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Title: 1000 Things Worth Knowing
Author: Fowler, Nathaniel C.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  "That all who read may know"






  All rights reserved.


This book contains more than one thousand facts, many of which are not
generally known to the average person; but all of them are of interest
to humankind, and a knowledge of many of them is essential.

The author has used the simplest English, and has avoided, as far as
possible, all technical or scientific terms. He has endeavored not
to fall into the common error of making his explanations harder to
understand than the subjects treated.

This book is not intended for the scientist, nor does it claim to be

In the space of a few hundred pages the writer has presented the
thousand or more things which are really worth knowing, and which are
usually described at unprofitable length and without that simplicity of
expression so essential to clearness.

To find what you want consult the Index.

Abbreviations in Common Use

Abbreviations given are those which are frequently used. For complete
list of abbreviations, the reader is referred to any unabridged

 A. B. or B. A.--Bachelor of Arts.

 A. D.--In the Year of Our Lord.


 A. M. or M. A.--Master of Arts.


 B. Agr.--Bachelor of Agriculture.

 B. C.--Before Christ.

 B. D.--Bachelor of Divinity.

 B. L.--Bachelor of Laws.

 B. M. or B. Mus.--Bachelor of Music.

 B. Pd.--Bachelor of Pedagogy.

 B. Ph.--Bachelor of Philosophy.

 B. S.--Bachelor of Surgery.

 B. S. or B. Sc.--Bachelor of Science.


 C. E.--Civil Engineer.

 C. O. D.--Cash (collect) on Delivery.


 D. C.--District of Columbia, District Court.

 D. C. L.--Doctor of Canon Law.

 D. D. S. or D. M. D.--Doctor of Dental Surgery.

 D.D.--Doctor of Divinity.

 D. Litt.--Doctor of Literature.

 D. M. or D. Mus.--Doctor of Music.

 D. Ph.--Doctor of Philosophy.


 D. Sc.--Doctor of Science.

 D. V. S.--Doctor of Veterinary Surgery.

 E. D.--Doctor of Electricity.

 E. E.--Electrical Engineer.

 F. O. B.--Free on board.

 G. A. R.--Grand Army of the Republic.

 Gen. or Gen'l--General.



 i. e.--that is.


 J. C. D.--Doctor of Civil Law.

 J. D.--Doctor of Laws.

 J. P.--Justice of the Peace.

 Jr. or Jun.--Junior.



 Lieut. or Lt.--Lieutenant.

 Litt. B. or Lit. B.--Bachelor of Literature.

 Litt. D. or Lit. D.--Doctor of Literature.

 LL. B.--Bachelor of Laws.

 LL. D.--Doctor of Laws.

 M. Agr.--Master of Agriculture.


 M. C.--Member of Congress.

 M. D.--Doctor of Medicine.

 M. P.--Member of Parliament

 M. P. C.--Member of Parliament in Canada.

 M. S.--Master of Science.


 Mus. B.--Bachelor of Music.

 Mus. D.--Doctor of Music.

 Pd. B.--Bachelor of Pedagogy.

 Pd. D.--Doctor of Pedagogy.

 Ph. B.--Bachelor of Philosophy.

 Ph. D.--Doctor of Philosophy.

 P. M.--Postmaster.

 P. O.--Post Office.


 P. S.--Postscript.


 S. B. or Sc. B.--Bachelor of Science.

 Sc. D.--Doctor of Science.

 S. T. B.--Bachelor of Sacred Theology.

 S. T. D.--Doctor of Sacred Theology.

 Rt. Hon.--Right Honorable.

 Rt. Rev.--Right Reverend.

 V. Rev.--Very Reverend.



=Acetylene Gas.=--Acetylene gas is used largely for the search-lamps on
automobiles. It is composed of carbon and hydrogen.

=Adventists.=--A religious sect whose members believe that the second
coming of Christ is near at hand. There are over 100,000 communicants
and ministers.

=Æolian Harp.=--This instrument was invented in the 17th century and
was named after Æolus, the god of the winds. It is of the simplest
construction, and its music is produced by the vibration of the strings
automatically moved by the winds. In construction it is a rectangular
box of thin boards of a few inches in depth and width and of sufficient
length to extend across a window so that the breeze may pass through
it. The strings are stretched lengthwise across the top of the box, and
may be tuned by increasing or decreasing their tension.

=Age.=--About 50 per cent. of the persons living in the United States
are under 20 years of age, 45 per cent. from 20 to 60 years, and 5 per
cent. over 60 years, the average age being about 25 years. This average
seems low, and is due largely to infant mortality. If the percentage
was taken excluding those under 15 years of age it would be very much

=Agricultural Implement Industry.=--Capital invested, about
$260,000,000, and an annual output of about $150,000,000. About 60,000
people are employed.

=Alaska.=--Alaska is the only territory of the United States, the
Hawaiian Islands, Porto Rico, and the Philippines being known as
Possessions. It has an area of over 590,000 square miles, and a
population of about 65,000. Its climate is semipolar.

=Algebra.=--The discoverer or the first user of algebra is unknown. It
is said that Diophantus wrote it in 170 A. D., and he may have been its
inventor. It was brought into Spain in about 900. Its signs are said to
have been used first in 1544, but algebra did not come into common use
until 1590. Descartes applied algebra to geometry in 1637.

=Almanacs.=--The word "almanac" is of Saxon origin, and probably the
first almanac was published in 1470, and the first in English in 1673.

=Amazons.=--An ancient body of warlike women, ruled by a queen, who
allowed no man to live with them. They were opposed to marriage and
resolved to form a female state. They burned off their right breasts
that they might better use the bow and javelin. This custom is the
origin of the name "Amazons" or "breastless ones."

=Apostles' Creed.=--Considered by most Biblical students as the
earliest form of Christian creed. It is attributed directly to the
Apostles. It is doubtless the formula of belief that existed in all
the early Latin churches. It was made a part of public worship of the
Christian church at Antioch, and introduced into the Roman Catholic
Church in the eleventh century, and subsequently into the Church of

=April Fool's Day.=--Its origin is unknown, but it is supposed to
follow an ancient pageant custom of playing tricks on the first day of

=Arbor Day.=--A few years ago the United States and Canada officially
set apart one day in the year for the planting of trees, shrubs, etc.
It was the intention to have this day observed chiefly by the children
of the public schools. Its observance has resulted in the planting of
millions of trees.

=Arithmetic.=--While the inventor or discoverer of arithmetic is
unknown, it is said that it was brought from Egypt into Greece in 600
B. C. Euclid is the author of the oldest treatise upon arithmetic and
wrote it about 300 B. C. The arithmetic of decimals began in 1482, and
the first arithmetic in English was printed in 1522.

=Artesian Wells.=--An artesian well is one made by boring
perpendicularly into the earth. The oldest known well of this kind was
sunk in Europe in 1126. Probably the most famous one is near Paris,
which was bored in 1833, bringing water from a depth of 1792 feet.
From this well 516 gallons of water flow per minute. In Missouri there
is one well 2197 feet deep, and another nearly 4000 feet deep. The
invention of the artesian well is undoubtedly due to the Chinese.

=Artificial Ice.=--The artificial manufacture of ice is of somewhat
recent origin, and there are over 2,000 ice-making plants in the
United States, exclusive of those used by breweries, packers, and
others for the making of their own ice. Artificial ice-making showed an
increase of 81 per cent. during the last few years.

=Atlantic Cable.=--The original or, rather, the first permanent cable,
was laid in July, 1866, connecting Ireland with Newfoundland; but an
earlier cable was laid between the foregoing points, which was lost in
construction. This lost cable, however, was recovered and completed.

In 1868 a cable was laid from France to Duxbury, Mass. In 1873 the
fourth Atlantic cable connected Ireland and Trinity Bay, New Foundland.
Several cables have been subsequently laid, and are maintained.

Considerable difficulty was experienced in obtaining the right kind,
and a sufficient current, of electricity, which would carry the message
several thousand miles under water, and not pass from the cable into
the water itself.

Two keys are used, which, when depressed, transmit respectively
positive and negative currents coming from the connected batteries. The
current does not pass directly into the cable, but enters what is known
as a condenser, and from there reaches the wire itself. This increases
the force of the current and overcomes interfering earth currents.

Originally the messages were received by a reflecting galvanometer.
Upon the magnet of this instrument was placed a small curved mirror,
and in front of it was a lighted lamp behind a frame with a vertical
slit. The light from the lamp passed through the slit and fell upon
the surface of the mirror. The flashes of light moving with the
movements of the suspended needle, indicated the message sent. Because
of the delicacy of the instrument, it was difficult to translate the
telegraphic code. The system has been entirely superseded by the use of
the syphon galvanometer. This needle is affected by the currents, and
moves in response to the opening and closing of the telegraphic key.
It consists of a small hollow needle, which swings between two fixed
magnets. A very soluble analine ink is allowed to flow through the
tube. The mouth of this tube is suspended a very small fraction above a
strip or roll of white paper, which moves automatically. The vibration
or movements of the needle allow the ink to flow in irregular lines or
curves upon the moving paper. These irregularities or curves indicate
letters, which are easily read by the receiving operator.

Cable dispatches now are recorded, when formerly they had to be read as
they were seen, with the impossibility of retaining an automatic record
of them.

Professor Morse, the inventor of telegraphy, may be considered
the inventor of the cable, although he had little to do with its
mechanical construction. To Mr. Cyrus W. Field must be given much of
the credit, for its accomplishment was largely due to his foresight and

The cable consists of several copper wires imbedded in gutta percha
or similar substance, which is one of the best nonconductors of
electricity. The cable, with its several wires and coverings or
insulation, has a circumference equal to that of the old-fashioned
three-cent piece. Several wires are imbedded into the insulation, so as
to insure better connection.

The cable is laid by steamers built for the purpose. They travel over
a charted route, and, unscientifically speaking, throw the cable
overboard. Of course, no cable could be constructed of a length that
would reach across the ocean. New pieces are, therefore, spliced in
as conditions require. If the sea is too rough for the laying of the
cable, the end is buoyed and picked up when the weather changes. The
cable lies upon the bottom of the ocean, and, as the bottom of the
ocean is as irregular as the surface of the earth, with its mountains,
plateaus, and valleys, there is always danger of the cable being
broken or injured, although there is, of course, absolute quiet at the
bottom of the ocean. Then, many feet, or even a mile, of cable may be
stretched between two projecting points, and the strain may part it in

The process of locating a break or injury is very interesting. The
cable fails to work. The operator stationed at either end discharges
electricity into the cable, and, although it does not reach the other
side, he can, by a delicate instrument, locate approximately the place
of parting or where injury has occurred. The repair steamer sails for
the place. With grappling irons it brings the cable to the surface;
but as the location of the break cannot be determined accurately, the
electrician on board must determine which way to sail to locate the
place of the trouble. He attaches the cable to a battery on board,
and opens connection with the land. If the break, for example, is
between him and Europe, the European operator will not respond, but he
will receive a reply from the American operator. He then directs the
vessel's course towards Europe. The cable, when it is taken on board,
is run on pulley wheels, one in the bow and one in the stern of the
vessel, and the vessel sails slowly under the cable. As the vessel is
two or three hundred feet long, several hundred feet of cable will be
exposed. The cable is watched carefully, and the break or injury will
be easily located. When it is, the operator connects the cable with the
batteries, and then telegraphs in the direction opposite to that from
which he received a reply. If his message goes through, the receiving
operator will respond. If a reply comes, he knows he has located the
break; if no reply is received, there must be other breaks in the same
direction. The break is repaired, and the steamer sails on until it
finds another break or injury. I have attempted to explain this in the
simplest words. It is obvious that a scientific explanation would be
unintelligible to the average reader.

=Atmosphere.=--While accurate figures are impossible, and while
astronomers somewhat differ, it is generally conceded that the earth's
atmosphere extends from the surface to an altitude of about 40 miles.
It is theoretically or scientifically accepted that the density of the
atmosphere at only a few miles from the surface of the earth is not
sufficient to support life.

=Aurora Borealis.=--Until electricity was discovered, the origin of the
aurora borealis was unknown, and was supposed to be of supernatural
origin. Even to-day its exact composition or source is more or less
of a mystery, but it is generally supposed that it is caused by the
recomposition of positive and negative electricity. It exists only in
the regions of the poles, although its light is seen to a moderate
degree over the greater part of the earth.

=Automobiles.=--All vehicles used on the common highway, and propelled
by any mechanical power, whether it be by steam, gasoline, or
electricity, are known as automobiles or motor cars, and are frequently
called "autos" for short. The invention of the automobile is very
recent, although steam-propelled carriages were in existence more than
50 years ago. Exceeding a million are in daily use in the United States.

=Bank of England.=--Established in the city of London in 1694.
Although a private institution, it is under Government control, and
constitutes the Treasury of the Empire, England having no national
treasury like that of the United States. It is managed by a governor,
deputy-governor, and twenty-four directors.

=Bastile.=--The name given to a French prison, built between 1370 and
1383, originally as a fortress, but later used as a regular prison.
It was destroyed by a mob in 1789. It was the seat of the terrible
cruelties practiced in the early days.

=Bayreuth Festival.=--A musical festival held at the National Theatre
in Bayreuth, Bavaria, which was built for the performance of the works
of Wagner. The foundation stone of the building was laid in 1872, and
Wagner himself opened the theatre in 1876 with a grand production of
the "Nibelungen Trilogy."

=Bible.=--Between the eighth and tenth centuries parts of the Bible
were translated into Anglo-Saxon, and in 1290 appeared an English
version of the Psalms. In 1380 the New Testament was finished, and a
little later the Old Testament was fully translated. The so-called King
James Bible was published in 1610, and remained in common use until the
present revisions were made.

Bible Statistics

                Old         New
             Testament   Testament     Total

  Books             39         27           66
  Chapters         929        260        1,189
  Verses        33,214      7,959       41,173
  Words        593,493    181,253      774,746
  Letters    2,728,100    838,380    3,566,480

The shortest chapter is Psalm cxvii; Ezra vii, 21, contains all the
letters of the alphabet except j; Esther viii, 9, is the longest verse;
John xi, 35, is the shortest verse. There is no word of more than six
syllables in the Bible.

=Bi-Metallism.=--A monetary system in which gold and silver are put on
the same plane as regards mintage and legal-tender.

=Birth Stones.=--January, garnet; February, amethyst; March, bloodstone
or jasper; April, diamond or sapphire; May, emerald or carnelian; June,
agate or chalcedony; July, ruby or onyx; August, sardonyx; September,
chrysolite; October, opal or beryl; November, topaz; December,

=Blind.=--In the United States there are about 65,000 blind persons, a
little more than half of whom are totally blind. Of this number about
37,000 are males, and about 28,000 females.

=Blood-heat.=--The normal temperature of man is about 98-1/2°
Fahrenheit. This temperature is maintained with a variation of not more
than two degrees, whether one lives on the Equator or in the Arctic
regions. Any great deviation is likely to prove fatal. Animals have
about the same temperature as man, while the blood of birds is from
eight to ten degrees warmer. Reptiles, fishes, and all invertebrates
maintain temperatures about the same as that of their environment.

=Blue-Grass Region.=--An undulating plateau in the north-central
part of Kentucky, covering about 10,000 square miles, is known as
the Blue-Grass Region. The underlying rock for 150 or more feet is
blue limestone, very rich in phosphate of lime. This rock crumbles
on exposure to the air and enriches the soil. Tobacco and hemp have
two crops a year and grow to a great height. Meadow grass grows
continuously. The Blue-Grass Region for many years has been the centre
of the blooded stock of America.

=Boxers.=--A Chinese secret society supposed to be semireligious and
semipatriotic. The Boxers originally believed that they were immune
from death or physical injury, and that they could, with safety, attack
any foreign foe.

=Brain.=--As the action of the brain has not, as yet, been seen by man,
no one, at the present day, knows just what it is, beyond its merely
physiological or mechanical substance. It is said that the brain of the
normal man contains over 300,000,000 cells, and that about 3,000 are
destroyed every minute. If this is the case, then a new brain appears
once in 60 days. The normal brain has a volume of from 58 to 105 cubic
inches. The brain of the Anglo-Saxon and German, and of other civilized
nations, averages the larger number, while the negro brain occupies a
space of about 96 cubic inches, and some Australian natives have brains
of only about 58 cubic inches. The male brain is about ten per cent.
heavier or larger than that of the female. The most intelligent animals
have only about 16 ounces of brains. The size of the brain, if it is
not below normal, does not appear to influence the intellectuality of
its possessor. Men with small brains may have larger mind capacity
than some of those possessing brains weighing several ounces more. It
would appear, then, that the size of the brain, unless it be unusually
small, has little to do with its quality.

=Bread.=--It is said that the Chinese were the first bread makers,
and that they made bread from wheat and rice as early as 1998 B. C.
Probably the first bread made from yeast was baked in England in about
1634. Aërated bread, which rises from carbolic acid gas injected into
the dough, became somewhat common in 1857, but practically all bread,
bakery-made or home-made, owes its leavening to yeast or baking powder.

=Breakfast Foods.=--Breakfast foods in the main are composed of either
corn, wheat, or oat products, a few being made of barley, starch, and
tapioca. They are sold under trade names, and most of them need no
cooking by the consumer, as they were properly cooked at the mill.
Usually they are made of only one grain, and to some of them is added
a small quantity of salt. Most of them are pure products and are
unadulterated, but few, if any of them, are any better than the grain
sold in bulk, which can be purchased for about 4 cents per pound.

=Brook Farm.=--A famous socialistic community, originated by George
Ripley and others in 1841 and located near West Roxbury, Massachusetts.
The estate consisted of two hundred acres, and a company of educated
men and women settled here to work out an experiment, in which each
person performed a certain share of necessary manual labor. The
enterprise was abandoned as an utter failure in 1846. Among the persons
connected with the movement were George Ripley, Charles A. Dana, Ralph
Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, George William Curtis, Theodore
Parker, Margaret Fuller, and Dr. Channing.

Calculating Interest

To find the interest on any sum, at any rate per cent., and for any
length of time: 1st. Multiply the principal by the rate per cent.,
expressed in hundredths; this will give the interest for one year.
2nd. Find the number of days remaining by consulting the calendar; and
multiply the principal by as many hundredths as there are days, and for
3 per cent., divide the product by 120; for 4 per cent., divide by 90;
for 5 per cent., divide by 72; for 6 per cent., divide by 60; for 7 per
cent., divide by 52; for 8 per cent., divide by 45; for 9 per cent.,
divide by 40; for 10 per cent., divide by 36; and for 12 per cent.,
divide by 30. This will give the interest for the days. 3rd. Add the
two items of interest, and the sum will be the entire interest.

To find the number of days from any day of any one month to the same
day of any other month.

     FROM      Jan.  Feb.  Mar.  Apr.  May  June  July   Aug. Sept.   Oct.  Nov.  Dec.
  To January | 365 | 334 | 306 | 275 | 245 | 214 | 184 | 153 | 122 |  92 |  61 |  31
  February   |  31 | 365 | 337 | 306 | 276 | 245 | 215 | 184 | 153 | 123 |  92 |  62
  March      |  59 |  28 | 365 | 334 | 304 | 273 | 243 | 212 | 181 | 151 | 120 |  90
  April      |  90 |  59 |  31 | 365 | 335 | 304 | 274 | 243 | 212 | 182 | 151 | 121
  May        | 120 |  89 |  61 |  30 | 365 | 334 | 304 | 273 | 242 | 212 | 181 | 151
  June       | 151 | 120 |  92 |  61 |  31 | 365 | 335 | 304 | 273 | 243 | 212 | 182
  July       | 181 | 150 | 122 |  91 |  61 |  30 | 365 | 334 | 303 | 273 | 242 | 212
  August     | 212 | 181 | 153 | 122 |  92 |  61 |  31 | 365 | 334 | 304 | 273 | 243
  September  | 243 | 212 | 184 | 153 | 123 |  92 |  62 |  31 | 365 | 335 | 304 | 274
  October    | 273 | 242 | 214 | 183 | 153 | 122 |  92 |  61 |  30 | 365 | 334 | 304
  November   | 304 | 273 | 245 | 214 | 184 | 153 | 123 |  92 |  61 |  31 | 365 | 335
  December   | 334 | 303 | 275 | 244 | 214 | 183 | 153 | 122 |  91 |  61 |  30 | 365

N. B.--In leap year, if the last day of February comes between, add one
day to the number in the table.

=Canals.=--The Suez Canal is 90 miles long with a depth of 35 feet, and
is 108 feet wide at the bottom. It cost $100,000,000. The Manchester
Canal, between Manchester and Liverpool, is 35-1/2 miles long, with a
depth of 28 feet, and 120 feet wide at the bottom. It cost $85,000,000.
The canal connecting the Baltic and North Seas is 61 miles long, 29-1/2
feet deep, and has a bottom width of 72 feet. It cost $40,000,000.
The Panama Canal, which is not yet completed, will be about 50 miles
in length, with a width of 300 feet, and a minimum depth of 41 feet.
The United States Government paid $50,000,000 to the new French Canal
Company and the Republic of Panama, for property rights and franchises,
and the total cost of the canal will not be far from $375,000,000. At
the present time nearly 50,000 men are at work upon the canal, and the
official opening is announced for January 1, 1915. When completed, it
will be the largest work of its class in the world, although not the
longest canal.

=Capacity of Cisterns or Wells.=--For each ten inches in depth, a
cistern 2 feet in diameter will hold 19 gallons; 2-1/2 ft., 30 g.; 3
ft., 44 g.; 3-1/2 ft., 60 g.; 4 ft., 78 g.; 4-1/2 ft., 97 g.; 5 ft.,
122 g.; 5-1/2 ft., 148 g.; 6 ft., 176 g.; 6-1/2 ft., 207 g.; 7 ft., 240
g.; 7-1/2 ft., 275 g.; 8 ft., 313 g.; 8-1/2 ft., 353 g.; 9 ft., 396 g.;
9-1/2 ft., 461 g.; 10 ft., 489 g.; 11 ft., 592 g.; 12 ft., 705 g.; 13
ft., 827 g.; 14 ft., 959 g.; 15 ft.; 1101 g.; 20 ft., 1958 g.; 25 ft.,
3059 g.

=Capitol at Washington.=--The Capitol is situated in latitude 38° 53´
20´´.4 north and longitude 77° 00´ 35´´.7 west from Greenwich. It
fronts east, and stands on a plateau eighty-eight feet above the level
of the Potomac. The entire length of the building from north to south
is 751 feet 4 inches, and its greatest dimension from east to west 350
feet. The area covered by the building is 153,112 square feet. The dome
of the original central building was constructed of wood, covered with
copper. This was replaced in 1856 by the present structure of cast
iron. The entire weight of iron used is 8,909,200 pounds. The dome is
crowned by a bronze statue of Freedom, which is nineteen feet, six
inches, high and weighs 14,985 pounds. The height of the dome above
the base line of the east front is 287 feet 5 inches. The height from
the top of the balustrade of the building is 217 feet 11 inches. The
greatest diameter at the base is 135 feet 5 inches. The rotunda is 97
feet 6 inches in diameter, and its height from the floor to the top
of the canopy is 217 feet 3 inches. The Senate Chamber is 113 feet 3
inches in length, 83 feet 3 inches in width, and 36 feet in height. The
galleries will accommodate 1,000 persons. The Representatives' Hall is
139 feet in length, by 93 feet in width, and 36 feet in height. The
room now occupied by the Supreme Court was, until 1859, the Senate
Chamber. Previous to that time the court occupied the room immediately
beneath, now used as a law library.

=Celluloid.=--Celluloid, from which many toilet articles and imitations
of ivory are made, is composed from the cellulose found in cotton cloth
or raw cotton. It is treated with a solution of nitric acid which forms
it into a pulp very much like paper pulp. It is then washed with water,
which removes most of the acid. It is partially hardened and camphor
gum mixed with it, when it is rolled into sheets and thoroughly dried.
In order to manipulate it, it is softened by steam and then hardened by
drying. Celluloid is very inflammable. Wearers of celluloid combs and
other ornaments should not expose themselves to fire.

=Certified Checks.=--A personal check becomes certified when across it
is written "certified," with the name of the bank and the signature of
the cashier or other official. The bank, then, becomes liable for the
amount of the check. If the maker of a check has his check certified,
he is jointly responsible with the bank for its payment, but if the
receiver of the check has it certified, the maker of the check is
released from all responsibility.

Chemical Composition of Man

Huxley's table on the chemical composition of man of the average weight
of 154 pounds was for years the standard, but it has recently been
superseded by a new one compiled by the French Academy of Sciences. The
table is appended:

      Elements  Pounds  Ounces  Grains
  Oxygen          111       8       0
  Hydrogen         21       6       0
  Carbon           21       0       0
  Nitrogen          3      10       0
  Phosphorus        1       2      88
  Calcium           2       0       0
  Sulphur           0       0     219
  Chlorine          0       2      47
  Sodium (salt)     0       2     116
  Iron              0       0     100
  Potassium         0       0     290
  Magnesium         0       0      12
  Silica            0       0       2

  --_World Almanac._

=Chess.=--Chess is one of the oldest, and probably the most scientific,
game known. Its origin is mysterious. It was mentioned in Oriental
literature about 2000 B. C. It was originally played in India, Persia,
and Arabia, and subsequently was known in Spain and Western Europe. It
is said that it was invented in order to teach the art of war.

=Christmas.=--A festival commemorating the birth of Christ. Said
to have been observed as early as 98. Some of the early Christians
celebrated the event in May; others in April and in June. In the fifth
century, it was generally observed on the 25th of December.

=Circulation of the Blood.=--Although even the savage had seen and
spilled blood, the circulation of the blood, and the part that it plays
in the human machine, was not discovered until about 1616, by the
English physiologist, William Harvey.

=Climate and Temperature.=--Climatic conditions are dependent upon
heat, moisture, and altitude. The greatest heat is at the equator and
diminishes as one approaches either pole, but a place of high altitude
near the equator may be cooler than another farther removed from it and
occupying a shut-in or low position. It is warm at times, even near the
poles. The climate is also affected by the winds, and very greatly by
the ocean, and especially by ocean currents. Take England, for example:
it is considerably further north than Boston or New York City, and yet
its climate is much warmer or milder, due to its proximity to the Gulf
Stream. Land near the ocean is likely to be cooler in summer on account
of its prevailing winds, and warmer in winter because a large body of
water reduces the cold. It is well-known that towns on the seashore do
not suffer from extreme cold as much as do those in the same latitude
further inland. The altitude has much to do with climate. Even in
the warmest countries, where the heat is intense, the tops of high
mountains are clothed with snow. Forests, by their shade, reduce the

=Coal Industry.=--In the United States the coal fields have an area of
exceeding 160,000 square miles, but it is supposed that there are at
least 310,000 square miles which contain coal. The estimated quantity
of the available coal is exceeding 3,000,000,000,000 tons.

=Cocoa Industry.=--The world produces about 530,000,000 pounds of cocoa
annually. The United States consumes about 130,000,000 pounds; Germany
about 112,000,000; France about 60,000,000; England about 56,000,000;
the total consumption being about 507,000,000.

=Coffee Industry.=--Brazil, about 1,300,000,000, Central America,
about 201,000,000, Venezuela, about 97,000,000, other South American
countries about 78,000,000, Hayti and Santo Domingo, about 84,000,000,
Mexico, about 43,000,000, Porto Rico, about 34,000,000, Jamaica, about
10,000,000; a total of nearly 2,000,000,000 pounds annually. The
United States consumes about 881,000,000 pounds a year.

=Coin.=--Money, in the form of metallic coins, probably superseded all
other legal tenders. The first record of the coining of silver was in
869 B. C., and it was made in Rome as early as 269 B. C., and in Great
Britain 25 years before the Christian Era. Gold was first coined in
England in 1087. Copper money was introduced by James I of England in
1620. The United States mint began to coin money in 1793.

=Colosseum.=--The building of the Colosseum at Rome began in A. D.
80. It covers about five acres of ground, and has a seating capacity
for nearly 90,000 persons. It was built in the form of an oval, with
a diameter varying from 312 to 515 feet, the height being from 160 to
180 feet. In its arena, the gladiators fought among themselves and with
wild beasts. At its dedication by Titus, 5,000 wild beasts were killed,
and the celebration lasted for nearly a hundred days. Occasionally the
arena was flooded with water, and sea fights took place.

=Comets.=--Comets are supposed to be made up of an innumerable number
of meteors, with millions of miles of burning gas. They have regular
orbits, but they have not been fully established and are more or less
eccentric. They are not supposed to shine by their own light, but to
obtain it by reflection. The orbit of comets was discovered by Hadley
in 1682, who predicted their return. Sometimes the head and tail part,
and remain so. Their number is unknown, but there are supposed to be
thousands of them. The comet formerly was looked upon as a source of
danger, and it was supposed that the near approach of one of them
would destroy the earth or any other celestial body. Recent research,
however, indicates that comets have not sufficient density to cause
damage, although they might affect the atmosphere. The principal
thing to be feared, however, if there is any danger, is that the
envelopment of the earth by the comet's gas would destroy life, but
most astronomers have agreed that the atmosphere of the earth would be
sufficient protection. So far as is known, no comet has ever caused
any injury, and as they have existed from time immemorial, there would
appear to be no reason for alarm.

Common Measurements

Diameter of a circle × 3.1416 = Circumference.

Radius of a circle × 6.283185 = Circumference.

Square of the radius of a circle × 3.1416 = Area.

Square of the diameter of a circle × .7854 = Area.

Square of the circumference of a circle × .07958 = Area.

Half the circumference of a circle × half its diameter = Area.

Circumference of a circle × .159155 = Radius.

Square root of the area of a circle × .56419 = Radius.

Circumference of a circle × 31831 = Diameter.

Square root of the area of a circle × 1.12839 = Diameter.

Diameter of a circle × .86 = Side of inscribed equilateral triangle.

Diameter of a circle × .7071 = Side of an inscribed square.

Circumference of a circle × .226 = Side of an inscribed square.

Circumference of a circle × .282 = Side of square of equal area.

Diameter of a circle × .8862 = Side of a square of equal area.

Base of a triangle × one-half the altitude = Area.

The product of both diameters × .7854 = Area of an ellipse.

Surface of a sphere × one-sixth of its diameter = Solidity.

Circumference of a sphere × its diameter = Surface.

Square of the circumference of a sphere × .3183 = Surface.

Square root of the surface of a sphere × 1.772454 = Circumference.

Square of one of its sides × 6 = Surface of a cube.

Area of the base of a square, round or triangular pyramid, or of a
cone, × one-third of its altitude = Solidity.

Area of square × .7854 = Area of largest circle within it.

Area of circle × .625 = Area of largest square within it.

=Spheres.=--Square of circumference × .3183 = Surface of sphere.

Square of diameter × 3.1416 = Surface of sphere.

Square root of surface × .5642 = Diameter of sphere.

Cube of diameter × .5236 = Solidity of sphere.

Cube of circumference × .0169 = Solidity of sphere.

Cube root of solidity × 1.2407 = Diameter of sphere.

Diameter of sphere × .5774 = Side of inscribed cube.

Square root of solidity × .2821 = Radius.

Square root of solidity × 1.7725 = Circumference.

Cube of radius × 4.1888 = Solidity.

Cube root of solidity × .6204 = Radius.

Cube root of solidity × 3.8978 = Circumference.

=Communism and Socialism.=--Communism is a doctrine which would
abolish individual rights, including the ownership of property. It
began in England and France, but has never made any great progress.
Socialism is allied to Communism, but is a milder form. It does not
suggest the abolition of individual rights, but to make all rights
subordinate to the good of the people. An acceptable definition of
either has never been presented, and members of both parties differ
materially. Socialism, however, has grown very rapidly, and the
Socialistic Party in the United States is frequently successful. Some
of our ablest scholars and investigators believe that Socialism will
become prevalent, and that in it is vested many of the solutions to our
economic problems.

Comparative Population of the United States

                           Increase  Over   Adjusted
  Census                 Preceding   Census.  P. C.
   Year.  Population.      Number.    P. C.   of Inc.
  1910    91,972,266     15,977,691    21.0    21.0
  1900    75,994,575     13,046,861    20.7    20.7
  1890    62,947,714     12,791,931    25.5    24.9
  1880    50,155,783     11,597,412    30.1    26.0
  1870    38,558,371      7,115,050    22.6    26.6
  1860    31,443,321      8,251,445    35.6    35.6
  1850    23,191,876      6,122,423    35.9    35.9
  1840    17,069,453      4,203,433    32.7    32.7
  1830    12,866,020      3,227,567    33.5    33.5
  1820     9,638,453      2,398,572    33.1    33.1
  1810     7,239,881      1,931,398    36.4    36.4
  1800     5,308,483      1,379,269    35.1    35.1
  1790     3,929,214

Comparative Population of the Large Cities and Towns of the United

            CLASS OF PLACES                  Number
                                            of Places   Population

      Continental United States                         91,972,266
  _All incorporated places_                    13,985   49,307,414
    Places of 1,000,000 inhabitants or more         3    8,501,174
    Places of 500,000 to 1,000,000 inhabitants      5    3,010,667
    Places of 250,000 to 500,000 inhabitants       11    3,949,839
    Places of 100,000 to 250,000 inhabitants       31    4,840,458
    Places of 50,000 to 100,000 inhabitants        59    4,178,915
    Places of 25,000 to 50,000 inhabitants        117    3,971,624
    Places of 10,000 to 25,000 inhabitants        346    5,215,820
    Places of 5,000 to 10,000 inhabitants         551    3,829,740
    Places of 2,500 to 5,000 inhabitants        1,041    3,642,610
    Places of less than 2,500 inhabitants      11,821    8,166,567

=Compass.=--The compass was unknown to civilization until the close
of the twelfth century, but there appears to be good authority for
the statement that it was used in China centuries before the European
nations were aware of its power. The compass consists of a piece of
steel, usually in the form of a needle, which has been magnetized so
as to maintain its magnetism indefinitely. It is set on a piece of
cork or rests lightly on a pivot, and if allowed to move freely, it
will point towards the North Magnetic Pole, the opposite end of the
needle indicating the South Magnetic Pole. The needle does not point to
the Geographical Pole, but to the North Magnetic Pole, which is some
degrees south of the former. The earth is a magnet, and the magnetic
needle is influenced by the currents of the earth, and, therefore,
points to the North under the influence of these currents. No compass
is absolutely correct, for the needle does not always point to the
North with a full degree of accuracy. It is subject to variations,
which are caused by outside influences, like the presence of metallic
substances. Without the compass, navigation would be unsafe, if not
impossible, for no mariner, without it, would know the direction he is
sailing in at night or during a cloudy day.

