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Title: History of Lace
Author: Palliser, Bury, Mrs.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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       *       *       *       *       *



HISTORY OF LACE

[Illustration: ANNE, DAUGHTER OF SIR PETER VANLORE, KT.,
 FIRST WIFE OF SIR CHARLES CÆSAR, KT., ABOUT 1614.
 The lace is probably Flemish, Sir Peter having come from Utrecht.
 From the picture the property of her descendant, Captain Cottrell-Dormer.]

_Frontispiece._



HISTORY OF LACE


BY

MRS. BURY PALLISER

ENTIRELY REVISED, RE-WRITTEN, AND ENLARGED

UNDER THE EDITORSHIP OF

M. JOURDAIN AND ALICE DRYDEN


WITH 266 ILLUSTRATIONS


NEW YORK

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS

1902



LONDON:
 PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,
 DUKE STREET, STAMFORD STREET, S.E., AND GREAT WINDMILL STREET, W.



PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION


Nearly thirty years have elapsed since the third edition of the HISTORY OF
LACE was published. As it is still the classical work on the subject, and
many developments in the Art have taken place since 1875, it seemed
desirable that a new and revised edition should be brought out.

The present Revisers have fully felt the responsibility of correcting
anything the late Mrs. Palliser wrote; they have therefore altered as
little of the text as possible, except where modern research has shown a
statement to be faulty.

The chapters on Spain, Alençon and Argentan, and the Introductory chapter
on Needlework, have been almost entirely rewritten. Much new matter has
been added to Italy, England and Ireland, and the notices of Cretan and
Sicilian lace, among others, are new. The original wood-cuts have been
preserved with their designations as in the 1875 edition, which differ
materially from the first two editions. Nearly a hundred new illustrations
have been added, and several portraits to show different fashions of
wearing lace.

The Revisers wish to record their grateful thanks to those who have
assisted them with information or lace for illustration; especially to Mrs.
Hulton, Count Marcello and Cavaliere Michelangelo Jesurum in Venice,
Contessa di Brazza and Contessa Cavazza in Italy, M. Destrée in Brussels,
Mr. Arthur Blackborne, Salviati & Co., and the Director of the Victoria and
Albert Museum in London.

  M. JOURDAIN.
  ALICE DRYDEN.

  _London, September, 1901._



CONTENTS


    CHAP.                                                              PAGE

       I.--NEEDLEWORK                                                     1

      II.--CUT-WORK                                                      14

     III.--LACE                                                          26

      IV.--ITALY.--VENICE--MILAN ("Milano la Grande")--FLORENCE--THE
             ABRUZZI--ROMAGNA--NAPLES--GENOA ("Genova La Superba")--
             CANTU--SICILY                                               45

       V.--GREECE--CRETE--TURKEY--MALTA                                  82

      VI.--SPAIN--PORTUGAL                                               90

     VII.--FLANDERS--BRUSSELS (BRABANT)--MECHLIN--ANTWERP--FLANDERS
             (WEST)--FLANDERS (EAST)--HAINAULT                          109

    VIII.--FRANCE TO LOUIS XIV.                                         139

      IX.--LOUIS XIV.                                                   150

       X.--LOUIS XIV.--_continued_                                      161

      XI.--LOUIS XV.                                                    171

     XII.--LOUIS XVI. TO THE EMPIRE                                     179

    XIII.--THE LACE MANUFACTURES OF FRANCE--ALENÇON (Dép. Orne),
             NORMANDY                                                   188

     XIV.--ARGENTAN (Dép. Orne)                                         202

      XV.--ISLE DE FRANCE.--PARIS (Dép. Seine)--CHANTILLY (Dép. Oise)   209

     XVI.--NORMANDY--SEINE INFÉRIEURE--CALVADOS--BRETAGNE               216

    XVII.--VALENCIENNES (Dép. du Nord)--LILLE (Dép. du Nord)--ARRAS
             (Artois) (Dép. Pas-de-Calais)--BAILLEUL (Dép. du Nord)     230

   XVIII.--AUVERGNE AND VÉLAY--LE PUY (Dép. Haute-Loire)--AURILLAC
             AND MURAT (Dép. Cantal)                                    242

     XIX.--LIMOUSIN--LORRAINE--CHAMPAGNE--BURGUNDY--LYONNOIS--
             ORLÉANOIS--BERRY--POITOU                                   250

      XX.--HOLLAND, GERMANY, SWITZERLAND, AUSTRIA AND HUNGARY--
             HOLLAND--SAXONY--GERMANY (NORTH AND SOUTH)--SWITZERLAND    258

     XXI.--DENMARK--SWEDEN--RUSSIA                                      272

    XXII.--ENGLAND TO QUEEN ELIZABETH                                   285

   XXIII.--QUEEN ELIZABETH                                              299

    XXIV.--JAMES I. TO THE RESTORATION.--JAMES I.--CHARLES I.--
             THE COMMONWEALTH                                           315

     XXV.--CHARLES II. TO THE HOUSE OF HANOVER.--CHARLES II.--
             JAMES II.--WILLIAM III.--QUEEN ANNE                        335

    XXVI.--GEORGE I.--GEORGE II.                                        351

   XXVII.--SMUGGLING                                                    358

  XXVIII.--GEORGE III.                                                  363

    XXIX.--THE LACE MANUFACTURES OF ENGLAND                             371

     XXX.--BEDFORDSHIRE--BUCKINGHAMSHIRE--NORTHAMPTONSHIRE--SUFFOLK     375

    XXXI.--WILTSHIRE AND DORSETSHIRE                                    395

   XXXII.--DEVONSHIRE--HONITON--TROLLY LACE--JAPAN                      399

  XXXIII.--SCOTLAND                                                     418

   XXXIV.--LACE MANUFACTURES OF SCOTLAND                                428

    XXXV.--IRELAND                                                      435

   XXXVI.--BOBBIN NET AND MACHINE-MADE LACE--BOBBIN NET--FRANCE--
             BELGIUM--MACHINERY LACE                                    447

  APPENDIX                                                              459

  GLOSSARY OF TERMS                                                     503

  INDEX                                                                 507



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


                                                                       PAGE
  ANNE, DAUGHTER OF SIR PETER VANLORE, KT.                   _Frontispiece_
  Gold Lace found in a barrow                                   Fig. 1    4
  ARGENTAN.--CIRCULAR BOBBIN RÉSEAU; VENETIAN NEEDLEPOINT      PLATE I   12
    ITALIAN BOBBIN RÉSEAU; SIX-POINTED STAR-MESHED BOBBIN
    RÉSEAU; BRUSSELS BOBBIN RÉSEAU; FOND CHANT OF CHANTILLY
    AND POINT DE PARIS; DETAILS OF BOBBIN RÉSEAU AND TOILE;
    DETAILS OF NEEDLE RÉSEAU AND BUTTONHOLE STITCHES          PLATE II   14
  Point Coupé                                                   Fig. 2   18
  ALTAR OR TABLE-CLOTH OF FINE LINEN (PROBABLY ITALIAN)      PLATE III   18
  Laces                                                         Fig. 3   19
  Elizabethan Sampler                                            "   5   22
  Impresa of Queen Margaret of Navarre                           "   4   23
  Spider-work                                               Figs. 6, 7   24
  FAN MADE AT BURANO                                          PLATE IV   24
  ITALIAN PUNTO REALE                                           "    V   24
  Grande Dantelle au Point devant l'Aiguille                    Fig. 8   28
  Petite Dantelle                                           Figs. 9-12   29
  Passement au Fuseau                                     Figs. 13, 14   30
  Passement au Fuseau                                          Fig. 15   31
  Merletti a Piombini                                           "   16   31
  ITALIAN.--MODERN REPRODUCTION AT BURANO                     PLATE VI   32
  HERALDIC (CARNIVAL LACE)                                      "  VII   32
  Old Mechlin                                                  Fig. 17   35
  ITALIAN, VENETIAN, FLAT NEEDLE-POINT LACE                 PLATE VIII   36
  PORTION OF A BAND OF NEEDLE-POINT LACE                      "     IX   36
  Guipure                                                      Fig. 18   39
  Tape Guipure                                                  "   19   40
  ITALIAN.--POINT DE VENISE À LA ROSE                          PLATE X   44
  ITALIAN.--POINT PLAT DE VENISE                                 "  XI   46
  ITALIAN.--POINT DE VENISE À RÉSEAU                             " XII   48
  Mermaid Lace                                                 Fig. 20   50
  Reticella                                                     "   21   50
  Punto a Gropo                                                 "   22   52
  Gros Point de Venise                                          "   23   52
  Punto a Maglia                                                "   24   53
  Punto Tirato                                                  "   25   54
  Point de Venise à Bredes Picotées                             "   26   54
  Venise Point                                                  "   27   55
  Gros Point de Venise                                          "   28   56
  Point de Venise                                               "   29   56
  Point Plat de Venise                                          "   30   56
  Point de Venise à Réseau                                      "   31   58
  Burano Point                                                  "   32   60
  ITALIAN.--MODERN POINT DE BURANO                          PLATE XIII   60
  ITALIAN.--MODERN REPRODUCTION AT BURANO                     "    XIV   62
  ITALIAN.--MILANESE, BOBBIN-MADE                             "     XV   64
  Reticella from Milan                                         Fig. 33   65
  ITALIAN.--VENETIAN, NEEDLE-MADE                            PLATE XVI   66
  ITALIAN.--MILANESE, BOBBIN-MADE                              "  XVII   66
  Unfinished Drawn-work                                        Fig. 34   69
  CUSHION MADE AT THE SCHOOL                               PLATE XVIII   70
  ITALY.--GROUP OF WORKERS AT BRAZZA SCHOOL                  "     XIX   70
  Genoa Point, Bobbin-made                                     Fig. 35   74
  Lace Pattern found in the Church at Santa Margherita          "   36   76
  ITALIAN.--BOBBIN TAPE WITH NEEDLE-MADE RÉSEAU               PLATE XX   76
  ITALIAN, GENOESE.--BORDER                                     "  XXI   76
  Parchment Pattern used to cover a Book                       Fig. 37   77
  Fringed Macramé                                               "   38   80
  ITALIAN.--OLD PEASANT LACES, BOBBIN-MADE          PLATES XXII, XXIII   80
  ITALIAN.--MODERN PEASANT LACE                             PLATE XXIV   80
  Silk Gimp Lace                                               Fig. 39   84
  SICILIAN.--OLD DRAWN-WORK                                  PLATE XXV   84
  SOUTH ITALIAN                                                "  XXVI   84
  Reticella, or Greek Lace                                     Fig. 40   85
  Loubeaux de Verdale                                           "   41   88
  ITALIAN, RAPALLO--MODERN PEASANT LACE                    PLATE XXVII   88
  MALTESE.--MODERN BOBBIN-MADE                               "  XXVIII   88
  Bobbin Lace (Ceylon)                                         Fig. 42   89
  The Work Room (16th century engraving)                        "   43   91
  Unfinished Work of a Spanish Nun                              "   44   94
  SPANISH.--MODERN THREAD BOBBIN LACE                       PLATE XXIX   94
  SPANISH, BLONDE.--WHITE SILK DARNING ON MACHINE NET         "    XXX   94
  Unfinished Work of a Spanish Nun                             Fig. 45   95
        "       "          "                                    "   46   96
  Old Spanish Pillow Lace                                       "   47  100
  PORTRAIT, DUCHESSE DE MONTPENSIER                         PLATE XXXI  100
  JEWISH                                                      "  XXXII  104
  SPANISH                                                     " XXXIII  104
  Bobbin Lace (Madeira)                                        Fig. 48  106
        "     (Brazil)                                          "   49  107
  SPANISH.--PILLOW-MADE 19TH CENTURY                       PLATE XXXIV  108
  PARAGUAY.--"NAUDUTI"                                       "    XXXV  108
  Lace-making                                                  Fig. 50  110
  FLEMISH.--PORTION OF BED-COVER                           PLATE XXXVI  110
  Cap of Emperor Charles V.                                    Fig. 51  112
  Isabella Clara Eugenia, Daughter of Philip II.                "   52  112
  Mary, Queen of Hungary, Cuff                                  "   53  113
  Belgian Lace School                                           "   54  114
  Old Flemish Bobbin Lace                                       "   55  114
  Old Flemish.--Trolle Kant                                     "   56  115
  BRUSSELS.--POINT D'ANGLETERRE À BRIDES                  PLATE XXXVII  116
  FLEMISH.--TAPE LACE, BOBBIN-MADE                          "  XXXVIII  116
  Brussels Needle-Point                                        Fig. 57  118
        "         "                                             "   58  120
  Brussels.--Point à l'Aiguille                                 "   58A 120
  Old Brussels.--Point d'Angleterre                             "   59  122
        "         "         "                                   "   60  124
  MECHLIN, 17TH AND 18TH CENTURY                           PLATE XXXIX  126
  Mechlin.--Period Louis XVI.                                  Fig. 61  127
  Mechlin, formerly belonging to H.M. Queen Charlotte           "   62  128
  MECHLIN.--THREE SPECIMENS FROM VICTORIA AND ALBERT
    MUSEUM                                                    PLATE XL  128
  A Lady of Antwerp                                            Fig. 63  130
  Antwerp Pot Lace                                              "   64  130
  Valenciennes Lace of Ypres                                    "   65  132
  FLEMISH.--FLAT SPANISH BOBBIN LACE                         PLATE XLI  132
  FLEMISH.--GUIPURE DE FLANDRE                                 "  XLII  134
  BELGIAN.--BOBBIN-MADE, BINCHE                                " XLIII  136
        "        "       MARCHE                                "  XLIV  136
  DRAWN AND EMBROIDERED MUSLIN, FLEMISH                        "   XLV  136
  RUFF, EDGED WITH LACE                                        "  XLVI  142
  BRUSSELS.--FLOUNCE, BOBBIN-MADE                              " XLVII  144
  Cinq-Mars.--M. de Versailles                                 Fig. 66  145
       "   .--After his portrait by Le Wain                     "   67  146
  Lace Rose and Garter                                          "   68  147
  Young Lady's Apron, time of Henry III                         "   69  148
  BRUSSELS.--BOBBIN-MADE, PERIOD LOUIS XIV.               PLATE XLVIII  150
      "   .--POINT D'ANGLETERRE À RÉSEAU                    "     XLIX  150
  Anne of Austria                                              Fig. 70  151
  A Courtier of the Regency                                     "   71  152
  Canons of Louis XIV                                           "   72  154
  Chateau de Louvai                                             "   73  156
  CHENILLE RUN ON A BOBBIN-GROUND                              PLATE L  156
  BRUSSELS.--BOBBIN-MADE                                         "  LI  156
  Le Grand Bébé                                                Fig. 74  162
  Louvois, 1691                                                 "   75  163
  Madame de Maintenon                                           "   76  164
  Lady in Morning déshabille                                    "   77  165
  Le Grand Dauphin en Steinkerque                               "   78  168
  Madame du Lude en Steinkerque                                 "   79  168
  Madame Palatine                                               "   80  169
  BRUSSELS.--MODERN POINT DE GAZE                            PLATE LII  170
  Madame Sophie de France, 1782                                Fig. 81  175
  Madame Adélaide de France                                     "   82  176
  MADAME LOUISE DE FRANCE                                   PLATE LIII  176
  Madame Thérèse                                               Fig. 83  177
  Marie-Antoinette                                              "   84  179
  Madame Adélaide de France                                     "   85  182
  FRENCH.--BORDER OF POINT PLAT DE FRANCE                    PLATE LIV  188
  Colbert, + 1683                                              Fig. 86  189
  Venice Point                                                  "   87  191
  FRENCH.--POINT D'ALENÇON                                    PLATE LV  192
  Argentella, or Point d'Alençon à Réseau Rosacé               Fig. 88  194
  Bed made for Napoleon I.                                      "   89  197
  Alençon Point à Petites Bredes                                "   90  200
  Point d'Alençon, Louis XV.                                    "   91  200
  POINT D'ALENÇON. FLOUNCE                                  PLATE LVI 202-3
  Point d'Argentan                                             Fig. 92  204
    "         "   . Grande Bride ground                         "   93  206
  FRENCH.--POINT D'ARGENTAN, 18TH CENTURY                   PLATE LVII  208
  Point de Paris                                               Fig. 94  210
  Point de France                                               "   95  210
  FRENCH (OR DUTCH).--VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM           PLATE LVIII  212
  Chantilly                                                    Fig. 96  214
  Cauchoise                                                     "   97  217
  FRENCH, CHANTILLY.--FLOUNCE                                PLATE LIX  218
  FRENCH, LE PUY.--BLACK SILK GUIPURE                            "  LX  218
  Petit Poussin, Dieppe                                        Fig. 98  219
  Ave Maria, Dieppe                                             "   99  220
  Point de Dieppe                                               "  100  221
  Dentelle à la Vierge                                          "  101  222
  Duc de Peuthièvre                                             "  102  223
  FRENCH.--BLONDE MALE, IN SPANISH STYLE                     PLATE LXI  226
  Modern Black Lace of Bayeux                                 Fig. 103  227
  Point Colbert                                                "   104  228
  Valenciennes, 1650-1780                                      "   105  230
        "       Period, Louis XIV.                             "   106  232
        "       17TH AND 18TH CENTURY                       PLATE LXII  232
        "                                                     Fig. 107  234
  Valenciennes Lappet                                          "   108  234
  Lille                                                        "   109  236
   "                                                           "   110  238
  Arras                                                        "   111  240
  FRENCH, CAMBRAI                                   PLATES LXIII, LXIV  246
  FRENCH, LE PUY                                             PLATE LXV  246
  Point de Bourgogne                                          Fig. 112  256
  WILLIAM, PRINCE OF ORANGE                                 PLATE LXVI  258
  Dutch Bobbin Lace                                           Fig. 113  260
  Tomb of Barbara Uttmann                                      "   114  261
  Barbara Uttmann                                              "   114A 262
  SWISS, NEUCHATEL                                         PLATE LXVII  264
  GERMAN, NUREMBERG                                          "  LXVIII  264
  ENGLISH, BUCKS                                             "    LXIX  264
  HUNGARIAN.--BOBBIN LACE                                    "     LXX  268
  AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN                                           "    LXXI  268
  Shirt Collar of Christian IV.                               Fig. 115  273
  Tönder Lace, Drawn Muslin                                    "   116  274
  RUSSIAN--NEEDLEPOINT; GERMAN--SAXON                      PLATE LXXII  276
  RUSSIAN, OLD BOBBIN-MADE                                   "  LXXIII  276
  RUSSIAN, BOBBIN-MADE IN THREAD                           PLATE LXXIV  280
  Dalecarlian Lace                                            Fig. 117  281
  Collar of Gustavus Adolphus                                  "   118  282
  Russia, Bobbin-made, 19th Century                            "   119  284
  CAP, FLEMISH OR GERMAN                                     PLATE XXV  288
  Fisher, Bishop of Rochester                                 Fig. 120  292
  ENGLISH.--CUTWORK AND NEEDLE-POINT                       PLATE LXXVI  292
  ENGLISH.--DEVONSHIRE "TROLLY."                             "  LXXVII  292
  Fisher, Bishop of Rochester                                 Fig. 121  293
  MARIE DE LORRAINE                                      PLATE LXXVIII  298
  Queen Elizabeth's Smock                                     Fig. 122  308
  Christening Caps, Needle-made Brussels                Figs. 123, 124  309
  MARY SIDNEY, COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE                        PLATE LXXIX  316
  HENRY WROTHESLEY, THIRD EARL OF SOUTHAMPTON                "    LXXX  320
  Monument of Princess Sophia                                 Fig. 125  321
       "   "     "     Mary                                    "   126  322
  Mary, Countess of Pembroke                                   "   127  323
  ELIZABETH, PRINCESS PALATINE                             PLATE LXXXI  326
  Falling Collar of the 17th Century                          Fig. 128  327
  Boots, Cuffs                                          Figs. 129, 130  328
  English Needle-made Lace                                    Fig. 131  328
  JAMES HARRINGTON                                        PLATE LXXXII  332
  JAMES, THE OLD PRETENDER, AND HIS SISTER, PRINCESS
    LOUISA                                               PLATE LXXXIII  344
  JOHN LAW, THE PARIS BANKER                               "    LXXXIV  352
  Ripon                                                       Fig. 132  373
  ENGLISH, BUCKINGHAMSHIRE, BOBBIN LACE                    PLATE LXXXV  374
  Buckinghamshire Trolly                                      Fig. 133  381
         "        Point                                        "   134  382
         "          "                                          "   135  383
  ENGLISH, NORTHAMPTONSHIRE, BOBBIN LACE                  PLATE LXXXVI  384
  Old Flemish                                                 Fig. 136  385
  Old Brussels                                                 "   137  385
 "Run" Lace, Newport Pagnell                                   "   138  386
  English Point, Northampton                                   "   139  386
 "Baby" Lace, Northampton                                      "   140  387
    "      "   Beds                                            "   141  387
    "      "   Bucks                                           "   142  387
  Wire Ground, Northampton                                     "   143  388
  Valenciennes    "                                            "   144  388
  Regency Point, Bedford                                       "   145  389
  Insertion,       "                                           "   146  389
  Plaited Lace,    "                                           "   147  392
  Raised Plait,    "                                           "   148  393
  ENGLISH, SUFFOLK, BOBBIN LACE                          PLATE LXXXVII  394
  English Needle-made Lace                                    Fig. 149  396
  HONITON WITH THE VRAI RÉSEAU                          PLATE LXXXVIII  402
  Bone Lace from Cap, Devonshire                              Fig. 150  404
  Monument of Bishop Stafford, Exeter Cathedral                "   151  406
  Monument of Lady Doddridge     "       "                     "   152  407
  Honiton, sewn on plain pillow ground                         "   153  408
  Old Devonshire                                               "   154  408
  Honiton Guipure                                              "   155  410
  Honeysuckle, Sprig of Modern Honiton                         "   156  411
  Old Devonshire Point                                         "   157  412
  Lappet made by the late Mrs. Treadwin of Exeter              "   158  412
  Venetian Relief in Point                                     "   159  414
  ENGLISH.--DEVONSHIRE. FAN MADE AT BEER FOR THE PARIS
    EXHIBITION, 1900                                      PLATE LXXXIX  416
  Sir Alexander Gibson                                        Fig. 160  424
  Scotch, Hamilton                                             "   161  431
  IRISH, YOUGHAL                                             PLATE  XC  436
  IRISH, CARRICKMACROSS                                        "   XCI  442
  IRISH, LIMERICK LACE                                         "  XCII  442
  IRISH, CROCHET LACE                                          " XCIII  446
  Arms of the Framework Knitters' Company                     Fig. 162  447
  The Lagetta, or Lace-bark Tree                               "   163  456
  Metre P. Quinty                                       Figs. 164, 165  460
  Pattern Book, Augsburg                                   "  166, 167  462
  Augsburg                                                    Fig. 168  463
  Le Pompe, 1559                                               "   169  473
  Manner of Pricking Pattern                                   "   170  486
  Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1605                                  "   171  492
  Monogram                                                     "   172  492
 "Bavari," from "Ornamento nobile" of Lucretia Romana          "   173  498

{1}HISTORY OF LACE.



CHAPTER I.

NEEDLEWORK.

                           "As ladies wont
  To finger the fine needle and nyse thread."--_Faerie Queene._

The art of lace-making has from the earliest times been so interwoven with
the art of needlework that it would be impossible to enter on the subject
of the present work without giving some mention of the latter.

With the Egyptians the art of embroidery was general, and at Beni Hassan
figures are represented making a sort of net--"they that work in flax, and
they that weave network."[1] Examples of elaborate netting have been found
in Egyptian tombs, and mummy wrappings are ornamented with drawn-work,
cut-work, and other open ornamentation. The outer tunics of the robes of
state of important personages appear to be fashioned of network darned
round the hem with gold and silver and coloured silks. Amasis, King of
Egypt, according to Herodotus,[2] sent to Athene of Lindus a corslet with
figures interwoven with gold and cotton, and to judge from a passage of
Ezekiel, the Egyptians even embroidered the sails of their galleys which
they exported to Tyre.[3]

{2}The Jewish embroiderers, even in early times, seem to have carried their
art to a high standard of execution. The curtains of the Tabernacle were of
"fine twined linen wrought with needlework, and blue, and purple, and
scarlet, with cherubims of cunning work."[4] Again, the robe of the ephod
was of gold and blue and purple and scarlet, and fine twined linen, and in
Isaiah we have mention of women's cauls and nets of checker-work. Aholiab
is specially recorded as a cunning workman, and chief embroiderer in blue,
and in purple, and in scarlet, and in fine linen,[5] and the description of
the virtuous woman in the Proverbs, who "layeth her hands to the spindle"
and clotheth herself in tapestry, and that of the king's daughter in the
Psalms, who shall be "brought unto the king in a raiment of needlework,"
all plainly show how much the art was appreciated amongst the Jews.[6]
Finally Josephus, in his _Wars of the Jews_, mentions the veil presented to
the Temple by Herod (B.C. 19), a Babylonian curtain fifty cubits high, and
sixteen broad, embroidered in blue and red, "of marvellous texture,
representing the universe, the stars, and the elements."

In the English Bible, _lace_ is frequently mentioned, but its meaning must
be qualified by the reserve due to the use of such a word in James I.'s
time. It is pretty evident that the translators used it to indicate a small
cord, since lace for decoration would be more commonly known at that time
as _purls_, _points_, or _cut-works_.[7]

"Of lace amongst the Greeks we seem to have no evidence. Upon the
well-known red and black vases are all kinds of figures clad in costumes
which are bordered with ornamental patterns, but these were painted upon,
woven into, or embroidered upon the fabric. They were not lace. Many
centuries elapsed before a marked and elaborately ornamental character
infused itself into twisted, plaited, or looped thread-work. During such a
period the fashion of ornamenting borders of costumes and hangings existed,
and underwent a few phases, as, for instance, in the Elgin marbles, where
crimped {3}edges appear along the flowing Grecian dresses." Embroidered
garments, cloaks, veils and cauls, and networks of gold are frequently
mentioned in Homer and other early authors.[8]

The countries of the Euphrates were renowned in classical times for the
beauty of their embroidered and painted stuffs which they manufactured.[9]
Nothing has come down to us of these Babylonian times, of which Greek and
Latin writers extolled the magnificence; but we may form some idea, from
the statues and figures engraved on cylinders, of what the weavers and
embroiderers of this ancient time were capable.[10] A fine stone in the
British Museum is engraved with the figure of a Babylonian king,
Merodach-Idin-Abkey, in embroidered robes, which speak of the art as
practised eleven hundred years B.C.[11] Josephus writes that the veils
given by Herod for the Temple were of Babylonian work ([Greek: peplos
babylônios])--the women excelling, according to Apollonius, in executing
designs of varied colours.

The Sidonian women brought by Paris to Troy embroidered veils of such rich
work that Hecuba deemed them worthy of being offered to Athene; and Lucan
speaks of the Sidonian veil worn by Cleopatra at a feast in her Alexandrine
palace, in honour of Cæsar.[12]

Phrygia was also renowned for its needlework, and from the shores of
Phrygia Asiatic and Babylonian embroideries were shipped to Greece and
Italy. The _toga picta_, worked with Phrygian embroidery, was worn by Roman
generals at their triumphs and by the consuls when they celebrated the
games; hence embroidery itself is styled "Phrygian,"[13] {4}and the Romans
knew it under no other name (_opus Phrygianum_).[14]

Gold needles and other working implements have been discovered in
Scandinavian tumuli. In the _London Chronicle_ of 1767 will be found a
curious account of the opening of a Scandinavian barrow near Wareham, in
Dorsetshire. Within the hollow trunk of an oak were discovered many bones
wrapped in a covering of deerskins neatly sewn together. There were also
the remains of a piece of gold lace, four inches long and two and a half
broad. This lace was black and much decayed, of the old lozenge
pattern,[15] that most ancient and universal of all designs, again found
depicted on the coats of ancient Danes, where the borders are edged with an
open or net-work of the same pattern.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.

GOLD LACE FOUND IN A BARROW.]

Passing to the first ages of the Christian era, we find the pontifical
ornaments, the altar and liturgical cloths, and the draperies then in
common use for hanging between the colonnades and porches of churches all
worked with holy images and histories from the Holy Writ. Rich men chose
sacred subjects to be embroidered on their dress, and one senator wore 600
figures worked upon his robes of state. Asterius, Bishop of Amasus,
thunders against those Christians "who wore the Gospels upon their backs
instead of in their hearts."[16]

In the Middle Ages spinning and needlework were the occupation of women of
all degrees. As early as the sixth {5}century the nuns in the diocese of
St. Césaire, Bishop of Arles, were forbidden to embroider robes enriched
with paintings, flowers, and precious stones. This prohibition, however,
was not general. Near Ely, an Anglo-Saxon lady brought together a number of
maidens to work for the monastery, and in the seventh century an Abbess of
Bourges, St. Eustadiole, made vestments and enriched the altar with the
work of her nuns. At the beginning of the ninth century St. Viborade, of
St. Gall, worked coverings for the sacred books of the monastery, for it
was the custom then to wrap in silk and carry in a linen cloth the Gospels
used for the offices of the Church.[17] Judith of Bavaria, mother of
Charles the Bold, stood sponsor for the Queen of Harold, King of Denmark,
who came to Ingelheim to be baptised with all his family, and gave her a
robe she had worked with her own hands and studded with precious stones.

"Berthe aux grands pieds," the mother of Charlemagne, was celebrated for
her skill in needlework,[18]

                   "à ouvrer si com je vous dirai
  N'avoit meillor ouvriere de Tours jusqu'à Cambrai;"

while Charlemagne[19]--

 "Ses filles fist bien doctriner,
  Et aprendre keudre et filer."

Queen Adelhaïs, wife of Hugh Capet (987-996), presented to the Church of
St. Martin at Tours a cope, on the back of which she had embroidered the
Deity, surrounded by seraphim and cherubim, the front being worked with an
Adoration of the Lamb of God.[20]

Long before the Conquest, Anglo-Saxon women were skilled with the needle,
and gorgeous are the accounts of the gold-starred and scarlet-embroidered
tunics and violet sacks worked by the nuns. St. Dunstan himself designed
the ornaments of a stole worked by the hands of a noble Anglo-Saxon lady,
Ethelwynne, and sat daily in her bower with her maidens, directing the
work. The four daughters of {6}Edward the Elder are all praised for their
needle's skill. Their father, says William of Malmesbury, had caused them
in childhood "to give their whole attention to letters, and afterwards
employed them in the labours of the distaff and the needle." In 800
Denbert, Bishop of Durham, granted the lease of a farm of 200 acres for
life to an embroideress named Eanswitha for the charge of scouring,
repairing, and renewing the vestments of the priests of his diocese.[21]
The Anglo-Saxon Godric, Sheriff of Buckingham, granted to Alcuid half a
hide of land as long as he should be sheriff on condition she taught his
daughter the art of embroidery. In the tenth century Ælfleda, a high-born
Saxon lady, offered to the church at Ely a curtain on which she had wrought
the deeds of her husband, Brithnoth, slain by the Danes; and Edgitha, Queen
of Edward the Confessor, was "perfect mistress of her needle."

The famous Bayeux Tapestry or embroidery, said to have been worked by
Matilda, wife of William the Conqueror, is of great historical
interest.[22] It is, according to the chroniclers, "Une tente très longue
et estroite de telle a broderies de ymages et escriptaux faisant
représentation du Conquest de l'Angleterre"; a needle-wrought epic of the
Norman Conquest, worked on a narrow band of stout linen over 200 feet long,
and containing 1,255 figures worked on worsted threads.[23] Mr. Fowke gives
the Abbé Rue's doubts as to the accepted period of the Bayeux tapestry,
which he assigns to the Empress Matilda. Mr. Collingwood Bruce is of
opinion that the work is coeval with the events it records, as the
primitive furniture, buildings, etc., are all of the eleventh century. That
the tapestry is not found in any catalogue before 1369 is only a piece of
presumptive evidence against the earlier date, and must be weighed with the
internal evidence in its favour.

After the Battle of Hastings William of Normandy, on {7}his first
appearance in public, clad himself in a richly-wrought cloak of Anglo-Saxon
embroidery, and his secretary, William of Poictiers, states that "the
English women are eminently skilful with the needle and in weaving."

The excellence of the English work was maintained as time went on, and a
proof of this is found in an anecdote preserved by Matthew of Paris.[24]
"About this time (1246) the Lord Pope (Innocent IV.) having observed the
ecclesiastical ornaments of some Englishmen, such as choristers' copes and
mitres, were embroidered in gold thread after a very desirable fashion,
asked where these works were made, and received in answer, in England.
'Then,' said the Pope, 'England is surely a garden of delights for us. It
is truly a never-failing spring, and there, where many things abound, much
may be extracted.' Accordingly, the same Lord Pope sent sacred and sealed
briefs to nearly all the abbots of the Cistercian order established in
England, requesting them to have forthwith forwarded to him those
embroideries in gold which he preferred to all others, and with which he
wished to adorn his chasuble and choral cope, as if these objects cost them
nothing," an order which, adds the chronicler, "was sufficiently pleasing
to the merchants, but the cause of many persons detesting him for his
covetousness."

Perhaps the finest examples of the _opus anglicanum_ extant are the cope
and maniple of St. Cuthbert, taken from his coffin in the Cathedral of
Durham, and now preserved in the Chapter library. One side of the maniple
is of gold lace stitched on, worked apparently on a parchment pattern. The
Syon Monastery cope, in the Victoria and Albert Museum, is an invaluable
example of English needlework of the thirteenth century. "The greater
portion of its design is worked in a chain-stitch (modern tambour or
crochet), especially in the faces of the figures, where the stitch begins
in the centre, say, of a cheek, and is then worked in a spiral, thus
forming a series of circular lines. The texture so obtained is then, by
means of a hot, small and round-knobbed iron, pressed into indentations at
the centre of each spiral, and an effect of relief imparted to it. The
general {8}practice was to work the draperies in feather-stitch (_opus
plumarium_)."[25]

In the tenth century the art of pictorial embroidery had become universally
spread. The inventory of the Holy See (in 1293) mentions the embroideries
of Florence, Milan, Lucca, France, England, Germany, and Spain, and
throughout the Middle Ages embroidery was treated as a fine art, a serious
branch of painting.[26] In France the fashion continued, as in England, of
producing groups, figures and portraits, but a new development was given to
floral and elaborate arabesque ornament.[27]

It was the custom in feudal times[28] for knightly families to send their
daughters to the castles of their suzerain lords, there to be trained to
spin, weave and embroider under the eye of the lady châtelaine, a custom
which, in the more primitive countries, continued even to the French
Revolution. In the French romances these young ladies are termed
"chambrières," in our English, simply "the maidens." Great ladies prided
themselves upon the number of their attendants, and passed their mornings
at work, their labours beguiled by singing the "chansons à toile," as the
ballads written for those occasions were termed.[29]

{9}In the wardrobe accounts of our kings appear constant entries of working
materials purchased for the royal ladies.[30] There is preserved in the
cathedral at Prague an altar-cloth of embroidery and cut-work worked by
Anne of Bohemia, Queen of Richard II.

During the Wars of the Roses, when a duke of the blood royal is related to
have begged alms in the streets of the rich Flemish towns, ladies of rank,
more fortunate in their education, gained, like the French emigrants of
more modern days, their subsistence by the products of their needle.[31]

Without wishing to detract from the industry of mediæval ladies, it must be
owned that the swampy state of the country, the absence of all roads, save
those to be traversed in the fine season by pack-horses, and the deficiency
of all suitable outdoor amusement but that of hawking, caused them to while
away their time within doors the best way they could. Not twenty years
since, in the more remote provinces of France, a lady who quitted her house
daily would be remarked on. "Elle sort beaucoup," folks would say, as
though she were guilty of dissipation.

So queens and great ladies sewed on. We hear much of works of adornment,
more still of piety, when Katharine of Aragon appears on the scene. She had
learned much in her youth from her mother, Queen Isabella, and had probably
{10}assisted at those "trials" of needlework[32] established by that
virtuous queen among the Spanish ladies:--

                 "Her days did pass
  In working with the needle curiously."[33]

It is recorded how, when Wolsey, with the papal legate Campeggio, going to
Bridewell, begged an audience of Queen Katharine, on the subject of her
divorce, they found her at work, like Penelope of old, with her maids, and
she came to them with a skein of red silk about her neck.[34]

Queen Mary Tudor is supposed, by her admirers, to have followed the example
of her illustrious mother, though all we find among the entries is a charge
"to working materials for Jane the Fole, one shilling."

No one would suspect Queen Elizabeth of solacing herself with the needle.
Every woman, however, had to make one shirt in her lifetime, and the "Lady
Elizabeth's grace," on the second anniversary of Prince Edward's birth,
when only six years of age, presented her brother with a cambric smock
wrought by her own hands.

The works of Scotland's Mary, who early studied all female accomplishments
under her governess, Lady Fleming, {11}are too well known to require
notice. In her letters are constant demands for silk and other working
materials wherewith to solace her long captivity. She had also studied
under Catherine de Médicis, herself an unrivalled needlewoman, who had
brought over in her train from Florence the designer for embroidery,
Frederick Vinciolo. Assembling her daughters, Claude, Elizabeth and
Margaret, with Mary Stuart, and her Guise cousins, "elle passoit," says
Brantôme, "fort son temps les apres-disnées à besogner apres ses ouvrages
de soye, où elle estoit tant parfaicte qu'il estoit possible."[35] The
ability of Reine Margot[36] is sung by Ronsard, who exalts her as imitating
Pallas in the art.[37]

Many of the great houses in England are storehouses of old needlework.
Hatfield, Penshurst, and Knole are all filled with the handiwork of their
ladies. The Countess of Shrewsbury, better known as "Building Bess," Bess
of Hardwick, found time to embroider furniture for her palaces, and her
samplar patterns hang to this day on their walls.

Needlework was the daily employment of the convent. As early as the
fourteenth century[38] it was termed "nun's work"; and even now, in
secluded parts of the kingdom, ancient lace is styled by that name.[39]

Nor does the occupation appear to have been solely {12}confined to women.
We find monks commended for their skill in embroidery,[40] and in the
frontispieces of some of the early pattern books of the sixteenth century,
men are represented working at frames, and these books are stated to have
been written "for the profit of men as well as of women."[41] Many were
composed by monks,[42] and in the library[43] of St. Geneviève at Paris,
are several works of this class, inherited from the monastery of that name.
As these books contain little or no letterpress, they could scarcely have
been collected by the monks unless with a view to using them.

At the dissolution of the monasteries, the ladies of the great Roman
Catholic families came to the rescue. Of the widow of the ill-fated Earl of
Arundel it is recorded: "Her gentlewomen and chambermaids she ever busied
in works ordained for the service of the Church. She permitted none to be
idle at any time."[44]

Instructions in the art of embroidery were now at a premium. The old nuns
had died out, and there were none to replace them.

Mrs. Hutchinson, in her _Memoirs_, enumerates, among the eight tutors she
had at seven years of age, one for needlework, while Hannah Senior, about
the same period, entered the service of the Earl of Thomond, to teach his
daughters the use of their needle, with the salary of £200 a year. The
money, however, was never paid; so she petitions the Privy Council for
leave to sue him.[45]

When, in 1614, the King of Siam applied to King James for an English wife,
a gentleman of "honourable parentage" offers his daughter, whom he
describes of excellent parts for "music, her needle, and good
discourse."[46] And these are the sole accomplishments he mentions.  The
bishops, however, shocked at the proceeding, interfered, and put an end to
the projected alliance.

[Illustration: PLATE I.

ARGENTAN.--Showing buttonhole stitched réseau and "brides bouclées."

CIRCULAR BOBBIN RÉSEAU.--Variety of Mechlin.

VENETIAN NEEDLE-POINT. Portions of lace very much enlarged to show details
of stitches.]

[Illustration: VENETIAN NEEDLE-POINT.]

{13}No ecclesiastical objection, however, was made to the epitaph of
Catherine Sloper--she sleeps in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey, 1620:--

 "Exquisite at her needle."

Till a very late date, we have ample record of the esteem in which this art
was held.

In the days of the Commonwealth, Mrs. Walker is described to have been as
well skilled in needlework "as if she had been brought up in a convent."
She kept, however, a gentlewoman for teaching her daughters.

Evelyn, again, praises the talent of his daughter, Mrs. Draper. "She had,"
writes he, "an extraordinary genius for whatever hands could do with a
needle."

The queen of Charles I. and the wives of the younger Stuarts seem to have
changed the simple habits of their royal predecessors, for when Queen Mary,
in her Dutch simplicity, sat for hours at the knotted fringe, her favourite
employment, Bishop Burnet, her biographer, adds, "It was a strange thing to
see a queen work for so many hours a day," and her homely habits formed a
never-ending subject of ridicule for the wit of Sir Charles Sedley.[47]

From the middle of the last century, or rather apparently from the French
Revolution, the more artistic style of needlework and embroidery fell into
decadence. The simplicity of male costume rendered it a less necessary
adjunct to female or, indeed, male education. However, two of the greatest
generals of the Republic, Hoche and Moreau, followed the employment of
embroidering satin waistcoats long after they had entered the military
service. We may look upon the art now as almost at an end.



{14}CHAPTER II.

CUT-WORK.

"These workes belong chiefly to gentlewomen to passe away their time in
vertuous exercises."

 "Et lors, sous vos lacis à mille fenestrages
  Raiseuls et poinct couppés et tous vos clairs ouvrages."
                                         --_Jean Godard_, 1588.

It is from that open-work embroidery which in the sixteenth century came
into such universal use that we must derive the origin of lace, and, in
order to work out the subject, trace it through all its gradations.

This embroidery, though comprising a wide variety of decoration, went by
the general name of cut-work.

The fashion of adorning linen has prevailed from the earliest times. Either
the edges were worked with close embroidery--the threads drawn and
fashioned with a needle in various forms--or the ends of the cloth
unravelled and plaited with geometric precision.

To judge from the description of the linen grave-clothes of St.
Cuthbert,[48] as given by an eye-witness to his disinterment in the twelfth
century, they were ornamented in a manner similar to that we have
described. "There had been," says the chronicler, "put over him a sheet ...
this sheet had a fringe of linen thread of a finger's length; upon its
sides and ends were woven a border of projecting workmanship fabricated of
the thread itself, bearing the figures of birds and beasts so arranged that
between every two pairs there were interwoven among them the representation
of a branching tree which divides the figures. This tree, so tastefully
depicted, appears to be putting forth its leaves," etc. There can be no
doubt that this sheet, for many centuries preserved in the cathedral church
of Durham, was a specimen of cut-work, which, though later it came into
general use, was, at an early period of our history, alone used for
ecclesiastical purposes, and an art which was, till the dissolution of
monasteries, looked upon as a church secret.

[Illustration: PLATE II.

ITALIAN BOBBIN RÉSEAU.

SIX-POINTED STAR-MESHED BOBBIN RÉSEAU.--Variety of Valenciennes.

BRUSSELS BOBBIN RÉSEAU.

FOND CHANT OF CHANTILLY AND POINT DE PARIS.

Valenciennes.   Lille.   Toilé.

DETAILS OF BOBBIN RÉSEAU AND TOILÉ.

Alençon réseau.

DETAILS OF NEEDLE RÉSEAU AND BUTTONHOLE STITCHES.

Portions of lace very much enlarged to show details of stitches.]

  _To face page 14._

{15}Though cut-work is mentioned in Hardyng's _Chronicle_,[49] when
describing the luxury in King Richard II.'s reign, he says:--

 "Cut werke was greate both in court and townes,
  Both in menes hoddis and also in their gownes,"

yet this oft-quoted passage, no more than that of Chaucer, in which he
again accuses the priests of wearing gowns of scarlet and green colours
ornamented with cut-work, can scarcely be received as evidence of this mode
of decoration being in general use. The royal wardrobe accounts of that day
contain no entries on the subject. It applies rather to the fashion of
cutting out[50] pieces of velvet or other materials, and sewing them down
to the garment with a braid like ladies' work of the present time. Such
garments were in general use, as the inventories of mediæval times fully
attest.

The linen shirt or smock was the special object of adornment, and on the
decoration of the collar and sleeves much time and ingenuity were expended.

In the ancient ballad of "Lord Thomas,"[51] the fair Annette cries:--

 "My maids, gae to my dressing-room,
    And dress me in my smock;
  The one half is o' the Holland fine,
    The other o' needlework."

Chaucer, too, does not disdain to describe the embroidery of a lady's
smock--

 "White was her smocke, embrouded all before
  And eke behynde, on her colar aboute,
  Of cole blacke sylke, within and eke without."

The sums expended on the decoration of this most necessary article of dress
sadly excited the wrath of {16}Stubbes, who thus vents his indignation:
"These shirtes (sometymes it happeneth) are wrought throughout with
needlework of silke, and such like, and curiously stitched with open seame,
and many other knackes besides, more than I can describe; in so much, I
have heard of shirtes that have cost some ten shillynges, some twenty, some
forty, some five pounds, some twenty nobles, and (which is horrible to
heare) some ten pound a pece."[52]

Up to the time of Henry VIII. the shirt was "pynched" or plaited--

 "Come nere with your shirtes bordered and displayed,
  In foarme of surplois."[53]

These,[54] with handkerchiefs,[55] sheets, and pillow-beres,[56]
(pillow-cases), were embroidered with silks of various {17}colours, until
the fashion gradually gave place to cut-work, which, in its turn, was
superseded by lace.

The description of the widow of John Whitcomb, a wealthy clothier of
Newbury, in Henry VIII.'s reign, when she laid aside her weeds, is the
first notice we have of cutwork being in general use. "She came," says the
writer, "out of the kitchen in a fair train gown stuck full of silver pins,
having a white cap upon her head, with cuts of curious needlework, the same
an apron, white as the driven snow."

We are now arrived at the Renaissance, a period when so close a union
existed between the fine arts and manufactures; when the most trifling
object of luxury, instead of being consigned to the vulgar taste of the
mechanic, received from artists their most graceful inspirations.
Embroidery profited by the general impulse, and books of designs were
composed for that species which, under the general name of cut-work, formed
the great employment for the women of the day. The volume most generally
circulated, especially among the ladies of the French court, for whose use
it was designed, is that of the Venetian Vinciolo, to whom some say, we
know not on what authority, Catherine de Médicis granted, in 1585, the
exclusive privilege of making and selling the _collerettes gaudronnées_[57]
she had herself introduced. This work, which passed through many editions,
dating from 1587 to 1623, is entitled, "Les singuliers et nouveaux
pourtraicts et ouvrages de Lingerie. Servans de patrons à faire toutes
sortes de poincts, couppé, Lacis & autres. Dedié à la Royne. Nouvellement
inventez, au proffit et contentement des nobles Dames et Demoiselles &
autres gentils esprits, amateurs d'un tel art. Par le Seigneur Federic de
Vinciolo Venitien. A Paris. Par Jean le Clerc le jeune, etc., 1587."

Two little figures, representing ladies in the costume of the period, with
working-frames in their hands, decorate the title-page.[58]

The work is in two books: the first of Point Coupé, or {18}rich geometric
patterns, printed in white upon a black ground (Fig. 2); the second of
Lacis, or subjects in squares (Fig. 3), with counted stitches, like the
patterns for worsted-work of the present day--the designs, the seven
planets, Neptune, and various squares, borders, etc.

Vinciolo dedicates his book to Louise de Vaudemont, the neglected Queen of
Henry III., whose portrait, with that of the king, is added to the later
editions.

Various other pattern-books had already been published. The earliest
bearing a date is one printed at Cologne in 1527.[59]

[Illustration: Fig. 2.

POINT COUPÉ.--(Vinciolo.)]

These books are scarce; being designed for patterns, and traced with a
metal style, or pricked through, many perished in the using. They are much
sought after by the collector as among the early specimens of wood-block
printing. We give therefore in the Appendix a list of those we find
recorded, or of which we have seen copies, observing that the greater
number, though generally composed for one particular art, may be applied
indifferently to any kind of ornamental work.

PLATE III.

[Illustration: Altar or Table Cloth of fine linen embroidered with gold
thread, laid, and in satin stitches on both sides.  The Cut out spaces are
filled with white thread needle-point lace. The edging is alternated of
white and gold thread needle-point lace. Probably Italian. Late sixteenth
century.--Victoria and Albert Museum.]

_To face page 18_

{19}Cut-work was made in several manners.  The first consisted in arranging
a network of threads upon a small frame, crossing and interlacing them into
various complicated patterns. Beneath this network was gummed a piece of
fine cloth, called quintain,[60] from the town in Brittany where it was
made. Then, with a needle, the network was sewn to the quintain by edging
round those parts of the pattern that were to remain thick. The last
operation was to cut away the superfluous cloth; hence the name of
cut-work.

[Illustration: Fig. 3.

LACIS.--(Vinciolo. _Edition_ 1588.)

Ce Pelican contient en longueur 70 mailles et en hauteur 65.]

{20}The author of the _Consolations aux Dames_, 1620, in addressing the
ladies, thus specially alludes to the custom of working on quintain:--

 "Vous n'employiez les soirs et les matins
  A façonner vos grotesques quaintains,
  O folle erreur--O despence excessive."

Again, the pattern was made without any linen at all; threads, radiating at
equal distances from one common centre, served as a framework to others
which were united to them in squares, triangles, rosettes, and other
geometric forms, worked over with button-hole stitch (_point noué_),
forming in some parts open-work, in others a heavy compact embroidery. In
this class may be placed the old conventual cut-work of Italy, generally
termed Greek lace, and that of extraordinary fineness and beauty which is
assigned to Venice. Distinct from all these geometric combinations was the
lacis[61] of the sixteenth century, done on a network ground (_réseau_),
identical with the _opus araneum_ or spider-work of continental writers,
the "darned netting" or modern _filet brodé à reprises_ of the French
embroiderers.

The ground consisted of a network of square meshes, on which was worked the
pattern, sometimes cut out of linen and appliqué,[62] but more usually
darned with stitches like tapestry. This darning-work was easy of
execution, and the stitches being regulated by counting the meshes,[63]
effective geometric patterns could be produced. Altar-cloths, baptismal
napkins, as well as bed coverlets and table-cloths, were decorated with
these squares of net embroidery. In the Victoria and Albert Museum there
are several {21}gracefully-designed borders to silk table-covers in this
work, made both of white and coloured threads, and of silk of various
shades. The ground, as we learn from a poem on lacis, affixed to the
pattern-book of "Milour Mignerak,"[64] was made by beginning a single
stitch, and increasing a stitch on each side until the required size was
obtained. If a strip or long border was to be made, the netting was
continued to its prescribed length, and then finished off by reducing a
stitch on each side till it was decreased to one, as garden nets are made
at the present day.

This plain netted ground was called _réseau_, _rézel_, _rézeuil_,[65] and
was much used for bed-curtains, vallances, etc.

In the inventory of Mary Stuart, made at Fotheringay,[66] we find, "Le lict
d'ouvrage à rezel"; and again, under the care of Jane Kennethee, the
"Furniture of a bedd of network and Holland intermixed, not yet finished."

When the _réseau_ was decorated with a pattern, it was termed _lacis_, or
darned netting, the Italian _punto ricamato a maglia quadra_, and, combined
with _point-coupé_, was much used for bed-furniture. It appears to have
been much employed for church-work,[67] for the sacred emblems. The Lamb
and the Pelican are frequently represented.[68]

{22}In the inventory of Sir John Foskewe (modern Fortescue), Knight, time
of Henry VIII., we find in the hall, "A hanging of green saye, bordered
with darning."

Queen Mary Stuart, previous to the birth of James I. (1560), made a will,
which still exists,[69] with annotations in her own handwriting. After
disposing of her jewels and objects of value, she concludes by bequeathing
"tous mes ouvrages masches et collets aux 4 Maries, à Jean Stuart, et Marie
Sunderland, et toutes les filles";--"masches,"[70] with _punti a maglia_,
being among the numerous terms applied to this species of work.

These "ouvrages masches" were doubtless the work of Queen Mary and her
ladies. She had learned the art at the French court, where her
sister-in-law, Reine Margot, herself also a prisoner for many life-long
years, appears to have occupied herself in the same manner, for we find in
her accounts,[71] "Pour des moulles et esguilles pour faire rezeuil la
somme de iiii. L. tourn." And again, "Pour avoir monté une fraize neufve de
reseul la somme de X. sols tourn."

Catherine de Médicis had a bed draped with squares of reseuil or lacis, and
it is recorded that "the girls and servants of her household consumed much
time in making squares of reseuil." The inventory of her property and goods
includes a coffer containing three hundred and eighty-one of such squares
unmounted, whilst in another were found five hundred and thirty-eight
squares, some worked with rosettes or with blossoms, and others with
nosegays.[72]

Though the work of Milour Mignerak, already quoted, is dedicated to the
Trés-Chrestienne Reine de France et de Navarre, Marie de Médicis, and bears
her cipher and arms, yet in the decorated frontispiece is a cushion with a
piece of lacis in progress, the pattern a daisy looking at the sun, the
favourite impresa of her predecessor, the divorced Marguerite, now, by
royal ordinance, "Marguerite Reine, Duchesse de Valois." (Fig. 4.)

[Illustration: Fig. 5.

ELIZABETHAN SAMPLER.]

_To face page 22._

{23}These pattern-books being high in price and difficult to procure,
teachers of the art soon caused the various patterns to be reproduced in
"samcloths,"[73] as samplars were then termed, and young ladies worked at
them diligently as a proof of their competency in the arts of cut-work,
lacis and réseuil, much as a dame-school child did her A B C in the country
villages some years ago. Proud mothers caused these _chefs-d'oeuvre_ of
their children to be framed and glazed; hence many have come down to us
hoarded up in old families uninjured at the present time. (Fig. 5.)

A most important specimen of lacis was exhibited at the Art International
Exhibition of 1874, by Mrs. Hailstone, of Walton Hall, an altar frontal 14
feet by 4 feet, executed in point conté, representing eight scenes from the
Passion of Christ, in all fifty-six figures, surrounded by Latin
inscriptions. It is assumed to be of English workmanship.

[Illustration: Fig. 4.

IMPRESA OF QUEEN MARGARET OF NAVARRE IN LACIS.--(Mignerak.)]

Some curious pieces of ancient lacis were also exhibited (_circ._ 1866) at
the Museum of South Kensington by Dr. Bock, of Bonn. Among others, two
specimens of coloured silk network, the one ornamented with small
embroidered shields and crosses (Fig. 6), the other with the mediæval
gammadion pattern (Fig. 7). In the same collection was a towel or
altar-cloth of ancient German work--a coarse net ground, worked over with
the lozenge pattern.[74]

{24}But most artistic of all was a large ecclesiastical piece, some three
yards in length. The design portrays the Apostles, with angels and saints.
These two last-mentioned objects are of the sixteenth century.

When used for altar-cloths, bed-curtains, or coverlets, to produce a
greater effect it was the custom to alternate the lacis with squares of
plain linen.

 "An apron set with many a dice
    Of needlework sae rare,
  Wove by nae hand, as ye may guess,
    Save that of Fairly fair."
                         Ballad of Hardyknute.

[Illustration: Fig. 6.

"SPIDERWORK," THIRTEENTH CENTURY.--(Bock Coll. South Kensington Museum).]

[Illustration: Fig. 7.

"SPIDERWORK," FOURTEENTH CENTURY.--(Bock Coll. South Kensington Museum.)]

This work formed the great delight of provincial ladies in France. Jean
Godard, in his poem on the Glove,[75] alluding to this occupation, says:--

 "Une femme gantée oeuvre en tapisserie
  En raizeaux deliez et toute lingerie
  Elle file--elle coud et fait passement
  De toutes les fassons...."

The armorial shield of the family, coronets, monograms, the beasts of the
Apocalypse, with fleurs-de-lys, sacrés coeurs, for the most part adorned
those pieces destined for the use of the Church. If, on the other hand,
intended for a pall, death's-heads, cross-bones and tears, with the
sacramental cup, left no doubt of the destination of the article.

PLATE IV.

[Illustration: FAN MADE AT BURANO AND PRESENTED TO QUEEN ELENA OF ITALY ON
HER MARRIAGE, 1896.

Photo by the Burano School.]

PLATE V.

[Illustration: ITALIAN. PUNTO REALE.--Modern reproduction by the Society
Æmilia Ars, Bologna.

Photo by the Society.]

_To face page 24._

{25}As late as 1850, a splendid cut-work pall still covered the coffins of
the fishers when borne in procession through the streets of Dieppe. It is
said to have been a votive offering worked by the hands of some lady saved
from shipwreck, and presented as a memorial of her gratitude.

In 1866, when present at a peasant's wedding in the church of St. Lo (Dép.
Manche), the author observed that the "toile d'honneur," which is always
held extended over the heads of the married pair while the priest
pronounces the blessing, was of the finest cut-work, trimmed with lace.

Both in the north and south of Europe the art still lingers on. Swedish
housewives pierce and stitch the holiday collars of their husbands and
sons, and careful ladies, drawing the threads of the fine linen sheets
destined for the "guest-chamber," produce an ornament of geometric design.

Scarce fifty years since, an expiring relic of this art might be sometimes
seen on the white smock-frock of the English labourer, which, independent
of elaborate stitching, was enriched with an insertion of cut-work, running
from the collar to the shoulder crossways, like that we see decorating the
surplices of the sixteenth century.

Drawn-thread embroidery is another cognate work. The material in old
drawn-work is usually loosely-woven linen. Certain threads were drawn out
from the linen ground, and others left, upon and between which needlework
was made. Its employment in the East dates from very early times, and
withdrawing threads from a fabric is perhaps referred to in Lucan's
_Pharsalia_:--[76]

 "Candida Sidonio perlucent pectora filo,
  Quod Nilotis acus compressum pectine Serum
  Solvit, et extenso laxavit stamina velo."

"Her white breasts shine through the Sidonian fabric, which pressed down
with the comb (or sley) of the Seres, the needle of the Nile workman has
separated, and has loosened the warp by stretching out (or withdrawing) the
weft."



{26}CHAPTER III.

LACE.

   "Je demandai de la dentelle:
    Voici le tulle de Bruxelles,
    La blonde, le point d'Alençon,
    Et la Maline, si légère;
    L'application d'Angleterre
    (Qui se fait à Paris, dit-on);
    Voici la guipure indigène,
    Et voici la Valenciennes,
  Le point d'esprit, et le point de Paris;
          Bref les dentelles
          Les plus nouvelles
    Que produisent tous les pays."
              _Le Palais des Dentelles_ (Rothomago).

Lace[77] is defined as a plain or ornamental network, wrought of fine
threads of gold, silver, silk, flax, or cotton, interwoven, to which may be
added "poil de chèvre," and also the fibre of the aloe, employed by the
peasants of Italy and Spain. The term _lacez_ rendered in the English
translation of the Statutes[78] as "laces," implying braids, such as were
used for uniting the different parts of the dress, appears long before
lace, properly so called, came into use. The earlier laces, such as they
were, were defined by the word "passament"[79]--a general term for gimps
and braids, as well as for lace. Modern industry has separated these two
classes of work, but their being formerly so confounded renders it
difficult in historic researches to separate one from the other.

The same confusion occurs in France, where the first lace was called
_passement_, because it was applied to the same {27}use, to braid or lay
flat over the coats and other garments. The lace trade was entirely in the
hands of the "passementiers" of Paris, who were allowed to make all sorts
of "passements de dentelle sur l'oreiller aux fuseaux, aux épingles, et à
la main, d'or, d'argent, tant fin que faux, de soye, de fil blanc, et de
couleur," etc. They therefore applied the same terms to their different
products, whatever the material.

The word _passement_ continued to be in use till the middle of the
seventeenth century, it being specified as "passements aux fuseaux,"
"passements à l'aiguille"; only it was more specifically applied to lace
without an edge.

The term _dentelle_ is also of modern date, nor will it be found in the
earlier French dictionaries.[80] It was not till fashion caused the
passament to be made with a toothed edge that the expression of "passement
dentelé" first appears.

In the accounts of Henry II. of France, and his queen, we have frequent
notices of "passement jaulne dantellé des deux costez,"[81] "passement de
soye incarnat dentellé d'un costé,"[82] etc., etc., but no mention of the
word "dentelle." It does, however, occur in an inventory of an earlier
date, that of Marguerite de France, sister of Francis I., who, in 1545,
paid the sum of VI. livres "pour soixante aulnes, fine dantelle de Florance
pour mettre à des colletz."[83]

After a lapse of twenty years and more, among the articles furnished to
Mary Stuart in 1567, is "Une pacque de petite dentelle";[84] and this is
the sole mention of the word in all her accounts.

{28}We find like entries in the accounts of Henry IV.'s first queen.[85]

Gradually the passement dentelé subsided into the modern dentelle.

[Illustration: Fig. 8.

GRANDE DANTELLE AU POINT DEVANT L'AIGUILLE.--(Montbéliard, 1598.)]

It is in a pattern book, published at Montbéliard in 1598,[86] we first
find designs for "dantelles." It contains {29}twenty patterns, of all
sizes, "bien petites, petites" (Figs. 9, 10, 11, 12), "moyennes, et
grosses" (Fig. 8).

[Illustration: Fig. 9.

PETITE DANTELLE.--(1598.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 10.

PETITE DANTELLE.--(1598.)]

The word _dentelle_ seems now in general use; but Vecellio, in his
_Corona_, 1592, has "opere a mazette," pillow lace, and Mignerak first
gives the novelty of "passements au fuzeau," pillow lace (Fig. 13), for
which Vinciolo, in his edition of 1623, also furnishes patterns (Figs. 14
and 15); and Parasoli, 1616, gives designs for "merli a piombini" (Fig.
16).

[Illustration: Fig. 11.

PETITE DANTELLE.--(1598.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 12.

PETITE DANTELLE.--(1598.)]

In the inventory of Henrietta Maria, dated 1619,[87] appear a variety of
laces, all qualified under the name of "passement"; and in that of the
Maréchal La Motte, 1627, we find the term applied to every description of
lace.

{30}"Item, quatre paires de manchettes garnyes de passement, tant de
Venise, Gennes, et de Malines."[88]

Lace consists of two parts, the ground and the pattern.

The plain ground is styled in French _entoilage_, on account of its
containing the flower or ornament, which is called _toilé_, from the flat
close texture resembling linen, and also from its being often made of that
material or of muslin.

[Illustration: Fig. 13.

PASSEMENT AU FUSEAU.--(Mignerak, 1605.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 14.

PASSEMENT AU FUSEAU.--(Vinciolo, _Edition_ 1623.)]

The honeycomb network or ground, in French _fond_, _champ_,[89] _réseau_,
_treille_, is of various kinds: wire ground, Brussels ground, trolly
ground, etc., _fond clair_, _fond double_, etc.

{31}Some laces, points and guipures are not worked upon a ground; the
flowers are connected by irregular threads overcast (buttonhole stitch),
and sometimes worked over with pearl loops (picot). Such are the points of
Venice and Spain and most of the guipures. To these uniting threads, called
by our lace-makers "pearl ties"--old Randle Holme[90] styles them
"coxcombs"--the Italians give the name of "legs," the French that of
"brides."[91]

[Illustration: Fig. 15.

PASSEMENT AU FUSEAU.--(Vinciolo, _Edition_ 1623.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 16.

MERLETTI A PIOMBINI.--(Parasole, 1616.)]

The flower, or ornamental pattern, is either made together with the ground,
as in Valenciennes or Mechlin, or separately, and then either worked in or
sewn on (appliqué), as in Brussels.

The open-work stitches introduced into the pattern are called _modes_,
_jours_; by our Devonshire workers, "fillings."

All lace is terminated by two edges, the pearl, picot,[92] or couronne--a
row of little points at equal distances, and the footing or _engrêlure_--a
narrow lace, which serves to keep the stitches of the ground firm, and to
sew the lace to the garment upon which it is to be worn.

{32}Lace is divided into point and pillow (or more correctly bobbin) lace.
The term pillow gives rise to misconceptions, as it is impossible to define
the distinction between the "cushion" used for some needle-laces and the
"pillow" of bobbin-lace. The first is made by the needle on a parchment
pattern, and termed needle-point, _point à l'aiguille_, _punto in aco_.

The word is sometimes incorrectly applied to pillow-lace, as point de
Malines, point de Valenciennes, etc.

Point also means a particular kind of stitch, as point de Paris,[93] point
de neige, point d'esprit,[94] point à la Reine, point à carreaux, à
chaînette, etc.

"Cet homme est bien en points," was a term used to denote a person who wore
rich laces.[95]

The mention of point de neige recalls the quarrel of Gros René and
Marinette, in the _Dépit Amoureux_[96] of Molière:--

 "Ton beau galant de neige,[97] avec ta nonpareille,
  Il n'aura plus l'honneur d'être sur mon oreille."

Gros René evidently returns to his mistress his point de neige nightcap.

The manner of making bobbin lace on a pillow[98] need hardly be described.
The "pillow"[99] is a round or oval board, stuffed so as to form a cushion,
and placed upon the knees of the workwoman. On this pillow a stiff piece of
parchment is fixed, with small holes pricked through to mark the pattern.
Through these holes pins are stuck into the cushion. The threads with which
the lace is formed are wound upon "bobbins," formerly bones,[100] now small
round pieces of wood, about the size of a pencil, having round their upper
ends a deep groove, so formed as to reduce the bobbin to a thin neck, on
which the thread is wound, a separate bobbin being used for each thread.

PLATE VI.

[Illustration: ITALIAN.--Modern reproduction at Burano of Point de Venise à
la feuille et la rose, of seventeenth century.

Width, 8 in. Photo by the Burano School.]

PLATE VII.

[Illustration: Heraldic (carnival lace), was made in Italy. This appears to
be a specimen, though the archaic pattern points to a German origin. The
réseau is twisted and knotted. _Circ._ 1700. The Arms are those of a
Bishop.

Photo by A. Dryden from private collection.]

_To face page_ 32.

{33}By the twisting and crossing of these threads the ground of the lace is
formed. The pattern or figure, technically called "gimp," is made by
interweaving a thread much thicker than that forming the groundwork,
according to the design pricked out on the parchment.[101] Such has been
the pillow and the method of using it, with but slight variation, for more
than three centuries.

To avoid repetition, we propose giving a separate history of the
manufacture in each country; but in order to furnish some general notion of
the relative ages of lace, it may be as well to enumerate the kinds most in
use when Colbert, by his establishment of the Points de France, in 1665,
caused a general development of the lace manufacture throughout Europe.

The laces known at that period were:--

1. Point.--Principally made at Venice, Genoa, Brussels, and in Spain.

2. Bisette.--A narrow, coarse thread pillow lace of three qualities, made
in the environs of Paris[102] by the peasant women, principally for their
own use. Though proverbially of little value--"ce n'est que de la
bisette"[103]--it formed an article of traffic with the mercers and
lingères of the day.

3. Gueuse.--A thread lace, which owed to its simplicity {34}the name it
bore. The ground was network, the flowers a loose, thick thread, worked in
on the pillow. Gueuse was formerly an article of extensive consumption in
France, but, from the beginning of the last century, little used save by
the lower classes. Many old persons may still remember the term, "beggars'
lace."

4.  Campane.[104]--A white, narrow, fine, thread pillow edging, used to sew
upon other laces, either to widen them, or to replace a worn-out picot or
pearl.

Campane lace was also made of gold, and of coloured silks, for trimming
mantles, scarfs, etc. We find, in the Great Wardrobe Accounts of George I.,
1714,[105] an entry of "Gold Campagne buttons."

Evelyn, in his "Fop's Dictionary," 1690, gives, "Campane, a kind of narrow,
pricked lace;" and in the "Ladies' Dictionary," 1694, it is described as "a
kind of narrow lace, picked or scalloped."[106]

In the Great Wardrobe Account of William III., 1688-9, we have "le poynt
campanie tæniæ."

5.  Mignonette.[107]--A light, fine, pillow lace, called blonde de
fil,[108] also point de tulle, from the ground resembling that {35}fabric.
It was made of Lille thread, bleached at Antwerp, of different widths,
never exceeding two to three inches. The localities where it was
manufactured were the environs of Paris, Lorraine, Auvergne, and
Normandy.[109] It was also fabricated at Lille, Arras, and in Switzerland.
This lace was article of considerable export, and at times in high favour,
from its lightness and clear ground, for headdresses[110] and other
trimmings. It frequently appears in the advertisements of the last century.
In the _Scottish Advertiser_, 1769, we find enumerated among the
stock-in-trade, "Mennuet and blonde lace."

6. Point double, also called point de Paris and point des champs: point
double, because it required double the number of threads used in the single
ground; des champs, from its being made in the country.

7. Valenciennes.--See Chapter XV.

[Illustration: Fig. 17.

OLD MECHLIN.]

8. Mechlin.--All the laces of Flanders, with the exception of those of
Brussels and the point double, were known in commerce at this period under
the general name of Mechlin. (Fig. 17.)

9. Gold lace.

10. Guipure.


{36}GUIPURE.

Guipure, says Savary, is a kind of lace or passement made of "cartisane"
and twisted silk.

Cartisane is a little strip of thin parchment or vellum, which was covered
over with silk, gold, or silver thread, and formed the raised pattern.

The silk twisted round a thick thread or cord was called guipure,[111]
hence the whole work derived its name.[112]

Guipure was made either with the needle or on the pillow like other lace,
in various patterns, shades and colours, of different qualities and several
widths.

The narrowest guipures were called "Têtes de More."[113]

The less cartisane in the guipure, the more it was esteemed, for cartisane
was not durable, being only vellum covered over with silk. It was easily
affected by the damp, shrivelled, would not wash, and the pattern was
destroyed. Later, the parchment was replaced by a cotton material called
canetille.

Savary says that most of the guipures were made in the environs of
Paris;[114] that formerly, he writes in 1720, great quantities were
consumed in the kingdom; but since the fashion had passed away, they were
mostly exported to Spain, Portugal, Germany, and the Spanish Indies, where
they were much worn.[115]

Guipure was made of silk, gold and silver; from its costliness, therefore,
it was only worn by the rich.

PLATE VIII.

[Illustration: ITALIAN, VENETIAN, FLAT NEEDLE-POINT LACE. "PUNTO IN
ARIA."--The design is held together by plain "brides." Date, _circ._ 1645.
Width, 11-5/8 in.

Victoria and Albert Museum.]

PLATE IX.

[Illustration: PORTION OF A BAND OF NEEDLE-POINT LACE REPRESENTING THE
STORY OF JUDITH AND HOLOFERNES.--The work is believed to be Italian, made
for a Portuguese, the inscription being in Portuguese. Date, _circ._ 1590.
Width, 8 in. The property of Mr. Arthur Blackborne.

Photo by A. Dryden.]

_To face page 36._

{37}At the coronation of Henry II. the front of the high altar is described
as of crimson velvet, enriched with "cuipure d'or"; and the ornaments,
chasuble, and corporaliers of another altar as adorned with a "riche
broderie de cuipure."[116]

On the occasion of Henry's entry into Paris, the king wore over his armour
a surcoat of cloth of silver ornamented with his ciphers and devices, and
trimmed with "guippures d'argent."[117]

In the reign of Henry III. the casaques of the pages were covered with
guipures and passements, composed of as many colours as entered into the
armorial bearings of their masters; and these silk guipures, of varied
hues, added much to the brilliancy of their liveries.[118]

Guipure seems to have been much worn by Mary Stuart. When the Queen was at
Lochleven, Sir Robert Melville is related to have delivered to her a pair
of white satin sleeves, edged with a double border of silver guipure; and,
in the inventory of her clothes taken at the Abbey of Lillebourg,[119]
1561-2, we find numerous velvet and satin gowns trimmed with "gumpeures" of
gold and silver.[120]

It is singular that the word guipure is not to be found in our English
inventories or wardrobe accounts, a circumstance which leads us to infer,
though in opposition to higher authorities, that guipure was in England
termed "parchment lace"--a not unnatural conclusion, since we know it was
sometimes called "dentelle à cartisane,"[121] from the slips of parchment
of which it was partly composed. Though Queen Mary would use the French
term, it does not seem to have been adopted in England, whereas "parchment
lace" is of frequent occurrence.

From the Privy Purse Expenses of the Princess Mary,[122] we find she gives
to Lady Calthorpe a pair of sleeves of "gold, {38}trimmed with parchment
lace," a favourite donation of hers, it would appear, by the anecdote of
Lady Jane Grey.

"A great man's daughter," relates Strype[123] "(the Duke of Suffolk's
daughter Jane), receiving from Lady Mary, before she was Queen, goodly
apparel of tinsel, cloth of gold, and velvet, laid on with parchment lace
of gold, when she saw it, said, 'What shall I do with it?' Mary said,
'Gentlewoman, wear it.' 'Nay,' quoth she, 'that were a shame to follow my
Lady Mary against God's word, and leave my Lady Elizabeth, which followeth
God's word.'"

In the list of the Protestant refugees in England, 1563 to 1571,[124] among
their trades, it is stated "some live by making matches of hempe stalks,
and parchment lace."

Again, Sir Robert Bowes, "once ambassador to Scotland," in his inventory,
1553, has "One cassock of wrought velvet with p'chment lace of gold."[125]

"Parchment lace[126] of watchett and syllver at 7s. 8d. the ounce," appears
also among the laces of Queen Elizabeth.[127]

King Charles I. has his carpet bag trimmed with "broad parchment gold
lace,"[128] his satin nightcaps with gold and silver parchment laces,[129]
and even the bag and comb case "for his Majesty's barber" is decorated with
"silver purle and parchment lace."[130]

Again, Charles II. ornaments the seats on both sides the throne with silver
parchment lace.[131] In many of the inventories circ. 1590, "sylke
parchment lace" is noted down, and "red" and "green parchment lace," again,
appear among the wares found "in y^e Shoppes."[132]

But to return to the word guipure.

In an inventory of the Church of the Oratoire, at Paris, of the seventeenth
century, are veils for the host: one, "de {39}taffetas blanc garny d'une
guipure"; the other, "de satin blanc à fleurs, avec une dentelle de
guipure."[133]

These guipures will have also been of silk. When the term was first
transferred to the thread passements which are now called guipure, it is
difficult to say, for we can find no trace of it so applied.

Be that as it may, the thread guipures are of old date; many of the
patterns bear the character of the rich ornamentation and capricious
interlacings of the Renaissance; others, again, are "pur Louis Quatorze"
(Fig. 18). The finest thread guipures were the produce of Flanders and
Italy. They are most varied in their style. In some the bold flowing
patterns are united by brides; in others by a coarse réseau, often
circular, and called "round ground."

[Illustration: Fig. 18.

GUIPURE.--(Louis XIV.)]

In that class called by the lace-makers "tape guipure," the outline of the
flowers is formed by a pillow or handmade braid about the eighth of an inch
in width (Fig. 19).

{40}The term guipure is now so extensively applied it is difficult to give
a limit to its meaning. We can only define it as lace where the flowers are
either joined by "brides," or large coarse stitches, or lace that has no
ground at all. The modern Honiton and Maltese are guipures, so is the
Venetian point.

[Illustration: Fig. 19.

TAPE GUIPURE, BOBBIN-MADE.--(Genoa.)]

Most of these laces are enumerated in a _jeu d'esprit_, entitled "La
Révolte des Passemens," published at Paris in 1661.[134]

{41}In consequence of a sumptuary edict against luxury in apparel, Mesdames
les Broderies--

 "Les Poinctes, Dentelles, Passemens
  Qui, par une vaine despence,
  Ruinoient aujourd'huy la France"--

meet, and concert measures for their common safety. Point de Gênes, with
Point de Raguse, first address the company; next, Point de Venise, who
seems to look on Raguse with a jealous eye, exclaims--

 "Encore pour vous, Poinct de Raguse,
  Il est bon, crainte d'attentat,
  D'en vouloir perger un estat.
  Les gens aussy fins que vous estes
  Ne sont bons que, comme vous faites,
  Pour ruiner tous les estats.
  Et vous, Aurillac ou Venise,
  Si nous plions notre valise,"

what will be our fate?

The other laces speak, in their turn, most despondently, till a "vieille
broderie d'or," consoling them, talks of the vanity of this world:--"Who
knows it better than I, who have dwelt in kings' houses?" One "grande
dentelle d'Angleterre" now proposes they should all retire to a convent. To
this the "Dentelles de Flandres" object; they would sooner be sewn at once
to the bottom of a petticoat.

Mesdames les Broderies resign themselves to become "ameublement;" the more
devout of the party to appear as "devants d'autel;" those who feel too
young to renounce the world and its vanities will seek refuge in the
masquerade shops.

"Dentelle noire d'Angleterre" lets herself out cheap to a fowler, as a net
to catch woodcocks, for which she felt "assez propre" in her present
predicament.

The Points all resolve to retire to their own countries, save Aurillac, who
fears she may be turned into a strainer "pour passer les fromages
d'Auvergne," a smell insupportable to one who had revelled in civet and
orange-flower.

All were starting--

 "Chacun, dissimulant sa rage,
  Doucement ploit son bagage,
  Resolu d'obéir au sort,"

when

 "Une pauvre malheureuse,
  Qu'on apelle, dit on, la Gueuse,"

{42}arrives, in a great rage, from a village in the environs of Paris. "She
is not of high birth, but has her feelings all the same. She will never
submit. She has no refuge--not even a place in the hospital. Let them
follow her advice and 'elle engageoit sa chaînette,' she will replace them
all in their former position."

Next morn, the Points assemble. "Une grande Cravate[135] fanfaron"
exclaims:--

 "Il nous faut venger cet affront,
  Revoltons-nous, noble assemblée."

A council of war ensues:--

 "La dessus, le Poinct d'Alençon
  Ayant bien appris sa leçon
  Fit une fort belle harangue."

Flanders now boasts how she had made two campaigns under Monsieur, as a
cravat; another had learned the art of war under Turenne; a third was torn
at the siege of Dunkirk.

 "Racontant des combats qu'ils ne virent jamais,"

one and all had figured at some siege or battle.

 "Qu'avons nous à redouter?"

cries Dentelle d'Angleterre. No so, thinks Point de Gênes, "qui avoit le
corps un peu gros."

They all swear--

         "Foy de Passement,
  Foy de Poincts et de Broderie,
  De Guipure et d'Orfévrerie,
  De Gueuse de toute façon,"

to declare open war, and to banish the Parliament.

The Laces assemble at the fair of St. Germain, there to be reviewed by
General Luxe.

The muster-roll is called over by Colonel Sotte Depense. Dentelles de
Moresse, Escadrons de Neige, Dentelles de Hâvre, Escrues, Soies noires, and
Points d'Espagne, etc., march forth in warlike array, to conquer or to die.
At the first approach of the artillery they all take to their heels, and
are condemned by a council of war--the Points to be made into tinder, for
the sole use of the King's Mousquetaires; the Laces to be converted into
paper; the Dentelles, {43}Escrues, Gueuses, Passemens, and Silk Lace to be
made into cordage and sent to the galleys; the Gold and Silver Laces, the
original authors of the sedition, to be "burned alive."

Finally, through the intercession of Love--

 "Le petit dieu plein de finesse,"

they are again pardoned and restored to court favour.

The poem is curious, as giving an account of the various kinds of lace, and
as a specimen of the taste of the time, but the "ton précieux" of the Hôtel
Rambouillet pervades throughout.

The lace trade, up to this period, was entirely in the hands of pedlars,
who carried their wares to the principal towns and large country-houses.

"One Madame La Boord," says Evelyn, "a French peddling-woman, served Queen
Katherine with petticoats, fans, and foreign laces." These hawkers attended
the great fairs[136] of Europe, where all purchases were made.[137]

Even as early as King Henry III.[138] we have a notice "to purchase robes
at the fair of St. Ives, for the use of Richard our brother"; and in the
dramas of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, we find constant
allusion to these provincial markets:--[139]

                                   "Seven
  Pedlars' shops, nay all Sturbridge fair,[140] will
  Scarce furnish her."[141]

{44}The custom of carrying lace from house to house still exists in
Belgium, where at Spa and other places, colporteurs,[142] with packs
similar to those borne by our pedlars, bring round to the visitors laces of
great value, which they sell at cheaper rates than those exposed in the
shops.[143]

Many travellers, too, through the counties of Buckingham and Bedford, or
the more southern regions of Devon, will still call to mind the inevitable
lace box handed round for purchase by the waiter at the conclusion of the
inn dinner; as well as the girls who, awaiting the arrival of each
travelling carriage or postchaise, climbed up to the windows of the
vehicle, rarely allowing the occupants to go their way until they had
purchased some article of the wares so pertinaciously offered to their
inspection.

In Paris, the lace trade was the exclusive privilege of the
passementiers.[144]

PLATE X.

[Illustration: ITALIAN. POINT DE VENISE À LA ROSE. Modern reproduction at
Burano of seventeenth century lace. Width, 17 in.

Photo by the Burano School.]

_To face page 44._



{45}CHAPTER IV.

ITALY.

  "It grazed on my shoulder, takes me away six parts of an Italian cut-work
  band I wore, cost me three pounds in the Exchange but three days
  before."--Ben Jonson--_Every Man Out of His Humour_,1599.

  "Ruffles well wrought and fine falling bands of Italian cut-work."--_Fair
  Maid of the Exchange_, 1627.


The Italians claim the invention of point, or needle-made lace.

It has been suggested they derived the art of fine needlework from the
Greeks who took refuge in Italy from the troubles of the Lower Empire; and
what further confirms its Byzantine origin is, that those very places which
kept up the closest intercourse with the Greek Empire are the cities where
point lace was earliest made and flourished to the greatest extent.[145]

A modern Italian author,[146] on the other hand, asserts that the Italians
learned embroidery from the Saracens of Sicily, as the Spaniards acquired
the art from the Moors of Granada or Seville, and brings forward, as proof
of his theory, that the word to embroider, both in Italian and
Spanish,[147] is derived from the Arabic, and no similar word exists in any
other European language.[148] This theory may apply to embroidery, but
certainly not to lace; for with the exception of the Turkish crochet
"oyah," and some darned netting and drawn-work which occur in Persian and
Chinese tissues, there is nothing approaching to lace to be found on any
article of oriental manufacture.

{46}We proceed to show that evidences of the lace-fabric appear in Italy as
early as the fifteenth century.

In 1476, the Venetian Senate decreed that no Punto in Aria whatever,
executed either in flax with a needle, or in silver or gold thread, should
be used on the curtains or bed-linen in the city or provinces. Among the
State archives of the ducal family of Este, which reigned in Ferrara for so
many centuries, Count Gandini found mentioned in a Register of the
Wardrobe, dated 1476 (A. C. 87), an order given for a felt hat "alla
Borgognona," trimmed with a silver and silk gimp made with bobbins. Besides
this, in the same document is noted (A. C. 96) a velvet seat with a canopy
trimmed at the sides with a frill of gold and silver, made in squares, with
bobbins.

The Cavaliere Antonio Merli, in his interesting pamphlet on Italian
lace,[149] mentions an account preserved in the Municipal Archives of
Ferrara, dated 1469, as probably referring to lace;[150] but he more
especially brings forward a document of the Sforza family, dated[151] 1493,
in which the word _trina_ (under its ancient form "tarnete") constantly
occurs,[152] together with bone and bobbin lace.

PLATE XI

[Illustration: ITALIAN. POINT PLAT DE VENISE. NEEDLE-POINT.--Seventeenth
century.  Length, 25 in.; width, 16 in. Victoria and Albert Museum.]

_To face page 46._

{47}Again, the Florentine poet, Firenzuola, who wrote from 1520-30,
composed an elegy upon a collar of raised point, made by the hand of his
mistress.

Cavaliere Merli cites, as the earliest known painting in which lace occurs,
a majolica disc, after the style of the Della Robbia family, in which,
surrounded by a wreath of fruit, is represented the half figure of a lady,
dressed in a rich brocade, with a collar of white lace. The costume is of
the fifteenth century; but as Luca della Robbia's descendants worked to a
later period, the precise date of the work cannot be fixed.

Evidences of white lace, or passement, are said to appear in the pictures
of Carpaccio, in the gallery at Venice, and in another by the Gentile
Bellini, where the dress of one of the ladies is trimmed round the neck
with a white lace.[153] The date of this last painting is 1500.

Lace was made throughout Italy mostly by the nuns,[154] and expressly for
the service of the Church. Venice was celebrated for her points, while
Genoa produced almost exclusively pillow-lace.

The laces best known in the commercial world in the earlier periods were
those of Venice, Milan, and Genoa.


VENICE.

  Mrs. Termagant: "I'll spoil your point de Venise for you."--Shadwell,
  _Squire of Alsatia_.

 "Elle n'avoit point de mouchoir,
  Mais un riche et tres beau peignoir
  Des plus chers de point de Venise
  En negligeance elle avoit mise."
         _Les Combats_, etc., 1663.

The Venetian galleys, at an early period, bore to England "apes, sweet
wines," and other articles of luxury. They brought also the gold-work of
"Luk," Florence, "Jeane," {48}and Venice.[155] In our early parliamentary
records are many statutes on the subject. The Italians were in the habit of
giving short lengths, gold thread of bad quality, and were guilty of sundry
other peccadilloes, which greatly excited the wrath of the nation. The
balance was not in England's favour.

 "Thei bare the gold out of this land
  And sowkethe the thrifte out of our hande
  As the waspe sowkethe the honey of the be."

It was these cheating Venetians who first brought over their points into
England.

In Venice itself, extravagance in lace was restrained in 1542, by a
sumptuary law, forbidding the metal laces embroidered in silk to be wider
than _due dita_ (_i.e._, about two inches). This interference is highly
Venetian, and was intended to protect the nobles and citizens from injuring
themselves and setting a bad example.

At the coronation of Richard III., "fringes of Venice," and "mantil laces
of white silk and Venys gold" appear, and twenty years later Elizabeth of
York disburses sundry sums for "gold of Venice" and "other
necessaries."[156] The queen's accounts are less explicit than those of her
royal predecessor; and though a lace is ordered for the king's mantle of
the Garter, for which she paid sixteen shillings, the article may have been
of home manufacture.

From this time downwards appear occasional mention of partlets,[157] knit
caul fashion, of Venice gold, and of white thread,[158] of billament lace
of Venice, in silver and black silk.[159] It is not, however, till the
reign of Elizabeth[160] that Italian cut-works and Venice lace came into
general use. These points found their way into France about the same
period, though we hear little of them.

PLATE XII

[Illustration: ITALIAN. POINT DE VENISE À RÉSEAU.--The upper ones are of
yellow silk; a chalice veil, with dove and olive branch, and possibly an
altar border. Probably late seventeenth century. The lower is thread, early
eighteenth century. Width, 2 in. In private collections.

Photos by A. Dryden.]

_To face page 48._

{49}Of "point couppé" there is mention, and enough, in handkerchiefs for
Madame Gabrielle, shirts for the king, and fraizes for La Reine Margot; but
whether they be of Venice or worked in France, we are unenlightened. The
works of Vinciolo[161] and others had already been widely circulated, and
laces and point couppé now formed the favourite occupation of the ladies.
Perhaps one of the earliest records of point de Venise will be found in a
ridiculous historiette of Tallemant des Réaux, who, gossiping of a certain
Madame de Puissieux,[162] writes: "On m'assuroit qu'elle mangeoit du point
coupé. Alors les points de Gênes, de Raguse, ni d'Aurillac ni de Venise
n'étoient point connus et on dit qu'au sermon elle mangea tout le derrière
du collet d'un homme qui etoit assis devant elle." On what strange events
hang the connecting threads of history!

By 1626 foreign "dentelles et passements au fuseau" were declared
contraband. France paying large sums of money to other countries for lace,
the Government, by this ordinance, determined to remedy the evil. It was at
this period that the points of Venice were in full use.[163]

 "To know the age and pedigrees
  Of points of Flanders and Venise"[164]

would, in the latter case, have been more difficult, had it not been for
the pattern-books so often quoted.

The earliest points, as we already know, soon passed from the stiff
formality of the "Gotico" into the flowing lines of the Renaissance, and
into that fine patternless guipure which is, _par excellence_, called Point
de Venise.[165]

In the islands of the Lagune there still lingers a tale of the first origin
of this most charming production.

A sailor youth, bound for the Southern Seas, brought home to his betrothed
a bunch of that pretty coralline (Fig. 20) known to the unlearned as the
mermaid's lace.[166] The girl, a worker in points, struck by the graceful
nature of the seaweed, with its small white knots united, as it were, by
{50}a "bride," imitated it with her needle, and after several unsuccessful
trials produced that delicate guipure which before long became the taste of
all Europe.

It would be difficult to enumerate the various kinds of lace produced by
Venice in her palmy days.

The Cavaliere Merli has endeavoured to classify them according to the names
in the pattern-books with which Venice supplied the world, as well as with
her points. Out of some sixty of these works, whose names have been
collected, above one-third were published in Venice.[167]

[Illustration: Fig. 20.

MERMAID'S LACE.]

1. Punto a reticella.[168]--Made either by drawing the threads of the
cloth, as in the samplar already given (Fig. 5), or by working the lace on
a parchment pattern in buttonhole stitch (punto smerlo). (Fig. 21.) This
point is identical with what is commonly called "Greek" lace.

Under this head comes punto reale (the opposite of reticella), where the
linen ground is left and the design cut out.[169] Punto di cartella or
cordella (card-work) is similar in effect to reticella, but the
button-holing is done entirely over a foundation made by sewing coarse
thread and bits of parchment on to the design and covering them with
button-hole stitch.

[Illustration: Fig. 21.

Reticella.]

_To face page 50._

{51}2. Punto tagliato.[170]--Cut-work, already described.

3. Punto di Venezia.

4. Punto in aria.[171]--Worked on a parchment pattern, the flowers
connected by brides: in modern parlance, Guipure.

5. Punto tagliato a fogliami.[172]--The richest and most complicated of all
points, executed like the former, only with this difference, that all the
outlines are in relief, formed by means of cottons placed inside to raise
them. Sometimes they are in double and triple relief; an infinity of
beautiful stitches are introduced into the flowers, which are surrounded by
a pearl of geometric regularity, the pearls sometimes in scallops or
"campané," as the French term it.[173] This is our Rose (raised) Venice
point, the Gros Point de Venise, the Punto a relievo, so highly prized and
so extensively used for albs, collerettes, berthes, and costly decoration.
We give an example (Fig. 23) from a collar, preserved in the Musée de
Cluny, once the property of a Venetian nobleman, worn only on state
occasions.

Two elaborate specimens were in the possession of Mr. Webb; one is a long
narrow piece fringed at both ends, which may have served as a maniple (Fig.
26); the other, a "pale"[174] for the communion, he has given to the
Victoria and Albert Museum.

These two last are made of silk of the natural cream colour. Both silk and
thread unbleached appear to have been greatly in favour. At Paris much lace
of this colour has been disposed of by its owners since the revolutions in
Italy.[175]

Other varieties of so-called rose point are punto neve (point de neige),
with its ground of starred threads resembling snowflakes, and the coral
point, a small irregular pattern supposed to have been copied from coral.

{52}6. Punto a gropo, or gropari.[176]--Groppo, or gruppo, signifies a
knot, or tie, and in this lace the threads are knotted together, like the
fringes of the Genoese macramè.[177] After this manner is made the trimming
to the linen scarfs or cloths which the Roman peasants wear folded square
over the head, and hanging down the back. (Fig. 22.)

[Illustration: Fig. 22.

PUNTO A GROPO (Knotted Point).]

7. Punto a maglia quadra.--Lacis; square netting,[178] the modano of the
Tuscans. (Fig. 24.)

[Illustration: Fig. 23.

GROS POINT DE VENISE.--From the Collar of a Venetian Nobleman. Musée de
Cluny, Paris. 16th century.

N.B.--This drawing makes the work and design appear heavier than it is in
reality.

_To face page 52._]

{53}This Tuscan sort was not generally embroidered; the pattern consists in
knitting the meshes together in different shapes. It was much used for
hangings of beds, and those curtains placed across the windows, called
_stores_ by the French, and by the Italians, _stuora_.[179]

8. Burato.--The word means a stiff cloth or canvas (_toille clere_ of
Taglienti, 1527), on which the pattern is embroidered, reducing it to a
kind of rude lace. One of the pattern-books[180] is devoted exclusively to
the teaching of this point.

[Illustration: Fig. 24.

PUNTO A MAGLIA (Lacis)]

The needle-made laces fabricated at Burano will be noticed later.

9. Punto tirato--Drawn work.[181] Fig. 25 is a lace ground {54}made by
drawing the threads of muslin (_fili tirati_).[182] The present specimen is
simple in design, but some are very complicated and beautiful.

The ordinance of Colbert must have inflicted a serious injury on the Venice
lace trade, which, says Daru, "occupoit la population de la capitale." In
_Britannia Languens_, a discourse upon trade, London, 1680,[183] it is said
that the laces commonly called Points de Venise now come mostly from
France, and amount to a vast sum yearly.

Savary, speaking of the thread laces termed Venice point in the early part
of the eighteenth century,[184] says, "The French no longer purchase these
articles, having established themselves manufactures which rival those of
the Adriatic."

[Illustration: Fig. 25.

PUNTO TIRATO (Drawn Lace).]

Still the greater number of travellers[185] make a provision of points in
their passage through Venice, and are usually cheated, writes a traveller
about this period.[186] He recommends his friend, Mr. Claude Somebody, a
French dealer, who probably paid him in ruffles for the advertisement.

[Illustration: Fig. 26.

POINT DE VENISE À BRIDES PICOTÉES.--Early 18th century.

_To Face page 54._]

{55}Our porte-bouquets and lace-trimmed nosegays are nothing new. On the
occasion of the annual visit of the Doge to the Convent delle Vergini, the
lady abbess with the novices received him in the parlour, and presented him
with a nosegay of flowers placed in a handle of gold, and trimmed round
with the finest lace that Venice could produce.[187]

[Illustration: Fig. 27.

VENICE POINT.]

Fynes Moryson[188] is the earliest known traveller who alludes to the
products of Venice. "Venetian ladies in general," he says, "wear a standing
collar and ruffs close up to the chin; the unmarried tie their hair with
gold and silver lace." Evidently the collars styled "bavari," for which
Vecellio[189] gives patterns "all' usanza Veneziana," were {56}not yet in
general vogue.[190] The Medici collars were supported by fine metal bars
called "verghetti," which were so much in demand that the inhabitants of a
whole quarter of Venice were engaged in their production, and the name
which it still bears was given to it in consequence.

[Illustration: Fig. 28.

GROS POINT DE VENISE.--(First half of 17th century.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 29.

POINT DE VENISE.--End of 17th century.]

[Illustration: Fig. 30.

POINT PLAT DE VENISE.--Middle of 17th century.

_To face page 56._]

{57}Fifty years later, Evelyn speaks of the veils of glittering taffetas,
worn by the Venetian ladies, to the corners of which hang broad but curious
tassels of point laces.

According to Zedler, an author who wrote about lace in 1742, the price of
Venice point in high relief varied from one to nine ducats per Italian ell.

The Venetians, unlike the Spaniards, thought much of their fine linen and
the decorations pertaining to it. "La camicia preme assai più del
giubbone," ran the proverb--"La chemise avant le pourpoint." Young nobles
were not allowed to wear lace on their garments until they put on the robe,
which they usually did at the age of five-and-twenty, on being admitted to
the council.[191]

Towards 1770, the Venice ladies themselves commenced to forsake the fabrics
of their native islands; for on the marriage of the Doge's son, in that
year, we read that, although the altar was decorated with the richest
Venice point, the bride and her ladies wore their sleeves covered up to the
shoulders with falls of the finest Brussels lace, and a tucker of the same
material.[192]

During the carnival, however, the people, both male and female, wore a
camail, or hood of black lace, covering the chin up to the mouth, called a
"bauta."[193] It was one of these old black lace hoods that Walpole
describes Lady Mary Wortley Montagu as wearing at Florence, 1762, in place
of a cap.

_Point de Venise à réseau_ is chiefly distinguished by the conventional
treatment of the flowers and ornament, and a general flat look of the work.
The outlining thread or cordonnet is stitched to the edge of the pattern
and worked in flatly. A minute border to the cordonnet of small meshes
intervenes between it and the réseau, which is of square {58}meshes and
always very fine. Whether the lace was derived from the Alençon, and was
the result of an attempt to win back the custom the French manufacturers
were taking away from Venice, or whether it was Alençon that imitated the
Venetian réseau, is a moot point, but certain it is that the Venetian
product surpassed in fineness both Alençon and Brussels. Its very delicacy
has been its destruction, so that very few specimens of this lace survive.
Plate XII.

_Mezzo Punto_, or mixed Venetian guipure, was a mixed point lace, of which
the scrolls and flowers were outlined in pillow-lace, or by a tape, and the
designs filled in with needle fillings, and connected by pearled brides on
a coarse needle-made réseau. This variety of lace was sometimes made of
silk. In point de Venise, flat or raised, the pattern is always connected
by an irregular network of pearled brides. Real brides connecting the
flowers here and there hardly ever occur; and the number of picots attached
to one single branch of the bride network never exceeds two. The
elaborately ornamental detached brides and a multiplicity of picots are
characteristic of "Spanish point" and early point de France.

The old Burano laces were a coarser outcome of the point de Venise à
réseau, and alone of all Venetian needle laces survived the dark days of
the close of the eighteenth century. Some fine specimens of these were
shown by M. Dupont d'Auberville in the International Exhibition, and Marini
quotes from a document of the seventeenth century, in which, speaking of
merletti, it is said that "these laces, styled 'punti in aria,' or di
Burano, because the greater part of them were made in the country so
called, are considered by Lannoni as more noble and of greater whiteness,
and for excellency of design and perfect workmanship equal to those of
Flanders, and in solidity superior."

A new departure has been taken in modern times, in the making of hand-made
laces at the island of Burano, near Venice, where a large number of girls
were employed in the eighteenth century, both in the town and the convents,
in making a point closely resembling that of Alençon. Here the art lingered
on as late as 1845, when a superannuated nun of ninety, with whom Mrs.
Dennistoun, of Dennistoun, conversed on the subject, said how in her
younger days she and her companions employed their time in the fabric of
"punto di Burano";[194] how it was ordered long beforehand for great
marriages, and even then cost very dear. She showed specimens still tacked
on paper: the ground is made right across the thread of the lace.

[Illustration: Fig. 31.

POINT DE VENISE À RÉSEAU.--Early 18th century. N.B.--Mrs. Palliser
incorrectly described this as Brussels in her first Editions.

_To face page 58._]

{59}Burano point had not the extreme delicacy of the Venetian point à
réseau or of Alençon, and the late Alençon patterns were copied. Though
needle-made, it was worked on a pillow arranged with a cylinder for
convenience of working. The unevenness of the thread gives the réseau a
cloudy appearance, and the cordonnet is, like the Brussels needlepoint, of
thread stitched round the outline instead of the Alençon button-hole stitch
over horse-hair. The mesh of the réseau is square, as in Alençon.

Fig. 32 is copied from a specimen purchased at Burano by the Cav. Merli, of
the maker, an old woman known by the name of Cencia Scarpariola. In 1866,
the industry was extinct, and the "Contrada del Pizzo," once the
headquarters of the lace-makers, was a mystery to the natives, who could no
longer account for the denomination. In the church is preserved a splendid
series of altar-cloths of so-called Burano point in relief, and a fine
_storiato_ piece, representing the mysteries of the Passion. "Venice point
is now no more," writes Mrs. Palliser; "the sole relic of this far-famed
trade is the coarse torchon lace, of the old lozenge pattern, offered by
the peasant women of Palestrina to strangers on their arrival at hotels,"
the same fabric mentioned by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, when she speaks of
"peddling women that come on pretext of selling pennyworths of lace."

The formation of the school recently established there,[195] and the
revival of the art of lace-making in Burano, arose out of the great
distress which in 1872 overtook the island. The extraordinary severity of
the winter that year rendered it impossible for the poor fishermen, who
form the population {60}of the island, to follow their calling. So great
was the distress at that time, while the lagoons were frozen, that the
fishermen and their families were reduced to a state bordering on
starvation, and for their relief contributions were made by all classes in
Italy, including the Pope and the King. This charitable movement resulted
in the collection of a fund of money, which sufficed to relieve the
immediate distress and leave a surplus for the establishment of a local
industry to increase the resources of the Burano population.

[Illustration: Fig. 32.

BURANO POINT.--(Late 18th century.)]

PLATE XIII.

[Illustration: ITALIAN. MODERN POINT DE BURANO.

Marriage veil of Queen Elena of Italy. Much reduced. Length about 7 ft.;
width seen about 4 ft. 6 in.

Photo by the Burano School.]

_To face page 60._

{61}Unfortunately, the industry at first fixed upon, namely, that of making
fishermen's nets, gave no practical result, the fishermen being too poor to
buy the nets. It was then that a suggestion was made by Signor Fambri that
an effort should be made to revive the ancient industry of lace-making, and
Princess Chigi-Giovanelli and the Countess Andriana Marcello were asked to
interest themselves in, and to patronise, a school for this purpose.

To this application these ladies yielded a ready assent, and at a late
period Queen Margherita graciously consented to become the president of the
institution.

When Countess Marcello, who from that time was the life and soul of the
undertaking, began to occupy herself with the foundation of the school, she
found an old woman in Burano, Cencia Scarpariola, who preserved the
traditions of the art of lace-making, and continued, despite her seventy
years and upwards, to make Burano point. As she, however, did not
understand the method of teaching her art, the assistance was secured of
Madame Anne Bellorio d'Este, a very skilful and intelligent woman, for some
time mistress of the girls' school at Burano, who in her leisure hours took
lessons in lace-making of Cencia Scarpariola, and imparted her knowledge to
eight pupils, who, in consideration of a small payment, were induced to
learn to make lace.

As the number of scholars increased, Madame Bellorio occupied herself
exclusively in teaching lace-making, which she has continued to do with
surprising results. Under Madame Bellorio's tuition, the school, which in
1872 consisted of eight pupils (who received a daily payment to induce them
to attend), now, in 1897, numbers four hundred workers, paid, not by the
day, but according to the work each performs.

In Burano everything is extremely cheap, and a humble abode capable of
accommodating a small family may be had for from six hundred to one
thousand Italian lire. It is not a rare occurrence to find a young
lace-worker saving her earnings in order to purchase her little dwelling,
that she may take it as a dower to her husband. Nearly all the young men of
Burano seek their wives from among the lace-women. The school's diploma of
honour speaks of the economical importance of the lace-work "to the poor
place of Burano," and "the benefit which the gentle industry {62}brings to
the inhabitants of the interesting island, whose welfare, having passed
through a series of undeserved trials, is due exclusively to the revival of
it practised on a large scale."

The lace made in the school is no longer confined, as in the origin it was,
to Burano point, but laces of almost any design or model are now
undertaken--point de Burano, point d'Alençon, point de Bruxelles, point
d'Angleterre, point d'Argentan, rose point de Venise, Italian punto in
aria, and Italian punto tagliato a fogliami. The school has been enriched
by gifts of antique lace, and Queen Margherita gave the school permission
to copy two magnificent specimens of Ecclesiastical lace--now Crown
property--that had formerly belonged to Cardinal de Retz, and Pope Clement
VII. (Rezzonico).

In order the better to carry out the character of the different laces, the
more apt and intelligent of these pupils, whose task it is to trace out in
thread the design to be worked, have the advantage of being taught by
professional artists.

The four hundred lace-workers now employed are divided into seven sections,
in order that each may continue in the same sort of work and, as much as
possible, in the same class of lace. By this method each one becomes
thoroughly proficient in her own special department, executes it with
greater facility, and consequently earns more, and the school gets its work
done better and cheaper.

While Countess Marcello was working to re-establish the making of
needle-point at Burano, Cav. Michelangelo Jesurum was re-organising the
bobbin-lace industry at Pellestrina, a small fishing-town on the Lido. In
1864 the lace of Pellestrina might have been described as an inextricable
labyrinth of threads with vaguely distinguishable lines and occasional
holes. The lace was so imperfect, and made in such small quantities, that
two women who went about selling it in Venice and the country round
sufficed to dispose of all that was made. The pricked papers were prepared
by an old peasant woman, who made them more and more imperfect at each
repetition, losing gradually all trace of the original design. Cav.
Jesurum, by a careful copying of the old designs, obtained valuable
results, and founded a lace-school and a flourishing industry. About 1875
polychrome lace was introduced in Venice--bobbin-lace worked in colours
with designs of flowers, fruits, leaves, arabesques, and animals, with the
various tints and shading required. The women who make bobbin-lace now in
Venice and in the islands amount to 3,000, but it is difficult to give an
exact estimate of their numbers, as many of them are bone-workers, wives
and daughters of fishermen, who combine the lace-making with their
household duties, with mending of nets, and with field-work.

PLATE XIV.

[Illustration: ITALIAN.--Modern reproduction at Burano of the flounce now
belonging to the Crown of Italy, formerly to Pope Clement XIII., Rezzonico,
1693-1769. Height, 24 in.

Photo by the Burano School.]

_To face page 62._

{63}MILAN ("MILANO LA GRANDE").

  "Margaret: I saw the Duchess of Milan's gown that they praise so.

  "Hero: O that exceeds, they say.

  "Margaret: By my troth, it's but a night-gown in respect of yours; cloth
  o' gold and cuts, and laced with silver."--_Much Ado about Nothing_, iv.
  1.

One of the earliest records of Italian lace belongs to Milan, and occurs in
an instrument of partition between the sisters Angela and Ippolita Sforza
Visconti, dated 1493 (see VENICE).

This document is of the highest interest as giving the inventory of an
Italian wardrobe of the fifteenth century. In it, amidst a number of
curious entries, are veils of good network, with cambric pillow-cases,
linen sheets, mosquito curtains and various articles, worked _a reticella_
and _a groppi_, with the needle, bobbins, bones, and other different
ways[196] mentioned in the pattern-books of the following century.

Among other items we find, "Half of a bundle containing patterns for
ladies' work."[197]

Though the fabric of these fine points dates back for so many centuries,
there is little notice of them elsewhere. {64}Henry VIII. is mentioned as
wearing one short pair of hose of purple silk of Venice gold, woven like a
caul, edged with a passamaine lace of purple silk and gold, worked at
Milan.[198]

In a wardrobe account of Lord Hay, gentleman of his Majesty's robes,
1606,[199] is noted down to James I., "One suit with cannons thereunto of
silver lace, shadowed with silk Milan lace."

Again, among the articles furnished against the "Queen's lying down," 1606,
in the bills of the Lady Audrye Walsingham,[200] is an entry of "Lace,
Milan fashion, for child's waistcoat."

A French edict, dated March, 1613, against superfluity in dress,
prohibiting the wearing of gold and silver embroidery, specially forbids
the use of all "passement de Milan, ou façon de Milan" under a penalty of
one thousand livres.[201] The expression "à point de Milan" occurs in the
statutes of the passementiers of Paris.[202]

"Les galons, passements et broderies, en or et en argent de Milan," says
Savary,[203] were once celebrated.

Lalande, who writes some years later, adds, the laces formerly were an
object of commerce to the city, now they only fabricate those of an
inferior quality.[204]

Much was consumed by the Lombard peasants, the better sorts serving for
ruffles of moderate price.[205] So opulent are the citizens, says a writer
of the same epoch, that the lowest mechanics, blacksmiths and shoemakers,
appear in gold stuff coats with ruffles of the finest point.[206]

And when, in 1767, the Auvergne lace-makers petition for an exemption from
the export duty on their fabrics, they state as a ground that the duty
prevents them from competing abroad, especially at Cadiz, with the
lace-makers of Piedmont, the Milanais, and Imperial Flanders. Milan must,
therefore, have made lace extensively to a late period.

PLATE XV.

[Illustration: ITALIAN. MILANESE BOBBIN-MADE.--Late seventeenth century.
Width, 12 in.

Photo by A. Dryden from private collection.]

_To face page 64._

{65}Fig. 33 is a specimen of what has been termed old Milan point, from the
convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie, in that city. It is more often known
as Greek lace.

[Illustration: Fig. 33.

RETICELLA FROM MILAN.]

The so-called punti di Milano--points de Milan--were all bobbin-laces,
which originated in Milan, and, though imitated by Genoa and Naples,
remained unapproached in design and workmanship. After first making
passements, Milan imitated the Venetian points, "a fogliami," in which the
pattern has the appearance of woven linen, with à jours occasionally
introduced to lighten portions of it. The design was at first connected
with bars, but later, meshes (in the seventeenth century large meshes, and,
still later, smaller {66}meshes) filled the ground. This réseau varies, but
most frequently it has four plaited sides to a mesh, as in Valenciennes.

Like other Italian laces, Milanese lace frequently has coats-of-arms or
family badges woven in it, such as the Doge's horn, the baldachino (a
special distinction accorded to Roman princes), the dogs of the Carrara
family, and so on, to commemorate a marriage or some other important event
in the family. This sort of lace was known as Carnival lace when made of
Venetian point.

Milan lace is now represented by Cantu, near Lake Como, where the making of
white and black pillow-lace gives employment to many thousands of women.
The torchon lace of the country is original, and in much request with the
peasantry.

In the underground chapel of San Carlo Borromeo, in Milan Cathedral, are
preserved twenty-six "camicie," trimmed with flounces of the richest point,
all more or less splendid, and worked in the convents of the city, but many
of the contents of this sumptuous wardrobe have rotted away from the
effects of the damp atmosphere.


FLORENCE.

Of Florence and its products we know but little, though the Elegy of Agnolo
Firenzuola proves that ladies made raised point at an early period.[207]
His expression "scolpì," carved, sculptured in basso rilievo, leaves no
doubt upon the matter.

PLATE XVI.

[Illustration: ITALIAN, VENETIAN. NEEDLE-MADE.--Very raised and padded.
First half of eighteenth century. Width, 3¼ in.]

PLATE XVII.

[Illustration: ITALIAN, MILANESE. BOBBIN-MADE.--Early eighteenth century.
Width, 5¾ in.

Photos by A. Dryden from private collections.]

_To face page 63_

 "This collar was sculptured by my lady                                {67}
  In bas reliefs such as Arachne
  And she who conquered her could ne'er excel.
  Look on that lovely foliage, like an Acanthus,
  Which o'er a wall its graceful branches trails.
  Look on those lovely flowers of purest white,
  Which, near the pods that open, hang in harmony.
  That little cord which binds each one about,
  How it projects! proving that she who wrought it
  Is very mistress of this art.
  How well distributed are all these points!
  See the equality of all those little buds
  Which rise like many fair proportioned hills,
  One like the other....
  This hand-made lace, this open-work,
  Is all produced by her, this herring-bone,
  Which in the midst holds down a little cord,
  Was also made by her; all wrought by her."

Henry VIII. granted to two Florentines the privilege of importing for three
years' time all "manner of fringys and passements wrought with gold and
silver or otherwise,"[208] an account of which will be found in the notice
of that monarch's reign.

Beyond this, and the statute already mentioned, passed at the "Sute of the
Browderers" on account of the "deceyptful waight of the gold of Luk,
Florence, Jeane, and Venice,"[209] there is no allusion to the lace of
Florence in our English records.

In France, as early as 1545, the sister of Francis I. purchases "soixante
aulnes fine dantelle de Florence"[210] for her own use, and some years
afterwards, 1582, the Queen of Navarre pays 17 écus 30 sols for 10 aulnes
et demye of the same passement "faict à l'esguille à haulte dantelle pour
mettre à des fraizes."[211] On the marriage of Elizabeth de France with
Philip II. in 1559, purchases were made of "passements et de bisette, en
fil blanc de Florence."

Seeing the early date of these French accounts, it may be inferred that
Catherine de Médicis first introduced, on her arrival as a bride, the
Italian points of her own native city.[212]

In Florence, in the fifteenth century, Savonarola, in his sermons
(1484-1491), reproached the nuns with "devoting their time to the vain
fabrication of gold laces with which to adorn the houses and persons of the
rich."

Ray mentions that people of quality sent their daughters {68}at eight years
old to the Florentine nunneries to be instructed in all manner of women's
work.

Lace was also fabricated at Sienna, but it appears to have been the _lavoro
di maglia_ or lacis, called by the Tuscans _modano ricamato_--embroidered
network.

Early in the last century two Genoese nuns, of the Convent Sta. Maria degli
Angeli in Sienna, executed pillow laces and gold and silver embroidery of
such surpassing beauty, that they are still carefully preserved and
publicly exhibited on fête-days. One Francesca Bulgarini also instructed
the schools in the making of lace of every kind, especially the Venetian
reticella.[213]


THE ABRUZZI.

In the Abruzzi, and also the Province of the Marche, coarse laces are made.
These are worked without any drawing, the rude design being made by
skipping the pin-holes on a geometrically perforated card. The pattern is
surrounded by a heavy thread, and composed of a close stitch worked between
the meshes of a coarse net ground. This lace somewhat resembles Dalecarlian
lace. In the eighteenth century fine pillow lace was also made in these
provinces. The celebrated industry of Offida in the Marche has sunk into
artistic degradation.


ROMAGNA.

Lace was made in many parts of Romagna. Besides the knotted lace already
alluded to,[214] which is still made and worn by the peasants, the peasant
women wore on their collerettes much lace of that large-flowered pattern
and fancy ground, found alike in Flanders and on the headdresses of the
Neapolitan and Calabrian peasants.

Specimens of the lace of the province of Urbino resemble in pattern and
texture the fine close lace on the collar of Christian IV., figured in our
notice of Denmark. The workmanship is of great beauty.

Reticella is made at Bologna, and was revived in January, 1900, by the
Aemilia-Ars Co-operative Society. The designs are for the most part taken
from old pattern-books, such as Parasole.

{69}Fig. 34 represents a fragment of a piece of lace of great interest,
communicated by the Countess Gigliucci. It is worked with the needle upon
muslin, and only a few inches of the lace are finished. This incompleteness
makes it the more valuable, as it enables us to trace the manner of its
execution, all the threads being left hanging to its several parts. The
Countess states that she found the work at a villa belonging to Count
Gigliucci, near Fermo on the Adriatic, and it is supposed to have been
executed by the Count's great-grandmother above 160 years ago--an exquisite
specimen of "the needle's excellency."

[Illustration: Fig. 34.

UNFINISHED DRAWN-WORK.]

Though the riches of our Lady of Loreto fill a volume in themselves,[215]
and her image was fresh clad every day of the year, the account of her
jewels and plate so overpower any mention of her laces, which were
doubtless in accordance with {70}the rest of the wardrobe, that there is
nothing to tell on the subject.

The laces of the Vatican and the holy Conclave, mostly presents from
crowned heads, are magnificent beyond all description. They are, however,
constantly in the market, sold at the death of a Cardinal by his heirs, and
often repurchased by some newly-elected prelate, each of whom on attaining
a high ecclesiastical dignity is compelled to furnish himself with several
sets.

A lady[216] describing the ceremony of washing the feet by the Pope,
writes, in 1771, "One of his cardinals brought him an apron[217] of old
point with a broad border of Mechlin lace, and tied it with a white ribbon
round his holiness's waist." In this guise protected, he performed the
ceremony.

Clement IX. was in the habit of making presents of Italian lace, at that
period still prized in France, to Monsieur de Sorbière, with whom he had
lived on terms of intimacy previous to his elevation. "He sends ruffles,"
cries the irritated Gaul, who looked for something more tangible, "to a man
who never has a shirt."[218]


NAPLES.

When Davies, Barber Surgeon of London,[219] visited Naples in 1597, he
writes, "Among the traffic of this city is lace of all sorts and garters."

Fynes Moryson, his contemporary, declares "the Italians care not for
foreign apparel, they have ruffles of Flanders linen wrought with Italian
cut-work so much in use with us. They wear no lace in gold and silver, but
black"; while Lassels says, all they care for is to keep a coach; their
point de Venise and gold lace are all turned into horses and liveries.[220]

PLATE XVIII.

[Illustration: CUSHION MADE AT THE SCHOOL.--These coloured silk laces are
reproductions of the sixteenth century. Size, 20 × 12 in.]

PLATE XIX.

[Illustration: ITALY.--Group of workers of the Brazza School, Torreano di
Martignacco, Friuli, showing the different kinds of lacework done and
pillows in use.

Photos by Contessa di Brazza.]

_To face page 70._

{71}Of this lace we find but scanty mention. In the tailor's bill of Sir
Timothy Hutton, 1615, when a scholar at Cambridge, a charge is made for
"four oz. and a half quarter and dram of Naples lace." And in the accounts
of laces furnished for the marriage of the Princess Elizabeth to the
Elector Palatine, 1612, is noted "narrow black Naples lace, purled on both
sides."

The principal fabric of lace was in the Island of Ischia. Vecellio, in
1590, mentions the ladies' sleeves being trimmed with very fine thread
lace.[221] Ischia lace may still be met with, and serves for trimming
toilets, table-covers, curtains, etc., consisting generally of a square
netting ground, with the pattern embroidered. Black silk lace also used to
be made in Ischia.

Much torchon lace, of well-designed patterns, was also made, similar in
style to that given in Fig. 40.

Though no longer fabricated in the island, the women at Naples still make a
coarse lace, which they sell about the streets.[222]

The _punto di Napoli_ is a bobbin lace, resembling the punto di Milano, but
distinguished from it by its much rounder mesh and coarser make.

Towards the middle of the last century, many of the Italian sculptors
adopted an atrocious system, only to be rivalled in bad taste by those of
the Lower Empire, that of dressing the individuals they modelled in the
costume of the period, the colours of the dress represented in varied
marbles. In the villa of Prince Valguarnera, near Palermo, were some years
since many of these strange productions with rich laces of coffee-coloured
point, admirably chiselled, it must be owned, in giallo antico, the long
flowing ruffles and head-*tires of the ladies being reproduced in white
alabaster.[223]


{72}GENOA ("GENOVA LA SUPERBA").

  "Lost,--A rich needle work called Poynt Jean, a yard and a half long and
  half quarter broad."--_The Intelligencer_, Feb. 29, 1663.

 "Genoa, for points."--_Grand Tour._ 1756.

The art of making gold thread, already known to the Etruscans, took a
singular development in Italy during the fourteenth century.

Genoa[224] first imitated the gold threads of Cyprus. Lucca followed in her
wake, while Venice and Milan appear much later in the field. Gold of Jeane
formed, as already mentioned, an item in our early statutes. The merchants
mingled the pure gold with Spanish "laton," producing a sort of "faux
galon," such as is used for theatrical purposes in the present day. They
made also silver and gold lace out of drawn wire, after the fashion of
those discovered, not long since, at Herculaneum.

When Skippin visited Turin, in 1651, he described the manner of preparing
the metal wire. The art maintained itself latest at Milan, but died out
towards the end of the seventeenth century.

Our earliest mention of Genoa lace is,[225] as usual, to be found in the
Great Wardrobe Accounts of Queen Elizabeth, where laces of Jeane of black
"serico satten," of colours,[226] and billement lace of Jeane silk, are
noted down. They were, however, all of silk.

It is not till after a lapse of nigh seventy years that first Point de
Gênes appears mentioned in an ordinance,[227] and in the wardrobe of Mary
de Médicis is enumerated, among other articles, a "mouchoir de point de
Gennes frisé."[228]

{73}Moryson, who visited the Republic in 1589, declares "the Genoese wear
no lace or gardes."

As late as 1597, writes Vulson de la Colombière,[229] "ni les points de
Gennes, ni de Flandre n'etoient en usage."

It was not before the middle of the seventeenth century that the points of
Genoa were in general use throughout Europe. Handkerchiefs, aprons,
collars,[230] seem rather to have found favour with the public than lace
made by the yard.

No better customer was found for these luxurious articles of adornment than
the fair Madame de Puissieux, already cited for her singular taste in
cut-work.

