as the present facilities are offered for labor in this
country, especially as it is uncertain how long these facilities
may continue to be enjoyed.

Thirty different Mission Boards are already occupying points in
China, and though their 1200 laborers are wholly inadequate for
the work of evangelizing China, yet they furnish in their various
stations, points from which laborers may go out, so that the
call would seem to be for men to recruit the missions already
established, rather than for forming new ones. Especially will a
separate movement of this kind be unnecessary if the converted
Chinese of this country are able to carry out their purpose
of establishing a mission of their own in the country back of
Canton. The very fact that they are entertaining such an idea,
and earnestly pressing it, speaks volumes for the work which this
Society has already accomplished, and opens a glorious vista for
its ever expanding career in the future.

Your Committee would propose the following resolution:

_Resolved_, That in view of the small demands made upon the
treasury of the A. M. A. by the work among the Chinese, and the
great returns which that work promises, the constituency of this
Society are under the most solemn obligations to furnish for this
branch of its work all the means that can be employed consistently
with a wise economy and with due regard for the encouragement of
self-help by the converted Chinese themselves.—_Rev. A. E. P.
Perkins, Chairman._

       *       *       *       *       *



Great good has been done in China by missionaries, but against what
odds! Now in the free United States, the country whose government
has been his nation’s _most_ generous friend, and whose people
have shown him most personal attention, the Chinaman can examine
Christians with a criticism no less keen, but far surer to be
correct. He has had no difficulty in seeing the difference between
a “hoodlum” and a Sunday-school teacher. He has even been able
to distinguish one reverend from another, and neither trusted
“brother” Kalloch nor distrusted “brother” Pond. The international
lesson he here learns as he could not at his home—that a line
between the children of light and the children of darkness runs
through many families, through all communities.

Now let him go back to China, _if he must—that is, if he will!_
He goes tenfold more potent than any of us to find the way to
his countrymen’s hearts. I once doubted Chinese interpreters of
our teaching and preaching. On examination I came to believe
that the English language is the best medium for us to tell the
Gospel in—a language born of Christian civilization, enlarged by
Christian teaching, ornamented by Christian poetry, matured by
the translation of the Bible, developed in Christian education,
carrying in its common phrases less of grossness or corruption,
and more of plain goodness, than any other tongue. In the day and
evening schools, and in the Sunday-schools and prayer meetings
which this Association maintains, the Chinese interpreter plays
a prominent part only for a short time. Soon he becomes little
needed; the pupils rapidly gain knowledge of our words: from step
to step they catch gleams of new ideas and find new words not
numerous in comparison with their language, but wonderfully clear
and helpful. Daily observation is their best interpreter; the
winning tones of ladies and children gain their ear and reach their
perception easily; they get broad, practical ideas of Christianity;
and they can be trusted to preach the Gospel in Chinese to Chinese.
No process has ever gone so healthfully and hopefully into the
Mongolian heart.

We are not concerned to explain the presence of any race in our
land, nor can we parley over the motives which brought them to
it. Enough for us to see that these Sauls of Tarsus come into the
“straight” way before they _leave_ Damascus; and that when their
eyes have been opened, and our forgiving Saviour has accepted them,
we call them “brethren,” and kindly protect them from enemies.
Enough for us to train them in all Christian truth and service,
until they and we together get an adequate notion of the part they
are fitted to take in their nation’s conversion. Then, unless our
sister society, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign
Missions, shall take them into the far-off field for that grand
work, we must formally equip and send them; for the Holy Ghost has
said, “Separate me Paul and Barnabas for the work whereunto I have
called them.”

       *       *       *       *       *


Your Committee on Finance beg leave to report that they have
examined the accounts and have found them duly audited. Attached
to the auditor’s report there is a statement that all the funds
which represent permanent property of the Society have also been
examined, and everything is found in order. There is a balance in
the treasury, Sept. 30th, 1881, of $518.80. The management asked
last year for an increase of 25 per cent. in the contributions;
the churches gave them an increase of 30 per cent. During the year
there have been large improvements made, and some enlargements of
the different educational institutions, so that they are now able
to accommodate a much greater number of students than before; and
if that opportunity is to be embraced, and these students who are
clamoring for an education are to be instructed, it will require a
larger outlay of money than that of the preceding year.

On the basis of the heartiness with which the churches complied
with the request of last year, your Committee recommend that the
management ask of the churches this year a little more still; and
that, as against the $246,000 last year, the endeavor shall be made
to raise $300,000 the present year.

The Committee desire reference to be made to some departments of
the work where the need is special, notably the Chinese work, where
there is ample room for a hundred-fold more of service. The Indian
work also claims a special contribution, and the work among the
Africans is always enlarging more and more.

I am requested to call attention also, in this informal way, to two
provisions of the by-laws, that you may understand how financially
secure this Society is, and how well-nigh impossible it is that
there should, in any event, be any loss of its funds, or that they
should be diverted from the use to which they are devoted.

On the sixth page of the report, concerning the Committee on
Finance, it says:

  It shall be the duty of the Committee on Finance to examine the
  accounts of the Treasurer for the month preceding each regular
  meeting of the Executive Committee, before such meeting, taking
  the books of account kept by him, and comparing them with
  his statement of the month’s receipts and disbursements and
  with the vouchers, and to certify to the correctness of such
  statement when approved by them. They shall also cause to be
  kept a book, wherein shall be set forth in detail, (1,) all
  stocks and bonds owned by the Association at par, with a note
  of the original cost of the same to the Association; (2,) all
  real estate (both land and buildings) and other property of
  the Association, with the full cost of the same; and (3,) all
  property held on special deposit or in trust. This book shall
  be at all times open to the inspection of the members of the
  Executive Committee, and the record shall be so added to and
  amended, from time to time, under the direction of the Finance
  Committee, as to show at all times a correct statement of the
  property of the Association, and of any special trusts in its

The Committee desire to say on this point that they doubt whether
any other benevolent organization can show a more careful guarding
of the munificence of the churches; and on the basis of increased
want and of larger opportunities and perfect safety, they ask that
the churches this year put into the hands of the management the sum
of $300,000.—_E. S. Atwood, Chairman._

       *       *       *       *       *


* * * It seems to me, sir, that, looking back over the days that
we have been gathered here, we have been lifted up, and I seem to
see to-day the prophecy of a grand increase and acquisition of
interest and helpfulness for this work. We have been inspired by
these grand addresses; we have been thrilled by them; we have been,
as it were, lifted above our ordinary thought and feeling; and
the work stretches before us in grand and inspiring invitations.
But what, sir, shall be the return we are to make for all we have
here enjoyed? What is to be the result of all this inspiration and
uplifting? What is to be the outcome of this anniversary? If we are
to go away simply rejoicing that we have been so richly blessed
in this fellowship and instruction, if we are to go away feeling
simply glad and grateful, have we met the claims of the hour?