=Corsets.=--The corset, or something similar to what is now worn,
appeared in France and Germany in the 13th century, and a 100 years
later was introduced into England. The cloth was interwoven with rods
of whalebone or steel, but when the price of whalebone increased, other
stiffening rods were used.

=Cosmetics.=--Vaseline, cold cream, and glycerine are perfectly safe to
use, although the latter irritates some skins. Most of the cosmetics
upon the market, including many of those advertised to produce a good
complexion, are practically worthless, and undoubtedly quite a number
of them contain poisonous drugs and chemicals. The writer does not
recall a cosmetic which contains any virtue not found in cold cream,
vaseline, or glycerine. Most cosmetics are made of cold cream or
vaseline, highly perfumed, and are claimed to possess special virtues.
The only way to obtain a good complexion is to keep the skin in a
healthy state by constant bathing and by massage, either with the hands
or with a towel, with a moderate use of cold cream or other similar
article. Nothing has ever been discovered which will restore the bloom
of youth, and all articles advertised for that purpose are practically
worthless. If they contain any "bloom," it is in the form of a dye or
color. No one should use any concoction or salve other than cold cream,
vaseline, glycerine, or an almond preparation, without the advice of a

=Cost of the British Royal Family.=--The annuities paid by the British
people to the Royal family for its support are as follows: The King
and Queen, $2,350,000; Queen Alexandra, $350,000; Princess Christian,
$30,000; Princess Louise (Duchess of Argyll), $30,000; Duke of
Connaught, $125,000; Duchess of Edinburgh, $30,000; Princess Beatrice,
$30,000; Duchess of Albany, $30,000; Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz,
$15,000; Trustees for King Edward VII's Daughters, $90,000; total,
$2,790,000. The King also receives the revenues of the Duchy of
Lancaster. During recent years these have amounted to about $350,000
per annum. The Prince of Wales has an income also from the revenues of
the Duchy of Cornwall, amounting to about $500,000 per annum. When the
Royal children marry dowries are usually provided for them. The last
of the children of the late Queen Victoria to marry, Princess Beatrice,
received $150,000 as dowry from the British people by Parliamentary

=Cotton Gin.=--One of the three or four greatest inventions of
civilization. It was invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. The machine
separates the cotton wool from the seed, and automatically cleans it
with great rapidity. Previously, the work was done by hand, a most
tedious process.

=Cotton Industry.=--From 16,000,000 to 17,000,000 bales of cotton are
sold each year, each bale weighing about 490 lbs.

=Cradle of American Liberty.=--A name given to Faneuil Hall, in Boston,
Massachusetts, from the fact that many meetings were held here during
Revolutionary days for the purpose of declaring the citizens' rights
and protesting against the interference of England.

=Credit Mobilier.=--This consisted of a stock company, organized
in 1863, for the purpose of constructing public works, including
principally the building of the Union Pacific Railroad. Without going
into the merits of the case, it may be said that this organization
received much criticism, as it developed that many of the members of
Congress were supposed to be connected with it. It is said that some of
these members were corrupt and used this organization to feather their
nest. It constituted, perhaps, the greatest national scandal, placing
under suspicion, as it did, many of our so-called statesmen.

=Crusades.=--The name of wars carried on at intervals from 1095 to
1270 by the Christian nations of Europe against the Saracens, for
the purpose of gaining possession of the Holy Land. There were eight
Crusades, and the soldiers who engaged in them wore a cross on their
breast or right shoulder as a sign of their religious faith. Hence the
name Crusades from the Latin _crux_, cross.

=Crust of the Earth.=--Very little is known of the interior of the
earth, except that it is supposed to be a molten mass. The aggregate
thickness of the strata or rock-layers, as far as known, is less than
thirty miles.

=Daguerreotypes.=--Early photography owes its origin to the discovery
of the daguerreotype. A plate, made of thin copper or other metal,
was covered with a silver preparation. This was placed directly in
the camera, and there was no method of transfer, as there is from the
ordinary photographic plate, from which innumerable prints may be
taken. It went out of common use with the invention of the photographic
plates and paper, and with the discovery of instantaneous photography.
The taking of the daguerreotype required long exposure, which was
decidedly objectionable, and the result was coarse and tame. After
taking, the daguerreotype passed through acid solutions for the
development and permanency of the picture.

=Damage by Lightning.=--Statistics vary, but considerably more than
6,000 buildings are injured by lightning every year, causing a loss
of about $3,000,000. About 700 people are killed every year, and more
than 800 are injured. It is said that lightning kills between 4,000 and
5,000 domestic animals a year, valued at about $130,000.

=Deaf and Dumb.=--About 90,000 of the inhabitants of the United States
are deaf and dumb, more than half of that number being born with this
affliction. Of this number about 47,000 are males, and somewhat over
43,000 females.

=Deeds.=--A deed is an instrument in writing, conveying real estate,
with or without buildings upon it, from one party to another. All deeds
should be registered. Printed forms, to be filled out, are for sale at
stationers. It is better to employ a good lawyer or conveyancer.

=Dictionaries.=--Probably the first dictionary was produced in China,
and was said to contain 40,000 characters. In the 15th and 16th
centuries, encyclopedias were published. The first authoritative
dictionary was in Latin, and was translated into eight languages
about the year 1500. Chamber's Encyclopedia was published in 1728,
and Johnson's famous English dictionary in 1755. Webster's American
dictionary was first issued in 1828.

=Digestibility of Foods.=--Apples, sweet, raw, 1 hour, 30 minutes;
Asparagus, boiled, 1 h., 30 m.; Beans, boiled, 2 h., 30 m.; Lean beef,
roasted, 3 h.; Fresh salted beef, boiled 2 h., 45 m.; Old salted beef,
boiled, 6 h.; Beets, boiled, 3h., 45 m.; Bread, fresh, 3h., 30 m.;
Cabbage, pickled, 4 h., 30 m.; Celery, boiled, 1 h., 30 m.; Chicken,
boiled, 2h.; Chicken, roasted, 4 h.; Cheese, old, 3h., 30 m.; Duck,
roasted, 2 h.; Eggs, raw, 2h; Eggs, soft boiled, 3 h.; Eggs, hard
boiled, 4 h.; Fish, boiled, 1 h., 30 m.; Fish, fried, 3 h.; Game (most
kinds), roasted, 4 h., 15 m.; Liver (calves), fried, 2 h., 30 m.; Lamb,
grilled, 2 h., 30 m.; Milk, raw, 3 h., 15 m.; Milk, boiled, 2 h.;
Mutton, boiled and broiled, 3 h.; Nuts, 5 h.; Oysters, raw, 2 h., 55
m.; Oysters, stewed, 3 h., 30 m.; Onions, stewed, 3 h., 30 m.; Pork,
fat, roasted, 5 h., 15 m.; Pork, salt, boiled, 3 h., 15 m.; Potatoes,
fried or baked, 2 h., 30 m.; Rice, boiled, 1 h.; Sausage, grilled, 3
h., 30 m.; Tripe, boiled, 1 h.; Trout, boiled, 1 h., 30 m.; Turkey,
roasted, 2 h., 30 m.; Veal, roast or grilled, 5 h.

Distances Between Cities in the United States

(Not air-line distances, but traveling distances.)

  FROM             New York  Chicago  Philadelphia  St. Louis  Boston  Baltimore  Cleveland  Buffalo  San Francisco  Pittsburgh  Cincinnati  Milwaukee  New Orleans  Washington  Minneapolis

      TO              Mls.      Mls.       Mls.         Mls.      Mls.     Mls.       Mls.      Mls.        Mls.         Mls.        Mls.        Mls.        Mls.        Mls.         Mls.
  Atlanta             876       733        785          611     1,106      688        736       919       2,805          805         492         818         496         648        1,153
  Baltimore           188       802         97          934       418      ...        474       398       3,076          334         593         887       1,184          40        1,222
  Boston              217     1,034        321        1,230       ...      418        682       499       3,308          674         926       1,119       1,602         458        1,454
  Buffalo             442       525        416          731       499      398        183       ...       2,799          270         427         610       1,256         438          945
  Chicago             912       ...        821          284     1,034      802        357       525       2,274          468         298          85         912         790          420
  Cincinnati          757       298        666          341       926      593        244       427       2,572          313         ...         383         829         553          718
  Cleveland           584       357        493          548       682      474        ...       183       2,631          135         244         442       1,073         437          777
  Denver            1,934     1,022      1,843          916     2,056    1,850      1,379     1,537       1,371        1,490       1,257       1,107       1,347       1,810          884
  Detroit             693       272        669          488       750      649        173       251       2,546          321         263         357       1,092         655          692
  Galveston         1,792     1,144      1,691          860     2,012    1,594      1,408     1,591       2,157        1,481       1,157       1,229         410       1,554        1,340
  Indianapolis        825       183        734          240       965      704        283       466       2,457          381         111         268         888         664          603
  Jacksonville, Fla.  983     1,097        892          975     1,213      795      1,085     1,193       3,098        1,057         841       1,182         616         755        1,517
  Kansas City       1,342       458      1,251          277     1,466    1,211        755       967       1,981          898         618         543         880       1,171          573
  Los Angeles       3,149     2,265      3,058        2,084     3,273    3,018      2,562     2,774         475        2,705       2,425       2,350       2,007       2,978        2,301
  Louisville          871       304        780          274     1,040      703        358       541       2,468          427         114         389         778         663          727
  Memphis           1,157       527      1,066          311     1,387      969        738       921       2,439          807         494         612         396         929          897
  Milwaukee           997        85        906          369     1,119      887        442       610       2,359          553         383         ...         997         875          335
  Minneapolis       1,332       420      1,241          586     1,454    1,222        777       945       2,096          888         718         335       1,285       1,210          ...
  Montreal            386       841        477        1,051       330      574        623       434       3,115          704         826         926       1,655         614        1,125
  New Orleans       1,372       912      1,281          699     1,602    1,184      1,073     1,256       2,482        1,142         829         997         ...       1,144        1,285
  New York            ...       912         91        1,065       217      188        584       442       3,186          444         757         997       1,372         228        1,332
  Omaha             1,405       493      1,314          413     1,527    1,295      1,750     1,018       1,781          961         791         578       1,080       1,283          381
  Philadelphia         91       821        ...          974       321       97        493       416       3,095          353         666         906       1,281         137        1,241
  Pittsburgh          444       468        353          621       674      334        135       270       2,742          ...         313         553       1,142         302          888
  Portland, Ore.    3,204     2,292      3,113        2,212     3,326    3,094      2,649     2,817         772        2,760       2,590       2,378       2,746       3,082        2,042
  Quebec              530     1,013        621        1,343       402      718        795       612       3,287          876       1,039       1,098       1,827         786        1,433
  St. Louis         1,065       284        974          ...     1,230      934        548       731       2,194          621         341         369         699         894          586
  San Francisco     3,186     2,274      3,095        2,194     3,308    2,076      2,631     2,799         ...        2,742       2,572       2,359       2,482       3,064        2,096
  Seattle           3,151     2,239      3,060        2,332     3,273    2,941      2,596     2,764         957        2,707       2,537       2,154       2,931       3,029        1,818
  Washington          228       790        137          894       458       40        437       438       3,064          302         553         875       1,144         ...        1,210

=Diving Bells.=--The diving bell is simply a covering made of metal,
which is securely fastened to a water-proof suit, the diving bell
itself being an enclosure for the head. The diver dons his suit, the
neck of which has a collar in the form of a screw. The diving bell is
placed over his head and screwed on. It is connected with a rubber
pipe, through which air is forced by an air pump, the air escaping
through a valve in the belt itself. If properly constructed and
manipulated, one may remain under water for considerable time, although
he is likely to be uncomfortable until he becomes used to it. It was
invented about 1715.

=Drama.=--During 1912, 97 new plays were presented; 36 were musical
comedies; 36 of the plays were serious or sentimental; 13 were
melodramas; 13 were comedies; one was a pantomime; two were tragedies,
and 14 were farces.

=Drugs.=--The safest and best rule to follow is never to take any drug
without the advice of a physician. Drugs have their place, and without
drugs many diseases would be incurable. But drugs taken promiscuously
derange the system and give but temporary relief. Hundreds of thousands
of people have contracted chronic ailments from drug-taking. Headache
powders, cough mixtures, sleeping potions, and practically all of the
advertised remedies should be strenuously avoided, notwithstanding
that some of them are pure and would be efficacious if administered
intelligently. Because one particular drug or medicine benefits a
certain person should not be considered as evidence that it will
aid another. The habit of borrowing prescriptions is dangerous. The
intelligent physician writes a prescription, which will benefit his
patient, and the same prescription would be of no benefit, and might
be of positive injury, to another. Many of the testimonials given
to patent medicines are genuine and are written by honest persons.
The effect of many of the advertised nostrums is to give immediate
or transient relief. They stimulate the system, and may make it feel
better for a short time, but re-action is likely to set in, and the
taker of them is worse off than he was in the first place.

=Dying Sayings=, Real or Traditional.--Addison. "See how a Christian
dies!" or, "See in what a peace a Christian can die!"

Anaxagoras. "Give the boys a holiday."

Byron. "I must sleep now."

Cæsar (Julius). "Et tu, Brute!"

Charlemagne. "Lord, into Thy hands I commend my spirit!"

Charles II (of England). "Don't let poor Nelly starve!"

Chesterfield. "Give Day Rolles a chair."

Cromwell. "My desire is to make what haste I may to be gone."

Franklin. "A dying man can do nothing easy."

Goethe. "More light!"

Hobbes. "Now I am about to take my last voyage--a great leap in the

James V (of Scotland). "It came with a lass, and will go with a lass."

Jesus Christ. "It is finished!"

Knox. "Now it is come."

Mahomet. "Oh Allah, be it so! Henceforth among the glorious host of

Mirabeau. "Let me die to the sounds of delicious music."

Napoleon I. "Mon Dieu! La nation Française! Fête d'armée."

Napoleon III. "Were you at Sedan?"

Nelson. "I thank God I have done my duty."

Rabelais. "Let down the curtain, the farce is over."

Scott, Sir Walter. "God bless you all!"

Sidney, Algernon. "I know that my Redeemer liveth. I die for the good
old cause."

Socrates. "Crito, we owe a cock to Aesculapius."

Talma. "The worst is, I cannot see."

Tasso. "Lord, into Thy hands I commend my spirit!"

Vespasian. "A king should die standing."

William III of England. "Can this last long?"

Wolfe, General. "What! do they run already? Then I die happy."

      --Brewer's "Reader's Handbook."

=Dynamite.=--This is one of the strongest explosives, and is used
for blasting, and even for guns, although it has not, as yet, been
successful for the firing of projectiles. It consists of infusorial and
porcelain earth, mixed with coal dust and siliceous ashes, saturated
with about three times its weight of nitro-glycerine. It is of a
grayish-brown or reddish color, damp, and greasy. It has an explosive
power nearly eight times greater than that of gun powder. It is
dangerous to make, because the nitro-glycerine which it contains will
explode if not handled carefully.

Earth Facts

The distance from the surface of the earth to its center is estimated
to be 20,926,202 feet; or about 3,963, miles; and the distance from the
poles to the center of the earth is 20,854,895 feet, or about 3,951
miles. One degree of latitude at the equator is about 68.7 miles, and
at the poles about 69-1/2 miles.

The circumference at the equator measures 24,902 statute miles.

The total area of the earth is 196,940,400 statute square miles, and
its volume is 259,880 million cubic miles.

The land area of the earth covers 54,807,420 square miles.

The ocean, including the inland seas, covers 142,132,980 square miles,
or about 72 per cent. of the total surface of the earth.

The Arctic Ocean, including Hudson Bay, contains 5,785,000 square
miles; the Atlantic Ocean, 34,301,400 square miles; the Indian Ocean,
28,615,000 square miles; the Pacific Ocean, 67,699,630 square miles;
and the Antarctic Ocean, 5,731,350 square miles.

The mean height of the land has been estimated at 2,440 feet, and the
mean depth of the sea 11,470 feet. The highest mountain (Mt. Everest)
is 29,000 feet high, and the greatest depth of the ocean is supposed to
be 31,614 feet.

The North American continent has an area of 6,446,000 square miles,
with exceeding 115,000,000 inhabitants, or a little less than 18 to the
square mile.

The South American continent has an area of 6,837,000 square miles,
with over 45,000,000 inhabitants, or about 6-1/2 per square mile.

Europe has an area of about 3,555,000 square miles, with a population
of somewhat less than 400,000,000, or about 107 per square mile.

Africa has an area of 11,514,000 square miles, and a population of
about 127,000,000, or 11 to the square mile.

Asia has an area of 14,710,000 square miles, with a population
estimated at about 850,000,000, or a little less than 58 to the square

Australia, New Zealand, and contingent islands, have an area of
3,288,000 square miles, with a population of exceeding 5,200,000, or
about 27 to the square mile.

It is estimated that the surface of the earth is divided into somewhat
more than 28,000,000 square miles of fertile soil, about 14,000,000
square miles of steppe, a little more than 4,000,000 square miles of
desert, with the polar regions occupying nearly 5,000,000 square miles
of land, most of which is covered with ice.

At the time of Emperor Augustus, there were said to be between
54,000,000 and 55,000,000 people upon the earth, but as the earth
undoubtedly supported millions of inhabitants unknown to civilization,
these figures are of little consequence.

The greatest measured depth of the Atlantic Ocean is a little over
27,000 feet; a depth of 30,000 feet has been found in the Pacific
Ocean; 18,582 feet in the Indian Ocean; and 25,200 feet in the Southern
Ocean. Soundings in the Arctic Ocean have failed to find a depth
exceeding 9,000 feet.

=Earthquakes.=--The earthquake is caused, undoubtedly, by the cooling
of the earth. The interior of the earth is a molten mass of fire and is
slowly cooling. As it cools, it contracts, and if the contraction is
near the surface of the earth, the surface is rocked and crevices may
open, doing considerable damage, although most earthquakes cause but
slight shocks and injure no one. Earthquakes appear principally in or
near the tropics, but are occasionally felt all over the temperature
zones. Earthquakes appear to have belts, and there is little to be
feared from them outside of these territories.

Earthquake Areas of the Earth

Major de Montessus de Balore has compiled a catalogue of 130,000
shocks, and this indicates with scientific accuracy how the symptoms
of seismic activity are manifested. The period of observation includes
generally the last fifty years; but there is no reason to suppose that
a longer time would materially affect the proportionate numbers.

  AREA                    Earthquakes

  Scandinavia                     646
  British Isles                 1,139
  France                        2,793
  Spain and Portugal            2,656
  Switzerland                   3,895
  Italy                        27,672
  Holland and North Germany     2,326
  Sicily                        4,331
  Greece                       10,306
  Russia                          258
  Asia Minor                    4,451
  India                           813
  Japan                        27,562
  Africa                          179
  Atlantic islands              1,704
  United States, Pacific coast  4,467
  Atlantic coast                  937
  Mexico                        5,586
  Central America               2,739
  West Indies                   2,561
  South America                 8,081
  Java                          2,155
  Australia and Tasmania           83
  New Zealand                   1,925

The most shaken countries of the world are Italy, Japan, Greece,
South America (the Pacific coast), Java, Sicily, and Asia Minor. The
lands most free from these convulsions are Africa, Australia, Russia,
Siberia, Scandinavia, and Canada. As a rule, where earthquakes are most
frequent they are most severe. But to this general statement there
are exceptions--Indian shocks, though less numerous, being often very
disastrous. Loss of life in many cases depends, however, on density
of population rather than on the intensity of the earth movement.
Numerically, also, France has registered more seismic tremors than
Spain and Portugal, but France in historic times has experienced no
earthquake disaster approaching the havoc wrought by the one calamity
at Lisbon.

=Electrical and Other Beautifiers.=--So far as is known to the writer,
none of these contrivances or concoctions possess any merit, other
than what may be obtained by ordinary massage or rubbing. Electricity,
as a medicinal agent, is rapidly going out of use, as it has been
proved that it has very little effect, except in special cases. The
reader is advised against the purchase of any electrical appliance for
beautifying or other purposes without the advice of a physician.

=Electricity.=--This peculiar and all-powerful energy has never been
analyzed, and no one knows exactly what it is. It is produced by
friction, either mechanically or by chemicals. It is transmitted
through wires or other metallic conductors. Electricity is usually
produced mechanically by what is known as the dynamo, but can be made
chemically by the use of galvanic batteries. The former, however, is
much more economical. Electricity and magnetism are closely allied, and
yet they are commercially different.

=Embezzlement.=--From 1896 to 1911 the total embezzlement in the United
States amounted to nearly $164,000,000, the majority of embezzlers
stealing the money for gambling in stocks, and not on account of
increased personal expenses or desire to live beyond their means.

Errors of History

The following list of "Curious Errors of History" is taken from
Conklin's "Vest Pocket Argument Settler":

William Tell was a myth.

Coriolanus never allowed his mother to intercede for Rome.

Blondel, the harper, did not discover the prison in which Richard I was

Nero was not a monster; he did not kill his mother nor fiddle over
burning Rome.

Alfred never allowed the cakes to burn, nor ventured into the Danish
camp disguised as a minstrel.

Fair Rosamond was not poisoned by Queen Eleanor, but died in the odor
of sanctity in the convent of Godstow.

The Duke of Wellington, at Waterloo, never uttered the famous words,
"Up, Guards, and at them!"

Charles Kingsley gave up his chair of modern history at Oxford because
he said he considered history "largely a lie."

Chemists have proved that vinegar will not dissolve pearls nor cleave
rocks, in spite of the fabled exploits of Cleopatra and Hannibal.

Charles IX did not fire upon the Huguenots with an arquebus from the
window of the Louvre during the massacre of St. Bartholomew.

The siege of Troy is largely a myth, even according to Homer's own
account. Helen must have been 60 years old when Paris fell in love with

The crew of _Le Vengeur_, instead of going down with the cry of "Vive
la République!" shrieked for help.

The number of Xerxes's army has been grossly exaggerated, and it was
not stopped at Thermopylæ by 300 Spartans, but 7,000, or even, as some
authorities compute, 12,000.

The Abbé Edgeworth frankly acknowledged to Lord Holland that he had
never made the famous invocation to Louis XVI on the scaffold: "Son of
St. Louis, ascend to heaven."

Philip VI, flying from the field of Crécy, and challenged late at
night before the gates of the castle of Blois, did not cry out, "It is
the fortune of France." What he really said was: "Open, open; it is the
unfortunate king of France."

Voltaire, on being asked where he had heard the story that when the
French became masters of Constantinople in 1204 they danced with the
women in the sanctuary of the Church of Santa Sophia, replied calmly:
"Nowhere; it is a frolic of my imagination."

There is no evidence that Romulus ever lived, that Tarquín outraged
Lucretia, that Brutus shammed idiocy and condemned his sons to death,
that Mucius Scaevola thrust his hand into the fire, that Cloelia swam
the Tiber, that Horatius defended a bridge against an army.

=Esperanto.=--Some years ago several educators attempted to develop an
international language, to be used by the speaking and writing world
at large. This auxiliary language is made from the roots of other
languages, including the Latin. Its pronunciation is wholly phonetic.
Theoretically, at least, it has tremendous advantages, for should it
be generally adopted by the civilized nations, who would, undoubtedly,
retain their native language, there would be a common basis for
international communication, and people could get together socially and
otherwise without being linguists. The growth of Esperanto is slow,
although encouraged by many educators. It is problematical whether
or not it will make sufficient strides to be generally accepted. It
has its faults, and it is quite probable that, if an international
language, or auxiliary language, is to be obtained, some other form
of common speech will take its place; or, Esperanto may be changed,
modified, or enlarged, so as to be more acceptable. Civilization,
however, demands a universal language, one which will eventually
take the place of all modern languages, the present languages to be
relegated to the dead class; but natural conditions, association,
and patriotism, or the semblance of them, will, undoubtedly, make
it extremely difficult to introduce any other form of speech, or of
writing, which would interfere with native tongues.


During 1912, 3,781 manufacturers failed, with liabilities of nearly
$88,500,000. During the same year 10,918 business men or partnership
concerns went into bankruptcy, with liabilities exceeding $90,000,000.
Eighty-four banking houses failed, with liabilities of over
$23,500,000; and 600 brokers and transporters failed, with liabilities
of nearly $24,000,000.

According to the commercial agencies the causes of failures during the
last two years may be tabulated as follows:

  Failures due to        1912     1911

  Incompetence          4,176    3,419
  Inexperience            641      522
  Lack of capital       4,110    3,970
  Unwise credits          281      252
  Extravagance             91      108
  Neglect                 275      277
  Speculation             112       94
  Fraud                 1,423    1,341
  Failures of others      177      171
  Competition             264      360
  Specific conditions   2,262    2,132

The year 1912 stands distinguished from some others years, in that
the excess in failures over the other years is credited to the
increased amount of harm wrought by incompetence and inexperience, two
essentially =personal= faults.

For the first time since the records were compiled in the year 1890,
the percentage ascribed to incompetence stands first in injuriousness
with 30.2 per cent of all failures, as against 29.7 per cent attributed
to lack of capital, hitherto the most hurtful source of trouble, but
which fell from 31.4 in 1911 and 33.9 in 1910.

Incompetency, on the other hand, moved up from 27 per cent in 1911 and
26.6 per cent in 1910 to the figure of 30.2 given above. Inexperience
(without other incompetence) rose to 4.6 per cent in 1912 from 4.1 per
cent in 1911, and these two causes together accounted for the increased
failures; while fraud, the third most important personal cause, fell to
10.3 per cent from 10.6 per cent in 1911.

=Famous Diamonds.=--The following is a list of the most famous diamonds
of the world: (1) The Braganza, (2) the Dudley, (3) the Florentine, (4)
the Great Mogul, (5) the Hope, (6) the Koh-i-nur, (7) the Nassac, (8)
the Orloff, (9) the Pigott, (10) the Pitt or Regent, (11) the Sancy,
(12) the Shah, (13) the Star of the South.

Farm Production

The figures are given in round numbers: Animals, over 206,000,000,
valued at over $5,000,000,000; Apples, over 147,000,000 bushels, valued
at over $83,000,000; Apricots, over 4,000,000 bushels, valued at over
$2,800,000; Beans (Dry), over 11,200,000 bushels, valued at about
$22,000,000; Bees, over 3,445,000 swarms, valued at over $10,300,000;
Broom Corn, over 78,900,000 pounds, valued at over $5,130,000; Butter,
over 531,000,000 pounds, valued at over $113,000,000; Cereals, over
4,280,000,000 bushels, valued at over $2,694,000,000; Cheese, over
317,000,000 pounds, valued at over $28,600,000; Chicory, about
21,500,000 pounds, valued at over $73,000; Cotton, over 8,000,000,000
pounds, valued at over $730,000,000; Cotton Seed, over 6,900,000
tons, valued at over $127,400,000; Flaxseed, over 19,300,000
bushels, valued at over $35,000,000; Flowers, plants, valued at over
$18,700,000; Forest Products, valued at over $109,800,000; Fruits,
(small), valued at over $29,900,000; Fruits, (subtropical), valued at
over $24,700,000; Grapes, over 2,500,000,000 pounds, valued at over
$22,000,000; Hay, about 55,000,000 tons, valued at over $784,900,000;
Hemp, over 11,750,000 pounds, valued at over $540,000; Honey, over
62,800,000 pounds, valued at over $6,600,000; Hops, over 40,700,000
pounds, valued at over $7,800,000; Milk, over 7,265,000,000 gallons;
Molasses, over 6,300,000 gallons, valued at over $788,000; Nursery
products, valued at over $10,100,000; Nuts, valued at over $4,400,000;
Onions, over 11,700,000 bushels, valued at over $6,600,000; Orchard
products, over 216,000,000 bushels, valued at over $140,800,000;
Peaches, over 35,400,000 bushels, valued at over $28,700,000;
Peanuts, over 19,400,000 bushels, valued at over $18,200,000; Pears,
over 8,800,000 bushels, valued at over $7,900,000; Peas, dry, over
7,500,000 bushels, valued at over $11,100,000; Plums, and Prunes,
over 15,400,000 bushels, valued at about $10,300,000; Potatoes
(Irish), about 292,800,000 bushels, valued at over $233,700,000;
Potatoes (Sweet), over 59,200,000 bushels, valued at over $35,300,000;
Rice, over 22,900,000 bushels, valued at over $18,200,000; Seeds,
Clover, over 1,000,000 bushels, valued at over $6,900,000; Seeds,
Grass, over 3,500,000 bushels, valued at over $2,800,000; Sugar,
Beet, about 12,300,000,000 pounds, valued at over $23,800,000;
Sugar, Cane, over 1,100,000 tons, valued at over $28,800,000; Sugar,
Maple, over 11,900,000 pounds, valued at over $1,000,000; Syrup,
Cane, over 12,200,000 gallons, valued at about $4,300,000; Syrup,
Maple, over 2,000,000 gallons, valued at over $1,500,000; Syrup,
Sorghum, over 16,900,000 gallons, valued at over $5,200,000; Tobacco,
over 900,100,000 pounds, valued at over $85,200,000; Vegetables
(miscellaneous), valued at over $113,600,000; Wool, over 318,500,000
pounds, valued at over $66,500,000.

=First Trans-Atlantic Steamship.=--The "Savannah," a vessel of only
350 tons, and measuring 100 feet, was the first steamship to cross the
Atlantic Ocean. She was launched in New York in 1818. She was propelled
with paddles and ship-rigged. She crossed the Atlantic in 26 days, her
engine being used only 16 days. The rest of the time she was under sail.

=Flour Industry.=--There are nearly 12,000 flour mills in the United
States, requiring a capital of about $350,000,000. These mills use
nearly $770,000,000 worth of material a year, and pay salaries and
wages of about $35,000,000. The annual market value of the flour milled
annually is nearly $900,000,000.

=Food Nutriment.=--On a basis of 1,000 parts, the nutriment value of
foods may be listed as follows:

  Cucumber       25      Cherries      250
  Melons         30      Veal          250
  Turnips        42      Beef          260
  Milk           72      Potatoes      260
  Cabbage        73      Apricots      260
  Carrots        98      Grapes        270
  White of egg  140      Chicken       270
  Pears         160      Plums         290
  Apples        170      Mutton        290
  Haddock       180      Oats          742
  Gooseberries  190      Rye           792
  Peaches       200      Rice          880
  Codfish       210      Barley        920
  Pork          240      Wheat         950

Forests.--About one-quarter of the United States is covered with
forests, with a total acreage of about 550,000,000, about one-fifth of
which are owned by the Government. At the present rate of cutting, and
the forest fires, the forests are decreasing at a very alarming rate,
and a lumber famine is to be expected within the next century, if the
lands are not properly reforested.

Foretelling the Weather

Several years ago the United States Government established a Weather
Bureau and placed it in charge of scientific men and observers who
were expert in this direction. Weather Bureau stations are maintained
throughout the United States, and each station communicates daily with
the head office at Washington. By following the law of averages, by the
use of the barometer and other instruments, by scientific research and
experiment, and because of the receipt of hourly or daily reports,
the Weather Bureau experts are able to foretell the weather with a
considerable degree of accuracy. Practically all of the great storms,
tornadoes, and hurricanes are announced in advance. While this science
is still in its infancy, it has made rapid strides, and each year shows
much improvement in the result. There are a few simple rules, which may
be used for foretelling the weather, if one possesses a barometer.

The rapid rise of the barometer indicates unsettled weather. The
gradual rise foretells settled weather.

When the air is dry and cold, a rising barometer indicates wind from
the north; and if it has been raining, better weather may occur.

When the air is moist and at a low temperature, a rising barometer may
foretell wind and rain from the north.

When there is a northerly wind, and the barometer falls rapidly, there
is likely to be a storm with snow in winter, and heavy rain or hail in

When the air is dry and the temperature seasonable, a steady barometer
indicates a continuance of fine weather.

A rapidly falling barometer may foretell stormy weather.

When the wind is westerly, a rapid fall may precede a storm coming from
the north.

When the wind is southerly, a rise in the barometer may precede fine

When there is much moisture in the air and considerable heat, a falling
barometer may indicate that a wind and rain storm is coming from the

When the air is dry and cold in winter a falling barometer may indicate
snow. When the weather is calm and warm, a falling barometer may be
taken to mean rain or squally weather.

=Freemasonry.=--Its origin is unknown, but it is very ancient. It has
been traced to the Knights Templars, to the Crusaders, and others. It
is said that the workmen upon Solomon's Temple were Masons and that
Masonry was the original trade union or protective association for
workmen, each workman by signs being able to prove that he had reached
a certain stage of proficiency; but this has not been substantiated.
Some authorities state that Masonry was introduced into England in 674
A. D. The first record of the establishment of a Grand Lodge was at
York in 926. Freemasonry was introduced into France in 1725, and into
America in 1730. Freemasons are found throughout the entire world,
there being more than a million of them in the United States and
Canada. Other fraternal or mystic orders, known as Odd Fellows, Knights
of Pythias, Red Men, etc., are in purpose similar to Masons, and most
of them were founded upon Masonry, Masonry ante-dating all of them.

=French Academy.=--Founded by Cardinal Richelieu in 1635. It has a
membership of forty, known as the "Forty Immortals." Its principal
object is to prepare a dictionary of the French language and to keep
the Gallic tongue pure and capable of treating the arts and sciences.
The first dictionary appeared in 1694. The Academy has been very
severely criticised, especially in the selection of its members, many
well-known men of letters having failed to be elected.

=Gold in California.=--John W. Marshall, in 1848, in connection with
a man named Sutter, maintained a mill in California. Accidentally he
picked up a small piece of metal which he discovered to be gold, and
immediately the gold fever became epidemic, and California was overrun
with gold miners.


The Constitution of the United Stales is the basic law of the country,
and all other laws and statutes are framed in a similar manner, each
State, county, town, and city having its own laws or statutes.

Government, including that of the United States, is divided into three
distinctive departments: Executive, Legislative, and Judicial.

The Executive head is known as President, Governor, Mayor, etc., and it
is his duty to execute the laws.

The Legislative department is usually subdivided into two bodies,--a
Senate or Upper House and a House of Representatives or Lower
House. State Governments are formed similar to that of the National
Government, the Upper House being known as the Senate, and the Lower
House as the House of Representatives or Assembly. Most bills are
presented to the Lower House, and do not become laws until they pass
both the Upper and Lower Houses.