"Elle étoit magnifique et ruina elle et ses enfans. On portoit en ce
temps-la," writes St. Simon; "force points de Gênes qui étoient extrêmement
chers; c'étoit la grande parure--et la parure de tout age: elle en mangea
pour 100,000 ecus (£20,000) en une année, à ronger entre ses dents celle
qu'elle avoit autour de sa tête et de ses bras."[231]

"The Genoese utter a world of points of needlework," writes Lassels, at the
end of the century, and throughout the eighteenth we hear constantly of the
gold, silver and thread lace, as well as of the points of Genoa, being held
in high estimation.

Gold and silver lace was prohibited to be worn within the walls of the
city, but they wear, writes Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, exceeding fine lace
and linen.[232] Indeed, by the sumptuary laws of the Republic, the richest
costume allowed to the ladies was black velvet trimmed with their home-made
point.

The _femmes bourgeoises_ still edge their aprons with point lace, and some
of the elder women wear square linen veils trimmed with coarse lace.[233]

{74}"That decayed city, Genoa, makes much lace, but inferior to that of
Flanders," states Anderson in his _Origin of Commerce_, 1764.

The Genoese wisely encouraged their own native manufacture, but it was now,
however, chiefly for home consumption.

Savary, speaking of the Genoa fabric, says: As regards France, these points
have had the same lot as those of Venice--ruined by the act of prohibition.

In 1840, there were only six lace-sellers in the city of Genoa. The women
work in their own houses, receiving materials and patterns from the
merchant who pays for their labour.[234]

Lace, in Genoa, is called _pizzo_. _Punti in aco_ were not made in this
city. The points of Genoa, so prized in the seventeenth century, were all
the work of the pillow, _a piombini_,[235] or _a mazzetta_, as the Italians
term it, of fine handspun thread brought from Lombardy. Silk was procured
from Naples. Of this Lombardy thread were the magnificent collars of which
we give an example (Fig. 35), and the fine guipures _à réseau_ which were
fashioned into aprons and fichus. The old Genoa point still finds favour in
the eyes of the clergy, and on fête days, either at Genoa or Savona, may be
seen splendid lace decorating the _camicie_ of the ecclesiastics.

The Ligurian or Genoese guipures have four entirely distinctive characters.
The Hispano-Moresque (or Greek) point de Gênes frisé, the Vermicelli from
Rapallo and Santa Margherita, a lace resembling Milanese lace with
"brides," and a fourth kind, entirely different from these varieties,
called _fugio_ (I fly), as it is very soft and airy. It is an adaptation of
guipure-like ribbons of weaving, with open-work variations, held together
by a very few bars. In all these laces, as in Neapolitan and Milanese lace,
a crochet needle is used to join the bars and design by drawing one thread
through a pin-hole in the lace and passing a free bobbin through the loop
to draw the knot tight.

[Illustration: Fig. 35.

GENOA POINT, BOBBIN-MADE. From a collar in the possession of the Author.

This is an elaborate specimen of Point de Gênes frisé--Italian merletti a
piombini. The plaits almost invariably consist of four threads.

_To face page 74._]

{75}The lace manufacture extends along the coast from Albissola, on the
Western Riviera, to Santa Margherita on the eastern. Santa Margherita and
Rapallo are called by Luxada[236] the emporium of the lace industry of
Genoa, and are still the greatest producers of pillow-lace on the coast.
The workers are mostly the wives and daughters of the coral-fishers who
support themselves by this occupation during the long and perilous voyages
of their husbands. In the archives of the parochial church of Santa
Margherita is preserved a book of accounts, in which mention is made, in
the year 1592, of gifts to the church, old nets from the coral fishery,
together with _pisetti_ (_pizzi_), the one a votive offering of some
successful fishermen, the other the work of their wives or daughters, given
in gratitude for the safe return of their relatives. There was also found
an old worn parchment pattern for a kind of tape guipure (Fig. 36).[237]
The manufacture, therefore, has existed in the province of Chiavari for
many centuries. Much of this description of lace is assigned to Genoa. In
these tape guipures the tape or braid was first made, and the ground worked
in on the parchment either by the needle or on the pillow. The laces
consist of white thread of various qualities, either for wear, church
decoration, or for exportation to America.

Later, this art gave place to the making of black blonde, in imitation of
Chantilly, of which the centres in Italy are now Genoa and Cantu. In the
year 1850 the lace-workers began to make guipures for France, and these now
form their chief produce. The exportation is very great, and lace-making is
the daily occupation, not only of the women, but of the ladies of the
commune.[238] In 1862 Santa Margherita had 2,210 lace-workers: Rapallo,
1,494. The _maestri_, or overseers, receive all orders from the trade, and
find hands to execute them. The silk and thread required for the lace is
weighed out and given to the lace-makers, and the work when completed is
re-weighed to see that it corresponds with that of the material given. The
_maestri_ contrive to realise large fortunes, and become in time _signori_;
not so the poor lace-makers, whose hardest day's gain seldom exceeds a
franc and a half.[239] Embroidered lace is also made at Genoa. On a band of
tulle are embroidered in darning-stitch flowers or small detached springs,
and the ground is sometimes _semé_ with little embroidered dots. A coarse
thread outlines the embroidery.

{76}[Illustration: Fig. 36.

LACE PATTERN FOUND IN THE CHURCH AT SANTA MARGHERITA (circ. 1592).]

PLATE XX.

[Illustration: ITALIAN. BOBBIN TAPE WITH NEEDLE-MADE RÉSEAU. Width, 8 in.

Photo by A. Dryden.]

PLATE XXI.

[Illustration: ITALIAN, GENOESE. SCALLOPED BORDER OF UNBLEACHED THREADS,
TWISTED AND PLAITED.--Sixteenth or seventeenth century. Width, 5 in.

Victoria and Albert Museum.]

_To face page 76._

{77}[Illustration: Fig. 37.

PARCHMENT PATTERN USED TO COVER A BOOK, BEARING THE DATE 1577. (Reduced.)]

The laces of Albissola,[240] near Savona, of black and white thread, or
silk of different colours, were once an article of considerable exportation
to the principal cities of Spain, Cadiz, Madrid and Seville. This industry
was of early date. In many of the parochial churches of Albissola are
specimens of the native fabric dating from 1600, the work of devout ladies;
and parchment patterns drawn and pricked for pillow-lace, bearing the
earlier date of 1577, have been found covering old law books, the property
of a notary of Albissola. The designs (Fig. 37) are flowing, but poor, and
have probably served for some shawl or apron, for it was a custom long
handed down for the daughters of great nobles, previous {78}to their
marriage, to select veils and shawls of this fabric, and, in the memory of
an aged workwoman (1864), the last of these bridal veils was made for a
lady of the Gentili family. Princes and lords of different provinces in
Italy sent commissions to Albissola for these articles in the palmy days of
the fabric, and four women would be employed at one pillow, with sixty
dozen bobbins at a time.[241] The making of this lace formed an occupation
by which women in moderate circumstances were willing to increase their
incomes. Each of these ladies, called a _maestra_, had a number of workers
under her, either at home or out. She supplied the patterns, pricked them
herself, and paid her workwomen at the end of the week, each day's work
being notched on a tally.[242] The women would earn from ten soldi to two
lire a day. The last fine laces made at Albissola were bought up by the
lace-merchants of Milan on the occasion of the coronation of Napoleon I. in
that city.[243]

Among the Alençon laces is illustrated a beautiful lappet sent from Genoa,
now in the Victoria and Albert Museum.[244] The pattern is of the Louis
Quinze period, and the lovely diapered ground recalls the mayflower of the
Dresden and the oeil-de-perdrix of the Sèvres china of that time. It was
supposed to be of Italian workmanship, though the very fine ground
introduced in the _modes_ of the riband pattern is the true Alençon réseau
stitch. M. Dupont Auberville claimed it for Alençon, asserting he had met
with the same ground on point undoubtedly of that manufacture. He named it
_réseau rosacé_.

A considerable quantity of lace was formerly made from {79}the fibre of the
aloe (filo d'erba spada)[245] by the peasants of Albissola, either of its
natural cream colour or dyed black. This lace, however, like that
fabricated in the neighbourhood of Barcelona, would not stand washing.[246]

There exists a beautiful and ingenious work taught in the schools and
convents along the Riviera. It is carried to a great perfection at Chiavari
and also at the Albergo de' Poveri at Genoa. You see it in every stage. It
is almost the first employment of the fingers which the poor children of
either sex learn. This art is principally applied to the ornamenting of
towels, termed Macramé,[247] a long fringe of thread being left at each end
for the purpose of being knotted together in geometrical designs (Fig. 38).
Macramé at the Albergo de' Poveri were formerly made with a plain plaited
fringe, till in 1843, the Baroness A. d' Asti brought one from Rome, richly
ornamented, which she left as a pattern. Marie Picchetti, a young girl, had
the patience to unpick the fringe and discover the way it was made. A
variety of designs are now executed, the more experienced inventing fresh
patterns as they work. Some are applied to church purposes. Specimens of
elaborate workmanship were in the Paris Exhibition of 1867. These
richly-trimmed macramé form an item in the wedding trousseau of a Genoese
lady, while the commoner sorts find a ready sale in the country, and are
also exported to South America and California.[248]


{80}CANTU.

Cantu, a small town near Lake Como, is one of the greatest lace-producing
centres in Italy. The lace industry was planted there in the sixteenth
century by the nuns of the Benedictine order, and until fifty years ago was
confined to simple and rude designs. During the latter half of the
nineteenth century, however, the industry has been revived and the designs
improved. Thousands of women throughout the province work at it and dispose
of their lace independently to travelling merchants, or work under the
direction of the Cantuese lace-merchants. The laces are all made with
bobbins with both thread and silk.

[Illustration: Fig. 38.

FRINGED MACRAMÉ.--(Genoa.)]


SICILY.

Sicily was celebrated in olden times for its gold and metal laces, but this
fabric has nearly died out. An attempt, however, is now being made to
organise a revival of the lace industry as a means of support for the women
of Palermo and other populous centres.

PLATE XXII.

[Illustration: ]

PLATE XXIII.

[Illustration: ITALIAN. OLD PEASANT LACES, BOBBIN MADE.--Actual size.]

PLATE XXIV.

[Illustration: ITALIAN. MODERN PEASANT BOBBIN LACE.--Made at the School at
Asolo near Bassano, founded by Browning. Width about 4 in.

Photo by A. Dryden.]

_To face page 80._

{81}At Messina, embroidered net (lacis) was made, and bobbin-laces and the
antique Sicilian drawn-work are now copied in the women's prison there.
Torchon, a lace which is also made in Sicily, has no design worked upon the
parchment. The peasant follows the dictates of her fancy, and forms
combinations of webs and nets by skipping the holes pricked at regular
intervals over the strip of parchment sewed upon the cushion or
_ballon_.[249]



There are other variations of old Italian laces and embroideries which have
not been mentioned here on account of space; either they are not often met
with--certainly not outside Italy--or in some cases they appear to be only
local names for the well-known sorts.



{82}CHAPTER V.

GREECE.

 "Encor pour vous poincts de Raguse
  Il est bon, crainte d'attentat,
  D'en vouloir purger un Estat;
  Les gens aussi fins que vous estes
  Ne sont bons que comme vous faites
  Pour ruiner les Estats."--_La Révolte des Passemens._


We have already spoken of Greece as the cradle of embroidery, and in those
islands which escaped the domination of the Turks, the art still lingered
on. Cyprus, to which in after times Venice gave a queen, was renowned for
its gold, its stuffs, and its needlework. As early as 1393, in an inventory
of the Dukes of Burgundy, we find noted "un petit pourpoint de satin noir,
et est la gorgerette de maille d'argent de Chippre"--a collar of silver
network.[250] The peasants now make a coarse thread lace, and some fine
specimens have recently been made in white silk, which were exhibited in
the Cyprus Court of the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886, and are now
in the possession of the Victoria and Albert Museum.

In our own country, in 1423, we have a statute touching the deceitful works
of the embroiderers of gold and of silver of Cipre, which shall be
forfeited to the king.[251] But the secret of these cunning works became,
after a time, known throughout Europe. Of cut-works or laces from
Cyprus[252] and the islands of the Grecian seas, there is no mention; but
we hear much of a certain point known to the commerce of the seventeenth
century as that of Ragusa, which, after an ephemeral existence, disappears
from the scene. Of Ragusa, {83}says Anderson, "her citizens, though a
Popish state, are manufacturers to a man."

Ragusa, comparatively near the Montenegrin sea-board, and north-western
coast of Greece, was, in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, one
of the principal Adriatic ports belonging to the Venetian Republic. Certain
it is that this little republic, closely allied with the Italian branches
of the House of Austria, served them with its navy, and in return received
from them protection. The commerce of Ragusa consisted in bearing the
products of the Greek islands and Turkey to Venice, Ancona, and the kingdom
of Naples;[253] hence it might be inferred that the fine productions of the
Greek convents were first introduced into Italy by the merchants of
Dalmatia, and received on that account the denomination of points de
Raguse. When Venice had herself learned the art, these cut-works and laces
were no longer in demand; but the fabric still continued, and found favour
in its native isles, chiefly for ecclesiastical purposes, the dress of the
islanders, and for grave-clothes.

In our English statutes we have no allusion to the point de Raguse; in
those of France[254] it appears twice. "Tallemant des Réaux"[255] and the
"Révolte des Passemens"[256] both give it honourable notice. Judging from
the lines addressed to it in the last-named _jeu d'esprit_, point de Raguse
was of a more costly character, "faite pour ruiner les estats,"[257] than
any of those other points present. If, however, from this period it did
still form an article of commerce, we may infer that it appeared under the
general appellation of point de Venise. Ragusa had affronted Louis Quatorze
by its attachment to the Austro-Italian princes; he kicked out her
ambassadors,[258] and if the name of the point was unpleasant, we may feel
assured it was no longer permitted to offend the royal ears.

{84}[Illustration: Fig. 39.

SILK GIMP LACE.]

Though no manufacture of thread lace is known at Ragusa, yet much gold and
silver lace is made for ornamenting the bodices of the peasants. They still
also fabricate a kind of silk lace or gimp, made of twisted threads of
cotton covered with metal, which is sewn down the seams of the coats and
the bodices of the peasantry. The specimen, illustrated in Fig. 39, may
possibly be the old, long-lost point de Raguse. Its resemblance, with its
looped edges, to the pattern given from _Le Pompe_,[259] published at
Venice in 1557, is very remarkable. We have seen specimens from Italy and
Turkey.

PLATE XXV.

[Illustration: SICILIAN. OLD DRAWN-WORK.--Height, 12 in.

Photo by A. Dryden from Salviati & Co.'s Collection.]

PLATE XXVI.

[Illustration: SOUTH ITALIAN.--The upper one is seventeenth century Church
lace--réseau of threads twisted into star-shaped meshes. The three lower
are considered eighteenth century CRETAN. All pillow made of thread and
silk. Widths: 2, 2½, 1¾, 3¾ in.

Victoria and Albert Museum.]

_To face page 84._

{85}The conventionally termed Greek lace is really the Italian _reticella_.
"The designs of the earliest Greek laces were all geometrical, the oldest
being simple outlines worked over ends or threads left after others had
been drawn or cut. Next in date come the patterns which had the outlines
further ornamented with half circles, triangles, or wheels. Later,
open-work with thick stitches was produced."

[Illustration: Fig. 40.

RETICELLA, OR GREEK LACE.--(Zante.)]

The principal seats of the manufacture were the Ionian Isles, Zante, Corfu,
Venice, Naples, Rome, Florence and Milan. The Ionian Islands for many years
belonged to Venice, which accounts for the similarity in the manufacture.
Fig. 40 is from a specimen purchased in the Island of Zante. This lace was
much in vogue in Naples for curtains, bed-hangings, and coverlets, and even
formed a substitute for {86}tapestry. A room hung with bands of Greek lace,
alternated with crimson or amber silk, has a most effective appearance.

The church lace of the Ionian Isles was not appreciated by the natives, who
were only too glad to dispose of it to the English officers in garrison at
Corfu. "Much is still found in Cephalonia: the natives bring it on board
the steamers for sale, black with age, and unpleasant to the senses. This
is not to be wondered at when we consider that it is taken from the tombs,
where for centuries it has adorned the grave-clothes of some defunct
Ionian. This hunting the catacombs has now become a regular trade. It is
said that much coarse lace of the same kind is still made in the islands,
steeped either in coffee or some drug, and, when thus discoloured, sold as
from the tombs" (1869).

The Greek islands now fabricate lace from the fibre of the aloe, and a
black lace similar to the Maltese. In Athens, and other parts of Greece
proper, a white silk lace is made, mostly consumed by the Jewish Church.


CRETE.

Pillow-lace making in Crete would seem to have arisen in consequence of
Venetian intercourse with the island. "The Cretan laces[260] were chiefly
of silk, which seems to point to a cultivation of silk in the island, as
well as to its importation from the neighbouring districts of Asia Minor,
when laces were made there, at least one hundred years ago." In 1875, the
South Kensington Museum acquired a collection of Cretan laces and
embroideries, some of which (the white thread laces) bear distinct traces
of Venetian influence, as, for example, those in which costumed figures are
introduced. "As a rule, the motives of Cretan lace patterns are traceable
to orderly arrangement and balance of simple geometric and symmetrical
details, such as diamonds, triangles and quaint polygonal figures, which
are displayed upon groundworks of small meshes. The workmanship is somewhat
remarkable, especially that displayed in the making of the meshes for the
grounds. Here we have an evidence of ability to twist and {87}plait threads
as marked, almost as that shown by the lace-makers of Brussels and Mechlin.
Whether the twisting and plaiting of threads to form the meshes in this
Cretan lace was done with the help of pins or fine-pointed bones, may be a
question difficult to solve."

The patterns in the majority of the specimens are outlined with one, two,
or three bright-coloured silken threads, which may have been worked in with
the other threads as the _cordonnet_ in Mechlin. The numerous
interlacements which this _cordonnet_ makes with the lace point also to the
outline having perhaps been run in with a needle.


TURKEY.

"The Turks wear no lace or cut stuff," writes Moryson (1589), winding up
with "neither do the women wear lace or cut-work on their shirts"; but a
hundred and fifty years later fashions are changed in the East. The Grand
Turk now issues sumptuary laws against the wearing gold lace "on clothes
and elsewhere."[261]

A fine white silk guipure is now made in modern Turkey at Smyrna and
Rhodes, oriental in its style; this lace is formed with the needle or
tambour hook. Lace or passementerie of similar workmanship, called "oyah"
is also executed in colours representing flowers, fruits and foliage,
standing out in high relief from the ground. Numerous specimens were in the
International Exhibition of 1867.

The point lace manufactured in the harems is little known and costly in
price. It is said to be the only silk guipure made with the needle. Edgings
of it resemble in workmanship Figs. 121 and 122.


MALTA.

The lace once made in Malta, indigenous to the island, was a coarse kind of
Mechlin or Valenciennes of one arabesque pattern.[262] In 1833, Lady
Hamilton Chichester {88}induced a woman named Ciglia to copy in white the
lace of an old Greek coverlet. The Ciglia family from that time commenced
the manufacture of the black and white silk guipures, so generally known
under the name of Maltese lace. Much Maltese is made in the orphanage in
the little adjacent island of Gozo. Malta has certainly the first claim to
the invention of these fine guipures, which have since made the fortune of
Auvergne, where they have been extensively manufactured at Le Puy, as well
as by our own lace-makers of Bedfordshire and in the Irish schools. The
black is made of Barcelona silk, the same used in Catalonia for the
fabrication of the black blonde mantillas of the Spanish ladies. Fig. 41
represents the lace round the ecclesiastical robe of Hugues Loubeux de
Verdale, Cardinal and Grand Master of the Knights of Malta, who died in
1595, and is buried in the church of St. John, where a magnificent tomb is
erected to his memory.

[Illustration: Fig. 41.

LOUBEUX DE VERDALE.--(From the cast of his Tomb, Musée de Versailles.)]

Pillow-laces made by women in Ceylon and Travancore, as well as elsewhere
in India,[263] seem to owe more to the instruction of the Portuguese than
to the Dutch or English. We mention it in this place because the specimens
of thread pillow-lace from Point de Galle and Candy bear a striking
resemblance to the Maltese.

PLATE XXVII.

[Illustration: ITALIAN, RAPALLO. MODERN PEASANT LACE, BOBBIN MADE, IN
SILK.--Actual size.]

PLATE XXVIII.

[Illustration: MALTESE. MODERN, BOBBIN MADE IN SILK.--About two-thirds
actual size.

Photos by A. Dryden.]

_To face page 88._

{89}[Illustration: Fig. 42.

BOBBIN-LACE.--(Ceylon.)]

The specimens of Indian pillow-laces, wrought with white and black threads,
in the India Museum, are apparently made in single pieces, and not as in
Honiton laces, by separate flowers, which are subsequently placed together
for the ground to be worked in between them.[264] "A missionary taught a
few Chinese women to make silk lace from the wild silk of this part of
China," reports Consul Bullock from Chefoo (at the request of the
Nottingham Chamber of Commerce), but the small quantity of lace so produced
is sold to Europeans only. The Chinese do not care to buy it. Acting Consul
Trotman also reported from Hangkow, that a large quantity of hand-made lace
is made in the Roman Catholic orphanages there, but this was entirely for
European consumption. White lace in China is not woven by the natives, for
white and blue being the national mourning colours, and severe simplicity
of dress being _de rigueur_ on these occasions, lace of these colours has
no sale.[265]



{90}CHAPTER VI.

SPAIN.

 "Of Point d'Espagne a rich cornet,
  Two night rails and a scarf beset,
  With a large lace and collaret."
      --Evelyn, _Voyage to Marryland_.

 "Hat laced with gold Point d'Espagne."[266]
      --Wardrobe of a Pretty Fellow, _Roderick Random_.

  "The Count: 'Voglio una punta di Spagna, larga, massiccia, ben lavorata.
  Del disegno, della ricchezza, ma niente di luccicante."--Goldoni,
  _L'Avaro fastoso_.


Spanish point, in its day, has been as celebrated as that of Flanders and
Italy. Tradition declares Spain to have learned the art from Italy, whence
she communicated it to Flanders, who, in return, taught Spain how to make
pillow-lace. Though the dress of the Court, guided not by the impulse of
fashion, but by sumptuary laws, gave little encouragement to the fabric, on
the other hand, the numberless images of our Lady and other patron saints,
dressed and redressed daily in the richest vestments, together with the
albs of the priests and the decorations of the altars, caused an immense
consumption of lace for ecclesiastical purposes. "Of so great value," says
Beckford, "were the laces of these favoured Madonnas, that in 1787 the
Marchioness of Cogalhudo, wife of the eldest son of the semi-royal race of
Medino Coeli, was appointed Mistress of the Robes to our Lady of La
Solidad, at Madrid, a much-coveted office."

{91}[Illustration: Fig. 43.

THE WORK-ROOM.--(From an engraving of the Sixteenth Century after
Stradan.)]

Point d'Espagne, in the usual sense of the word, signifies that gold or
silver lace, sometimes embroidered in colours, so largely consumed in
France during the earlier years of Louis XIV.'s reign.  Ornaments made of
plaited and twisted gold and silver threads were produced in Spain during
the seventeenth century, and mention of them is to be found in the
ordinances of that time. Towards the end of the century, Narciso Felin,
author of a work published in Barcelona, quoted by M. Aubry, writes that,
"edgings of all sorts of gold, silver, silk thread and aloe fibres are made
at Barcelona with greater perfection than in Flanders." In the sixteenth
century, Flanders was part of the Spanish dominions, and from Flanders
Spain imported artistic goods, linen and lace included. Mr. A. S. Cole
concludes from this that the Barcelona lace-making was more or less an
imitation of that which had previously existed in Spanish Flanders.

{92}Apart from this, the gold and silver lace of Cyprus, Venice, Lucca and
Genoa preceded that from Flanders, and it appears that Spain was later in
the field of artistic lace-making than either Italy, Flanders or France.
Even the celebrity of the gold point d'Espagne is probably due more to the
use of gold lace by Spanish grandees,[267] than to the production in Spain
of gold lace. The name point d'Espagne was, I think, a commercial one,
given to gold lace by French makers.[268]

Dominique de Sera, in his _Livre de Lingerie_, published in 1584,
especially mentions that many of the patterns of point couppé and passement
given were collected by him during his travels in Spain; and in this he is
probably correct, for as early as 1562, in the Great Wardrobe Account of
Queen Elizabeth, we have noted down sixteen yards of black Spanish _laquei_
(lace) for ruffs, price 5s.

The early pattern-books contain designs to be worked in gold and
silver,[269] a manufacture said to have been carried on chiefly by the
Jews,[270] as indeed it is in many parts of Europe at the present time; an
idea which strengthens on finding that two years after the expulsion of
that persecuted tribe from the country, in 1492, the most Catholic kings
found it necessary to pass a law prohibiting the importation of gold lace
from Lucca and Florence, except such as was necessary for ecclesiastical
purposes. Mrs. Palliser was of opinion that thread lace was manufactured in
Spain at this epoch, for, "in the cathedral of Granada is preserved a lace
alb presented to the church by Ferdinand and Isabella, one of the few
relics of ecclesiastical grandeur still extant in the country." The late
Cardinal Wiseman stated to Mrs. Palliser that he had himself officiated in
this vestment, which was valued at 10,000 {93}crowns. But the following
passage from Señor Riano greatly affects the value of what would otherwise
be a fact of importance adduced by Mrs. Palliser. "Notwithstanding the
opinion of so competent an authority as Mrs. Palliser, I doubt the
statement, finding no evidence to support it, that thread lace of a very
fine or artistic kind was ever made in Spain, or exported as an article of
commerce during early times. The lace alb which Mrs. Palliser mentions to
prove this as existing at Granada, a gift of Ferdinand and Isabella in the
fifteenth century, is Flemish lace of the seventeenth."[271]

The sumptuous "Spanish point," the white thread heavy arabesque lace, was
an Italian production originally. It was imported for the Spanish churches
and then imitated in the convents by the nuns, but was little known to the
commercial world of Europe until the dissolution of the Spanish
monasteries[272] in 1830, when the most splendid specimens of nun's work
came suddenly into the market; not only the heavy lace generally designated
as "Spanish point," but pieces of the very finest description (like point
de Venise), so exquisite as to have been the work only of those whose "time
was not money," and whose devotion to the Church and to their favourite
saints rendered this work a labour of love, when in plying their needles
they called to mind its destination. Among the illustrations are some
photographs received from Rome of some curious relics of old Spanish
conventual work, parchment patterns with the lace in progress. They were
found in the Convent of Jesù Bambino, and belonged to some Spanish nuns
who, in bygone ages, taught the art to the novices. None of the present
inmates can give further information respecting them. The work, like all
point, was executed in separate pieces given out to the different nuns and
then joined together by a more skilful hand. In Fig. 44 we see the pattern
traced out by two threads fixed in their places by small stitches made at
intervals by a needle and aloe[273] thread working from underneath. The
réseau ground is alone worked in. We see the thread left as by Sister
Felice Vittoria when she last plied her task.

{94}Fig. 45 has the pearled ground, the pattern traced as in the other.
Loops of a coarser thread are placed at the corners, either to fasten the
parchment to a light frame, like a schoolboy's slate, or to attach it to a
cushion.  In Fig. 46 the pattern is just worked.

[Illustration: Fig. 44.

UNFINISHED WORK OF A SPANISH NUN.]

PLATE XXIX.

[Illustration: SPANISH. MODERN THREAD BOBBIN LACE MADE AT
ALMAGRO.--Slightly reduced.]

PLATE XXX.

[Illustration: SPANISH, BLONDE. WHITE SILK DARNING ON MACHINE
NET.--Nineteenth century. Much reduced.

Photos by A. Dryden from private collections.]

_To face page 94._

{95}A possible reference to lace is found in Father Fr. Marcos Antonio de
Campos,[274] in his book, _Microscosmia y gobierno Universal del Hombre
Crestiano_, when he writes, "I will not be silent, and fail to mention the
time lost these last years in the manufacture of _cadenetas_, a work of
thread combined with gold and silver; this extravagance and excess reached
such a point that hundreds and thousands of ducats were spent in this work,
in which, besides destroying the eyesight, wasting away the lives, and
rendering consumptive the women who worked it, and preventing them from
spending their time with more advantage to their souls, a few ounces of
thread and years of time were wasted with so unsatisfactory a result. I ask
myself, after the fancy has passed away, will the lady or gentleman find
that the chemises that cost them fifty ducats, or the _basquina_
(petticoats) that cost them three hundred, are worth half their price?"

[Illustration: Fig. 45.

UNFINISHED WORK OF A SPANISH NUN.]

"The most important of Spanish ordinances[275] relating to Spanish art and
industry are those which appeared in the {96}fifteenth and sixteenth
centuries in Toleda and Seville, both remarkable centres for all kinds of
artistic productions. In neither of these, nor in the sixteenth and
seventeenth century ordinances relating to Granada--another art-centre--is
there any mention of lace.

[Illustration: Fig. 46.

UNFINISHED WORK OF A SPANISH NUN.]

"In the laws which were passed by Ferdinand and Isabella at the end of the
fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth centuries, no mention is made of
lace, though numerous {97}details of costumes are named. It will be seen
from these remarks on Spanish lace that we give to Italy the credit of
producing the artistic and valuable point lace, which unexpectedly came out
of Spain after the dissolution of the monasteries."

The ordinance of Philip III, against the wearing of lace, dated 1623, which
enjoined "simples rabats, sans aucune invention de point couppé ou
passement" for the men, with fraises and manchettes in like trim for the
ladies, both too without starch,[276] and which extended to gold and silver
lace, was suspended during the matrimonial visit of Prince Charles;[277]
indeed, the Queen of Spain herself sent him, on his arrival at Madrid, ten
trunks of richly-laced linen. The Prince had travelled incognito, and was
supposed to be ill-provided. Whether the surmises of her Majesty were
correct, we cannot presume to affirm; we only know that, on the occasion of
the Spanish voyage, a charge of two dozen and a half laced shirts, at
twelve shillings each, for the Prince's eight footmen, appears in the
wardrobe accounts.[278]

The best account of Spanish manners of the seventeenth century will be
found in the already-mentioned _Letters of a Lady's Travels in Spain_.
"Under the vertingale of black taffety," she writes, "they wear a dozen or
more petticoats, one finer than the other, of rich stuffs trimmed with lace
of gold and silver, to the girdle. They wear at all times a white garment
called _sabenqua_; it is made of the finest English lace, and four ells in
compass. I have seen some worth five or six hundred crowns;... so great is
their vanity, they would rather have one of these lace _sabenquas_ than a
dozen coarse ones;[279] and either lie in bed till it is washed, or dress
themselves without any, which they frequently enough do." A number of
portraits exist in the Spanish galleries, {98}especially by Velasquez and
Carrêno, in which these extravagant costumes are fully portrayed, but in
very few Spanish portraits of the seventeenth century does thread lace of
the kind known to us as point d'Espagne, or de Venise ever appear.
Describing her visit to the Princess of Monteleon, the author continues:
"Her bed is of gold and green damask, lined with silver brocade, and
trimmed with point de Spain.[280] Her sheets were laced round with an
English lace, half an ell deep. The young Princess bade her maids bring in
her wedding clothes. They brought in thirty silver baskets, so heavy, four
women could carry only one basket; the linen and lace were not inferior to
the rest." The writer continues to enumerate the garters, mantle, and even
the curtains of the Princess's carriage, as trimmed with fine English
thread, black and bone lace.[281]

Judging from this account, Spain at that period received her "dentelles
d'Angleterre" from the Low Countries. Spain was early celebrated for its
silk,[282] which with its coloured embroidered laces, and its gold and
silver points, have always enjoyed a certain reputation. Of the latter,
during the seventeenth century, we have constant mention in the wardrobe
accounts and books of fashion of the French court. The description of the
celebrated gold bed at Versailles, the interior lacings of the carriages,
the velvet and brocade coats and dresses, "chamarrés de point d'Espagne,"
the laces of gold and coloured silk, would alone fill a volume to
themselves.[283] {99}Narciso Felin, writing in the seventeenth
century,[284] says that at that time "edgings of all sorts of gold,[285]
silver, silk, thread, and aloe, are made there with greater perfection than
in Flanders." Campany, another old author, carries the number of
lace-makers to 12,000. The Spaniards are said, nevertheless, in 1634, to
have derived a great part of their laces from the Île de France, while the
French, on their part, preferred those of Flanders.[286] That the lace
import was considered excessive is evident by the tariff of 1667; the
import duty of twenty-five reals per pound on lace was augmented to two
hundred and fifty reals. Much point was introduced into Spain at this time
by way of Antwerp to Cadiz, under the name of "puntos de mosquito e de
transillas."

Madame des Ursins, 1707, in a letter to Madame de Maintenon, ordering the
layette of the Queen of Spain from Paris, writes: "If I were not afraid of
offending those concerned in the purchase, in my avarice for the King of
Spain's money, I would beg them to send a low-priced lace for the linen."

{100}This gold point d'Espagne was much fabricated for home consumption.
The oldest banner of the Inquisition--that of Valladolid--is described as
bordered with real point d'Espagne, of a curious Gothic (geometric) design.
At the Auto-da-fè, the grandees of Spain and officers of the Holy Office
marched attired in cloaks, with black and white crosses, edged with this
gold lace. Silver point d'Espagne was also worn on the uniform of the
Maestranza, a body of nobility formed into an order of chivalry at Seville,
Ronda, Valencia and Granada. Even the saints were rigged out, especially
St. Anthony, at Valencia, whose laced costume, periwig and ruffles are
described as "glorious."

[Illustration: Fig. 47.

OLD SPANISH PILLOW-LACE.]

Point d'Espagne was likewise made in France, introduced by one Simon
Châtelain, a Huguenot, about 1596, in return for which good services he
received more protection than his advanced opinions warranted. Colbert,
becoming minister in 1662, guaranteed to Simon his safety--a boon already
refused to many by the intolerant spirit of the times. He died in 1675,
having amassed a large fortune.[287] That the fabric prospered, the
following entry in the wardrobe accounts of the Duke de Penthièvre, 1732,
gives proof:[288] "Un bord de Point d'Espagne d'or de Paris, à fonds de
réseau." "France," writes Anderson, "exports much lace into Spain."

PLATE XXXI.

[Illustration: PORTRAIT OF THE DUCHESSE DE MONTPENSIER, INFANTA OF SPAIN,
SHOWING MANTILLA.

Middle of nineteenth century. M. de Versailles.]

_To face page 100._

{101}"The sumptuary law of 1723 has taken away," writes the author of two
thick books on Spanish commerce, "all pretence for importing all sorts of
point and lace of white and black silk which are not the manufactures of
our kingdom. The Spaniards acted on Lord Verulam's policy--that foreign
superfluities should be prohibited[289]--for by so doing you either banish
them or gain the manufacture." But towards the middle of the eighteenth
century there are notices of constant seizures of vessels bound from St.
Malo to Cadiz, freighted with gold and silver lace. The _Eagle_, French
vessel, taken by Captain Carr, in 1745, bore cases to the value of
£150,000.[290] In 1789 we also read that the exports of lace from the port
of Marseilles alone to Cadiz exceeded £500,000,[291] and the author of the
_Apendice a la Educacion Popular_[292] states that "all the five qualities
(of lace) come from foreign lands, and the greater varieties of coarser
ones."

Gold and silver lace were made at Barcelona, Talavera de la Reyna, Valencia
and Seville. In 1808 that of Seville was flourishing. The gold is badly
prepared, having a red cast. The manufacture of blonde is almost entirely
confined to Catalonia, where it is made in many of the villages along the
sea-coast, and especially in the city of Barcelona. In 1809 it gave
employment to 12,000 persons, a number which in 1869 was augmented to
34,000.

There are no large manufactories, and the trade is in the hands of women
and children, who make it on their own account, and as they please.[293]
Swinburne, who visited Spain in 1775, writes: "The women of the hamlets
were busy with their bobbins making black lace, some of which, of the
coarser kind, is spun out of the leaf of the aloe. It is curious, but of
little use, for it grows mucilaginous with washing." He adds: "At Barcelona
there is a great trade in thread lace."[294] Larruga, in his
{102}_Memorias_,[295] mentions a manufacture of gold and silver lace which
had been set up lately in Madrid, and in another place he[296] mentions
lace made at La Mancha,[297] where "the industry of lace has existed at
Almagro from time immemorial." Don Manuel Fernandez and Donna Rita Lambert,
his wife, natives of Madrid, established in this town in 1766 a manufacture
of silk and thread lace. This industry also existed at Granatula,
Manzanares and other villages in La Mancha. At Zamora "lace and blonde were
made in private houses." In _Sempere Historia del Lujo_[298] we find that
in the ordinance issued in 1723 the "introduction of every sort of edgings
or foreign laces was prohibited; the only kinds allowed were those made in
the country." Cabanillas writes[299] that at Novelda a third part of the
inhabitants made lace, and that "more than 2,000 among women and children
worked at this industry, and the natives themselves hawked their wares
about the country."[300]

The laces of New Castile were exported to America, to which colonies, in
1723, the sumptuary laws were extended, as more necessary than in Spain,
"many families having been ruined," says Ustariz, "by the great quantities
of fine lace and gold stuffs they purchased of foreign manufacture, by
which means Spanish America is drained of many millions of dollars."[301] A
Spanish lace-maker does not earn on an average two reals (5d.) a day.[302]

The national mantilla is, of course, the principal piece manufactured. Of
the three kinds which, _de rigueur_, form the toilette of the Spanish lady,
the first is composed of white blonde, a most unbecoming contrast to their
sallow, olive complexion; this is only used on state occasions--birthdays,
bull-fights, and Easter Mondays. The second is black {103}blonde, trimmed
with a deep lace. The third, "mantilla de tiro," for ordinary wear, is made
of black silk, trimmed with velvet. A Spanish woman's mantilla is held
sacred by law, and cannot be seized for debt.[303] The silk employed for
the lace is of a superior quality. Near Barcelona is a silk-spinning
manufactory, whose products are specially used for the blondes of the
country. Spanish silk laces do not equal in workmanship those of Bayeux and
Chantilly, either in the firmness of the ground or regularity of the
pattern. The annual produce of this industry scarcely amounts to
£80,000.[304]

Specimens of Barcelona white lace have been forwarded to us from Spain,
bearing the dates of 1810, 1820, 1830 and 1840. Some have much resemblance
to the fabric of Lille--clear hexagonal ground, with the pattern worked in
one coarse thread; others are of a double ground, the designs flowers,
bearing evidence of a Flemish origin.[305]

Spain sent to the International Exhibitions, together with her black and
white mantillas, fanciful laces gaily embroidered in coloured silks and
gold thread--an ancient fabric lately revived, but constantly mentioned in
the inventories of the French Court of the seventeenth century, and also by
the lady whose letters we have already quoted. When describing a visit to
Donna Teresa de Toledo, who received her in bed, she writes: "She had
several little pillows tied with ribbons and trimmed with broad fine lace.
She had 'lasses' all of flowers of point de Spain in silk and gold, which
looked very pretty."[306]

The finest specimen of Spanish work exhibited in 1862 {104}was a mantilla
of white blonde, the ground a light guipure, the pattern, wreaths of
flowers supported by Cupids. In the official report on Lace and Embroidery
at the International Exhibition of that year, we read that "the manufacture
of black and white Spanish lace shows considerable progress since 1851,
both in respect of design and fabrication. The black mantillas vary in
value from £4 to £50, and upwards of 20,000 persons are said to be employed
in their manufacture."

Before concluding our account of Spanish lace, we must allude to the
"dentelles de Moresse," supposed by M. Francisque Michel[307] to be of
Iberian origin, fabricated by the descendants of the Moors who remained in
Spain and embraced Christianity. These points are named in the
above-mentioned "Révolte des Passemens," where the author thus announces
their arrival at the fair of St. Germain:--

 "Il en vint que, le plus souvent.
  On disoit venir du Levant;
  Il en vint des bords de l'Ibère.
  Il en vint d'arriver n'agueres
  Des pays septentrionaux."

What these points were it would be difficult to state. In the inventory of
Henry VIII. is marked down, "a purle of morisco work."

One of the pattern-books gives on its title-page--

       "Dantique et Roboesque
  En comprenant aussi Moresque."

A second speaks of "Moreschi et arabesche."[308] A third is entitled, "Un
livre de moresque."[309] A fourth, "Un livre de feuillages entrelatz et
ouvrages moresques."[310] All we can say on the subject is, that the making
cloths of chequered lace formed for a time the favourite employment of
Moorish maidens, and they are still to be purchased, yellow with age, in
the African cities of Tangier and Tetuan. They may be distinguished from
those worked by Christian fingers from the absence of all animals in the
pattern, the representation of living creatures, either in painting,
sculpture, or embroidery, being strictly forbidden by Mahommedan law.

PLATE XXXII.

[Illustration: JEWISH.--Made in Syria. The pattern is only modern Torchon,
but the knotting stitch is their peculiar tradition. Same size.]

PLATE XXXIII.

[Illustration: SPANISH.--The upper one is a copy of Italian lace clumsily
made. The lower is probably a "dentelle de Moresse." Widths about 3½ in.

Photo by A. Dryden from Salviati & Co.'s Collection.]

_To face page 104._

{105}PORTUGAL.

Point lace was held in high estimation in Portugal. There was no regular
manufacture; it formed the amusement of the nuns and a few women who worked
at their own houses. The sumptuary law of 1749 put an end to all luxury
among the laity. Even those who exposed such wares as laces in the streets
were ordered to quit the town.[311]

In 1729,[312] when Barbara, sister of Joseph, King of Portugal, at
seventeen years of age, married Ferdinand, Prince of Spain, before quitting
Lisbon, she repaired to the church of the Madre de Dios, on the Tagus, and
there solemnly offered to the Virgin the jewels and a dress of the richest
Portuguese point she had worn on the day of her espousals. This lace is
described as most magnificent, and was for near a century exhibited under a
glass case to admiring eyes, till, at the French occupation of the
Peninsula, the Duchesse d'Abrantès, or one of the Imperial generals, is
supposed to have made off with it.[313] When Lisbon arose from her ashes
after the terrible earthquake of 1755, the Marquis de Pombal founded large
manufactures of lace, which were carried on under his auspices. Wraxall, in
his _Memoirs_, mentions having visited them.

The fine points in relief of Italy and Spain were the result of such time
and labour as to render them too costly for moderate means. Hence they were
extensively counterfeited. The principal scroll of the pattern was formed
by means of tape or linen cut out and sewn on, and the reliefs were
produced by cords fixed and overcast after the work was finished, thus
substituting linen and cords for parts of {106}the needlework.  These
counterfeit points were in France the occasion in 1669 of an ordinance.

[Illustration: Fig. 48.

BOBBIN-LACE.--(Madeira.)]

The modern laces of Portugal and Madeira closely resemble those of Spain;
the wider for flounces are of silk: much narrow lace is made after the
fashion of Mechlin. Both Spain and Portugal enjoy a certain reputation for
their imitation white Chantilly lace. A considerable quantity of coarse
white lace, very effective in pattern, was formerly made in Lisbon and the
environs;[314] this was chiefly exported, _viâ_ Cadiz, to South America.
Both black and white are {107}extensively made in the peninsula of Peniche,
north of Lisbon (Estremadura Province), and employ the whole female
population. Children at four years of age are sent to the lace school, and
are seated at _almofadas_ (pillows) proportioned to their height, on which
they soon learn to manage the bobbins, sometimes sixty dozen or more, with
great dexterity.[315] The nuns of Odivales were, till the dissolution of
the monasteries, famed for their lace fabricated of the fibres of the aloe.

[Illustration: Fig. 49.

BOBBIN-LACE.--(Brazil.)]

Pillow-lace was made at Madeira at the beginning of the nineteenth century.
The coarse kind, a species of _dentelle torchon_, served for trimming
pillow-cases and sheets--"seaming lace," as it was called (Fig. 49).
Sometimes the threads of the linen were drawn out after the manner of
cut-work; but the manufacture had entirely ceased until 1850 (circ.), when
it was re-established by Mrs. Bayman.[316]

{108}Brazil makes a coarse narrow pillow-lace for home consumption.

The Republics of Central and South America show indications of lace-making,
consisting chiefly of darned netting and drawn-work, the general
characteristic of the lace of these countries. The lace-bordered
handkerchiefs of Brazil, and the productions of Venezuela, with the borders
of the linen trousers of the guachos, and the Creva lace of the blacks of
the Province of Minas Geraes, are the finest specimens of drawn-work. The
lace of Chili is of the old lozenge pattern, and men also appear to be
employed on the work. In Paraguay there are two sorts of work--Nanduti or
"toile d'arraignée," made in silk or thread by a needle on a cardboard
pattern by the copper-coloured natives as an industry; also embroidery and
drawn thread-work on linen, of which there are specimens in the Victoria
and Albert Museum--all traditions of the European missionaries and traders
who first colonised the country.

PLATE XXXIV.

[Illustration: SPANISH.--Pillow made nineteenth century. Réseau of two
threads twisted and crossed. Slightly reduced.]

PLATE XXXV

[Illustration: PARAGUAY. "NANDUTI."--End of nineteenth century. Reduced
rather over half.

Photos by A. Dryden from private collections.]

_To face page 108._



{109}CHAPTER VII.

FLANDERS.

 "For lace, let Flanders bear away the belle."
          --Sir C. Hanbury Williams.

 "In French embroidery and in Flanders lace
  I'll spend the income of a treasurer's place."
        --_The Man of Taste_, Rev. W. Bramstone.


Flanders and Italy together dispute the invention of lace. In many towns of
the Low Countries are pictures of the fifteenth century, in which are
portrayed personages adorned with lace,[317] and Baron Reiffenberg, a
Belgian writer, asserts that lace cornettes, or caps, were worn in that
country as early as the fourteenth century. As evidence for the early
origin of pillow-lace in the Low Countries, Baron Reiffenberg mentions an
altar-piece, attributed to Quentin Matsys (in a side chapel of the choir of
St. Peter's, at Louvain), in which a girl is represented making lace with
bobbins on a pillow with a drawer, similar to that now in use.[318] There
exists a series of engravings after Martin de Vos (1580-85), giving the
occupations of the seven ages of life: in the third,[319] assigned to _âge
mûr_, is seen a girl, sitting with a pillow on her knees, making lace (Fig.
50). The occupation must have been then common, or the artist would
scarcely have chosen it to characterise the habits of his country.

Of the two paintings attributed to Matsys--that in St. Peter's, at Louvain,
and that in Lierre, only the former is now assigned to the artist. Both
pictures are said to be of the end of the fifteenth century or beginning of
the sixteenth.

{110}[Illustration: Fig. 50.

LACE-MAKING.--(After Martin de Vos.)]

The triptych at Louvain is reproduced and described in detail by Van Even
in his work, _Louvain dans le passé et dans le présent_;[320] it consists
of five panels, the centre panel representing "La famille de Sainte Anne";
but among all the figures none, however, appear to be engaged in making
lace or, indeed, in any form of needlework.

PLATE XXXVI.

[Illustration: FLEMISH. PORTION OF BED COVER, BOBBIN-MADE.--First half of
seventeenth century. This is said to have belonged to Philip IV. of Spain.
Above the Austrian eagle and crown is the collar of the Golden Fleece.  The
workmanship is of great skill.

Victoria and Albert Museum.]

_To face page 110._

{111}It has been suggested that the "Lace-maker making lace with bobbins on
a pillow with a drawer" (alluded to by Baron Reiffenberg) in the triptych
is taken from the above-mentioned engravings by Nicholas de Bruyel and
Assuerus van Londonzeel, after the drawings of Martin de Vos.

The historian of the Duke of Burgundy[321] declares Charles the Bold to
have lost his _dentelles_ at the battle of Granson, 1476; he does not state
his authority. Probably they were gold or silver, for no other exist among
his relics.

In Vecellio's _Corona_ of 1593 and 1596 are two designs of geometrical
lace--"ponto fiamengho" and "Manegetti di ponto Fiamengo," point de
Flandre.

In 1651, Jacob v. Eyck, a Flemish poet, sang the praises of lace-making in
Latin verse. "Of many arts one surpasses all; the threads woven by the
strange power of the hand, threads which the dropping spider would in vain
attempt to imitate, and which Pallas would confess she had never known;"
and a deal more in the same style.[322]

The lace-manufacture of the Netherlands, as Baron Reiffenberg writes, has a
glorious past. After exciting the jealousy of other European nations, in
the sixteenth century, when every industrial art fled from the horrors of
religious persecution, the lace fabric alone upheld itself, and by its
prosperity saved Flanders from utter ruin. Every country of Northern
Europe,[323] Germany, and England, has learned the art of lace-making from
Flanders. After the establishment of the Points de France by Colbert,
Flanders was alarmed at the number of lace-makers who emigrated, and passed
an act, dated Brussels, December 26th, 1698, {112}threatening with
punishment any who should suborn her workpeople.

Lace-making forms an abundant source of national wealth to Belgium, and
enables the people of its superannuated cities to support themselves, as it
were, on female industry.[324] One-fourth of the whole population (150,000
women) were said to be thus engaged, in 1861. But a small number assemble
in the ateliers; the majority work at home. The trade now flourishes as in
the most palmy days of the Netherlands.

[Illustration: Fig. 51.

CAP OF THE EMPEROR CHARLES V.--(Musée de Cluny.)

This engraving is not accurately drawn. The spaces contain birds and
crosses, and not sprigs.]

[Illustration: Fig. 52.

ISABELLA CLARA EUGENIA, DAUGHTER OF PHILIP II., ARCHDUCHESS OF AUSTRIA,
GOVERNESS OF THE NETHERLANDS.--Died 1633.

_To face page 112._]

{113}Lace forms a part of female education in Belgium. Charles V. commanded
it to be taught in the schools and convents. Examples of the manufactures
of his period may be seen in the cap said to be worn by him under his
crown, and in the contemporary portrait of his sister Mary, Queen of
Hungary. This cap, long preserved in the treasury of the bishop-princes of
Basle, has now passed into the Musée de Cluny (Fig. 51). It is of fine
linen; the imperial arms are embroidered in relief, alternate with designs
in lacis of exquisite workmanship.[325]


[Illustration: Fig. 53.

MARY, QUEEN OF HUNGARY, GOVERNESS OF THE LOW COUNTRIES. +1558.--(From her
portrait, Musée de Versailles.)]

Queen Mary's cuffs (Fig. 53) are of the geometric pattern of the age, and
we may presume, of Flanders make, as she was Governess of the Low Countries
from 1530 till her death. The grand-daughter of Charles V., the Infanta
Isabella, who brought the Low Countries as her dower,[326] appears in her
portraits (Fig. 52) most resplendent in lace, and her ruff rivals in size
those of our Queen Elizabeth, or Reine Margot.

But to return to our subject. Of the lace schools there were nearly 900 in
1875, either in the convents or founded by private charity. At the age of
five small girls commence {114}their apprenticeship; by ten they earn their
maintenance; and it is a pretty sight, an "école dentellière," the children
seated before their pillows, twisting their bobbins with wonderful
dexterity. (Fig. 54.)

[Illustration: Fig. 54.

A BELGIAN LACE SCHOOL.]

In a tract of the seventeenth century entitled, _England's Improvement by
Sea and Land, to outdo the Dutch without Fighting_,[327] we have an amusing
account of one of these establishments. "Joining to this spinning school is
one for maids weaving bone lace, and in all towns there are schools
according to the bigness and multitude of the children. I will show you how
they are governed. First, there is a large room, and in the middle thereof
a little box like a pulpit. Second, there are benches built about the room
as they are in our playhouses. And in the box in the middle of the room the
grand mistress, with a long white wand in her hand. If she observes any of
them idle, she reaches them a tap, and if that will not do, she rings a
bell, which, by a little cord, is attached to the box. She points out the
offender, and she is taken into another room and chastised. And I believe
this way of ordering the young women in Germany (Flanders) is one great
cause that the German women have so little twit-twat,[328] and I am sure it
will be as well were it so in England. There the children emulate the
father--here they beggar him. Child," he winds up, "I charge you tell this
to thy wyfe in bed, and it may be that she, understanding the benefit it
will be to her and her children, will turn Dutchwoman and endeavour to save
moneys." Notwithstanding this good advice, in 1768 England received from
Flanders lace-work £250,000 to her disadvantage, as compared to her
exports.

[Illustration: Fig. 55.

OLD FLEMISH BOBBIN LACE.

_To face page 114._]

{115}[Illustration: Fig. 56.

OLD FLEMISH (Trolle Kant).

The piece of lace from which this woodcut is taken has five or six
different designs all joined together; probably patterns sent round for
orders.]

The old Flemish laces are of great beauty, some of varied grounds. Fig. 56
represents a description of lace called in the country "Trolle kant," a
name which has been transferred to our own lace counties, where lace of a
peculiar {116}make is styled Trolly, with a heavy cordonnet which is called
gimp or Trolly. _Kant_ in Flemish is "lace."

At one period much lace was smuggled into France from Belgium by means of
dogs trained for the purpose. A dog was caressed and petted at home, fed on
the fat of the land, then after a season sent across the frontier, where he
was tied up, half-starved and ill-treated. The skin of a bigger dog was
then fitted to his body, and the intervening space filled with lace. The
dog was then allowed to escape and make his way home, where he was kindly
welcomed with his contraband charge. These journeys were repeated till the
French Custom House, getting scent, by degrees put an end to the traffic.
Between 1820 and 1836 40,278 dogs were destroyed, a reward of three francs
being given for each.[329]

According to some authorities the earliest lace made in Flanders was of the
kind known as Pillow Guipure. The pattern is made as of tape, in flowing
Renaissance style, sometimes connected by brides, and sometimes altogether
without brides, when the points of the pattern touch each other. In the
specimens of this type of lace in the Victoria and Albert Museum there is
apparently little in the laces by which the country of their origin may be
identified. Sometimes they have been considered French, sometimes Flemish,
and sometimes Italian. [See the specimens of tape-lace in the Catalogue of
the lace in the Victoria and Albert Museum, p. 49, by A. S. Cole.] (Plate
XXXVIII.)


BRUSSELS (BRABANT).

 "More subtile web Arachne cannot spin."--Spenser.

  "From Lisle I came to Brussels, where most of the fine laces are made you
  see worn in England."--Lord Chesterfield, 1741.

At what period the manufacture of Brussels lace commenced we are ignorant;
but, judging from the earlier patterns, it may be placed at the beginning
of the sixteenth century. The ancient churches of Brabant possess, it is
said, many precious specimens, the gifts of munificent princes who have at
all periods shown a predilection for Brussels lace, and in every way
promoted its manufacture. In usage it is termed Point d'Angleterre, an
error explained to us by history.

PLATE XXXVII.

[Illustration: BRUSSELS. POINT D'ANGLETERRE À BRIDES. CROWN OF A CAP.--Last
half of seventeenth century.

The property of Mr. Arthur Blackborne.]

PLATE XXXVIII.

[Illustration: FLEMISH. TAPE LACE, BOBBIN-MADE.--Seventeenth century.

Photos by A. Dryden.]

_To face page 116._

{117}In 1662 the English Parliament, alarmed at the sums of money expended
on foreign point, and desirous to protect the English bone-lace
manufacture, passed an Act prohibiting the importation of all foreign lace.
The English lace-merchants, at a loss how to supply the Brussels point
required at the court of Charles II., invited Flemish lace-makers to settle
in England and there establish the manufacture. The scheme, however, was
unsuccessful. England did not produce the necessary flax, and the lace made
was of an inferior quality. The merchants therefore adopted a more simple
expedient. Possessed of large capital, they bought up the choicest laces of
the Brussels market, and then smuggling them over to England, sold them
under the name of point d'Angleterre, or "English Point."[330]

This fact is, curiously enough, corroborated in a second memorandum given
by the Venetian ambassador to the English Court in 1695, already mentioned
by an informant in London, who states that Venetian point is no longer in
fashion, but "that called English point, which, you know, is not made here,
but in Flanders, and only bears the name of English to distinguish it from
the others." "Questo chiamato punto d'Inghilterra, si sappia che non si fa
qui, ma in Fiandra, et porta solamente questo nome d'Inghilterra per
distintione dagli altri."

The account of the seizure made by the Marquis de Nesmond of a vessel laden
with Flanders lace, bound for England, in 1678[331] will afford some idea
of the extent to which this smuggling was carried on. The cargo comprised
744,953 ells of lace, without enumerating handkerchiefs, collars, fichus,
aprons, petticoats, fans, gloves, etc., all of the same material. From this
period "point de Bruxelles" became more and more unknown, and was at last
effaced by "point d'Angleterre,"[332] a name it still retains.[333]

On consulting, however, the English Royal Inventories of {118}the time, we
find no mention of "English point." In France, on the other hand, the
fashion books of the day[334] commend to the notice of the reader, "Corsets
chamarrés de point d'Angleterre," with vests, gloves, and cravats trimmed
with the same material. Among the effects of Madame de Simiane, dated 1681,
were many articles of English point;[335] and Monseigneur the Archbishop of
Bourges, who died some few years later, had two cambric toilettes trimmed
with the same.[336]

The finest Brussels lace can only be made in the city itself. Antwerp,
Ghent, and other localities have in vain tried to compete with the capital.
The little town of Binche, long of lace-making celebrity, has been the most
successful. Binche, however, now only makes pillow flowers (point plat),
and those of an inferior quality.

When, in 1756, Mrs. Calderwood visited the Béguinage at Brussels, she wrote
to a friend describing the lace-making. "A part of their work is grounding
lace; the manufacture is very curious. One person works the flowers. They
are all sold separate, and you will see a very pretty sprig, for which the
worker only gets twelve sous. The masters who have all these people
employed give them the thread to make them; this they do according to a
pattern, and give them out to be grounded; after this they give them to a
third hand, who 'hearts' all the flowers with the open work. That is what
makes this lace so much dearer than the Mechlin, which is wrought all at
once."[337]

The thread used in Brussels lace is of extraordinary fineness. It is made
of flax grown in Brabant, at Hal and Rebecq-Rognon.[338] The finest quality
is spun in dark underground rooms, for contact with the dry air causes the
thread to break, so fine is it as almost to escape the sight. The feel of
the thread as it passes through the fingers is the surest guide. The
thread-spinner closely examines every inch drawn from her distaff, and when
any inequality occurs stops her wheel to repair the mischief. Every
artificial help is given to the eye. A background of dark paper is placed
to throw out the thread, and the room so arranged as to admit one single
ray of light upon the work. The life of a Flemish thread-spinner is
unhealthy, and her work requires the greatest skill; her wages are
therefore proportionably high.

[Illustration: Fig. 57.

BRUSSELS NEEDLE-POINT.

_To face page 118._]

{119}It is the fineness of the thread which renders the real Brussels
ground (_vrai réseau_, called in Flanders, "droschel") so costly.[339] The
difficulty of procuring this fine thread at any cost prevented the art
being established in other countries. We all know how, during the last
fifty years of the bygone century, a mania existed in the United Kingdom
for improving all sorts of manufactures. The Anti-Gallican Society gave
prizes in London; Dublin and Edinburgh vied with their sister capital in
patriotism. Every man would establish something to keep our native gold
from crossing the water. Foreign travellers had their eyes open, and Lord
Garden, a Scotch Lord of Session, who visited Brussels in 1787, thus writes
to a countryman on the subject: "This day I bought you ruffles and some
beautiful Brussels lace, the most light and costly of all manufactures. I
had entertained, as I now suspect, a vain ambition to attempt the
introduction of it into my humble parish in Scotland, but on inquiry I was
discouraged. The thread is of so exquisite a fineness they cannot make it
in this country. It is brought from Cambrai and Valenciennes in French
Flanders, and five or six different artists are employed to form the nice
part of this fabric, so that it is a complicated {120}art which cannot be
transplanted without a passion as strong as mine for manufactures, and a
purse much stronger. At Brussels, from one pound of flax alone they can
manufacture to the value of £700 sterling."

There were two kinds of ground used in Brussels lace, the bride and the
réseau. The bride was first employed, but, even a century back,[340] had
been discontinued, and was then only made to order. Nine ells of
"Angleterre à bride" appear in the bills of Madame du Barry.[341] The lace
so made was generally of most exquisite workmanship, as many magnificent
specimens of "bas d'aube,"[342] now converted into flounces, attest.
Sometimes bride and réseau were mixed.[343] In the inventories the
description of ground is always minutely specified.[344] (See Plates
XXXVII., XLVII., XLVIII., XLIX., LI.)

[Illustration: Fig. 58.

BRUSSELS NEEDLE-POINT.

_To face page 120._]

[Illustration: Fig. 58A.

BRUSSELS. POINT À L'AIGUILLE.--Formerly belonged to H.M. Queen Charlotte.

_To face page 120._]

{121}The réseau was made in two ways,[345] by hand (à l'aiguille), and on
the pillow (au fuseau). The needleground is worked from one flower to
another, as in Fig. 44. The pillow is made in small strips of an inch in
width, and from seven to forty-five inches long, joined together by a
stitch long known to the lace-makers of Brussels and Bayeux only,[346]
called "point de raccroc"--in English, "fine joining"--and consisting of a
fresh stitch formed with a needle between the two pieces to be united. It
requires the greatest nicety to join the segments of shawls and other large
pieces. Since machine-made net has come into use the "vrai réseau" is
rarely made, save for royal trousseaux (Figs. 57 and 58).

There are two kinds of flowers: those made with the needle are called
"point à l'aiguille"; those on the pillow, "point plat."[347] The best
flowers are made in Brussels itself, where they have attained a perfection
in the relief (point brodé) unequalled by those made in the surrounding
villages and in Hainault. The last have one great fault. Coming soiled from
the hands of the lace-makers, they have a reddish-yellow cast. In order to
obviate this evil the workwoman, previous to sewing the flowers on the
ground, places them in a packet of white lead and beats them with the hand,
an operation injurious to the health of the lace-cleaner. It also causes
the lace to turn black when laid in trunks or wardrobes in contact with
flannel or other woollen tissues bleached with sulphur, which discolours
the white lead. Bottles containing scent, the sea air, or a heated room,
will produce the same disagreeable change, and the colour is with
difficulty restored. This custom of powdering yellow lace is of old date.
We read in 1782[348]: "On tolère en même temps les dentelles jaunes et fort
sales, poudrez-les à blanc pour cacher leur vetusté, dut la fraude
paroître, n'importe, vous avez des dentelles vous êtes bien dispensé de la
propreté mais non du luxe." Mrs. Delany writes in 1734: "Your head and
ruffles are being made up, but Brussels always look yellow;" and she was
right, for flax thread soon returns to its natural "crêmée" hue. Yet,

 "How curled her hair, how clean her Brussels lace!"

exclaims the poet.[349] Later, the taste for discoloured lace became
general. The "Isabelle" or cream-coloured tint was found to be more
becoming than a dazzling white, and our coquettish grandmothers, who prided
themselves upon the colour of their point, when not satisfied with the
richness of its hue, had their lace dipped in coffee.

{122}In the old laces the plat flowers were worked in together with the
ground. (Fig. 59.) Application lace was unknown to our ancestors.[350] The
making of Brussels lace is so complicated that each process is, as before
mentioned, assigned to a different hand, who works only at her special
department. The first, termed--

1. Drocheleuse (Flemish, drocheles), makes the vrai réseau.

2. Dentelière (kantwerkes), the footing.

3. Pointeuse (needlewerkes), the point à l'aiguille flowers.

4. Platteuse (platwerkes), makes the plat flowers.

5. Fonneuse (grondwerkes), is charged with the open work (jours) in the
plat.

6. Jointeuse, or attacheuse (lashwerkes), unites the different sections of
the ground together.

7. Striqueuse, or appliqueuse (strikes), is charged with the sewing
(application) of the flowers upon the ground.

The pattern is designed by the head of the fabric, who, having cut the
parchment into pieces, hands it out ready pricked. The worker has no
reflections to make, no combinations to study. The whole responsibility
rests with the master, who selects the ground, chooses the thread, and
alone knows the effect to be produced by the whole.

The pattern of Brussels lace has always followed the fashion of the day.
The most ancient is in the Gothic style (_Gothique pur_), its architectural
ornaments resembling a pattern cut out in paper. This style was replaced by
the flowing lines which prevailed till the end of the last century. (Fig.
60.)

In its turn succeeded the _genre fleuri_ of the First Empire, an assemblage
of flowers, sprigs, columns, wreaths, and petits semés, such as spots,
crosses, stars, etc. In flowers, the palm and pyramidal forms predominated.
Under the Restoration the flowery style remained in fashion, but the palms
and pyramids became more rare. Since 1830 great changes have taken place in
the patterns, which every year become more elegant and more artistic.

[Illustration: Fig. 59.

OLD BRUSSELS. (Point d'Angleterre. Bobbin-made, circ. 1750.)

_To face page 122._]

{123}The lace industry of Brussels is now divided into two branches, the
making of detached sprigs, either point or pillow, for application upon the
net ground, and the modern _point à l'aiguille gazée_, also called point de
Venise, a needlework lace in which the flowers are made simultaneously with
the ground, by means of the same thread, as in the old Brussels. It is made
in small pieces, the joining concealed by small sprigs or leaves, after the
manner of the old point, the same lace-worker executing the whole strip
from beginning to end. Point gaze is now brought to the highest perfection,
and the specimens in the Paris Exhibition of 1867 were remarkable for the
precision of the work, the variety and richness of the "jours," and the
clearness of the ground.

_Brussels point à l'aiguille, point de gaze_, is the most filmy and
delicate of all point lace. Its forms are not accentuated by a raised
outline of button-hole stitching, as in point d'Alençon and point
d'Argentan, but are simply outlined by a thread. The execution is more open
and slight than in early lace, and part of the _toilé_ is made is close,
part in open stitch, to give an appearance of shading. The style of the
designs is naturalistic. (Plate LII.)

"Point Duchesse" is a bobbin lace of fine quality, in which the sprigs
resemble Honiton lace united by "brides." Duchesse is a modern name. The
work less resembles the old Brussels laces than the "Guipure de Flandre,"
made at Bruges in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, which was much
used for cravats, being exceedingly rich and soft in effect. Bobbin lace is
sometimes named point Plat; the word point in this case signifies the fine
quality of the lace, and has nothing to do with the needle-point. Point
Plat appliqué is the name given to Belgian bobbin-made sprigs which are
afterwards applied to machine-made net. Bobbin lace is not now made in
Brussels itself.

Brussels was a favoured lace at the court of the First Empire.[351] When
Napoleon and the Empress Marie Louise made their first public entry into
the Belgian capital, they {124}gave large orders for albs of the richest
point, destined as a present for the Pope. The city, on its part, offered
to the Empress a collection of its finest lace, on vrai réseau, of
marvellous beauty; also a curtain of Brussels point, emblematic of the
birth of the King of Rome, with Cupids supporting the drapery of the
cradle. After the battle of Waterloo, Monsieur Troyaux, a manufacturer at
Brussels, stopped his lace fabric, and, having turned it into a hospital
for forty English soldiers, furnished them with linen, as well as other
necessaries, and the attendance of trained nurses. His humane conduct did
not go unrewarded; he received a decoration from his sovereign, while his
shop was daily crowded with English ladies, who then, and for years after,
made a point of purchasing their laces at his establishment when passing
through Brussels. Monsieur Troyaux made a large fortune and retired from
business.[352]


MECHLIN.

 "And if disputes of empire rise between
  Mechlin, the Queen of Lace, and Colberteen,
 'Tis doubt, 'tis darkness! till suspended Fate
  Assumes her nod to close the grand debate."
      --Young, _Love of Fame_.

 "Now to another scene give place;
  Enter the Folks with silk and lace,
  Fresh matter for a world of chat
  Right Indian this, right Macklin that."
      --Swift, _Journal of a Modern Lady_.

 "Mechlin, the finest lace of all!"
      --Anderson, _Origin of Commerce_.

 "Rose: Pray, what may this lace be worth a yard?
 "Balance: Right Mechlin, by this light!"
      --Farquhar, _The Recruiting Officer_.

[Illustration: Fig. 60.

OLD BRUSSELS. (Point d'Angleterre. Formerly belonging to Queen Charlotte.)

_To face page 124._]

{125}Mechlin is the prettiest of laces, fine, transparent, and effective.
It is made in one piece, on the pillow, with various fancy stitches
introduced. Its distinguishing feature is the cordonnet or flat silky
thread which outlines the pattern, and gives to this lace the character of
embroidery (hence it is sometimes called Broderie de Malines[353]); and
secondly, the hexagonal mesh of the réseau.  "This is made of two threads
twisted twice on four sides, and four threads plaited three times on the
two other sides. Thus the plait is shorter and the mesh consequently
smaller than that of Brussels lace."  Mechlin was sometimes grounded with
an ornamental réseau called _Fond de neige_, or _Oeil de perdrix_, and also
with the six-pointed _Fond Chant_; but these varieties are not common.  The
earliest Mechlin has the _points d'esprit_, and is very rare. It was made
at Mechlin, Antwerp, Lierre and Turnhout, but the manufacture has long been
on the decline.  In 1834 there were but eight houses where it was
fabricated, but at a later date it appears to have partially revived. There
was a fine collection of Mechlin lace in the Paris Exhibition of 1867 from
Turnhout (Prov. Antwerp), and some other localities.  Very little is now
manufactured.  It is difficult to trace the real point de Malines. Previous
to 1665, as elsewhere stated, all Flanders laces, with some exceptions,
were known to the French commercial world as "Malines."  According to
Savary, the laces of Ypres, Bruges, Dunkirk and Courtrai passed at Paris
under that name--hence we have in the inventories of the time, "Malines à
bride,"[354] as well as "Malines à rézeau."[355]

The statute of Charles II. having placed a bar to the introduction of
Flanders lace into England, Mechlin neither appears in the advertisements
nor inventories of the time.

We find mention of this fabric in France as early as Anne of Austria, who
is described in the memoirs of Marion {126}de l'Orme as wearing a veil "en
frizette de Malines."[356] Again, the Maréchal de la Motte, who died in
1657, has, noted in his inventory,[357] a pair of Mechlin ruffles.

Regnard, who visited Flanders in 1681, writes from this city: "The common
people here, as throughout all Flanders, occupy themselves in making the
white lace known as Malines, and the Béguinage, the most considerable in
the country, is supported by the work of the Béguines, in which they excel
greatly."[358]

When, in 1699, the English prohibition was removed, Mechlin lace became the
grand fashion, and continued so during the succeeding century. Queen Mary
anticipated the repeal by some years, for, in 1694, she purchased two yards
of knotted fringe for her Mechlin ruffles,[359] which leads us to hope she
had brought the lace with her from Holland; though, as early as 1699, we
have advertised in the _London Gazette_, August 17th to 21st: "Lost from
Barker's coach a deal box containing," among other articles, "a waistcoat
and Holland shirt, both laced with Mecklin lace." Queen Anne purchased it
largely; at least, she paid in 1713[360] £247 6s. 9d. for eighty-three
yards, either to one Margaret Jolly or one Francis Dobson, "Millenario
Regali"--the Royal Milliner, as he styles himself. George I. indulges in a
"Macklin" cravat.[361]

"It is impossible," says Savary about this time, "to imagine how much
Mechlin lace is annually purchased by France and Holland, and in England it
has always held the highest favour."

Of the beau of 1727 it is said:

 "Right Macklin must twist round his bosom and wrists."

PLATE XXXIX.

[Illustration: MECHLIN.--Four specimens of seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries. Arranged by age, the oldest at the top. The upper one is the end
of a lappet, the property of Mr. Arthur Blackborne. Width about 3½ in.
Widths of smaller pieces, 1¾ in., lower 2½ in.

Photos by A. Dryden.]

_To face page 126._

{127}While Captain Figgins of the 67th, a dandy of the first water, is
described, like the naval puppy of Smollett in _Roderick Random_, "his hair
powdered with maréchal, a cambric shirt, his Malines lace dyed with
coffee-grounds." Towards 1755 the fashion seems to have been on the decline
in England. "All the town," writes Mr. Calderwood, "is full of convents;
Mechlin lace is all made there; I saw a great deal, and very pretty and
cheap. They talk of giving up the trade, as the English, upon whom they
depended, have taken to the wearing of French blondes. The lace merchants
employ the workers and all the town with lace. Though they gain but
twopence halfpenny daily, it is a good worker who will finish a Flemish
yard (28 inches) in a fortnight."

[Illustration: Fig. 61.

MECHLIN.--(Period Louis XVI.)]

Mechlin is essentially a summer lace, not becoming in itself, but charming
when worn over colour. It found great favour at the court of the Regent, as
the inventories of the period attest. Much of this lace, judging from these
accounts, was made in the style of the modern insertion, with an edging on
both sides, "campané," and, being light in texture, was well adapted for
the gathered trimmings, later termed[362] "quilles," now better known as
"plissés à la {128}vieille."[363] Mechlin can never have been used as a
"dentelle de grande toilette"; it served for coiffures de nuit, garnitures
de corset, ruffles and cravats.[364]

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, describing an admirer, writes:

 "With eager beat his Mechlin cravat moves--
  He loves, I whisper to myself, he loves!"

[Illustration: Fig. 62.

MECHLIN.--(Formerly belonging to H. M. Queen Charlotte.)]

It was the favourite lace of Queen Charlotte (Fig. 62) and of the Princess
Amelia. Napoleon I. was also a great admirer of this fabric, and when he
first saw the light Gothic tracery of the cathedral spire of Antwerp, he
exclaimed, "C'est comme de la dentelle de Malines."

[Illustration: PLATE XL.

MECHLIN.--Three specimens of last half of eighteenth century.

Victoria and Albert Museum. Width, 5 in.

Photos by A. Dryden from Mrs. Ellis' Collection. Width, 4 ½ in. Width, 4
in.]

_To face page 123._


{129}ANTWERP.

  "At Antwerp, bought some ruffles of our agreeable landlady, and set out
  at 2 o'clock for Brussels."--_Tour_, by G. L., 1767.

Before finishing our account of the laces of Brabant, we must touch upon
the produce of Antwerp, which, though little differing from that of the
adjoining towns, seems at one time to have been known in the commercial
world.[365] In the year 1560 we have no mention of lace among the fabrics
of Antwerp, at that period already flourishing, unless it be classed under
the head of "mercery, fine and rare."[366] The cap, however, of an Antwerp
lady[367] of that period is decorated with the fine lace of geometric
pattern. (Fig. 63.) As early as 1698 the _Flying Postman_ advertises as
follows: "Yesterday, was dropped between the Mitre Tavern and the corner of
Princes-street, five yards and better of Antwerp lace, pinner breadth. One
guinea reward."

According to Savary, much lace without ground, "dentelle sans fond," a
guipure of large flowers united by "brides," was fabricated in all the
towns of Brabant for especial exportation to the Spanish Indies, where the
"Gothic" taste continued in favour up to a very late period. These envoys
{130}were expedited first to Cadiz, and there disposed of. In 1696, we find
in a seizure made by Monsieur de la Bellière, on the high seas, "2181
pieces de dentelles grossières à l'Espagnole assorties."[368] (Plate XLI.)

Since the cessation of this Spanish market, Antwerp lace would have
disappeared from the scene had it not been for the attachment evinced by
the old people for one pattern, which has been worn on their caps from
generation to generation, generally known by the name of "pot lace" (potten
kant). It is made in the Béguinages of three qualities, mostly "fond
double." The pattern has always a vase (Fig. 64), varied according to
fancy.[369] Antwerp now makes Brussels lace.

[Illustration: Fig. 63.

A LADY OF ANTWERP.--(Ob. 1598. After Crispin de Passe.)]

One of the earliest pattern-books, that printed by Vorsterman[370]--the
title in English--was published at Antwerp, but it only contains patterns
for Spanish stitch and other embroidery--no lace. There is no date affixed
to the title-page, which is ornamented with six woodcuts representing
women, and one a man, working at frames. This work is most rare; the only
copy known may be found in the Library of the Arsenal at Paris.

[Illustration: Fig. 64.

ANTWERP POT LACE (Potten Kant).

_To face page 130._]

{131}Turnhout, which with Antwerp and Mechlin form the three divisions of
the modern province of Antwerp, seems to have largely manufactured lace up
to the present century; as we find in 1803, out of forty lace thread and
lace fabrics in the province, there were thirteen at Antwerp, twelve at
Turnhout, and nine at Malines.[371] Turnhout now produces Mechlin.


FLANDERS (WEST).

The most important branch of the pillow-lace trade in Belgium is the
manufacture of Valenciennes, which, having expired in its native city, has
now spread over East and West Flanders. The art was originally imported
into Flanders from French Hainault in the seventeenth century. As early as
1656, Ypres began to make Valenciennes lace. When, in 1684, a census was
made by order of Louis XIV., there were only three forewomen[372] and
sixty-three lace-makers. In 1850, there were from 20,000 to 22,000 in Ypres
and its environs alone.

The productions of Ypres are of the finest quality and most elaborate in
their workmanship. On a piece not two inches wide, from 200 to 300 bobbins
are employed, and for the larger widths as many as 800 or more are used on
the same pillow. In the exhibition of 1867, one exhibited with the lace in
progress had 1,200 bobbins,[373] while in the International Exhibition of
1874 there were no less than 8,000 bobbins on a Courtrai pillow used for
making a parasol cover. The ground is in large clear squares, which
admirably throws up the even tissue of the patterns. In these there was
little variety until 1833, when a manufacturer[374] adopted a clear
{132}wire ground with bold flowing designs, instead of the thick
_treille_[375] and scanty flowers of the old laces. (Fig. 65.) The change
was accepted by fashion, and the Valenciennes lace of Ypres has now
attained a high degree of perfection. Courtrai has made great advances
towards rivalling Ypres in its productions.

[Illustration: Fig. 65.

VALENCIENNES LACE OF YPRES.]

Not a hundred years since, when the laces of Valenciennes prospered, those
of Belgium were designated as "fausses Valenciennes." Belgium has now the
monopoly to a commercial value of more than £800,000.[376] The other
principal centres of the manufacture are Bruges, Courtrai, and Menin in
West, Ghent and Alost in East, Flanders. When Peuchet wrote in the
eighteenth century, he cites "les dentelles à l'instar de Valenciennes" of
Courtrai as being in favour, and generally sought after both in England and
France, while those of Bruges are merely alluded to as "passing for
Mechlin." From this it may be inferred the tide had not then flowed so far
north. The Valenciennes of Bruges, from its round ground, has never enjoyed
a high reputation.

PLATE XLI.

[Illustration: FLEMISH. FLAT SPANISH BOBBIN LACE.--Made in Flanders.
Seventeenth century.

From a photo the property of A. Dryden.]

_To face page 132._

{133}In forming the ground, the bobbins are only twisted twice, while in
those of Ypres and Alost, the operation is performed four and five
times.[377] The oftener the bobbins are twisted the clearer and more
esteemed is the Valenciennes. The "guipure de Flandres" made at Bruges in
"point plat" is now in high repute, and has proved from its low price a
formidable rival to Honiton, which it resembles, but the workmanship is
coarser and inferior than in the best Honiton. It is of a brilliant white,
and composed of bobbin-made flowers united by _barettes_ or _brides à
picot_. In the _L'Industrie Dentellière Belge_ (1860), it is stated that
West Flanders has now 180 fabrics and 400 lace schools. Of these, 157 are
the property of religious communities, and number upwards of 30,000
apprentices.[378]


FLANDERS (EAST).

No traveller has passed through the city of Ghent for the last hundred
years without describing the Béguinage and its lace school. "The women,"
writes the author of the _Grand Tour_, 1756, "number nigh 5,000, go where
they please, and employ their time in weaving lace."

Savary cites the "fausses Valenciennes," which he declares to equal the
real in beauty. "They are," continues he, "moins serrées, un peu moins
solides, et un peu moins chères."

The best account, however, we have of the Ghent manufactures is contained
in a letter addressed to Sir John Sinclair by Mr. Hey Schoulthem in 1815.
"The making of lace," he writes, "at the time the French entered the Low
Countries, employed a considerable number of people of both sexes, and
great activity prevailed in Ghent. The lace was chiefly for daily use; it
was sold in Holland, France and England. A large quantity of 'sorted' laces
of a peculiar quality were exported to Spain and the colonies. It is to be
feared that, after an interruption of twenty years, this lucrative branch
of commerce will be at an end: the changes of fashion have even reached the
West Indian colonists, {134}whose favourite ornaments once consisted of
Flemish laces[379] and fringes. These laces were mostly manufactured in the
charitable institutions for poor girls, and by old women whose eyes did not
permit them to execute a finer work. As for the young girls, the quality of
these Spanish laces, and the facility of their execution, permitted the
least skilful to work them with success, and proved a means of rendering
them afterwards excellent workwomen. At present, the best market for our
laces is in France; a few also are sent to England." He continues to state
that, since the interruption of the commerce with Spain, to which Ghent
formerly belonged, the art has been replaced by a trade in cotton; but that
cotton-weaving spoils the hand of the lace-makers, and, if continued, would
end by annihilating the lace manufacture.[380]

Grammont and Enghien formerly manufactured a cheap white thread lace, now
replaced by the making of laces of black silk. This industry was introduced
towards 1840 by M. Lepage, and black silk and cotton-thread lace is now
made at Grammont, Enghien, and Oudenarde in the southern part of Eastern
Flanders. The lace of Grammont is remarkable for its regularity, the good
quality of its silk, and its low price, but its grounds are coarse, and the
patterns want relief and solidity, and the bobbins are more often twisted
in making the ground, which deprives it of its elasticity. Grammont makes
no small pieces, but shawls, dresses, etc., principally for the American
market.

The "industrie dentellière" of East Flanders is now most flourishing. In
1869 it boasted 200 fabrics directed by the laity, and 450 schools under
the superintendence of the nuns. Even in the poor-houses (hospices) every
woman capable of using a bobbin passes her day in lace-making.


HAINAULT.

The laces of Mons and those once known as "les figures de Chimay" both in
the early part of the eighteenth century enjoyed a considerable reputation.
Mrs. Palliser, on visiting Chimay in 1874, could find no traces of the
manufacture beyond an aged lace-maker, an inmate of the hospice, who made
black lace--"point de Paris"--and who said that until lately Brussels lace
had also been made at Chimay.

PLATE XLII.

[Illustration: FLEMISH. GUIPURE DE FLANDRE, BOBBIN-MADE.--Seventeenth
century. In the Musée Cinquantenaire, Brussels.]

_To face page 134._

{135}The first Binche lace has the character of Flanders lace, so it has
been supposed that the women who travelled from Ghent in the train of Mary
of Burgundy, the daughter of Charles le Téméraire, created the taste for
lace at Binche, and that the stay of the great ladies, on their visits to
the royal lady of the manor, made the fortune of the lace-makers.
Afterwards there was much traffic between the lace-workers of Brussels and
Binche, and there is a great resemblance between the laces of the two
towns. Sometimes the latter is less light, richer, and more complex in
effect, and the design is closely sprinkled with open-work, the ground
varied and contrasted.

Binche was, as early as 1686, the subject of a royal edict, leading one to
infer that the laces it produced were of some importance. In the said
edict, the roads of Verviers, Gueuse, and Le Catelet, to those persons
coming from Binche, are pronounced "faux passages."[381] Savary esteems the
products of this little village. The same laces, he adds, are made in all
the _monastères_ of the province, that are partly maintained by the gains.
The lace is good, equal to that of Brabant and Flanders. The characteristic
peculiarities of Binche are, that there is either no cordonnet at all
outlining the pattern, or that the cordonnet is scarcely a thicker thread
than that which makes the _toilé_.[382] The design itself is very
indefinite, and is practically the same as the early Valenciennes laces.
Varieties of the _fond de neige_ ground were used instead of the regular
_réseau_ ground. Dentelle de Binche appears to have been much in vogue in
the last century. It is mentioned in the inventory of the Duchesse de
Modène,[383] daughter of the Regent, 1761; and in that of Mademoiselle de
Charollais, 1758, who has a "couvrepied, mantelet, garniture de robe,
jupon," etc., all of the same lace. In the _Misérables_ of Victor Hugo, the
old grandfather routs out {136}from a cupboard "une ancienne garniture de
guipure de Binche" for Cosette's wedding-dress.[384] The Binche application
flowers have already been noticed.

The lace industry of Binche will soon be only a memory. But before 1830 it
"was a hive of lace-makers, and the bees of this hive earned so much money
by making lace that their husbands could go and take a walk without a care
for the morrow," as it is curiously phrased in an account of Binche and its
lace. (Plate XLIII.)



We have now named the great localities for lace-making throughout the Low
Countries. Some few yet remain unmentioned.

The needle-point of Liège should be mentioned among the Flanders laces. At
the Cathedral of Liège there is still to be seen a flounce of an alb
unequalled for the richness and variety of its design and its perfection.
Liège in her days of ecclesiastical grandeur carried on the lace trade like
the rest.[385] We read, in 1620, of "English Jesuitesses at Liège, who seem
to care as much for politics as for lace-making."[386]

An early pattern-book, that of Jean de Glen, a transcript of Vinciolo, was
published in that city in 1597. It bears the mark of his
printing-press--three acorns with the motto, "Cuique sua præmia," and is
dedicated to Madame Loyse de Perez. He concludes a complimentary dedication
to the lady with the lines:--

 "Madame, dont l'esprit modestement subtil,
  Vigoureux, se délecte en toutes choses belles,
  Prenez de bonne part ces nouvelles modelles
  Que vous offre la main de ce maistre gentil."

He states that he has travelled and brought back from Italy some patterns,
without alluding to Vinciolo. At the end, in a chapter of good advice to
young ladies, after exhorting them to "salutairement passer la journée,
tant pour l'âme que pour le corps," he winds up that he is aware that other
exercises, such as stretching the hands and feet, "se frotter un peu les
points des bras," and combing the hair, are good for the health; that to
wash the hands occasionally in cold water is both "civil et honnête," etc.

[Illustration: PLATE XLIII.

BINCHE.--Width, 2-1/8 in.]

[Illustration: PLATE XLIV.

BELGIAN, BOBBIN-MADE.

MARCHE.--End of eighteenth century. In the Musée Cinquantenaire, Brussels.]

BELGIAN, BOBBIN-MADE.

PLATE XLV.

[Illustration: DRAWN AND EMBROIDERED MUSLIN, resembling fine lace.--Flemish
work. End of eighteenth century. Width, 2½ in., not including the modern
heading.

Photos by A. Dryden from private collections.]

_To face page 136._

{137}"Dentelles de Liège, fines et grosses de toutes sortes," are mentioned
with those of Lorraine and Du Comté (Franche-Comté) in the tariff fixed by
a French edict of September 18th, 1664.[387] Mrs. Calderwood, who visited
Liège in 1756, admires the point-edging to the surplices of the canons,
which, she remarks, "have a very genteel appearance." The manufacture had
declined at Liège, in 1802, when it is classed by the French Commissioners
among the "fabriques moins considérables," and the lace-makers of the Rue
Pierreuse, who made a "garniture étroite"--the "caïeteresses"[388]--had
died out in 1881. The same work is now carried on at Laroche.[389]

The lace products of St. Trond, in the province of Limburgh, appear by the
report of the French Commission of 1803 to have been of some importance.
Lace, they say, is made at St. Trond, where from 800 to 900 are so
employed, either at their own homes or in the workshops of the
lace-manufacturers. The laces resemble those of Brussels and Mechlin, and
although they have a lesser reputation in commerce, several descriptions
are made, and about 8,000 metres are produced of laces of first quality,
fetching from twelve to fourteen francs the metre. These laces are chiefly
made for exportation, and are sold mostly in Holland and at the Frankfort
fairs. The report concludes by stating that the vicissitudes of war, in
diminishing the demand for objects of luxury, has much injured the trade;
and also suggests that some provisions should be made to stop the abuses
arising from the bad faith of the lace-makers, who often sell the materials
given them to work with.[390][391]

{138}Many of the Belgian churches have lace among the _trésors d'église_. A
great number of the convents also possess beautiful lace, for girls who
have been educated in them often give their bridal lace, after their
marriage, to the chapel of the convent.

At Bruges, an ancient turreted house of the fifteenth century, the Gruuthus
mansion, now restored, contains one of the finest collections of lace in
the world--a collection of Flemish laces presented to the town by the
Baroness Liedts. Bruges itself, and the country round, is full of
lace-workers, some working in factories or _ateliers_ at the guipure de
Flandres, others working at the coarse cheap torchon, sitting in the sun by
the quiet canal-sides, or in the stone-cobbled lanes of the old city, where
their house-door opens into a room as dark and narrow as a fox-earth, and
leading a life so poor that English competition in the cheaper forms of
lace is impossible.

Within the last few years the immense development of the Belgian lace trade
has overthrown the characteristic lace of each city. Lace, white and black,
point and pillow, may at the present time be met with in every province of
the now flourishing kingdom of Belgium.[392]



{139}CHAPTER VIII.

FRANCE TO LOUIS XIV.

 "Il est une déesse inconstante, incommode,
  Bizarre dans ses goûts, folle en ses ornements,
  Qui parait, fuit, revient, et renaît, en tout temps:
  Protée était son père, et son nom est la mode."--Voltaire.

         "To-day the French
  All clinquant, all in gold."--Shakespeare.


To the Italian influences of the sixteenth century France owes the fashion
for points coupés and lace.[393] It was under the Valois and the Médicis
that the luxury of embroidery, laces of gold, silver, and thread, attained
its greatest height, and point coupé was as much worn at that epoch, as
were subsequently the points of Italy and Flanders.

Ruffs and cuffs, according to Quicherat, first appeared in France in 1540.
The ruff or fraise, as it was termed from its fancied resemblance to the
caul[394] or frill of the calf, first {140}adopted by Henry II. to conceal
a scar, continued in favour with his sons. The Queen-mother herself wore
mourning from the day of the King's death; no decoration therefore appears
upon her wire-mounted ruff,[395] but the fraises of her family and the
_escadron volante_ are profusely trimmed with the geometric work of the
period, and the making of laces and point coupé was the favourite
employment of her court. It is recorded that the girls and servants of her
household consumed much time in making squares of _réseuil_, and Catherine
de Médicis had a bed draped with these squares of _réseuil_ or _lacis_.
Catherine encouraged dress and extravagance, and sought by brilliant fêtes
to turn people's minds from politics. In this she was little seconded
either by her husband or gloomy son, King Charles; but Henry III. and his
"mignons frisés et fraisés" were tricked out in garments of the brightest
colours--toques and toquets, pearl necklaces and earrings. The ruff was the
especial object of royal interest. With his own hand he used the
poking-sticks and adjusted the plaits. "Gaudronneur des collets de sa
femme" was the soubriquet bestowed on him by the satirists of the day.[396]

By 1579 the ruffs of the French court had attained such an outrageous size,
"un tiers d'aulne,"[397] in depth that the wearers could scarcely turn
their heads.[398] "Both men and women wore them intolerably large, being a
quarter of a yard deep and twelve lengths in a ruff," writes Stone. In
London the fashion was termed the "French ruff"; in France, on the other
hand, it was the "English monster." Blaise de Viginière describes them as
"gadrooned like organ-pipes, contorted or crinkled like cabbages, and as
big as the sails of a windmill." So absurd was the effect, the
{141}journalist of Henry III.[399] declares "they looked like the head of
John the Baptist in a charger."

Nor could they eat so encumbered. It is told how Reine Margot one day, when
seated at dinner, was compelled to send for a spoon with a handle two feet
in length wherewith to eat her soup.[400] These monstrosities, "so
stiffened that they cracked like paper,"[401] found little favour beyond
the precincts of the Louvre. They were caricatured by the writers of the
day; and when, in 1579, Henry III. appeared thus attired at the fair of St.
Germain, he was met by a band of students decked out in large paper cuffs,
shouting, "À la fraise on connoit le veau"--for which impertinence the King
sent them to prison.[402] Suddenly, at the Court of Henry, the fraise gave
way to the rabat, or turn-down collar.[403] In vain were sumptuary edicts
issued against luxury.[404] The court set a bad example; and in 1577, at
the meeting of the States of Blois, Henry wore on his own dress four
thousand yards of pure gold lace. His successor, Henry IV., issued several
fresh ordinances[405] against "clinquants [406] et dorures." Touching the
last, Regnier, the satirist, writes:--

                       "A propos, on m'a dit
  Que contre les clinquants le roy faict un edict."[407]

Better still, the King tried the effect of example: he wore a coat of grey
cloth with a doublet of taffety, without either {142}trimming or lace--a
piece of economy little appreciated by the public. His dress, says an
author, "sentait des misères de la Ligue." Sully, anxious to emulate the
simplicity of the King, laughed at those "qui portoient leurs moulins et
leurs bois de haute futaie sur leurs dos."[408] "It is necessary," said he,
"to rid ourselves of our neighbours' goods, which deluge the country." So
he prohibited, under pain of corporal punishment, any more dealings with
the Flemish merchants.

But edicts failed to put down point coupé; Reine Margot, Madame Gabrielle,
and Bassompierre were too strong for him.

The Wardrobe Accounts of Henry's first queen are filled with entries of
point coupé and "passements à l'aiguille";[409] and though Henry usually
wore the silk-wrought shirts of the day,[410] we find in the inventory of
his wife one entered as trimmed with cut-work.[411] Wraxall declares to
have seen exhibited at a booth on the Boulevart de Bondy, the shirt worn by
Henry when assassinated. "It is ornamented," he writes, "with a broad lace
round the collar and breast. The two wounds inflicted by the assassin's
knife are plainly visible."[412]

PLATE XLVI.

[Illustration: RUFF, EDGED WITH LACE.--In the Musée de Cluny, Paris.]

_To face page 142._

{143}In the inventory[413] made at the death of Madame Gabrielle, the fair
Duchesse de Beaufort, we find entered sleeves and towels of point couppé,
with fine handkerchiefs, gifts of the King to be worn at court, of such an
extraordinary value that Henry requires them to be straightway restored to
him. In the same list appears the duchess's bed of ivory,[414] with
hangings for the room of rézeuil.[415]

The Chancellor Herault,[416] who died at the same period, was equally
extravagant in his habits; while the shirts of the combatants in the duel
between M. de Crequy and Don Philippe de Savoie are specially vaunted as
"toutes garnies du plus fin et du plus riche point coupé qu'on eust pu
trouver dans ce temps là, auquel le point de Gennes et de Flandres
n'estoient pas en usage."[417]

The enormous collarette, rising behind her head like a {144}fan, of Mary de
Médicis, with its edgings of fine lace, are well known to the admirers of
Rubens:--

 "Cinq colets de dentelle haute de demy-piè
  L'un sur l'autre montez, qui ne vont qu'a moitié
  De celuys de dessus, car elle n'est pas leste,
  Si le premier ne passe une paulme la teste."[418]

On the accession of Louis XIII, luxury knew no bounds. The Queen Regent was
magnificent by nature, while Richelieu, anxious to hasten the ruin of the
nobles, artfully encouraged their prodigality. But Mary was compelled to
repress this taste for dress. The courtiers importuned her to increase
their pensions, no longer sufficient for the exigencies of the day. The
Queen, at her wits' end, published in 1613 a "Réglement pour les
superfluités des habits," prohibiting all lace and embroidery.[419]

France had early sent out books of patterns for cut-work and lace. That of
Francisque Pelegrin was published at Paris in the reign of Francis I. Six
were printed at Lyons alone. The four earlier have no date,[420] the two
others bear those of 1549[421] and 1585.[422] It was to these first that
Vinciolo so contemptuously alludes in his dedication, "Aux Benevolles
Lecteurs," saying, "Si les premiers ouvrages que vous avez vus out engendré
quelque fruit et utilité je m'assure que les miens en produiront
davantage." Various editions of Vinciolo were printed at Paris from 1587 to
1623; the earlier dedicated to Queen Louise de Lorraine; a second to
Catherine de Bourbon, sister of Henry IV.; the last to Anne of Austria. The
_Pratique de Leguille de Milour M. Mignerak_ was published by the same
printer, 1605; and we have another work, termed _Bèle Prerie_, also printed
at Paris, bearing date 1601.[423]

The points of Italy and Flanders now first appear at court, and the Church
soon adopted the prevailing taste for the decoration of her altars and her
prelates.[424]

PLATE XLVII.

[Illustration: BRUSSELS. FLOUNCE, BOBBIN-MADE.--Late seventeenth century.
Given by Madame de Maintenon to Fénélon, Archbishop of Cambrai. Now in the
Victoria and Albert Museum.

Height, 2 ft. 2 in.]

_To face page 146._

{145}The ruff is finally discarded and replaced by the "col rabattu," with
its deep-scalloped border of point. The "manchettes à revers" are trimmed
in the same manner, and the fashion even extends to the tops of the boots.
Of these lace-trimmed boots the favourite, Cinq-Mars, left three hundred
pairs at his death, 1642. From his portrait, after Lenain, which hangs in
the Gallery of Versailles, we give one of these boots (Fig. 66), and his
rich collerette of Point de Gênes (Fig. 67).

[Illustration: Fig. 66.

CINQ-MARS.--(M. de Versailles.)]

The garters, now worn like a scarf round the knee, have the ends adorned
with point. A large rosette of lace completes the costume of the epoch
(Fig. 68).

{146}Gold lace shared the favour of the thread fabric on gloves,[425]
garters and shoes.[426]

   "De large taftas la jartière parée
  Aux bouts de demy-pied de dentelle dorée."[427]

The cuffs, collars of the ladies either falling back or rising behind their
shoulders in double tier, caps, aprons descending to their feet (Fig. 69),
are also richly decorated with lace.

[Illustration: Fig. 67.

CINQ-MARS.--(After his portrait by Le Nain. M. de Versailles.)]

The contemporary engravings of Abraham Bosse and Callot faithfully portray
the fashions of this reign. In the Prodigal Son, of Abraham Bosse, the
mother, waiting his {147}return, holds out to her repentant boy a collar
trimmed with the richest point. The Foolish Virgins weep in lace-trimmed
handkerchiefs, and the table-cloth of the rich man, as well as his
dinner-napkins, are similarly adorned. Again, the Accouchée recovers in a
cap of Italian point under a coverlet of the same. At the Retour de
Baptême, point adorns the christening-dress of the child and the surplice
of the priest.

When, in 1615, Louis XIII. married Anne of Austria, the collerettes of the
Queen-Mother were discarded--the reign of Italy was at an end--all was now
à l'éspagnole and the court of Castile.

[Illustration: Fig. 68.

LACE ROSE AND GARTER.--(After Abraham Bosse.)]

The prodigality of the nobles[428] having called down royal ordinances on
their heads,[429] these new edicts bring forth {148}fresh satires, in which
the author deplores the prohibition of cut-work and lace:--

 "Ces points couppez, passemens et dentelles,
  Las! que venaient de l'Isle et de Bruxelles,
  Sont maintenant descriez, avilis,
  Et sans faveur gisent ensevelis;"[430]

but

 "Pour vivre heureux et à la mode
  Il faut que chacun accommode
  Ses habits aux editz du roi."

[Illustration: Fig. 69.

YOUNG LADY'S APRON, TIME OF HENRY III.--(After Gaignières. Bib. Nat.
Grav.)]

Edict now follows on edict.[431] One known as the Code Michaud, entering
into the most minute regulations for the toilet, especially excited the
risibility of the people. It was never carried out. The caricatures of this
period are admirable: one represents a young courtier fresh rigged in his
{149}plain-bordered linen, according to the ordinance. His _valet de
chambre_ is about to lock up his laced suit:--

 "C'est avec regret que mon maître
  Quitte ses beaux habillemens
  Semés de riches passemens."[432]

Another engraving of Abraham Bosse shows a lady of fashion with her lace
discarded and dressed in plain linen cuffs and collar:--

 "Quoique l'âge assez de beauté
  Pour asseurer sans vanité
  Qu'il n'est point de femme plus belle
  Il semble pourtant, à mes yeux,
  Qu'avec de l'or et la dantelle
  Je m'ajuste encore bien mieux."

Alluding to the plain-bordered collars now ordered by the prohibition of
1639, the "Satyrique de la Court" sings:--

 "Naguères l'on n'osoit hanter les damoiselles
  Que l'on n'eust le colet bien garni de dentelles;
  Maintenant on se rit et se moque de ceux là
  Qui desirent encore paroistre avec cela.
  Les fraises et colets à bord sont en usage,
  Sans faire mention de tous en dentellage."

France at this time paying large sums to Italy and Flanders for lace, the
wearing of it is altogether prohibited, under pain of confiscation and a
fine of 6,000 livres.[433] The Queen-Mother, regardless of edicts, has over
_passements d'or_ and all sorts of forbidden articles, "pour servir à la
layette que sa majesté à envoyé en Angleterre."[434] Within scarce one year
of each other passed away Marie de Médicis, Richelieu, and Louis XIII. The
King's effigy was exposed on its "lit de parade vêtue d'une chemise de
toile de Hollande avec de tres belles dantelles de point de Gennes au
collet et aux manches."[435]--So say the chroniclers.



{150}CHAPTER IX.

LOUIS XIV.


The courtiers of the Regency under Anne of Austria vied with the Frondeurs
in extravagance. The latter, however, had the best of it. "La Fronde,"
writes Joly, "devint tellement à la mode qu'il n'y avoit rien de bien fait
qu'on ne dist être de la Fronde. Les étoffes, les dentelles, etc., jusqu'au
pain,--rien n'estoit ni bon, ni bien si n'estoit à la Fronde."[436]

Nor was the Queen Regent herself less profuse in her indulgence in lace.
She is represented in her portraits with a berthe of rich point, her
beautiful hand encircled by a double-scalloped cuff (Fig. 70). The
boot-tops had now reached an extravagant size. One writer compares them to
the farthingales of the ladies, another to an inverted torch. The lords of
the Regent's court filled up the apertures with two or three rows of Genoa
point (Fig. 71).

In 1653,[437] we find Mazarin, while engaged in the siege of a city,
holding a grave correspondence with his secretary Colbert concerning the
purchase of some points from Flanders, Venice, and Genoa. He considers it
advisable to advance thirty or forty thousand livres "à ces achapts,"
adding, that by making the purchases in time he will derive great advantage
in the price; but as he hopes the siege will soon be at an end, they may
wait his arrival at Paris for his final decision.[438]

PLATE XLVIII.

[Illustration: BRUSSELS. BOBBIN-MADE.--Period Louis XIV., 1643-1715.

In the Musée Cinquantenaire, Brussels.]

PLATE XLIX.

[Illustration: BRUSSELS. POINT D'ANGLETERRE À RÉSEAU.--Eighteenth century.
Widths, 2 in. and 3½ in.

Photo by A. Dryden.]

_To face page 150._

{151}[Illustration: Fig. 70.

ANNE OF AUSTRIA.--(M. de Versailles.)]

Colbert again writes, November 25th, pressing his Eminence on account of
the "quantité de mariages qui se feront l'hyver." A passage in Tallemant
des Réaux would lead one to suppose these laces were destined as patterns
for the improvement of French manufactures. "Per mostra di farne in
Francia," as the Cardinal expressed himself. Certainly in the inventory of
Mazarin[439] there are no mention of Italian points, no lace coverlets to
his "Lict d'ange moire tabizée, couleur de rose chamarrée de {152}dentelles
d'or et d'argent." We may almost imagine that the minister and his
secretary combined were already meditating the establishment of Points de
France.

In this reign, fresh sumptuary ordinances are issued. That of November
27th, 1660, is the most important of all,[440] and is highly commended by
Sganarelle in the "Ecole des Maris" of Molière which appeared the following
year:--

 "Oh! trois et quatre fois soit béni cet édit,
  Par qui des vêtemens le luxe est interdit;
  Les peines des maris ne seront pas si grandes,
  Et les femmes auront un frein à leurs demandes.
  Oh! que je sais au roi bon gré de ses décrets;
  Et que, pour le repos de ces mêmes maris,
  Je voudrais bien qu'on fit de la coquetterie
  Comme de la guipure et de la broderie."

[Illustration: Fig. 71.

A COURTIER OF THE REGENCY.--(After Abraham Bosse.)]

This ordinance, after prohibiting all foreign "passemens, points de Gênes,
points coupés," etc., or any French laces or passements exceeding an inch
in width, allows the use of the "collerettes and manchettes" persons
already possess for the space of one year, after which period they are only
to be trimmed with a lace made in the kingdom, not exceeding an {153}inch
in width. The ordinance then goes on to attack the "canons," which it
states have been introduced into the kingdom, with "un excès de dépense
insupportable, par la quantité de passemens, points de Venise et Gênes,"
with which they are loaded.[441] Their use of them is now entirely
prohibited, unless made of plain linen or of the same stuff as the coat,
without lace or any ornament. The lace-trimmed "canons" of Louis XIV., as
represented in the picture of his interview with Philip IV., in the Island
of Pheasants, previous to his marriage, 1660 (Fig. 72), give a good idea of
these extravagant appendages. These

           "Canons à trois étages
  A leurs jambes faisoient d'ombrages."[442]

And, what was worse, they would cost 7,000 livres a pair. "At the Court of
France," writes Savinière, "people think nothing of buying rabats,
manchettes, or canons to the value of 13,000 crowns."[443] These canons,
with their accompanying rheingraves, which after the prohibition of Venice
point were adorned with the new productions of France, suddenly
disappeared. In 1682, the _Mercure_ announces, "Les canons et les
rheingraves deviennent tout à fait hors de mode."

At the marriage of the young King with the Infanta, 1660, black lace,[444]
probably in compliment to the Spanish[445] {154}court, came into favour,
the nobles of the King's suite wearing doublets of gold and silver brocade,
"ornés," says the _Chronique_,[446] "de dentelles noires d'un point
recherché."[447] The same writer, describing the noviciate of La Vallière
at the Carmelites, writes, "Les dames portoient des robes de brocard d'or,
d'argent, ou d'azur, par dessus lesquelles elles avoient jetées d'autres
robes et dentelles noires transparentes."[448] Under Louis XIV., the gold
and silver points of Spain and Aurillac rivalled the thread fabrics of
Flanders and Italy; but towards the close of the century,[449] we are
informed, they have fallen from fashion into the "domaine du vulgaire."

The ordinance of 1660 had but little effect, for various others are issued
in the following years with the oft-repeated prohibitions of the points of
Genoa and Venice.[450] But edicts were of little avail. No royal command
could compel people to substitute the coarse inferior laces of France[451]
for the fine artistic productions of her sister countries. Colbert
therefore wisely adopted another expedient. He determined to develop the
lace-manufacture of France, and to produce fabrics which should rival the
coveted points of Italy and Flanders, so that if fortunes were lavished
upon these luxuries, at all events the money should not be sent out of the
kingdom to procure them.

He therefore applied to Monseigneur de Bonzy, Bishop of Béziers, then
Ambassador at Venice, who replied that in Venice "all the convents and poor
families make a living out of this lace-making." In another letter he
writes to the minister, "Je vois que vous seriez bien aise d'establir dans
le royaume la manufacture des points de Venise, ce qui se pourrait faire en
envoyant d'icy quelques filles des meilleures ouvrières qui pussent
instruire celles de France avec le temps."[452]

[Illustration: Fig. 72.

CANONS OF LOUIS XIV.--(M. de Versailles, 1660.)

_To face page 154._]

{155}Monseigneur de Bonzy's suggestion was accepted, and a few years later
(1673) Colbert writes to M. le Comte d'Avaux, who succeeded M. de Bonzy as
ambassador at Venice: "I have gladly received the collar of needlepoint
lace worked in relief that you have sent me, and I find it very beautiful.
I shall have it compared with those new laces being made by our own
lace-makers, although I may tell you beforehand that as good specimens are
now made in this kingdom."[453] Alençon, an old lace-making centre, was
chosen as the seat of the new manufacture.[454] Favier-Duboulay writes to
Colbert that, before the introduction of the new points de France,
lace-making was to the peasants "une manne, et une vraie bénédiction du
ciel, qui s'est espandue sur tout ce pays." The art had spread far and wide
through the district about Alençon; children of seven years of age and aged
men earned their daily bread by it, and the shepherdesses worked at their
lace while herding their flocks.

{156}[Illustration: Fig. 73.

CHÂTEAU DE LONRAI, DÉP. ORNE.]

M. Odolent Desnos gives the following account of the invention and
establishment of point d'Alençon:--[455]

"In 1665, at the recommendation of the Sieur Ruel, he (Colbert) selected a
Madame Gilbert, a native of Alençon, already acquainted with the manner of
making Venice point, and making her an advance of 50,000 crowns,
established her at his château of Lonrai (Fig. 73), near Alençon, with
thirty forewomen, whom he had, at great expense, caused to be brought over
from Venice. In a short time Madame Gilbert arrived at Paris with the first
specimens of her fabric. The king, inspired by Colbert with a desire to see
the work, during supper at Versailles announced to his courtiers he had
just established a manufacture of point more beautiful than that of Venice,
and appointed a day when he would inspect the specimens. The laces were
artistically arranged over the walls of a room hung with crimson damask,
and shown to the best advantage. The king expressed himself delighted. He
ordered a large sum to be given to Madame Gilbert, and desired that no
other lace should appear at court except the new fabric, upon which he
bestowed the name of point de France.[456] Scarcely had Louis retired than
the courtiers eagerly stripped the room of its contents. The approval of
the monarch was the fortune of Alençon: point de France adopted by court
etiquette, the wearing of it became compulsory. All who had the privilege
of the 'casaque bleue'--all who were received at Versailles or were
attached to the royal household, could only appear, the ladies in trimmings
and headdresses, the gentlemen in ruffles and cravats of the royal
manufacture."

PLATE L.

[Illustration: CHENILLE RUN ON A BOBBIN GROUND.--Taken from an early
eighteenth century Court dress, and typical of a French dress passementerie
of that date. About half size.]

PLATE LI.

[Illustration: BRUSSELS. BOBBIN-MADE.--Early eighteenth century. Width, 3
in. Photos by A. Dryden from private collections.]

_To face page 156._

{157}Unfortunately for this story, the Château de Lonrai came into the
family of Colbert fourteen years after the establishment of the
lace-industry at Alençon,[457] and the name of Gilbert is not found in any
of the documents relating to the establishment of point de France, nor in
the correspondence of Colbert.[458]

An ordinance of August 5th, 1665, founded upon a large scale the
manufacture of points de France,[459] with an exclusive privilege for ten
years and a grant of 36,000 {158}francs. A company was formed,[460] its
members rapidly increased, and in 1668 the capital amounted to 22,000
livres. Eight directors were appointed at salaries of 12,000 livres a year
to conduct the manufacture, and the company held its sittings in the Hôtel
de Beaufort at Paris. The first distribution of profits took place in
October, 1669, amounting to fifty per cent. upon each share. In 1670 a
fresh distribution took place, and 120,000 livres were divided among the
shareholders. That of 1673 was still more considerable. In 1675 the ten
years' privilege ceased, the money was returned, and the rest of the
profits divided. Colbert likewise set up a fabric at the Château de Madrid,
built by Francis I., on the Bois de Boulogne. Such was the origin of point
lace in France.

The difficulties met by Colbert in establishing his manufactories can only
be estimated by reading his correspondence, in which there are no less than
fifty letters on the subject. The apathy of the town authorities and the
constant rebellions of the lace-workers who preferred their old stitch were
incessant sources of trouble to him, but eventually Colbert's plan was
crowned with success. He established a lucrative manufacture which brought
large sums of money into the kingdom[461] instead of sending it out. Well
might he say that[462] "Fashion was to France what the mines of Peru were
to Spain."[463]

{159}Boileau alludes to the success of the minister in his "Epistle to
Louis XIV":--

 "Et nos voisins frustrés de ces tributs serviles
  Que payait à leur art le luxe de nos villes."[464]

The point de France supplanted that of Venice,[465] but its price confined
its use to the rich, and when the wearing of lace became general those who
could not afford so costly a production replaced it by the more moderate
pillow-lace. This explains the great extension of the pillow-lace
manufacture at this period--the production did not suffice for the demand.
Encouraged by the success of the royal manufactures, lace fabrics started
up in various towns in the kingdom. The number of lace-workers increased
rapidly. Those of the towns being insufficient, they were sought for in the
surrounding country, and each town became the {160}centre of a trade
extending round it in a radius of several miles, the work being given out
from the manufactory to be executed by the cottagers in their own
homes.[466]



{161}CHAPTER X.

LOUIS XIV.--_continued_.

 "Tout change: la raison change aussi de méthode;
  Écrits, habillemens, systèmes: tout est mode."
                       Racine fils, _Epître à Rousseau_.


Point de France continued to be worn in the greatest profusion during the
reign of Louis XIV. The King affected his new-born fabric much as monarchs
of the present day do their tapestries and their porcelains. It decorated
the Church and her ministers. Ladies offered "tours de chaire à l'église de
la paroisse."[467] Albs, "garnies d'un grand point de France brodé
antique";[468] altar-cloths trimmed with Argentan[469] appear in the church
registers.[470] In a painting at Versailles, by Rigaud, representing the
presentation of the Grand Dauphin to his royal father, 1668, the infant is
enveloped in a mantle of the richest point (Fig. 74); and point de France
was selected by royal command to trim the sheets of holland used at the
ceremony of his "nomination."[471] At the marriage of the Prince de Conti
and of Mademoiselle de Blois the toilette[472] presented {162}by the King
was "garnie de point de France si haut qu'on ne voyait point de
toile."[473] The valance, too, and the coverlet of the bed were of the same
material.[474]

In this luxury, however, England followed her sister kingdom, for we read
in the _Royal Magazine_ of 1763 that on the baptism of the young prince,
afterwards Duke of York, the company went to the council chamber at St.
James's, where a splendid bed was set up for the Queen to sit on, the
counterpane of which is described as of inimitable workmanship, the lace
alone costing £3,783 sterling.[475] "What princes do themselves, they
engage others to do," says Quintilian, and the words of the critic were, in
this case, fully verified: jupes,[476] corsets, mantles, aprons with their
bibs,[477] shoes,[478] gloves,[479] even the fans were now trimmed with
point de France.[480]

At the audience given by the Dauphine to the Siamese ambassadors, "à ses
relevailles," she received them in a bed "presque tout couvert d'un tres
beau point de France, sur lesquels on avoit mis des riches carreaux."[481]
On the occasion of their visit to Versailles, Louis, proud of his fabric,
presented the ambassadors with cravats and ruffles of the finest
point.[482] These cravats were either worn of point, in one piece, or
partly of muslin tied, with falling lace ends.[483] (Fig. 75.)

[Illustration: Fig. 74.

LE GRAND BÉBÉ. (M. de Versailles.)

_To face page 162._]

{163}In 1679 the king gave a fête at Marly to the élite of his brilliant
court. When, at sunset, the ladies retired to repair their toilettes,
previous to the ball, each found in her dressing-room a robe fresh and
elegant, trimmed with point of the most exquisite texture, a present from
that gallant monarch not yet termed "l'inamusable."

Nor was the Veuve Scarron behind the rest. When, in 1674, she purchased the
estate from which she afterwards derived her title of Maintenon, anxious to
render it productive, she enticed Flemish workers from the frontier to
establish a lace manufacture upon her newly-acquired marquisate. How the
fabric succeeded history does not relate, but the costly laces depicted in
her portraits (Fig. 76) have not the appearance of home manufacture.

[Illustration: Fig. 75.

LOUVOIS. 1691.--(From his statue by Girardon. M. de Versailles.)]

Point lace-making became a favourite employment among ladies. We have many
engravings of this reign; one, 1691, of a "fille de qualité" thus occupied,
with the motto, "Apres {164}dîner vous travaillez au point." Another,[484]
an engraving of Le Paultre, dated 1676, is entitled "Dame en Déshabille de
Chambre" (Fig. 77).

"La France est la tête du monde" (as regards fashion), says Victor Hugo,
"cyclope dont Paris est l'oeil"; and writers of all ages seem to have been
of the same opinion. It was about the year 1680 that the

 "Mode féconde en mille inventions,
  Monstre, prodige étrange et difforme,"

was suddenly exemplified in France.

[Illustration: Fig. 76.

MADAME DE MAINTENON.--(From her portrait. M. de Versailles.)]

All readers of this great reign will recall to mind the story of the
"Fontanges." How in the hurry of the chase the locks of the royal favourite
burst from the ribbon that bound them--how the fair huntress, hurriedly
tying the lace kerchief round her head, produced in one moment a coiffure
so light, so artistic, that Louis XIV., enchanted, prayed her to retain it
for that night at court. The lady obeyed the royal command. This mixture of
lace and ribbon, now worn for the first time, caused a sensation, and the
next day all {165}the ladies of the court appeared "coiffées à la
Fontange." (See Madame du Lude, Fig. 79.)

[Illustration: Fig. 77.

A LADY IN MORNING DÉSHABILLE.--(From an engraving by Le Paultre. 1676.)]

But this head-dress, with its tiers of point mounted on wires,[485] soon
ceased to be artistic; it grew higher and higher.  Poets and satirists
attacked the fashion much as they did the high head-dresses of the Roman
matrons more than a thousand years ago.[486] Of the extinction of this mode
{166}we have various accounts, some asserting it to have been preached down
by the clergy, as were the _hennins_ in the time of Charles VI.; but the
most probable story is that which relates how, in October, 1699, Louis XIV.
simply observed, "Cette coiffure lui paroissoit désagréable." The ladies
worked all night, and next evening, at the Duchess of Burgundy's
reception,[487] appeared for the first time in a low head-dress.
Fashion,[488] which the author of the before-quoted _Consolation_ would
call _pompeux_, was "aujourd'hui en reforme." Louis XIV. never appreciated
the sacrifice; to the day of his death he persisted in saying, "J'ai eu
beau crier contre les coiffures trop hautes." No one showed the slightest
desire to lower them till one day there arrived "une inconnue, une guenille
d'Angleterre" (Lady Sandwich, the English Ambassadress!!), "avec une petite
coiffure basse--tout d'un coup, toutes les princesses vont d'une extrémité
a l'autre."[489] Be the accusation true or not, the _Mercure_ of November,
1699, announces that "La hauteur des anciennes coiffures commence á
paroître ridicule"; and St. Simon, in his _Memoirs_, satirises the fontange
as a "structure of brass wire, ribbons, hair, and baubles of all sorts,
about two feet high, which made a woman's face look as if it were in the
middle of her body."

In these days lace was not confined to Versailles and the Court.[490]

"Le gentilhomme," writes Capefigue, "allait au feu en manchettes poudré à
la maréchale, les eaux se senteur sur son mouchoir en point d'Angleterre,
l'élégance n'a jamais fait tort au courage, et la politesse s'allie
noblement à la bravoure."

But war brings destruction to laces as well as finances, {167}and in 1690
the loyal and noble army was found in rags. Then writes Dangeau: "M. de
Castanaga, à qui M. de Maine et M. de Luxembourg avoient demandé un
passeport pour fair venir des dentelles à l'armée, a refusé le passeport,
mais il a envoyé des marchands qui ont porté pour dix mille écus de
dentelles, et après qu'on les eut achetées, les marchands s'en retournèrent
sans vouloir prendre d'argent, disant qu'ils avoient cet ordre de M. de
Castanaga."

"J'avois une Steinkerque de Malines," writes the Abbé de Choisy, who always
dressed in female attire. We hear a great deal about these Steinkirks at
the end of the seventeenth century. It was a twisted lace necktie, and owed
its origin to the battle of that name in 1692,[491] when the young French
Princes of the Blood were suddenly ordered into action. Hastily tying their
lace cravats--in peaceful times a most elaborate proceeding--they rushed to
the charge, and gained the day. In honour of this event, both ladies and
cavaliers wore their handkerchiefs knotted or twisted in this careless
fashion.

 "Je trouve qu'en été le Steinkerque est commode,
  J'aime le falbala,[492] quoiqu'il soit critiqué,"

says somebody. Steinkirks became the rage, and held good for many years,
worn alike in England[493] and France by the women and the men. Fig. 78
represents the Grand Dauphin in his "longue Steinkerque à replis
tortueux";[494] Fig. 79 the Duchesse du Lude[495] in similar costume and
high Fontange, both copied from prints of the time.