I remember the story of a brother in the African Methodist church,
who, whenever the contribution box was passed, was accustomed to
shut his eyes and throw his head back and join in with all his
zeal and all his lungs in singing the song which was usually sung
on that occasion, “Fly abroad, thou mighty Gospel.” This went on
for several contributions, and then the deacon who passed the box
thought he detected an error in all that praising and singing, and
so he punched the brother quite pointedly with the box and said,
“Just you give something to make it fly!” If we merely have the
inspiration of this hour and it does not culminate in enlarged
gifts for the work, if there is not a vast enlargement of the work
upon the hands of this Association, this meeting will have been a
failure. It is to redeem it from that failure that this report and
these calls are now made.

You remember how it was when the war closed—you remember what an
inspiration swept over the land, and what enthusiasm there was
at the very mention of the freed slave. You remember how many
associations and philanthropic societies, and even the Government
itself, were enlisted in the work, and how their appeals thrilled
the multitudes. The picture held before us then was that of a
slave, from whose cramped limbs the broken manacles were falling.
We were enthusiastic then. But to-day the same picture of the freed
and suffering slave, and the same appeals, though with all the
worth they had in them then, are to us only the embellishments of
rhetoric. They have lost their force, and I am surprised at this
when I look upon the vastness of the work; for, with all these
years of our labor, the work has outgrown and overmatched our
efforts, and the demands upon us to-day are greater than at the
first. Every appeal made to justice then is as strong to-day; every
appeal made to philanthropy then is of equal force to-day; every
appeal to our enthusiasm then has in it just as much of power, even
if it is not felt, to-day.

       *       *       *       *       *


Resolved, that the hearty thanks of this Association be extended
to the pastors and members of the Congregational churches, and to
the people of Worcester, for their cordial welcome and generous
hospitality to the many attendants on this the thirty-fifth annual
meeting; in particular to the Plymouth Church and Society for the
use of this elegant house of worship and the convenient rooms
connected with it, and to the pastor, Rev. George W. Phillips,
for his many courteous attentions. This Association also desires
to express its sincere thanks to the large choir, for its aid
in the service of song; to the press, for its full reports of
the exercises, and for the liberality of the railroads which
have reduced the rates of fare over their lines. While deeply
grateful to the various Committees for their great work in making
and executing wise plans for this large gathering, it wishes to
recognize specially the efficient services of the Rev. Chas. W.
Lamson and Samuel R. Heywood, Esq., whose wisdom and executive
ability have greatly contributed to the success of this meeting.

Rev. Geo. W. Phillips, pastor of the church in which the meetings
were held, responded to this resolution in a very felicitous
speech. Among other things he said:

It is evident from the numbers which have been entertained here,
it is evident from the interest which has prevailed in all these
assemblies, that this cause, represented by the American Missionary
Association, has taken its place already fairly side by side
with all the other great missionary organizations and operations
that are under the patronage and direction of our churches. The
Worcester which you visit at this present time is not the Worcester
that was here when this Society was organized. It is not the city
that it was when this Association held its meeting here something
like a score of years ago. From scarcely more than thirty thousand
it has grown to be a city of more than sixty thousand people; and
side by side with its growth in population we are happy to assure
you—and I think you have seen some visible evidence of it—that we
have kept pace with our Christianity, with our church extension.

The best meetings on earth, all meetings on earth, must have their
end; and we are come to the last hour of the last great day of this
American Missionary Association feast. We say our good-byes; we go
hence, each to his church, his community, his home. We shall not
all of us meet on earth again; but it is grateful to think that by
and by there is to be another meeting—a meeting in which we shall
no more plan for the salvation and for the moral purification of
this lost world, in which we shall no more seek to bring men to
acknowledge Jesus Christ as their Lord and Saviour, because those
great words shall have been realized, “Every knee shall bow and
every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God
the Father.”

       *       *       *       *       *


_Dr. Hartranft’s Sermon._—“Christ stood not for any one race, but
for every race and every nationality, and whenever we take this cup
we pledge ourselves to put aside all barriers of race, all barriers
of nationality.”

_Capt. Pratt._—“If you wish Indians to live like citizens, you
must let them see how citizens live, must put them for a time in
well-bred communities. The kind of citizens that make free use of
the revolver, they know too much of.”

“I have seen a Western village with eighty-four graves in the
grave-yard, and only one man died a natural death.”

_Dr. Brastow._—“Diogenes with his lantern has been 250 years
hunting among the blacks for a man. Let this Association do its
work in one-fifth of that time, and Diogenes will put out his
lantern and find his man without it.”

_Prof. Cyrus Northrop._—“Your uneducated bad man can be no worse
than a brute. Your educated bad man is a demon. Hence, the
education we give the colored man must be Christian.”

“Votes are the impulses that every man gives to the ship of state
in the direction of safety or of danger.”

_Secretary Strieby._—“When diamonds were found in Africa they
might, in their native condition, have been carried away by
cart-loads without suspecting their value. It was only when they
were cut and polished that men knew their true value. The worth of
the colored people, these black diamonds, cannot be known until
they are educated.”

_Gen. Howard_ alluded to the Exposition at Atlanta where all
kinds of _wares_ illustrating the progress of the South are now
on exhibition, and then felicitously introduced the President of
Atlanta University as a _Ware_ that was having a wonderful effect
upon Southern progress.

When Mr. Wright, the colored man from Georgia, was reading his
address, a venerable white man, more than eighty years of age, came
forward, and resting his elbows upon the platform at the foot of
the desk, with bowed head listened with rapt attention. The scene
was most suggestive, and in the hands of artist Rogers would make
an admirable companion group for “Uncle Tom’s School.”

_Rev. L. Dickerman_, referring to the treatment received by the
Chinese on our Western coast, exclaimed in a tone of indignation:
“I don’t blame them for wanting their bones sent home when they

In reply to the complaint that the Chinese don’t assimilate with
our people, he says: “Don’t assimilate? It takes two to assimilate.
We stone them, beat them, shoot them, kill them, and then wonder
they don’t send straight to China for their wives and children to
come and enjoy this higher civilization.”

_Prest. E. H. Fairchild_ said that he knew of no people who
contribute for religious purposes so much in proportion to their
means as the colored people South. “They almost universally take
collections every Sunday, and often twice or three times a Sunday.
There is no danger of their relapsing into heathenism.”

