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Title: The American Missionary — Volume 41, No. 9, September, 1887
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The American Missionary — Volume 41, No. 9, September, 1887" ***

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by Cornell University Digital Collections)



[Illustration: September, 1887.

  VOL. XLI.

  NO. 9.

  The American Missionary]



[Illustration: CONTENTS]

       *       *       *       *       *


  EDITORIAL.

    ANNUAL MEETING,                                          243
    INCREASED SIZE OF THE PRESENT NUMBER,                    243
    FINANCIAL,                                               243
    PARAGRAPHS,                                              244
    THINGS TO BE REMEMBERED—No. 4,                           245


  THE SOUTH.

    THE GLENN BILL IN THE GEORGIA LEGISLATURE,               247
    GEORGIA’S NEED OF TEACHERS,                              265
    LE MOYNE INSTITUTE,                                      266


  THE CHINESE.

    CALIFORNIA AS A MISSIONARY FIELD,                        267
    GRADUATING ADDRESS OF YAN PHOU LEE AT YALE COLLEGE,      269


  RECEIPTS                                                   273

                 *       *       *       *       *


                             NEW YORK:

         PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY ASSOCIATION.

                      Rooms, 56 Reade Street.

                 *       *       *       *       *

                Price, 50 Cents a Year, in Advance.

  Entered at the Post-Office at New York, N.Y., as second-class
                              matter.



American Missionary Association.

       *       *       *       *       *


  PRESIDENT, Hon. WM. B. WASHBURN, LL.D., Mass.


  _Vice-Presidents._

    Rev. A. J. F. BEHRENDS, D.D., N.Y.
    Rev. ALEX. MCKENZIE, D.D., Mass.
    Rev. F. A. NOBLE, D.D., Ill.
    Rev. D. O. MEARS, D.D., Mass.
    Rev. HENRY HOPKINS, D.D., Mo.


  _Corresponding Secretary._

    Rev. M. E. STRIEBY, D.D., _56 Reade Street, N.Y._


  _Associate Corresponding Secretaries._

    Rev. JAMES POWELL, D.D., _56 Reade Street, N.Y._
    Rev. A. F. BEARD, D.D., _56 Reade Street, N.Y._


  _Treasurer._

    H. W. HUBBARD, Esq., _56 Reade Street, N.Y._


  _Auditors._

    PETER MCCARTEE.
    CHAS. P. PEIRCE.


  _Executive Committee._

    JOHN H. WASHBURN, Chairman.
    A. P. FOSTER, Secretary.

    _For Three Years._
      S. B. HALLIDAY.
      SAMUEL HOLMES.
      SAMUEL S. MARPLES.
      CHARLES L. MEAD.
      ELBERT B. MONROE.

    _For Two Years._
      J. E. RANKIN.
      WM. H. WARD.
      J. W. COOPER.
      JOHN H. WASHBURN.
      EDMUND L. CHAMPLIN.

    _For One Year._
      LYMAN ABBOTT.
      A. S. BARNES.
      J. R. DANFORTH.
      CLINTON B. FISK.
      A. P. FOSTER.


  _District Secretaries._

    Rev. C. L. WOODWORTH, D.D., _21 Cong’l House, Boston_.
    Rev. J. E. ROY, D.D., _151 Washington Street, Chicago_.


  _Financial Secretary for Indian Missions._

    Rev. CHARLES W. SHELTON.


  _Field Superintendent._

    Rev. C. J. RYDER, _56 Reade Street, N.Y._


  _Bureau of Woman’s Work._

    _Secretary_, Miss D. E. EMERSON, _56 Reade Street, N.Y._

       *       *       *       *       *


COMMUNICATIONS

Relating to the work of the Association may be addressed to the
Corresponding Secretaries; those relating to the collecting fields,
to Rev. James Powell, D.D., or to the District Secretaries; letters
for “THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY,” to the Editor, at the New York
Office.


DONATIONS AND SUBSCRIPTIONS

In drafts, checks, registered letters or post office orders may
be sent to H. W. Hubbard, Treasurer, 56 Reade Street, New York,
or, when more convenient, to either of the Branch Offices, 21
Congregational House, Boston, Mass., or 151 Washington Street,
Chicago, Ill. A payment of thirty dollars at one time constitutes a
Life Member.


FORM OF A BEQUEST.

“I BEQUEATH to my executor (or executors) the sum of —— dollars, in
trust, to pay the same in —— days after my decease to the person
who, when the same is payable, shall act as Treasurer of the
‘American Missionary Association,’ of New York City, to be applied,
under the direction of the Executive Committee of the Association,
to its charitable uses and purposes.” The Will should be attested
by three witnesses.

       *       *       *       *       *



                                THE

                       AMERICAN MISSIONARY.

                 *       *       *       *       *

           VOL. XLI.       SEPTEMBER, 1887.       No. 9.

                 *       *       *       *       *



American Missionary Association.

       *       *       *       *       *


For notice of Annual Meeting see last page of cover.

       *       *       *       *       *


The present number of the MISSIONARY is eight pages larger than
usual. We devote it chiefly to a broadside on Georgia’s Teachers’
Chain-Gang Bill. The importance of the subject warrants it.
Valuable matter is crowded out in consequence.

       *       *       *       *       *


We have again reached the last month of our fiscal year. What our
friends do this month will determine whether the year closes with
a debt. The receipts for July, which we publish in this number,
are not pleasant to look at. As compared with the July receipts
last year, they are nearly seventeen thousand dollars less, and
the total receipts for the year from churches and individuals, as
compared with the total receipts at the same time the preceding
year, are nearly twenty thousand dollars less. Dr. Dana’s Fourth of
July appeal, and Miss Auld’s appeal to the ladies last year, will
in part account for the falling off. The excessively warm weather
during July, greatly reducing the congregations, has doubtless
had an influence. But whatever the cause, our receipts are behind
to an extent that threatens injury to our work, and this month is
the last we have in which to ward off the double evil—debt and
curtailment of work. What we do must be done quickly.

We invite our friends to serious thoughtfulness preceding action.
They know better what to do than we can advise. We earnestly plead
for the co-operating help of every one of them.

(1) We solicit a personal contribution from all who are able to
give, and the influence of word and pen from all who can induce
others to make a contribution. Please bring our needs to the
attention of the prayer-meeting, the missionary concert and the
Sabbath congregation.

(2) We request all churches that have made us no contribution
during the year, (and there are some who have made us no
contribution for several years), to be sure and give us a
contribution this month. You see the work of the American
Missionary Association is to be benefited or injured all through
next year by what the churches do this month.

Friends, what answer will you make to this statement of facts we
lay before you? You know that enemies of our work in the South are
proposing the chain-gang for our teachers. They are not satisfied
with ostracizing them from society, they propose to punish them as
criminals because they preach the gospel to the poor and befriend
the oppressed. Will you allow the work to suffer in the day when it
is assailed? Must we retrench, cut down, withdraw, at such a time
as this? We cannot believe that our friends will sanction it. Let
there be this month such a rally to the defense and maintenance of
our God-appointed mission as was never known in all our history.
Let everybody have a chance to give, and let everybody give, be it
much or little.

       *       *       *       *       *


A poor colored woman, living near one of our chartered
institutions, and taking a deep interest in the education of its
students, has recently given her little home, paid for by savings
from small wages, to this institution for the benefit of its
students. This is larger than some of the first ministerial gifts
to Harvard University, and is a good omen and prophecy.

       *       *       *       *       *

The name of California is so much associated with the idea of gold
that it is easy to imagine that it is a wealthy State. And it _is_
wealthy. How easy to think the next thought; being wealthy it ought
to do more for mission work within its borders. That, however, does
not prove that it will or that it can be reasonably expected to do
more. If only the wealth was in the hands of Christian people—ah,
yes, _if only_. Please find Rev. Mr. Pond’s article on another page
and read it. His facts are unquestioned and his meditations will
bear meditation.

       *       *       *       *       *

Mr. Yan Phou Lee, the young Chinese gentleman who was graduated
by Yale College in its last class, delivered an address on the
occasion of his graduation that elicited the hearty applause of
those who heard it, and the widespread favorable comment of the
press, secular and religious. Our readers will find this address on
another page. Mr. Lee shows himself thoroughly competent to discuss
the Chinese question. His words should have a wide reading. Mr. Lee
expects to attend our Annual Meeting, at Portland, and we shall
hope to hear from him again.

       *       *       *       *       *

The _Christian Mirror_, Portland, Me., Rev. I. P. Warren, D.D.,
editor, had in one of its issues not long since a rousing editorial
on the approaching meeting of the A. M. A. in Portland. It predicts
a meeting “of much interest both because of the work itself and
the eminence of many of the persons whom it will bring hither,” and
closes with the earnest advice, “Let all the friends of humanity
lay their plans to attend.”

       *       *       *       *       *

The _Savannah News_, speaking of the Glenn Bill, has the following
to say:

“Perhaps it may teach a lesson to the over-zealous individuals in
the North who use their money in efforts to bring about social
equality in the South through the schools.”

We regret to have such sentiments promulgated. They are utterly
misrepresentative. The bugbear of “social equality” so distorts the
vision of our Southern friends that they seem incapable of seeing
things as they are. “Over-zealous individuals in the North” have
helped Georgia through their missionary schools in a way that has
given inspiration and progress to education, religion, morality and
industry all over the State, especially among colored people. They
deserve thanks, not misrepresentative sneers.

       *       *       *       *       *


THINGS TO BE REMEMBERED—NO 4.

_The Duty_: To preach the Gospel to every creature, in the shortest
possible time, is the duty laid upon the church by the last
command of her King. The part of the work assigned to us is to be
determined by our surroundings, and especially by our opportunities
to reach the unsaved races of men. We are bound to put in our labor
where it will go farthest and move greatest masses of men towards
God. If we find that the “dark lands” can best be reached through
their children on these shores, then must we seek and save the
children for the sake of their kindred.

Take now the map of the world and turn to Asia; the merest
glance shows that our nearest point to that greatest of the
World’s divisions is the California coast. On that coast the old
civilization and the new stand face to face. There, too, meet the
old Paganism and the newer Christianity, and there, _emphatically_,
will be the battle-ground between the past and the present, the
false and the true. As Christian men we mean to regenerate the
Asiatic continent, and in particular the Mongolian race. If our
Bibles left us in doubt our geographies would show that the Pacific
coast was the spot on which to initiate a Christian movement
for the capture of China. And anyone can see that Paganism and
Christianity are now in contact on that coast, and one or the
other will soon be master. If only for the honor of our faith,
we must accept the contest and abide the issue. The capture of
the thousands of her children in this land means the capture of
the Empire of China. The stake is too immense to be treated with
indifference. The prize to be won involves mighty races and is
offered to us alone. To secure it is to cover ourselves with glory;
to decline it is to cover ourselves with guilt and shame.

If with united heart and hand we bent ourselves to the task, how
easily we might absorb the Chinese into the life of the nation
and into the faith of the churches. And then, when they all went
back—as they all intend to do—they would bear with them the new
thoughts and the new life to become the regenerating leaven for
their continent. If we give them the Gospel, accompanied by the
renewing energy of the Holy Ghost, they will return in the power of
the Highest to save their people.

And, now, look to Africa—barbarous, wretched, and apparently
hopeless. But, lo, within our own borders are seven millions of her
sons and daughters, born into our civilization, already feeling
the quickening forces of our learning and our faith. Who touches
the African race as we do, or who can so influence the African
mind and heart? Here are the African souls that are best fitted to
regenerate the African race. These young Christian scholars are a
hundred years in advance of anything we can find in Africa. And
are they not the men to be organized into a mission to save their
fatherland? We are related to Africa as no other nation on the
globe is; touch more of its people and control more of the African
heart and mind. This is our special opportunity and puts us under
obligation to move upon the African race with all the forces of
light and truth at our command.