We find constant mention now of the fashion of wearing a lace ruffle to the
ladies' sleeves, concerning the wearing of which "à deux rangs," or "à
trois rangs," there was much etiquette.

The falbalas were not given up until after the Regency; the use of them was
frequently carried to such an excess {168}that a caricaturist of that
period drew a lady so enveloped in them that she "looked like a turkey
shaking its feathers and spreading its comb." This caricature gave rise to
a popular song called "La Dinde aux Falbalas"; but in despite of song and
caricature, the flounce continued in popularity.

"Les manches plates se font de deux tiers de tour, avec une dentelle de fil
de point fort fin et fort haut. On nomme ces manches Engageantes."[496]

This fashion, though introduced in 1688, continued in vogue till the French
Revolution. We see them in the portrait of Madame Palatine, mother of the
Regent (Fig. 80), and in that of Madame Sophie de France, daughter of Louis
XV., taken in 1782 by Drouais.

[Illustration: Fig. 78.

LE GRAND DAUPHIN EN STEINKERQUE.]

[Illustration: Fig. 79.

MADAME DU LUDE EN STEINKERQUE.

_To face page 168._]

{169}[Illustration: Fig. 80.

MADAME PALATINE (ELIZ. CHARLOTTE DE BAVIÈRE), DUCHESSE D'ORLÉANS.

(By Rigaud. M. de Versailles.)]

Before finishing with point de France, we must allude to the équipage de
bain, in which this fabric formed a great item. As early as 1688, Madame de
Maintenon presents Madame de Chevreuse with an "équipage de bain de point
de France" of great magnificence. It consisted not only of a peignoir, but
a broad flounce, which formed a valance round the bath itself. You can see
them in old engravings of the day. Then there were the towels and the
_descente_, all equally costly,[497] for the French ladies of the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries admitted their _habitués_ not only to
the _ruelle_,[498] but also to the bath-room.[499] In the latter case the
bath {170}was _au lait_, _i.e._, clouded by the mixture of some essence.
"Aux autres temps, autres moeurs."

The "fameuse poupée" of the reign of Louis XIV. must not be forgotten. The
custom of dressing up these great dolls originated in the salons of the
Hôtel Rambouillet, where one, termed "la grande Pandore," at each change of
fashion was exhibited "en grand tenue"; a second, the little Pandore, in
morning _déshabille_. These dolls were sent to Vienna and Italy, charged
with the finest laces France could produce. As late as 1764 we read in the
_Espion Chinois_, "Il a débarqué à Douvres un grand nombre de poupées de
hauteur naturelle habillées à la mode de Paris, afin que les dames de
qualité puissent régler leurs goûts sur ces modèles."[500] Even when
English ports were closed in war-time, a special permission was given for
the entry of a large alabaster doll four feet high, the Grand Courrier de
la Mode.[501] In the war of the First Empire this privilege was refused to
our countrywomen; and from that time Englishwomen, deprived of all French
aid for a whole generation, began to dress badly. Pitt has much to answer
for. With this notice finishes our account of the reign of Louis XIV.

PLATE LII.

[Illustration: BRUSSELS. MODERN POINT DE GAZE.--Actual size.

Photo by A. Dryden.]

_To face page 170._



{171}CHAPTER XI.

LOUIS XV.

 "Le luxe corrompt tout, et le riche qui en jouit, et le pauvre qui le
      convoite."
                                                    --J. J. Rousseau.


Louis XIV. is now dead, to the delight of a wearied nation: we enter on the
Regency and times of Louis XV.--that age of "fourchettes," manchettes, and
jabots--in which the butterfly abbés, "les porte-dentelles par excellence,"
played so conspicuous a part.

The origin of the weeping ruffles, if Mercier[502] is to be credited, may
be assigned to other causes than royal decree or the edicts of fashion.
"Les grandes manchettes furent introduites par des fripons qui voulaient
filouter au jeu et escamoter des cartes." It never answers to investigate
too deeply the origin of a new invented mode,--sufficient to say, ruffles
became a necessary adjunct to the toilet of every gentleman. So
indispensable were they, the Parisians are accused of adopting the custom
of wearing ruffles and no shirts.

"Les Parisiens," writes Mercier, "achètent quatre ajustemens contre une
chemise. Un beau Monsieur se met une chemise blanche tous les quinze jours.
Il coud ses manchettes de dentelle sur une chemise sale," and powders over
his point collar till it looks white.[503] This habit passed into a
proverb. The Maréchal de Richelieu, who, though versed in astronomy, could
not spell, said of himself, "Qu'on ne lui avoit pas fourni des chemises,
mais qu'il avoit acheté des {172}manchettes."[504] This account tallies
well with former accounts[505] and with a letter of Madame de Maintenon to
the Princess des Ursins, 1710.[506]

At this period it was the custom for grisettes to besiege the Paris hotels,
bearing on their arms baskets decked out with ruffles and jabots of
Malines, Angleterre, and point. What reader of Sterne will not recollect
the lace-seller in his _Sentimental Journey_?

The jabot and manchettes of points were the customary "cadeau de noces" of
the bride to her intended for his wedding dress--a relic of which practice
may be found in the embroidered wedding shirt furnished by the lady, in the
North of Europe.[507] The sums expended in these articles would now appear
fabulous. The Archbishop of Cambray[508] alone possessed four dozen pairs
of ruffles, Malines, point, and Valenciennes. The Wardrobe Bills of the
Duke de Penthièvre of 1738 make mention of little else. An ell and a
quarter of lace was required for one pair of ruffles. A yard, minus 1/16,
sufficed for the jabot.[509] There were manchettes de jour, manchettes
tournantes,[510] and manchettes de nuit: these last-named were mostly of
Valenciennes.[511] The {173}point d'Alençon ruffles of Buffon, which he
always wore, even when writing, were exhibited in 1864 at Falaise, being
carefully preserved in the family to whom they have descended.

Even, if a contemporary writer may be credited, "Monsieur de Paris," the
executioner, mounted the scaffold in a velvet suit, powdered, with point
lace jabot and ruffles.

"Les rubans, les miroirs, les dentelles sont trois choses sans lesquelles
les François ne peuvent vivre. Le luxe démesuré a confondu le maître avec
le valet,"[512] says an unknown writer, quoted by Dulaure.[513] The
servants of the last century had on their state liveries lace equal in
richness to that worn by their masters.[514] Of a Prussian gentleman, we
read, "His valets, who according to the reigning tastes were the prettiest
in the world, wore nothing but the most costly lace."[515] This custom was
not confined, however, to France or the Continent. "Our very footmen,"
writes the angry _World_, "are adorned with gold and {174}silver bags and
lace ruffles. The valet is only distinguished from his master by being
better dressed;" while the _Connoisseur_ complains of "roast beef being
banished from even 'down stairs,' because the powdered footmen will not
touch it for fear of daubing their lace ruffles."[516]

But the time, of all others, for a grand display of lace was at a visit to
a Parisian lady on her "relevailles," or "uprising," as it was called, in
the days of our third Edward. Reclining on a chaise longue, she is
described as awaiting her visitors. Nothing is to be seen but the finest
laces, arranged in artistic folds, and long bows of ribbon. An attendant
stationed at the door asks of each new arrival, "Have you any perfumes?"
She replies not, and passes on--an atmosphere of fragrance. The lady must
not be spoken to, but, the usual compliments over, the visitors proceed to
admire her lace. "Beautiful, exquisite!"--but, "Hist! speak low," and she
who gave the caution is the first, in true French style, to speak the
loudest.[517]

Lace "garnitures de lit" were general among great people as early as 1696.
The _Mercure_ speaks of "draps garnis d'une grande dentelle de point
d'Angleterre." In 1738 writes the Duc de Luynes,[518] "Aujourd'hui Madame
de Luynes s'est fait apporter les fournitures qu'elle avoit choisies pour
la Reine, et qui regardent les dames d'honneur. Elles consistent en
couvrepieds[519] garnis de dentelle pour le grand lit et pour les petits,
en taies d'oreiller[520] garnies du {175}même point d'Angleterre, etc.
Cette fourniture coûte environ 30,000 livres, quoique Madame de Luynes
n'ait pas fait renouveler les beaux couvrepieds de la Reine." These
garnitures were renewed every year, and Madame de Luynes inherited the old
ones.

[Illustration: Fig. 81.

MADAME SOPHIE DE FRANCE, 1782, DAUGHTER OF LOUIS XV. By Drouais. M. de
Versailles. (In this picture the hexagonal brides and heavy relief of Point
d'Argentan are clearly to be seen.)]

{176}[Illustration: Fig. 82.

MADAME ADÉLAÏDE DE FRANCE, DAUGHTER OF LOUIS XV.--(M. de Versailles.)]

Madame de Créquy, describing her visit to the Duchesse Douairière de La
Ferté, says, when that lady received her, she was lying in a state bed,
under a coverlet made of point de Venise in one piece. "I am persuaded,"
she adds, "that the trimming of her sheets, which were of point d'Argentan,
were worth at least 40,000 écus."[521] To such a pitch had the taste for
lace-trimmed linen attained, that when, in 1739, Madame, eldest daughter of
Louis XV., espoused the Prince of Spain, the bill for these articles alone
amounted to £25,000; and when Cardinal Fleury, a most economical prelate,
saw the trousseau, he observed, "Qu'il croyait que c'etait pour marier
toutes les sept Mesdames."[522] (Figs. 81, 82). Again, Swinburne writes
from Paris:[523] "The trousseau of Mademoiselle de Matignon will cost
100,000 crowns (£25,000). The expense here of rigging[524] out a bride is
equal to a handsome portion in England. Five thousand pounds' worth  of
lace, linen, etc., is a common thing among them."

PLATE LIII.

[Illustration: MADAME LOUISE DE FRANCE. Trimmings and tablier of Point
d'Argentan.

Painted by Nattier at the age of eleven, 1748. M. de Versailles.]

_To face page 176._

{177}[Illustration: Fig. 83.

MARIE THÉRÈSE ANT. RAPH., INFANTA OF SPAIN, FIRST WIFE OF LOUIS DAUPHIN,
SON OF LOUIS XV.

--By Tocqué. Dated 1748. M. de Versailles.]

The masks worn by the ladies at this period were of black blonde lace[525]
of the most exquisite fineness and design.[526] They were trimmed round the
eyes, like those described by Scarron:--

 "Dirai-je comme ces fantasques
  Qui portent dentelle à leurs masques,
  En chamarrent les trous des yeux,
  Croyant que le masque en est mieux."

In the reign of Louis XV., point de France was rivalled {178}by the
productions of Angleterre[527] and Malines. Argentan and Alençon (Fig. 83)
were declared by fashion to be "dentelles d'hiver:" each lace now had its
appointed season.[528] "On porte le point en hiver," says the Dictionary of
the Academy.

There was much etiquette, too, in the court of France, as regards lace,
which was never worn in mourning. Dangeau chronicles, on the death of the
Princess of Baden, "Le roi qui avoit repris les dentelles et les rubans
d'or et d'argent, reprend demain le linge uni et les rubans unis
aussi."[529]

"Madame" thus describes the "petit deuil" of the Margrave of Anspach: "Avec
des dentelles blanches sur le noir, du beau ruban bleu, à dentelles
blanches et noires. C'etoit une parure magnifique."[530]



{179}CHAPTER XII.

LOUIS XVI. TO THE EMPIRE.

 "Proud Versailles! thy glory falls."--Pope.


[Illustration: Fig. 84.

MARIE-ANTOINETTE.--From a picture by Madame Le Brun. M. de Versailles.]

In the reign of Louis XVI. society, tired out with ceremony and the stately
manners of the old court, at last began to emancipate itself.
Marie-Antoinette (Fig. 84) first gave the signal. Rid herself of the
preaching of "Madame Etiquette" she could not on state occasions, so she
did her best to amuse herself in private. The finest Indian muslin now
supplanted the heavy points of the old court. Madame du Barry, in her
_Memoirs_, mentions the purchase of Indian muslin so fine {180}that the
piece did not weigh fifteen ounces, although sufficient to make four
dresses. "The ladies looked," indignantly observed the Maréchale de
Luxembourg, "in their muslin aprons and handkerchiefs like cooks and
convent porters."[531] To signify her disapproval of this new-fangled
custom, the Maréchale sent her grand-daughter, the Duchesse de Lauzun, an
apron of sailcloth trimmed with fine point and six fichus of the same
material similarly decorated. Tulle and marli[532] were much worn during
the latter years of the Queen's life, and entries of tulle, marli, blondes,
and embroidered linens occur over and over again in Madame Eloffe's
accounts with the Queen. The richer ornamental laces were not worn, and one
reads of items such as "a gauze fichu trimmed with white _prétention_."

On leaving Versailles for the last time (October 6th, 1789), Marie
Antoinette distributed among her suite all that remained of her fans and
laces.

The arrangement of the lace lappets was still preserved by rule. "Lappets
to be pinned up"--lappets to be let down on grand occasions.[533] Later
Madame de Staël, like a true _bas-bleu_--without speaking of her curtsey to
Marie Antoinette, which was all wrong--on her first visit of ceremony to
Madame de Polignac, in defiance of all etiquette, left her lace lappets in
the carriage.

The democratic spirit of the age now first creeps out in {181}the fashions.
Among the rich _parures_ of Du Barry[534] we find "barbes à la
paysanne"--everything now becomes "à coquille," "à papillon."

Even the Queen's hairdresser, Léonard, "qui

  "Portait jusques au ciel l'audace de ses coiffures,"

did not venture to introduce much lace.

The affected phraseology of the day is very "precious" in its absurdity. We
read of the toilette of Mademoiselle Duthé in which she appeared at the
opera. She wore a robe "soupirs étouffés," trimmed with "regrets
superflus"; a point of "candeur parfaite, garnie en plaintes indiscrètes";
ribbons en "attentions marquées"; shoes "cheveux de la reine,"[535]
embroidered with diamonds, "en coups perfides" and "venez-y-voir" in
emeralds. Her hair "en sentiments soutenus," with a cap of "conquête
assurée," trimmed with ribbons of "oeil abattu"; a "chat[536] sur le col,"
the colour of "gueux nouvellement arrivé," and upon her shoulders a Médicis
"en bienséance," and her muff of "agitation momentanée."

In the accounts of Mademoiselle Bertin, the Queen's milliner, known for her
saying, "Il n'y a rien de nouveau dans ce monde que ce qui est oublié," we
have little mention of lace.[537]

{182}"Blond à fond d'Alençon semé à poix, à mouches," now usurps the place
of the old points. Even one of the "grandes dames de la vieille cour,"
Madame Adélaïde de France herself, is represented in her picture by Madame
Guiard with a spotted handkerchief, probably of blonde (Fig. 85).

[Illustration: Fig. 85.

MADAME ADÉLAÏDE DE FRANCE.--After a picture by Madame Guiard, dated 1787.
M. de Versailles.]

The Church alone protects the ancient fabrics. The lace of the Rohan
family, almost hereditary Princes Archbishops of Strasburg, was of
inestimable value. "We met," writes the Baroness de Oberkirch, "the
cardinal coming out of his chapel dressed in a soutane of scarlet moire and
rochet of English lace of inestimable value. When on great occasions he
officiates at Versailles, he wears an alb of old lace 'en point à
l'aiguille' of such beauty that his assistants were almost afraid to touch
it. His arms and device are worked in a medallion above the large flowers.
This alb is estimated at 100,000 livres. On the day of which I speak he
wore the rochet of English lace, one of his least beautiful, as his
{183}secretary, the Abbé Georget, told me."[538] On his elevation to the
see of Bourges (1859), Monseigneur de La Tour d'Auvergne celebrated mass at
Rome arrayed with all the sacerdotal ornaments of point d'Alençon of the
finest workmanship. This lace descended to him from his uncle, Cardinal de
La Tour d'Auvergne, who had inherited it from his mother, Madame d'Aumale,
so well known as the friend of Madame de Maintenon. Under the first Empire,
a complete suit of lace was offered to the prelate for sale, which had
belonged to Marie-Antoinette. This lace is described as formed of squares
of old point d'Angleterre or de Flandre, each representing a different
subject. The beauty of the lace and its historic interest decided his
Eminence to speak of it to his colleague, Cardinal de Bonald, and these two
prelates united their resources, bought the lace, and divided it.

But this extravagance and luxury were now soon to end. The years of '92 and
'93 were approaching. The great nobility of France, who patronised the rich
manufactures of the kingdom at the expense of a peasantry starving on
estates they seldom if ever visited, were ere long outcasts in foreign
countries. The French Revolution was fatal to the lace trade. For twelve
years the manufacture almost ceased, and more than thirty different fabrics
entirely disappeared.[539] Its merits were, however, recognised by the
Etats Généraux in 1789, who, when previous to meeting they settled the
costume of the three estates, decreed to the _noblesse_ a lace cravat. It
was not until 1801, when Napoleon wished to "faire revenir le luxe," that
we again find it chronicled in the annals of the day: "How charming
Caroline Murat looked in her white mantelet of point de Bruxelles et sa
robe garnie des mêmes dentelles," etc. The old laces were the work of
years, and transmitted as heirlooms[540] from generation to generation.
{184}They were often heavy and overloaded with ornament. The ancient style
was now discarded and a lighter description introduced. By an improvement
in the point de raccroc several sections of lace were joined together so as
to form one large piece; thus ten workers could now produce in a month what
had formerly been the work of years.

Napoleon especially patronised the fabrics of Alençon, Brussels, and
Chantilly. He endeavoured, too, without success, to raise that of
Valenciennes. After the example of Louis XIV., he made the wearing of his
two favourite points obligatory at the Court of the Tuileries, and it is to
his protection these towns owe the preservation of their manufactures. The
lace-makers spoke of the rich orders received from the imperial court as
the most remarkable epoch in their industrial career. Never was the beauty
and costliness of the laces made for the marriage of Marie-Louise yet
surpassed. To reproduce them now would, estimates M. Aubry, cost above a
million of francs. Napoleon was a great lover of lace: he admired it as a
work of art, and was proud of the proficiency of his subjects. Mademoiselle
d'Avrillion relates the following anecdote:--The Princess Pauline had given
orders to the Empress Joséphine's lace-maker for a dress and various
objects to the value of 30,000 francs. When the order was completed and the
lace brought home, the Princess changed her mind and refused to take them.
Madame Lesoeur, in despair, appealed to the Empress. She, thinking the
price not unreasonable, considering the beauty of the points, showed them
to Napoleon, and told him the circumstance. "I was in the room at the
time," writes the authoress of the _Mémoires_. The Emperor examined
minutely each carton, exclaiming at intervals, "Comme on travaille bien en
France, je dois encourager un pareil commerce. Pauline a grand tort." He
ended by paying the bill and distributing the laces among the ladies of the
court.[541] Indeed, it may be said that never {185}was lace more in vogue
than during the early days of the Empire.

The morning costume of a French duchesse of that court is described in the
following terms:--"Elle portait un peignoir brodé en mousseline garni d'une
Angleterre très-belle, une fraise en point d'Angleterre. Sur sa tête la
duchesse avait jeté en se levant une sorte de 'baigneuse,' comme nos mères
l'auraient appelée, en point d'Angleterre, garnie de rubans de satin rose
pâle."[542] The fair sister of Napoleon, the Princess Pauline Borghese,
"s'est passionnée," as the term ran, "pour les dentelles."[543]

That Napoleon's example was quickly followed by the _élégantes_ of the
Directory, the following account, given to the brother of the author by an
elderly lady who visited Paris during that very short period[544] when the
English flocked to the Continent, of a ball at Madame Récamier's, to which
she had an invitation, will testify.

The First Consul was expected, and the _élite_ of Paris early thronged the
_salons_ of the charming hostess, but where was Madame Récamier?
"_Souffrante_," the murmur ran, retained to her bed by a sudden
indisposition. She would, however, receive her guests _couchée_.

The company passed to the bedroom of the lady, which, as still the custom
in France, opened on one of the principal _salons_. There, in a gilded bed,
lay Madame Récamier, the most beautiful woman in France. The bed-curtains
were of the finest Brussels lace, bordered with garlands of honeysuckle,
and lined with satin of the palest rose. The _couvrepied_ was of the same
material; from the pillow of embroidered cambric fell "des flots de
Valenciennes."

The lady herself wore a _peignoir_ trimmed with the most exquisite English
point. Never had she looked more lovely--never had she done the honours of
her hotel more gracefully. And so she received Napoleon--so she received
the heroes of that great empire. All admired her "fortitude," her
_dévouement_, in thus sacrificing herself to society, and on the following
day "tout Paris s'est fait inscrire chez elle." Never had such anxiety been
expressed--never had woman gained such a triumph.

{186}The Duchesse d'Abrantès, who married in the year 1800, describing her
trousseau,[545] says she had "des mouchoirs, des jupons, des canezous du
matin, des peignoirs de mousseline de l'Inde, des camisoles de nuit, des
bonnets de nuit, des bonnets de matin, de toutes les couleurs, de toutes
les formes, et tout cela brodé, garni de Valenciennes ou de Malines, ou de
point d'Angleterre." In the corbeille de mariage, with the cachemires were
"les voiles de point d'Angleterre, les garnitures de robes en point à
l'aiguille, et en point de Bruxelles, ainsi qu'en blonde pour l'été. Il y
avait aussi des robes de blonde blanche et de dentelle noire," etc. When
they go to the Mairie, she describes her costume: "J'avais une robe de
mousseline de l'Inde brodée au plumetis et en points à jour, comme c'était
alors la mode. Cette robe était à queue, montante et avec de longues
manches, le lé de devant entièrement brodé ainsi que le tour du corsage, le
bout des manches, qu'on appelait alors amadis. La fraise était en
magnifique point à l'aiguille, sur ma tête j'avais un bonnet en point de
Bruxelles.... Au sommet du bonnet était attachée une petite couronne de
fleurs d'oranger, d'où partait un long voile en point d'Angleterre qui
tombait à mes pieds et dont je pouvais presque m'envelopper." Madame Junot
winds up by saying that "Cette profusion de riches dentelles, si fines, si
déliées ne semblaient être qu'un réseau nuageux autour de mon visage, où
elles se jouaient dans les boucles de mes cheveux."

Hamlet always used to appear on the stage in lace cravat and ruffles, and
Talma, the French tragedian, was very proud of his wardrobe of lace. Dr.
Doran relates of him that on one occasion, when stopped by the Belgian
custom-house officers at the frontier, an official, turning over his
wardrobe, his stage costumes, etc., contemptuously styled them "habits de
Polichinelle." Talma, in a rage exclaimed, "Habits de Polichinelle! Why,
the lace of my jabot and ruffles alone is worth fifty louis a yard, and I
wear it on my private costume." "And must pay for it accordingly," added
the official. "Punch's clothes might pass untaxed, but Monsieur Talma's
lace owes duty to our king." Talma was forced to submit.

The French lace manufacture felt the political events of {187}1813 to 1817,
but experienced a more severe crisis in 1818, when bobbin net was first
made in France. Fashion at once adopted the new material, and pillow lace
was for a time discarded. For fifteen years lace encountered a fearful
competition. The manufacturers were forced to lower their prices and
diminish the produce. The marts of Europe were inundated with tulle; but
happily a new channel for exportation was opened in the United States of
North America. In time a reaction took place, and in 1834, with the
exception of Alençon, all the other fabrics were once more in full
activity.[546] But a cheaper class of lace had been introduced. In 1832-33
cotton thread first began to be substituted for flax.[547] The lace-makers
readily adopted the change; they found cotton more elastic and less
expensive. It gives, too, a brilliant appearance, and breaks less easily in
the working. All manufacturers now use the Scotch cotton, with the
exception of Alençon, some choice pieces of Brussels, and the finer
qualities of Mechlin and Valenciennes. The difference is not to be detected
by the eye; both materials wash equally well.

We now turn to the various lace manufactures of France, taking each in its
order.



{188}CHAPTER XIII.

THE LACE MANUFACTURES OF FRANCE.


France is a lace-making, as well as a lace-wearing, country.

Of the half a million of lace-makers in Europe, nearly a quarter of a
million are estimated as belonging to France.

Under the impulse of fashion and luxury, lace receives the stamp of the
special style of each country. Italy furnished its points of Venice and
Genoa. The Netherlands, its Brussels, Mechlin, and Valenciennes. Spain, its
silk blondes. England, its Honiton. France, its sumptuous point d'Alençon,
and its black lace of Bayeux and Chantilly. Now, each style is copied by
every nation; and though France cannot compete with Belgium in the points
of Brussels, or the Valenciennes of Ypres, she has no rival in her points
of Alençon and her white blondes, or her black silk laces. To begin with
Alençon, the only French lace not made on the pillow.


ALENÇON (DÉP. ORNE), NORMANDY.

 "Alenchon est sous Sarthe assis,
  Il luic divise le pays."--_Romant de Rou._

We have already related how the manufacture of point lace was established
by Colbert. The _entrepreneurs_ had found the lace industry flourishing at
the time of the point de France. (Page 155.)

PLATE LIV.

[Illustration: FRENCH. Border of POINT PLAT DE FRANCE to a baptismal veil
of embroidered muslin.--The orderly arrangement of the "brides" differs
from the Venetian, and foreshadows the "grande maille picotée."

In the Musée Cinquantenaire, Brussels.]

_To face page 188._

{189}[Illustration: Fig. 86.

COLBERT + 1683.--M. de Versailles.]

Point d'Alençon is mentioned in the _Révolte des Passemens_, 1661,
evidently as an advanced manufacture; but the monopoly of the privileged
workmen--the new-comers--displeased the old workwomen, and Colbert[548] was
too despotic in his orders prohibiting to make any kind of point except
that of the royal manufactory, and made the people so indignant that they
revolted. The intendant, Favier-Duboulay, writes to Colbert, August 1665,
that one named Le Prevost, of this town, having given suspicion to the
people that he was about to form an establishment of "ouvrages de fil," the
women to the number of above a thousand assembled, and pursued him so that,
if he had not managed to escape their fury, he would assuredly have
suffered from their violence. "He took refuge with me," he writes, "and I
with difficulty appeased the multitude by assuring them that they would not
be deprived of the liberty of working. It is a fact that for many years the
town of Alençon subsists only by means of these small works of lace: that
the same people make and sell, and in years of scarcity they subsist only
by this little industry, and that wishing to {190}take away their liberty,
they were so incensed I had great difficulty in pacifying them."

The Act, it appears, had come from the Parliament of Paris, but as Alençon
is in Normandy, it was necessary to have the assent of the Parliament of
Rouen.

The remonstrance of the intendant (see his letter in Chap. IX., page 155)
met with the attention it deserved.

On September 14th following, after a meeting headed by Prevost and the
Marquis de Pasax, intendant of the city, it was settled that after the king
had found 200 girls, the rest were at liberty to work as they pleased; none
had permission to make the fine point of the royal pattern, except those
who worked for the manufactory; and all girls must show to the authorities
the patterns they intended working, "so that the King shall be satisfied,
and the people gain a livelihood."

The "maîtresse dentellière," Catherine Marcq, writes to Colbert, November
30th, 1665, complaining of the obstinacy of the people, who prefer the old
work. "Out of 8,000 women, we have got but 700, and I can only count on 250
who at least will have learnt to perfection the Venetian point, the
remainder merely working a month and then leaving the establishment."

The new points are duly chronicled.[549] In 1677 the _Mercure_ announces,
"They make now many points de France without grounds, and 'picots en
campannes' to all the five handkerchiefs. We have seen some with little
flowers over the large, which might be styled 'flying flowers,' being only
attached in the centre."

In 1678 it says: "The last points de France have no brides, the fleurons
are closer together. The flowers, which are in higher relief in the centre,
and lower at the edges, are united by small stalks and flowers, which keep
them in their places, instead of brides. The manner of disposing the
branches, called 'ordonnances,' is of two kinds: the one is a twirling
stalk, which throws out flowers; the other is regular--a centre flower,
throwing out regular branches on each side." In October of the same year,
the _Mercure_ says: {191}"There has been no change in the patterns," and it
does not allude to them again. What can these be but Venice patterns? The
flower upon flower--like "fleurs volante"--exactly answers to the point in
high relief (Fig. 87).

[Illustration: Fig. 87.

VENICE POINT.--"Dentelle Volante."]

A memoir drawn up in 1698 by M. de Pommereu[550] is the next mention we
find of the fabric of Alençon. "The manufacture of the points de France is
also," he says, "one of the most considerable in the country. This fabric
began at Alençon, where most of the women and girls work at it, to the
number of more than eight to nine hundred, without counting those in the
country, which are in considerable numbers. It is a commerce of about
500,000 livres per annum. This point is called 'vilain'[551] in the
country; the principal sale was in Paris during the war, but the demand
increases very much since the peace, in consequence of its exportation to
foreign countries." The number of lace-workers given by M. Pommereu appears
small, but Alençon {192}manufacture was then on the decline. The death of
its protector, Colbert (1683), and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes,
which reduced the population one-third, the industrial families (qui
faisaient le principal commerce) retiring to England and Scotland, the long
wars of Louis XIV., and, finally, his death in 1715, all contributed to
diminish its prosperity.[552]

Savary, writing in 1726, mentions the manufacture of Alençon as not being
so flourishing, but attributes it to the long wars of Louis XIV. He adds,
"It still, however, maintains itself with some reputation at Alençon; the
magnificence, or, if you like, the luxury of France, sufficing to keep it
up even in war-time; but it flourishes principally in peace, in consequence
of the large exports to foreign countries." Russia and Poland were its
great marts: and before the Revolution, Poland estimates the annual value
of the manufacture at 11,000,000 to 12,000,000 livres.[553] The workwomen
earned from three sous to three livres per day.

In 1680, in _Britannia Languens_, a discourse upon trade, it states that
"the laces commonly called points de Venise now come mostly from France,
and amount to a vast sum yearly."

PLATE LV.

[Illustration: FRENCH. POINT D'ALENÇON.--Eighteenth century.  Period Louis
XV. Needle-point lappet end and border. These show in combination the
"Alençon," "réseau," and the "Argentan" hexagonal "brides."  The ribands in
the border show varieties of diaper pattern stitches similar to those in
the "modes" of heavy Venetian points. Widths: lappet 4½ in., border 3½ in.

Victoria and Albert Museum.]

_To face page 192._

{193}Point d'Alençon is made entirely by hand, with a fine needle, upon a
parchment pattern, in small pieces, afterwards united by invisible seams.
There are twelve processes, including the design, each of which is executed
by a special workwoman. These can again be subdivided, until the total
number of processes is twenty or twenty-two.[554] The design, engraved upon
a copper plate, is printed off in divisions upon pieces of parchment ten
inches long, each numbered according to its order. Green parchment is now
used, and has been in vogue since 1769, at which date it is noted in an
inventory of Simon Geslin (April 13th, 1769). The worker is better able to
detect any faults in her work than on white. The pattern is next pricked
upon the parchment, which is stitched to a piece of very coarse linen
folded double. The outline of the pattern is then formed by two flat
threads, which are guided along the edge by the thumb of the left hand, and
fixed by minute stitches passed, with another thread and needle, through
the holes of the parchment. When the outline is finished, the work is given
over to the "réseleuse" to make the ground, which is of two kinds, bride
and réseau. The delicate réseau is worked backwards and forwards from the
footing to the picot--of the bride, more hereafter. Besides the hexagonal
bride ground, and the ground of meshes, there was another variety of
grounding used in Alençon lace. "This ground consists of
buttonhole-stitched skeleton hexagons, within each of which was worked a
small solid hexagon connected with the surrounding figure by means of six
little tyes or brides." Lace with this particular ground has been called
Argentella.[555] In making the flowers of Alençon point, the worker
supplies herself with a long needle and a fine thread; with these she works
the "point noué" (buttonhole stitch) from left to right, and when arrived
at the end of the flower, the thread is thrown back from the point of
departure, and she works again from left to right over the thread. This
gives a closeness and evenness to the work unequalled in any other point.
Then follow the "modes," and other different operations, which completed,
the threads which unite lace, {194}parchment and linen together, are cut
with a sharp razor passed between the two folds of linen, any little
defects repaired, and then remains the great work of uniting all these
segments imperceptibly together. This task devolves upon the head of the
fabric, and is one requiring the greatest nicety. An ordinary pair of men's
ruffles would be divided into ten pieces; but when the order must be
executed quickly, the subdivisions are even greater. The stitch by which
these sections are worked is termed "assemblage," and differs from the
"point de raccroc," where the segments are united by a fresh row of
stitches. At Alençon they are joined by a seam, following as much as
possible the outlines of the pattern. When finished, a steel instrument,
called a picot, is passed into each flower, to polish it and remove any
inequalities in its surface. The more primitive lobster-claw or a wolf's
tooth was formerly used for the same purpose.

Point d'Alençon is of a solidity which defies time and washing, and has
been justly called the Queen of Lace. It is the only lace in which
horsehair is introduced along the edge to give firmness and consistency to
the cordonnet, rendered perhaps necessary to make the point stand up when
exposed to wind, mounted on the towering fabrics then worn by the ladies.
The objection to horsehair is that it shrinks in washing and draws up the
flower from the ground. It is related of a collar made at Venice for Louis
XIII. that the lace-workers, being unsuccessful in finding sufficiently
fine horsehair, employed some of their own hair instead, in order to secure
that marvellous delicacy of work which they aimed at producing. The
specimen, says Lefébure, cost 250 golden écus (about sixty pounds). In
1761, a writer, describing the point de France, says that it does not
arrive at the taste and delicacy of Brussels, its chief defect consisting
in the thickness of the cordonnet, which thickens when put into water. The
horsehair edge also draws up the ground, and makes the lace rigid and
heavy. He likewise finds fault with the "modes" or fancy stitches of the
Alençon, and states that much point is sent from there to Brussels to have
the modes added, thereby giving it a borrowed beauty; but connoisseurs, he
adds, easily detect the difference.[556]

[Illustration: Fig. 88.

ARGENTELLA, OR POINT D'ALENÇON À RÉSEAU ROSACÉ.--Period Louis XV.

_To face page 194._]

{195}When the points of Alençon and Argentan dropped their general
designations of "points de France"[557] it is difficult to say. An eminent
writer states the name was continued till the Revolution, but this is a
mistake. The last inventory in which we have found mention of point de
France is one of 1723,[558] while point d'Argentan is noted in 1738,[559]
and point d'Alençon in 1741, where it is specified to be "à réseau."[560]

In the accounts of Madame du Barry, no point d'Alençon is mentioned--always
point à l'aiguille--and "needle point" is the name by which point d'Alençon
was alone known in England during the last century. The purchases of needle
point of Madame du Barry were most extensive. Sleeves (engageantes) and
lappets for 8,400 livres; court ruffles at 1,100; a mantelet at 2,400; a
veste at 6,500; a grande coëffe, 1,400; a garniture, 6,010, etc.[561]

In the description of the Department of the Orne drawn up in 1801, it is
stated, "Fifteen years back there were from 7,000 to 8,000 lace-workers at
Alençon and its environs: the fabric of Argentan, whose productions are
finer and more costly, had about 2,000." Almost all these lace-makers, some
of whom made réseau, others the bride ground, passed into England, Spain,
Italy, Germany, and the courts of the north, especially to Russia. These
united fabrics produced to the annual value of at least 1,800,000 fr., and
when they had extraordinary orders, such as "parures" for beds and other
large works, it increased to 2,000,000 fr. (£80,000). But this commerce,
subject to the variable empire of fashion, had declined one-half even
before the Revolution. Now it is almost nothing, and cannot be estimated at
more than 150,000 to 200,000 fr. per annum. "It supported three {196}cities
and their territory, for that of Séez[562] bore its part. Some black laces
are still made at Séez, but they are of little importance.--P.S. These
laces have obtained a little favour at the last Leipsic fair."[563]

The manufacture of Alençon was nearly extinct when the patronage of
Napoleon caused it to return almost to its former prosperity. Among the
orders executed for the Emperor on his marriage with the Empress Marie
Louise, was a bed furniture of great richness. Tester, curtains, coverlet,
pillow-cases. The principal subject represented the arms of the empire
surrounded by bees. From its elaborate construction, point d'Alençon is
seldom met with in pieces of large size; the amount of labour therefore
expended on this bed must have been marvellous. Mrs. Palliser, when at
Alençon, was so fortunate as to meet with a piece of the ground powdered
with bees, bought from the ancient fabric of Mercier, at Lonray, when the
stock many years back was sold off and dispersed (Fig. 89). The point
d'Alençon bees are appliqué upon a pillow ground, "vrai réseau," executed
probably at Brussels. Part of the "équipage" of the King of Rome excited
the universal admiration of all beholders at the Paris Exhibition of 1855.

Alençon again fell with the empire. No new workers were trained, the old
ones died off, and as it requires so many hands to execute even the most
simple lace, the manufacture again nearly died out. In vain the Duchesse
d'Angoulême endeavoured to revive the fabric, and gave large orders
herself; but point lace had been replaced by blonde, and the consumption
was so small, it was resumed on a very confined scale. So low had it fallen
in 1830, that there were only between 200 and 300 lace-workers, whose
products did not exceed the value of 1,200 francs (£48). Again, in 1836,
Baron Mercier, thinking by producing it a lower price to procure a more
favourable sale, set up a lace school, and caused the girls to work the
patterns on bobbin net, as bearing some resemblance to the old "point de
bride," but fashion did not favour "point de bride," so the plan failed.

In 1840 fresh attempts were made to revive the {197}manufacture. Two
hundred aged women--all the lace-makers remaining of this once flourishing
fabric--were collected and again set to work. A new class of patterns was
introduced, and the manufacture once more returned to favour and
prosperity. But the difficulties were great. The old point was made by an
hereditary set of workers, trained from their earliest infancy to the one
special work they were to follow for life. Now new workers had to be
procured from other lace districts, already taught the ground peculiar to
their fabrics. The consequence was, their fingers never could acquire the
art of making the pure Alençon réseau. They made a good ground, certainly,
but it was mixed with their own early traditions: as the Alençon workers
say, "Elles bâtardisent les fonds."

[Illustration: Fig. 89.

BED MADE FOR NAPOLEON I.]

In the Exhibition of 1851 were many fine specimens of {198}the revived
manufacture. One flounce, which was valued at 22,000 francs, and had taken
thirty-six women eighteen months to complete, afterwards appeared in the
"corbeille de mariage" of the Empress Eugénie.

In 1856 most magnificent orders were given for the imperial layette, a
description of which is duly chronicled.[564] The young Prince was "voué au
blanc"; white, therefore, was the prevailing colour in the layette. The
curtains of the Imperial infant's cradle were of Mechlin, with Alençon
coverlet lined with satin. The christening robe, mantle, and head-dress
were all of Alençon; and the three _corbeilles_, bearing the imperial arms
and cipher, were also covered with the same point. Twelve dozen embroidered
frocks, each in itself a work of art, were all profusely trimmed with
Alençon, as were also the aprons of the Imperial nurses.

A costly work of Alençon point appeared in the Exhibition of 1855--a dress,
purchased by the Emperor for 70,000 francs (£2,800), and presented by him
to the Empress.

A few observations remain to be made respecting the dates of the patterns
of Alençon point, which, like those of other laces, will be found to
correspond with the architectural style of decoration of the period. The
"corbeilles de mariage" preserved in old families and contemporary
portraits are our surest guides.

In the eighteenth century the réseau ground was introduced, and soon became
universally adopted. After carefully examining the engravings of the time,
the collection of historical portraits at Versailles and other galleries,
we find no traces of Point d'Alençon with the réseau or network ground in
the time of Louis XIV. The laces are all of the Venetian character, à
bride, and Colbert himself is depicted in a cravat of Italian design;
while, on the other hand, the daughters of Louis XV. (Mesdames de France)
and the "Filles du Régent" all wear rich points of Alençon and
Argentan.[565] The earlier patterns of the eighteenth century are flowery
and undulating[566] (Fig. 91), scarcely {199}begun, never ending, into
which haphazard are introduced patterns of a finer ground, much as the
medallions of Boucher or Vanloo were inserted in the gilded panellings of a
room. Twined around them appear a variety of _jours_, filled up with
patterns of endless variety, the whole wreathed and garlanded like the
decoration of a theatre. Such was the taste of the day. "Après moi le
déluge"; and the precept of the favourite was carried out in the style of
design: an _insouciance_ and _laisser-aller_ typical of a people regardless
of the morrow.

Towards the latter end of the reign a change came over the national taste.
It appears in the architecture and domestic decoration. As the cabriole
legs of the chairs are replaced by the "pieds de daim," so the running
patterns of the lace give place to compact and more stiff designs. The
flowers are rigid and angular, of the style called _bizarre_, of almost
conventional form. With Louis XVI. began the ground _semé_ with compact
little bouquets, all intermixed with small patterns, spots (_pois_),
fleurons, rosettes, and tears (_larmes_) (Fig. 90), which towards the end
of the century entirely expel the bouquets from the ground. The semés
continued during the Empire.

This point came into the highest favour again during the Second Empire.
Costly orders for trousseaux were given not only in France, but from Russia
and other countries. One amounted to 150,000 francs (£6,000)--flounce,
lappets and trimmings for the body, pocket-handkerchief, fan, parasol, all
_en suite_, and, moreover, there were a certain number of metres of
_aunage_, or border lace, for the layette. The making of point d'Alençon
being so slow, it was impossible ever to execute it "to order" for this
purpose.

Great as is the beauty of the workmanship of Alençon, it was never able to
compete with Brussels in one respect: its designs were seldom copied from
nature, while the fabric of Brabant sent forth roses and honeysuckles of a
correctness worthy of a Dutch painter.

{200}This defect is now altered. The designs of the lace are admirable
copies of natural flowers, intermixed with grasses and ferns, which give a
variety to the form of the leaves.

[Illustration: Fig. 90.

ALENÇON POINT, À PETITES BRIDES.--Louis XVI.]

[Illustration: Fig. 91.

POINT D'ALENÇON.--Louis XV. period.

_To face page 200._]

{201}Alençon point is now successfully made at Burano near Venice, in
Brussels, at Alençon itself, and at Bayeux, where the fabric was
introduced, in 1855, by M. Auguste Lefébure, a manufacturer of that town.
Departing from the old custom of assigning to each lace-maker a special
branch of the work, the lace is here executed through all its stages by the
same worker. Perhaps the finest example of point d'Alençon exhibited in
1867 was the produce of the Bayeux fabric; a dress consisting of two
flounces, the pattern, flowers, and foliage of most artistic and harmonious
design, relieved by the new introduction of shaded tints, giving to the
lace the relief of a picture.[567] The ground (point à l'aiguille) was
worked with the greatest smoothness and regularity, one of the great
technical difficulties when such small pieces have to be joined together.
The price of the dress was 85,000 francs (£3,400). It took forty women
seven years to complete.

In the Exhibition of 1889 in Paris, Alençon itself showed the best piece of
lace that had taken 16,500 working days to make.



{202}CHAPTER XIV.

ARGENTAN (DÉP. ORNE).

 "Vous qui voulez d'Argentan faire conte,
  A sa grandeur arrêter ne faut;
  Petite elle est, mais en beauté surmonte
  Maintes cités, car rien ne lui defaut;
  Elle est assise en lieu plaisant et haut,
  De tout côtè à prairie, à campaigne,
  Un fleuve aussi, où maint poisson se baigne,
  Des bois épais, suffisans pour nourrir
  Biches et cerfs qui sont prompts à courir;
  Plus y trouvez, tant elle est bien garnie,
  Plus au besoin nature secourir
  Bon air, bon vin, et bonne compagnie!"
                             --_Des Maisons._ 1517.


The name of the little town of Argentan, whose points long rivalled those
of Alençon, is familiar to English ears as connected with our Norman kings.
Argentan is mentioned by old Robert Wace as sending its sons to the
conquest of England.[568] It was here the mother of Henry II. retired in
1130; and the imperial eagle borne as the arms of the town is said to be a
memorial of her long sojourn. Here the first Plantagenet held the "cour
plénière," in which the invasion of Ireland was arranged; and it was here
he uttered those rash words which prompted his adherents to leave Argentan
to assassinate Thomas à Becket.[569]

But, apart from historic recollections, Argentan is celebrated for its
point lace. A "bureau" for points de France was established at Argentan at
the same time as the bureau at Alençon (1665), and was also under the
direction of Madame Raffy. In a letter dated November 23rd, 1665, she
writes to Colbert: "Je suis très satisfaite de la publication à son de
trompe d'un arrêt qui ordonne aux ouvrières d'Argentan de travailler
uniquement pour la bureau de la manufacture royale."

PLATE LVI.

[Illustration: ]

[Illustration: POINT D'ARGENTAN.--Modern reproduction at Burano of the
flounce now belonging to the Crown of Italy, said formerly to have belonged
to Paul de Gondy, Cardinal de Retz 1614-79. This is evidently wrong, as the
design and execution is of fifty years later date, but it is a fine
specimen of an ecclesiastical flounce. Height, 24 in.

Photo by Burano School.]

_Between pages 202 and 203._

{203}Point d'Argentan has been thought to be especially distinguished by
its hexagonally-arranged brides; but this has also been noticed as a
peculiarity of certain Venetian point laces. The bride ground, to which we
have before alluded in the notice of Alençon, was of very elaborate
construction, and consists of a large six-sided mesh, worked over with the
buttonhole stitch. It was always printed on the parchment pattern, and the
upper angle of the hexagon is pricked. After the hexagon is formed, by
passing the needle and thread round the pins in a way too complicated to be
worth explaining, the six sides are worked over with seven or eight
buttonhole stitches in each side. The bride ground was consequently very
strong. It was much affected in France; the réseau was more preferred
abroad.[570] At the present time, it is usual to consider the point
d'Alençon as a lace with a fine réseau, the mesh of which is more square
than hexagonal in form, worked by looped stitches across horizontal lines
of thread, with the flower or ornament worked in fine point stitches,
closely resembling the gimp or ornament in the point de Venise à réseau,
and outlined by a cordonnet of the finest buttonhole stitches worked over a
horsehair or threads, while point d'Argentan is a lace with similar work as
regards flower, ornament, and cordonnet, but with a hexagonal bride ground,
each side of the hexagon being of the finest buttonhole stitchings.
Regarding the date of the introduction of the réseau, the large hexagonal
"grande bride" would appear to follow from the points de Venise, Argentan
being named before Alençon à réseau. Madame Despierres, however, is of
opinion that Argentan simplified the usual réseau by adopting the bride
tortillé (_i.e._, twisting the threads round each mesh instead of the more
arduous buttonhole stitching). Alençon would then {204}have copied back the
petites brides of small hexagonal twisted or buttonholed meshes in Louis
XVI.'s reign. To this again succeeded the looped réseau of very thick
thread.

With the view of showing that Alençon and Argentan were intimately
connected the one with the other in the manufacture of lace, M. Dupont says
that, whereas considerable mention has been made in various records of the
establishment at Alençon of a lace factory, trace of such records with
regard to Alençon cannot be found. A family of thread and linen dealers, by
name Monthulay, are credited with the establishment of a branch manufactory
or _succursale_ for lace at Argentan.

The Monthulays, then, sowed Alençon seeds at Argentan, which developed into
the so-called Argentan lace. In almost all respects it is the same as
Alençon work.[571] The two towns, separated by some ten miles, had
communications as frequent as those which passed between Alençon and the
little village of Vimoutier, eighteen miles distant, where one workman in
particular produced what is known as the true Alençon lace. If a work were
made at Argentan, it was called Argentan, if at Alençon, Alençon, though
both might have been produced from the same designs.

In 1708, the manufacture had almost fallen to decay, when it was raised by
one Sieur Mathieu Guyard, a merchant mercer at Paris, who states that "his
ancestors and himself had for more than 120 years been occupied in
fabricating black silk and white thread lace in the environs of Paris." He
applies to the council of the king for permission to re-establish the
fabric of Argentan and to employ workwomen to the number of 600. He asks
for exemption from lodging soldiers, begs to have the royal arms placed
over his door, and stipulates that Monthulay, his draughtsman and engraver,
shall be exempted from all taxes except the capitation. The Arrêt obtained
by Guyard is dated July 24th, 1708.

[Illustration: Fig. 92.

POINT D'ARGENTAN.

_To face page 204._]

{205}Guyard's children continued the fabric. Monthulay went over to another
manufacturer, and was replaced in 1715 by Jacques James, who, in his turn,
was succeeded by his daughter, and she took as her partner one Sieur De La
Leu. Other manufactures set up in competition with Guyard's; among others
that of Madame Wyriot, whose factor, Du Ponchel, was in open warfare with
the rival house.

The marriage of the Dauphin, in 1744, was a signal for open hostilities. Du
Ponchel asserted that Mademoiselle James enticed away his workmen, and
claimed protection, on the ground that he worked for the king and the
court. But on the other side, "It is I," writes De La Leu to the intendant,
on behalf of Mademoiselle James, "that supply the 'Chambre du Roi' for this
year, by order of the Duke de Richelieu. I too have the honour of
furnishing the 'Garderobe du Roi,' by order of the grand master, the Duke
de La Rochefoucault. Besides which, I furnish the King and Queen of Spain,
and at this present moment am supplying lace for the marriage of the
Dauphin."[572] Du Ponchel rejoins, "that he had to execute two 'toilettes
et leurs suites, nombre de bourgognes[573] et leurs suites' for the Queen,
and also a cravat, all to be worn on the same occasion." Du Ponchel appears
to have had the better interest with the controller-general; for the
quarrel ended in a prohibition to the other manufacturers to molest the
women working for Du Ponchel, though the Maison Guyard asked for
reciprocity, and maintained that their opponents had suborned and carried
off more than a hundred of their hands.[574]

The number of lace-makers in the town of Argentan and its environs at this
period amounted to nearly 1,200. In a list of 111 who worked for the Maison
Guyard appear the {206}names of many of the good bourgeois families of the
county of Alençon, and even some of noble birth, leading one to infer that
making point lace was an occupation not disdained by ladies of poor but
noble houses.

De La Leu, who, by virtue of an ordinance, had set up a manufacture on his
own account, applies, in 1745, to have 200 workwomen at Argentan, and 200
at Carrouges, delivered over to his factor, in order that he may execute
works ordered for the King and the Dauphin for the approaching fêtes of
Christmas. This time the magistrate resists. "I have been forced to admit,"
he writes to the intendant, "that the workmen cannot be transferred by
force. We had an example when the layette of the Dauphin was being made.
You then gave me the order to furnish a certain number of women who worked
at these points to the late Sieur de Monthulay. A detachment of women and
girls came to my house, with a female captain (capitaine femelle) at their
head, and all with one accord declared that if forced to work they would
make nothing but cobbling (bousillage). Partly by threats, and partly by
entreaty, I succeeded in compelling about a dozen to go, but the Sieur de
Monthulay was obliged to discharge them the next day.[575] I am therefore
of opinion that the only way is for M. De La Leu to endeavour to get some
of the workwomen to suborn others to work for him under the promise of
higher wages than they can earn elsewhere. M. De La Leu agrees with me
there is no other course to pursue; and I have promised him that, in case
any appeal is made to me, I shall answer that things must be so, as the
work is doing for the king." From this period we have scarcely any notices
concerning the fabric of Argentan.

In 1763 the widow Louvain endeavoured to establish at Mortagne (Orne) a
manufacture of lace like that of Alençon and Argentan, and proposed to send
workers from these two towns to teach the art gratuitously to the girls of
Mortagne. We do not know what became of her project; but at the same period
the Epoux Malbiche de Boislaunay applied for permission to establish an
office at Argentan, with the ordinary exemptions, under the title of Royal
Manufacture. The title and exemptions were refused. There were then (1763)
at Argentan three manufactures of point de France, without counting the
general hospital of St. Louis, in which it was made for the profit of the
institution, and evidently with success; for in 1764, a widow Roger was in
treaty with the hospital to teach her two daughters the fabrication of
point d'Argentan. They were to be boarded, and give six years of their
time. The fine on non-performance was 80 livres. In 1781, the Sieur
Gravelle Desvallées made a fruitless application to establish a manufacture
at Argentan; nor could even the children of the widow Wyriot obtain a
renewal of the privilege granted to their mother.[576] Gravelle was ruined
by the Revolution, and died in 1830.

[Illustration: Fig. 93.

POINT D'ARGENTAN.--Grande bride ground. Eighteenth century.

_To face page 206._]

{207}Arthur Young, in 1788, estimates the annual value of Argentan point at
500,000 livres.

Taking these data, we may fix the reigns of Louis XV. and Louis XVI. as the
period when point d'Argentan was at its highest prosperity. It appears in
the inventories of the personages of that time; most largely in the
accounts of Madame du Barry (from 1769 to 1773), who patronized Argentan
equally with point d'Angleterre and point à l'aiguille. In 1772, she pays
5,740 francs for a complete garniture. Lappets, flounces, engageantes,
collerettes, aunages, fichus, are all supplied to her of this costly
fabric.[577]

One spécialité in the Argentan point is the "bride picotée," a remnant,
perhaps, of the early Venetian teaching. It consists of the six-sided
button-hole bride, fringed with a little row of three or four picots or
pearls round each side. It was also called "bride épinglée," because pins
were pricked in the parchment pattern, to form these picots or boucles
(loops) on; hence it was sometimes styled "bride bouclée."[578] {208}The
"écaille de poisson" réseau was also much used at Alençon and Argentan.

The manner of making "bride picotée" is entirely lost. Attempts were made
to recover the art some years since (1869), and an old workwoman was found
who had made it in her girlhood, but she proved incapable of bringing the
stitch back to her memory, and the project was given up.[579]

Point d'Argentan disappeared, and was re-established in 1708; but though a
few specimens were produced at the Exhibition of Industry in 1808, the
industry died out in 1810.[580] It was again revived with some success by
M. M. Lefébure in 1874. In January 1874, with the assistance of the mayor,
he made a search in the greniers of the Hôtel Dieu, and discovered three
specimens of point d'Argentan in progress on the parchment patterns. One
was of bold pattern with the "grande bride" ground, evidently a man's
ruffle; the other had the barette or bride ground of point de France; the
third picotée, showing that the three descriptions of lace were made
contemporaneously at Argentan.

The author of a little pamphlet on Argentan, M. Eugène[581] de Lonlay,
remembers having seen in his youth in the Holy week, in the churches of St.
Martin and St. Germain, the statues of the apostles covered from head to
foot with this priceless point.

Argentan is now much made at Burano. Plate LVI. illustrates one of their
fine reproductions.

PLATE LVII.

[Illustration: FRENCH. POINT D'ARGENTAN.--Eighteenth century.  Period Louis
XV.  Needle-point borders. Both these have the hexagonal ground of the
genre "Argentan."  The upper one is chiefly filled in with the "oeil de
perdrix" or "réseau rosacé."  Width, 3-3/8 in. The lower one has been
pieced together. Width, 7 in.

Victoria and Albert Museum.]

_To face page 208._



{209}CHAPTER XV.

ISLE DE FRANCE.--PARIS (DÉP. SEINE).

 "Quelle heure est-il?
  Passé midi.
  Qui vous l'a dit?
  Une petite souris.
  Que fait-elle?
  De la dentelle.
  Pour qui?
  La reine de Paris."--_Old Nursery Song._


Early in the seventeenth century, lace was extensively made in the environs
of Paris, at Louvres, Gisors, Villiers-le-Bel, Montmorency, and other
localities. Of this we have confirmation in a work[582] published 1634, in
which, after commenting upon the sums of money spent in Flanders for
"ouvrages et passemens,[583] tant de point couppé que d'autres," which the
king had put a stop to by the sumptuary law of 1633, the author
says:--"Pour empescher icelle despence, il y a toute l'Isle de France et
autres lieux qui sont remplis de plus de dix mille familles dans lesquels
les enfans de l'un et l'autre sexe, dès l'âge de dix ans ne sont instruits
qu'à la manufacture desdits ouvrages, dont il s'en trouve d'aussi beaux et
bien faits que ceux des étrangers; les Espagnols, qui le sçavent, ne s'en
fournissent ailleurs."

Who first founded the lace-making of the Isle de France it is difficult to
say; a great part of it was in the hands of the Huguenots, leading us to
suppose it formed one of the numerous "industries" introduced or encouraged
by {210}Henry IV. and Sully. Point de Paris, mignonette, bisette, and other
narrow cheap laces were made, and common guipures were also fabricated at
St. Denis, Écouen, and Groslay. From 1665 to the French Revolution, the
exigencies of fashion requiring a superior class of lace, the workwomen
arrived gradually at making point of remarkable fineness and superior
execution. The lappet (Fig. 94) is a good example of the delicacy of the
fine point de Paris. The ground resembles the fond chant, the six-pointed
star meshed réseau.

[Illustration: Fig. 94.

POINT DE PARIS.--Reduced.]

[Illustration: Fig. 95.

POINT DE FRANCE.--Bobbin lace. Seventeenth century. With portraits of Louis
XIV. and Marie Thérèse.

Mrs. Palliser gives this illustration the above designation in her last
edition; in her former ones, that of Flemish lace. The lace has lately come
into the possession of Mr. Arthur Blackborne. It appears to be Flemish work
made for the French Queen.

_To face page 210._]

{211}Savary, who wrote in 1726, mentions how, in the Château de Madrid,
there had long existed a manufacture of points de France.[584] A second
fabric was established by the Comte de Marsan,[585] in Paris, towards the
end of the same century. Having brought over from Brussels his nurse, named
Dumont, with her four daughters, she asked him, as a reward for the care
she had bestowed upon him in his infancy, to obtain for her the privilege
of setting up in Paris a manufactory of point de France. Colbert granted
the request: Dumont was established in the Faubourg St. Antoine--classic
land of embroidery from early times--cited in the "Révolte des Passemens,"
"Telle Broderie qui n'avoit jamais esté plus loin que du Faubourg S.
Antoine au Louvre." A "cent Suisse" of the king's was appointed as guard
before the door of her house. In a short time Dumont had collected more
than 200 girls, among whom were several of good birth, and made beautiful
lace called point de France. Her fabric was next transferred to Rue Saint
Sauveur, and subsequently to the Hôtel Saint-Chaumont, near the Porte St.
Denis. Dumont afterwards went to Portugal, leaving her fabric under the
direction of Mademoiselle de Marsan. But, adds the historian, as fashion
and taste often change in France, people became tired of this point. It
proved difficult to wash; the flowers had to be raised each time it was
cleaned; it was thick and unbecoming to the face. Points d'Espagne were now
made instead, with small flowers, which, being very fine, was more suitable
for a lady's dress. Lastly, the taste for Mechlin lace coming in, the
manufacture of Dumont was entirely given up.[586]

In the time of Louis XIV. the commerce of lace was distributed in different
localities of Paris, as we learn from the "Livre Commode"[587] already
quoted. The gold laces, forming of themselves a special commerce, had their
shops in the "rue des Bourdonnais (in which silk laces were especially
sold) and the rue Sainte-Honoré, entre la place aux Chats et les piliers
des Halles," while the rue Bétizy retained for itself the spécialité of
selling "points et dentelles."

The gold and silver laces of Paris, commonly known as points
d'Espagne,[588] often embellished with pearls and other {212}ornaments,
were for years renowned throughout all Europe; and, until the revocation of
the Edict of Nantes, an object of great commerce to France. Its importance
is shown by the sumptuary edicts of the seventeenth century forbidding its
use, and also by its mention in the _Révolte des Passemens_. It was made on
the pillow. Much was exported to Spain and the Indies. How those exiled
workmen were received by the Protestant princes of Europe, and allowed to
establish themselves in their dominions, to the loss of France and the
enrichment of the lands of their adoption, will be told in due time, when
we touch on the lace manufactures of Holland and Germany. (Plate LVIII.)

Since 1784, little lace has been made in Paris itself, but a large number
of lace-makers are employed in applying the flowers of Binche and Mirecourt
upon the bobbin-net grounds.


CHANTILLY (DÉP. OISE).

 "Dans sa pompe élégante admirez Chantilli,
  De héros en héros, d'âge en âge embelli."
                              --Delille. _Les Jardins._

Although there long existed lace-makers in the environs of Paris, the
establishment for which Chantilly was celebrated owes its formation to
Catherine de Rohan, Duchesse de Longueville, who sent for workwomen from
Dieppe and Havre to her château of Étrepagny, where she retired at the
beginning of the seventeenth century, and established schools.

The town of Chantilly, being the centre of a district of lace-makers, has
given its name to the laces of the surrounding district, the trade being
distributed over more than a hundred villages, the principal of which are
Saint-Maximien, Viarmes, Méric, Luzarches, and Dammartin. The proximity to
Paris, affording a ready sale for its productions, caused the manufacture
to prosper, and the narrow laces which they first made--gueuse and point de
Paris--were soon replaced by guipures, white thread, and black silk
lace.[589]

PLATE LVIII.

[Illustration: FRENCH (OR DUTCH).--Borders of gold and silver thread and
gimp lace.  Eighteenth century. From the Treasury of St. Mary's Church,
Dantzig. Widths: 1-1/8, 1¾ and 4¼ in.

Victoria and Albert Museum.]

_To face page 212._

{213}Some twenty years since there dwelt at Chantilly an elderly lady,
grand-daughter of an old proprietor, who had in her possession one of the
original pattern-books of the fabric, with autograph letters of Marie
Antoinette, the Princess de Lamballe, and other ladies of the court, giving
their orders and expressing their opinion on the laces produced. We find in
the inventories of the last century, "coëffure de cour de dentelle de soye
noire," "mantelet garni de dentelles noires," a "petite duchesse et une
respectueuse," and other "coëffes," all of "dentelle de soye noire."[590]

White blonde appears more sparingly. The Duchesse de Duras has "une paire
de manchettes à trois rangs, deux fichus et deux paires de sabots en
blonde."[591] The latter to wear, probably, with her "robe en singe." Du
Barry purchases more largely.[592] See pages 181, 182, and 224.

Fig. 96 is a specimen taken from the above-mentioned pattern-book; the
flowers and ground are of the same silk, the flowers worked en grillé (see
Chap. III., grillé), or open stitch, instead of the compact tissue of the
"blondes mates," of the Spanish style. The cordonnet is a thicker silk
strand, flat and untwisted. This is essentially "Chantilly lace." The
fillings introduced into the flowers and other ornaments in Chantilly lace
are mesh grounds of old date, which, according to the district where they
were made, are called vitré, mariage, and cinq trous. Chantilly first
created the black silk lace industry, and deservedly it retains her name,
whether made there or in Calvados. Chantilly black lace has always been
made of silk, but from its being a grenadine, not a shining silk, a common
error prevails that it is of thread, whereas black thread lace has never
been made {214}either at Chantilly or Bayeux. The distinguishing feature of
this lace is the _fond chant_ (an abbreviation of Chantilly), the
six-pointed star réseau, or, as it is better described, a diamond crossed
by two horizontal threads.

Chantilly fell with '93. Being considered a Royal fabric, and its
productions made for the nobility alone, its unfortunate lace-workers
became the victims of revolutionary fury, and all perished, with their
patrons, on the scaffold. We hear no more of the manufacture until the
Empire, a period during which Chantilly enjoyed its greatest prosperity. In
1805, white blonde became the rage in Paris, and the workwomen were chiefly
employed in its fabrication. The Chantilly laces were then in high repute,
and much exported, the black, especially, to Spain and her American
colonies; no other manufactories could produce mantillas, scarfs, and other
large pieces of such great beauty. It was then they made those rich
large-patterned blondes called by the French "blondes mates," by the
Spaniards "trapeada," the prevailing style since the First Empire.

[Illustration: Fig. 96.

CHANTILLY.--Reduced.--From one of the Order Books, temp. Louis XVI.]

About 1835 black lace again came into vogue, and the lace-makers were at
once set to work at making black silk laces with double ground, and
afterwards they revived the hexagonal ground of the last century, called
fond d'Alençon,[593] for the production of which they are celebrated.

The lace industry has been driven away from Chantilly by the increase in
the price of labour consequent on its vicinity to the capital. The lace
manufacturers, unable to {215}pay such high salaries, retired to Gisors,
where in 1851 there were from 8,000 to 9,000 lace-makers. They continued to
make the finest lace some years longer at Chantilly; but now she has been
supplanted by the laces of Calvados, Caen, and Bayeux, which are similar in
material and in mode of fabrication. The generally so-called Chantilly
shawls are the production of Bayeux.



{216}CHAPTER XVI.

NORMANDY.

 "Dangling thy hands like bobbins before thee."
                --Congreve, _Way of the World_.


SEINE INFÉRIEURE.

Lace forms an essential part of the costume of the Normandy peasants. The
wondrous "Bourgoin,"[594] with its long lappets of rich lace, descended
from generation to generation, but little varied from the cornettes of the
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries (Fig. 97). The countrywomen wore their
lace at all times, when it was not replaced by the cotton nightcap, without
much regard to the general effect of their daily clothes. "Madame the
hostess," writes a traveller in 1739, "made her appearance in long lappets
of bone lace, with a sack of linsey wolsey."

The manufactures of the Pays de Caux date from the beginning of the
sixteenth century. It appears to have been the first centre in Normandy, as
in 1661 Havre laces occur in the _Révolte des Passemens_. Lace-making was
the principal occupation of the wives and daughters of the mariners and
fishermen. In 1692, M. de Sainte-Aignan, governor of Havre, found it
employed 20,000 women.[595]

{217}[Illustration: Fig. 97.

CAUCHOISE.--From an engraving of the eighteenth century.]

It was in the province of Normandy, as comprised in its ancient extent,
that the lace trade made the most rapid increase in the eighteenth century.
From Arras to St. {218}Malo more than thirty centres of manufacture
established themselves, imitating with success the laces of Mechlin; the
guipures of Flanders; the fond clair, or single ground, then called point
de Bruxelles; point de Paris; black thread laces, and also those guipures
enriched with gold and silver, so much esteemed for church ornament. The
manufactures of Havre, Honfleur, Bolbec, Eu, Fécamp, and Dieppe were most
thriving. They made double and single grounds, guipure, and a kind of thick
Valenciennes, such as is still made in the little town of Honfleur and its
environs. In 1692 the number of lace-makers at Havre and its environs was
not less than 22,000. Corneille,[596] 1707, declares the laces of Havre to
be "très recherchées"; and in an engraving, 1688, representing a "marchande
lingère en sa boutique,"[597] among the stock in trade, together with the
points of Spain and England, are certain "cartons" labelled "Point du
Havre." It appears also in the inventory of Colbert, who considered it
worthy of trimming his pillow-cases and his camisoles;[598] and Madame de
Simiane[599] had two "toilettes garnies de dentelle du Hâvre," with an
"estuy à peigne," en suite.

Next in rank to the points du Havre came the laces of Dieppe and its
environs, which, says an early writer of the eighteenth century, rivalled
the "industrie" of Argentan and Caen. The city of Dieppe alone, with its
little colony of Saint-Nicolas-d'Aliermont (a village two leagues distant,
inhabited by the descendants of a body of workmen who retired from the
bombardment of Dieppe),[600] employed 4,000 lace-makers. A writer in
1761[601] says, "A constant trade is that of laces, which yield only in
precision of design and fineness to those of Mechlin; but it has never been
so considerable as it was at the end of the seventeenth century. Although
it has slackened since about 1745 for the amount of its productions, which
have diminished in value, it has not altogether fallen. As this work is the
occupation of women and girls, a great number of whom have no other means
of subsistence, there is also a large number of dealers who buy their
laces, to send them into other parts of the kingdom, to Spain, and the
islands of America. This trade is free, without any corporation; but those
who make lace without being mercers cannot sell lace thread, the sale of
which is very lucrative."[602]

PLATE LIX.

[Illustration: FRENCH, CHANTILLY. FLOUNCE, BLACK SILK, BOBBIN-MADE.--Much
reduced.]

PLATE LX.

[Illustration: FRENCH, LE PUY. BLACK SILK GUIPURE, BOBBIN-MADE.

Photos by A. Dryden from laces the property of Mr. Arthur Blackborne.]

_To face page 218._

{219}[Illustration: Fig. 98.

PETIT POUSSIN.--Dieppe.]

About twenty years later we read, "The lace manufacture, which is very
ancient, has much diminished since the points, embroidered muslins, and
gauzes have gained the preference; yet good workers earn sufficient to live
comfortably; but those who have not the requisite dexterity would do well
to seek some other trade, as inferior lace-workers are unable to earn
sufficient for a maintenance."[603] M. Feret writes in 1824,[604] "Dieppe
laces are in little request; nevertheless there is a narrow kind, named
'poussin,' the habitual resource and work of the poor lace-makers of this
town, and which recommends itself by its cheapness and pleasing effect when
used as a trimming to collars and morning dresses. Strangers who visit our
town make an ample provision of this lace" (Fig. 98). The lace-makers of
Dieppe love to give their own {220}names to their different laces--vierge,
Ave Maria, etc. (Fig. 99)--and the designation of Poussin (chicken) is
given to the lace in question from the delicacy of its workmanship.

Point de Dieppe (Fig. 100) much resembles Valenciennes, but is less
complicated in its make. It requires much fewer bobbins, and whereas
Valenciennes can only be made in lengths of eight inches without detaching
the lace from the pillow, the Dieppe point is not taken off, but
rolled.[605] It is now no longer made. In 1826 a lace school was
established at Dieppe, under the direction of two sisters from the Convent
of La Providence at Rouen, patronized by the Duchesse de Berri, the Queen
of the French, and the Empress Eugénie. The exertions of the sisters have
been most successful. In 1842 they received the gold medal for having, by
the substitution of the Valenciennes for the old Dieppe stitch, introduced
a new industry into the department. They make Valenciennes of every width,
and are most expert in the square grounds of the Belgian Valenciennes, made
entirely of flax thread, unmixed with cotton, and at most reasonable
prices.[606]

[Illustration: Fig. 99.

AVE MARIA.--Dieppe.]

A very pretty double-grounded old Normandy lace, greatly used for caps, was
generally known under the name of "Dentelle à la Vierge" (Fig. 101). We
find only one mention of a lace so designated, and that in the inventory
made in 1785, after the death of Louis-Philippe, Duke of {221}Orleans, the
father of Egalité, where in his chapel at Villers-Cotterets is noted, "Une
aube en baptiste garnie en gros point de dentelle dite à la Vierge."[607]

[Illustration: Fig. 100.

POINT DE DIEPPE.--Bobbin-made.]

The lace of Eu, resembling Valenciennes, was much esteemed. Located on the
site of a royal château, the property of the Duc de Penthièvre, himself a
most enthusiastic lover of fine point, as his wardrobe accounts testify,
the {222}lace-makers received, no doubt, much patronage and encouragement
from the seigneur of the domain. In the family picture by Vanloo, known as
the "Tasse de Chocolat," containing portraits of the Duc de Penthièvre, his
son, and the unfortunate Princesse de Lamballe, together with his daughter,
soon to be Duchess of Orleans, the duke, who is holding in his hand a
medal, enclosed in a case, wears a lace ruffle of Valenciennes pattern,
probably the fabric of his own people (Fig. 102).

[Illustration: Fig. 101.

DENTELLE À LA VIERGE.]

{223}Arthur Young, in 1788, states the wages of the lace-makers seldom
exceed from seven or eight sous per day; some few, he adds, may earn
fifteen. Previous to the Revolution, the lace made at Dieppe amounted to
400,000 francs annually. But Normandy experienced the shock of 1790. Dieppe
had already suffered from the introduction of foreign lace when the
Revolution broke out in all its fury. The points of Havre, with the fabrics
of Pont-l'Evêque (Dép. Calvados), Harfleur, Eu, and more than ten other
neighbouring towns, entirely disappeared. Those of Dieppe and Honfleur
alone trailed on a precarious existence.

[Illustration: Fig. 102.

DUC DE PENTHIÈVRE.--Vanloo. M. de Versailles.]


CALVADOS.

The principal lace centres in the department of Calvados are Caen and
Bayeux.

From an early date both black and white thread laces were made, of which
the former was most esteemed. It was not until 1745 that the blondes made
their appearance. The first silk used for the new production was of its
natural colour, "écrue," hence these laces were called "blondes."[608]
{224}The blonde of the time of Marie Antoinette is a very light fabric with
spots or outline threads of thicker silk forming a pattern. Later, in the
time of the Empire, the Spanish style came into vogue. The
eighteenth-century patterns were again copied at Caen in the middle of the
nineteenth century. After a time silk was procured of a more suitable
white, and those beautiful laces produced, which before long became of such
commercial importance. A silk throwster, M. Duval, was in a great degree
the originator of the success of the Caen blondes, having been the first to
prepare those brilliant white silks which have made their reputation. The
silk is procured from Bourg-Argental, in the Cevennes. The Caen workers
made the Chantilly lace, "Grillé blanc," already described,[609] and also
the "blonde de Caen," in which the flower is made with a different silk
from that which forms the réseau and outlined with a thick silk strand. The
réseau is of the Lille type, fond simple. It is this kind of blonde which
is so successfully imitated at Calais.

Lastly the "blonde mate," or Spanish, already mentioned. In no other place,
except Chantilly, have the blondes attained so pure a white, such perfect
workmanship, such lightness, such brilliancy as the "Blondes de Caen." They
had great success in France, were extensively imported, and made the
fortune of the surrounding country, where they were fabricated in every
cottage. Not every woman can work at the white lace. Those who have what is
locally termed the "haleine grasse," are obliged to confine themselves to
black. In order to preserve purity of colour, the lace-makers work during
the summer months in the open air, in winter in lofts over their
cow-houses: warmed by the heat of the animals, they dispense with fire and
its accompanying smoke.[610] Generally, it was only made in summer, and the
black reserved for winter work. Peuchet speaks of white lace being made in
Caen from the lowest price to twenty-five livres the ell.[611] According to
Arthur Young, the earnings {225}of the blonde-workers were greater than
those of Dieppe or Havre, a woman gaining daily from fifteen to thirty
sous. The silk blonde trade did not suffer from the crisis of 1821 to '32:
when the thread-lace-makers were reduced to the brink of ruin by the
introduction of bobbin net, the demand for blonde, on the contrary, had a
rapid increase, and Caen exported great quantities, by smuggling, to
England. The blonde-makers earning twenty-five per cent. more than the
thread-lace-makers, the province was in full prosperity. The competition
with the machine-made blondes of Calais and Nottingham has caused the
manufacture of the white blondes to be abandoned, and the Caen lace-makers
have now confined themselves to making black lace. Caen also produces gold
and silver blondes, mixed sometimes with pearls. In 1847 the laces of Caen
alone employed more than 50,000 persons, or one-eighth of the whole
population of Calvados.

Bayeux formerly made only light thread laces--mignonette, and what Peuchet
calls[612] "point de Marli." "On ne voit dans ces dentelles," he writes,
"que du réseau de diverses espèces, du fond et une canetille à gros fil,
qu'on conduit autour de ces fonds." Marli, styled in the Dictionary of
Napoléon Landais a "tissu à jour en fil et en soie fabriqué sur le métier à
faire de la gaze," was in fact the predecessor of tulle. It was invented
about 1765,[613] and for twenty years had great success, and was much worn
by Marie Antoinette. When the mesh ground with an edging of loops, which
constituted this lace in the decadence of Louis XVI., had a pattern, it was
pois, rosettes, or the spots of point d'esprit. In the _Tableau de Paris_,
1782, we read that Marli employed a great number of workpeople, "et l'on a
vu des soldats valides et invalides faire le marli, le promener, l'offrir,
et le vendre eux-mêmes. Des soldats faire le marli!" It was to this Marli,
or large pieces of white thread net, that Bayeux owed its reputation. No
other fabric could produce them at so low a price. Bayeux alone made albs,
shawls, and other articles of large size, of thread lace.

{226}Lace was first made at Bayeux in the convents and schools, under the
direction of the nuns of "La Providence." The nuns were sent there at the
end of the seventeenth century, to undertake the supervision of the
work-room founded by the Canon Baucher, in the old church of S. George. In
1747 the Abbé Suhard de Loucelles provided additional rooms for them in a
house in the Faubourg St. Loup, close by the church of Notre Dame de la
Poterie. In a short time more than 400 young women were employed at the two
sets of work-rooms, and in 1758 the aldermen of the town presented to the
intendant of the province a pair of thread lace cuffs, which, according to
the accounts of the municipality, cost 144 livres. It was not until 1740
that a commercial house was established by M. Clément; from which period
the manufacture has rapidly increased, and is now one of the most important
in France. The black laces of Caen, Bayeux, and Chantilly, are alike; the
design and mode of fabrication being identical, it is almost impossible,
for even the most experienced eye, to detect the difference. They are
mostly composed of "piece goods," shawls, dresses, flounces, and veils,
made in small strips, united by the stitch already alluded to, the _point
de raccroc_, to the invention of which Calvados owes her prosperity. This
stitch, invented by a lace-maker named Cahanet, admits of putting a number
of hands on the same piece, whereas, under the old system, not more than
two could work at the same time. A scarf, which would formerly have taken
two women six months to complete, divided into segments, can now be
finished by ten women in one. (Plate LIX.)

About 1827, Madame Carpentier caused silk blonde again to be made for
French consumption, the fabric having died out. Two years later she was
succeeded by M. Auguste Lefébure, by whom the making of "blondes mates" for
exportation was introduced with such success, that Caen, who had applied
herself wholly to this manufacture, almost gave up the competition.
Mantillas (Spanish, Havanese, and Mexican), in large quantities, were
exported to Spain, Mexico and the Southern Seas, and were superior to those
made in Catalonia. This manufacture requires the greatest care, as it is
necessary to throw aside the French taste, and adopt the heavy, overcharged
patterns appropriate to the costumes and fashions of the countries for
which they are destined. These mantillas have served as models for the
imitation made at Nottingham. (Plate LXI.)

PLATE LXI.

[Illustration: FRENCH. BLONDE MATE, IN SPANISH STYLE.--Nineteenth century.
Photo by A. Dryden.]

_To face page 226._

{227}[Illustration: Fig. 103.

MODERN BLACK LACE OF BAYEUX.--Much reduced.]

To the exertions of M. Lefébure is due the great improvement in the
teaching of the lace schools. Formerly the apprentices were consigned to
the care of some aged lace-maker, probably of deficient eyesight; he, on
the contrary, {228}placed them under young and skilful forewomen, and the
result has been the rising up of a generation of workers who have given to
Bayeux a reputation superior to all in Calvados. It is the first fabric for
large pieces of extra fine quality and rich designs; and as the point
d'Alençon lace has also been introduced into the city, Bayeux excels
equally at the pillow and the needle (Figs. 103 and 104).

Messrs. Lefébure have also most successfully reproduced the Venetian point
in high relief; the raised flowers are executed with great beauty and the
picots rendered with great precision. The discovery of the way in which
this complicated point lace was made has been the work of great patience.
It is called "Point Colbert." See page 188.

In 1851 there were in Calvados 60,000 lace-workers, spread along the
sea-coast to Cherbourg, where the nuns of La Providence have an
establishment. It is only by visiting the district that an adequate idea
can be formed of the resources this work affords to the labouring classes,
thousands of women deriving from it their sole means of subsistence.[614]

Bayeux is now the centre for high-class lace-making in France. M. Lefébure
considers that the fichus, mantillas, etc., that are made of fine white
thread in the country round Bayeux have all the suppleness and softness
which contribute to the charm of Mechlin lace, to which they have a close
affinity.


BRETAGNE.

No record of lace-making occurs in Bretagne, though probably the Normandy
manufacturers extended westward along the coast. At all events, the wearing
of it was early adopted.

[Illustration: Fig. 104.

POINT COLBERT.--Venetian point in relief reproduced by M. Lefébure.

_To face page 228._]

{229}Embroidered tulle or point d'esprit was made in Brittany as in
Denmark, and around Genoa, where its production still continues.
Embroidered muslins with open-work lace stitches were also made in Brittany
during the eighteenth century, and called Broderie des Indes, after the
Indian muslin scarfs that were brought to Europe at that date, and set the
fashion.

There is a popular ballad of the province, 1587, on "Fontenelle le
Ligueur," one of the most notorious partizans of the League in Bretagne. He
has been entrapped at Paris, and while awaiting his doom, sends his page to
his wife, with these words (we spare our readers the Breton dialect):--

  "Page, mon page, petit page, va vite à Coadelan et dis à la pauvre
  héritière[615] de ne plus porter des dentelles.

  "De ne plus porter des dentelles, parce que son pauvre époux est en
  peine. Toi, rapporte-moi une chemise à mettre, et un drap pour
  m'ensevelir."[616]

One singular custom prevails among the ancient families in Bretagne; a
bride wears her lace-adorned dress but twice--once on her wedding-day, and
only again at her death, when the corse lies in state for a few hours
before its placing in the coffin. After the marriage ceremony the bride
carefully folds away her dress[617] in linen of the finest homespun,
intended for her winding sheet, and each year, on the anniversary of the
wedding-day, fresh sprigs of lavender and rosemary are laid upon it until
the day of mourning.



{230}CHAPTER XVII.

VALENCIENNES (DÉP. DU NORD).

  "Ils s'attachoient à considerer des tableaux de petit point de la
  manufacture de Valencienne qui representoient des fleurs, et comme ils
  les trouvoient parfaitement beaux, M. de Magelotte, leur hôte, vouloit
  les leur donner, mais ils ne les acceptèrent point."--1686. _Voyage des
  Ambassadeurs de Siam._


Part of the ancient province of Hainault, Valenciennes, together with Lille
and Arras, is Flemish by birth, French only by conquest and treaty.[618]

Its lace manufacture has been supposed to date from the fifteenth century,
its first productions being attributed to Pierre Chauvin and Ignace Harent,
who employed a three-thread twisted flax. This early date, however, is
probably not correct. It is more probable that Valenciennes developed from
and took the place of the lace-making foundation of Colbert at Le Quesnoy.
The lace of Le Quesnoy is never mentioned after Louis XIV., whereas after
that reign Valenciennes comes into notice. It reached its climax from 1725
to 1780, when there were from 3,000 to 4,000 lace-makers in the city alone.

One of the finest known specimens of the earlier fabric is a lace-bordered
alb,[619] belonging to the ladies of the Convent of the Visitation,[620] at
Le Puy. The lace is 28 inches wide, consisting of three breadths, entirely
of white thread, very fine, though thick. The solid pattern, which with its
flowers and scrolls partakes of the character of the Renaissance, comes out
well from the clear réseau ground.

[Illustration: Fig. 105.

VALENCIENNES.--1650-1730

_To face page 230._]

{231}From 1780 downwards, fashion changed. The cheaper and lighter laces of
Brussels, Lille, and Arras, obtained the preference over the costly and
more substantial products of Valenciennes--les éternelles Valenciennes, as
they were called--while the subsequent disappearance of ruffles from the
costume of the men greatly added to the evil. Valenciennes fell with the
monarchy. During the war of liberty, foreign occupation decimated its
population, and the art became nearly lost. In 1790, the number of
lace-workers had diminished to 250; and, though Napoleon used every effort
to revive the manufacture, he was unsuccessful. In 1851 there were only two
lace-makers remaining, and they both upwards of eighty years of age.

The lace made in the city alone was termed "Vraie Valenciennes," and
attained a perfection unrivalled by the productions of the villages beyond
the walls. In the lace accounts of Madame du Barry we find constant mention
of this term.[621] "Vraie Valenciennes" appears constantly in
contradistinction to "bâtarde"[622] and "fausse," simply leading us to
suppose that the last-mentioned appellations signify the laces fabricated
in the neighbourhood. In support of this assertion, M. Dieudonné
writes:[623] "This beautiful manufacture is so inherent in the place, that
it is an established fact, if a piece of lace were begun at Valenciennes
and finished outside the walls, the part which had not been made at
Valenciennes would be visibly less beautiful and less perfect than the
other, though continued by the same lace-maker with the same thread, and
upon the same pillow."[624]

{232}[Illustration: Fig. 106.

VALENCIENNES.--Period Louis XIV.]

PLATE LXII.

[Illustration: VALENCIENNES.--Three specimens of seventeenth and eighteenth
century. Arranged by age, the oldest at the top, which was made for a royal
personage, with the initials E. P.; it is now the property of Mr. Arthur
Blackborne. Widths of the middle and lower pieces 1½ and 2½ in.

Photos by A. Dryden.]

_To face page 232._

{233}The extinction of the fabric and its transfer to Belgium has been a
great commercial loss to France. Valenciennes, being specially a "dentelle
linge," is that of which the greatest quantity is consumed throughout the
universe. Valenciennes lace is altogether made upon the pillow, with one
kind of thread for the pattern and the ground (Fig. 106). No lace is so
expensive to make, from the number of bobbins required, and the flax used
was of the finest quality. The city-made lace was remarkable for the beauty
of its ground, the richness of its design, and evenness of its tissue. Its
mesh is square or diamond-shaped, and it has no twisted sides; all are
closely plaited. The ornament is not picked out with a cordonnet, as is the
case with Mechlin; but, like Mechlin, the ground went through various
modifications, including the "fond de neige," before the réseau was finally
fixed. From their solidity, "les belles et éternelles Valenciennes" became
an heirloom in each family. A mother bequeathed them to her daughter as she
would now her jewels or her furs.[625] The lace-makers worked in
underground cellars, from four in the morning till eight at night, scarcely
earning their tenpence a day. The pattern was the especial property of the
manufacturer; it was at the option of the worker to pay for its use and
retain her work, if not satisfied with the price she received. This lace
was generally made by young girls; it did not accord with the habits of the
"mère bourgeoise" either to abandon her household duties or to preserve the
delicacy of hand requisite for the work. It may be inferred, also, that no
eyes could support for a number of years the close confinement to a cellar:
many of the women are said to have become almost blind previous to
attaining the age of thirty. It was a great point when the whole piece was
executed by the same lace-worker. "All by the same hand," we find entered
in the bills of the lace-sellers of the time.[626]

The labour of making "vraie Valenciennes" was so great that while the Lille
lace-workers could produce from three to five ells a day, those of
Valenciennes could not complete more than an inch and a half in the same
time. Some lace-workers only made half an ell (24 inches) in a {234}year,
and it took ten months, working fifteen hours a day, to finish a pair of
men's ruffles--hence the costliness of the lace.[627] A pair of ruffles
would amount to 4,000 livres, and the "barbes pleines,"[628] as a lady's
cap was then termed, to 1,200 livres and upwards.

[Illustration: Fig. 107.

VALENCIENNES.]

[Illustration: Fig. 108.

VALENCIENNES LAPPET.--Period Louis XVI.

_To face page 234._]

{235}The Valenciennes of 1780 was of a quality far superior to any made in
the present century. The réseau was fine and compact, the flower resembling
cambric in its texture; the designs still betraying the Flemish origin of
the fabric--tulips, carnations, iris, or anemones--such as we see in the
old Flemish flower-pieces, true to nature, executed with Dutch exactness
(Fig. 108). The city owed not its prosperity to the rich alone; the
peasants themselves were great consumers of its produce. A woman laid by
her earnings for years to purchase a "bonnet en vraie Valenciennes," some
few of which still appear in the northern provinces of France at church
festivals and holidays. These caps are formed of three pieces, "barbes,
passe, et fond." The Norman women also loved to trim the huge fabric with
which they overcharge their heads with a real Valenciennes; and even in the
present day of "bon marché" a peasant woman will spend from 100 to 150
francs on a cap which is to last her for life.

The last important piece made within the city walls was a head-dress of
"vraie Valenciennes" presented by the city to the Duchesse de Nemours, on
her marriage in 1840. It was furnished by Mademoiselle Ursule Glairo,
herself an aged lady, who employed the few old lace-workers then living,
with the patriotic wish of exhibiting the perfection of the ancient
manufacture.[629]


LILLE (DÉP. DU NORD).

 "Ces points couppés, passements et dentelles,
  Las! qui venoient de l'Isle et de Bruxelles."
              --_Consolation des Dames._ 1620.

The fabrics of Lille and Arras are identical; both make white lace with
single grounds (fond simple); but the productions of Lille are far superior
to those of Arras in quality. The manufacture of the capital of French
Flanders vies with those of the Netherlands in antiquity. As early as 1582
its lace-makers are described, at the entry of the Duke of Anjou into the
city, "as wearing a special costume. A gown of striped stuff, with a cap of
fine linen plaited in small flutes." A silver medal suspended from the neck
by a black ribbon completed a dress which has descended to the nineteenth
century.[630] The peace of Aix-la-Chapelle having transferred Lille to
France, many of its artizans retired to {236}Ghent; they are described at
that period as making both white and black lace.[631] The art, however, did
not die out, for in 1713,[632] on the marriage of the Governor, young
Boufflers, to Mademoiselle de Villeroi, the magistrates of Lille presented
him with lace to the value of 4,000 livres.[633]

[Illustration: Fig. 109.

LILLE.]

The beauty of the Lille lace is its ground, called "Point de Lille," or
fond clair, "the finest, lightest, most {237}transparent, and best made of
all grounds."[634] The work is simple, consisting of the ground, with a
thick thread to mark the pattern[635] (Fig. 109). Instead of the sides of
the mesh being plaited, as in Valenciennes, or partly plaited, partly
twisted, as in Brussels and Mechlin, four of the sides are formed by
twisting two threads round each other, and the remaining two sides by
simple crossing of the threads over each other. In the eighteenth century
more than two-thirds of the lace-making population of Europe made it under
the name of mignonettes and blondes de fil.

The "treille"[636] was finer in the last century; but in 1803 the price of
thread having risen 30 per cent.,[637] the lace-makers, unwilling to raise
the prices of their lace, adopted a larger treille, in order to diminish
the quantity of thread required.

The straight edge and stiff pattern of the old Lille lace is well known
(Fig. 110).

The laces of Lille, both black and white, have been much used in France:
though Madame Junot speaks disparagingly of the fabric,[638] the light
clear ground rendered them especially adapted for summer wear.

They found great favour also in England, into which country one-third of
the lace manufactured throughout the Département du Nord was smuggled in
1789.[639] The broad black Lille lace has always been specially admired,
and was extensively used to trim the long silk mantles of the eighteenth
century.[640]

{238}In 1788 there were above 16,000 lace-makers at Lille, and it made
120,000 pieces[641] of lace, representing a value of more than £160,000. In
1851 the number of lace-makers was reduced to 1,600; it is still gradually
diminishing, from the competition of the fabric of Mirecourt and the
numerous other manufactures established at Lille, which offer more
lucrative wages than can be obtained by lace-making.

[Illustration: Fig. 110.

LILLE.]

The old straight-edged is no longer made, but the rose pattern of the
Mechlin is adopted, and the style of that lace copied: the semé of little
square dots (_points d'esprit_) on the ground--one of the characteristics
of Lille lace--is still retained. In 1862 Mrs. Palliser saw at Lille a
complete garniture of beautiful workmanship, ordered for a trousseau at
Paris, but the commercial crisis and the revolutions of 1848 virtually put
an end to the lace industry of Lille and Arras.


{239}ARRAS (ARTOIS) (DÉP. PAS-DE-CALAIS).

 "Arras of ryche arraye,
  Fresh as floures in Maye."--Skelton.

Arras, from the earliest ages, has been a working city. Her citizens were
renowned for the tapestries which bore their name: the nuns of her convents
excelled in all kinds of needlework. In the history of the Abbaye du
Vivier,[642] we are told how the abbess, Madame Sainte, dite la Sauvage,
set the sisters to work ornaments for the church:--

 "Les filles dans l'ouvroir tous les jours assemblées
  N'y paroissent pas moins que l'Abbesse zelées,
  Celle cÿ d'une aiguille ajuste au petit point
  Un bel etuy d'autel que l'eglise n'a point,
  Broche d'or et de soÿe un voile de Calice;
  L'autre fait un tapis du point de haute lice,
  Dont elle fait un riche et precieux frontal;
  Une autre coud une aube, ou fait un corporal;
  Une autre une chasuble, ou chappe nompareille,
  Où l'or, l'argent, la soÿe, arrangés à merveille,
  Representant des saints vestus plus richement
  Que leur eclat n'auroit souffert de leur vivant;
  L'autre de son Carreau detachant la dentelle,
  En orne les surplis de quelque aube nouvelle."

Again, among the first rules of the institution of the "Filles de
Sainte-Agnès," in the same city, it is ordained that the girls "aprendront
a filer ou coudre, faire passement, tapisseries ou choses semblables."[643]

The Emperor Charles V. is said, however, to have first introduced the lace
manufacture into Arras.[644] Arras was one of the seats of Colbert's
manufactures, probably of the Flemish bobbin lace. It flourished in the
eighteenth century, when, writes Arthur Young, in 1788, were made "coarse
thread laces, which find a good market in England. The lace-workers earn
from 12 to 15 sous." Peuchet corroborates this statement.  "Arras," he
says, {240}"fait beaucoup de mignonette et entoilage, dont on consomme
boucoup en Angleterre." The fabric of Arras attained its climax during the
Empire (1804 to 1812), since which period it has declined. In 1851 there
were 8,000 lace-makers in a radius of eight miles round the city, their
salary not exceeding 65 centimes a day. In 1881, however, the trade had
enormously decreased, only one house making a speciality of the old
patterns. The old Arras laces are now no more.

[Illustration: Fig. 111.

ARRAS.--Modern.]

There is little, or, indeed, no variety in the pattern of Arras lace; for
years it produced the same style and design. As a consequence of this, the
lace-makers, from always executing the same pattern, acquired great
rapidity. Though not so fine as that of Lille, the lace of Arras has three
good qualities: it is very strong, firm to the touch, and perfectly white;
hence the great demand for both home and foreign consumption, no other lace
having this triple merit at so reasonable a price (Fig. 111).

The gold lace of Arras appears also to have had a reputation. We find among
the coronation expenses of George I. a charge for 354 yards of Arras lace
"atrebaticæ lacinæ."[645]


{241}BAILLEUL (DÉP. DU NORD).

As already mentioned, up to 1790 the "vraie Valenciennes" was only made in
the city of that name. The same lace manufactured at Lille, Bergues,
Bailleul, Avesnes, Cassel, Armentières, as well as that of Belgium, was
called "Fausses Valenciennes." "Armentières et Bailleul ne font que de la
Valencienne fausse, dans tous les prix," writes Peuchet. "On nomme," states
another author,[646] "fausses Valenciennes la dentelle de même espèce,
inférieure en qualité, fabriquée moins serrée, dont le dessin est moins
recherché et le toilé des fleurs moins marqué." Of such is the lace of
Bailleul,[647] whose manufacture is the most ancient and most important,
extending to Hazebrouck, Bergues, Cassel, and the surrounding
villages.[648]

Previous to 1830, Bailleul fabricated little besides straight edges for the
Normandy market. In 1832 the scalloped edge was adopted, and from this
period dates the progress and present prosperity of the manufacture. Its
laces are not much esteemed in Paris. They have neither the finish nor
lightness of the Belgian products, are soft to the touch, the mesh round,
and the ground thick; but it is strong and cheap, and in general use for
trimming lace. The lace, too, of Bailleul, is the whitest and cleanest
Valenciennes made; hence it is much sought after, for exportation to
America and India. The patterns are varied and in good taste; and there is
every reason to expect that in due time it may attain the perfection, if
not of the Valenciennes of Ypres, at least to that of Bruges, which city
alone annually sends to France lace to the value of from £120,000 to
£160,000.



{242}CHAPTER XVIII.

AUVERGNE AND VÉLAY.

----

LE PUY (DÉP. HAUTE-LOIRE).

As early as the fifteenth century the countrywomen from the mountains of
the Vélay would congregate together during the winter within the walls of
the neighbouring cities, and there, forming themselves into companies, gain
their subsistence by making coarse lace to ornament the albs of the
priests, the rochets of the bishops, and the petticoats of ladies of
quality. And very coarse and tasteless were these early products, to judge
from the specimens which remain tacked on to faded altar-cloths, still to
be met with in the province, a mixture of netting and darning without
design. They also made what was termed "dentelles de menage" with the
coarse thread they used for weaving their cloth. They edged their linen
with it, and both bleached together in the wearing.

The lace region of Central France, of which Le Puy is the centre, is
considered to be the most ancient and considerable in France. It is
distributed over the four departments,[649] and employs from 125,000 to
130,000 women. It forms the sole industry of the Haute-Loire, in which
department alone are 70,000 lace-makers.

The lace industry of Le Puy, like all others, has experienced various
changes; it has had its trials[650] and its periods of great
prosperity.[651] In the chronicles of Le Puy of the sixteenth century[652]
we read that the merciers of Notre-Dame {243}des Anges "qui, suivant
l'usage faisaient dans notre ville le commerce des passementeries,
broderies, dentelles, etc., comptaient alors quarante boutiques, et qu'ils
figurent avec enseignes et torches au premier rang dans les solennités
religieuses."

Judging from local documents, this manufacture has for more than two
centuries back formed the chief occupation of the women of this province.

It suffered from the sumptuary edicts of 1629, 1635 and 1639, and in 1640
threatened to be annihilated altogether. In the month of January of that
year, the Seneschal of Le Puy published throughout the city a decree of the
Parliament of Toulouse, which forbade, under pain of heavy fine, all
persons of whatever sex, quality, or condition, to wear upon their
vestments any lace "tant de soie que de fil blanc, ensemble passement,
clinquant d'or ni d'argent fin ou faux;" thus by one ordinance annihilating
the industry of the province. The reason for this absurd edict was twofold:
first, in consequence of the large number of women employed in the lace
trade, there was great difficulty in obtaining domestic servants; secondly,
the general custom of wearing lace among all classes caused the shades of
distinction between the high and low to disappear. These ordinances, as may
be imagined, created great consternation throughout Le Puy. Father Régis, a
Jesuit, who was then in the province, did his best to console the sufferers
thus reduced to beggary by the caprice of Parliament. "Ayez confiance en
Dieu," he said; "la dentelle ne perira pas." He set out to Toulouse, and by
his remonstrances obtained a revocation of the edict. Nor did he rest
satisfied with his good work. At his suggestion the Jesuits opened to the
Auvergne laces a new market in Spain and the New World, which, until the
year 1790, was the occasion of great prosperity to the province. The Jesuit
Father, who died in December 1640, was later canonised for his good deeds;
and under his new appellation of Saint François Régis, is still held in the
greatest veneration by the women of Auvergne--as the patron saint of the
lace-makers.

Massillon, when bishop of Clermont (1717), greatly patronised the
lace-makers of his diocese, and, anxious that the province should itself
furnish the thread used in the manufacture, he purchased a quantity of
spinning-wheels, which he distributed among the poor families of
Beauregard, {244}the village in which the summer palace of the bishop,
previous to the Revolution, was situated.

The lace trade of this province frequently appears on the scene during the
eighteenth century. In 1707 the manufacturers demand a remission of the
import duties of 1664 as unfair,[653] and with success. Scarce ten years
afterwards,[654] notwithstanding the privilege accorded, we again find them
in trouble; whether their patterns did not advance with the fashions of the
day, or the manufacturers deteriorated the quality of the thread--too often
the effect of commercial prosperity--the shops were filled with lace,
"propres, les unes pour l'Italie, d'autres pour les mers du Sud," which the
merchants refused to buy. To remedy this bad state of affairs, the
commissioners assembled at Montpelier coolly decide that the diocese should
borrow 60,000 livres to purchase the dead stock, and so clear the market.
After some arguments the lace was bought by the Sieur Jerphanion, Syndic of
the diocese.

Prosperity, however, was not restored, for in 1755 we again hear of a grant
of 1,000 livres, payable in ten years by the States of Vélay, for the
relief of the distressed lace-makers, and again a fresh demand for
exemption of the export duty.[655] This is declared in a memorial of 1761
to be the chief cause of the distress, which memorial also states that, to
employ the people in a more lucrative way, a manufacture of blondes and
silk laces had been introduced. This distress is supposed to have been
somewhat exaggerated by the merciers of Le Puy, whose profits must have
been very considerable; the women, according to Arthur Young, earning only
from four to eight sous daily.

Peuchet, with his predecessor, Savary, and other writers on statistics,
describe the manufacture of Le Puy as the most flourishing in France. "Her
lace," writes Peuchet, "resembles greatly that of Flanders; much is
consumed in the {245}French dominions, and a considerable quantity exported
to Spain, Portugal, Germany, Italy and England. Much thread lace is also
expedited by way of Cadiz to Peru and Mexico. The ladies of these countries
trim their petticoats and other parts of their dress with such a profusion
of lace as to render the consumption 'prodigieuse.'" "Les Anglois en
donnent des commissions en contrebande pour l'Isthmus de Panama. Les
Hollandois en demandent aussi et faisaient expédier à Cadiz à leur
compte."[656] We read, however, after a time, that the taste for a finer
description of lace having penetrated to Mexico and Peru, the commerce of
Le Puy had fallen off, and that from that epoch the work-people had
supported themselves by making blondes and black lace. The thread used in
Auvergne comes from Haarlem, purchased either from the merchants of Rouen
or Lyons. In the palmy days of Le Puy her lace-workers consumed annually to
the amount of 400,000 livres. The laces made for exportation were of a
cheap quality, varying from edgings of 30 sous to 45 livres the piece of 12
ells; of these the annual consumption amounted to 1,200,000 livres.[657] It
may indeed be said that, with the exception of the period of the French
Revolution to 1801, the lace trade of Le Puy has ever been prosperous.

Formerly they only made at Le Puy laces which had each a distinctive
name--ave, pater, chapelets, mie, serpent, bonnet, scie, etc.

Le Puy now produces every description of lace, white and coloured, silk,
thread, and worsted, blondes of all kinds, black of the finest grounds,
application, double and single grounds; from gold and silver lace to
edgings of a halfpenny a yard, and laces of goats' and Angora rabbits'
hairs.

In 1847 more than 5,000 women were employed in making Valenciennes. They
have also succeeded in producing admirable needle-points, similar to the
ancient Venetian. A dress of this lace, destined to adorn an image of the
Virgin, was shown in the French Exhibition of 1855.

{246}In 1848 commerce and trade languished, and a cheaper lace was
produced, made of worsted, for shawls and trimmings. This lace was not long
in fashion, but it re-appeared a few years later under the name of "lama,"
or "poil de chèvre," when it obtained a great success. The hair of the lama
has never been used.

Le Puy now offers to the market an infinite variety of lace, and by means
of these novelties her laces successfully compete with those of Saxony,
which alone can rival her in cheapness; but as the patterns of these last
are copied from the laces of Le Puy and Mirecourt, they appear in the
foreign, market after the originals.

The finest collection of Auvergne lace in the International Exhibition
(1867) was from the fabric of Crâponne (Haute-Loire),[658] established in
1830 by M. Théodore Falcon, to whom Le Puy is indebted for her "musée de
dentelles," containing specimens of the lace of all countries and all ages,
a most useful and instructive collection for the centre of a lace district.
Le Puy has also a lace school, numbering a hundred pupils, and a school of
design for lace patterns, founded in 1859.[659]


AURILLAC AND MURAT (DÉP. CANTAL).

"L'on fait à Orillac les dentelles quit ont vogue dans le royaume," writes,
in 1670, the author of the _Délices de la France_.[660] The origin of the
fabric is assigned to the fourteenth century, when a company of emigrants
established themselves at Cuença and Valcameos, and nearly all the points
of Aurillac were exported into Spain through this company. In 1688 there
was sold on the Place at Marseilles annually to the amount of 350,000
livres of the products of Aurillac, with other fine laces of Auvergne.[661]
In 1726 the produce was already reduced to 200,000 livres. The finest
"points de France," writes Savary, were made at Aurillac and Murat, the
former alone at one time producing to the annual value of 700,000 francs
(£28,000), and giving occupation to from 3,000 to 4,000 lace-workers.

[Illustration: PLATE LXIII.

PLATE LXIV.

FRENCH.--Two specimens bought in France as Cambrai. They are typical of
Northern French laces that became naturalised in England after the French
Revolution. Widths, 2½ and 3½ in.

Photos by A. Dryden from private collection.]

PLATE LXV.

[Illustration: FRENCH. BOBBIN-MADE.--From the environs of Le Puy. Period
Louis XIII.-Louis XIV. Now made and called Guipure de Cluny.

In the Musée Cinquantenaire, Brussels.]

_To face page 246_

{247}An attempt to establish a "bureau" for Colbert's new manufacture of
points de France was at first opposed, as we read: "Les trois femmes
envoyées par les entrepreneurs pour établir cette manufacture furent
attaqués dans les rues d'Aurillac. Les ouvrières de cette ville leur disait
'qu'elles prouvaient s'en retourner, parce qu'elles savaient mieux
travailler qu'elles.'"[662]

The lace-makers would not give up what the intendant terms "the wretched
old point," which M. Henri Duref, the historian of the Département de
Cantal, describes, on the contrary, as consisting of rich flowered designs,
such as may be seen by studying the portraits of many Auvergnat noblemen of
the period. There are various letters on the subject in the Colbert
Correspondence; and in the last from Colbert, 1670, he writes that the
point d'Aurillac is improving, and there are 8,000 lace-women at work. It
appears that he established at Aurillac a manufactory of lace where they
made, upon "des dessins flamands modifiés," a special article, then named
"point Colbert," and subsequently "point d'Aurillac."

In the Convent of the Visitation at Le Puy is shown the lace-trimming of an
alb, point d'Angleterre. It is 28 inches wide, of white thread, with brides
picotées, of elegant scroll design. If, as tradition asserts, it was made
in the country, it must be the produce of this manufactory.

It appears that rich "passements," as they are still called in the country,
of gold and silver were made long before the period of Colbert. We find
abundant mention of them in the church inventories of the province, and in
the museum are pieces of rich lace said to have belonged to Francis I. and
his successors which, according to tradition, were the produce of Aurillac.
They are not of wire, but consist of strips of metal twisted round the
silk.

In the inventory of the sacristy of the Benedictine monastery at St.
Aligre, 1684, there is a great profusion of {248}lace. "Voile de brocard,
fond d'or entouré d'un point d'Espagne d'or et argent;" another, "garni de
dentelles d'or et argent, enrichi de perles fines"; "20 aubes à grandes
dentelles, amicts, lavabos, surplis," etc., all "à grandes ou petites
dentelles."[663]

In the inventory of Massillon's chapel at Beauregard, 1742, are albs
trimmed with "point d'Aurillac"; veils with "point d'Espagne or et
argent."[664]

Lacis was also made at Aurillac, and some specimens are still preserved
among the old families there. The most interesting dates from the early
seventeenth century, and belongs to the Chapel of Notre Dame at Thierzac,
where Anne of Austria made a pilgrimage in 1631, and which, by the
mutilated inscription on a piece of the work, would appear to refer to her.

Mazarin held the Aurillac laces in high estimation, and they are frequently
met with in the inventory of the effects he left on his death in 1660.
Again, in the account of a masked ball, as given in the _Mercure Galant_ of
1679, these points find honourable mention. The Prince de Conti is
described as wearing a "mante de point d'Aurillac or et argent." The Comte
de Vermandois, a veste edged with the same; while Mademoiselle de Blois has
"ses voiles de point d'Aurillac d'argent," and of the Duchesse de Mortemart
it is said, "On voyait dessous ses plumes un voile de point d'Aurillac or
et argent qui tomboit sur ses 'épaules.'" The Chevalier Colbert, who
appeared in an African costume, had "des manches pendantes" of the same
material.

The same _Mercure_ of April, 1681, speaking of the dress of the men, says,
"La plupart portent des garnitures d'une richesse qui empeschera que les
particuliers ne les imitent, puisqu'elles reviennent à 50 louis. Ces
garnitures sont de point d'Espagne ou d'Aurillac." From the above notices,
as well as from the fact that the greater part of these laces were sent
into Spain, it appears that point d'Aurillac was a rich gold and silver
lace, similar to the point d'Espagne.

The laces of Murat (Dép. Haute-Garonne) were "façon de {249}Malines et de
Lille." They were also made at La Chaise Dieu, Alenches, and Verceilles.
Those points were greatly esteemed, and purchased by the wholesale traders
of Le Puy and Clermont, who distributed them over the kingdom through their
colporteurs.

The fabrics of Aurillac and Murat ended with the Revolution. The women,
finding they could earn more as domestic servants in the neighbouring
towns, on the restoration of order, never again returned to their ancient
occupation.



{250}CHAPTER XIX.

LIMOUSIN.


In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a kind of pillow net (torchon
entoilage, Mr. Ferguson calls it)[665] for women's sleeves was manufactured
at Tulle (Corrèze) and also at Aurillac. From this circumstance many
writers have derived tulle, the French name for bobbin net, from this town.
M. Lefébure is of this opinion, and adduces in favour of it the fact that
lace was made at Tulle in the eighteenth century, and that an account of
1775 mentions certain Mesdemoiselles Gantes as lace-makers in that town.

The first dictionary in which the word "tulle" occurs is the French
Encyclopædia of 1765, where we find, "Tulle, une espèce de dentelle commune
mais plus ordinairement ce qu'on appelait entoilage."[666] Entoilage, as we
have already shown, is the plain net ground upon which the pattern is
worked[667] or a plain net used to widen points or laces, or worn as a
plain border. In Louis XV.'s reign Madame de Mailly is described, after she
had retired from the world, as "sans rouge, sans poudre, et, qui plus est,
sans dentelles, attendu qu'elle ne portait plus que de l'entoilage à bord
plat."[668] We read in the _Tableau de Paris_ how "Le tul, la gaz et le
marli ont occupés cent mille mains." Tulle was made on the pillow in
Germany before lace was introduced. If tulle derived its name from any
town, it would more probably be from Toul, celebrated, as all others in
Lorraine, for its embroidery; and as net resembles the stitches made in
embroidery by separating the threads (hemstitch, etc.), it {251}may have
taken its French name, Tulle, German Tüll, from the points de Tulle of the
workwomen of the town of Toul, called in Latin Tullum, or Tullo.[669]


LORRAINE.

The lace[670] manufactures of Lorraine flourished in the seventeenth
century. Mirecourt (Dép. Vosges) and the villages of its environs,
extending to the department of Meurthe, was the great centre of this trade,
which formed the sole occupation of the countrywomen. For some centuries
the lace-workers employed only hempen thread, spun in the environs of
Épinal, and especially at Châtel-sur-Moselle.[671] From this they produced
a species of coarse guipure termed "passament," or, in the patois of the
province, "peussemot."[672]

As early as the seventeenth century they set aside this coarse article and
soon produced a finer and more delicate lace with various patterns: they
now made double ground and mignonette; and at Lunéville (Dép. Meurthe),
"dentelles à l'instar de Flandre." In 1715 an edict of Duke Leopold
regulates the manufacture at Mirecourt.[673] The lace was exported to Spain
and the Indies. It found its way also to Holland, the German States, and
England, where Randle Holme mentions "Points of Lorraine, without
raisings."[674]

The Lorraine laces were mostly known in commerce as {252}"Les dentelles de
Saint-Mihiel," from the town of that name, one of the chief places of the
fabric. These last-named laces were much esteemed on their first
appearance. Previous to the union of Lorraine to France in 1766, there were
scarcely 800 lace-makers in Mirecourt. The number amounted to nearly 25,000
in 1869.[675]

Early in the nineteenth century the export trade gave place to more
extensive dealings with France. "Point de Flandres" was then very much
made, the patterns imported by travelling merchants journeying on their way
to Switzerland. Anxious to produce novelty, the manufacturers of Mirecourt
wisely sent for draughtsmen and changed the old patterns. Their success was
complete. They soon became formidable rivals to Lille, Geneva, and the Val
de Travers (Switzerland). Lille now lowered her prices, and the Swiss lace
trade sank in the contest.

Scarcely any but white lace is made; the patterns are varied and in
excellent taste, the work similar to that of Lille and Arras.

Some few years since the making of application flowers was attempted with
success at Mirecourt, and though it has not yet attained the perfection of
the Brussels sprigs, yet it daily improves, and bids fair to supply France
with a production for which she now pays Belgium £120,000 annually. The
Lorraine application possesses one advantage over those of Flanders, the
flowers come from the hands of the lace-makers clean and white, and do not
require bleaching.[676] The price, too, is most moderate. The production
which of late years has been of the most commercial value is the Cluny
lace, so called from the first patterns being copied from specimens of old
lace in the Musée de Cluny. The immense success of this lace has been
highly profitable to Mirecourt and Le Puy.

{253}The wages of the 24,000 lace-workers averaging eightpence a day, their
annual products are estimated at £120,000. Much of the Lorraine lace is
consumed at Paris and in the interior of France; the rest is exported to
America, the East Indies, and the different countries of Europe.


CHAMPAGNE.

The Ardennes lace was generally much esteemed, especially the "points de
Sedan," which derived their name from the city where they were
manufactured.[677] Not only were points made there, but, to infer from the
Great Wardrobe Account of Charles I., the cut-work of Sedan had then
reached our country, and was of great price. We find in one account[678] a
charge for "six handsome Sedan and Italian collars of cut-work, and for 62
yards of needlework purl for six pairs of linen ruffs" the enormous sum of
£116 6s. And again, in the last year of his reign, he has "six handsome
Pultenarian Sedan collars of cut-work, with the same accompaniment of 72
yards of needlework purl" amounting to £106 16s.[679] What these
Pultenarian collars may have been we cannot, at this distance of time,
surmise; but the entries afford proof that the excellency of the Sedan
cut-work was known in England. Rheims, Château-Thierry and Sedan are
mentioned among the other towns in the ordinance establishing the points de
France in 1665. In less than four months Rheims numbered a hundred and
forty workers, consisting of Venetians and Flemings, with seven from Paris
and the natives of the place. In 1669 the number had fallen to sixty, in
consequence of the price demanded for their board and lodging. Their lace
was remarkable for its whiteness. Lace was made in the seventeenth century
at Sedan, Donchéry, Charleville, Mézières, Troyes and Sens.

The thread manufacturers of Sedan furnished the material {254}necessary for
all the lace-workers of Champagne. Much point de Sedan was made at
Charleville, and the laces of this last-named town[680] were valued at from
four up to fifty livres the ell, and even sometimes at a higher rate. The
greater part of the produce was sold in Paris, the rest found a ready
market in England, Holland, Germany, and Poland.[681] Pignariol de la
Force, writing later, says the manufacture of points and laces at Sedan,
formerly so flourishing, is now of little value.[682]

Most of its lace-makers, being Protestants, emigrated after the Edict of
Revocation. Château-Renaud and Mézières were chiefly employed in the
manufacture of footings (_engrêlures_).[683] The laces of Donchéry were
similar to those of Charleville, but made of the Holland thread. They were
less esteemed than those of Sedan. A large quantity were exported to Italy
and Portugal; some few found their way to England and Poland. Up to the
Revolution Champagne employed from 5000 to 6000 lace-workers, and their
annual products were estimated at 200,000 fr. During the twelve years of
revolutionary anarchy, all the lace manufactures of this province
disappeared.

There are differences of opinion as to the exact character of Sedan lace.
M. Séguin considers it to have been a lace inferior in design and
workmanship to point de Venise à réseau. A single thread intervenes between
the pattern and the réseau, instead of the overcast cordonnet of Alençon,
and in other respects it resembles late Venetian needlepoint. Certain
authorities in Brussels, again, claim the point de Sedan as a needle-made
production of Brabant or Liège. M. Lefébure, on the other hand, considers
it as an important variety of Alençon. "The floral devices in points de
Sedan, which are somewhat large and heavy in execution, spring from bold
scroll forms, and in between them are big meshes of the 'grande maille
picotée' of the point de France. Instead of an even and slightly raised
stitching along their contours, these big flowers are accentuated here and
there in well chosen parts by raised stitching, worked somewhat {255}with
the effect of vigorous touches of rather forced high lights in a picture.
These recurrent little mounds of relief, as they may be called, are
frequently introduced with admirable artistic result. The finest bishops'
rochets which appear in the later portraits by Hyacinthe Rigaud and de
Larguillière are of point de Sedan."

It is possible that both types of lace mentioned--the heavy kind, and the
lace with the réseau--are the productions of Sedan.


BURGUNDY.

Colbert was proprietor of the terre de Seignelay, three leagues from
Auxerre, which caused him to interest himself in establishing
manufactories, and especially that of point de France. In his
Correspondence are twelve letters relating to this manufacture for 1667-74,
but it did not succeed. At last, worn out, he says "the mayor and aldermen
will not avail themselves of the means of prosperity I offer, so I will
leave them to their bad conduct."

Specimens of a beautifully fine well-finished lace, resembling old Mechlin,
are often to be met with in Belgium (Fig. 112), bearing the traditional
name of "point de Bourgogne," but no record remains of its manufacture. In
the census taken in 1571, giving the names of all strangers in the City of
London, three are cited as natives of Burgundy, knitters and makers of
lace.[684] In the eighteenth century, a manufactory of Valenciennes was
carried on in the hospital at Dijon, under the direction of the magistrates
of the city. It fell towards the middle of the last century, and at the
Revolution entirely disappeared.[685] "Les dentelles sont grosses," writes
Savary, "mais il s'en débite beaucoup en Franche-Comté."


{256}LYONNOIS.

Lyons, from the thirteenth century, made gold and silver laces enriched
with ornaments similar to those of Paris.

The laces of St. Etienne resembled those of Valenciennes, and were much
esteemed for their solidity. The finest productions were for men's ruffles,
which they fabricated of exquisite beauty.

A considerable quantity of blonde was made at Meran, a village in the
neighbourhood of Beauvoisin, but the commerce had fallen off at the end of
the last century. These blondes go by the familiar name of "bisettes."


ORLÉANOIS.

Colbert's attempts at establishing a manufactory of point de France at
Montargis appear by his letters to have been unsuccessful.


BERRY.

Nor were the reports from Bourges more encouraging.


POITOU.

Lace was made at Loudun, one of Colbert's foundations, in the seventeenth
century, but the fabric has always been common. "Mignonettes et dentelles à
poignet de chemises, et de prix de toutes espèces," from one sol six
deniers the ell, to forty sols the piece of twelve ells.

Children began lace-making at a very early age. "Loudun fournit quelques
dentelles communes," says the Government Reporter of 1803.[686]

[Illustration: Fig. 112.

POINT DE BOURGOGNE.--Bobbin-made.

_To face page 256._]

{257}Peuchet speaks of lace manufactories at Perpignan, Aix, Cahors,
Bordeaux,[687] etc., but they do not appear to have been of any importance,
and no longer exist.[688]



{258}CHAPTER XX.

HOLLAND, GERMANY, SWITZERLAND, AUSTRIA AND HUNGARY.

----

HOLLAND.

 "A country that draws fifty feet of water,
  In which men live as in the hold of nature,
  And when the sea does in them break,
  And drowns a province, does but spring a leak."--_Hudibras._

We know little of the early fabrics of this country. The laces of Holland,
though made to a great extent, were overshadowed by the richer products of
their Flemish neighbours. "The Netherlanders," writes Fynes Moryson, who
visited Holland in 1589, "wear very little lace,[689] and no embroidery.
Their gowns are mostly black, without lace or gards, and their neck-ruffs
of very fine linen."

We read how, in 1667, France had become the rival of Holland in the trade
with Spain, Portugal and Italy; but she laid such high duties on foreign
merchandise, the Dutch themselves set up manufactures of lace and other
articles, and found a market for their produce even in France.[690] A few
years later, the revocation of the Edict of Nantes[691] caused 4,000
lace-makers to leave the town of Alençon alone. Many took refuge in
Holland, where, says a writer of the day, "they were treated like artists."
Holland gained more than she lost by Louis XIV. The French refugees founded
a manufactory of that point lace called "dentelle a la Reine"[692] in the
Orphan House at Amsterdam.[693]

PLATE LXVI.

[Illustration: WILLIAM, PRINCE OF ORANGE, FATHER OF WILLIAM III.,
1627-1650. School of Van Dyck.

The collar is edged with Dutch lace. National Portrait Gallery.

Photo by Walker and Cockerell.]

_To face page 258._

{259}A few years later, another Huguenot, Zacharie Châtelain,[694]
introduced into Holland the industry, at that time so important, of making
gold and silver lace.