The Legislative authority of a city is usually vested in a board of
Aldermen and a Council or Common Council, but occasionally there is
only one legislative body, known as a Council.

The Commission Form of Government is becoming somewhat prevalent. It
consists of a committee elected by the citizens, who have absolute
control of the government, and this body is both executive and judicial.

The Judicial department consists of several courts: first, the Supreme
Court, and a lower court, usually known as the Superior Court, and
District or Police Courts. Ordinary cases are tried by the Police or
District Courts and may be appealed to the Superior Court and even to
the Supreme Court. Besides these courts there are several courts known
as Probate Court, Court of Equity, etc. The Supreme Court, as a rule,
deals only with questions at law, and few cases reach it which have not
been appealed from the lower courts.

=Grain Industry.=--There was raised in the United States during last
year over 3,000,000,000 bushels of Indian corn, about 730,000,000
bushels of wheat, 1,500,000,000 bushels of oats, about 224,000,000
bushels of barley, about 36,000,000 bushels of rye, and about
19,000,000 bushels of buckwheat.

=Gravity.=--The force of gravity, unscientifically speaking, is
the influence which one body has upon another, commonly known as
attraction. All material substances attempt to draw others to them, and
the larger the substance, the greater its attractiveness or drawing
power. The earth, being larger than anything near it, draws everything
to it. A ball thrown into the air returns to the earth as soon as the
force which propelled it upward is exhausted. If the ball were larger
than the earth, the earth would move toward the ball, or rather each
would move toward the other, but the smaller body would go the greater
distance. The entire universe would, undoubtedly, come together in one
solid mass if the bodies were not held apart by laws and energies,
which are not yet fully understood by men. Sir Isaac Newton discovered
the action of gravity, but no one knows exactly what it is.

Great American Inventions

The following list of fifteen great American inventions is taken from
Killikelly's "Curious Questions":

  (1) The Cotton Gin.
  (2) The Planting Machine.
  (3) The Grass Mower and Reaper.
  (4) The Rotary Printing-Press.
  (5) Steam Navigation.
  (6) The Hot-Air Engine.
  (7) The Sewing-Machine.
  (8) The India-Rubber Industry.
  (9) The Machine Manufacture of Horseshoes.
  (10) The Sand-Blast for Carving.
  (11) The Gauge Lathe.
  (12) The Grain Elevator.
  (13) Artificial Ice-Making on Large Scale.
  (14) The Electric Magnet and Its Practical Application.
  (15) The Telephone.

"=Great Eastern.="--The "Great Eastern" was, in her time, the largest
vessel in the world, but would be considered small compared with the
giant ocean liners of to-day. She was built in London and launched in
1858. She cost $300,000. She had a length of 680 ft., breadth of 82-1/2
ft., or 118 ft. including the paddle boxes, and a height of 58 ft. Her
motive power consisted of eight engines with a total of 11,000 horse
power. She was slow and unwieldy, and was not a success except for the
laying of the Atlantic cable.

=Great Libraries.=--The Congressional Library, Washington, contains
1,800,000 volumes; Boston Public Library and New York Public Library,
each 900,000; Harvard University Library, 800,000; New York State
Library, 520,000; Yale University Library, 400,000; Bibliothèque
nationale, Paris, 2,600,000; British Museum, London, 2,000,000;
Imper. publicnaja biblioteka, St. Petersburg, 1,330,000; Königliche
Bibliothek, Berlin, 1,200,000; Kön. Hof-u. Staatsbibliothek, Munich,
1,000,000; K. u. k. Hofbibliothek, Vienna, 900,000.

=Great Tunnels.=--The Arlberg tunnel under the Alps is 6-3/4 miles
long. The Gunnison tunnel in Colorado is 6 miles long. The Hoosac
tunnel in Massachusetts is 4-3/4 miles long. The Mont Cenis in Italy
and France is 8 miles long. The New Croton water tunnel in New York is
33-1/8 miles long. The Otira in New Zealand is 5 1-3 miles long. The
tunnel which drains the Freiberg mines, Saxony, is 31-1/2 miles long.

The St. Clair tunnel, connecting Sarnia, Ont., with Port Huron, Mich.,
is 2 miles long. The St. Gotthard tunnel in the Alps is 9 1-3 miles
long. The Strawberry tunnel in the Wasatch Mountains is 50 miles long.

=Hair Growers.=--Notwithstanding the claims made by advertisers of
patent nostrums, the writer has not as yet heard of a preparation or
treatment which will restore hair after the hair cells are dead. It
appears to be utterly impossible to grow hair upon a bald head, or upon
a bald spot, unless the roots of the hair remain, notwithstanding the
claims made by sellers of hair tonics. Falling hair may be prevented
in many cases by the use of a good hair tonic, but as different
people require different preparations, it is inadvisable to give any
prescription here. A physician should be consulted, and a prescription
obtained from him, adapted to conditions. Many of the advertised hair
tonics contain lead and other poisonous drugs. So far as is known,
there is not a preparation or contrivance of any kind which will
restore gray hair to its former color. All nostrums advertised to do
it are simply hair dyes. The medical profession has not discovered
a method of preventing gray hair. Most of the advertised hair dyes
contain lead and other poisons, and are dangerous to use, and the
dyeing of the hair is not to be recommended even though a nonpoisonous
dye is used. As the dye can only cover the hair in sight, it must be
used constantly, or each separate hair will be of two colors.

=Half-Century of Life.=--A French statistician states that a man fifty
years of age has spent 6000 days in sleep, has worked 6500 days; walked
800 days; enjoyed some amusement 4000 days; spent 1500 days in bed; and
was sick 500 days. He further estimates that this man has eaten 17,000
pounds of bread; 16,000 pounds of meat; 4600 pounds of vegetables,
eggs, and fish; and has drank 7000 gallons of liquid.

=Hawaii.=--The Hawaiian Islands have a total area of 6,740 square
miles, and a population of about 160,000. The climate is semitropical,
and pineapple growing and sugar making are the principal industries.

=Hay Industry.=--Over 48,000,000 acres are devoted to hay, producing
nearly 4,500,000 tons, of a value not far from $50,000,000 a year.

=Health.=--Ninety per cent. of common ailments, and fully one-half of
serious diseases, may be prevented if one gives a reasonable amount
of attention to the care of his health. It would be out of place to
present, in this book, any rules or regulations for the maintenance
of health, assuming that it is possible to do so. Any good physician
is competent to advise in the majority of cases, and will prescribe
beneficial exercise and proper food. Most of us eat too much, and
exercise too little. The province of the physician is as much to keep
people well as it is to cure them. Good sense and economy suggest
that a physician be consulted at least once a year, even by those in
apparent health. So-called "doctors' books" should be avoided, unless
recommended by regular practitioners.

=Historical Data=

  STATE OR TERRITORY.  Admitted to the  Population,  Area,   Settled at      Date.          Electoral
                             Union         1910      Sq. M.                         By whom   vote

  Alabama               Dec. 14, 1819    2,138,093   52,250  Mobile           1702  French      12
  Alaska Territory      July 27, 1868       64,356  590,884  Sitka            1801  Russians
  Arizona               Feb. 24, 1863      204,354  113,020  Tucson           1580  Spaniards    3
  Arkansas              June 15, 1836    1,574,449   53,850  Arkansas Post    1685  French       9
  California            Sept. 9, 1850    2,377,549  158,360  San Diego        1769  Spaniards   13
  Colorado              Aug. 1, 1876       799,024  103,925  Near Denver      1858  Americans    6
  CONNECTICUT           Jan. 9, 1788     1,114,756    4,990  Windsor          1635  Puritans     7
  DELAWARE              Dec. 7, 1787       202,322    2,050  Cape Henlopen    1627  Swedes       3
  District of Columbia  July 16, 1790      331,069       70                   1660  English
  Florida               March 3, 1845      752,619   58,680  St. Augustine    1565  Spaniards    6
  GEORGIA               Jan. 2, 1788     2,609,121   59,475  Savannah         1733  English     14
  Hawaii                April 30, 1900     191,909    6,449
  Idaho                 July 3, 1890       325,594   84,800  Coeur d'Alene    1842  Americans    4
  Illinois              Dec. 3, 1818     5,638,591   56,650  Kaskaskia        1720  French      29
  Indiana               Dec. 11, 1816    2,700,876   36,350  Vincennes        1730              15
  Iowa                  March 3, 1845    2,224,771   56,025  Burlington       1788  French      13
  Kansas                Jan. 29, 1861    1,690,949   82,080                   1831  Americans   10
  Kentucky              Feb. 4, 1792     2,289,905   40,400  Lexington        1765  From Va.    13
  Louisiana             April 8, 1812    1,656,388   48,720  Iberville        1699  French      10
  Maine                 March 3, 1820      742,371   33,040  Bristol          1624  English      6
  MARYLAND              April 28, 1788   1,295,346   12,210  St. Mary's       1634  English      8
  MASSACHUSETTS         Feb. 6, 1788     3,366,416    8,315  Plymouth         1620  Puritans    18
  Michigan              Jan. 26, 1837    2,810,173   58,915  Near Detroit     1650  French      15
  Minnesota             May 11, 1858     2,075,708   83,365  St. Peter's R.   1805  Americans   12
  Mississippi           Dec. 10, 1817    1,797,114   46,810  Natchez          1716  From S. C.  10
  Missouri              March 2, 1821    3,293,335   69,415  St. Louis        1764  French      18
  Montana               Nov. 8, 1889       376,053  146,080                   1809  Americans    4
  Nebraska              March 1, 1867    1,192,214   77,510  Bellevue         1847  Americans    8
  Nevada                Oct. 13, 1864       81,875  110,700  Genoa            1850  Americans    3
  NEW HAMPSHIRE         June 21, 1788      430,572    9,305  Dov. & Portsm'th 1623  Puritans     4
  NEW JERSEY            Dec. 18, 1787    2,537,167    7,815  Bergen           1620  Swedes      14
  New Mexico            Sept. 9, 1850      327,301  122,580  Santa Fe         1537  Spaniards    3
  NEW YORK              July 26, 1788    9,113,614   49,170  Manhattan Isl'd  1614  Dutch       45
  NORTH CAROLINA        May 23, 1785     2,206,287   52,250  Albemarle        1650  English     12
  North Dakota          Nov. 2, 1889       577,056   70,795  Pembina          1780  French       5
  Ohio                  Nov. 29, 1802    4,767,121   41,060  Marietta         1788  Americans   24
  Oklahoma              Nov. 16, 1907    1,657,155   70,430                   1889  Americans   10
  Oregon                Feb. 14, 1859      672,765   96,030  Astoria          1810  Americans    5
  PENNSYLVANIA          Dec. 12, 1787    7,665,111   45,215  Delaware R.      1682  English     38
  Philippines           Nov. 28, 1898    7,000,000  114,000  Manila           1570  Spaniards
  Porto Rico            Aug. 12, 1898    1,118,012    3,600  Caparra          1510  Spaniards
  RHODE ISLAND          May 29, 1790       542,610    1,250  Providence       1636  English      5
  SOUTH CAROLINA        May 23, 1788     1,515,400   30,570  Port Royal       1670  Huguenots    9
  South Dakota          Nov. 2, 1889       583,888   77,650  Sioux Falls      1856  Americans    5
  Tennessee             June 1, 1796     2,184,789   42,050  Ft. Loudon       1757  English     12
  Texas                 Dec. 29, 1845    3,896,542  265,780  Matagorda B.     1686  French      20
  Utah                  Jan. 4, 1896       373,351   84,970  Salt Lake City   1847  Americans    4
  Vermont               Feb. 18, 1791      355,956    9,565  Ft. Dummer       1764  English      4
  VIRGINIA              June 26, 1788    2,061,612   42,450  Jamestown        1607  English     12
  Washington            Nov. 11, 1889    1,141,990   69,180  Astoria          1811  Americans    7
  West Virginia         Dec. 31, 1862    1,221,119   24,780  Wheeling         1774  English     13
  Wisconsin             May 29, 1848     2,333,860   56,040  Green Bay        1670  French       3
  Wyoming               July 11, 1890      145,965   97,890  Ft. Laramie      1834  Americans

=Holy Grail.=--One of the leading themes of medieval romance. It
centers around the cup which was used by Christ at the last supper.

=Household Weights.=--Ten eggs of ordinary size weigh one pound.
Sugar--One pint of sugar weighs twelve ounces. Two teacups
(well-heaped) of sugar weigh one pound. One and one-third pints of
powdered sugar weigh one pound. One pint of the best brown sugar weighs
thirteen ounces. Two teacups (level full) of granulated sugar weigh
one pound. One tablespoon (heaped) of granulated, or best brown, sugar
weighs one ounce. Two and three-quarters teacups (level) of powdered
sugar weigh one pound. Two and one-half teacups (level) of best brown
sugar weigh one pound. Two tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar or flour
weigh one ounce. One pint (heaped) of granulated sugar weighs fourteen

=How to Become a Voter.=--Every male natural-born citizen of the
United States, and all naturalized citizens, are, at the age of 21
years, entitled to vote for all local, State, and National officials;
but before doing so, they must be registered. Registration days are
appointed, and notices of them are posted in prominent places, and
appear in the local newspapers. To become a voter, a citizen must
appear at place of registration and answer certain simple questions.
Any town or city clerk, attorney at law, or official will properly
direct the citizen.

Industrial Occupations

The following table gives the percentages of total occupied population
for the principal groups in the eight leading industrial countries:

                                    United    Great
  Occupation                        States   Britain   France   Germany

  Agriculture                        35.64     12.00    41.42     35.11

  Commercial occupations              9.91     11.39     6.54      6.30

  Conveyances of men, goods
  and messages                        5.95      8.20     2.89      2.89

  Mines and quarries                  2.09      5.00     1.59      3.25

  Metals, machines, implements
  and conveyances                     3.72      7.89     4.35      6.99

  Building and works of construction  4.43      6.77     4.20      6.99

  Textile fabrics                     2.02      6.92     4.55      3.75

  Dress                               4.29      7.23     8.05      5.39

                                   Austria    Hungary   Italy   Belgium

  Agriculture                        60.80      70.15   59.06     21.90

  Commercial occupations              3.34       2.56    3.43     11.79

  Conveyance of men, goods
  and messages                        1.70       1.55    3.12      2.03

  Mines and quarries                  1.56        .78     .89      6.46

  Metals, machines, implements
  and conveyances                     2.78       2.15    2.14      5.95

  Building and works of construction  2.96       1.48    5.02      7.28

  Textile fabrics                     3.26        .37    4.81      6.86

  Dress                               3.92       2.85    6.64      7.86

=Influence of the Ocean on the Climate.=--The ocean has much to do with
the climate of its coast. As a rule, land on or near the ocean has
more irregular weather, and is subject to more frequent changes than
is territory some distance away from it. The ocean, besides, exercises
a great influence on heat and cold. The land in close proximity to it
has a warmer climate than territory far removed from it. While the
thermometer in the summer may not show great variation, breezes coming
from the ocean give an apparent coolness which does not exist inland.
For this reason there are more summer resorts located on the ocean than
away from it.

=Insane.=--There are, in the United States, confined in the insane
asylums, about 172,200 persons, about 25,600 being foreigners,
25,000 naturalized citizens, and 121,500 native-born persons. The
feeble-minded number about 150,000.

=Iron Industry.=--The United States produces annually about 24,000,000
tons of pig iron and about the same amount of steel.

=Jewelry Industry.=--Nearly $65,000,000 is invested in the manufacture
of jewelry, and the annual value of the output exceeds $80,000,000.

=John Doe and Richard Roe.=--Two fictitious names, used in law, one
representing the plaintiff and the other the defendant. In writs of
ejection these names are substituted when the real names of the parties
are unknown or in doubt.

=Kissing the Bible.=--The Jews introduced the custom of swearing on
the Bible, and the custom is still maintained throughout the civilized
world, some of the courts even now requiring that the Bible be
literally kissed before one gives testimony.

=Koran.=--The sacred book of the Mohammedans. The doctrine of the
Koran is the unity of God and the existence of one true religion, with
changeable ceremonies. Punishment for the bad, and rewards for the
good, are presented and exemplified by stories taken from the Bible and
other works. Most of the matter is supposed to have been borrowed from
Jewish works, and bears traces of Jewish influence.

=Language of Gems.=--Amethyst represents peace of mind; Bloodstone
signifies that one's absence is mourned; Diamond, pride; Emerald,
success in love; Ruby stands for a cheerful mind; Sapphire represents
chastity, and was supposed to stand for pure thoughts; Topaz, fidelity,
and is supposed to calm the passions; Turquoise, happiness and success;
Garnet, fidelity; Onyx, reciprocal love; Opal, pure thoughts; Pearl,
innocence and purity.

=Languages of the World.=--It is estimated that there are 3424 distinct
languages or dialects, about 1600 being spoken in America, about 940
in Asia, not far from 600 in Europe, and about 275 in Africa. Probably
more than 150,000,000 people speak the English language, 120,000,000
the German, 90,000,000 Russian, 60,000,000 French, 55,000,000 Spanish,
40,000,000 Italian, 30,000,000 Portuguese. The English dictionaries
contain exceeding 600,000 words, about 300,000 of which are more or
less technical and obsolete. Ordinary conversation does not require
the use of more than 2,000 words. It is said that one can make himself
understood in any language if his vocabulary is about 1,500 words.

Large Cities of North America

  Akron, O.               69,067
  Alameda, Cal.           23,383
  Albany, N. Y.          100,253
  Allentown, Pa.          51,913
  Altoona, Pa.            52,127
  Amsterdam, N.Y.         31,267
  Anderson, Ind.          22,476
  Atlanta, Ga.           154,839
  Atlantic City, N.J.     46,150
  Auburn, N. Y.           34,668
  Augusta, Ga.            41,040
  Aurora, Ill.            29,807
  Austin, Tex.            29,860
  Baltimore, Md.         558,485
  Bangor, Me.             24,803
  Battle Creek, Mich.     25,267
  Bay City, Mich.         45,166
  Bayonne, N. J.          55,545
  Beaumont, Tex.          20,640
  Belleville, Ill.        21,122
  Bellingham, Wash.       24,298
  Berkeley, Cal.          40,434
  Binghamton, N. Y.       48,443
  Birmingham, Ala.       132,685
  Bloomington, Ill.       25,768
  Boston, Mass.          670,585
  Bridgeport, Conn.      102,054
  Brockton, Mass.         56,878
  Brookline, Mass.        27,792
  Buffalo, N. Y.         423,715
  Burlington, Ia.         24,324
  Burlington, Vt.         20,468
  Butler, Pa.             20,728
  Butte, Mont.            39,165
  Calumet, Mich.          30,000
  Cambridge, Mass.       104,839
  Camden, N. J.           94,538
  Canton, O.              50,217
  Cedar Rapids, Ia.       32,811
  Central Falls, R.I.     22,754
  Charleston, S. C.       58,833
  Charleston, W. Va.      22,996
  Charlotte, N. C.        34,014
  Chattanooga, Tenn.      44,604
  Chelsea, Mass.          32,452
  Chester, Pa.            38,537
  Chicago, Ill.        2,185,283
  Chicopee, Mass.         25,401
  Cincinnati, O.         363,591
  Cleveland, O.          560,663
  Clinton, Ia.            25,577
  Cohoes, N. Y.           24,709
  Colorado Spa, Col.      29,078
  Columbia, S. C.         26,319
  Columbus, Ga.           20,554
  Columbus, O.           181,511
  Concord, N. H.          21,497
  Council Bluffs, Ia.     29,292
  Covington, Ky.          53,270
  Cranston, R. I.         21,107
  Cumberland, Md.         21,839
  Dallas, Tex.            92,104
  Danbury, Conn.          20,234
  Danville, Ill.          27,871
  Danville, Va.           19,020
  Davenport, Ia.          43,028
  Dayton, O.             116,577
  Decatur, Ill.           31,140
  Denver, Col.           213,381
  Des Moines, Ia.         86,368
  Detroit, Mich.         465,766
  Dubuque, Ia.            38,494
  Duluth, Minn.           78,466
  East Liverpool, O.      20,387
  Easton, Pa.             28,523
  East Orange, N.J.       34,371
  East St. Louis, Ill.    58,547
  Elgin, Ill.             25,976
  Elizabeth, N. J.        73,409
  Elmira, N. Y.           37,176
  El Paso, Tex.           39,279
  Erie, Pa.               66,525
  Evanston, Ill.          24,978
  Evansville, Ind.        69,647
  Everett, Mass.          33,484
  Everett, Wash.          24,814
  Fall River, Mass.      119,295
  Fitchburg, Mass.        37,826
  Flint, Mich.            38,550
  Fort Smith, Ark.        23,975
  Fort Wayne, Ind.        63,933
  Fort Worth, Tex.        73,312
  Fresno, Cal.            24,892
  Galesburg, Ill.         22,089
  Galveston, Tex.         36,981
  Gloucester, Mass.       24,398
  Gloversville, N.Y.      20,642
  Gr'd Rapids, Mich.     112,571
  Green Bay, Wis.         25,236
  Hamilton, O.            35,279
  Hammond, Ind.           20,925
  Harrisburg, Pa.         64,186
  Hartford, Conn.         98,915
  Haverhill, Mass.        44,115
  Hazleton, Pa.           25,452
  Hoboken, N. J.          70,324
  Holyoke, Mass.          57,730
  Houston, Tex.           78,800
  Huntington, W. Va.      31,161
  Indianapolis, Ind.     233,650
  Jackson, Mich.          31,433
  Jackson, Miss.          21,262
  Jacksonville, Fla.      57,699
  Jamestown, N. Y.        31,297
  Jersey City, N. J.     267,779
  Johnstown, Pa.          55,482
  Joliet, Ill.            34,670
  Joplin, Mo.             32,073
  Kalamazoo, Mich.        39,437
  Kansas City, Kan.       82,331
  Kansas City, Mo.       248,381
  Kenosha, Wis.           21,371
  Kingston, N. Y.         25,908
  Knoxville, Tenn.        36,346
  La Crosse, Wis.         30,417
  Lafayette, Ind.         20,081
  Lancaster, Pa.          47,227
  Lansing, Mich.          31,229
  Lawrence, Mass.         85,892
  Lewiston, Me.           26,247
  Lexington, Ky.          35,099
  Lima, O.                30,508
  Lincoln, Neb.           43,973
  Little Rock, Ark.       45,941
  Lorain, O.              28,883
  Los Angeles, Cal.      319,198
  Louisville, Ky.        223,928
  Lowell, Mass.          106,294
  Lynchburg, Va.          29,494
  Lynn, Mass.             89,336
  McKeesport, Pa.         42,694
  Macon, Ga.              40,665
  Madison, Wis.           25,531
  Malden, Mass.           44,404
  Manchester, N.H.        70,063
  Mansfield, O.           20,768
  Medford, Mass.          23,150
  Memphis, Tenn.         131,105
  Meriden, Conn.          27,265
  Meridian, Miss.         23,285
  Milwaukee, Wis.        373,857
  Minneapolis, Minn.     301,408
  Mobile, Ala.            51,521
  Moline, Ill.            24,199
  Montclair, N. J.        21,550
  Montgomery, Ala.        38,136
  Mt Vernon, N. Y.        30,919
  Muncie, Ind.            24,005
  Muskegon, Mich.         24,062
  Muskogee, Okla.         25,278
  Nashua, N. H.           26,005
  Nashville, Tenn.       110,364
  New Albany, Ind.        20,629
  Newark, N. J.          347,469
  Newark, O.              25,404
  New Bedford, Mass.      96,652
  New Britain, Conn.      43,916
  New Brunswick, N. J.    23,388
  Newburgh, N. Y.         27,805
  New Castle, Pa.         36,280
  New Haven, Conn.       133,605
  New Orleans, La.       339,075
  Newport, Ky.            30,309
  Newport, R. I.          27,149
  Newport News, Va.       20,205
  New Rochelle, N.Y.      28,867
  Newton, Mass.           39,806
  New York, N. Y.      4,766,883
  Niagara Falls, N.Y.     30,445
  Norfolk, Va.            67,452
  Norristown, Pa.         27,875
  North Adams, Mass.      22,019
  Norwich, Conn.          20,367
  Oakland, Cal.          150,174
  Ogden, Utah             25,580
  Oklahoma, Okla.         64,205
  Omaha, Neb.            124,096
  Orange, N. J.           29,030
  Oshkosh, Wis.           33,062
  Oswego, N. Y.           23,368
  Ottumwa, Ia.            22,012
  Paducah, Ky.            22,760
  Pasadena, Cal.          30,291
  Passaic, N. J.          54,773
  Paterson, N. J.        125,600
  Pawtucket, R. I.        51,622
  Pensacola, Fla.         22,982
  Peoria, Ill.            66,950
  Perth Amboy, N.J.       32,121
  Petersburg, Va.         24,127
  Philadelphia, Pa.    1,549,008
  Pittsburgh, Pa.        533,905
  Pittsfield, Mass.       32,121
  Plainfield, N. J.       20,550
  Portland, Me.           58,571
  Portland, Ore.         207,214
  Portsmouth, O.          23,481
  Portsmouth, Va.         33,190
  Pottsville, Pa.         20,236
  Poughkeepsie, N.Y.      27,936
  Providence, R. I.      224,326
  Pueblo, Col.            44,395
  Quincy, Ill.            36,587
  Quincy, Mass.           32,642
  Racine, Wis.            38,002
  Reading, Pa.            96,071
  Richmond, Ind.          22,324
  Richmond, Va.          127,628
  Roanoke, Va.            34,874
  Rochester, N. Y.       218,149
  Rockford, Ill.          45,401
  Rock Island, Ill.       24,335
  Rome, N. Y.             20,497
  Rutland, Vt.            13,546
  Sacramento. Cal.        44,696
  Saginaw, Mich.          50,510
  St. Cloud, Minn.        10,600
  St. Joseph, Mo.         77,403
  St. Louis, Mo.         687,029
  St. Paul, Minn.        214,744
  Salem, Mass.            43,697
  Salt Lake City, Utah    92,777
  San Antonio, Tex.       96,614
  San Diego, Cal.         39,578
  San Francisco, Cal.    416,912
  San Jose, Cal.          28,946
  Savannah, Ga.           65,064
  Schenectady, N.Y.       72,826
  Scranton. Pa.          129,867
  Seattle, Wash.         237,194
  Sheboygan, Wis.         26,398
  Shenandoah, Pa.         25,774
  Shreveport, La.         28,015
  Sioux City, Ia.         47,828
  Somerville, Mass.       77,236
  South Bend, Ind.        53,684
  South Omaha, Neb.       26,259
  Spokane, Wash.         104,402
  Springfield, Ill.       51,678
  Springfield, Mass.      88,926
  Springfield, Mo.        35,201
  Springfield, O.         46,921
  Stamford, Conn.         25,138
  Steubenville, O.        22,391
  Stockton, Cal.          23,253
  Superior, Wis.          40,384
  Syracuse, N. Y.        137,249
  Tacoma, Wash.           83,743
  Tampa, Fla.             37,782
  Taunton, Mass.          34,259
  Terre Haute, Ind.       58,157
  Toledo, O.             168,497
  Topeka, Kan.            43,684

  Berlin, Ont.            15,196
  Brantford. Ont.         23,132
  Calgary, Alberta        43,704
  Charlottet'n, P. E. I.  11,203
  Chatham, Ont.           10,770
  Edmonton, Alberta       24,900
  Fort William, Ont.      16,499
  Galt, Ont.              10,299
  Glace Bay, N. S.        16,562
  Guelph, Ont.            15,175
  Halifax, N. S.          46,619
  Hamilton, Ont.          81,969
  Hull, Que.              18,222
  Kingston, Ont.          18,874
  Lachine, Que.           10,699
  London, Ont.            46,300
  Maisonneuve, Que.       18,684
  Moncton, N. B.          11,345
  Montreal, Que.         470,480
  Moose Jaw, Sask.        13,823
  New Westminster, B. C.  13,199
  Ottawa, Ont.            87,062
  Owen Sound, Ont.        12,558
  Peterborough, Ont.      18,360
  Port Arthur, Ont.       11,220
  Quebec, Que.            78,190
  Regina, Sask.           30,213
  St. Catharines, Ont.    12,484
  St. John, N. B.         42,511
  St. Johns, Que.          6,500
  St. Thomas, Ont.        14,054
  Saskatoon, Sask.        12,004
  Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.  10,984
  Sherbrooke, Que.        16,405
  South Vancouver, B. C.  16,126
  Stratford, Ont.         12,946
  Sydney, N. S.           17,723
  Three Rivers, Que.      13,691
  Toronto, Ont.          376,538
  Vancouver, B. C.       100,401
  Victoria, B. C.         31,660
  Westmount, Que.         14,579
  Windsor, Ont.           17,829
  Winnipeg, Man.         136,035

=Law.=--Every one within the United States is amenable: first, to the
laws laid down by the Constitution of the United States; secondly,
to any laws which may be made by Congress; thirdly, to State laws;
fourthly, to county law; fifthly, to local ordinances passed by the
city or town. No local ordinance can be enforced if it is contrary
to the law of the State, and no State law holds if it is at variance
with the Constitution of the United States. The Supreme Court of each
State passes upon the constitutionality of all laws made within the
State, and the Supreme Court of the United States is the final Court
of appeal. A law made by Congress is not valid if it is declared
unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States, nor may any
State law be enforced if the Supreme Court of that State considers it

(Exclusive of the United States)

Leading Cities of the World

  Alexandria, Egypt           383,934
  Amsterdam, Neth.            564,186
  Antwerp, Belgium            310,903
  Bangkok, Siam               600,000
  Barcelona, Spain            533,000
  Belfast, Ireland            387,000
  Berlin, Germany           2,040,148
  Birmingham, Eng.            565,000
  Bombay, India               776,000
  Bordeaux, France            257,638
  Bremen, Germany             214,861
  Breslau, Germany            470,904
  Bristol, England            378,000
  Brussels, Belgium           630,000
  Budapest, Hung.             812,728
  Buenos Aires, Ar.         1,200,000
  Cairo, Egypt                692,657
  Calcutta, India           1,026,987
  Canton, China               900,000
  Changchau, China            500,000
  Charlottenburg, Germany     239,559
  Chingtu, China            1,000,000
  Christiania, Nor.           229,101
  Chungking, China            600,000
  Constantinople, Turkey    1,125,000
  Copenhagen, Den.            450,000
  Damascus, Turkey in Asia    225,000
  Dresden, Ger.               516,990
  Dublin, Ireland             394,528
  Edinburgh, Scot.            350,000
  Florence, Italy             205,589
  Fuchau, China               624,000
  Genoa, Italy                234,710
  Glasgow, Scot.              865,000
  Hague, Netherlds.           256,719
  Haidarabad, Ind.            448,446
  Hangchau, China             600,000
  Hamburg, Ger.               802,793
  Hankau, China               870,000
  Havana, Cuba                297,159
  Hongkong, China             421,499
  Hull, England               275,552
  Kief, Russia                319,000
  Kyoto, Japan                441,460
  Lanchau, China              500,000
  Leeds, England              456,787
  Leicester, England          228,132
  Leipzig, Germany            503,672
  Lisbon, Portugal            356,009
  Liverpool, Eng.             758,203
  London, Eng.              4,866,480
  Lyons, France               459,099
  Madras, India               509,346
  Madrid, Spain               539,835
  Manchester, Eng.            710,687
  Manila, Phil. Isl.          219,928
  Marseilles, France          491,161
  Melbourne, Aus.             538,000
  Mexico, Mexico              450,000
  Milan, Italy                593,938
  Montreal, Canada            267,730
  Moscow, Russia            1,359,254
  Munich, Germany             538,983
  Naples, Italy               563,540
  Osaka, Japan                995,945
  Palermo, Italy              309,694
  Paris, France             2,714,068
  Peking, China             1,600,000
  Portsmouth, Eng.            201,975
  Rio de Janeiro, Brazil      900,000
  Rome, Italy                 560,726
  St Petersburg, Russia     1,678,000
  Santiago, Chile             400,000
  Sao Paulo, Brazil           340,000
  Shanghai, China             651,005
  Sheffield, Eng.             470,948
  Siangtan, China             850,000
  Singan, China               875,000
  Smyrna, Turkey in Asia      201,000
  Stockholm, Swed.            337,460
  Suchau, China               500,000
  Sydney, Australia           550,600
  Tientsin, China             750,000
  Tokyo, Japan              2,221,458
  Toronto, Canada             208,040
  Trieste, Austria            205,130
  Tunis, Tunis.               227,519
  Vienna, Austria           2,021,052
  Warsaw, Russia              756,426
  Winnipeg, Canada            150,000
  Wuchang, China              800,000
  Yokohama, Japan             392,871

=Liquor and Wine Industry.=--The United States produces about
101,000,000 gallons of whisky, about 2,700,000 gallons of rum, about
3,400,000 gallons of gin, 24,500,000 gallons of alcohol, and about
14,000,000 gallons of commercial alcohol,--a total of about 175,500,000
gallons. The United States produces over 2,000,000 gallons of malt
liquors and nearly 57,000,000 gallons of wine annually.

=Literature.=--Literature is not, and probably never will be,
satisfactorily defined. Broadly speaking, it is any form of written
or printed words upon any subject. More specifically defined, the
term "literature" would apply to essays, poetry, stories, and other
works of fiction of the grade acceptable to the best magazines and
book publishers. Works of history may be called literature, and
scientific works come under this classification; but historical writers
are usually called historians, and scientific writers are known as
scientists. Story writers are usually classified as novelists, and
newspaper writers as journalists. A book, commonly, if not technically,
speaking, is a volume usually bound in board covers and containing one
hundred or more pages, but it may be a book if there are only a dozen
pages with covers of paper.

=Magnetic Poles.=--The magnetic poles are not, as most people suppose,
identical with the geographical poles, the north magnetic pole being
south of the geographical North Pole, and the south magnetic pole
being north of the geographical South Pole. The north magnetic pole is
located at about 77° 59´, and the south at about 72° 23´.

=Mammoth Cave.=--Mammoth Cave, probably the best known of similar
freaks of Nature, is located in Kentucky, and has a length of nine
miles. It contains many avenues, chambers, domes, lakes, rivers, and
waterfalls. Echo River, inside of the cave, is 3/4 of a mile in length,
from a few feet to 200 ft. wide, and has a depth of from 10 to 30 ft.
It is well filled with fish, none of which have eyes.