“This blessed Association, ... and the dear old American Board, and
the Home Missionary Society, thank God, are one to-day, and all
past bitterness is forgotten.”

_Prest. E. H. Fairchild_ said that the anti-slavery revolution,
despite the indifference of some churches, was essentially a
religious movement, aided heartily by many right-minded men outside
the church, but that the few noisy infidels who denounced the Bible
and the church “had little more to do with the emancipation of the
slaves than they now have with the education of the Freedmen.”

The _Evening Gazette_, of Worcester, says: The meeting of the
American Missionary Association in this city, just ended, has been
singularly practical and business-like. We have the authority of
an old reporter for saying that he has rarely heard, where there
was so much speaking, so little uttered that it was irrelevant or
commonplace. It is a good gauge of the character and intelligence
of the six or eight hundred strangers who have been called to the
city during the week by this occasion.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

  MAINE, $584.67.

    Augusta. Joel Spalding. ($5 of which _for
      Indians, Hampton N. and A. Inst._) to const.
      REV. HENRY E. MOTT, L. M.                              $30.00
    Bangor. Hammond St. Cong. Ch., $100; First
      Cong. Ch., $20.73                                      120.73
    Bath. Central Ch. and Soc.                                15.00
    Biddeford. Second Cong. Ch.                               19.48
    Blanchard. Daniel Blanchard                               10.00
    Brownville. Cong. Ch. and Soc., by the Hon. A.
      H. Morrill                                             100.00
    Cumberland Centre. Cong. Ch. and Soc., to
      const. B. B. SWEETSER, L. M.                            50.00
    Fryeburg. Cong. Ch.                                        8.80
    Gardiner. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                              25.00
    Hallowell. South Cong. Ch. and Soc., $42.26,
      and Sab. Sch., $25                                      67.26
    Hallowell. Classical Academy Bible Classes, by
      A. W. Burr, _for Atlanta U._                            25.00
    Hampden. C. E. H.                                          1.00
    Norridgewock. Bundle of C.
    Portland. A. A. Steel                                     50.00
    Portland. Bethel Ch., _for Wilmington, N.C._              18.00
    Portland. 2 Bbls. of C., _for Wilmington,
      N.C._ South Bridgton. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                 5.00
    South Freeport. Cong. Ch. and Soc., _for
      Wilmington, N.C._                                       39.40

  NEW HAMPSHIRE, $280.09.

    Alstead Center and East Alstead. Cong.
      Churches to const. REV. GEO. A. BECKWITH, L.
      M.                                                      33.00
    Amherst. Mr. and Mrs. Melendy and Miss Blunt,
      _for Wilmington, N.C._                                  30.00
    Bennington. T. C. Whittemore, _for Student
      Aid, Atlanta U._                                        40.00
    Exeter. Abby E. McIntire, _for Wilmington,
      N.C._                                                    5.00
    Fitzwilliam. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                           20.00
    Hinsdale. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                              13.68
    Keene. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                           26.15
    Lyndeborough. Cong. Ch.                                    2.00
    Milford. Cong. Ch., bal. to const. CHARLES L.
      WALLACE, L. M.                                          22.31
    Nashua. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                          45.73
    Nashua. Addie C. Kimball, _for Wilmington,
      N.C._                                                    5.00
    New Ipswich. Children’s Fair                               8.00
    New Market. Cong. Ch. and Soc., 10.72; T. H.
      Wiswell, $10                                            20.72
    Orfordville. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                            7.50
    Temple. S. W. C. K.                                        1.00

  VERMONT, $183.31.

    Brattleborough. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                        47.19
    Chester. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                               31.46
    Danville. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                              28.85
    Grand Isle. Cong. Ch.                                      4.00
    Marshfield. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                             3.15
    Newport. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                               14.55
    North Woodstock. Ladies’ Benev. Soc., Bbl. of
    Putney. Cong. Ch, and Soc., ($2 of which _for
      Student Aid_)                                           10.48
    Saint Johnsbury. Rev. Henry Fairbanks, _for
      John Brown Steamer_                                     10.00
    Saint Johnsbury. East Cong. Ch. and Soc.                   7.00
    South Hero. Cong. Ch.                                     11.00
    Swanton. Cong. Ch. and Soc. (ad’l)                         1.00
    Townshend. Mrs. Anna L. Rice                               5.00
    West Randolph. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                          8.00
    Wolcott. Cong. Ch.                                         1.63

  MASSACHUSETTS, $8,765.82.