The Dutch possessed one advantage over most other nations, especially over
England, in her far-famed Haarlem[695] thread, once considered the best
adapted for lace in the world. "No place bleaches flax," says a writer of
the day,[696] "like the meer of Haarlem."[697]

Still the points of Holland made little noise in the world. The Dutch
strenuously forbade the entry of all foreign lace, and what they did not
consume themselves they exported to Italy, where the market was often
deficient.[698] Once alone in England we hear tell of a considerable parcel
of Dutch lace seized between Deptford and London from the Rotterdam hoy.
England, however, according to Anderson, in 1764, received in return for
her products from Holland "fine lace, but the balance was in England's
favour."

In 1770 the Empress Queen (Marie Theresa) published a declaration
prohibiting the importation of Dutch lace into any of her Imperial
Majesty's hereditary dominions in Germany.[699]

As in other matters, the Dutch carried their love of lace {260}to the
extreme, tying up their knockers with rich point to announce the birth of
an infant. A traveller who visited France in 1691, remarks of his hotel:
"The warming-pans and brasses were not here muffled up in point and
cut-work, after the manner of Holland, for there were no such things to be
seen."[700]

The Dutch lace most in use was thick, strong and serviceable (Fig. 113).
That which has come under our notice resembles the fine close Valenciennes,
having a pattern often of flowers or fruit strictly copied from nature.
"The ladies wear," remarks Mrs. Calderwood, "very good lace mobs." The
shirt worn by William the Silent when he fell by the assassin is still
preserved at The Hague; it is trimmed with a lace of thick linen stitches,
drawn and worked over in a style familiar to those acquainted with the
earlier Dutch pictures.


SAXONY.

 "Here unregarded lies the rich brocade,
  There Dresden lace in scatter'd heaps is laid;
  Here the gilt china vase bestrews the floor,
  While chidden Betty weeps without the door."
     --"Eclogue on the death of Shock, a pet lapdog."
              _Ladies' Magazine._ 1750.

 "His olive-tann'd complexion graces
  With little dabs of Dresden laces;
  While for the body Mounseer Puff
  Would think e'en dowlas fine enough."
                          --_French Barber._ 1756.

[Illustration: Fig. 113.

DUTCH BOBBIN-LACE.--Eighteenth century.

_To face page 260._]

{261}[Illustration: Fig. 114.

TOMB OF BARBARA UTTMANN, AT ANNABERG.]

The honour of introducing pillow lace into Germany is accorded by tradition
to Barbara Uttman. She was born in 1514, in the small town of Etterlein,
which derives its name from her family. Her parents, burghers of Nuremburg,
had removed to the Saxon Hartz Mountains, for the purpose of working some
mines. Barbara Etterlein here married a rich master miner named Christopher
Uttmann, of Annaberg. It is said that she learned lace-making from a native
of Brabant, a Protestant, whom the cruelties of the Spaniards had driven
from her country. Barbara had observed the mountain girls occupied in
making a network for the miners to wear over their hair: she took great
interest in the work, and, profiting by the experience derived from her
Brabant teacher, succeeded in making her pupils produce first a fine
knotted tricot, afterwards a kind of plain lace ground. In 1561, having
procured aid from Flanders, she set up, in her own name of Barbara Uttmann,
a workshop at Annaberg, and there began to make laces of various patterns.
This branch of industry soon spread from the Bavarian frontier to Altenberg
and Geissing, giving employment to 30,000 persons, and producing a revenue
of 1,000,000 thalers. Barbara Uttmann died in 1575, leaving sixty-five
children and grandchildren, thus realising a prophecy made previous to her
marriage, that her descendants would equal in number the stitches of the
first lace ground she had made: such prophecies were common in those days.
She sleeps in the churchyard of Annaberg, near the old lime-tree. On her
tomb (Fig. 114) is inscribed: "Here lies Barbara Uttmann, died 14 January,
1575, whose invention {262}of lace in the year 1561 made her the
benefactress of the Erzgebirge."

 "An active mind, a skilful hand,
  Bring blessings down on the Fatherland."

In the Green Vault at Dresden is preserved an ivory statuette of Barbara
Uttmann, four and a half inches high, beautifully executed by Koehler, a
jeweller of Dresden, who worked at the beginning of the eighteenth century.
It is richly ornamented with enamels and precious stones, such figures (of
which there are many in the Green Vault) being favourite articles for
birthday and Christmas gifts.

Previous to the eighteenth century the nets of Germany had already found a
market in Paris.[701] "On vend," says the _Livre Commode des Adresses_ of
1692, "le treillis d'Allemagne en plusieurs boutiques de la rue Béthizy."

"Dresden," says Anderson, "makes very fine lace," the truth of which is
confirmed by nearly every traveller of the eighteenth century. We have
reason to believe the so-called Dresden lace was the drawn-work described
in Chapter II., and which was carried to great perfection.

"Went to a shop at Spaw," writes Mrs. Calderwood, "and bought a pair of
double Dresden ruffles, which are just like a sheaf, but not so open as
yours, for two pounds two."

"La broderie de Dresde est très connue et les ouvriers très habiles," says
Savary.

This drawn-work, for such it was, excited the emulation of other nations.
The Anti-Gallican Society in 1753 leads the van, and awards three guineas
as their second prize for ruffles of Saxony.[702]

[Illustration: Fig. 114A.

BARBARA UTTMANN, WHO INTRODUCED THE LACE MANUFACTURE INTO THE ERZGEBIRGE.
From an ivory statuette by Koehler, Green Vault, Dresden.

_To face page 262._]

{263}Ireland, in 1755, gave a premium of £5 for the best imitation of
"Dresden point," while the Edinburgh Society, following in the wake, a year
later presents to Miss Jenny Dalrymple a gold medal for "the best imitation
of Dresden work in a pair of ruffles."

In the _Fool of Quality_,[703] and other works from 1760 to 1770, we have
"Dresden aprons," "Dresden ruffles," showing that point to have been in
high fashion. Wraxall, too, 1778, describes a Polish beauty as wearing "a
broad Medicis of Dresden lace." As early as 1760 "Dresden work" is
advertised as taught to young ladies in a boarding-school at Kelso,[704]
together with "shell-work in grottoes, flowers, catgut, working lace on
bobbins or wires, and other useful accomplishments."

The lace of Saxony has sadly degenerated since the eighteenth century. The
patterns are old and ungraceful, and the lace of inferior workmanship, but,
owing to the low price of labour, they have the great advantage of
cheapness, which enables them to compete with France in the American and
Russian markets. In all parts of Germany there are some few men who make
lace. On the Saxon side of the Erzgebirge many boys are employed, and
during the winter season men of all ages work at the pillow; and it is
observed that the lace made by men is firmer and of a superior quality to
that of the women. The lace is a dentelle torchon of large pattern, much in
the style of the old lace of Ischia.[705]

The Saxon needle-lace of the present day is made in imitation of old
Brussels, with small flowers on a réseau. Some is worked in coloured
thread, and also black silk lace of the Chantilly type is made: of this the
Erzgebirge is the chief centre. This lace is costly, and is sold at Dresden
and other large towns of Germany, and particularly at Paris, where the
dealers pass it off for old lace. This fabric employed, in 1851, 300
workers. A quantity of so-called Maltese lace is also made, but torchon
predominates.

The Museum for Art and Industry, opened at Vienna in 1865, contains several
pattern-books of the sixteenth century, and in it has been exhibited a fine
collection of ancient lace belonging to General von Hauslaub,
Master-General of the Ordnance.


{264}GERMANY (NORTH AND SOUTH).

Germany in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was renowned for its
lacis, cut-work, and embroidery with thread on net, of which there are
several good examples in the Victoria and Albert Museum, together with
specimens of early Flemish work from their colonies on the Elbe,
established in the twelfth century by various German rulers. The work of
these towns is of later date--of the fifteenth century--and has continued
to the nineteenth century, when they made cambric caps, embroidered or
ornamented with drawn-work, and edged with bobbin-made Tönder lace, in the
style of eighteenth century Valenciennes.

"Presque dans toutes sortes d'arts les plus habiles ouvriers, ainsi que les
plus riches négociants, sont de la religion prétendue réformée," said the
Chancellor d'Aguesseau;[706] and when his master, Louis XIV., whom he, in
not too respectful terms, calls "le roi trop crédule," signed the Act of
Revocation (1685), Europe was at once inundated with the most skilful
workmen of France. Hamburg alone of the Hanse Towns received the wanderers.
Lubec and Bremen, in defiance of the remonstrances of the Protestant
princes, allowed no strangers to settle within their precincts. The
emigrants soon established considerable manufactures of gold and silver
lace, and also that now extinct fabric known under the name of Hamburg
point.[707]

Miss Knight, in her _Autobiography_, notes: "At Hamburg, just before we
embarked, Nelson purchased a magnificent lace trimming for Lady Nelson, and
a black lace cloak for another lady, who, he said, had been very attentive
to his wife during his absence."

On the very year of the Revocation, Frederic William, Elector of
Brandenburg, anxious to attract the fugitive workmen to his dominions,
issued from Potsdam an edict[708] in their favour. Crowds of French
Protestants responded to the call, and before many years had passed Berlin
alone boasted 450 lace manufactories.[709] Previous to this emigration she
had none. These "mangeurs d'haricots," as the Prussians styled the
emigrants, soon amassed large fortunes, and exported their laces to Poland
and to Russia. The tables were turned. France, who formerly exported lace
in large quantities to Germany, now received it from the hands of her
exiled workmen, and in 1723 and 1734 we find "Arrêts du Conseil d'Etat,"
relative to the importation of German laces.[710]

[Illustration: PLATE LXVII.

SWISS.--From near Neûchatel. Early nineteenth century. Similar in make to
Lille and some Devon lace.]

[Illustration: PLATE LXVIII.

GERMAN, NUREMBERG.--Used by the peasants on their caps. The cordonnet
suggests a Mechlin influence, whilst the heavy réseau is reminiscent of
some Antwerp and Flemish and Italian village laces of the end of the
seventeenth century.]

PLATE LXIX.

[Illustration: ENGLISH, BUCKS.--A unique piece designed and made by the
lace-makers for Queen Victoria in the early years of her reign; from her
lady-in-waiting Emma, Lady Portman, it has descended to the present owner,
Mrs. Lloyd Baker. The above is a complete section of the design, which is
outlined with gold thread.

Photos by A. Dryden from private collections.]

_To face page 264._

{265}The Landgrave of Hesse also received the refugees, publishing an edict
in their favour.[711] Two fabrics of fine point were established at
Hanover.[712] Leipsic, Anspach,[713] Elberfeld, all profited by the
migration. "On compte," writes Peuchet, "à Leipsig cinq fabriques de
dentelles et de galon d'or et argent."

A large colony settled at Halle, where they made "Hungarian" lace--"Point
de Hongrie,"[714] a term more generally applied to a stitch in
tapestry.[715] The word, however, does occasionally occur:--

 "Your Hungerland[716] bands and Spanish quellio ruffs,
  Great Lords and Ladies, feasted to survey."[717]

All these various fabrics were offsets of the Alençon trade.

Fynes Moryson expresses surprise at the simplicity of the German
costume--ruffs of coarse cloth, made at home. The Dantzickers, however, he
adds, dress more richly. "Citizens' daughters of an inferior sort wear
their hair woven with lace stitched up with a border of pearl. Citizens'
wives wear much lace of silk on their petticoats." Dandyism began in
Germany, says a writer,[718] about 1626, when the women first wore silver,
which appeared very remarkable, and "at last indeed white lace." A century
later luxury at the baths of Baden had reached an excess unparalleled in
the {266}present day. The bath mantles, "équipage de bain," of both sexes
are described as trimmed with the richest point, and after the bath were
spread out ostentatiously as a show on the baths before the windows of the
rooms. Lords and ladies, princesses and margraves, loitered up and down,
passing judgment on the laces of each new arrival.[719]

This love of dress, in some cases, extended too far, for Bishop
Douglas[720] mentions how the Leipsic students "think it more honourable to
beg, with a sword by their side, of all they meet than to gain their
livelihood. I have often," he says, "given a few groschen to one finely
powdered and dressed with sword and lace ruffles."

Concerning the manufactures of the once opulent cities of Nuremburg and
Augsburg we have no record. In the first-mentioned was published, in 1601,
the model book, engraved on copper, of Sibmacher.[721] On the frontispiece
is depicted a garden of the sixteenth century. From the branches of a tree
hangs a label, informing the world "that she who loves the art of
needlework, and desires to make herself skilful, can here have it in
perfection, and she will acquire praise, honour, and reward." At the foot
of the tree is seated a modest young lady yclept Industria; on the right a
second, feather-fan in hand, called Ignavia--Idleness; on the left a
respectable matron named Sofia--Wisdom. By way of a preface the three hold
a dialogue, reviewing, in most flattering terms, the work.

A museum was founded in 1865 at Nuremburg for works and objects connected
with the lace manufacture and its history. It contains some interesting
specimens of Nuremburg lace, the work of a certain Jungfrau Pickleman, in
the year 1600, presented by the widow Pfarrer Michel, of Poppenreuth.[722]
The lace is much of the Venetian character. One specimen has the figures of
a knight and a lady, resembling the designs of Vecellio. The museum also
possesses other curious examples of lace, together with a collection of
books relative to the lace fabric. (Plate LXVIII.)

"In the chapel of St. Egidius at Nuremburg," writes one {267}of our
correspondents, "we were led to make inquiries concerning sundry
ponderous-looking chairs, bearing some resemblance to confessionals, but
wanting the side compartments for the penitents. We learned that they
belonged to the several guilds (Innung), who had undertaken to collect
money for the erection of a new church after the destruction of the old by
fire. For this end the last members sworn in of every trade sat in their
respective chairs at the church doors on every Sunday and holiday. The
offerings were thrown into dishes placed on a raised stand on the right of
the chair, or into the hollow in front. The devices of each trade were
painted or embossed on circular plates, said to be of silver, on the back
of each chair. One Handwerksstuhl in particular attracted our attention; it
was that of the passmenterie-makers (in German, Portenmacher or Posamentier
Handwerk), which, until the handicrafts became more divided, included the
lace-makers. An elegant scroll-pattern in _rilievo_ surrounds the plate,
surmounted by a cherub's head, and various designs, resembling those of the
pattern-books, are embossed in a most finished style upon the plate,
together with an inscription dated 1718."

Misson, who visited Nuremberg in 1698, describes the dress of a
newly-married pair as rich in the extreme--that of the bridegroom as black,
"fort chargé de dentelles"; the bride as tricked out in the richest
"dentelle antique," her petticoat trimmed with "des tresses d'or et de
dentelle noire."

In the Victoria and Albert Museum there are two women's ruffs from
Nuremberg belonging to the latter part of the sixteenth or early
seventeenth century, and embroidered in blue and black silk and white
cotton, and edged with a coarse thread Mechlin lace with a large meshed
irregular plaited réseau, probably late seventeenth century.

Perhaps the finest collection of old German point is preserved, or rather
was so, in 1840, in the palace of the ancient, but now extinct,
Prince-Archbishops of Bamberg.

Several more pattern-books were published in Germany. Among the most
important is that printed at Augsburg, by John Schwartzenburg, 1534. It is
printed in red, and the patterns, mostly borders, are of delicate and
elegant design. (See APPENDIX.)

Secondly comes one of later date, published by Sigismund Latomus at
Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1605; and lastly, that {268}of "Metrepière Quinty,
demor[=a]t dempre legl[=i]e de iii roies," a cul[=o]ge (Cologne), 1527.

In Austria, writes Peuchet, "les dentelles de soie et de fil ne sont pas
moins bien travaillées." Many of the Protestant lace-workers took refuge in
the cities of Freyburg and Altenburg.

There is a collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum of cuffs
embroidered in satin stitch, and edged with bobbin-lace "torchon" of the
peasants' work in Slavonia in the eighteenth century. The patterns resemble
Cretan and Russian laces.

There is a comparatively modern variety of lace made in Austria and Bohemia
which resembles the old Italian bobbin-lace; the school where it is taught
is under Government patronage. This industry was established as a means of
relieving the distress of the Tyrol in 1850, and continues to flourish.

Austria sent to the International Exhibition of 1874 specimens of
needle-point and point plat made in the school of the Grand Duchess Sophie,
and specimens of border laces in the style of the Auvergne laces were
exhibited from the Erzgebirge and Bohemia.

At the Paris Exhibition, Austria and Vienna both exhibited copies of old
needle-point laces.

At Laybach, in Austria, there was at one time a bobbin-lace factory which
produced lace much esteemed in the eighteenth century.

The collection of Hungarian peasant lace in the Victoria and Albert Museum
collection contains specimens of coarse modern pillow-made lace, with rude
floral designs worked in thick thread or yellow silk.

The modern laces of Bohemia are tasteless in design. The fabric is of early
date. "The Bohemian women," writes Moryson, "delight in black cloth with
lace of bright colours." In the beginning of the nineteenth century upwards
of 60,000 people, men, women and children, were occupied in the Bohemian
Erzgebirge alone in lace-making. Since the introduction of the bobbin-net
machine into Austria, 1831, the number has decreased. There were in 1862
scarcely 8,000 employed in the common laces, and about 4,000 on
Valenciennes and points.[723]

PLATE LXX.

[Illustration: HUNGARIAN. BOBBIN LACE.--Latter half of nineteenth century.
Widths, 6¼ and 2½ in.

Victoria and Albert Museum.]

PLATE LXXI.

[Illustration: AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN, SOUTH SLAVONIAN.  CUFF OF LINEN
EMBROIDERED IN SATIN STITCH IN WHITE SILK. WHITE SILK BOBBIN
LACE.--Eighteenth century. Width, 7½ in.

Victoria and Albert Museum.]

_To face page 268._


{269}SWITZERLAND.

 "Dans un vallon fort bien nommé Travers,
  S'élève un mont, vrai séjour des hivers."--_Voltaire._

In the Preface of the _Neues Modelbuch of Froschowern_, printed at Zurich
(see APPENDIX), occurs the following:--"Amongst the different arts we must
not forget one which has been followed in our country for twenty-five
years. Lace-making was introduced in 1536 by merchants from Italy and
Venice. Many women, seeing a means of livelihood in such work, quickly
learned it, and reproduced lace with great skill. They first copied old
patterns, but soon were enabled to invent new ones of great beauty. The
industry spread itself about the country, and was carried to great
perfection: it was found to be one specially suitable for women, and
brought in good profits. In the beginning these laces were used solely for
trimming chemises and shirts; soon afterwards collars, trimmings for cuffs,
caps, and fronts and bodies of dresses, for napkins, sheets, pillow-cases
and coverlets, etc., were made in lace. Very soon such work was in great
demand, and became an article of great luxury. Gold thread was subsequently
introduced into some of it, and raised its value considerably; but this
latter sort was attended with the inconvenience that it was more difficult
to clean and wash than laces made with flax threads only."[724]

The above account is interesting, not only in its reference to Switzerland,
but from its corroborative evidence of the Italian origin of lace.

In 1572, one Symphorien Thelusson, a merchant of Lyons, having escaped from
the massacre of St. Bartholomew, concealed himself in a bale of goods, in
which he reached Geneva, and was hospitably received by the inhabitants.
When, after the lapse of near a hundred and twenty years, crowds of French
emigrants arrived in the city, driven from their homes on the Revocation of
the Edict of Nantes, a descendant of this same Thelusson took a body of
2,000 refugees into his service, and at once established a manufacture of
lace.[725] The produce of this industry was smuggled {270}back into France,
the goods conveyed across the Jura over passes known only to the bearers,
by which they avoided the custom-house duties of Valence. "Every day,"
writes Jambonneau, himself a manufacturer, "they tell my wife what lace
they want, and she takes their orders." Louis XIV. was furious.[726]

Though lace-making employed many women in various parts of the country, who
made a common description while tending their flocks in the mountains,
Neufchâtel has always been the _chef-lieu_ of the trade. "In this town,"
says Savary, "they have carried their works to such a degree of perfection,
as to rival the laces of Flanders, not only in beauty but in quality." We
have ourselves seen in Switzerland guipures of fine workmanship that were
made in the country, belonging to old families, in which they have remained
as heirlooms; and have now in our possession a pair of lappets, made in the
last century at Neufchâtel, of such exquisite beauty as not to be surpassed
by the richest productions of Brussels.

Formerly lace-making employed a large number of workwomen in the Val de
Travers, where, during his sojourn at Moutiers, Jean-Jacques Rousseau tells
us he amused himself in handling the bobbins.

In 1780 the lace trade was an object of great profit to the country,
producing laces valuing from 1 batz to upwards of 70 francs the ell, and
exporting to the amount of 1,500,000 francs; on which the workwomen gained
800,000, averaging their labour at scarcely 8 sols per day. The villages of
Fleurens and Connet were the centre of this once flourishing trade,[727]
now ruined by competition with Mirecourt. In 1814 there were in the
Neufchâtel district, 5628 lace-makers; in 1844 a few aged women alone
remained. The modern laces of Neufchâtel resemble those of Lille, but are
apt to wash thick. (Plate LXVII.)

In 1840, a fabric of "point plat de Bruxelles dite de Genève" was
established at Geneva.

By the sumptuary laws of Zurich,[728] which were most {271}severe, women
were especially forbidden to wear either blonde or thread lace, except upon
their caps. This must have been a disadvantage to the native fabrics, "for
Zurich," says Anderson, "makes much gold, silver, and thread lace."

Several pattern-books for lace were published in Switzerland in the later
years of the sixteenth century; one, without a date, but evidently printed
at Zürich about 1540, by C. Froschowern, is entitled, _Nüw Modelbüch
allerley Gattungen Däntel_, etc. Another one, entitled _New Model-buch_,
printed by G. Strauben, 1593, at St. Gall, is but a reprint of the third
book of Vecellio's _Corona_. Another, called also _Sehr Newe Model-Buch_,
was published at Basle in 1599, at the printing-house of Ludwig Künigs.



{272}CHAPTER XXI.

DENMARK, SWEDEN AND RUSSIA.

----

DENMARK.

  "ERASTE.--Miss, how many parties have you been to this week?

  "LADY.--I do not frequent such places; but if you want to know how much
  lace I have made this fortnight, I might well tell you."

  --Holberg. _The Inconstant Lady._

 "The far-famed lace of Tönder."

"A certain kind of embroidery, or cut-work in linen, was much used in
Denmark before lace came in from Brabant," writes Professor Thomsen. "This
kind of work is still in use among the peasants, and you will often have
observed it on their bed-clothes."

The art of lace-making itself is supposed to have been first brought over
by the fugitive monks at the Reformation, or to have been introduced by
Queen Elizabeth,[729] sister of Charles V., and wife of Christian II., that
good queen who, had her husband been more fortunate, would, says the
chronicler, "have proved a second Dagmar to Denmark."

Lace-making has never been practised as a means of livelihood throughout
Denmark. It is only in the province of North Schleswig (or South Jutland,
as it is also called) that a regular manufacture was established. It is
here that King Christian IV. appears to have made his purchases; and while
travelling in Schleswig, entries constantly occur in his journal book, from
1619 to 1625, such as, "Paid to a female lace-worker 28 rixdollars--71
specie to a lace-seller for lace for the use of the children," and many
similar {273}notices.[730] It was one of those pieces of Tönder lace that
King Christian sends to his Chamberlain, with an autograph letter, ordering
him to cut out of it four collars of the same size and manner as Prince
Ulrik's Spanish. They must contrive also to get two pairs of manchettes out
of the same.

In the museum of the palace at Rosenborg are still preserved some shirts of
Christian IV., trimmed with Schleswig lace of great beauty (Fig. 115), and
in his portrait, which hangs in Hampton Court Palace, the lace on his shirt
is of similar texture.

[Illustration: Fig. 115.

SHIRT COLLAR OF CHRISTIAN IV.--(Castle of Rosenborg, Copenhagen.)]

It was in the early part of this monarch's reign[731] that the celebrated
Golden Horn, so long the chief treasure of the Scandinavian Museum at
Copenhagen, was found by a young {274}lace-maker on her way to her work.
She carried her prize to the king, and with the money he liberally bestowed
upon her she was enabled, says tradition, to marry the object of her
choice.

The year 1647 was a great epoch in the lace-making of Jutland. A merchant
named Steenbeck, taking a great interest in the fabric, engaged twelve
persons from Dortmund, in Westphalia, to improve the trade, and settled
them at Tönder, to teach the manufacture to both men and women, rich and
poor. These twelve persons are described as aged men, with long beards,
which, while making lace, they gathered into bags, to prevent the hair from
becoming entangled among the bobbins. The manufacture soon made great
progress under their guidance, and extended to the south-western part of
Ribe, and to the island of Romö.[732] The lace was sold by means of "lace
postmen," as they were termed, who carried their wares throughout all
Scandinavia and parts of Germany.

Christian IV. protected the native manufacture, and in the Act of
1643,[733] "lace and suchlike pinwork" are described as luxurious articles,
not allowed to be imported of a higher value than five shillings and
sixpence the Danish ell.[734] A later ordinance, 1683, mentions "white and
black lace which are manufactured in this country," and grants permission
to the nobility to wear them.[735]

Christian IV. did not patronise foreign manufactures. "The King of
Denmark," writes Moryson, "wears but little gold lace, and sends foreign
apparel to the hangman to be disgraced, when brought in by gentlemen."

[Illustration: Fig. 116.

TÖNDER LACE, DRAWN MUSLIN.--Denmark, eighteenth century.  Width 2¾ inches.
Victoria and Albert Museum.

_To face page 274._]

{275}About the year 1712 the lace manufacture again was much improved by
the arrival of a number of Brabant women, who accompanied the troops of
King Frederick IV. on their return from the Netherlands,[736] and settled
at Tönder. We have received from Jutland, through the kind exertions of Mr.
Rudolf Bay, of Aalborg, a series of Tönder laces, taken from the
pattern-books of the manufacturers. The earlier specimens are all of
Flemish character. There is the old Flanders lace, with its Dutch flowers
and double and trolly grounds in endless variety. The Brabant, with fine
ground, the flowers and _jours_ well executed. Then follow the Mechlin
grounds, the patterns worked with a coarse thread, in many, apparently, run
in with the needle. There is also a good specimen of that description of
drawn muslin lace, commonly known under the name of "Indian work," but
which appears to have been very generally made in various manners. The
leaves and flowers formed of the muslin are worked round with a cordonnet,
by way of relief to the thick double ground (Fig. 116).[737] In the
Scandinavian Museum at Copenhagen is a pair of lappets of drawn muslin, a
fine specimen of this work.

The modern laces are copied from French, Lille, and Saxon patterns; there
are also imitations of the so-called Maltese. The Schleswig laces are all
remarkable for their fine quality and excellent workmanship. Guipure, after
the manner of the Venice points, was also fabricated. A fine specimen of
this lace may be seen decorating the black velvet dress of the youthful
daughter of Duke John of Holstein. She lies in her coffin within the
mortuary chapel of her family, in the castle of Sonderborg. Lace was much
used in burials in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when it really
appears people were arrayed in more costly clothing than in their lives.
The author of _Jutland and the Danish Islands_ has often seen mummies in
the Danish churches exposed to view tricked out in points of great
richness.

The lace industry continued to increase in value till the beginning of the
present century. The year 1801 may be considered its culminating point. At
that period the number of peasants employed in Tönder and its neighbourhood
alone was 20,000. Even little boys were taught to make lace till strong
enough to work in the fields, and there was scarcely a house without a
lace-maker, who would sit before her {276}cottage door, working from
sunrise till midnight, singing the ballads handed down from their Brabant
teachers.[738]

"My late father,"[739] writes Mr. F. Wulff, of Brede, "who began the lace
trade the end of the last century, first went on foot with his wares to
Mecklenburg, Prussia and Hanover: we consigned lace to all parts of the
world. Soon he could afford to buy a horse; and in his old age he
calculated he had travelled on horseback more than 75,000 English miles, or
thrice round the earth. In his youth the most durable and prettiest ground
was the old Flemish, much used by the peasants in Germany. It was solid,
and passed as an heirloom through several generations. Later, the fine
needle ground came in, and lastly, the fond clair, or point de Lille, far
less solid, but easier to work; hence the lace-makers became less skilful
than of old."

They had not many models, and the best workwomen were those who devoted
their whole life to one special pattern. Few were found so persevering. One
widow, however, is recorded who lived to the age of eighty and brought up
seven children on the produce of a narrow edging, which she sold at
sixpence a yard.

Each pattern had its proper name--cock-eye, spider, lyre, chimney-pot, and
feather.

The rich farmers' wives sat at their pillows daily, causing their household
duties to be performed by hired servants from North Jutland. Ladies also, a
century and a half ago, made it their occupation, as the motto of our
chapter, from the drama of Holberg, will show. And this continued till the
fashion of "hvidsom"--white seaming--the cut-work already alluded to, was
for a time revived. This work was, however, looked upon as _infra dig._ for
the wives of functionaries and suchlike, in whom it was unbecoming to waste
on such employment time that should be devoted to household matters. Our
informant tells of a lady in the north who thus embroidered the christening
robe of her child by stealth in the kitchen, fearing to be caught by her
visitors--cookery had in those days precedence over embroidery. Among the
hoards of this child, born 1755, was found a most exquisite collection of
old Tönder lace, embracing all the varieties made by her mother and
herself, from the thick Flemish to the finest needle-point.

PLATE LXXII.

[Illustration: RUSSIAN.--The upper piece of lace is needle-point "à brides
picotées."  Modern reproduction of a sixteenth century design. Width, 3-3/8
in.

GERMAN. SAXON.--The lower piece bobbin-made by the peasants of the
Erzgebirge. Nineteenth century. Width, 3¼ in.

Victoria and Albert Museum.]

PLATE LXXIII.

[Illustration: RUSSIAN.--Old bobbin-made with coloured silk outlines. The
property of Madame Pogosky.

Photo by A. Dryden.]

_To face page 276._

{277}The fashion of cut-work still prevails in Denmark, where collars and
cuffs, decorated with stars, crosses, and other mediæval designs, are
exposed in the shop-windows of Copenhagen for sale--the work of poor
gentlewomen, who, by their needle, thus add a few dollars yearly to their
income.

From 1830 dates the decline of the Tönder lace. Cotton thread was
introduced, and the quality of the fabric was deteriorated.[740] The lace
schools were given up; and the flourishing state of agriculture rendered it
no longer a profitable employment either for the boys or the women.[741]
The trade passed, from the manufacturers into the hands of the hawkers and
petty dealers, who were too poor to purchase the finer points. The "lace
postmen" once more travelled from house to house with their little leathern
boxes, offering these inferior wares for sale.[742] The art died out. In
1840 there were not more than six lace manufacturers in Schleswig.

The old people, however, still believe in a good time coming. "I have in my
day," said an aged woman, "sold point at four thalers an ell, sir; and
though I may never do so again, my daughter will. The lace trade slumbers,
but it does not die."


SWEDEN.

At a very early period the Scandinavian goldsmith had learned to draw out
wires of gold and twine them round threads either of silk or flax--in fact
to _guiper_ them.

{278}Wadstena, where lies Queen Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of Henry
IV., is celebrated for its lace. The art, according to tradition, was
introduced among the nuns of the convent by St. Bridget on her return from
Italy. Some even go so far as to say she wrote home to Wadstena, ordering
lace from Rome; but, as St. Bridget died in 1335, we may be allowed to
question the fact: certain it is, though, the funeral coif of the saint, as
depicted in an ancient portrait, said to have been taken at Rome after
death, is ornamented with a species of perforated needlework.[743] By the
rules of the convent, the nuns of Wadstena were forbidden to touch either
gold or silver, save in their netting and embroidery. There exists an old
journal of the Kloster, called _Diarium Vadstenænse_, in which are,
however, no allusions to the art; but the letters of a Wadstena nun to her
lover _extra muros_, published from an old collection[744] of documents,
somewhat help us in our researches.

"I wish," she writes to her admirer, "I could send you a netted cap that I
myself have made, but when Sister Karin Andersdotter saw that I mingled
gold and silver thread in it, she said, 'You must surely have some
beloved.' 'Do you think so?' I answered. 'Here in the Kloster, you may
easily see if any of the brethren has such a cap, and I dare not send it by
anyone to a sweetheart outside the walls.' 'You intend it for Axel Nilson,'
answered Sister Karin. 'It is not for you to talk,' I replied. 'I have seen
you net a long hood, and talk and prattle yourself with Brother Bertol.'"

From netted caps of thread, worked in with gold and silver, the transition
to lace is easy, and history tells that in the middle ages the Wadstena
nuns "Knit their laces of {279}gold and silk." We may therefore suppose the
art to have flourished in the convents at an early date.

At the suppression of the monasteries, under Charles IX., a few of the
nuns, too infirm to sail with their sisters for Poland, remained in Sweden.
People took compassion on the outcasts, and gave them two rooms to dwell
in, where they continued their occupation of making lace, and were able,
for a season, to keep the secret of their art. After a time, however,
lace-making became general throughout the town and neighbourhood, and was
known to the laity previous to the dissolution of Wadstena--a favoured
convent which survived the rest of the other monasteries of Sweden.

"Send up," writes Gustaf Vasa, in a familiar letter[745] to his Queen
Margaret, "the lace passement made for me by Anne, the smith's daughter, at
Upsala; I want it: don't neglect this."[746]

In an inventory of Ericksholm Castle, drawn up in 1548, are endless entries
of "sheets seamed with cut-work, half worn-out sheets with open border of
cut-work, towels with cut-work and with the king's and queen's arms in each
corner, blue curtains with cut-work seams," etc.

The style of Wadstena lace changed with the times and fashion of the
national costume. Those made at present are of the single or double ground,
both black and white, fine, but wanting in firmness. They also make much
dentelle torchon, of the lozenge pattern, for trimming the bed-linen they
so elaborately embroider in drawn-work.

In 1830 the products in value amounted to 30,000 rixdollars. They were
carried to every part of Sweden, and a small quantity even to foreign
parts. One dealer alone, a Madame Hartruide, now sends her colporteurs
hawking Wadstena lace round the country. The fabric, after much depression,
has slightly increased of late years, having received much encouragement
from her Majesty Queen {280}Louisa. Specimens of Wadstena lace--the only
lace manufactory now existing in Sweden--were sent to the Great
International Exhibition of 1862.

Hölesom, or cut-work, is a favourite employment of Swedish women, and is
generally taught in the schools.[747] At the various bathing-places you may
see the young ladies working as industriously as if for their daily
sustenance; they never purchase such articles of decoration, but entirely
adorn their houses by the labours of their own hands. It was by a collar of
this hölesom, worked in silk and gold, that young Gustaf Erikson was nearly
betrayed when working as a labourer in the barn of Rankhytta, the property
of his old college friend, Anders Petersen. A servant girl observed to her
master, "The new farm-boy can be no peasant; for," says she, "his linen is
far too fine, and I saw a collar wrought in silk and gold beneath his
kirtle."

Gold lace was much in vogue in the middle of the sixteenth century, and
entries of it abound in the inventory of Gustavus Vasa and his youngest
son, Magnus.

In an inventory of Ericksholm, 1536, is a pair of laced sheets. It is the
custom in Sweden to sew a broad border of seaming lace between the breadths
of the sheets, sometimes wove in the linen. Directions, with patterns
scarcely changed since the sixteenth century, may be found in the _Weaving
Book_ published at Stockholm in 1828.[748]

Towards the end of 1500 the term "passement" appears in general use, in an
inventory of "Pontus de Gardia."

In the neighbourhood of Wadstena old soldiers, as well as women, may be
seen of a summer's evening sitting at the cottage doors making lace. Though
no other lace manufactory can be said to exist in Sweden beyond that of
Wadstena, still a coarse bobbin lace is made by the peasantry for home
consumption. The author has received from the Countess Elizabeth Piper,
late Grande Maîtresse to her Majesty the Queen of Sweden, specimens of
coarse pillow laces, worked by the Scanian peasant women, which, she
writes, "form a favourite occupation for the women of our province."

PLATE LXXIV.

[Illustration: RUSSIAN.--Part of a long border setting forth a Procession.
Lacis and embroidery in silk. The lace is bobbin-made in thread. Réseau
similar to Valenciennes. The Russian thread is good quality linen. Size of
portion shown 18½ x 14 in. The property of Madame Pogosky.

Photo by A. Dryden.]

_To face page 280._

{281}Latterly this manufacture has been protected and the workwomen
carefully directed.

Far more curious are the laces made by the peasants of Dalecarlia, still
retaining the patterns used in the rest of Europe two hundred years since.
The broader[749] kinds, of which we give a woodcut (Fig. 117), are from
Gaguef, that part of Dalecarlia where laces are mostly made and used.
Married women wear them on their summer caps, much starched, as a shelter
against the sun.  Others, of an unbleached thread, are from Orsa. This lace
is never washed, as it is considered an elegance to preserve this
coffee-coloured tint. The firmness and solidity of these last laces are
wonderful.

[Illustration: Fig. 117.

DALECARLIAN LACE.]

The specimens from Rättwik are narrow "seaming" laces of the lozenge
pattern.

There is also a sort of plaiting used as a fringe, in the style of the
Genoese macramè, from the ends of a small {282}sheet which the peasants
spread over their pillows. No improvement takes place in the designs. The
Dalecarlian women do not make a trade of lace-making, they merely work to
supply their own wants.[750]

Fig. 118 represents a lace collar worn by Gustavus Adolphus, a relic
carefully preserved in the Northern Museum at Stockholm. On it is inscribed
in Swedish: "This collar was worn by Gustaf Adolf, King of Sweden, and
presented, together with his portrait, as a remembrance, in 1632, to Miss
Jacobina Lauber, of Augsburg, because she was the most beautiful damsel
present." In addition to this collar, there is preserved at the Royal
Kladskammar at Stockholm a blood-stained shirt worn by Gustavus at the
Battle of Dirschau, the collars and cuffs trimmed with lace of rich
geometric pattern, the sleeves decorated with "seaming" lace.

In an adjoining case of the same collection are some splendid altar-cloths
of ancient raised Spanish point, said to have been worked by the Swedish
nuns previous to the suppression of the monasteries. A small escutcheon
constantly repeated on the pattern of the most ancient specimens has the
semblance of a water-lily leaf, the emblem of the Stures, leading one to
believe they may have been of Swedish fabric, for many ladies of that
illustrious house sought shelter from troublous times within the walls of
the lace-making convent of Wadstena.

In the same cabinet is displayed, with others of more ordinary texture, a
collar of raised Spanish guipure, worked by the Princesses Catherine and
Marie, daughters of Duke Johan Adolf (brother of Charles X.). Though a
creditable performance, yet it is far inferior to the lace of convent make.
The making of this Spanish point formed a favourite amusement of the
Swedish ladies of the seventeenth century: bed-hangings, coverlets, and
toilets of their handiwork may still be found in the remote castles of the
provinces. We have received the photograph of a flower from an old bed of
Swedish lace--an heirloom in a Smaland castle of Count Trolle Bonde.

[Illustration: Fig. 118.

COLLAR OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS.

_To face page 282._]


{283}RUSSIA.

After his visit to Paris early in the eighteenth century, Peter the Great
founded a manufacture of silk lace at Novgorod, which in the time of the
Empress Elizabeth fell into decay. In the reign of Catherine II. there were
twelve gold lace-makers at St. Petersburg, who were scarcely able to supply
the demand. In Russia lace-making and embroidery go hand in hand, as in our
early examples of embroidery, drawn-work, and cut-work combined.
Lace-making was not a distinct industry; the peasants, especially in
Eastern Russia, made it in their houses to decorate, in conjunction with
embroidery, towels, table-linen, shirts, and even the household linen, for
which purpose it was purchased direct from the peasants by the inhabitants
of the towns. Many will have seen the Russian towels in the International
Exhibition of 1874, and have admired their quaint design and bright
colours, with the curious line of red and blue thread running through the
pattern of the lace. Darned netting and drawn-work appear, as elsewhere, to
have been their earliest productions. The lace is loosely wrought on the
pillow, the work simple, and requiring few bobbins to execute the
vermiculated pattern which is its characteristic (Fig. 119, and Plates
LXXII.-IV.).

The specimens vary very much in quality, but the patterns closely resemble
one another, and are all of an oriental and barbaric character (Fig. 119).

In Nardendal, near Abo, in Finland, the natives offer to strangers small
petticoats and toys of lace--a relic of the time when a nunnery of
Cistercians flourished in the place.

Much of a simple design and coarse quality is made in Belev, Vologda,
Riazan, Mzeresk. At Vologda a lace resembling torchon is made, with colours
introduced, red, blue, and écru and white.[751] In some laces silks of
various colours are employed. Pillow-lace has only been known in Russia for
over a hundred years, and although the {284}lace produced is effective, it
is coarse in texture and crude in pattern. Late in the nineteenth century
the Czarina gave her patronage to a school founded at Moscow, where
Venetian needle-point laces have been copied, using the finest English
thread, and needle-laces made after old Russian designs of the sixteenth
century,[752] called _Point de Moscou_.

[Illustration: Fig. 119.

RUSSIA.--Bobbin-made nineteenth century.

_To face page 284._]



{285}CHAPTER XXII.

ENGLAND TO QUEEN ELIZABETH.

  "We weare most fantastical fashions than any nation under the sun doth,
  the French only excepted."--_Coryat's Crudities._ 1611.


It would be a difficult matter for antiquaries to decide at what precise
time lace, as we now define the word, first appears as an article of
commerce in the annals of our country.

As early as the reign of Edward III.,[753] the excessive luxury of veils,
worn even by servant girls, excited the indignation of the Government, who,
in an Act, dated 1363, forbade them to be worn of silk, or of any other
material, "mes soulement de fil fait deinz le Roialme," for which veils no
one was to pay more than the sum of tenpence. Of what stuff these thread
veils were composed we have no record; probably they were a sort of
network, similar to the caul of Queen Philippa, as we see represented on
her tomb.[754] That a sort of crochet decoration used for edging was
already made, we may infer from the monumental effigies of the day.[755]
The purse of the carpenter is described, too, in Chaucer, as "purled with
latoun," a kind of metal or wire lace, similar to that found at
Herculaneum, and made in some parts of Europe to a recent period.

M. Aubry refers to a commercial treaty of 1390, between England and the
city of Bruges, as the earliest mention of lace. This said treaty we cannot
find in Rymer, Dumont, {286}or anywhere else. We have, as before alluded
to, constant edicts concerning the gold wires and threads of "Cipre, Venys,
Luk, and Jeane," of embroideries and suchlike, but no distinct allusion to
"lace."[756]

According to Anderson, the first intimation of such an occupation being
known in England is the complaint, made in 1454, by the women of the
mystery of thread-working in London, in consequence of the importation of
six foreign women, by which the manufacture of needlework[757] of thread
and silk, not as yet understood, was introduced. These six women, probably
Flemings, had brought over to England the cut-work or darning of the time,
a work then unknown in this country.

All authors, up to the present period, refer to the well-known Act of
Edward IV.,[758] 1463, in which the entry of "laces, corses, ribans,
fringes, de soie and de file, laces de file soie enfile," etc., are
prohibited, as the first mention of "lace" in the public records.

The English edition of the Foedera, as well as the statutes at large,
freely translate these words as laces of thread, silk twined, laces of
gold, etc.; and the various writers on commerce and manufactures have
accepted the definition as "lace," without troubling themselves to examine
the question.[759] Some even go so far as to refer to a MS. in the Harleian
Library,[760] giving "directions for making many sorts of laces,[761] which
were in fashion in the times of King Henry VI. {287}and Edward IV.," as a
proof that lace was already well known, and formed the occupation of the
"handcraftry"--as those who gained their livelihood by manual occupation
were then termed--of the country. Now, the author has carefully examined
this already quoted MS., in the principal letter of which is a damaged
figure of a woman sitting and "making of lace," which is made by means of
"bowys."[762] As regards the given directions, we defy anyone, save the
most inveterate lover of crochet-work, to understand one word of its
contents, beyond that it relates to some sort of twisted thread-work, and
perhaps we might, in utter confusion of mind, have accepted the definition
as given, had not another MS. of similar tenor, bearing date 1651, been
also preserved in the British Museum.[763]

This second MS. gives specimens of the laces, such as they were, stitched
side by side with the directions, which at once establishes the fact that
the laces of silk and gold, laces of thread, were nothing more than braids
or cords--the laces used with tags, commonly called "poynts" (the "ferrets"
of Anne of Austria)--for fastening the dresses, as well as for ornament,
previous to the introduction of pins.

In the Wardrobe Accounts of the time we have frequent notice of these
"laces" and corses. "Laces de quir" (cuir) also appear in the
Statutes,[764] which can only mean what we now term bootlaces, or something
similar.

{288}In the "Total of stuffs bought" for Edward IV.,[765] we have entries:
"Laces made of ryban of sylk; two dozen laces, and a double lace of
ryban"--"corses of sylk with laces and tassels of sylk," etc. Again, to
Alice Claver, his sylkwoman, he pays for "two dozen laces and a double lace
of sylk." These double laces of ribbon and silk were but plaited, a simple
ornament still used by the peasant women in some countries of Europe. There
must, however, be a beginning to everything, and these tag laces--some made
round, others in zigzag, like the modern braids of ladies' work, others
flat--in due course of time enriched with an edging, and a few stitches
disposed according to rule, produced a rude lace; and these patterns,
clumsy at first, were, after a season, improved upon.

From the time of Edward IV. downwards, statute on apparel followed upon
statute, renewed for a number of years, bearing always the same expression,
and nothing more definite.[766]

The Venetian galleys at an early period bore to England the gold work of
"Luk," Florence, "Jeane" and Venice. In our early Parliamentary records are
many statutes on the subject. It is not, however, till the reign of Henry
VII. that, according to Anderson, "Gold and thread lace came from Florence,
Venice, and Genoa, and became an article of commerce. An Act was then
passed to prevent the buyers of such commodities from selling for a pound
weight a packet which does not contain twelve ounces, and the inside of the
said gold, silver, and thread lace was to be of equal greatness of thread
and goodness of colour as the outside thereof."[767]

The Italians were in the habit of giving short lengths, gold thread of bad
quality, and were guilty of sundry other misdemeanours which greatly
excited the wrath of the nation. The balance was not in England's favour.
It was the cheating Venetians who first brought over their gold lace into
England.

PLATE LXXV.

[Illustration: CAP. (FLEMISH OR GERMAN.)--The insertion is cut-work and
needle-point.  The lace is bobbin-made, and bears a resemblance to Plate
XXVI., South Italian. Late seventeenth century. Length of lace about 12 in.

Photo by A. Dryden from private collection.]

_To face page 288._

{289}A warrant to the Keeper of the Great Wardrobe, in the eighteenth year
of King Henry's reign,[768] contains an order for "a mauntel lace of blewe
silk and Venys gold, to be delivered for the use of our right dere and
well-beloved Cosyn the King of Romayne"--Maximilian, who was made Knight of
the Garter.[769]

If lace was really worn in the days of Henry VII., it was probably either
of gold or silk, as one of the last Acts of that monarch's reign, by which
all foreign lace is prohibited, and "those who have it in their possession
may keep it and wear it till Pentecost,"[770] was issued rather for the
protection of the silk-women of the country than for the advantage of the
ever-complaining "workers of the mysteries of thread-work."

On the 3rd of October, 1502, his Queen Elizabeth of York pays to one Master
Bonner, at Langley, for laces, rybands, etc., 40s.; and again, in the same
year, 38s. 7d. to Dame Margrette Cotton, for "hosyn, laces, sope, and other
necessaries for the Lords Henry Courtenay, Edward, and the Lady Margrette,
their sister." A considerable sum is also paid to Fryer Hercules for gold
of Venys, gold of Danmarke, and making a lace for the King's mantell of the
Garter.[771]

It is towards the early part of Henry VIII.'s reign that the "Actes of
Apparell"[772] first mention the novel luxury of shirts and partlets,
"garded and pynched,"[773] in addition to clothes decorated in a similar
manner, all of which are {290}forbidden to be worn by anyone under the
degree of a knight.[774] In the year 1517 there had been a serious
insurrection of the London apprentices against the numerous foreign
tradesmen who already infested the land, which, followed up by the
never-ending complaints of the workers of the mysteries of needlework,
induced the king to ordain the wearing of such "myxte joyned garded or
browdered"[775] articles of lynnen cloth be only allowed when the same be
wrought within "this realm of England, Wales, Berwick, Calais, or the
Marches."[776]

The earliest record we find of laced linen is in the Inventory of Sir
Thomas L'Estrange, of Hunstanton, County of Norfolk, 1519, where it is
entered, "3 elles of Holland cloth, for a shirte for hym, 6 shillings,"
with "a yard of lace for hym, 8d."

In a MS. called "The Boke of Curtasye"--a sort of treatise on etiquette, in
which all grades of society are taught their duties--the chamberlain is
commanded to provide for his master's uprising, a "clene shirte," bordered
with lace and curiously adorned with needlework.

The correspondence, too, of Honor. Lady Lisle, seized by Henry VIII.[777]
as treasonous and dangerous to the State, embraces a hot correspondence
with one Soeur Antoinette de Sevenges, a nun milliner of Dunkirk, on the
important subject of nightcaps,[778] one half dozen of which, she
complains, are far too wide behind, and not of the lozenge (cut) work
pattern she had selected. The nightcaps were in consequence to be changed.

Anne Basset, daughter of the said Lady Lisle, educated in a French convent,
writes earnestly begging for an "edge {291}of perle[779] for her coif and a
tablete (tablier) to ware." Her sister Mary, too, gratefully expresses her
thanks to her mother, in the same year,[780] for the "laced gloves you sent
me by bearer." Calais was still an English possession, and her products,
like those of the Scotch Border fortresses, were held as such.[781]

Lace still appears but sparingly on the scene. Among the Privy Purse
expenses of the king in 1530,[782] we find five shillings and eightpence
paid to Richard Cecyll,[783] Groom of the Robes, for eight pieces of
"yelowe lace, bought for the King's Grace." We have, too, in the Harleian
Inventory,[784] a coif laid over with passamyne of gold and silver.

These "Acts of Apparell," as regards foreign imports, are, however,
somewhat set aside towards the year 1546, when Henry grants a licence in
favour of two Florentine merchants to export for three years' time,
together with other matters, "all manner of fryngys and passements wrought
with gold or silver, or otherwise, and all other new gentillesses of what
facyon or value soever they may be, for the pleasure of our dearest wyeff
the Queen, our nobles, gentlemen, and others."[785] The king, however,
reserves to himself the first view of their merchandise, with the privilege
of selecting anything he may please for his own private use, before their
wares were hawked about the country. The said "dearest wyeff," from the
date of the Act, must have been Katherine Parr; her predecessor, Katherine
Howard, had for some four years slept headless in the vaults of the White
Tower chapel. Of these "gentillesses" the king now began to avail himself.
He selects "trunk sleeves of redd cloth of gold with cut-work;" knitted
gloves of silk, and "handkerchers" edged with gold and silver; his towels
are {292}of diaper, "with Stafford knots," or "knots and roses;" he has
"coverpanes of fyne diaper of Adam and Eve garnished about with a narrow
passamayne of Venice gold and silver; handkerchers of Holland, frynged with
Venice gold, redd and white silk," others of "Flanders worke," and his
shaving cloths trimmed in like fashion.[786] The merchandise of the two
Florentines had found vast favour in the royal eyes. Though these articles
were imported for "our dere wyeff's sake," beyond a "perle edging" to the
coif of the Duchess of Suffolk, and a similar adornment to the tucker of
Jane Seymour,[787] lace seems to have been little employed for female
decoration during the reign of King Henry VIII.

[Illustration: Fig. 120.

FISHER, BISHOP OF ROCHESTER. + 1535. (M. de Versailles.)]

That it was used for the adornment of the ministers of the Church we have
ample evidence. M. Aubry states having seen in London lace belonging to
Cardinal Wolsey. On this matter we have no information; but we know the
surplices were ornamented round the neck, shoulders, and sleeves with
"white work" and cut-work[788] at this period. The specimens we give (Figs.
120, 121) are from a portrait formerly in the Library of the Sorbonne, now
transferred to Versailles, of Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, Cardinal Fisher
as he is styled--his cardinal's hat arriving at Dover at the very moment
the head that was to wear it had fallen at Tower Hill.

PLATE LXXVI.

[Illustration: ENGLISH. CUTWORK AND NEEDLE-POINT.--Cross said to have
belonged to Cardinal Wolsey.]

PLATE LXXVII.

[Illustration: ENGLISH. DEVONSHIRE "TROLLY."--First part of nineteenth
century.

Photos by A. Dryden from private collection.]

_To face page 292._

{293}About this time, too, lace gradually dawns upon us in the church
inventories. Among the churchwardens' accounts of St. Mary-at-Hill, date
1554, we find entered a charge of 3s. for making "the Bishopp's (boy
bishop) myter with stuff and lace."[789] The richly-laced corporax cloths
and church linen are sent to be washed by the "Lady Ancress," an
ecclesiastical washerwoman, who is paid by the churchwardens of St.
Margaret's, Westminster, the sum of 8d.; this Lady Ancress, or Anchoress,
being some worn-out old nun who, since the dissolution of the religious
houses, eked out an existence by the art she had once practised within the
walls of her convent.

At the burial of King Edward VI., Sir Edward Waldgrave enters on his
account a charge of fifty yards of gold passement lace for garnishing the
pillars of the church.

[Illustration: Fig. 121.

FISHER, BISHOP OF ROCHESTER.--(M. de Versailles.)]

The sumptuary laws of Henry VIII. were again renewed by Queen Mary:[790] in
them ruffles made or wrought out of England, commonly called cut-work, are
forbidden to anyone under the degree of a baron; while to women of a
station beneath that of a knight's wife, all wreath lace or passement lace
of gold and silver with sleeves, partlet or linen trimmed {294}with purles
of gold and silver, or white-works, alias cut-works, etc., made beyond the
sea, is strictly prohibited. These articles were, it seems, of Flemish
origin, for among the New Year's Gifts presented to Queen Mary, 1556, we
find enumerated as given by Lady Jane Seymour, "a fair smock of white
work,[791] Flanders making." Lace, too, is now in more general use, for on
the same auspicious occasion, Mrs. Penne, King Edward's nurse, gave "six
handkerchers edged with passamayne of golde and silke."[792] Two years
previous to these New Year's Gifts, Sir Thomas Wyatt is described as
wearing, at his execution, "on his head a faire hat of velvet, with broad
bone-work lace about it."[793]

Lace now seems to be called indifferently purle, passamayne or bone-work,
the two first-mentioned terms occurring most frequently. The origin of this
last appellation is generally stated to have been derived from the custom
of using sheep's trotters previous to the invention of wooden bobbins.
Fuller so explains it, and the various dictionaries have followed his
theory. The Devonshire lace-makers, on the other hand, deriving their
knowledge from tradition, declare that when lace-making was first
introduced into their county, pins,[794] so indispensable to their art,
being then sold at a price far beyond their means, the lace-makers, mostly
the wives of fishermen living along the coast, adopted the {295}bones of
fish, which, pared and cut into regular lengths, fully answered as a
substitute. This explanation would seem more probable than that of
employing sheep's trotters for bobbins, which, as from 300 to 400 are often
used at one time on a pillow, must have been both heavy and cumbersome.
Even at the present day pins made from chicken bones continue to be
employed in Spain; and bone pins are still used in Portugal.[795]

Shakespeare, in _Twelfth-Night_, speaks of

 "The spinsters and the knitters in the sun,
  And the free maids that weave their threads with bone."

"Bone" lace[796] constantly appears in the wardrobe accounts, while bobbin
lace[797] is of less frequent occurrence.

Among the New Year's Gifts presented to Queen Elizabeth, we have from the
Lady Paget "a petticoat of cloth of gold stayned black and white, with a
bone lace of gold and spangles, like the wayves of the sea"; a most
astounding article, with other entries no less remarkable but too numerous
to cite.

{296}In the marriage accounts of Prince Charles[798] we have charged 150
yards of bone lace[799] for six extraordinary ruffs and twelve pairs of
cuffs, against the projected Spanish marriage. The lace was at 9s. a yard.
Sum total, £67 10s.[800] Bone lace is mentioned in the catalogue of King
Charles I.'s pictures, drawn up by Vanderdort,[801] where James I. is
described "without a hat, in a bone lace falling band."[802]

Setting aside wardrobe accounts and inventories, the term constantly
appears both in the literature and the plays of the seventeenth century.

  "Buy some quoifs, handkerchiefs, or very good bone lace, mistress?"

cries the pert sempstress when she enters with her basket of wares, in
Green's _Tu Quoque_,[803] showing it to have been at that time the usual
designation.

  "You taught her to make shirts and bone lace,"

says someone in the _City Madam_.[804]

Again, describing a thrifty wife, Loveless, in _The Scornful Lady_,[805]
exclaims--

  "She cuts cambric to a thread, weaves bone lace, and quilts balls
  admirably."

The same term is used in the _Tatler_[806] and _Spectator_,[807] {297}and
in the list of prizes given, in 1752, by the Society of Anti-Gallicans, we
find, "Six pieces of bone lace for men's ruffles." It continued to be
applied in the Acts of Parliament and notices relative to lace, nearly to
the end of the eighteenth century.[808] After a time, the sheep's trotters
or bones having been universally replaced by bobbins of turned box-wood,
the term fell into disuse, though it is still retained in Belgium and
Germany.

From the reign of Queen Mary onwards, frequent mention is made of parchment
lace (see pp. 297-298), a term most generally associated with gold and
silver, otherwise we should consider it as merely referring to needle-made
lace, which is worked on a parchment pattern.

But to return to Queen Mary Tudor. We have among the "late Queen Mary's
clothes" an entry of "compas"[809] lace; probably an early name for lace of
geometric pattern. Open-work edging of gold and passamaine lace also occur;
and on her gala robes lace of "Venys gold," as well as "vales of black
network," a fabric to which her sister, Queen Elizabeth, was most partial;
partlets,[810] dressings, shadowes, and pynners "de opere rete," appearing
constantly in her accounts.[811]

It was at this period, during the reign of Henry VIII. and Mary, a peculiar
and universally prevalent fashion, varying in degrees of eccentricity and
extravagance, to slash the garment so as to show glimpses of some
contrasting underdress. Dresses thus slashed, or puffed, banded, "pinched,"
stiff with heavy gold and metal braid or embroidery, required but little
additional adornment of lace.[812] The falling collar, which was worn in
the early part of the sixteenth century, before the Elizabethan ruff
(introduced from France about 1560), was, however, frequently edged with
lace of geometric pattern.

Early in the sixteenth century the dresses of the ladies {298}fitted
closely to the figure, with long skirts open in front to display the
underdress; and were made low and cut square about the neck. Sometimes,
however, the dresses were worn high with short waists and a small falling
collar. Somewhat later, when the dresses were made open at the girdle, a
partlet--a kind of habit-shirt--was worn beneath them, and carried to the
throat.[813]

Entries of lace in the wardrobe accounts are, however, few and
inconsiderable until the reign of Queen Elizabeth.

PLATE LXXVIII.

[Illustration: MARIE DE LORRAINE, 1515-1560.  DAUGHTER OF DUC DE GUISE,
MARRIED JAMES V. OF SCOTLAND, 1538.  This picture was probably painted
before she left France, by an unknown French artist.  National Portrait
Gallery.

Photo by Walker and Cockerell.]

_To face page 298._



{299}CHAPTER XXIII.

QUEEN ELIZABETH.

 "By land and sea a Virgin Queen I reign,
  And spurn to dust both Antichrist and Spain."--Old Masque.

 "Tell me, Dorinda, why so gay?
    Why such embroidery, fringe and lace?
  Can any dresses find a way
  To stop the approaches of decay
    And mend a ruined face?"--Lord Dorset.


Up to the present time our mention of lace, both in the Statutes and the
Royal Wardrobe Accounts, has been but scanty. Suddenly, in the days of the
Virgin Queen, both the Privy Expenses and the Inventories of New Year's
Gifts overflow with notices of passaments, drawn-work, cut-work, crown
lace,[814] bone lace for ruffs, Spanish chain, byas,[815] parchment,
hollow,[816] billament,[817] and diamond {300}lace[818] in endless, and to
us, we must own, most incomprehensible variety.

The Surtees' _Wills and Inventories_ add to our list the laces Waborne[819]
and many others. Lace was no longer confined to the court and high
nobility, but, as these inventories show, it had already found its way into
the general shops and stores of the provincial towns. In that of John
Johnston, merchant, of Darlington, already cited, we have twelve yards of
"loom" lace, value four shillings, black silk lace, "statute" lace, etc.,
all mixed up with entries of pepper, hornbooks, sugar-candy, and spangles.
About the same date, in the inventory taken after the death of James
Backhouse, of Kirby-in-Lonsdale, are found enumerated "In y^e great
shoppe," thread lace at 16s. per gross; four dozen and four "pyrled" lace,
four shillings; four quarterns of statching (stitching or seaming?) lace;
lace edging; crown lace; hollow lace; copper lace; gold and silver chean
(chain) lace, etc. This last-mentioned merchant's store appears to have
been one of the best-furnished provincial shops of the period. That of John
Farbeck, of Durham, mercer, taken thirty years later, adds to our list
seventy-eight yards of velvet lace, coloured silk, chayne lace, "coorld"
lace, petticoat lace, all cheek by jowl with Venys gold and turpentine.

To follow the "stitches" and "works" quoted in the Wardrobe Accounts of
Elizabeth--all made out in Latin, of which we sincerely trust, for the
honour of Ascham, the {301}Queen herself was guiltless--would be but as the
inventory of a haberdasher's shop.

We have white stitch, "opus ret' alb," of which she had a kirtle, "pro le
hemmynge et edginge" of which, with "laqueo coronat' de auro et arg'"--gold
and silver crown lace--and "laqueo alb' lat' bon' operat' super
oss'"--broad white lace worked upon bone--she pays the sum of 35s.[820]

Then there is the Spanish stitch, already mentioned as introduced by Queen
Katherine, and true stitch,[821] laid-work,[822] net-work, black-work,[823]
white-work, and cut-work.

Of chain-stitch we have many entries, such as Six caules of knot-work,
worked with chain-stitch and bound "cum tapem" (tape), of sister's (nun's)
thread.[824] A scarf of white stitch-work appears also among the New Year's
Gifts.

As regards the use, however, of these ornaments, the Queen stood no
nonsense. Luxury for herself was quite a different affair from that of the
people; for, on finding that the London apprentices had adopted the white
stitching and garding as a decoration for their collars, she put a stop to
all such finery by ordering[825] the first transgressor to be publicly
whipped in the hall of his Company.

Laid-work, which maybe answers to our modern plumetis, or simply signified
a braid-work, adorned the royal garters, "Frauncie," which worked "cum
laidwork," stitched and trimmed "in ambobus lateribus" with gold and silver
lace, from which hung silver pendants, "tufted cum serico color," cost her
Majesty thirty-three shillings the pair.[826]

{302}The description of these right royal articles appears to have given as
much trouble to describe as it does ourselves to translate the meaning of
her accountant.

The drawn-work, "opus tract'," seems to have been but a drawing of thread
worked over silk. We have smocks thus wrought and decorated "cum lez ruffs
et wrestbands."[827]

In addition to the already enumerated laces of Queen Elizabeth are the
bride laces of Coventry blue,[828] worn and given to the guests at
weddings, mentioned in the _Masques_ of Ben Jonson:[829]--

  "CLOD.--And I have lost, beside my purse, my best bride-lace I had at
  Joan Turnips' wedding.

  "FRANCES.--Ay, and I have lost my thimble and a skein of Coventry blue I
  had to work Gregory Litchfield a handkerchief."

When the Queen visited Kenilworth in 1577, a Bridall took place for the
pastime of her Majesty. "First," writes the Chancellor, "came all the lusty
lads and bold bachelors of the parish, every wight with his blue
bridesman's bride lace upon a braunch of green broom." What these bride
laces exactly were we cannot now tell. They continued in fashion till the
Puritans put down all festivals, ruined the {303}commerce of Coventry, and
the fabric of blue thread ceased for ever. It was probably a showy kind of
coarse trimming, like that implied by Mopsa in the _Winter's Tale_, when
she says--

  "You promised me a tawdry lace:"[830]

articles which, judging from the song of Autolycus--

 "Will you buy any tape,
  Or lace for your cape?"

were already hawked about among the pedlars' wares throughout the country:
one of the "many laces" mentioned by Shakespeare.[831]

Dismissing, then, her stitches, her laces, and the 3,000 gowns she left in
her wardrobe behind her--for, as Shakespeare says, "Fashion wears out more
apparel than the man"[832]--we must confine ourselves to those articles
immediately under our notice, cut-work, bone lace, and purle.

Cut-work--"opus scissum," as it is termed by the Keeper of the Great
Wardrobe--was used by Queen Elizabeth to the greatest extent. She wore it
on her ruffs, "with lilies of the like, set with small seed pearl"; on her
doublets, "flourished with squares of silver owes"; on her forepart of
lawn, "flourished with silver and spangles";[833] on her
{304}cushion-cloths,[834] her veils, her tooth-cloths,[835] her smocks and
her nightcaps.[836] All nourished, spangled, and edged in a manner so
stupendous as to defy description. It was dizened out in one of these
last-named articles[837] that young Gilbert Talbot, son of Lord Shrewsbury,
caught a sight of the Queen while walking in the tilt-yard. Queen Elizabeth
at the window in her nightcap! What a goodly sight! That evening she gave
Talbot a good flap on the forehead, and told her chamberlain how the youth
had seen her "unready and in her night stuff," and how ashamed she was
thereof.

Cut-work first appears in the New Year's Offerings of 1577-8, where, among
the most distinguished of the givers, we find the name of Sir Philip
Sidney, who on one occasion offers to his royal mistress a suit of ruffs of
cut-work, on another a smock--strange presents according to our modern
ideas. We read, however, that the offering of the youthful hero gave no
offence, but was most graciously received. Singular enough, there is no
entry of cut-work in the Great Wardrobe Accounts before that of 1584-5,
where there is a charge for mending, washing and starching a bodice and
cuffs of good white lawn, worked in divers places with broad spaces of
Italian cut-work, 20 shillings,[838] and another for the same operation to
a veil of white cut-work trimmed with needlework lace.[839] Cut-work was
probably still a rarity; and really, on reading the quantity offered to
Elizabeth on each recurring new year, there was scarcely any necessity for
her to purchase it herself. By the year 1586-7 the Queen's stock had
apparently diminished. Now, for the first time, she invests the sum of
sixty shillings in six yards of good ruff lawn, well worked, with cut-work,
and edged with good white lace.[840] {305}From this date the Great Wardrobe
Accounts swarm with entries such as a "sut' de lez ruffes de lawne," with
spaces of "opere sciss',"[841] "un' caule de lawne alb' sciss' cum le
edge," of similar work;[842] a "toga cum traine de opere sciss';"[843] all
minutely detailed in the most excruciating gibberish. Sometimes the
cut-work is of Italian[844] fabric, sometimes of Flanders;[845] the ruffs
edged with bone lace,[846] needle lace,[847] or purle.[848]

The needle lace is described as "curiously worked," "operat' cum acu
curiose fact'," at 32s. the yard.[849] The dearest is specified as
Italian.[850] We give a specimen (Coloured Plate XV.) of English
workmanship, said to be of this period, which is very elaborate.[851]

The thread used for lace is termed "filo soror," or nun's thread, such as
was fabricated in the convents of Flanders and Italy.[852] If, however,
Lydgate, in his ballad of "London Lackpenny," is an authority, that of
Paris was most prized:--

 "Another he taked me by his hand,
  Here is Paris thredde, the finest in the land."

Queen Elizabeth was not patriotic; she got and wore her {306}bone lace from
whom she could, and from all countries. If she did not patronize English
manufacture, on the other hand, she did not encourage foreign artizans; for
when, in 1572, the Flemish refugees desired an asylum in England, they were
forcibly expelled from her shores. In the census of 1571, giving the names
of all the strangers in the City of London,[853] including the two makers
of Billament lace already cited, we have but four foreigners of the lace
craft: one described as "Mary Jurdaine, widow, of the French nation, and
maker of purled lace"; the other, the before-mentioned "Callys de Hove, of
Burgundy."[854]

Various Acts[855] were issued during the reign of Elizabeth in order to
suppress the inordinate use of apparel. That of May, 1562,[856] though
corrected by Cecil himself, less summary than that framed against the
"white-work" of the apprentice boys, was of little or no avail.

In 1568 a complaint was made to the Queen against the frauds practised by
the "16 appointed waiters," in reference to the importation of
haberdashery, etc., by which it appears that her Majesty was a loser of "5
or 600 l. by yere at least" in the customs on "parsement, cap rebone bone
lace, cheyne lace," etc.,[857] but with what effect we know not. The annual
import of these articles is therein stated at £10,000, an enormous increase
since the year 1559, when, among the "necessary and unnecessary wares"
brought into the port of London,[858] together with "babies" (dolls),
"glasses to looke in," "glasses to drinke in," pottes, gingerbread,
cabbages, and other matters, we find enumerated, "Laces of all sortes, £775
6s. 8d.," just one-half less than the more necessary, though less refined
item of "eles fresh and salt."[859]

In 1573 Elizabeth again endeavoured to suppress "the silk glittering with
silver and gold lace," but in vain.

{307}The Queen was a great lover of foreign novelties. All will call to
mind how she overhauled the French finery of poor Mary Stuart[860] on its
way to her prison, purloining and selecting for her own use any
new-fashioned article she craved. We even find Cecil, on the sly, penning a
letter to Sir Henry Norris, her Majesty's envoy to the court of France,
"that the Queen's Majesty would fain have a tailor that has skill to make
her apparel both after the French and Italian manner, and she thinketh you
might use some means to obtain such one as suiteth the Queen without
mentioning any manner of request in the Queen's Majesty's name." His lady
wife is to get one privately, without the knowledge coming to the Queen
Mother's ears, "as she does not want to be beholden to her."

It is not to be wondered at, then, that the New Year's Gifts and Great
Wardrobe Accounts[861] teem with entries of "doublets of peche satten all
over covered with cut-work and lyned with a lace of Venyse gold,[862]
kyrtells of white satten embroidered with purles of gold-like clouds, and
layed round about with a bone lace of Venys gold."[863] This gold lace
appears upon her petticoats everywhere varied by bone lace of Venys
silver.[864]

That the Queen drew much fine thread point from the same locality her
portraits testify, especially that preserved in the royal gallery of
Gripsholm, in Sweden, once the property of her ill-fated admirer, Eric XIV.
She wears a ruff, cuffs, tucker, and apron of geometric lace, of exquisite
fineness, stained of a pale citron colour, similar to the liquid invented
by Mrs. Turner, of Overbury memory, or, maybe, adopted from the
saffron-tinted smocks of the Irish, the wearing of which she herself had
prohibited. We find among her entries laces of Jean[865] and Spanish lace;
she did not even disdain bone lace of copper, and copper and silver {308}at
18d. the ounce.[866] Some of her furnishers are English. One Wylliam Bowll
supplies the Queen with "lace of crowne purle."[867] Of her sylkwoman,
Alice Mountague, she has bone lace wrought with silver and spangles, sold
by the owner at nine shillings.[868]

The Queen's smocks are entered as wrought with black work and edged with
bone lace of gold of various kinds. We have ourselves seen a smock said to
have been transmitted as an heirloom in one family from generation to
generation.[869] It is of linen cloth embroidered in red silk, with her
favourite pattern of oak-leaves and butterflies (Fig. 122). Many entries of
these articles, besides that of Sir Philip Sidney's, appear among the New
Year's Gifts.[870]

[Illustration: Fig. 122.

QUEEN ELIZABETH'S SMOCK.]

It was then the custom for the sponsors to give {309}"christening shirts,"
with little bands and cuffs edged with laces of gold and various kinds--a
relic of the ancient custom of presenting white clothes to the neophytes
when converted to Christianity. The "bearing cloth,"[871] as the mantle
used to cover the child when carried to baptism was called,[872] was also
richly trimmed with lace and cut-work, and the Tree of Knowledge, the Holy
Dove (Fig. 123), or the Flowerpot of the Annunciation (Fig. 124), was
worked in "hollie-work" on the crown of the infant's cap or "biggin."

[Illustration: Fig. 123.]

[Illustration: Fig. 124.]

CHRISTENING CAPS, NEEDLE-MADE BRUSSELS.--Eighteenth century.

Aprons, too, of lace appeared in this reign. The Queen, as we have
mentioned, wears one in her portrait at Gripsholm.[873]

 "Those aprons white, of finest thread,
    So choicelie tied, so dearly bought;
  So finely fringed, so nicely spread;
    So quaintly cut, so richly wrought,"

writes the author of _Pleasant Quippes for Upstart Gentlewomen_, {310}in
1596. The fashion continued to the end of the eighteenth century.

Laced handkerchiefs now came into fashion. "Maydes and gentlewomen," writes
Stowe, "gave to their favourites, as tokens of their love, little
handkerchiefs of about three or four inches square, wrought round about,"
with a button at each corner.[874] The best were edged with a small gold
lace. Gentlemen wore them in their hats as favours of their mistresses.
Some cost sixpence, some twelvepence, and the richest sixteenpence.

Of the difference between purles and true lace it is difficult now to
decide. The former word is of frequent occurrence among the New Year's
Gifts, where we have "sleeves covered all over with purle,"[875] and, in
one case, the sleeves are offered unmade, with "a piece of purle upon a
paper to edge them."[876] It was yet an article of great value and worthy
almost of entail, for, in 1573, Elizabeth Sedgwicke, of Wathrape, widow,
bequeaths to her daughter Lassells, of Walbron, "an edge of perlle for a
remembrance, desirying her to give it to one of her daughters."[877]

We now turn, before quitting the sixteenth century, to that most portentous
of all fabrications--Queen Elizabeth's ruff.

In the time of the Plantagenets Flemish tastes prevailed. With the Tudors,
Katherine of Aragon, on her marriage with Prince Arthur, introduced the
Spanish fashions, and the inventories from Henry VIII. downwards are filled
with Spanish work, Spanish stitch, and so forth. Queen Elizabeth leant to
the French and Italian modes, and during the Stuarts they were universally
adopted.

The ruff was first introduced into England about the reign of Philip and
Mary. These sovereigns are both represented on the Great Seal of England
with small ruffs about {311}their necks, and with diminutive ones of the
same form encircling the wrists.[878] This Spanish ruff was not ornamented
with lace. On the succession of Queen Elizabeth the ruff had increased to a
large size, as we see portrayed on her Great Seal.

The art of starching, though known to the manufacturers of Flanders, did
not reach England until 1564, when the Queen first set up a coach. Her
coachman, named Gwyllam Boenen, was a Dutchman; his wife understood the art
of starching, a secret she seems exclusively to have possessed, and of
which the Queen availed herself until the arrival, some time after, of
Madame Dinghen van der Plasse, who, with her husband, came from Flanders
"for their better safeties,"[879] and set up as a clear-starcher in London.

"The most curious wives," says Stowe, "now made themselves ruffs of
cambric, and sent them to Madame Dinghen to be starched, who charged high
prices. After a time they made themselves ruffs of lawn, and thereupon
arose a general scoff, or by-word, that shortly they would make their ruffs
of spiders' webs." Mrs. Dinghen at last took their daughters as her pupils.
Her usual terms were from four to five pounds for teaching them to starch,
and one pound for the art of seething starch.[880] The nobility patronised
her, but the commonalty looked on her as the evil one, and called her
famous liquid "devil's broth."

To keep the ruff erect, bewired[881] and starched though it be, was a
troublesome affair--its falling a cause of agony to the wearer.

 "Not so close, thy breath will draw my ruff,"

exclaims the fop. The tools used in starching and fluting {312}ruffs were
called setting-sticks, struts and poking-sticks: the two first were made of
wood or bone, the poking-stick of iron, and heated in the fire. By this
heated tool the fold acquired that accurate and seemly order which
constituted the beauty of this very preposterous attire. It was about the
year 1576, according to Stowe, the making of poking-sticks began. They
figure in the expenses of Elizabeth, who, in 1592, pays to her blacksmith,
one Thomas Larkin, "pro 2 de lez setting-stickes at 2s. 6d." the sum of
5s.[882]

We have frequent allusion to the article in the plays of the day:--[883]

  "Your ruff must stand in print, and for that purpose, get poking-sticks
  with fair long handles, lest they scorch your hands."[884]

Again, in _Laugh and Lie Down_--[885]

  "There she sat with her poking-stick, stiffening a fall."

When the use of starch and poking-sticks had rendered the arrangement of a
ruff easy, the size began rapidly to increase. "Both men and women wore
them intolerably large, being a quarter of a yard deep, and twelve lengths
in a ruff."[886] In London this fashion was termed the French ruff; in
France, on the other hand, it was called "the English monster."[887] Queen
Elizabeth wore hers higher and stiffer than anyone in Europe, save the
Queen of Navarre, for she had a "yellow throat," and was desirous to
conceal it.[888] Woe betide any fair lady of the court who dared let her
white skin appear uncovered in the presence of majesty. Her ruffs were made
of the finest cut-work, enriched with gold, silver, and even precious
stones. Though she consumed endless yards of cut-work, purle, needlework
lace, bone lace of gold, of silver, enriched with pearls, and bugles,
{313}and spangles in the fabrication of the "three-piled ruff,"[889] she by
no means extended such liberty to her subjects, for she selected grave
citizens and placed them at every gate of the city to cut the ruffs if they
exceeded the prescribed depth. These "pillars of pride" form a numerous
item among the New Year's Gifts. Each lady seems to have racked her brain
to invent some novelty as yet unheard of to gratify the Queen's vanity. On
the new year 1559-60, the Countess of Worcester offers a ruff of lawn
cut-work set with twenty small knots like mullets, garnished with small
sparks of rubies and pearls.[890]

The cut-work ruff is decorated or enriched with ornament of every
description. Nothing could be too gorgeous or too extravagant.[891] Great
was the wrath of old Philip Stubbes[892] at these monstrosities, which,
standing out a quarter of a yard or more, "if Æolus with his blasts or
Neptune with his stormes chaunce to hit upon the crazie bark or their
bruised ruffes, then they goe flip flap in the winde like ragges that flew
abroade, lying upon their shoulders like the dishclout of a slut. But wot
ye what? the devill, as he, in the fulnesse of his malice, first invented
these great ruffes," etc., with a great deal more, which, as it comes
rather under the head of costume than lace, we omit, as foreign to our
subject.

Lace has always been made of human hair, and of this we have frequent
mention in the expenses of Queen Elizabeth. We believe the invention to be
far older than her reign, for there is frequent allusion to it in the early
romaunces. In the _Chevalier aux ij Epées_ (MS. Bib. Nat.), a lady requires
of King Ris that he should present her with a mantle fringed with the
beards of nine conquered kings, and hemmed with that of King Arthur, who
was yet to conquer. The mantle is to have "de sa barbe le tassel." {314}The
entries of Elizabeth, however, are of a less heroic nature; and though we
are well aware it was the custom of old ladies to weave into lace their
silver-grey locks, and much as the fashion of hair bracelets and chains
prevails, in Queen Elizabeth's case, setting aside all sentiment, we cannot
help fancying the "laquei fact' de crine brayded cum lez risinge
puffs,"[893] as well as the "devices fact' de crine similiter les scallop
shells,"[894] to have been nothing more than "stuffings"--false additions,
to swell the majesty of the royal "pirrywygge."

That point tresse, as this hair-lace is called, was known in her day, we
have evidence in the Chartley inventory of Mary Stuart, in which is
mentioned, "Un petit quarré fait à point tresse ouvré par la vieille
Comtesse de Lennox elle estant à la Tour"; a tribute of affection the old
countess would scarcely have offered to her daughter-in-law had she
regarded her as implicated in the murder of her son. The writer saw at
Chantilly an aged lace-maker employed in making a lace ground of hair on
the pillow, used, she was informed, by wig-makers to give the parting of
the hair; but the fabric must be identical with the point tresse sent by
the mother of Darnley to the Queen of Scots. Point tresse, when made out of
the hair of aged people, is occasionally to be met with on the Continent,
where, from its rarity, it fetches a high price. Some districts gained a
reputation for their work, according to Turner:--"And Bedford's matrons
wove their snowy locks." It may be detected by the glittering of the hair
when held up to catch the sunbeams, or by frizzing when exposed to the test
of fire, instead of blazing.

With this mention of point tresse we conclude the reign of Queen Elizabeth.



{315}CHAPTER XXIV.

JAMES I. TO THE RESTORATION.


----

JAMES I.

 "Now up aloft I mount unto the Ruffe,
  Which into foolish mortals pride doth puffe;
  Yet Ruffe's antiquity is here but small:
  Within these eighty years not one at all.
  For the 8th Henry, as I understand,
  Was the first king that ever wore a Band,
  And but a falling band plaine with a hem,
  All other people knew no use of them."
                        Taylor, "Water-Poet." 1640.

The ruff single, double, three piled, and Dædalian,[895] to the delight of
the satirists, retained its sway during the early days of King James I. It
was the "commode" of the eighteenth--the crinoline of the nineteenth
century. Every play teems with allusions to this monstrosity. One compares
it to

             "A pinched lanthorn
  Which schoolboys made in winter;"[896]

while a second[897] talks of a

  "Starched ruff, like a new pigeon-house."

The lover, in the play of the _Antiquary_,[898] complains to his mistress
in pathetic terms--

  "Do you not remember how you fooled me, and set me to pin pleats in your
  ruff two hours together?"

{316}Stubbes stood not alone in his anathemas. The dignitaries of the
Church of England waxed wroth, and violent were their pulpit invectives.

"Fashion," emphatically preached John King,[899] Bishop of London, "has
brought in deep ruffs[900] and shallow ruffs, thick ruffs and thin ruffs,
double ruffs and no ruffs. When the Judge of quick and dead shall appear,
he will not know those who have so defaced the fashion he hath created."
The Bishop of Exeter, too, Joseph Hall, a good man, but no prophet, little
wotting how lace-making would furnish bread and comfort to the women of his
own diocese for centuries to come, in a sermon preached at the Spitel,
after a long vituperation against its profaneness, concludes with these
words: "But if none of our persuasions can prevail, hear this, ye garish
popinjays of our time, if ye will not be ashamed to clothe yourselves after
this shameless fashion, Heaven shall clothe you with shame and confusion.
Hear this, ye plaister-faced Jezabels, if ye will not leave your daubs and
your washes, Heaven will one day wash them off with fire and brimstone."
Whether these denunciations had the effect of lessening the ruffs we know
not; probably it only rendered them more exaggerated.

Of these offending adjuncts to the toilet of both sexes we have fine
illustrations in the paintings of the day, as well as in the monuments of
our cathedrals and churches.[901] They were composed of the finest
geometric lace, such as we see portrayed in the works of Vinciolo and
others. The artists of the day took particular pleasure in depicting them
with the most exquisite minuteness.

These ruffs must have proved expensive for the wearer, though in James I.'s
time, as Ben Jonson has it, men thought little of "turning four or five
hundred acres of their best land into two or three trunks of apparel."[902]
According to the Wardrobe Accounts,[903] "twenty-five yards of fyne bone
lace" was required to edge a ruff, without counting the ground, composed
either of lace squares or cut-work. Queen Anne, his consort, pays £5 for
her wrought ruff, for "shewing" which eighteen yards of fine lace are
purchased at 5s. 8d.[904]

PLATE LXXIX.

[Illustration: MARY SIDNEY, COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE, IN 1614.
1555?--1621.--Probably by Marc Gheeraedts. National Portrait Gallery.

Photo by Walker and Cockerell.]

_To face page 316._

{317}The ruffs of the City ladye were kept downe by the old sumptuary law
of Elizabeth.

"See, now, that you have not your 'city ruff' on, Mistress Sue," says
Mistress Simple in the _City Match_.[905]

The Overbury murder (1613), and hanging of Mrs. Turner at Tyburn in 1615,
are usually said, on the authority of Howel,[906] to have put an end to the
fashion of yellow ruffs, but the following extracts show they were worn for
some years later.

As late as 1620 the yellow starch, supposed to give a rich hue to the lace
and cut-work of which ruffs were "built," gave scandal to the clergy. The
Dean of Westminster ordered no lady or gentleman wearing yellow ruffs to be
admitted into any pew in his church; but finding this "ill taken," and the
King "moved in it," he ate his own words, and declared it to be all a
mistake.[907] This fashion, again, gave great offence even in France. Since
the English[908] {318}alliance, writes the _Courtisane à la Mode_,
1625,[909] "cette mode Anglaise sera cause qu'il pourra advenir une cherté
sur le safran qui fera que les Bretons et les Poitevins seront contraints
de manger leur beurre blanc et non pas jaune, comme ils sont accoutumés."

The Bishops, who first denounced the ruff, themselves held to the fashion
long after it had been set aside by all other professions. Folks were not
patriotic in their tastes, as in more modern days; they loved to go "as far
as Paris to fetch over a fashion and come back again."[910]

The lace of Flanders, with the costly points and cut-works of Italy,[911]
now became the rage, and continued so for nigh two centuries. Ben Jonson
speaks of the "ruffs and cuffs of Flanders,"[912] while Lord Bacon,
indignant at the female caprice of the day, writes to Sir George
Villiers:--"Our English dames are much given to the wearing of costly
laces, and if they may be brought from Italy, or France, or Flanders, they
are in much esteem; whereas, if like laces were made by the English, so
much thread would make a yard of lace, being put into that manufacture,
would be five times, or perhaps ten or twenty times the value."[913] But
Bacon had far better have looked at home, for he had himself, when
Chancellor, granted an exclusive patent to Sir Giles Mompesson, the
original of Sir Giles Overreach, for the monopoly of the sale and
manufacture of gold and silver thread, the abuses of which caused in part
his fall.[914]

James had half ruined the commerce of England by the granting of
monopolies, which, says Sir John Culpepper, are "as numerous as the frogs
of Egypt. They have got possession of our dwellings, they sip in our cups,
they dip in our {319}dish. They sit by our fire. We find them in the
dye-vat, wash-bowl, and powdering-tub, etc.; they have marked and sealed us
from head to foot."[915] The bone-lace trade suffered alike with other
handicrafts.[916] In 1606 James had already given a license to the Earl of
Suffolk[917] for the import of gold and silver lace. In 1621, alarmed by
the general complaints throughout the kingdom,[918] a proposition was made
"for the erection of an Office of Pomp, to promote home manufactures," and
to repress pride by levying taxes on all articles of luxury.[919] What
became of the Pomp Office we cannot pretend to say: the following year we
are somewhat taken aback by a petition[920] from two Dutchmen, of Dort,
showing "that the manufacture of gold and silver thread, purle, etc., in
England" was "a great waste of bullion," the said Dutchmen being, we may
infer, of opinion that it was more to their advantage to import such
articles themselves. After a lapse of three years the petition is
granted.[921] In the midst of all this granting and rescinding of
monopolies, we hear in the month of April, 1623, how the decay of the
bone-lace trade at Great Marlow caused great poverty.[922]

Though the laces of Flanders and Italy were much patronised by the court
and high nobility, Queen Anne of Denmark appears to have given some
protection to the fabrics of the country. Poor Queen Anne! When, on the
news of Elizabeth's death, James hurried off to England, a correspondence
took place between the King and the English Privy Council regarding the
Queen's outfit, James considering, {320}and wisely--for the Scotch court
was always out of elbows--that his wife's wardrobe was totally unfit to be
produced in London. To remedy the deficiency, the Council forwarded to the
Queen, by the hands of her newly-named ladies, a quantity of Elizabeth's
old gowns and ruffs, wherewith to make a creditable appearance on her
arrival in England. Elizabeth had died at the age of seventy, wizened,
decayed, and yellow--Anne, young and comely, had but just attained her
twenty-sixth year. The rage of the high-spirited dame knew no bounds; she
stormed with indignation--wear the clothes she must, for there were no
others--so in revenge she refused to appoint any of the ladies, save Lady
Bedford, though nominated by the King, to serve about her person in
England. On her arrival she bought a considerable quantity of linen, and as
with the exception of one article,[923] purchased from a "French mann," her
"nidell purle worke," her "white worke," her "small nidell worke," her
"pece of lawin to bee a ruffe," with "eighteen yards of fine lace to shewe
(sew) the ruffe," the "Great Bone" lace, and "Little Bone" lace were
purchased at Winchester and Basing, towns bordering on the lace-making
counties, leading us to infer them to have been of English
manufacture.[924]

The bill of laced linen purchased at the "Queen's lying down" on the birth
of the Princess Sophia, in 1606, amounts to the sum of £614 5s. 8d.[925] In
this we have no mention of any foreign-made laces. The child lived but
three days. Her little monument, of cradle-form, with lace-trimmed
coverlets and sheets (Fig. 125), stands close to the recumbent effigy of
her sister Mary[926] (Fig. 126), with ruff, collar, and cap of geometric
lace, in the north aisle of Henry VII.'s Chapel.[927]

PLATE LXXX.

[Illustration: HENRY WRIOTHESLEY, THIRD EARL OF SOUTHAMPTON,
1573-1624.--Probably painted in Holland about 1620, by Michiel Van
Miereveldt. National Portrait Gallery.

Photo by Walker and Cockerell.]

_To face page 320._

{321}[Illustration: Fig. 125.

MONUMENT OF THE PRINCESS SOPHIA.  + 1606. FOURTH DAUGHTER OF JAMES I.
(Westminster Abbey.)]

After a time--epoch of the Spanish marriage[928]--the ruff {322}gave way to
the "falling band," so familiar to us in the portraits of Rubens and
Vandyke.

"There is such a deal of pinning these ruffs, when a fine clean fall is
worth them all," says the Malcontent. "If you should chance to take a nap
in the afternoon, your falling band requires no poking-stick to recover
it."[929] Cut-work still continued in high favour; it was worn on every
article of linen, from the richly-wrought collar to the nightcap. The
Medicean ruff or gorget of the Countess of Pembroke ("Sidney's sister,
Pembroke's mother"), with its elaborate border of swans (Fig. 127), is a
good illustration of the fashion of her time.

[Illustration: Fig. 126.

MONUMENT OF THE PRINCESS MARY. + 1607. THIRD DAUGHTER OF JAMES I.
(Westminster Abbey.)]

Among the early entries of Prince Charles, we have four nightcaps of
cut-work, £7,[930] for making two of which for his {323}Highness, garnished
with gold and silver lace, Patrick Burke receives £15;[931] but these
modest entries are quite put to shame by those of his royal father, who,
for ten yards of needlework lace "pro le edginge" of his "galiriculis vulgo
nightcaps," pays £16 13s. 4d.[932] Well might the Water-Poet exclaim--

  "A nightcap is a garment of high state."[933]

[Illustration: Fig. 127.

MARY, COUNTESS OF PEMBROKE.  + 1621. (From her portrait in Walpole's _Royal
and Noble Authors_.)]

When Queen Anne died, in 1619, we have an elaborate {324}account of her
funeral,[934] and of the sum paid to Dorothy Speckart for dressing a hearse
effigy with a large veil, wired and edged with peak lace and lawn,
curiously cut in flowers, etc. Laced linen, however, was already discarded
in mourning attire, for we find in the charges for the king's mourning
ruffs, an edging at 14d. the piece is alone recorded.[935]

Towards the end of James I.'s reign a singular custom came into fashion,
brought in by the Puritan ladies, that of representing religious subjects,
both in lace, cut-work, and embroidery, a fashion hitherto confined to
church vestments. We find constant allusions to it in the dramatists of the
day. Thus, in the _City Match_,[936] we read--

 "She works religious petticoats, for flowers
  She'll make church histories. Her needle doth
  So sanctify my cushionets, besides
  My smock sleeves have such holy embroideries,
  And are so learned, that I fear in time
  All my apparel will be quoted by
  Some pious instructor."

Again, in the _Custom of the Country_--[937]

 "Sure you should not be
  Without a neat historical shirt."

{325}We find in a Scotch inventory[938] of the seventeenth century: "Of
Holland scheittes ii pair, quhairof i pair schewit (sewed) with hollie
work."[939]

The entries of this reign, beyond the "hollie work," picked[940] and
seaming[941] lace, contain little of any novelty; all articles of the
toilet were characterised by a most reckless extravagance.

"There is not a gentleman now in the fashion," says Peacham,[942] "whose
band of Italian cut-work now standeth him not in the least three or four
pounds. Yes, a semster in Holborn told me that there are of threescore
pounds." We read how two-thirds of a woman's dower was often expended in
the purchase of cut-work and Flanders lace.

In the warrant of the Great Wardrobe for the marriage expenses of the
ill-fated Princess Elizabeth, on which occasion it is recorded of poor
Arabella Stuart, the "Lady Arabella, though still in the Tower, has shewn
her joy by buying four new gowns, one of which cost £1,500,"[943] in
addition to "gold cheine laze, silver spangled, silver looped, myllen bone
lace, drawneworke poynte, black silk Naples lace," etc., all in the most
astonishing quantity, we have the astounding entry of 1,692 ounces of
silver bone lace.[944] No wonder, in {326}after days, the Princess caused
so much anxiety to the Palatine's Privy Purse, Colonel Schomberg, who in
vain implores her to have her linen and lace bought beforehand, and paid at
every fair.[945] "You brought," he writes, "£3,000 worth of linen from
England, and have bought £1,000 worth here," and yet "you are ill
provided."[946]


CHARLES I.

  "Embroider'd stockings, cut-work smocks and shirts."
              --Ben Jonson.

Ruffs may literally be said to have gone out with James I. His son Charles
is represented on the coins of the two first years of his reign in a stiff
starched ruff;[947] in the fourth and fifth we see the ruff unstarched,
falling down on his shoulders,[948] and afterwards, the falling band (Fig.
128) was generally adopted, and worn by all classes save the judges, who
stuck to the ruff as a mark of dignity and decorum, till superseded by the
peruke.[949]

PLATE LXXXI.

[Illustration: ELIZABETH, PRINCESS PALATINE, GRANDDAUGHTER OF JAMES I.,
1618-1680.--Probably about 1638. By Gerard Honthorst. National Portrait
Gallery.

Photo by Walker and Cockerell.]

_To face page 326._

{327}[Illustration: Fig. 128.

FALLING COLLAR OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.--(After Abraham Bosse.)]


Even loyal Oxford, conscientious to a hair's-breadth--always behind the
rest of the world--when Whitelock, in 1635, addresses the Quarter Sessions
arrayed in the new fashion, owned "one may speak as good sense in a falling
band as in a ruff." The change did not, however, diminish the extravagance
of the age. The bills for the King's lace and linen, which in the year 1625
amounted to £1,000, in course of time rose to £1,500.[950] Falling bands of
Flanders bone lace and cut-work appear constantly in the accounts.[951] As
the foreign materials are carefully specified (it was one of these
articles, then a novelty, that Queen Anne of Denmark "bought of the French
Mann"), we may infer much of the bobbin or bone lace to have been of home
produce. As Ben Jonson says, "Rich apparel has strong virtues." It is, he
adds, "the birdlime of fools." There was, indeed, no article of toilet at
this period which was not encircled with lace--towels, sheets, shirts,
caps, cushions, boots (Fig. 129), cuffs (Fig. 130)--and, as too often
occurs in the case of excessive luxury, when the bills came in money was
wanting to {328}discharge them, Julian Elliott, the royal lace merchant,
seldom receiving more than half her account, and in 1630--nothing.[952]
There were, as Shakespeare says,

                   "Bonds entered into
  For gay apparel against the triumph day."[953]

The quantity of needlework purl consumed on the king's hunting collars,
"colares pro venatione," scarcely appears credible. One entry alone makes
994 yards for 12 collars and 24 pairs of cuffs.[954] Again, 600 yards of
fine bone lace is charged for trimming the ruffs of the King's
night-clothes.[955]

[Illustration: Fig. 129.

From an Engraving of Abraham Bosse.]

[Illustration: Fig. 130.

From an Engraving of Abraham Bosse.]

The art of lace-making was now carried to great perfection in England; so
much so, that the lease of twenty-one years, granted in 1627 to Dame
Barbara Villiers, of the duties on gold and silver thread, became a
terrible loss to the holder, who, in 1629, petitions for a discharge of
£437 10s. arrears due to the Crown. The prayer is favourably received by
the officers of the Customs, to whom it was referred, who answer they
"conceive those duties will decay, for the invention of making Venice gold
and silver lace within the kingdom is come to that perfection, that it will
be made here more cheap than it can be brought from beyond seas."[956] The
fancy for foreign articles still prevailed. "Among the goods brought in by
Tristram Stephens," writes Sir John Hippisley, from Dover Castle, "are the
bravest French bandes that ever I did see for ladies--they be fit for the
Queen."[957]

[Illustration: Fig. 131.

ENGLISH NEEDLE-MADE LACE.

_To face page 328._]

{329}Gold lace was exported in considerable quantities to India in the days
of James I.;[958] and now, in 1631, we find the "riband roses," edged with
lace, notified among the articles allowed to be exported. These lace
rosette-trimmed shoes were in vogue in the time of James I., and when first
brought to that monarch he refused to adopt the fashion, asking, "If they
wanted to make a ruffe-footed dove of him." They were afterwards worn in
all the extravagance of the French court. (See France to Louis XIV.). Mr.
Brooks, in his speech in the House of Commons against costly apparel (18
James I.), says, "Nowadays, the roses worn by Members of the House on their
shoes are more than their father's apparel." Peacham speaks of "shoe ties,
that goe under the name of roses, from thirty shillings to three, four, and
five pounds the pair. Yea, a gallant of the time, not long since, paid
thirty pounds for a pair.[959] Well might Taylor say they

 "Wear a farm in shoe-strings edged with gold,
  And spangled garters worth a copyhold."

It was not till the year 1635 that an effort was made for {330}the
protection of our home fabrics, "at the request and for the benefit of the
makers of those goods in and near London, and other parts of the realm, now
brought to great want and necessity, occasioned by the excessive
importation of these foreign wares." Foreign "Purles, Cutworks, or
Bone-laces, or any commodities laced or edged therewith," are strictly
prohibited. Orders are also given that all purles, cut-works, and bone
laces English made are to be taken to a house near the sign of the "Red
Hart" in Fore Street, without Cripplegate, and there sealed by Thomas Smith
or his deputy.[960]

An Act the same year prohibits the use of "gold or silver purles" except
manufactured in foreign parts, and especially forbids the melting down any
coin of the realm.

The manufacture of bone lace in England had now much improved, and was held
in high estimation in France. We hear of Henrietta Maria sending ribbons,
lace, and other fashions from England, in 1636, as a present to her
sister-in-law, Anne of Austria;[961] while, in a letter dated February 7th,
1636, the Countess of Leicester writes to her husband, then in France, who
had requested her to procure him some fine bone lace of English make:--"The
present for the Queen of France I will be careful to provide, but it cannot
be handsome for that proportion of money which you do mention; for these
bone laces, if they be good, are dear, and I will send the best, for the
honor of my nation and my own credit."

Referring to the same demand, the Countess again writes to her lord, May
18th, 1637, Leicester House:--"All my present for the Queen of France is
provided, which I have done with great care and some trouble; the expenses
I cannot yet directly tell you, but I think it will be about £120, for the
bone laces are extremely dear. I intend to {331}send it by Monsieur
Ruvigny, for most of the things are of new fashion, and if I should keep
them they would be less acceptable, for what is new now will quickly grow
common, such things being sent over almost every week."

We can have no better evidence of the improvement in the English lace
manufacture than these two letters.

An Act of 1638 for reforming abuses in the manufacture of lace, by which
competent persons are appointed, whether natives or strangers, "who shall
be of the Church of England," can scarcely have been advantageous to the
community.

Lace, since the Reformation, had disappeared from the garments of the
Church. In the search warrants made after Jesuits and priests of the Roman
faith, it now occasionally peeps out. In an inventory of goods seized at
the house of some Jesuit priests at Clerkenwell, in 1627, we find--"One
faire Alb of cambric, with needle worke purles about the skirts, necke, and
bandes."

Smuggling, too, had appeared upon the scene. In 1621 information is laid,
how Nicholas Peeter, master of the "Greyhound, of Apsom," had landed at
Dover sundry packets of cut-workes and bone laces without paying the
Customs.[962]

But the

 "Rebatoes, ribbands, cuffs, ruffs, falls,
  Scarfes, feathers, fans, maskes, muffs, laces, cauls,"[963]

of King Charles's court were soon to disperse at the now outbreaking
Revolution. The Herrn Maior Frau (Lady Mayoress), the noble English lady
depicted by Hollar,[964] must now lay aside her whisk, edged with broad
lace of needle point, and no longer hie to St. Martin's for lace:[965] she
must content herself with a plain attire.

 "Sempsters with ruffs and cuffs, and quoifs and caules
  And falls,"[966]

must be dismissed.  Smocks of three pounds a-piece,[967] {332}wrought
smocks,[968] are no longer worn by all--much less those "seam'd thro' with
cutwork,"[969] or "lace to her smocks, broad seaming laces,"[970] which,
groans one of the Puritan writers, "is horrible to think of."

The ruff and cuffs of Flanders, gold lace cut-work and silver lace of
curle,[971] needle point, and fine gartering with blown roses,[972] are now
suppressed under Puritan rule.

The "fop" whom Henry Fitz-Geoffrey describes as having

                 "An attractive lace
  And whalebone bodies for the better grace,"

must now think twice before he wears it.[973]

The officer, whom the poor soldier apostrophises as shining--

 "One blaze of plate about you, which puts out
  Our eyes when we march 'gainst the sunne, and armes you
  Compleatly with your own gold lace, which is
  Laid on so thick, that your own trimmings doe
  Render you engine proof, without more arms"--[974]

must no longer boast of

 "This shirt five times victorious I have fought under,
  And cut through squadrons of your curious Cut-work,
  As I will do through mine."[975]

In the Roundhead army he will scarce deign to comb his cropped locks. All
is now dingy, of a sad colour, soberly in character with the tone of the
times.

PLATE LXXXII.

[Illustration: JAMES HARRINGTON, Author of "Oceana," 1611-1677.  Between
1630-1640. By Gerard Honthorst. National Portrait Gallery.

Photo by Walker and Cockerell.]

_To face page 332._


{333}THE COMMONWEALTH.

The rule of the Puritans was a sad time for lace-makers, as regards the
middle and lower classes: every village festival, all amusement was put
down, bride laces and Mayings--all were vanity.

With respect to the upper classes, the Puritan ladies, as well as the men
of birth, had no fancy for exchanging the rich dress of the Stuart Court
for that of the Roundheads. Sir Thomas Fairfax, father of the General, is
described as wearing a buff coat, richly ornamented with silver lace, his
trunk hose trimmed with costly Flanders lace, his breastplate partly
concealed by a falling collar of the same material. The foreign Ambassadors
of the Parliament disdained the Puritan fashions. Lady Fanshaw describes
her husband as wearing at the Court of Madrid, on some State occasion, "his
linen very fine, laced with very rich Flanders lace."[976]

Indeed, it was not till the arrival of the Spanish envoy, the first
accredited to the Protectorate of Cromwell, that Harrison begged Colonel
Hutchinson and Lord Warwick to set an example to other nations at the
audience, and not appear in gold and silver lace. Colonel Hutchinson,
though he saw no harm in a rich dress, yet not to appear offensive, came
next day in a plain black suit, as did the other gentlemen, when, to the
astonishment of all, Harrison appeared in a scarlet coat so laden with
"clinquaint" and lace as to hide the material of which it was made,
showing, remarks Mrs. Hutchinson, "his godly speeches were only made that
he might appear braver above the rest in the eyes of the strangers."

Nor did the mother of Cromwell lay aside these adornments. She wore a
handkerchief, of which the broad point-lace alone could be seen, and her
green velvet cardinal was edged with broad gold lace.[977] Cromwell
himself, when once in power, became more particular in his dress; and if he
lived as a Puritan, his body after death was more gorgeously attired than
that of any deceased sovereign, with purple velvet, ermine, and the richest
Flanders lace.[978] His effigy, {334}carved by one Symonds, was clad in a
fine shirt of Holland, richly laced; he wore bands and cuffs of the same
materials, and his clothes were covered with gold lace.[979]

The more we read the more we feel convinced that the dislike manifested by
the Puritan leaders to lace and other luxuries was but a political
necessity, in order to follow the spirit of the age.

As an illustration of this opinion we may cite that in the account of the
disbursements of the Committee of Safety, 1660, a political _jeu d'esprit_
which preceded the Restoration, we find entered for Lady Lambert--

"Item, for seven new whisks lac'd with Flanders lace of the last Edition,
each whisk is valued at fifty pound, £350."

Followed up by--

"Six new Flanders lac'd smocks, £300."

The whisk, as the gorget was now termed, was as great an object of
extravagance to the women as was the falling band to the men. It continued
in fashion during the reign of Charles II., and is often mentioned as lost
or stolen among the advertisements in the public journals of the day. In
the _Mercurius Publicus_, May 8th, 1662, we find: "A cambric whisk with
Flanders lace, about a quarter of a yard broad, and a lace turning up about
an inch broad, with a stock in the neck, and a strap hanging down before,
was lost between the new Palace and Whitehall. Reward, 30_s_." Again, in
_The Newes_, June 20th, 1664: "Lost, a Tiffany whisk, with a great lace
down, and a little one up, large Flowers, and open Work, with a Roul for
the head and Peak."



{335}CHAPTER XXV.

CHARLES II. TO THE HOUSE OF HANOVER.

----

CHARLES II.

 "The dangling knee-fringe, and the bib-cravat."
      --Dryden. _Prologue._ 1674.

The taste for luxury only required the restoration of the Stuarts to burst
out in full vigour.

The following year Charles II. issued a proclamation[980] enforcing the Act
of his father prohibiting the entry of foreign bone lace; but, far from
acting as he preached, he purchases Flanders lace at eighteen shillings the
yard, for the trimming of his fine lawn "collobium sindonis,"[981] a sort
of surplice worn during the ceremony of the anointment at the coronation.

The hand-spinners of gold wire, thread lace, and spangles of the City of
London, no longer puritanically inclined, now speak out boldly. "Having
heard a report the Parliament intend to pass an Act against the wearing of
their manufacture, they hope it intends the reform, not the destruction of
their craft, for by it many thousands would be ruined. Let every person,"
say they, "be prohibited from wearing gold, silver, and thread lace--that
will encourage the gentry to do so."[982]

In 1662 is passed an Act prohibiting the importation of foreign bone lace,
cut-works, etc., setting forth, "Whereas many poor children have attained
great dexterity in the {336}making thereof, the persons so employed have
served most parts of the kingdom with bone lace, and for the carrying out
of the same trade have caused much thread to be brought into the country,
whereby the customs have been greatly advanced, until of late large
quantities of bone lace, cut-work, etc., were brought into the kingdom and
sold contrary to the former Statutes and the proclamation of November last;
all such bone lace is to be forfeited, and a penalty of £100 paid by the
offender."[983]

This same Act only occasioned the more smuggling of lace from Flanders, for
the point made in England had never attained the beauty of Brussels, and
indeed, wherever fine lace is mentioned at this period it is always of
foreign fabric. That Charles himself was of this opinion there can be no
doubt, for in the very same year he grants to one John Eaton a license to
import such quantities of lace "made beyond the seas, as may be for the
wear of the Queen, our dear Mother the Queen, our dear brother James, Duke
of York," and the rest of the royal family. The permission is softened down
by the words, "And to the end the same may be patterns for the manufacture
of these commodities here, notwithstanding the late Statute forbidding
their importation."[984] Charles had evidently received his lessons in the
school of Mazarin. As the galleries of the cardinal were filled with
sculptures, paintings, and majolica--rich produce of Italian art, as
patterns for France, "per mostra di farne in Francia"--so the king's "pilea
nocturna," pillow-beres, cravats, were trimmed with the points of
Venice[985] and Flanders, at the rate of £600 per annum, for the sake of
improving the lace manufacture of England.

The introduction of the flowing wig, with its long curls covering the
shoulders, gave a final blow to the falling band; {337}the ends floating
and tied in front could alone be visible. In time they diminished in size,
and the remains are still seen in the laced bands of the lawyer, when in
full dress, and the homely bordered cambric slips used by the clergy. The
laced cravat now introduced continued in fashion until about the year
1735.[986]

It was at its height when Pepys writes in his diary: "Lord's Day, Oct. 19,
1662. Put on my new lace band, and so neat it is that I am resolved my
great expense shall be lace bands, and it will set off anything else the
more." The band was edged with the broadest lace. In the _Newes_, January
7th, 1663, we find: "Lost, a laced band, the lace a quarter of a yard deep,
and the band marked in the stock with a B."

Mrs. Pepys--more thrifty soul--"wears her green petticoat of Florence
satin, with white and black gimp lace of her own putting on (making), which
is very pretty."

The custom, already common in France, of ladies making their own lace,
excites the ire of the writer of _Britannia Languens_, in his "Discourse
upon Trade."[987] "The manufacture of linen,"[988] he says, "was once the
huswifery of English ladies, gentlewomen, and other women;" now "the
huswifery women of England employ themselves in making an ill sort of lace,
which serves no national or natural necessity."

The days of Puritan simplicity were at an end.

 "Instead of homespun coifs were seen
  Good pinners edged with Colberteen."[989]

The laced cravat succeeded the falling collar. Lace handkerchiefs[990] were
the fashion, and

 "Gloves laced and trimmed as fine as Nell's."[991]

{338}Laced aprons, which even found their way to the homes of the Anglican
clergy, and appear advertised as "Stolen from the vicarage house at
Amersham in Oxfordshire: An apron of needlework lace, the middle being
Network, another Apron laced with cut and slash lace."[992]

The newspapers crowd with losses of lace, and rarer--finds.[993]

They give us, however, no clue to the home manufacture. "A pasteboard box
full of laced linen, and a little portmanteau with some white and grey Bone
lace,"[994] would seem to signify a lace much made two hundred years ago,
of which we have ourselves seen specimens from Dalecarlia, a sort of
guipure, upon which the pattern is formed by the introduction of an
unbleached thread, which comes out in full relief--a fancy more curious
than pretty.

The petticoats of the ladies of King Charles's court have received due
honour at the hands of Pepys, whose prying eyes seem to have been
everywhere. On May 21 of the same year he so complacently admired himself
in his new lace band, he writes down: "My wife and I to my Lord's lodging;
where she and I staid walking in White Hall Gardens. And in the Privy
Garden saw the finest smocks and linnen petticoats of my Lady
Castlemaine's, laced with rich lace at the bottom, that ever I saw; and it
did me good to look at them."

Speaking of the ladies' attire of this age, Evelyn says:--

 "Another quilted white and red,
  With a broad Flanders lace below;
  Four pairs of bas de soye shot through                            {339}
  With silver; diamond buckles too,
  For garters, and as rich for shoe.
  Twice twelve day smocks of Holland fine,
  With cambric sleeves rich Point to joyn
  (For she despises Colbertine);
  Twelve more for night, all Flanders lac'd,
  Or else she'll think herself disgrac'd.
  The same her night gown must adorn,
  With two Point waistcoats for the morn;
  Of pocket mouchoirs, nose to drain,
  A dozen laced, a dozen plain;
  Three night gowns of rich Indian stuff;
  Four cushion-cloths are scarce enough
  Of Point and Flanders,"[995] etc.

It is difficult now to ascertain what description of lace was that styled
Colbertine.[996] It is constantly alluded to by the writers of the period.
Randle Holme (1688) styles it, "A kind of open lace with a square
grounding."[997] Evelyn himself, in his _Fop's Dictionary_ (1690), gives,
"Colbertine, a lace resembling net-work of the fabric of Monsieur Colbert,
superintendent of the French King's manufactures;" and the _Ladies'
Dictionary_, 1694, repeats his definition. This is more incomprehensible
still, point d'Alençon being the lace that can be specially styled of "the
fabric" of Colbert, and Colbertine appears to have been a coarse
production.[998] Swift talks of knowing

          "The difference between
  Rich Flanders lace and Colberteen."[999]

Congreve makes Lady Westport say--[1000]

  "Go hang out an old Frisonier gorget with a yard of yellow Colberteen."

And a traveller, in 1691,[1001] speaking of Paris, writes:--"You shall see
here the finer sort of people flaunting it in tawdry gauze or Colbertine, a
parcel of coarse staring ribbons; but ten of their holyday habits shall not
amount to what a citizen's wife of London wears on her head every day."


{340}JAMES II.

The reign of James II., short and troubled, brought but little change in
the fashion of the day; more prominence, however, was given to the lace
cravats, which were worn loosely round the throat, and with their ends
hanging down over the upper part of the vest.

Charles II., in the last year of his reign, spends £20 12s. for a new
cravat to be worn "on the birthday of his dear brother,"[1002] and James
expends £29 upon one of Venice point to appear in on that of his queen.
Frequent entries of lace for the attendants of the Chapel Royal form items
in the Royal Wardrobe Accounts.

Ruffles, night-rails, and cravats of point d'Espagne and de Venise now
figure in Gazettes,[1003] but "Flanders lace is still in high estimation,"
writes somebody, in 1668, "and even fans are made of it."

Then James II. fled, and years after we find him dying at St. Germains
in--a laced nightcap. "This cap was called a 'toquet,' and put on when the
king was in extremis, as a compliment to Louis XIV." "It was the court
etiquette for all the Royals," writes Madame, in her _Memoirs_, "to die
with a nightcap on." The toquet of King James may still be seen by the
curious, adorning a wax model of the king's head, preserved as a relic in
the Museum of Dunkirk.[1004]

Out of mingled gratitude, we suppose, for the hospitality she had received
at the French court, and the protection of the angels, which, she writes,
"I experienced once when I {341}set fire to my lace night cornet, which was
burned to the very head without singeing a single hair"--good Queen Mary of
Modena, who shone so brightly in her days of adversity, died, _selon les
règles_, coeffed in like fashion.

With this notice we finish the St. Germains reign of King James the Second.


WILLIAM III.

       "Long wigs,
  Steinkirk cravats."
      --Congreve. _Love for Love._


In William III.'s reign, the full shirt-sleeves, with their lace ruffles,
were shown at the wrists, and the loose neckcloths had long pendent ends
terminating in lace, if they were not entirely made of that material. The
hat, too, was edged with gold lace, and for summer wear the gloves were
edged with lace.

Women's sleeves, at first short, wide and lace-edged, showing the delicate
sleeves of the under garment, soon became tight, and were prolonged to the
wrists, where they terminated in deep and wide upturned cuffs, whence
drooped a profusion of lace lappets and ruffles.

The hair, combed up, and with an inclination backwards from the forehead,
was surmounted by a strata of ribbon and lace, sometimes intermingled with
feathers, and a kerchief or scarf of some very light material was permitted
to hang down to the waist, or below it.

In 1698 the English Parliament passed another Act "for rendering the laws
more effectual for preventing the importation of foreign Bone lace, Loom
lace, Needlework Point, and Cutwork,"[1005] with a penalty of 20s. per
yard, and forfeiture. This Act caused such excitement among the convents
and béguinages of Flanders that the Government, at that time under the
dominion of Spain, prohibited, by way of retaliation, the importation of
English wool. In consequence of the general distress occasioned by this
edict {342}among the woolstaplers of England, the Act prohibiting the
importation of foreign lace into England was repealed,[1006] so far as
related to the Spanish Low Countries. England was the loser by this
Custom-House war.[1007]

Dress, after the Revolution, partook of the stately sobriety of the House
of Nassau, but lace was extensively worn. Queen Mary favoured that
wonderful erection, already spoken of in our chapter on France,[1008] the
tower or fontange, more generally called, certainly not from its
convenience, the "commode," with its piled tiers of lace and ribbon, and
the long hanging pinners, celebrated by Prior in his "Tale of the Widow and
her Cat":--

 "He scratch'd the maid, he stole the cream,
  He tore her best lac'd pinner."

Their Flanders lace heads, with the engageantes[1009] or ruffles, and the
dress covered with lace frills and flounces--"every part of the garment in
curl"--caused a lady, says the _Spectator_, to resemble "a Friesland
hen."[1010]

Never yet were such sums expended on lace as in the days of William and
Mary. The lace bill of the Queen, signed by Lady Derby, Mistress of the
Robes, for the year 1694, amounts to the enormous sum of £1,918.[1011]
Among the most extravagant entries we find:--

                                                       £.    s.   d.
  21 yards of lace for 12 pillow beres, at 52s.        54   12    0
  16 yards of lace for 2 toylights (toilets), at £12  192    0    0
  24 yards for 6 handkerchiefs, at £4 10s.            108    0    0
  30 yards for 6 night shifts, at 62s.                 93    0    0
   6 yards for 2 combing cloths, at £14                84    0    0
   3½ yards for a combing cloth at £17                 53    2    6 {343}
   3-1/8 do. at £14                                    42    0    0
  An apron of lace                                     17    0    0

None of the lace furnished by Mr. Bampton, thread lace provider and
milliner to the court, for the Queen's engageantes and ruffles, however,
seems to have exceeded £5 10_s_. the yard. There is little new in this
account. The lace is entered as scalloped,[1012] ruffled, loopt: lace
purle[1013] still lingers on; catgut, too, appears for the first
time,[1014] as well as raised point[1015] and needlework.[1016] The Queen's
pinners are mentioned as Mazzarined;[1017] some fashion named in honour of
the once fair Hortense, who ended her exiled life in England.

  "What do you lack, ladies fair, Mazzarine hoods, Fontanges,
  girdles?"[1018]

King William himself, early imbued with the Dutch taste for lace, exceeded,
we may say, his wife in the extravagance of his lace bills; for though the
lace account for 1690 is noted only at £1,603, it increases annually until
the year 1695-6, when the entries amount to the astonishing sum of £2,459
19s.[1019] Among the items charged will be found:--

                                                 £.    s.   d.

  To six point cravats                          158    0    0
  To eight  do.  for hunting                     85    0    0
  54 yds. for 6 barbing cloths                  270    0    0
  63 yds. for 6 combing cloths                  283   10    0
  117 yards of "scissæ teniæ" (cut-work)
    for trimming 12 pockethandfs                485   14    3
  78 yds. for 24 cravats, at £8 10s.            663    0    0

{344}In this right royal account of expenditure we find mention of
"cockscombe laciniæ," of which the King consumes 344 yards.[1020] What this
may be we cannot say, as it is described as "green and white"; otherwise we
might have supposed it some kind of Venice point, the little pearl-edged
raised patterns of which are designated by Randle Holme as "cockscombs."
More coquet than a woman, we find an exchange effected with Henry Furness,
"Mercatori," of various laces, purchased for his handkerchiefs and razor
cloths, which, laid by during the two years of "lugubris" for his beloved
consort, the Queen--during which period he had used razor cloths with broad
hems and no lace--had become "obsolete"--quite out of fashion. To effect
this exchange the King pays the sum of £178 12s. 6d., the lace purchased
for the six new razor cloths amounting to £270. In the same page we find
him, now out of mourning, expending £499 10s. for lace to trim his
twenty-four new nightshirts, "indusiis nocturnis."

With such royal patronage, no wonder the lace trade prospered, and that,
within ten years of William's death, Defoe should quote the point lace of
Blandford as selling at £30 the yard.

PLATE LXXXIII.

[Illustration: JAMES, THE OLD PRETENDER, 1688-1766, WITH HIS SISTER
PRINCESS LOUISA, 1692-1712. In 1695. By Nicolas de Largillière. National
Portrait Gallery.

Photo by Walker and Cockerell.]

_To face page 344._

{345}We have already told how the fashion of the laced Steinkirk found as
much favour in England[1021] as in France. Many people still possess, among
their family relics, long oval-shaped brooches of topaz or Bristol stones,
and wonder what they were used for. These old-fashioned articles of
jewellery were worn to fasten (when not passed through the button-hole) the
lace Steinkirk, so prevalent not only among the nobility, but worn by all
classes. If the dialogue between Sir Nicholas Dainty and Major-General
Blunt, as given in Shadwell's play, be correct, the volunteers of King
William's day were not behind the military in elegance:--

  "SIR NICHOLAS.--I must make great haste, I shall ne'er get my Points and
  Laces done up time enough.