=Meat Industry.=--There are, in the United States, about 1650 slaughter
houses employing nearly 110,000 people with about $4,000,000 capital
invested. The annual product of the meat industry is not far from

=Medicine Chests.=--Every one should maintain a medicine chest or shelf
containing simple remedies, but these should never be selected without
the advice of a physician. Thousands of persons injure themselves by
self-dosing. When in the slightest doubt, visit or call your doctor.
Most ailments can be prevented or cured by a skillful physician, but
if allowed to run they may result seriously or fatally. Do not take
chances with yourself.

=Microscope.=--The first microscope is said to have been invented by
a Dutchman in 1590, but its invention has been attributed to Galileo
in 1610. The microscope has been perfected until a millionth part of a
grain of blood may be detected by means of the spectrum lens.

=Mineral Industry.=--The minerals mined in the United States every year
have a value of about $904,000,000.

=Mining Industry.=--Nearly 1,140,000 men are engaged in the mines of
the United States, over 90 per cent of whom are wage earners.

=Moon.=--The moon is the earth's only satellite. It circles around the
earth every 27 days, 7 hours, and 43.2 minutes, on the average; but
because its motion is common with the earth around the sun, the mean
duration of the lunar month is 29 days, 12 hours, 44.05 minutes. The
distance from the earth to the moon is from 238,850 to 252,820 miles,
although at times the moon is only 216,477 miles from the earth. The
moon's diameter is 2,162 miles. The surface of the moon contains about
14,685,000 square miles, or about four times the area of Europe. The
moon, although very much smaller than the planets, exerts a stronger
attractive force on the earth because of its nearness. The moon is,
unscientifically speaking, drawing everything on the earth towards it,
while at the same time the earth is exerting the same attractive force
upon the moon. Because of this, the oceans, being composed of water,
which is easily movable, respond and move with the moon, causing the
tides. This same attractive force is brought to bear upon the earth
itself, but because it is of greater density it is not perceptibly
affected. Theoretically, every lake and pond has a tide, but the
motion of the water is too slight to be measured. The moon is supposed
to possess neither atmosphere nor water. Thousands of ages ago the
lunar surface was subjected to terrible volcanic actions which forced
the land into ridges, some of them supposed to exceed 20,000 feet in
height, and rents and depressions of corresponding depths. The surface
of the moon appears to be desolate and to be unfitted to support any
form of life.

=Mortality.=--About 15 people out of every thousand of the population
of the United States die during each year. The percentage of male
deaths is somewhat larger than that of female, due to accidents. The
annual death rate per thousand is: 13.7 in Los Angeles, 15 in San
Francisco, 17 in Denver, 19 in Washington, D. C., 14.6 in Chicago,
14.3 in Indianapolis, 15.5 in Louisville, 20.2 in New Orleans, 18.7
in Baltimore, 16.8 in Boston, 14.0 in Detroit, 10.7 in Minneapolis,
11.4 in St. Paul, 14.4 in Kansas City, 15.8 in St. Louis, 14.7 in
Omaha, 16 in New York, 16.5 in Cincinnati, 12.9 in Cleveland, 16.4 in
Philadelphia, 15.8 in Pittsburgh, 20.1 in Memphis.

=Mortgages.=--A mortgage is a bill-of-sale from the owner of property
to another competent to hold property. The one giving the mortgage
is called the mortgagee, and the one to whom it is made is known as
the mortgagor. A mortgage differs from a bill-of-sale in that the
mortgagor cannot obtain ownership of the property mortgaged, unless the
amount involved is not paid him at the expiration of the mortgage, or
the interest is not met. All mortgages must be registered. Mortgaged
property cannot be moved, altered, or changed without the consent of
the mortgagor. The property, unless it is land, should be insured, and
the insurance policy made payable to the mortgagor in case of loss by
fire, but the mortgagor can collect only that part of the insurance
money which represents the amount of the mortgage. Should the mortgagee
fail to pay interest at the period stated in the mortgage, or should
he be unable or refuse to liquidate the mortgage at its expiration,
the mortgagor cannot seize the property except by act of law. It must
be advertised and sold at auction. If the mortgaged property brings
a price lower than the face of the mortgage, the mortgagor loses the
difference, and has to bear the expense of foreclosure. If more than
the face of the mortgage is realized, the mortgagee is entitled to
what is received, less the face of the mortgage and the expenses of

=Natural Gas.=--A gas generated underground, and due to chemical action
beneath the earth's surface. It is found in various parts of the world,
and is used for fuel and illuminating, largely for the former.

=Naturalization.=--Any foreigner or alien, except those of the
Mongolian or Brown Race, may become a citizen of the United States, and
be entitled to every privilege granted to natural-born citizens, except
that he cannot become President or Vice-President of the United States.
An alien cannot make application for naturalization or citizenship
until he is 18 years of age, and he cannot apply for his Second or
Final Paper of Naturalization until he has lived in the United States
for at least five years, and he must make his Declaration of Intention
two or more years before he applies for his Second or Final Paper. The
applicant must be a resident of the State in which he makes petition
for naturalization not less than one year, and have lived at least
four years additional in the same State, or in some other State. He
must make application to the United States District Court in the State
in which he lives. The cost of becoming naturalized is less than
$5.00. A married woman does not have to be naturalized if her husband
has become a citizen of the United States, and the children of the
naturalized parents become citizens at 21 years of age without taking
out naturalization papers. Full particulars regarding the process
of naturalization are very plainly and explicitly stated in a book
entitled "How to Obtain Citizenship," by Nathaniel C. Fowler, Jr.

=Newspapers.=--A newspaper is a periodical issued as often as once a
week, and contains the news of the day, either local or general, or
both. The majority of newspapers are of four or eight pages, but often
the number of pages run as high as 24, or even 72, and occasionally
100 pages are issued at a time. In the United States and Canada,
there are published over 2,600 daily newspapers, about 75 tri-weekly,
a little less than 650 semi-weekly, considerable more than 17,000
weekly. Of other periodicals, about 60 are published every two weeks,
somewhat less than 300 semi-monthly, more than 3,000 monthly, about 80
bi-monthly, and less than 250 quarterly. Periodicals published less
often than once a week are not considered newspapers, although they may
contain news.

=New York Stock Exchange.=--A single seat, carrying with it membership
in the New York Stock Exchange, has been sold for as much as $96,000,
and the lowest price recorded is $49,500.

=Nicknames of States.=--Alabama, "Cotton State"; Alaska, "Eldorado of
the North"; Arkansas, "Bear"; California, "Golden Land"; Colorado,
"Centennial State"; Connecticut, "Nutmeg"; Delaware, "Blue Hen" and
"Diamond State"; Florida, "Gulf" and "Flowery State"; Georgia, "Cracker
State"; Indiana, "Hoosier State"; Iowa, "Hawkeye"; Kansas, "Prairie";
Kentucky, "Blue Grass State"; Louisiana, "Creole State"; Maine, "Pine
Tree State"; Maryland, "Old Line State"; Massachusetts, "Old Bay
State"; Michigan, "Lake State"; Minnesota, "Gopher State"; Mississippi,
"Bayou State"; Missouri, "Bullion State"; Montana, "Mountain State";
Nebraska, "Black Water State"; Nevada, "Silver State"; New Hampshire,
"Granite State"; New Jersey, "Red Mud State"; New York, "Empire State";
North Carolina, "Old North State"; North Dakota, "Cyclone State";
Ohio, "Buckeye State"; Oklahoma, "Boomer State"; Oregon, "Beaver
State"; Pennsylvania, "Keystone State"; Rhode Island, "Little Rhody";
Tennessee, "Old Franklin State"; South Carolina, "Palmetto State";
South Dakota, "Blizzard State"; Texas, "Lone-Star State"; Utah, "Mormon
State"; Vermont, "Green Mountain State"; Virginia, "Old Dominion"; West
Virginia, "Panhandle State"; Wisconsin, "Badger State".

=Nitroglycerine.=--Nitroglycerine is made of common glycerine mixed
with strong nitric and sulphuric acids, and is extremely explosive
and dangerous. It has to be exploded by concussion or shock, and not
by fire. It is used for blasting and other purposes, and occasionally
is taken in very small doses as a medicine, but never should be used
medicinally except by the advice of a physician who should be present
when it is taken.

=Notes.=--A note should be signed in ink, but a pencil signature is
good in law. A note is not payable on demand unless it so states. A
note may be payable to order or to bearer. If payable to order, and
transferred, it must be endorsed. The endorser of a note is liable for
its payment, if the maker of it does not pay it. Each signer of a joint
note is liable for the full amount. Notes do not bear interest unless
so stated. "Value received" should be written in every note, but it is
not essential.

=Ocean Ownership.=--The ocean is common property, and no one has any
legal title to it, except that each country has jurisdiction over the
sea within three miles of the shore, but these three miles are usually
reckoned from promontories, and not necessarily from the coast-line,
so that a nation may have control of a vast area of water and several
hundred miles from shore.

=Old Time Ships.=--The glory of the American merchant service, so
far as sailing vessels are concerned, has passed into history.
Comparatively few sailing vessels, save coasting schooners, ply the
seas, as steam has taken the place of sail. The majority of old ship
captains are either dead or commanding ocean liners or coastwise
steamers. In the old days, sailing clipper ships made the trip from
New York to San Francisco in one hundred days, while the voyage of
ordinary ships was two or three times as long. The old ship "Lightning"
sailed from Boston to Liverpool at a greater speed than that obtained
by any steamship of its day, the vessel often logging over 500 miles
in 24 hours, and it made the trip in a little less than 14 days.
The "James Baines" sailed from Boston to Liverpool in 12 days and 6
hours, and broke the sailing record between these two ports. The same
vessel made the trip from Liverpool to Melbourne, Australia, in 63
days and returned in 69 days. The "Red Jacket" sailed from New York
to Liverpool in 13 days, 1 hour, and 25 minutes. The "Flying Cloud"
and "Andrew Jackson" sailed from New York to San Francisco in 89 days,
and the "Sea Witch" made the trip from Canton, China, to New York in
74 days, 14 hours. These early clipper ships were quite small, many
of them not being over 200 tons. The first large clipper ship was the
"Ann McKim," which was 43 ft. long, and 493 tons burden. Subsequent
sailing vessels of enormous size were built, the "John Bertram" having
a tonnage of 1080, the "Gamecock" 1,320, the "Staghound" 1,535, the
"Flying Cloud" 1,783, the "Staffordshire" 1,817, the "Sovereign of the
Seas" 2,421 tons, and the "Great Republic" 4,555 tons.

=Palmistry.=--The study of the lines of the palm, which the ancients
believed indicated character and future. Palmistry is to-day practiced
by three classes of people: (1) professional palmists, most of whom
are charlatans; (2) as a diversion; (3) by superstitious people who
believe in it. A scientific study of the subject does not furnish any
evidence that the lines of the hand have any special significance, and
no scientific person gives them any credence.

=Partnership.=--A partnership is an agreement, usually written, between
two or more persons, for the doing of business or for the carrying out
of any contract or for the accomplishment of any work. The partners
may have equal ownership, or it may be unevenly divided. In the equal
partnerships, each partner has the same financial interest and share in
the profits, and also the same right of control. In other partnerships,
the financial investment or interests are unevenly divided; and the
one who holds more than half interest controls the business, unless
otherwise provided for in the partnership agreement. Partners may be
in name only, and not own any of the property. Active partners are
those who give practically all of their time to the conducting of the
business. Silent partners are not likely to take any active part in the
management of the business, but they may control it, if their financial
interest is sufficient. Under common law, no partner has a right to
engage in any other business which would injure the partnership, unless
permitted to do so by the other partners. The acts of one partner bind
all of the rest. If one partner commits fraud in the name of the firm,
the others are financially responsible, although they may have had no
knowledge of his action. The partnership or business may or may not
be liable for the private debts of any one partner. Usually a partner
cannot be held for more than his interest in the firm. Partnerships
may be dissolved by mutual agreement or by judicial act, and it is
usual to publish the dissolution of partnership in one or more of the
local newspapers, and to send notices of it to the trade. A limited
partnership does not hold any partner or the concern itself liable for
more than the amount of the property in the business, but a partnership
will not be considered limited unless it is publicly announced.

Patent Medicines

It has been said, and with some degree of truth, that Americans are
self-dosers, and that they are prone to attempt to cure themselves,
even of serious diseases, without consulting a physician.

The sale of patent medicines is enormous, although I think it is
diminishing in volume, due to the exposures which have appeared in many
periodicals, and to the better education of the people.

A patent medicine, technically speaking, is a concoction or drug, or
combination of drugs, claimed to be a remedy or cure for a specific
ill or for all of the ills that the human flesh is heir to. It is
manufactured in large quantities, and bottled or put up with attractive
labels, with more or less directions given for its use. Many of the
patent medicines are either absolutely ineffective or are positively
dangerous. Many of them contain a large percentage of alcohol, which
acts as a transient tonic, and produces an exhilaration which the
sufferer is likely to consider beneficial. The effect of the alcohol
soon wears off, and the taker is much worse for having swallowed it.

Other patent medicines contain cocaine and other dangerous drugs,
which never should be taken without the advice of a physician. The
effect of some patent medicines is likely to be immediate and to appear
to be efficacious. Some patent medicines, however, are made of pure
drugs, and are really valuable. I am, however, opposed to the use of
patent medicines, even of those which are carefully and scientifically

It is obvious that the layman cannot diagnose his trouble, and the
label on the bottle, or the pamphlet accompanying it, is likely to
confuse him, and in many cases makes him feel that he is suffering from
an ailment or disease which does not exist.

Headache powders, cough medicines, tonics of all kinds, soothing syrup
for babies, should be conscientiously avoided, unless prescribed by a
physician. They are likely to contain dangerous drugs, and may have no
medicinal properties at all.

Because a certain medicine has worked well with one person should
not be taken as evidence that another can take it to his advantage.
Similar symptoms may exist, and yet the root of the trouble be entirely

Even if every patent medicine were pure and scientifically compounded,
I would advise against their use, unless recommended by a physician,
who is likely to diagnose correctly the trouble and to apply the right

Physicians are not infallible, but every reputable physician is a
graduate of a medical school, a reader of current medical magazines,
and is constantly in touch, by experience, with other physicians and
with human ailments. Even if he is not an expert, his close proximity
to disease makes him far more reliable than the label on the medicine

I would advise no one to place himself in the hands of any physician
who is not a member of one of the great medical associations,
maintained by both the allopathic and homeopathic schools.

These associations will not admit into membership any one who has not
been properly instructed, and who is not reliable. Any physician of
standing, and with a sufficient knowledge of the human body, can obtain
membership in these associations, and those who are not members may be
looked upon with suspicion, although it is quite likely that some of
them are reliable; but as they are outside of the associations, they
cannot have the facilities of consultation and experience, which are
given to those in regular standing in an association.

It is obvious that one of even ordinary ability, who is educated in
the profession, is more reliable than one who doctors by his wits,
even though he may appear to be successful. Although there are some
charlatans in the profession, who practice in their own interest more
than in that of their patients, the average physician represents
the highest order of civilization. He knows at the start that his
profession is not likely to bring him heavy financial return. He
goes into it with his eyes open. He is under the strictest rules and
regulations, and cannot maintain his standing in the associations, or
with the public, if he does not practice legitimately. He has every
facility at his command, and although he is not always successful, he
is far better able to produce results than is one who has not been
properly educated, and who lacks experience and association with
other doctors, and who has not had hospital practice. Every reputable
physician has not only graduated from a medical school, but was given
opportunity to practice in hospitals and elsewhere before he became a
family physician. The so-called specialist began as a family physician,
and gives his time somewhat exclusively to one disease or to surgery.
The surgeon, while a regular physician, specializes in surgery, and
comparatively few family practitioners will handle a serious surgical
case, except in emergencies. They refer the patient to the skilled

The physician is both a curer and preventor of disease. I would advise
every one, no matter how healthy he may be, to consult a reputable
physician once a year, and to be overhauled, so to speak. Most troubles
can be obviated if taken in time. A symptom seemingly serious to the
one having it may be of little consequence, and yet it may be the
forerunner of an incurable disease. If a good physician is consulted
in time, he may either obviate the trouble or prevent its rapid
increase. No one should attempt to diagnose his own condition. Even
the physician will not do so for himself, because no one can tell by
his feelings exactly what is the matter with him or what would better
be done. The physician when sick, consults other physicians, if his
trouble is of any seriousness. The expense of an annual examination
need not exceed two or three dollars, and some physicians will make
it for a dollar. They are likely to locate any trouble, although it
may have just appeared and the symptom be slight. They will prescribe
a treatment, which cannot fail to be of benefit to those who consult
them. Therefore, I say, visit a good physician at least once a year,
irrespective of your health.

In every city, and in many of the towns, are practicing alleged
physicians or doctors, who claim to be unusually expert and able to
cure where others fail, or even to cure what cannot be cured. Some of
them are graduates of medical schools, and are really good physicians,
but most of them are irresponsible and without real ability. Their
method frequently makes the patient feel that he is being cured, and
cured rapidly. They use appliances and drugs which have an immediate
effect, usually to the patients' injury; or they practice the same as
regular physicians do and give the patient false encouragement. It
seems to me obvious that no so-called outside practitioner, who is not
a member of the associations, can possibly possess any information or
know of any method of treatment with which the regular physicians are
unfamiliar. These charlatans play upon the feelings of the patient,
and it is said that some of them keep him sick for financial reasons.
Therefore, I warn the reader against any physician who is not a member
of one of the two great associations, and who is not recognized by the
profession at large. Even though some of them are skillful, it is safer
to employ a physician of standing than to take one who makes a business
of practicing, and who is not answerable to the rules and regulations
enforced by the associations, and who cannot, because of his removal
from them, obtain and enjoy the privilege of consultation with other
members of his craft. Do not take chances with your body. Better risk
the few mistakes made by physicians than by your own doctor.

=Perpetual Motion.=--Scientists, particularly early ones, made frantic
and continuous endeavors to invent what was supposed to be perpetual
motion; that is, a machine which will keep perpetually in motion
without being replenished or supplied with outside energy. About 60
years ago scientific bodies refused to consider it, as it was proved
to be impossible. The "Scientific American," many years ago, likened
perpetual motion to an energy which will permit a man to lift himself
by his boot-straps.

=Petroleum Industry.=--The annual production is considerably more than
9,000,000,000 gallons a year.

=Philippine Islands.=--The Philippine Islands consist of over 3,000
islands, having an area of about 115,000 square miles. The population
exceeds 7,500,000; and the density of population is about 67 to the
square mile, as against 26 to the square mile in the United States. The
climate is tropical.

=Pianoforte.=--The piano or pianoforte is said to have been invented in
Italy and to have appeared in 1714. Germany, however, claims the honor
of its invention. It was introduced into England in 1766.

=Plate Glass.=--The sand, out of which glass is made, is melted until
it is of about the consistency of molasses. It is then poured into a
casting trough or a table mounted on wheels so it can be run close to
the mouth of the furnace. The molten glass is poured into the trough
through a sluice-way, and before it hardens, heavy rollers pass over
it, reducing it to the required thickness. It is rolled to about 9-16
of an inch, and then by further rolling and polishing it is reduced to
the required thickness. It further passes through a smelting oven which
thoroughly hardens it. Then, it is again polished.

=Playing Cards.=--The origin is unknown, although they appeared in
Europe in 1350. It is claimed that the Arabs used playing cards at a
much earlier date. It is estimated that over sixteen million packs of
playing cards are made annually in the United States.

=Pole Star.=--This is a star of the second magnitude, found at the
extremity of the handle of the Little Dipper.

Population and Land Area of the United States

                                              Land area
  Geographic Division           Population,    (square
       and State                   1910         miles),

    CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES   91,972,266    2,973,890

    New England                  6,552,681       61,976
    Middle Atlantic             19,315,892      100,000
    East North Central          18,250,621      245,564
    West North Central          11,637,921      510,804
    South Atlantic              12,194,895      269,071
    East South Central           8,409,901      179,509
    West South Central           8,784,534      429,746
    Mountain                     2,633,517      859,125
    Pacific                      4,192,304      318,095
                                ----------     --------

    Maine                          742,371       29,895
    New Hampshire                  430,572        9,031
    Vermont                        355,956        9,124
    Massachusetts                3,366,416        8,039
    Rhode Island                   542,610        1,067
    Connecticut                  1,114,756        4,820
    New York                     9,113,614       47,654
    New Jersey                   2,537,167        7,514
    Pennsylvania                 7,665,111       44,832
    Ohio                         4,767,121       40,740
    Indiana                      2,700,876       36,045
    Illinois                     5,638,591       56,043
    Michigan                     2,810,173       57,480
    Wisconsin                    2,333,860       55,256
    Minnesota                    2,075,708       80,858
    Iowa                         2,224,771       55,586
    Missouri                     3,293,335       68,727
    North Dakota                   577,056       70,183
    South Dakota                   583,888       76,868
    Nebraska                     1,192,214       76,808
    Kansas                       1,690,949       81,774
    Delaware                       202,322        1,965
    Maryland                     1,295,346        9,941
    District of Columbia           331,069           60
    Virginia                     2,061,612       40,262
    West Virginia                1,221,119       24,022
    North Carolina               2,206,287       48,740
    South Carolina               1,515,400       30,495
    Georgia                      2,609,121       58,725
    Florida                        752,619       54,861
    Kentucky                     2,289,905       40,181
    Tennessee                    2,184,789       41,687
    Alabama                      2,138,093       51,279
    Mississippi                  1,797,114       46,362
    Arkansas                     1,574,449       52,525
    Louisiana                    1,656,388       45,409
    Oklahoma                     1,657,155       69,414
    Texas                        3,896,542      262,398
    Montana                        376,053      146,201
    Idaho                          325,594       83,354
    Wyoming                        145,965       97,594
    Colorado                       799,024      103,658
    New Mexico                     327,301      122,503
    Arizona                        204,354      113,810
    Utah                           373,351       82,184
    Nevada                          81,875      109,821
    Washington                   1,141,990       66,836
    Oregon                         672,765       95,607
    California                   2,377,549      155,652

Population Per Square Mile

=Continental United States.=--The following summary shows, for
continental United States, the total population, land area in square
miles, and population per square mile of land area at each census from
1790 to 1910, inclusive:

                            Land area  Population
  Census Year   Population   (square      per
                              miles)    sq. mile

  1910          91,972,266  2,973,890    30.9
  1900          75,994,575  2,974,159    25.6
  1890          62,947,714  2,973,965    21.2
  1880          50,155,783  2,973,965    16.9
  1870          38,558,371  2,973,965    13.0
  1860          31,443,321  2,973,965    10.6
  1850          23,191,876  2,944,337     7.9
  1840          17,069,453  1,753,588     9.7
  1830          12,866,020  1,753,588     7.3
  1820           9,638,453  1,753,588     5.5
  1810           7,239,881  1,685,865     4.3
  1800           5,308,483    867,980     6.1
  1790           3,929,214    867,980     4.5

According to the census of 1910, there are in continental United
States, on the average, 30.9 inhabitants to each square mile of land
area, or nearly seven times the number per square mile shown for the
much smaller area of 1790, and nearly three times the number shown for
1860. The decrease in the average number of inhabitants per square mile
at the census of 1810 and 1850 was due in each case to large accessions
of thinly populated territory during the decade preceding the census.

In the order of their density of population the nine geographic
divisions of the country rank as follows: Middle Atlantic, 193.2
inhabitants per square mile; New England, 105.7; East North Central,
74.3; East South Central, 46.8; South Atlantic, 45.3; West North
Central, 22.8; West South Central, 20.4; Pacific, 13.2; and Mountain,
3.1. The changes in density from census to census correspond precisely
with the changes in area and the total number of inhabitants. It
may be noted, however, that on account of the rapid increase in
their population the Pacific states in 1910 for the first time are
approaching, in density of population, conditions found in the states
between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains.

=Porto Rico.=--Porto Rico contains about 3,600 square miles, and has a
population of considerable more than a million. The climate is tropical
and the land is extremely fertile.

=Postage Stamps.=--They were invented in 1834, and were introduced into
America in 1847.

=Poultry and Egg Industry.=--Nearly 500,000,000 of poultry, including
chickens, turkeys, geese, and pigeons, are raised in the United
States annually. The total value is about $203,000,000. Each year the
production of eggs is about 1,600,000,000 dozen. The people of the
United States eat about 5-1/2 fowls per year per capita, and a little
over 17 dozen eggs.

Presidents of the United States

  (1) George Washington.
  (2) John Adams.
  (3) Thomas Jefferson.
  (4) James Madison.
  (5) James Monroe.
  (6) John Quincy Adams.
  (7) Andrew Jackson.
  (8) Martin Van Buren.
  (9) William Henry Harrison.
  (10) John Tyler.
  (11) James K. Polk.
  (12) Zachary Taylor.
  (13) Millard Fillmore.
  (14) Franklin Pierce.
  (15) James Buchanan.
  (16) Abraham Lincoln.
  (17) Andrew Johnson.
  (18) Ulysses S. Grant.
  (19) Rutherford B. Hayes.
  (20) James A. Garfield.
  (21) Chester A. Arthur.
  (22) Grover Cleveland.
  (23) Benjamin Harrison.
  (24) William McKinley.
  (25) Theodore Roosevelt.
  (26) William H. Taft.
  (27) Woodrow Wilson.

Principal Countries of the World

  COUNTRY                     CAPITAL           SQ. MILES   POPULATION

  Abyssinia                   Addis Abeba         200,000   11,000,000
  Afghanistan                 Kabul               250,000    4,750,000
  Argentina                   Buenos Aires      1,135,840    6,210,428
  Australia                                     2,974,581    4,197,037
  Austria-Hungary             Vienna, Budapest    241,333   45,176,230
  Belgium                     Brussels             11,373    6,693,548
  Bolivia                     Sucre               605,400    1,953,916
  Brazil                      Rio de Janeiro    3,292,991   17,388,556
  British Empire              London           11,343,706  394,246,882
  Bulgaria                    Sofia                38,080    4,035,623
  Canada                      Ottawa            3,745,574    6,153,789
  Chile                       Santiago            307,620    3,399,928
  Chinese Empire              Peking            4,277,170  426,047,325
  Colombia                    Bogota              505,000    4,303,000
  Costa Rica                  San Jose             18,400      351,176
  Cuba                        Havana               44,000    2,048,980
  Denmark                     Copenhagen           15,592    2,605,268
  Ecuador                     Quito               116,000    1,400,000
  Egypt[A]                    Cairo               400,000   11,189,978
  France                      Paris               207,054   39,252,245
  Germany                     Berlin              208,780   60,641,278
  Great Britain & Ireland     London              121,390   44,538,718
  Greece                      Athens               25,014    2,631,952
  Guatemala                   New Guatemala        48,290    1,882,992
  Haiti                       Port au Prince       10,204    1,500,000
  Honduras                    Tegucigalpa          46,250      650,000
  India                       Calcutta          1,776,517  294,317,082
  Italy                       Rome                110,550   33,909,776
  Japanese Empire             Tokyo               175,000   50,000,000
  Luxemburg                   Luxemburg               998      236,543
  Mexico                      Mexico              767,005   13,605,919
  Montenegro                  Cettinie              3,630      250,000
  Morocco                     Fez, Morocco        219,000    5,000,000
  Netherlands                 The Hague            12,648    5,747,269
  Nicaragua                   Managua              49,200      500,000
  Norway                      Christiania         124,129    2,240,032
  Panama                      Panama               31,571      300,000
  Paraguay                    Asuncion            157,000      631,347
  Persia                      Teheran             628,000    9,500,000
  Peru                        Lima                695,733    4,609,999
  Portugal                    Lisbon               35,490    5,423,132
  Roumania                    Bukharest            50,720    5,956,690
  Russia                      St. Petersburg    8,647,657  152,009,300
  Salvador                    San Salvador          7,225    1,700,000
  San Marino                  San Marino               38       11,439
  Santo Domingo               Santo Domingo        18,045      610,000
  Servia                      Belgrade             18,650    2,493,882
  Siam                        Bangkok             195,000    6,686,846
  Spain                       Madrid              190,050   18,618,086
  Sweden                      Stockholm           172,876    5,377,713
  Switzerland                 Bern                 15,976    3,463,609
  Turkey and trib. states[B]  Constantinople    1,165,020   25,414,300
  United South Africa         Pretoria. C. T.     473,184    5,450,217
  United States               Washington        3,567,563   88,566,034
  Uruguay                     Montevideo           72,210    1,140,799
  Venezuela                   Caracas             364,000    2,646,835

  [A] Under suzerainty of Turkey, but actual administration controlled by
Great Britain.

  [B] Exclusive of Egypt.

=Printing Presses.=--There are three distinct classes of printing
presses: (1) The ordinary job press which is used for the printing of
cards, letter-heads, billheads, and other small matter. It is run by
power or by a foot treadle. Each card or piece of paper is fed into
the press by hand and removed by hand. The average speed is from 1,000
to 1,200 an hour, but the most expert feeders can handle about 1,500
cards an hour, and the record is not far from 2,000. (2) The cylinder
press. This press is used for the printing of weekly newspapers, books,
catalogues, and other large work. The type is placed upon a flat bed
having a lateral movement, and the paper is fed by hand onto a cylinder
which revolves over the moving bed. These presses have a speed of
from 1,000 to 2,000 an hour, but comparatively few hand-feeders can
handle more than 1,500, or 1,600 sheets in an hour. (3) The perfecting
press. This press is used exclusively for the printing of large city
newspapers, and some books, and catalogues are printed upon it. The
type matter is cast into to a cylinder. The paper to be printed upon
stereotypes of circular form which are attached is in a continuous
roll and passes between the stereotype cylinder and another roller.
The paper is fed into the press automatically, and is automatically
folded and counted. The largest perfecting press in the world will
print, fold, and count both sides of an eight-page paper at the rate
of 300,000 copies an hour, but the average perfecting press does not
deliver more than 75,000 copies an hour. The perfecting presses used
for books, magazines, and catalogues run at a much slower speed.

=Production of Books.=--In 1911, 8,183 books were produced by American
authors of which 1,024 were fiction; 917 were on theology and
religion; 919 of essays and literature; 527 on hygiene; 734 juvenile;
685 of poetry and drama; 300 educational; 196 were devoted to the fine
arts; and 86 to music.

=Public Debt of the United States.=--The interest-bearing debt of
the United States is $964,631,630, and the non-interest-bearing debt
is $375,974,389. The United States has issued $946,242,270 in gold
certificates, $482,367,666 in silver certificates, and treasury notes
to the amount of $2,846,260. At the last accounting the United States
treasury had on hand in cash $1,564,416,169.

=Public Schools.=--The public school system originated in Massachusetts
and Connecticut shortly after the settlement of those States. Schools
were not entirely free when originally established. They have now
become common all over the United States, and their maintenance is
required by law.

=Pure Food.=--Pure food laws enacted by the United States Government,
and by State and City Governments, are supposed to protect the consumer
against adulterated foods. The United States law, however, has no
jurisdiction over food manufactured or put out in any of the States,
unless it is carried from one State to another. The local food laws
have to do only with the communities covered. The present law does
not appear to be sufficient to protect the public fully. The statement
written on many food packages, reading "Guaranteed Under The Food and
Drugs Act, June 30, 1906. No. ----," must not be considered as proof
positive of purity. It simply means that the contents of the package
or bottle is according to the prescription or formula registered with
the Government, and does not stand for quality or purity. Benzoate
of soda and other preservatives may be legally used, provided a
statement to that effect is made upon the package. Chemists differ as
to the injurious effect of benzoate of soda, but it is not advocated
by any eminent authority. Most of the pure food experts are opposed
to its use, irrespective of any injurious effect it may have upon
the consumer, because this preservative will effectively kill the
odor of putrefaction and disguise the taste and smell of rotten or
spoiled fruit and other products. The consumer will do well to refuse
to purchase any article or food containing benzoate of soda or other
preservative, for first-class and healthy meat, fruit, and vegetables
do not require a chemical preservative. Artificial coloring may not
be injurious, as so little of it is required, but food artificially
preserved may be dangerous, and very likely is impure, and may not have
been fresh when canned.

=Pyramids.=--the pyramids were supposed to have been constructed
between the fifth and twelfth dynasties in Middle Egypt, and not to
have been used for tombs. They are built upon a square base, with
sides facing the points of the compass, and the earlier pyramids were
constructed of horizontal layers of rough blocks fastened together
with mortar. In the center of the pyramid, near the base, was built a
chamber reached by a passage from the north side. It is said that some
of them contain emblems or symbols, which are now used in masonry.
Whether or not there were masons at the time they were built, has not
yet been discovered. Many of the stones weigh as much as thirty tons
each, and no one has yet been able to ascertain the power used for
their transmission.

=Railroads.=--The railroads of the United States employ nearly
1,700,000 men, or about 680 per hundred miles of track. The railroads
occupy over 244,000 miles of track. The most powerful locomotive in
the world runs in Virginia, and weighs 540,000 pounds. The heaviest
electric locomotive is maintained by the Boston & Maine Railroad and
weighs about 192,000 pounds. The most expensive locomotives cost about
$37,000, and an ordinary locomotive costs from $15,000 to $20,000. An
ordinary box car weighs 36,000 pounds, and a day coach about 112,000
pounds. Sleeping cars weigh from 115,000 to 152,000 pounds. The fastest
short-distance run on record was made by the Empire State Express, at
the rate of 112-1/2 miles per hour. A New York train ran a distance
of 44 miles in 33 minutes, or at the rate of 80 miles an hour, and a
New York Central train made the distance between New York and Chicago,
965 miles, in 15 hours and 43 minutes, or at the rate of 62-1/2 miles
per hour. A New York Central train ran a short distance at the rate
of about 112-1/2 miles an hour, and a Florida train ran 5 miles at
the rate of 120 miles an hour. During the last year there were 5,483
accidents by collision and 8,215 by derailments, and a total of 15,743
accidents; 318 passengers were killed, and 16,386 were injured; 3,635
employees were killed, and 142,442 injured; 6,632 persons not connected
with the railroads and not riding on trains were killed, and 10,710
injured. The number of passengers carried during the year was nearly
a billion. The railroads of the United States, not including the
switching and terminal companies, employ nearly 670,000 men, or about
678 men to every 100 miles of track.

=Referendum.=--A law by which all legislation may be referred to the
people, either for its ratification or rejection. The Initiative is a
process by which any law may be enacted, if requested by a specified
number of citizens. The Initiative and Referendum are becoming common,
and their advocates believe that they are the solution to many of our
political problems.