    Amesbury. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                              12.00
    Amherst. First Ch.                                        25.00
    Ashby. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                                 11.20
    Ashland. Cong. Sab. Sch., $40.25; Miss
      Wheeler’s Class, $5.50, _for Student Aid,
      Talladega C._                                           45.75
    Auburndale. C. C. Burr, _for Wilmington, N.C._           100.00
    Boston. Old South Ch. Sab. Sch., $50; “A
      Friend,” $5                                             55.00
    Boston. Chas. C. Barry, _for furnishing room,
      Stone Hall, Talladega C._                               35.00
    Boston. Miss E. K., _for Woodbridge, N.C._                 1.00
    Boston. Woman’s Home Missionary Association,
      _for Lady Missionary, Green Brier, Tenn._,
      $70; North Ch. Newburyport, $35, _for Lady
      Missionary, Washington, D.C._, and to const.
      MRS. C. B. BABCOCK, L. M.                              105.00
    Boxborough. Mary Stoke, $10. Cong. Ch. and
      Soc., $5                                                15.00
    Billerica. Cong. Ch. Sab. Sch.                             7.40
    Bradford. Mrs. Sarah C. Boyd, _for Student
      Aid, Atlanta U._                                        13.00
    Bradford. 2 Bbls. of C., _for Wilmington, N.C._
    Brockton. “A Friend of Missions,” $30, to
      const. MISS MARY ALICE COLE, L. M.; Evan.
      Cong. Ch. and Soc. (ad’l), $2                           32.00
    Brookfield. Evan. Cong. Ch.                               75.00
    Brookline. Harvard Ch. and Soc.                           72.03
    Bridgewater. Central Square Sab. Sch., _for
      furnishing room, Talladega C._                          25.00
    East Bridgewater. “A Friend,” $5; Mrs. J. L.
      G., 50¢                                                  5.50
    Easthampton. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                    114.97
    Campello. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                              45.19
    Charlton. Cong. Sab. Sch.                                  7.08
    Charlestown. Winthrop Ch. and Soc.                        80.23
    Chester. Second Ch. and Soc.                               7.00
    Cochituate. S. E. Hammond, _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                10.00
    Concord. Trin. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                         30.72
    Deerfield. Orthodox Cong. Ch. and Soc., to
      const. DEA. JAMES CHILDS, L. M.                         30.00
    Dorchester. Miss E. T.                                     0.50
    Dorchester Village. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                    42.10
    Duxbury. By “A. P. H.” _for furnishing room,
      Talladega C._                                           26.00
    Duxbury. Mrs. R. R. H.                                     0.50
    Framingham. Plymouth Ch. Sab. Sch.                        13.65
    Framingham. Plymouth Cong. Ch. and Soc., Bbl.
      of C.
    Great Barrington. A. C. T.                                 1.00
    Hardwick. Cong. Ch.                                        6.65
    Harvard. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                               43.25
    Holliston. Bible Christians of Dist. No. 4                25.00
    Jamaica Plain. Central Cong. Ch. and Soc.                712.92
    Jamaica Plain. Central Cong. Sab. Sch., _for
      furnishing room, Tillotson C. and N. Inst._             25.00
    Lincoln. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for Student Aid,
      Atlanta. U._                                            22.00
    Littleton. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                             36.00
    Lynn. Central Ch. and Soc.                                23.00
    Ludlow. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                                30.53
    Malden. Sab. Sch. by A. E. Stevens, _for
      Wilmington, N.C._                                       25.00
    Mansfield. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                             15.75
    Marblehead. Hon. J. J. H. Gregory, _for
      buildings, Wilmington, N.C._                         1,500.00
    Medfield. Ladies of Second Cong. Ch. and Soc.,
      Bbl. of C.
    Milton. E. J. McE., 50c.; E. G. McE., 50c.                 1.00
    Natick. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                               112.92
    North Amherst. Cong. Ch. and Soc., to const.
      PARSONS, L. Ms.                                         60.00
    Northampton. “A Friend”                                   10.00
    New Bedford. Trin. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                     56.44
    Newton. Eliot Cong. Ch. and Soc.                         190.00
    Newton. J. W. Davis, $50; Mrs. Mary Davis and
      Miss M. J. Davis, $50; Mrs. J. W. Davis,
      $10, _for John Brown Steamer_                          110.00
    Newton. Nellie Strong, _for Wilmington, N.C._              5.00
    Newton Centre. Mrs. M. B. Furber, _for Student
      Aid, Atlanta U._                                       100.00
    Newton Centre. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                   40.71
    Newtonville. Central Cong. Ch. and Soc.                   73.57
    Norfolk. W. E. C.                                          1.00
    Northborough. Evan. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                    50.00
    North Brookfield. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.               100.00
    North Chelmsford. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                       5.00
    North Leominster. Susan F. Houghton                        5.00
    North Somerville. “A Friend”                               1.00
    Norton. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                                 5.00
    Osterville. Mrs. C. A. L.                                  1.00
    Palmer. Second Ch. and Soc.                               35.19
    Phillipston. Ladies of Cong. Ch. and Soc.,
      Bbl. of C.
    Pittsfield. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                      50.00
    Randolph. First Cong. Ch. and Soc., $92.60,
      and Sab. Sch., $10                                     102.60
    Rochester. First Cong Ch. and Soc.                        14.00
    Roxbury. Immanuel Ch. Sab. Sch.                           14.36
    Royalston. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                       18.75
    Saxonville. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                            34.00
    Shrewsbury. Mrs. E. C. Fales                               5.00
    South Hadley. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                    21.00
    South Natick. Annie Eliot Mission Circle,
      Bundle of C., Val. $16.75, _for Talladega C._
    Springfield. First Cong. Ch. and Soc., $40.85;
      South Cong. Ch. and Soc., $26.05                        66.90
    Stoughton. Mrs. B. E. C.                                   1.00
    Taunton. Union Cong Ch. and Soc.                          13.71
    Tewksbury. Ladies of Cong. Ch. and Soc., Bbl.
      of C., Val. $46.25, _for Talladega C._
    Townsend. Ladies’ Benev. Soc., Bbl. of C.,
      Val. $35.75.
    Upton. L. L. L.                                            1.00
    Waltham. Trin. Cong. Ch. and Soc., $55; Isaac
      Warren, $10                                             65.00
    Walpole. Orthodox Cong. Ch. and Soc., $28.62;
      “A Friend,” $5                                          33.62
    Wareham. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                               48.62
    Watertown. Phillips Ch. Sab. Sch., _for Theo.
      Student, Talladega C._                                  50.00
    Westborough. Ladies’ Freedmen’s Mission Ass’n,
      Bbl. of C., Val. $31.40, _for Wilmington,
      N.C._, and $1.50 _for freight_                           1.50
    Westborough. Freedmen’s Soc., Bbl. of C., Val.
      $47.62, and $1 _for freight for Atlanta, Ga._            1.00
    West Chesterfield. Mrs. Edward Clark                       5.00
    West Brookfield. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                       30.00
    Westfield. C. W. F.                                        1.00
    Westford. C. F. Keyes                                     12.50
    Westhampton. Cong. Ch. and Soc., $19, and Sab.
      Sch., $12.58                                            31.58
    West Medway. “A Friend”                                    5.00
    Westminster. “E. A. W.”                                   10.00
    Whately. Cong. Ch.                                         5.60
    Woburn. “E. T. F.” _for Talladega, Ala._                   2.00
    Worcester. Union Cong. Ch. and Soc.                      170.50
    Brimfield. Estate of C. Solander, _for
      furnishing room, Talladega C._                          40.00
    Millbury. Estate of Asa Hayden, by D. Atwood             358.33
    Springfield. Estate of Abigail Hale, by John
      West, Executor                                       1,032.50
    Townsend. Estate of Mr. and Mrs. Noah Ball, 2
      Bbls. of C, Val. $61.62.
    Worcester. Estate of Rev. Moses G. Grosvenor,
      by David Manning, Adm’r.                             2,038.00

  RHODE ISLAND, $109.80.

    Bristol. Mrs. Maria De W. Rogers and Miss C.
      De Wolf, _for John Brown Steamer_                      100.00
    Westerly. Cong. Ch.                                        9.80
    Providence. (Correction), Central Cong. Ch.
      $50; Union Ch. $25, _for Parsonage_; Ladies
      of Central Ch., Communion Set, Value $25,
      ack. in Nov. number for Talladega, Ala.,
      should read _for Florence, Ala._

  CONNECTICUT, $1,950.12.