  "MAJ. GEN. B.--What say'st, young fellow? Points and Laces for camps?

  "SIR NICH.--Yes, Points and Laces; why, I carry two laundresses on
  purpose.... Would you have a gentleman go undress'd in a camp? Do you
  think I would see a camp if there was no dressing? Why, I have two
  campaign suits, one trimmed with Flanders lace, and the other with rich
  Point.

  "MAJ. GEN. B.--Campaign suits with lace and Point!"[1022]

In Westminster Abbey, where, as somewhat disrespectfully, say the Brothers
Popplewell,[1023] the images of William and Mary

 "Stand upright in a press, with their bodies made of wax,
  A globe and a wand in either hand and their robes upon their backs"--

the lace tucker and double sleeves of Queen Mary are of the finest raised
Venice point, resembling Fig. 29; King William likewise wears a rich lace
cravat and ruffles.[1024]

In a memorandum (carta d'informazione) given to the Venetian ambassadors
about to proceed to England, 1696, they are to be provided with very
handsome collars of the finest Venetian point, which, it is added, is also
the best present to make.[1025]

Before concluding the subject of the lace-bearing heroes, we may as well
state here that the English soldiers rivalled the cavaliers of France in
the richness of their points till the extinction of hair-powder (the
wearing of which in the army consumes, says some indignant writer, flour
enough to feed 600,000 persons per annum), when the lace cravat was
replaced by the stiff and cumbersome stock. Speaking of {346}these military
dandies, writes the _World_: "Nor can I behold the lace and the waste of
finery in their clothing but in the same light as the silver plates and
ornaments on a coffin; indeed, I am apt to impute their going to battle so
trimmed and adorned to the same reason a once fine lady painted her cheeks
just before she expired, that she might not look frightful when she was
dead."

       "To war the troops advance,
  Adorned and trim like females for the dance.
  Down sinks Lothario, sent by one dire blow,
  A well-dress'd hero to the shades below."

As the justice's daughter says to her mamma, in Sheridan's _St. Patrick's
Day_:--

  "Dear; to think how the sweet fellows sleep on the ground, and fight in
  silk stockings and lace ruffles."

Lace had now become an article worthy the attention of the light-fingered
gentry. The jewels worn by our great-grandmothers of the eighteenth
century, though mounted in the most exquisite taste, were for the most part
false--Bristol or Alençon "diamonds," paste, or "Strass." Lace, on the
other hand, was a sure commodity and easily disposed of. At the robbery of
Lady Anderson's house in Red Lion Square during a fire, in 1700, the family
of George Heneage, Esq., on a visit, are recorded to have lost--"A head
with fine loopt lace, of very great value; a Flanders lace hood; a pair of
double ruffles and tuckers; two laced aprons, one point, the other Flanders
lace; and a large black lace scarf embroidered in gold."

Again, at an opera row some years later, the number of caps, ruffles, and
heads enumerated as stolen by the pickpockets is quite fabulous. So expert
had they become, that when first the ladies took to wearing powdered wigs,
they dexterously cut open the leather backs of the hack coaches and carried
off wig, head and all, before the rifled occupant had the slightest idea of
their attack.[1026] To remedy the evil, the police request all ladies for
the future to sit with their backs to the horses.[1027]


{347}QUEEN ANNE.

  "PARLEY.--Oh, Sir, there's the prettiest fashion lately come over! so
  airy, so French, and all that! The Pinners are double ruffled with twelve
  plaits of a side, and open all from the face; the hair is frizzled up all
  round head, and stands as stiff as a bodkin. Then the Favourites hang
  loose upon the temple with a languishing lock in the middle. Then the
  Caule is extremely wide, and over all is a Cornet rais'd very high and
  all the Lappets behind."--Farquhar. _Sir Harry Wildair._


Queen Anne, though less extravagant than her sister, was scarcely more
patriotic. The point purchased for her coronation,[1028] though it cost but
£64 13s. 9d., was of Flanders growth. The bill is made out to the royal
laceman of King William's day, now Sir Henry Furnesse, knight and merchant.

The Queen, too, in her gratitude, conferred a pension of £100 upon one Mrs.
Abrahat, the royal clear-starcher; "because," writes the Duchess of
Marlborough, "she had washed the Queen's heads for twenty pounds a year
when she was princess."

In 1706 Anne again repeals the Acts which prohibit Flanders lace, with the
clear understanding that nothing be construed into allowing the importation
of lace made in "the dominions of the French King";[1029] an edict in
itself sufficient to bring the points of France into the highest
fashion.[1030]

"France," writes an essayist, "is the wardrobe of the world;" nay, "the
English have so great an esteem for the workmanship of the French refugees,
that hardly a thing vends without a Gallic name."[1031]

To the refugees from Alençon and elsewhere, expelled by the cruel edict of
Louis XIV., we owe the visible improvement of our laces in the eighteenth
century.

Up to the present time we have had mention only of {348}"Flanders lace" in
general. In the reign of Queen Anne the points of "Macklin" and Brussels
are first noted down in the Royal Wardrobe Accounts. In 1710 her Majesty
pays for 26 yards of fine edged Brussels lace £151.[1032] "Mais, l'appétit
vient en mangeant." The bill of Margareta Jolly, for the year 1712, for the
furnishing of Mechlin and Brussels lace alone, amounts to the somewhat
extravagant sum of £1,418 14_s_. Taking the average price of the "Lace
chanter on Ludgate Hill," articles of daily use were costly enough. "One
Brussels head is valued at £40; a grounded Brussels head, £30; one looped
Brussels, £30." These objects, high as the price may seem, lasted a woman's
life. People in the last century did not care for variety, they contented
themselves with a few good articles; hence among the objects given in 1719,
as necessary to a lady of fashion, we merely find:--

                                                    £    s.   d.

  A French point or Flanders head and ruffles      80    0    0
  A ditto handkerchief                             10    0    0
  A black French laced hood                         5    5    0

When the Princess Mary, daughter of George II., married, she had but four
fine laced Brussels heads, two loopt and two grounded, two extremely fine
point ones, with ruffles and lappets, six French caps and ruffles.[1033]

Two point lace cravats were considered as a full supply for any gentleman.
Even young extravagant Lord Bedford, who, at eighteen years of age, found
he could not spend less than £6,000 a year at Rome, when on the grand tour,
only charges his mother, Rachel Lady Russell, with that number.[1034]

The high commode,[1035] with its lace rising tier upon tier, which made the
wits about town declare the ladies "carried Bow steeple upon their heads,"
of a sudden collapsed in Queen Anne's reign. It had shot up to a most
extravagant height, "insomuch that the female part of our species were
{349}much taller than the men. We appeared," says the _Spectator_,[1036]
"as grasshoppers before them."[1037]

In 1711 Anne forbade the entry of gold and silver lace,[1038] of which the
consumption had become most preposterous,[1039] under pain of forfeiture
and the fine of £100. Ladies wore even cherry-coloured stays trimmed with
the forbidden fabric.[1040] The point of Spain had the preference over
thread lace for state garments, heads and ruffles excepted; and as late as
1763, when the Dowager Lady Effingham was robbed of her coronation robes,
among the wonderful finery detailed there is no mention of thread lace.

The commerce of Flanders, notwithstanding the French taste, seemed now on a
comfortable footing. "The Flander-kins," writes the _British Merchant_ in
1713, "are gone off from wool, which we have got, to lace and linen.... We
have learned better, I hope, by our unsuccessful attempt to prohibit the
Flanders laces, which made the Flemings retaliate upon us, and lessened our
exportation of woollen manufactures by several £100,000 per annum."[1041]

Men looked upon lace as a necessary article to their wives' equipment.
Addison declares that when the China mania first came in, women exchanged
their Flanders point for punch-bowls and mandarins, thus picking their
husbands' pockets, who is often purchasing a huge china vase when he
fancies that he is buying a fine head for his wife.[1042] Indeed, they
could scarcely grumble, as a good wig cost from forty to fifty guineas--to
say nothing of their own lace ties and {350}ruffles. Only an old antiquary
like Sir Thomas Clayton could note down in his accounts:--"Lace and
fal-lalls,[1043] and a large looking-glass to see her old ugly face
in--frivolous expenses to please my proud lady."



{351}CHAPTER XXVI.

GEORGE I. AND II.

----

GEORGE I.

 "Wisdom with periwigs, with cassocks grace,
  Courage with swords, gentility with lace."--_Connoisseur._

The accession of the House of Hanover brought but little change either in
the fashions or the fabrics. In 1717 the King published an edict regarding
the hawking of lace, but the world was too much taken up with the Old
Pretender and the court of St. Germains; the King, too, was often absent,
preferring greatly his German dominions.

We now hear a great deal of lace ruffles; they were worn long and falling.
Lord Bolingbroke, who enraged Queen Anne by his untidy dress--"she
supposed, forsooth, he would some day come to court in his nightcap"--is
described as having his cravat of point lace, and his hands hidden by
exaggerated ruffles of the same material. In good old Jacobite times, these
weeping ruffles served as well to conceal notes--"poulets"--passed from one
wary politician to another, as they did the French sharpers to juggle and
cheat at cards.

Lace continued the mania of the day. "Since your fantastical geers came in
with wires, ribbons, and laces, and your furbelows with three hundred yards
in a gown and petticoat, there has not been a good housewife in the
nation,"[1044] writes an indignant dramatist. The lover was made to bribe
the Abigail of his mistress with a piece of Flanders lace[1045]--an
offering not to be resisted. Lace appeared {352}at baptisms,[1046] at
marriages, as well as at burials, of which more hereafter--even at the Old
Bailey, where one Miss Margaret Caroline Rudd, a beauty of the day, tried
for forgery, quite moved her jurors to tears, and nigh gained her acquittal
by the taste of her elegantly-laced stomacher, the lace robings of her
dress, and single lace flounce, her long pendulous ruffles, hanging from
the elbow, heard, fluttering in her agitation, by the court; but, in spite
of these allurements, Margaret Caroline Rudd was hanged.

Every woman, writes Swift,[1047] is

 "In choosing lace a critic nice,
  Knows to a groat the lowest price."

Together, they

 "Of caps and ruffles hold the grave debate,
  As of their lives they would decide the fate."

Again, he says:--

"And when you are among yourselves, how naturally, after the first
compliments, do you entertain yourselves with the price and choice of lace,
apply your hands to each other's lappets and ruffles, as if the whole
business of your life and the public concern depended on the cut of your
petticoats."[1048]

Even wise Mrs. Elizabeth Montague, who wrote epistles about the ancients,
and instead of going to a ball, sat at home and read Sophocles, exclaims to
her sister--"Surely your heroic spirit will prefer a beau's hand in
Brussels lace to a stubborn Scævola without an arm."

PLATE LXXXIV.

[Illustration: JOHN LAW, THE PARIS BANKER, Author of the Mississippi
Scheme, 1671-1729.--In cravat of Point de France, between 1708-20. Painted
by Belle. National Portrait Gallery.

Photo by Walker and Cockerell.]

_To face page 352._

{353}In the middle of the nineteenth century it was the fashion that no
young lady should wear lace previous to her marriage. In the reign of
George II. etiquette was different, for we find the Duchess of Portland
presenting Mrs. Montague, then a girl, with a lace head and ruffles.

Wrathfully do the satirists of the day rail against the expense of

 "The powder, patches, and the pins,
  The ribbon, jewels, and the rings,
  The lace, the paint, and warlike things
  That make up all their magazines,"[1049]

and the consequent distress of the lace merchants, to whom ladies are
indebted for thousands. After a drawing-room, in which the fair population
appeared in "borrowed," _i.e._, unpaid lace,[1050] one of the chief lacemen
became well-nigh bankrupt. Duns besieged the houses of the great:--

 "By mercers, lacemen, mantua-makers press'd;
  But most for ready cash, for play distress'd,
  Where can she turn?"[1051]

The _Connoisseur_, describing the reckless extravagance of one of these
ladies, writes:--"The lady played till all her ready money was gone, staked
her cap and lost it, afterwards her handkerchief. He then staked both cap
and handkerchief against her tucker, which, to his pique, she gained." When
enumerating the various causes of suicide, he proposes "that an annual bill
or report should be made out, giving the different causes which have led to
the act." Among others, in his proposed "Bill of Suicide," he gives French
claret, French lace, French cooks, etc.

The men, though scarcely coming up to the standard of Sir Courtly
Nice,[1052] who has all his bands and linen made in Holland and washed at
Haarlem, were just as extravagant as the ladies.


{354}GEORGE II.

 "'How well this ribband's glass becomes your face,'
  She cries in rapture; 'then so sweet a lace!
  How charmingly you look!'"
        --Lady M. W. Montagu. _Town Eclogues._


For court and state occasions Brussels lace still held its sway.

In the reign of George II. we read how, at the drawing-room of 1735, fine
escalloped Brussels laced heads, triple ditto laced ruffles,[1053] lappets
hooked up with diamond solitaires, found favour. At the next the ladies
wore heads dressed English, _i.e._, bow of fine Brussels lace of exceeding
rich patterns, with the same amount of laced ruffles and lappets. Gold
flounces were also worn.

Speaking of the passion for Brussels lace, Postlethwait indignantly
observes:--"'Tis but a few years since England expended upon foreign lace
and linen not less than two millions yearly. As lace in particular is the
manufacture of nuns, our British ladies may as well endow monasteries as
wear Flanders lace, for these Popish nuns are maintained by Protestant
contributions."[1054]

Patriotism, it would appear, did come into vogue in the year 1736, when at
the marriage of Frederick, Prince of Wales, the bride is described as
wearing a night-dress of superb lace, the bridegroom a cap of similar
material. All the laces worn by the court on this occasion are announced to
have been of English manufacture, with the exception of that of the Duke of
Marlborough, who appeared in point d'Espagne. The bride, however, does not
profit by this high example, for shortly after we read, in the _Memoirs of
Madame Palatine_, of the secretary of Sir Luke Schaub being drugged at
Paris by an impostor, and robbed of some money sent to defray the purchase
of some French lace ruffles for the Princess of Wales.

{355}It was of native-made laces, we may infer, Mrs. Delany writes in the
same year:--"Thanks for your apron. Brussels nor Mechlin ever produced
anything prettier."

It appears somewhat strange that patriotism, as regards native
manufactures, should have received an impulse during the reign of that most
uninteresting though gallant little monarch, the second George of
Brunswick.[1055] But patriotism has its evils, for, writes an essayist,
"some ladies now squander away all their money in fine laces, because it
sets a great many poor people to work."[1056]

Ten years previous to the death of King George II. was founded, with a view
to correct the prevalent taste for foreign manufactures,[1057] the Society
of Anti-Gallicans, who held their quarterly meetings, and distributed
prizes for bone, point lace, and other articles of English
manufacture.[1058]

This society, which continued in great activity for many years, proved most
beneficial to the lace-making trade. It excited also a spirit of emulation
among gentlewomen of the middle class, who were glad in the course of the
year to add to a small income by making the finer kinds of needle-point,
which, on account of their elaborate workmanship, could be produced only in
foreign convents or by {356}persons whose maintenance did not entirely
depend upon the work of their hands.

Towards the year 1756 certain changes in the fashion of the day now again
mark the period, for--

 "Dress still varying, most to form confined,
  Shifts like the sands, the sport of every wind."

"Long lappets, the horse-shoe cap, the Brussels head, and the prudish mob
pinned under the chin, have all had their day," says the _Connoisseur_ in
1754. Now we have first mention of lace cardinals; trollopies or
slammerkins[1059] come in at the same period, with treble ruffles to the
cuffs; writers talk, too, of a "gentle dame in blonde lace," blonde being
as yet a newly-introduced manufacture.

Though history may only be all false,[1060] as Sir Robert Walpole said to
that "cynic in lace ruffles," his son Horace, yet the newspapers are to be
depended upon for the fashion of the day, or, as Lady Mary would say, "for
what new whim adorns the ruffle."[1061]

The lace apron,[1062] worn since the days of Queen Elizabeth, continued to
hold its own till the end of the eighteenth century, though some considered
it an appendage scarcely consistent with the dignity of polite society. The
anecdote of Beau Nash, who held these articles in the strongest aversion,
has been often related. "He absolutely excluded," says his biographer, "all
who ventured to appear at the Assembly Room at Bath so attired. I have
known him at a ball night strip the Duchess of Queensberry, and throw her
apron on one of the hinder benches among the ladies' women, observing that
none but Abigails appeared in white aprons; though that apron was of the
costliest point, and cost two hundred guineas."[1063]

{357}George II. did his best to promote the fabrics of his country, but at
this period smuggling increased with fearful rapidity. It was a war to the
knife between the revenue officer and society at large: all classes
combined, town ladies of high degree with waiting-maids and the common
sailor, to avoid the obnoxious duties and cheat the Government. To this
subject we devote the following chapter.



{358}CHAPTER XXVII.

SMUGGLING.

 "May that mistaken taste be starv'd to reason,
  That does not think French fashions--English treason.
  Souse their cook's talent, and cut short their tailors;
  Wear your own lace; eat beef like Vernon's sailors."
                                    --Aaron Hill. 1754.


We have had occasional mention of this kindly-looked-upon offence, in the
carrying out of which many a reckless seaman paid the penalty of his life
in the latter part of the eighteenth century.

From 1700 downwards, though the edicts prohibiting the entry of Flanders
lace were repealed, the points of France, Spain and Venice, with other
fabrics of note, were still excluded from our ports. "England," writes
Anderson,[1064] "brings home in a smuggling way from France much fine lace
and other prohibited fopperies." Prohibition went for nothing; foreign lace
ladies would have, and if they could not smuggle it themselves, the
smuggler brought it to them. It was not till 1751 that the Customs appear
to have used undue severity as regards the entries, prying into people's
houses, and exercising a surveillance of so strict a nature as to render
the chance to evade their watchfulness a very madness on the part of all
degrees. In short, there was not a female within ten miles of a seaport,
writes an essayist, that was in possession of a Mechlin lace cap or pinner
but they examined her title to it.

Lord Chesterfield, whose opinion that "dress is a very silly thing, but it
is much more silly not to be dressed according to your station," was more
than acted up to, referring to the strictness of the Customs, writes to his
son {359}in 1751, when coming over on a short visit: "Bring only two or
three of your laced shirts, and the rest plain ones."

The revenue officers made frequent visits to the tailors' shops, and
confiscated whatever articles they found of foreign manufacture.

On January 19th, 1752, a considerable quantity of foreign lace, gold and
silver, seized at a tailor's, who paid the penalty of £100, was publicly
burnt.[1065]

George III., who really from his coming to the throne endeavoured to
protect English manufactures, ordered, in 1764, all the stuffs and laces
worn at the marriage of his sister, the Princess Augusta, to the Duke of
Brunswick, to be of English manufacture. To this decree the nobility paid
little attention. Three days previous to the marriage a descent was made by
the Customs on the court milliner of the day, and nearly the whole of the
clothes, silver, gold stuffs and lace, carried off, to the dismay of the
modiste, as well as of the ladies deprived of their finery. The disgusted
French milliner retired with a fortune of £11,000 to Versailles, where she
purchased a villa, which, in base ingratitude to the English court, she
called "La Folie des Dames Anglaises." In May of the same year three
wedding garments, together with a large seizure of French lace, weighing
nearly 100 lbs., were burnt at Mr. Coxe's refinery, conformably to the Act
of Parliament. The following birthday, warned by the foregoing mischances,
the nobility appeared in clothes and laces entirely of British manufacture.

Every paper tells how lace and ruffles of great value, sold on the previous
day, had been seized in a hackney coach, between St. Paul's and Covent
Garden; how a lady of rank was stopped in her chair and relieved of French
lace to a large amount; or how a poor woman, carelessly picking a quartern
loaf as she walked along, was arrested, and the loaf found to contain £200
worth of lace. Even ladies when walking had their black lace mittens cut
off their hands, the officers supposing them to be of French manufacture;
and lastly, a Turk's turban, of most Mameluke dimensions, was found,
containing a stuffing of £90 worth of lace. Books, {360}bottles, babies,
false-bottomed boxes, umbrellas, daily poured out their treasures to the
lynx-eyed officers.

In May, 1765, the lace-makers joined the procession of the silk-workers of
Spitalfields to Westminster, bearing flags and banners, to which were
attached long floating pieces of French lace, demanding of the Lords
redress, and the total exclusion of foreign goods. On receiving an answer
that it was too late, they must wait till next Session, the assemblage
declared that they would not be put off by promises; they broke the Duke of
Bedford's palings on their way home, and threatened to burn the premises of
Mr. Carr, an obnoxious draper. At the next levée they once more assembled
before St. James's, but, finding the dresses of the nobility to be all of
right English stuff, retired satisfied, without further clamour.

The papers of the year 1764 teem with accounts of seizures made by the
Customs. Among the confiscated effects of a person of the highest quality
are enumerated: "16 black à-la-mode cloaks, trimmed with lace; 44 French
lace caps; 11 black laced handkerchiefs; 6 lace hats; 6 ditto aprons; 10
pairs of ruffles; 6 pairs of ladies' blonde ditto, and 25 gentlemen's."
Eleven yards of edging and 6 pairs of ruffles are extracted from the pocket
of the footman. Everybody smuggled. A gentleman attached to the Spanish
Embassy is unloaded of 36 dozen shirts, with fine Dresden ruffles and
jabots, and endless lace, in pieces, for ladies' wear. These articles had
escaped the vigilance of the officers at Dover, but were seized on his
arrival by the coach at Southwark. Though Prime Ministers in those days
accepted bribes, the Custom-house officers seem to have done their
duty.[1066]

When the body of his Grace the Duke of Devonshire was brought over from
France, where he died, the officers, to the anger of his servants, not
content with opening and searching the coffin, poked the corpse with a
stick to ascertain if it was a real body; but the trick of smuggling in
coffins was too {361}old to be attempted. Forty years before, when a
deceased clergyman was conveyed from the Low Countries for interment, the
body of the corpse was found to have disappeared, and to have been replaced
by Flanders lace of immense value--the head and hands and feet alone
remaining. This discovery did not, however, prevent the High Sheriff of
Westminster from running--and that successfully--£6,000 worth of French
lace in the coffin of Bishop Atterbury,[1067] when his body was brought
over from Calais for interment.

Towards the close of the French war, in the nineteenth century, smuggling
of lace again became more rife than ever. It was in vain the authorities
stopped the travelling carriages on their road from seaport towns to
London, rifled the baggage of the unfortunate passengers by the mail at
Rochester and Canterbury; they were generally outwitted, though spies in
the pay of the Customs were ever on the watch.

Mrs. Palliser had in her possession a Brussels veil of great beauty, which
narrowly escaped seizure. It belonged to a lady who was in the habit of
accompanying her husband, for many years member for one of the Cinque
Ports. The day after the election she was about to leave for London,
somewhat nervous as to the fate of a Brussels veil she had purchased of a
smuggler for a hundred guineas; when, at a dinner-party, it was announced
that Lady Ellenborough, wife of the Lord Chief Justice, had been stopped
near Dover, and a large quantity of valuable lace seized concealed in the
lining of her carriage. Dismayed at the news, the lady imparted her trouble
to a gentleman at her side, who immediately offered to take charge of the
lace and convey it to London, remarking that "no one would suspect him, as
he was a bachelor." Turning round suddenly, she observed one of the hired
waiters to smile, and at once settling him to be a spy, she loudly accepted
the offer; but that night, before going to bed, secretly caused the veil to
be sewn up in the waistcoat of the newly-elected M.P., in such a manner
that it filled the hollow of his back. Next morning they started, and
reached London in safety, while her friend, who remained two days later,
was stopped, and underwent {362}a rigorous but unsuccessful examination
from the Customhouse officers.

The free trade principles of the nineteenth century put a more effectual
stop to smuggling than all the activity of revenue officers, spies, and
informers, or even laws framed for the punishment of the offenders.



{363}CHAPTER XXVIII.

GEORGE III.

 "In clothes, cheap handsomeness doth bear the bell,
  Wisdome's a trimmer thing than shop e'er gave.
  Say not then, This with that lace will do well;
  But, This with my discretion will be brave.
    Much curiousnesse is a perpetual wooing,
    Nothing with labour, fully long a doing."
                     --Herbert, "The Church Porch."


In 1760 commences the reign of George III. The King was patriotic, and did
his best to encourage the fabrics of his country.

From the year 1761 various Acts were passed for the benefit of the
lace-makers: the last, that of 1806, "increases the duties on foreign
laces."[1068]

Queen Charlotte, on her first landing in England, wore, in compliment to
the subjects of her royal consort, a fly cap richly trimmed, with lappets
of British lace, and a dress of similar manufacture.

The Englishman, however, regardless of the Anti-Gallicans, preferred his
"Macklin" and his Brussels to all the finest productions of Devonshire or
Newport-Pagnel.

Ruffles,[1069] according to the fashion of Tavistock Street and St.
James's, in May, 1773, still continued long, dipped in the sauce alike by
clown and cavalier.[1070]

                         "The beau,
  A critic styled in point of dress,
  Harangues on fashion, point, and lace."

{364}A man was known by his "points"; he collected lace, as, in these more
athletic days, a gentleman prides himself on his pointers or his horses. We
read in the journals of the time how, on the day after Lord George Gordon's
riots, a report ran through London that the Earl of Effingham, having
joined the rioters, had been mortally wounded, and his body thrown into the
Thames. He had been recognised, folks declared, by his point lace
ruffles.[1071]

Mr. Damer, less known than his wife, the talented sculptor and friend of
Horace Walpole, appeared three times a day in a new suit, and at his
death[1072] left a wardrobe which sold for £15,000.[1073] Well might it
have been said of him--

 "We sacrifice to dress, till household joys
  And comforts cease. Dress drains our cellars dry,
  And keeps our larder bare; puts out our fires,
  And introduces hunger, frost, and woe,
  Where peace and hospitality might reign."[1074]

There was "no difference between the nobleman and city 'prentice, except
that the latter was sometimes the greater beau," writes the _Female
Spectator_.[1075]

 "His hands must be covered with fine Brussels lace."[1076]

Painters of the eighteenth century loved to adorn their portraits with the
finest fabrics of Venice and Flanders; modern artists consider such
decorations as far too much trouble. "Over the chimney-piece," writes one
of the essayists, describing a citizen's country box, "was my friend's
portrait, which was drawn bolt upright in a full-bottomed periwig, a laced
cravat, with the fringed ends appearing through the button-hole (Steinkirk
fashion). Indeed, one would almost wonder how and where people managed to
afford so rich a selection of laces in their days, did it not call to mind
the demand of the Vicaress of Wakefield 'to have as many pearls and
diamonds put into her picture as could be given for the money.'"

{365}Ruffles were equally worn by the ladies:--[1077]

 "Frizzle your elbows with ruffles sixteen;
  Furl off your lawn apron with flounces in rows."[1078]

Indeed, if we may judge by the intellectual conversation overheard and
accurately noted down by Miss Burney,[1079] at Miss Monckton's (Lady Cork)
party, court ruffles were inconvenient to wear:--

"'You can't think how I am encumbered with these nasty ruffles,' said Mrs.
Hampden.

"'And I dined in them,' says the other. 'Only think!'

"'Oh!' answered Mrs. Hampden, 'it really puts me out of spirits.'"

Both ladies were dressed for a party at Cumberland House, and ill at ease
in the costume prescribed by etiquette.

About 1770 the sleeves of the ladies' dresses were tight on the upper arm,
where they suddenly became very large, and, drooping at the elbow, they
terminated in rich fringes of lace ruffles. A few years later the sleeves
expanded from the shoulders till they became a succession of constantly
enlarging ruffles and lappets, and again, before 1780, they became tight
throughout, with small cuffs and no lace at the elbows, when they were worn
with long gloves.

Our history of English lace is now drawing to a close; but, before quitting
the subject, we must, however, make some allusion to the custom prevalent
here, as in all countries, of using lace as a decoration to grave-clothes.
In the chapter devoted to Greece, we have mentioned how much lace is still
taken from the tombs of the Ionian Islands, washed, mended, or, more often,
as a proof of its authenticity, sold in a most disgusting state to the
purchaser. The custom was prevalent at Malta, as the lines of Beaumont and
Fletcher testify:--

 "In her best habit, as the custom is,
  You know, in Malta, with all ceremonies,
  She's buried in the family monument,
  I' the temple of St. John."[1080]

{366}At Palermo you may see the mummies thus adorned in the celebrated
catacombs of the Capuchin convent.[1081]

In Denmark,[1082] Sweden, and the north of Europe[1083] the custom was
general. The mass of lace in the tomb of the once fair Aurora Königsmarck,
at Quedlenburg, would in itself be a fortune. She sleeps clad in the
richest point d'Angleterre, Malines, and guipure. Setting aside the jewels
which still glitter around her parchment form, no daughter of Pharaoh was
ever so richly swathed.[1084]

In Spain it is related as the privilege of a grandee: all people of a lower
rank are interred in the habit of some religious order.[1085]

Taking the grave-clothes of St. Cuthbert as an example, we believe the same
custom to have prevailed in England from the earliest times.[1086]

{367}Mrs. Oldfield, the celebrated actress, who died in 1730, caused
herself to be thus interred. The lines of Pope have long since immortalised
the story:--

 "Odious! in woollen! 'twould a saint provoke!
  (Were the last words that poor Narcissa spoke.)
  No, let a charming chintz and Brussels lace
  Wrap my cold limbs, and shade my lifeless face;
  One would not, sure, be frightful when one's dead--
  And--Betty--give this cheek a little red."

"She was laid in her coffin," says her maid, "in a very fine Brussels lace
head, a Holland shift with a tucker of double ruffles, and a pair of new
kid gloves." Previous to her interment in Westminster Abbey she lay in
state in the Jerusalem Chamber.[1087] For Mrs. Oldfield in her lifetime was
a great judge of lace, and treasured a statuette of the Earl of Stratford,
finely carved in ivory by Grinling Gibbons, more, it is supposed, for the
beauty of its lace Vandyke collar[1088] than any other sentiment.

In 1763 another instance is recorded in the _London Magazine_ of a young
lady buried in her wedding clothes, point lace tucker, handkerchief,
ruffles and apron; also a fine point lappet head. From this period we
happily hear no more of such extravagances.

Passing from interments and shrouds to more lively matters, we must quote
the opinion of that Colossus of the eighteenth century, Dr. Johnson, who
was too apt to talk on matters of taste and art, of which he was no
competent judge. "A Brussels trimming," he declaims to Mrs. Piozzi, "is
like bread sauce; it takes away the glow of colour from the gown, and gives
you nothing instead of it: but sauce was invented to heighten the flavour
of our food, and trimming is an ornament to the manteau or it is
nothing."[1089] A man whose culinary ideas did not soar higher than bread
sauce could scarcely pronounce on the relative effect and beauty of point
lace.

If England had leant towards the products of France, in {368}1788, an
Anglomania ran riot at Paris. Ladies wore a cap of mixed lace, English and
French, which they styled the "Union of France and England." On the
appearance of the French Revolution, the classic style of dress--its India
muslins and transparent gauzes--caused the ancient points to fall into
neglect. From this time dates the decline of the lace fabric throughout
Europe.

Point still appeared at court and on state occasions, such as on the
marriage of the Princess Caroline of Wales, 1795, but as an article of
daily use it gradually disappeared from the wardrobes of all classes. A
scrupulous feeling also arose in ladies' minds as to the propriety of
wearing articles of so costly a nature, forgetting how many thousands of
women gained a livelihood by its manufacture. Mrs. Hannah More, among the
first, in her _Coelebs in Search of a Wife_, alludes to the frivolity of
the taste, when the little child exclaiming "at the beautiful lace with
which the frock of another was trimmed, and which she was sure her mamma
had given her for being good," remarks, "A profitable and, doubtless,
lasting and inseparable association was thus formed in the child's mind
between lace and goodness."

Whether in consequence of the French Revolution, or from the caprice of
fashion, "real" lace--worse off than the passements and points of 1634,
when in revolt--now underwent the most degrading vicissitudes. Indeed, so
thoroughly was the taste for lace at this epoch gone by, that in many
families collections of great value were, at the death of their respective
owners, handed over as rubbish to the waiting maid.[1090] Many ladies
recollect in their youth to have tricked out their dolls in the finest
Alençon point, which would now sell at a price far beyond their purses.
Among the few who, in England, unseduced by frippery blonde, never
neglected to preserve their collections entire, was the Duchess of
{369}Gloucester, whose lace was esteemed among the most magnificent in
Europe.

When the taste of the age again turned towards the rich fabrics of the
preceding centuries, much lace, both black and white, was found in the
country farm-houses, preserved as remembrances of deceased patrons by old
family dependants. Sometimes the hoard had been forgotten, and was again
routed out from old wardrobes and chests, where it had lain unheeded for
years. Much was recovered from theatrical wardrobes and the masquerade
shops, and the Church, no longer in its temporal glory, both in Italy,
Spain and Germany, gladly parted with what, to them, was of small value
compared with the high price given for it by amateurs. In Italy perhaps the
finest fabrics of Milan, Genoa, and Venice had fared best, from the custom
which prevailed of sewing up family lace in rolls of linen to ensure its
preservation.

After years of neglect lace became a "mania." In England the literary
ladies were the first to take it up. Sydney Lady Morgan and Lady Stepney
quarrelled weekly on the respective value and richness of their points. The
former at one time commenced a history of the lace fabric, though what was
the ultimate fate of the MS. the author is unable to state. The Countess of
Blessington, at her death, left several chests filled with the finest
antique lace of all descriptions.

The "dames du grand monde," both in England and France, now began to wear
lace. But, strange as it may seem, never at any period did they appear to
so little advantage as during the counter-revolution of the lace period.
Lace was the fashion, and wear it somehow they would, though that somehow
often gave them an appearance, as the French say, _du dernier ridicule_,
simply from an ignorance displayed in the manner of arranging it. That lace
was old seemed sufficient to satisfy all parties. They covered their
dresses with odds and ends of all fabrics, without attention either to date
or texture. One English lady appeared at a ball given by the French Embassy
at Rome, boasting that she wore on the tablier of her dress every
description of lace, from point coupé of the fifteenth to Alençon of the
eighteenth century. The Count of Syracuse was accustomed to say: "The
English ladies buy a scrap {370}of lace as a souvenir of every town they
pass through, till they reach Naples, then sew it on their dresses, and
make one grande toilette of the whole to honour our first ball at the
Academia Nobile."

The taste for lace has again become universal, and the quality now produced
renders it within the reach of all classes of society; and though by some
the taste may be condemned, it gives employment to thousands and ten
thousands of women, who find it more profitable and better adapted to their
strength than the field labour which forms the occupation of the women in
agricultural districts. To these last, in a general point of view, the
lace-maker of our southern counties, who works at home in her own cottage,
is superior, both in education, refinement, and morality:--

 "Here the needle plies its busy task;
  The pattern grows, the well-depicted flower,
  Wrought patiently into the snowy lawn,
  Unfolds its bosom; buds, and leaves, and sprigs,
  And curling tendrils, gracefully dispos'd,
  Follow the nimble fingers of the fair--
  A wreath that cannot fade, of flowers that blow
  With most success when all besides decay."[1091]



{371}CHAPTER XXIX.

THE LACE MANUFACTURERS OF ENGLAND.

 "Yon cottager, who weaves at her own door,
  Pillow and bobbins all her little store;
  Content though mean, and cheerful if not gay,
  Shuffling her threads about the livelong day:
  Just earns a scanty pittance, and at night
  Lies down secure, her heart and pocket light."--Cowper.


The bone lace manufactures of England in the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries appear to have extended over a much wider area than they occupy
in the present day. From Cambridge to the adjacent counties of Northampton
and Hertfordshire, by Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire, and Oxfordshire, the
trade spread over the southern counties[1092] of Wiltshire,
Somersetshire,[1093] Hampshire, and Dorset, to the more secluded valleys of
Devon--the county which still sustains the ancient reputation of "English
point"--terminating at Launceston, on the Cornish coast.

Various offsets from these fabrics were established in Wales.[1094]
Ripon,[1095] an isolated manufactory, represented the {372}lace industry of
York; while the dependent islands of Man,[1096] Wight[1097] and
Jersey,[1098] may be supposed to have derived their learning from the
smugglers who frequented their coast, rather than from the teaching of the
Protestant refugees[1099] who sought an asylum on the shores of Britain.

Many of these fabrics now belong to the past, consigned to oblivion even in
the very counties where they once flourished. In describing, therefore, the
lace manufactures of the United Kingdom, we shall confine ourselves to
those which still remain, alluding only slightly to such as were {373}once
of note, and of which the existence is confirmed by the testimony of
contemporary writers.

The "women of the mystery of thread-working" would appear to have made lace
in London,[1100] and of their complaints and grievances our public records
bear goodly evidence. Of the products of their needle we know little or
nothing.

Various Flemings and Burgundians established themselves in the City; and
though the emigrants, for the most part, betook themselves to the adjoining
counties, the craft, till the end of the eighteenth century, may be said to
have held fair commerce in the capital.

[Illustration: Fig. 132.

RIPON.]

The London fabric can scarcely be looked upon as a staple trade in itself,
mixed up as it was with lace-cleaning and lace-washing--an occupation first
established by the ejected nuns.[1101] Much point, too, was made by poor
gentlewomen, as the records of the Anti-Gallican Society testify. "A
strange infatuation," says a writer of the eighteenth century, "prevailed
in the capital for many years among the class called demi-fashionables of
sending their daughters to convents in France for education, if that could
be so termed which amounted to a learning to work in lace. The Revolution,
however, put {374}an end to this practice." It is owing to this French
education that the fine needle points were so extensively made in England;
though this occupation, however, did not seem to belong to any one county
in particular; for the reader who runs his eye over the proceedings of the
Anti-Gallican Society will find prizes to have been awarded to gentlewomen
from all parts--from the town of Leominster in Herefordshire to Broughton
in Leicestershire, or Stourton in Gloucester.[1102] Needle point, in
contradistinction to bone lace, was an occupation confined to no special
locality.

In 1764 the attention of the nobility seems to have been first directed
towards the employment of the indigent poor, and, indeed, the better
classes in the metropolis, in the making of bone lace and point;[1103] and
in 1775, sanctioned by the patronage of Queen Charlotte, the Princesses,
the Princess Amelia, and various members of the aristocracy, an institution
was formed in Marylebone Lane, and also in James Street, Westminster, "for
employing the female infants of the poor in the blond and black silk
lace-making and thread laces." More than 300 girls attended the school.
"They gave," says the _Annual Register_, "such a proof of their capacity
that many who had not been there more than six months carried home to their
parents from 5s. to 7s. a month, with expectation of getting more as they
improve."

From this time we hear no more of the making of lace, either point or bone,
in the metropolis.

PLATE LXXXV.

[Illustration: ENGLISH, BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. BOBBIN LACE.--First half of
nineteenth century. Widths: 3, 3, 3, 4 in. The property of Mrs. Ellis, The
Vicarage, Much Wenlock.]

_To face page 374._



{375}CHAPTER XXX.

BEDFORDSHIRE, BUCKINGHAMSHIRE, AND NORTHAMPTONSHIRE.[1104]

----

BEDFORDSHIRE.

 "He wears a stuff whose thread is coarse and round
  But trimmed with curious lace."--Herbert.

It would be a difficult matter now to determine when and by whom
lace-making was first introduced into the counties of Bedfordshire and
Buckingham. Authors, for the most part, have been glad to assign its
introduction to the Flemings,[1105] a nation to whose successive
emigrations England owes much of her manufacturing greatness. Originally
the laces were of old, wavy, graceful Flemish designs.

On the other hand, certain traditions handed down in the county villages of
a good Queen who protected their craft, the annual festival of the
workers--in the palmy days of the trade a matter of great moment--combined
with the residence of that unhappy Queen, for the space of two years[1106]
at her jointure manor of Ampthill,[1107] lead us rather to infer {376}that
the art of lace-making, as it then existed, was first imparted to the
peasantry of Bedfordshire, as a means of subsistence, through the charity
of Queen Katherine of Aragon. In the chapter devoted to needlework we have
already alluded to the proficiency of this Queen in all arts connected with
the needle, to the "trials of needlework" established by her mother, Queen
Isabella, at which she, as a girl, had assisted. It is related, also, that
during her[1108] sojourn at Ampthill, "she passed her time, when not at her
devotions, with her gentlewomen, working with her own hands something
wrought in needlework, costly and artificially, which she intended for the
honour of God to bestow on some of the churches."[1109]

"The country people," continues her contemporary, "began to love her
exceedingly. They visited her out of pure respect, and she received the
tokens of regard they daily showed her most sweetly and graciously." The
love borne by the peasantry to the Queen, the sympathy shown to her in her
days of trouble and disgrace, most likely met with its reward; and we
believe Katherine to have taught them an art which, aided no doubt by the
later introduction of the pillow and the improvements of the refugees, has
now, for the space of nigh three centuries, been the staple employment of
the female population of Bedfordshire and the adjoining counties. Until the
latter half of the nineteenth century--though, like all such festivals in
the present age, gradually dying out--the lace-makers still held "Cattern's
day,"[1110] November 25th, as the holiday of their craft, kept, they say,
"in memory of good Queen Katherine, who, when the trade was dull, burnt all
her lace and ordered new to be made. The ladies of the court {377}followed
her example, and the fabric once more revived." "Ainsi s'écrit l'histoire";
and this garbled version may rest on as much foundation as most of the
folk-lore current throughout the provinces.

Speaking of Bedfordshire, Defoe writes: "Thro' the whole south part of this
country, as far as the borders of Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire, the
people are taken up with the manufacture of bone lace, in which they are
wonderfully exercised and improved within these few years
past"[1111]--probably since the arrival of the French settlers after the
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. At the same period the author of the
_Magna Britannia_[1112] states that at Woburn "lace of a high price is made
in considerable quantities." Savary and Peuchet both declare the town of
Bedford alone to have contained 500 lace-workers.

In 1863, as Mrs. Palliser wrote: "The lace schools of Bedfordshire are far
more considerable than those in Devonshire. Four or five may frequently be
found in the same village, numbering from twenty to thirty children each,
and they are considered sufficiently important to be visited by Government
inspectors. Their work is mostly purchased by large dealers, who make their
arrangements with the instructress: the children are not bound for a term,
as in the southern counties. Boys formerly attended the lace schools, but
now they go at an early age to the fields."

These lace-schools are now things of the past. In some cases, however, in
the lace counties, the County Council Technical Education Committee have
supplemented private efforts with grants for classes to teach the lace
industry.

The wages of a lace-worker average a shilling a day; under press of
business, caused by the demand for some fashionable article, they sometimes
rise to one shilling and sixpence.


{378}BUCKINGHAMSHIRE.

Though the first establishment of the fabric may have been in the sister
county, the workers of Buckingham appear early to have gained the lion's
share of public estimation for the produce of their pillows, and the
manufacture flourished, till, suffering from the monopolies of James I., we
read how--In the year 1623, April 8th, a petition was addressed from Great
Marlow to the High Sheriff of Bucks, representing the distress of the
people from "the bone-lace making being much decayed."[1113]

Three years later, 1626, Sir Henry Borlase founds and endows the free
school of Great Marlow for twenty-four boys to read, write, and cast
accounts; and for twenty-four girls "to knit, spin, and make bone lace";
and here at Great Marlow the trade flourished, all English, and even French
authors[1114] citing its "manufactures de dentelles au fuseau" as the
staple produce of the town, and its surrounding villages, which sold lace,
however, they pronounce as "inférieure à celle de Flandres."

During the seventeenth century the trade continued to advance, and Fuller
testifies to its once more prosperous condition in Bucks, towards the year
1640. "No handicrafts of note," he writes, "(save what are common to other
countries) are used therein, except any will instance in bone lace, much
thereof being made about Owldney, in this county, though more, I believe,
in Devonshire, where we shall meet more properly therewith."[1115] Olney,
as it is now written, a small market town, for many years the residence of
Cowper, known by its twenty-four-arched bridge, now no more, "of wearisome
but needful length" spanning the Ouse--Olney, together with the fellow
towns of Newport-Pagnel and Aylesbury, are much quoted by the authorities
of the last century, though, as is too often the case in books of travels
and statistics, one writer copies from another the information derived from
a preceding author. Defoe, however, who visited each county in detail,
quotes "Ouldney as possessing a considerable manufacture of bone lace";
{379}while a letter from the poet Cowper to the Rev. John Newton, in 1780,
enclosing a petition to Lord Dartmouth in favour of the lace-makers,
declares that "hundreds in this little town are upon the point of starving,
and that the most unremitting industry is barely sufficient to keep them
from it." A distress caused, we may infer, by some caprice of fashion.

"The lace manufacture is still carried on," says Lysons,[1116] "to a great
extent in and about Olney, where veils and other lace of the finer sorts
are made, and great fortunes are said to be acquired by the factors.
Lace-making is in no part of the country so general as at Hanslape and in
its immediate vicinity; but it prevails from fifteen to twenty miles round
in every direction. At Hanslape not fewer than 800 out of a population of
1275 were employed in it in the year 1801. Children are put to the
lace-schools at, or soon after, five years of age. At eleven or twelve
years of age they are all able to maintain themselves without any
assistance; both girls and boys are taught to make it, and some men when
grown up follow no other employment; others, when out of work, find it a
good resource, and can earn as much as the generality of day labourers. The
lace made in Hanslape is from sixpence to two guineas a yard in value. It
is calculated that from £8000 to £9000 net profit is annually brought into
the parish by the lace manufacture."

The bone lace of Stoney Stratford[1117] and Aylesbury are both quoted by
Defoe, and the produce of the latter city is mentioned with praise. He
writes: "Many of the poor here are employed in making lace for edgings, not
much inferior to those from Flanders; but it is some pleasure to us to
observe that the English are not the only nation in the world which admires
foreign manufactures above its own, since the French, who gave fashions to
most nations, buy and sell the finest laces at Paris under the name of
'dentelles d'Angleterre' or 'English laces.'"[1118]

In the southern part of Buckinghamshire the hundreds of Burnham and
Desborough were especially noted for the {380}art, the lace-workers
producing handsome lace of the finest quality, and about the year 1680
lace-making was one of the principal employments in High Wycombe.[1119]

But Newport-Pagnel, whether from its more central position, or being of
greater commercial importance, is the town which receives most praise from
all contemporary authors. "This town," says the _Magna Britannia_ in 1720,
"is a sort of staple for bone lace, of which more is thought to be made
here than any town in England; that commodity is brought to as great
perfection almost as in Flanders." "Newport-Pagnel," writes Defoe, "carries
on a great trade in bone lace, and the same manufacture employs all the
neighbouring villages"; while Don Manuel Gonzales,[1120] in 1730, speaks of
its lace as little inferior to that of Flanders, which assertion he may
have probably copied from previous writers.

{381}[Illustration: Fig. 133.

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE TROLLY.]

At one of the earliest meetings of the Anti-Gallican Society, 1752, Admiral
Vernon in the chair, the first prize to the maker of the best piece of
English bone lace was awarded to Mr. William Marriott, of Newport-Pagnel,
Bucks. The principal lace-dealers in London were invited to give their
opinion, and they allowed it to be the best ever made in England.
Emboldened by this success, we read how, in 1761, Earl Temple, Lord
Lieutenant of Bucks, having been requested by Richard Lowndes, Esq., one of
the Knights of the Shire, on behalf of the lace-makers, to present to the
King a pair of fine lace ruffles, made by Messrs. Milward and Company, at
Newport-Pagnel, in the same county, his Majesty, after looking at them and
asking many questions respecting this branch of trade, was most graciously
pleased to express himself that the inclination of his own heart naturally
led him to set a high value on every endeavour to further English
manufactures, and whatever had such recommendation would be preferred by
him to works of possibly higher perfection made in any other country.[1121]
From this period Newport-Pagnel is cited as {382}one of the most noted
towns in the kingdom for making bone lace.[1122]

As in other places, much complaint was made of the unhealthy state of the
lace-working population, and of the injury sustained by long sitting in the
vitiated air of the cottages.[1123]

[Illustration: Fig. 134.

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE "POINT."]

In Pennant's _Journey from Chester to London_ (in 1782), he notices in
Towcester that, "this town is supported by the great concourse of
passengers, and by a manufacture of lace, and a small one of silk
stockings.  The first was {383}imported from Flanders, and carried on with
much success in this place, and still more in the neighbouring county"
(Buckinghamshire).

[Illustration: Fig. 135.

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE "POINT."]

At the end of the eighteenth century, the Revolution again drove many of
the poorer French to seek refuge on our shores, as they had done a century
before; and we find stated in the _Annual Register_ of 1794: "A number of
ingenious French emigrants have found employment in Bucks, Bedfordshire,
and the adjacent counties, in the manufacturing of lace, and it is
expected, through the means of these artificers, considerable improvements
will be introduced into the method of making English lace."

Figs. 134 and 135 represent the "point" ground, which won the laces of the
midland counties their reputation. (See NORTHAMPTONSHIRE for additional
matter.)


{384}NORTHAMPTONSHIRE.

The laces of Northampton do not appear to have attracted the notice of the
writers of the eighteenth century so much as those of the sister counties.

Anderson mentions that Kettering has "a considerable trade in lace"; and
Lysons, later, observes that lace is made at Cheney. Certainly, the
productions of this county a century back were of exquisite beauty, as we
can bear testimony from the specimens in a pattern-book inherited by Mr.
Cardwell, the well-known lace merchant of Northampton, from his predecessor
in the trade, which we have had an opportunity of examining. We have also
received examples from various localities in Bedfordshire and
Buckinghamshire, and as there is much similarity in the products of the
three counties, we shall, perhaps, better describe them by treating of them
all collectively.

The earliest English lace was naturally the old Flemish, the pattern wavy
and graceful, the ground well executed. Fig. 136, which we select as an
example, is a specimen we received, with many others, of old Newport-Pagnel
lace, given by Mrs. Bell, of that town, where her family has been
established from time immemorial. Mrs. Bell could carry these laces back to
the year 1780, when they were bequeathed to her father by an aged relative
who had long been in the lace trade. The packets remain for the most part
entire. The custom of "storing" lace was common among the country-people.

Next in antiquity is Fig. 137, a lace of Flemish design, with the fine
Brussels ground. This is among the Northamptonshire laces already alluded
to.

Many of the early patterns appear to have been run or worked in with the
needle on the net ground (Fig. 138).

PLATE LXXXVI.

[Illustration: ENGLISH, NORTHAMPTONSHIRE. BOBBIN LACE.--End of nineteenth
century. Widths: 1¾, 5¼ and 2 in.

Photo by A. Dryden from a private collection.]

_To face page 384._

{385}In 1778, according to M'Culloch,[1124] was introduced the "point"
ground, as it is locally termed, from which period dates the staple pillow
lace trade of these counties. This ground is beautifully clear, the
patterns well executed: we doubt if Fig. 139 could be surpassed in beauty
by lace of any foreign manufacture. Much of this point ground was made by
men.

[Illustration: Fig. 136.

OLD FLEMISH.--(Newport-Pagnel.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 137.

OLD BRUSSELS.--(Northampton.)]

The principal branch of the lace trade was the making of "baby lace," as
those narrow laces were called, most specially employed for the adorning of
infants' caps (Figs. 140, 141, 142). The "point" ground was used, the
patterns taken from those of Lille and Mechlin--hence the laces of
Buckingham and Bedfordshire have often been styled "English Lille." Though
the fashion in the mother-country passed away, the American ladies held to
the trimmed infant's cap until the breaking out of the Civil War; and up to
that date large quantities of "baby lace" were exported to America, the
finer sorts varying from five shillings to seven shillings and sixpence a
yard, still retaining their ancient name of "points."

{386}[Illustration: Fig. 138.

"RUN" LACE.--(Newport-Pagnel.)]

Many other descriptions of grounds were made--wire (Fig. 143), double, and
trolly, in every kind of quality and width. In the making of the finer
sorts of edging as many as 200 threads would be employed.

[Illustration: Fig. 139.

ENGLISH "POINT."--(Northampton.)]

On the breaking out of the war with France, the closing of our ports to
French goods gave an impetus to the trade, and the manufacturers undertook
to supply the English {387}market with lace similar to that of Normandy and
the sea-coast villages of France; hence a sort of "fausse" Valenciennes,
called the "French ground." But true Valenciennes was also fabricated so
fine (Fig. 144) as to rival the products of French Hainault. It was made in
considerable quantities, until the expertness of the smuggler and the
cessation of the war caused it to be laid aside.

[Illustration: Fig. 140.

"BABY" LACE.--(Northampton.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 141.

"BABY" LACE.--(Beds.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 142.

"BABY" LACE.--(Bucks.)]

One-third of the lace-workers of Northampton were {388}employed, previous
to the introduction of machine-made net, in making quillings on the pillow.

During the Regency, a "point" lace, with the "cloth" or "toilé" on the
edge, for many years was in fashion, and, in compliment to the Prince, was
named by the loyal manufacturers "Regency Point." It was a durable and
handsome lace (Fig. 145).

[Illustration: Fig. 143.

WIRE GROUND.--(Northampton.)]

Towards the year 1830, insertions found their way to the public taste (Fig.
146).

Till the middle of the nineteenth century, in lace-making districts, almost
the only schools were the lace schools--and there were several in most
villages--where lace-making was the principal thing taught and a little
reading added. I am indebted to Mrs. Roberts, formerly of Spratton, near
Northampton, for the following description, which she kindly allows me to
reprint.

[Illustration: Fig. 144.

VALENCIENNES.--(Northampton.)]

{389}[Illustration: Fig. 145.

REGENCY POINT.--(Bedford.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 146.

INSERTION.--(Bedford.)]

"The following are the few particulars of the old lace school for which
this village was at one time famous. Indeed, it may be borne in mind that,
owing to the great interest taken in education by a former squire and a
former vicar, Spratton fifty years ago was far ahead of its neighbours in
the matter of education; and the Spratton school and Mr. Pridmore, the
Spratton schoolmaster, with his somewhat strict discipline, were well
known, not only to the children of Spratton, but to the boys and girls of
most of the adjacent villages. But the lace school was, no doubt, a
commercial institution, and I think it will be admitted that the hours were
long and the work severe. The girls left the {390}day school at the age of
eight years, and joined the lace school, and here the hours were from 6
A.M. to 6 P.M. in the summer, and from 8 A.M. to 8 P.M. in the winter. Half
an hour was allowed for breakfast and for tea, and one hour for dinner, so
that there were ten hours for actual work. The girls had to stick ten pins
a minute, or six hundred an hour; and if at the end of the day they were
five pins behind, they had to work for another hour. On Saturdays, however,
they had a half-holiday, working only to the dinner-hour. They counted to
themselves every pin they stuck, and at every fiftieth pin they called out
the time, and the girls used to race each other as to who should call out
first.

"They paid twopence a week (or threepence in winter) for lights, and in
return they received the money realised from the sale of the lace they
made, and they could earn about sixpence a day. Pay-day was a great event;
it came once a month.

"In the evenings eighteen girls worked by one tallow candle, value one
penny; the 'candle-stool' stood about as high as an ordinary table with
four legs. In the middle of this was what was known as the 'pole-board,'
with six holes in a circle and one in the centre. In the centre hole was a
long stick with a socket for the candle at one end and peg-holes through
the sides, so that it could be raised or lowered at will. In the other six
holes were placed pieces of wood hollowed out like a cup, and into each of
these was placed a bottle made of very thin glass and filled with
water.[1125] These bottles acted as strong condensers or lenses, and the
eighteen girls sat round the table, three to each bottle, their stools
being upon different levels, the highest nearest the bottle, which threw
the light down upon the work like a burning-glass. In the day-time as many
as thirty girls, and sometimes boys, would work in a room about twelve feet
square, with two windows, and in the winter they could have no fire for
lack of room." The makers of the best laces would sit nearest the light,
and so on in order of merit.

A "down" in Northamptonshire is the parchment {391}pattern, generally about
twelve inches long. In Buckinghamshire they have two "eachs" ten inches
long, and putting one in front of the other, so work round the pillow,
which to many commends itself as a better plan than having one "down" and
moving the lace back on reaching the end of the "down." The pillow is a
hard round cushion, stuffed with straw and well hammered to make it hard
for the bobbins to rattle on. It is then covered with the butcher-blue
"pillow-cloth" all over; a "lace cloth" of the same, for the lace to lie
on, goes over the top; then follows the lace-paper to pin it in as made,
covered with the "lacing," which is a strip of bright print. The "hinder"
of blue linen covers up all behind, the "worker" keeping the parchment
clean in front where the hands rest. A bobbin bag and scissors are then
tied on one side and a pin-cushion on the top; a cloth "heller" is thrown
over the whole when not used.

The pins are fine brass ones made on purpose;[1126] the bobbins are of
various sizes and makes--very fine for fine lace, heavier and twisted round
with strips of brass for coarser laces and gimp for the threads, which are
the tracing ones, dividing the different characters of patterns; some are
of bone with words tattoed round in columns. The usual bobbin is plain
turned wood, with coloured beads at the end for the necessary weight. The
number varies from twenty to five hundred, according to the width of the
pattern.[1127]

{392}The Exhibition of 1851 gave a sudden impulse to the traders, and from
that period the lace industry rapidly developed. At this time was
introduced the Maltese guipures and the "plaited" laces, a variety grafted
on the old Maltese (Fig. 147). Five years later appears the first specimen
of the raised plait, now so thoroughly established in the market. At the
time Queen Victoria's trousseau was made, in which only English lace was
used, the prices paid were so enormous that men made lace in the fields. In
those days the parchments on which the patterns were pricked were worth
their weight in gold; many were extremely old and their owners were very
jealous of others copying their patterns. But, of late years, we hear of so
little store being set by these parchments that they were actually boiled
down to make glue.

[Illustration: Fig. 147.

PLAITED LACE.--(Bedford.)]

The decay which threatened almost total extinction of the industry belongs
to the last twenty years. The contributory causes were several, chiefly the
rapid development of machinery, which enabled large quantities to be sold
at lower rates than the hand-workers could starve on, while the quality of
the manufactured goods was good enough for the {393}large public that
required lace to last but a short time. Foreign competition, the higher
wages required by all, and the many new employments opening to women took
away the young people from the villages. In 1874 more than thirty young
lace-women left a village of four hundred inhabitants to seek work
elsewhere. The old workers gave up making good laces and supplied the
popular demand with Maltese, which grew more and more inferior both in
design and quality of thread, and gradually the old workers died out and no
new ones took their places. The Lace Association has been started with the
object of stimulating and improving the local manufacture of pillow lace,
of providing lace-workers with greater facilities for the sale of their
work at more remunerative prices. Its aim is also to save the old designs
of the "point" lace and discourage the coarse Maltese, to get new designs
copied from old laces, and insist on only the best thread being used,[1128]
and good workmanship, and finally, to bring the lace before the public, and
send it direct from worker to the purchaser, thus enabling the former to
get the full value, saving the large profits which the dealers, buying for
the shopkeepers, intercept for their own advantage.

[Illustration: Fig. 148.

RAISED PLAIT.--Bedford.]

Pillow lace was also made to some extent in Derbyshire.


{394}SUFFOLK.

Suffolk has produced bobbin-made laces of little artistic value. The
patterns in most of the specimens in the Victoria and Albert Museum
collection are derived from simple Mechlin, Lille, and Valenciennes
patterns. "The make of the lace resembles that of Buckinghamshire laces,
and that of the Norman laces of the present time. The entire collection
displays varied combinations of six ways of twisting and plaiting
thread."[1129]

PLATE LXXXVII.

[Illustration: ENGLISH, SUFFOLK. BOBBIN LACE.--Nineteenth century.
Resembling inferior Buckinghamshire, also Normandy and Saxony laces.
Victoria and Albert Museum.]

_To face page 394._



{395}CHAPTER XXXI.

WILTSHIRE AND DORSETSHIRE.


From Wiltshire and Dorset, counties in the eighteenth century renowned for
their lace, the trade has now passed away; a few workers may yet be found
in the retired sea-side village of Charmouth, and these are diminishing
fast.

Of the Wiltshire manufactures we know but little, even from tradition, save
that the art did once prevail. Peuchet alludes to it. When Sir Edward
Hungerford attacked Wardour Castle in Wiltshire, Lady Arundel, describing
the destruction of the leaden pipes by the soldiers, says, "They cut up the
pipe and sold it, as these men's wives in North Wiltshire do bone lace, at
sixpence a yard."

One Mary Hurdle, of Marlborough, in the time of Charles II., tells us in
her "Memoirs"[1130] that, being left an orphan, she was apprenticed by the
chief magistrate to a maker of bone lace for eight years, and after that
period of servitude she apprenticed herself for five years more.

Again, at the time of the Great Plague, cautions are issued by the Mayor of
Marlborough to all parents and masters how they send their children and
servants to school or abroad in making bone lace or otherwise, in any
public house, place, or school used for that purpose.[1131]

In the proceedings of the Anti-Gallican Society it is recorded that the
second prize for needle point ruffles was, in 1751, awarded to Mrs.
Elizabeth Waterman, of the episcopal city of Salisbury. Such are the scanty
notices we have been able to glean of the once flourishing lace trade in
Wiltshire.

{396}Dorset, on the other hand, holds a high place in the annals of
lace-making, three separate towns, in their day--Blandford, Sherborne, and
Lyme Regis--disputing the palm of excellence for their productions.

Of Blandford the earliest mention we find is in Owen's _Magna Britannica_
of 1720, where he states: "The manufacture of this town was heretofore
'band-strings,' which were once risen to a good price, but now times hath
brought both bands themselves and their strings out of use, and so the
inhabitants have turned their hands to making straw works and bone lace,
which perhaps may come to nothing, if the fickle humour of fashionmongers
take to wearing Flanders lace."

Only four years later Defoe writes of Blandford:--"This city is chiefly
famous for making the finest bone lace in England, and where they showed us
some so exquisitely fine as I think I never saw better in Flanders, France,
or Italy, and which, they said, they rated above £30 sterling a yard; but
it is most certain that they make exceeding rich lace in this county, such
as no part of England can equal." In the edition of 1762, Defoe adds, "This
was the state and trade of the town when I was there in my first journey;
but on June 4, 1731, the whole town, except twenty-six houses, was consumed
by fire, together with the church."

Postlethwayt,[1132] Hutchins,[1133] Lysons, and Knight (_Imperial
Cyclopædia_) all tell the same story. Peuchet cites the Blandford laces as
"comparables à celles qu'on fait en Flandres (excepté Bruxelles), en
France, et même dans les Etats de Venise"; and Anderson mentions Blandford
as "a well-built town, surpassing all England in fine lace." More reliance
is to be placed on the two last-named authorities than the former, who have
evidently copied Defoe without troubling themselves to inquire more deeply
into the matter.

[Illustration: Fig. 149.

ENGLISH NEEDLE-MADE LACE, REPRESENTING THE DEFEAT OF THE SPANISH ARMADA.

_To face page 396._]

{397}It is generally supposed that the trade gradually declined after the
great fire of 1731, when it was replaced by the manufacture of buttons, and
no record of its former existence can be found among the present
inhabitants of the place.[1134]

Fig. 149 represents a curious piece of lace, preserved as an heirloom in a
family in Dorsetshire. It formerly belonged to Queen Charlotte, and, when
purchased by the present owner, had a label attached to it, "Queen
Elizabeth's lace," with the tradition that it was made in commemoration of
the defeat of the Spanish Armada, as the ships, dolphins, and national
emblems testify. At this we beg to demur, as no similar lace was made at
that period; but we do not doubt its having been made in honour of that
victory, for the building is decidedly old Tilbury Fort, familiar to all by
the pencil of Stanfield. But the lace is point d'Argentan, as we see by the
hexagonal "bride" ground and the workmanship of the pattern. None but the
best lace-workers could have made it; it was probably the handiwork of some
English lady, or the pattern, designed in England, may have been sent to
Argentan to execute, perhaps as a present to Queen Charlotte.

"Since the Reformation the clothing trade declined," writes Defoe, of
Sherborne. "Before 1700, making buttons, haberdashery wares, and bone laces
employed a great many hands"; which said piece of information is repeated
word for word in the _Imperial Cyclopædia_. Other authors, such as
Anderson, declare, at a far later date, Sherborne to carry on a good trade
in lace, and how, up to 1780, much blonde, both white and black, and of
various colours, was made there, of which a supply was sent to all markets.
From the latter end of the eighteenth century, the lace trade of Sherborne
declined, and gradually died out.

The points of Lyme Regis rivalled, in the eighteenth century, those of
Honiton and Blandford, and when the trade of the last-named town passed
away, Lyme and Honiton laces held their own, side by side, in the London
market. The fabric of Lyme Regis, for a period, came more before the public
eye, for that old, deserted, and half-forgotten mercantile city, in the
eighteenth century, once more raised its head as a fashionable
watering-place. Prizes were awarded by the {398}Anti-Gallican Society[1135]
to Miss Mary Channon, of Lyme Regis, and her fellow-townswoman, Miss Mary
Ben, for ruffles of needle point and bone lace. The reputation of the
fabric, too, of Lyme Regis reached even the court; and when Queen Charlotte
first set foot on English ground, she wore a head and lappets of Dorset
manufacture. Some years later a splendid lace dress was made for her
Majesty by the workers of Lyme, which, says the annalist of our southern
coast,[1136] gave great satisfaction at court. The makers of this costly
product, however, received but fourpence a day for their work.

The laces of Lyme, like all good articles, were expensive. A narrow piece
set quite plain round an old woman's cap would cost four guineas, nor was
five guineas a yard considered an exorbitant price.

It was a favourite custom at Lyme for lovers to have their initials
entwined and worked together on a piece of ornamental lace.

The making of such expensive lace being scarcely found remunerative, the
trade gradually expired; and when the order for the marriage lace of Queen
Victoria reached the southern counties, not one lace-maker was to be found
to aid in the work in the once flourishing town of Lyme Regis.



{399}CHAPTER XXXII.

DEVONSHIRE.

 "Bone lace and Cyder."--_Anderson._

  "At Axminster, you may be furnished with fyne flax thread there spunne.
  At Honyton and Bradninch with bone lace much in request."--Westcote.


HONITON.

The lace industry found its way to Devonshire, if the generally-accepted
theory be correct, by the Flemish refugees flying from the persecutions of
the Duke of Alva. There is much probability to support the theory, and some
names,[1137] of undoubted Flemish origin, appear among the entries of the
church registers still preserved at Honiton, towards the latter end of the
sixteenth century--names all handed down to their descendants in the
present generation, and in these families the fabric has continued for a
long lapse of years. On the other hand, if there had been any considerable
number of Flemings in Devonshire, they would surely have founded a company
of their Reformed Church, and no reference is found in the published books
of the archives of the London Dutch Church of any such company in
Devonshire, whereas references abound to places in the Eastern Counties and
Midlands where Flemings were settled. Lace was made on the pillow in the
Low Countries by the middle of the sixteenth century, so by the date of the
Alva persecution (1568-77) the people might have learned it in sufficient
numbers to start it wherever they set up their new home. Up to that date in
England lace was made with the needle,[1138] {400}and it was not till we
read of "bone-lace" that it may be taken to mean pillow-lace. The term
"bone," according to Fuller, was applied from the custom of using sheep's
trotters as bobbins. In Devonshire, however, the tradition is that, owing
to the high price of pins, the lace-makers, being within reach of the sea,
made use of fish-bones, and thus pillow-lace became "bone-lace." The term
"bobbin" came into use soon afterwards, but was not so universal as "bone";
it occurs in the Wardrobe Accounts and Royal inventories (where one entry
runs, "In ye shoppe, 4 oz. and ½ of Bobbing lace, 6s. 4d.").

Although the earliest known MS.[1139] giving an account of the different
towns in Devon makes no mention of lace, we find from it that Mrs.
Minifie,[1140] one of the earliest-named lace-makers, was an Englishwoman.

Queen Elizabeth was much addicted to the collecting and wearing of
beautiful clothes; but no mention of English lace by name seems to occur in
the inventories and accounts, and the earliest mention of Honiton lace is
by Westcote, who, writing about 1620, speaks of "bone lace much in request"
being made at Honiton and Bradninch; and again referring to Honiton.
"Here," says he, "is made abundance of bone lace, a pretty toye now greatly
in request; and therefore the town may say with merry Martial--

 "In praise for toyes such as this
  Honiton second to none is."

The oft-cited inscription let into a raised tombstone, near the wall of old
Honiton church, together with Westcote, {401}prove the industry to have
been well established in the reign of James I. The inscription runs--

  "Here lyeth y^e body of James Rodge, of Honinton, in y^e County of
  Devonshire (Bonelace Siller, hath given unto the poore of Honinton
  P'ishe, the benyfitt of £100 for ever), who deceased y^e 27 of July A^o
  D^i 1617 AETATAE SVAE 50. Remember the Poore."

There have been traditions that Rodge was a valet who accompanied his
master abroad, and there learning the fine Flemish stitches, taught some
Devonshire women on his return home, and was enabled to make a comfortable
competence by their work, bequeathing a sum of money to the poor of
Honiton; but it is more probable that he was an ordinary dealer.

Westcote,[1141] who wrote about the year 1620, when noticing bone lace,
does not speak of it as a new manufacture; the trade had already taken root
and flourished, for, including the above-mentioned Rodge, the three
earliest bone lace makers of the seventeenth century on record all at their
decease bequeathed sums of money for the benefit of their indigent
townspeople, viz., Mrs. Minifie,[1142] before mentioned, who died in 1617,
and Thomas Humphrey, of Honiton, laceman, who willed in the year 1658 £20
towards the purchase of certain tenements, a notice of which benefaction is
recorded on a painted board above the gallery of the old parish church.

By this time English lace had advanced in public estimation. In the year
1660 a royal ordinance of France provided that a mark should be affixed to
thread lace imported from England as well as on that of Flanders; and we
have already told elsewhere how the Earl of Essex procures, through his
countess, bone lace to a considerable amount as a present to Queen Anne of
Austria.

Speaking of bone lace, writes Fuller in his _Worthies_: "Much of this is
made in and about Honyton, and weekly returned to London.... Modern is the
use thereof in England, and that not exceeding the middle of the reign of
{402}Queen Elizabeth. Let it not be condemned for a superfluous wearing
because it doth neither hide, nor heat, seeing it doth adorn. Besides,
though private persons pay for it, it stands the State in nothing; not
expensive of bullion like other lace, costing nothing save a little thread
descanted on by art and industry. Hereby many children, who otherwise would
be burthensome to the parish, prove beneficial to their parents. Yea, many
lame in their limbs and impotent in their arms, if able in their fingers,
gain a livelihood thereby; not to say that it saveth some thousands of
pounds yearly, formerly sent over seas to fetch lace from Flanders."

The English were always ready to protect their own trades and manufactures,
and various were the Acts passed to prohibit the importation of foreign
lace, for the encouragement of home workers. In 1698 it was proposed to
repeal the last preceding prohibition; and, from the text of a petition
sent to the House of Commons, some interesting light is thrown on the
extent of the trade at that time.

"The making of Bone-lace has been an ancient Manufacture of England, and
the Wisdom of our Parliaments all along thought it the Interest of this
Kingdom to prohibit its Importation from Foreign Parts.... This has revived
the said Languishing Manufacture, and there are now above one hundred
thousand in England who get their living by it, and earn by mere Labour
£500,000 a year, according to the lowest computation that can be made; and
the Persons employed on it are, for the most part, Women and children who
have no other means of Subsistence. The English are now arrived to make as
good lace in Fineness and all other respects as any that is wrought in
Flanders, and particularly since the last Act, so great an improvement is
made that way that in Buckinghamshire, the highest prized lace they used to
make was about eight shillings per yard, and now they make lace there of
above thirty shillings per yard, and in Dorsetshire and Devonshire they now
make lace worth six pound per yard....

"... The Lace Manufacture in England is the greatest, next to the woollen,
and maintains a multitude of People, which otherwise the Parishes must, and
that would soon prove a heavy burthen, even to those concerned in the
Woollen Manufacture. On the Resolution, which shall be taken in this affair
depends the Well-being, or ruin of numerous families in their Country. Many
laws have been made to set our Poor on Work, and it is to be hoped none
will be made to take away work from Multitudes who are already
employed."[1143]

PLATE LXXXVIII.

[Illustration: ENGLISH, DEVONSHIRE. REPRODUCTIONS OF OLD HONITON WITH THE
VRAI RÉSEAU.--Made under Mrs. Fowler's direction. Widths about 4 inches.

Photo by A. Dryden.]

_To face page 402._

{403}Even in 1655, when the variety of points furnished matter for a letter
from the members of the Baptist Church assembled at Bridgewater, the
"Beleeven men," unwilling to injure so nourishing a commerce, merely
censure "points and more laces than are required on garments," and these
they desired might be proceeded against "with all sweetness and tenderness
and long-suffering."[1144] The conciliatory measures of the Puritans,
maybe, affected the trade less than the doing of Lord Cambury and Lord
Churchill's dragoons in the suppression of Monmouth's rebellion in 1680, by
which time the lace-making art was carried on in many small country places
in Devon. They pillaged the lace-makers right and left, and, when quartered
at Colyton,[1145] these unruly soldiers broke into the house of one William
Bard, a dealer in bone lace, and there stole merchandise to the amount of
£325 17s. 9d.[1146]

"The valuable manufactures of lace, for which the inhabitants of Devon have
long been conspicuous, are extending now from Exmouth to Torbay,"[1147]
writes Defoe in 1724. {404}These must, however, have received a check as
regards the export trade, for, says Savary, who wrote about the same date,
"Depuis qu'on imite les dentelles nommées point d'Angleterre en Flandres,
Picardie et Champagne, on n'en tire plus de Londres pour la France."

Great distress, too, is said to have existed among the Honiton lace-makers
after the two great fires of 1756 and 1767. The second was of so
devastating a character that the town had to be rebuilt. Shawe declares,
writing at the end of the eighteenth century: "For its present condition
Honiton is indebted to that dreadful fire which reduced three parts of it
to ashes. The houses now wear a pleasing aspect, and the principal street,
extending from east to west, is paved in a remarkable manner, forming a
canal, well shouldered up on each side with pebbles and green turf, which
holds a stream of clear water with a square dipping place opposite each
door, a mark of cleanliness and convenience I never saw before."

[Illustration: Fig. 150.]

Three years previous to the Great Fire,[1148] among a number of premiums
awarded by the Anti-Gallican Society for the encouragement of our lace
trade, the first prize of fifteen guineas is bestowed upon Mrs. Lydia
Maynard, of Honiton, "in token of six pairs of ladies' lappets of
unprecedented beauty, exhibited by her." About this time we read {405}in
Bowen's _Geography_[1149] that at Honiton: "the people are chiefly employed
in the manufactory of lace, the broadest sort that is made in England, of
which great quantities are sent to London." "It acquired," says Lysons,
"some years since, the name of Bath Brussels lace."

To give a precise description of the earliest Devonshire lace would now be
impossible. The bone or bobbin lace at first consisted of a small and
simple imitation of the beautiful Venetian geometrical cut-works and
points, mere narrow strips made by coarse threads plaited and interlaced.
They became wider and more elaborate as the workers gained experience.
Specimens may be seen on two Devonshire monuments, though whether the lace
of the district is imitated on the effigies is another matter; in any case
similar patterns were probably made there at the time. One is on the
monument of Lady Pole, in Colyton Church, where the lady's cape is edged
with three rows of bone lace. The other, which is in excellent
preservation, is on the recumbent effigy of Lady Doddridge (a member of the
Bampfylde family) in Exeter Cathedral, her cuffs and tucker being adorned
with geometric lace of a good pattern. Both belong to the first part of the
seventeenth century.

In the same Cathedral is the monument of Bishop Stafford.[1150] His collar
appears to be of a net-work, embroidered in patterns of graceful design
(Fig. 151).

Belgium was noted for her linens and delicately spun flax. In consequence
the Flemings soon departed from the style of their Italian masters, and
made laces of their own fine threads. They worked out their own designs
also, and being great gardeners and fond of flowers, it naturally came
about that they composed devices of blossoms and foliage.

{406}[Illustration: Fig. 151.

MONUMENT OF BISHOP STAFFORD, EXETER CATHEDRAL.]

These alterations in course of time found their way to England, there being
much intercourse between their brethren here established and those
remaining in Flanders. The lace continued to get finer and closer in
texture, the flax thread being required so fine that it became necessary to
spin it in damp underground cellars. That the workers in England could not
compete successfully against the foreigner with their home-made threads we
find over and over again. They also altered the Brussels designs, and
instead of the beautiful "fillings" and open-work stitches, substituted
heavy guipure bars. By this period "cordonnet" or "gimp" had come into use
in Brussels lace. The "_vrai réseau_" or pillow-net ground, succeeded the
"bride" about the end of the seventeenth century. This fashion enabled the
flowers to be made separately and worked in with the net afterwards, or
rather the net was worked into the flowers on the pillow. It was from the
introduction of these separate sprigs that Honiton lace was able to compete
with Brussels. The pattern in Fig. 153 is sewn on the plain pillow
ground,[1151] which was very beautiful and regular, but very expensive. It
was made of the finest thread procured from Antwerp, the market price of
which, in 1790, was £70 per pound,[1152] and an old lace-maker told the
author her father {407}had, during the war, paid a hundred guineas a pound
to the smugglers for this highly-prized and then almost unattainable
commodity.

Nor were the lace-worker's gains less remunerative. She would receive as
much as eighteen shillings a yard for the workmanship alone of a piece of
this elaborate net, measuring scarce two inches in width;[1153] and one of
the old lace-dealers showed Mrs. Treadwin a piece of ground eighteen inches
square, for the making of which she was paid fifteen pounds shortly before
the establishment of the machine net manufacture.[1154] The price of lace
was proportionately high. A Honiton veil would often cost a hundred
guineas.

[Illustration: Fig. 152.

MONUMENT OF LADY DODDRIDGE. + 1614. (Exeter Cathedral.)]

The Flemish character of Fig. 158 is unmistakable. The {408}design of the
flower vase resembles those of the old Angleterre à bride, and in execution
this specimen may fairly warrant a comparison with the productions of
Brabant. If really of English make, we should place its fabrication at the
beginning of the eighteenth century, for it was long before the Devonshire
lace-makers could rival in beauty the "cordonnet" of the Flemish workers.

Fig. 154 is an example of the pattern worked in the favourite design of the
butterfly and the acorn, already familiar to us in the old point
d'Angleterre and in the smock of Queen Elizabeth.

[Illustration: Fig. 153.]

The American War had an evil effect upon the lace trade, and still worse
was the French Revolution, which was followed by the fashion of classical
dress. Lace became no longer necessary to a lady's wardrobe, and the demand
for it declined to a serious extent for the workers. Worse than these,
however, was the introduction of the machine net, the first factory being
set up at Tiverton in 1815. Lysons writes shortly afterwards in 1822: "The
manufactory of lace has much declined, although the lace still retains its
superiority. Some years ago, at which time it was much patronised by the
Royal family, the manufacturers of Honiton employed 2,400 hands in the town
and in the neighbouring villages, but they do not now employ above 300."
For twenty years the lace trade suffered the greatest depression, and the
Honiton lace-workers, forsaking the designs of their forefathers,
introduced a most hideous set of patterns, designed, as they said, "out of
their own heads." "Turkey tails," "frying pans," "bullocks' hearts," and
the most senseless sprigs and borderings took the place of the graceful
compositions of the old school. Not a leaf, not a flower was copied from
nature. Anxious to introduce a purer taste, Queen Adelaide, to whom a
petition had been sent on behalf of the distressed lace-makers, gave the
order for a dress to be made of Honiton sprigs,[1155] and commanded that
the flowers should all be copied from nature. The order was executed by
Mrs. Davey, of Honiton. The skirt was encircled with a wreath of elegantly
designed sprigs, the initial of each flower forming the name of her
Majesty.[1156]

[Illustration: Fig. 154.

OLD DEVONSHIRE.

_To face page 408._]

{409}The example of the Queen found new followers, and when, in the
progress of time, the wedding lace was required for Queen Victoria, it was
with difficulty the necessary number of workers could be obtained to make
it. It was undertaken by Miss Jane Bidney, who caused the work to be
executed in the small fishing hamlet of Beer[1157] and its environs. The
dress cost £1,000. It was composed entirely of Honiton sprigs, connected on
the pillow by a variety of open-work stitches; but the patterns were
immediately destroyed, so it cannot be described.

The bridal dresses of their Royal Highnesses the Princess Royal, the
Princess Alice, and the Princess of Wales were all of Honiton point, the
patterns consisting of the national flowers, the latter with prince's
feathers intermixed with ferns, and introduced with the most happy effect.

The application of Honiton sprigs upon bobbin net has been of late years
almost entirely superseded by the modern guipure (Fig. 155). The sprigs,
when made, are sewn upon a piece of blue paper, and then united either on
the pillow by "cut-works" or "purlings," or else joined with the needle by
various stitches--lacet point, réseau, cut-work, and buttonhole stitch (the
most effective of all). Purling is made by the yard. The Honiton guipure
has an original character almost unique.  The large pieces surpass in
richness and {410}perfection any lace of the same kind made in Belgium. The
reliefs are embroidered with the greatest delicacy, and the beauty of the
workmanship is exquisite; and whereas the guipure applications of Belgium
require to be whitened with lead, the Honiton workers give up their lace in
all its original brilliancy and whiteness.[1158] The fault in the Honiton
lace has been its crowded and spiritless designs, but in these great
improvement was manifested in the Exhibition of 1867.

Captain Marryat took much pains during a residence at Sidmouth to procure
for the lace-makers new patterns of flowers, insects, and other natural
objects. The younger members of the community accepted with gratitude these
new patterns, and one even reproduced a piece of braidwork in imitation of
Spanish point, and also a collar from Vecellio's book, in a manner most
creditable to her ingenuity. In consequence of this movement, some
gentlemen connected with the Bath and West of England Society[1159]
proposed that an exhibition should take place at the Annual Agricultural
Show, held at Clifton, of Honiton lace, "designs strictly after nature."
Prizes to the amount of £100 were given. The exhibition was most
successful. Queen Victoria expressed a desire that the articles exhibited
should be sent to Windsor for her inspection, and graciously commanded that
two flounces with a corresponding length of trimming lace should be made
for her. A design executed by Miss Cecilia Marryat having been approved of
by her Majesty, the order for the lace was given to Mrs. Hayman, of
Sidmouth. (Fig. 156 is from one of the honeysuckle sprigs selected.)

[Illustration: Fig. 155.

HONITON GUIPURE.

_To face page 410._]

{411}The Honiton lace-makers show great aptitude in imitating the Brussels
designs, and[1160] through the efforts of Mrs. Treadwin have succeeded in
reproducing the ancient lace in the most wonderful manner. Fig. 158 is a
lappet in the Brussels style shown in the International Exhibition of 1874.
Mrs. Treadwin produced admirable specimens after the pillow-made lace of
Genoa and Flanders, and also a reproduction of the Venetian point in
relief.

[Illustration: Fig. 156.

HONEYSUCKLE SPRIG OF MODERN HONITON.]

A new branch of industry has lately opened to the Devonshire
lace-maker--that of restoring or re-making old lace. The splendid mantles,
tunics, and flounces which enrich the shop-windows of the great
lace-dealers of London are mostly concocted from old fragments by the
Devonshire lace-workers. It is curious to see the ingenuity they display in
re-arranging the "old rags"--and such they are--sent from London for
restoration.  Carefully cutting out the {412}designs of the old work, they
sew them upon a paper pattern of the shape required. The "modes," or fancy
stitches, are dexterously restored, any deficient flower supplied, and the
whole joined together on the pillow.

[Illustration: Fig. 157.

OLD DEVONSHIRE POINT.]


TROLLY LACE.

Trolly lace comes next in order. It was quite different from anything else
made in Devonshire, and resembled many of the laces made in the midlands at
the present time. It was made of coarse British thread, and with heavier
and larger bobbins, and worked straight on round and round the pillow. The
origin of "Trolly" was undoubtedly Flemish, but it is said to have reached
Devonshire at the time of the French Revolution, through the Normandy
peasants, driven by want of employment from their own country, where lace
was a great industry during the eighteenth century. The origin of "trolly"
is from the Flemish "Trolle Kant," where the design was outlined with a
thick thread, or, possibly, it may be derived from a corruption of the
French _toilé_, applied to distinguish a flat linen pattern from the ground
or _treille_, a general term for a net ground. It is now almost extinct in
Devonshire, remaining in the hands of the midland counties,[1161] where it
more properly belongs.[1162]

[Illustration: Fig. 158.

LAPPET MADE BY THE LATE MRS. TREADWIN, OF EXETER, 1864.

_To face page 412._]

{413}Trolly lace was not the work of women alone. In the flourishing days
of its manufacture, every boy, until he had attained the age of fifteen,
and was competent to work in the fields, attended the lace schools
daily.[1163] A lace-maker of Sidmouth, in 1869, had learned her craft at
the village dame school,[1164] in company with many boys. The men,
especially the sailor returned from sea, would again resume the employment
of their boyhood, in their hours of leisure, and the labourer, seated at
his pillow on a summer's evening, would add to his weekly gains.

Mrs. Treadwin, in her younger days, saw some twenty-four men lace-makers in
her native village of Woodbury, two of whom, Palmer by name, were still
surviving in 1869, and one of these worked at his pillow so late as 1820.

Captain Marryat also succeeded in finding out a man of sixty, one James
Gooding, dweller in Salcombe parish, near Sidmouth, who had in his day been
a lace-maker of some reputation. "I have made hundreds of yards in my
time," he said, "both wide and narrow, but never worked regularly at my
pillow after sixteen years of age." Delighted to exhibit the craft of his
boyhood, he hunted out his patterns, {414}and, setting to work, produced a
piece of trolly edging, which soon found a place in the albums of sundry
lace-collecting ladies, the last specimen of man-worked lace likely to be
fabricated in the county of Devon.[1165]

The lace schools of this time were a great feature, there being many in
every village, and as few other schools existed, boys in addition to the
girls of the place attended and learnt the industry. The usual mode of
procedure was this. The children commenced attending at the age of five to
seven, and were apprenticed to the mistress for an average of two years,
who sold all their work for her trouble: they then paid sixpence a week for
a time and had their own lace, then threepence, and so on, according to the
amount of teaching they still required. The young children went first from
ten to twelve in the morning, to accustom them to work by degrees. At
Honiton the full hours were from eight to eight in the summer and in the
depth of winter, but in the spring and autumn less, on account of the
light, as candles were begun only on September 3rd--Nutting day--till
Shrovetide. The old rhyme runs:--

 "Be the Shrovetide high or low,
  Out the candle we will blow."

At Sidbury it was _de rigueur_ that directly a young girl married, however
young, she wore a cap, but till then the lace-makers were famous for the
beautiful dressing of their hair. When school began they stood up in a
circle to read the "verses." If any of them read "jokily," they were given
a penalty, and likewise for idleness--so much extra work. In nearly all
schools they were taught reading from the Bible, and in some they learnt
writing; but all these are now things of the past.

[Illustration: Fig. 159.

VENETIAN RELIEF IN POINT.--Reproduced by the late Mrs. Treadwin.

_To face page 414._]

{415}Speaking of the occupation of lace-making, Cooke, in his _Topography
of Devon_, observes: "It has been humanely remarked as a melancholy
consideration that so much health and comfort are sacrificed to the
production of this beautiful though not necessary article of decoration.
The sallow complexion, the weakly frame and the general appearance of
languor and debility of the operatives, are sad and decisive proofs of the
pernicious nature of the employment. The small unwholesome rooms in which
numbers of these females, especially during their apprenticeship, are
crowded together are great aggravations of the evil." He continues at some
length, as indeed do many writers of the eighteenth century, to descant on
this evil, but times are changed, sanitary laws and the love of fresh air
have done much to remedy the mischief.[1166] The pillows, too, are raised
higher than formerly, by which means the stooping, so injurious to health,
is avoided. Old lace-makers will tell stories of the cruel severities
practised on the children in the dame schools of their day--of the length
of time they sat without daring to move from the pillow, of prolonged
punishments imposed on idle apprentices, and other barbarities, but these
are now tales of the past.[1167]

Ever since the Great Exhibition of 1851 drew attention to the industry,
different persons have been trying to encourage both better design and
better manufacture, but {416}the majority of the people have sought a
livelihood by meeting the extensive demand for cheap laces. Good patterns,
good thread, and good work have been thrown aside, the workers and small
dealers recking little of the fact that they themselves were ruining the
trade as much as the competition of machinery and machine-made lace, and
tarnishing the fair name of Honiton throughout the world, among those able
to love and appreciate a beautiful art. Fortunately there are some to lead
and direct in the right path, and all honour must be given to Mrs.
Treadwin, who started reproducing old laces. She and her clever workers
turned out the most exquisite copies of old Venetian rose point,
Valenciennes, or Flemish. Her successor, Miss Herbert, carries it on; and
while we have Mrs. Fowler and her school at Honiton, and Miss Radford at
Sidmouth, it would be easier to say what the heads and hands of the Devon
lace-workers could not do than to enumerate the many beautiful stitches and
patterns they achieve; needlepoint or pillow, tape guipure or _vrai
réseau_--there are able fingers to suit all tastes.[1168]

Mrs. Fowler, of Honiton, has made a spirited attempt to teach some young
people.[1169] She employs women and girls all the year round, who work
under the Factory Acts. The girls are taught needlework in addition, and to
put together the sprigs made by the out-workers, the arrangement of which
requires great taste and careful superintendence. The County Council grants
courses of lessons in various places, some for all ages, others for
children.[1170] The Italian laces made at Beer is a new branch, established
by Miss Bowdon, and ably carried on by Miss Audrey Trevelyan of Seaton.
This Italian lace is made entirely on the pillow, and the way in which the
women of Beer have picked up the stitches and mode of making speaks volumes
for their skilfulness and adaptability. There are still a good number of
workers left in this most picturesque village.[1171]

PLATE LXXXIX.

[Illustration: ENGLISH, DEVONSHIRE. MADE AT BEER FOR THE PARIS EXHIBITION
OF 1900.--Miss A. Trevelyan adapted an Italian design to the old Honiton
stitches.]

_To face page 416._

{417}A beautiful county and a beautiful art have come down to us hand in
hand. Let us do our best to prevent the one being marred and the other
lost, and keep them both together to be a joy and a pleasure for all time.


JAPAN.

The versatile Japanese have copied the Honiton method of making bobbin
lace. The Government have encouraged a school at Yokohama for pillow lace
making, under the supervision of an English lady, where they turn out lace
of a distinctive Japanese character.



{418}CHAPTER XXXIII.

SCOTLAND.

 "With the pearlin above her brow."--Old Scotch Song.

 "Pearlin-lace as fine as spiders' webs."--_Heart of Midlothian._


From her constant intercourse with France, lace must have been early known
in Scotland.

Of its use for ecclesiastical purposes, at a period when it was still
unknown to the laity, we have evidence in the mutilated effigy of a
crosiered ecclesiastic which once stood in a niche of the now ruined abbey
church of Arbroath. The lace which adorns the robes of this figure is very
elaborately and sharply chiselled, and when first discovered, still
preserved some remains of the gold leaf with which it had been ornamented.

In the Inventories of King James V. we find constant mention of "pasment"
of gold and silver,[1172] as well as an entry of--"Ane gown of fresit
clayth of gold, with pasment of perle of gold smyth wark lynit with cramasy
sating."[1173] And we have other proofs,[1174] in addition to the testimony
of Sir Walter Scott, as given in the Monastery,[1175] that pasments of gold
and silver as well as "purle," were already in daily use during King
James's reign.

{419}Indeed, as early as 1575 the General Assembly of Scotland found
necessary, as did the bishops in Denmark, to express its mind as to the
style of dress befitting the clergy, and prohibit "all begares (gardes) of
velvet on gown, hose, or coat, all superfluous cut-out work, all sewing on
of pasments and laces."

A parchment, too, found in the cabinet of the Countess of Mar,[1176]
entitled "The Passement Bond," signed by the Duke of Lennox and other
nobles, by which they engaged themselves to leave off wearing "passement,"
as a matter of expense and superfluity, shows that luxury in dress had
early found its way into Scotland.

Notwithstanding these entries, it was not until the arrival of Mary Stuart
in her northern dominions that lace in all its varieties appears. The
inventory of the Queen's effects in 1567, printed by the Bannatyne Club,
gives entries of passements, guimpeure d'or, and guimpeure d'argent,[1177]
with which her "robes de satin blanc et jaune" were "bordées" and
"chamarées." Each style of embroidery and lace is designated by its special
name. There is the "natte d'argent faite par entrelatz, passement d'or et
d'argent fait à jour, chamarré de bisette,"[1178] etc.

The word dentelle, as told elsewhere,[1179] occurs but once.

We have also alluded to the will made by the Queen previous to the birth of
James VI., and her bequest of her "ouvrages maschés."[1180] A relic of this
expression is yet found in the word "mawsch," or "masch," as the pinking of
silk and muslin is termed in Scotland, an advertisement of which
{420}accomplishment "done here" was seen a few years ago in the
shop-windows of the old town of Edinburgh.

In the Palace of Holyrood is still exhibited a small basket lined with blue
silk, and trimmed with a bone lace of rudely-spun flax, run on with a
ribbon of the same colour, recorded to be an offering sent by Queen
Elizabeth to her cousin previous to the birth of her godchild. Antiquaries
assert the story to be a fable. Whether the lace be of the time or not, as
a work of art it is of no credit to any country.

How Queen Mary, in her youth, was instructed in the arts of point coupé and
lacis, according to the works of Vinciolo, has been already related.[1181]
Of her talents as a needlewoman there is ample proof in the numerous beds,
screens, etc., treasured as relics in the houses of the nobles where she
was held captive. She knitted head-dresses of gold "réseille," with cuffs
and collars[1182] en suite,[1183] to say nothing of nightcaps, and sent
them as presents to Elizabeth,[1184] all of which, we are told, the Queen
received most graciously. Mary, in her early portraits as Dauphine of
France, wears no thread lace. Much fine gold embroidered with passament
enriches her dresses; her sleeves are of gold rézeuil. In those of a later
date, like that taken when in Lochleven Castle, her veil is bordered with a
narrow bone lace--as yet a rarity--may be one of the same noted in the
Inventory of 1578, as "Fyve litell vaills of wovin rasour (réseau) of
threde, ane meekle twa of thame, passmentit with perle and black
silk."[1185]

When the Queen of Scots ascended the scaffold "she wore {421}on her head,"
writes Burleigh's reporter, "a dressing of lawn edged with bone lace," and
"a vest of lawn fastened to her caul," edged with the same material. This
lace-edged veil was long preserved as a relic in the exiled Stuart family,
until Cardinal York bequeathed it to Sir John Cox Hippisley. Miss
Pigott[1186] describes it of "transparent zephyr gauze, with a light check
or plaid pattern interwoven with gold; the form as that of a long
scarf."[1187] Sir John, when exhibiting the veil at Baden, had the
indiscretion to throw it over the Queen of Bavaria's head. The Queen
shuddered at the omen, threw off the veil, and retired precipitately from
the apartment, evidently in great alarm.

"Cuttit out werk," collars of "hollie crisp," quaiffs of woven
thread,[1188] cornettes of layn (linen) sewit with cuttit out werk of gold,
wovin collars of threde, follow in quick succession. The cuttit out werk is
mostly wrought in gold, silver, cramoisi, or black silk.[1189] The Queen's
"towell claiths" are adorned in similar manner.[1190]

The Chartley Inventory of 1568[1191] is rich in works of point coupé and
rézeuil, in which are portrayed with the needle figures of birds, fishes,
beasts, and flowers, "couppés chascune en son carré." The Queen exercised
much ingenuity in her labours, varying the pattern according to her taste.
In the list are noted fifty-two specimens of flowers designed after nature,
"tirés au naturel;" 124 birds; as well as sixteen sorts of four-footed
beasts, "entre lesquelles y ha un lyon assailant un sanglier;" with
fifty-two fishes, all of {422}divers sorts--giving good proofs of the poor
prisoner's industry. As to the designs after nature, with all respect to
the memory of Queen Mary, the lions, cocks, and fishes of the sixteenth
century which have come under our notice, require a student of mediæval
needlework rather than a naturalist, to pronounce upon their identity.

James VI. of Scotland, reared in a hotbed of Calvinism, had not the means,
even if he had the inclination, to indulge in much luxury in dress. Certain
necessary entries of braid pasmentis of gold, gold clinquant, braid
pasmentis, cramoisi, for the ornamenting of clokkis, coittis, breikis, and
roobes of the King, with "Twa unce and ane half pasmentis of gold and
silver to werk the headis of the fokkis," made up the amount of expense
sanctioned for the royal wedding;[1192] while 34 ells braid pasmentis of
gold to trim a robe for "his Majesties darrest bedfellow the Quene for her
coronation,"[1193] gives but a poor idea of the luxury of the Scottish
court.

Various enactments[1194] were passed during the reign of James VI. against
"unnecessary sumptuousness in men's apparel," by which no one except
noblemen, lords of session, prelates, etc., were allowed to wear silver or
gold lace. Provosts were permitted to wear silk, but no lace pearlin or
pasmenterie, only a "watling silk lace" on the seams.[1195] No one but the
above same privileged persons were to have pearlin on their ruffles,
sarkis, napkins, and sokkis, and that pearlin to be made in the kingdom of
Scotland. This Act, dated 1621, is the first mention we have found of
Scottish-made lace.

James VI. having granted to one James Bannatyne of Leith a patent for the
"importing of foraine pearlin" into the country, in consequence of the
great complaint of the embroiderers in 1639, this patent is rescinded, and
the King forbids the entry of all "foraine pearlin."

The word lace does not exist in the Scotch language. "Pearlin" is the term
used in old documents, defined in the {423}dictionaries to be "a species of
lace made with thread." In the old Scotch songs it frequently
occurs:--[1196]

 "Then, round the ring she dealt them ane by ane,
  Clean in her pearlin keck, and gown alane."
                                  --_Ross Helonora._

Again--

 "We maun hae pearlins and mabbies and cocks,
  And some other things that ladies call smocks."

As the latter articles may appear more familiar to the world in general
than "kecks," and "mabbies," and "cocks," we may as well explain a "pearlin
keck" to signify a linen cap with a lace border; a "mabbie," a mob; a
"cock," or cock-up, no more eccentric head-dress than the lofty fontanges
or commode of the eighteenth century.

Again, in _Rob Roy_ we have the term "pearlin:" when Bailie Nicol Jarvie
piteously pleads to his kinswoman, Helen Macgregor, he says--

  "I hae been serviceable to Rob before now, forbye a set of pearlins I
  sent yoursell when you were gaun to be married."

The recollection of these delicate attentions, however, has little effect
on the Highland chieftainess, who threatens to have him chopped up, if ill
befalls her lord, into as many square pieces as compose the Macgregor
tartan, or throw him neck and heels into the Highland loch.

Montrose, we read, sent his lace ruffles to be starched and dressed before
they were sewn on the embroidered sark he had made only to wear at his
execution. "Pearlin" was provided for him which cost £10 an ell.

The close-fitting velvet cap, enriched with lace, appears in the
seventeenth century to have been adopted by the lawyers of the Scotch
courts. An example may be seen in the portrait of Sir Thomas Hope, Lord
Advocate of Scotland, who died in 1646, which hangs in the Hall of the
Advocates of Edinburgh. Another (Fig. 160) appears in the engraving of Sir
Alexander Gibson, Bart., Lord Durie, one of the Lords of Session, who died
two years previously.

In 1672, when lace--"point lace made of {424}thread"--came under the ban of
the Covenanters, with a penalty of "500 merks toties quoties," the wearing
such vanities on liveries is strictly forbidden; servants, however, are
allowed to wear out their masters' and mistresses' old clothes.

In 1674, his Majesty, understanding that the manufacture of "pearlin and
whyt lace made of thread (whereby many people gain their livelihood) was
thereby much prejudiced and impaired, declares that from henceforth it
shall be free to all and every person within this kingdom to wear 'whyt
lace,' as well as the privileged persons above mentioned." Finding these
exclusions of little or no avail, in January, 1685, the Act remits the
wearing of lace, both native and foreign, to all folks living.

[Illustration: Fig. 160.

SIR ALEXANDER GIBSON, BART. (Lord Durie, Lord of Session. + 1644.)]

The dead now came under the scrutiny of the Scotch Parliament, who order
all lace or poynt, gold or silver, to be disused at interments, under the
penalty of 300 pounds Scots.[1197]

From the united effects of poverty, Covenanters and {425}legislation, after
the departure of the court for England, luxury, small though it was,
declined in Edinburgh.

It was not till 1680, when James II., as Duke of York, accompanied by Mary
of Modena and his "duteous" daughter Anne, visited the Scotch capital, that
anything like gaiety or dress can be said to have surprised the
strait-laced population.

Dryden, sneering at the barbarism of the Scotch capital, writes, in the
prologue to a play delivered at Oxford, referring to a portion of the troop
that accompanied the court to Scotland--

 "Laced linen there would be a dangerous thing;
  It might perhaps a new rebellion bring--
  The Scot who wore it would be chosen king."

The Highlander, however, when in full dress, did not disdain to adopt the
falling band and ruffles of guipure or Flanders lace.

The advertisements and inventories of the first years of the eighteenth
century give us little reason to imagine any change had been effected in
the homely habits of the people.

At the marriage of a daughter of Thomas Smythe, of Methuen, in 1701, to Sir
Thomas Moncrieffe, the bride had a head-suit and ruffles of cut-work which
cost nearly six pounds ten shillings.[1198] Few and scanty advertisements
of roups of "white thread lace" appear in the journals of the day.[1199]

And in such a state matters continued till the Jacobites, {426}going and
coming from St. Germains, introduced French fashions and luxuries as yet
unheard of in the then aristocratic Canongate.

It sounds strange to a traveller, as he wanders among these now deserted
closes of Edinburgh, to read of the gay doings and of the grand people who,
in the last century, dwelt within these poor-looking abodes. A difficult
matter it must have been to the Jacobite beauties, whose hoop (from 1725-8)
measured nine yards in circumference, to mount the narrow winding
staircases of their dwellings; and this very difficulty gave rise to a
luxury of underclothing almost unknown in England or elsewhere. Every lady
wore a petticoat trimmed with the richest point lace. Nor was it only the
jupe that was lace-trimmed. Besides

 "Twa lappets at her head, that flaunted gallantlie,"

ladies extended the luxury to finely-laced garters.

In 1720 the bubble Company "for the trading in Flanders laces" appears
advertised in the Scotch papers in large and attractive letters. We
strongly doubt, however, it having gained any shareholders among the
prudent population of Edinburgh.

The prohibition of lace made in the dominions of the French king[1200] was
a boon to the Jacobites, and many a lady, and gentleman too, became
wondrous loyal to the exiled family, bribed by a packet from St. Germains.
In the first year of George II., says the _Gazette_,[1201] a parcel of rich
lace was secretly brought to the Duke of Devonshire, by a mistake in the
similarity of the title. On being opened, hidden among the folds, was found
a miniature portrait of the Pretender, set round with large diamonds. The
packet was addressed to a noble lord high in office, one of the most
zealous converts to loyalty.[1202]

{427}Smuggling was universal in Scotland in the reigns of George I. and
George II., for the people, unaccustomed to imposts, and regarding them as
an unjust aggression upon their ancient liberties, made no scruple to elude
the customs whenever it was possible so to do.

It was smuggling that originated the Porteous riots of 1736; and in his
description of the excited mob, Sir Walter Scott makes Miss Grizel Dalmahoy
exclaim--"They have ta'en awa' our Parliament. They hae oppressed our
trade. Our gentles will hardly allow that a Scots needle can sew ruffles on
a sark or lace on an owerlay."[1203]



{428}CHAPTER XXXIV.

LACE MANUFACTURES OF SCOTLAND.

 "Sae put on your pearlins, Marion,
  And kirtle o' the cramasie."--Scottish Song.


During the treasonable year of 1745 Scotland was far too occupied with her
risings and executions to give much attention to her national industry. Up
to that time considerable pains had been taken to improve the spinning of
fine thread, prizes had been awarded, and the art taught in schools and
other charitable institutions.

It was not till the middle of the eighteenth century that Anne, Duchess of
Hamilton, known to Society by tradition as "one of the beautiful Miss
Gunnings," seeing lace-makers at work when travelling on the Continent,
thought employment might be given to the women of her own country by
introducing the art into Scotland. The Duchess therefore brought over women
from France, and caused them to teach the girls in her schools how to make
"bunt lace," as it was termed.

Sir John Sinclair thus notices the fabric:--"A small manufacture of thread
lace has long been carried on here. At an early period it was the
occupation of a good many women, but, from the fluctuation of fashion, it
has fallen greatly into disuse. Fashion again revived the demand, and the
late Duchess of Hamilton, afterwards of Argyle, found still some
lace-workers remaining, to whom her own demand, and that of those who
followed her example, gave employment. To these her Grace added twelve
orphan girls, who were clothed, maintained, and taught at her expense.
Others learned the art, and while the demand lasted, the manufacture
employed a good many hands. Though the number is again diminished, there
are still above forty at the business, who {429}make handsome laces of
different patterns, besides those who work occasionally for themselves or
their friends. Perhaps, under the patronage of the present respectable
duchess, the manufacture of Hamilton lace may again become as flourishing
as ever."[1204]

"The Duchess of Hamilton," says the _Edinburgh Amusement_ of 1752, "has
ordered a home to be set up in Hamilton for the reception of twelve poor
girls and a mistress. The girls are to be taken in at the age of seven,
clothed, fed, taught to spin, make lace, etc., and dismissed at fourteen."

The work of the fair Duchess throve, for, in 1754, we read how--"The
Duchess of Hamilton has now the pleasure to see the good effects of her
charity. Her Grace's small orphan family have, by spinning, gained a sum of
money, and lately presented the Duke and Duchess with a double piece of
Holland, and some suits of exceeding fine lace ruffles, of their own
manufacture, which their Graces did them the honour to wear on the Duke's
birthday, July 14, and which vied with anything worn on the occasion,
though there was a splendid company present. The yarn of which the ruffles
were made weighed only ten drops each hank."[1205]

It was probably owing to the influence of this impulsive Irishwoman that,
in the year 1754, was founded The Select Society of Edinburgh for
encouraging the arts and manufactures of Scotland, headed by the Duke of
Hamilton. This society was contemporary with the Anti-Gallican in England
and the Dublin Society, though we believe, in this case, Dublin can claim
precedence over the capital of North Britain.

At a meeting of the society it was moved that "The annual importation of
worked ruffles and of bone lace and edging into this country is
considerable. By proper encouragement we might be supplied at home with
these ornaments. It was therefore resolved--

"That a premium be assigned to all superior merit in such work; such a one
as may be a mark of respect to women of fashion, and may also be of some
solid advantage to those whose laudable industry contributes to their own
support.

{430}"For the best imitation of Dresden work, or a pair of men's ruffles, a
prize of £5 5s.

"For the best bone lace, not under twenty yards, £5 5s. The gainers of
these two best articles may have the money or a gold medal, at their
option."

As may be supposed, the newly-founded fabric of the Duchess was not passed
over by a society of which the Duke himself was the patron. In the year
1757 we have among the prizes adjudged one of two guineas to Anne
Henderson, of Hamilton, "for the whitest and best and finest lace, commonly
called Hamilton lace, not under two yards." A prize had already been
offered in 1755,[1206] but, as stated the following year, "no lace was
given in." Prizes continued in 1758 and 1759 to be given for the produce of
Hamilton; in the last year to the value of four guineas.[1207]

The early death of the Duke of Hamilton; and the second marriage of the
Duchess, did not in any way impede the progress of Hamilton lace, for, as
late as 1778, we read in Locke's _Essays on the Scotch Commerce_--"The lace
manufactory, under the patronage of the amiable Duchess of Hamilton (now
Argyle), goes on with success and spirit."

With respect to the quality of this Hamilton lace, laudable as were the
efforts of the Duchess, she succeeded in producing but a very coarse
fabric. The specimens which have come under our notice are edgings of the
commonest description, of a coarse thread, always of the lozenge pattern
(Fig. 161); being strong and firm, it was used for nightcaps, never for
dresses, and justified the description of a lady who described it as of
little account, and spoke of it as "only Hamilton."

It appears that the Edinburgh Society died a natural death about 1764, but,
notwithstanding the untimely demise of this patriotic club, a strong
impetus had been given to the {431}lace-makers of Scotland.[1208]
Lace-making was introduced into the schools, and, what was better far, many
daughters of the smaller gentry and scions of noble Jacobite houses, ruined
by the catastrophe of 1745, either added to their incomes or supported
themselves wholly by the making of the finer points. This custom seems to
have been general, and, in alluding to it, Mrs. Calderwood speaks of the
"helplessness" of the English women in comparison to the Scotch.

In the journals of the day we have constant advertisements, informing the
public of the advantages to be gained by the useful arts imparted to their
offspring in their establishments, inserted by ladies of gentle blood--for
the Scotchwomen of the last century no more disdained to employ themselves
in the training of youth than does now a French dame de qualité to place
herself at the head of the Sacré-Coeur, or some other convent devoted to
educational purposes.[1209]

[Illustration: Fig. 161.

HAMILTON.]

The entry of all foreign laces was excluded by law.  The {432}Scotch nation
of the Hanoverian persuasion were wrath at the frivolity of the Jacobite
party. "£400,000 have been sent out of the country during the last year,"
writes the _Edinburgh Advertiser_ of 1764, "to support our exiled
countrymen in France, where they learn nothing but folly and extravagance."
English laces were not included in the prohibition. In 1763, that "neat
shop near the Stinking Style, in the Lukenbooths," held by Mr. James
Baillie, advertises "Trollies, English laces, and pearl edgings." Four
years later, black silk lace and guipure are added to the stock, "mennuet,"
and very cheap bone lace.[1210]

Great efforts, and with success, were made for the improvement of the
thread manufacture, for the purchase of which article at Lille £200,000
were annually sent from Scotland to France. Badly-spun yarn was seized and
burned by the stamp master; of this we have frequent mention.[1211]

Peuchet, speaking of Scotland, says:--"Il s'est formé près d'Edinbourg une
manufacture de fil de dentelle. On prétend que le fil de cette manufacture
sert à faire des dentelles qui non-seulement égalent en beauté celles qui
sont fabriquées avec le fil de l'étranger, mais encore les surpassent en
durée. Cet avantage serait d'autant plus grand que l'importation de ce fil
de l'étranger occasionne aux habitans de ce royaume une perte annuelle de
£100,000."[1212]

Whether about the year 1775 any change had taken place in the legislation
of the customs of Scotland, and they had become regulated by English law,
we cannot say, but suddenly constant advertisements of Brussels lace and
fine point appear in the _Gazette_, and this at the very time Loch {433}was
doing his best to stir up once more Scotch patriotism with regard to
manufactures.[1213]

The Scotch Foresters set the example at their meeting in 1766, and then--we
hear nothing more on the matter.

The _Weekly Magazine_ of 1776 strongly recommends the art of lace-making as
one calculated to flourish in Scotland, young girls beginning to learn at
eight years of age, adding: "The directors of the hospital of Glasgow have
already sent twenty-three girls to be taught by Madame Puteau,[1214] a
native of Lisle, now residing at Renfrew; you will find the lace of Renfrew
cheaper, as good and as neat as those imported from Brussels, Lisle, and
Antwerp." David Loch also mentions the success of the young Glasgow
lace-makers, who made lace, he says, from 10d. to 4s. 6d. per yard. He
adds: "It is a pleasure to see them at work. I saw them ten days ago." He
recommends the managers of the Workhouse of the Canongate to adopt the same
plan: adding, they need not send to Glasgow for teachers, as there are
plenty at the Orphan Hospital at Edinburgh capable of undertaking the
office. Of the lace fabricated at Glasgow we know nothing, save from an
advertisement in the _Caledonian Mercury_ of 1778, where one William Smith,
"Lace-maker," at the Greenhead, Glasgow, informs the public he has for some
years "made and bleached candlewicks." Anderson and Loch did not agree on
the subject of lace-making, the former considering it an unstable fabric,
too easily affected by the caprices of fashion.[1215]

{434}Be that as it may, the manufacture of thread for lace alone employed
five hundred machines, each machine occupying thirty-six persons: the value
of the thread produced annually £175,000. Loch adds, that in consequence of
the cheapness of provisions, Scotland, as a country, is better adapted to
lace-making than England. In consequence of Loch's remarks, his Majesty's
Board of Trustees for the Fisheries and Manufactures, after asking a number
of questions, determined to give proper encouragement and have mistresses
for teaching the different kinds of lace made in England and France, and
oblige them to take girls of the poorer class, some from the hospitals, and
the mistress for five years to have the benefit of their work. A girl might
earn from 10d. to 1s. per day. They gave a salary to an experienced person
from Lisle for the purpose of teaching the making of thread; his wife to
instruct in lace-making. With the records of 1788 end all mention of
lace-making in Scotland.[1216]



{435}CHAPTER XXXV.

IRELAND.

  "The undoubted aptitude for lace-making of the women of
  Ireland."--_Juror's Report, International Exhibition._ 1862.

  "It is peculiarly interesting to note the various foreign influences
  which have done their part in the creation of Irish lace. Italian and
  Flemish, Greek, French and English, all have lent their aid."--A. Loyd.
  _The Queen_, Feb. 6th, 1897.

Little is known of the early state of manufactures in Ireland, save that
the art of needlework was held in high estimation.

By the sumptuary laws of King Mogha Nuadhad, killed at the Battle of
Maylean, A.D. 192, we learn that the value of a queen's raiment, should she
bring a suitable dowry, ought to amount to the cost of six cows; but of
what the said raiment consisted history is dark.

The same record, however, informs us that the price of a mantle, wrought
with the needle, should be "a young bullock or steer."[1217] This hooded
mantle is described by Giraldus Cambrensis as composed of various pieces of
cloth, striped, and worked in squares by the needle; maybe a species of
cut-work.

Morgan, who wrote in 1588, declares the saffron-tinted shirts of the Irish
to contain from twenty to thirty ells of linen. No wonder they are
described--

 "With pleates on pleates they pleated are,
  As thick as pleates may lie."[1218]

It was in such guise the Irish appeared at court before Queen
Elizabeth,[1219] and from them the yellow starch of Mrs. Turner may have
derived its origin. The Irish, however, {436}produced the dye not from
saffron, but from a lichen gathered on the rocks. Be that as it may, the
Government prohibited its use, and the shirts were reduced in quantity to
six ells,[1220] for the making of which "new-fangled pair of Gally-cushes,"
_i.e._, English shirts, as we find by the Corporation Book of Kilkenny
(1537), eighteenpence was charged if done with silk or cut-work. Ninepence
extra was charged for every ounce of silk worked in.

An Irish smock wrought with silk and gold was considered an object worthy
of a king's wardrobe, as the inventory of King Edward IV.[1221]
attests:--"Item, one Irishe smocke wrought with gold and silke."

The Rebellion at an end, a friendly intercourse, as regards fashion, was
kept up between the English and the Irish. The ruff of geometric design,
falling band, and cravat of Flanders lace, all appeared in due succession.
The Irish, always lovers of pomp and show, early used lace at the
interments of the great, as appears from an anecdote related in a letter of
Mr. O'Halloran:--"The late Lord Glandore told me," he writes, "that when a
boy, under a spacious tomb in the ruined monastery at his seat, Ardfert
Abbey (Co. Kerry), he perceived something white. He drew it forth, and it
proved to be a shroud of Flanders lace, the covering of some person long
deceased."

In the beginning of the eighteenth century a patriotic feeling arose among
the Irish, who joined hand in hand to encourage the productions of their
own country. Swift was among the first to support the movement, and in a
prologue he composed, in 1721, to a play acted for the benefit of the Irish
weavers, he says:--

 "Since waiting-women, like exacting jades,
  Hold up the prices of their old brocades,
  We'll dress in manufactures made at home."

PLATE XC.

[Illustration: IRISH, YOUGHAL.--Needle-point fan mount, made at the
Presentation Convent, Youghal, for H.R.H. Princess Maud of Wales on her
marriage, 1896. Width in centre 8½ in.

Photo in Victoria and Albert Museum.]

_To face page 436._

{437}Shortly afterwards, at a meeting, he proposed the following
resolution:--

"That the ladies wear Irish manufactures. There is brought annually into
this kingdom near £90,000 worth of silk, whereof the greater part is
manufactured; £30,000 more is expended in muslin, holland, cambric, and
calico. What the price of lace amounts to is not easy to be collected from
the Custom-house book, being a kind of goods that, taking up little room,
is easily run; but, considering the prodigious price of a woman's
head-dress at ten, twelve, twenty pounds a yard, it must be very great."

Though a club of patriots had been formed in Ireland since the beginning of
the eighteenth century, called the Dublin Society, they were not
incorporated by charter until the year 1749; hence many of their records
are lost, and we are unable to ascertain the precise period at which they
took upon themselves the encouragement of the bone lace trade in Ireland.
From their _Transactions_ we learn that, so early as the year 1743, the
annual value of the bone lace manufactured by the children of the
workhouses of the city of Dublin amounted to £164 14s. 10½d.[1222] In
consequence of this success, the society ordain that £34 2s. 6d. be given
to the Lady Arabella Denny to distribute among the children, for their
encouragement in making bone lace. Indeed, to such a pitch were the
productions of the needle already brought in Ireland, that in the same
year, 1743, the Dublin Society gave Robert Baker, of Rollin Street, Dublin,
a prize of £10 for his imitation of Brussels lace ruffles, which are
described as being most exquisite both in design and workmanship. This
Brussels lace of Irish growth was much prized by the patriots.[1223] From
this time the Dublin Society acted under their good genius, the Lady
Arabella Denny. The prizes they awarded were liberal, and success attended
their efforts.

In 1755 we find a prize of £2 15s. 6d. awarded to {438}Susanna Hunt, of
Fishamble Street, aged eleven, for a piece of lace most extraordinarily
well wrought. Miss Elinor Brereton, of Raheenduff, Queen's County, for the
best imitation of Brussels lace with the needle, £7. On the same occasion
Miss Martha M'Cullow, of Cork Bridge, gains the prize of £5 for "Dresden
point." Miss Mary Gibson has £2 for "Cheyne Lace,"[1224] of which we have
scarcely heard mention since the days of Queen Elizabeth.

Bone lace had never in any quantity been imported from England. In 1703 but
2,333 yards, valuing only £116 13s., or 1s. per yard, passed through the
Irish Custom House. Ireland, like the rest of the United Kingdom, received
her points either from France or Flanders.

The thread used in the Irish fabric was derived from Hamburg, of which, in
1765, 2,573 lbs. were imported.

It was in this same year the Irish club of young gentlemen refused, by
unanimous consent, to toast or consider beautiful any lady who should wear
French lace or indulge in foreign fopperies.

During the two succeeding years the lace of various kinds exhibited by the
workhouse children was greatly approved of, and the thanks of the Society
offered to the Lady Arabella Denny.[1225]

Prizes given to the children, to the amount of £34 2s. 6d.; the same for
bone lace made by other manufacturers; and one half the sum is also to be
applied to "thread lace made with knitting needles."

A certain Mrs. Rachel Armstrong, of Inistioge (Co. Kilkenny), is also
awarded a prize of £11 7s. 6d. "for having caused a considerable quantity
of bone lace to be made by girls whom she has instructed and employed in
the work." Among the premiums granted to "poor gentlewomen" we find: To
Miss Jane Knox, for an apron of elegant pattern and curiously wrought, £6
16s. 6d., and silver medals to two ladies who, we suppose, are above
{439}receiving money as a reward. The Society recommend that the bone lace
made be exposed for sale in the warehouses of the Irish Silk Company. In
consequence of the emulation excited among all classes, advertisements
appear in the _Dublin News_ of ladies "very capable of instructing young
misses in fine lace-making, needlework point, broderie en tambour, all in
the genteelest taste."