The whole matter is in a nutshell and may be summed up thus: We
have the power to preach the Gospel to every Chinaman, every
Indian, and every Negro in the land, and having the power, we are
in duty bound to use it.

Did we do this, our simplest duty, these people in turn would have
the power to preach the Gospel to all the millions of their own
countrymen. Nothing can be plainer. Then why do we hesitate to
muster the forces and put these races in training for Christ and
the salvation of their own lands? The _opportunity_ to do this
work brings with it the obligation to do it. But when it is added
to this that we _alone_ can do it in the way suggested, and in the
only way that seems to make its near and easy achievement possible,
there is no excuse for a moment’s delay. If we have men and money
enough to go after these races in foreign lands, we certainly
cannot lack means to provide for them here. To us _alone_ is given
this privilege of preaching this Gospel _to the world_ at our own
doors. And while the best statesmanship of the country is tasked to
show how we may deal with these races for _our_ highest good, the
church of God is set to the task of showing how we may deal with
them so as to secure the speediest regeneration of the yet unsaved
continents.

The American Missionary Association believes that this result will
be soonest realized by at once bringing these children of theirs
under the full light and power of the Gospel. And it believes that
the interest of this land and of those lands will be best promoted
by throwing among those populations a Christian force so large
that not one shall fail to hear of Christ. To reach one in twenty
or thirty is to trifle with the whole problem. Nothing short of
reaching every soul, or making it possible for every soul _to be_
reached with the power of the Gospel, will be adequate.

The way is all open; we can see clear through to the end. The
question is pressed upon us and we must answer distinctly whether
we will accept this opportunity to save China and Africa, or
whether we will decline the offer and withhold the bread of life.

C. L. WOODWORTH.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE GLENN BILL IN THE GEORGIA LEGISLATURE.


This infamous bill was passed by the lower house of the Georgia
Legislature by a vote of 128 (all white) to 2 (colored), the only
colored men in the house. The only speech made in favor of the bill
was by Glenn, its author. The two colored men were the only ones to
speak against it.

TEXT OF THE BILL.

A bill to be entitled, An Act to regulate the manner of conducting
educational institutions in this State and to protect the rights of
colored and white people and to provide penalties for the violation
of the provisions of this act and for other purposes.

Sec. 1.—Be it enacted that from and after the passage of this
act no school, college or educational institution in this State
conducted for the education and training of colored people shall
matriculate or receive as a pupil any white person, nor shall
any school, college or educational institution conducted for the
training of white receive or matriculate any colored person as
pupil, nor shall any school, college or educational institution
receive or matriculate both white and colored persons.

Sec. 2.—Be it further enacted that any teacher or manager or
controller of either of such institutions violating the provisions
of this act shall be punished as prescribed in section 4,310 of the
Code. If such institution be a chartered one, then not only the
teachers thereof but the president, secretary and members of the
board of trustees, or other persons filling corresponding offices,
who shall knowingly permit the same to be violated, shall be
subject to indictment and punishment as aforesaid.

Sec. 3.—Be it enacted that all laws and parts of laws in conflict
with, this act be, and the same are, hereby repealed.

Section 4,310 of the Code is as follows:—

Accessories after the fact, except where it is otherwise ordered
in this Code, shall be punished by a fine not to exceed $1,000,
imprisonment not to exceed six months, to work in a chain-gang on
the public works not to exceed twelve months, and any one or more
of these punishments may be ordered in the discretion of the judge.


WHY THE BILL WAS INTRODUCED.

A correspondent of the New York _Tribune_, states the case as
follows:

“The bill is aimed against Atlanta University. But the University
is not the cause of it. It is merely the occasion. The cause is the
wicked anti-Christian caste-spirit among the white people of the
State. To understand the situation a few facts need to be stated:

“In 1867 the American Missionary Association secured a charter
for the Atlanta University, and founded that institution for the
education of colored youth. But the well-known principles of the
Association, admitting no distinctions on the ground of color,
forbade the closing of its doors to any worthy student who might
apply for admission. The money to start that school, buy the
grounds, erect the buildings, furnish them, and make improvements,
was all contributed by benevolent people at the North. Into the
grounds and buildings as they stand to-day there have been put
something over $150,000—every cent of it contributed by friends
in the North. In addition to this, Northern contributors have
given toward the running expenses of the institution on an average
since 1867 about $10,000 a year. That is to say, Christian people
at the North have given the State of Georgia to help educate her
children in this one institution something over $350,000! But the
money is by far the smallest part of the contribution. The culture,
piety, noble character and consecration of the teachers, graduates
of Northern colleges and normal schools, have made the Atlanta
University a model school to imitate and a constant inspiration to
the development of the educational interest of the State. There
have been, however, for several years past, a few white pupils
in the school. These were the children of the professors and in
one instance a child of a missionary of the American Missionary
Association. The reasons for the presence of these white pupils
were three: (1) The principles on which the institution was
founded; (2) The fact that there was no school in Atlanta where
the children could receive as thorough training and discipline,
and (3) The sentiment of the people against “nigger teachers” was
such that to send the children to the white schools would have been
to subject them to ostracism and insult. If it were not for the
first two reasons, the last would not count for much. Ostracism
and insult are the condemnation of those who inflict; the honor of
those who suffer.

“But the answer is not yet complete. In the distribution of a
national grant of public lands for education in the several States
made by Congress in 1862, under the lead of Senator Morrill, of
Vermont, Georgia received 270,000 scrip, the interest on which
amounts to something over $16,000 a year. And what did the State of
Georgia do with it? Appropriated it to its white State University
at Athens. With nearly one-half of its population colored, it
took the Nation’s gift for the benefit of the whole State and put
it where the colored people could have no share in it whatever.
Somebody discovered that this was clearly a misappropriation of
funds, and that if the United States Congress should learn of
it there would probably be ‘music in the air’ of a kind Georgia
would not like to hear, and so the State Legislature ‘generously’
voted that it would appropriate $8,000 a year for the education of
colored youth in the State! And this money, the gift of the United
States to Georgia, was always spoken of as a State appropriation
and quoted as an evidence of the wonderful interest the State
takes in negro education. But what would $8,000 a year accomplish
for the training of teachers to supply the wants of the 725,000
colored people in Georgia? How far would it go in the purchase of
grounds, erection and equipment of buildings and the salaries of
teachers? It is simply laughable to ask the question. But here was
an institution at hand, grounds, buildings, equipments, teachers,
everything in operation. Having been placed by the American
Missionary Association in the hands of its own Board of Trustees
and being undenominational and unsectarian in all respects, why
not appropriate the money to this school? The State Legislature
appointed a committee to look into the matter. The committee
visited the school, were profoundly impressed with its excellence,
and unanimously reported in favor of having the appropriation go to
the school. Every year since then the appropriation of that $8,000
has gone to the University. Every year since then the reports
of the State Examiners have been highly eulogistic. They have
admitted, often with astonishment, the splendid educational work
done there. The admission was forced that this was, on the whole,
the best school in the State. The contrast between the discipline
and training in it, and that found in the white State University,
was too great not to be noticed.

“But this year the Examiners discovered that there were a few
white children, the children of the professors, and the child of
the missionary already referred to, in the school, and they have
become righteously indignant over their presence. The money, say
they, was given exclusively for the education of colored pupils,
and behold, some white pupils are receiving benefit from it!
Besides it is co-education of the races, and that the State of
Georgia will not tolerate! It will introduce ‘Social Equality’ and
‘Miscegenation,’ and ‘Miscegenation of Ideas!’ And these are the
reasons why this bill has been brought forward. Strange that they
were not discovered before, for they have all been in existence
ever since the appropriation was first made, and they were known to
be existing by every State committee that has visited the school.”


_The Reasons are only Pretenses._

A correspondent in the _Advance_ handles these reasons as follows:

“1. As to ‘misappropriation.’ The last Legislative committee
noticed, with feigned horror, that there were among the students
in the Atlanta University three or four of the children of the
professors, who recited in Geometry, Greek, Latin, etc., in the
same classes with colored pupils. But while the Atlanta University
receives $8,000 a year from the State, it receives $19,000 a
year from Northern sources. When a mal-administrator wishes to
save his mal-administration from coming under legal courts, it is
an interesting spectacle to see him pose, on the point of honor,
crying out, ‘Misappropriation!’ to the men who not only administer
every dollar to the purpose for which it was given, but add to
every dollar two dollars more, kindly given them by benevolent
friends for that purpose! Misappropriation, indeed!

“2. ‘Social Equality.’ There is no such thing, as the Southerners
define it, outside their own imaginations. It is the biggest
bugbear that ever frightened respectable minds. If it be a fact
that God has made of one blood all mankind, and that Jesus
Christ is our common Elder Brother, and we all are, or may be,
the children of God, then this caste-mania, which dominates the
Southern mind so like an unclean spirit, is something as idiotic as
it is unchristian.

“3. ‘Miscegenation.’ It is time, we admit, that Georgia wake
up to this evil. She ought to have wakened to it more than a
hundred years ago. Atlanta University is not the offender. Had
the principles of that school always been regnant in Georgia,
there never would have been the evil. Georgians themselves are
the sinners. Their witnesses walk before them and are seen every
day. A hundred thousand light-colored negroes in Georgia proclaim
a hundred thousand white transgressions. It is high time Georgia
awoke on the subject of miscegenation. A colored transgressor is
quickly strung up to a tree. Why not hang the white transgressor?
A few hundred ‘white’ hangings would wonderfully clear up the
moral atmosphere down there and get things in good shape for a
thorough-going, anti-miscegenation law. Now that Georgia forces
herself under the gaze of the civilized world through this action
of her Legislature, the decent opinion of mankind calls on them
to put a stop to this wickedness within her borders. Make every
colored woman who gives birth to a light-colored child disclose the
father, and then hang him. Enforce this law as faithfully against
the offender of one color as the offender of the other. It is
always well to shoot in the direction of the game.

“4. ‘Miscegenation of Ideas.’ The sagacious patriots of the
Georgia Legislature speak of ‘miscegenation of ideas’ as something
particularly horrible; something almost as bad as the other kind.
What they mean by this they do not explain; should they attempt to
explain it, all the world outside the white South would laugh them
to scorn. They will themselves live to grow ashamed of it. It is
too stupid to awaken any mirth, too ridiculous for sober answer,
too essentially mean in the spirit and motive of it for anything
but contempt and pity. That such a measure as this chain-gang law
for Christian teachers could be received with such favor in a
State like Georgia, is one of the most dismal signs of the time,
or rather signs of the place, that has come to light during the
past ten years. But it will fail; yet the curse and stigma of it
will long remain to plague those in that State who have any moral
sensibility left.

“At the bottom of this miserable and cruel caste-prejudice is
jealousy—jealousy of the rising colored man.”


THE CHAIN-GANG.

It is a singular coincidence that this very Legislature, whose
lower house has passed this bill to punish Christian teachers
for allowing their own children to recite with colored children
in the class-room by putting them into the chain-gang, is by a
committee investigating the State penitentiary system, pronounced
by competent prison reformers to be “perhaps the vilest on earth.”
There are some good people in Georgia who want to see the barbarous
system exposed and abolished. On the other hand, the supporters
of the system are numerous and influential. The Georgia papers do
not have much to say about this subject, and probably for the same
reason that Russia don’t want the civilized world to know about
what is going on in Siberia. The people are afraid to have their
deeds of darkness brought to the light, but they are not all silent.