=Religious Denominations.=--In the United States there are 95,800
Adventists, about 5,635,000 Baptists, about 739,000 Congregationalists,
about 1,534,000 Disciples of Christ, about 2,290,000 Lutherans, about
6,280,000 Methodists, about 1,944,000 Presbyterians, about 957,000
Protestant Episcopalians, about 312,000 United Brethren, about 71,000
Unitarians, about 53,000 Universalists, and about 13,000,000 Roman

=Roads.=--The mileage of all public roads in the United States is about
2,200,000 miles, there being a little over 59,000 miles of stone road
and about 103,000 of gravel road. A sand-clay road costs about $725.00
per mile, gravel a little over $2,000.00, macadam about $5,000.00, and
bituminous macadam about $10,350.

=Round Table.=--Tradition says that it was modeled after a table
made by Joseph of Arimathea, and was an imitation of the one used at
the Last Supper. It is said to have had a seating capacity variously
estimated at from thirteen to one hundred and fifty. According to the
legend dealing with King Arthur and his knights, it was a round marble
table made by the Enchanter Merlin for Uther Pendragon. Later it came
into the possession of the King of Camelard, and was given by him to
Arthur on his marriage to the king's daughter Guinevere. The term Round
Table is much used in the United States, and refers to a table, usually
round, occupied habitually by the same diners.

=Royal Academy.=--Founded in London in 1768. It is an association
of artists, and maintains a free school of art. It holds an annual
exhibition of paintings and sculptures.

=Royal Society.=--One of the most celebrated associations in the
world. Organized in London in 1660 for the promotion of scientific

=School Statistics.=--There are, in the United States, 36,260 men and
5,025 women acting as professors and instructors in universities,
colleges, and technical schools. The common schools contain nearly
18,000,000 enrolled pupils, with an average daily attendance of nearly
13,000,000. These schools employ nearly 525,000 teachers, who receive
an average monthly salary of about $62.00. The estimated value of
public school property is considerably more than $1,000,000,000, and
the annual cost of maintaining these schools exceeds $426,000,000.

=Seasickness.=--Although there are several advertised remedies which
claim to prevent or to cure seasickness, it is probable that none of
them are efficacious for all persons. Seasickness is not perfectly
understood. Some people suffer from it and some do not. Of course, the
condition of the stomach and liver has much to do with it. If one is
bilious he is pretty sure to become seasick. Before taking a voyage,
it is well to diet or to live on plain food for a while. Do not remain
in your stateroom or in the cabin. Get all of the fresh air you can.
Lie down and don't refuse to eat sparingly. Many persons ward off
seasickness by retiring before the vessel leaves the port. Some people,
even sailors, suffer from seasickness with every voyage. A good remedy
is an emetic, either warm salt water, or warm mustard water.

=Seven Chief Virtues.=--These, as defined by the Roman Catholic Church,
are as follows: (1) Faith, (2) Hope, (3) Charity, (4) Prudence, (5)
Temperance, (6) Justice, (7) Fortitude.

=Seven Corporal Works of Mercy.=--According to the Roman Catholic
Church, these are as follows: (1) To bury the dead, (2) to clothe the
naked, (3) to feed the hungry, (4) to give drink to the thirsty, (5) to
shelter the homeless, (6) to visit those in prison, (7) to administer
unto the sick.

=Seven Deadly Sins.=--According to the teaching of the Roman Catholic
Church, these are as follows: (1) Pride, (2) Anger, (3) Envy, (4)
Sloth, (5) Lust, (6) Covetousness, (7) Gluttony.

=Seven Liberal Arts.=--A term applied during the Middle Ages to the
following branches of learning: (1) Arithmetic, (2) Geometry, (3)
Astronomy, (4) Music, (5) Logic, (6) Rhetoric, (7) Grammar.

=Seven Spiritual Works of Mercy.=--According to the teaching of the
Roman Catholic Church, these are as follows: (1) To admonish the
sinful, (2) to bear wrongs patiently, (3) to comfort the afflicted, (4)
to counsel the doubting, (5) to forgive offenses, (6) to instruct the
ignorant, (7) to pray for the living and the dead.

=Seven Wise Men of Greece.=--Applied to seven Greek sages, whose
wisdom was embodied in the following maxims: (1) Solon of Athens,
"Know thyself"; (2) Chilo of Sparta, "Consider the end"; (3) Thales
of Miletus, "Suretyship brings ruin"; (4) Bias of Priene, "Most men
are bad"; (5) Cleobulus of Lindus, "Avoid extremes"; (6) Pittacus of
Mitylene, "Know thine opportunity"; (7) Periander of Corinth, "Nothing
is impossible to industry."

=Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages.=--(1) The Coliseum at Rome, (2) the
Catacombs of Alexandria, (3) the Great Wall of China, (4) the Leaning
Tower of Pisa, (5) the Porcelain Tower of Nanking, (6) the Mosque of
St. Sophia at Constantinople, (7) the Ruins of Stonehenge.

=Seven Wonders of the New World.=--(1) Niagara Falls, (2) Yellowstone
Park, (3) Garden of the Gods, (4) Mammoth Cave, (5) Yosemite Valley,
(6) Giant Trees, (7) Natural Bridge.

=Seven Wonders of the World.=--In ancient times generally regarded as
follows: (1) The Pyramids of Egypt, (2) the Hanging Gardens of Babylon,
(3) the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, (4) the Temple of Diana at Ephesus,
(5) the Colossus of Rhodes, (6) the Pharos at Alexandria, (7) the
Statue of the Olympian Jove in Elis.

=Shaving Lotions.=--Hot water applied to the face after shaving removes
much of the sting or soreness, and the use of bay rum, hamamelis or
witch hazel, or almond cream, is to be recommended. A very good shaving
preparation is made of equal parts of bay rum and hamamelis.

Ship Bells

  Time, A. M.

  1 Bell     12.30
  2 Bells     1.00
  3   "       1.30
  4   "       2.00
  5   "       2.30
  6   "       3.00
  7   "       3.30
  8   "       4.00

  1 Bell      4.30
  2 Bells     5.00
  3   "       5.30
  4   "       6.00
  5   "       6.30
  6   "       7.00
  7   "       7.30
  8   "       8.00

  1 Bell      8.30
  2 Bells     9.00
  3   "       9.30
  4   "      10.00
  5   "      10.30
  6   "      11.00
  7   "      11.30
  8   "      Noon

  Time, P. M.

  1 Bell     12.30
  2 Bells     1.00
  3   "       1.30
  4   "       2.00
  5   "       2.30
  6   "       3.00
  7   "       3.30
  8   "       4.00

  1 Bell      4.30
  2 Bells     5.00
  3   "       5.30
  4   "       6.00
  1 Bell      6.30
  2 Bells     7.00
  3   "       7.30
  4   "       8.00

  1 Bell      8.30
  2 Bells     9.00
  3   "       9.30
  4   "      10.00
  5   "      10.30
  6   "      11.00
  7   "      11.30
  8   "      Midn't

The work on shipboard is done by watches, the crew being mustered into
two divisions, known as the Starboard Watch and Port Watch. The day
begins at noon, and is divided into: Afternoon Watch, noon to 4 P. M.;
First Dog Watch, 4 P. M. to 6 P. M.; Second Dog Watch, 6 P. M. to 8 P.
M.; First Watch, 8 P. M. to Midnight; Middle Watch, 12 A. M. to 4 A.
M.; Morning Watch, 4 A. M. to 8 A. M.; Forenoon Watch, 8 A. M. to noon.

=Slavery.=--Slavery is of a prehistoric origin, but was commercialized
by the Romans, some of whom had as many as 10,000 slaves. In 1834, the
British Colonies emancipated nearly 800,000 slaves, and the Civil War
wiped slavery out of the United States. It does not now exist in any
civilized nation.

=Soap.=--Many of the soaps upon the market are impure and even
dangerous, and never should be used. Most of the standard white soaps,
however, are pure and may be used freely. Cheap laundry soaps are not
only impure, but injure the hands; and many of the highly perfumed
soaps are hardly better than laundry soaps. Thoroughly good soap can
be purchased at retail for not exceeding ten cents a cake, and for this
price one can obtain really all there is in soap. Medicated soaps,
except the antiseptic soaps recommended by physicians, have little
or no value. The reader should purchase only the standard grade of
soaps, and should never pay more than 25 cents a cake for any soap,
because any price in excess of 25 cents is for perfume or represents
exorbitant profit. Every physician is familiar with soap quality, and
will gladly give you a list of reliable soaps without charge. There is
no such thing as a complexion soap, except that all good soaps aid the
complexion. There is no soap safe to use that removes pimples, or keeps
pimples or other skin troubles from coming. Soap has only one value,
and that is, its ability to assist water in cleansing the skin, except
the antiseptic soaps, which may prevent contagion and which should
be used by all who enter the sick-room. Ninety-nine per cent. of the
expensive soaps are no better, save for their perfume, than soap sold
at five or ten cents a cake.

Solar System

The Solar System, of which the earth is a part, consists of eight
planets and the sun, so far as has been discovered. Astronomers have
located 465 asteroids, which are small bodies floating in space and
with apparently established orbits. From time to time, astronomers
claim to have discovered a new planet, but its existence is not as yet
accepted. The following table gives interesting information:

            Distance    Sidereal    Orbit,     Mean
            of Earth     Period,   Velocity,  Diameter,
            from Sun,     Days     Miles per   Miles
           Millions of              Second

  Sun         ...      ....         .....     866,400
  Mercury    36.0       87.969     23 to 35     3,030
  Venus      67.2      224.701       21.9       7,700
  Earth      92.8      365.256       18.5       7,918
  Mars      141.5      686.95        15.0       4,230
  Jupiter   483.3     4332.58         8.1      86,500
  Saturn    886.0    10759.22         6.0      71,000
  Uranus   1781.9    30686.82         4.2      31,900
  Neptune  2791.6    60181.11         3.4      34,800

Some Things Worth Knowing

The people of the earth speak 2,754 languages or dialects.

There are 640 acres in a square mile.

The ordinary flour barrel contains 196 pounds of flour.

What is known as a hand measure is 4 inches.

The sun is over 92,500,000 miles from the earth, and the nearest fixed
star is 16,000,000,000 miles from the earth.

The stock yards in Chicago, which are the largest in the world, have 20
miles of streets, and the same number of miles of water troughs, with
50 miles of feeding troughs, and 75 miles of drainage. The yards will
accommodate over 20,000 cattle, 20,000 sheep, and 120,000 hogs at one
time. They cost over $10,000,000.

The average person inhales 2,600 gallons of air per day.

Songs of the Civil War

(1) Battle Cry of Freedom.--George F. Root. "Yes, we'll rally round the
flag, boys."

(2) Battle Flag of the Republic.--O. W. Holmes. "Flag of the heroes who
left us their glory."

(3) Battle Hymn of the Republic.--Julia Ward Howe. "Mine eyes have seen
the glory of the coming of the Lord."

(4) The Blue and the Gray.--Francis M. Finch. "By the flow of the
inland river."

(5) Brave Boys Are They.--Henry C. Work. "Brave boys are they, gone at
their country's call."

(6) Dixie (Southern).--Albert Pike. "Southrons, hear your country call

(7) Dixie (Northern).--T. M. Cooley. "Away down South where grows the

(8) John Brown's Body. "John Brown's body lies a-mould'ring in the

(9) Just Before the Battle, Mother.--George F. Root. "Just before the
battle, mother, I am thinking most of you."

(10) Marching Through Georgia.--Henry C. Work. "Bring the good old
bugle, boys; we'll sing another song."

(11) Maryland, My Maryland (Southern).--Joseph R. Randall. "The
despot's heel is on thy shore, Maryland, my Maryland."

(12) Oh, Wrap the Flag Around Me, Boys.--R. Stewart Taylor.

(13) Tramp, Tramp, Tramp.--George F. Root. "In the prison cell I sit."

(14) When Johnny Comes Marching Home.--Louis Lambert.

(15) When This Cruel War Is Over.--Charles C. Sawyer. "Dearest love, do
you remember?"

  --Harper's "Book of Facts."

=Spectacles and Glasses.=--If you find it difficult to read, or your
eyes become weak and tired, the chances are you need proper glasses.
Don't attempt to fit them to yourself. Employ a first-class optician or
oculist, the latter if the trouble appears to be serious.

Sporting, Speed, and Other Records

The following records are compiled from the latest and best authorities:

=Airship Records=: Highest altitude reached, 17,881 feet; longest
non-stop flight, 635-5/8 miles in 13 hours, 22 minutes; longest time in
the air, 16-1/2 hours.

=Automobile Records=: 1 mile, 25.40 s.; 2 miles, 51.28 s.; 5 miles, 2
m., 34 s.; 50 miles, 35m., 52-1/2 s.; 100 miles, 1h., 12 m., 41 1-5
s.; 300 miles, 3 h., 53 m., 33-1/2 s.; 500 miles, 6 h., 21 m., 6 3-10

=Baseball=: Baseball became the National Game in 1885, although it was
played to some extent as early as 1840. The first baseball club was
known as the New York Knickerbockers, which was organized in 1845, and
the first match game was played at Hoboken, N. J., in 1846. The first
rules governing baseball were made in New York City, in 1857, and the
National Baseball League was formed in New York City during the same
year. The first champion team was that of New York, in 1858, but it
was not until 1868 that a salaried team was in existence. The National
League was formed in 1876, and the American League in 1881. The largest
attendance at a baseball match was in New York, Oct. 17, 1911, at which
time 38,281 people were present.

=Billiards=: Straight rail, 5 × 10 table, best run, 1,535 points, made
by Maurice Vignaux in Paris; straight rail, 4-1/2 × 9 table, best run,
3,000 points, Jake Schaefer in San Francisco; 14-inch balk line, anchor
in, best run, 566, Jake Schaefer in New York; 14-inch balk line, anchor
barred, best run, 359, Frank Ives in Chicago; 18-inch balk line, best
run, 200, Frank Ives in New York; 18-inch balk line, best average,
50, Frank Ives in New York; 18-inch balk line (no shot in), best run,
111, Jake Schaefer in Chicago; 18-inch balk line (no shot in), best
average, 19 3-13, Frank Ives in Chicago; high run, 18.2 balk line,
1,009 single inning, W. W. Spink in Los Angeles.

=Bowling=: Individual three-game score, Thomas Hally, Detroit, 705.

=Endurance Records=: Relay Race, Young Men's Christian Association
boys carried message from New York to Chicago; time, 118 h., 35 m.;
distance, 1,200 miles. (Run suspended during Sunday, July 19.)

5,100 miles, go as you please, 51 miles per day for 100 days, track 44
laps to mile, George D. Noremac, New York.

4,000 quarter-miles in 4,000 periods of 10 minutes (walking a
quarter-mile at the commencement of and within each consecutive 10
minutes), performed twice by William Gales, at Cardiff, and at London,

1,000 miles in 1,000 consecutive hours, walking 1 mile each hour, by
Charles F. Morse, at Jackson, Mich., starting at 1 P. M., Jan. 11,
1897, and ending at 4 A. M., Feb. 22, 1897, track 39 laps to mile.

Greatest distance walked without a rest, 121 miles, 385 yds., by C. A.
Harriman, California.

Walk from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean: John Ennis started with a plunge
in the surf at Coney Island, N. Y., Monday, May 23, 1910, and arrived
at the Cliff Hotel, San Francisco, August 24, 1910, and took a plunge
in the Weston's time by 25 days. Ennis, like Weston, did not walk on

=Hammer Throwing=: 8 lb. hammer, 210 ft., 3 in., W. L. Condon,
Maryland; 10 lb. hammer, 140 ft., 2 in., W. L. Condon, Maryland.

=Hurdle Racing,--Amateur=: 40 yds., 2 ft., 6 in., = 5 sec., Forest
Smithson, Indiana; F. Fletcher, Indiana; T. N. Richards, Indiana; 50
yds., 3 high hurdles (indoors), = 6 1-5 s., Forest Smithson, Portland,
Ore.; 75 yds., low hurdles, 2 ft., 6 in. = 9 1-5 s., John J. Eller, New

=Jumping,--Amateur=: Standing, without weights, 11 ft., 4-7/8 in., Ray
C. Ewry, St. Louis; running high jump, without weights, 6 ft., 7 in.,
George Horine, California.

=Jumping,--Professional=: Standing high jump, with weights, 6 ft.,
5-1/2 in., J. Darby, England; running high jump, without weights, 6
ft., 1 in., M. F. Sweeney.

=Marathon Team Race=: 26 miles, 385 yds., 2 h., 2 m., 16 1-5 s., Hans
Holmer and William Queal, New York.

=Motor Cycle Records=: 1 mile, 36 4-5 s.; 10 miles, 6 m., 21 4-5 s.;
100 miles, 1 h., 15 m., 24 2-5 s.

=Ocean Records.=: From Queenstown to New York, S. S. "Mauretania," 4
days, 10 hours, 41 minutes. The fastest day run was made by the same
ship, 676 knots, or a little over 27 knots per hour.

=Pole Vaulting,--Amateur=: Pole vault for height, 13 ft., 2-1/4
in., Mark S. Wright, New York; 13 ft., 1 in., Robert A. Gardner,
Philadelphia. For boys, 12 ft., 1/2 in., Roy Mercer, Philadelphia.

=Pole Vaulting,--Professional=: 11 ft., 7 in., M. H. Dickinson, England.

=Running Records,--Professional=: 20 yds., 2 1-5 s., R. P. Williams,
New London, Conn.; 50 yds., 5 1-5 s., R. P. Williams, New London,
Conn.; 100 yds., 9 1-5 s., R. P. Williams, New London, Conn.; 1,000
yds., 2 m. 17 s., W. Cummings, England; 1 mile, 4 m. 12-3/4 s., W. G.
George, England; 100 miles, 13 h. 26 m. 30 s., Charles Rowell, New York.

=Running Records,--Amateur=: 20 yds., 2 4-5 s., E. B. Bloss, Roxbury,
Mass.; 25 yds., 3 s., Jack Connolly, Boston; 35 yds., 4 s., Arthur
Duffy, Baltimore; 40 yds., 4 2-5 s., (indoors), W. D. Eaton, Boston;
Doc Thorney, Madison, Wis., 4 1-5 s.; 50 yds., 5 1-5 s., (indoors),
Forline, St. Louis; 50 yds., 5 1-5 s., J. H. Maybury, Wisconsin
University; 50 yds., on grass, 5 2-5 s., A. D. Duffey, N. Z.; 60 yds.,
on grass, 6 2-5 s., A. F. Duffey, Australia; 60 yds. indoors, 6 1-5 s.,
Charles E. Seitz, Washington; 100 yds, 9 3-5 s., A. F. Duffey, New;

=Running Distance,--Amateur=: 1 mile, 4 m., 15 2-5 s., John P. Jones,
Cambridge, Mass.; 2 miles, 9 m., 9 3-5 s., Alfred Shrubb, Scotland; 3
miles, 14 m., 17 3-5 s., Alfred Shrubb, England; 4 miles, 19 m., 23 2-5
s., Alfred Shrubb, Scotland.

=Shot Putting,--Amateur=: Putting 8 lb. shot, 67 ft. 7 in., Ralph Rose,
New York; putting 12 lb. shot, 57 ft. 3 in., Ralph Rose, New York;
putting 20 lb. shot, 38 ft. 7-1/2 in., G. R. Gray, New York.

=Shot Putting,--Professional=: Putting 12 lb. shot, 50 ft. 1/2 in., J.
D. McPherson; putting 20 lb. shot, 40 ft. 11-1/4 in., J. D. McPherson.

=Skating,--Amateur=: 50 yds., 5 2-5 s., Morris Wood, Pittsburgh;
100 yds., standing start, 8 3-5 s., J. S. Johnson, Minneapolis; 300
yds., 31 2-5 s., G. D. Phillips, New York; 1 mile, 2 m. 36 s., Johnny
Neilson; 5 miles, 14 m. 24 s., O. Rudd, Minneapolis; 10 miles, 31 m. 11
1-5 s., J. S. Johnson, Montreal; 25 miles, 1 h. 31 m. 29 s.; 50 miles,
3 h. 15 m. 59 3-5 s.; 75 miles, 5 h. 19 m. 16 4-5 s.; 100 miles, 7 h.
11 m. 38 1-5 s.--all made by J. F. Donoghue, Stamford, Conn.

=Skating,--Professional=: 1/4 mile, against time; flying start,
straightaway, 28-1/2 s., John S. Johnson, Minnesota; 1/2 mile, indoor
track, 1 m., 16 4-5 s., W. Rankin, Cleveland; 1 mile, indoors, 2 m.,
48-3/4 s., John Nilsson, Pittsburgh; 5 miles, 14 m., 47 1-5 s., John
Nilsson, Montreal.

=Swimming=: 40 yards, 18 s. (exhibition), Dick Cavill, Portland, Ore.;
100 yds., 1 m., 1-1/2 s., J. Nuttall, Stalybridge, England; 150 yds., 1
m., 39 s., D. Billington, Swinton, England; 200 yds., 2 m., 18-1/2 s.,
D. Billington, in England; 300 yds., 3 m., 32 1-5 s., D. Billington, in
England; 500 yds., 6 m., 6 s., D. Billington, in England; 1,000 yds.,
12 m., 45 s., D. Billington, in England; 3/4 mile, 17 m., 36 2-5 s.,
David Billington, Sydney, N. S. W.; 1 mile, 26 m., 8 s., J. Nuttall, in
England; 20-3/8 miles, 5 h., 51 m., Fred Cavill, River Thames, London;
34 miles, 9 h., 39 m., J. Wolfe, Herne Bay, England; 35 miles, 21 h.,
45 m., Capt. Matthew Webb, Dover, England to Calais; 40 miles, 9 h., 57
m., Capt. Matthew Webb, with tide, River Thames, England; 74 miles, 84
h., Capt. Webb (restricted to 14 hours a day), Lambeth Baths, England.
T. W. Burgess swam English channel, Dover to Cape Grisnez, in 22 h., 35

=Swimming (Women)=: Longest time under water, 4 m., 45-1/2 s., Miss E.
Wallenda, England; at Barnley Baths, Scotland, Miss Ethel Mackay swam
200 yds. in 2 m., 57 1-5 s.; 50 yds., 31 s., by Miss Fanny Durack, New
Zealand; 80 yds., 56-1/2 s., by Miss Elba Whittaker, Milwaukee, Wis.;
100 yds., 1 m., 6 s., by Miss Fanny Durack, New Zealand; 100 yds., back
stroke, 1 m., 26 s., Miss Elba Whittaker, Milwaukee; 200 yds., 2 m.,
51 s., Miss Vera Neave, London; 300 yds., 4 m., 31 1-5 s., Miss Vera
Neave, London; Miss Daisy Curwen, in England; 1 mile, 32 m., 8 1-5 s.,
Miss Mabel Fletcher, in England; open water, 31 m., 41 4-5 s., Miss
Vera Neave, Jersey, England.

=Trotting Records=: 1/4 mile, 28-3/4 seconds,--Lou Dillon, Brighton
Beach, N. Y., Aug. 17, 1903; 1/2 mile, 58-3/4 s.,--Lou Dillon,
Cleveland, O., Sept. 17, 1904; 1 mile, 1 m., 58 s.,--Uhlan (with wind
shield) Lexington, Ky., Oct. 8, 1912; 2 miles, 4 m., 15-1/4 s.,--The
Harvester, Lexington, Ky.; Oct. 13, 1910; 3 miles, 6 m., 55-1/2
s.,--Nightingale, 8 yrs. old, Nashville, Tenn., Oct. 20, 1893; 4 miles,
9 m., 42 s.,--Baron Rogers, Moscow, Russia, 1899; 5 miles, 12 m., 24
s.,--Zambra, 1902; 10 miles, 26 m., 15 s.,--Pascal, New York, Nov. 2,
1893; 20 miles, 58 m., 25 s.,--Captain McGowan, Boston, Oct. 31, 1865;
50 miles, 3 h., 55 m., 40-1/2 s.,--Ariel, brown mare, May 5, 1846,
Albany, N. Y. The fastest mare made 1 mile in 1 m., 58-1/2 s.,; the
fastest gelding, a mile in 1 m., 58 s.; the fastest stallion, 1 mile in
2 m., 1 s.

=Walking Records,--Amateur=: 75 yds., 11 4-5 seconds, Harry
Fitzpatrick, New Orleans; 1/4 mile, 1 m., 22 1-5 s.; 1/2 mile, 3 m., F.
H. Creamer, New Zealand; 1 mile, 6 m., 22 4-5 s., W. Murray, Australia.

=Walking Records,--Professional=: 1/4 mile, 1 m., 26 s., 1/2 mile,
3 m., 1/2 s.; 1 mile, 6 m., 22-1/2 s., M. H. Donovan, Westport, N.
Y.; 2 miles, 13 m., 14 s., H. W. Raby, in England; 5 miles, 35 m., 10
s., J. W. Raby, in England; 10 miles, 1 h., 14 m., 45 s., J. W. Raby,
in England; 25 miles, 3 h., 35 m., 14 s., W. Franks, in England; 100
miles, 18 h., 4 m., W. A. Hoagland, in New York.

Standard Time

Until 1883, each city or district maintained its own time, usually
accepting what is known as True Time. This condition caused
complications. For example: Many railroad-station clocks either gave
two times, or else there were separate clocks for each time, some of
the trains leaving the station on what was know as New York time, while
others left on local time. Banks and business houses closed on either
of the times. There was no standard and no agreement.

In 1883, Standard Time was established.

The First Section was known as the Eastern, and covered all territory
between the Atlantic Coast and a line drawn from Detroit, Michigan, to
Charleston, South Carolina.

The Central Section included everything between the Detroit-Charleston
line, and a line drawn from Bismarck, North Dakota, to the mouth of the
Rio Grande River.

The Third Section, known as "Mountain Time," included the territory
between the Bismarck-Rio Grande line and the western borders of Idaho,
Utah, and Arizona.

The Pacific Time Section embraced everything west of the Mountain Time
line, up to and including the Pacific coast.

There is a difference of just one hour between the sections. When it is
12 o'clock at Boston, Mass., or at New York City, it is 11 o'clock at
Chicago, and at San Francisco 9 o'clock.

The changing from so-called Local or True Time to Standard Time
required clocks at Boston to be set back 16 minutes; New York clocks to
be set back 4 minutes; Detroit clocks to be set back 28 minutes; St.
Louis clocks to be moved ahead one minute; and San Francisco clocks to
be set ahead ten minutes.

Standard Time has been accepted by every State and by practically
every city, although a very few cities and towns unprogressively hold
to the former or True Time. The Canadian Pacific Railroad, which has
the longest mileage of any railroad in the world, is run on what is
known as the 24-Hour Time; that is, the faces of its clocks, instead
of bearing the figures 1 to 12, run from 1 to 24 inclusive. The
time-tables are rather confusing, as trains are billed to arrive and
depart at 13:10, 16:14, 23:30, etc. This system appears to have only
one advantage,--that it eliminates the use of A. M. and P. M. It is
possible that it will be accepted elsewhere, and even generally, but
not for the present.

=Star Chamber.=--A tribunal, made up of a committee of the King's
Privy Council, instituted or revived in 1486. It was supposed to have
almost unlimited powers and to be exempt from any rules or law. It had
the right to inflict any form of punishment except death. The term is
now applied to assemblies or committees or others who conduct their
investigations and decide upon questions in secret.

Stars, Their Number

The number of visible stars is as follows:

           19 stars of the first      magnitude
           59   "   "   "  second         "
          182   "   "   "  third          "
          530   "   "   "  fourth         "
        1,600   "   "   "  fifth          "
        4,800   "   "   "  sixth          "
       13,000   "   "   "  seventh        "
       40,000   "   "   "  eighth         "
      100,000   "   "   "  ninth          "
      400,000   "   "   "  tenth          "
    1,000,000   "   "   "  eleventh       "
    3,000,000   "   "   "  twelfth        "
   10,000,000   "   "   "  thirteenth     "
   30,000,000   "   "   "  fourteenth     "
   56,000,000   "   "   "  fifteenth      "

=Star-Spangled Banner.=--The national song of the United States.
Composed by Francis Scott Key on the night of September 13, 1814. "The
cartel-ship _Minden_ was anchored in sight of Fort McHenry, and from
her deck Key saw, during the night of 13 Sept., 1814, the bombardment
of that fortress. It was during the excitement of this attack, and
while pacing the deck of the _Minden_ with intense anxiety between
midnight and dawn, that Key composed the song. It was first written on
the back of a letter, and after his return to Baltimore copied out in
full."--Harper's "Book of Facts."

Statistics of Population--United States, by States


                                                          Rank in
  Geographic Division and State       Population         Population

                                    1910        1900      1910  1900

    _Continental United States_  91,972,266  75,994,575   ....  ....

    New England                   6,552,681   5,592,017    VII   VII
    Middle Atlantic              19,315,892  15,454,678      I    II
    East North Central           18,250,621  15,985,581     II     I
    West North Central           11,637,921  10,347,423     IV    IV
    South Atlantic               12,194,895  10,443,480    III   III
    East South Central            8,409,901   7,547,757     VI     V
    West South Central            8,784,534   6,532,290      V    VI
    Mountain                      2,633,517   1,674,657     IX    IX
    Pacific                       4,192,304   2,416,692   VIII  VIII
    Maine                           742,371     694,466     34    31
    New Hampshire                   430,572     411,588     39    37
    Vermont                         355,956     343,641     42    39
    Massachusetts                 3,366,416   2,805,346      6     7
    Rhode Island                    542,610     428,556     38    35
    Connecticut                   1,114,756     908,420     31    29
    New York                      9,113,614   7,268,894      1     1
    New Jersey                    2,537,167   1,883,669     11    16
    Pennsylvania                  7,665,111   6,302,115      2     2
    Ohio                          4,767,121   4,157,545      4     4
    Indiana                       2,700,876   2,516,462      9     8
    Illinois                      5,638,591   4,821,550      3     3
    Michigan                      2,810,173   2,420,982      8     9
    Wisconsin                     2,333,860   2,069,042     13    13
    Minnesota                     2,075,708   1,751,394     19    19
    Iowa                          2,224,771   2,231,853     15    10
    Missouri                      3,293,335   3,106,665      7     5
    North Dakota                    577,056     319,146     37    40
    South Dakota                    583,888     401,570     36    38
    Nebraska                      1,192,214   1,066,300     29    27
    Kansas                        1,690,949   1,470,495     22    22
    Delaware                        202,322     184,735     47    45
    Maryland                      1,295,346   1,188,044     27    26
    District of Columbia            331,069     278,718     43    41
    Virginia                      2,061,612   1,854,184     20    17
    West Virginia                 1,221,119     958,800     28    28
    North Carolina                2,206,287   1,893,810     16    15
    South Carolina                1,515,400   1,340,316     26    24
    Georgia                       2,609,121   2,216,331     10    11
    Florida                         752,619     528,542     33    33
    Kentucky                      2,289,905   2,147,174     14    12
    Tennessee                     2,184,789   2,020,616     17    14
    Alabama                       2,138,093   1,828,697     18    18
    Mississippi                   1,797,114   1,551,270     21    20
    Arkansas                      1,574,449   1,311,564     25    25
    Louisiana                     1,656,388   1,381,625     24    23
    Oklahoma                      1,657,155     790,391     23    30
    Texas                         3,896,542   3,048,710      5     6
    Montana                         376,053     243,329     40    43
    Idaho                           325,594     161,772     45    46
    Wyoming                         145,965      92,531     48    48
    Colorado                        799,024     539,700     32    32
    New Mexico                      327,301     195,310     44    44
    Arizona                         204,354     122,931     46    47
    Utah                            373,351     276,749     41    42
    Nevada                           81,875      42,335     49    49
    Washington                    1,141,990     518,103     30    34
    Oregon                          672,765     413,536     35    36
    California                    2,377,549   1,485,053     12    21

Stature and Weights

There have appeared in public print, several tables, which, the
compilers claim, are based upon Greek and other measurements. It is
probable that few of these tables are authentic, and many of them are,
undoubtedly, incorrect. The following table is compiled by Jay W.
Seaver, M. D., for 20 years professor at Yale University, and is as
nearly correct as possibility would admit. Dr. Seaver, however, does
not claim absolute correctness. The second and third tables given are
used quite generally in civil service examinations by local, state, and
national governments, and apply largely to those seeking positions on
the police force or the fire department

  Height,  Males--Weight,  Females--Weight,
  Feet     Fat   Normal    Fat    Normal

  5        136     112     122     102
  5.1      141     116     128     106
  5.2      146     120     134     109
  5.3      152     125     140     113
  5.4      160     130     145     117
  5.5      167     135     151     121
  5.6      175     138     154     125
  5.7      182     140     157     130
  5.8      189     143     160     135
  5.9      196     150     169     140
  5.1O     203     155     173     145
  5.11     210     160     179     150
  6        216     165     185     155
  6.1      221     170     187     160
  6.2      226     175     196     166
  6.3      231     180     205     171

Minimum circumference of the Chest tolerable in applicants.

                Circumference          Circumference
  Height          of Chest    Height     of Chest
  Feet Inches      Inches   Feet Inches   Inches
   5     6         32-1/2    5     11     35-1/2
   5     7         33        6     ..     36
   5   7-1/2       33-1/2    6      1     36-1/2
   5     8         34        6      2     37
   5     9         34-1/2    6      3     37-1/4
   5    10         35        6      4     38

The stature shall not be below 5 ft. 6 in., nor the weight below that
marked as its minimum accompaniment in the subjoined table.