Lady Arabella stood not alone as a patroness of the art. In 1770 we read
how "a considerable quantity of bone lace of extraordinary fineness and
elegance of pattern, made at Castlebar in the Co. of Mayo, being produced
to the Society, and it appearing that the manufacture of bone lace was
founded, and is at present supported there by Lady Bingham, it was ordered
that the sum of £25 be paid into the hands of her ladyship, to be disposed
of in such encouragements as she shall judge will most effectually conduce
to the carrying on and improvement of the said manufacture at Castlebar."
The thanks of the Society are at the same time voted to her ladyship. In
consequence of the large quantity fabricated, after the lapse of a few
years the Society, in 1773, found themselves compelled to put some bounds
to their liberality. No prizes are given for any lace exhibited at less
than 11s. 4½d. the yard, and that only to those not resident in the city of
Dublin or within five miles of it. Twenty per cent. will be given on the
value of the lace, provided it shall not exceed £500 in value. The Society
do not, however, withdraw the annual premium of £30 for the products of the
"famishing children" of the city of Dublin workhouse,[1226] always directed
by the indefatigable Lady Arabella Denny.[1227] From that period we hear no
more of the Dublin Society and its prizes awarded for point, Dresden,
Brussels, or bone lace.

The manufacture of gold and silver lace having met with considerable
success, the Irish Parliament, in 1778, gave it their protection by passing
an Act prohibiting the entry of all such commodities either from England or
foreign parts.

{440}And now for forty years and more history is silent on the subject of
lace-making by the "famishing children" of the Emerald Isle.[1228]

No existing Irish lace industry is as old as the appliqué lace which has
been made in the neighbourhood of Carrickmacross since the year 1820. The
process of its manufacture is simple enough, for the pattern is cut from
cambric and applied to net with point stitches. Many accounts have been
given of its origin. Some assign its genesis to India or to Persia, while
the Florentine historian, Vasari, claims the artist Botticelli as its
inventor. In any case, there can be no doubt that vast quantities were
produced in Italy from the thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries. Such a
specimen it was that Mrs. Grey Porter, wife of the then rector of
Dunnamoyne, taught her servant, Anne Steadman, to copy, and also spread the
art amongst the peasant women in the neighbourhood with such success that
Miss Reid, of Rahans, gathered together the young women round Culloville
and taught them to make lace on the same model. The girls flocked in from
the surrounding districts to learn the work. It was, however, only
dependent on private orders, and gradually suffered from over-production,
and threatened to die out, until it was revived after the great famine of
1846. By Mr. Tristram Kennedy, the manager of the Bath estate, and Captain
Morant, the agent of the Shirley estate, a vacant house was turned into a
school, and this gave rise to the Bath and Shirley School, which has done
so much to hand down this industry to the present day. Some samples of
Brussels and guipure lace were brought to the school, where the teacher had
them remodelled and placed in the hands of the best workers: and
Carrickmacross became identified with some of the finest "guipure" that
Ireland has produced.[1229]

In the year 1829 the manufacture of Limerick tambour lace was first
established in Ireland. Tambour work is of Eastern origin, and was known in
China, Persia, India and {441}Turkey long before it spread to the United
Kingdom. This work is still extensively carried on in the East, where it is
much appreciated for its varied colours, as well as the labour expended
upon it. Until the middle of the last century, tambour lace was unknown in
Europe, with the exception of Turkey. It was about that time it was
introduced into Saxony and Switzerland, but the knowledge of the art of
making the lace did not reach England until 1820. Lace, in the strictest
sense of the word, it cannot be termed. It is called tambour from the fact
that the frame on which it is worked bears some resemblance to a drum-head
or tambourine. On this is stretched a piece of Brussels or Nottingham net.
A floss thread or cotton is then drawn by a hooked or tambour needle
through the meshes of the net, and the design formed from a paper drawing
which is placed before the worker. _Run_ lace is of a finer and lighter
character. The pattern is formed on the net with finer thread, which is not
drawn in with the tambour, but run in with the point needle. (This
description of lace was made in Nottinghamshire during the eighteenth
century, and appears to have been copied from foreign designs, chiefly from
those of Lille.) It came into fashion after Nottingham machine net had made
the work possible, and is still called by old people Nottingham lace. This
fabric was first introduced into Ireland by one Charles Walker,[1230] a
native of Oxfordshire, who brought over twenty-four girls as teachers, and
commenced manufacturing at a place in Limerick called Mount Kennet. His
goods were made entirely for one house in St. Paul's Churchyard, until that
house became bankrupt in 1834, after which a traveller was sent through
England, Scotland and Ireland to take orders. Her Excellency Lady Normanby,
wife of the Lord Lieutenant, gave great encouragement to the fabric,
causing dresses to be made, not only for herself, but also for Her Majesty
the Queen of the {442}Belgians, and the Grand Duchess of Baden. The
subsequent history of Limerick laces bears a close resemblance to that of
the other Irish lace industries. Mr. Charles Walker died in 1842. Many of
his workers returned to England;[1231] the stimulus of constant supervision
was gone; old designs deteriorated from inferior copying, and new designs
were not forthcoming. It was mainly due to the Convent of the Good Shepherd
that this lace industry was saved from absolute extinction. Mrs. R. V.
O'Brien has, however, done valuable service in its revival by her energy in
establishing and maintaining the Limerick lace training school, which may
be said to owe its origin to a lecture delivered by Mr. Alan S. Cole at the
Limerick Chamber of Commerce in September, 1888, where photographs of
ancient and modern lace and a loan collection of Limerick lace was shown.
In this collection the work of the early days of Limerick, when the design
was of the highest order, was contrasted with the more modern
specimens.[1232]

The first attempt to adapt the point de Venise to the necessities of the
Irish people was made at Tynan, in Co. Armagh, on the borders of Tyrone.
Mrs. Maclean, the wife of the Rev. William Maclean, then rector of the
parish, was the owner of some old point de Venise, and she resolved to turn
her collection to some practical use. The lace was examined and
re-examined, until the secret workings underlying every stitch, every
picot, every filling, and every relief, had been grasped and understood.
Steps were taken in 1849 to teach the people this industry, and by 1851 a
handsome flounce was ready, which was purchased by Lord John George
Beresford, then Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of Ireland. It was
exhibited at the great exhibition of that year in London, and attracted a
large amount of attention, and brought many orders in its train. The
business was thus considerably extended and enlarged, and the Primate and
his nieces, Mrs. Eden and Mrs. Dunbar, did all they could to promote the
sale of the work. The good fortune and prosperity of Tynan was, however,
but of a temporary character. The Rev. William Maclean died in 1865, and,
with his death, the local industry died out from want of supervision and
organisation.

PLATE XCI.

[Illustration: IRISH, CARRICKMACROSS. INSERTION AND BORDER OF APPLIQUÉ
LACE, made at the Bath and Shirley Schools. End of nineteenth century.
Width of insertion, 6 in.; border, 9¼ in.

Victoria and Albert Museum.]

PLATE XCII.

[Illustration: IRISH. LIMERICK LACE. TAMBOUR EMBROIDERY ON NET, made at
Kinsale. End of nineteenth century. Width, 17 in.

Victoria and Albert Museum.]

_To face page 442._

{443}Irish point[1233] also owes its genesis to the failure of the potato
crop in 1846, and its original inspiration was given by a piece of point de
Milan which fell into the hands of Mother Mary Ann Smith, of the
Presentation Convent at Youghal, Co. Cork. She there conceived the idea of
setting up an industry for the children attending the convent school. She
studied the lace which had come into her possession, examined the process
by which it had been made, unravelled the threads one by one, and at last
succeeded in mastering its many details. She then selected some of the
convent children who had shown a taste for fine needlework, and taught them
separately what she herself learned. The convent school was opened in 1852.
The main characteristic of this lace is that it is worked entirely with the
needle.

Though Irish point lace owes its origin to Youghal Convent, its workers
have done much to spread their art in other parts of Ireland, and in few
districts more effectually than in the neighbourhood of Kenmare, Co. Kerry,
where the late Mother Abbess O'Hagan introduced the industry into the
Convent of the Poor Clares in 1861. The work is {444}based upon the same
lines, though the Kenmare work claims as its speciality that it is entirely
worked in linen thread, while at Youghal cotton is occasionally used. The
Convent of the Poor Clares devote themselves chiefly to the production of
flat point, appliqué, and guipure laces. Many other convents and lace
centres in Ireland have had their teachers from Youghal and Kenmare. Flat
point has been made for fifty years under the supervision of the Carmelite
convent at New Ross, Co. Wexford, though the workers are now better known
for their adaptation of Venetian rose point and the perfection to which
they have brought their crochet than for their plain Irish point. For the
first ten years the Carmelite nuns confined their attention to cut-work,
flat point, and net lace. As the workers grew more expert, a heavy rose
point was introduced. This style proved too heavy for the fashion; hence it
was that, in 1865, the nuns turned their attention to finer work.

It was about that time that a travelling Jewish pedlar called at the
convent with a miscellaneous assortment of antique vestments, old books,
and other curiosities, among which were some broken pieces of old rose
point lace. The then Prioress, the late Mother Augustine Dalton, purchased
the specimens from the Jew, as she realised that they would give her the
opportunity she wanted of varying the quality of the lace, and making the
design finer and lighter in the future than it had been in the past. For
weeks and for months she devoted herself to the task of ripping up
portions, stitch by stitch, until she had mastered every detail. From this
time dates the production of that fine rose point for which the convent at
New Ross has deservedly earned so high a reputation. This rose point has
gone on increasing in fineness of quality and in beauty of design. The
defects in the earlier specimens were mainly due to the want of artistic
culture in the girls, who could neither appreciate nor render the graceful
sweeps and curves, nor the branching stems.

Irish crochet is another widespread national industry. Its main centres
have been Cork in the South and Monaghan in the North of Ireland. The
industry can be traced as far back as 1845, when the sisters of the
Ursuline convent at Blackrock, Co. Cork, received £90 for the work done by
the poor children in their schools.  It may indeed be said that {445}the
growth of this great industry spread from this centre; so much so, that
within the space of a few years it formed part of the educational system of
almost every convent in the land, and spread from the southern shores of
Co. Cork to Wexford, to Monaghan and to Sligo.

Cork City was itself the natural centre of the industry, which extended so
far and wide through the country that some thirty years ago there were no
less than 12,000 women in the neighbourhood of Cork engaged in making
crochet, lace collars, and edgings after Spanish and Venetian patterns. On
the outbreak of the Franco-German war a further impetus was given to the
industry, when the supply of Continental laces was cut off. Several years
of unique prosperity followed, until the competition of the machine-made
work of Nottingham and Switzerland ousted the Irish crochet from the
market. At the present there has been a reaction against the usurpation by
machinery of the place that art ought to occupy, and the Cork work is now
once more coming to the fore.

As Cork has been the centre on the South, so is Clones in the North, and
yet the industry which has for so many years done so much for the people of
Monaghan owes its origin to the philanthropic efforts of Mrs. W. C.
Roberts, of Thornton, Co. Kildare, who helped the poor to ward off the
worst attacks of the famine of 1847 by the production of guipure and point
de Venise crochet. After a few years of prosperity, the industry languished
and disappeared from the neighbourhood, but twenty-four of the best-trained
and most efficient of Mrs. Roberts's workers were sent out to other
centres. One of these came to Mrs. Hand, the wife of the then Rector of
Clones. This parish is the biggest in the county, and the poor from the
surrounding mountains flocked down to learn the crochet; and knotted and
lifted as well as ordinary guipure, Greek and Spanish, and also Jesuit
lace[1234] has been produced with the crochet-needle in Clones, which still
continues to be the most important centre of the industry.

At the Killarney Presentation Convent at Newton Barry,[1235] and Cappoquin,
drawn linen work in the style of {446}the Italian reticella, and at
Parsonstown pillow laces of the same character as Honiton are made. In
Ardee, a novel lace is made with braid and cord.[1236]

The rose point lace is often called "Innishmacsaint" from the village in
the county of Fermanagh where the industry was transplanted on the death of
the Rev. W. Maclean, of Tynan, by his daughter, who went to live with her
sister, Mrs. George Tottenham, the wife of the rector. What was Tynan's
misfortune proved a boon to Innishmacsaint, and it became the chief centre
of the Irish rose point industry. Both the heavier and finer kinds are made
there. As at Tynan, the art of making the lace has been learnt by the
unravelling and close examination of Venetian point.

As in English work, some of the Irish is spoilt by the woolly cotton
thread. Foreign lace likewise in these days suffers from the same fault.
The workmanship at the present time can be so good that every effort ought
to be made to use only fine silky linen thread. In Ireland, where flax can
be grown, there should be no excuse for employing any other.

PLATE XCIII.

[Illustration: IRISH. CROCHET LACE.--End of nineteenth century. Width of
cuff, 5 in.; length of plastron, 12 in. Victoria and Albert Museum.]

_To face page 446._



{447}CHAPTER XXXVI.

BOBBIN NET AND MACHINE-MADE LACE.


[Illustration: Fig. 162.

ARMS OF THE FRAME-WORK KNITTERS' COMPANY.]


BOBBIN NET.

A sketch of the history of lace would be incomplete without a few words on
bobbin net and machine lace, manufactures which have risen to so much
importance both in England and France, and have placed lace within the
reach of all classes of society. The subject has been so ably treated by
Mr. Felkin that we refer our readers to his excellent work for its full
history.[1237]

This manufacture has its epochs:--

1768. Net first made by machinery.

1809. Invention of bobbin net.

1837. The Jacquard system applied to the bobbin net machine.

It has been already told how Barbara Uttmann made a plain thread net in
Germany three centuries before any attempt was made to produce it by
machinery.[1238]

This invention is usually assigned to Hammond, a stocking framework knitter
of Nottingham, who, examining one day the broad lace on his wife's cap,
thought he could {448}apply his machine to the production of a similar
article.[1239] His attempt so far succeeded that, by means of the
stocking-frame invented the previous century,[1240] he produced, 1768, not
lace, but a kind of knitting, of running loops or stitches, like that
afterwards known as "Brussels ground." In 1777, Else and Harvey introduced
at Nottingham the "pin" or point net machine, so named because made on
sharp pins or points. "Point net" was afterwards improved, and the
"barleycorn" introduced: "square" and "spider net" appear in succession.

But with all these improvements machinery had not yet arrived at producing
a solid net, it was still only knitting, a single thread passing from one
end of the frame to the other; and if a thread broke the work was
unravelled; the threads, therefore, required to be gummed together, to give
stiffness and solidity to the net. To remedy this evil, the warp or chain
machine was invented, uniting the knitter's and the weaver's mechanism.
Vandyke,[1241] a Flemish workman, and three Englishmen dispute the
invention. This new machine was again improved and made "Mechlin net," from
which the machine took its name.

For forty years from Hammond's first attempt on the stocking-frame, endless
efforts were made to arrive at imitating the ground of pillow lace, and
there are few manufactures in which so much capital has been expended, and
so much invention called forth. Each projector fancied {449}he had
discovered the true stitch, and patents after patents were taken out,
resulting mostly in disappointment.

The machine for making "bobbin" net was invented by John Heathcoat, son of
a farmer at Longwhatton (Leicestershire). After serving his apprenticeship
he settled at Nottingham, and while occupied in putting together stocking
and net machines, gave his attention to improving the Mechlin net
frame.[1242] In 1809, in conjunction with Mr. Lacy, he took out a patent
for fourteen years for his new and highly ingenious bobbin net machine,
which he called Old Loughborough, after the town to which he then removed.

"Bobbin net" was so named because the threads are wound upon bobbins.[1243]
It was "twisted" instead of "looped" net. Heathcoat began by making net
little more than an inch in width,[1244] and afterwards succeeded in
producing it a yard wide. There are now machines which make it three yards
and a half in width.[1245]

In 1811 that vandal association called the Luddites[1246] entered his
manufactory and destroyed twenty-seven of his machines, of the value of
£8,000. Indignant at their conduct he removed to Tiverton,[1247] in
Devonshire.

{450}In 1818 the first power machines were put to work, and the year 1823
is memorable for the "bobbin net fever." Mr. Heathcoat's patent having
expired, all Nottingham went mad. Everyone wished to make bobbin net.
Numerous individuals, clergymen, lawyers, doctors, and others, readily
embarked capital in so tempting a speculation. Prices fell in proportion as
production increased; but the demand was immense, and the Nottingham lace
frame became the organ of general supply, rivalling and supplanting in
plain nets the most finished productions of France and the
Netherlands.[1248] Dr. Ure says: "It was no uncommon thing for an artisan
to leave his usual calling and betake himself to a lace frame, of which he
was part proprietor, and realize, by working upon it, twenty, thirty, nay,
even forty shillings a day. In consequence of such wonderful gains,
Nottingham, with Loughborough and the adjoining villages, became the scene
of an epidemic mania. Many, though nearly void of mechanical genius or the
constructive talent, tormented themselves night and day with projects of
bobbins, pushers, lockers, point-bars, and needles of every various form,
till their minds got permanently bewildered. Several lost their senses
altogether, and some, after cherishing visions of wealth as in the olden
time of alchemy, finding their schemes abortive, sank into despair and
committed suicide." Such is the history of the bobbin net[1249] invention
in England.[1250]

{451}We now pass on to


FRANCE.

  "To the great trading nation, to the great manufacturing nation, no
  progress which any portion of the human race can make in knowledge, in
  taste for the conveniences of life, or in the wealth by which these
  conveniences are produced, can be matter of indifference."--Macaulay.

Since the failure[1251] of Lee, in 1610, to introduce the stocking-frame
into France, that country remained ignorant of a manufacture which was
daily progressing in England, on whom she was dependent for stockings and
for net.

In 1778 Caillen attempted a kind of net "tricot dentelle," for which he
obtained a gratuity from the Academy of £40, but his method did not
succeed; it was, like the first efforts of our countrymen, only knitting.

In 1784 Louis XVI. sent the Duke de Liancourt to England to study the
improvements in the stocking and net machinery, and to bring back a frame.
He was accompanied by Rhumbolt, who worked in a manufactory at Nottingham,
and having acquired the art, returned to France. Monarchy had fallen, but
the French Republic, 1793-4, granted Rhumbolt the sum of 110,000 francs
(£4,400). The machine he brought with him was the point net.[1252]

The cessation of all commercial intercourse prevented France from keeping
pace with the improvements making in England; yet, singularly enough, at
the beginning of the nineteenth century more net was manufactured in France
than in England. At the time of the Peace of Amiens (1802) there were 2,000
frames in Lyons and Nîmes, while there were scarcely 1,200 in England; but
the superiority of the English net was incontestable, so, to protect the
national manufacture, Napoleon prohibited the importation. This of course
increased its demand; the net was in request in proportion as it was
prohibited. The best mart for Nottingham was the French market, so the
Nottingham net trade took every means to pass their produce into France.

{452}Hayne, one of the proprietors of the "barley-corn" net, had gone to
Paris to make arrangements for smuggling it over, when the war broke out,
and he was detained. Napoleon proposed that he should set up a machine in
France; but he preferred continuing his illicit trade, which he carried on
with great success until 1809, when his own agent informed against him, his
goods were seized and burned, and having in one seizure lost £60,000
(1,500,000 fr.), he was completely ruined, and fled to England.[1253]

The French manufacturers took out various patents for the improvement of
their "Mechlin" machines, and one was taken, in 1809, for making a crossed
net called "fond de glace"; but the same year Heathcoat producing the
bobbin net machine, the inventors could not sustain the competition.

Every attempt was made to get over bobbin net machines; but the export of
English machinery was punished by transportation, and the Nottingham
manufacturers established at their own expense a line of surveillance to
prevent the bobbin net machines from going out. In spite of all these
precautions, Cutts, an old workman of Heathcoat's, contrived to elude their
vigilance, and, in 1815, to import a machine to Valenciennes, whence he
removed it to Douai, where he entered into partnership with M. Thomassin.
In 1816 they produced the first bobbin net dress made in France. It was
embroidered by hand by a workwoman of Douai, and presented by the makers to
the Duchesse d'Angoulême. About the end of the year 1816 James Clark
introduced a machine into Calais, which he passed in pieces by means of
some French sailors. These two were the first bobbin net machines set up in
France.

It is not within our limits to follow the Calais lace manufacturers through
their progress; suffice it to say that it was in 1817 that the first bobbin
net machine worked, concealed from all eyes, at Saint-Pierre-lez-Calais,
now, if not the rival of Nottingham, at least the great {453}centre of the
bobbin net and machinery lace manufactures in France.[1254]

St. Quentin, Douai, Cambrai, Rouen, Caen, have all in turn been the seats
of the tulle manufacture. Some of these fabrics are extinct; the others
have a very limited trade compared with Saint-Pierre and Lyons.

At Lyons silk net is mostly made.[1255] Dating from 1791, various patents
have been taken out for its manufacture. These silk nets were embroidered
at Condrieu (Rhône), and were (the black especially for veils and mantles)
much esteemed, particularly in Spain.

In 1825 the "tulle bobine grenadine," black and white, was brought out by
M. Doguin, who afterwards used the fine silks, and invented that popular
material first called "zephyr," since "illusion." His son, in 1838, brought
out the "tulle Bruxelles."


BELGIUM.

In 1834[1256] eight bobbin net machines were set up in Brussels by Mr.
Washer, for the purpose of making the double and triple twisted net, upon
which the pillow flowers are sewn to produce the Brussels application lace.
Mr. Washer devoted himself exclusively to the making of the extra fine
mesh, training up workmen specially to this minute work. In a few years he
succeeded in excelling the English manufacture; and this net, universally
known as "Brussels net," has nearly superseded the expensive pillow ground,
and has thereby materially decreased the price of Brussels lace. It is made
of English cotton, stated, in the specimens exhibited in 1867, as costing
£44 per pound.


{454}MACHINERY LACE.

  "Qui sait si le métier à tulle ne sera pas un jour, en quelque sorte, un
  vrai coussin de dentellière, et les bobines de véritables fuseaux
  manoeuvrés par des mains mécaniques."--Aubry, in 1851.

If England boasts the invention of bobbin net, to France must be assigned
the application of the Jacquard system to the net-frame, and consequently
the invention of machinery lace. Shawls and large pieces in "run lace," as
it is termed, had previously been made after this manner at Nottingham and
Derby. The pattern proposed to be "run in" is printed by means of engraved
wood blocks on the ground, which, if white, is of cotton; if black, of
silk. The ground is stretched on a frame; the "lace-runner" places her left
hand under the net, and with the right works the pattern. The filling up of
the interior is termed either "fining" or "open-working," as the original
meshes of the net are brought to a smaller or larger size by the
needle.[1257]

In 1820 Symes, of Nottingham, invented a pattern which he called "Grecian"
net. This was followed by the "spot," or "point d'esprit," and various
other fancy nets--bullet-hole, tattings, and others.

The Jacquard system had been used at Lyons with the Mechlin frame in 1823-4
for making patterned net and embroidered blondes. This suggested the
possibility of applying the Jacquard cards to making lace, and in 1836 to
1838 Mr. Ferguson,[1258] by applying it to the circular bobbin net frame,
brought out the black silk net called "dentelle de Cambrai," an imitation
of Chantilly. The pattern was woven by the machine, the brodé or relief
"run in."

Various patents[1259] were immediately taken out in England and France.
Nottingham and Saint-Pierre-lez-Calais rival {455}each other in the variety
of their productions. At the International Exhibition of 1867 Nottingham
exhibited Spanish laces, most faithful copies of the costly pillow-made
Barcelona; imitations of Mechlin, the brodé and picot executed by hand;
Brussels needle-point; Caen blondes, and Valenciennes rivalling those of
Calais; also Cluny and the black laces of Chantilly and Mirecourt.

The French, by adopting what is technically termed eight "motives," produce
their lace of a finer make and more complex pattern. The Calais lace is an
admirable copy of the square-grounded Valenciennes, and is the staple trade
of the manufacture. Calais also produces blondes, black and white, silver
and gold, the white nearly approaching in brilliancy and whiteness the
famed productions of Caen, which, by their cheapness, they have expelled
from competition. She also imitates the woollen laces of Le Puy, together
with black and white laces innumerable.

"Broadly speaking, lace-making by machinery is more nearly like the pillow
lace-making process than that of needle-point. The machine continues to
twist any desired threads around one another. In pillow lace-making,
besides twisting, we have plaiting, and this plaiting has not been
reproduced by the majority of lace machines. Quite recently, however, a
French machine, called the 'Dentellière,' has been invented to do the
plaiting. A description of this machine has been published in _La Nature_
(March 3rd, 1881).

"Whilst the ordinary lace-making machine belongs to the family of weaving
machines, the Dentellière more nearly resembles the pillow of a lace-worker
with the threads arranged over the pillow. In general appearance it looks
something like a large semicircular frame-work of iron--with thousands of
threads from the outer semicircle converging to the centre, representing
the table or pillow. Over this central table is the apparatus which holds
the end threads side by side, and which regulates the plaiting of them. The
cost of producing lace in this manner is said to be greater at present than
by hand."[1260]

{456}Almost every description of lace is now fabricated by machinery;[1261]
and it is often no easy task, even for a practised eye, to detect the
difference. Still, we must ever be of opinion that the most finished
productions of the frame never possess the touch, the finish, or the beauty
of the laces made by hand. The invention of machine-made lace has this
peculiarity--it has not diminished the demand for the finer fabrics of the
pillow and the needle. On the contrary, the rich have sought more eagerly
than ever the exquisite works of Brussels and Alençon, since machinery has
brought the wearing of lace within the reach of all classes of society.

[Illustration: Fig. 163.

THE LAGETTA, OR LACE-BARK TREE.]

The inner bark of the Lagetta, or Lace-bark tree[1262] of Jamaica, may be
separated into thin layers, and then into distinct meshes, bearing some
resemblance to lace (Fig. 163). Of this material a cravat and ruffles were
presented to King Charles II. by the Governor of Jamaica; and at the
Exhibition of 1851 a dress of the same fibre was presented to Queen
Victoria, which her Majesty was graciously pleased to accept.

{457}Caterpillars have been made to spin lace veils by the ingenious
contrivance of a gentleman of Munich.[1263] These veils are not strong, but
surprisingly light--one, a yard square, would scarcely weigh five grains,
whilst a patent net veil of the same size weighs 262.

Asbestos has also been woven into lace: and a specimen of this mineral lace
is, we have been told, in the Cabinet of Natural History at the Garden of
Plants, Paris.

{459}APPENDIX.


  _The Notes marked with an * show that the works referred to have been
  examined by the Author._[1264]


  1.

  [Sidenote: 1527. _Cologne. P. Quentell._]

  Eyn new kunstlich boich, dair yn. C. vnd. xxxviij. figuren, monster ad'
  stalen befonden, wie man na der rechter art, Lauffer werck, Spansche
  stich, mit der nälen, vort vp der Ramen, vnd vp der laden, borden
  wirckenn sall, wilche stalen all etzo samen verbessert synt, vnd vyl
  kunstlicher gemacht, d[=a] dye eirsten, &c. Sere nutzlich allen wapen
  sticker, frauwen, ionfferen, vnd met ger, dair uns solch kunst lichtlich
  tzu leren.

  D Gedruckt tzu Collen vp dem Doemhoff dwrch Peter Quentell.

  Anno. M. D. XXXVJJ.[1265]

    Small 8vo, 22 ff., 42 plates.

    Title in Gothic letters; beneath, woodcuts representing women at work.
    On the back of the leaf, a large escutcheon, the three crowns of
    Cologne in chief; supporters, a lion and a griffin. Below, "O Foelix
    Colonia. 1527."

    The patterns consist of mediæval and arabesque borders, alphabets,
    etc., some on white, others on black grounds. Some with counted
    stitches.

    Quentell refers to a previous edition. Brunet and the Marquis d'Adda
    mention a copy, 1529, with the portrait of Charles V., and a second
    edition 1532.


  2.

  [Sidenote: 1527. _Cologne. P. Quinty._]

  Liure noveau et subtil touchant lart et sci[=e]ce tant de brouderie
  fronssures, tapisseries c[=o]me aultres mestiers qu[=o] fait alesguille,
  soit au petit mestier, aultelisse ou sur toille clere, tresvtile et
  necessaire a toutes, gens usans des mestiers et ars {460}dessuld, ou
  semblables, ou il y ha C. et. xxxviij patrons de diuers ouvraiges faich
  per art et proportion.

  En primere a culoge (Cologne) par matrepiere quinty demor[=a]t denpre
  leglie de iii roies.[1266]

    The same cut as the preceding, with the arms of Cologne, which seems to
    have been engraved for a great Bible printed by Quentell, in 1527, and
    is no guide for the date. Figs. 164, 165.

  [Illustration: Fig. 164.

  METRE P. QUINTY.--Cologne, 1527.]

  [Illustration: Fig. 165.

  METRE P. QUINTY.--Cologne, 1527.]


  3.

  [Sidenote: 1530. _Venice. A. Taglienti_]

  Opera nuova che insegna a le D[=o]ne a cuscire: a racc[=a]mare: e a
  disegnar a ciascuno: Et la ditta opera sara di grande utilita ad ogni
  artista: per esser il disegno ad ogniuno necessario: la qual e ititolata
  esempio di rac[=a]mi.[1267]

    4to, 23 ff., 36 plates.

    Title in red Gothic letters; beneath four woodcuts representing women
    at work. Two pages of dedication to the ladies, by Giovanni Antonio
    Taglienti, in which he says his book is for the instruction of each
    "valorosa donna & tutte altre donzelle, con gli huomini insieme &
    fanciulli, liquali si dilettarano de imparar a disegnar, cuscir, &
    raccammar."

    {461}Then follows a most miscellaneous collection of what he terms, in
    his dedication, "fregi, frisi, tondi maravigliosi, groppi moreschi et
    arabeschi, ucelli volanti, fiori, lettere antique, maiuscoli, & le
    francesche," etc., three pages very much like the pictures in a child's
    spelling book, rounds (tondi) for cushions, and two pages representing
    hearts and scrolls; hearts transfixed, one with an arrow, another with
    a sword, a third torn open by two hands, motto on the scroll:--

     "La virtù, al huomo sempre li resta
      Nè morte nol pò privar di questa."

    On the other page hearts transfixed by two arrows, with two eyes above:
    "Occhi piangete accompagnete il core. Inclita virtus." Then follow six
    pages of instructions, from which we learn the various stitches in
    which these wonderful patterns may be executed, "damaschino, rilevato,
    a filo, sopra punto, ingaseato, Ciprioto, croceato, pugliese, scritto,
    incroceato, in aere, fatto su la rate, a magliata, desfilato, & di
    racammo," to be sewn in various coloured silks, gold and silver thread,
    or black silk, for "collari di huomo & di donna, camisciole con
    pettorali, frisi di contorni di letti, entemelle di cuscini, frisi di
    alcun boccassino, & scufie," etc. On the last page, "Stampa in Vineggia
    per Giovan Antonio Tagliente & i Fratelli de Sabbio. 1530." Brunet
    gives an edition dated 1528.


  4.

  [Sidenote: 1530. _Paris F. Pelegrin._]

  La fleur de la science de pourtraicture et patrons de broderie. Facon
  arabicque, et ytalique. Cum priviligio regis.

    Frontispiece. Title in Gothic letters. A large figure of Sol (?), with
    a yoke, his feet chained, a ball, maybe the Earth, at the end of the
    chain. In one hand he holds a scroll with the legend, "Exitus acta
    probat." Privilege of "Francoys par la grace de Dieu roy de France," to
    "Francisque pelegrin de Florence," to publish "ung livre de fueillages,
    entrelatz et ouvraiges moresques, et Damasquins," for six years.
    "D[=o]ne a bordeaulx le xvii. jour de Juing. L'an de grace mil cinq
    cens tr[=e]te Et de nostre regne le seiziesme."

  Ce present livre a este imprime a paris par jaques nyverd. Le iv. jour
  daoust. Lan de grace mil cinq c[=e]s xxx. Pour noble h[=o]me messire
  Francisque Pelegrin de florence.

  On les vend a paris En la grant rue sainct Anthoyne devant les
  tournelles. Au logis de monseigneur le comte de Carpes. Par messire
  Fr[=a]cisque pelegrin de florence.[1268]

    Small fol., 62 ff., 58 plates, consisting of graceful moresque
    patterns, no animals or natural objects represented. At plate 33,
    surrounded by arabesques, is an N, the initial of the printer.


  5.

  [Sidenote: 1529. _Venice. N. Zoppino._]

  Esemplario di lavori: dove le tenere fanciulle & altre donne nobile
  potranno facilment imparare il modo & ordine di lavorare, cusire,
  racamare, & finalmente far tutte quelle gentillezze & lodevoli opere, le
  quali pò fare una donna virtuosa con laco in {462}mano, con li suoi
  compasse & misure.  Vinezia, per Nicolo D'Aristotile detto Zoppino
  MDXXIX. 8vo.[1269] 46 plates.

    The Cav^{re} Merli quotes another edition, date 1530, in the possession
    of the Avvocato Francesco Pianesani, and another he believes of 1529.


  6.

  [Sidenote: 1532. _Venice. N. Zoppino._]

  Convivio delle belle Donne, dove con li. Nuovi raccami, &c. In fine:
  Finisce il convivio delle, &c.  Nuovamente stampato in Vinegia, per
  Nicolo d'Aristotile, detto Zoppino del mese d'Agosto. MDXXXII.

    In 4to, ff. 24.[1270]


  7.

  [Sidenote: 1537. _Venice. N. Zoppino._]

  Gli universali de i belli Recami antichi, et moderni, ne i quali un
  pellegrino ingegno, si di huomo come di donna potra in questa nostra eta
  con l'ago vertuosamente esercitar si. Non ancora da alcuni dati altri
  inluce.

    Frontispiece, two ladies at work; dedication to "gli virtuosi Giovani
    et gentilissime Fanciulle." At the end styles himself "Nicolo
    d'Aristotile detto Zoppino." March, 1537.

    In 4to, ff. 25, printed on both sides.[1271]


  8.

  [Sidenote: 1534. _Augsburg. Schartzemberger._]

    Ain New Formbüchlin bin ich gnandt
    Allen Künstlern noch unbekandt
    Sih mich (lieber kauffer) recht an,
    Findst drefftlich in diser kunff stan
    Sch[=o]n gschnierlet, geböglet, auf gladt,
    Und gold, auch sch[=o]n von premen stadt,
    Es gibt dir ain prem unb ain kledyt.
    Wenn mans recht aussainander schneydt,
    Das kanst schneyden auss der Ellen,
    Von Samat, Seyden, wie manss wolle,
    Ich mag braucht wern in allem landt,
    Wen man mich ers[=u]cht mit verstandt.

  (At the end.)

  Gedruckt in der Kaiserlichen Riechstatt, Augspurg, durch Johan
  Schartzemberger. Fomschneyder. 1534.[1272]

    Small obl., 20 ff., 38 plates.

    Frontispiece. Title in black Gothic letters, at the foot three subjects
    of women at work, printed in red.

    The patterns, consisting of graceful arabesque borders, are also in red
    (Figs. 166, 167, 168).

  [Illustration: Fig. 166.

  PATTERN BOOK.--Augsburg, 1534.]

  [Illustration: Fig. 167.

  PATTERN BOOK.--Augsburg, 1534.]

  _To face page 462._

  {463}[Illustration: Fig. 168.

  AUGSBURG. 1534.]


  9.

  [Sidenote: _N. D. Antwerp. W. Vorsterman._]

  A neawe treatys: as c[=o]cernynge the excellency of the nedle worcke
  spânisshe stitche and weavynge in the frame, very necessary to al theym
  wiche desyre the perfect knowledge of seamstry, quiltinge and brodry
  worke, côteinynge an cxxxviij figures or tables, so playnli made & set
  tout in portrature, the whiche is difficyll; and natôly for crafts m[=e]
  but also for gentlewem[=e] & and iôge damosels that therein may obtayne
  greater conynge delyte and pleasure.

  These books be to sell at Andwarp in the golden Unycorne at Will[=m]
  Vorstermans.

  Gheprent tot Antwerpen in die camerstrate in den gulden eenhoren bey
  Willem Vorsterman.[1273]

    8vo, 24 ff., 46 plates.

    Title in Gothic letters, with figures.

    P. 1, dorso: Woodcut of a woman at work and a man sitting by her side.

    Patterns mediæval, small black squares, arabesques, etc.

    Vorsterman worked from 1514 to 1542.[1274]


  10.

  [Sidenote: 1542. _Venice._]

  Giardinetto novo di punti tagliati et gropposi, per exercitio et
  ornamento delle donne. Ven. 1542, in 4to.[1275]


  {464}11.

  [Sidenote: 1543. _Venice._]

  Esemplare che insegna alle donne el modo di cucire. Venetia, 1543.[1276]


  12.

  [Sidenote: 1544. _Venice._]

  Il Specchio di pensiere (_sic_), delle belle donne dove si vede varie
  sorti di punti, cioè, punti tagliati, gropposi, &c. Venetia, 1544.

    In 4to.[1277]


  13.

  [Sidenote: 1544. _Venice._]

  Ornamento delle belle donne et virtuose: Opere in cui troverai varie
  sorti di frisi con li quali si potra ornar ciascun donna. Ven.
  1544.[1278]


  14.

  [Sidenote: 1546. _Paris. Gormont._]

  Le livre de moresques, tres utile et necessaire à tous orfevres,
  tailleurs, graveurs, painctres, tapissiers, brodeurs, lingieres et femmes
  qui besongnent de l'aiguille. Paris. Gormont, 1546. Fig. en bois.[1279]


  15.

  [Sidenote: 1549. _Lyon. P. de Ste. Lucie._]

  La fleur des patrons de lingerie, a deux endroitz, a point croise, a
  point couche, et a point picque, en fil dor, fil darg[=e]t, & fil de
  soye, ou aultre en quelque ouvraige que ce soit, en comprenant lart de
  broderie et tissuterie. Imprimees a Lyon, en la maison de Pierre de
  saincte Lucie (dict le Prince, Pres nostre Dame de Confort).[1280]

  (At the end.)

  Imprimé à Lyon par Piarre de saincte Lucie, dict le Prince. 1549.

    8vo, 12 ff., 21 plates.

    Frontispiece. Title in Gothic letters, with woodcuts representing
    people at work. Below, two women sitting at frames; above, two others;
    and between, a man with a frame in his hand. On each side a shield, one
    with crowned heart, on the other a lion, three fleurs de lys in chief.
    Patterns mediæval. At the end, the device of the printer, a mountain,
    on the top of which is a city against which a youth is placing his
    hand: motto, "Spero." At the foot of the mountain a cavern in which is
    seated a Fury. This device is engraved No. 616 in Silvestre, who gives
    1530 to 1555 as the date of Pierre de Saincte Lucie.


  {465}16.

  [Sidenote: _N. D. Lyon. P. de Ste. Lucie._]

  Livre nouveau, dict patrons de lingerie, cest assavoir a deux endroitz, a
  point croise, point couche & point picque, en fil dor, dargent, de soye &
  autres, en quelque ouvrage que ce soit: comprenant lart de Broderie &
  Tissoterie. Imprimees a Lyon, chez Pierre de Saincte Lucie, pres nostre
  Dame de Confort.[1281]

    8vo, 24 ff., 44 plates.

    Frontispiece. Title in Gothic letters; the same shields as the
    preceding; two women at work. Patterns mediæval. At the end the same
    device.

    The copy of the Arsenal is a different impression. Instead of
    "Imprimees," &c, we have, "On les vend," etc.


  17.

  [Sidenote: _N. D. Lyon. P. de Ste. Lucia._]

    Patrons de diverses manieres
    Inventez tressubtilement
    Duysans a Brodeurs et Lingieres
    Et a ceusy lesquelz vrayement
    Veullent par bon entendement
    User Dantique, et Roboesque,
    Frize et Moderne proprement,
    En comprenant aussi Moresque.
    A tous massons, menuisiers, & verriers
    Feront prouffit ces pourtraictz largement
    Aux orpheures, et gentilz tapissiers
    A ieunes gens aussi semblablement
    Oublier point ne veuly auscunement
    C[=o]trepointiers & les tailleurs dymages
    Et tissotiers lesquelz pareillement
    Par ces patrons acquerront heritages.

  Imprimees a Lyon, par Pierre de Saincte Lucie, dict le Prince, pres
  nostre Dame de Confort.[1282]

    8vo, 16 ff., 31 plates. Title in Gothic letters. Patterns mediæval.

    The copy at the Arsenal is a later impression. "On les vend a Lyon, par
    Pierre de saincte Lucie, en la maison du deffunct Prince, pres," etc.
    It has only 12 ff., and 23 plates.


  18.

  [Sidenote: _N. D. Lyon. Le Prince._]

  Sensuyuent lis patrons de messire Antoine Belin, Reclus de sainct Martial
  de Lyon. Item plusieurs autres beaulx Patrons nouveaulx, qui out este
  inventez par Jeban Mayol Carme de Lyon.

  On les vend à Lyon, chez le Prince.[1283]

    {466}Small 8vo, 6 ff., 85 plates. Copy at the Arsenal has 12 ff.

    The same device of the printer in the frontispiece and at the end of
    the book. "Finis."

    One of the patterns represents St. Margaret holding the cross to a
    dragon, but in these four books the designs are copied from each other,
    and are many of them repetitions of Quinty.


  19.

  [Sidenote: _N. D. Lyon. D. Celle._]

    Ce livre est plaisant et utile
      A gens qui besongnent de leguille
    Pour comprendre legèrement
      Damoyselle bourgoyse ou fille
    Femmes qui out l'esperit agille
      Ne scauroint faillir nullement
    Corrige est nouvellement
      Dung ho[=n]este ho[=m]e par bon zelle
    Son nom est Dominicque Celle
      Qui a tous lecteurs shumylie
    Domicille a en Italie.
      En Thoulouse a prins sa naissance.
    Mise il a son intelligence
      A lamender subtillement
    Taillé il est totallement
      Par Jehan coste de rue merciere
    A Lyon et consequemment
      Quatre vingtz fassons a vrayement
    Tous de differente maniere.[1284]

    28 ff., 27 plates. Title in Gothic letters. Dedication to the Reader,
    in which it states the book is for the profit of "tant hommes que
    femmes." Patterns mediæval. At the end of the Preface, "Finis coronat
    opus."


  20.

  [Sidenote: _N. D. Venice. G. A. Vavassore._]

  Esemplario di lavori: che insegna alle d[=o]ne il modo e ordine di
  lavorare: cusire: e racámare: e finalm[=e]te far tutte [=q]lle opere
  degne di memoria: lequale po fare una donna virtuosa con laco in mano. Et
  uno documento che insegna al c[=o]pratore accio sia ben servito.[1285]

    In 8vo, 25 ff., printed on both sides, 48 plates. Title in red Gothic
    characters, framed round by six woodcuts similar to that of Vorsterman;
    at the foot, "fiorio Vavasore fecit."

    Then follows the "Documento per el compratore," and an Address to
    Ladies and Readers, by "Giovandrea Vavassore detto Guadagnino," saying
    that he had already "fatti alcuni libri di esempli di diverse sorte."

    There is no date to this copy; but in the library of Prince Messimo, at
    Rome, is a copy dated Venice, 18 Feb., 1546, containing 50 plates; and
    Brunet quotes an edition, "Stampato in Vinezia, 1556;" Cav. Merli also
    possesses an edition of the same date. Mr. E. Arnold has also a copy
    with the same date.

    The patterns are mediæval, on black grounds, with counted stitches, a
    large flower pot, mermaid, Paschal lamb, and a double plate
    representing Orpheus playing to the beasts.

  {467}21.

  [Sidenote: _N. D. Venice. G. A. Vavassore._]

  Essemplario novo di pin di cento variate mostre di qualunque orte
  bellissime per cusire intitolato Fontana di gli essempli.

    Oblong 8vo. No date. 16 ff., 28 plates.

    In the frontispiece is a fountain with the motto, "Solicitudo est mater
    divitiarum," and on each side of the fountain--

     "Donne donzelle ch            Per farvi eterne alla.
      El cusir seguite             Fonte venite."

    On the back of the frontispiece is the Dedication, headed, "Il
    Pelliciolo alla molta magnifica Madona Chiara Lipomana;" the page
    finished by a sonnet; in the last leaf, "Avviso alle virtuose donne et
    a qualunque lettore Giovanni Andrea Vavassore detto Guadagnino." Says
    he has "negli tempi passati fatto imprimere molto e varie sorte
    d'essemplari di mostre," etc. At the foot, "Nuovamente stampato."[1286]
    This work is also described by Count Cicognara with the same title,
    only with the date 1550. In the Bibliotheca Communitativa, Bologna, is
    a copy of the same date. In this last edition the author writes his
    name Valvassore.


  22.

  [Sidenote: _N. D. Venice. G. A. Vavassore._]

  Vavassore Gio. Andrea. Opera nova Universal intitulata corona di ricammi;
  Dove le venerande donne e fanciulle: trovera[=n]o di varie opere [per]
  fare colari di camisiola & torni[=a][=e]nti di letti [=e]ternelle di
  cuscini boccasini schufioni: cordlli di piu sorte; et molte opere per
  rec[=a]matori [per] dipitore poreuesi: (_sic_) de lequale opere o vero
  esempli ciascuno le potra pore in opera sec[=o]do el suo bisogno: con
  gratia novamente stampata ne la inclita citta di vineggia per Giovanni
  Andrea Vavassore detto Guadagni[=o]. 36 pp., sm. 4to.

    13 ff., 52 designs, none of which are repetitions of the
    preceding.[1287]


  23.

  [Sidenote: _N. D. Venice. G. A. Vavassore._]

  Vavassore Gio. Andrea detto Guadagnino. Opera nova, etc. ... dove le
  venerande donne et fanciulle trovaranno di varie opere et molte opere per
  recamatori et per dipintori; etc. Nuovamente stampata, etc.[1288]

    Quite a different collection from the preceding. A little of everything
    in this volume.

    Zoan Andrea Vavassore was the pupil in drawing and engraving of Andrea
    Mantegna. Towards the beginning of the sixteenth century, he worked on
    his own account, and his engravings are much sought after. So greedy
    was he of gain as to obtain for him the name of Guadigno, in Venetian
    patois, "covetous." He lived to a great age.


  {468}24.

  [Sidenote: _N. D. A. Paganino._]

  Libro questo di rechami per el quale se impara in diversi modi l'ordine e
  il modo de recamare, cosa non mai più fatta n' è stata mostrata.

  By Alessandro Paganino.[1289]

    20 plates, with a long explanation how these works are done.
    (Communicated by Prince Massimo.)


  25.

  [Sidenote: _N. D. Paris Vve. Ruelle._]

  Patrons pour Brodeurs, Lingieres, Massons, Verriers, et autres gens
  d'esprit. A Paris. Pour la Veuve Jean Ruelle, rue S. Jacques, à
  l'enseigne Sainct Nicolas.[1290]

    4to, 23 ff., 32 plates of mediæval designs. Ornamented title-page.


  26.

  [Sidenote: 1548. _Venice. M. Pagan._]

  Il specchio di pensieri delle belle et virtudiose donne, dove si vede
  varie sorti di Punti, cioè punti tagliati, punti gropposi, punti in rede,
  et punti in Stuora.  MDXLVIII.  Stamp. in Venetia, per Mathio Pagan in
  frezzaria, in le case nove Tien per insegna la fede.[1291]

    16 ff.


  27.

  [Sidenote: 1551. _Venice. M. Pagan._]

  1. L'honesto Essempio del vertuoso desiderio che hanno le donne di nobile
  ingegno circa lo imparare i punti tagliati e fogliami. In Venetia per
  Mathio Pagan in Frezaria al segno della Fedo, M.D.L.[1292]

    In the V. and A. Museum is a copy dated 1550.


  28.

  [Sidenote: 1551. _Venice. M. Pagan._]

  Giardineto novo di Punti tagliati et gropposi, per esurcitio et ornamento
  delle donne. At the end, Venetia, Mathio Pagan in Frezzaria, in le case
  nove (tien per insegna della Fede) MDLI. Dedication, Alla signora
  Lucretia, Romana Mathio Pagan, salute.[1293] See also No. 38.


  29.

  [Sidenote: 1554. _Dubois._]

  Variarum protractionum quas vulgo Maurusias vocant omnium antehac
  excusarum libellus longe copiasissimus pictoribus, aurifabris,
  polymilariis, barbaricariis variisque id genus {469}artificibus etiam acu
  operantibus utilissimus nuncque primen in lucem editus anno 1554.
  Balthazar Sylvius (Dubois) fecit.

  Jo. Theodoret, Jo. Israel de Bry excud.[1294]

    In 4to, ff. 23, copperplate.


  30.

  [Sidenote: 1555. _Padua. Fra Hieronimo._]

  Triompho di Lavori a Fogliami de i quali si puo far ponti in aere; opera
  d' Fra Hieronimo da Cividal di Frioli, de l'Ordine de i Servi di
  Osservantia. Cum gratia et privileggio per anni xi.[1295]

    Obl. 4to, 14 ff., 22 pl.

    Ornamental title-page. On the top, a female seated in a triumphal car
    drawn by unicorns, with attendants. On each side of the title are women
    teaching children to work.

    P. 1, dorso. Dedication of the author, "Alla Magnifica & Illustre
    Signora Isabella Contessa Canossa," whose "Immortal Triompho" is
    represented in the above woodcut. Fra Hieronimo speaks of preparing
    "più alte e divine imprese."

    Then follow three pages of verses in terzette, and p. 3, dorso, the
    impresa of the printer, a lion rampant, holding a sword in his fore
    paws. Below, "In Padou per Jacobo Fabriano, ad instantia de Fra
    Hieronimo da Cividal di Frioli: de l'Ordine de i Servi di Osservantia
    1555."


  31.

  [Sidenote: 1556. _Venice. Torello._]

  Lucidario di ricami di Guiseppe Torello. Venezia, 1556.

    In 4to.


  32.

  [Sidenote: 1556. _Strasburg. H. Hoffman._]

  New Modelbüch, allen Nägerin, unnd Sydenstickern sehr nutzlich zü
  branchë, vor nye in Druck aussgangen durch Hans Hoffman, Burger und
  formschneider zu Strassburg.  At the end, Zu Strassburg Gedruckt am
  Kommarckt durch Jacob Frölich. 1556. 4to.[1296]

    4to. A to G in fours. (28 leaves.)

    Title printed in red and black. On it a woodcut of two women, one
    engaged in embroidery, the other fringing her some stuff. The last leaf
    (Giiii.) has on the recto a woodcut of a woman at a frame, the verso
    blank.


  33.

  [Sidenote: _N. D. Zurich. C. Froschover._]

  Nüw Modelbüch, allerley gattungen Däntelschnür, so diser zyt in hoch
  Tütschlanden geng und brüchig sind, zu underricht jren Leertöchteren unnd
  allen anderen schurwirckeren zu Zurych {470}und wo die sind, yetz nüwlich
  zübereit, und erstmals in truch verfergket durch R. M.[1297]

    No place or date, but as appears, both from the title and preface, to
    be printed at Zurich, by Christopher Froschover. The date probably from
    1530 to 1540.

    4to. Signatures A to F in fours. 24 leaves. On the title a woodcut of
    two women working at lace pillows.


  34.

  [Sidenote: _N. D. Frankfort._]

  Modelbüch Welscher, Ober und Niderlandischer Arbait. Getruckt zü
  Franckfort.

    No date, but probably at least as early as 1530. 4to. Signatures A to D
    in fours. 20 leaves.

    Title enclosed in an elegant woodcut border.


  35.

  [Sidenote: 1537. _Frankfort. C. Egenolffs._]

  Modelbüch, von erhabener unnd flacher Arbait, Auff der Ramen, Laden, und
  nach der Zale.

  Getruckt zu Franckfort, Bei Christian Egenolffs, Erben.

    The date, 1537, occurs on one of the patterns. 4to. AA to HH in fours.
    32 leaves. Title in a woodcut border. 178 patterns.


  36.

  [Sidenote: 1571. _Frankfort on the Mayn. N. Baseus._]

  New Modelbüch.

  Von allerhandt Art, Nehens und Stickens, jetzt mit viellerley Welscher
  Arbeyt, Mödel und Stahlen, allen Steinmetzen, Seidenstickern und Neterin,
  sehr nützlich und kunstlich, von newem zugericht.

    Getruckt zu Frankfurt am Mayn, 1571.

    Device and motto of Nicolas Baseus on title-page. Sm. 4to. (Library V.
    and A. Museum.)


  37.

  [Sidenote: 1568. _Frankfort on the Mayn. N. Baseus._]

  Das new Modelbüch, &c.

    Franckfurt am Mayn, 1568, 4to. Printer, Nicholas Baseus, ff. 40.


  38.

  [Sidenote: 1569. _Frankfort on the Mayn._]

  Modelbüch; Zweiter Theil: Franckfurt am Mayn, 1569.

    4to, ff. 44. Nos. 36 and 37 are cited by the Marquis d'Adda.


  {471}39.

  [Sidenote: 1558. _Venice. M. Pagan._]

  La Gloria et l'honore de ponti tagliati et ponti in aere Venezia per
  Mathio Pagan in Frezzeria al segno della Fede. 1558.[1298]

    16 plates. Dedicated to Vittoria Farnese, Duchess of Urbino.


  40.

  [Sidenote: _N. D. Venice._]

  Il Monte. Opera nova di recami intitolata il monte, nella quale si
  ritrova varie, & diverse sorti di mostre, di punti in aiere, à fogliami.
  Dove le belle & virtuose Donne protranno fare ogni sorte di lavoro,
  accommodate alle vera forma misura & grandezza, che debbono essere ne mai
  piu per l'adietro da alcuno vedute. Opera non men bella che utile, &
  necessaria.[1299]

    Below, the impresa of the printer, an eagle with its young; motto,
    "Virtute parta sibi non tantum." In Venetia.

    4to, 16 ff., 29 plates of bold scroll borders.


  41.

  [Sidenote: 1559. _Venice. G. A. Bindoni._]

  Il Monte (libro secondo) Opera dove ogni bella donna potrà fare ogni
  sorte di lavori cioè colari, fazzoletti, maneghetti, avertadure
  (berthes), &c., in Venetia, 1560.[1300]

    Printer's mark and motto as No. 39: afterwards the dedication dated
    1559, "à Vittoria da Cordova Gio. Ant. Bindoni," in which he states "Ho
    preso arditamente di presentarvi questo secondo Monte." 4to. ff. 16.


  42.

  [Sidenote: 1558. _Venice._]

  Bellezze de recami et dessegni opera novo non men bella che utile, e
  necessaria et non più veduta in luce. Venezia, 1558.[1301]

    Ob. 4to. 20 plates of patterns.


  43.

  [Sidenote: 1558. _Venice. I. Foresto._]

  Lo Splendore delle virtuose giovani con varie mostre di fogliami e punti
  in aere. Venezia. Per Iseppo Foresto in calle dell'acqua a S. Zulian all'
  insegno del Pellegrino, 1558.[1302]

    16 plates.


  {472}44.

  [Sidenote: 1559. _Venice._]

  Trionfo di Virtù Libro novo da cucir, con fogliami, ponti a fili, ponti
  cruciati, &c.  Venezia, 1559.[1303]

    16 plates.


  45.

  [Sidenote: _N. D._]

  Burato.

    Consisting of four leaves, with patterns of canvas (tela chiara), in
    squares, for works in "punta" of various widths, with instructions how
    to increase or diminish the patterns. See CUTWORK.

    On the back of the last page is printed in large characters, "P. Alex.
    Pag. (Paganinus). Benacensis F. Bena. V. V."[1304]


  46.

  [Sidenote: _N. D._]

  Burato ... con nova maestria, gratiose donne, novo artificio vi apporto.

    A second edition without date. 4to, ff. 59; frontispiece, ladies at
    work, verso, Triumph of Fame. Four books of designs of great elegance
    and taste. The Marquis d'Adda assigns them to Vavassore.


  47.

  [Sidenote: _N. D. A. Passerotti._]

  Passerotti Aurelio Pittore Bolognese dissegnatore e miniatore figlio di
  Bartolommeo Passerotti circa al 1560. Libro Primo di lavorieri alle molto
  illustre et virtuosissime gentildonne Bolognesi. Libro secondo alle molto
  magnifici et virtuosissimi signori.[1305]

    In fol. obl.

    67 ff., including two dedications and a frontispiece. Designs for
    embroidery, etc., drawn with a pen. In the title-page of the first book
    is the device of a sunflower, "Non san questi occhi volgere altrove."


  48.

  [Sidenote: 1557. _Venice._]

  Le Pompe.  Opera nova di recami dove trovansi varie mostre di punto in
  aere.  Venezia, 1557.[1306]

    Probably an earlier impression of the following. 4to, ff. 16.


  49.

  [Sidenote: 1559.]

  Le Pompe, opera nova nella quale si ritrovano varie, & diverse sorti di
  mostre, per poter far Cordelle over Bindelle, d' Oro, di Seta, di Filo,
  overo di altra cosa di Dove le belle et virtuose donne potranno fare ogni
  sorte di lavoro, cioè merli di diverse sorte, Cavezzi, Colari,
  Maneghetti, & tutte quelle cose {473}che le piaceranno. Opera non men
  bella, che utile, & necessaria. E non più veduta in luce. 1559.[1307]

    Below, the same impresa of the eagle, as in "Il Monte," Nos. 39 and 40.

    8vo, 16 ff., 30 plates.

    A great variety of borders and indented patterns (merli). (Fig. 169.)

    "Si vendeno alla Libraria della Gatta."

    [Illustration: Fig. 169.

    LE POMPE, 1559.]

    In the Cat. d'Estrées is noted, "Le Pompe, Opera nella quale si
    retrovano diverse sorti di mostse per poter far cordelle, Bindelle,
    d'oro di seta, di filo. 1559, fig." Probably the same work.


  50.

  [Sidenote: 1560. _Venice._]

  Le Pompe, Libro secondo. Opera nuova nella quale si ritrovana varie e
  diverse sorti di Mostre, per poter fare Cordelle, ovver Bindelle, d'Oro,
  di Seta, di Filo, ovvero di altra cosa. Dove {474}le belle & virtuose
  Donne potranno far ogni sorte di lavoro, coèi Merli di diverse sorte,
  Cavezzi, Colari, Maneghetti & tutte quelle cose che li piaceno. Opera hon
  men bello che utile & necessaria e non più veduta in luce.

    Impresa of the printer, "Pegasus," and below, In "Venetia 1560."

    Obl. 8vo, 16 ff., 29 plates.[1308]

    Mrs. Stisted's copy is dated 1562, and there is one at Vienna, in the
    Imperial Library, of the same date.


  51.

  [Sidenote: 1563. _Venice. J. Calepino._]

  Splendore delle virtuose giovani dove si contengono molte, & varie mostre
  a fogliami cio è punti in aere, et punti tagliati, bellissimi, & con tale
  arteficio, che li punti tagliati serveno alli punti in aere. Et da quella
  ch' è sopragasi far si possono, medesimamente molte altre.

  In Venetia Appresso Jeronimo Calepino, 1563.[1309]

    8vo, 20 ff., 35 plates of scroll patterns in the style of "Il Monte."

    Dedication "Alla molto honorata M. Anzola ingegniera succera mia
    digniss."  Francesco Calepino, wishing, he says, to "ristampare la
    presente opera," he dedicates it to her. In Bib. Melzi, Milan, a copy
    dated 1567.


  52.

  [Sidenote: 1563. _Venice. J. Calepino._]

  Lucidario di recami, nel qual si contengono molte, & varie sorti di
  disegni. A punti in aere et punti tagliati, & a fogliami, & con figure &
  di più altre maniere, come al presente si usano non più venute in luce
  Per lequali ogni elevato ingegno potrà in diversi modi commodissimamente
  servirsi. In Venetia, Appresso Ieronimo Calepino, 1563.[1310]

    8vo, 16 ff., 29 plates of flowing borders like the preceding.


  53.

  [Sidenote: 1564. _Venice._]

  I Frutti opera nuova intitulata i frutti de i punti in stuora, a
  fogliami, nella quale si ritrova varie, et diverse sorti di mostre di
  ponti in Stuora, a fogliami, & punti in gasii & in punti in
  Trezola.[1311] Dove ogni bella et virtuosa donna potrà fare ogni sorte di
  lavoro, cioè fazoletti, colari, maneghetti, Merli, Frisi, Cavezzi,
  Intimelle, overo forelle, avertadure da camise, & altre sorti di lavori,
  come piu a pieno potrai vedere, ne mei per l' adietro d' alcun altro
  fatte & poste in luce.

  {475}Opera non men bella, che utile et necessaria a ciascuna virtuosa
  gentildonna. In Vinegia, 1564.[1312]

    Obl. 8vo, 16 ff., 30 plates of patterns either in dots or small
    squares.


  54.

  [Sidenote: 1564. _Paris._]

  Patrons pour brodeurs, lingières, massons, verriers, et autres gens
  d'esperit; nouvellement imprimé, à Paris, rue Saint-Jacques, à la
  Queue-de Regnard M.DLXIIII.[1313]


  55.

  [Sidenote: 1564. _Venice. D. de Franceschi._]

  Fede (Opere nova) intitulata: Dei Recami nella quale si contiene varie
  diverse sorte di mostre di punti scritto, tagliato, in Stuora, in Rede,
  &c. In Venetia, appresso Domenico de Franceschi in Frezzaria, all'
  insegna della Regina. M.DLVIII.

    In 4to, ff. 16. In his _Avis au Lecteur_, Franceschi alludes to three
    other works he had published, styled _La Regina_, _La Serena_, and _La
    Speranza_.


  56.

  [Sidenote: 1564. _Venice. D. de Franceschi._]

  Serena opera nova di recami, nella quale si ritrova varie et diverse
  sorte di punti in stuora et punti a filo. In Venetia, Domenico di
  Franceschi. 1564.

    Obl. 4to, ff. 16. Nos. 55 and 56 cited by Marquis d'Adda.


  57.

  [Sidenote: 1581. _Lyon. J. Ostans._]

  Le trésor des patrons, contenant diverses sortes de broderies et
  lingeries; pour coudre avec grande facilité et pour ouvrer en diverses
  sortes de piquer avec l'ésguille, pulveriser par dessus et faire ouvrages
  de toutes sortes de points &ct par Jean Ostans. Lyon, Ben. Rigaud. 1581,
  in 4-to.[1314]


  58.

  [Sidenote: 1567. _Venice. J. Ostans._]

  Ostans Giovanni. La vera perfettione del disegno di varie sorti di
  Recami, et di cucire, &c. ... punti a fogliami punti tagliati punti a
  fili et rimessi punti in cruciati, punti a stuora, et ogni altra arte che
  dia opera a disegni. Fatta nuovamente per Gio. Ostans. Vittoria, con
  gratia et privilegio dell' Illus. {476}Senato Venetiano per anni.[1315]
  In Venetia appresso Gio. Ostans, 1567.

    4to obl., 4 cahiers of 8 ff., 74 plates. Letter of Ostans to Lucretia
    Contarini; verso, an engraving of Lucretia Romana, surrounded by her
    women, signed Jose. Sal. (Joseph Salviati), who furnished the design,
    two sonnets, and Aves. A striking example of the borrowing between
    France and Italy in the sixteenth century, probably of the school of
    Fontainebleau. Grotesques like A. du Cerceau, scrolls after E. de
    Laulne, fresco of figures from G. Tory. Brunet describes a copy dated
    1591.


  59.

  [Sidenote: 1584. _Venice. Valvassore's heirs._]

  Ostans.  La vera perfettione del desegno &ct. Venetia M.DLXXXIIII.,
  presso gli heredi Valvassori e Gio. Dom. Micheli al segno dell'
  Ippogrifo.

    In 4to obl. (Cited by Marquis d'Adda.)


  60.

  [Sidenote: 1582. _B. Tabin._]

  Neues Künstlicher, Modelbuch von allerhand artlichen und gerechten
  Mödeln, &c., bei B. Tabin.[1316]


  61.

  [Sidenote: _Paris._ 1584. _D. de Sera._]

  Le livre de Lingerie, composé par Maistre Dominique de Sera, Italien,
  enseignant le noble & gentil art de l'esguille, pour besongner en tous
  points: utile & profitable à toutes Dames & Damoyselles, pour passer le
  temps, & euiter oysiveté.

  Nouvellement augmenté, & enrichi, de plusieurs excelents & divers
  patrons, tant du point coupé, raiseau, que passement, de l'invention de
  M. Jean Cousin, Peintre à Paris.

  A Paris. Chez Hierosme de Marnef, & la veufve de Guillaume Cauellat, au
  mont S. Hilaire à l'enseigne du Pelican. 1584. Avec privilege du
  Roy.[1317]

    In the Cat. d'Estrées; No. 8848, is _Livre de Pourtraicture de Jean
    Cousin_. Paris, 1637, in 4 fig.

    4to, 28 ff., 51 plates of mediæval design.

    Frontispiece, three women and a child at work, on each side of the
    title a man and a woman at work under a trifoliated canopy.

    Privilege for three years to H. de Marnef, "juré libraire en
    l'Université de Paris."

    "L'auteur aux lecteurs." He takes his pen to portray what he has seen
    "en Italie, Espagne, Romanie, Allemagne, & autre païs, dont je ne fais
    aucune mention à cause de trop longue plexite," that he gives at
    {477}least eighty designs for the use and singular profit of many,
    "hommes tant que femmes." Below, "Finis coronat opus."

    Then follows a "Balade" of 28 lines. On the last page, the impresa of
    Cavellat, a pelican in its piety, "Mors in me vita in me."


  62.

  [Sidenote: 1596. _G. Frano._]

  Frano Gio. Libro delle mostre da ceuser per le donne.

    16 engravings on wood and 8 on copper. (Cited by Marquis d'Adda.)


  63.

  [Sidenote: _Bologna. A. Parisini._]

  Danieli Bartholomeo Recamatore libro di diversi disegni per Collari,
  punti per Fazzoletti et Reticelle divarie sorte. Agostino Parisini forma
  in Bologna.

    15 leaves obl. 8vo, entirely engraved au burin, towards the end of the
    sixteenth century.[1318]


  64.

  [Sidenote: _N. D._]

  Ornamento delle belle et virtuose donne opera nova nella quale troverrai
  varie sorti di frisi, con li quali si potra ornar ciascuna donna, & ogni
  letti con ponti tagliato, ponti gropposi, & ogni altra sorte di ponti per
  fare quelle belle opere che si appartengono alle virtuose & lodevoli
  fanciulle.

    On a scutcheon, with 3 figures below, "Libro Primo." Lib. Victoria and
    Albert Museum.


  65.

  [Sidenote: 1587. _Paris. 1st Edit. 1st Part. F. Vinciolo._]

  Les singuliers et nouveaux pourtraicts et ouvrages de Lingerie. Servans
  de patrons à faire toutes sortes de poincts, couppé, Lacis & autres.
  Dedie a la Royne. Nouvellement inventez, au proffit & c[=o]tentement, des
  nobles Dames & Damoiselles & autres gentils esprits, amateurs d'un tel
  art. Par le Seigneur Federic (_sic_) de Vinciolo Venitien. A Paris. Par
  Iean le Clerc le ieune, ruë Chartiere, au Chef Sainct Denis. 1587. Avec
  privilege du Roy.[1319]

  [Sidenote: _2nd Part._]

  Les singuliers et nouveaux pourtraicts et ouvrages de Lingerie ou est
  representé les sept planettes, & plusieurs autres figures & pourtraitz
  servans de patrons à faire de plusieurs sortes de Lacis. Nouvellement
  inventez, au proffit & c[=o]tentement des nobles Dames & Damoiselles &
  autres gentils esprits, amateurs d'un tel art. Par le Seigneur Federic de
  Vinciolo Venitien. A Paris. Par Iean le Clerc le ieune, ruë Chartiere, au
  Chef Sainct Denis. 1587. Avec privilege du Roi.

    (At the end.)

    Privilege for nine years to "Iean le Clerc le ieune, 'tailleur
    d'histoires,' à Paris," signed 27 June, 1587. "De l'Imprimerie de David
    le Clerc Rue Frementel à l'Estoille d'Or."

    {478}4to.

    The first part consists of 40 ff., 36 of patterns and 4 preliminary
    pages.

    P. 1. The title-page with decorated border, in which are two ladies at
    work. (See Title-page of this work.)

    P. 2. Dedication of "Le Seigneur Federic de Vinciolo aux Benevolles
    Lecteurs," in which he sets forth that several authors before him
    having published certain patterns for work that "les Seigneurs, Dames,
    & Damoyselles ont eu pour agréable," he, to show "la bonne volonté que
    je porte à la France, laquelle m'ayant été douce et favorable, depuis
    certain temps que j'ay quitté Venize, païs de ma nativité," wish to
    portray the present "pourtraicts d'ouvrages magnifiques tous
    differ[=e]s, & non encor usitez en cette c[=o]tree ni aultres, & que
    j'ay tenus cachés & inc[=o]gnus jusques à maintenant," feeling assured
    that if the first you had seen "on engendré quelque fruit & utilité,
    ceux cy en aporteront d'avantage," and if I see this my invention
    pleases you, I will "vous faire participer d'un aultre seconde bande
    d'ouvrages."

    P. 3. Dedication "A la Royne," Louise de Vaudemont, by Le Clerc, saying
    that having received from Italy some rare and singular patterns, and
    "ouvrages de l'ingerie & en ay[=a]t inv[=e]te quelques uns, selon mon
    petit sçavoir, j'ay pensé puis que ces choses là appartienent
    principallement aux Dames," that he cannot do better than present them
    to the Queen, as if these patterns are useful (as he hears some less
    perfect and more rudely sketched have served and profited before), they
    ought to be offered to her Majesty. Signed last day of May, 1587.

    P. 4. A sonnet.

                   AUX DAMES ET DAMOISELLES.

     "L'un sefforce à gaigner le coeur des gr[=a]ds seigneurs
      Pour posséder enfin une exquise richesse,
      L'autre aspire aux Estats pour monter en altesse,
      Et l'autre par la guerre alléche les honneurs.

      Quand à moy, seulement pour chasser mes langueurs,
      Je me sen satisfait de vivre en petitesse,
      Et de faire si bien, qu'aux dames je délaisse
      Un grand contentement en mes graves labeurs.

      Prenez doncques en gré (mes Dames), je vous prie,
      Ces pourtrais ouvragez lesquelz je vous dédie,
      Pour tromper vos ennuis, et l'esprit employer.
      En ceste nouveauté, pourrés beaucoup apprendre,
      Et maistresses en fin en cest oeuvre vous rendre.
      Le travail est plaisant. Si grand est le loyer."

                "_Morir assidouamente per virtu,_
                      _Non morirè._"

    Then follow the 36 patterns set off in white on a black ground, viz.,
    20 "Ouvrages de point Couppé," the first plate with the double [Greek:
    ll], according to the fashion introduced by Francis I. of using Greek
    monograms, standing for Queen Louise. On the second page are two
    escutcheons, one of France, the other with the letter H for Henry III.
    Then follow eight "Passemens de point Couppé," which are succeeded by
    eight more "Ouvrages de point Couppé."

    Part 2, 24 ff. Same decorated frontispiece and 22 plates of subjects in
    squares for stitches like the German patterns of the present day. These
    consist of the Seven Planets, Sol, Luna, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus
    and Saturn. Four in squares of various designs; two of Amorini shooting
    stags and birds; Neptune and the winds; an arabesque with impresa of a
    column with circle and double triangle; five borders and squares, and
    {479}two "bordures à carreaux," diamond-shaped meshes. The last page
    contains the Extract from the Privilege.

    This is the original edition of Vinciolo, of which we know but one copy
    existing--that in the Library at Rouen.

    It was followed the same year by two other editions, with
    alterations.[1320]


  66.

  [Sidenote: 1587. _2nd Ed. 1st Part. F. Vinciolo._]

  Les singuliers et nouveaux pourtraicts pour les ouvrages de Lingerie.
  Nouvellement augmentez de plusieurs differens pourtraits servans de
  patrons à faire toutes sortes poincts couppé, Lacis, et autres reseau de
  poinct conté. Dedié à la Royne. Le tout inventé, au proffit &
  contentement des nobles Dames & Damoiselles & autres gentils esprits,
  amateurs d'un tel art. Par le Seigneur Federic de Vinciolo Venitien. A.
  Paris. Par Iean le Clerc le ieune, ruë Chartiere, au Chef Sainct Denis,
  pres le college de Coqueret. Avec privilege du Roy. 1587.

  [Sidenote: _2nd part._]

  Les singuliers et nouveaux pourtraicts pour les ouvrages de Lingerie ou
  avons augm[=e]té plusieurs nouveaux & differens portraitz de reseau, tout
  point conté, plusieurs nouvelles bordures et autres sortes differentes.

  Nouvellement inventez au proffit & c[=o]tentement des nobles Dames &
  Damoiselles & autres gentils esprits amateurs d'un tel art. Par le
  Seigneur Federick de Vinciolo Venitien. A Paris. Par Iean le Clerc le
  ieune, Ruë Chartiere, au Chef Sainct Denis, pres le college de Coqueret.
  Avec privilege du Roy. 1587.[1321]

    1st Part, 40 ff. The same frontispiece, dedications, date, and sonnet,
    as the first, the same number of patterns, only the eight styled in the
    first "Passemens" are here all called, like the others, "Ouvrages" de
    point couppé. (See Fig. 4.)

    2nd Part, 32 ff. This part has 30 patterns, comprising the 24 of the
    first edition, and six additional ones, consisting of squares and two
    hunting subjects.


  67.

  [Sidenote: 1587. _3rd Edit. No. 1. Parts 1 and 2._]

  Les singuliers et nouveaux Pourtraicts, du Seigneur Federic de Vinciolo
  Venitien, pour toutes sortes d'ouvrages de Lingerie. Dedie a la Royne.
  Derechef et pour la troisieme fois augmentez Outre le reseau premier et
  le point couppé et lacis, de plusieurs beaux et differens portrais de
  reseau de point c[=o]té avec le nombre des mailles, choze non encor veue
  ni inventée. {480}A Paris. Par Iean le Clerc le ieune, ruë Chartiere, au
  Chef Sainct Denis, pres le College de Coqueret. Avec privilege du Roy.
  1587.[1322]

    This must be the first impression of the third edition.

  [Sidenote: 1588. _3rd Edit. No. 2. 1st Part._]

  Les singuliers et nouveaux pourtraicts, du Seigneur Federic de Vinciolo
  Venitien, pour toutes sortes d'ouvrages de Lingerie. Dedié a la Royne.
  Derechef et pour la troisiesme fois augmentez, outre le reseau premier &
  le point couppé & lacis, de plusieurs beaux et differens portrais de
  reseau de point c[=o]té, avec le nombre des mailles, chose non encor
  veuë, ny inventée. A Paris. Par Iean le Clerc le ieune, au mont Saint
  Hilaire, du Chef Sainct Denis, pres le Clos Bruneau. Avec privilege du
  Roy. 1588.[1323]


  68.

  [Sidenote: _2nd Part._]

  Les singuliers et nouveaux pourtraicts, du Seigneur Federic de Vinciolo
  Venitien, pour toutes sortes d'ouvrages de Lingerie. Dedié a la Royne.
  Derechef et pour la troisiesme fois augmentez, outre le reseau premier &
  le point couppé & lacis, de plusieurs beaux et differens portrais de
  reseau de point c[=o]té, avec le nombre des mailles, chose non encor
  veuë, ny inventée. A Paris. Par Iean le Clerc le ieune, au mont Saint
  Hilaire, au Chef Sainct Denis, pres le Clos Bruneau. Avec privilege du
  Roy. 1588.[1324]

    This must be subsequent to the Brussels impression, as Jean le Clerc
    has changed his address.

    In the third edition, dorso of pp. 1 and 2, we have the addition of
    portraits of Louise de Vaudemont and Henry III., with a complimentary
    stanza of four lines under each.

    In his Advertisement au lecteur, Vinciolo says that having promised,
    since the first impression of his book, to give a "nouvelle bande
    d'ouvrages," and not to disappoint certain ladies who have complained
    that he has not made "du reseau assez beau à leur fantaisie," I have
    wished for the third time to place before their eyes many new and
    different patterns of "reseau de point conté que j'ay cousus et
    attachez à la fin de mes premières figures," beneath which I have put
    the number and quantity of the stitches. Same dedication and sonnet as
    before. Privilege for nine years dated Paris, 25 May, 1587. "De
    l'Imprimerie de David le Clerc, ruë S. Jacques, au petit Bec, devant le
    College de Marmouttier."

    1st Part, 40 ff., 36 plates, 27 of point couppé, two stomachers, and
    seven "Passemens" de point couppé; the same lettered "Ouvrages" as in
    the preceding impression.

    2nd Part, 36 ff., 50 plates. The thirty already published in the second
    edition, after which follow the twenty additional of "reseau de point
    conté," announced in the Preface, consisting of "6 Quarrés, 2 Coins de
    {481}Mouchoir, 2 Bordures, 6 animals: Lion, Pelican, Unicorn, Stag,
    Peacock, and Griffon"; and the Four Seasons. "Déesse des fleurs,
    representant le Printemps," etc.

    These last twenty have the number of stitches given. (See Fig. 5.)

    On the last page is an escutcheon with the arms of France and Poland.


  69.

  [Sidenote: 1588. _3rd Edit. No. 3. Parts 1 and 2._]

    A later impression still.

    Same title, date, portraits, dedication, and sonnet, only the Privilege
    is dated "ce douzième jour de Novembre 1587. De l'Imprimerie de David
    le Clerc, Rue S. Jaques, aux trois Mores."[1325]

    34 ff. 30 plates, 1st part; 50 plates in 2nd.


  70.

  [Sidenote: 1595. _3rd Edit. No. 4. Parts 1 and 2._]

  Les singuliers et nouveaux pourtraicts, du Seigneur Frederic de Vinciolo,
  Venitien, pour toutes sortes d'ouvrages de Lingerie. Dedie à la Royne
  Douairière de France.

  De Rechef et pour la troisiesme fois augmentez, outre le reseau premier &
  le point couppé & lacis, de plusieurs beaux & differens portrais de
  reseau de point c[=o]té, avec le nombre des mailles, chose non encore
  veuë ny inventée.

  A Paris. Par Iean le Clerc, ruë Saint Jean de Latran, à la Salemandre.
  Avec privilege du Roy. 1595.[1326]

    This impression is dedicated to Louise de Vaudemont, now "Reine
    Douairière," Henry III. having died in 1589.


  71.

  [Sidenote: 1606. _3rd Edit. No 5. Parts 1 and 2._]

    The same title as that of 1595--differing only in date.[1327]

    Privilege for six years, "donné à Mantes, le 3 Juillet 1593." At the
    foot, "De l'Imprimerie de David le Clerc au Petit Corbeil 1606."

    The 1st part has 32 ff. and 36 plates; 32 "Ouvrages de poinct couppé,"
    and 4 stomachers.

    The 2nd part 46 plates, same as those of 1588, only four less.

    On the last page the escutcheon of France and Navarre.


  72.

  [Sidenote: 1589. _4th Edit. Turin. Parts 1 and 2._]

  Les singuliers et nouveaux pourtraicts, du Seigneur Federic de Vinciolo
  Venitien, pour toutes sortes d'ouvrages de Lingerie. Dedie a la Royne.
  Derechef et pour la quatrieme fois augmentez, outre le reseau premier et
  le point couppé et lacis, de plusieurs beaux et differens portrais de
  reseau de point conté, avec le nombre de mailles, chose non encore veue
  ni inventee. A Thurin. Par Eleazaro Thomysi. 1589.[1328]

    Described in Cat. Cicognara with the date 1658. The 1st part 44 ff. and
    39 plates; the 2nd with 36 plates.

    {482}The editions of 1613 and 1623 are described in their chronological
    order. Nos. 64 and 71.

    That of 1603 we have not seen; but M. Leber states it to be equally
    rich with that of 1623.

    The copies of Vinciolo in the Bodleian bear the dates of 1588, 1603,
    and 1612.

    Baron Pichon has a copy of an impression of 1612.

    One at Bordeaux, in the Bib. de la Ville, is dated 1588.



    In a book sale at Antwerp, March, 1864, there was sold the following:--



    Lot 528. _Livre de Patrons de Lingerie dediè a la Royne, nouvellement
    invente par le seign^r Frederic de Vinciolo, Venitien._ Paris, Jean le
    Clerc, 1598.--_Les singuliers et nouveaux pourtraicts pour toutes
    sortes d'ouvrages de Lingerie._ Paris, _Ibid._, 1598.--_Les secondes
    oeuvres et subtiles inventions de Lingerie._ Paris, _Ibid._,
    1598.--_Nouveaux pourtraicts de Point coupé et Dantelles en petite
    moyenne et grande forme._ A. Montbeliard, Jacques Foillet, 1598. 4 tom.
    1 vol. in-4. v. anc. fig. sur bois.

    It went for 440 francs to a Mr. Ross. We do not know the editions of
    1598.

    As M. Leber observes, the various editions of Vinciolo, published by Le
    Clerc and his widow, from 1587 to 1623, and perhaps later, are only
    impressions more or less varied of the two distinct books, the one of
    point coupé, the other of lacis.

    The work of Vinciolo has been reprinted in several countries. In
    England it has been translated and published by Wolfe. (See No. 72.) At
    Liege, by Jean de Glen. (See No. 79.) Mr. Douce says that it was
    reprinted "at Strasburg, 1596, and at Basle, 1599, with a second part,
    which is rare, and sometimes contains a portrait by Gaultier of
    Catherine de Bourbon."

    In the Bib. Nat. (Grav. B. c. 22), a volume headed _Vinciolo (Federigo)
    Peintre Venitien et ses imitateurs_, contains, with "La pratique,"
    etc., of Mignerak (See No. 93), a German copy of the "nouveaux
    pourtraits," the work printed by Ludwig Künigs, at Basle, 1599 (See No.
    85); and a German work headed "Broderies sur filet," 50 plates engraved
    upon copper.


  73.

  [Sidenote: 1591. _London. Wolf._]

  New and singular patternes and workes of Linnen. Serving for patternes to
  make all sortes of Lace edging and Cut-workes. Newly invented for the
  profite and contentment of Ladies, Gentlewomen, and others that are
  desirous of this Arte. London: Imprinted by J. Wolfe and Edward White,
  1591.[1329]

    EPISTLE TO THE READER.

    Having framed a body of the best and rarest manner in true perfection
    of sundrie sortes of deuises or workes, as well for frame-workes as
    other needle-workes, I devised with all diligence and industrious
    studie to sattisfy the gentle mindes of vertuous women by bringing to
    light things never before as yet seene nor committed to print; All
    which devises are soe framed in due proportion as taking them in order,
    the one is formed or made by the other, and soe proceedeth forward;
    Whereby with more {483}ease they may be sewed and wrought in Cloth, and
    keeping true accompt of the threads, maintaine the bewtey of the worke.
    And more, who desyrith to bring the worke into a lesser forme, let them
    make the squares lesse. And if greater, then inlarge them, and so may
    you worke in divers sortes, either by stitch, pouncing, or pouldering
    upon the same as you please. Alsoe it is to be understood that these
    squares serve not onely for cut-workes, but alsoe for all other manner
    of seweing or stitching, noteing withall that they are made to keepe
    the work or deuise in good order and even proportion--And even if ye
    will that squares be greater, make of two, one, four, two, and soe they
    will be larger. And in this manner may you proceed in all.

    God prosper your desires.

  Then follows the dedication:

    To the Right Worshipful Gentlewoman, Mistress Susan Saltonstall, wife
    to the right Worshipfull Mr. Richard Saltonstall, Alderman of the City
    of London (afterwards Lord Mayor, and knighted in 1597).

    It being my chance (Right Worshipfull) to lighten upon certaine
    paternes of cut-worke and others brought out of Foreign Countries which
    have bin greatly accepted of by divers Ladies and Gentlewomen of
    sundrie nations and consequently of the common people; This seemed unto
    mee a sufficient instance and argument to bestowe likewise some paines
    for the publishing thereof, But being in suspense of the dedication two
    causes induced mee to imbolden myselfe to present it unto your
    acceptation and patronage: First because that rare devises and
    inventions are for the most part more agreeable and gratefuller
    accepted, than ordinarie and common things, although of great price and
    value, Secondlie because these workes belong chiefly to Gentlewomen for
    to passe away their time in vertuous exercises Wherefore to fit and
    accommodate the dedication aright to the contents and subject of the
    book I thought it not amisse to offer it unto your worship in token of
    thankfullness for so many benefites which I have received so
    bountifullie at your hands Assuring myselfe moreover that as these
    patternes will bring sufficient contentment and profite to all
    well-willers, that are desirous of this Arte, soe they shall for ever
    acknowledge themselves to be beholden chiefly unto you, being the
    chiefest occasion of the publishing and setting forthe thereof. And
    therefore uppon hope that you will take these inventions in good parte,
    which in time I am purposed (If God permit) to increase and augment
    with more paternes of worke. In the meantime I pray God give to your
    Worship a happie prosperous and long life with a full accomplishment of
    all your vertuous desires.

    Your worshipps most dutiful
        Servant and Kinsman,
            ADRIAN POYNTZ.


  74.

  [Sidenote: 1591. _Bologna. T. Pasini._]

  Fiori di ricami nuovamente posti in luce ne i quali sono varii, et
  diversi dissegni di lavori; Come Merli, Bauari, Manichetti, & altre sorti
  di opere, che al presente sono in uso, utilissimi ad ogni stato di Donne.
  Seconda Impressione.

    Impresa of Mercury. Below--

  In Bologna, per Giovanni Rossi. MDXCI. Ad instanza di Tomaso
  Pasini.[1330]

    {484}Obl. 8vo, 20 ff., 18 plates like Vecellio, one "bavaro."

    Dedicated by the author to "La Signora Silveria Rossi Ghisolieri."

    Mostly indented patterns on black grounds.


  75.

  [Sidenote: 1591. _Venice. F. di Franceschi._]

  Prima Parte de' fiori, e disegni di varie sorti di Ricami moderni come
  merli, bavari, manichetti, & altri nobili lavori che al presente sono in
  uso.

    A figure of Peace. Below--

  In Venetia, Appresso Francesco di Franceschi Senese all' insegna della
  Pace 1591.[1331]

    Obl. 8vo, 20 ff., 17 plates in the style of Vecellio.

    Dedication to "La Signora Gabriella Zeno Michele," signed "Di Venetia
    alli 19 di Marzo, 1591, Giovanbattista Ciotti." The last plate a figure
    of Fortune, with "Finis in Venetia 1591. Appresso Nicolo Moretti, ad
    instantia di Francesco di Franceschi."


  76.

  [Sidenote: 1591. _Venice. F. di Franceschi._]

  La vera perfettione del disegno di varie sorti di ricami & di cucire ogni
  sorti de punti à foglami, punti tagliati, punti a fili & rimessi, punti
  incrociati, punti à stuoro & ogn' altre arte, che dia opera à disegni. E
  di nuovo aggiuntovi varie sorti di merli, e mostre, che al presente sono
  in uso & in pratica.

    Impresa of Peace differing from the preceding.

  In Venetia, Appresso Francesco di Franceschi Senese all' insegna della
  Pace. 1591.[1332]

    Obl. 8vo, 86 ff., 72 plates.

    Dedicated to "Signora Lucretia Contarini, per matrimonio Priula Nobile
    Gentildonna Venetiana," by Giovanni Ostans.

    A woodcut of Lucretia working with her maidens, signed Jose Sol. 1557.

    Patterns, Small Squares, Gorgets, Youth, Paris, Pyramus and Thisbe,
    Arabesques, Grotesques, and an Alphabet.

    On the last leaf, dorso, A. B. C. D. "tutte sono quaderni." A figure
    again of Peace, and "In Ven. 1590."


  77.

  [Sidenote: 1592. _Venice. 1st Book. C. Vecellio._]

  Corona delle nobili et virtuose donne. Libro primo. Nel quale si dimostra
  in varij Dissegni, tutti le sorti di Mostre di punti tagliati, punti in
  aria, punti à Reticello, e d' ogni altra {485}sorte cosi per Freggi come
  per Merli, & Rosette, che con l' Aco si usano hoggidì per tutta l'
  Europa. Et molte delle quali Mostre possono servire anchora per Opere à
  Mazzette. Aggiuntivi in questa Quarta impressione molti bellissimi
  dissegni non mai più veduti.

    Then follows the printer's impresa of the stork and serpent.
    "Voluptatum et malorum effetuu dissipatio," with a lady at work on each
    side, and below--

  Con privilegio. In Venetia, Appresso Cesare Vecellio in Frezzaria nelle
  Case de' Preti. 1592.[1333]

    Which is repeated in the 2nd and 3rd Books.

    Obl. 4to, 32 ff., 28 plates.

    Dedication of Vecellio "Alla Clarissima, et Illustrissima Signora,
    Viena Vendramina Nani, dignatissima Consorte dell' Illust^{amo} Sig.
    Polo Nani, il Procurator di S. Marco," in which he refers to his work
    on costume, and says that he dedicates this book to her for the delight
    she takes in these works and "in farne essercitar le donne di casa sua,
    ricetto delle piu virtuose giovani che hoggidì vivano in questa città."
    Signed: Venice, Jan. 20, 1591.

    Beautiful designs, among which are three corners for handkerchiefs, the
    last lettered: "Diverse inventioni p. cantoni dee fazoletti."

    On Plate 3, within a point coupé border, is a statue of Venus standing
    upon a tortoise, with other figures, and above, "Conviensi, che della
    Donna la bontà, & non la bellezza sia divulgata," and underneath:--

     "Veneer io son, de le mirabil mani
        Del dotto Fidia d' un bel marmo finta.
      In me vedete atti gentili, e humani,
        Ch' esser dè Donna à gentilezza accinta.
      Io sopra una Testugine dimora,
        Perchè stia in Casa, e sia tacita ogn' hora."


  [Sidenote: _2nd Book._]

  Corona delle nobili et virtuose donne. Libro secondo.

  Nel quale si dimostra in varij Dissegni, tutte le sorti di Mostre de
  puute tagliati, punti in aria, punti à Reticello, e d' ogni altra sorte,
  cosi per Freggi, come per Merli, & Rosette, che con l' Aco si usano
  hoggidì per tutta l' Europa. Et molti delle quali Mostre possono servire
  anchora per Opere à Mazzette. Aggiuntivi in questa Quarta Impressione
  molti bellissimi dissegni non mai più veduti. Con Privilegio. In Venetia,
  Appresso Cesare Vecellio, in Frezzaria nelle Case de' Preti. 1592.

    28 ff., 26 plates.

    The dedication of this and the next book, though differently worded,
    are addressed to the same lady as the first. This is dated Jan. 24,
    1591.

    Among the patterns are two designs for handkerchiefs, and on the last
    plate a statue of Vesta, within a point coupé border.

  [Sidenote: _3rd Book._]

  Corono delle nobili et virtuose donne. Libro terzo. Nel {486}quale si
  dimostra in varii dissegni molte sorti di Mostri di Punti in Aria, Punti
  tagliati, Punti a reticello, and ancora di picciole; cosi per Freggi,
  come per Merli, & Rosette, che con l' Aco si usano hoggidi per tutta
  l'Europa. Con alcune altre inventione di Bavari all' usanza Venetiana.
  Opera nouva e non più in luce. Con privilegio. In Venetia Appresso Cesare
  Vecellio, stà in Frezzaria nelle Case de' Petri. 1592.

    Dedication dated June 15, 1591. Vecellio says he has added "alcune
    inventioni di bavari all' usanza nostra." In the copy (Bib. de
    l'Arsenal, 11,955 _bis_) are added instructions to transfer the
    patterns upon parchment without injuring the book. The last plate shows
    how to reduce the patterns and how to prick them (Fig. 170). This is
    sometimes given at the end of the first book instead of the third.

    28 ff., 26 plates, two of bavari.

    [Illustration: Fig. 170.

    MANNER OF PRICKING THE PATTERN.--(Vecellio.)]

    On Pl. 27, woman with a torch and Cupid. At Pl. 28, in a point coupé
    border, is a fox holding the bust of a lady, the conceit of which is
    explained by the verses to be, that sense is better than beauty:--

     "Trovò la Volpe d' un Scultore eletto
      Una testa sì ben formata, tale,
      Che sol le manca Spirito havresti detto,
      Tanto l' industria, e l' arteficio vale,
      La prende in man, poi dice; O che perfetto
      Capo, e gentil; ma voto è d' inteletto."



  78.

  [Sidenote: 1594. _Venice. C. Vecellio._]

  Gioiello della corona per le nobili e virtuose donne. Libro quarto. Nel
  quale si dimostra altri nuovi bellissimi Dissegni di tutte le sorte di
  Mostre di Punti in Aria, Punti tagliati & Punti à Reticello; così per
  Freggi, come per Merli, & Rosette, che con l' Aco si usano hoggidì per
  tutta l' Europa. Et molte delle quali mostre possono servire anchora per
  opere à Mazzette Nuovament posto in luce con molte bellissime inventioni
  non mai più usate, nè vedute. Con privilegio. In Venetia, Appresso Cesare
  Vecellio, in Frezzaria nella Casa de i Preti. 1594.

    Same impresa of the stork and serpent.

    Dedicated to the Sign. Isabella Palavicina Lupi Marchesa di Soragana,
    dated "Venetia alli 20 Novembrio 1592." Cesare Vecellio. 30
    plates.[1334]

    {487}Vecellio, author of the _Corona_ and _Gioiello_, also published a
    work on costume styled _Degli Habiti Antichi et Moderni_. _In Venezia_,
    1590. _Presso Damian Zenero._ In the frontispiece is a salamander; on
    the last leaf a figure of Vesta. It has been reproduced by F. Didot,
    Paris.

    He was not, as is often incorrectly stated, a relation, or even of the
    same family as Titian.

    These are the earliest impressions we have had an opportunity of
    examining of Vecellio's works, which appear to have been widely
    circulated. The Bib. de l'Arsenal possesses two copies of the _Corona_
    (No. 11,955), from which we have described. In the other (No. 11,155
    _bis_), Book 1 "ultima," Book 2 "quarta," are both dated 1593; and Book
    3 "nuovamente ristampata la quarta volta," 1592. The plates all the
    same.

    The Library of Rouen (No. 1,315) has a volume containing the _Corona_
    and _Gioiello_. Book 1 "quarta Imp.," Book 2 "ultima," both dated 1594;
    and Book 3 "quinta," 1593. The _Gioiello_, 1593.

    In the Bodleian is a copy of the three books, date 1592; and another,
    date 1561, was in the possession of the late Mrs. Dennistoun of
    Dennistoun.

    At Venice, in the Doge's Library, is a volume containing the three
    books of the _Corona_ and the _Gioiello_, dated 1593.

    Mrs. Stisted, Bagni di Lucca, also possesses the three books of the
    Corona, dated 1597, and the Gioiello, 1592.

    At Bologna the Library has one volume, containing the first and second
    books only, evidently the original impressions. The titles are the same
    as the above, only to each is affixed, "Opera nuova e non più data in
    luce," and "Stampata per gli Hered' della Regina. 1591. An instantia di
    Cesare Vecellio, Stà in Frezzaria."

    The same Library also possesses a volume, with the three books of the
    _Corona_, the first and third "ottava," the second "quarta," and the
    _Gioiello_, "nuovamente posto in luce." All "In Venetia appresso gli
    heredi di Cesare Vecellio, in Frezzaria. 1608."

    At Vienna, in the new Museum for Art and Industry, is a copy of the
    five books, dated 1601.[1335]

    Cav. Merli cites from a copy of the four books, dated 1600.

    The various impressions, therefore, date from 1591 to 1608.

    We see these different parts, like those of Vinciolo and all these old
    collections, have been printed and reprinted independently of each
    other, since the third part was at its fifth impression in 1593, while
    the first, which ought to have preceded it, was only at its fourth in
    1594.[1336]


  79.

  [Sidenote: 1593. _St. Gall. G. Strauben._]

  New Model Buch darinnen allerley Gattung schöner Modeln der newen
  aussgeschitnen Arbeit auff Krägen, Hempter, Jakelet und dergleichen zu
  newen, so zuvor in Teutschlandt nicht gesehen. Allen thugentsamen Frawen
  und Jungkfrawen, Nätterinnen, auch allen audern so lust zu solcher
  kunstlichen Arbeit haben, sehr dienstlich.

  {488}Getruckt in uerlegung George Strauben, von S. Gallem, Anno
  1593.[1337]

  _Translation._

  New Patternbook, in which are all sorts of beautiful patterns of the new
  cutwork for collars, shirts, jackets, and such like, such as never before
  were seen in Germany. Most useful to all virtuous dames and such artistic
  works, very respectfully dedicated.

  Printed for the publisher, G. Strauben.

    A reprint of the third book of Vecellio's Corona.


  80.

  [Sidenote: _N.D. Lindau am Bodensee._]

  Neu Model-Buch, darinnen allerley gattung schöner Modeln der neuen, etc.

    Probably a reprint of No. 79.

    27 plates.


  81.

  [Sidenote: 1597. _Liége. J. de Glen._]

  Les singuliers et nouveaux pourtraits, pour toutes sortes de lingeries de
  Jean de Glen, dediés à Madame Loyse de Perez; à Liége, chez Jean de Glen,
  l'an 1597.[1338]

    Obl. 4to, 39 plates, mostly borrowed from Vinciolo, as well as the
    title.


  82.

  [Sidenote: 1596. _Florence. M. Florini._]

  Fior di Ricami nuovamente porti in luce. Fiorenze, 1596, ad instanza di
  Mattheo Florini.

    4to obl., 24 plates and 2 leaves of text.[1339]


  83.

  [Sidenote: 1603. _Siena. M. Florini._]

  Fiori di Ricami nuovamente porti in luce nei quali sono varie et diversi
  disegni di lavori, como merli, bavari, manichetti e altre sorte di opera.
  Siena, appresso Matteo Florini, 1603.

    4to obl., 24 pages.[1340]


  84.

  [Sidenote: 1603. _Siena. M. Florini._]

  Giojello, &c. Nel quale si di mostra altri novi bellissimi disegni di
  tutte le sorte, di mostre &c. ... di punti &c., cosi {489}per fregi come
  per merli et rosette che con l' aco si usanno hoggi di per tutte l'
  Europa. Opere a Mazzetto nuovamente posta in luce con motte bellissime
  inventioni non mai più usate ne vedute. In Siena, Matteo Florini MDCIII.

    4to obl. (Cited by Marquis d'Adda.)


  85.

  [Sidenote: 1597. _Nuremberg. B. Laimoxen._]

  Schön neues Modelbuch von allerley lüstigen Mödeln naczunehen zu würken
  un zu sticke; gemacht im Jar Ch. 1597, zu Nürmberg, bey Balthaser
  Laimoxen zu erfragen.[1341]

  _Translation._

  Fine new Patternbook of all sorts of pleasant patterns for sewing,
  working, and embroidering: made in the year of Christ 1597, at Nurmberg:
  to be had of Balthasar Laimoxen.

    Obl. fol., 27 ff.

    5 sheets, title-page, and poem, signed J. S. (Johann Sibmacher.)

    Mr. Gruner has communicated to us a work with the same title, dated
    1591.[1342]


  86.

  [Sidenote: 1598. _Montbéliard. J. Foillet._]

  Nouveaux pourctraicts de point coupé et dantelles en petite moyenne et
  grande forme nouvellement inventez & mis en lumiere Imprimé a Montbéliard
  par Jacques Foillet (|)|)xciix (1598).[1343]

    Small 4to, 82 ff., 78 plates.

    Frontispiece with borders composed of squares of point coupé.

    "Avertissement aux dames," of three pages, stating these works are all
    composed of "point devant l'esguille, de point en toille, en bouclages,
    & de cordonnages." The writer gives patterns of roses of all sizes,
    "very little, middling, large, and very large," with from one to nine
    _pertuis_, or openings, holes. Also Carreaux in different forms, and
    lastly _dantelles_. "Je n'ay voulu omettre de vous dire que pour faire
    des dantelles, il vous fault jetter un fil de la grandeur que desiré
    faire vos dantelles, & les cordonner, puis jetter les fils au dedans,
    qui fera tendre le cordon & lui donnera la forme carrée, ronde, ou
    telle forme que desires, ce qu'estant faict vous paracheverès
    facilement. Enoultre vous verrez qu'estant bien petites deviennent peu
    a peu bien grandes jusques a la fin. Elles vous enricheront &
    embelliront vos ouvrages en les applicant aux bords d'iceux."
    Directions, we confess, perfectly enigmatical to us. The author
    finishes by exhorting the ladies to imitate Minerva and Arachne, "qui
    ont acquis un grand renom, pour avoir (c[=o]me à l'envie l'une de
    l'autre) travaillé de l'esguille."

    The avertissement is followed by an "Exhortation aux jeunes filles." in
    verse, of 21 lines, beginning--

     "Si nuisible est aux humains la paresse," etc.

    40 patterns of "roses," of point coupé.

    {490}And 18 of "Carreaux," variously disposed.

    Then follow 20 patterns of lace, of "bien petites, petites, moyennes, &
    grosses," all "au point devant l'Esguille." (See Figs. 8 to 12.)

    At the end: "La fin courone l'oeuvre." This is the earliest
    pattern-book in which the word "dantelle" occurs.


  87.

  [Sidenote: 1598. _Montbéliard. J. Foillet._]

  New Modelbuch darinnen allerley ausgeschnittene Arbeit, in kleiner,
  mittelmässiger und grosser form erst neulich erfunden. Allen tugenden
  Frawen vnnd Jungfrawen sehr nutzlich. Gedruckt zu Mumpelgarten durch
  Jacob Foillet, 1598.[1344]


  88.

  [Sidenote: 1599. _Basle._]

  Fewrnew Modelbuch von allerhandt Künstlicher Arbeidt, nämlich Gestricht,
  Aussgezogen, Aussgeschnitten, Gewiefflet, Gesticht, Gewirckt, und Geneyt:
  von Wollen, Garn, Faden, oder Seyden: auff der Laden, und Sonderlich auff
  den Ramen, Jetzt Erstmals in Teutschlandt an Tag gebracht: Zu Ehren und
  Gl[=u]cklicher Zeitvetreibung allen dugentsamen Frawen, und Jungfrawen
  Nächerinen, auch allen andern, so lust zu solcher Kunstlicher Arbeit
  haben sehr dienstlich. Getruckt zu Basel.

  In verlegung Ludwig K[=u]nigs MDXCIX.[1345]

    Small obl., 33 ff., 32 plates.

    Frontispiece border of point coupé. Title in Gothic red and black.
    Patterns, mostly borders, number of stitches given, "Mit xxxxvii.,
    Bengen," etc. "Ende dieses modelbuchs."


  89.

  [Sidenote: 1601. _Paris._]

  Béle Prérie contenant divers caracters, et differentes sortes de lettres
  alphabetiques, à sçavoir lettres Romaines, de formes, lettres pour
  appliquer sur le reseuil ou lassis, et autres pour marquer sur toile et
  linges, par Pier. le Bé. Paris, 1601.[1346]

    In 4to obl.


  90.

  [Sidenote: 1601. _Nuremberg. Sibmacher._]

  Modelbuch in Kupfer gemacht, Nürmberg, bei Michel Kuisner, 1601, by J.
  Sibmacher.[1347]


  91.

  [Sidenote: 1604. _Nuremberg. J. Sibmacher._]

  Newes Modelbûch fûr Kûpfer gemacht, darinnen allerhand art newen Model
  von dem Mittel und Dick ausgeschniden duer {491}Arbeit auch andern
  kunstlichen Nahework zu gebrauchen mit Fluss fur druck verfertigt. Mit
  Röm. Kais. Maj trentich Nürmberg 1604.[1348]

  _Translation._

  New book of patterns (on copper) in which are copied out all kinds of new
  patterns for thick and thin materials, to be used also in the making of
  other artistic needlework.

    Obl. 4to, 58 plates carefully engraved upon copper.

    Title-page surrounded by a richly ornamented border, with two figures,
    one sewing, the other at embroidery; also a second ornamented
    frontispiece, dedication to Maria Elizabeth, Electress Palatine, dated
    1601. Nuremberg, J. Sibmacher, citizen and engraver.

    Then follow five pages of dialogue, given page 6, note 24, and 227.

    A printed title to the next plate. "The following pattern may be worked
    in several different ways, with a woven seam, a flat, round, or crossed
    Jew stitch."[1349] It is probably meant for cut-work made on thin
    materials.

    Then follow 58 leaves of patterns, the greater number of which have the
    number of rows written over each pattern. Pl. 38, with two patterns, is
    inscribed, "The following patterns are for thick cut-work." In the
    upper pattern, on the first leaf, are the arms of the Palatine; on the
    second, those of Juliers and Mark.


  92.

  [Sidenote: 1600. _Venice. I. C. Parasole._]

  Pretiosa gemma delle virtuose donne dove si vedono bellissimi lavori di
  ponti in aria, reticella, di maglia e piombini disegnati da Isabella
  Catanea Parasole. E di nuovo dati in luce da Luchino Gargano con alcuni
  altri bellissimi lavori nuovamente inventati. Stampata in Venetia ad
  instantia di Luchino Gargano MDC.[1350] See also No. 99.


  93.

  [Sidenote: _N. D._]

  Allerhand Model zum Stricken un Nähen.[1351]

    Obl. 4to, 64 plates. No date.


  94.

  [Sidenote: 1604. _Padua. P. P. Fozzi._]

    A book of models for point coupé and embroidery, published at Padua,
    October 1st, 1604, by Pietro Paolo Fozzi. "Romano."[1352]


  95.

  [Sidenote: 1605. _Frankfort on the Mayn. S. Latomus._]

  Schön newes Modelbuch von 500 schönen aussor wählten, Kunstlichen, so wol
  Italiähnischen, Frantzösischen, {492}Niederländischen, Engelländischen,
  als Teutschen Mödeln, Allen, Näher.... hstichern, &c., zu nutz. (_Some of
  the words are illegible._)

  Livre des Modelles fort utile à tous ceux qui besoignent à l'esguille.

    At the foot of last page recto is, "Franckfurt am Mayn, bey Sigismund
    Latomus, 1605."[1353]

    Small obl. 100 plates (Fig. 171), and coloured title-page with figures.

  [Illustration: Fig. 171.

  FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN, 1605.]

    In the first plate is an escutcheon with this monogram (Fig. 172)
    surrounded with embroidery.


  [Illustration: Fig. 172.

  MONOGRAM.]

    In the Nuremberg copy it is at p. 83.


  96.

  [Sidenote: 1607. _Frankfort on the Mayn. S. Latomus._]

  Schön newes Modelbuch, Von hundert vnd achtzig schönen kunstreichen vnd
  gerechten Mödeln, Teutsche vnd Welsche, welche auff mancherley Art können
  geneet werden, als mit Zopffnath, Creutz vnnd Judenstich, auch auff Laden
  zu wircken: Dessgleichen von ausserlesenen Zinnigen oder Spitzen. Allen
  Seydenstickern, Mödelwirckerin, Näderin, vnd solcher Arbeitgeflissenen
  Weibsbildern sehr dienstlich, vnd zu andern Mustern {493}anleytlich vnd
  verstendig. Franckfurt am Mayn, In Verlegung Sigismundi Latomi.
  M.D.C.VII.[1354]

    Small 4to obl. 180 patterns.

    Sheets A-O (the last has only 3 leaves). On the title-page are two
    ladies, one working at a pillow, the other at a frame; in the
    back-ground, other women employed at various works. Another copy dated
    1629. Mr. Arnold and Mr. F. S. Ellis.


  97.

  [Sidenote: 1605. _Paris. M. Mignerak._]

  La pratique de l'aiguille industrieuse du très excellent Milour Matthias
  Mignerak Anglois, ouvrier fort expert en toute sorte de lingerie ou sont
  tracez Divers compartimens de carrez tous differans en grandeur et
  invention avec les plus exquises bordures, desseins d'ordonnances qui se
  soient veux jusques à ce jourd'hui tant poetiques historiques, qu'au tres
  ouvrages de point de rebord. Ensemble Les nouvelles invencions Françoises
  pour ce qui est de devotion et contemplation. A la Tres-Chrestiene Roine
  de France et de Navarre. Avec privilege 1605 du Roy.[1355]

  A Paris, par Jean Leclerc, rue St.-Jean de Latran, à la Salamandre
  roialle.

               EXTRACT FROM "DISCOURS DU LACIS."

     "Ce chef d'oeuvre divin n'est pas à l'adventure
      Mais par art composé, par nombre, et par mesure;
      Il commence par un, et va multipliant
      Le nombre de ses trouz qu'un noeud va reliant,
      Sans perdre aucunement des nombres d'entresuitte,
      Croissant, et decroissant d'une mesme conduitte:
      Et ainsi qu'il commence il acheve par un,
      Du monde le principe et le terme commun.
      Si l'on veut sans faillir cet ouvrage parfaire,
      Il faut multiplier, adjouster, et soustraire:
      Il faut bien promptement assembler, et partir,
      Qui veut un beau Lacis inegal compartir.
      Mais se peut il trouver, souz la voute azurée,
      Chose plus justement en tous sens mesurée?
      Ouvrage ou il y ait tant de proportions,
      De figures, de traicts et de dimensions?
      D'un point premièrement une ligne l'on tire,
      Puis le filet courbé un cercle va descrire,
      Et du cercle noué se trouve le quarré
      Pour lequel retrouver tant d'esprits ont erré.
      De six mailles se faict une figure egale,
      De trois costez esgaux, pour forme pyramidale:
      Et l'ouvrage croissant, s'en forme promptement
          {494}
      Une autre dont les deux sont egaux seulement.
      Si l'on tire un des coings, se forme une figure.
      D'un triangle en tout sens, d'inegale mesure.
      Le moule plus tiré faict les angles pointuz,
      Et l'ouvrage estendu faict les angles obtuz.
      De mailles à la fin un beau quarré se faict,
      Composé de quarrez, tout egal, et parfaict,
      Quarré qui toutesfois se forme variable,
      Or en lozange, et or en figure de table.
      La bande de Lacis recouvert, à nos yeux,
      Est comme un beau pourtraict de l'escharpe des cieux,
      Dont chaque endroit ouvré nous represente un signe,
      Le milieu, les degrez de l'Eclyptique ligne;
        Le quarré, des vertus le symbole, et signal
      De science du livre et bonnet doctoral,
      Nous va representant l'Eglise et la Justice.
      La façon de lacer figure l'exercice
      D'enfiler une bague on bien l'art d'escrimer.
          .      .      .      .      .
      Le lacis recouvert sert de filet aux dames
      Pour les hommes suprendre et enlacer leurs ames,
      Elles en font collets, coiffures, et mouchoirs,
      Des tentures de lits, tauayoles, pignoirs,
      Et maint autre ornement dont elles les enlacent,
      C'est pourquoi en laçant les femmes ne se lassent."

    In 4to, 76 ff., 72 plates.

    Frontispiece: Two ladies, with frames in their hands, labelled "Diana"
    and "Pallas." On the top, an escutcheon per pale France and Medicis,
    supported by Cupids. Beneath, Cupids with distaff and winding reels.
    Between the sides of a pair of scissors is a cushion on which is
    extended a piece of lacis, a "marguerite" in progress. (See Fig. 6.)
    Above, "Petrus Firens fecit, I. le Clerc excud." Below, "A Paris par
    Jean le Clerc Rue St. Jean de Latran à la Salamandre royalle."

    Dedication of Jean le Clerc "A la royne," then Marie de Medicis,
    stating: "J'avois recouvré d'un personnage Anglois tres-expert en toute
    sorte de Lingerie;" but who this Milour Mignerak may be, history tells
    not.

    Then follows the "Discours du Lacis," a poem, of which we give an
    extract.

    The privilege is signed Aug. 2, 1605.

    The patterns consist of the Queen's arms and cypher, 4 Scripture
    subjects: Adam and Eve, the annunciation, Ecce Homo, and Magdalen; 4
    Elements, 4 Seasons; Roman Charity, Lucretia, Venus, and "Pluye d'or;"
    6 Arbes à fruit, 6 Pots à fleurs, 30 Carrés grands, moyens et petits; 6
    Bordures, and, what is quite a novelty, 6 "Passements faits au fuseau."
    (See Fig. 13): the first mention of pillow lace in any of the French
    pattern-books.


  98.

  [Sidenote: 1613. _Paris. F. Vinciolo._]

  Les secondes oeuvres, et subtiles inventions de Lingerie du Seigneur
  Federic de Vinçiolo Venitien; nouvellement augmenté de plusieurs carrez
  de point de rebort. Dediée à Madame, soeur unique du roy. Ou sont
  representees plusieurs figures de Reseau, nombres de Carrez et Bordures
  tous differents, le tout de poinct conté, avec autres sortes de Carrez de
  nouvelles inventions non encore vues.

  {495}A Paris. Par Jean le Clerc, rue sainct Jean de Latran, à la
  Salemandre, 1613. Avec privilege du Roy.[1356]

    A scarce and valuable volume, the fullest edition of the second part of
    Vinciolo's work.

    4to, 68 ff., 61 plates.

    It contains a--

             SONNET AUX DAMES & DAMOYSELLES.

     "Esprits rarement beaux qui fuyez la paresse,
      Je vous fais un present qui la pourra chasser,
      Quand vous desirez de gayement passer
      Vostre temps, et monstrer de vostre main l'adresse.

      Le present est utile et plein de gentillesse,
      Il monstre les moyens de bien entrelasser.
      Et faire au point couppé tout ce qu'on peut penser.
      Cet exercise plaist à Pallas la Deesse.

      Par ses enseignemens, avec l'esguille on fait
      Des fleurons, des oyseaux, en ouvrage parfait,
      Des chiffres et des noeuds, tels que l'amour desire.

      Aymez cet exercise, et vous y occupez,
      Et puis vous cognoistrez que sur les points couppez
      En diverses façons quelque portrait se tire."

    The author's address to the reader, and a

    Dedication to "Madame, soeur unique du roy" (Catherine de Bourbon,
    sister of Henry IV., married, 1599, to the Duc de Bar), signed by Le
    Clerc.

    On the second plates are her arms, a lozenge, France and Navarre with
    crown and cordelière, and the same lozenge also surmounts the decorated
    frontispiece, supported on either side by a genius (?) working at a
    frame and point coupé drapery.

    7 Scripture subjects: The Salutation, St. Sacrement, Passion,
    Crucifixion, Adoration of the Kings, etc.; the number of the stitches
    given to each.

    2 Stomachers, and various patterns of "carrez " and borders. 2 of
    "Point de rebort."

    At the end is the "Discours du Lacis," already printed by Mignerak.


  99.

  [Sidenote: 1616. _Rome. E. C. Parasole._]

  Teatro delle nobili et virtuose donne, dove si rappresentano varij
  disegni di lavori novamente inventati et disegnati da Elisabetta Catanea
  Parasole Romana.

  Dedicata alla Serenissima Principessa Donna Elisabetta Borbona d'
  Austria, Principessa di Spagna, da E. C. Parasole. Data di Roma a di 5
  Marzo 1616.[1357] Other editions, 1620, 1625, and 1636. The last is
  dedicated to the Grand Duchess of {496}Tuscany, and has the Medici and
  Della Rovere arms in the title-page.

    Obl. 4to, 47 ff., 46 plates (44 in Prince Massimo's copy) beautifully
    executed, the titles printed to each plate, as "Lavori di punti in
    aria, Merletti di ponti reticella, Merletti a piombini," etc. (See Fig.
    15.)


  100.

  [Sidenote: 1600. _Venice. I. C. Parasole._]

  Pretiosa gemme delle virtuose donne dore si vedono bellisimi lavori di
  ponto in aria, reticella, dimaglia e piombini disegnati da Isabella
  Catanea Parasole. E di nuovo dati in luce da Luchino Gargano con alcuni
  altri bellisimi lavori nuovamente inventate. Stampata in Venetea ad
  instantia de Luchino Gargano MDC.[1358]


  101.

  [Sidenote: 1625. _Rome. I. C. Parasole._]

  Gemma pretiosa delle virtuose donne, dore si vedono bellisimi lavori de
  Ponti in Aria, Reticella, di Maglia, e Piombini disegnatida Isabella
  Catanea Parasole.

  In Rome, appreso Guliegno Facciotti, 1625.


  102.

  [Sidenote: 1618. _Frankfort on the Mayn. D. Meyer._]

  Zierat Buch, von allerhandt Kutschnur, Schleyer deckel, Krägen,
  Leibgürtel, Passmenten, Händschug, Wehrgeheng und Schubenehen,
  Messerscheyden, Secklen, Früchten, Blumen und ands. mehr.

  Allen Perlenbefftern, Nederin, Lehrinngen und andern welche lust zu
  dieser Kunst tragen, sehr nützlich.

  Inn diese Format zusammen ordiniert und gsetzt durch Daniel Meyer
  Mahlern. 1ster Theil.

  Franckfuhrt am Mayn, bey Eberhardt Kusern zu finden.

    11 ff., 9 plates.

    _Translation._

    Decoration book of all sorts of Cords, Veil covers, Collars, Belts,
    Laces, Gloves, Shoulder knots, shoe-seams (?), Knife sheaths, Bags,
    Fruit, Flowers, and other things besides. Very useful to all
    Beadworkers, Seamstresses, Apprentices, and others, who take a pleasure
    or are fond of this art. Arranged and put into this form by D. M. M.
    1st part.


  103.

  [Sidenote: 1619. _Leipsic. A. Bretschneider._]

  New Modelb[)u]ch Darinnen allerley kunstliche Virsirung und Müster
  artiger Z[)u]ege und schöner Bl[)u]mmen zu zierlichen Ueberschlagen,
  Haupt Schurtz Schn[)u]ptüchern Hauben Handschuhen, Uhren (?) gehenzen,
  Kampfütern [)u]nd dergleichen auf Muhler naht und Seidenst[)u]cker arbeit
  gantz Kunstlich gemahlt {497}und vorgerissen, dergleichen sie bevorn noch
  nie in Druck ausgegangen. 16 Leipzicht 19.

  Inn Verleg[)u]ng Henning Grosseren, de J[)u]ngeren Andreas Bretschneider
  Mahller.[1359]

    _Translation._

    New pattern-book, in which all sorts of artistic ornamentations and
    patterns of pretty stuffs and beautiful flowers for covers for Head,
    Aprons, and Pocket-handkerchiefs, Caps, Gloves, Clock cases, Comb
    Cases, and such like, artistically sketched from painter and silk
    embroiderer's work, and which have never before gone out of print.

    Small folio, 53 plates, and half a sheet of text, containing the
    dedication of the work to Madame Catherine von Dorstats, née Löser.
    There appear to be 3 plates wanting.


  104.

  [Sidenote: 1624. _London._]

  A Schole House for the Needle. 1624.[1360]

    Obl. 4to. Was sold at the White Knight's sale for £3 15s.


  105.

  [Sidenote: 1620. _Venice. Lugretia Romana._]

  Corona delle nobili et virtuose donne. Libro terzo. Nel quale si dimostra
  in varii dissegni tutte le sorti di Mostre di punti tagliati e punti in
  aria, punti Fiamenghi, punti a Retcello, e d' ogn' altra sorte, Cosi per
  Fregi, per merli e Rosette, che con Aco si viano hoggidi per lutta
  l'Europa. E molte delle quali Mostre porsono Serviri ancora per opera à
  Mozzete. Con le dichiarationi a le Mostre a' Lavori fatti da Lugretia
  Romana. In Venetia, appresso Allessandro de Vecchi, 1620.[1361]

    27 ff., obl. 8vo.


  106.

  [Sidenote: 1625. _Venice. Lugretia Romana._]

  Corona delle Nobili et Virtuose Donne, Libro primo, nel quale si dimostra
  in varij Dissegni tutte le sorti di Mostre di punti tagliati, punti in
  Aria, punti Fiamenghi, punti a Reticello, e d' ogni altre sorte, cosi per
  Freggi, per Merli, e Rosette, che con l' Aco si usano per tutta l'Europa.
  E molte delle quali Mostre possono servire ancora per opere a Mazzete.
  Con le dichiarazioni a le Mostre, a Lavori fatti da Lugretia Romana.