An Atlanta correspondent of the _New York World_, writing under
date of July 22d, describes the system as follows:

“The convicts of Georgia, numbering about sixteen hundred, the
negroes largely predominating over the whites, are confined in
no regular penitentiary. They are worked under State direction
and control, but are divided into three companies, known as
“Penitentiary Company No. 1,” etc. These companies take all
the convicts under a twenty years’ lease, the good, bad and
indifferent. The Lease Act originally prescribed certain work that
these convicts should do, the intention being to so regulate their
employment as to prevent them from being brought into competition
with free labor. Now, however, there is no class of work that the
convicts are not called upon to do. They work on railroads and
in coal mines; they cut pine timber for the saw mills; they are
employed about the mills in those places where skilled workmen are
generally employed; they make brick; they operate iron furnaces;
they constitute the labor in various manufactories; they work
upon plantations, and in every possible way they compete in every
industry with free labor.

“The lessees of the convicts change from time to time, men
selling their interest in the lease just as they would dispose
of their property in anything else. The lessees to-day are not
wholly and entirely the same lessees as operated the system at
the beginning. Senator Joseph E. Brown is one of the few original
lessees who still holds his interests. The changes have been many
and various, and so are the stories of outrages. Several years
ago children began to make their appearance in the penitentiary,
not because of any due process of law, but because of shocking
immoralities on the part of lessees and their subordinates. In one
camp where the principal lessee was a man named Alexander, since
dead, these scandals mostly originated. It was a difficult thing
to substantiate the charges, and the Legislature never made any
investigation. There were no white women in the penitentiary in
Georgia at the time, and perhaps the affair alluded to was not so
shocking to public opinion as it would otherwise have been.

“To-day there is only one white woman in the penitentiary in this
State. She is confined at the camp of the Chattahoochee Brick
Company, Penitentiary Company No. 3, about six miles from this
city. This poor woman, weak in intellect, untutored and unfamiliar
with the wickedness of the camps, has to be locked up and kept in
close confinement day and night, to prevent her being ruined. Since
the Legislature has shown a disposition to look into these matters,
the lessees of the camp at the brickyard have given the strictest
orders about this woman. Her door is constantly locked and the key
kept by the good wife of the principal boss, who allows no man to
cross her threshold, ‘Great heavens!’ ejaculated a member of the
House, when this circumstance was told him, ‘what sort of a system
must this be when such measures have to be devised?’”

“The lessees at various camps have been from time to time charged
with cruelty to their prisoners. A common charge has been working
them on Sunday; so it is common to hear of whipping them to death
for refusing to work on Sunday, or when they have been worn out
with fatigue. The charge of favoritism is so well established and
so generally admitted that it has ceased to be urged.

“The ‘Old Town Camp’ has a very bad reputation. Here most of
the serious charges have been laid, and here it was proved that
whipping-bosses positively whipped men to death.

“Another camp prolific of charges is that of State Senator Smith
in Oglethorpe County. He has been accused of working convicts on
Sunday, of shooting them down in cold blood, and an affair of honor
is now pending between Smith and Principal Physician Westmoreland,
of the penitentiary. Westmoreland accuses Smith of gross inhumanity
to the poor creatures under his charge, and dares him, or rather
invites him, to meet him on the field of honor for the various
false accusations and scandal that Smith has made against him.”


_Another Account._

Here is a part of the account which a reporter of the Augusta
_Chronicle_ gives of a convict camp, in Richmond County, which he
has recently visited on a tour of investigation for his paper.

“Leaving the hospital the reporter went into a barn 80 by 20,
divided into two compartments, and they divided by a 10 foot alley.
The barn would not be given as a resting-place to a beast that is
prized by its owner, as the rain or sun could easily gain admission
through the top, and the openings in the sides so affected the
house that it gave no protection from the weather. On looking into
this place it was horrible to realize that a commonwealth like the
State of Georgia would allow the offenders against her laws to be
kept in so dirty and filthy a place as that in which the eighty
convicts at the camp of the A. and K. Railroad are placed. Along
the narrow aisles in the barn smouldering fires were burning, and
on the beds sat the prisoners. All of the convicts were seen.
They begged that their names would not be used, for they would be
lashed if it were known that they told of the treatment. They state
that Captain Starns uses the lash freely. Several testify that,
overcome with the heat, they stopped to rest and were taken out
and whipped. Attention was called to the cruel whipping of Chuck
Cooper, a mulatto about twenty-five years old, who was quartered
in the hospital. The reporter, without being noticed, repaired to
the hospital, and, being assured that the guards were not near at
hand, Chuck Cooper disrobed himself and showed huge scars left from
the lash, the skin being badly lacerated. Returning to the barn
the reporter inquired of Mr. Smith the cause of the filthy beds on
which the convicts slept. They were caked in dirt and as black and
as filthy as could be imagined. Mr. Smith, the guard, admitted that
the blankets and bedding had not been washed for several months,
although Mr. Shubrick had notified Captain Starns, and he had
promised two months ago to have new straw put in the beds and have
them washed. ‘It is seven months,’ Smith said, ‘since we left the
brick-yard, and the bedding has not been touched since.’”

And this is the kind of place to which the Georgia Legislature is
ready to send the trustees and teachers of Atlanta University!


WHAT THE PRESS HAS TO SAY.

The press North and South has been roused by the introduction of
this bill as we have never known it to be before by the action of
any State Legislature. In the North it is practically unanimous in
condemnation, and for the most part in denunciation. Republican,
Democratic and Independent papers are, in this instance, found
united. They differ somewhat about the constitutional right of
a State to pass such a bill, but they all unite in pronouncing
the punishment attached to the Glenn Bill as “disgraceful,”
“outrageous,” “infamous,” “wicked.” In the South the colored papers
are all against the bill; the white papers, outside of Georgia,
somewhat divided, but in the main, so far as we can learn, for the
bill. In Georgia the white papers are for it. Were the editorials
on this subject by the press of the United States compiled and
published they would fill several large volumes. We quote from as
many as our space allows:


THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE.

  When Mr. Grady made his glowing speech last winter to the Sons
  of New England at Delmonico’s assembled, he probably did not
  imagine that such a delightful illustration of the paternal
  solicitude which the whites feel for the blacks in the Empire
  State of the South was in store for us. What a pity he was
  not aware of the boon in preparation! What sweet flowers of
  rhetoric he would have twined around it! It would have made his
  nomination for the Vice-Presidency certain.

  It is possible that when the facts are known public sentiment
  will make it appear advisable to drop this cheerful measure,
  but we are assured upon excellent authority that at the present
  moment the Georgia Legislature is disposed to pass it; and,
  moreover, that Governor Gordon’s approval of a recent report
  connected with the subject indicates a willingness on his
  part to sign it. Many interesting points are involved in the
  introduction of this measure, including its constitutionality,
  and it is safe to say that they will all be discussed with
  considerable animation before it takes its place on the
  statute-book.


THE NEW YORK TIMES.

  It is very hard to understand the animus of the recent attempts
  to cripple or destroy this noble school (Atlanta University)
  by Gov. Gordon and his followers. They have threatened to take
  away the $8,000 a year of United States money, and a bill is
  before the Legislature and has been reported favorably from
  committee to punish with a year of the infamous chain-gang of
  Georgia and with a fine of $1,000 the crime of some of the
  white teachers in allowing their own children to enter the
  classes they instruct. This has been a characteristic feature
  of the school, and one that has contributed materially to its
  phenomenal success in putting and keeping the negroes on their
  best behavior. If some of the most intelligent and refined
  white people are willing to face the bitter ostracism of the
  South and work for their benefit to the utmost limit of their
  strength—and sometimes, as in the case of the late lamented
  President Ware, far beyond it—and besides all this put their
  own children into the same classes with them, the negroes must
  indeed be vile and thankless if it did not stimulate all that
  is good and repress all that is bad in them.

  It is certain that the sort of people sent out by the American
  Missionary Association will not be deterred by ruffianism of
  this sort from doing what they believe Christian duty requires.
  What object Gov. Gordon and his abettors—and it looks very
  much as if the silver-tongued Grady is among them—can have in
  stirring up sectional bitterness in this way it is hard to see.
  But the fact that such an outrage should be even proposed is
  evidence that the awful lesson of the war as to the impolicy
  of treating men and women as if they were mere animals has not
  yet been learned by some who boast that they belong to the new
  South. That it can be helpful to industrial development and
  render a residence in Georgia inviting to the most desirable
  Northern people no one who knows the facts can believe.


THE NEW YORK HERALD.

  The Glenn Bill, which passed the Georgia House of
  Representatives, has caused a great deal of hot-tempered
  discussion. The constitution of the State is opposed to the
  co-education of black and white children. All right. The people
  of Georgia are on the ground and ought to know what is for
  their best interest. If they see fit to afford educational
  facilities to colored children in one school and the same
  facilities for white children in another school, well and
  good. And if they decree that white teachers shall teach white
  children and colored teachers shall teach colored children,
  nobody will shrug his shoulders. The object, which is to offer
  a good common-school education to every child in the State,
  will be attained.

  To enact a law, however, that the white teacher who admits
  to his class a colored boy or girl shall be punished in the
  chain-gang for a period of twelve months, as related elsewhere,
  is decidedly drastic. That seems to be a pretty heavy penalty
  for a rather light offence. With a strong public opinion
  opposed to co-education, such a desperate resort would seem to
  be hardly necessary.

  Colonel Glenn probably had some motive in the introduction of
  the bill which is not visible to the naked eye. At any rate,
  he committed a grave blunder, which in this case is almost
  equal to a crime. The bill has gone to the Senate and will be
  smothered there.


THE NEW YORK EVENING POST.

  There is something very peculiar about the presentation of
  a bill in the Georgia Legislature, making it a misdemeanor,
  punishable with a fine of $1,000 and the chain-gang for one
  year, for any teacher or trustee of any public or private
  school in the State to allow any white pupils to attend a
  colored school, or any colored pupils to attend a white school.

  Georgia, like every other Southern State, and like many
  Northern States until recent years, has always maintained
  separate schools for the two races. The Constitution provides
  for “a thorough system of common schools,” which “shall be
  free to all citizens of the State, but separate schools shall
  be provided for the white and colored races.” The wisdom of
  this policy, in the present condition of public sentiment on
  the race question throughout the South, is not doubted by any
  intelligent man at the North. Public education could never
  have been established if the attempt had been made by force to
  bring the two races into the same school-room, and it would be
  overthrown in a moment if mixed schools were to be ordered now.
  The legality and the advisability of separate school systems
  are, therefore, not to be questioned. But it is one thing to
  provide that the races shall not mix in schools supported
  by public taxation, and quite another thing to declare that
  no school, however supported, shall teach whites and blacks
  together without subjecting everybody responsible for this
  policy to the risk of a year in the chain-gang. This is an
  outrage of the very worst sort, for which no defense that is
  even plausible has been made or can be made. It is simply an
  outburst of race prejudice in its most offensive form.

         *       *       *       *       *

  The odd feature of the incident is that it occurs in Georgia,
  which is in many respects one of the most progressive States
  of the South, while Kentucky, which is in many respects one of
  the most backward, has already conquered this silly prejudice.
  When Berea College in Kentucky opened its doors to whites and
  blacks alike, there was bitter local opposition, which went
  beyond hard words, and it was as much as a man’s life was
  worth, politically speaking, for him to show the slightest
  favor to the institution. But as the years passed and none
  of the threatened evils came to pass, Kentuckians gradually
  concluded that they had been worrying themselves unnecessarily,
  and at last a progressive Democrat was ready to take a part in
  its anniversary exercises, as Judge Beckner did two years ago.
  “Already in Kentucky,” says Prof. Wright of the College, in
  his article on “Southern Illiteracy” in the last _Bibliotheca
  Sacra_, “the former detestation of Berea has so far yielded
  that Democratic aspirants for the Governorship speak on its
  commencement platform.” No member of the Kentucky Legislature
  in the year 1887 would venture to suggest the chain-gang for
  teachers in a school which admitted pupils of both races, and
  it is most anomalous to find the proposition seriously urged in
  Georgia.