    Height       Min.   Average  Max. Weight
  Feet Inches   Pounds   Pounds    Pounds

   5     6       136      143       180
   5     7       138      146       187
   5     8       140      148       195
   5     9       145      155       202
   5    10       150      160       210
   5    11       155      165       217
   6    ..       160      170       225
   6     1       165      175       233
   6     2       170      180       240
   6     3       175      185       248

=Steam Engine.=--The principle of the steam engine is very simple.
Stripped of all technicality, it may be described as follows: Take a
can with a height somewhat longer than its width, and close up both
ends. Make a hole in the center of one of the ends large enough for the
insertion of a rod about the diameter of a small poker. Fasten one end
of this rod to the center of a disc which will fit closely into the
can. Insert this disc in the can with the poker passing through the
hole. The whole apparatus will be similar to that of a churn. Bore two
holes in the sides of the can, at top and bottom. Allow steam to pass
into the can through the first hole, which will force the disc to the
other end of the can, and draw the poker with it. Then, introduce steam
through the other hole. This will drive the disc to the other end of
the can, and at the same time the steam entering the first hole will
pass out. This gives a motion to the poker rod, which continues so long
as steam is forced in and out. The rod, is, of course, connected with a
crank which works on a shaft, and from this shaft power is transmitted.
The steam is let into the cylinder automatically. A fly wheel is
maintained where there is not more than one cylinder, and even where
there is more than one, so as to create momentum, which carries the
crank beyond its dead center. The modern steam engine makes from 100 to
even 1,000 revolutions a minute. Its power is measured by its capacity
to equal that of one or several horses, and is known as horse-power.
Steam engines are made with a capacity of only a small fraction of
horse-power, and up to several thousand. But usually, where great power
is required, more than one cylinder is used, all of them working upon
the same shaft The so-called turbine steam engine is similar to the
ordinary turbine water wheel, except that steam, instead of water, is
forced against it. See "Turbines."

=Strikes.=--The strike is an agreement upon the part of workmen to
refuse to work until their demands are accepted. The first strike
in the United States took place in New York City, in 1803, and was
confined to sailors. In 1888, there were 697 strikes, involving over
210,000 employees. In 1886, the number of strikes increased 52 per
cent., and in 1888 the increase was 22 per cent. In the early days
nearly half of the strikes were in Pennsylvania. The great coal
strike of 1902 was probably the most disastrous and largest strike on
record. It involved about 150,000 men, with a loss of wages of nearly

=Sub Rosa.=--The term "under the rose" implies secrecy. It had its
origin B. C. 477, when Pausanias, commander of the fleet of Spartans
and Athenians, was intriguing with Xerxes for the subjugation of Greece
to Persia and for the hand of the king's daughter in marriage. The
business was transacted in the "Brazen House," the roof of which was a
garden making a bower of roses. Hence the term Sub Rosa.

=Sugar Industry.=--The United States consumes each year nearly
3,500,000 tons of sugar, or about 80 pounds per capita.

=Sunday Schools.=--The Sunday Schools of the United States have a
membership of about 15,500,000, including teachers. The Sunday School
membership of England and Wales is over 7,000,000. Connected with the
Sunday Schools of the world are about 2,650,000 teachers and 26,500,000

=Talking Machines.=--The talking machine, known by several names,
including the phonograph, was originally invented by Edison.
Unscientifically speaking, it consists of a disc similar to that used
in the telephone, with a needle or point attached to the center of the
underside of it. This needle or point fits into circular or cylindrical
grooves, which are covered with tin foil or other malleable substance.

The vibrations of the voice or of music, which reach the disc, cause
this needle or point to rise or fall, producing impressions upon the
tin foil or other substance. After the record has been made, duplicates
are produced in a substance largely made of rubber, which is placed on
a rotary disc or cylinder that is turned automatically, the needle or
point attached to the disc working into the grooves and rising with or
following the impressions, which cause the plate or disc to vibrate.
The process is wholly mechanical, and electricity is not used.

=Tariff.=--This word, meaning a schedule of duties on merchandise,
imported or exported, is said to come from Tarifa, a town in Southern
Spain, on the Mediterranean Sea, where duties were once levied by the
Moors on all ships passing in or out of the Straits of Gibraltar.

=Telegraph.=--The conception of the telegraph came to Professor Morse,
in 1832, while he was making a voyage from Europe to America, and he at
once began his experiments, which resulted in what may be considered
one of the two greatest inventions or discoveries. After waiting about
eight years, Congress reluctantly appropriated a sum sufficient to
build a telegraph line between Washington and Baltimore. The original
conception of telegraphy belongs wholly to Professor Morse, but since
its invention other scientists have invented improvements, including an
apparatus which allows the sending of two messages each way, or four
messages in all, over the same wire at the same time. The telegraphic
code or alphabet, originally invented by Morse, remains practically
intact. It consists of dots and dashes, and may be learned in a few
hours, although expertness requires a year or more of practice.
Unscientifically speaking, the telegraphic apparatus is extremely
simple: it consists primarily of a piece of soft iron around which
is wound several strands of insulated wire. During the time that
electricity is passing through this wire, the soft iron becomes a
magnet, but returns to its nonmagnetic character when electricity
is not passing around it. A battery is used for the generating of
electricity. The operator turns electricity into the wire by pressing a
key. When the key is down, the electricity passes around the piece of
soft iron and makes of it a magnet, which will draw iron or steel to
it, the same as does any ordinary permanent magnet. Just above the end
of the soft iron is placed a piece of metal, and as the key is pressed
letting in the electricity, the iron (then a magnet) draws this metal
to it, producing a slight sound or click. This piece of iron is held
by a spring, and springs back into place when electricity is let out
of the insulated wire surrounding the soft iron. If a message is to
be sent a long distance, a relay is used so as to turn into the wire
additional currents of electricity, because electricity loses some of
its strength if carried over a very long wire, and a relay adds new or
fresh currents from separate batteries. In this way, a message can be
sent continuously for several thousand miles, which would be impossible
without the use of relays. The process of sending several messages at
the same time over the same wire is somewhat complicated. The result
is obtained by using currents of electricity of different intensity,
the currents not interfering with each other. The ocean cables are
described under another heading.

=Telephone.=--The telephone is supposed to have been invented by
Professor A. G. Bell, in 1875, but scientists recognize the probable
invention of it, largely in theory, by the eminent scientists Dolbear,
Gray, Edison, and possibly others. It is exceedingly difficult to
describe, other than scientifically, the working of the telephone; and
it cannot be done perfectly until electricity is fully understood. We
know the result, but are not able to locate all of the causes. The
original telephone consisted of a bar of magnetized steel of about the
circumference of an ordinary poker, a few inches in length, around
which was wound insulated wire. At one end of the magnet, and close
to it, was placed a metallic disc about twice the circumference of a
silver dollar and of the thickness of thin tin. Originally the same
instrument was used both for sending and for receiving. Any sound,
including the human voice, brought in direct contact with the disc,
caused it to vibrate, and for some unknown reason these vibrations were
transmitted through the magnet, and by the wires carried to another
similar instrument. The sounds and voice were carried a short distance
without the use of a battery, and the early telephones had ground
circuits; that is, there was only one wire between the stations, the
other wire being grounded by being attached to gas or other pipes,
the electricity making half the circuit through the earth. Later on
a battery was used, which increased the sending distances, but the
ground wire remained for some time. The present telephone consists
of the original telephone as a receiver, but with a transmitter into
which the sender speaks his words. The mechanism of the transmitter
is complicated and cannot be described except scientifically. Its
use allows one to talk long distances, even to the extent of 2,000
miles. Non-technically speaking, then, the telephone consists of a
magnet, insulated wire, and a disc, the vibration upon the disc being
transmitted over the wire from the sending to the receiving station,
electricity being used for conveying the vibrations or sound.

Eight billion, four hundred thousand and twenty-seven million
conversations were held in this country last year over the wires of
the American Telephone and Telegraph Co., according to its annual
report. The daily average was 26,310,000. The company now has telephone
stations in 70,000 cities, towns, and hamlets, which is 5,000 more than
the number of postoffices in the country, and 10,000 more than the
number of railroad stations. Altogether there were 7,456,074 telephone
stations of the company at the end of 1912.

=Ten Great Religions.=--James Freeman Clarke, in his book "Ten Great
Religions," gives the following as the ten most important faiths of
ancient and modern times:

  (1) Confucianism.
  (2) Brahmanism.
  (3) Buddhism.
  (4) Zoroastrianism.
  (5) Religion of Egypt.
  (6) Religion of Greece and Rome.
  (7) Teutonic and Scandinavian Religion.
  (8) Judaism.
  (9) Christianity.
  (10) Islâm.

=Théâtre Français.=--The most famous theatre in Paris, and, perhaps,
in the world. It is situated in the Place du Palais Royal, and is the
home of the Comédie Française. In 1900 it was destroyed by fire, but
immediately rebuilt. The original building was erected in 1782, but was
later much altered.

=Thunder.=--The sound of thunder is produced by the sudden rush of the
air into the vacuum caused by the rapid passage of lightning through
the air.

=Ticket-of-Leave.=--The English Government in 1854 issued a permit
which allowed a convict his liberty before the expiration of his term.
It was necessary for him to report to the police at stated times,
and, if he committed any crime, his ticket-of-leave was recalled. The
ticket-of-leave is similar to probation granted in the United States.

=Time Difference.=--When it is 12 o'clock noon in New York City, it
is 5:13 in Antwerp; about 5:49 in Berlin; about 5:13 in Brussels;
about 1:02 in Buenos Ayres; about 10:49 in Calcutta; about 6:53 in
Constantinople; about 4:30 in Dublin; about 4:34 in Liverpool; about
4:56 in London; about 5:05 in Paris; about 5:46 in Rome; about 6:57
in St. Petersburg. When it is 12 o'clock noon in New York City, it is
33-1/2 minutes earlier in Havana; about 11 hours and 28 minutes earlier
in Hong Kong; about 9 hours and 24 minutes earlier in Melbourne; about
9 hours and 45-1/2 minutes earlier in Yokohama.

=Tobacco Industry.=--The United States grows about 905,000,000 pounds
of tobacco a year, and over a million acres are used for growing
tobacco. The value of the tobacco grown each year is about $85,000,000.

=To Estimate the Weight of Hay.=--Find the length, breadth, and depth
of the hay, in feet, and multiply these three dimensions together; if
the hay is on the wagon or newly stored, divide the product by 540; but
if it is well settled in the mow or stack, divide by 512. If the hay
is baled, 270 cubic feet will weigh a ton. The number of cubic feet in
a circular stack is found by multiplying the average circumference in
yards by itself and this product by four times the height of the stack
in yards; then point off the two right-hand figures and multiply the
result by 27.

=To Find Length of Day or Night.=--At any time of the year add 12
hours to the time of the sun's setting, and from the sum subtract the
time of rising for the length of the day. Subtract the time of setting
from 12 hours, and to the remainder add the time of rising next morning
for the length of the night. These rules are equally true for apparent

=To Measure Corn in the Crib.=--Find the length, breadth, and depth
of the corn, in feet, and multiply these three dimensions together;
this product multiplied by .63 will give the number of heaped bushels
in the ear. Sometimes one and one-half bushels of ears make a bushel
of shelled corn, and sometimes it requires two bushels, the amount
required depending upon the size of the cob, shape of the ear, etc.

=Tom Thumb.=--Tom Thumb was probably the most famous dwarf in the
world, not because of the absence of others of the same height, or
less, but because he was exploited by the late P. T. Barnum. Tom Thumb,
whose real name was Charles S. Stratton, was born in 1838, and died in
1883. In 1842 he was two feet in height and weighed sixteen pounds.
In 1863 his height increased to thirty-one inches, and later to forty

=To Produce Different Colors.=--The color printed in _italics_ may be
made by mixing the other two colors. _Purple_, red with light blue.
_Brown_, red with black. _Rose_, lake with white. _Drab_, umber with
white. _Chestnut_, white with brown. _Chocolate_, yellow with brown.
_Flesh Color_, carmine with straw. _Pearl_, blue with lead color.
_Pink_, carmine with white. _Silver Gray_, lamp black with indigo.
_Lead Color_, lamp black with white. _Bright Green_, Paris green with
white. _Buff_, yellow ochre with white. _French White_, white tinted
with purple. _Dark Green_, black with chrome green. _Brilliant Green_,
emerald green with white. _Pea Green_, chrome green with white.
_Orange_, vermillion with chrome yellow. _Straw Color_, chrome yellow
with white lead. _Cream Color_, white tinted with red and yellow.
_Ashes of Roses_, white with tints of black and purple. _French Gray_,
white tinted with black and purple. _Olive_, chrome yellow, blue, and
black with red.

=Trade Unions.=--The trade union, although supposed to be of modern
origin, was established as early as 1548. Mythical history which,
of course, cannot be authenticated, indicates the possibility of an
organization of working men at the time of the building of Solomon's
temple. During the last several years, trade unionism has grown to
enormous proportions, and practically every vocation has its union or
organization. The right to organize is self-evident, so long as it does
not restrain trade or interfere with personal rights. The employee
and employer certainly have legal and moral rights to do as they
please, provided they do not interfere with legal or moral law, and
do not use coercion. Moral influence, however, cannot be criticised.
The maintenance of a well-organized labor union is to the advantage
of both capital and labor, and should be encouraged. Naturally, the
binding together of laborers or workmen, and that of capital, causes
some abuses, for humanity, as it runs, is not always fair; but one
should not criticise either side without criticising the other. Both
have their advantages and disadvantages, both are fair and unfair. As
civilization progresses, the mistakes and abuses will be corrected, and
organized labor and capital will work in harmony.

=Trusts.=--A trust is an association of capitalists, organized for
the purpose of controlling any one trade or trades. It is illegal and
may be punished by imprisonment or fine. It is exceedingly difficult,
however, to discover whether or not an organization is in actual
restraint of trade, and to prosecute a combination. Undoubtedly trusts
exist in America, and all over the world for that matter, and are
illegal. Great effort is being made to disband them, but so far has
very little real effect, for most of the trusts which are disorganized
by law continue in some other form.

=Turbines.=--The turbine has largely taken the place of the water
wheel, because it is more compact, produces greater energy, and is more
powerful. It is, untechnically speaking, a box containing a series of
fanlike blades set at an angle, so that water or steam brought against
them will make them turn.

=Type.=--Movable metallic type was invented by Gutenberg, of Germany,
about 1450. Before this time, all books and papers were either
hand-written or printed from engraved wooden blocks. To-day there are
over 50,000 faces and sizes of type. Type is divided into three great
classes: (1) Roman or body type, which is used for the reading matter
in newspapers, magazines, and books; (2) display type, which appears in
headings, and is used for circulars and the like; and (3) ornamental
type, which has a fancy face. The different sizes of type formerly
bore arbitrary names, like Nonpareil, Pica, etc., but now all type is
under the point system, Nonpareil being known as 6 Point and Pica as
12 Point. The reading matter in all large daily newspapers is set in
6 Point, but most books are printed from either 10, 11, or 12 Point.
Twelve Point type has twice the depth of 6 Point type. Type to be set
is placed in two cases, one known as upper case and the other as lower
case, the former holding capitals and small capitals; the latter small
letters and figures, both cases containing boxes for spaces and other
characters. The compositor holds in his left hand what is known as a
composing stick, or stick. It is made of metal, with a bottom and three
sides, the left side being movable and adjustable. The compositor
places one piece of type at a time in the stick, setting the type from
left to right and upside down. He places metal spaces between each
word. When a line is completed, he sets another, with or without a
piece of thin metal between the lines, known as a lead. When the stick
is full, he dumps his type into a galley, which is a receptacle made of
wood or metal, from one to three feet long, framed at the bottom and at
the sides, but open at the other end. The type is then locked up in a
steel frame or chase, and is ready to be stereotyped, electrotyped, or
to be printed from.

=United States Flag.=--On June 14, 1777, the United States Congress
declared "that the flag of the thirteen United States be thirteen
stripes, alternate red and white; that the Union be thirteen stars,
white in a blue field, representing the new constellation." In 1794
Congress decreed that after May 1st, 1795, "The flag of the United
States be fifteen stripes, alternate red and white, and that the Union
be fifteen stars, white in a blue field." At that time the stars and
stripes were of equal number, and it was the intention to add both a
star and stripe with the addition of each new State. Subsequently,
it was found that the addition of a stripe for each new State would
produce a flag altogether too large. Accordingly, Congress, on April
4th, 1818, reduced the number of stripes to thirteen and made the
number of stars twenty, that being the number of States at that time.
It was further enacted that a new star should be added as each new
State was admitted into the Union. By act of Congress, the flag has
become a sacred emblem, and cannot be used for other than decorative or
patriotic purposes, and cannot serve as a part of an advertisement or
other announcement.

United States History in Brief

1492, August 3, Columbus sailed from Palos, Spain.

1492, October 12, Columbus discovered America.

1607, May 13, the English made first permanent settlement at Jamestown,

1609, September 11, Henry Hudson, commanding the "Half Moon," sailed
into New York Harbor.

1620, November 11, the "Mayflower," containing the Pilgrims, arrived at
Provincetown, Massachusetts.

1620, December 22, the "Mayflower" landed at Plymouth Rock, Plymouth,

1690, September 25, the first American newspaper was published at
Boston, Massachusetts.

1732, February 22, George Washington, first President of the Republic,
was born.

1743, April 13, Thomas Jefferson was born.

1765, March 22, Passage of the Stamp Act.

1767, March 15, Andrew Jackson born.

1770, March 5, massacre and riot in the streets of Boston,

1773, December 16, the famous Boston Tea party was organized.

1775, April 18, the ride of Paul Revere, warning inhabitants of the
coming battles of Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts.

1775, April 19, the battle of Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts.

1775, May 20, the first Declaration of Independence was signed at
Mecklenburg, North Carolina.

1775, June 17, Battle of Bunker Hill, at Charlestown, Massachusetts.

1776, March 17, the British evacuated Boston.

1776, June 17, George Washington was appointed Commander-in-Chief of
the American forces.

1776, July 4, The Declaration of Independence was formally signed at

1776, August 27, Battle of Long Island.

1776, December 26, Battle of Trenton.

1781, October 19, Cornwallis surrendered his army, at Yorktown,

1783, January 20, the United States and Great Britain agreed upon
secession of hostilities.

1783, November 25, New York was evacuated by the British.

1789, April 30, George Washington was inaugurated first President of
the United States.

1790, June 28, Washington, District of Columbia, was made the Capital
of the United States.

1791, August 30, Issue of the first United States patent.

1792, April 2, United States Mint established at Philadelphia,

1793, September 18, Laying of the corner stone of the capitol, at
Washington, District of Columbia.

1784, May 8, Congress established the Post-Office Department.

1796, September 17, President Washington issued his Farewell Address.

1799, December 14, death of President Washington.

1807, January 19, birth of General Robert E. Lee.

1807, August 11, first trial trip of a steamboat, by Robert Fulton, its
inventor, on the Hudson River.

1809, February 12, birth of Abraham Lincoln.

1813, September 10, Perry's victory on Lake Erie.

1815, January 8, Battle of New Orleans.

1816, December 13, establishment, at Boston, Massachusetts, of the
first Savings Bank in the United States.

1819, May 22, the first steam vessel to cross the Atlantic Ocean
sailed from Atlanta, Georgia.

1844, May 27, first telegraph message sent by Professor Morse, the
inventor of telegraphy.

1846, April 23, beginning of the Mexican War.

1847, February 22, Battle of Buena Vista.

1847, September 14, capture of the city of Mexico by the United States

1851, August 27, the Yacht "America" won the international cup race, at
Cowes, England.

1858, August 16, the Old World and the New World connected by
telegraphic cable.

1859, October 18, capture of John Brown, at Harper's Ferry, Virginia.

1860, December 20, South Carolina seceded from the Union.

1861, April 12, Fort Sumter, South Carolina, bombarded.

1861, April 15, President Lincoln issued his first call for volunteers.

1861, July 21, Battle of Bull Run.

1862, March 9, Fight in Hampton Roads, Virginia, between the "Monitor"
and the "Merrimac."

1862, April 28, New Orleans evacuated.

1862, June 6, capture of Memphis, Tennessee.

1862, September 15, General Stonewall Jackson captured Harper's Ferry.

1862, September 17, Battle of Antietam.

1863, January 1, President Lincoln issued the Proclamation of

1863, February 25, passage of the National Bank Act.

1863, July 1 to 3, Battle of Gettysburg.

1863, September 19, Battle of Chickmauga.

1864, March 6 to 8, Battle of the Wilderness.

1864, June 19, the Warship "Kearsarge" sank the "Alabama."

1864, September 2, General Sherman captured Atlanta, Georgia.

1865, April 9, General Lee surrendered at Appomattox.

1865, April 14, John Wilkes Booth assassinated President Lincoln.

1867, March 30, Treaty for the purchase of Alaska signed.

1869, May 10, completion of the Union Pacific Railroad.

1871, October 8, great fire at Chicago.

1881, July 2, President Garfield shot by Charles J. Guiteau.

1886, May 4, Haymarket riot at Chicago.

1889, May 31, great flood at Johnstown, Pennsylvania.

1893, February 14, the Hawaiian Islands annexed to the United States.

1897, June 14, Venezuela boundary line treaty ratified by Congress.

1898, February 15, United States Battleship "Maine" blown up in Havana

1898, April 21, Severance of diplomatic relations between Spain and the
United States.

1898, April 27, Matanzas, Cuba, fired upon by American warships.

1898, May 1, Admiral Dewey destroyed the Spanish fleet at Manila.

1898, May 6, United States fleet bombarded Santiago, Cuba.

1898, May 12, Admiral Sampson fired upon San Juan, Porto Rico.

1898, June 3, Hobson sank the Merrimac in the harbor of Santiago, that
he might block the channel.

1898, June 22, first landing of the United States troops in Cuba.

1898, July 3, the Spanish fleet destroyed at Santiago.

1898, July 16, Santiago surrendered.

1898, August 13, Manila surrendered.

1898, November 28, end of the Spanish-American War.

1901, September 6, President McKinley killed by Leon Czolgolz.

1901, September 16, Hay-Pauncefote Canal Treaty ratified by Congress.

1902, July 4, Declaration of Peace with Philippine Islands, and amnesty
granted to all insurgents.

1904, May 4, the United States took control of the Panama Canal.

=University Extension.=--A scheme for extending to people at large the
advantages of a university education, by means of courses of lectures
and classes in various important cities. The scheme originated at the
University of Cambridge, England, in 1872, and was introduced into the
United States in 1890.

=University Settlements.=--Homes established in the poorer parts of
cities, where educated and cultured people may live and try to improve
the lives of their neighbors. Lectures, studies, and various other
devices are resorted to. The movement started in England in 1867, and
appeared in New York in 1887, as a "Neighborhood Guild." University
settlements are now found in all the chief cities of the United States.

=Utopia.=--An imaginary island, with an ideal commonwealth, the
inhabitants of which enjoy perfect laws and institutions. It is
described in Sir Thomas More's political romance, "De Optimo
Reipublicae Statu, deque Nova Insula Utopia," published in Latin in
1516, and translated into English in 1551. His purpose was to describe
his idea of social arrangements by which the people's most absolute
happiness and improvement might be secured.

=Vaccination.=--Vaccination, a preventive of smallpox, was discovered
by Dr. Edward Jenner of England. It consists of injecting into
the blood a virus made from the sores or scabs of cows suffering
from cowpox, or the virus may be taken from the sore coming from
vaccination itself. Comparatively few people, properly vaccinated, can
have the smallpox, and are largely exempt from any disease resembling
it, except that which is known as varioloid, which is a mild form of
smallpox. It is not known how long vaccination remains a preventive,
but probably for seven years, when one should be vaccinated again. The
prejudice against vaccination, which was very intense at its discovery,
no longer exists except among a few. Practically every physician
advocates it, and it is compulsory in some towns and cities. Deaths
have occurred from it, but they are very infrequent.

=Vacuum.=--The perfect vacuum, which it is impossible to produce, is
space without air or atmosphere. Vacuums are made by pumping all the
air out of a receptacle or chamber. In a vacuum, everything falls
at the same rapidity, as there is nothing to buoy it up, a feather
descending as rapidly as lead shot.

=Vedas.=--Sacred writings of the Hindus, hymns, prayers, and liturgies,
said to have been compiled by Vyasa about 1200 B. C. They are written
in Sanskrit, and divided into four parts.

=Voodooism.=--A degraded form of religion prevalent among the negroes
of Hayti and the Southern States of America. Supposed to be a relic of
the religion of equatorial Africa.

=Watered Stock.=--It is said that the late Commodore Vanderbilt
originated what is known as watered stock. Watered stock is
capitalizing an industry at a figure in advance of its real value.
For example: a railroad has tangible assets of $10,000,000, and an
earning capacity sufficient to pay a 6 per cent. dividend on its
capitalization; financial giants manipulate the stock and increase it
to, say, $20,000,000, watering it to the extent of 100 per cent. In
other words, the real value of the stock then is one-half of what it
was in the first place. Stock watering has become epidemic, and is
the cause of hundreds of thousands of financial failures. The stock
waterers, however, as a rule, win, the public being the victims.

=Wealth of the Nations.=--The estimated wealth of the principal
nations of the earth is given in billions: United States, 130; Great
Britain and Ireland, 80; France, 65; Germany, 60-1/2; Russia, 40;
Austria-Hungary, 25; Italy, 20; Belgium, 9; Spain, 5.4; Netherlands, 5;
Portugal, 2.5; Switzerland, 2.4.

Weather Flags

The Weather Bureau maintained by the United States Department of
Agriculture displays at its stations flags which indicate probable
changes in the weather.

A white flag indicates clear or fair weather.

A blue flag, rain or snow.

A flag with the upper half white and the lower half blue, local rain or

A black triangular flag indicates temperature.

A white flag with black square in center, a cold wave.

When the black triangular flag is placed above the white flag, the
black flag or the white and blue flag, it indicates warmer weather;
when below, colder.

When the black triangular flag is not displayed at all, the temperature
is likely to remain stationary.

Flags are displayed by the Weather Bureau as storm warnings in the
following manner:

Small Craft Warning: A red pennant indicates that moderately strong
winds are expected.

Storm Warning: A red flag with a black center indicates that a storm of
marked violence is expected.

The pennants displayed with the flags indicate the direction of the
wind--white, westerly (from southwest to north); red, easterly (from
northeast to south). The pennant above the flag indicates that the
wind is expected to blow from the northerly quadrants; below, from the
southerly quadrants.

By night a red light indicates easterly winds, and a white light below
a red light, westerly winds.

Hurricane Warning: Two red flags with black centers, displayed
one above the other, indicate the expected approach of a tropical
hurricane, or one of those extremely severe and dangerous storms which
occasionally move across the Lakes and Northern Atlantic coast.

No night small craft or hurricane warnings are displayed.

=Wedding Anniversaries.=--First, cotton; Second, paper; Third, leather;
Fourth, fruit and flowers; Fifth, wooden; Sixth, sugar; Seventh,
woolen; Eighth, India rubber; Ninth, willow; Tenth, tin; Eleventh,
steel; Twelfth, silk and fine linen; Thirteenth, lace; Fourteenth,
ivory; Fifteenth, crystal; Twentieth, china; Twenty-fifth, silver;
Thirtieth, pearl; Fortieth, ruby; Fiftieth, golden; Seventy-fifth,

Weights and Measures


  12 inches             1 foot
   3 feet               1 yard
   2 yards              1 fathom
  16-1/2 feet           1 rod
   4 rods               1 chain
  10 chains             1 furlong
   8 furlongs           1 mile
   3 miles              1 league


   9 square feet        1 square yard
  30-1/4 square yards   1 square rod
  40 square rods        1 rood
   4 roods              1 acre
  640 acres             1 square mile

An acre is 43,560 square feet.


  2 pints               1 quart
  8 quarts              1 peck
  4 pecks               1 bushel


  4 gills               1 pint
  2 pints               1 quart
  4 quarts              1 gallon


  24 grains             1 pennyweight
  20 pennyweights       1 ounce
  12 ounces             1 pound


  16 drams              1 ounce
  16 ounces             1 pound
  25 pounds             1 quarter
   4 quarters           1 hundred
  20 hundreds           1 ton


  20 grains             1 scruple
   3 scruples           1 dram
   8 drams              1 ounce
  12 ounces             1 pound


  1728 cubic inches     1 cubic foot
    27 cubic feet       1 cubic yard
    16 cubic feet       1 cord foot
     8 cord feet        1 cord
   128 cubic feet       1 cord


   7.92 inches          1 link
  25 links              1 rod
   4 rods               1 chain
  80 chains             1 mile


   60 seconds           1 minute
   60 minutes           1 degree
   30 degrees           1 sign
   60 degrees           1 sextant
   90 degrees           1 quadrant
  360 degrees           1 circle



  (Unit Gramme)

                                 Oz.     Lbs.
                      Grains    Troy    Avoir.    Cwt.

  Centigramme        0.15432    .....    .....    .....
  Decigramme         1.54323    0.003    .....    .....
  Gramme            15.43235    0.032    0.002    .....
  Decagramme       154.32349    0.321    0.022    .....
  Hectogramme     1543.23488    3.215    0.220    0.001
  Kilogramme     15432.34880   32.150    2.204    0.019


  (Unit Metre)

                     Inches      Feet     Yards    Miles

  Millimetre        0.03937     0.003     0.001    .....
  Centimetre        0.39371     0.032     0.010    .....
  Decametre       393.70790    32.808    10.936    0.006
  Metre            39.37079     3.280     1.093    .....
  Decimetre         3.93708     0.328     0.109    .....
  Hectometre     3937.07900   328.089   109.363    0.062
  Kilometre     39370.79000  3280.899  1093.633    0.621



 In board measure boards are assumed to be one inch in thickness.

 To compute the measure of surface in square feet--

 When all dimensions are in feet, multiply the length by the breadth,
 and the product will give the surface required.

 When either of the dimensions are in inches, multiply as above and
 divide by 12.

 When all dimensions are in inches, multiply as before and divide
 product by 144.


 To compute the volume of round timber--

 When all dimensions are in feet, multiply the length by the square
 of one-quarter of the main girt, and the product will give the
 measurement in cubic feet.

 When length is given in feet and girt in inches, multiply as before
 and divide by 144.

 When all the dimensions are in inches, multiply as before and divide
 by 1,728.

 Sawed or hewed timber is measured by the cubic foot.

 To compute the volume of square timber--

 When all dimensions are in feet, multiply the product of the breadth
 by the depth by the length, and the product will give the volume in
 cubic feet.

 When either of the dimensions are in inches, multiply as above and
 divide the product by 12.

 When any two of the dimensions are in inches, multiply as before and
 divide the product by 144.


Many books and pamphlets have been written advising the layman what
to do in a case of emergency, and in the absence of a physician or

Much of the information presented is altogether too technical, and is
not likely to be understood by the public at large.

The author has attempted to cover, in a few pages, the fundamentals
of first aid to the injured, and has carefully avoided technical and
medicinal terms. No amount of information, no matter how carefully
or plainly written, can take the place of the physician or surgeon.
Self-doctoring and -dosing is, or should be, considered a crime, and
no one is justified in attempting to relieve any one suffering from
accident or any other ailment, if it is of possible seriousness, unless
a good physician or surgeon cannot be procured.

First and always, keep your head, and keep cool. Don't get excited.
Work rapidly, but deliberately. If the injury or trouble is at all
serious, summon a surgeon or physician immediately. If you are alone
with the sufferer, it may not be safe for you to leave him, but unless
he is in immediate danger, it is better to call a competent physician,
even though you have to absent yourself from him for a few moments. If
the accident occurs in a crowd, solicit some one who looks trustworthy,
and request him to telephone or otherwise communicate with a doctor.

If you know the cause of the accident or trouble inform the physician
in advance, so that he may be better prepared to meet it and bring with
him instruments and remedies.

The patient or sufferer should be placed in a comfortable position, a
doctor or surgeon summoned, and in the interval the layman may follow
the instructions presented here. If he does so, no harm will be done,
and in many cases suffering will be relieved, and death or serious
illness prevented. But the author again, and most emphatically, urges
the layman to send for a physician or surgeon, and to follow the
instructions or information given in this chapter only as preliminary
to the arrival of the doctor or surgeon, unless the injury be of slight

If possible, remove the patient to a quiet place, where there is plenty
of air, and where the temperature is normal.

If there are many people about, request them to keep away.

Place the injured person in a comfortable position, usually upon his
back, and straighten out his legs and arms. If the head is injured,
better lift it above the level of the body; but if it is not, allow the
body to lie on a level.

If the patient is breathing hard, it may be well to lift him into a
sitting position. Loosen his collar, waist-band, and clothing. If he
faints, his head should be slightly lower than his feet. If an arm or
leg is injured, lift it slightly and place it upon a cushion, pillow,
or other support.

If the one injured is unconscious, watch him very carefully. If he is
vomiting, or that tendency is apparent, turn him over on one side so
that the discharge will run out easily and not go into the lungs.

If he is wounded, cut away the clothing covering the wound, but don't
remove any more than is necessary. If he has been burned, pour lukewarm
water, containing a little saleratus or bicarbonate of soda, over
the clothing before you remove it. If he is bleeding severely, stop
the bleeding before dressing the wound. After the wound is dressed
there is nothing for the novice to do, except bring the patient to
consciousness, if unconscious, and remove him to a place of safety and

If the accident or injury be serious, or the patient is unconscious,
it is well to request more than one bystander to summon a physician,
because the first one sent may fail, or the physician he telephones to
or calls upon may be unavailable.

Use the telephone, if there is one at hand or nearby, and tell the
physician what you think is the matter with the sufferer or what caused
the accident, that he may be better prepared to bring with him the
instruments necessary.

If you are alone with the patient, and cannot notify a physician or
surgeon without leaving the patient, you must use your best judgment;
but you should make every possible effort to reach a physician at the
earliest possible moment. Remain with the patient long enough to
place him in a comfortable position, and to stop the flow of blood, if
bleeding; then make all haste to notify a physician or surgeon.

The author acknowledges his indebtedness to Johnson's First Aid Manual,
published by Johnson & Johnson of New Brunswick, N. J., and to Jay W.
Seaver, M. D., of New Haven, Conn., and recently of Yale University.

=Accidents.=--Convey the sufferer to a place of safety, and give him
plenty of air. If a shock follows, follow instructions given for shock.
Do not touch the wound with the bare hand. Wear absolutely clean gloves
or wrap the fingers in clean cloth or gauze. Do not attempt to cleanse
the wound. Summon a surgeon immediately.

=Apparent Death.=--Never assume that a person is dead because he
appears to be. Summon a physician. A fairly good test of death is to
hold the hand of the person apparently dead before a candle or other
light, with the fingers stretched out, each touching the other. Gaze
intently between the fingers, and if the person is alive, a red or pink
color will undoubtedly be seen where the fingers touch each other.
Another method is to take a cold piece of polished steel, like a razor
blade or table knife, and hold before the mouth or nose of the person
apparently dead. If moisture does not gather on it, it may be safe to
assume that breathing has stopped; but these tests are not infallible.