  In Venetia appresso Alessandro de Vecchi MDCXXV. Si vendono in Venetia al
  Ponte de' Baretteri alla libreria delle tre Rose.[1362]

    Lady Wilton, in her _Art of Needlework_, quotes a copy dated 1620.

    Obl. 4to, ff. 27. Portrait of Maria d'Aragon.


  {498}107.

  [Sidenote: _N. D. Venice. Lucretia Romana._]

  Ornamento nobile, per ogni gentil matrona, dove si contiene bavari, frisi
  d' infinita bellezza, lavori, per Linzuoli, Traverse, e Facuoli, Piena di
  Figure, Ninfe, Satiri, Grotesche, Fontane, Musiche, Caccie di Cervi,
  Uccelli, ed altri Animali. Con ponti in aria, fiamenghi, et tagliati, con
  Adornamenti bellissimi, da imperare, per ogni Virtuosa Donna, che si
  diletta di perfettamente cucire. Opera, per Pittori, Scultori, e
  disegnatori giovevole alle lor professioni, Fatta da Lucretia Romana, il
  quinto volume di Suoi lavori. Dedicato alle Virtuose donne, in
  Venetia.[1363]

    Fol., 20 plates.

    Frontispiece, in point coupé frame. A woman in classic attire is
    represented under a Doric porch, standing on a tortoise, symbol of a
    home-loving woman. (See No. 77.) She holds a ball of thread in her
    hand. Behind, on the left, are two women at work; on the right, a
    sculptor chiselling a statue of Minerva.

    The plates, which are rich and beautiful, are each accompanied by a
    short explanation, as "Degna de esser portata de ogni imperatrice;"
    "Hopera bellissima che per il piu il Signora Duchesa et altre Signore
    si servano per li suoi Lavori;" "Questa bellissima Rosette usano auco
    le gentildonne Venetiane da far traverse," etc. (Fig. 173.)

    The bavari are executed in three different stitches: punto d' aieri, p.
    flamingo, and p. tagliato. This author and Vecellio give Flemish
    patterns (punti Fiamenghi). They consist mostly of rosettes and stars
    (gotico).


  108.

  [Sidenote: 1623. _Paris._]

  Les excellents eschantillons, patrons et modelles du Seigneur Federic de
  Vinciolo Venitien, pour apprendre à faire toutes sortes d'ouvrages de
  Lingerie, de Poinct couppé, grands et petits passements à jour, et
  dentelles exquises. Dediez à la Royne. A Paris. Chez la Veufve Jean le
  Clerc, ruë Sainct Jean de Latran, à la Salamandre Royalle. Avec Privilege
  du Roy, 1623.[1364]

    In 4to, 56 ff.

    The old frontispiece and same "Avertissement."

    Dedication to the Queen, Anne of Austria.

    The Goddess Pallas invented "les ouvrages de lingerie, le poinct
    couppé, les grands and petits passements à jour, toutes sortes de
    dentelles, tant pour se desennuyer que se parer, par l'artifice de ses
    ingenieuses mains. Araciné s'y adonna, and bien qu'inferieure se
    voulant comparer à elle & en venir à l'experience, mais sa presomption
    fut chastiée." Many illustrious ladies have delighted in this "honneste
    exercise." Fastrade and Constance, wives of the Emperor Charlemagne and
    of King Robert, "s'employèrent de cette manufacture, & de leurs
    ouvrages ornèrent les églises & les autels." This royal "mestier" has
    reached perfection through the works of Vinciolo. I reprint and again
    increase his work, which I dedicate to your Majesty, to whom I presume
    they will be agreeable; the subject of which it treats is "une
    invention de déesse & une occupation de Royne--vous estant autant Royne
    des vertus que vous l'estes de deux royaumes." Signed, "la Veufve de
    feu Iean le Clerc."

    Same sonnet.

    Privilege for six years, dated Paris, last day of March, 1623.

    55 ff., 58 plates, 24 ouvrages de point couppé and 8 of "Passements au
    fuzeau" (see Figs. 14 and 15), and alphabet.

  [Illustration: Fig. 173.

  BAVARO DI PONTO D' AERE.--Con belissime figure ed altri flori.

  "BAVARI."--From _Ornamento mobile_ of Lucretia Romana.

  _To face page 498._]


  {499}109.

  A Schole Howse for the Needle. Teaching by sundry sortes of patterns and
  examples of different kindes, how to compose many faire workes; which
  being set in order and forme according to the skill and understanding of
  the workwoman will, no doubt, yield profit unto such as live by the
  needle and give good content to adorne the worthy. London printed in Shoe
  Lane at the "Faulcon" by Richard Shorleyker, 1632.

    TO THE READER.

    Gentle Reader, I would have you know that the Diversities of Examples
    which you shall find in this "Schoole-howse for the Needle" are only
    but patternes which serve but to helpe and inlarge your invention. But
    for the disposing of them into forme and order of Workes that I leave
    to your own skill and understanding. Whose ingenious and well practised
    wits will soe readily (I doubt not) compose them into such beautiful
    formes as will be able to give content, both to the workers and the
    wearers of them. And againe for your behoafe I have in the end of this
    booke made two scales or checker patternes which by enlarging or
    contracting into greater or lesser squares you may enlarge or make
    lesser any of the saide patternes and examples in the booke or any
    other whatever.

    VALE!

    And because I would not have any one mistaken in any of these patternes
    contayned in this Booke, for some peradventure will look to find workes
    set out in order as they should be wrought with the needle or florished
    upon the Tent, &c. But as I have said before in the beginning of this
    Booke, that, that is here published are only but diversitie of
    patternes, out of which the workwoman is to take her choice of one or
    more at her pleasure and so have them drawne out into forme and order
    of worke. Of which skill if it may be I would have serving-men (such as
    have time enough) to practice and be skilful in which will be quickly
    learned if they would, with a little patience applie their mindes to
    practise it. A quarter of the time that they spend in playing at cards,
    tables, quaffing and drinking would make them excellent in this
    knowledge especially such as are ingenious and indued with good wits,
    as for the most part all of them have; Againe it is a thing that no
    doubt would yield them both praise and profit, beside the pleasure and
    delight it would be unto them, and a good inducement to drawe on others
    of their own ranke and qualitie to the like practice and imitation.


  110.

  [Sidenote: 1632. _London._]

  Here followeth certaine patternes of Cut-workes; and but once Printed
  before. Also sundry sorts of Spots, as Flowers, Birds, and Fishes, &c.,
  and will fitly serve to be wrought, some {500}with Gould, some with
  Silke, and some with Gewell (_sic_) or otherwise at your pleasure.

  London; Pinted (_sic_) in Shoe-lane, at the signe of the Faulcon, by
  Richard Shorleyker. 1632.[1365]

    Obl. 4to.

    The copy in the Bodleian is probably due to the above. It has no date
    and varies in title: "Newly invented and never published before," with
    "crewell in coullers," etc.; and "Never but once published before."
    Printed by Rich. Shorleyker.

    33 patterns and title.


  111.

  [Sidenote: 1640.]

  The needles excellency, a new booke wherein are divers admirable workes
  wrought with the needle. Newly invented and cut in copper for the
  pleasure and profit of the industrious. Printed for James Boler, &c.,
  1640.[1366]

    "Beneath this title is a neat engraving of three ladies in a flower
    garden, under the names of Wisdom, Industrie, and Follie. Prefixed to
    the patterns are sundry poems in a commendation of the needle, and
    describing the characters of ladies who have been eminent for their
    skill in needlework, among whom are Queen Elizabeth and the Countess of
    Pembroke. These poems were composed by John Taylor, the Water Poet. It
    appears the work had gone through twelve impressions.... From the
    costume of a lady and gentleman in one of the patterns, it appears to
    have been originally published in the reign of James I."--(Douce.) From
    this description of the frontispiece, it seems to be copied from
    Sibmacher.

    "The Needle's Excellency, or a new Book of Patterns, with a poem by
    John Taylor, in Praise of the Needle." London, 1640. Obl. 4to, engraved
    title, and 28 plates of patterns. Sold, 1771, £6 17s. 6d. (Lowndes,
    _Bibliographer's Manual_. New edit., by H. Bohn). Another copy of the
    same date, marked 12th edition, is in the Library of King's College,
    Cambridge. It consists of title, four leaves with the poem, subscribed
    John Taylor, and 31 leaves of copper cuts of patterns.


  112.

  [Sidenote: 1642 _Pistoja. P. A. Fortunato._]

  Le Pompe di Minerva, per le nobili e virtuose donne che con industriosa
  mano di trattenersi dilettano di far Rezze, maglia quadra, punti in aria,
  punti in tagliati, punti a reticello, cosi per fregio come per merletti e
  rosette di varie sorti, si come oggidi con l'aco di lavorar usati per
  tutto l'Europa, arrichite di bellissimi et vaghi intagli cavati da più
  celebri autori di tal professione. In Pistoja, per Piero A. Fortunato.

    In 8vo obl., dedicated to Caterina Giraldini, in Cellesi. August 20
    1642.[1367]


  {501}113.

  [Sidenote: 1666. _Nuremberg._]

  Dass Neue Modelbuch von schönen Nädereyen, Ladengewerk und Soterleins
  arbeit. Ander theil. Nürnberg, bey Paulus Fürsten Kunsthändler.

    Obl. 4to, 3 sheets of text, 50 plates.

    Dedicated to the Princess Rosina Helena. Nürnberg, March 20,
    1666.[1368]


  114.

    In the Bib. Imp. (Gravures, L. h. 4. c.) is a vol. lettered "Guipure,
    gravures burin," containing a collection of patterns engraved on
    copper, 43 plates, four of which are double, pasted in the book,
    without title or date. Pomegranates, narcissus, lilies, carnations,
    most of them labelled "Kreutzstick, Frantzösischenstick, and
    Fadengewürck" (thread work), the number of stitches given, with Clocks
    (Zwickel) of stockings and other patterns.


  115.

  [Sidenote: 1676. _Nuremberg. C. Gerharts._]

  Model Buch, dritter Theil von unterschiedlicher Vögeln, Blumen und
  Früchten &cte. Von und in Verlegung Rosina Helena Fürtin. Nürnberg,
  Christoff Gerharts, 1676.

    4to obl., engraved title and printed list; 42 wood plates, 4 large.


  116.

  [Sidenote: 1722. _Paris._]

  Methode pour faire une infinité de desseins differens, avec des carreaux
  mi-partis de deux couleurs par une ligne diagnonale ou observations du
  père Dominique Donat, religieux carme de la province de Touleuse sur une
  mémoire inserée dans l'histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences à
  Paris, l'année 1704, presenté par le Rev. Père Sebastien Truchet. Paris,
  1722.[1369]

    72 geometric squares, with directions how to make them useful to
    architects, painters, embroiderers, "tous ceux qui se servent de
    l'aiguille," and others.


  117.

  [Sidenote: 1784. _Nuremberg and Leipzig. Christoph Weigel._]

  Neues Neta- und Strickbuch fur das schöne Geschlecht, worinnen allerhand
  Zierrathen, wie auch viele neue Zwickel, nebst Buchstaben und Zahlen,
  sowohl zum Nähen als Stricken in zierlichen Nissen und Mustern befindlich
  sind. Mit vielen Kupfertafeln. Nürnberg und Leipzig, der Christoph Weigel
  und Schneider. 1784.[1370]


  {502}118.

  [Sidenote: _N. D. Nuremberg. F. M. Helmin._]

  Continuation der kunst- und fleisz-übenden Nadel-Ergötzung oder des neu
  ersonnenen besondern Nehe-Buchs dritter Theil, worinnen fleiszige
  Liebhaberinnen deeser nöthig und nützlichen Wissenchaft, ihr kunstliches
  Nadel-Exercitium, beij unterschiedlich vorfallenden Belegenheiten zu
  haben allerhand noch nie vorgeko[=m]ene Muster zu Deso gebrauch, vorlegt
  und en die Hand gegeben werden von Fr. Margaretha Helmin, zu finden in
  Nürnberg bei Joh. Christoph Weigel. Nürnburg. No date.[1371]

    Oblong fol.


  119.

  [Sidenote: _N. D. Nuremberg. J. Chr. Weigel._]

  Zierlich webende Minerva, oder neu erfundenes Kunst- und Bild-Buch der
  Weber- und Zeichner-Arbeit, worinnen treue Anweisung geschieht, wie man
  kunstlich wirken und schöne Arbeit verfertigen soll, von der
  vierschäfftigen an, bis auf zwey und dreissig-schafftige. Nurnberg
  (Johann Christoph Weigel). No date.[1372]

    49 plates in sheets.



{503}GLOSSARY OF TERMS.


_Bars._ See _Brides_.

_Bead Edge._ A simple heading for pillow lace.

_Bobbins._ Small elongated wooden or bone reels on which the thread is
wound for the purpose of lace-making. They are frequently ornamented with
patterns pricked or stained, and polished. They are weighted with "gingles"
or "jingles" (_i.e._, beads, coins, seals, seeds, or various articles).

_Brides._ A small strip or connection (1) of threads overcast with
buttonhole stitches, or (2) of twisted or plaited threads. It is used
instead of a ground-work of net; the word is French, its English equivalent
being _pearl-tie_. The French word is chiefly employed.

_Brides ornées_ = brides ornamented with picots, loops, or pearls.

_Buttonhole Stitch._ One of the chief stitches in needle-made lace; also
known as _close stitch_, _Point noué_, and _Punto a Feston_.

_Cartisane._ A strip of parchment or vellum covered with silk or gold or
metal thread, used to form a pattern.

_Close Stitch_ = Buttonhole stitch.

_Cordonnet._ The outline to ornamental forms. The cordonnet consists (1) of
a single thread, or (2) of several threads worked together to give the
appearance of one large thread, or (3) of a thread or horsehair overcast
with buttonhole stitches. In England called _gimp_.

_Couronnes._ Ornaments to the cordonnet. When they ornament the raised
cordonnet in the body of the pattern they are known as _fleurs volantes_.

_Coxcombs_ = Bars.

_Dentélé_ = Scalloped border.

_Droschel._ Flemish word used in Belgium for net-ground made with bobbins.

_Dressed Pillow._ A term used by bobbin-lace makers to intimate that all
accessories necessary are in their proper positions.[1373]

{504}_Edge._ There are two edges to lace; the outer, which in trimmings and
flounces is either scalloped or ornamented with picots, and the _engrêlure_
or _footing_.

_Engrêlure_ = Footing, or heading, of a lace, used to sew the lace on to
the material it is to decorate.

_Entoilage._ French term for a plain mesh ground or galloon.[1374]

_Fil de Crin._ A thick or heavy outline or cordonnet.[1374]

_Fil de Trace._ The name by which the outlines of needle-made laces are
distinguished.[1374]

_Fillings._ A word occasionally used for _modes_ or _jours_; fancy stitches
employed to fill in enclosed spaces in needle-made and bobbin laces.[1374]

_Flax._ Is composed of the filaments of the fibrous portion of _Linum
usitatissimum_, an annual, native of Europe, and from it linen thread is
spun. That of Flanders is the best for lace-making.

_Fleurs Volantes._ See _Couronnes_.

_Fond._ Identical with _champ_, _entoilage_, and _treille_. The groundwork
of needle-point or bobbin lace as distinct from the toilé or pattern which
it surrounds and supports. Grounds are divided into _fonds claires_,
_brides claires_, and _brides ornées_. The _fond claires_ include the
_Réseau_ or net-patterned grounds. _Fond de Neige_ is also known as _Oeil
de Perdrix_.

_Fond Simple._ Sometimes called _Point de Lille_; is the purest, lightest,
and most transparent of all grounds. The sides of the meshes are not partly
plaited as in Brussels and Mechlin, nor wholly plaited as in Valenciennes
and Chioggia; but four of the sides are formed by twisting two threads
round each other, and the remaining two sides by simply crossing of the
threads over each other. [See _Grounds_.][1374]

_Footing._ See _Engrêlure_.

_Gimp._ The _pattern_ which rests on the ground or is held together by
brides. The work should not, however be confounded with the material gimp,
which was formerly called _guipure_.

In Honiton and the Midlands, the word denotes the coarse glazed thread used
to raise certain edges of the design.[1374]

_Gingles._ A name given in Buckinghamshire, etc., to the bunches of
coloured beads hung on to bobbins by means of brass wire, in order to give
extra weight and so increase the tension of the threads.[1374]

{505}_Groppo_ [Italian]. A knot or tie.

_Grounds._ The grounds of laces are divided into two classes, one being
called the _bride_, the other the _Réseau_. The _bride_ ground is formed
with plain or ornamental bars, in order to connect the ornaments forming
the pattern. The _Réseau_ ground is a net made with the needle or with
bobbins, to connect the ornaments forming the pattern.

_Guipure._ A lace-like trimming of twisted threads. The word is now used to
loosely describe many laces of coarse pattern. _Guipure d'Art_ is the name
given to modern darned netting.[1375]

_Heading_ = _Footing_, _engrêlure_.

_Jours._ Ornamental devices occurring in various parts of a piece of lace.
The earliest forms of _jours_ may be seen in Venetian point lace, where
they are introduced into the centre of a flower or other such device.
[_Modes_ are identical with _jours_.]

_Legs_ = Bars.

_Mat_, or _Math_. The closely-plaited portions of flowers or leaves in
bobbin-made lace; also the closely-worked portion of any lace.[1375]

_Modes._ See _Jours_.

_Oeil de Perdrix._ See _Fond_.

_Orris._ A corruption of Arras. The term is now used to denote galloon for
upholstering purposes. In the eighteenth century it was applied to laces of
gold and silver.[1375]

_Passement._ Until the seventeenth century, laces, bands, and gimps were
called _passements à l'aiguille_; bobbin laces, _passements au fuseau_. At
present the word denotes the pricked pattern on parchment upon which both
needle-point and bobbin laces are worked.

_Passementerie._ Now used for all kinds of fringes, ribbons, and gimp for
dress trimmings.

_Pearls_, or _Purls_ = _Bars_.

_Pearl edge_, or _Purl edge_. A narrow thread edge of projecting loops used
to sew upon lace as a finish to the edge.[1375]

_Pearlin_, or _Pearling_ [Scotch]. Lace.

_Picot._ Minute loops worked on to the edge of a _bride_ or _cordonnet_, or
added as an enrichment to a flower--as in the case of rose point, in which
_picots_ play an important part.

{506}_Pillow Lace._ Lace made on the pillow, by twisting and plaiting
threads. The French term is _dentelle au fuseau_.

_Pizzo_ [Italian]. Lace.

_Ply_ = A single untwisted thread.

_Point Lace._ Lace made with the point of the needle. The French term is
_Point à l'aiguille_. The term point has been misused to describe varieties
of lace, such as _Point d'Angleterre_, _Point de Malines_, etc., which are
laces made on the pillow, and not with the point of the needle.

_Point de Raccroc._ A stitch used by lace-makers to join _réseau_ ground.

_Point Noué_ = Buttonhole stitch.

_Point Plat._ A French term for flat point executed without a raised
cordonnet or outline cord.[1376]

_Pricked._ The term used in pillow lace-making to denote the special
marking out of the pattern upon parchment.

_Pricker._ A short instrument used in bobbin lace to prick holes in the
pattern to receive the pins.[1376]

_Punto a Feston_ = Buttonhole stitch.

_Purls_ = _Brides_.

_Purlings_ = A stitch used in Honiton guipure to unite the bobbin-made
sprigs.[1376]

_Réseau._ Ground of small regular meshes made on the pillow in various
manners, and made by the point of the needle in fewer and less elaborate
manners. The French term, as here given, is generally used in preference to
any English equivalent.

_Réseau Rosacé._ See _Argentella_ (Ch. ARGENTAN).

_Rouissage._ The process of steeping the flax preparatory to its being spun
for lace-making.

_Rezél_, _Reseuil._ See LACIS, Chap. II.

_Runners._ The name by which the bobbins which work across a pattern in
bobbin lace are known.

_Sam cloth._ Old name for a sampler.



{507}INDEX


  Aberdeen, qualifications of schoolmistress of, 431 n1209

  Aberdein, Mrs. Frank, cited, 400 n1140

  Abrahat, Mrs., pensioned by Queen Anne, 347

  Abrantès, Duchesse d', 105, 128 n343, 185 n542, 186 and n545, 237 n638

  Abruzzi, the, lace-making in, 68

  Addison, cited, 349

  Addo, Marquis d', 459 n1264

  Adelaide, Queen, 409 and n1155, n1156

  Adélaïde de France, 182

  Adelhaïs, Queen (wife of Hugh Capet), 5

  Agriculture, women employed in, lace-makers contrasted with, 370

  Aquesseau, Chancellor d', quoted, 264

  Alb lace, at Granada, 92

  Albert, Archduke of Austria, 113 n326

  ------ Museum (Exeter), tallies in, 78 n242

  Albissola, lace manufacture at, 75, 77 and n240, 78, 79 and n246

  Alcuid, embroidery taught by, 6

  Alenches, 249

  Alençon
    numbers of lace-workers at Chantilly and, (1851), 257 n688,
    refugees from, in 18th century, 347

  --------, Duke d', 140 n395

  -------- lace (see Point d'Alençon)

  Alice, Princess, bridal dress of, 409

  Almagro, lace industry at, 102 and n297, 103 n305

  Aloe thread, Florentine use of, 93 n273

  ---- thread lace
    Greek, 86
    Italian, 79 and n245
    Portuguese, 107
    Spanish, 91, 93, 99, 101

  Alost Valenciennes, ground stitch of, 133

  Altar-cloths,
    alternate designs on, 24
    Bock collection, in, 23
    Prague, at (by Anne of Bohemia), 9

  Altar frontal in point conté, (Mrs. Hailstone's), 23

  Altenburg, 268

  Alva, Duke of, 366 n1085

  Alvin, M., 480 n1322

  Amelia, Princess, 128

  America,
    impulse given to lace industry by U.S., 187
    lace imported to, from--
      Bailleul, 241
      England (baby lace) 385
      Grammont, 134
      Italy, 75, 79
      Mirecourt, 253
      Portugal, 106
      Saxony, 263
      Spain, 102
    Puritan lace-makers in, 372 n1099
    war with, effect of, on lace trade, 408

  Amsterdam, establishment of lace fabric at, 259

  Anderson, quoted, 74, 83, 101, 124, 271,288, 371 n1093, 384, 396;
    cited, 264 n709, 265 n713, 286, 397

  --------, Lady, robbery at house of, 346

  Angoulême, Duchesse d', 196

  Anne of Austria,
    influence of, on French fashions, 147, 150
    Mechlin veil of, 125-126 and n356
    pattern-book dedicated to, 144, 498
    pilgrimage to Thierzac, 248
    presents of English lace from Henrietta Maria to, 330 and n961, 401

  ---- of Bohemia, Queen (wife of Richard II.), altar-cloth by, 9

  ---- of Denmark,
    cost of lace of, 317 and n904, 320 and n925
    Elizabeth's old clothes presented to, 320
    English home industries encouraged by, 319
    foreign lace purchased by, 327
    funeral of, 325 and n934

  ---- of England (Queen Anne)
    household management of, 174 n516
    Mechlin lace of, 126 and n360
    period of, 347-350

  Anspach, 265

  --------, Margrave of, 178

  Anti-Gallican Society
    Edinburgh and Dublin Societies contemporaneous with, 429
    prizes awarded by, 119, 262, 297, 355 and n1058, 374 and nn, 380, 395,
      398, 404
    records of, cited, 373

  Antwerp
    book sale at (1864), 482
    Brussels lace made at, 130
    Mechlin lace made at, 125
  -------- lace
    arrêt concerning (1688), 129 n365
    Brussels lace compared with, 118
    first mention of, 129 and n367
    Spanish market for, 129-130

  -------- lace-makers, in London (1618-1688), 129 n366

  Anzola, M., 474

  Application lace, 122;
    flowers, 252

  Appliqueuse, work of, 122

  Aprons, laced, 309 and n873, 338, 356 and n1062

  Aranda, Madame d', 98 n280

  Arbroath, effigy formerly in church of, 418

  Ardee, braid and cord lace made at, 446

  Ardfert Abbey, lace shroud found at, 436

  Argentan, 202 and n569

  -------- lace. _See_ Point d'Argentan

  Argentella, 78 n244, 193 and n555

  Argentine of Dorset, 310 n877

  Argyle, Duchess of. _See_ Hamilton

  Armada pattern lace of Queen Charlotte, 397

  Armstrong, Mrs. Rachel, 438

  Arnold, E., cited, 466, 469 n1286, 471 n1299

  Arras
    early industries of, 239
    gold lace of, 240
    lace industry of, 238-240
    lace of, compared with that of Lille, 235, 240;
      with that of Mirecourt, 252
    number of lace workers (1851), 257 n688

  Arundel, Countess of, 12

  --------, Lady, quoted, 395

  Assizes, Maiden, custom of presenting laced gloves at, 337 n991

  Asti, Baroness A. d', 79

  Athens, white silk lace of, 86

  Atterbury, Bishop, lace smuggled in coffin of, 361

  Auberville, M. Dupont, exhibits by, 58;
    cited, 78

  Aubry, Felix, quoted, 132 n376, 160 n466, 228 n614, 231, 257 n688;
    cited, 184, 285, 292

  Audiganne, A., cited, 228 n614

  Augsburg, 266, 267

  Augusta, Princess, marriage of, 359

  Aumale, Madame d', 183

  Aurillac, 154, 246-250

  Austria
    Albert Archduke, 113 n326
    Anne of. _See_ Anne
    lace of, 268

  Auto-da-fè, lace worn at, 100

  Auvergne
    ancient names preserved in, 246 n658
    lace exhibited (1867), 246
    Maltese guipures made in, 88
    mignonette made in (1665), 35
    number of lace-makers in (1851), 257 n688
    petition of lace-makers in (1767), 64
    thread used in, 245

  --------, Mgr. de la Tour d', 183

  Auvray, quoted, 224 n611

  Avaux, M. le Comte d', 155

  Avrillion, Mlle., 177 n526;
    cited, 184 n541

  Axmouth, lace-workers of, 409 n1157

  Aylesbury, lace industry of, 378, 379

  Baby lace, 385

  Babylon, embroidery of, 3

  Backhouse, James, 300

  Bacon, Lord, 318

  Baden, Princess of, 178

  Bailey's Dictionary, quoted, 303 n830

  Bailleul, 241 and n647, 257 n688

  Baillie, James, 432

  Baker, Robert, 437

  Baldachino in Italian lace, 66

 "Ballad of Hardyknute" quoted, 24

  Bamberg, collection of German Point at, 267

  Bampton, Mr., 343

  Bands
    Falling. _See_ Falling Bands
    Lawyers', 337

  Bannatyne, James, 422

  Baptism ceremony, excess of lace at, 352 n1046

  Barante, M. de, cited, 111

  Barbara, Princess of Portugal (1729), 105

  Barbes, 168 n496, 180 and n533

  ------ pleines, 234 and n627, n628

  Barcelona,
    lace industry of, 91, 101 and n294, 103 n305
    pillows used at, 103 n305
    silk of, used in Maltese lace-making, 88;
      used for blondes, 103

  Bard, William, 403

  Barleycorn net, 448

  Barry, Madame Du. _See_ du Barry

  Bars, Genoese lace joined by, 74, 75 n236

  Baseus, N., 470

  Basing, lace purchased at, by Anne of Denmark, 320

  Basset, Anne, 290

  ------, Mary, 291

  Bassompierre, 142

  Bath and West of England Society, 410 and n1159

  Bath Brussels lace, 405

  Baucher, Canon, 226

  Bauta, 57 and n193

  Bavari, 55

  Bavaria, Queen of, 421

  Bavière, Isabeau de, 139 n393

  Bay, Rudolf, 274

  Bayeux,
    black lace of, 214, 226
    Chantilly shawls made at, 215
    lace industry, establishment of, 226;
      Lefébure's development of, 228;
      number of lace-makers engaged in, 228 n614
    mignonette made at (1665), 35 n109
    point d'Alençon of, 200
    point de Marli of, 225 and n613
    point de raccroc of, 120
    Spanish silk laces contrasted with those of, 103
    Tapestry, 6

  Bayman, Mrs., 107

  Bayonne, linen work of (1679), 79 n248

  Beale, Mrs., thefts from, 349

  Bearing cloths, 309 and n871

  Beau Nash on aprons, 356

  Beaucaire, fair at, 43 n136

  Beaufort, Duchesse of, edicts ignored by, 142;
    extracts from inventory of, 143 and n413, n414, n415.

  Beauharnais, Eugène, 123 n351

  Beaumont and Fletcher, quoted, 292 n788, 296 and n805, 315 and n896, 324,
      363 n1070, 365

  Beauregard, 248 and n664

  Becket, Thomas à, 202 and n569

  Beckford, quoted, 90, 98 n280

  Beckmann, quoted, 92 n267

  Bedford, number of lace-makers in, 377

  --------, Lady, 320

  --------, Duke of, 360

  --------, Lord, 348

  Bedfordshire lace, 88, 375-377, 385

  Beds, lace trimmings for, 27 n84, 98 and n280

  Beer (Devon), lace-workers at, 409 and n1157, 416 n1169, 417 and n1171

  Beggars' lace, 34

  Béguinage, 126, 130, 133

 "Bèle, Prerie," 144

  Belev lace, 283

  Belgium (See also Flanders and Brabant)
    lace industry (_See also_ Antwerp, Brussels etc.)
      application exported to France, annual value of, 252
      centres of, before 1665, 44 n144
      development of, 138
      female education in, 112-113
      guipures made by, 410
      importance of, 112 and n324
      numbers employed in (1861), 112
      pillow lace. _See_ Valenciennes
      Valenciennes industry transferred to, 232
    lace schools in, 113-115
    linens and flax of, 405-407
    pedlar lace-sellers in, 44 and n143
    smuggling lace of, into France, 116
    thread, fineness of, 119 n339
    weaving of lace in fourteenth century in, 109

  Bell, Mrs., old lace of, 384

  Bellière, M. de la, 130 and n368

  Bellini, lace in picture by, 47

  Ben, Miss Mary, 398

  Beni Hassan, figures at, 1

  Beresford, Lord John George, 443

  Berkeley, Bishop, quoted, 371 n1092

  Berlin, number of lace fabrics in (_circ._ 1685), 264

  Bernhardi, N. R., cited, 497 n1359

  Berry lace industry, 256

  Berthe (mother of Charlemagne), 5

  Bertin, Mlle., 181

  Bertini, Cav., 462 n1270

  Bess of Hardwick, 11

  Béziers, Bishop of, 154, 155

  Bible printed by Quentell, 460

  Bidney, Miss Jane, 409

  Bigazzi, M., 468 n1293, 471 n1300

  Billament lace, 48 and n159, 299 and n817

  Binche, royal edict concerning, 135 and n381

  ------ lace, 118, 135 and n383, 136, 212

  Bindoni, G. A., 471

  Bingham, Lady, 439

  Bisette (bizette), 33 and n102, 210, 256

  Bishops, denouncement of ruffs by, 316-317;
    ruffs worn by, 318

  Black lace
    Caen fabric, 225
    Caen, Bayeux and Chantilly, similarity of fabrics of, 226
    Calvados, 223
    Chantilly fabric, 212-215 and n584, 226
    East Flanders fabric, 134
    England, imported to, from Low Countries, 117 n330;
      fashion introduced into, 153 n444;
      Lille fabric popular in, 237
    fond d'Alençon, ground, 214
    France, fashion introduced into, 153-154
    Le Puy fabric, 245
    Liège fabric, 137 n391
    Lille fabric, 236, 237
    loom-made, 432 n1212
    masks of, 177
    Saxony fabric, 263
    Turin, at court of, 153 n445

  Blanche of Lancaster, 285 n755

  Blandford, lace industry of, 344, 396 and nn, 397 n1134

  Blessington, Countess of, lace collection of, 369

  Blois, Mlle. de, 161-162 and n472

  Blonde de fil, 34 and n108, 237

  Blonde-workers, wages of, 225

  Blondes
    Almagro, at, 102 n297
    Barcelona silk used for, 103
    Caen, of, 224
    Catalonian, 102
    England, introduction of manufacture into, in George II.'s time, 356;
      made at Sherborne, 397
    French court, at, 182
    Genoese manufacture of, 75
    Le Puy, of, 245
    Spanish, 103 n305
    Vélay, of, 244
    white, 214

  Bobbin lace (_See also_ Pillow lace)
    Belgian, 123
    bobbins used for, 296 n798
    pillow lace a term for, 32
    point duchesse, 123
    royal inventories, mentioned in, 295 n797
    value of, per oz. (Queen Elizabeth's time), 295 n797

  ------ net
    English machine-made, 447-450
    France, first made in, 187

  Bobbins
    description of, 32, 33, 295 n795, 391 and n1127
    Honiton, at, 415 n1166
    long, used for bobbin lace, 296 n798
    materials used for, 32, 74 n235
    number of, 33 n101
    Peniche, at, 106 n314

  Bock, Dr., collection of, 23 and n74, 24

  Boenen, G., 311

  Bohemia, modern lace of, 262

  Boileau, quoted, 159

  Boislaunay, Epoux Malbiche de, 206

  _Boke of Curtasye_, quoted, 290

  Bolbec lace, 218

  Bolingbroke, Lord, 351

  Bologna, lace-making at, 68, 81 n248

  Bonald, Cardinal de, 183

  Bone, bobbins made of, 74 n235

  ---- lace
    bobbin lace distinguished from, 296 n798
    explanation of term, 400

  ---- pins (_See also_ Bobbins), 295 n795

  Bone-work, why so called, 294

  Bonzy, Monseigneur de, 154-155

  Books, parchment patterns on covers of, 77

  Boot tops, 145, 150

  Bordeaux fair, 43 n136

  Borlase, Sir Henry, 378.

  Bosse, Abraham, engravings by, 146, 147, 149

  Bottles used as light reflectors, 390 and n1125

  Boufflers, Governor, 236.

  Bourbon, Catherine de, 144, 482, 494

  --------, Duchesse de, extracts from the inventory of, 120 n344, 125
      n354, 128 n364, 162 n475, 168 n496, 169 n497, 174 n519, 195 n560

  Bourg-Argental, 224

  Bourges, 5, 256

  --------, Archbishop of, 118 and n336

  Bourgogne, Duc de, 99 n283

  Bowdon, Miss, 417

  Bowen, Emanuel, quoted, 405

  Bowes, Sir Robert, 38, 298

  Bowie, J., 430 n1207

  Bowll, William, 308.

  Boys as lace-makers, 263, 377, 413, 414

  Brabant (_See also_ Belgium)
    lace-workers from, settled at Tönder, 274
    point de Sedan, attributed to, 254

  Brabant lace. _See_ Brussels, Mechlin, etc.

  Braid, lace a term used for, 26

  ------ lace (Devonshire), 414 n1156

  ------ and cord lace, 446.

  Braidwork, in imitation of Spanish point, 410 and n1159

  Branscombe, lace-workers of, 409 n1138

  Brazil, lace of, 108.

  Brazza, Contessa di, cited, 71 n222, 75 n237, 78 n244;
    quoted, 75 n236;
    lace school under direction of, 81 n248

  Bremen, refusal of, to receive strangers, 264

  Brennar, Mr., 442 n1232

  Brereton, Miss Elinor, 438

  Bretagne, 229 and n617

  Bretschneider, A., 496

  Briattes, Jean-Ph., 225 n613

  Bribes of lace, 351 n1045

  Bridal veils, 78

  Bride ground. _See_ Argentan ground.

  ------ lace, 302 and n829

  Brides
    definition of, 31 and n91
    Milanese lace, in, 75 n237
    Spanish point, in, 58
    thread guipures, in, 39, 40
    _vrai réseau_ the successor of, 406

  Bridgewater Baptist Church, manifesto of, 403 and n1144

 "Britannia Languens" (1680), cited, 54 and n183, 192

  Brittany, 229 and n617

  Brithnoth, exploits of, in embroidery, 6

  Broderie des Indes, 229

  -------- de Malines. _See_ Mechlin lace

  Brooks, Mr., speech of, quoted, 329.

  Brotherton, Mr., invention of lace loom by, 432 n1212

  Brown, Rawdon, cited, 345 n1025

  Bruce, Mr. Collingwood, cited, 6

  Bruges
    collection of lace at, 138
    export trade with France, value of, 241
    guipure de Flandres of, 123, 133
    Valenciennes made at, character of, 232 n624

  Brunet, H., cited, 161 n472, 236 n633, 459, 461, 476;
    quoted, 466

  Brunfaut, M. Duhayon, 131 and n374

  Brussels lace
    Alençon, 200
    application, rivalry of Mirecourt, 252
    arrêt concerning (1688), 129 n365
    branches of industry, 123
    Brussels the only place for, 118
    colour of, 121
    compared with--
      Alençon, 199;
      Binche, 135;
      Lille, 237;
      point de France, 194;
      St. Trond, 137;
      Saxony needle point, 263
    Cretan mesh work compared with, 87
    designing of, 122
    English Court fashion for, in George II.'s time, 354
    exported as "English point," 117
    flowers of, 121
    grounds of, 120;
      Mechlin ground distinguished from, 125
    Honiton imitations of, 405, 406, 410
    made at Antwerp, 130;
      at Chimay, 135
    manufacture described, 31, 118, 119;
      titles of workers of various processes in, 122
    Marie Louise, Empress, presented with, 124
    patterns of, 122;
      date of earliest patterns, 116
    point de Bruxelles. _See_ Point d'Angleterre
    popular establishment for English buyers, 124
    price per pound, 119 n339;
      causes of high price, 118, 119;
      comparative cost of ground, 120;
      price of flounce of, 124 n352
    thread used in, 118 and n338;
      fineness of 119 n339
    value of, from one pound of flax, 120;
      intrinsic value of, 124 n352
    veil of, presented to Empress Josephine, 123 n351;
      smuggled, 361
    Venetian wear of, 57 and n192

  -------- -lace-makers, point de raccroc of, 120

  -------- net, 120 n345

  Bruyel, Nicholas de, 111

  Buckingham, Duchess of, 345 n1024

  Buckinghamshire lace, 378-383;
    value of, 402

  Buffon, ruffles of, 173

  Bulgarini, Francesea, 68 and n213

  Bullock, Consul, quoted, 89

  Bunt lace, 428

  Buoy, lace seized in, 360 n1066

  Burano
    Alençon point made at, 62, 200
    Argentan made at, 62, 208
    English thread used at, 394 n1128
    number of lace-workers at, 394 n1128
    revival of lace industry at, 58-62

  Burato, 53

  Burgoigne, 205 n573, 216 n594

  Burgundy, lace industry of, 255 and n684, n685;
    lace-makers from, in London, 373

  --------, Duke of (Charles the Bold), 111

  --------, Dukes of, inventory of, quoted, 82

  --------, Duchess of, 167 n492

  Burke, Patrick, 323

  Burnet, Bishop, quoted, 13

  Burnham (Buckinghamshire), lace industry of, 379

  Burning of badly-spun yarn, 432 and n1211

  Butterfly and acorn design, 308, 408

  Byas, 299 and n815

  Byzantine Empire, origin of lace traced to, 45

  Cabanillas, cited, 102

  Cadenetas, 95

  Calderwood, Mrs., cited, 127, 431;
    quoted, 118 and n337, 137, 260;
    Dresden ruffles of, 262

  Caen
    black lace of, 226
    blonde lace of, patterns, 224;
      quality, 224;
      rise and fall of industry, 225
    Chantilly industry outrivalled by, 215;
      Chantilly made at, 224
    number of lace-makers employed in (1847), 225;
      (after 1848), 228 n614
    price of lace of, 224

  Cahanet, 226

  Calais, machine-made blondes of, 225

  Calepino, T., 474

  Callot, engravings of, 146

  Calthorpe, Lady, 37, 297

  Calvados lace industry, 213, 223, 226, 228 and n614, 257 n688

  Cambray, Archbishop of, 173 and n508

  Cambrensis, Giraldus, cited, 435

  Cambury, Lord, 403

  Campan, Mme. de, 180 n533

  Campane, 34 and n104, n106, 51

  Campanner, 343 n1017

  Campany, cited, 99

  Campos, Father Fr. Marcos Antonio de, quoted, 95

  Candy, thread lace from, 38

  Canetille, 36

 "Canons," 153 and n441

  Canossa, Contessa, 469

  Cant, Miss Anne, 430 n1207

  Cantor Lectures on the Art of Lace-making, cited, 2 n7

  Cantu, lace-making at, 66, 80

  Capefigue, quoted, 166

  Card-sharping aided by ruffles, 171, 351

  Cardinals, 356 and n1059

  Cardwell, Mr., 384

  Carew, Sir G., 308 n870

  Carpaccio, lace in pictures of, 47

  Carpentier, Madame, 226

  Carrêno, lace rare in paintings of, 98

  Carrickmacross, lace industry at, 440

  Carrouges, 206

  Cartisan, 36

  Cary, John, quoted, 849 n1325

  Castanaga, M. de, 167

  Castlebar, lace industry at, 439

  Catalonia, blonde made at, 101;
    blonde mantillas of, 88, 226

  Catgut lace, 343, 430 n1207

  Catherine de Bourbon, 144, 482, 494

  ---------- of Braganza, 43 n137

  ---------- de Médecis,
    bed of, 22
    bizette of, 33 n102
    Florentine lace probably introduced into France by, 67
    lace-making at court of, 140 and n395
    needlework of, 11
    Vinciolo patronised by, 11, 17

  Cattern's Day, 376

  Cauellat, Veuve, 476

  Cavenne, Citoyen, 137 n390

  Cayette, V. P., cited, 140 n397

  Cecil, letter from, regarding French tailors, quoted, 307

  Cecyll, Richard, 291

  Celle, D., 466

  Cephalonia, Ionian lace at, 86

  Cerceau, A. du, 476

  Ceylon, pillow-laces of, 88

  Challus, Anne, 184 n540

  Chambrières, 8

  Champagne, lace industry of, 253-255

  Chandos, infant daughter of Duke of, 352 n1046

  --------, Lady, 294 n791, 297 n811, 307 n862, 308 n867

  Channel Islands, lace industry in, 372 n1098

  Channon, Miss Mary, 398

 "Chansons a toile", 8 and n29

  Chantilly
    number of lace-workers at Alençon and, (1851), 257 n688
      point tresse made at, 314

  ---------- lace
    black, 226
    Caen manufacture of, 224
    Genoese imitation of, 75
    industry of, 212-215
    Saxony lace compared with, 263
    Spanish silk laces contrasted with, 103
    Spanish and Portuguese imitation of, 106

  Charles I. (England)
    Carisbrook clothing expenses of, 372 n1097
    carpet bag trimmings of, 38, 298
    extravagance of, 326, 327 and n950, 328
    Great Wardrobe Account, quoted, 253 and n678, n679, 205 n612
    marriage accounts, 296
    period of, 326-332
    picture catalogue of, cited, 296

  --------  II. (England)
    Collobium sindonis of, 335 and n981
    Flanders lace, importation of, prohibited by, 125
    foreign lace imported by, 336 and n985
    period of, 335-339
    silver parchment lace of, 38, 298 and n841

  --------, Prince (England), accounts of, cited, 322, 325 n940, n941

  -------- V. (Belgium)
    cap of, 113
    lace-making encouraged by, 113
    portrait of, in Quentell's pattern book, 459

  -------- VIII. (France), 139 n393

  -------- IX. (Sweden), 279

  -------- X., 143 n412

  -------- the Bold, 111

  Charleville lace, 183 n539, 254 and n680

  Charlotte, Queen
    Armada pattern lace of, 397
    British lace worn by, 363, 398
    favourite lace of, 128
    lace industry started by, 374
    sponsor to children of aristocracy, 352 n1046

  Charmouth, lace-workers at, 395

  Charollais, Mlle. de,
    inventory of, quoted, 125 n353, 129 n364, 162 n475, 175 n520, 135
    ruffles of, 233 n626

  Chat, 181 and n536

  Château de Madrid, lace factory at, 158, 210 and n584

  -------- -Renaud lace, 254

  -------- -Thierry, lace industry at, 157 n459, 253

  Châtel-sur-Moselle, 251 and n671

  Châtelain, Simon, 100 and n287

  ----------, Zacharie, 259

  Chaucer, quoted, 15 and n50

  Chaumont, 251 n673

  Chauvin, Pierre, 230

  Cheney, lace industry at, 384

  Chesterfield, Lord, quoted, 358

  Cheveux de la reine, 181 and n535

  Chevreuse, Madame de, 168

  Cheyne lace, 438

  Chiavari
    _Macramé_ of, 79
    tape guipure of, 75

  Chicago Exhibition. _See under_ Exhibitions

  Chichester, Lady Hamilton, 87 and n262

  Chick, Mrs., 407 n1153

  Chigi-Giovanelli, Princess, 61

  Children as lace-makers, 103 n305, 107, 155, 209, 377, 438

  Chili lace, 108

  Chimay lace, 134-135

  China
    drawn work of, 46
    silk lace not in demand in, 89

  ------, lace exchanged for, 349

  Choïsy, Abbé de, 167

  Christening shirts of Queen Elizabeth's reign, 308 and n872

  Christian IV. of Denmark, 68, 272-274

  Christina, Queen, 73 n230

  Church of England
    appointment of parsons of, for reform of lace-making abuses, 331
    inventories of, lace mentioned in, 293
    ruffs worn by Bishops, 318;
      sermons against ruffs, 316

  ------ of France, extravagance of prelates (Louis XVI.), 182-183

  Churchill, Lord, 403

  Cibber, Colley, cited, 344 n1021

  Cicognara, Count, 467 and n1286

  Ciglia family, Maltese lace made by, 88

  Cinq Mars, boots and collarette of, 145

  Ciprioto, 82 n252

  Cistercians, 7

 "City Match," quoted, 324

  Clarke, Jane, 443 n1233

  Claver, Alice, 288

  Clayton, Sir Thomas, accounts of, quoted, 350

  Clement VII., Pope, 62

  -------- IX., Pope, 70

  -------- X., Pope, 172 n505

  Clément, M., 226

  Clermont, Mlle. de, inventory of, quoted 128 n363, 195 n560, 207 n578

  Clonard Abbey, effigy in, 437 n1222

  Clones, lace and crochet industry of, 445

  Cluny, Musée de, punto a relievo in, 51

  ------ lace
    Le Puy Fabric, 246 n659
    Mirecourt fabric, 252

  Coccolia, lace school at, 81 n249

  Cochon, cited, 256 n686

  Cock (fontange), 423

  ----, Hieronymus, 493 n1354

  Cockscombes, 344

  Code Michaud, 148

  Coggeshall (Essex), lace made at, 441 n1230

  Coigny, Duchesse de, 123 n351

 "Col rabattu," 145

  Colbert, Chevalier
    Aurillac lace of, 248
    chief director of trade, 158 n461
    death of, 192
    development of lace industry by, 154;
      extract from letter to M. le Comte d'Avaux, 155
    difficulties in establishing lace factories, 158 and n461, n462
    fabrics attempted by, 255, 256
    fabrics established by, at
      Arras, 239 and n644
      Aurillac, 247
      Château de Madrid, 158, 210 n584
      Le Quesnoy, 230
      Loudun, 256
    Huguenots protected by, 100
    inventory of, quoted, 218 n596, 259 n692
    Mazarin, correspondence with, concerning lace, referred to, 150-151
    ordinance of, 54
    point d'Alençon established by, 188
    points de France, established by, 33, 111
    Raffy, Madame, letter from, quoted, 202

  Colbertine, 337, 339 and n996, n997, n998

  Colchester, complaints of, regarding foreign lace-makers, 324 n935

  Cole, A. S.
    cited, 91-92 and n268, 446 n1236;
      quoted, 193 n555, 203 n570
    Kinsale lace revival due to, 442 and n1232

  Collaert, engraving by, 109 n319

  Collars, hunting, 328

  Collectors of lace, 364

  Cologne pattern book, 268

  Colombière, Vulson de la, quoted, 73, 149 and n435

  Colporteurs, lace sold by, 44 and n142, n143

  Colyton
    military thieves at, 403
    tomb in church of, 403 n1145

  Commode. _See_ Fontange

  Commonwealth, the, needlework in the time of, 13

  Compas lace, 297 and n809

  Compton, Lord, cited, 296 n800

  Conclave, the holy, laces of, 70

  Condé, Princesse de, inventory of, quoted, 125 n355, 161 n468, 168 n496,
      169 n497, 174 n519, n520, 195 n558

  Congreve, cited, 344 n1021;
    quoted, 339

  Contarini, Lucretia, 476, 484

  Conti, Prince de,
    marriage-toilette of, 161-162 and n472
    point d'Aurillac cloak of, 248

  Contrada del Pizzo, 59

  Connet, lace trade at, 270.

  Cooke, quoted, 414

  Copper lace (St. Martin's), 331 n965

  Coral point, 51

  Coralline, Point de Venise copied from, 49-50

  Cordonnet, 87, 406, 408

  Corfu, Greek lace made at, 85

  Cork, crochet industry of, 444, 445

 "Corona" of Vecellio. _See_ Vecellio

  Cotgrave, quoted, 33 n102, 36 n112

  Cotton lace, 187

  ------ weaving, at Ghent, 134

  Couronne (picot), 31 and n92

  Courtrai, flax grown at, 118 n338

  -------- lace.  _See under_ Valenciennes lace

  Cousin, Jean, 476

  Couvin lace, 138 n392

  Covenanters, sumptuary enactments of, 424

  Coventry blue, 302

  Cow-houses, lace worked in lofts over, 224

  Cowper, quoted, 364, 370, 379

  Coxcombs, 31

  Cranfield, Sir Lyonell, cited, 324 n934

  Crâponne fabric, 246

  Cravat, laced
    introduction of, 337
    origin of, 42 n135
    stock the successor of, 345

  Creaden, the Queen of, 437 n1223

  Créquy, M. de, 143

  ------, Madame de, quoted, 175

  ------, Marquise de, quoted, 173 n511, 250 and n668

  Crete, lace manufacture of, 86-87

  Crochet, Irish, 444-445

  -------- hook used in Genoese guipures, etc., 74

  -------- needle, used in Punto di Rapallo, 75 n237

  Cromwell, Oliver, dress of, 333, 334

  Crown lace, 299 and n814

  Croïy, Duc de, 366 n1083

  Crusaders, art of lace-making, traced to, 45 n148

  Cuença, 246

  Cuipure (guipure), 37

  Culpepper, Sir John, quoted, 318-319

  Cunningham, quoted, 308 n866

  Curragh point, 443 and n1233

  Curtius, M., 143 and n412

 "Custom of the Country" quoted, 324

  Cut-work
    ecclesiastical use of, 15
    Elizabeth's use of, 303-305
    Italian, 325
    James I.'s time, 322, 325
    lace known as, 2
    name explained, 19
    pall of, used in Dieppe, 25
    Ricci's "Last Supper" depicted in, 79 n248
    smocks adorned with, 25
    toile d'honneur of, use at St. Lo, 25

  Cyprus, needlework of, 82

  d'Abranthès, Duchesse, 105, 128 n343, 185 n542, 186 and n545, 237 n638

  d'Addo, Marquis, 459 n1264, 467 n1287, n1288, 469 n1294, 470, 472, 475,
      476 and n1315, 477

  Daedalian ruffs, 315 and n895

  Daimeries, Mme., quoted, 138 n392

  Dalecarlian lace, 68, 281, 282, 338

  Dalrymple, Miss Jenny, 263

  Dalton, Mother Augustine, 444

  Damer, Mr., 364

  Dammartin lace, 212

  Dangean, quoted, 167, 178

  Dantelle (dentelle), first occurrence of word, 490

  d'Aranda, Madame, 98 n280

  Darned netting, 20, 21

  Dartmouth, Lord, 379

  Dauphin, ceremony at birth of, 162 n474

  Davies, Barber Surgeon, quoted, 70

  Davies' _Epigrams_ quoted, 323 n933

  Davey, Mrs., 409

  Dawson, Mrs., 446 n1235

  de la Motte, Maréchal, 29, 126 and n357

  de Lonlay, Eugène, cited, 208

  de Staël, Madame, 180

  Deaf and dumb, net lace used by, in Sardinia, 81 n248

  Debts for lace, 353 and n1050.

  Decker, T., quoted, 315 n895

  Defoe, quoted, 43 n140, 171 n503, 377 and n1111, 378, 379, 380 and n1119,
      396, 397, 403;
    cited, 344

  Delaney, Mrs., quoted, 120 n344, 121, 355;
    cited, 413 n1161

  Denbert, Bishop of Durham, 6

  Denmark
    cut-work of, 276, 277
    embroidered tulle of, 229
    grave-clothes, lace adorned in, 275, 366 and n1082
    lace industry. (_See also_ Schleswig and Tönder)
      export trade, 274 n736
      lace postmen, 274, 277
      origin of, 272
      protected by Christian IV., 274
      quality of lace, 275
      Wulff's revival of, 276 and n739

  Dennistoun, Mrs., 58-59, 487

  Denny, Lady Arabella, 437, 438 and n1225, 439 and n1227

  Dentelière, work of, 122

  Dentelle, definition of term, 27 and n80

  -------- à la Reine, 259 and n692

  -------- à la Vierge, 220

 "Dépit Amoureux" quoted, 32

  Derby Alice, Countess of, effigy of, 321 n927

  ------, Lady, 342

  ------ rib, 448 n1239

  Derbyshire, pillow lace made in, 393

  Derode, V., quoted, 236 n630, n633

  Desborough, lace industry of, 379

  Desmarquets, cited, 219 n603

  Desmond, Countess of, 437 n1222

  Desnos, Joseph Odolant, quoted, on establishment of point d'Alençon, 155
      n455

  ------, Odolent, quoted, on invention and establishment of point
      d'Alençon, 155-157

  Despierres, Mme., quoted, 157 n457, n458, 159 n464, 195 n557, 204 n571,
      307;
    cited, 192 n552, 203

  d'Este, Madame Anne Bellorio, 61
    family, auctions of, cited, 46

  Devonshire
    bone pins used in, 294
    lace of. _See_ Honiton, Trolly
    villages in, noted for lace-making in 1698, 403 n1143;
      those now engaged in, 403 n1147

  ----------, Duke of, coffin of, searched for lace, 360

  ----------, Duke of, Jacobite lace brought to, 426

  Diamond lace, 299-300 and n818

 "Diarium Vadstenoense" 278

  Didot, F., 487

  Dieppe
    cut-work, pall used in, 25
    lace industry of, 218-220, 223

  ------ lace, 183 n539

  Dieudonné--
    quoted, 225 n613, 231;
    cited 237 n639

  Dijon, Valenciennes made at, 255

  Dike, Ric. 319 n918

  Dinant muslin-work, 138 n392

  Dinghen, Madame, 311

  Doddridge, Lady, effigy of, 405

  Doge's horn in Italian laces, 66

  Dogs as lace-smugglers, 116 and n329

  Dolls dressed in French fashions, 170 and n500, n501

 "Don Quixote," cited, 98 n281

  Donat, Père, 501

  Donchéry lace, 254

  Doran, Dr., anecdote related by, 186

  Dorsetshire lace, 396-398;
    value of, 402

  Dorstats, Madame Catherine von, 497

  Douairière de la Ferté, Duchesse, 175-176

  Double ground, 386

  Douce, Mrs., cited, 500 n1366

  Douglas, Bp., letters of, quoted, 265 and n720

  Dover, refugee lace-makers at, 324 n935

 "Down," 390

  Draper, Mrs., 13

  Drawn-work,
    method of, 25
    Sicilian, 81
    South American, 188
    wire, 72

  Dresden lace, 262, 263, 430 and n1207

  Drocheleuse, work of, 122

  Droschel, 119

  Drouais, 168

  Dryden, quoted, 425

  Du Barry, Madame
    accounts of, quoted, 34 n106, 120 and n341, n343, n344, 126 n356, 129
      n364, 162 n475, 168 n496, 175 n520, 178 n529, 181 n534, 195, 207 and
      n577, 231 and n621, n622, 233 n625, n626
    Indian muslin bought by, 179
    inventories of, quoted, 213 n592, 250 n666, n667

  Du Haillan, 142 n408

  Dublin Society, The, 429, 437-439

  Dubois, C., cited, 137 n389, 138 n392

  ------, 468

  Duchesse lace, 123

  Dulaure, cited, 173 and n513

  Dumont, manufactory of, 211

  ------, Mlle., 105 n312

  Dunbar, Mrs., 443

  Dunkirk, James II.'s cap in Museum at, 340 and n1004

  Duponchel (Du Ponchel), 205, 207 n576

  Dupont, M., cited, 204

  Duras, Duc de, 207 n577

  ------, Duchesse de, 213 and n591

  Duref Henri, cited, 247

  Durham, St. Cuthbert's cope and maniple at, 7;
    his grave-clothes, 14, 15, 366

  Durie, Lord, engraving of, 423

  Dussen, B. v. d., cited, 133 and n378

  Duthie, Mlle., 181

  Duval, M., 224

  Dysart, Countess of, 344 n991

 "Each," 391

  _Eagle_ (French vessel), seizure of, 101

  Earnings and wages of lace-workers
    Alençon, 192
    Arras (1788), 239;
      (1851), 240
    Bedfordshire, 377
    blonde-workers, 225
    Denmark (1848), 277 n741
    Devonshire, 414, 416 n1168;
      Honiton, 407 and n1153
    Dorsetshire, 398
    Flemish thread-spinners', 119
    France, average (1851), 257 n688;
      their savings, 159 n464
    Genoa, 77, 78
    Mechlin, 127
    Mirecourt, 252 n675, 253
    Normandy, 223, 228 n614
    Northamptonshire (Spratton), 390
    Scotland, 434
    Spain, 102
    Switzerland, 270
    Val, 233, 234 n627
    Vélay, 244
    Ypres Valenciennes, 131 n373

  Eaton, John, 336

  ------, Prestwick, letters from, cited, 98 n282

  Ecclesiastical lace
    Athenian--for Jewish Church, 86
    Burano school allowed to copy, 62
    decline of, since the Reformation, 331
    Greek, 83
    Ionian, 86
    Italian, 47 and n154
    Katherine of Aragon's work of, 376 and n1108
    Maltese, 88
    Scotch, 418, 419
    Spanish, 90, 92
    washing of, 373 n1101

  Ecouen lace, 210 n589

  Eden, Mrs., 443

  Edgithe, Queen, 6

  Edict of Nantes, Revocation of
    effect on lace industry (France and other countries), 192, 212, 254,
      258
    settlement of fugitives in Germany, 264-265

  Edinburgh Society for Encouraging the Arts and Manufactures of Scotland,
      262, 263, 429, 430 and nn

  Edward the Elder, daughters of, 6

  Edward III.
    pins for his daughter's trousseau, 294 n794
    thread veils of time of, 285.

  Edward IV.
    Irish smock of, 436
    wardrobe accounts of, quoted, 288

  Edward VI., funeral lace of, 293

  Effingham, Dowager Lady, 349

  ----------, Earl of, 364

  Egenolffs, C., 470

  Egyptians (Ancient), embroidery of, 1

  Ekenmark, cited, 280 n748

  Elberfeld, 265

  Eleanor of Austria, 262 n701

  Elgin marbles, designs in, 3

  Elizabeth, Princess (wife of Elector Palatine), 71, 325

  ---------- of Austria (Elisabetta Borbona d'Austria), 495

  ---------- of Bohemia, 294 n794

  ---------- of Denmark, 272

  ----------, Queen
    anecdote referring to, 38, 297
    cost of lace for revels at court of, 308 n871
    cut-work of, 303-305
    false hair of, 314 and n894, n895
    foreign tastes of, 305, 307, 310
    Irish at court of, 435
    laces of, 299-300;
      lace made from human hair, 313;
      Genoa and Spanish lace, 307;
      parchment lace, 298;
      cost of lace furnished to, 308
    New Year's gifts to, 294 n791, 295, 303 n833, 304 n834, n835, n836,
      n837, 307 and n862, 308 n867, n870, 310 n875, n876
    old clothes of, presented to Anne of Denmark, 320
    presents to, from Mary Stuart, 420 and n1184;
      from the Baroness Aletti, 421 n1187
    ruffs of, 310-313;
      316 n901
    skill of, in needlework, 500
    smock made by, 10 and n32;
      smocks of, 308, 408
    stocking-frame inventor discouraged by, 448 n1240
    wardrobe accounts of, cited, 72;
      quoted, 92, 98 n282, 297 and n811, 299 and n814, n815, n816, n817,
      300-301 and n820, n821, n824, n826, 302 and n827, 304 n834, n838, 307
      and n861, n865, 309 n873, 311 n880, 312 n882, 314 n895, 372 n1098

  ----------, reign of
    christening shirts and bearing cloths of, 308-309
    habits of people in, 310 n877
    importation of pins (annual) in, 294 n794
    lace, use of, in, 300
    laced handkerchiefs of, 310 and n874
    measures against luxury of the people, 301
    sumptuary laws, 306 and n855
    value of lace and thread imported (1559 and 1568), 306 and n859
    Venice lace of, 48 and n154

  ---------- of York, Queen, 9 n30, 48, 289

  Elliott, Julian, 328

  Embroider, Italian and Spanish term for, 45 and n147

  Embroidery
    Anglo-Saxon, 5-7
    Babylonian, Sidonian and Phrygian, 3 and n13
    drawn-thread work, 25
    ecclesiastical, 4-7.
    Egyptian, 1
    Greek, 2, 3 and n8
    Jewish, 2
    Spanish, 103

  Embroidered lace, Genoese, 77

  Engageantes, 168

  Enghien lace, 134

 "Engines" for lace-making, 324 n935

  England (_for_ counties, towns, etc., _see their titles_)
    French fashions, method of obtaining, 170
    frugality of nation, in Queen Elizabeth's reign, 310 n877
    lace in
      account of (_See also_ names of sovereigns), 285 _et seq._
      date of establishment of industry, 286-288;
        origin of, 111;
        centres of, before 1665, 44 n144;
        impossibility of competing with Belgium, 138
      earliest mention of, 285
      Flanders, trade with (1768), 115;
        Flemish lace. _See_ that title
      foreign, prohibited, 125, 289-290, 341, 347;
        imported, 245, 251, 288, 291
      smuggling of. _See that title_
      Protestant refugees in, trades of, 297-298
    Reformation, decline of ecclesiastical lace since, 331
    sumptuary laws. _See that title_
    Vinciolo published in, 482

  Engrêlure, 31, 168 n496

  Entoilage, 30, 250

  Épinal, 251

  Equipage de bain, 168

  Eric XIV. (Sweden), 307

  Ericksholm, 280

  ---------- Castle, 279

  Erikson, Gustaf, 280

  Erzgebirge lace, 263

  Essex, Earl of, 401

  Este, Madame Anne Belloris, d', 61

  ---- family, archives of, cited, 46

  Etrepagny lace, 213 n589

  Eu lace, 183 n539, 218, 221-222

  Eugénie, Empress, 198

  Evans, Mrs., 308 n869

  Evelyn, quoted, 13, 43, 168 n496, 338, 339;
    cited, 57

  Exeter, Bishop of, 316

  ------, Elizabeth, Duchess of, 285 n755

  Exhibitions
    Chicago World's Fair
      Honiton lace at, 416 n1169
      Italian lace at, 46 n150
    Colonial and Indian Exhibition (1886),
      Cyprian lace at, 82
    Industry, 1808, point d'Argentan at, 208
    (1851), Alençon flounce at, 197-198;
      lace industry developed since, 392
    (1855) (Paris)
      Alençon point dress at, 198
      equipage of King of Rome at, 196
      needle-point dress at, 245
    (1859) (French). Report--cost of Brussels lace, 119 n339
    (1862) (International)
      Spanish exhibits at, 103-104
      threads, comparative fineness of, 119 n339
      Wadstena lace at, 280
    1867 (Paris)
      Alençon point dress at, 200
      Burano laces at, 58
      Honiton lace at, 410
      macramé shown at, 79
      Mechlin lace at, 125
      oyah at, 87
      point gaze at, 123
      Valenciennes lace at, 131 and n373
    1874 (International)
      Austrian lace at, 268
      Brussels lappet at, 411
      Russian towels at, 283
      Valenciennes lace at, 131
    1889, point d' Alençon at, 201
    1900 (Paris), 268

  Eyesight, effect of lace-making on, 112 n324

  Fairfax, Sir Thomas, 333

  Fairs, 43 and n136, n137, n140, 326 n945

  Falbala, 167 and n492

  Falcon, T., 246

  Fallals, 350 and n1043

  Falling bands, 321 n928, 322, 326, 327, 334, 336

  Fambri, Signor, 61

 "Fameuse poupée," 170

  Fanciulle, 462

  Fanshaw, Lady, quoted, 333

  Farbeck, John, 300

  Favier-Duboulay, correspondence of, with Colbert, re lace industry at
      Alençon, 155 and n454, 189

  Feather-stitch, 8

  Fécamp lace, 218

  Félibien, D. M., quoted, 141 n402

  Félice, G. de, quoted, 150 n437

  Félin Narciso, quoted, 91, 99

  Felkin, Mr., cited, 447

  Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, 92, 93, 96

  Feret quoted, 219 and n604

  Ferguson, Mr., cited, 250 and n665

  Fernandez, Don Manuel, 102

  Ferrara
    archives of, quoted, 46 and n150
    Venetian lace-worker at, 78 n243

  Fielding quoted, 354 n1053

  Filet brodé à reprises, 20

  Fillesae, Marie, 157 n458

  Fillings, 31

  Filo di freta (_See also_ Aloe thread), 79 n245

  Firenzuola cited, 46 n152, 47, 57 n172;
    quoted, 66 and n207

  Fisher, Bishop, 292

  Fitz-Geoffrey (Geffery), Henry, quoted, 317 n908, 332

  Flanders
    emigration of lace-makers from, preventive legislation, 111-112;
      emigrants in London, 373;
      in Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire, 375 and n1105;
      in Devonshire, 399 and nn, 400 n1140;
      expelled from England (1572), 306
    lace. _See_ Flemish lace.
    lace school in, description of, 114-115
    Spanish imports of dentelles d'Angleterre from, 98
    thread imported from, complaint regarding, 324 n935
    water-glass reflectors used in, 390 n1125

  --------, East, lace of, 133-134

  --------, West
    lace workers of, 133 and n378
    Valenciennes lace of.  _See_ Valenciennes Flax
    age of, 259 n697
    cotton substituted for, 187
    spinning of, in damp cellars, 405

  Fleming, Lady, 10

  Flemish lace.  (_See also_ Belgium _and_ Brabant)
    arrêt concerning (1688), 129 n365
    Barcelona lace imitated from, 91, 99
    black lace exported, 117 n330
    cargo of smuggling vessel (1678), 117
    coffin containing, 61
    Danish imitation of, 275
    England
      bribes for Jacobites in, 351 n1045
      exportation to, prohibited, 125, 341
      fashionable in, 318, 325, 327, 340
      imitations in, 384, 404;
        Honiton reproductions, 411, 416
      trade with (1768), 115
    France, popularity in (Louis XIV.), 150;
      trade (seventeenth century), annual value of, in passemens, 209 n583;
      prohibited, 142
    importance of industry of, 111
    Liège, 136-137
   "Malines," a term for, 125
    origin of, 109
    types of, 115-116
    white work, 294 and n791

  Flemish names in Colyton (Devon), 403 n1145

  Fleurens, 270

  Fleury, Cardinal, quoted, 176

  Florence
    gold lace from, Spanish exclusion of, 92
    Greek lace made at, 85
    industrial schools in, lace work of, 81 n248
    lace industry of, account of, 66-68;
     "fine dantelle de," 27
    Le Puy, imports from, 245 n657

  Florentine merchants, allowed to trade in England (circ. 1546), 291

  Florini, M., 488

  _Flying Postman_ advertisement in, 129

 "Flys," 416 n1170

  Foillet, J., 489, 490

  Fonneuse, work of, 122

  Fontange (Commode)
   "cock" the Scotch term for, 423
    description of, 168 n486, 342, 350 n1043
    extinction of mode, 166, 348 and n1035
    story of, 164

  Fontana, Lavinia, lace in picture by, 47 n153

  Fontenay, lace, 212 n589

  Fontenelle le Liqueur, 229 and n615

  Fonthill, sale of lace at, 162 n475

  Foote, quoted, 171 n503

  Footing, 31, 168 n496

  Forbes, Miss Betsey, 432 n1209

  Forçade, M. de la, cited, 340 n1004

  Force, P. de la, cited, 254 and n682

  Foresto, I., 471

  Fortunato, P. A., 500

  Foskewe, Sir John, 22

  _Four P's, The_, cited, 43 n139

  Fournier, quoted, 209 n583

 "Fourpenny Spot," 372 n1095

  Fowke, Mr., cited, 6 and n23

  Fowler, Mrs., lace school of, 416 and n1169

  Fozzi, P. P., 491

  France.  _For_ districts, towns, etc., _see their titles_
    bobbin net introduced into, 187
    customs of French ladies, 168-170
    états Généraux (1789), action of, regarding lace, 183
    extravagant cost of lace ornaments (Louis XIV.), 153
    Fairs in, 43 n136
    Fashions
      fashion dolls, 170 and n500, n501
      Italian influence on, 139 and n393
      Louis XIV., under, 167
    first appearance of lace in, 139 n393
    First Empire
      Brussels lace at court of, 123
      lace industry under, 184
      morning costume under, 185
      point d'Alençon patterns under, 199 and n566
    Florentine lace used in (1545), 67
    imports of lace from, to England, forbidden by Queen Anne, 347
    Italian guipures exported to, 75
    Italy, relations with (16th century), 476
    lace industry in. _See_ French lace industry
    lace-makers from, brought to teach Scotch girls, 428
    ladies, addiction of, to needlework, 9, 24;
      as lace-makers, 163
    men as embroiderers in, 13
    point d'Espagne consumed in, 90;
      made in, 100
    points de Venise from, 54
    Quintain named from Brittany town, 19
      lace industry improved by, 383
      refugees from, to Channel Islands, 372 n1098;
        to England, 324 n935
    Revolution in, effect of, on lace trade, 183 and n539, 223, 249, 368,
      408
    Second Empire, point d'Alençon patterns under, 199
    Spanish imports of lace from, 101
    sumptuary laws in, 138 and n354, n355, 147 and n429, 149, 154 and n451
    tariff (1664), Liège lace mentioned in, 137
    war with, effect of, on English lace industry, 386, 387
    yellow starch, attitude towards, 318 and n909

  France and Navarre, Queen of, pattern book dedicated to, 493

  Franceschi, Francesco di, 475, 484

  Francis I.
    Aurillac lace of, 247
    pattern book dedicated to, 461

  Frankfort-on-the-Maine
    fair at, 43 n136, 326 n945
    pattern book published at, 267

  Frano, G., 477

  Frederick, Prince of Wales, 354

  ---------- IV., 274

  ---------- William of Brandenburg, 264

  French lace industry
    centres of, before 1665, 44 n144
    cheap lace, 187 and n546
    Colbert's development
      establishment and history of the company (1668-1675), 157-158
      establishment of point d'Alençon, 155-157
      immigration of Venetian workers, 159 n465
      principal centres, 159 n464
      pupils sent to Venice, 154-155 and n454
    First Empire, under, 184
    foreign trade
      Bruges, annual value of, with, 241;
        with Flanders, 209 n583;
        Valenciennes trade with Belgium, 132 n376
      Germany, with, 265
      prohibition of, with Flanders, 142
      rivalry of Holland in, 258
      smuggling from Belgium, 116;
        from Switzerland, 270
      statistics regarding (18th century), 160 n466
      number of lace-makers in (present day), 188;
        table of (1851), 257 n688
      Paris lace-workers, confirmation of statutes of, 150 n437
      pattern books, 144 and n420, n421, n422, n423
      patterns imitated in Denmark, 275
      pillow lace manufacture, extension of (17th century), 159
      point d'Espagne, 100
      Protestants prohibited from selling lace, 150 n437
      varieties of lace made in (1665), 33-35
      width of lace restricted, 152-153

  Freyburg, 268

  Freytag, G., quoted, 265 n718

  Friesland hens, ladies likened to, 342

  Frondeurs, extravagance of, 150

  Froschover, Christopher, pattern book of, 271

  Fugio lace, 74

  Fuller, quoted, 378, 401

  Furnesse, Sir Henry, 344, 347

  Fuseaux, dentelle à, 32 n98

  Gabrielle de Bourbon, 8 n28

  ----------, Madame, 49, 142, 143 and n413, n414, n415

  Gaguef lace, 281

  _Gan, Le_, quoted, 24

  Gantes, Mlles., 250

  Garden, Lord, quoted, 119

  Garnica, John de, 113 n325

  Garnier, Joseph, cited, 255 n685

  Garnitures de lit, 174 and n519, n520

  Garters
    Queen Elizabeth's cost per pair, 301
    trimmed with point, 145

  Gaston, Duke of Orleans, 8 n27

  Gaudronnées collerettes, 17

  Geneva, rivalry of, with Mirecourt, 252

  Genoa
    Albergo de' Poveri, macramé made at, 79
    collars of, 74
    earnings of lace-workers, 77, 78
    embroidered lace of, 77;
      embroidered tulle, 229
    gold work of, 47, 72
    guipures of, 74
    lace of
      Cardinal Mazarin's purchase of, 150, 151
      Honiton reproduction of, 411
      point de Gênes, 41, 42, 72, 73 and n230, 74
      Queen Elizabeth's, 307 and n865
    lace trade in, chiefly pillow, 47, 74;
      decline of, 74
    silk work of, 72
    sumptuary laws in, 73
    Tessada, Signore, old lace of, 72 n225

  Genoa, Duchess of, 78 n244

  Gentili family, bridal veil made for, 78

  Geometrical patterns
    cuffs of (Queen Mary's), 113
    Cretan, 86
    Greek lace, 20, 85
    ruffs of, 316
    Swedish, 25
    Vecellio's, 111
    Vinciolo's, 18

  George I.
    Mechlin cravat of, 126 and n361
    period of, 351-353
    wardrobe account of, 240 and n645

  ------ II., period of, 354-357

  ------ III.
    English manufactures protected by, 359, 363 and n1068, 381
    period of, 363-370
    sponsor to children of aristocracy, 352 n1046

  ------ IV., wardrobe of, 364 n1073

  Geharts, C., 501

  Germany
    fairs in, 43 n136, n140
    guipures imported into, 36
    lace imported into, 245, 251, 254
    lace industry
      centres of, before 1665, 44 n144
      export trade with France, 265
      North and South
        Edict of Nantes Revocation--emigration of fugitives into, 264-265
        religion of lace-workers, 264
        sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 264
      Nuremberg (_See that title_)
      origin of, 111
      pattern-books, 266-268
      Saxony (_see that title_)
    luxury, outbreak of, 265-266

  Geslin, Simon, 193

  _Gespeldewerkte kant_, 32 n98

  Ghent lace
    Brussels lace compared with, 118
    manufacture of, 133-134
    trade replaced by cotton-weaving, 134
    Valenciennes made at Ghent, character of, 231 n624

  Ghisolieri, La Signora Silveria Rossi, 484

  Gibbons, Grinling, lace carvings of, 367 and n1088

  Gibson, Sir Alexander, engraving of, 423

  ------, Miss Mary, 438

  Gigliucci, Countess, fragment of drawn work possessed by, 69

  Gilbert, Madame, 155 and n455, 156, 157 and n458

  Gimp
    Brussels lace, in, 406
    method of making, 33
    silk, at Ragusa, 84

  Gioiello, 486

  Giraldini, Catherina, 500

  Gisors lace industry, 209, 213 n589, 215

  Glairo, Mlle. U., 235

  Glandore, Lord, 436

  Glen, Jean de, 136, 482, 488 and n1338

  ----, Miss, 431 n1209

  Gloucester, Duchess of, lace collection of, 369

  Gloves, laced, 337 and n991

  Goats' hair lace, 245

  Godard, Jean, quoted, 24, 146 n425

  Goderonné, term explained, 17 n57

  Godric, 6

  Gohory, Anne, 183 n540

  Golbertain (Colbertine), 339 n996

  Golconda, King of, 322 n928, 329 and n958

  Gold lace (_See also_ Aurillac lace)
    Arras, of, 240
    England, imported to
      fifteenth-sixteenth centuries, 288, 289, 307
      monopoly in, under James I., 318
      prohibited, by Queen Anne, 349;
        by George II., 355 n1057;
        confiscation and burning of, 359
    France, popularity in, 139, 141, 146, 154;
      of Paris, 211-212
    Genoa, wearing prohibited in, 73
    Hamburg, of, 264
    Holland, introduction into, 259
    India, imported into, 322 n928, 329 and n958
    Ireland, importation to, prohibited, 439
    Jewish manufacture of, 92
    Lyons, of, 256
    Ragusa, at, 84
    Russia, of, 283
    Scotland, wearing in, prohibited, 422
    Sicily, of, 80
    Spain, of, 92, 100-102, 248
    Sweden, of, 280
    Zurich, of, 271

  ---- guipure work, Swedish, 277-278

  ---- purles, 330

  ---- thread
    duties on, leased to Dame Villiers, 328
    Italian (fourteenth century), 72

  ---- wire, protest by handspinners of, 335

  Golden Horn, 273

  Goldoni, cited, 57 n192

  Goldsmith, quoted, 70 n218

  Gomberdière, Marquis de la, quoted, 209 and n582

  Gonzales, Don Manuel, cited, 380 and n1120, 403 n1146

  Gooding, James, 413, 414

  Gorget (whisk), 334

  Gormont, 464

  Goudronné, term explained, 17 n57

  Gozo, Maltese lace made at, 88

  Grafton, Duchess of, 344 n1021, 349 n1037

  Gramite, 46 n150

  Grammont lace, 134

  Granada, lace alb in cathedral of, 92, 93

  Granson, battle of, 111

  Grave-clothes
    Duke of Alva's, 366 n1085
    Ionian lace sold from, 86
    lace decorations of, 365-367
    St. Cuthbert's, 14, 15, 366

  Gravelle, attempt to establish fabric by, 207

  Great Marlow
    bone lace trade of, 319
    lace school at, 378

  Great Wardrobe Accounts, where kept, 299 n816

  Greek lace. (_See also_ Cyprus _and_ Ragusa)
    Devonshire imitation of, 414 n1165
    Italian cut-work so called, 20
    Milan point, 65
    reticella so called, 50, 85

  Greeks (ancient), embroidery of, 2, 3 and n8

  Green, quoted, 296

  ------ silk lace, 291 n783

  Greene, Mrs., quoted, 321 n926

  Gremial, 70 n217

  Grey, Lady Jane, anecdote of, 38, 297

  Grillé, 30 n89

  Gripsholm, portrait of Queen Elizabeth at, 307

  Gropari (punto a gropo), 52

  Gros point de Venise.  _See_ Point de Venise, rose point

  ---- René, 32

  Groslay lace, 210, 213 n589

  Ground
    absent in certain laces, 31
    kinds of, 30
    round, 39

  Gruner, Mr., cited, 476 n1316, 487 n1335, 489

  Gruuthus mansion, collection at, 138

  Gueuse, 33, 34, 41, 42

  Guibray fair, 43 n136

  Guipure
    Flemish, 123, 133
    Genoese, 74
    Honiton (modern), 409, 410
    Maltese, 88
    method of making, materials, uses, 35-40
    modern, 39, 40
    parchment lace probably English term for, 37-38
    point de Venise, 49
    tape, 39, 75
    Turkish, 87

  Gunning, Miss (Duchess of Hamilton), 425 n1199, 428, 429

  Gurbert, cited, 219 n602

  Gustavus Adolphus, 282

  Gustaf Vasa, 279, 280

  Guyard, Sieur Mathieu, 204-205

  Guyenne, annual consumption of Le Puy lace in, 245 n657

  Haag, cited, 265 n714, 269 n725

  Haarlem thread, 216 n595, 223 n608, 245, 259 and n695, n697

  Hailstone, Mrs., 23

  Hainault, laces, 134 _et seq._;
    lace flowers, 121

  Hair
    false, of Queen Elizabeth's time, 314 and nn
    fashion of wearing, 341
    lace made from, 313;
      horse-hair used in Alençon, 194;
      goats'-hair and rabbits'-hair lace, 245
    wigs, 336, 349

  Hal, flax grown at, 118

  Haliwell, quoted, 297 n809

  Halle lace, 265

  Hamburg point, 264

  Hamilton, Anne, Duchess of (Miss Gunning), 425 n1199, 428, 429

  --------, Lady Jane, 123 n351

  Hamilton lace, 430

  -------- net-work (modern), 434 n1216

  Hamlet on the French stage, 186

  Hammond, machine-net invented by, 447

  Hand, Mrs., 445

  Handkerchiefs, laced, 310 and n874, 337

  Hangkow, lace made in, 89

  Hanmer, Sir Thomas, 349 n1037

  Hanover fabrics, 265

  Hanslope lace industry, 380 n1119

  Harefield church, sculptured lace on effigy in, 321 n927

  Harent, Ignace, 230

  Harrison, Major, rich dress of, 333

  Hartruide, Madame, 279

  Hartshorne, Albert, cited, 321 n927

  Hatfield, old needlework at, 11

  Hathaway family, embroidered bed linen of, 325 n941

  Hauslaub, General von, 263

  Havre lace, 183 n539, 217 n595, 218;
    number of lace-makers (1692), 216, 218

  Hay, Lord, 64

  Hayman, Mrs., 410

  Head, R. E., quoted, 391 n1127

  Headdresses (_See also_ Fontange)
    Louis XIV. styles, 164-166
    mignonette lace used for, 35
    prices of "heads," 348
    Roman, 165 n486

 "Heller," 391

  Helmin, Fr. Margaretha, 502

  Henderson, Anne, 430

  Heneage, George, 346

  Henrietta Maria
    inventory of, cited, 29 and n87, 146 n426
    present from, to Anne of Austria, 330 and n961

  Henry II. (England), 37, 202 and n569

  -------- (France), introduces lace ruff, 139, 140 and n393, 262 n701

  Henry III. (England), 37, 43;
    portrait in Pattern Book, 480

  ---------- (France), 140 and n396, 141

  Henry IV. (France)
    fashion dolls sent by, to Marie de Médicis, 170 n501
    Isle of Paris industry, probable connection with, 210
    measures of, against luxury of dress, 141-142 and n405
    shirt worn by, when assassinated, 142-143 and n412

  ------ VI., laces in fashion in time of, 286 and n761

  ------ VII., lace of time of, 288, 289 and n772

  ------ VIII.
    Act for the true making of pins, 294 n794
    foreign lace allowed in England by, 67, 291
    inventory of, cited, 372 n1098;
      quoted, 104
    lace of, 64, 289, 291-292 and n772
    sumptuary laws of, 436 and n1220
    wardrobe account of, quoted, 289 and n768, n769

  ------, Prince (1607), 296 n798

  Herault, Chancellor, 143 and n416

  Herbert, Miss, 416

  Herbouville, cited, 131 n371

  Herculaneum, drawn wire lace found at, 72

  Hergosse, M. de, 177 n525

  Hesse, Landgrave, French fugitives received by, 265 and n711

  Hieronimo, Fra., 469

  High Wycombe, lace industry of, 380

  Hippisley, Sir John Cox, quoted, 329;
    veil bequeathed to, 421

  Hispano-Moresque point de Gênes frisé, 74

  Hoche, General, 13

  Hoffmann, Hans, 469

  Holcroft, Mr., 169 n499

  Hölesom, 280

  Holidays in Roman Catholic countries, 102 n302

  Holland
    Dutch extravagance in lace, 260
    Haarlem thread, advantage of, to, 259 and n695, n697
    lace imported into, 251, 254
    lace industry in, 258-260 and n689
    rivalry with French lace trade, 258

  Hollie work, 325 and n939

  Hollow lace, 299 and n816

  Holme, Randle, cited, 31, 344;
    quoted, 251, 296 n799, 339

  Holstein, daughter of Duke John of, 275

  Holyrood Palace, lace trimmed basket in, 420

  Honfleur lace, 183 n539, 218

  Honiton, lace school at, 414

  -------- lace
    account of, 399-411
    bobbins and pillows used in, 415 n1166
    Bruges lace a rival to, 133
    guipure, 40
    Indian contrasted with, 89
    Japanese imitations of, 417
    point duchesse compared with, 123

  -------- lace-makers, skill of, 417 n1171

  Hope, Sir Thomas, portrait of, 423

  Horsehair used in making Alençon, 194

  Hôtel Rambouillet, dressed dolls of, 170

  Hove, Callys de, 306

  Howel's Letters, quoted, 317 n906

  Hubert, Soeur, cited, 220 n606

  Hugo, Victor, quoted, 135, 164;
    cited, 136 n384

  Humphrey, Thomas, 401

  Hungarian lace, 268

  Hungerford, Sir Edward, 395

  Hunt, Susanna, 438

  Hurdle, Mary, 395

  Hutchins, quoted, 396 n1133

  Hutchinson, Colonel, 333

  ----------, Mrs., Memoirs of, cited, 12

  Hutton, Sir Timothy, 71

  Iberian lace, 104

  Ile de France. _See_ Isle de France

  India
    lace exported to, 241, 251, 253, 322 n928, 329 and n958
    pillow-laces of, 88 and n263, 89

  India Museum, pillow laces in, 89

  Indian muslin, 179-180

  ------ work of Denmark, 275

  Innishmacsaint, 446

  Innocent IV., Pope, 7

  Inquisition, lace-trimmed banner of, 100

  Insertion, 388

  Ionian Isles
    lace manufacture of, 85
    lace from tombs of, 365

  Ipsden, Vicar of, MS. in possession of, 286 n761

  Ireland
    Bath and Shirley School, 440
    club against "foreign fopperies," 438
    Dublin Society, the, 429, 437, 439
    lace industry in, 436-446;
      Maltese guipures made in, 88;
      Irish point, 443 and n1233
    prize offered by, for Dresden point, 262
    sumptuary laws in, 435, 436 and n1220
    yellow dye of, 307, 435, 436

  Iron Mask, 166 n490

  Isabella, Infanta, 113

  --------, Princess (Sweden), 279 n746

 "Isabelle" tint, 121

  Ischia lace, 71, 263 and n705

  Isle de France
    lace industry in
      centres of (17th century), 209 and n582, 210
      Chantilly, 212-215
      cheap laces, 210
      Dumont's fabric, 211
      Huguenots engaged in, 209
    Spanish imports of lace from, 99

  Israel, J., 469

  Italians, dishonesty of, in lace trade (Henry VII.'s time), 48, 67, 288

  Italy (_For_ towns, etc., _see their titles_)
    France, relations with, 16th century, 476
    invention of lace claimed by, 109;
      of point lace, 45
    lace imported by, 245, 251 n670
    lace of (_See also_ Point _and_ Punto)
      centres of manufacture before 1665, 44 n144
      England, fashionable in, 318;
        imitated in, 416 n1169, 417
      Greek lace manufacture, centres of, 85
      Points in relief of, counterfeits of, 105
      Spanish point attributed to, 93, 97
    lace schools of, 81 n249
    revolutions in, lace seized during, 51 and n175
    silk gimp specimens from, 85
    Swiss lace from, origin of, 269
    white thread made in, 49 n165

  Jabot, 172

  Jacobites, 425, 426

  James I.
    gold purle manufacture prohibited by, 319 and n921
    Great Wardrobe Account, 311 n878, 317 and n903, 318 nl7
    Honiton lace industry in time of, 401
    lace of, 64
    monopolies granted by, 318-319, 378
    period of, 315-326
    ruffs under, 315-318

  ------ II.
    Edinburgh visited by, 425
    period of, 340

  ------ V. (of Scotland), 372 n1098, 418 and n1172

  ------ VI. (of Scotland), 422 and n1195

  ------, Jacques, 205

  Jane Seymour, 292

  Japan, Honiton lace imitated in, 417

  Jean lace. _See_ Genoa lace

  Jerphanion, Sieur, 244

  Jersey, Isle of, lace industry of, 372 and n1097

  Jesuit lace, 445 and n1234

  Jesuits, inventory of, cited, 331

  Jesurum, Cav. Michelangelo, 62

  Jew stick, 491 and n1349

  Jewellery of 18th century, 346

  Jews
    Athenian lace used by, 86
    embroidery of (ancient), 2
    gold and silver lace made by, 92 and n270

  Jingles of bobbins, 391 n1127

  Johan Adolf, Prince, 282

  Johnson, Dr., quoted, 367

  Jointeuse, work of, 122

  Jolly, Margareta, 348

  Jonson, Ben, quoted, 43 n139, 302, 313 n890, 316 and n922, 318 n910,
      n912, 327

  Josephine, Empress, 123 n351, 177 n526

  Jours, 31

  Judith of Bavaria, 5

  Junius, Hadrianus, 114 n327

  Junot, Madame. _See_ Abrantès, Duchesse d'

  Jurdaine, Mary, 306

  Jutland lace industry, 274

  Katherine of Aragon, Queen
    Bedfordshire lace-industry attributed to, 375 and n1106, n1107, 376
    needlework of, 9, 10 and n32
    portrait of, 129 n367
    Spanish fashions introduced by 10 n32, 310

  ----------, Queen (wife of Charles II.), 43

  ---------- Parr, Queen, 10 n34

  Keck, 423

  Keller, Dr. Ferd, 270 n728

  Kenmare, lace industry of, 443, 444

  Kennedy, Tristram, 440

  Kettering, lace industry of, 384

  Killigrew, quoted, 318 n908

  Kilravock, Mistress Margaret, daughter of the Baron of, 425 n1198

  Kinsale, lace industry at, 422 n1187

  Knight, cited, 396

  ------, Miss, quoted, 264

  Knole, old needlework at, 11

  Knotted fringe, 13 and n47

  -------- lace, 52, 68

  Knox, Miss Jane, 438

  Koehler, statuette by, 262

  Königsmarck, Aurora, lace in tomb of, 366

  La Boord, Madame, 43

  La Chaise-Dieu, lace industry at, 249

 "La Fontange," story of, 164

  La Mancha, lace factory at, 102

  La Motte, Maréchal, 29, 126 and n357

  La Perrière, 155 n454, 157 n458

 "La Providence" nuns, 226

  La Vallière, 154, 464 n1280

  Laborde, cited, 151 n438

  Lace (_See also_ Old lace)
    Biblical meaning of term, 2
    definition of term, 26
    foreign equivalent of term, 26 n77
    manufactures of, before 1665, 44 n144
    parts of, 30
    point and pillow, 32

  ---- Association, aims of, 393

  Laced handkerchiefs, 310 and n874

  Lace-makers, ill-health of, 415

  Lacis
    Aurillac, 248
    book of (1587), 18
    definition of, 20 and n61, 21
    _Don Quixote_, mentioned in, 98 n281
    German, 264
    Punto a maglia quadra, 52
    Sicilian, 81
    Tuscan, 68

  Ladies as lace-makers, 163, 337, 355, 373, 374 and n1103

  Ladomie, M., cited, 170 n501

  Laffemas, quoted, 209 n583

  Laid work, 301

  Laimoxen, Balthasar, 489

  Lalande, cited, 64

  Lalma, 246

  Lamb represented in lace, 21

  Lamballe, Princesse de, 213

  Lappets. _See_ Barbe

  Larkin, Thomas, 312

  Laroche, lace made at, 137

  Larruga, cited, 101

  Lassels, cited, 70;
    quoted, 73

  Latomus, Sigismund, 267, 491, 492

  Lauber, Miss Jacobina, 282

  Laulne, E. de, 476

  Launceston, lace-making at, 371 n1094

  Laval, Geneviève, 183 n540

  Laybach, 268

  Le Prince, 465

  Le Puy
    lace industry of
      cheap laces, 246
      descriptions of lace of, 245
      export trade, 245;
        value of annual export, 245 and n657
      Haarlem thread used in, 245
      import duties decreased, 244 and n653
      numbers employed in, 242;
        (1851), 257 n688;
        in making Valenciennes, 245
      sumptuary laws (seventeenth century), effect of, on, 243
    lace schools of, 246 and n659
    museum at, 246
    Valenciennes lace at, 230 and n619

  Le Quesnoy lace, 157 n459, 230

  Lead, bobbins made of, 74 n235

  Leber, M., cited, 487 n1336

  Lee, Rev. William, 448 n1240

  Lefébure, A.
    blondes mates exported by, 226
    point d'Argentan revived by, 208
    quoted, 75 n237, 155 n453, 158 n463, 159 n464, 194, 200;
      cited, 228, 250, 269 n724
    teaching improved by, 227

  Leicester, Countess of, 330

  Leipsic, fair, 196 and n563; fabrics (1685), 265

  Lennox, Countess of, 314

  ------, Duke of, 419 and n1176

  Léonard, 181

  Lepage, M., 134

  L'Estoille, P. de, quoted, 141 n399

  L'Estrange, Sir Thomas, 290

  _Letters of a Lady's Travels in Spain_, quoted, 97-98

  Leu, Sieur de la, manufactory of, 205-206

  Liedts, Baroness, 138

  Liège lace
    account of industry, 136-137
    point de Sedan, connected with, 254
    price of (1701), 136 n386

  Lierre
    Mechlin lace made at, 125
    pictures in St. Gomar, 109 n317

  Light reflectors, bottles used as, 390 and n1125

  Liguria, guipures of, 74

  Lille
    lace
      compared with Spanish lace, 103;
        with Arras, 235, 240;
        with Valenciennes, Brussels and Mechlin, 237
      cost of thread, 237 and n637
      England, popularity in, 237 and n640;
        Bedfordshire lace called "English Lille," 385
      ground, 236-237
      modern, 238
    lace-industry
      antiquity of, 235
      decline of, 238
      dress of lace-makers, 235 and n630
      French duty on lace (1761), 237 n635
      mignonette made (1665), 35
      numbers employed in (1723), 237 n640;
        (1788), 238, 257 n688
      rivalry with Mirecourt, 252
      value of (1788), 238
    lace-workers, daily amount produced by, 233
    thread, fineness of, 119 n339;
      price of, 192 n553, 237 and n637;
      export of, to Scotland, 432

  Limerick lace, 440, 441 and n1230, 442 n1231, n1232;
    lace school, 442

  Limousin, 250

  Lincoln, maiden assize at, 338 n991

  Linen
    embroidery of, 14
    macramé, 79 and n248

  Lisbon, lace factories at, 105

  Lisle, Lady, 290 and n780

  Loch, David, quoted, 433 and n1214;
    cited, 434

  Locke, quoted, 430

  Loisel, Franç., Phelyplaux, 125 n354, 174 n520

  Lombard peasants, lace worn by, 64

  London
    foreigners in (1571-1688), 129 n366, 299 n817, 306 and n853;
      complaint of women against introduction of foreign merchants, 286;
      complaints against foreign lace-makers, 324 n935
    lace-making in, 373

  ------, Bishop of, sermon by, against ruffs, quoted, 316 and n899

  ------ _Chronicle_, cited, 4

  ------ _Gazette_, quoted, 11 n39, 126

  Long Island, lace-making by Protestant settlers in, 372 n1099

  Lonlay, Eugène de, cited, 208

  Lonrai (Lonray), lace factory at, 155 n455, 156 and n457;
    sale of stock, 196

  ------, Marquise de, 157 n457

  _Lord Thomas_ (ballad), quoted, 15

  L'Orme, Marion de, quoted, 125

  Lorraine, lace industry (_see also_ Mirecourt), 251 and n672, n673;
    Mignonette made (1665), 35;
    numbers employed (1851), 257 n688

  --------, Queen Louise de, 144

  Lost property, advertisements for, 337 and n990, 338 and n992, 342 n1010

  Loucelles, Abbé Suhard de, 226

  Loudun, 256

  Louis XI., 139 n393

  ------ XIII.
    collar made at Venice for, 194
    death of, 149
    Flemish conquests of, 230 and n618
    luxury and fashions of time of, 144-147

  ------ XIV.
    census of (1684), 131
    cravats presented to ambassadors by, 163
    death of, effect on Alençon industry, 192
    fashions of reign of, 161 _et seq._
    fête at Marly, 163
    Flemish conquests of, 230 and n618
    gold and silver lace of period of, 154
    Paris lace commerce under, 211
    sumptuary laws of, 152

  ------ XV.
    Court of, 172 and n505
    fashions under
      black lace masks, 177
      jabots, 172-173
      mourning, 178
      relevailles of Parisian ladies, 174
      ruffles, 171-173
    point d'Alençon patterns under, 198-199 and n566
    trousseau of eldest daughter of, 176

  ------ XVI.
    fashions under, 179-181
    phraseology of time of, 181
    point d'Alençon patterns under, 199 and n566
    ruffles of, 172 n508

  Louisa, Queen (Sweden), 279

  Louise de Vaudemont, Queen, 18, 478, 480

  Louvain, pictures and altar piece at, 109, 110 and n317

  --------, Widow, attempt of, to establish manufacture at Mortagne, 206

  Louvres, lace-making at, 209

  -------- en-Parisis lace, 212 n589

  Lovat, Lady, 426 n1202

  Low Countries. _See names of countries_

  Lowndes, cited, 497 n1360, 500

  --------, Richard, 380

  Lubec, 264

  Lucca, gold lace, 92

  Lude, Duchesse de, 167 and n495

  Luxada, cited, 75

  Luxembourg, M. de, 167

  ----------, Maréchale de, 180

  Luynes, Duc de, Memoirs of, quoted, 174 and n518, 176 n522

  Luzarches lace, 212

  Lydgate, quoted, 305

  Lygum Kloster, 274 n736, 276 n738

  Lyme Regis, lace industry of, 396-398

  Lyons lace, 256

  Lysons, cited, 384, 396; quoted, 405, 408

  Mabbie, 423

  Macaulay, John, 439 n1227

  McCulloch, cited, 384

  ----------, E., cited, 224 n610

  McCullow, Miss Martha, 438

  Mache, 22 n70

  Machine net, introduction of, 408

  Machinery--"engines" of foreigners for lace-making, 324 n935

  Maclean, Rev. William, 442, 443

  McPherson, quoted, 112 n324

  Macramé, 52, 79 and n247

  Madden, Sir Fred., quoted, 297 n812

  Madeira, laces of, 106, 107 and n316

  Madras, Maltese-like lace made in, 88 n263

  Madrid, lace factory at, 102

  Magnus, Prince (Sweden), 280

  Maidstone, complaints of, regarding imported Flemish thread, 324 n935

  Mailly, Madame, 250

  Maine, Madame de, 167

  Maintenon, Madame de, 168, 183;
    letter to, quoted, 99;
    lace factory of, 163;
    letter from, quoted, 172 and n506

  _Malcontent_, quoted, 322

  Malines exhibition, voile de bénédiction at, 195 n561, 251 n674

  -------- lace. _See_ Mechlin lace

  Malta, grave-clothes lace-trimmed at, 365

  Maltese lace
    account of industry, 87 and n262, 88
    Danish manufacture of, 275
    English manufacture of, 392, 393, 414 n1165
    Greek lace similar to, 86
    Guipure, 40
    Madeira manufacture of, 107 n316
    Saxon manufacture of, 263

  Man, Isle of, lace industry of, 372 and n1096

  Manchester thread, 119 n339

  Manchettes. _See_ Ruffles

  Manegetti di ponto Fiamengo, 111

  Manilla grass thread-work, 89 n265

  Mantegna, Andrea, 467

  Mantillas, 226

  Manzoni, Count, cited, 488 n1340

  Mar, Countess of, 419 and n1176

  Marcello, Countess Andriana, 61

  Marche lace, 68, 138 n392

  Marcq, Catherine de, 157 n458, 158 n460, 190

  Mare, de la, cited, 148 n431, 152 n440

  Margaret of Austria, 23 n74

  Margherita, Queen of Italy, 61, 62

  Margot, Reine, 11, 22, 49, 141, 142

  Marguerite de France, 11 n36, 22, 27, 33 n102

  Maria d'Aragon, portrait of, in pattern book, 497

  ------ Elizabeth, Electress Palatine, 491

  Marie Antoinette
    autograph letter, referred to, 213
    fans and laces distributed by, 180
    fashion at court of, 179-180
    gazette of (1782), 181 n537
    point de Marli worn by, 225
    sale of lace of, 183

  ------ Louise, Brussels lace presented to, 124;
    lace trousseau of, 184, 196

  ------ Theresa, 259 and n699

  Marnef, Hierosme de, 496

  Marillac, Maréchal de, 147 n428, 265 n715

  Marini, cited, 58

  Marlborough, lace industry at, 395

  Marli, 180 and n532

  Marly, fête at, 163

  Marriott, William, 380

  Marryat, Captain, cited, 413;
    lace industry assisted by, 410

  --------, Mrs., 500 n1365

  --------, Miss Cecilia, 410

  Marsan, Comte de, 210 and n585

  ------, Mlle. de, 211

  Mary, Princess, daughter of George II., 348

  ---- I.
    accounts of, quoted, 297
    gift of Spanish work to, 10 n32;
      Flanders work to, 294
    interment of, 180
    present to Lady Calthorpe, 297
    ruffs of, 310
    sumptuary laws, 293

  ---- of Burgundy, 135

  ----, Queen of Hungary, 113

  ---- de Médicis
    collarette of, 143-144
    death of, 149
    fashion dolls sent to, 170 n501
    pattern book dedicated to, 22, 494
    point de Gennes of, 72
    sumptuary law published by, 144 and n419;
      evaded by, 149 and n434

  Mary of Modena, Queen, 341, 425

  ---- II.
    fontange of, 342
    knotted fringe worked by, 13 and n47
    lace bills of, quoted, 168 n496
    Mechlin ruffles of, 126 and n364

  ---- Stuart
    dentelle of, 27
    finery of, overhauled by Elizabeth, 307 and n860
    guipures of, 37 and n120, 38
    inventories of, cited, 21, 33 n102, 302 n828, 314, 325 n939, 372 n1098
    needlework done by, 10, 11, 420, 421
    ruff on effigy of, 316 n901
    wardrobe of, 419 and n1177, 420 and n1182, 421
    will of, 22

  Masch (Mawsch) 22 and n70, 419

  Massillon, encouragement of lace industry by, 243

  Massimo, Prince, reference to library of, 466, 468 n1290, 495 n1357

  Massinger, quoted, 265 n717, 296 and n804

  Matignon, Mlle, de, 176

  Matilda, Empress, Bayeux Tapestry ascribed to, 6 n22

  --------, Queen, Bayeux Tapestry ascribed to, 6 and n23

  Matsys, Quentin, 109, 110

  Matthew of Paris, anecdote by, 7

  Maximilian, King of the Romans, 289

  Maynard, Mrs. Lydia, 404

  Mayne, Jasper, quoted, 317 and n905, 324 and n936

  Mazarin, Cardinal, 143 n412, 150, 151 and n439, 248

  Mazzarine, 343 and n1017

  Mechlin lace
    arrêt concerning (1688), 129 n365
   "Broderie de Malines" a term for, 125
    characteristic of, 31, 125
    compared with Bayeux lace, 228;
      with Brussels, 118;
      with Cretan mesh work, 87;
      with Lille, 237;
      with point de Dieppe, 218;
      with St. Trond, 137;
      with Valenciennes, 233
    decline of manufacture, 125
    description of, 124-125
    earliest references to, 125-126
    English fashion for, 126
    grounds in, 125
    imperial layette (1856), in, 198
    Lille, pattern adopted at, 238
    points de France rivalled by, 177-178
    Pope's apron bordered with, 70
    Turnhout manufacture of, 125, 131
    uses of, 127-128
    varieties included by term (1665), 35

  ---- net, 448

  Medici collars, 56

  Médicis family (_See also_ Katherine _and_ Mary), influence on fashions,
      139

  Melville, Sir Robert, 37

  _Memoirs of Madame Palatine_, cited, 354

  Men as lace workers
    Chili, 108
    England, 392;
      south, 371 n1092;
      Northamptonshire, 385;
      Devonshire, 413, 414
    France, 155
    Madeira, 107 n316
    Normandy (soldiers), 225
    Saxony, 263
    work of, compared with that of women, 263

  Menin lace, 232 n624

  Menzikoff, Prince, funeral of daughter of, 366 n1083

  Meran blonde, 256

  Mercier, Baron, lace school of, 196

  ----, S., quoted, 121 and n348, 170 n500, 171 and n502

  Méric lace, 212

  Merli, Cav. Antonio, cited, 46 and n150, 47, 50, 462, 466, 468 n1291,
      n1292, 487

  Merli à piombini, 32 n98

  Mermaid's lace, 49

  Meshes, Cretan skill in, 86

  Messina, lace work at, 81

  Metal laces, Sicilian, 86

  Mexico, mantillas exported to, 226

  Meyer, Daniel, 496

  Mézières lace, 183 n539, 253, 254

  Mezzo punto, 58

  Michel, Francisque, cited, 104;
    quoted, 251 n669

  ----, Pfarrer, 266

  Michele, La Sig. Gabriella Zeno, 484

  Middleton, quoted, 312 n884

  Mignerak, Milour, pattern book of, 21, 22, 29, 493

  Mignonette, 34 and n107, 35 and nn, 210, 237, 251

  Milan
    Albissola lace bought for Napoleon I.'s coronation at, 78
    Cantu the centre of lace of, 66
    cathedral, lace camicie in underground chapel of, 66
    early record of Italian lace belonging to, 63
    Genoese lace contrasted with lace of, 75 n236
    Greek lace made at, 85
    Old Milan point, 65
    punto di Napoli contrasted with point of, 71
    réseau of points of, 66
    wire lace industry at, 72

  Milward & Co., 380

  Minas Geraes, lace of, 108

  Minifie, Mrs., 400 and n1140, 401 and n1142

  Mirecourt lace, 212, 238, 251-253, 257 n688

  Misson, F. M., cited, 54 n186;
    quoted, 267

  Mitchell, Mr. and Mrs., advertisement of school of, 431 n1209

  Modano, Tuscan, 52, 68

  Modène, Duchess of
    inventory of, quoted, 120 n344, 121 n347, 128 n363, 135 and n383, 175
      n520, 213 and n590
    ruffles of, 233

  Modes, 31

  Molière, quoted, 152, 153 n442, 173 n515

  Mompesson, Sir Giles, 318 and n914

  Monaghan, crochet industry of, 444, 445

  Moncrieffe, Sir Thomas, 425

  Monks, needlework done by, 12 and n40

  Mons lace, 134-135

 "Monsieur de Paris," 173

  Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley, 57, 59, 73;
    quoted, 128, 356 and n1061

  Montague, Mrs. Elizabeth, quoted, 352

  ---- R., account entry by, 335 n982

  Montargis, 256

  Montbéliard, pattern-book published at, 28

  Montchrestien, cited, 209 n583

  Monteagle, Lord, 10 n32

  Monteleon, Princess of, 98

  Monthulay, family, 204

  ---- Sieur de, 205, 206

  Montmorency, lace-making at, 209, 213 n589

  Montrose, pearlin of, 423

  Moorish lace, 104

  Moors, Spanish lace-making attributed to, 45

  Morant, Captain, 440

  More, Mrs. Hannah, quoted, 368

  Moreau, General, 13

  Moretti, Nicolo, 484

  Morgan, cited, 435

  ---- Sydney, Lady, 369

  Morges lace, 212 n589

  Morin, M.A., cited, 220 n606

  Mortagne, 206

  Moryson, Agnes, quoted, 55, 70, 73, 87, 258, 265, 268, 274

  Moscow, lace school at, 284

  Motteville, Mme., quoted, 154 n447

  Mountague, Alice, 308

  Mourning, lace discarded in, in James I.'s time, 324

  Murat, Caroline, 183

  ---- laces, 248, 249

  Mzeresk lace, 283

  Nanduti, 108

  Nani, Signora Viena Vendramina, 485

  Nankin silk thread, 223 n608

  Naples
    Greek lace made at, 85
    lace from a palace at, 51 n175
    lace of, 70-71;
      lace work of industrial school at, 83 n352

  Napoleon
    bed made for, 196
    favourite laces of, 128, 184
    lace industry encouraged by, 123-124, 183-185, 196;
      attempt to revive Valenciennes, 231.

  Nardendal, custom of natives of, 283

  National Gallery portraits, illustrations of ruffs in, 316 n901

  Navarre, Queen of, accounts of, quoted, 67, 141 n406, 142 n409, n411

  Needle lace (_See also_ Point à l'aiguille)
    Alençon known as "needle-point," 195
    Irish, 443
    method of making, 32
    Queen Elizabeth's, 305

  Nelson, Lord, anecdote of, 264

  Nemours, Duchesse de, 235

  Nesmond, Marquis de, 117 and n331

  Netherlands. _See_ Flanders, Belgium, Holland _and_ Brabant

  Netting, 20, 21, 52;
    machine net, 408

  Neufchâtel lace industry, 270 and n726

  Neville, Mary, marriage clothes of, 291 n779

  New Ross convent, lace made at, 444

  Newport Pagnel lace, 375 n1105, 378, 382, 384

  Newton, Rev. John, letter from Cowper to, 379

  Nicholas, Edward, 329 n957

  -------- Susanne, 329 n957

  Nichols, quoted, 294 n791, 303 n833

  Nicolas, Etienne, 160 n466

  Night caps, 323

  Noailles, Madame de, anecdote of, 180 n533

  Normanby, Lady, 441

  Normandy
    lace industry of. (_See also_ Calvados _and_ Dieppe)
      centres of, 216, 218
      French Revolution, effect of, 223
      mignonette made (1665), 35
      numbers employed in different localities, 228 n614;
        (1851), 257 n688
      value of, 228 n614
    peasant women, Valenciennes bought by, 235

  Norris, Sir Henry, 307

  Northamptonshire lace, 384-393

  Nosegays, lace trimmings for, 55

  Nottingham lace, 441;
    Isle of Wight lace compared with, 372 n1097;
    machine-made blondes, 225;
    imitation mantillas, 227

  Novgorod, fabric at, 283

  Nuns, lace washed by, 373 and n1101

  ---- as lace-makers
    Flanders, 354
    Italy, 47 and n154;
      Burano, 58;
      Florence, 67, 68;
      Cantu, 80
    Portugal, 105, 107
    Spain, 93

  Nuremberg, 266, 267

  Oberkirch, Baroness de, extract from Memoires of, 182

  O'Brien, Mrs. R. V., 442

  O'Hagan, Mother Abbess, 443

  O'Halloran, Mr., 436

  Old lace
    indifference to, 368 and n1090
    mania for, 369
    restoration of, 411, 412

  Oldfield, Mrs., 367

  Olney, lace industry of, 378, 380 n1119

  Opus tract, 302

  Orfreys, 3 n13

  Orléans, Duchesse d', quoted, 166 n489

  -------- Dukes of, inventories of, quoted, 120 n342, n344, 221 and n607

  Orléanois lace industry, 256

  Orsa lace, 281

  Ostans, Giovanni, 484

  ------ Jean, 475

  Oudenarde lace, 134

  Our Lady of La Solidad, costly robes of, 90

  --- ---- of Loreto, laces of, not described, 69

  Overbury murder, 317

  Oxford, opinion of, on falling bands, 326

  ------ Countess of, 9 n31

  Oyah (Turkish crochet), 45, 87

  Pagan, Mathio, 468, 471

  Paganino, Alessandro, 468

  Paganinus, P. A., 472

  Paget, Lady, 295

  Pagodes, 168 n496

  Paintings, earliest in which lace occurs, 47;
    lace in paintings of 18th century, 222, 364

  Palatine, Count, 326

  -------- Madame, 168;
    Memoires of, quoted, 178

  Pale of rose point, 51 and n174

  Palermo
    grave clothes at, 366 and n1081
    sculptured lace in villa near, 71

  Palestine, lace-making at, 59 and n195

  Pandore, la grande, 170

  Parasole, Elisabetta Catanea, 495

  -------- Isabella Catanea, 491, 496

  Parchment lace, 37 and n122, 38 and n126, n129, n131, 297, 298

  Paris
    churches, lace of, 120 n342, 161 n467, n469
    English laces in demand at (1788), 368, 379
    exhibitions. _See under_ Exhibitions
    lace industry
      Binche and Mirecourt flowers applied at, 212
      Bisette made (1665), 33 and n102
      commerce of lace under Louis XIV, 211 and n587
      Dumont's fabric, 211
      factories round, 209
      guipures made (1665), 36 and n114
      mignonette made (1655), 35
      numbers employed (1851), 257 n688
      passementiers privileged in, 44
    pattern books in, 12 and n43

  Parisini, Agostino, 477

  Partlet, 297 n810

  Pasax, Marquis de, 190

  Pasini, Tomaso, 483

  Pasment in Scotland, 418

  Pasolini, Countess, 81 n248

  Passament (passement)
    definition of term, 26 and n79, 27
    guipure a kind of, 36
    references to, 27-29

 "Passement Bond, The," 419

  Passerotti, Aurelio, 472

  Pattern-books
    Belgium
      Antwerp (n. d.), 130, 463
      Liège (1597), 136, 488
    cut-works, of (1591), 20 n62
    earliest dated, 18;
      earliest known, 376 n1108
    England
      London (1591), 482;
        (1624), 497;
        (1632), 499;
        (1640), 500
      Northampton, 384
    France
      Lyon (n. d.), 92 n269, 465, 466;
        (1549) 92 n269, 144, 464;
        (1581), 475
      Mignerak's, 21, 22, 29, 144, 493
      Montbéliard (1598), 28, 489, 490
      Paris, in Bibliothèque Impériale, 12 n43;
        in St. Geneviève's library, 12;
        (n. d.), 468;
        (1530) 144, 461;
        (1546), 464;
        (1564), 475;
        (1584), 476;
        (1587), 17, 18, 477;
        (1587, 1588, 1595, 1606), 479-481;
        (1601), 20 n62, 490;
        (1605), 493;
        (1613), 494;
        (1623), 498;
        (1722), 501
    Germany
      Augsburg (1534), 267, 462
      Cologne (1527), 268, 459
      Frankfort (n.d.), 470;
        (1537), 470
      Frankfort-on-the-Maine (1568, 1569, 1571), 470;
        (1605), 267, 491;
        (1607), 492;
        (1618), 496
      Leipsic (1619), 496
      Lindau am Bodensee (n.d.), 488
      Nuremberg (n.d.) 502;
        (1597), 489;
        (1601, 1604), 266, 490;
        (1666), 501;
        (1676), 501
      Nuremberg and Leipzig, (1784), 501
      Strasburg (1556), 469
    gold and silver lace, of, 92
    Italy
      Bologna (n.d.), 477;
        (1591), 483
      Florence (1596), 488
      Padua (1555), 469;
        (1604), 491
      Pistoja (1642), 53 n181, 85, 92 n269, 500
      Rome (1616), 495;
        (1625), 496
      Siena (1603), 488
      Turin (1589), 481
      Venice (n.d.), 466, 471, 498;
        (1529), 461;
        (1530), 53 n179, 460;
        (1532), 462;
        (1537), 462;
        (1542), 463;
        (1543, 1544), 464;
        (1548), 53 n179, 468;
        (1551), 468;
        (1556), 469;
        (1557), 472;
        (1558), 471;
        (1559), 92 n269, 471, 472;
        (1560), 473;
        (1563), 474;
        (1564), 53 n179, 54 n182, 474, 475;
        (1567), 475;
        (1584), 476;
        (1591), 53 n179, 54 n182, 484;
        (1592) (Corona of Vecellio), 50 n167, 54 n182, 484;
        (1594), 486;
        (1600), 68, 491, 496;
        (1620 and 1625), 54 n182, 497
    Samplars a substitute for, 22-23
    Switzerland
      Basle (1599), 271, 490
      St. Gall (1593), 271, 487
      Zurich, 271, 469
    unknown points in, 54 n182
    Vienna Museum, in, 263

  Pauline, Princess, 184, 185

  Pays de Caux, 216

  Peacham, quoted, 325, 329

  Pearl (picot), 31

  ------ ties, 31

  Pearlin, 422, 423

  Pedlars, lace trade carried on by, 43 and n139, 44 and n142, n143

  Pelegrin, Francisque, pattern book of, 144, 461

  Pelican represented in lace, 21

  Pellestrina, revival of pillow lace at, 62

  Pembroke, Countess of, 322, 500

  Peniche
    bobbins used at, 106 n314
    lace industry of, 107 and n315

  Pennant, quoted, 382;
    cited, 431 n1208

  Penne, Mrs., 294

  Penshurst, old needlework at, 11

  Penthièvre, Duc de
    Eu lace patronised by, 221
    inventory of, quoted, 117 n333, 195 n549
    wardrobe account of, quoted, 172 and n510, n511, 211 n588

  Peplos, embroidery of, 3 n8

  _Pepys' Diary_, quoted, 153 n444, 337, 338

  Persia, drawn-work of, 45

  Peru and Mexico, lace imported to, from Le Puy, 245

  Perugia, Torchon made at, 81 n248

  Peter the Great, 283

  Petersen, Anders, 280

  Petre, Madame, of Gefle, information supplied by, 282 n750

  Peuchet, cited, 132, 224, 256, 265, 377, 395;
    quoted, 216 n595, 218 n600, 220 n605, 225, 237 n640, 239, 244, 245 and
      n657, 268, 396, 432

 "Pharsalia" quoted, 25

  Philip II. (Spain), 67, 310

  ------ III. (Spain), 97

  Philippa, Queen, 278, 285 and n754

  Philippine Islands, Manilla grass threadwork of, 89 n265

  Phrygians, embroidery of, 3 and n13

  Pianesani, Francesco, 462

  Picard, M., 490 n1346

  Picchetti, Marie, 79

  Pichon, Baron J., 482, 493 n1355, 495 n1356

  Pickleman, Jungfrau, 266

  Pickpockets, 346

  Picot (pearl), 31 and n92

  Pigott, Miss, quoted, 421

  Pillows
    Barcelona, 103 n305
    description of, 391
    foreign names for, 32 n99
    Honiton, 415 n1156

  Pillow guipure, 116

  ------ lace (bobbin lace)
    Austrian, 268
    bobbin lace, so called 32
    Ceylon, of, 88
    foreign names for, 32 n98
    France, extension of industry in (seventeenth century), 159;
      trade crisis (1818), 187;
      fabric at Château de Madrid, 210 n584;
      gold lace of Paris, 212;
      first mentioned in French pattern-books, 494
    Genoese, 74
    Germany, introduction into, 260
    Madeira, at, 107
    Mechlin. _See that title_
    method of making, 32-33
    origin of, 29, 109
    Peniche, at, 107
    Russian, 283 and n751
    Spanish, 103 n305
    Valenciennes. _See that title_

  ------ net, 150

  ------ -beres, 16 and n56

  Pin net machine, 448

  Pinheiro, Dona Maria Bordallo, letter from, quoted, 107 n315

  Pins for lace-making, 391 and n1126;
    State papers concerning, 294 n794

  Pinwork lace, 294 n794

  Piper Countess Elizabeth, 280

  Pisa, lace work of industrial school at, 81 n248

  Pitt, French fashions excluded by, 170

  Pizzo, 74

  Plaited laces, 392

  Platteuse, work of, 122

  Plissés à la vieille, 127

  Pluymers, Jean, 158 n460

  Point (stitch), kinds of, 32

  ------ lace
    invention of, claimed by Italy, 45
    misuse of term, 32
    varieties of, 33-35

  ------ à l'aiguille, 121;
    gazée, 123. _See also_ Needle point

  ------ d'Alençon
    Argentella, 193 and n555
    Bayeux manufacture of, 228
    Burano manufacture of, 62
    compared, with point d'Argentan, 203, 204 and n571;
      with Brussels, 194, 199;
      with Colbertine, 339;
      with point Gaze, 123;
      with Sedan lace, 254
    dress of, purchased by Emperor Napoleon, 198
    earliest use of name, 195 and n557, n558, n560
    grounds in, 193
    imperial layette of, 198
    industry
      Argentan, connection with, 204
      centres of, 200
      decline of, causes for, 192
      early account of, 188-189
      Edict of Nantes, effect of revocation of, 258
      establishment of, 155-157 and n455
      export trade, 192
      method of manufacture, 192-194
      Napoleon's patronage of, 196
      number of lace-workers (1698), 191;
        (1786), 195;
        (1788), 192 n552;
        (1830), 196
      origin of, 111 n323
      quality of lace-work, 159 n464, 187, 194
      revival of, 155 and n454, 196-197
      value of (1786 and 1801), 195; (1830), 196
    invention and establishment of, 155-157 and n455
    lappet of, from Genoa, 78 and n244
   "nun's work," 11 n39
    patterns, 190-191;
      dates of, 198-200;
      Venice patterns copied, 191
    season for, 178
    shaded tints introduced in, 201 and n567
    specimens of, exhibited, 200, 201
    time required in making, 198, 201
    Venetian réseau, relation to, 58-59
   "vilain," 191 n551

  ------ d'Angleterre
    Angleterre à bride, 408
    Aurillac manufacture of, 247
    Burano manufacture of, 62
    butterfly and acorn pattern in, 408
    France, fashionable in, 118 and n336
    history of, 117 and n332, and n333
    point de France rivalled by, 178

  ------ d'Argentan
   "Argentella" possibly a name for, 78 n244
    Armada pattern lace worked in, 397
    Burano manufacture of, 62
    characteristic of, 207
    compared, with point d'Alençon, 203, 204 and n571;
      with point gaze, 123;
      with Venetian lace, 203, 204 n571
    description of, 203
    ground in, 203 and n570, 204 n571, 207-208
    industry
      Alençon, connection with, 204
      embroidery, replaced by, 208 n580
      Guyard's revival of, 204-205
      number of lace workers (c. 1744), 205;
        (1786), 195
      rival houses, 205
      value, annual (1786 and 1801), 195;
        (1788), 207
      reference to (1738), 195 and n559
      season for, 178

  ------ d'Aurillac. 154, 246-249

  ------ de Bourgogne, 255

  ------ de Brabant, 138 n392

  ------ de Bruxelles. _See_ Point d'Angleterre

  ------ à carreaux, 32

  ------ à chaînette, 32

  ------ des champs (point de Paris), 35

  ------ Colbert, 188 n548, 228

  ------ coupé (couppé), 17-18, 49, 140 _et seq._

  ------ de Dieppe. _See_ Dieppe

  ------ double (point de Paris), 35

  ------ duchesse, 123

  ------ d'Espagne. (_See also_ Gold lace)
    brides in, 58
    definition of, 90
    England, importation to, prohibited, 358;
      Honiton imitation of, 410
    Irish imitation of, 443 n1233
    point d'Aurillac compared with, 248
    Portuguese laces compared with, 98, 106
    Queen Elizabeth's, 307
    references to, 98-99 n283, n285, 100, 103 n306, 354

  ------ d'esprit, 32 and n94, 229

  ------ de Flandre (_See also_ Flemish lace), 111, 144-145

  ------ de France. (_See also_ Point d'Alençon)
    description of, made at Alençon, 190
    designs in, 158 n463
    équipage, de bain of, 168
    falbalas of, 167 and n492
    industry
      centres of, 157 n459, 159 n459, 210-211 and n584
      Dumont, Mlle., foundress of, 105 n312
      establishment and history of company, 157-158 and n459
      Flanders, effect on, 111
      method of working pattern in, 31 n91
      ordinance of 1665, 157 and n459
      rivals to, 177-178
    popularity in France and England, 161-162
    references to, 157 n459, 159 n464, 195 and n557, n558, n559, n560

  ------ de Galle, thread lace from, 88

  ------ Gaze, characteristics of, 123

  ------ de Gênes (Genoa)
    collerette, 141
    France, prohibited in, 148 n431, 154 and n451
    history of, 72-73 and n230, 74
   "Révolte des Passemens," mentioned in, 41,42

  ------ de Hongrie, 265

  ------ of Italy, first appearance in France, 144-145

  ------ de Marli. _See under_ Bayeux, lace industry.