THE NEW YORK WORLD.

  Dr. Atticus G. Haygood, the well-known Southern Methodist
  preacher, who is now the manager of the Slater Fund, declares
  himself opposed to the Educational bill of William C. Glenn.
  He says the bill is unwise because it is unnecessary. People
  vote for such bills not because they favor them, but because
  they fear being charged with a leaning towards social equality.
  He thanks God that he knows the white teachers whose children
  attend the negro college, and he honors them fully as much as
  he does his own sister, who is now engaged in missionary work
  in China. There are only fourteen white children in colored
  schools, and Georgia has no reason to be scared. He winds up
  by saying: “There is a law in Georgia against intermarriage,
  a law more violated, ten to one, if not in the letter in the
  reality and spirit of it, than the law against mixed schools.
  If now the Legislature will give us a law placing the parents
  of mulatto children in the chain-gang it would be worth while.”


HARPER’S WEEKLY.

  Such leaders as this school provides for their race cannot
  be trained elsewhere in the State. The maintenance of the
  University in full vigor is therefore for every reason, for
  the common interest of the 817,000 white and of the 726,000
  colored citizens, one of the most vitally desirable objects in
  the State. The proposition to send the teachers and managers
  to the chain-gang unless they expel their own children from
  their schools is preposterous. The good sense of the State
  should prevent the further prosecution of the scheme. Every
  sensible citizen of Georgia would admit that nothing could
  be more unwise than to stimulate hostility of race in the
  same population by means of penal laws. Each race in Georgia
  undoubtedly prefers separate schools for the present, but to
  punish and disgrace the few persons who are indifferent to the
  separation, and by that course to retard the indispensable
  education of half the population, would be an unspeakable folly.


THE JERSEY CITY EVENING JOURNAL.

  In Georgia there is still existing, as we read, a dread that
  white people may be forced into miscegenation with negroes in
  spite of themselves. The Georgian ought to know himself, and
  it is droll to hear him pleading that some one will save him
  from “marrying a nigger,” in spite of himself. The principal
  objection to public or private schools, in which the two races
  should be together, is that this would lead to intermarriages
  of the races. Under pressure of this argument, the Georgia
  House of Assembly has passed the bill making the teaching of
  colored persons by white persons a penal offence. A State law
  already forbids mixed public schools. The new law is intended
  to prohibit white persons from teaching colored persons in
  Sunday-schools and private educational institutions. The
  condition of the Georgia white, liable at any moment to run
  off and marry a negro, is indeed lamentable. And, joking
  aside, does not such a state of things show how completely
  uncured, how woefully unreconstructed are the average ex-rebel,
  ex-slaveholding people of Georgia? Such a state of things as
  this proves, that wise were those men who years ago urged
  that only territorial government should be given to the
  States just conquered from rebellion, and that they should so
  remain governed until time sufficient should have elapsed to
  eradicate all traces of the old semi-barbaric habits of their
  people. A community which adopts such a law as that mentioned
  is decidedly unfit to bear a State’s part in the general
  Government of the Republic.


THE SPRINGFIELD REPUBLICAN.

  The Glenn Bill in the Georgia Legislature, to impose a penalty
  commensurate with a felony upon the teaching of persons of
  the two races in any public or private school in the State,
  is an outburst of barbaric sentiment which will do a vast
  deal of harm. We may as well say at the outset that we do not
  favor co-education of the races at the South, so long as the
  people there do not want it. In Massachusetts, white and black
  children attend the same school, and are treated just the same.
  If half or more of our population were colored, we do not
  doubt it would be a different question, but we do not see that
  the mingling of youth at school produces any social mixing,
  or mixture of races. At the South, where there is a large
  body of each race, separate schools and institutions are well
  enough, but separate streets, railroad cars, ferry-boats and
  other public utilities would be a ridiculous and uncalled-for
  extension of the effort to separate the races.

  While a State may plainly indicate its policy by providing
  separate schools for the two races, and assigning the colored
  youth to one and the white to the other, to make it a felony
  for any person to teach youth of different races together, is
  essentially barbarous, more barbarous than Turkey.

  The great Southern excuse for such doings is that the social
  intercourse of the races is against nature. Very well; if it
  is against nature, let nature take care of the problem. But
  the bald and naked fact is that while the South is dreadfully
  sensitive about the appearance of the two races in the same
  parlor, or school-room, or opera house, or in the same
  Episcopal Convention, it is profoundly indifferent to their
  association together immorally.

  Now if the State of Georgia proposes to condemn the Northern
  men who have gone there to teach, to the chain-gang, for
  instructing their own children in the classes, it will be
  guilty of a ridiculous display of race feeling and petty
  insularity, of a fine exhibition of ingratitude, and of a
  political blunder of some magnitude. We trust Gov. Gordon, who
  has been about the world a little, may be able to view this
  matter in a broader light than the backwoods members of the
  Legislature.


THE BOSTON EVENING TRAVELLER.

  It is possible that the aroused public sentiment of the nation
  may force the Legislature to drop this shameful, barbarous
  measure, but nothing short of this will. This is the Empire
  State of the South—the New South which Editor Grady so
  eloquently described last Forefathers’ Day in New York, about
  which so much gush and sentiment have been spoken and written.
  The question cannot help suggesting itself, whether a little
  less of boastful sentiment and a little more of civilized
  humanity would not become the much-talked-of New South.


THE PHILADELPHIA PRESS.

  Whether the prejudice against mixed schools is justified or
  not, the attempt to enforce such penalties as those prescribed
  in the Glenn Bill, and which are aimed especially against the
  Atlanta University, would arouse a whirlwind of wrath that even
  the Southern whites in their stolid indifference to public
  opinion could not withstand. No white children, except those
  belonging to the professors in the University, have been taught
  with the colored pupils. One of the professors writes to the
  Springfield _Republican_ as follows: “I have taught twelve
  years in the Atlanta University. The Glenn Bill will cut off my
  four children and those of the other white teachers from their
  best educational opportunity in Georgia—in fact, as matters now
  stand, practically from their only opportunity.” As the funds
  for founding this institution were given by Northern whites,
  and as most of the money for sustaining it is derived from the
  same source, it would seem wise to permit the Northern white
  teachers some discretion in conducting the enterprise.

  According to the census of 1880, Georgia had 446,683 persons
  over ten years of age who could not read, and 128,934 whites
  over ten who could not write. With such a discouraging mass of
  ignorance, it would be supposed that the State would gladly
  welcome any educational assistance. And yet, judging from this
  Glenn Bill and the burning of the school at Quitman, the people
  appear to be more anxious to increase than to lessen the amount
  of ignorance in the State.


THE CHICAGO INTER-OCEAN.

  So vicious a bill deserved a stupid and degrading defense, and
  it got it. Mr. Glenn says that the bill is passed to prevent
  the “evident desire of the negroes for marriage with the
  whites.” Great heavens! And has it come to this? Is this all
  that your “Southern refinement,” your “years of chivalrous
  tradition,” and all the rest of the antiquated rot which you
  dignify by the style and title of “Southern sentiment” has been
  able to accomplish? Has race pride so thoroughly died out among
  the young men and women of the South as to force the elders to
  guard them, by threats of prisons and chain-gangs, from that
  certain intermarriage of white and black which would follow
  co-education? Debased, indeed, would be the condition of the
  South if this were true.

  But it is not true. In Chicago and in every other large city of
  the North, white and colored children attend the same schools,
  but white and colored do not marry each other. Nor would they
  in the South, though the race feeling has been lowered as it
  never was in the North, by frequent and undisguised concubinage
  of the colored woman to the white man. Savannah shows more
  children of white paternity from “mothers who were never wed”
  than Chicago. If half the zeal were shown for the suppression
  of illegitimate unions between the races of the South as for
  that of the very few possible legitimate ones, both morality
  and health would improve. But it is a waste of words to argue
  upon Mr. Glenn’s proposition. He does not fear a general system
  of intermarriage. It has happened nowhere. It never will happen
  anywhere. If it did, it would be preferable to a general
  practice of illegitimate commerce. * * *

  The reports of the educational work and discipline of the
  Atlanta University, by the State examiners, have invariably
  been accompanied with the very highest commendation. The
  comparison between the discipline of the Atlanta University
  and that of the Athens University has been greatly to the
  disparagement of the latter in almost every respect. This has
  exasperated the authorities of the Athens University, and
  set the newspapers of the State abusing the Commissioners
  for making such invidious comparisons with the negro school.
  Whereupon the committee were set to hedge, in order to
  reinstate themselves in favor. It is at last discovered, what
  has been open to everyone for a dozen years, that there were
  in the Atlanta University perhaps half a dozen white children,
  children of the professors, reciting in the classes along
  with the 350 colored scholars. This fact was reported to
  Governor Gordon forthwith. Governor Gordon makes haste to send
  a special message to the Legislature. The young aspirant for
  notoriety, Mr. Glenn, jumps at the chance for getting glory
  from introducing his bill. The rapidity with which he got it
  through and the unanimous white vote in the House, shows the
  state of public sentiment. Next week the attempt will be made
  to rush it through the Senate. And all this, not because of
  the presence of the professors’ children, but in retaliation
  for the impudence on the part of the professors and students
  of Atlanta University in allowing colored youths to behave
  and do so much better than pupils of the other race in Athens
  University. These are the facts, facts which nobody in Georgia
  will deny.


THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE.

  The infamous Glenn Education Bill, making it a crime to teach a
  white child in a colored school or a colored child in a white
  school, has passed the Lower House of the Georgia Legislature.
  It goes without saying that it will pass the Senate and be
  signed by the Governor. Practically the law will only operate
  against Atlanta University, which has seven white scholars on
  its roll, the children of professors in the institution who
  cannot be educated elsewhere in the State without insult and
  ostracism because they are the children of “nigger teachers.”
  Little hope can be had that the law will be defeated. That it
  will be executed with vindictive severity goes without saying
  also, and, as the penalty of the chain-gang is the maximum, it
  is not improbable that these white Christian teachers, if they
  persist in their duty, will be fettered by the side of convicts
  and subjected to the treatment which, upon the authority of its
  own grand juries, has made the chain-gang system of Georgia a
  reproach to common humanity and decency. And this is the New
  South over which Grady bloviated so pathetically! Is there no
  progress, no shame, in that section?


THE CHICAGO CONSERVATOR; (COLORED.)

  The Glenn Bill has passed the House and awaits action equally
  certain and deplorable in the Senate. The Governor will sign it
  and thus consummate the most barbarous piece of legislation
  known since the Fugitive Slave Law. There are those who have
  perfect faith in the liberality, intelligence and justice
  of the New South. To them the Glenn Bill is a revelation.
  Having hailed the silver-tongued Grady as a leader of a higher
  civilization, they are loth to believe that the very State he
  represents is the first to stain its statutes with so unholy a
  law.

  But it is there, boastful, brazen, and hideous in deformity.
  The wheels of progress are stopped and justice is appalled
  while the New South brands the missionary a felon and
  persecutes God’s noble men and women for daring to do right.
  But the curse remains. Poisoned by prejudice, reeking with
  injustice, dead to shame, and insensible to dishonor, the State
  of Georgia will push on in its reckless course, indifferent
  alike to reproof and counsel.