    Berlin. Second Cong. Ch.                                  20.24
    Bridgeport. Second Cong. Sab. Sch., _for
      Tillotson C. & N. Inst._                                25.00
    Burlington. Winooski Av. Cong. Sab. Sch.                  48.00
    Buckingham. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                             8.25
    Cheshire. “A Friend”                                      20.00
    Danielsonville. “A Friend,” $5; Mrs. S. S. D.,
      60c.                                                     5.60
    East Hampton. Cong. Ch.                                   43.25
    Easton. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                                 4.26
    Essex. First Cong. Sab. Sch.                              15.00
    Farmington. Cong. Ch. ($10 of which _for ed.
      of Indians, Hampton N. and A. Inst._)                   69.49
    Franklin. Cong. Ch.                                       10.90
    Greenwich. William Brush                                 100.00
    Groton. Cong. Ch.                                          8.15
    Guilford. Third Cong. Ch. $50.25; First Cong.
      Ch., $22                                                72.25
    Hanover. Ladies, 2 Barrels of C., by E. R. La
    Hartford. MRS. H. W. HUTCHINSON, to const.
      herself L. M.                                           30.00
    Milford. Rev. Geo. H. Griffin, _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                10.00
    New Britain. First Ch. of Christ                         136.03
    New Haven. Davenport Ch. Sab. Sch. _for
      furnishing a room, Tillotson C. and N. Inst._           25.00
    New Haven. “A Friend”                                     10.00
    Norwich. Mrs. H. G. Le, _for Kansas Refugees_
      and to const. GEORGE D. COIT, L. M.                     30.00
    Norwich. Buckingham Sab. Sch.                             25.00
    Norwich Town. Mrs. M. A. Williams, _for John
      Brown Steamer_                                          50.00
    Plainfield. Cong. Ch. and Soc., to const.
      GEORGE I. FAVOR, L. M.                                  34.45
    Poquonock. Cong. Ch.                                      16.43
    Stamford. “Earnest Workers” in Cong. Sab.
      Sch., _for furnishing, Tougaloo U._                    100.00
    Stonington. Second Cong. Ch. and Soc.                    100.00
    Terryville. Elizur Fenn and Mrs. Elizur Fenn,
      $5 ea.                                                  10.00
    Vernon. Cong. Ch.                                         31.96
    Watertown. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                             46.09
    Westport. Amasa Warren                                     5.00

    New Milford. Estate of Jennett Force, by
      William Roberts, Ex.                                   739.77
    Simsbury. Estate of Thomas J. Wilcox, by
      Dudley B. McLean, Ex.                                  100.00

  NEW YORK, $390.01.

    Albany. D. S. Charles, $25; C. P. Williams,
      $10; Nelson Lyon, $5; Mrs. E. J. Edwards, $5            45.00
    Brasher Falls. Elijah Wood, $15; Mrs. O. Bell,
      $2                                                      17.00
    Hamilton. O. S. Campbell, $5; Mel Tompkins,
      $5; Mrs. E. K. P., $1                                   11.00
    Lysander. Cong. Ch.                                       60.00
    Mexico. “Friends”                                          2.00
    Mount Vernon. I. Van Santvoord                            10.00
    Moravia. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                          8.00
    Newark Valley. People of Newark Valley, 3
      Cases of C., by L. M. Smith.
    New York. H. E. Parsons, $100; Dr. A. Ball.
      $5; H. A. W., 50c.                                     105.50
    New York. H. C. Houghton, M.D., _for John
      Brown Steamer_                                          10.00
    Penn Yan. M. Hamlin                                      100.00
    Schenectady. Ladies, Bbl. of C., by Rev. J. H.
    Sidney Plain. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                13.51
    Sinclairville. E. C. Preston, $2; D. B. D., $1             3.00
    Syracuse. Rev. J. C. Holbrook, D.D.                        5.00

  NEW JERSEY, $37.50.

    Bernardsville. J. L. Roberts, ($10 of which
      _for John Brown Steamer_)                               35.00
    Lakewood. Mrs. E. O. L., $1; G. L., $1                     2.00
    Newark. F. M. P.                                           0.50

  PENNSYLVANIA, $132.00.

    Mercer. Cong. Sab. Sch., $5; S.P. $1                       6.00
    Millbrook. G. S.                                           1.00
    New Milford. Horace A. Summers                            25.00
    West Alexander. Robert Davidson                          100.00

  OHIO, $389.38.

    Aurora. Cong. Ch.                                         16.00
    Claridon. Cong Sab. Sch.                                   5.00
    Cleveland. Euclid Av. Cong. Ch.                           25.84
    Cleveland. First Cong. Ch. Sab. Sch., $30., to
      const. MRS. HENRY M. TENNEY, L. M.; Mr. and
      Mrs. C. B. Ruggles, $20, _for Student Aid,
      Fisk U._                                                50.00
    Cleveland. T. P. Handy, _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                10.00
    Columbus. Woman’s Miss. Soc. of First Cong. Ch.           20.00
    East Cleveland. Mrs. Mary Walkden and Son,
      _for Chinese M._                                        10.00
    Elyria. First Cong Ch. (ad’l), $2; Mrs. L. T.
      50c.                                                     2.50
    Findlay. Cong. Ch.                                        12.10
    Galion. Mrs. E. C. Linsley                                 3.00
    Hudson. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                                29.67
    Lafayette. Cong. Ch.                                       6.00
    Norwalk. Dea. T. L.                                        1.00
    Oberlin. Second Cong. Ch., $46.63; Rev. E. P.
      Barrows, D.D., $10                                      56.63
    Painsville. First Cong. Ch.                               28.33
    Peru. “Friends,” _for Talladega. C._, $62.15,
      (incorrectly ack. in Oct. number from Berea).
    Springfield. First Cong. Ch.                               5.31
    Sicily. Sab. Sch., by J. F. Cumberland, Supt.              2.00
    Toledo. Central Cong. Ch.                                 10.00
    Toledo. Edison Allen, _for a Teacher_                      5.00
    Wellington. First Cong. Ch.                               50.00
    Yellow Springs. G. Garrison                                5.00
    Youngstown. Welsh Cong. Ch.                               16.00
    York. Cong. Ch.                                           20.00

  INDIANA, $20.00.

    Fort Wayne. Plymouth Cong. Ch.                            20.00

  ILLINOIS, $1,588.64.