  ------ de Milan, Irish imitation of, 443

  ------ de Moscow, 284

  ------ de neige (punto neve), 32 and n97, 51

  ------ de Paris, 32 and n93, 35, 210, 212

  ------ plat, 105 n313, 118, 121 and n347, 122 and n350;
    appliqué, 123

  ------ de raccroc, 120, 184, 226

  ------ de Raguse, 41, 83 and n254, 84

  ------ à la Reine, 32

  ------ de Sedan. _See_ Sedan

  ------ tresse, 314

  ------ de Venise
    Alençon imitations of, 191
    characteristics, 123
    England, importation to, prohibited, 358
    France, prohibited in, 154 and n451
    Guipure, 40
    Irish imitation of, 442
    Mary II., image of, shown wearing, 345
    Mazarin's purchase of, 150, 151
    Moscow imitations of, 284
    origin of, 49-50
    point à l'aiguille gazée so called, 123
    point de Raguse so called, 83
    resemblance of, to point d'Argentan, 203, 204 n591;
      to Le Puy lace, 245;
      to point de Sedan, 254
   "Révolte des Passemens," mentioned in, 41
    rose point (raised), 51 and n175, 62;
      price of, 57;
      Honiton reproduction of, 411, 416;
      Irish reproduction of, 443 n1233, 444
    Spanish conventual lace compared with, 93
    theft of, 105 and n313

  ------ de Venise à réseau, 57, 58

  Pointeuse, work of, 122

  Points, lace known as, 2

  Poitou, 256

  Poking-sticks, 312

  Poland
    Alençon, trade with, 192 and n553
    point de Sedan imported to, 254

  Pole, Lady, effigy of, 403 n1145, 405

  Polignac, Madame de, 180

  Polychrome lace, 62-63

  Pomfret, Countess of, 99 n285

  Pommereu, M. de, quoted, 191 and n550

  Pomp office, 319

  Pompadour, Madame de, 184 n540

  _Pompe di Minerva, Le_, cited, 53 n181, 85, 92 n269

  Ponchel, du. _See_ Duponchel

  Pont-l'Evêque lace, 183 n539

  Ponthièvre, Duke de, 100 and n288

  Ponto fiamengho, 111

  Pontoppidan, quoted, 274 n736

  Pontus de Gardia, 280

  Pope, quoted, 367

  ----, the, apron worn by, for feet-washing ceremony, 70 and n217

  Popplewell Brothers, quoted, 345

  Porlin, quoted, 306 n854

  Porter, Mrs. Grey, 440

  Portland, Duchess of, 353

  Portugal
    American imports of lace from, 106
    bone pins used in, 295
    guipures exported to, 36
    lace-making in, 105-107 and nn
    Le Puy, lace imported from, 245
    sumptuary laws in, 105

  Postlethwait, quoted, 354; cited, 396

  Pot lace, 130 and n369

  Potter, Amy, 366 n1086

  Poussin lace, 219

  Poyntz, Adrian, 482

  Prague, altar-cloth at, 9

  Pridmore, Mr., 389

  Princess Royal, bridal dress of, 409

  Prior, quoted, 342

  Prison-made lace, 81 and n248

  Protection to English-made laces, etc., by English sovereigns
    Charles I., 330
    Charles II., 335
    George III., 359, 363 and n1068
    William III., 341

  Puisieux lace, 212 n589

  Puissieux, Madame de, 49 and n162, 73

  Pultenarian collars, 253.

  Punto in aria (Burano point), 46, 51 and n171, 58, 62

  Punto di cartella (cordella), 50

  ------ a gropo, 52

  ------ a maglia quadra (lacis), 52

  ------ de mosquito e de transillas, 99

  ------ di Napoli, 71

  ------ neve (point de neige), 32 and n97, 51

  ------ pugliese, 71 n222

  ------ di Rapallo, 75 n237

  ------ reale, 50

  ------ a relievo (rose point--_See under_ Point de Venise)

  ------ a reticella, 50 and n168

  ------ ricamento a maglia quadra, 21

  ------ tagliato (cut-work), 51

  ------ tagliato a fogliami, 51 and n172, 62

  ------ tirato (drawn work), 53 and n181

  ------ a Vermicelli, 75 n237

  Purle lace, 310 and n875, n876, n877

  Purling, 409

  Purls, lace known as, 2

  Puritans, lace industry under, in England, 332-334;
    in America, 372 n1099

  Puteau, Madame, 433 and n1214

  Queensberry, Duchess of, 356

  Quentell, P., 459

  Quicherat, 139

  Quilles, 127, 168 n496

  Quintain, 19 and n60, 20

  Quinty, M., 268

  ------, P., 459

  Rabat, 141 and n403

  Rabbits' hair, lace of 245.

  Radcliffe, Lady, 310 n875

  Radford, Miss, lace school of, 416 and n1169

  Raffy, Madame, 157 n458, 202

  Ragusa, cut-works and laces of, 82-83

  Rapallo,
    number of lace-workers at (1862), 76
    Vermicelli lace from, 74, 75 and nn

  Ratcliff, Lady, 294 n791

  Rättwik lace, 281

  Ravenna, lace school near, 81 n248

  Rawert, cited, 274 n732, 277 n741

  Ray, cited, 67

  Réaux, Tallemant des, quoted 49;
    cited, 83

  Rebecq-Rognon, flax grown at, 118

  Récamier, Madame, 185

  Regency point, 388

  Regnard, quoted, 126 and n358, 167 n494

  Regnier, quoted, 141

  Reid, Miss, 440

  Reiffenberg, Baron, cited, 109 and n318

  Relevailles of Parisian ladies, 174

  Religious subjects in lace, etc, 324

  Renaissance, cut-work of, 17

  René, Maître, 140 n395

  Renfrew, lace industry at, 433

  Réseau (réseuil, rézel, rézeuil)
    Don Quixote, mentioned in, 98 n281
    methods of making, 120-121
    needle-made by hand, 406 n1151
    nosacé, 78
    specimens of rézeuil d'or, 23 n74
    uses of, 21
    Venetian, relation of, to Alençon, 58-59

  Restoring of old lace, 411, 412

  Reticella (Italian)
    designs in, 68
    Irish imitation of, 446

  Retz, Cardinal de, 62

  Revel, grave-clothes in church at, 366 n1083

 "Révolte des Passemens, La," quoted, 40 and n134, 43, 104;
    cited, 83, 188

  Rheims lace, 253

  Rhodes, silk guipure of, 87

  Riano, J. F., quoted, 93

  Riazan lace, 283

  Riband roses, 329 and n959

  Ricci, Sebastian, cut work shown in "Last Supper" of, 79 n248

  Rich, B., quoted, 317 n908

  Richard II., statutes of, 216 n597

  -------- III., 48, 294 n794

  Richelieu, Duke, 144, 149

  ----------, Maréchal de, 171

  Ripon, lace-making at, 371 and n1095

  Riviera (_See also_ Albissola, Rapallo, Santa Margherita), lace
      manufacture of, 75, 79 and n245

  _Rob Roy_ cited, 423

  Roberts, Mrs., 445;
    account of lace school supplied by, 388-390

  Robinson Crusoe, Flanders lace bought by, 134 n379

  Rodge, James, 401

  Roger, Widow, 207

  Rohan, Catherine de, 212

  ------ family, 182

  Roland, cited, 36 n113

  ------ de la Platière, quoted, 154 n451, 223 n608;
    cited, 245 n656

  Romagna, lace-making in, 68

  Romana, Lucretia, 498

  ------, Lugretia, 497

  Romans, embroidery used by, 3 and n13, 4 n14

  Rome, Greek lace made at, 85

  ----, King of, 196

  Rondonneau, M., 152 n440

  Rose point of Venice. _See under_ Point de Venise

  Rosenborg Palace Museum, 273

  Rosina Helena, Princess, 501

  Ross, Mr., 482

  Rossi, Giovanni, 483

  Roumanian embroidery, 71 n222

  Rousseau, Jean Jacques, 270

  Rowlands, quoted, 289 n773

  Rudd, Margaret Caroline, 352

  Rue, Abbé, cited, 6

  Ruel, Sieur, 155

  Ruelle, Veuve, 468

  Ruff
    cut-work, of, 312-313
    England, introduction into, 310
    falling band the successor to, 326
    France, in, 139-141 and n399
    James I., under, 315-318
    Medicean, 322
    Nuremberg, 267
    sermons against the, 316
    starching and fluting of, 311-312

  Ruffles
    fashion of, in George I.'s time, 351
    ladies wearers of, 365 and n1077
    long, in George III.'s time, 363 and n1070
    making of, 194
    origin of weeping, 171
    Valenciennes industry affected by disappearance of, 231

  Run lace, 441

  Russell, Lady Rachel, 348

  Russia
    embroidery of, 71 n222
    lace imported to, from Alençon, 192, 199;
    from Saxony, 263
    lace industry in, 283-284

  Ruvigne, M., 331

  Rymer, cited, 291 n785

  Sabbio, Fratelli de, 461

  Sabenqua, 97

  Sabière, M. de, 172 n505

  Saffron Walden fair, 43 n137

  Sainte-Aignau, M. de, 216

  Saint-Albin, Mgr. C. de, 173 and n508

  St. Aligre, 247-248 and n663

  Saint-Brice lace, 213 n589

  St. Bridget, lace introduced into Sweden by, 278 and n743

  St. Cuthbert
    cope and maniple of, 7
    grave-clothes of, 14-15, 366

  St. Denis lace, 210

  St. Dunstan, embroideries designed by, 5

  St. Eustadiole, 5

  Saint François Régis, 243

  St. Gervais, 207 n577

  St. Giselle, 5 n18

  St. Lawrence, Lady, 310 n876

  St. Lo, cut-work toile d'honneur used at, 25

  St. Louis, hospital at Argentan, 207

  St. Margaret's, Westminster, lady ancress of, 293

  St. Martin's lace, 331 n965

  St. Mary at Hill, 293, 302 n828

  Saint Maximien, lace of, 212

  St. Nicholas, flax grown at, 118 n338

  Saint-Pierre-les-Champs, lace of, 213 n589

  St. Simon, quoted, 73, 166

  St. Trond, lace industry of, 137 and n390, n391

  Salcombe, male lace-maker at, 413

  Saltonstall, Mistress Susan, 483

  Salviati, Joseph, 476

  Samcloths, 23 and n73

  Samplars, 9 n30, 23 and n73

  Sandford, cited, 285 n754

  Sandwich, Lady, 166

  Sta. Lucie, Pierre de, 464, 465

  Santa Margherita
    number of lace-workers at (1862), 76
    Vermicelli lace from, 74, 75 and nn

  Saracens, Italian lace-making attributed to, 45

  Sarcelles lace, 213 n589

  Sardinia
    deaf and dumb lace-workers in, 81 n248
    Le Puy, annual value of lace brought from, 245 n657

  Saule, Marchesa Barbaretta, 78 n244

  Savary, quoted, 36 and n111, 54, 64, 126, 133, 255, 257 n687, 404;
    cited, 74, 118 n338, 125, 129, 135, 192, 210, 244, 246 n661, 247, 253
      n677, 254 n681, n683, 262, 377

  Savinière, quoted, 153 and n443

  Savoie, Don Philippe, 143

  Savona, 77 n240, 79 n246

  Savonarola, quoted, 67

  Saxony lace industry
    Barbara Uttman's work, 260-262
    cheap lace of, 246
    degeneration of, 263
    Dresden lace, 262-263
    modern, 263
    numbers employed (sixteenth century), 261
    patterns imitated in Denmark, 275
    revenue from (sixteenth century), 261
    treillis d'Allemagne, mention, of, in French inventories, 262 and n701

  Scandinavian Museum, Copenhagen, 275

  Scandinavians, lace work of, 4

  Scarpariola, Cencia, 59, 61

  Scarron, quoted, 177

  --------, Veuve, 163

  Schartzemberger, Johan, 462

  Schleswig lace industry, quality of lace, 275;
    number of fabrics (1840), 277

  ----------, North, lace of, 272, 273;
    districts of lace industry, 276 n738

 "Schole House for the Needle, A," 499

  Schomberg, Col., quoted, 326 and n946

  Schools, Lace
    Devonshire, 414, 415 and n1167, 416
    Italian, 81 n248
    Spratton, 388, 390

  Schoulthem, Mr. Hey, quoted, 133-134 and n380

  Schwartzenburg, John, 267

  Scotch servant on old lace, 368 n1090

  Scotland
    lace manufacture of, 422, 425 n1199, 428-434
    sumptuary laws in, 422 and n1195, 424

  Scott, Sir Walter, quoted, 418 n1175, 427 and n1202

  _Scottish Advertiser_ (1769), quoted, 35

  Sculptured lace
    coloured marbles, in, 71
    Harefield church, in, 321 n927

  Seaming lace, 107, 325 n941, 332

  Sedan lace, 183 n539, 253, 254

  Sedgewicke, Elizabeth, 310

  Sedley, Sir Charles, 13 and n47

  Séez black laces, 196 and n562

  Séguin, quoted, 113 n325, 139 n393; cited, 254

  Select Society of Edinburgh, The, 429, 430 and nn

  _Sempere Historia del Lujo_, quoted, 102

  Senior, Hannah, 12

  Sera, Dominique de, cited, 92;
    Pattern Book of, 476

  Sevenges, Madame de, 290

  Sévigné, Madame de
    bequest to, 183 n540
    quoted, 154 n448, 162 n477, 366 n1084

  Seville lace, 101

  Sewell, quoted, 294 n794

  Seymour, Lady Jane, 294

  Sforza family, documents of, cited, 46, 50 n168, 63, 74 n235

  Shadwell, quoted, 343, 345

  Shakespeare, laces mentioned by, 295, 303 and n831;
    quoted, 309 n871

  _Shakespeare Memorial, A_, quoted, 325 n941

  Shandowes, Lady. _See_ Chandos

  Shawe, quoted, 404

  Sherborne, lace industry of, 396, 397

  Sheridan, quoted, 346

  Shirts
    adornments of, 15-16
    Irish, 307, 435
    Queen Elizabeth's present of, to her brother, 10
    Spanish omission of, 97 n279

  Shoes, lace rosette-trimmed, 329

  Shrewsbury, Countess of, 11

  Siam, King of (1614), 12

  Sibmacher, 266, 490

  Sicily, lace manufacture of, 80-81

  Sicotière, Leon de la, 208 n579

  Sidbury, lace school at, 414;
    lace lessons at, 416 n1170

  Sidford, lace lessons at, 4l6 n34

  Sidmouth, lace school at, 416 and n1169

  Sidney, Sir Philip, 304

  Sidonian embroidery, 3

  Siena lace, 68

  Silk guipure. _See_ Guipure

  ---- lace
    Almagro, at, 102 n297
    Chinese, 89
    Cretan, 86
    Ragusa, at (gimp), 84
    Watling, 422

  Silver lace (_See also_ Aurillac lace)
    England, importation to, prohibited by, Queen Anne, 349;
      George II., 335 n993;
      confiscation and burning of foreign, 359
    Hamburg, 264
    Holland, introduction into, 259
    India, exported to, 322 n928, 329 and n958
    Ireland, exportation to, prohibited, 439
    Large purchase of, by Lady Arabella Stuart, 325
    Lyons, at, 256
    Ragusa, at, 84
    Scotland, wearing prohibited in, 422
    Spanish, 100-102, 154, 211, 212
    Zurich, 271

  ------ net-work, collar of, 82

  ------ purles, prohibition of English made, 330 330

  ------ thread, duties on, leased to Dame Villiers, 328

  Silvestre, cited, 463 n1274, 464

  Simiane, Madame de
    English point belonging to, 118 and n335
    inventory of, quoted, 153 n444, 218 and n599

  Sinclair, Sir John, quoted, 133-134 and n380, 428

  --------, Miss Katherine, 419 n1176

  _Sir Courtly Nice_, cited, 353 and n1052

  Skelton, quoted, 251 n669

  Skippin, quoted, 49 n165, cited, 72

  Slammerkins, 356 and n1059

  Slavonian peasants' work, 268

  Sleeves, 341, 365

  Sloper, Catherine, epitaph on, 13

  Smith, Mother Mary Anne, 443

  Smocks
    adornments of, 15
    labourers' cut-work insertion on, 25

  Smuggling of lace, account of, 357-362;
    of point de Bruxelles, 117;
    in 1621, 331;
    in Charles II's time, 336;
    Isle of Man a centre for, 372;
    to Scotland, 427

  ---------- of thread, 407

  Smyrna, silk guipure of, 87

  Smythe, Thomas, 425

  Society of Anti-Gallicans.  _See_ Anti-Gallican

  -------- of Polite Arts, 262 n702

  Sol, José, 484

  Soldiers
    lace made by, 225
    rich laces of English, 345, 346

  Sonderburg, vault of Schleswig-Holstein family at, 366 n1082

  Sonnettes, 34 n104

  Sophie de France, 168

  ------, Grand Duchess, 268

  Soragana, Marchesa di, 486

  Sorbière, Mons. de, 70

  Souche, Lady, 309 n870

  South Kensington Museum, Cretan laces in, 86

  Southey, quoted, 303 n830

  Spacing lace, 325 n941

  Spain
    America, lace exported to, 102
    bone pins used in, 295
    conventual lace work of, 93
    earnings of lace-makers in, 102
    embroidery of, 8 n28, 10 and n32
    French fashions influenced by, 147
    gold and silver lace, use and manufactures of, 100-102;
      imported to, 212
    grave clothes of grandees in, 366 and n1085
    guipures imported to, 36
    holidays in, 102 n302
    lace imported to, from--
      Albissola, 77
      Chantilly, 214
      Dieppe, 219
      Ghent, 133
      Isle de France, 209
      Le Puy, 245 and n657
      Lorraine, 251
      Marseilles, 101
      Paris, 36, 212
    Maestranza, the, uniforms of, 100
    mantilla, kinds of, 102-103 and n305;
      mantillas exported to, 226
    manufacture of lace in, centres of, before 1665, 44 n144
    Moresse, dentelles de, 104
    numbers of lace-makers in, 99, 101, 102 n294, n297, 104
    point of. _See_ Point d'Espagne
    shirts frequently unworn in (1686), 97 n279
    sumptuary laws of, 90, 97, 101
    two kinds of lace made in, 103 n305

  Spangles, 335;
    of bobbins, 391 n1127

  Spanish-American colonies, Chantilly lace exported to, 214

  -------- Indies,
    Brabant lace exported to, 129
    guipures exported to, 36
    Le Puy lace, annual consumption of, 245 n657

  Spelle werk, 32 n98

  Spenser, quoted, 303 n830

  Spider net, 448

  ------ -work, 20

  Spiral design, 7

  Spratton, lace school at, 388-390

  Staël, Madame de, 180

  Stafford, Bishop, monument of, 405 and n1150

  Stair, Lord, 99 n285

  Starch, yellow, 307, 317 and n906, 435

  Starching, introduction of, into England, 311;
    tools used for fluting and, 311-312

  Steadman, Anne, 440

  Steenbeck, 274

  Steinkirk lace, 167 and n491, 344 and n1021, 345, 364

  Stephens, quoted, 302 n828

  Stepney, Lady, 369

  Sterne, cited, 172

  Stisted, Mrs., cited, 474 and n1308, 487

  Stock, lace cravat succeeded by, 345

  Stockholm museums, lace in, 282

  Stone, quoted, 140

  Stoney Stratford, lace industry of, 375 n1105, 379 and n1117

  Stothard, Mrs., quoted, 216 n594

  Stowe, cited, 294 n793;
    quoted, 310, 311 and n879, 312

  Strafford, statuette of Earl of, 367

  Strasburg, Archbishops of.  _See_ Rohan family.

  Stratford-upon-Avon, embroidered bed linen at, 325 n941

  Strauben, George, 271, 487

  Strickland, Miss, quoted, 420 n1184

  Striqueuse, work of, 122

  Strutt, Jedediah, 448 n1239

  Strype, quoted, 38, 297 and n813

  Stuart, Arabella, 325

  ------, Mary, _See_ Mary Stuart

  Stubbes, quoted, 16, 313 and n892

  Stuora, 53 and n179

  Sturbridge fair, 43 and n140

  Stures family, 282

  Suffolk, Duchess, 292

  --------, Earl of, 319 and n917, n918

  --------, lace industry of, 394

  Sully, 142, 210

  Sumptuary laws
    Denmark, 274 and n733, n735
    England, 285, 286, 288, 289, 290 and n776, 291, 293, 306 and n855, 319
    France, 64, 141 and n404, n405, 144, 147 and n429, 148 and n431, 152,
      154 and n450, 158 and n460, 212, 243
    Genoa, 73
    Ireland (192 A.D.), 435, 436 and n1220
    Portugal, 105
   "Révolte des Passemens, La," 40-43
    Scotland, 422 and n1195, 424
    Spain, 90, 97, 101
    Turkey, 87
    Venice, 48, 57, 79 n245
    Zurich, 270

  Sweden
    cut-work in, 25, 280
    grave-clothes, lace adorned, 366
    lace industry,
      bobbin lace of, 280
      established at Wadstena, 278
      growth of, 279
      peasant lace work for home use, 281-282
      Spanish point and guipure in museums, 282
    sheets, laced, 280

  Swift, quoted, 124, 339, 349 n1037, 352, 436

  Swinburne, Thos. (1572), 301 n822

  ---------- (1775), quoted, 101

  ---------- (1786), quoted, 176

  Switzerland, lace industry in,
    French refugees, settlement of, 269
    mignonette made (1665), 35
    Neufchâtel. _See that title_
    origin of, 269
    pattern books, 271
    statistics of, 270 and n727
    Zurich sumptuary laws, 270-271

  Sylvius, Balthazar, 469

  Syon Monastery cope, 7

  Syracuse, Count of, quoted, 369

  Tabin, B., 476

  Taglienti, pattern-book of, 50 n168, 51 n171, 52 n176, n178, 53 n181, 71
      n222, 82 n252, 460

  Talavera de la Regna, lace made at, 101

  Talbot, Gilbert, 304

  Tallies, 78 and n154

  Talma lace, 186

  Talon, 158 n460

  Tambour work,
    Hamilton, 434 n1216
    Irish, 440, 441 and n1230, 442 n1231
    oriental, 440, 441

  Tape lace, 116, 414 n1165

  Tapestry, Greek lace a substitute for, 85-86

  Tarnete (trina), 46

  _Tatler_, quoted, 296 n806

  Tatting, Manilla grass, 89 n265

  Tax-books, Genoese, cited, 72 n224

  Taylor, John, quoted, 323 and n933, 329;
    cited 500

  Temple, Earl, 380

  Tessada, Signore, old lace of, 72 n225, 73 n232;
    cited, 76 n238

  Têtes de More (de mort, de moire), 36 and n113

  Thelusson, Symphorien, 269

  Theodoret, J., 469

  Thierzac, lacis at, 248

  Thomond, Earl of, 12

  Thomsen, Prof., quoted, 272

  Thomysi, Eleazaro, 481

  Thread, importance of using fine (_see also under_ Lille), 393 and n1104,
      446

  ------ lace
    Cyprian, 82
    hand spinners of, protest by, 335
    importation of, prohibited by George III., 355 n1047

  Thynne, quoted, 298 n816

  Tickell, quoted, 169 n497

  Tighe, Mr., cited, 440 n1228

  Tiverton, first machine net factory at, 408

  Toilé, 30 and n89

  Toile d'arraignée, Paraguayan, 108

  Toledo, Donna Teresa de, 103

  Tombs. _See_ Grave-clothes

  Tönder lace industry, 274, 275, 277 and n740, n742

  Toquet, 340

  Torchon
    Milanese, 66
    prison-made at Perugia, 81 n248
    Saxony fabric, 263
    Sicilian, 81
    Spanish, 102 n297

  Torello, 469

  Torteroli, Sig. Don Tommaso, 79 n246

  Tory, G., 476

  Tottenham, Mrs. George, 446

  Toul, "tulle" probably derived from, 250-251 and n669

  Tournantes, 168 n496

  Tournay, flax grown at, 118 n338

  Tours, cope presented to Church of St. Martin at, 5

  Towcester, lace industry at, 382

  Travancore, pillow-laces of, 88

  Treadwin, Mrs.
    cited, 401 n1140, 407, 413
    Honiton lace industry, efforts for, 410, 411, 416

  Trevelyan, Miss Audrey, 417

  Trezola, 474 n1311

  Trina, 46 and n150, n152

  Trolle Bonde, Count, 282

  ------ kant, 115-116

  Trollopies, 356 and n1059

  Trolly ground, 386

  ------ lace, 371 n1095, 412-414

  Trotman, Acting Consul, cited, 89

  Trousse, Mlle. de la, cited, 40 n134

  Troyaux, Mons., 124

  Tucker, Mrs. Marwood, 407 n1154

  Tulle (town), manufactures of, 250

  Tulle
    embroidered, 229
    German manufacture of, 250
    lace discarded in favour of, 187
    Marie Antoinette, at Court of, 180
    origin of name, 250
    predecessor of, 225

  Turkey
    oyah made in, 45, 87
    silk gimp specimens from, 85
    sumptuary laws in, 87
    tambour work in, 441

  Turn, 401 n1140

  Turner, Mrs., yellow starch invented by, 307, 317 and n906, 435

  Turnhout, Mechlin lace made at, 125;
    number of fabrics (1803), 131

  Turin, fashion at Court of, 153 n445

  Tuscan lacis, 52-53, 68

  Tussaud, Madame, 143 n412

  Twopenny, Mr. W., 286 n761

  Tynan lace industry, 442, 443

  Tyrol (Austrian) lace industry, 268

  Udine, lace school at, 81 n248

  Unbleached thread, pattern worked in, 338

  Underclothing lace-trimmed, in Scotland, 426

  United States. _See_ America

  Urbino, lace making in, 68

  Urbino, Duchess, 471

  Ursins, Madame des, 99, 172

  Ustariz, quoted, 102

  Uttman, Barbara, 260-262, 447

  Val de Travers, rivalry with Mirecourt, 252, 270

  Valcameos, 246

  Valencia
    gold and silver lace made at, 101
    saints' images decked in lace at, 100

  Valenciennes Lace
    compared with Binche, 135;
      with Dutch, 260;
      with Eu lace, 221;
      with Isle of Man lace, 372 n1096;
      with Lille, 237;
      with Mechlin, 233;
      with point de Dieppe, 220;
      with Welsh lace, 371 n1094
    cost of (1788), 234 and n627
    fault of, 235 n629
    Honiton reproduction of, 416
    industry
      centres of, 132;
      after French Revolution, 231 n624;
      expense and labour in making, 233;
      cost of thread, 234 n627
      decline of, 231
      establishment of, date, 230
      French Revolution, effect of, 183 n539
      method of working pattern in, 31
      numbers employed (18th century), 230;
        (1790 and 1851), 231;
        at Ypres (1684 and 1850), 131
      period of highest merit, 234-235
      time required in producing, 233-234
      value of Belgium monopoly, 132 and n376
      wages and conditions of work, 233
    point a misnomer for, 32
    réseau of, 66
    varieties of
      Alost (ground stitch), 133
      Bailleul, 241
      Bohemia, 268
      Bruges, 132-133
      Courtrai, width of, 131 n373;
        compared with Ypres, 132;
        ground stitch, 133 n377;
        character of, 232 n624
      Dijon, 255
      fausses Valenciennes, manufactories of, 241, 387
      Ghent (ground stitch), 133 n377
      Le Puy, 230 and n619, 245
      vrai Valenciennes, 231 and n624
      Ypres, description of, 131, 231 n624;
        value of, 131 n373;
        ground and pattern, 131-133

  Valentine de Milan, 139 n393

  Valets, extravagance of, 173 and n514

  Valguarnera, Prince, 71

  Valladolid, lace-trimmed banner at, 100

  Valois line, influence of, on French fashions, 139

  _Valuables of Glenurquhy_, quoted, 325 and n938

  Valvassore's heirs, pattern book of, 476

  Van Even, Edward, cited, 110 n320

  Van Eyck, Jacob, quoted, 111 and n322

  Van Londonzeel, Assuerus, 111

  Vandyke edges, origin of term, 448 n1241

  Vatican, laces of, 70

  Vavassore, Giovanni Andrea, 466, 467, 472

  Vecellio
    cited, 71 and n221
    Corona of, 8 n28, 29, 50 n167, 111, 484, 486

  Veils, bridal, 78;
    English, fourteenth century, 285

  Vélay lace industry (_See also_ Le Puy), fifteenth century, 242;
    18th century, 244;
    thread used, 245

  Venezuela, lace of, 108

  Venice
    Billament lace of, 48 and n159
    blonde, formerly made in, 59 n195
    Brussels lace worn at, 57 and n192
    Colbert, ordinance of, trade affected by, 54
    collar made for Louis XIII. at, 194
    emigration of workers restricted, 159 n465
    English imports from, 43, 288, 307 n863, n864;
      prohibited, 358
    fashion dolls at St. Mark's fair, 170 n501
    frauds of lace-makers in, 48, 67, 288
    gold work of, 288, 307 n863, n864
    Greek lace made at, 85
    Medici collars made at, 56
    numbers employed on lace-making in, 63
    Point of. _See_ Point de Venise
    polychrome lace, introduction of, 62-63
    sumptuary laws in, 48, 57, 79 n245
    Swiss lace from, origin of, 269
    travellers' allusions to products of, 55, 57
    varieties of lace supplied by, 50-53, 57-58

  Verbruggen, 129 n367

  Verceilles, 249

  Verghetti, 56

  Vermicelli lace, 74

  Verney Papers, quoted, 319 n916

  Verona, St. John, life of, executed in needlework at, 8 n26

  Veronese, Paul, _macramé_ in picture, by, 79 n248

  Verulam, Lord, 101 and n289

  Viarmes lace, 212

  Victoria, Queen
    Honiton lace flounces ordered by, 410
    Isle of Wight lace patronised by, 372 n1097
    State liveries of, 174 n516
    trousseau of, 392, 409

  Victoria and Albert Museum
    Alençon in, 193 n555
    Bock exhibits in, 23 n74
    Cyprian lace in, 82
    Danish embroideries in, 275
    Genoese lappet in, 78 and n244
    German specimens in, 264;
      Nuremberg ruffs, 267
    Hungarian peasant lace in, 268
    Irish imitation Venetian point in, 443 n1233
    lacis borders in, 20-21
    Norwegian cut-work in, 280 n747
    pale of rose point in, 51
    Paraguayan drawn-work at, 108
    pattern-books in, 467 n1287, 468, 470, 477, 488 n1337, 490 n1344, 497
      n1361, 501 n1370, 502 n1371
    Slavonian peasants' work in, 268
    Suffolk laces in, 394
    Syon Monastery cope in, 7
    tape lace in, 116

  Villemarqué, cited, 229 n616

  Villiers, Dame Barbara, 328

  --------, Sir Edward, 319 n918

  --------, Sir George, 318

  Villiers-le-Bel, lace-making at, 209, 213 n589

  Vimoutier, 204

  Vinciolo, Frederick
    Katharine de Médicis the patroness of, 11,17
    pattern book of, 49, 136, 144, 477-482, 487, 494

  Virginière, Blaise de, quoted, 140, 141 and n401

  Vittoria, Sister Felice, 93

  Volant, origin of name, 168 n496

  Vologda lace, 283

  Voltaire, quoted, 166 n490

  Vorsterman, William, 180, 463

  Vos, Martin de, engravings after, 106 and n268

  Vrai réseau, bride succeeded by, 406

  Vrillière, Mgr. de la, 162 n475

  Waborne lace, 300 and n819

  Wace, Robert, cited, 202

  Wadstena lace industry, 278-280

  Wages of lace-workers. _See_ Earnings

  Wakefield, quoted, 440 n1228

  Waldgrave, Sir Edward, 293

  Wales, lace-making in, 371 and n1094

  ------, Princess of, 409

  Walker, Charles, 441 and n1230, 442

  Walpole, cited, 297 n808, 356 and n1060

  Walsingham, 307 n860, 420 n1182

  ----------, Lady Audrye, 64, 320 n925

  Wareham, lace found in Scandinavian barrow near, 4

  Warwick, Lord, 333

  Warton, J., quoted, 121 and n349

  Washing of ecclesiastical lace, 373 n1101

  Waterloo, hospital for English wounded at, 124

  Waterman, Mrs. Elizabeth, 395

  Watling silk lace, 422

  Watt, cited, 482 n1329

  Weaving Book, 280

  Webb, Mr., 51

  Weber, cited, 280 n758

  Weigel, Christoph, 501

  ------, Joh. Christoph, 502

  Weisse, C., cited, 259 n693, 264 n707

  West Indies, Spanish lace sold in, 102 n294

  Westcote, quoted, 400;
    cited, 401

  Westminster
    procession of lace-makers to, 360
    St. Margaret's, lace washing from, 373 n1101

  ------------, Dean of, forbids yellow starch, 317

  ------------ Abbey
    epitaph in cloisters of, 13
    lace on images in, 316 n901, 345

  Westphalia
    Jutland industry improved by workers from, 274
    thread, fineness of, 119 n339

  Whisks, 334

  Whitcomb, John, widow of, 17

  White, Edward, 482

  ------ Knight's sale, 497

  Wieselgren, H., cited, 493 n1354

  Wight, Isle of, lace industry of, 372 and n1097

  Wigs,
    cost of, 349
    falling bands put out of fashion by, 336

  Wilhelmina of Bayreuth, 99 n283

  Willemin, cited, 475 n1313

  William III., period of, 341-346

  -------- of Malmesbury, quoted, 6

  -------- of Normandy, 6-7

  -------- of Poictiers, quoted, 7

  -------- the Silent, 260

  Willingham, Geo., letter to, cited, 98 n282

  Wilton, Lady, cited, 497

  Wiltshire and Dorsetshire lace, 395-398

  Winchester, lace purchased at, by Anne of Denmark, 320

  ----------, Lady Marquis of, 309 n870

  Wire, gold and silver lace made from, 72

  ---- ground, 386

  Wiseman, Cardinal, lace alb used by, 92-93

  Wolfe, I., 482

  Wolsey, Cardinal, lace of, 292

  Women, lace work of, compared with that of men, 263

  Woodbury
    Maltese lace imitation made at, 414 n1165
    men lace-makers at, 413

  Woollen manufacture in England
    lace manufacture next to, in 1698, 402
    loss to, from edict against Flanders lace 341, 342, 349

  Worcester, Countess of, 313

  Wotton, Sir Henry, 136 n385

  Wraxall, cited, 105, 142;
    quoted, 263

  Wulff, Jens, 276 and n739

  Wyatt, Sir Thomas, 294

  Wyriot, Madame, 205

  Yarranton, Andrew, quoted, 114-115 and n327;
    cited 259 n696

  Yemenis, M., cited, 488 n1339

  Yokohama, lace school at, 417

  Yorck lace, 138 n392

  York, Cardinal, 421

  Youghal Convent, lace-making at, 443, 444

  Young, A., cited, 192 n552, 207, 223, 224, 244;
    quoted, 234 n627, 239

  Ypres Valenciennes. _See under_ Valenciennes

  Yriarte, Charles, cited, 159 n465

  Zante, Greek lace made at, 85

  Zedler, cited, 57

  Zoppino, Nicolo, 461, 462

  Zouch, Lord, cited, 136 n385

  Zurich, sumptuary laws of, 270 and n728


  LONDON: PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,
  DUKE STREET, STAMFORD STREET, S.E., AND 28, GREAT WINDMILL STREET. W.


Notes

   [1] Wilkinson's _Ancient Egyptians_, vol. iii., p. 134. (See
       Illustration.)

   [2] Herodotus, ii. 182; iii. 47.

   [3] Ezekiel, who takes up the cry of lamentation for "Tyrus, situate at
       the entry of the sea," a merchant of the people for many isles,
       exclaims, "The merchants of Sheba, Asshur, and Chilmad were thy
       merchants. These were thy merchants in all sorts of things, in blue
       cloths and broidered works, and in chests of rich apparel." Another
       part of the same chapter mentions galley sails of fine linen "with
       broidered work from Egypt."--Ezekiel xxvii.

   [4] Exodus xxvi.; xxvii.; xxxiv. 2; Isaiah iii. 18; 1 Kings vii. 17.

   [5] Exodus xxxviii. 23.

   [6] Again, in the song of Deborah, the mother of Sisera says, "Have they
       not divided the prey?... to Sisera a prey of divers colours of
       needlework, of divers colours of needlework on both sides."--Judges
       v. 30.

   [7] Cantor Lectures on the Art of Lace-making. A. S. Cole (London,
       1881).

   [8] At Athens the maidens who took part in the procession of the
       Panathenaea embroidered the veil or _peplos_ upon which the deeds of
       the goddess were embroidered. The sacred _peplos_ borne on the mast
       of a ship rolled on wheels in the Panathenaic festival "was destined
       for the sacred wooden idol, Athene Polias, which stood on the
       Erechtheus. This _peplos_ was a woven mantle renewed every five
       years. On the ground, which is described as dark violet, and also as
       saffron-coloured, was inwoven the battle of the gods and the
       giants." (See page 47, _British Museum Catalogue to the Sculptures
       of the Parthenon_.)

   [9] Pliny, _Hist. Nat._, viii. 74. "Colores diversos picturae intexere
       Babylon maxime celebravit et nomen imposuit."

  [10] Maspero, _The Dawn of Civilisation in Egypt and Chaldaea_ (ed. Prof.
       Sayce).

  [11] Lefébure, _Embroidery and Lace_ (trans. A. S. Cole).

  [12] Lucan, _Pharsalia_, Book X.

  [13] The Romans denominated such embroideries _phrygionae_, and the
       embroiderer _phrygio_. Golden embroideries were specified as
       _auriphrygium_. This word is the root of the French _orfroi_
       (orfreys).

  [14] Mrs. Palliser quotes an extract from the author of _Letters from
       Italy_, who, speaking of the cabinet at Portici, mentions an elegant
       marble statue of Diana "dressed after the purple gowns worn by the
       Roman ladies; the garment is edged with a lace exactly resembling
       point; it is an inch and a half broad, and has been painted purple."
       By an Englishwoman (Mrs. Millar) in the years 1770 and 1771 (London,
       1777).

  [15] Strutt.

  [16] Lefébure, _Embroidery and Lace_.

  [17] Mrs. Bury Palliser, "Embroidery," _Encyclopædia Britannica_.

  [18] St. Giselle, Berthe's sister, founded many convents in Aquitaine and
       Provence, and taught the nuns all manner of needlework (Lefébure,
       _Embroidery and Lace_).

  [19] _Chronique Rimée_, by Philippe Mouskés.

  [20] Lefébure, _Embroidery and Lace_.

  [21] Mrs. Palliser, "Embroidery," _Encyclopædia Britannica_.

  [22] It has been suggested that the embroidery was done by William's
       granddaughter, the Empress Matilda, widow in 1125 of Henry V.,
       Emperor of Germany, and wife, by her second marriage, of Geoffrey,
       Count of Anjou (Lefébure).

  [23] Mr. Fowke states that the tradition which would make the tapestry
       the handiwork of Queen Matilda cannot be traced further back than
       1803, when the tapestry was sent to Paris for exhibition.

  [24] Matt. Par., _Hist. Angl._, p. 473, Edit. Paris, 1644.

  [25] Mrs. Palliser, "Embroidery," _Encyclopædia Britannica_.

  [26] At Verona an artist took twenty-six years to execute in needlework
       the life of St. John, after the designs of Pollajuolo.

  [27] "Gaston, Duke of Orleans, established hot-houses and botanical
       gardens, which he filled with rare exotics to supply the needle with
       new forms and richer tints" (Lefébure).

  [28] We read, for instance, that Gabrielle de Bourbon, wife of Louis de
       la Trémouille, "jamais n'estoit oyseuse, mais s'employoit une partie
       de la journée en broderies et autres menus ouvrages appartenant à
       telles dames, et y occupoit ses demoyselles dont avoit bonne
       quantité, et de grosses, riches, et illustres maisons."--_Panegyric
       de Loys de la Trèmoille par Jean Bouchet._

       Again Vecellio dedicates his "Corona" to Signora Nanni, not only on
       account of the pleasure she takes in works of the needle, but for
       "il diletto che prende in farne essercitar le donne de casa sua,
       ricetto delle più virtuose giovani che hoggidi vivono in questa
       città."

       "It is usual here," writes a lady from Madrid in 1679, "for good
       families to put their daughters to ladies, by whom they are employed
       to embroider in gold and silver, or various colours, or in silk,
       about the shift, neck, and hands."

        "I jor fist es chambre son pere,
         Une estole et i amict pere,
         De soie et d'or molt soutilment,
         Si i fait ententivement
         Mainte croisette et mainte estoile,
         Et dist ceste chancon à toile."
                       --_Roman de la Violette._

       "One day, seated in her father's room, she was skilfully working a
       stole and amict in silk and gold, and she was making in it, with
       great care, many a little cross and many a little star, singing all
       the while this _chanson à toile_."

  [30] In one of Edward I. we find a charge of eight shillings for silk
       bought for the embroidery work of Margaret, the King's daughter, and
       another for four ounces of silk, two hundred ounces of gold thread,
       a spindle, etc.--_Liber de Garderoba, 23 Edw. I._, Public Record
       Office.

       In one of Edward III. the sum of £2 7s. 2d. is expended in the
       purchase of gold thread, silk, etc., for his second daughter
       Joanna.--_Liber Garderobae, 12-16 Edw. III._, Public Record Office.

       Elizabeth of York worked much at her needle. In the account of her
       household, preserved in the Public Record Office, every page of
       which is signed by Queen Elizabeth herself, we find--

       "To Evan Petreson joiner, for the stuff and making of 4 working
       stools for the Queen; price of the stool 16 pence--5s. 4d.

       "To Thomas Fissch, for an elne of linen cloth for a samplar for the
       queen, 8d."

       In the Inventory 4 Edward VI., 1552 (Harl. MSS. No. 1419), are
       entries of--

       "Item, XII. samplars" (p. 419).

       "Item, one samplar of Normandie canvas, wrought with green and black
       silk" (p. 524).

       "A book of parchment containing diverses patternes" (p. 474),
       probably purchases for his sisters.

  [31] See, for instance, the interesting account of the Countess of
       Oxford, given by Miss Strickland in her _Life of Queen Elizabeth of
       York_.

  [32] These are alluded to in the dialogue between Industria and Ignavia,
       as given in Sibmacher's "Modelbuch," 1601 (French translation): "La
       vieille dame raconte l'histoire des concours de travail à l'aiguille
       chez les anciens Espagnols; comme Isabelle, femme de Ferdinand, a
       hautement estimé les travaux de l'aiguille."

       The "Spanish stitch," so often mentioned, was brought in by
       Katharine, on her marriage with Prince Arthur, in 1501. We have
       constantly in her wardrobe accounts sheets and pillow-beres,
       "wrought with Spanish work of black silk at the edge."

       In the Inventory of Lord Monteagle, 1523 (Public Record Office,) are
       "eight partlets, three garnished with gold, the rest with Spanish
       work."

       In 1556, among the New Year's gifts presented to Queen Mary Tudor,
       most of the smocks are "wrought with black silk, Spanish fashion."

       In the Great Wardrobe Accounts of Queen Elizabeth, 3 & 4, Public
       Record Office, we have "sixteen yards of Spanish work for ruffs."

       "Twelve tooth cloths, with the Spanish stitch, edged with gold and
       silver bone lace."--_Ibid._ Eliz. 5 & 6.

       The Spanish stitch appears in France with Henry II., 1557. "Pour la
       façon d'ung gaban avec ung grant collet chamarrez à l'Espaignolle de
       passement blanc," etc.--_Comptes de l'Argentier du Roy._ Archives
       Nat. K. K. 106.

  [33] Taylor, the Water Poet, _Katharine of Aragon_.

  [34] The industry of Henry's last queen was as great as that of his
       first. Specimens still exist at Sizergh Castle, Westmoreland, of
       Katharine Parr's needlework--a counterpane and a toilet cover. An
       astrologer, who cast her nativity, foretold she would be a queen; so
       when a child, on her mother requiring her to work, she would
       exclaim, "My hands are ordained to touch crowns and sceptres, not
       needles and spindles."

  [35] _Dames Illustres._

  [36] The "Reine des Marguerites," the learned sister of Francis I., was
       not less accomplished with her needle, and entries for working
       materials appear in her accounts up to the year of her death, 1549.

       "Trois marcs d'or et d'argent fournis par Jehan Danes, pour servir
       aux ouvraiges de la dicte dame."--_Livre de dépenses de Marguerite
       d'Angoulême_, par le Comte de la Ferrière-Percy. Paris, 1862.

        "Elle addonoit son courage
         A faire maint bel ouvrage
         Dessus la toile, et encor
         A joindre la soye et l'or.
         Vous d'un pareil exercise
         Mariez par artifice
         Dessus la toile en maint trait
         L'or et la soie en pourtrait."

       --_Ode à la Royne de Navarre_, liv. ii., od. vii.

  [38] 1380. "Oeuvre de nonnain."--_Inventaire de Charles V._

  [39] "My grandmother, who had other lace, called this" (some needlepoint)
       "nun's work."--_Extract from a letter from the Isle of Man_, 1862.

       "A butcher's wife showed Miss O---- a piece of Alençon point, which
       she called 'nun's work.'"--_Extract from a letter from Scotland_,
       1863.

       1698, May. In the _London Gazette_, in the advertisement of a sale
       by auction, among other "rich goods," we find "nun's work," but the
       term here probably applies to netting, for in the _Protestant Post
       Boy_ of March 15th, 1692, is advertised as lost "A nun's work purse
       wrought with gold thread."

       1763. In the _Edinburgh Advertiser_ appears, "Imported from the
       Grand Canaries, into Scotland, nun's work."

  [40] As, for instance, "the imbrothering" of the monks of the monastery
       of Wolstrope, in Lincolnshire.

  [41] _Livre de Lingerie._ Dom. de Sera, 1581. "Donne, donzelle, con gli
       huomini."--Taglienti, 1530.  Patterns which "les Seigneurs, Dames,
       et Damoiselles ont eu pour agréables."--Vinciolo, 1587.

  [42] Jehan Mayol, carme de Lyon; Fra Hieronimo, dell' Ordine dei Servi;
       Père Dominique, religieux carme, and others.

  [43] One in the Bibliothèque Impériale is from the "Monasterio St.
       Germani à Pratis."

  [44] He died in 1595. _Lives of the Earl and Countess of Arundel_, from
       the original MS. by the Duke of Norfolk. London, 1857.

  [45] P. R. O. Calendar of State Papers. Domestic. Charles I. Vol. clxix.
       12.

  [46] P. R. O. Calendar of State Papers. Colonial. No. 789.

  [47] See his epigram, "The Royal Knotter," about the queen,

        "Who, when she rides in coach abroad
           Is always knotting threads."

  [48] Translated from the _Libellus de Admirandis beati Cuthberti
       Miraculis_ of Reginald, monk of Durham, by Rev. J. Rain. Durham,
       1855.

  [49] _Chronicle of John Hardyng_, circ. 1470.

  [50] Temp. Rich. II. In their garments "so much pouncing of chesell to
       make holes, so much dragging (zigzagging) of sheers," etc.--_Good
       Parson_, Chaucer.

  [51] Percy, _Reliques of Ancient Poetry_, vol. iii.

  [52] _Anatomie of Abuses_, by Philip Stubbes, 1583.

  [53] _The Shyp of Folys of the Worlde_, translated out of Latin by Alex.
       Barclay, 1508.

  [54] The inventories of all nations abound in mention of these costly
       articles. The "smocks" of Katharine of Aragon "for to lay in," were
       wrought about the collar with gold and silk. Lord Monteagle, 1523,
       had "two fine smocks of cambric wrought with gold." (Inv. P. R. O.)
       Among the New Year's Gifts offered to Queen Mary Tudor by the
       Duchess of Somerset (1556), we find a smock wrought over with silk,
       and collar and ruffles of damask, gold purl, and silver. Again, in
       the household expenses of Marguerite de France, 1545, we find a
       charge of "4 livres 12 sols, pour une garniture de chemise ouvré de
       soye cramoisie pour madicte dame."--(Bib. Imp. MSS. Fonds François,
       10,394.) About the same date (G. W. A. Eliz. 1 & 2, 1558-59) appear
       charges for lengthening one smocke of drawne work, 20s. Six white
       smockes edged with white needlework lace, 10s. To overcasting and
       edging 4 smockes of drawn work with ruffs, wristbands, and collars,
       three of them with black work, and three of them with red, etc. At
       the funeral of Henry II. of France, 1559, the effigy was described
       as attired in "une chemise de toile de Hollande, bordée au col et
       aux manches d'ouvraige fort excellent."--Godefroy, _Le Cérémonial de
       France_, 1610.

  [55] See FRANCE.

  [56] The pillow-bere has always been an object of luxury, a custom not
       yet extinct in France, where the "taies d'oreiller, brodées aux
       armes," and trimmed with a rich point, form an important feature in
       a modern trousseau. In the inventory of Margaret of Austria, the
       gentle governess of the Low Countries, are noted--

       "Quatre toyes d'oraillers ouvrées d'or et de soye cramoysie et de
       verde.

       "Autres quatres toyes d'oraillers faites et ouvrées d'or et de soye
       bleu à losanges qui ont estées données à Madame par dom Diego de
       Cabrera."--_Corr. de l'Empereur Maximilien I. et de Marguerite
       d'Autriche_, par M. Leglay. Paris, 1839.

       Edward VI. has (Harl. MSS. 1419) "18 pillow-beres of hollande with
       brode seams of silk of sundry coloured needlework." And again, "One
       pillow-bere of fine hollande wrought with a brode seam of Venice
       gold and silver, and silk nedlework."

       And Lady Zouche presents Queen Elizabeth, as a New Year's gift, with
       "One pair of pillow-beares of Holland work, wrought with black silk
       drawne work."--Nichol's _Royal Progresses_.

  [57] _Goderonné_--_goudronné_, incorrectly derived from pitch
       (_goudron_), has no relation to stiffness or starch, but is used to
       designate the fluted pattern so much in vogue in the sixteenth
       century--the "gadrooned" edge of silversmiths.

       1588. Il avait une fraise empesée et godronnée à gros godrons, au
       bout de laquelle il y avoit de belle et grande dentelle, les
       manchettes estoient goudronnées de mesme.

  [58] They are introduced into the Title page of this work.

  [59] See APPENDIX.

  [60] "Quintain, quintin, French lawne." Randle Cotgrave. _Dictionarie of
       the French and English tongues._ 1611.

       "26 virges de Kanting pro sudariis pro ille 47/8."--_G. W. A.
       Charles II._, 1683-4.

  [61] Lacis, espèce d'ouvrage de fil ou de soie fait en forme de filet ou
       de réseuil dont les brins étaient entre-lacez les uns dans les
       autres.--_Dict. d'Ant. Furetière_, 1684.

  [62] Béle Prerie contenant differentes sortes de lettres, etc., pour
       appliquer sur le réseuil ou lassis. Paris, 1601. See APPENDIX.

  [63] So, in the Epistle to the Reader, in a Pattern-book for Cut-works
       (London, J. Wolfe & Edward White, 1591), the author writes of his
       designs:--

       "All which devises are soe framed in due proportion as taking them
       in order the one is formed or made by the other, and soe proceedeth
       forward; whereby with more ease they may be sewed and wrought in
       cloth, and keeping true accompt of the threads, maintaine the bewtey
       of the worke. And more, who desyreth to bring the work into a lesser
       forme, let them make the squares lesse. And if greater, then inlarge
       them, and so may you worke in divers sortes, either by stitch,
       pouncing or pouldering upon the same as you please. Alsoe it is to
       be understood that these squares serve not only for cut-workes, but
       alsoe for all other manner of seweing or stitching."--(See APPENDIX,
       No. 72).

  [64] _Pratique de l'aiguille industrieuse du très excellent Milour
       Matthias Mignerak_, etc.  Paris, 1605.  See APPENDIX.

  [65] The inventories of Charles de Bourbon, ob. 1613, with that of his
       wife, the Countess of Soissons, made after her death, 1644 (Bib.
       Nat. MSS. F. Fr. 11,426), alone prove how much this _réseuil_ was in
       vogue for furniture during the seventeenth century.

       "Item un pavilion de thoille de lin à bende de reseuil blang et noir
       faict par carel prisé, vi. l. t. (livres tournois).

       "Item quatre pentes de ciel de cotton blanc à carreaux.

       "Item trois pentes de ciel de thoille de lin à carreaux et raiseuil
       recouvert avec le dossier pareil estoffe, et petit carreau à point
       couppé garny de leur frange, le fonds du ciel de thoille de lin,
       trois custodes et une bonne grace et un drap pareille thoille de lin
       à bandes de reseuil recouvert ... prisé xviii. l. t."--_Inv. de
       Charles de Bourbon._

       "Item une autre tapisserie de rezeuil de thoile blanche en huit
       pièces contenant ensemble vingt aulnes on environ sur deux aulnes
       trois quarts de haute.

       "Item une autre tenture de tapisserie de rézeau tout de leine (lin)
       appliquée sur de la toille blanche en sept pièces contenant dix-huit
       aulnes de cours sur trois aulnes de haute.

       "Item trois pantes, fonds de dossier, les deux fourreaux de piliers,
       la converture de parade, le tout en point couppé et toillé.

       "Item, une garniture de lict blanc, faict par carré d'ouvrage de
       poinct couppé, le tout garny avec la couverte de parade, prisé la
       somme de soixante livres tournois."--_Inv. de la Comtesse de
       Soissons._

  [66] Dated 20 Feb., 1587. Now in the Record Office, Edinburgh.

  [67] 1781. "Dix-huit Pales de differentes grandeurs, tous de toile garnis
       tant de petite dentelle que de filet brodé."--_Inv. de l'Eglise de
       S. Gervais._ Arch. Nat. L.L. 654.

  [68] _Point and Pillow Lace_, by A. M. S. (London, 1899).

  [69] In the Record Office, Edinburgh.

  [70] "Mache, the Masches (meshes) or holes of a net between the thread
       and thread" (Cotgrave).

  [71] _Comptes de la Reine de Navarre_, 1577. Arch. Nat. K.K. 162.

  [72] _Inventory of Catherine de Médicis_, Bonaffé.

  [73] Randle Holme, in _The School Mistris Terms of Art for all her Ways
       of Sewing_, has "A Samcloth, vulgarly, a Samplar."

  [74] In the Bock collection, part of which has since been bought for the
       Victoria and Albert Museum, are specimens of "rézeuil d'or," or
       network with patterns worked in with gold thread and coloured silks.
       Such were the richly-wrought "serviettes sur filez d'or" of Margaret
       of Austria.

       "Autre servyette de Cabes (Cadiz) ouvrée d'or, d'argent sur fillez
       et bordée d'or et de gris.

       "Autre serviette à Cabes de soye grise et verde à ouvrage de fillez
       bordée d'une tresse de verd et gris."--Inventory already quoted.

  [75] "Le Gan," de Jean Godard, Parisien, 1588.

  [76] Descriptive Catalogue of the Collections of Tapestry and Embroidery
       in the South Kensington Museum (p. 5).

  [77] Lace. French, _dentelle_; German, _Spitzen_; Italian, _merletto_,
       _trina_; Genoa, _pizzo_; Spanish, _encaje_; Dutch, _kanten_.

  [78] Statute 3 Edw. IV. c. iii.

  [79] "Passement, a lace or lacing."--_Cotgrave_.

  [80] Not in those of Rob. Estienne, 1549; Frère de l'Aval, 1549; or
       Nicot, 1606. Cotgrave has, "Dentelle, small edging (and indented),
       bone-lace, or needlework." In Dict. de l'Académie, 1694, we find,
       "Dentelle, sorte de passement à jour et à mailles tres fines ainsi
       nommé parceque les premières qu'on fit etoient dentelées."

  [81] _Comptes de l'Argentier du Roi_, 1557.--Arch. Nat. K. K. 106.
       "Passement de fine soie noire dentelle d'un costé." "Passement
       blanc," "grise," also occur.

  [82] _Argenterie de la Reine_, 1556.--Arch. Nat. K. K. 118.

  [83] _Dépenses de la maison de Madame Marguerite de France, soeur du
       Roi._--Bib. Nat. MSS. F. Fr. 10,394, fol. 62.

  [84] "Plus de delivré une pacque de petite dentelle qui est estez cousu
       ensemble pour mettre sur les coutures des rideaux des ditz litz
       contenant 80 aunes."--Rec. Off., Edin. This custom of trimming the
       seams of bed-curtains with a lace indented on both sides was common
       throughout Europe. In the Chartley Inv. of Mary Stuart, 1586, one of
       the Vasquines (jackets) is described, "Autre de satin noir
       descouppée a descouppemie dentelés."

  [85] 1577. "Pour deux aulnes de passement d'argent a hautte dantelle pour
       mettre à ung renvers, au pris de soixante solz l'aulne.

       "Pour une aulne de dentelle pour faire deux cornettes pour servir à
       la dicte dame, quatre livres."--_Cptes. de la Reine de Navarre._
       Arch. Nat. K. K. 162.

  [86] See APPENDIX.

  [87] "Petits et grands passements; id. à l'esguille; id. faict au
       mestier; id. de Flandres à poinctes; id. orangé à jour; id. de
       Flandres satiné;" with "reseuil, dantelles, grandes et petites, or,
       argent," etc.--_Inv. de Madame, soeur du Roi._ Arch. Nat. K. K. 234.

       So late as 1645, in the inventory of the church of St. Médard at
       Paris (Arch de l'Emp. L. L. 858), the word is used. We find, "Quatre
       tours de chaire de thoille baptiste, ung beau surplis pour le
       predicateur, six autres, cinq corporaulx," all "à grand passement."
       Also, "deux petits corporaulx à petit passement," and "trois tours
       de chaire garnyz de grand passement à dentelle."

  [88] _Inv. apres le decès de Mgr. le Maréchal de La Motte._--Bib. Nat.
       MSS. F. Fr. 11,426.

  [89] The French terms are more comprehensive:--

       Champ, fond travaillé à jour.

       Toilé, fleurs entièrement remplies, formant un tissu sans jour.

       Grillé, grillage, plein. Also flowers--but distinguished from toilé
       by having little square spaces between the thread (_grillé_,
       grating), the work not being so compact.

       "On appelle couleuvre, une blond dont le toilé continue serpente
       entre deux rangs de grillage."--_Roland de la Platière_ (the
       Girondin). Art. Dentelle, _Encyclopédie Méthodique_. Paris, 1780.

  [90] _Storehouse of Armory and Blason._ 1688.

  [91] "Brides--petits tissus de fil qui servent à joindre les fleurs les
       unes avec les autres dans l'espèce de dentelle qu'on appelle Point
       de France, de Venise, de Malines."--_Dict de l'Académie._

  [92] "Une robe et tablier, garnis d'une dentelle d'Angleterre à
       picot."--_Inv. de decès de la Duchesse de Bourbon._ Arch. Nat. X.
       10,064.

  [93] "Une chemisette de toile d'hollande garnye de point de
       Paris."--_Inv. d'Anne d'Escoubleau, Baronne de Sourdis, veuve de
       François de Simiane._ 1681. Arch. Nat. M. M. 802.

  [94] "Cette dernière sorte de point se fait aux fuseaux."--_Dict. du P.
       Richelet._ Lyon. 1759.

  [95] _Dict. d'Ant. Furetière._ Augmenté par M. Basnage. La Haye, 1727.

  [96] 1656.

  [97] 1651. "Huit aulnes de toile commune garnies de neige."--_Inv. des
       emubles de la Sacristie de l'Oratoire de Jésus, à Paris._ Bib. Nat.
       MSS. F. Fr. 8621.

       "Neuf autres petites nappes; les deux premières de toile unie; la
       troisième à dentelle quallifié de neige."--_Ibid._

  [98] French, _dentelle à fuseaux_; Italian, _merli a piombini_; Dutch,
       _gespeldewerkte kant_; Old Flemish, _spelle werk_.

  [99] French, _carreau_, _cousin_, _oreiller_; Italian, _tombolo_; Venice,
       _ballon_; Spanish, _mundillo_.

 [100] See Chapter XXIV.

 [101] The number of bobbins is generally equal to 50 to each square inch.
       If the lace be one inch wide, it will have 625 meshes in each square
       inch, or 22,500 in a yard. The work, therefore, goes on very slowly,
       though generally performed with the greatest dexterity.

 [102] At Gisors, Saint-Denis, Montmorency, and Villiers-le-Bel.--Savary,
       _Grand Dict. du Commerce_, 1720.

       Cotgrave gives, "Bisette, a plate (of gold, silver, or copper)
       wherewith some kinds of stuffes are stripped." Oudin, "Feuille ou
       paillette d'or ou d'argent." In these significations it frequently
       occurs. We find with numerous others:

       "1545. 55 sols pour une once bizette d'argent pour mectre à des
       colletz."

       "Six aulnes bizette de soie noire pour mettre sur une robbe, lv.
       s.," in the Accounts of Madame Marguerite de France. (Bib. Nat.)

       "1557. Bizette de soye incarnatte et jaulne pour chamarrer ung
       pourpoint de satin rouge" of Henry II.--_Cptes. de l'Argentier du
       Roi._ Arch. Nat. K. K. 106.

       "1579. Petite bizette d'or fin dentellez des deux costez pour servir
       à desmanches de satin cramoisy" of Catherine de
       Médicis.--_Trésorerie de la royne mère du roy._ Arch. Nat. K. K.
       115.

       In the Chartley Inv. 1586, of Mary Stuart, is mentioned, "Un plotton
       de bisette noire."

 [103] _Dict. de l'Académie._

 [104] Campane, from sonnette, clochette, même grêlot. "Les sonnettes dont
       on charge les habits pour ornement. Les festons qu'on met aux
       étoffes et aux dentelles."--_Oudin._

 [105] Public Record Office.

 [106] In the last century it was much the fashion to trim the scalloped
       edges of a broader lace with a narrower, which was called to
       "campaner."

       1720. "Une garniture de teste à trois pièces de dentelle
       d'Angleterre à raiseau, garni autour d'une campane à dents."--_Inv.
       de la Duchesse de Bourbon._

       1741. "Une paire de manches à trois rangs de Malines à raizeau
       campanée."--_Inv. de decès de Mademoiselle Marie Anne de Bourbon de
       Clermont._ Arch. Nat. X. 11,071. (Daughter of Mademoiselle de Nantes
       and Louis Duke de Bourbon.)

       "Une coëffure de Malines à raizeau à deux pièces campanée."--_Ibid._

       In the lace bills of Madame du Barry, preserved in the Bib. Nat.,
       are various entries of Angleterre et point à l'aiguille, "campanée
       des deux côtés" for ruffles, camisoles, etc.

 [107] 1759. "Huit palatines tant points que mignonettes."--_Inv. de decès
       de Louise Henriette de Bourbon-Conty, Princesse du Sang, Duchesse de
       Orléans._ Arch. Nat. X. 10,077.

       "Trente-vingt paires de manchettes, quatre coëffures, le tout tant
       de differents points qu'Angleterre, mignonettes que
       tulles."--_Ibid._

 [108] 1758. "Une paire de manchettes à trois rangs de blonde de fil sur
       entoilage."--_Inv. de Mademoiselle Louise Anne de Bourbon Condé de
       Charollais_ (sister of Mademoiselle de Clermont). Arch. Nat. X.
       10,076.

       1761. "Fichus garnis à trois rangs de blonde de fil sur
       entoilage."--_Inv. de Charlotte Aglaë d'Orléans, Princesse du Sang,
       Duchesse de Modène_ (daughter of the Regent).

       1789. Ruffles of blonde de fil appear also in the _Inv. de decès de
       Monseigneur le Duc de Duras_. Bib. Nat. MSS. F. Fr. 11,440.

 [109] Mostly at Bayeux.

 [110] "On employe aussi pour les coëffures de la mignonette, et on a
       tellement perfectionné cette dentelle, que estant peu de chose dans
       son commencement est devenue de consequence et même très chère,
       j'entends, la plus fine qu'on fait sur de beaux patrons."--_Le
       Mercure Galant_, 1699.

 [111] "Guiper. Tordre les fils pendans d'une frange par le moyen de
       l'instrument qu'on nomme guipoir, fer crochu d'un côté, et chargé de
       l'autre d'un petit morceau de plomb pour lui donner du
       poids."--Savary.

 [112] "Guipure. A grosse black thread covered or whipped about with
       silk."--Cotgrave.

       "Guipure. Manière de dentelle de soie où il y a des figures de rose
       ou d'autres fleurs, et qui sert à parer les jupes des dames.... Sa
       jupe est pleine de guipure."--_Dict. du P. Richelet._ 1759.

 [113] Roland. We cannot help thinking this a mistake. In the statutes of
       the Passementiers, we find mention of buttons "à têtes de mort," or
       would it rather be "tête de moire," from the black moire hoods
       (têtes) worn by the Italian women, which were often edged with a
       narrow guipure?

 [114] Les lieux en France où il se fait le plus de guipures, sont
       Saint-Denis-en-France, Villiers-le-Bel, Ecouën, Arcelles,
       Saint-Brice, Groslait, Montmorency, Tremblay, Villepinte, etc.

 [115] The sale of Guipures belonged to the master mercers, the workmanship
       to the passementiers boutonniers. We find in the _Livre Commode ou
       les Adresses de la Ville de Paris_ for 1692, that "Guipures et
       galons de soye se vendent sur le Petit Pont et rue aux Febvres, où
       l'on vend aussi des galons de livrées."

 [116] Godefroy.  _Le Cérémonial de France_, 1610. _Sacre du Roy Henry
       II._, 1547.

 [117] In 1549. _Ibid._

 [118] _Traité des Marques Nationales_, dar M. Beneton de Morange de
       Peyrins. Paris, 1739.

 [119] In the Record Office, Edinburgh.

 [120] Une robe de velours vert couverte de Broderies, gimpeures, et
       cordons d'or et d'argent, et bordée d'un passement de même.

       Une robe veluat cramoisi bandée de broderie de guimpeure d'argent.

       Une robe de satin blanc chamarrée de broderie faite de guimpeure
       d'or.

       Id. de satin jaune toute couverte de broderye gumpeure, etc.

       Robe de weloux noyr semée geynpeurs d'or.

 [121] _Dictionnaire de l'Académie._

 [122] 1536-44. Sir Fred. Madden.

       2 payr of sleeves whereof one of gold w^h p'chemene lace, etc.

       2 prs. of sleves w^h pchmyn lase, 8/6.

 [123] _Ecclesiastical Memoirs_, iii. 2, 167.

 [124] State Papers, vol. 82, P. R. O.

 [125] Surtees' Society, Durham, "Wills and Inventories."

 [126] 1572. Thynne, in his _Debate between Pride and Lowliness_, describes
       a coat "layd upon with parchment lace withoute."

 [127] B. M. Add. MSS. No. 5751.

 [128] Roll. 1607. P. R. O.

 [129] _Ibid._ 1626. 11 nightcaps of coloured satin, laid on thick, with
       gold and silver parchment lace, 41. 9. 9.

 [130] Roll. 1630.

 [131] "Eidem pro novemdecem vir[=g] et di[=m] aureæ et argenteæ
       pergame[=n] laciniæ pondent sexdecim un[=c] 2/[dram] 1/[scruple]
       venet. ... pro consua[=t] ad ornan[=d] duas sedes utroque latere
       thronæ in domo Parliament."--_Gt. Ward. Acc._ Car. II. xxx. and
       xxxi. = 1678-9.

       In 1672-73 is an entry for "2 virgis teniæ pergame[=n]."

 [132] Surtees' "Inventories."

 [133] Bib. Nat. MSS. F. Fr. 8621.

 [134] _In the Recueil de pièces les plus agréables de ce temps, composées
       par divers autheurs._ Paris, chez Charles Sercy, MDCLXI.

       The poem is dedicated to Mademoiselle de la Trousse, cousin of
       Madame de Sévigné, and was probably written by one of her coterie.

 [135] The Cravates or Croates soldiers had a band of stuff round their
       throats to support an amulet they wore as a charm to protect them
       from sabre-cuts. What began in superstition ended in fashion.

 [136] These were, in France, Guibray, Beaucaire, and Bordeaux; in Germany,
       Frankfort; in Italy, Novi.

 [137] All articles of luxury were to be met with at the provincial fairs.
       When, in 1671, Catherine of Braganza, the Duchess of Richmond, and
       the Duke of Buckingham, visited Saffron Walden fair, the Queen asked
       for a pair of yellow stockings, and Sir Bernard Gascoyne, for a pair
       of gloves stitched with blue.

 [138] 10 Hen. III., Devon's _Issues of the Exchequer_.

 [139] "No lace-woman," says Ben Jonson, "that brings French masks and
       cut-works."  That lace was sold by pedlars in the time of Henry
       VIII., we find from a play, "The Four P's," written in 1544, by John
       Heywood. Among the contents of a pedlar's box are given "lasses
       knotted," "laces round and flat for women's heads," "sleeve laces,"
       etc.

       On opening the box of the murdered pedlar (_Fool of Quality_, 1766),
       "they found therein silk, linen, laces," etc.

 [140] Defoe describes Sturbridge fair as the greatest of all Europe.
       "Nor," says he, "are the fairs of Leipsig in Saxony, the Mart at
       Frankfort-on-the-Maine, or the fair of Nuremburg or Augsburg, any
       way comparable to this fair of Sturbridge."

       In 1423, the citizens of London and the suburbs being accused of
       sending works of "embroidery of gold, or silver, of Cipre, or of
       gold of Luk, togedre with Spanish Laton of insuffisant stuff to the
       fayres of Sturesbrugg, Ely, Oxenford, and Salisbury"--in fact, of
       palming off inferior goods for country use--"all such are
       forfeited."--_Rot. Parl._, 2 Hen. VI., nu. 49.

 [141] "Lingua, or the Combat of the Tongue." A Comedy. 1607.

 [142] This system of colporteurs dates from the early Greeks. They are
       termed both in Greek and Hebrew, "des voyageurs."

 [143] "She came to the house under the pretence of offering some lace,
       holland, and fine tea, remarkably cheap."--_Female Spectator._ 1757.

 [144] The centres of the lace manufacture before 1665 were:--

         BELGIUM  Brussels, Mechlin, Antwerp, Liége, Louvain, Binche,
                  Bruges, Ghent, Ypres, Courtray, etc.

         FRANCE   (Spread over more than ten Provinces)--
                  Artois              Arras (Pas-de-Calais).
                  French Flanders     Lille, Valenciennes, Bailleul (Nord).
                  Normandy            Dieppe, Le Hâvre (Seine-Inférieure).
                  Ile de France       Paris and its environs.
                  Auvergne            Aurillac (Cantal).
                  Velay               Le Puy (Haute-Loire).
                  Lorraine            Mirecourt (Vosges).
                  Burgundy            Dijon (Côte-d'or).
                  Champagne           Charleville, Sedan (Ardennes).
                  Lyonnais            Lyon (Rhône).
                  Poitou              Loudun (Vienne).
                  Languedoc           Muret (Haute-Garonne).

         ITALY    Genoa, Venice, Milan, Ragusa, etc.
         SPAIN    La Mancha, and in Catalonia especially.
         GERMANY  Saxony, Bohemia, Hungary, Denmark, and Principality of
                    Gotha.
         ENGLAND  Counties of Bedford, Bucks, Dorset, and Devon.

 [145] _Industrial Arts of the Nineteenth Century_, Digby Wyatt.

 [146] Francesco Nardi. _Sull' Origine dell' Arte del Ricamo._ Padova,
       1839.

 [147] _Ricamare. Recamar._

 [148] The traditions of the Low Countries also point to an Eastern origin,
       assigning the introduction of lace-making to the Crusaders, on their
       return from the Holy Land.

 [149] _Origine ed Uso delle Trine a filo di refe_ (thread), 1864.
       Privately printed.

 [150] 1469.--Io, Battista de Nicollo d'Andrea da Ferrara, debio avere per
       mia manifatura et reve per cuxere et candelle per inzirare....  It.
       per desgramitare e refilare e inzirare e ripezare e reapicare le
       gramite a camixi quatordece per li signori calonexi, et per li,
       mansonarij le qual gramite staxea malissimamente, p. che alcune
       persone le a guaste, Lire 1 10. It. per reve et p. candelle, L. 0 5.

       1469.--I, Baptist de Nicollo of Andrea da Ferrara, having owing to
       me for my making, and thread to sew, and candles to wax.... Item,
       for untrimming and re-weaving and waxing and refixing and rejoining
       the trimmings of fourteen albs for the canons and attendants of the
       church, the which trimmings were in a very bad state, because some
       persons had spoiled them, L. 1 10. It. for thread and wax, L. 0 5.

       These trimmings (gramite), Cav. Merli thinks, were probably "trine."

       "At Chicago was exhibited the first kind of net used in Italy as
       lace on garments. It is made of a very fine linen or silk mesh,
       stiffened with wax and embroidered in silk thread. It was in use
       during the fourteenth century, and part of the fifteenth" (_Guide to
       New and Old Lace in Italy_, C. di Brazza, 1893). This is probably
       the gramite, or trimmings of the albs, mentioned in the account book
       formerly belonging to the Cathedral of Ferrara, and now preserved in
       the Municipal Archives of that city.

 [151] See MILAN.

 [152] _Trina_, like our word lace, is used in a general sense for braid or
       passement. Florio, in his Dictionary (_A Worlde of Words_, John
       Florio, London, 1598), gives _Trine_--cuts, snips, pincke worke on
       garments; and _Trinci_--gardings, fringings, lacings, etc., or other
       ornaments of garments.

       _Merlo_, _merletto_, are the more modern terms for lace. We find the
       first as early as the poet Firenzuola (see FLORENCE). It does not
       occur in any pattern book of an older date than the "Fiori da
       Ricami" of Pasini, and the two works of Francesco de' Franceschi,
       all printed in 1591.

 [153] The laces, both white and gold, depicted in the celebrated picture
       of the Visit of the Queen of Sheba to Solomon, by Lavinia Fontana,
       now in the Lambeccari Gallery, executed in the sixteenth century,
       prove that white lace was in general use in the Italian Courts at
       that epoch.

 [154] At present, if you show an Italian a piece of old lace, he will
       exclaim, "Opera di monache; roba di chiesa."

 [155] Statute 2, Henry VI., 1423. The first great treaty between the
       Venetians and Henry VII. was in 1507.

 [156] _Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York_, 1502. P. R. O.  Also
       published by Sir H. Nicolas.

 [157] Inv. Henry VIII.

 [158] Gremio, when suing for Bianca, enumerates among his wealth in ivory
       coffers  stuffed, "Turkey cushions bossed with pearl; valance of
       Venice gold in needlework."--_Taming of the Shrew._

 [159] "One jerkyn of cloth of silver with long cuts down righte, bound
       with a billament lace of Venice silver and black silk."--_Robes of
       the late King_ (Edward VI.).

 [160] "A smock of cambrik wrought about the collar and sleeves with black
       silke; the ruffe wrought with Venice gold and edged with a small
       bone lace of Venice gold."--_Christmas Presents to the Queen_, by
       Sir G. Carew. "7 ounces of Venice 'laquei bone' of gold and black
       silk; lace ruff edged with Venice gold lace," etc. _G. W. A. Eliz.,
       passim_, P. R. O.

 [161] 1587.

 [162] Madame de Puissieux died in 1677, at the age of eighty.

 [163] Venice points are not mentioned by name till the ordinance of 1654.
       See GREEK ISLANDS.

 [164] _Hudibras._

 [165] Italy we believe to have furnished her own thread. "Fine white or
       nun's thread is made by the Augustine nuns of Crema, twisted after
       the same manner as the silk of Bolonia," writes Skippin, 1651.

 [166] _Halimedia opuntia_, Linn.

 [167] That most frequently met with is the Corona of Vecellio. See
       APPENDIX.

 [168] First mentioned in the Sforza Inventory, 1493 (see MILAN); not in
       the pattern-books till Vecellio, 1592; but Taglienti (1530) gives
       "su la rete," and "Il specchio di Pensieri" (1548), "purito in
       rede."

 [169] Plate V.

 [170] First given in the _Honesto Esempio_. 1550 and _passim_.

 [171] Mentioned by Taglienti (1530), and afterwards in the _Trionfo_
       (1555), and _passim_.

 [172] Given in _Il Monte_, circ. 1550, but described by Firenzuola
       earlier. See FLORENCE.

 [173] See Chap. III., notes 104 and 106.

 [174] "Toile de la Pale."--A pasteboard about eight inches square,
       enclosed in cambric or lace, used to cover the paten when laid over
       the cup.

 [175] The whole furniture of a room taken from a palace at Naples,
       comprising curtains, and vallance of a bed, window curtains, toilet,
       etc., of straw-coloured laces, reticella, embroidered netting, etc.;
       the price asked was 18,000 francs = £720. There was also much of the
       rose point, and a handkerchief bordered with beautiful flat Venetian
       point of the same colour, forming part of a trousseau. 700 francs =
       £28.

 [176] Taglienti (1530) has _groppi_, _moreschi_, and _arabeschi_; and _Il
       Specchio_ (1548), _ponti gropposi_. See also the Sforza Inventory,
       1493.

 [177] See GENOA.

 [178] Taglienti (1530) gives _a magliata_, Parasole (1600) _lavori di
       maglia_.

 [179] _Punti a stuora_ occur in _Il Specchio_ (1548), _I Frutti_ (1564),
       and in the _Vera Perfettione_ (1591) the word _stuora_ (modern,
       _stuoja_) means also a mat of plaited rushes, which some of these
       interlaced patterns may be intended to imitate.

 [180] _Burato._ See APPENDIX.

 [181] There are many patterns for this work in _Le Pompe di Minerva_,
       1642. Taglienti (1530) has _desfilato_ among his _punti_.

 [182] Many other points are enumerated in the pattern-books, of which we
       know nothing, such as _gasii_ (_I Frutti_, 1564), _trezola_
       (_Ibid_), _rimessi_ (_Vera Perfettione_, 1591), _opere a mazzette_
       (Vecellio, 1591, and Lucretia Bomana, N.D.).

 [183] _Tracts on Trade of the Seventeenth Century_, published by
       MacCulloch, at the expense of Lord Monteagle. 1856.

 [184] Venice point forms a considerable item in the expenses of Charles
       II. and his brother James.

 [185] Venice noted "for needlework laces, called points."--_Travels Thro'
       Italy and France_, by J. Ray. 1738.

 [186] Misson, F. M., _Nouveau Voyage d'Italie_, 4me édition. La Haye,
       1702.

 [187] _Origine delle Feste Veneziane_, da Giustina R. Michiel.  Milano,
       1829.

 [188] _An Itinerary, containing his Ten Yeeres Travel through Germany,
       Bohmerland, Switzerland, Netherland, Denmark, Poland, Italy, Turkey,
       France, England, Scotland, and Ireland._ Lond., 1617.

 [189] 1591.

 [190] See, in APPENDIX, designs for _bavari_ by Lucrezia.

 [191] The entry of the Venetian ambassador, Mocenigo, is described in the
       _Mercure Galant_, 1709:--

       "Il avoit un rabat de point de Venise.... Sa robe de damas noir avec
       des grandes manches qui pendoient par derrière. Cette robe etoit
       garnie de dentelle noir."

 [192] _Letters from Italy._ So, in a play of Goldoni, who wrote in the
       middle of the last century, the lady has a Brussels (Angleterre)
       head-dress.

       Don Flaminio: "Mi par bellisima cotesto pizzo Barbara: E un punto
       d'Inghilterra che ha qualche merito."--_Gli Amori di Zelinda e
       Lindoro._

       In Goldoni's plays all the ladies make lace on the pillow
       (_ballon_), so the art of making the needle Venice point was
       probably at an end.

 [193] "La plus belle dentelle noire fait l'espèce de camail qui, sous un
       chapeau noir emplumé, couvre leurs épaules et leur tête."--Madame du
       Boccage, 1735. _Lettres sur l'Italie._

       "Quella specie de lungo capuocio di finissimo merlo pur nero,
       chiamato bauta."--Michiel.

 [194] "L'île de Burano où l'on fabrique les dentelles."--Quadri, _Huit
       Jours à Venise_.

 [195] _Technical History of Venetian Laces_, Urbani de Gheltof. Translated
       by Lady Layard. Venice, 1882.

       _Origines de la Dentelle de Venise et l'École de Burano._ Venice,
       1897.

       Traditions of lace-making were kept alive in Venice, Cantu and
       Liguria during the first half of the nineteenth century by the
       manufacture of an inferior quality of _blonde_, once extensively
       made at Venice, which has since died out, owing to the revival in
       the production of thread-lace and guipures at Palestrina.

 [196] "Velleto (veil) uno d'oro filato.

       "Payro uno fodrete (pillow-case) di cambria lavorate a gugia (à
       l'aiguille).

       "Lenzuolo (sheet) uno di revo di tele (linen thread), cinque
       lavorato a punto.

       "Peza una de tarnete (trina) d'argento facte a stelle.

       "Lenzolo uno de tele, quatro lavorato a _radexelo_ (reticello).

       "Peze quatro de _radexela_ per mettere ad uno moscheto (zanzariere,
       mosquito curtain).

       "Tarneta una d'oro et seda negra facta da ossi (bones).

       "Pecto uno d'oro facto _a grupi_.

       "Lavoro uno de rechamo facto _a grupi_ dove era suso le pere de
       Madona Biancha.

       "Binda una lavorata a poncto de doii fuxi (two bobbins) per uno
       lenzolo."--_Instrumento di divizione tre le sorelle Angela ed
       Ippolita Sforza Visconti_, di Milano, 1493, Giorno di Giovedì, 12
       Settembre.

 [197] "La mità de uno fagotto quale aveva dentro certi dissegni da
       lavorare le donne."

 [198] Harl. MS. No. 1419.

 [199] Roll. P. R. O.

 [200] P. R. O.

 [201] De la Mare, _Traité de la Police_.

 [202] "Statuts, Ordonnances et Reglemens de la Communauté des Maistres
       Passementiers, etc., de Paris, confirmez sur les anciens Statuts du
       23 mars 1558." Paris, 1719.

 [203] _Grand Dictionnaire Universel du Commerce._ 1723.

 [204] _Voyage en Italie._ 1765.

 [205] Peuchet, J., _Dictionnaire Universel de la Géographie Commerçante._
       Paris, An vii. = 1799.

 [206] _Letters from Italy_, by a lady. 1770.

        "Questo collar scolpì la donna mia
         De basso rilevar, ch' Aracne mai,
         E chi la vinse nol faria più bello.
         Mira quel bel fogliame, ch' un acanto
         Sembra, che sopra un mur vada carponi.
         Mira quei fior, ch' un candido ne cade
         Vicino al seme, apr' or la bocia l'altro.
         Quei cordiglin, che'l legan d'ognitorno,
         Come rilevan ben! mostrando ch' ella
         E' la vera maestra di quest' arte,
         Com ben compartiti son quei punti!
         Ve' come son ugual quei bottoncelli,
         Come s' alzano in guisa d'un bel colle
         L'un come l' altro!...
         Questi merli da man, questi trafori
         Fece pur ella, et questo punto a spina,
         Che mette in mezzo questo cordoncello,
         Ella il fe pure, ella lo fece."
               --_Elegia sopra un Collaretto_,
                   Firenzuola (circ. 1520).

 [208] Rymer's _Foedera_ (38 Hen. VIII. = 1546).

 [209] 4 Hen. VII. = 1488-89.

 [210] _Compte des dépenses de la maison de Madame Marguerite de France,
       Soeur du Roi._--Bib. Nat. MSS. F. Fr. 10,394.

 [211] _Comptes de la Reine de Navarre._--Arch. Nat., K. K. 170.

 [212] In 1535.

 [213] She died in 1862.

 [214] See VENICE, 1.

 [215] _Inventaire du Trésor de N. D. de Lorette._--Bib. Nat. MSS.

 [216] _Letters from Italy._

 [217] The _gremial_, or apron, placed on the lap of the Roman Catholic
       bishops when performing sacred functions in a sitting
       posture.--Pugin's _Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament_.

 [218] This reminds one of the lines of Goldsmith, in his poem, "The Haunch
       of Venison," the giving of venison to hungry poets who were in want
       of mutton; he says:

        "Such dainties to send them their health it would hurt;
         It's like sending them ruffles when wanting a shirt."

 [219] _A true Relation of the Travailes, and most miserable Captivitie of
       W. Davies._ Lond., 1614.

 [220] _An Italian Voyage, or a Complete Journey through Italy_, by Rich.
       Lassels, Gent. 2nd edit., Lond., 1698. A reprint, with additions by
       another hand, of the original edition. Paris, 1670.  Lowndes'
       _Bibliographer's Manual_. Bohn's new edit.

 [221] "Portano alcune vesti di tela di lino sottile, lunghe fino in terra,
       con maniche larghe assai, attorno alle quali sono attaccati alcuni
       merletti lavorati di refe sottilissimo."--Habiti di donna dell'
       Isola d' Ischia. _Degli Habiti Antichi e Moderni di Diverse Parti
       del Mondo di Cesare Vecellio._ Venezia, 1590.

 [222] We have among the points given by Taglienti (1530), "pugliese." Lace
       is still made in Puglia and the other southern provinces of Naples
       and in Sicily.

       The Contessa di Brazza says that Punto Pugliese resembled Russian
       and Roumanian embroidery.

 [223] Brydone, _Tour through Sicily_. 1773.

 [224] From the tax-books preserved in the Archives of S. George, it
       appears that a tax upon gold thread of four danari upon every lira
       in value of the worked material was levied, which between 1411 and
       1420 amounted to L. 73,387.  From which period this industry rapidly
       declined, and the workers emigrated.--Merli.

 [225] Signore Tessada, the great lace fabricant of Genoa, carries back the
       manufacture of Italian lace as early as the year 1400, and forwarded
       to the author specimens which he declares to be of that date.

 [226] "Laqueo serico Jeano de coloribus, ad 5s. per doz." _G. W. A.
       Eliz._--16 & 17 and 19 & 20. P. R. O.

 [227] Dated 1639.

 [228] _Garderobe de feue Madame._ 1646. Bib. Nat. MSS.  F. Fr. 11,426.

 [229] Le Vray Théatre d'Honneur et de Chevalerie. Paris, 1648.

 [230] Queen Christina is described by the Grande Mademoiselle, on the
       occasion of her visit, as wearing "au cou, un mouchoir de point de
       Gênes, noué avec un ruban couleur de feu."--_Mém. de Mademoiselle de
       Montpensier._

       "Item, ung peignoir, tablier et cornette de toile baptiste garnie de
       point de Gênes."--1644. _Inv. de la Comtesse de Soissons._

       "Un petit manteau brodé et son collet de point de Gênes."--_The
       Chevalier d'Albret._

       "Linge, bijoux et points de Gênes."--Loret, _Muse Historique_. 1650.

       "Item, ung autre mouchoir de point de Gênes."--_Inv. du Maréchal de
       La Motte._ 1657.

 [231] _Mém._, t. xiv., p. 286.

 [232] Signore Tessada has in his possession a pair of gold lappets of very
       beautiful design, made at Genoa about the year 1700.

 [233] _Letters from Italy._ 1770.

 [234] Cavasco. _Statistique de Gênes._ 1840.

 [235] The bobbins appear to have been made in Italy of various materials.
       We have _Merletti a fusi_, in which case they are of wood. The
       Sforza inventory gives _a doii fuxi_, "two bobbins," then _a ossi_,
       "of bone," and, lastly, _a piombini_; and it is very certain that
       lead was used for bobbins in Italy. See PARASOLE (1600).

 [236] _Memorie Storiche di Santa Margherita._ Genoese pillow-laces are not
       made with the réseau, but joined by bars. Of Milan lace it is said,
       "It resembles  Genoese pillow-lace in having the same scrolls and
       flowers formed by a ribbon in close stitch, with a _mesh_ or _tulle_
       ground, whereas the Genoese lace is held together by bars."--C. di
       Brazza, _Old and New Lace in Italy_ (1893).

 [237] Lefébure writes, "A version of these Milanese laces has been
       produced by using tape for the scroll forms and flowers, and filling
       in the open portions between the tapes by needlework stitches." The
       C. di Brazza calls similar lace _Punto di Rapallo_ or _Liguria_, a
       lace formed by a ribbon or braid of close lace following the outline
       of the design with fancy gauze stitches made by knotting with a
       crochet needle. The special characteristic of this lace is that the
       braid is constantly thrown over what has gone before. The design is
       connected by brides. A modification, where the braid is very fine
       and narrow, and the turnings extremely complicated, and enriched by
       no fancy stitches between, is _Punto a Vermicelli_.--_Old and New
       Lace in Italy._

 [238] Communicated by Sig. Gio. Tessada, Junr., of Genoa.

 [239] Gandolfi, _Considerazioni Agrario_.

 [240] A small borgo, about an hour's drive from Savona, on the road
       leading to Genoa.

 [241] Cav. Merli.

 [242] In the Albert Museum of Exeter are several of these tallies marked
       with the names of their owners--Bianca, Maria Crocera, and others.

 [243] "Many skilful lace-makers in Italy have for some time imitated the
       old laces and sold them as such to travellers.  A Venetian
       lace-worker, now residing at Ferrara, can copy any old lace known"
       (Mrs. Palliser, 1864).

 [244] This lappet, 357-68, in the Victoria and Albert Museum collection,
       was described by Mrs. Palliser as "Argentella," and supposed to be
       of Genoese workmanship. "Formerly much of it was to be met with in
       the curiosity shops of that city, but now it is of rare occurrence.
       The Duchess of Genoa possesses a splendid flounce of the same lace,
       with the Doria eagle introduced into the pattern. It formerly
       belonged to the Marchesa Barbaretta Saule" (Mrs. Palliser, _History
       of Lace_, 1864). Contessa di Brazza suggests that Argentella was the
       Italian for Argentan.

 [245] Called by the people of the Riviera, _filo del baccalà di
       Castellaro_. Aloe fibre was formerly used for thread (Letter of Sig.
       C. G. Schiappapietra). It is also styled _filo di freta_ in the
       Venetian sumptuary ordinances.

 [246] The Author has to express her grateful thanks to Signore Don Tommaso
       Torteroli, librarian to the city of Savona, and the author of an
       interesting pamphlet (_Storia dei Merletti di Genova lavorati in
       Albissola_, Sinigaglia, 1863), for specimens of the ancient laces of
       Albissola, and many other valuable communications.

 [247] A word of Arabic derivation, used for denoting a fringe for
       trimming, whether cotton, thread, or silk.

 [248] This custom of ornamenting the ends of the threads of linen was from
       the earliest times common, and is still occasionally met with both
       in the north and south of Europe. "At Bayonne they make the finest
       of linen, some of which is made open like network, and the thread is
       finer than hair" (_Ingenious and Diverting Letters of a Lady's
       Travels in Spain_, London, 1679).

       There is a painting of the "Last Supper" at Hampton Court Palace, by
       Sebastian Ricci, in which the tablecloth is edged with cut-work; and
       in the great picture in the Louvre, by Paul Veronese, of the supper
       at the house of Simon the Canaanite, the ends of the tablecloth are
       likewise fringed and braided like the _macramé_.

 [249] LACE SCHOOLS IN ITALY.--At Coccolia, near Ravenna, Countess Pasolini
       founded a school on her property to teach and employ the peasant
       women and copy antique designs. Another more recently established
       school near Udine, in the province of Friuli, is under the direction
       of the Contessa di Brazza. Among charitable institutions which
       interest themselves in the lace industry are the Industrial School
       of SS. Ecce Homo at Naples, and San Ramiri at Pisa, which was
       originally founded by the Grand Dukes of Tuscany in the middle of
       the eighteenth century to teach weaving. This industry, and that of
       straw-plaiting, met with no success, and the school gradually
       developed into an industrial school in the modern sense. There are
       many schools on the same system in Florence, and one (San Pelegrino)
       at Bologna. At Sassari, in Sardinia, the deaf and dumb children in
       the great institution of the "Figlie di Maria" are taught to make
       net lace. Torchon and Brussels pillow lace is worked under the
       direction of the Sisters of Providence in the women's prison at
       Perugia.

 [250] Laborde, _Glossaire_. Paris, 1853.

 [251] Statute 2 Hen. VI., c. x., 1423.

 [252] Taglienti (1530) among his _punti_ gives _Ciprioto_ (an embroidery
       stitch).

 [253] _Description de Raguse_ (Bib. Nat. MSS., F.Fr. 10,772).

 [254] Points de Raguse--first mentioned in an Edict of January, 1654, by
       which the king raises for his own profit one quarter of the value of
       the "passems, dentelles, points coupez de Flandres, pointinars,
       points de Venise, de Raguse, de Gênes," etc. (_Recueil des Lois
       Françaises_). Again, the Ordinance of August, 1665, establishes the
       points de France, "en la manière des points qui se font à Venise,
       Gênes, Raguse, et autres pays étrangers," recited in the _Arrêt_ of
       Oct. 12th, 1666.--De Lamare, _Traité de la Police_.

 [255] See VENICE.

 [256] In 1661.

 [257] See head of chapter.

 [258] In 1667.

 [259] See APPENDIX.

 [260] _A Descriptive Catalogue of the Collections of Lace in the Victoria
       and Albert Museum_, by the late Mrs. Bury Palliser. Third edition,
       revised and enlarged by A. S. Cole.

 [261] _Edinburgh Advertiser_, 1764.

 [262] There is no corroboration of Mrs. Palliser's statement above that
       lace was ever made in Malta; if so, it would have been of the
       Genoese geometrical kind, of which Lady Hamilton Chichester adapted
       the designs and evolved what is now known as Maltese lace by the aid
       of workers imported from Genoa. The Maltese cross has been
       introduced into the designs as a distinguishing mark.

 [263] "A lace of similar character (Maltese) has also been made
       successfully in the missionary schools at Madras" (Mrs. Palliser).

 [264] Lefébure, _Embroidery and Lace_.

 [265] In the Philippine Islands the natives work Manilla grass into a sort
       of drawn thread-work or tatting.

 [266] 1756. _Point d'Espagne hats._--Connoisseur.

 [267] Beckmann, in his _History of Inventions_, says that "It was a
       fashion to give the name of Spanish to all kinds of novelties, such
       as Spanish flies, Spanish wax, Spanish green, Spanish grass, Spanish
       seed, and others."

 [268] A. S. Cole. "Cantor Lectures on the Art of Lace-Making."

 [269] _Livre Nouveau de Patrons_ and _Fleurs des Patrons_ give various
       stitches to be executed "en fil d'or, d'argent, de soie, et
       d'autres." Both printed at Lyons.  The first has no date; the
       second, 1549. _Le Pompe_, Venezia, 1559, has "diversi sorti di
       mostre per poter far, d'oro, di sete, di filo," etc.

 [270] "Not many years since, a family at Cadiz, of Jewish extraction,
       still enjoyed the monopoly of manufacturing gold and silver
       lace."--_Letter from Spain_, 1863. _Merletto Polichrome_, or
       parti-coloured lace, was also invented and perfected by the Jews,
       and was made in silk of various colours, representing fruit and
       flowers. This industry has been revived in Venice, and carried to
       great perfection.

 [271] Senor J. F. Riano. _The Industrial Arts in Spain._--"Lace."

 [272] "Spain has 8,932 convents, containing 94,000 nuns and
       monks."--Townsend, J., _Journey Through Spain in the Years 1786 and
       1787_.

 [273] The aloe thread is now used in Florence for sewing the straw-plait.

 [274] Barcelona, 1892, page 225, quoted by Signor J. F. Riano. Date of
       book 1592.

 [275] A. S. Cole, _Ancient Needle-point and Pillow-Lace_.

 [276] This ordinance even extended to foreign courts. We read in the
       Mercure _Galant_, 1679, of the Spanish ambassadress, "Elle etoit
       vestue de drap noir avec de la dentelle de soye; elle n'avait ni
       dentelle ni linge autour de sa gorge."

 [277] _Mercure François._

 [278] They have also provided--

        "14 ruffs & 14 pairs of
         cuffs laced, at 20s.       £14

         For lacing 8 hats for the
         footmen with silver
         parchment lace, at 3s.      £1 4s."

       _Extraordinary Expenses of his Highness to Spain_, 1623. P. R. O.

 [279] Doctor Monçada, in 1660, and Osorio, in 1686, reckoned more than
       three millions of Spaniards who, though well dressed, wore no
       shirts.--_Townsend's Spain._

 [280] Speaking of the apartment of Madame d'Aranda, Beckford writes: "Her
       bed was of the richest blue velvet, trimmed with point lace."

 [281] Our English translation of _Don Quixote_ has led some authors into
       adducing a passage as an evidence that the art of making bone lace
       was already known in Cervantes' day. "Sanchica," writes Theresa
       Pança to her husband, the newly-appointed Governor of Baratava,
       "makes bone lace, and gets eight maravedis a day, which she drops
       into a tin box to help towards household stuff. But now that she is
       a governor's daughter, you will give her a fortune, and she will not
       have to work for it." In referring to the original Spanish we find
       the words rendered bone lace are "puntas de randas," signifying
       works of lacis or réseuil--"ouvrage de lacis ou réseuil."--Oudin.
       _Trésor des Deux Langues Fr. et Esp._ (1660).

 [282] As early as the Great Wardrobe Account of Queen Elizabeth, 1587, P.
       R. O., we have a charge for bobbin lace of Spanish silk, "cum uñ
       tag," for the mantle, 10s. 8d.

       In a letter from Prestwick Eaton to Geo. Willingham, 1631, the
       writer sends 1000 reals (£25), and in return desires him to send,
       together with a mastiff dog, some black satin lace for a Spanish
       suit.--_State Papers, Domestic_, Car. I., P. R. O.

 [283] 1697. Marriage of Mademoiselle and the King of Spain. The Queen,
       says the _Mercure_, wore "une mante de point d'Espagne d'or, neuf
       aunes de long." 1698. Fête at Versailles on the marriage of the Duc
       de Bourgogne. "La Duchesse de Bourgogne pourtoit un petit tablier de
       point d'Espagne de mille pistoles."--_Galérie de l'ancienne Cour; ou
       Mém. des Règnes de Louis XIV. et Louis XV._, 1788.

       1722. Ball at the Tuileries. "Tous les seigneurs etaient en habits
       de drap d'or ou d'argent garnis de points d'Espagne, avec des noeuds
       d'épaule, et tout l'ajustement à proportion. Les moindres etaient de
       velours, avec des points d'Espagne d'or et d'argent."--_Journal de
       Barbier_, 1718-62.

       1722. "J'ai vu en même temps le carosse que le roi fait faire pour
       entrer dans Reims, il sera aussi d'une grande magnificence. Le
       dedans est tout garni d'un velours à ramage de points d'Espagne
       d'or."--_Ibid._

       1731. Speaking of her wedding-dress, Wilhelmina of Bayreuth, the
       witty sister of Frederick the Great, writes: "Ma robe étoit d'une
       étoffe d'or fort riche, avec un point d'Espagne d'or, et ma queue
       étoit de douze aunes de long."--_Mémoires._

       1751. Fête at Versailles on the birth of the Duc de Bourgogne. The
       coats of the "gens de cour, en étoffes d'or de grand prix ou en
       velours de tout couleurs, brodés d'or, ou garnis de point d'Espagne
       d'or."--_Journal de Barbier._

 [284] _Fenix de Cataluña, compendio desus Antiguas Grandezas y Medio para
       Renovarlas_, Barcelona, 1683, p. 75.

 [285] In the reign of William and Mary, we find, in a lace-man's bill of
       the Queen, a charge for forty-seven yards of rich, broad, scalloped,
       embossed point de Spain; and her shoes are trimmed with gold and
       silver lace.--B. M., Add. MSS.; No. 5751.

       At the entry of Lord Stair into Paris, 1719, his servants' hats are
       described as laced with Spanish point, their sleeves laced with
       picked silver lace, and dented at the edge with lace.--_Edinburgh
       Courant._

       In 1740, the Countess of Pomfret, speaking of the Princess Mary's
       wedding clothes, writes: "That for the wedding night is silver
       tissue, faced at the bottom before with pink-coloured satin, trimmed
       with silver point d'Espagne."--_Letters of the Countess of Hartford
       to the Countess of Pomfret_, 1740.

 [286] Marquis de la Gombardière, 1634, _Nouveau Réglement Général des
       Finances_, etc.

 [287] "Eighty children and grandchildren attended his funeral in defiance
       of the Edict of 19th Sept., 1664, and were heavily fined."--_La
       France Protestante_, par M. M. Haag.  Paris, 1846-59.

 [288] Garderobe de S. A. S. Mgr. le Duc de Penthièvre. Arch. Nat. K. K.
       390-1.

 [289] Lord Verulam on the treaty of commerce with the Emperor Maximilian.

 [290] _Gentleman's Magazine_, 1745.

 [291] Peyron, 1789.

 [292] Madrid, 1775.

 [293] _Itinéraire de l'Espagne_, Comte Alph. de Laborde, t. v.

 [294] Peuchet (_Dictionnaire Universel de la Géographie Commerçante_, An.
       vii. = 1799), speaking of Barcelona, says their laces are "façon de
       France," but inferior in beauty and quality. The fabrication is
       considerable, employing 2,000 women in the towns and villages east
       of Barcelona. They are sold in Castile, Andalusia, and principally
       in the Indies.

 [295] Madrid, 1788. Vol. ii, p. 149.

 [296] _Ibid._ Vol. xvii., p. 294.

 [297] "The manufacture of silk lace or blonde in Almagro occupies from
       12,000 to 13,000 people" (Mrs. Palliser, 1869). Modern torchon laces
       are still made at Almagro to a very large extent (1901).

 [298] Madrid, 1788.

 [299] Madrid, 1797.

 [300] Senor Juan F. Riano, _The Industrial Arts in Spain_, "Lace" (London,
       1879).

 [301] _Theory of Commerce_, from the Spanish of Don. Ger. de Ustariz
       (Lond., 1751).

 [302] When the holidays of the Roman Catholic church are deducted, the
       work-days of the people amount only to 260 in the course of the
       year--fifty less than in a Protestant country.

 [303] Ford, _Handbook of Spain_.

 [304] 1869.

 [305] "Now there are only two kinds of lace made in Spain; 'encaje de
       blonda,' mantillas, scarves, lace-ties, etc., in white and black;
       these are manufactured in Barcelona, on long pillows stuffed with
       long straw quite hard, covered with yellow or light blue linen. The
       lace is worked on a cardboard pattern, and with 'fuseaux' like the
       French torchon lace, the only difference being that the pillow is
       long and narrow and without the revolving cylinder in the centre, so
       that when making a long piece, or lace by the yard, the pins have to
       be taken out when you get to the bottom of the pillow, and the work
       removed to the top and continued. The mantillas, etc., are worked by
       pieces; that is to say, the border, flowers, and large designs, and
       are afterwards joined by the veil stitch.

       "The second is 'encaje de Almagro'--little children of six and seven
       years old are taught to make it."--_Letter from Spain_, 1901.

 [306] "On met de la dentelle brodée de couleur de points d'Espagne aux
       jupes"--_Mercure Galant._

 [307] _Recherches sur le Commerce, la Fabrication et l'Usage des Etoffes
       de Soie, etc., pendant le Moyen Age._ Paris, 1839.

 [308] Taglienti, Venice, 1530.

 [309] Paris, 1546.

 [310] Pelegrin de Florence, Paris, 1530.

 [311] _Magazin de Londres_, 1749.

 [312] Mademoiselle Dumont, foundress of the point de France fabric, in the
       Rue St. Denis, quitted Paris after some years and retired to
       Portugal: whether she there introduced her art is more than the
       author can affirm.

 [313] It was probably a variety of point de Venise. A few years ago a
       specimen of point plat was exhibited in London with a Portuguese
       inscription and designs of figures in costumes of _circ._ 1600.

       See Plate IX.

 [314] The bobbins from Peniche, one of the few places in Portugal where
       pillow-lace is still made, are remarkably pretty. They are of ivory,
       agreeably mellowed by time and constant handling, and their slender
       tapering shafts and bulbous ends are decorated simply but tastefully
       with soft-tinted staining. In size they are small, measuring from
       three and a quarter to three and a half inches long, and these
       proportions are extremely good. Another variety of Peniche bobbin is
       made of dark brown, boldly-grained wood. The lace-makers work on a
       long cylindrical cushion--the _almofada_--fastened to a high,
       basket-work stand, light enough to be easily moved from place to
       place.--R. E. Head, "Some Notes on Lace-Bobbins," _The Reliquary_,
       July, 1900.

 [315] _The Queen_, August, 1872.

       "The places in Portugal where the lace industry is chiefly exercised
       are Peniche, Vianna do Castello, Setubal, a village in Algarve
       called Faro, and at the present time Lisbon, where, under the help
       and patronage of H. M. the Queen, a lace dépot has been instituted,
       in which I have worked for ten years, seeking to raise the
       Portuguese lace industry to an art. The designs being entirely my
       own original ones, I am trying to give them a character in unison
       with the general idea of the architecture throughout the country. I
       obtained gold medals for my work at the Exhibitions of 1894 at
       Antwerp and 1900 at Paris, besides others at Lisbon."--Letter from
       Dona Maria Bordallo Pinheiro, head of the Lace Industry Department
       at Lisbon, 1901.

 [316] "There are now seven families employed in the fabrication of Maltese
       lace, which is made almost entirely by men; the women occupy
       themselves in the open-work embroidery of muslin" (1869).

 [317] Those in the collegiate church of St. Peter's, at Louvain, and in
       the church of St. Gomar, at Lierre (Antwerp Prov.).--Aubry.

 [318] Baron Reiffenberg, in _Mémoires de l'Académie de Bruxelles_. 1820.

 [319] Engraved by Collaert. Bib. Nat. Grav.

 [320] _Louvain dans le passé et dans le présent, formation de la ville,
       événements memorables, territoire, topographie, institutions,
       monuments, oeuvres d'art_, page 330, by Edward van Even, published
       1895.

 [321] M. de Barante.

 [322] It goes on: "For the maiden, seated at her work, plies her fingers
       rapidly, and flashes the smooth balls and thousand threads into the
       circle. Often she fastens with her hand the innumerable needles, to
       bring out the various figures of the pattern; often, again, she
       unfastens them; and in this her amusement makes as much profit as
       the man earns by the sweat of his brow; and no maiden ever complains
       at even of the length of the day. The issue is a fine web, open to
       the air with many an aperture, which feeds the pride of the whole
       globe; which encircles with its fine border cloaks and tuckers, and
       shows grandly round the throats and hands of kings; and, what is
       more surprising, this web is of the lightness of a feather, which in
       its price is too heavy for our purses. Go, ye men, inflamed with the
       desire of the Golden Fleece, endure so many dangers by land, so many
       at sea, whilst the woman, remaining in her Brabantine home, prepares
       Phrygian fleeces by peaceful assiduity."--_Jacobi Eyckii
       Antwerpiensis Urbium Belgicarum Centuria._ Antw. 1651. 1 vol., 4to.
       Bib. Royale, Brussels.

 [323] Alençon excepted.

 [324] It is said to destroy the eyesight. "I was told by a gentleman well
       acquainted  with  Flanders," says McPherson, "that they were
       generally almost blind before thirty years of age."--_History of
       Commerce_, 1785.

 [325] Together with the cap is preserved a parchment with this
       inscription: "Gorro que perteneccio à Carlos Quinto, emperad. Guarda
       lo, hijo mio, es memoria de Juhan de Garnica." ("Cap which belonged
       to the Emperor Charles V. Keep it, my son, in remembrance of John de
       Garnica"). J. de Garnica was treasurer to Philip II.

       Séguin, however, is of opinion that this cap belonged to one of
       Charles V.'s successors:--

       "Ce bonnet ... a dû appartenir très certainement à un de ses
       successeurs (of Charles V.), à cause que ce bonnet se trouve coupé
       et encadré par un petit entre-deux de guipure au fuseau, façon point
       de Gênes, qui ne pouvait pas avoir été fait du temps de Charles
       Quint."--Séguin, _La Dentelle_.

 [326] Married, 1599, Albert, Archduke of Austria.

 [327] By Andrew Yarranton, Gent. London, 1677. A proposal to erect schools
       for teaching and improving the linen manufacture as they do "in
       Flanders and Holland, where little girls from six years old upwards
       learn to employ their fingers." Hadrianus Junius, a most learned
       writer, in his description of the Netherlands, highly extols the
       fine needlework and linen called cambric of the Belgian nuns, which
       in whiteness rivals the snow, in texture satin, and in price the
       sea-silk--Byssus, or beard of the Pinna.

 [328] An old term, still used in Scotland, for gossip, chatter.

 [329] These dogs were of large size, and able to carry from 22 to 26 lbs.
       They also conveyed tobacco. The Swiss dogs smuggle watches.

 [330] Black lace was also imported at this period from the Low Countries.
       Among the articles advertised as lost, in the _Newsman_ of May 26th,
       1664, is, "A black lute-string gown with a black Flanders lace."

 [331] Mercure Galant. 1678.

 [332] "Le corsage et les manches étaient bordés d'une blanche et légère
       dentelle, sortie à coup sûr des meilleures manufactures
       d'Angleterre."

 [333] We have, however, one entry in the Wardrobe Accounts of the Duc de
       Penthièvre: "1738. Onze aunes d'Angleterre de Flandre."

 [334] _Mercure Galant._ 1678.

 [335] "Deux paires de manchettes et une cravatte de point
       d'Angleterre."--_Inventaire d'Anne d'Escoubleau, Baronne de Sourdis,
       veuve de François de Simiane._ Arch. Nat. M. M. 802.

 [336] _Inv. après le decès de Mgr. Mich. Philippine de la Vrillière,
       Patriarche, Archevêque de Bourges_, 1694. Bib. Nat. MSS. F. Fr.
       11,426.

       "Une toilette et sa touaille avec un peignoir de point
       d'Angleterre."--_Inv. de decès de Mademoiselle de Charollais._ 1758.
       Arch. Nat.

 [337] _Mrs. Calderwood's  Journey through Holland and Belgium_, 1756.
       Printed by the Maitland Club.

 [338] Flax is also cultivated solely for lace and cambric thread at St.
       Nicholas, Tournay, and Courtrai. The process of steeping
       (_rouissage_) principally takes place at Courtrai, the clearness of
       the waters of the Lys rendering them peculiarly fitted for the
       purpose. Savary states that fine thread was first spun at Mechlin.

 [339] It is often sold at £240 per lb., and in the Report of the French
       Exhibition of 1859 it is mentioned as high as £500 (25,000fr. the
       kilogramme). No wonder that so much thread is made by machinery, and
       that Scotch cotton thread is so generally used, except for the
       choicest laces. But machine-made thread has never attained the
       fineness of that made by hand. Of those in the Exhibition of 1862,
       the finest Lille was 800 leas (a technical term for a reel of 300
       yards), the Brussels 600, the Manchester 700; whereas in Westphalia
       and Belgium hand-spun threads as fine as 800 to 1000 are spun for
       costly laces. The writer has seen specimens, in the Museum at Lille,
       equal to 1200 of machinery; but this industry is so poorly
       remunerated, that the number of skilful hand-spinners is fast
       diminishing.

 [340] _Dictionnaire du Citoyen._ 1761.

 [341] _Comptes de Madame du Barry._ Bib. Nat. MSS. F. Fr. 8157 and 8.

 [342] "Trois aubes de batiste garnies de grande dentelle de gros point
       d'Angleterre."--_Inv. des Meubles, etc., de Louis, Duc d'Orléans,
       decedé 4 fev. 1752._ (Son of the Regent.) Arch. Nat. X. 10,075.

       "Deux aubes de point d'Angleterre servant à Messieurs les curez.

       "Une autre aube à dentelle de gros point servant aussy à M. le
       curé."--_Inventaire et Description de l'Argenterie, Vermeil Doré,
       Ornemens, Linge, etc., appartenant à l'Oeuvre et Fabrique de
       l'église Saint-Merry à Paris._ 1714. Arch. Nat. L.L. 859.

 [343] "Une coëffure à une pièce d'Angleterre bride et réseau."--_Comptes
       de Madame du Barry._

       "1 aune et quart d'Angleterre mêlé."--_Ibid._

 [344] Mrs. Delany writes ("Corr.," vol. 2): The laces "I have pitched on
       for you are charming; it is grounded Brussels."

       "Deux tours de gorge à raiseau, un tour de camisolle à
       bride."--1720. _Inv. de la Duchesse de Bourbon._ Arch. Nat. X.
       10,062-4.

       "Six peignoirs de toille fine garnis par en haut d'une vielle
       dentelle d'Angleterre à raiseau."--_Inv. de decès de Monsieur
       Philippe petit fils de France, Duc d'Orléans, Regent du Royaume,
       decedé 2 décembre, 1723._ Arch. Nat. X. 10,067.

       The "fond écaillé" often occurs.

       "Une coëffure à une pièce de point à l'écaille;

       "Une paire de manchettes de cour de point à raizeau, et deux devants
       de corps de point à brides à écailles."--1761. _Inv. de la Duchesse
       de Modène._ Arch. Nat. X. 10,082.

       "Deux barbes, rayon, et fond d'Angleterre superfin fond
       écaillé."--_Comptes de Madame du Barry._ See her _Angleterre_, Chap.
       XI. note 26.

 [345] To which machinery has added a third, the tulle or Brussels net.

 [346] The needleground is three times as expensive as the pillow, because
       the needle is passed four times into each mesh, whereas in the
       pillow it is not passed at all.

 [347] "Trois oreillers, l'un de toille blanche picquée garnis autour de
       chacun d'un point plat."--_Inv. de la Duchesse de Modène._

 [348] _Tableau de Paris_, par S. Mercier. Amsterdam, 1782.

 [349] "Fashion." J. Warton.

 [350] Brussels lace-makers divide the plat into three parts, the "mat,"
       the close part answering to the French _toilé_ (Chapter III.); _gaze
       au fuseau_, in which small interstices appear, French _grillé_, and
       the _jours_, or open work.

 [351] The veil presented by the city of Brussels to the Empress Josephine
       was sold in 1816 by Eugene Beauharnais to Lady Jane Hamilton. It is
       described to have been of such ample dimensions that, when placed on
       Lady Jane's head--who was upwards of six feet high--it trained on
       the ground. The texture of the réseau was exquisitely fine. In each
       corner was the imperial crown and cypher, encircled with wreaths of
       flowers. This _chef d'oeuvre_ passed into the possession of Lady
       Jane's daughter, the Duchesse de Coigny.

 [352] To afford an idea of the intrinsic value of Brussels lace, we give
       an estimate of the expense of a fine flounce (_volant_), of _vrai
       réseau mélangé_ (point and plat), 12 metres long by 35 centimetres
       wide (13¼ yards by 14 inches)--

                                                                      Fr.
         Cost of the plat                                          1,885.75
         Needle-point                                              5,000
         Open-work, _jours_ (_fonnage_)                              390
         Appliqué (_stricage_)                                       800
         Ground (_réseau_)                                         2,782
         Footing (_engrêlure_)                                         1.27
                                                                  ---------
         Total                                                    10,859.02
                                                                  ---------
                                                                = £434 7 6

       Equals £36 3s. 9d. the metre, and the selling price would be about
       £50 16s., which would make the flounces amount to £609 12s.

 [353] "Une paire de manchettes de dentelle de Malines brodée."

       "Quatre bonnets de nuit garnis de Malines brodée."--_Inv. de decès
       de Mademoiselle de Charollais._ 1758.

 [354] _Inv. de la Duchesse de Bourbon._ 1720.

       "1704. Deux fichus garnis de dentelle de Malines à bride ou rézeau.

       "Une cravatte avec les manchettes de point de Malines à bride.

       "Deux autres cravattes de dentelle de Malines à rézeau et trois
       p