  But it will not last long. The reign of injustice is sure to
  fail. Though much suffering may be endured to-day, still the
  time will come when Georgia will ask to blot from the book a
  law so inhuman and vile. Under the circumstances the colored
  race can do nothing to avert the evils of the iniquitous law.
  It has suffered much in the past and can suffer still more in
  the firm assurance that justice will ultimately assert itself
  and right will finally triumph over wrong.


THE CONGREGATIONALIST.

  The bill has been framed adroitly. By providing for the
  colored race and for the white precisely the same educational
  advantages, making no discrimination whatever, it is attempted
  to evade those provisions of the national Constitution which
  would be infringed by the least effort to deprive either
  whites or blacks of any educational facilities supplied to the
  other race. But the bill is so drawn that it neutralizes the
  operation of this principle of equality. Whites and blacks
  will not be on the equal footing plainly intended by the
  Constitution unless they possess in law every privilege granted
  them in the other States, among which is that of studying in
  the same schools. Should this matter be carried to the United
  States Supreme Court—as we have no doubt that it will be, if
  necessary—there can be little question but that the bill will
  be pronounced unconstitutional. However this may be, it is too
  silly and unjust a measure ever to win the respect of judicious
  and honorable people, in any part of our country.

  It is not improbable, and is greatly to be hoped, that as soon
  as the real nature of this bill becomes understood generally,
  an opposition to it will spring up, perhaps even in Georgia,
  which will put a quietus upon it once for all. If the bill
  pass, Georgia certainly will have taken a long and significant
  step back towards the dark ages, and business capital, as well
  as modern ideas, will give such a State the cold shoulder for
  years to come. Moreover, if any attempt should be made to
  enforce the law contained in the bill, there will be such a
  stir throughout the whole country as is not often witnessed.


THE CHICAGO ADVANCE.

  Such a law and the execution of it is no new thing in that
  State. Nor is the application of it to missionary workers
  anything new in Georgia. Among the Cherokees in the northern
  part of the State the American Board had a mission planted so
  early as 1815, and this by 1831 had brought the people on to
  a large degree of Christian civilization, so that they had
  schools and churches and were living, as an old army officer
  told our informant, in a more enlightened way than the white
  “crackers” around them. But Georgia wanted their lands for the
  toil of slaves. Of course a sham treaty was the first step.
  The next was a law passed by the Legislature requiring all
  white men residing on the Cherokee lands to take the oath of
  allegiance to the State of Georgia, and get a license from
  the Governor under penalty, if found there after the first of
  March, 1831, of penitentiary imprisonment at hard labor, not
  less than four years. The missionaries, well knowing that this
  was in open conflict with their rights, under the constitution,
  laws and treaties of the United States, remained at their post.
  Rev. S. A. Worcester, D.D., and Dr. Butler, of the American
  Board Mission, Rev. Mr. Trott, a Methodist Missionary, and a
  Cherokee named Proctor, and seven others, mostly teachers, were
  arrested. The latter was for two nights chained by the neck
  to the wall of the house and by the ankle to Mr. Trott, and
  was marched two days chained by the neck to a wagon; and Dr.
  Butler was marched also with a chain about his neck, and part
  of the time in pitch darkness, with the chain fastened to the
  neck of a horse. After eleven days’ confinement in a filthy log
  prison, Judge Clayton sentenced Worcester and Butler to four
  years of hard labor in prison. To prison they were taken and
  set at hard labor. A memorial was sent to Andrew Jackson. He
  replied by Secretary-of-War Lewis Cass that the laws of Georgia
  had rendered the laws of Congress “inoperative,” and he had no
  power to interfere. Old Hickory, who could swear by the Eternal
  that South Carolina should not nullify in a matter of tariff,
  when slavery lifted its behest, had to succumb! The case
  was then carried to the Supreme Court of the United States,
  Chief Justice Marshall presiding, and rendering the decision
  which reversed and annulled the State action, and ordered the
  discharge of the prisoners. Here then came in Georgia’s great
  act of nullification. It refused to obey, and Gen. Jackson
  said, “Marshall may enforce his decision for himself.” Georgia
  had her way, awaiting the army of Sherman.

  For sixteen months those godly missionaries languished in
  prison at hard labor. They refused to accept of pardon before
  they were incarcerated, on condition that they would never
  again reside in the Cherokee country. And when they came out
  they went back there to live.

  We mention these facts to show to the Governor and Legislature
  of that State what manner of people are these, whom they
  propose, in a repetition of history, to thrust into the same
  filthy prison and chain-gang, which all the world is coming to
  recognize as one of Georgia’s relics of barbarism.


THE CHRISTIAN UNION.

  If this bill becomes a law, it will be possible to punish
  a professor in the Atlanta University who chooses to teach
  his own child in the class-room of the University, by making
  him the associate of thieves and outlaws in the chain-gang
  for a year. This is simply monstrous, and, in spite of
  the practically unanimous vote of the lower branch of the
  Legislature, we do not believe that the intelligent people
  of Georgia favor any such infamous measure. If they do, then
  the curse of ignorance and barbarism which once blighted and
  limited the intellectual and the moral life of the South has
  not yet been thrown off by that State. _The Christian Union_,
  believing heartily in the Christian principle of putting
  behind the things that are past, has used, and will use, all
  its influence to soften sectional differences, to destroy
  sectional hatred, and to make in fact as in name one nation
  of a people who have shown by their unparalleled sacrifices
  the vigor and the purity of their patriotism. Those who strive
  to revive the bitter memories of the past, and to make issues
  now settled capital for success, the _Christian Union_ has
  opposed and will oppose to the utmost of its ability; regarding
  all such men, whether Republicans or Democrats, as either too
  ignorant to be followed or too selfish to be trusted. But the
  adoption of such a measure as the bill now pending before the
  Georgia Legislature will set back the movement toward unity
  a decade, will put into the hands of selfish politicians
  in the North the strongest possible weapons against the
  South, and will discourage and cast down all intelligent and
  sober-minded lovers of their country. The people of Georgia
  have shown too much intelligence and good spirit to destroy
  the influence which they are rapidly acquiring in national
  affairs and to disgrace a record which, as a whole, has been
  admirable; we cannot believe they will do it. The South does
  not yet understand the inestimable service which the North
  rendered it in its hour of defeat by at once setting in motion
  educational agencies among the negroes. If now, in the face of
  such a service as this, rendered in the utmost unselfishness
  and sustained by the greatest generosity, the great State of
  Georgia shall lend its name to such a piece of barbarism as
  the Glenn Bill, it will be guilty of a piece of ingratitude
  almost without parallel. We refuse to believe that this bill
  represents the sentiment of the State.


THE NEW YORK OBSERVER.

  We regard the Glenn bill as the most extraordinary
  manifestation of race feeling which has been made in any part
  of this country in many years. We are surprised at it because
  we believed that the State of Georgia, as well as other
  sections of the South, had long since passed the stage when
  a law like this could be thought of seriously, either as a
  necessity or as a matter of policy. The bill seems to us to be
  entirely retrogressive in its action and in the highest degree
  impolitic. It is an industrious attempt to make a mountain
  out of a mole-hill. We observe that several Georgia papers,
  the Atlanta _Constitution_ among the rest, favor the proposed
  law on the ground that it obviates the danger arising from a
  mixture of the races. Now, we are not in favor of a mixture of
  the races, neither do we question the wisdom of the existing
  law of Georgia, which provides separate schools for colored and
  white children, but we do deprecate the attempt to incorporate
  in the statutes of any State such a drastic and offensive
  measure as the Glenn Bill. Even if such a danger existed as
  that named in the _Constitution_ the proposed law would not
  help the matter one iota. It will not have the slightest
  influence on the question of social equality one way or the
  other. So far as it affects the future of the race question a
  more short-sighted, blundering, puerile piece of legislation
  could not be conceived. The bill ought to be “smothered” out of
  sight at once and forever.


THE CENTRAL CHRISTIAN ADVOCATE.

  This bill is a low grade of revenge, unworthy of the
  legislators of a free people. The colored people are making
  the greatest sacrifices to obtain education, and by the
  generosity of their Northern friends, who have established a
  number of first-class schools for them in the South, they are
  making rapid advancement. They are making more rapid progress
  relatively than the whites. And, strange to say, these efforts
  to elevate their condition have created alarm, and the cry
  of social equality has been raised. Intelligent people in
  the South appear to be overwhelmed with the fear that if the
  Negroes are accorded the equal rights to which citizenship
  entitles them, that Southern white men and women will become so
  eager to marry them that they must be prevented by law.

  Certainly this suspicion is unworthy of the people who
  harbor it. We know that in the old slavery times there
  was a deplorable amount of inter-racial association and
  licentiousness in the South. Nearly every plantation and
  negro quarters furnished proof of it. But we believe that the
  education of the negro will promote morality, and help to
  remove the evil. At all events, in a Government like ours, in
  which all citizens have equal rights, social standing cannot be
  regulated by law.


THE NEW YORK CHRISTIAN INTELLIGENCER.

  It is reported that the galleries and lobbies were filled
  with a fashionable audience, interested in the passage of the
  measure. It reminds one of pagan civilization, when Roman
  ladies attended gladiatorial combats and mercilessly ordered
  death to the vanquished. It is also reported that Mr. Glenn,
  the originator of the bill, posed as the champion of this
  measure, with a button-hole bouquet presented him by his
  lady admirers. We bespeak for his efforts at fame the frail
  character of the bouquet. Already it is said that efforts are
  being made to pigeon-hole the bill in the Senate. The stupidity
  of the bill is manifest in the argument of its author, that
  co-education meant ultimate inter-marriage. If the adherents
  of this bill were as solicitous of their brains as they are
  of their blood, the matter of co-education would be rightly
  settled. We are told that Mr. Glenn is a young man who covets
  a reputation for statesmanship. We fear that this production of
  his prejudice will blast his budding hopes. He seems to be one
  born out of due time, about twenty-five years behind. The fifty
  prominent members who were conveniently absent indicates a
  conflict between principle and prejudice, or, if not principle,
  at least good politics and prejudice.


THE ST. LOUIS EVANGELIST.

  It is a measure designed to legalize the color line, and
  notwithstanding the guarantees of the national constitution,
  to re-construct the old _caste régime_ by a tentative process.
  This burning question of the old prejudice ought to have been
  settled so far as individual rights are concerned long ago, but
  there seems to be an ill-concealed fear of the blacks and of
  their future dominant influence in the State and in the Church.
  Properly educated and fairly treated the negro will be quite
  sure to maintain genuine respect for others of a lighter color.
  The educational work will go on and with the gospel of Christ
  be the means of giving prosperity and wholesome restraint to
  both races. “The New South” cannot afford such an exhibition
  of fear and prejudice even as a proposition to any one of its
  State Legislatures. It will take a long time and the patient
  exercise of prudence to adjust these matters righteously.


THE NEW YORK INDEPENDENT.

  The colored people clearly saw through the brutality and
  meanness of this law, and that it was aimed at their rights.
  So every colored paper in Georgia denounces the law, and the
  two colored members voted and spoke against it. They happen to
  be illiterate men from the south of the State, and could not
  speak effectively. One of them, however, did call attention to
  the fact that it applies to not a few Sunday-schools which have
  colored classes.

  It is time for those who wish to keep the Negro down to wake
  up; and they are doing so. They are none too soon. The Negro is
  rising. Those who do not wish him to rise must now sit on the
  safety valve; and that they will do. The unanimity with which
  this bill passes the Georgia Legislature is appalling. It shows
  that the white race there is given over to believe a lie, that
  it may reap the consequences. We shall now not be surprised to
  see this law followed by others, and enacted in other States,
  and a war of races provoked. Heaven knows we deprecate it. We
  pray for peace and liberty. The next thing may be to forbid
  white men and women to teach in Atlanta and Clark University.
  Why not? This is a crusade against Negro elevation, against
  Negroes being allowed to be as good as white men or being
  treated as well. But the end will come all right, even if it be
  through peril. It may require great courage and patience for a
  while. Our deep sympathy will go to those white teachers whose
  children attend these institutions. Our prayers are with them
  that they may be led in the Lord’s way. Just now the Devil’s
  way is popular in Georgia; but the Lord is on the side of the
  weaker battalions.