=Bandaging.=--There are two kinds of bandages,--the roller bandage
or the triangular or handkerchief bandage. They may be purchased at
any drug store or be made on the spot in an emergency. The purchased
bandages are made of gauze, or muslin, crinolin, elastic webbing,
rubber, or other material. The roller bandages are absorbent, and are
very thin and pliable. They should be placed next to the wound and hold
the fluids. Muslin bandages are stronger than those made of gauze, and
should be used for pressure and outside bandages. Bandages should be
kept in a perfectly clean place, and always covered, either by being
enclosed in a box or wrapped in paper. If an improvised bandage is
used, care should be taken to use a clean cloth. The triangular bandage
is made by cutting a piece of cloth about 36 inches square into two
pieces diagonally. It can be purchased at a drug store, or any clean
cloth can be used if it is of firm texture.

=Baths.=--Cold baths may be taken to reduce fever and in sunstroke
and other cases when the temperature is high. It is well to have the
temperature in the bath at 70° or 80° Fahrenheit, and to reduce the
water until it reaches 60° or 65°. Tepid baths have a temperature of
80° or 90°, and warm baths are of a temperature from 90° to a little
less than 100°. Hot baths may be used in case of shock, apparent
drowning, depression, and similar troubles. The temperature of the
water should vary from 98° to 110°. When the patient leaves the bath,
he should be dried quickly and put to bed. Hot baths may produce
fainting, and should be taken in the presence of an attendant. Do not
guess at the temperature of the water; use a thermometer.

=Bleeding.=--Arterial blood, or blood coming from the arteries, is
bright red, and is discharged in spurts or jets. Such bleeding is
very dangerous, and unless a physician arrives almost immediately the
patient is not likely to survive.

Venous blood, which comes from the veins, is of dark purple color and
flows freely and steadily.

Capillary bleeding comes from injured small veins. It flows slowly,
and such bleeding is dangerous only if it continues. Always summon
a surgeon or physician, and put in a hurry call for him. Force the
patient to lie down in a level position, preferably upon his back.

If the leg or arm is wounded, elevate it. Cut away the clothing
quickly, so that it may be exposed. Press the bleeding places, but
cover your finger with gauze or a clean handkerchief, or compress the
part by using a strong cloth bandage.

If the bleeding comes from an artery, cover your finger with a few
thicknesses of gauze or clean cloth, and press hard upon the wound and
maintain the pressure, which may stop the bleeding. If the wound is
large, crowd a lot of gauze into it, and push it in, then press on the
flesh a little distance above the wound, that is, between the wound and
the heart. This can be done by winding a bandage, a piece of rubber
tubing, string, or rope, or a pair of suspenders may be used, above the

If the arm or leg is crushed, do not press on the wound, but bring
pressure to bear above it.

=Bleeding from the Veins.=--Lay a piece of gauze over the wound and
bind it on with a firm bandage. Be very careful not to apply your
naked fingers or hand to the wound unless you have washed them in some
antiseptic, but even then it is better to cover your fingers with clean
gauze or cloth. If the bleeding is very severe, apply cracked ice
wrapped in gauze, and hard pressure below the wound. Varicose veins
occasionally bleed. Elevate the arm or leg and bandage it very tightly,
the bandage to be placed directly over the bleeding spot.

=Bleeding from Capillary Veins.=--As the blood oozes, and does not
flow rapidly, expose the wound to the air for a short time, which will
usually check it. The application of hot water is advisable, but warm
water should not be used. Extremely cold water or cracked ice will stop
some bleeding. If copious bleeding occurs around a tooth, it may be
stopped by packing the place with plaster of Paris, or absorbent cotton
may be used. In every case, keep the places warm. After the bleeding is
stopped, give hot drinks, like hot tea, coffee, or milk, if much blood
has been lost.

=Broken Bones.=--Do not attempt to set the break. Handle the patient
carefully. Place him in a comfortable position and undress him,
removing the clothing by cutting it to save time. If it is necessary
to carry him a distance, improvise a splint made of wood or heavy
pasteboard and fasten it around the broken part with bandages. Carry
him to a physician or summon one at once, but let him lie quietly if a
physician can reach him. It is well to have two splints, one on each
side, to be held in place by the same bandages. If the arm is broken,
bandage it and place it in a sling. In every case, summon a physician
or carry the patient to one.

=Chilblains.=--Keep the feet warm and dry. Don't warm them at a fire or
place them in hot water, but bathe them in cold water and rub with a
dry towel. Apply turpentine, camphorated spirits, or oil of wintergreen.


It is said that cleanliness is next to godliness. Good health is
dependent upon the care of the body, and the body will not remain in a
healthful state unless frequently bathed.

The fact that thousands of persons enjoy good health without even
taking an infrequent bath, must not be used as an argument against
regular bathing. These persons, if in health, live out of doors, and
Nature seems to take care of them; but it is obvious that they would
be healthier and stronger if they gave proper attention to bodily

The majority of city dwellers, and a large proportion of those living
in the country, work indoors, and their health is dependent upon their
personal cleanliness.

Opinions differ, and some hygienists do not consider the daily bath
essential, but the majority of those who have studied the subject
maintain that perfect health requires the daily bathing of the entire

Without the daily bath one does not begin his work refreshed or with

A scrub is not to be recommended more than once a week, but a bath
should be taken daily, and the entire body rubbed with a dry towel,
a bath towel to be preferred. Emersion in a tub of water is not
necessary, although it is the best and easiest way of taking a bath,
next to a shower bath. A sponge bath answers all purposes.

A cold plunge should not be taken without the advice of a physician.
The shower bath is very refreshing. A hot bath is seldom advisable. It
is better to have the water of a temperature not much higher than that
of summer heat. A pure soap should be used, and care should be taken
to rinse it from the body. The daily bath is the best preventive of
colds. Comparatively few people who bathe daily suffer from more than
transient colds.

The bath should not be taken in a draught. If the room is cold, work
rapidly and use additional time for rubbing, continuing it until the
skin glows.

The practice of partial bathing is not to be recommended. When you take
a bath, take it all over.

If away from home, and sleeping in a hotel bed, which may have been
occupied by a diseased person, it is well to go over the body carefully
in the morning with an antiseptic soap. Every hotel, and all public
conveyances, are laden with germs, and a bath will prevent many

A few drops of ammonia or a teaspoonful of borax placed in the water
in which you bathe will remove the odor of perspiration, but ammonia
should not take the place of good soap.

=Clothing Afire.=--Force the person afire to lie down and roll him over
and over. Wrap him in a rug or blanket, or anything else at hand. Throw
water upon him, but do not wait for water. Wrapping him in a blanket
is sure to extinguish the flames. Under no circumstances allow the
person afire to run about or out of doors.

=Colds.=--Use simple remedies, such as hot lemonade, but if the cold
does not soon abate, consult a physician.

=Diphtheria.=--Consult your physician. Never go near a case of
diphtheria or allow a dog, cat, or other animal to enter the sick-room.
Be careful of every utensil, and do not allow any one else to use them
until they have been washed in antiseptics. Never handle any clothing
or other articles in a sick-room.


The reader is warned against placing reliance upon any disinfectant,
because it smells of carbolic acid, or has any other strong odor. Many
of the advertised disinfectants are worthless, and some of them are
merely deodorizers, which destroy smell and don't disinfect.

Sulphur or brimstone is probably the best fumigator. Sulphite of iron
(copperas) is cheap and should be used for sewers and drains. Dissolve
a pound and a half in a gallon of water. Two parts of sulphate of zinc
to one part of common salt, dissolved in a gallon of water, is a good
disinfectant for clothing, bed linen, etc.

Carbolic acid is an excellent disinfectant, but is efficacious only
when used at considerable strength, 3 to 5 per cent. Its strong odor
suggests qualities which do not exist, if it is much diluted.

There are many disinfectants upon the market, many of them being
advertised to be efficacious. Some of them are thoroughly reliable, but
others are almost worthless. I would advise the reader not to purchase
or use a disinfectant which is not recommended by a reliable physician.

=Disinfecting Cellars, Yards, Cesspools, etc.=--Use a solution made of
60 pounds of copperas dissolved in a barrel of water. Sprinkle freely
over cellar and put a pailful in a cesspool.

=Disinfecting the Sick-Room.=--Plenty of fresh air and cleanliness are
to be first considered. The clothing, bed linen, and towels should be
washed in a tub containing a zinc chloride solution, and the water
should be boiling hot. A solution of copperas and water should be
immediately placed in all vessels containing discharges.

=Dislocations.=--The novice should never attempt to treat a
dislocation. All he can do is to place the patient in a comfortable
position, using a sling or cushion to support the part injured. A
physician should be summoned.

=Dog Bites.=--Wash the wound with antiseptic soap or pure soap and
water, with borax dissolved in it to the strength of a teaspoonful to
a pint. Hydrophobia occurs very infrequently, and many dogs, supposed
to be mad, are suffering from some other ailment; but a surgeon should
be summoned in all cases whenever it is possible to do so. The bite
of a rat, cat, or other animal is not generally dangerous, but the
wound should be washed with borax and water, as above. Better summon a
surgeon. Suck the wound vigorously before applying washes. There is no
danger to the person sucking a wound of this nature, unless the skin on
his lips or in his mouth is cracked or bleeding, but he may wash his
mouth with borax water if he feels uneasy about it.


If the person is conscious tell him that you will save him, which will
prevent him from losing his nerve. If you swim out for him, and he is
struggling, seize him by the hair and turn him over on his back. Swim
on your side, towing him along as you would a log of wood. You may
hold his head with one arm, but do not attempt to support his entire
body. If he struggles violently, hold his head under water until he is
unconscious, so that you can better handle him. Loosen his clothing,
drain water out of lungs by inverting body, clean out his mouth, and
pull his tongue forward. Immediately begin artificial respiration, each
movement to last from four to five seconds. Apply warmth and rubbing,
and when he is conscious give him hot water, coffee, or lemonade.
Artificial breathing is of greatest consequence. Do not give up. Many
persons have been resuscitated after many hours of incessant labor.
Artificial respiration may be performed in the following way:

First--Immediately loosen the clothing about the neck and chest,
exposing them to the wind, except in very severe weather. Get the water
out of the body, first by tickling throat with a feather, or applying
ammonia to the nose; give a severe slap with the open hand upon the
chest and soles of feet; if no immediate result, proceed as follows:

Second--Lay the body down in the open air with the head hanging down
and with its weight on the stomach across any convenient object, such
as a keg, box, boat timber, or your knees. Open the mouth quickly,
drawing the tongue forward with handkerchief or cloth to let the water
escape. Keep the mouth clear of liquid. To relieve the pressure on the
stomach, roll the body gently from side to side and then back on the
stomach. Do this several times to force the water from the stomach and

Third--Lay the body on the back, make a roll of a coat or any garment,
place it under the shoulders of the patient, allowing the head to fall
back. Then kneel at the head of the patient.

Open patient's mouth and place some small object between teeth.

With tongue pliers or fingers covered with gauze or cloth, grasp his
tongue and draw it out. Tie it down to his chin with cloth or rubber

Grasp the patient's arms at the middle of the forearms, fold them
across his stomach, and raise them over his head to a perpendicular
position, drawing them backward, straight, then forward overhead to
the sides again, pressing the arms on the lower part of the ribs and
side, so as to produce a bellows movement upon the lungs. Do this about
fifteen times a minute.

Apply smelling salts, camphor, or ammonia to the nostrils to excite

Fourth--On signs of life, or when breathing is restored, remove the
clothing, dry the body, wrap the patient in warm blankets or hot
cloths. To encourage circulation briskly rub his limbs under the
blankets toward the heart; brandy or aromatic spirits of ammonia may be
given in small doses, with care to avoid strangulation.

Another Method

Another simple method of restoring breathing, one that is being
rapidly adopted, is that known as the Schafer, or prone, method. It has
the great advantage that it can be performed by one man alone. This
method has just been endorsed as the preferable one by a commission
representing the American Medical Association, the National Electric
Light Association, and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers.

First--Lay patient on stomach with his head to side and withdraw his
tongue, which itself then will hang out if teeth are held apart with
small object. The operator then kneels astride the patient's thighs and
with his hands across the lower ribs swings his body back and forth
rhythmically, pausing about two seconds as his weight falls upon and is
removed from patient. This movement is to be continued at the rate of
about fifteen times a minute.

=To Prevent Drowning.=--The human body weighs, in the water, about one
pound; that is, it is approximately one pound heavier than the water
which it displaces. A stool, chair, or small box or board will overcome
the tendency to sink and will keep the head above water. The feet, and
the hand which is not clinging to an object, should be used as paddles.
Every one should learn to swim. If he can take only a few strokes, the
chances of death by drowning are small, for he is likely to be able to
reach something which will support him. So much do I believe in the
necessity of knowing how to swim, that I consider it a crime not to
understand this art.

=Electrical Accidents.=--Immediately shut off the current, but do not
handle the wire with your naked hands. If rubber gloves are not handy,
cut the wire with an ax or knife, with a piece of woolen cloth wrapped
around the handle. If you pull the sufferer away from the wire, do
not touch him with your bare hands, but cover them with woolen cloth,
or wear rubber or woolen gloves, or remove him by the use of a rope.
The ordinary electric shock will not cause death unless the patient
continues to receive it. Summon a doctor at once. Place the patient in
the open air, with something under his shoulders. Loosen his clothing,
open his mouth, and pull out the tongue. Clear the mouth from saliva.
Force air into his lungs by pressing the base of the ribs about once in
four seconds, then attempt to resuscitate him as you would a drowning

=Emergencies with Children.=--If the child suddenly suffers from
vomiting, purging, and prostration, send for a doctor at once. In the
meantime place him in a hot bath and then carefully dry him with a
warm towel and wrap in warm blankets. If the hands and feet are cold,
apply hot water bottles to the feet and hands. A poultice made of
flaxseed meal (3/4) and mustard (1/4) should be placed over the body.
Five drops of brandy in a teaspoonful of water may be given every 15
minutes. For sudden diarrhoea, administer one teaspoonful of castor oil
or of spiced syrup of rhubarb. Allow the child to drink freely of cold
water that has been boiled. Always summon a physician.

Emergency Medicines ..

The writer would emphatically discourage self-medication and dosing,
and would oppose the taking of medicines of any kind, except the
simplest remedies, without the advice of a physician. Hundreds of
thousands of people have been made sick, because the wrong medicine
was administered to them, and many more have taken medicine when they
didn't need it.

The following emergency medicines are presented, with a distinct
understanding that they should not be used except in simple cases:

=Ammonia.=--What is known as ammonia water, or liquor of ammonia,
or as spirits of hartshorn, or hartshorn, is of several strengths
and is highly irritating and poisonous if taken internally. Applied
externally, if of considerable strength, it will cause blisters and
pain. Ammonia should not be applied to an open wound or irritated
surface, except in case of snake bites or stings of insects, where it
is intended to neutralize the poisons. The vapor of ammonia water,
inhaled through the nostrils, affects the nervous system and may be
used in fainting or epilepsy, but always with caution, for a strong
preparation of ammonia applied to the nose may produce a violent shock.
It is better to saturate a handkerchief or wad of cotton and hold it a
short distance from the nostrils. The buyer is cautioned against the
use of the strongest ammonia water.

=Aromatic Spirits of Ammonia.=--This is a stimulant, and may be used in
cases of sick headache, hysteria, cholic, or fainting, in doses of from
10 to 30 drops in sweetened water.

=Arnica.=--Tincture of arnica is supposed to be of value in accidents,
and especially efficacious for sprains and bruises. It has some value,
mainly from the alcohol it contains and partly because it is applied
with friction. It is a poison, and never should be taken internally.
For external use it should not be applied at full strength, as it is
apt to cause inflammation if the skin is tender.

=Bicarbonate of Soda.=--Bicarbonate of soda, commonly known as baking
soda or saleratus, is distinct from sal soda or washing soda. It is of
great value in the treatment of burns, and may be used as an antidote
in poisoning by acids.

=Camphor.=--Camphor is purchased in gum or in liquid form. It never
should be taken internally, except by advice of a physician. Nor
should it be applied in its full strength directly to the wounds or to
irritated or inflamed surfaces.

=Ginger.=--The essence or extract of ginger is a very popular remedy
for trouble with the digestive organs, bowel complaints, etc., and
should be taken in doses of from 10 to 40 drops in sweetened water,
milk, or other liquid. It never should be used habitually, because
it may establish a drug habit; nor should large doses be taken to
check diarrhoea, as it is often inadvisable to too rapidly check the

=Glycerin.=--Glycerin may be used for burns, and, mixed with equal
parts of rose water, it is a good lotion for chapped hands or lips, but
it is irritating to the skin of some people.

=Peppermint.=--The essence of peppermint may be used for stomach-ache
and bowel complaints, the usual dose being from 10 to 20 drops on sugar
or in sweetened water. Oil of peppermint should not be taken, except
when prescribed by a physician.

=Turpentine.=--Turpentine is the base of most liniments, and it has
some value, but mustard plasters are safer. Turpentine is inflammable,
and never should be applied near an open fire. Turpentine should not be
given internally, unless prescribed by a physician.

=Whisky.=--Whisky, brandy, wine, and all other spirits should be used
sparingly. They are likely to do more harm than good. Hot water, hot
coffee, hot tea, or aromatic spirits of ammonia are to be preferred.
Children should never be given spirituous liquids, except in extreme
cases, and then only 10 to 20 drops in water.

=Witch Hazel or Hamamelis.=--Used as a remedy for sprains, wounds, and
swelling. It is a mild application for chapped hands, and used by the
laity for burns, scalds, cuts, etc. It is not irritating, and is a good
substitute for arnica. Its use externally is absolutely safe.

=Vaseline.=--It is to be recommended for burns, scalds, etc. It is
nonirritating and is not poisonous. It can be used frequently.

=Cold Cream.=--A perfectly safe article to be used for chapped hands
and lips, and skin roughness.

=Emetics and Stimulants.=--In practically all cases, and where poison
has entered the stomach, it is well to empty the stomach immediately.
If a stomach pump cannot be procured, an emetic should be administered.
Doctors would administer ipecac, apomorphine, sulphate of zinc, tartar
emetic, and other drugs, but none of them are likely to be available
before the physician arrives. When notifying the physician tell him,
if possible, the kind of poison taken, so he may be prepared. A
dessert-spoonful of ground dry mustard in a glass of warm water is
likely to produce vomiting. Follow the first dose with a second one.
Then push the forefinger down the throat as far as possible, that the
patient may vomit. Dissolve a teaspoonful of salt in water and give to
the patient, or administer a teaspoonful of ipecac every few minutes to
a child, and a tablespoonful to an adult. Follow the dose with a glass
of water and then insert the forefinger in the throat. One who has
taken opium does not vomit easily and strenuous efforts should be made
to produce vomiting. If one emetic does not work, give another, and
keep on repeating it.


Physical exercises are absolutely essential to health. The working man,
however, is likely to obtain enough of it from his daily action, but
those of sedentary habits, especially those who work indoors, will not
receive sufficient exercise from their labor.

While the gymnasium is to be recommended, and while it has done much to
make weak people strong, I would not advise any one to take more than
very simple gymnasium exercises without the advice of a physician.
Exercises may be taken in the bedroom, with the use of light dumb
bells, or without the use of any apparatus at all.

Walking is the best of all, for it can be enjoyed by those in poor
health or physically weak. It takes one out of doors, and exercise
out of doors is far better than that taken in a closed room. If you
exercise at home, open all of the windows.

Every one should walk at least two miles a day in the open air, unless
he is very weak. Select a companion, as exercise is more efficacious
if enjoyed and is not mere exercise by itself. Take long breaths in
the open air every morning. Overexercise, and much of that practiced
by athletes, injure the heart and work opposite from the intention. No
strenuous exercise should be taken after mid-life without the advice of
a physician. Any good doctor will prescribe a course of exercises for
you at a nominal fee, most of them not charging more than a dollar for
advice. Then, those who exercise need more food and a different kind of
food from that required by those who do not exercise.

As cases differ, it is inadvisable for me to prescribe proper food.
Consult your physician.

=Extinguishing Fires from Coal Oil.=--Do not attempt to smother the
flame by water. Smother it with a carpet or cloth.


Ordinary fainting is distinct from that which occurs from shock or
collapse, the latter following serious injuries, while fainting is
common with some people, and may not be serious.

Those who are subject to frequent fainting spells should consult a
physician that he may locate the cause.

If fainting is caused from any disease of the heart, or from a weak
heart, death may follow, and such persons should be under the care of a

When fainting occurs, place the patient on his back with his head as
low or lower than the body. Raise the legs. He should have plenty of
fresh air. If fainting occurs in a crowd, ask the spectators to move
away. If in-doors, open all doors and windows, loosen the clothing,
and sprinkle water upon the face, at the same time applying smelling
salts or spirits of camphor held close to the nose, but not touching
it. The body may be rubbed to assist the circulation. If the person
does not quickly revive, apply gentle heat or a mustard plaster to the
pit of the stomach. When he recovers give him hot tea or coffee, and
never more than a moderate amount of alcoholic stimulants. Keep him in
a reclining position for some time after he has recovered.

=Feeding an Invalid.=--If the illness is at all serious, consult a
physician. He will tell you what and what not to give the patient in
the way of food. Never cook the food in the presence of the invalid,
and keep the smell of cooking away from him. Don't eat in his presence,
as it may annoy him. Serve everything attractively, with spotless
napkin, table cloth, and ware. Be careful not to spill anything.
Hot articles should be served very hot, and cold ones very cold,
as lukewarm viands are not acceptable. Everything brought into the
sick-room should be covered with dishes or napkins. Better bring in too
little than too much, more to be served if the patient desires it.

=Fire in the House.=--When the house is afire cover the head, if
possible, with a wet cloth, or dry one if there is no facility for
wetting it, cutting holes for the eyes. Creep on the floor and don't
stand up or walk, for the air is clearer next to the floor, as smoke
rises. Unless there are plenty of exits, a knotted rope should be
attached to a staple. It is easier to climb down a knotted rope than
one which is smooth. If necessary to jump from an upper story, throw
out a mattress or something else which is soft, and attempt to land
upon it. When at a hotel or boarding house, ascertain the means of exit
before retiring.

=Fits.=--Generally speaking, the treatment should be similar to that
given to one who has fainted. If the patient is hysterical, apply
mustard plasters or ice to the soles of his feet and the wrists, but do
not dash water in the face or use strong emetics or heroic measures. If
the fit is caused by epilepsy (in this case the person is rigid), do
not attempt to stop the patient from struggling. Lay him on his back
with his head somewhat raised, and loosen his clothing. If necessary,
hold his arms and legs gently, but do not use force. Place a stick or
knife handle between the teeth to prevent biting the tongue. Always
summon a physician.

=Frost Bite.=--Never place the patient near a fire. Undress him
carefully and pack frozen parts with cloths wet with ice water. Rub
adjacent parts vigorously. Administer hot coffee or tea. If breathing
appears to have stopped, treat him as you would one apparently drowned.
When the patient begins to revive, place him in a warm, but not a hot,
room, cover him with blankets, and rub him with a cloth wrung out of
hot water; give him the ordinary stimulants, but not alcoholic ones.

=Fumigating a Sick-Room.=--Formalin is probably the best fumigator.
Place the articles to be fumigated in a closed room, and pour
formaldehyde over towels or bed linen and place on the floor. The room
should remain closed for 24 hours. A room containing 100 square feet
of floor surface requires at least a pint of formaldehyde.

Getting Things into the Eye, Nose, Ear, etc.

=Eye.=--Sometimes complications result of a most serious nature.
A physician should be sent for immediately. In the interval the
following directions may be followed: Articles like cinders, dust, and
other small objects may be removed from the eye, if one has a steady
hand; but the eye should not be rubbed, and should be kept closed,
except when one is trying to remove the foreign substance. The tears
by themselves will often wash out ordinary dust or cinders. If the
substance is hidden from view, one or two grains of whole flaxseed
may remove it. Catch the upper lid by the lashes and pull away from
the eyeball over the lower lid, holding it there for a moment, and
request the patient to blow his nose vigorously. Visible articles may
be removed with a piece of gauze on the hand, or an absolutely clean
cloth; but don't touch the eye with the finger. As the eye is a very
delicate organ, the novice should not attempt to operate upon it.

=Nose.=--Blow the nose very hard, and close one side of the nostril
by pressing your finger against it. Tickle the nose or give snuff to
excite sneezing. Sometimes the article will be removed if the patient
takes a long breath and closes his mouth, then give him a sharp blow
on the back. If the body is not discharged, call a physician.

=Ear.=--There is great danger in tampering with the ear. Never insert
needles or pins in an attempt to remove foreign substances. Better send
for a physician. If live insects enter the ear, pour a small quantity
of sweet oil or glycerin into the ear and very gently syringe it with
warm water.

=Throat.=--Send for a physician immediately, and tell him what you
think the matter is, so he may bring the necessary instruments. If
there is no difficulty in breathing, wait for the physician. Slap the
person on the back when the body is bent forward with face downwards,
which will cause him to cough. Elevate him so that his head is lower
than his body and slap him on the back while in this position.

=Getting Wet.=--Many colds are contracted on account of exposure to
rain and moisture. Unless able to change your clothes, keep moving. It
is said that very few colds are contracted while one is exercising.

=Headaches.=--Under no circumstances take a headache powder, or any
drug whatsoever, without the advice of your physician. Many headache
powders contain dangerous drugs, which work upon the heart, sometimes
causing death. Headaches almost invariably come from a cause not
located in the head itself. Do not attempt to cure it yourself. The
headache powder may relieve the headache temporarily at the expense of
the system.

=Hiccoughs.=--Drink a glass full of cold water as rapidly as possible.
Breathe deeply. If the hiccoughs continue, call a physician.

How to Avoid Accidents

Never cross the street without looking both ways.

Do not get off of a car or other vehicle while it is in motion.

Never thrust your head or arms out of the car or other vehicle.

When it is lightning, avoid trees and metallic articles.

Never allow firearms to be lying about. Have some one place for them
and be sure that no one can get at them.

Move quickly when it is cold; and when any part is frozen, do not go
near the fire, but rub with snow.

Always change wet clothing as soon as possible, and keep moving until
you have opportunity to change.

Never walk on a railroad track.

Do not light a fire with kerosene or other inflammable fluid.

Never enter a cellar or anywhere else where gas is escaping with a
light in your hand.

Under no circumstances touch a wire hanging in the street.

Maintain a medicine chest containing all of the common remedies, but
don't select them without the advice of your physician. Mark each
bottle plainly, with directions under the label.

Never take medicine without looking at the label beforehand.

=Illuminating Gas.=--Summon a physician, and before he arrives proceed
as follows: Remove the patient into fresh air and walk him around.
Place his arms about your shoulders, and if there are two rescuers
place one arm around the shoulders of each. A glass of Weiss beer
should be given while the patient is walking, as it removes gas from
the stomach. In five minutes give half a teaspoonful of aromatic
spirits of ammonia in a third of a glass of water. Repeat this dose
every 15 minutes until four doses have been given. The neck of the beer
bottle may be forced into the patient's mouth.

=Infectious Diseases.=--It is now generally supposed that all
contagious and communicable diseases are contracted by the germs which
pass into the body or system. These germs are so small that millions
of them may enter the body through the nose, throat, and skin. They do
little or no harm to a healthy person, for the healthy body is opposed
to their growth, but if one is weak, or suffering from a slight cold,
or is depressed, they may multiply and cause diseases. These germs may
be widely scattered,--in the clothes, bedding, carpets, and in the
hair and skin. They cling to walls and ceilings and they will multiply
on almost any kind of food. No one can wholly prevent coming into
contact with them, but he can, if he will, avoid most of the contagious
diseases by never sitting down in the sick-room, especially avoiding
the bed, and keeping away from the walls and furniture. He should wash
his hands with antiseptic soap after handling the patient. Exercise
regularly in the open air. Nurses should wear washable dresses, which
are frequently changed and a washable cap should cover their hair. When
in the sick-room do not approach the patient near enough to catch his
breath. Do not touch with your lips any food, dish, or utensil which
has been in the sick-room. Do not eat or drink in the sick-room. Wear
no clothing that the patient wore before being taken sick. Never touch
the sick person if your hands are sore or scratched, and be sure to
wash them after contact with him. Never allow the dishes used by the
patient to be used by any other unless they are very carefully washed
and scalded in boiling water. All articles of food not eaten by the
patient should be burned, and milk and food should never be allowed to
stand in the sick-room. All bodily discharges should be immediately
removed and covered with disinfecting solution, and the vessels should
be washed with antiseptics before being brought back into the room.

=Lockjaw.=--Do not attempt to cure it. Consult your physician. It will
probably be fatal.

=Mustard Plasters.=--Plasters occasionally are efficacious, but
most give more apparent than real relief. They should not be used
indiscriminately or without the advice of a physician.

=Neuralgia.=--This is often incurable, but may be relieved.
Certain liniments are efficacious, but are not to be recommended
indiscriminately. Better consult your physician.


Poisons taken into the system through the mouth, and not through the
blood, require a different treatment.

Poisons may be classified as follows: 1. Irritant, in which the
symptoms appear entirely at the location of the poison. 2. Systemic, in
which the poison affects the system at large in addition to producing
local irritation. 3. Narcotic or sleep-producing. 4. General, in which
there is no local irritation.

In the first mentioned, it is best not to cause vomiting. Give dilute
acids to neutralize alkalis, and dilute alkalis to neutralize acids.
Then administer oil, raw egg, or flour and water. Small doses of
opiates may be given to quiet the pain, and whisky or other spirituous
liquor to relieve weakness.

In the second class (except for arsenic or similar poisoning) no emetic
should be given. The poison may be counteracted by bland doses of oil,
flour, and water, white of eggs; and stimulating drinks should be given
to counteract depression.

In the third class, make strenuous effort to produce vomiting, then
give strong coffee or other stimulating drinks, and make every effort
to keep the patient awake, even if you have to keep him walking.

Fourth class. Give emetics, and follow with stimulating drinks to
relieve weakness and pain. The patient should be allowed to rest.


=Poisoning by Acids.=--For sulphuric, muriatic, nitric, and acetic
acids give immediately a solution of baking soda or magnesia, chalk,
lime, soap-suds, or chalk tooth powder, followed by raw eggs, milk, or
sweet oil.

=For Carbolic Acid or Creosote.=--Give alcohol and, immediately, castor
oil, sweet oil, raw eggs, or milk, followed by an emetic.

=For Oxalic Acid.=--Administer lime, chalk, or magnesia. Lime may be
scraped from the wall or ceiling and dissolved in water, but don't use
soda, potash, or ammonia.

=For Prussic Acid.=--Generally the patient dies immediately, but
if he is still living, do not stop to give emetics, but administer
stimulants. Apply hot and cold douches and use artificial respiration.

=For Aconite Poisoning.=--Wash the stomach with a stomach tube and
avoid emetics. Use stimulants. Apply warmth to the extremities and
place mustard plasters over the heart and legs. If the patient is
insensible, use artificial respiration.

=For Camphor.=--Give emetics, oils, and eggs. Apply warmth to the

=For Chloroform.=--If caused by inhalation, resort to artificial
respiration and apply friction. Place the patient in the fresh air,
keeping the head very low. Alternate hot and cold applications. If it
occurs from internal use, administer large doses of bicarbonate of
soda in water. Administer artificial respiration if the patient is

=For Nux Vomica.=--Tobacco, chewing or smoking, and animal charcoal,
dissolved in water. Follow with emetics. Use artificial respiration
when necessary.

=For Opium.=--Administer an emetic, such as mustard or ipecac. Apply
water to the head, face, and spine. Give strong coffee, but do not give
alcoholic stimulants. Keep the patient aroused by walking, whipping, or
other means. Use artificial respiration if necessary.

=For Arsenic.=--Give emetics immediately, including draughts of hot,
greasy water or salt and water. Administer in large doses magnesia or
lime scraped from the walls or ceilings. Give castor oil, sweet oil, or
equal parts of sweet oil and lime water, or raw eggs. Use stimulants
well diluted.

=For Corrosive Sublimate.=--Administer an emetic and large doses of
white of eggs, milk, mucilage, barley water, or flour and water. Force
the patient to swallow large quantities. Use the stomach pump.

=For Belladonna.=--Give emetics and stimulants. Apply warmth to
extremities and mustard plasters to the feet. Use artificial
respiration if necessary.

=For Poisonous Mushrooms.=--Give emetics, castor oil, stimulants, and
apply heat.

=Pulse.=--The average rate of the pulse in adults is 76 beats every
minute; but it varies according to age. At birth it is from 130 to 140;
1st year, 115 to 130; 2d year, 100 to 115; 3d year, 95 to 105; between
7 and 14, 80 to 90; between 14 and 21, 75 to 80; between 21 and 60,
70 to 75; in old age, from 75 to 80. The female pulse is from 10 to
15 beats quicker than that of the male of the same age. To count the
pulse, place the finger over the artery at the wrist; count the beats
for 15 seconds, multiply this by four, and the result is the number of
beats a minute. Do not use the thumb, as there is a sort of pulse in
it which interferes with counting.

=Rheumatism.=--So far as is known, there is no certain cure for
rheumatism, notwithstanding the many nostrums that are advertised
as sure cures. Rheumatism may be helped by avoiding meat and other
nitrogenous foods, confining the diet to vegetables and similar foods,
and drinking water freely. Rheumatism, however, is too serious to be
treated by other than a physician.

Scalds and Burns

Place the patient in a comfortable and safe place and remove the
clothing rapidly with a knife or scissors. If it sticks, cut away as
much as is necessary, but don't pull it off. Clothing may sometimes be
removed by sprinkling with water or oil. Do not expose the surface of
the burn or scald to the air. Cover as quickly as possible with flour
or vaseline and wrap a cloth about it wet with a solution of water and
common baking soda.

If the clothing is afire, force the person to lie down immediately,
wrap him in a blanket or other piece of cloth, preferably of woolen. Do
not allow him to run around or expose himself to a draught. Fire may be
extinguished by slapping the burning parts with a cloth, or throwing
water upon the person, but the wrapping process is better, because it
immediately smothers the fire, and water is not always available.

Slight scalds or burns may be relieved by the application of a
solution made of a pint of water with one teaspoonful of baking soda
or saleratus. Apply with a piece of lint, and then cover the burn or
scald with absorbent cotton, held in place by a bandage. If the burn or
scald is severe, apply sweet oil, olive oil, vaseline, or the white of
an egg. If these are not handy, cover the spot with starch or use damp

Burns caused by lye, and other alkaline chemicals, should be covered
with water, then with vinegar, and then treated as those by fire.