    Chicago. D. R. Holt, _for John Brown Steamer_             10.00
    Dover. Woman’s Miss. Soc.                                  5.00
    Elgin. Cong. Ch.                                          63.34
    Kewanee. Cong. Ch.                                       100.00
    Galva. Cong. Ch.                                          13.63
    Granville. “Merry Workers,” by Emma J. Colby,
      _for furnishing room, Stone Hall, Straight
      U._                                                     30.00
    Greenville. Rev. M. A. Crawford                            5.00
    Mendon. Mrs. J. Fowler, _for recitation room,
      Tillotson C. and N. Inst._                             125.00
    Mendon. Mrs. C. T.                                         1.00
    Milburn. Woman’s Miss. Soc., _for Lady
      Missionary Mobile, Ala._                                40.00
    Morrison. James Snyder, _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                10.00
    Peoria. Cong. Ch. $102.59; Rev. A. A. Stevens,
      $5                                                     107.59
    Princeton. Cong. Ch.                                      42.40
    Shabbona. Cong. Ch., to const. DEA. C. W.
      QUILHOT L. M.                                           35.68

    Joliet. Legacy of Jonathan Hagar, by E. C.
      Hagar                                                1,000.00

  MICHIGAN, $102.15.

    Almont. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                                23.85
    Amsden. Mrs. A. H. Spencer                                 5.00
    Battle Creek. Mrs. H. L. Root, _for Indian M._             5.00
    Battle Creek. Dr. J. B. Chapin and Wife                    3.00
    Chase. First Cong. Ch.                                     3.00
    Edwardsburgh. S. C. Olmstead                              25.00
    Grand Rapids. South Cong. Ch.                              4.80
    Northport. Mrs. A. M.                                      0.50
    Romeo. Miss T. S. Clarke, to const. MRS. J. W.
      CLARKE, L. M.                                           30.00
    Tustin. First Cong. Ch.                                    2.00

  WISCONSIN, $158.09.

    Beloit. Rev. J. P. Chamberlain                             5.00
    Emerald Grove. Cong. Ch.                                  13.24
    Fond du Lac. Cong. Ch.                                    10.00
    Fort Atkinson. P. T. Gunnison, $10; Wm.
      Armstrong, $2                                           12.00
    La Crosse. First Cong. Ch.                                92.50
    Raymond. Cong. Ch.                                         5.00
    Rio. Cong. Ch.                                             2.45
    Ripon. Bertie Ladd Fowle, _proceeds of
      Missionary Garden_                                       0.50
    Whitewater. By Ella A. Hamilton, _for Le Moyne
      Sch._                                                   13.00
    Wyocena. Cong. Ch.                                         4.40

  IOWA, $185.27.

    Cherokee. Cong. Ch.                                        9.24
    Cherokee County. Second Cong. Ch.                          4.74
    Columbus City. Sarah E. Evans                              5.00
    Dubuque. Cong. Ch.                                        13.00
    De Witt. Cong. Ch.                                         7.02
    Grinnell. By Mary R. Magoun, _for Le Moyne
      Sch._                                                   12.00
    Grinnell. “F. P. B.”                                       2.50
    Hillsborough. John W. Hammond                              5.00
    Iowa City. Mrs. M. S. Thatcher, deceased, _for
      Lady Missionary, New Orleans, La._                       5.00
    Keosaugua. Cong. Sab. Sch.                                 5.00
    Maquoketa. Ladies, _for Lady Missionary, New
      Orleans, La._                                            3.00
    McGregor. Woman’s Missionary Soc., _for Lady
      Missionary, New Orleans, La._                           14.29
    Meriden. Cong. Ch.                                         5.52
    Waterloo. First Cong. Ch.                                 11.58
    Stacyville. Cong. Ch.                                     16.88
    —— Ladies of Cong. Ch’s: Council Bluffs $20;
      Fairfax, $3; Fontanelle, $12; Red Oak, $14;
      Tabor, $16.50; by Mrs. Henry L. Chase, _for
      Lady Missionary, New Orleans, La._                      65.50

  MINNESOTA, $40.33.

    Glyndon. Mrs. S. N. M.                                     0.50
    Hastings. D. B. Truax                                      5.00
    Hutchinson. Cong. Ch.                                      1.75
    Lake City. J. P.                                           1.00
    Minneapolis. Plymouth Ch., $29.68; Second
      Cong. Ch., $2.40                                        32.08

  NEBRASKA, $52.20.

    Red Cloud. Cong. Ch.                                       2.20
    Red Willow. “A Friend,” _for John Brown
      Steamer_                                                50.00

  MISSOURI, $1.50.

    Amity. Miss M. M.                                          1.00
    Jefferson City. E. L. A.                                   0.50

  COLORADO, $5.00.

    Colorado Springs. Rev. E. N. Bartlett                      5.00

  CALIFORNIA, $1,464.40.

    San Francisco. Receipts of the California
      Chinese Mission                                      1,464.40

  OREGON, $15.65.

    The Dalles. First Cong. Ch.                               15.65


    Washington. First Cong. Ch., $88; Mrs. Abby N.
      Bailey, $10                                             98.00

  NORTH CAROLINA, $154.90.

    Highlands. Mr. & Mrs. John P. McClearie, _for
      Talladega, Ala._                                         5.00
    Wilmington. “Friends,” by Miss H. L. Pitts,
      $75; “Friends” by Miss E. A. Warner, $69.90;
      “Friends,” by Miss A. E. Farrington, $5;
      _for Wilmington N.C._                                  149.90

  GEORGIA, $43.00.

    Athens. Wm. A. Pledger, _for Atlanta U._                   2.00
    Macon. Cong. Ch.                                           5.00
    Owen’s Ferry. Hon. A. Wilson, _for Student
      Aid, Atlanta U._                                        16.00
    Savannah. Cong. Sab. Sch., _for Student Aid,
      Atlanta U._                                             20.00

  MISSISSIPPI, $10.00.

    Jackson. Selina Williams, _for furnishing
      Tougaloo U._                                             5.00
    Tougaloo. Tougaloo U., Tuition                             5.00

  TEXAS, $0.24.