EXTRACTS FROM THE SOUTHERN PRESS.


THE AUGUSTA (GA.) CHRONICLE.

  It is not new legislation to deprive the colored man of any
  rights under the law. It is not either harsh or arbitrary
  legislation. It is no interference with his personal or
  political rights. The Glenn law merely provides for the
  enforcement of the constitutional provision and statutory laws
  governing the public school system of Georgia. That is all that
  there is in the bill. Public sentiment justifies the enactment
  and demands a rigid enforcement of the law against co-education
  of the races.

  Our stalwart friends bear false witness against the people of
  Georgia, unintentionally, we hope, and we desire, if possible,
  to remove the false impressions under which they labor. If
  they respect the organic and statute laws of the State, if
  they have any regard for the convictions and civilization and
  settled policy of our people, which is irrevocable and firm
  as the granite of our mountains, they cannot fail to see the
  injustice done the State by their misrepresentation and abuse.
  If our contemporaries proceed upon the higher-law theory and
  have no regard for the constitutional, legal and moral rights
  and customs of our people—if they have no regard for the right
  of each State to legislate for and regulate its own domestic
  affairs—they are advocating the claims of the socialists and
  communists of the land, who assert that there is a law higher
  than statutes and more imperative than the most sacred rights
  of civilization.

  There is no law, and there will be no law in Georgia against
  the education of our brother in black, either in the primary
  or intermediate department—either in the high schools or
  colleges. There is a law against the co-education of the races,
  and if there were no law to prohibit, our civilization would
  prevent. The constitution of the State prevents co-education
  of races. The Negroes do not want it. The whites will not have
  it. It is the fixed policy of the State to do equal and exact
  justice to the colored man. The people of Georgia will regulate
  their own domestic affairs without being influenced by outside
  misrepresentation, or deterred by foolish intimidation. Our
  Legislature will enact such additional laws in reference to
  the education of the colored and white races separately as it
  may deem most conducive to the welfare of each, and secure
  the enforcement of the same without any regard to the silly
  ravings or foolish threats of men who know nothing about the
  educational status of the Negro in Georgia, and the relations
  that exist between the whites and blacks. Co-education of
  the whites and blacks in the South is an impossibility, and
  the reasons are so apparent that it is unnecessary either to
  present or discuss them any further.


THE SAVANNAH (GA.) MORNING NEWS.

  The Glenn Bill is a wise measure for several reasons, but
  mainly because it will save the public school system from
  destruction. In the preservation of that system both races
  are interested. It can only be preserved by keeping the races
  separate in the schools. If the blacks were to demand mixed
  schools and were to attempt to secure them through the ballot
  box, the whites would at once oppose appropriations for
  schools, and the common school system would be ruined. There
  are two colored institutions in Atlanta in which white children
  are now taught. Co-education in these two schools will soon be
  made the excuse for mixed common schools. The agitation will
  be productive of much bad feeling and cannot help injuring the
  common schools by arousing public sentiment against them. The
  sentiment of the State is clearly against mixing the races in
  any way, and the Glenn Bill is in harmony with that sentiment.


THE MACON (GA.) TELEGRAPH.

  The Glenn Bill, now pending in the Georgia Legislature, is
  intended to carry out a clause of the State constitution.
  That the people of the State indorse this clause is shown in
  the large vote by which the constitution was adopted nearly
  a decade since. The framers of that instrument declared that
  there should be no mixed schools in Georgia.

  This clause has been openly and flagrantly violated by the
  teachers of Atlanta University. In that institution social
  equality has been notoriously taught and practiced, and in that
  institution colored teachers are prepared for places in the
  public school system of the State. It would matter but little
  if only the white children of the professors of the Atlanta
  University were thus taught and trained, but the example is
  pernicious and is becoming pervasive. Georgia cannot and will
  not permit the natural line of demarcation between blacks
  and whites to be broken down. She will countenance nothing
  now looking to the mixture of the races in the future, to the
  misery and possible destruction of both.

  The school system of the State provides equal facilities to
  blacks and whites, and the Glenn Bill does not impair or
  threaten any right or privilege of the Negro. He is being
  educated now, by the taxes of white men, to better advantage
  than these same white men were educated years ago. It is the
  policy, the interest and the safety of Georgia to keep the line
  of demarcation between white and black as distinctly marked
  as is the Gulf Stream in the waters of the Atlantic. The most
  intelligent negroes favor separate schools and teachers of
  their own race. Everything is satisfactory, except to certain
  fanatical philanthropists and mischievous politicians, and the
  present attempt at intimidation will soon fail.


THE ATLANTA (GA.) CONSTITUTION.

  It is understood on every hand that public education at the
  south would be overthrown in a moment if mixed schools were to
  be ordered now. This is a fact with which every one here is
  familiar. This being the case, how is it that the professors
  of the Atlanta University, who have presumably been among us
  for some time, do not understand the situation? For all we know
  they may be trying to make martyrs of themselves, but we tell
  them plainly that they have struck a blow at Negro education in
  the South from which it will not recover in the next quarter
  of a century. If they are really the friends of the Negro they
  would have waited for time to do its perfect work, but in
  jumping ahead of time they are responsible for sending back the
  clock. Thus the matter stands.


THE NASHVILLE CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN.

  The bill seems to be aimed at the Atlanta University, where
  there are a few white children—mostly those of the teachers—who
  have gone there as missionaries to the colored people. A
  similar state of things exists in the colored schools of this
  State, and particularly in this city. No harm has ever come of
  this practice. No white person has ever married a Negro, and
  there is not the remotest probability that such a thing will
  ever occur. We think it is far better in the South at least
  that the two races should be educated in separate schools,
  and that they should worship in separate churches. But when
  it comes to making it a crime for missionaries to teach
  their own children in the schools which they are sustaining
  with a self-denial that is really sublime, we enter a most
  emphatic protest in the name of the Christian religion which
  those people are seeking to propagate among the ignorant and
  degraded blacks of the South. The author of this bill in the
  Georgia Legislature attempts to justify it on the ground of
  his interest in the colored people. He also says that he fears
  amalgamation. When assured that no such a result is at all
  probable he explains that he fears intellectual amalgamation
  even more than physical. This is not even respectable nonsense.
  If the contact of an inferior with a superior mind produces an
  intellectual hybrid, then we are all in danger. In denouncing
  this Georgia bill we do not advocate the co-education of the
  two races, nor do we believe there is any sensible man in this
  part of the world who does. If the Georgia legislator’s view
  is to become the law of the land, then let the Church of God
  recall its missionaries from heathen lands and acknowledge
  Christianity a failure. The men and women, all over this land,
  who have gone among the poor, unfortunate Negroes and taught
  them knowledge and the way of salvation deserve special honor
  and thanks at our hands. Every consideration of religion and
  patriotism ought to make the friends of the Glenn Bill in the
  Georgia Legislature ashamed of themselves. There is no nobler
  work in this world than helping the lowly. There is no danger
  that anybody will be hurt by trying to redeem the negro from
  ignorance and sin.

       *       *       *       *       *


GEORGIA’S NEED OF TEACHERS.

B. M. ZETTLER, Supt. of Public Schools, Macon, Ga., expresses
himself in favor of the Blair Bill, in the following, which we take
from the _Atlanta Constitution_. It should be remembered that the
colored teachers to whom Mr. Zettler refers come largely from the
A. M. A. schools, and especially from the Atlanta University:

“For fifteen years Georgia has been struggling with her public
school system, and owing to lack of means but little progress
has been made towards efficiency and thoroughness. Outside of
our principal cities and towns the people are literally without
school-houses, and the State ought to spend not less than a hundred
thousand dollars annually for five years in providing suitable
school-houses. But with a school fund not sufficient to keep the
schools open three months in the year it is utterly useless to talk
about appropriating a dime for such a purpose.

“Then, too, we need at least a dozen well-equipped normal or
training schools for teachers in different sections of the State,
or, perhaps, which would suit our immediate needs better, fifty
summer institutes to introduce modern methods of teaching, and
prepare persons to teach in the schools. It is a fact, sir, to-day
in Georgia, that most of the white public schools of our rural
districts are taught (?) by broken-down preachers, doctors and
lawyers, men who not only know little about teaching, but who are
‘worn out’ and are physically unequal to the work of teaching. And
just here let me call your attention to the difference in the white
and the colored schools in this respect. The latter are, almost
without exception, in the hands of young men and women as teachers,
and these bring to their work the enthusiasm and freshness of
youth. Scores of them come, too, from the training schools, not
only instructed in modern methods, but overflowing with zeal in
the cause of popular education. They become, in every sense of the
word, ‘missionaries of education’ to their people, and when their
State association convenes in annual session they come up by the
hundred to report results and compare ideas, not forgetting to send
words of greeting to the score or two of white teachers assembled
in the same capacity. Is the contrast a pleasant one for the white
people of our State? I think not.

“But I need not go beyond the borders of our own county to prove
that we need the aid offered by the Blair Bill. Right here in Bibb
we ought to spend ten thousand dollars a year for five years in
building and equipping school-houses. We need, right now, thirty
additional school-houses in the country districts, and at least two
more in the city, and with the addition to our school fund of the
eight to twelve thousand dollars a year for eight years that would
fall to our share under the provisions of the Blair Bill, as it
passed the Senate, we could afford to spend at least five thousand
dollars a year of our county appropriation in these greatly needed
school buildings.”

       *       *       *       *       *


LE MOYNE INSTITUTE.

I know some readers of THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY, as they follow the
work of the various institutions from year to year in the accounts
sent from the field, wonder how each year in succession can
possibly be reported “the very best in the history of the school,”
and ask rather dubiously if at such a rate perfection is not near.
It is a fact, however, in the history of all our well-established
schools, barring accidents of unusual nature that could not be
foreseen or controlled, that each year does show gratifying
advancement in many respects. Beginning eighteen to twenty or more
years ago with nothing but our hands and plenty of exceedingly raw
material to work upon, it would be strange if room were not found
for improvement and growth, and while thankful for what has been
gained we see abundance of room for yet further advancement. When
this ceases to be the general report from the South it may be taken
as a sign that our presence is no longer needed there. Le Moyne
School can again, as often heretofore, report “the best year in its
whole history.” We have had trials and cares and annoyances, but
most of them have, we trust, but strengthened our work and given
assurance of future triumphs.

Our total enrollment during this year has been larger than ever
before. The average attendance has been much better, more students
remaining in school steadily through the year, and we are certain
that we see a steady growth in stability of mind and character
among our young people. A truer conception of what life is and the
best preparation possible to meet its requirements, we try to keep
constantly in mind as the aim and end of all our work.

The complete equipment of our Manual Training Department and its
complete destruction by fire in April, marks both a triumph and a
trial to us, and its reconstruction and re-equipment before the
middle of May, in every respect more complete and thorough than
before, makes it easy for us to forget the loss and doubly to
rejoice over the doubly won success.

This department adds greatly to the strength of our work and
influence. We feel its reaction for good in every class and
exercise of the school.

The closing exercises of the year were of unusual interest. The
annual sermon was preached by Prof. Austin, a recent graduate of
Fisk University. His sermon, plain and full of applications to life
and personal conduct, showed, with his general bearing, that his
own training had not been in vain, and as coming from one of their
own number who had gained his education and his success by his own
effort, it was received with perhaps better effect than might have
been an abler sermon by one out of their sphere of life.