Burns caused by acids and vitrol should be soaked with water and
thoroughly washed with soda (saleratus) or lime water. Chalk or tooth
powder may be used when saleratus is not available.

Carbolic acid burns may be treated with strong alcohol.

Burns of the mouth or throat coming from the drinking of hot fluids,
may be treated by taking oil or the white of an egg into the mouth and
allowing it to run into the throat if the throat is affected. Vinegar
should be used for burns in the mouth coming from caustic potash and
ammonia. If the burn is serious, summon the doctor.

Burns caused by gunpowder should be treated the same as are ordinary

Shock or Collapse

Shock or collapse frequently occurs after serious accidents. It can
be foretold generally, because the skin is cool and clammy, and it is
usually accompanied with vomiting or rapid pulse, irregular breathing,
or sighing, and the eyelids may be heavy, the pupils dilated, and the
mind is not active. Insensibility frequently accompanies a shock. Send
for a surgeon or doctor immediately. Place the patient in a warm bed,
if possible, cover him with blankets, and allow his head to lie low.
Remove all clothing, cutting it to save time. Wrap bandages around
wounds or broken bones.

Hot cloths, or hot water bags, or a hot brick wrapped in cloth should
be applied to the region of the heart, the pit of the stomach, and the
feet. If wet cloths are used, wring them out frequently in hot water
and re-apply them. It is not necessary to use heat sufficient to burn
the skin. Under no circumstances apply heat to the head.

If possible, force the patient to drink hot water, hot tea, hot coffee,
or hot milk. Malted milk is excellent, but it should be hot. Whisky and
other alcoholic liquor should not be given, except by the advice of a
doctor. Half a teaspoonful of aromatic spirits of ammonia in water may
be given every 15 minutes for four doses, but not more. Stimulants
should not be given after the patient begins to recover.

Vomiting may be stopped or relieved by administering a little brandy
mixed with cracked ice.

If the skull is injured or there is concussion of the brain, with
or without the appearance of apoplexy or severe breathing, do not
administer a stimulant.

=Sleeplessness.=--Insomnia rapidly lowers the vital forces. It is
due to several causes, including mental worry, indigestion, physical
overexercise, and functional or organic diseases. Insomnia may be
considered a natural warning of coming ailment. The cause should be
located, and a good physician should be consulted. Sleep is encouraged
by exercise in the open air and by taking hot drinks just before
retiring. Hot malted milk is excellent; but solid food should not be
taken just before retiring. Mild gymnastic exercise may be taken before
an open window, but drugs should never be administered without the
advice of a physician.

=Snake Bite.=--Do not waste valuable time to kill the snake. If the
bite is venomous, rip open the clothing so that the wound will be
exposed. Tie a handkerchief or rope around the arm or leg, above the
bite. It should be drawn so tight that the circulation will be stopped
or retarded. The use of a stick or pencil will assist in giving
pressure. With a knife, open the holes made by the snake's fangs and
cut around the wound liberally, being careful not to sever an artery.
Let the blood run freely. Poison is sometimes removed by sucking a
wound, but one should not do this if his lips are chapped or bleeding.
The wound should be washed with soda solution and large doses of whisky
or brandy should be administered. Call a surgeon immediately.

=Sore Throat.=--Sore throat may be merely local or be a forerunner of
diphtheria. Better consult a physician.

=Sprains.=--Most sprains are serious, and a doctor should be called
at once, but before he arrives the following simple treatment may be
applied. Sprains twist and tear the ligaments and may rupture the
small blood vessels. The flow of blood may be checked by application
of cold or heat or by pressure. If the ankle or foot is sprained, wrap
a folded towel tightly around the part sprained and then apply moist
heat and elevate the leg. Immerse the foot in water as hot as can be
borne and keep on adding hot water for about 20 minutes, so that the
temperature may not be lowered; then apply a bandage, but continue the
bathing treatment. Cold applications may be used instead of hot water,
and should be applied by dipping cloths in ice water frequently, and
wrapping them about the parts injured.

=Stings of Poisonous Insects= or of scorpions, centipedes, etc., should
be treated with hartshorn, ammonia, after which cold water or cracked
ice should be applied. Do not fail to call a surgeon or doctor. If the
sting remains in the wound, remove it either by pressure on the skin or
with a knife. The stings of common insects, such as mosquitoes, ants,
etc., should be treated with a weak solution of ammonia, salt water, or
a cloth wet with water in which a teaspoonful of baking soda to a pint
of water is dissolved, may be bound on it.

=Suffocation.=--Always summon a physician. Place the patient in the
air, remove all tight clothing about the neck and chest, and apply
artificial respiration. Apply hot water in bottles to the body. Put
mustard plasters above the heart, on the soles of his feet, and on
his wrists. When the patient shows signs of recovering, give mild
stimulants. If the patient is in a close room, open the windows and all
of the doors. In rescue work do not open windows, but smash out all of
the glass. In entering a room full of smoke, cover the mouth with a
handkerchief wet with water or vinegar and water. Crawl on the floor,
as the smoke is less dense near the floor. The rescuer should attach a
rope to himself, so he can be pulled from his dangerous position.

=Sunstroke.=--Indications of sunstroke or heat prostration are a slow
but full pulse, very labored breathing, and the skin is hot and dry,
the face usually red, and the person affected is unconscious. Remove
the sufferer to a shady place, and be sure to loosen his collar and
clothing, if tight. Raise the head and shoulders. The head, face, and
chest should be drenched with cold water, and if it is very hot use
cracked ice. In ordinary cases of heat prostration, the patient is not
unconscious, the skin is pale and clammy, and the breathing is not
normal. Force the patient to lie on his back with his head level with
his body, and loosen all tight clothing. Apply heat to the extremities,
and cold to head. The patient should not be allowed to drink too much
water. Give him hot drinks, and apply heat to the spine and feet. Under
no circumstances administer alcoholic stimulants. Always send for a

=Temperature of the Body.=--The normal body temperature is 98.4
degrees Fahrenheit. When it is higher, the patient is supposed to
have a fever. Temperature usually rises in the afternoon, being one
degree higher than in the first part of the night or in the early
morning. It gradually falls from midnight to six or seven o'clock in
the morning. The temperature of a child frequently rises two degrees
from slight causes. Every family should carry a clinical thermometer.
Bodily temperature should be taken by holding it in the mouth under
the tongue for two minutes. Temperature under 101° indicates a slight
fever; under 103° a moderate fever; under 105° a high fever. When the
temperature rises two or three degrees above normal, send for a doctor
at once.

=Temperature of the Sick-Room.=--Sixty-eight degrees Fahrenheit is a
good average temperature for the sick-room. In certain diseases the
average temperature may be lower, and for throat or chest affections
it should be higher. When the patient is being washed or dressed, the
temperature should be kept at about 70°.

=Toothache.=--If the nerve is exposed, or nearly so, toothache may
be cured by placing in the cavity a small piece of cotton soaked in
creosote or oil of cloves. If it continues, consult a dentist.

=Transporting the Wounded.=--Great care should be taken, because
the slightest carelessness is likely to cause intense suffering. A
four-handed seat may be made by two persons, the hands of each one
clasping one of the wrists of the other, and two ordinary men can
easily carry a person of average weight. A stretcher will carry the
patient in a horizontal position if the persons carrying it place
their hands under it. A stretcher may be made of boards, over which
are placed coats or shawls, or a blanket may be fastened to two stout
poles; if no poles are handy, a shawl tightly held by two persons will
do, but great care should be taken to keep it tight. A window shutter
is generally available. The sufferer should be very carefully placed
upon the stretcher, and had better be lifted by several persons, by
two at least. The bearers of the stretcher should not keep step, the
opposite feet should be put forward at the same time to prevent the
swaying of the stretcher and the rolling of the patient. Never carry
the stretcher on the shoulders. Carry the patient feet foremost, except
when going up hill. In case of a fractured thigh or leg, carry the
patient head first when going down hill.

=Ventilation.=--The sick-room should never be without fresh air. Impure
and close air breeds disease and encourages illness. Fresh air should
be introduced constantly and steadily. The windows may be lowered at
the top or patented ventilators used. To change the air, open the
windows in an adjoining room, and then open the door between the
rooms, but the fresh air in the adjoining room should be warm before
it is allowed to penetrate the sick-room. By swinging the door back
and forth, the air will be fanned in. Do not maintain the erroneous
impression that cold air is pure because it is cold, for cold air may
be as foul as warm air. Night air is not dangerous. The patient must
breathe night air or closed-in day air, and closed-in air rapidly
becomes foul.

=Vomiting.=--Lie down and hold small pieces of ice in your mouth. If it
continues, consult a physician.

       *       *       *       *       *

=Wills.=--A will, untechnically speaking, is virtually a bill-of-sale
or transfer of property by its owner to those he may designate,
but differs from the ordinary bill-of-sale in that there is no
consideration mentioned on the part of those who will receive the
property, and the will is not operative until the death of the maker
of it. No one can execute a will unless he is presumably in his right
mind, and knows what he is doing. Nor can a will be made by an idiot or
one insane. The will must be signed and witnessed by several witnesses,
each witness signing as a witness in the presence of all of the other
witnesses. While it would appear that every one has a right to dispose
of his property as he chooses, a will is not likely to stand in law
if it can be proved that the maker of it was under undue or unfair
influence, and, therefore, distributed his property to the prejudice
of those who would be entitled to it if no will was made. For example:
a will is not likely to hold good if its maker unfairly disowned
close legal heirs, like a wife, husband, or children, or bequeathed
his property to some institution which it could be shown he probably
would not have done had not unfair pressure been brought to bear upon
him at the time he made his will. All legal heirs should, as a rule,
be mentioned in a will, even though they are given insignificant sums.
As the laws differ in the several states, it is suggested that it
is better and safer to consult a good lawyer, or one familiar with

=Wireless Telegraphy.=--The exact date of the discovery or invention of
wireless telegraphy is not accurately known. Many scientists discovered
it theoretically before Marconi made it practical. Some scientific
authorities claim that it was originated by Professor Dolbear, of
Massachusetts. In 1899, messages were sent from England to France, and
recently an intelligible message was flashed across the Atlantic Ocean.
Unscientifically speaking, wireless telegraphy consists of discharging
powerful electrical currents into the atmosphere, their vibrations
being taken up by the natural electricity in the air, and received by
wires placed at an elevation. Practically all sea-going steamers are
equipped with wireless telegraphy.

=Woman's Suffrage.=--The first convention in the interest of woman's
rights was held July 19, 1808, at Seneca Falls, N. Y. In 1850, a
National Woman's Rights Convention was held in Worcester, Mass. From
that time woman's suffrage was agitated in America and in England,
and many of the leading women of the world strongly advocated it. It
is growing rapidly, and is being recognized throughout the country,
although all of the States have not given the vote to women. Under the
Constitution of the United States a native-born woman may hold any
office, including that of president, even though the women in all of
the States cannot vote at the presidential election. The Constitution
of the United States does not recognize sex, and in the eye of national
law, women have all of the rights of men.

=Women Voters.=--Many of the towns, cities, and States give full
franchise to women, while others allow them to vote for only a few
officials. Woman's suffrage, or the right to vote, is spreading
rapidly, and it is probably only a question of time before she will
have full franchise throughout the entire country. There is nothing
in the Constitution of the United States to prevent a woman from
holding the office of president or vice-president if she was born in
this country, and she can hold such offices even though she may not be
permitted by State law to vote for them.

=Wool Industry.=--The United States produces about $320,000,000 worth
of wool in a year and weaves about 55,500,000 square yards, worth about

=World's Largest Steamships.=--The "Imperator," just placed in
commission, is the world's largest vessel. She is 919 feet long, 98
feet beam, and 62 feet deep. The boat deck is 100 feet, and the trunks
of the mast 246 feet, above the keel. The funnels are 69 feet long
with oval openings, 29 by 18 feet. The rudder alone weighs 90 tons.
She is registered at 50,000 tons, with a displacement of 70,000 tons.
Displacement represents the weight of the water which is occupied
by that part of the hull under water. The ship is a modern floating
hotel, containing a grill-room, a tea garden, a veranda café, several
ladies' sitting-rooms, a palm garden, a ball-room, a gymnasium, a
swimming tank, and other accessories. In the first cabin there are
220 regular bath rooms and showers, including 150 private bath rooms.
The staterooms do not contain berths, metal bedsteads being used
throughout. The entrance hall is 90 feet wide, and 69 feet long. In
addition the vessel carries a drug store, a book store, and a flower
shop, and several passenger elevators are maintained. To illuminate the
ship there are 9,500 electric lamps. The Roman bath is 65 feet long,
and 41 feet wide. The swimming bath is 39 feet long, 21 feet wide, and
9 feet deep. The quadruple turbine engines have 72,000 horse-power and
develop an average speed of 22-1/2 knots an hour. One of the immense
rotars contains 50,000 blades, and weighs 135 tons. The ship carries
a crew of 1,100 persons, a complete fire department, and wireless
telegraphy. If the "Imperator" was set on end, she would be higher than
the largest building in the world, which is 750 feet high. The ship has
a passenger capacity equal to the population of a large town.

=Yankee.=--This word is said to be a corruption of English or Anglais,
pronounced by the Massachusetts Indians, who gave this name to the New
England Colonists, Yenghies, Yanghies, Yankees. It was applied to the
New Englanders by the British soldiers during the Revolutionary War,
and to the Federal soldiers by the Confederates during the Civil War.

=Yankee Doodle.=--The origin of Yankee Doodle, perhaps the most
famous American national air, is unknown. It is supposed to have been
an English tune. At any rate, it was introduced into America by the
British troops in 1775.



  Abbreviations in common use, 1

  Accidents, 160

  Accidents, electrical, 173

  Accidents, how to avoid, 185

  Acetylene gas, 2

  Acid poisoning, 189

  Aconite poisoning, 190

  Admitted to the Union, 62

  Adventists, 2

  Arsenic poisoning, 191

  Æolian harp, 3

  Afire, clothing, 166

  Africa, 40

  Age, 3

  Agricultural implement industry, 3

  Air ship records, 114

  Alaska, 3

  Alberg tunnel, 59

  Algebra, 4

  Almanacs, 4

  Amazons, 4

  American inventions, 57

  Ammonia, 174

  Antarctic ocean, 40

  Apostles' creed, 4

  Apothecaries' weight, 154

  Apparent death, 160

  April Fools Day, 4

  Arbor Day, 5

  Arctic ocean, 40

  Area of a circle, 24

  Area of a square, 26

  Area of desert, 41

  Area of fertile soil, 41

  Area of the base of a square, 26

  Area of the earth, 39

  Area of the oceans, 40

  Area of the United States, 62

  Areas of earthquakes, 42

  Arithmetic, 5

  Arnica, 175

  Aromatic spirits of ammonia, 175

  Artesian wells, 5

  Artificial ice, 5

  Arts, seven liberal, 108

  Asia, 40

  Atlantic cable, 6

  Atlantic ocean, 40

  Atmosphere, 10

  Aurora Borealis, 10

  Australia, 41

  Automobile records, 114

  Automobiles, 10

  Average life of man, 3

  Average weight of men and women, 128

  Avoirdupois weight, 154

  Baltic and North Sea canal, 17

  Bandaging, 161

  Bank of England, 11

  Baseball, 115

  Base of a triangle, 25

  Bastile, 11

  Baths, 161

  Bayreuth Festival, 11

  Beautifiers, 43

  Belladonna poisoning, 191

  Bells on shipboard, 100

  Bible, 11

  Bible, kissing the, 67

  Bible statistics, 12

  Bicarbonate of soda, 175

  Billiard records, 115

  Bi-metallism, 12

  Birth stones, 12

  Bite, snake, 195

  Bites, dog, 169

  Bleeding, 162

  Bleeding from capillary veins, 163

  Bleeding from the veins, 163

  Blind, 13

  Blood, circulation of, 21

  Blood-heat, 13

  Blue-Grass region, 13

  Board and timber measure, 156

  Body temperature, 198

  Bones, broken, 164

  Books, production of, 100

  Bowling records, 116

  Boxers, 14

  Brain, 14

  Brandy, 177

  Bread, 15

  Breakfast foods, 15

  British Royal family, cost of, 30

  Broken bones, 164

  Brook farm, 15

  Burns, 192

  Cable, Atlantic, 6

  Calculating interest, 16

  California, gold in, 55

  Camphor, 176

  Camphor poisoning, 190

  Canals, 17

  Capacity of cisterns and wells, 18

  Capillary veins, bleeding from, 163

  Capitol at Washington, 18

  Carbolic acid poisoning, 189

  Cards, 93

  Carrying the wounded, 199

  Cause of failures, 48

  Cellars, disinfecting, 168

  Cells of the brain, 14

  Celluloid, 19

  Census of the United States, 27

  Certified checks, 19

  Cesspools, disinfecting, 168

  Cheap laundry soaps, 110

  Checks, certified, 19

  Chemical composition of man, 20

  Chess, 20

  Chests (medicine), 75

  Chief virtues, 107

  Chilblains, 164

  Children, emergencies, 173

  Chloroform poisoning, 190

  Christmas, 21

  Circle, circumference of, 25

  Circle, diameter of, 24

  Circle, radius of, 24

  Circle, square of the diameter of, 24

  Circle, square of the radius of, 24

  Circular measure, 155

  Circulation of the blood, 21

  Circumference of a circle, 25

  Circumference of a circle, square of, 25

  Circumference of a sphere, 25

  Circumference of the earth, 39

  Cisterns and wells, capacity of, 18

  Cities in the United States, distances between, 34

  Cities (large) of the United States, 28

  Cities of the world (population), 73

  Civil War, songs of, 113

  Cleanliness, 164

  Climate and temperature, 21

  Climate, influence of the ocean on, 66

  Clothing, afire, 166

  Coal industry, 22

  Coal oil, fires from, 179

  Cocoa industry, 22

  Coffee industry, 22
  Coin (money), 23

  Cold cream, 177

  Colds, 167

  Collapse, 194

  Colors, to produce, 138

  Colosseum, 23

  Comets, 23

  Communism and Socialism, 27

  Comparative population of the large cities and towns of the United
        States, 28

  Comparative population of the United States, 27

  Copper coining, 23

  Commission form of government, 56

  Common abbreviations, 1

  Common Council, 56

  Common degrees, 1

  Common measurements, 24

  Compass, 28

  Composition of man, 20

  Constitution of the United States, 55

  Corn in the crib, to measure, 138

  Corporal works of mercy, 107

  Correct weight of men and women, 126

  Corrosive sublimate poisoning, 191

  Corsets, 29

  Cosmetics, 29

  Cost of the British Royal family, 30

  Cotton industry, 31

  Cotton gin, 31

  Cough medicines, 87

  Countries of the world, 98

  Cradle of American liberty, 31

  Credit Mobilier, 31

  Creed, Apostles', 4

  Creosote poisoning, 189

  Croton water tunnel, 59

  Crusades, 32

  Crust of the earth, 32

  Cubic measure, 154

  Daguerreotypes, 32

  Damage by lightning, 33

  Danger of taking patent medicines, 86

  Day or night, to find the length of, 137

  Deadly sins, 107

  Deaf and dumb, 33

  Death, apparent, 160

  Deaths, percentage of, 77

  Deeds, 33

  Degrees in common use, 1

  Depth of the sea, 40

  Dialects, 112

  Diameter of a circle, 24

  Diameter of a sphere, 26

  Diamonds (famous), 49

  Dictionaries, 33

  Difference in time, 136

  Different colors, to produce, 138

  Digestibility of foods, 34

  Diphtheria, 167

  Diseases, infectious, 186

  Disinfectants, 167

  Disinfecting cellars, yards, cesspools, etc., 168

  Disinfecting the sick room, 168

  Dislocation, 168

  Distance between cities in the United States, 34

  Distance from the earth to the planets, 112

  Diving bells, 36

  Dog bites, 169

  Drama, 36

  Drowning, 169

  Drowning, to prevent, 172

  Drugs, 36

  Dry measure, 154

  Dumb and deaf, 33

  Dying sayings of great men, 37

  Dynamite, 39

  Ear, getting things into, 184

  Earth, crust of, 32

  Earth facts, 39

  Earthquake areas, 42

  Earthquakes, 41

  Electoral vote, 62

  Engine, steam, 128

  England, Bank of, 11

  Equator, 39

  Errors of history, 44

  Esperanto, 46

  Estimating the weight of hay, 137

  Europe, 40

  Exercise, 178

  Extinguishing fire from coal oil, 179

  Eye, getting things into, 183

  Facts about the earth, 39

  Failures, 47

  Failures, cause of, 48

  Fainting, 180

  Famous diamonds, 49

  Faneuil Hall, 31

  Farm productions, 49

  Feeding an invalid, 180

  Fertile soil, 41

  Finding the capacity of cisterns and wells, 18

  Finding the length of day or night, 137

  Finding the number of days (interest), 16

  Fire in the house, 181

  Fires from coal oil, 179

  First trans-Atlantic steamship, 51

  Fits, 181

  Flag of the United States, 142

  Flour industry, 51

  Food (pure), 101

  Food nutriment, 51

  Foods, breakfast, 15

  Foods, digestibility of, 34

  Fool's Day, 4

  Force of gravity, 57

  Forests, 52

  Foretelling the weather, 52

  Freemasonry, 54

  Freiburg tunnel, 59

  French Academy, 55

  Frost bite, 182

  Fumigating a sick room, 182

  Gas, acetylene, 2

  Gas, illuminating, 186

  Gas, natural, 79

  Gems, language of, 67

  Getting things into the eye, nose, ear, etc., 183

  Getting wet, 184

  Ginger, 176

  Glass, plate, 92

  Glasses, 114

  Glycerine, 176

  Gold coining, 23

  Gold in California, 55

  Government, 55

  Grain industry, 57

  Gravity, 57

  Great American inventions, 57

  Great Eastern, 58

  Great libraries, 59

  Great men, dying sayings of, 37

  Great religions, 135

  Great tunnels, 59

  Greece, seven wise men of, 108

  Growers (hair), 59

  Gunnison tunnel, 59

  Hair growers, 59

  Half-century of life, 60

  Half the circumference of a circle, 25

  Hamamelis, 177

  Hammer-throwing records, 117

  Harp, æolian, 3

  Hawaii, 61

  Hay industry, 61

  Hay, to estimate the weight of, 137

  Headache powders, 87

  Headaches, 184

  Health, 61

  Height of men and women, 126

  Height of the land, 40

  Hiccoughs, 185

  Highest mountain, 40

  Historical data, 62

  History, errors of, 44

  History in brief, United States, 143

  Holy Grail, 64

  Hoosac tunnel, 59

  House afire, 181

  House of Representatives, 56

  Household weights, 64

  How to avoid accidents, 185

  How to become a voter, 64

  Human brain, 14

  Hurdle racing records, 117

  Hurricane warnings, 152

  Hydrophobia, 169

  Ice, artificial, 5

  Illuminating gas, 186

  Implement industry, 3

  Indian ocean, 40

  Industrial occupations, 65

  Industry, agricultural implement, 3
    coal, 22
    cocoa, 22
    coffee, 22
    cotton, 31
    flour, 51
    grain, 57
    hay, 61
    iron, 66
    jewelry, 66
    liquor and wine, 74
    meat, 75
    mineral, 76
    mining, 76
    petroleum, 92
    poultry and egg, 97
    sugar, 130
    tobacco, 137
    wool, 203

  Infectious diseases, 186

  Influence of the ocean on the climate, 66

  Inhabitants of the United States, 95

  Insane, 66

  Insomnia, 195

  Interest calculating, 16

  Interest table, 17

  Invalid, feeding an, 180

  Inventions, great American, 57

  Iron industry, 66

  Jewelry industry, 66

  John Doe and Richard Roe, 66

  Judicial, 56

  Jumping records, 117

  Kissing the Bible, 67

  Koran, 67

  Land area of the earth, 39

  Land area of the United States, 93

  Land, height of, 40

  Land measure, 155

  Language of gems, 67

  Languages, 112

  Languages of the world, 67

  Large cities and towns of the United States, population of, 28

  Large cities in North America, population of, 68

  Largest steamship, 204

  Laundry soaps, 110

  Law, 72

  Leading cities of the world (population), 73

  Legislative, 56

  Length of day or night, to find, 137

  Liberal arts, seven, 108

  Libraries, 59

  Life, half-century of, 60

  Lightning, damage by, 33

  Liquid measure, 154

  Liquor and wine industry, 74

  Literature, 74

  Living ages, 3

  Lockjaw, 188

  Long measure, 153

  Lotions, shaving, 109

  Magnetic poles, 75

  Mammoth cave, 75

  Man, chemical composition of, 20

  Manchester canal, 17

  Marathon team race records, 117

  Masons, 54

  Measurements, common, 24

  Measuring corn in the crib, 138

  Meat industry, 75

  Medicine chests, 75

  Medicines, emergency, 174

  Medicines (patent), 86

  Men of Greece, seven wise, 108

  Mercy, seven corporal works of, 107

  Metalic coin, 23

  Metric system, 155

  Microscope, 76

  Middle Ages, seven wonders of, 108

  Mineral industry, 76

  Mining industry, 76

  Money (coin), 23

  Mont Cenis tunnel, 59

  Moon, 76

  Mortality, 77

  Mortgages, 78

  Motor-cycle records, 117

  Mountain, highest, 40

  Mushroom poisoning, 191

  Mustard plasters, 188

  National Government, 56

  Nations, wealth of, 151

  Natural gas, 79

  Naturalization, 79

  Naturalized citizens, 64

  Neuralgia, 188

  Newspapers, 80

  New York Stock Exchange, 81

  New Zealand, 41

  Nicknames of States, 81

  Night, to find the length of, 137

  Nitroglycerine, 82

  Normal weight of men and women, 126

  North American continent, 40

  North America, population of the large cities of, 68

  Nose, getting things into, 183

  Notes, 82

  Number of newspapers, 80

  Nutriment of food, 51

  Nux vomica poisoning, 190

  Occupations, industrial, 65

  Ocean ownership, 82

  Ocean records, 117

  Oceans, area of, 40

  Old time ships, 83

  Opium poisoning, 190

  Oxalic acid poisoning, 189

  Pacific ocean, 40

  Palmistry, 84

  Panama canal, 17

  Partnership, 84

  Patent medicines, 86

  Peppermint, 176

  Percentage of deaths, 77

  Perpetual motion, 91

  Petroleum industry, 92

  Philippine Islands, 92

  Phonograph, 131

  Physicians, 88

  Pianoforte, 92

  Planets, 112

  Plate glass, 92

  Playing cards, 93

  Poison, 188

  Poisoning by acids, 189
    by aconite, 190
    by arsenic, 191
    by carbolic acid or creosote, 189
    by belladonna, 191
    by camphor, 190
    by chloroform, 190
    by corrosive sublimate, 191
    by mushrooms, 191
    by nux vomica, 190
    by opium, 190
    by oxalic acid, 189
    by prussic acid, 189

  Poisonous insects, stings of, 197

  Pole star, 93

  Pole vaulting records, 118

  Poles, magnetic, 75

  Population by States, 125

  Population and land area of the United States, 93

  Population of the large cities and towns of the United States, 28

  Population of the large cities of North America, 68

  Population of the large cities of the United States, 68

  Population of the leading cities of the world, 73

  Population of the United States, 27

  Population of the United States per square mile, 95

  Population of the world at the time of Augustus, 41

  Porto Rico, 97

  Postage stamps, 97

  Poultry and egg industry, 97

  Presidents of the United States, 97

  Press, 99

  Principal countries of the world, 98

  Printing press, 99

  Production of books, 100

  Prussic acid poisoning, 189

  Public debt of the United States, 101

  Public schools, 101

  Pulse, 191

  Pure food, 101

  Pyramids, 103

  Quack doctors, 90

  Radius of a circle, 24

  Railroads, 103

  Records, air ship, 114
    automobile, 114
    billiards, 115
    bowling, 116
    endurance, 116
    hammer-throwing, 117
    hurdle racing, 117
    jumping, 117
    Marathon team race, 117
    motor cycle, 117
    ocean, 117
    pole vaulting, 118
    running, 118
    running distance, 119
    shot putting, 119
    skating, 119
    sporting, speed, etc., 114
    swimming, 120
    trotting, 121
    walking, 121

  Referendum, 104

  Registration, 64

  Religions, ten great, 135

  Religious denominations, 105

  Rheumatism, 192

  Roads, 105

  Round table, 105

  Royal Academy, 106

  Royal Society, 106

  Running distance records, 119

  Running records, 118

  Sayings of great men, 37

  Scalds and burns, 192

  School statistics, 106

  Schools, 101
    Sunday, 131

  Sea, depth of, 40

  Seasickness, 106

  Senate, 56

  Settlement of the United States, 62

  Seven chief virtues, 107
    corporal works of mercy, 107
    deadly sins, 107
    liberal arts, 108
    spiritual works of mercy, 108
    wise men of Greece, 108
    of the Middle Ages, 108
    wonders of the New World, 109

  Shaving lotions, 109

  Ship bells, 109

  Ship watches, 110

  Ships (old time), 83

  Shock or collapse, 194

  Shot putting records, 119

  Sick room, disinfecting, 168
    fumigating a, 182
    temperature of, 199

  Sins, seven deadly, 107

  Size of the brain, 14

  Skating records, 119

  Slavery, 110

  Sleeplessness, 195

  Snake bite, 195

  Soap, 110

  Socialism and Communism, 27

  Solar system, 111

  Some things worth knowing, 112

  Songs of the Civil War, 113

  Soothing syrups, 87

  Sore throat, 196

  South American continent, 40

  Spectacles and glasses, 114

  Speed records, 114

  Sphere, circumference of, 25

  Sphere, surface of, 25

  Spheres, 26

  Spiritual works of mercy, seven, 108

  Sporting, speed and other records, 114

  Sprains, 196

  Square measure, 153

  Square of the circumference of a circle, 25
    of the diameter of a circle, 24
    of the radius of a circle, 24

  Square root or the area of a circle, 25

  St. Clair tunnel, 59

  St. Gothard tunnel, 59

  Standard time, 122

  Star chamber, 124

  Star-spangled Banner, 124

  Stars, their number, 124

  State governments, 56

  States, nicknames of, 81

  Statistics of population, United States by States, 125
    of the Bible, 12
    school, 106

  Stature and weights, 126

  Steam engine, 128

  Steamship (first trans-Atlantic), 51
    largest, 204

  Stimulants, 177

  Stings of poisonous insects, 197

  Stock Exchange, New York, 81

  Stock, watered, 151

  Stock yards, 112

  Stones, birth, 12

  Storm warnings, 152

  Strawberry tunnel, 59

  Strikes, 130

  Sub rosa, 130

  Suez canal, 17

  Suffocation, 197

  Sugar industry, 130

  Sun, 111

  Sunday schools, 131

  Sunstroke, 197

  Superior Court, 56

  Supreme Court, 56

  Swimming records, 120

  Table of interest, 17

  Taking drugs, 36

  Talking machines, 131

  Tariff, 131

  Telegraph, 132

  Telegraphy, wireless, 202

  Telephone, 134

  Temperature and climate, 21

  Temperature of the body, 198
    of the sick room, 199

  Ten great religions, 135

  Théâtre Français, 136

  Thirteen original States, 62

  Throat, getting things into, 184

  Throat, sore, 196

  Thunder, 136

  Ticket-of-leave, 136

  Timber measure, 156

  Time difference, 136

  Time, standard, 122

  To estimate the weight of hay, 137

  To find the length of the day or night, 137

  To measure corn in the crib, 138

  To prevent drowning, 172

  To produce different colors, 138

  Tobacco industry, 137

  Toilet soaps, 110

  Tom Thumb, 138

  Tonics, 87

  Toothache, 199

  Towns (large) of the United States, 28

  Trade unions, 139

  Trans-Atlantic steamship (first), 51

  Transporting the wounded, 199

  Trotting records, 121

  Troy weight, 154

  Trusts, 140

  Tunnels, 59

  Turbines, 140

  Turpentine, 176

  Type, 141

  Unions, trade, 139

  United States, area, 62
    by whom settled, 62
    distances between cities in, 34
    electoral vote, 62
    flag, 142
    Government, 55
    history in brief, 143
    inhabitants, 96
    large cities (population of), 68
    population and land area of, 93
    population of, 27, 62
    population of the large cities and towns, 28
    population per square mile, 95
    Presidents, 97
    public debt of, 101
    railroads in, 103
    statistics of population by States, 125
    Thirteen Original States, 62
    when admitted into the Union, 62
    when settled, 62

  University extension, 148

  University settlements, 149

  Utopia, 149

  Vaccination, 149

  Vacuum, 150

  Vaseline, 177

  Vedas, 150

  Veins, bleeding from, 163

  Ventilation, 200

  Vomiting, 201

  Voodooism, 150

  Voter, how to become, 64

  Walking records, 121

  War songs, 113

  Washington, D. C., 18

  Watches on shipboard, 110

  Watered stock, 151

  Wealth of the nations, 151

  Weather, 52, 151
    Bureau, 151
    flags, 151
    foretelling the, 52

  Wedding anniversaries, 153

  Weight of hay, 137

  Weight of men and women, 126

  Weights and measures, 153

  Weights (household), 64

  Wells and cisterns, capacity of, 18

  Wells, artesian, 5

  What to do in emergencies, 156

  Whisky, 177

  Wills, 201

  Wine, 177

  Wine industry, 74

  Wireless telegraphy, 202

  Wise men of Greece, seven, 108

  Witch hazel, 177

  Woman suffrage, 202

  Women voters, 203

  Wonders of the Middle Ages, seven, 108

  Wonders of the world, seven, 109

  Wool industry, 203

  Works of mercy, seven spiritual, 108

  World, languages of, 67
    leading cities (population), 73
    principal countries of, 98
    seven wonders of, 109
    largest steamship, 204

  Wounded, transporting the, 199

  Yankee, 205

  Yankee Doodle, 205

  Yards, disinfecting, 168


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Transcriber's Notes:

Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

Every effort has been made to replicate this text as faithfully as
possible, including obsolete and variant spellings.

Obvious misspellings, minor punctuation and printer errors and
inconsistencies repaired.

Some fractions were formatted in the original text with hyphens (for
example, 9-16 for 9/16). These are left as printed, with hyphen instead
of slash.

Entries in index that were not in alphabetical order in the original
were reordered alphabetically.

On page 118: The text appears to be using “knots” to mean “nautical
miles”. Left as printed.

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