    Whitman. Mrs. L. H.                                        0.24
        Total                                            $16,752.07

         *       *       *       *       *


  _From May 18 to Sept. 10, 1881._

  E. PALACHE, _Treasurer_.

    I. From Auxiliary Missions, viz.:
      Marysville—Chinese: Monthly offerings, $32.10;
        Annual members, $18.00. Americans: One
        annual member, $2.00; Cash, $1.00                    $55.10
      Oroville—Chinese: Monthly offerings, $9.85;
        Annual members, $12.00. Americans: Four
        Annual members, $8.00                                 29.85
      Petaluma—Anniversary collection, $5.85. Annual
        Members: Chinese, $16.00; Americans, $2.00            23.85
      Sacramento—Anniversary col., $9.20; Annual
        members, $36.00; Chinese monthly offerings,
        $25.50                                                70.70
      Santa Barbara—Chinese offerings, $24.00; Rev.
        S. R. Weldon, $5.00; Mrs. Josiah Bates,
        $4.20; Capt. C. P. Low, $3.00; Annual
        members, $12.00                                       48.20
      Santa Cruz—Chinese monthly offerings                     9.00
      Stockton—Anniversary collection, $7.95; Cash,
        $3.00; Annual members, $36.00; Chinese
        monthly offerings, $12.00                             58.95
          Total                                              295.65

    II. From Churches:
      Benicia—Cong. Church (Mrs. N. P. S.)                     0.60
      Berkley—Cong. Church $17.00; Sunday-school,
        five annual members, $10                              27.00
      Oakland—First Cong. Ch., three annual members            6.50
      Riverside—Cong. Ch.                                     13.15
      San Francisco—1st Cong. Ch. col.                        30.00
      San Francisco—Bethany Church (H. C. George,
        Mrs. Fitzgerald, Mrs. S. C. Hazelton, Miss
        Jessie S. Worley, Miss Nellie Palache, Mrs.
        S. E. Meacham, E. Palache, G. W. Webber, J.
        A. Snook, $3.00 each; J. F. Crosett, $2.50;
        Miss Hattie C. Baker, $5.00; to const. nine
        annual members, and in part to const. Mrs.
        Jane C. Snook a L. M., $34.50. Miss E. N.
        Worley, to const. herself a L. M., $25.00.
        Ten American annual members, $20.00. Hoo
        Hing, Wong Chung, Lon Quong, Leang Folk, Ny
        Gong, Chung Toi, Wong Gen, Jee San Quock,
        Jue Woon, Soo Ming, Lee Yick, Hoo Ping, Jee
        Hin, Jee Fon Shing, Lue Lune, Yung Yem Kwai,
        Hong Sing, $3.00 each; to const. themselves
        annual members, and in part to const. Miss
        Jessie S. Worley a L. M., $51.00. Dea. S.
        Woo and Jee Gam, for same purpose, $1.00
        each, $2.00. Dea. S. Woo, $8.50 and Jee Gam,
        $7.50 in part for L. M’s. Twenty-six Chinese
        annual members, $52.00)                              200.50
      Sonoma—Cong. Church col.                                 6.00
      Soquel—Cong. Church, Rev. A. L. Rankin annual
        member                                                 2.00
      Suisun—Cong. Church col.                                 3.00
          Total                                             $288.75

    III. From individual donors:
      Messrs. Parrot & Co., $50; Hon. F. F. Low,
        $25; J. J. Felt, $25; Messrs. Tabor, Harker
        & Co., $25; Messrs. Macondray & Co., $25; E.
        Ransome & Co., $25; Rogers, Meyer & Co.,
        $25; Williams, Dimond & Co., $25; Cash, W.
        T. C., $25; John F. Merrill, $26; Rev.
        Joseph Rowell, $20; Messrs. C. A. Low & Co.,
        $20; R. P. Tenney, $10; E. W. Playter, $10.
          Total                                             $355.00
    IV. From Eastern Friends:
      Bangor, Me.—Miss L. M. Benson                           10.00
      Bangor, Me.—Hon. J. B. Foster                           50.00
      Amherst, Mass.—Mrs. R. A. Lester, $102; Mrs.
        W. S. Clark, $50; Mrs. Olive G. Stearns,
        $10; Mrs. W. S. Tyler, $5; Mrs. P. Hickok,
        $5; Mrs. E. Tuckerman, $5; Mrs. T. Field, $3         180.00
      Ware, Mass.—East Cong. S. S.                            50.00
      New York, N.Y.—A. S. Barnes                            150.00
      Atlanta, Ga.—Teachers and Students in Atlanta
        University                                            85.00
          Total                                              525.00
          Grand total                                     $1,464.40

                                      H. W. HUBBARD, _Treas._,
                                                56 Reade Street, N.Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

Constitution of the American Missionary Association.


       *       *       *       *       *

ART. I. This Society shall be called “THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY

ART. II. The object of this Association shall be to conduct
Christian missionary and educational operations, and diffuse a
knowledge of the Holy Scriptures in our own and other countries
which are destitute of them, or which present open and urgent
fields of effort.

ART. III. Any person of evangelical sentiments,[A] who professes
faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, who is not a slaveholder, or in the
practice of other immoralities, and who contributes to the funds,
may become a member of the Society; and by the payment of thirty
dollars, a life member; provided that children and others who have
not professed their faith may be constituted life members without
the privilege of voting.

ART. IV. This Society shall meet annually, in the month of
September, October or November, for the election of officers and
the transaction of other business, at such time and place as shall
be designated by the Executive Committee.

ART. V. The annual meeting shall be constituted of the regular
officers and members of the Society at the time of such meeting,
and of delegates from churches, local missionary societies,
and other co-operating bodies, each body being entitled to one

ART. VI. The officers of the Association shall be a President,
Vice-Presidents, Corresponding Secretaries, (who shall also keep
the records of the Association,) Treasurer, Auditors, and an
Executive Committee of not less than twelve members.

ART. VII. To the Executive Committee shall belong the collecting
and disbursing of funds; the appointing, counseling, sustaining and
dismissing missionaries and agents; the selection of missionary
fields; and, in general, the transaction of all such business
as usually appertains to the executive committees of missionary
and other benevolent societies; the Committee to exercise no
ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the missionaries; and its doings
to be subject always to the revision of the annual meeting, which
shall, by a reference mutually chosen, always entertain the
complaints of any aggrieved agent or missionary; and the decision
of such reference shall be final.

The Executive Committee shall have authority to fill all vacancies
occurring among the officers between the regular annual meetings;
to apply, if they see fit, to any State Legislature for acts of
incorporation; to fix the compensation, where any is given, of all
officers, agents, missionaries, or others in the employment of the
Society; to make provision, if any, for disabled missionaries, and
for the widows and children of such as are deceased; and to call,
in all parts of the country, at their discretion, special and
general conventions of the friends of missions, with a view to the
diffusion of the missionary spirit, and the general and vigorous
promotion of the missionary work.

Five members of the Committee shall constitute a quorum for
transacting business.

ART. VIII. Missionary bodies, churches or individuals agreeing to
the principles of this society, and wishing to appoint and sustain
missionaries of their own, shall be entitled to do so through the
agency of the Executive Committee, on terms mutually agreed upon.