The Children’s Exhibition and that of the Junior Classes of the
Normal Department were well attended, and of course a source of
great enjoyment and delight to the pupils and their friends,
while the proceeds of admission have given us a handsome sum to
be expended in new books for our growing and most useful library,
containing now over 1,600 volumes, gathered during the past twelve
years by such efforts. The exercises of graduation were attended
by a great throng of people, numbering from two to three thousand,
filling to overflowing the largest church in the city, the African
M. E.

Five students were graduated from the full Normal course, with
the usual accompaniments of flowers and enthusiasm on the part of
admiring friends. It would be difficult to state the meaning of
such occasions to these people. I leave it to be imagined. The
address this year was given by Judge Greer of the city, a most able
and estimable man. He spoke of the advancement of the child over
the parent, showing the vast progress made in the world in the past
century, and hoping for yet better things for generations of youth
coming on and yet to come.

The Alumni meeting brought together nearly thirty of the graduates
of the school, most of the classes being represented. Only the
graduates, the faculty and a few invited guests enjoy this the last
and best exercise of the year.

The addresses then given, some impromptu and some after careful
preparation, brought in themselves, and with the company of
self-respecting young people present, ample reward for the years of
toil and sacrifice that have led to such results. A. J. STEELE.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE CHINESE.


CALIFORNIA AS A MISSIONARY FIELD.

In the deeply interesting paper of Secretary Barrows, presented
at the last Anniversary of the A. H. M. S., the expectation is
expressed that California, and several other States, “will soon
take upon themselves the whole burden of their own support and, not
only so, will assist the mother society.” I venture to make this
expectation my text for this month’s article in the MISSIONARY,
because it represents a view of California very prevalent among our
Eastern friends, and to one who looks at us through the newspapers
and from a distance of from 2,000 to 4,000 miles, apparently well
founded. It is not impertinent, I think, for me to remark upon
this expectation; I even feel it _necessary_ that I should do so;
because it suggests inevitably the query whether California—if the
responsibility were thrown upon her—could not at once take care of
all needed missionary work among the Chinese.

I think I may safely claim that but _one_ of my brethren is better
acquainted with the condition of our churches in California than I
am, and to him I have submitted the statement I am about to make.
I refer to our veteran Home Missionary Superintendent, Rev. Dr.
Warren. His reply is in these words: “Have read your note carefully
twice; every word is true.”

There is great and rapidly increasing wealth in California; wealth,
if it were held consecrate to Christ, far more than sufficient
to sustain all needed religious institutions; but it is safe to
say that forty-nine fiftieths (and I wrote at first, not without
careful thought, ninety-nine one-hundredths,) of it is in hands
of men who will not consider appeals for missionary contributions
and evince no interest in any church work. There are also some
strong churches in California, in connection with all the leading
denominations, and we, Congregationalists, have perhaps our share
of them. These churches have wealthy men in their congregations,
and a few of these men are professors of religion. But what I wish
noted is that _all_ such churches, so far as our own denomination
is concerned, could be counted on the fingers of one hand. I
name them: The First and Plymouth of San Francisco, the First in
Oakland, and the First in Los Angeles.

Of course, when we speak of churches as strong or weak, we speak
relatively. I have in mind what might be called the New England
standard, and I say that only these four among all our churches
would, if set down in Massachusetts or Connecticut, be accounted
strong. The churches in Berkeley and in Sacramento would rank next
to these, though in both of them the home work involves a constant
struggle. There are certain other points, as Ferndale, Lockeford,
Woodland, South San Juan, and especially Grass Valley, where single
individuals of considerable wealth are connected more or less
closely with our churches, but when I have spoken of these I have
exhausted the list of those who _could_ give largely, however well
disposed.

We have (say) 120 Congregational churches in the State, with (say)
8,000 members. (The last statistics, now nearly a year old, give
114 churches and 7,308 members.) More than three-eighths of this
aggregate membership are to be found in five churches, leaving
to the remaining 115 churches an average membership of about 40.
Among these remaining churches are 15 that have an aggregate
membership now of about 2,500; so that we have 100 churches with an
average membership not exceeding 25. These churches are scattered
over a territory nearly three times as large as all New England.
A line drawn diagonally across California in either direction
would reach from the northeastern point of Maine to the centre
of North Carolina! It is a State of boundless possibilities,
inviting and now welcoming a tremendous immigration. Opportunities
abound. The demands for Christian work, in order to improve these
opportunities, are imperious and almost oppressive. What might
be possible if California Christians were all ideal Christians,
I do not know; but taking Christian people as they average the
country over, taking churches as we find them in this world and
at this particular stage in the development of Christianity, it
is chimerical to suppose that for a _long time_ to come the Home
Missionary work that ought to be done in connection with our
denomination in California will be sustained by contributions made
upon the ground. Still more chimerical it would be to expect that
this missionary work among the Chinese, to which we are summoned by
every instinct of our faith and by a special call of Providence,
but which _here_ is called to encounter special prejudices and
pull a laboring oar unceasingly against both wind and tide,
could be maintained without assistance from abroad. The fact is
that but for the generous assistance of the American Missionary
Association there would not be enough left of our Chinese mission
to stir any interest or induce any giving at all in California.
It is because the Association started us, and because it, and it
alone, enables us to give to the work such extent as it has, and
develop it into such present usefulness and gather about it such
promise of larger good; it is thus, and thus only, that we have
gained our vantage-ground for successful appeal. As it is, the
amount contributed in California for this cause must be to every
one acquainted with all the facts a grateful surprise. It reached
last year a total of $2,654.05. I trust the amount will be no
smaller this year. But should the Association stand aside, it would
in another year be reduced almost to nothing. When effort becomes
hopeless, enthusiasm dies.

       *       *       *       *       *


GRADUATING ADDRESS OF YAN PHOU LEE, AT YALE COLLEGE.

THE OTHER SIDE OF THE CHINESE QUESTION.

The torrents of hatred and abuse which have periodically swept
over the Chinese industrial class in America had their sources in
the early California days. They grew gradually in strength, and,
uniting in one mighty stream, at last broke the barriers with which
justice, humanity and the Constitution of the Republic had until
then restrained their fury.

The catastrophe was too terrible, and has made too deep an
impression to be easily forgotten. Even if Americans are disposed
to forget, the Chinese will not fail to keep the sad record of
faith unkept, of persecution permitted by an enlightened people,
of rights violated without redress in a land where all are equal
before the law.

Sad it is that in a Christian community only a feeble voice here
and there has been raised against this public wrong; while the
enemies of the Chinese laborer may be counted by the million. Yet
these men, having everything their own way, are still dissatisfied
and cannot rest secure until all the Chinese laborers have been
driven out or killed off with the connivance of a perverted public
opinion. Is it not high time for good men to —— themselves and
say to the enemy of industry and order, “Halt! thus far shalt thou
go, and no farther”? For be assured that after the Chinese have
all departed, those men who are determined to get high wages for
doing nothing will turn against other peaceful sons of toil; and
who would venture to say that there will be absolute safety for the
native American? Mob-rule knows no respect for persons; the Chinese
were attacked first simply because they were the weakest. I do not
deny that the anti-Chinese agitation has some _show_ of reason. But
its strength rests on three erroneous assumptions, by proving the
groundlessness of which the whole superstructure of fallacy and
falsehood can be made to totter.

First, it is assumed that the work to be done and the fund for
labor’s remuneration are fixed quantities, and that if the Chinese
are employed so much will be taken from other laborers. It is
sufficient to reply that no economist holds that view.

Secondly, it is assumed that the Pekin authorities are anxious to
get rid of its redundant population. Nothing can be more absurd.
They have been always, and are still, averse to the emigration
of their subjects; so much so that they yielded only to the
inducements and concessions offered by this Government, which are
embodied in the Burlingame Treaty. Another proof is the readiness
with which they consented to the limitation of Chinese immigration
when the Angell Treaty was negotiated.

Thirdly, it is assumed that China’s four hundred millions are
only waiting for an opening to “inundate” this country. This is
soberly asserted and has the effect of the Gorgon-head; for who is
not stunned at the bare mention of this appalling and impending
disaster? It would be terrible if it were possible—if it could be
true.

But there is no cause for apprehension. The immigration of my
compatriots has been exclusively from Canton and the region around
it within a radius of a hundred miles. The population of this
district is estimated at 5,000,000. Not a single immigrant has
hailed from any other part of the Empire. The Mongolization of
America, therefore, is an event as far off as the Millennium. For
after twenty-five years of unrestricted immigration, your patriotic
agitators could muster up only 200,000 Chinese laborers in all the
States and Territories. Now place this figure side by side with the
3,000,000 of immigrant princes from the “English Poland,” which has
never had more than 8,000,000 inhabitants at any one time, and you
will be struck with the contrast.

What reason can we give why so few comparatively come from China?
The Chinese are by nature and from habit gregarious, but not
migratory. They dislike to cut adrift from the ties of kindred,
the associations of home, the traditions of fatherland. The belief
that their welfare in the future life depends on the proper burial
of their remains in home-soil, followed by sorrowing children and
tearful widow, curbs their desire to go abroad, even with the hope
of bettering their condition. But as only the poorest are tempted
to lead a life of adventure, and as the good Emperor does not
pay their passage money, the number that _can_ leave their native
land is very small. Thus you will find that Chinese immigrants are
usually poor on landing, for they bring no votes in their pockets
which can immediately be turned into money, and so they must rely
upon their countrymen who have preceded them for assistance. This
is afforded by the Six Companies, who accordingly have a lien on
their prospective wages. From this practice of advancing money
arises the terrible accusation that Chinese labor is contract
labor—is slave labor. We know with what reluctance they first
made their way to this country. Oftentimes they had to be drugged
and kidnapped. It was thought necessary, for labor in those days
was in great demand; the Western country was wild; its resources
wanted development. Laborers were welcome irrespective of race or
nationality.

But the times soon changed; California had grown rich and
flourishing; the Pacific Railroad had been built; wages had fallen;
the Chinese became superfluous, and the corals which constructed
the reef must go or die. From being an economic question, the
expulsion of the Chinese laborers was made a political question.
Disinterested demagogues easily won mob-favor by advocating the
cause of the sand-lot, and the Chinese workmen were sacrificed to
the Moloch of political ambition. The matter was carried to the
National Council, and you would suppose that Congress at least
would be just and dispassionate, but it, too, was borne along the
waves of prejudice.

In every such conflict might is right; the weakest goes to the
wall. Two parties were bidding for the Pacific vote—that of great
moral principles as well as that of no principles. The Chinese came
in like cloth between the blades of the scissors, like Mr. Pickwick
between the infuriated rival editors of Eatanswill. When 80,000
offices were at stake, and the hoodlums of California had to be
petted, it was not hard to make the Chinese out to be _undesirable_
immigrants and to hoodwink the public with charges against them
which are false, or which may be preferred against all immigrants.

Sand-lotters were scandalized by the alleged immoral practices of
the Asiatics; were in trembling and fear lest their Christianity
should suffer by contact with Chinese paganism. I believe the
cesspool once complained of the influx of muddy water. Californians
prohibited the Chinese from becoming citizens and then accused them
of failure to become naturalized. People in general were staggered
at the imminent danger of the Mongolization of America and at the
same time found fault with the Chinese for not making the United
States their home. “Consistency, thou art a jewel.”

Those who make America a catspaw to secure home-rule chestnuts
proved most conclusively the non-assimilability of the Chinese
race—said they came simply to make money which eventually found its
way to the old country. I admit both points: I admit that they do
not come to America for the good of _their_ fatherland and mother
church, and that they _do_ come to make money. So do Americans in
China. They are wicked enough to send money home to support wife
and children, but they give an equivalent in work. Gold and silver
are things you can most conveniently spare; but if you must keep
them at home, why then make a law forbidding their export.