ART. IX. No amendment shall be made to this Constitution without
the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present at a regular
annual meeting; nor unless the proposed amendment has been
submitted to a previous meeting, or to the Executive Committee in
season to be published by them (as it shall be their duty to do, if
so submitted) in the regular official notifications of the meeting.


[A] By evangelical sentiments, we understand, among others, a
belief in the guilty and lost condition of all men without a
Saviour; the Supreme Deity, Incarnation, and Atoning Sacrifice
of Jesus Christ, the only Saviour of the world; the necessity
of regeneration by the Holy Spirit; repentance, faith, and holy
obedience in order to salvation; the immorality of the soul; and
the retributions of the judgement in the eternal punishment of the
wicked, and salvation of the righteous.

       *       *       *       *       *

                    The Best Weekly Newspaper.

Judging by the letters received from very many of our subscribers
(numbering nearly =_75,000_=, scattered all over the Union), they
think the

                     _NEW YORK WEEKLY WITNESS_

               The Best Family Paper they ever saw.

It combines the excellencies of a secular newspaper and a Religious
and Temperance journal, and has some unique features. One of these
is two or three columns weekly of Letters from Ladies on Social
and Domestic Topics, and a column of Letters from Children. These
letters come from nearly every State in the Union, as also letters
from many new States and Territories, describing their advantages
for settlers. It has

  Religious and Temperance Stories,
          Excellent Sabbath-school Lesson for the Young,
                  Prices Current, Financial Reports,
                          Farm and Garden Notes,

and copious Extracts from the leading Daily Papers for the older
members of the family. The Editorial Department never fails to bear
a distinct testimony for Christ. Evangelical Religion, and Justice
to all Races, and against all the Works of Satan, especially the
Use of Intoxicating Drinks and Tobacco, Sabbath-Breaking and other
popular forms of evil. It takes a deep interest in the Independent
Catholic Church, the Freedmen, and the Prohibition Question.

    The Price is $1.50 per annum, or a Club of Five for $6.00.


Any one sending us $2.00 for WITNESS and SABBATH READING will
receive, free by mail, a copy of

                  “_IN THE VOLUME OF THE BOOK_,”

                   By REV. GEORGE F. PENTECOST.

                              JOHN DOUGALL & CO.,
                                17 to 21 Vandewater Street. N.Y.

                 *       *       *       *       *

_The American Missionary Association._

       *       *       *       *       *


To preach the Gospel to the poor. It originated in a sympathy with
the almost friendless slaves. Since Emancipation it has devoted its
main efforts to preparing the FREEDMEN for their duties as citizens
and Christians in America, and as missionaries in Africa. As
closely related to this, it seeks to benefit the caste-persecuted
CHINESE in America, and to co-operate with the Government in its
humane and Christian policy toward the INDIANS. It has also a
mission in AFRICA.


CHURCHES: _In the South_—In District of Columbia, 1; Virginia, 1;
North Carolina, 6; South Carolina, 2; Georgia, 13; Kentucky, 7;
Tennessee, 4; Alabama, 14; Kansas, 1; Arkansas, 1; Louisiana, 18;
Mississippi, 4; Texas, 6. _Africa_, 3. _Among the Indians_, 1.
Total, 82.

SOUTH.—_Chartered_: Hampton, Va.; Berea, Ky.; Talladega, Ala.;
Atlanta, Ga.; Nashville, Tenn.; Tougaloo, Miss.; New Orleans, La.;
and Austin, Texas—8. _Graded or Normal Schools_: at Wilmington,
N.C.; Charleston, Greenwood, S.C.; Savannah, Macon, Atlanta, Ga.;
Montgomery, Mobile, Athens, Selma, Ala.; Memphis, Tenn.—11. _Other
Schools_, 35. Total, 54.

among the Chinese, 28; among the Indians, 9; in Africa, 13. Total,
369. STUDENTS—In Theology, 104; Law, 29; in College Course, 91;
in other studies, 8,884. Total, 9,108. Scholars taught by former
pupils of our schools, estimated at 150,000. INDIANS under the care
of the Association, 13,000.


1. A steady INCREASE of regular income to keep pace with the
growing work. This increase can only be reached by _regular_ and
_larger_ contributions from the churches, the feeble as well as the

2. ADDITIONAL BUILDINGS for our higher educational institutions, to
accommodate the increasing numbers of students; MEETING HOUSES for
the new churches we are organizing; MORE MINISTERS, cultured and
pious, for these churches.

3. HELP FOR YOUNG MEN, to be educated as ministers here and
missionaries to Africa—a pressing want.

Before sending boxes, always correspond with the nearest A. M. A.
office as below:

  NEW YORK   H. W. Hubbard, Esq., Treasurer, 56 Reade Street.
  BOSTON     Rev. C. L. Woodworth, Dis’t Sec., Room 21 Congregational
  CHICAGO    Rev. Jas. Powell, Dis’t Sec., 112 West Washington Street.


This Magazine will be sent gratuitously, if desired, to the
Missionaries of the Association; to Life Members; to all Clergymen
who take up collections for the Association; to Superintendents of
Sabbath-schools; to College Libraries; to Theological Seminaries;
to Societies of Inquiry on Missions; and to every donor who does
not prefer to take it as a subscriber, and contributes in a year
not less than five dollars.

Those who wish to remember the AMERICAN MISSIONARY ASSOCIATION in
their last Will and Testament are earnestly requested to use the


“I BEQUEATH to my executor (or executors) the sum of —— dollars, in
trust, to pay the same in —— days after my decease to the person
who, when the same is payable, shall act as Treasurer of the
‘American Missionary Association’ of New York City, to be applied,
under the direction of the Executive Committee of the Association,
to its charitable uses and purposes.”

The Will should be attested by three witnesses (in some States
three are required, in other States only two), who should write
against their names their places of residence (if in cities,
their street and number). The following form of attestation will
answer for every State in the Union: “Signed, sealed, published
and declared by the said (A. B.) as his last Will and Testament,
in presence of us, who, at the request of the said A. B., and in
his presence, and in the presence of each other, have hereunto
subscribed our names as witnesses.” In some States it is required
that the Will should be made at least two months before the death
of the testator.

       *       *       *       *       *


Transcriber’s Notes:

Obvious printer’s punctuation errors have been corrected. Spelling
differences which could have been correct at the period are

Ditto marks have been replaced with the text they represent in order
to facilitate eBook formatting.

On page 366, “dissappointed” changed to “disappointed” (we were not

On page 383, “meas” completed to form “measure:”

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