I also admit that the Chinese laborer does not assimilate with
your enlightened Hibernian citizens. Thank God for that! If he
did, he would not be compelled to do menial work through fear of
starvation. If he did he might have become a saloon statesman by
this time, or even a much-envied “boodler.” If he did, he might be
even now luxuriating in Sing Sing at the public expense.

But why pursue this theme further? The bill was passed which
excludes both skilled as well as unskilled Chinese laborers, though
the Court of Pekin diplomatically understood that the restriction
was to affect common workmen alone. Natives of China are forbidden
to become citizens of this Republic, which takes to its bosom
the off-scouring, the garbage, and the dynamite of Europe. Never
had there been seen such pandering to the worst passion of an
insignificant faction!

Were it not for the tragic events which trod on the heels of the
Chinese Immigration Bill, one might be inclined to laugh at the
absurdities in the bill itself. If the law is faithfully executed
(and to be worth anything it must be), all Americans born in China
are disfranchised, and all Chinese natives of British colonies,
like Hong Kong and India, have free access to this country. But
who could laugh in the midst of indignant tears? By passing a
discriminating law against an already persecuted class, the Central
Government yielded to the demands of the mob, and to that extent
countenanced its violence and lawlessness. The Anti-Chinese Act
is a cause of all the outrages and massacres that have been since
committed in Rock Springs and Denver, in Portland, San Francisco
and other parts, which, if they had been perpetrated in China
against Americans, would have resounded from Bedloe’s Island
(whereon stands the Statue of Liberty) to the Golden Gate. But the
criminals in these cases were not punished, and even the pitiful
indemnity was voted down until Congress could not withhold it from
very shame.

I have stated facts which are well known. It is not necessary to
exaggerate. I now ask you Christian people of America whether you
have not failed in your duties as lovers of justice and fatherland,
in _not_ enforcing your opinions in public and in private, as well
in church as in State. I ask those who gallantly sided with the
strong against the weak, whether they do not think they have done
enough for glory and personal ambition?

If there is an avenging Deity, (and we believe there is), ought
you not to beware of the retribution which is sure to overtake a
nation that permits the cold-blooded murder of innocent strangers
within its gates to go unpunished?

       *       *       *       *       *



RECEIPTS FOR JULY, 1887.

       *       *       *       *       *


  MAINE, $358.65.

    Andover. “A Friend,” _for Williamsburg, Ky._             $10.00
    Auburn. Sixth St. Cong. Ch.                                9.04
    Bangor. Madam Coe. _for Oahe Ind’l Sch._                   5.00
    Cumberland Mills. Warren Ch.                               8.70
    Garland. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                                7.00
    Machias. Sab. Sch. of Cong. Ch.                           10.00
    Monson. Cong. Ch.                                          5.05
    Portland. State St. Cong. Ch., 150; Williston
      Ch., 40                                                190.00
    Saco. First Parish Cong. Ch.                               7.86
    South Berwick. Sab. Sch. of Cong. Ch., _for
      Kreutzer Marie Adlof Sch’p._                           100.00
    South Berwick. Mrs. Lewis’ S. S. Class, _for
      Wilmington, N.C._                                        2.00
    West Brooksville. Cong. Ch.                                2.00
    Winterport. Cong. Ch.                                      2.00


  NEW HAMPSHIRE, $376.32.

    Claremont. “Friend”                                        1.00
    Concord. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                         46.00
    Derry. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                           70.00
    Fitzwilliam. Mrs. L. Hill                                 10.00
    Great Falls. Cong. Ch.                                    20.00
    Hopkinton. First Cong. Ch.                                25.06
    Manchester. Hanover St. Cong. Ch. and Soc.,
      69.01; C. B. Southworth, 25                             94.01
    Monroe. Mrs. Emeline H. Chase                              4.00
    Nashua. Fist Cong. Ch. and Soc.                           16.55
    Rochester. “Friends”                                      20.00
    Union. Ladies of Cong. Ch., 17.38; “Do Good
      Soc. of Children,” 2.62, _for Storrs Sch.,
      Atlanta, Ga._                                           20.00
    Warner. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                                 9.20
    Winchester. A. L. Jewell, 5; Sab. Sch. of
      Cong. Ch., 2.68                                          7.68
                                                              —————
                                                            $343.50

    LEGACIES.

    Cornish. Estate of Mrs. Sarah W. Westgate, by
      Geo. H. Ayers, Chairman of Trustees                     25.82
    Concord. Estate of G. B. Wardwell                          7.00
                                                              —————
                                                            $376.32


  VERMONT, $245.72.

    Cambridge. Second Cong. Ch. and Soc.                       1.00
    Castleton. First Cong. Ch.                                16.85
    Coventry. Ladies of Cong. Ch., _for McIntosh,
      Ga._                                                    11.00
    Fair Haven. First Cong. Ch.                               14.04
    Franklin. Cong. Ch.                                        5.00
    Granby and Victory. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                     5.17
    Jericho Center. First Cong. Ch.                            7.00
    Johnson. Cong. Ch.                                        16.00
    Lunenburg. Cong. Ch.                                       3.00
    Lyndon. Mrs. A. L. Ray                                     2.00
    North Craftsbury. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                      12.72
    Norwich. Mrs. Albert Buell                                10.00
    Peacham. Ladies, _for McIntosh, Ga._, by Mrs.
      C. A. Bunker                                            21.00
    Poultney. Cong. Ch.                                        6.00
    Saint Johnsbury. Ladies, adl., _for McIntosh,
      Ga._, by Mrs. Henry Fairbanks                            1.25
    Saxton’s River. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                        23.29
    Sheldon. Cong. Ch.                                         5.00
    Thetford. First Cong. Ch.                                  3.75
    Waitsfield. Ladies, _for McIntosh, Ga._, by
      Mrs. Henry Fairbanks                                     8.00
    Waterville. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                             1.00
    Woodstock. Cong. Ch.                                      72.65


  MASSACHUSETTS, $4,287.51.

    Alford. J. Jay Dana, to const. REV. AUGUSTUS
      ALVORD, L. M.                                           30.00
    Amherst. First Cong. Ch.                                  25.00
    Amherst. Boy’s Soc., by Miss Emma Beaman, _for
      Indian M._                                               6.00
    Amherst. Miss M. H. Scott, Bbl. of C., _for
      Tougaloo U._
    Andover. Chapel Ch. and Cong., 70; G. W. W.
      Dove, 50; Free Christian Ch., 25, bal. to
      const. GEORGE CHRISTIE, L. M.                          145.00
    Arlington. Ortho. Cong. Ch.                               25.00
    Beverly. Dane St. Ch. and Soc.                           226.88
    Boston. “A partial payment of the
        Debt due from the North to the
        Colored race of the South”                50.00
      Boston. “A Friend”                          10.00
      Boston. Mrs. Jacob Fullarton                 0.50
      Dorchester. Second Cong. Ch. and
        Soc. (5 of which _for Indian M._)        115.71
      Roxbury. Immanuel Ch. and Soc., to
        const. FRANCIS J. WARD, L. M.             90.60
      West Roxbury. South Evan. Ch. and
        Soc.                                      29.65
                                                 ——————      296.46
    Brockton. E. C. Randall                                    0.50
    Brookfield. Mrs. R. B Montague                             8.00
    Brookline. Harvard Ch. and Soc.                           68.45
    Cambridge. Miss H. E. Moore                                8.00
    Canton. Evan. Cong. Ch.                                   15.00
    Chelsea. Mrs. Emma B. Evans                                5.00
    Chesterfield. Cong. Ch.                                    5.00
    Coleraine. Ladies of Cong. Ch.                            10.00
    Conway. Cong. Ch.                                          6.00
    Dighton. Ladies’ Miss’y Soc., by Mrs. Wm. B.
      Greene                                                  10.00
    East Bridgewater. Sab. Sch. of Union Cong.
      Ch., _for Student Aid, Talladega C._                    25.00
    East Charlemont. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                        2.87
    Easthampton. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                     77.58
    Easton. Cong. Ch. and Soc., to const. REV. F.
      P. CHAPIN, L. M.                                        35.91
    Easton. Sab. Sch. of Cong. Ch., _for Student
      Aid. Fisk U._, and to const. MISS C. E.
      MITCHELL, L. M.                                         35.00
    Falmouth. First Ch.                                       62.91
    Fitchburg. C. C. Ch.                                      30.00
    Framingham. “A Friend”                                    25.00
    Gilbertville. Cong. Ch.                                    3.00
    Gloucester. Evan. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                      50.00
    Haverhill Center. Cong. Ch. and Soc., to
      const. MRS. SAMUEL DRIVER, L. M.                       100.00
    Haydenville. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                           12.00
    Holliston. Cong. Ch. and Soc., 147.88; “Bible
      Christians of Dist. No. 4,” 30                         177.88
    Holliston. Inf. Sab. Sch. Cong. Ch., _for
      Student Aid, Talladega C._                               6.17
    Holyoke. “Friends,” by E. B. Reed, _for Indian
      Scholarship_                                            17.50
    Holyoke. “Friends,” _for Indian M._                        7.00
    Hyde Park. By Mrs. E. S. Paine, _for Oahe
      Indl. Sch._                                              2.00
    Lawrence. South Cong. Ch. and Soc.                        15.36
    Lenox. Cong. Ch.                                          29.50
    Lexington. Hancock Ch. and Soc.                           13.50
    Marblehead. J. J. H. Gregory, _for Wilmington,
      N.C._                                                   94.33
    Marlboro. Union Cong. Ch., to const. MRS.
      SAMUEL BOYD, MRS. DELIA E. BUCKLIN, and MRS.
      JOHN E. CURTIS, L. M’s                                  93.62
    Medway. Village Ch. and Soc.                              85.89
    Milbury. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                         51.60
    Monterey. Cong. Ch.                                       30.00
    New Bedford. Members North Cong. Ch., _for
      Tougaloo U._                                            15.00
    Newton. Eliot Ch. and Soc.                               100.00
    Newton. “Eliot Mission Circle,” 16 _for Oahe_,
      and 70c. _for Rosebud Indian M._                        16.70
    Newton Center. First Cong. Ch. and Soc.                   85.57
    Newton Center. First Cong. Ch., _for Indian M._           20.00
    North Adams. First Cong. Ch.                              22.68
    Northampton. Kate E. Tyler                                10.00
    Northboro. Sab. Sch. of Evan. Cong. Ch.                   15.00
    North Woburn. B. F. Kimball                                2.50
    North Woburn. Miss Amanda Sevrens, _for
      Rosebud Indian M._                                       0.20
    Oxford. Cong. Ch. and Soc., 76; Woman’s Miss’y
      Soc., by L. D. Stockwell, Treas., 14                    90.00
    Peabody. Sab. Sch., S. Cong. Ch., _for Oahe
      Ind’l Sch._                                             25.00
    Pittsfield. First Cong. Ch. and Soc., 85;
      Second Cong. Ch. and Sab. Sch., 10                      95.00
    Sherborn. Pilgrim Ch. and Sab. Sch.                       30.00
    Southboro. Miss M. J. Temple, _for Freight_                1.50
    South Framingham. “Friends,” _for Indian M._              12.00
    South Lee. Mrs. Horace Martin                              3.50
    Templeton. Trin. Ch. and Soc.                             19.07
    Townsend. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                              21.84
    Wakefield. Cong. Ch.                                      50.95
    Wendell. Cong. Ch., 3; “Friends,” 5                        8.00
    West Boxford. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                           8.00
    Westhampton. “P.”                                          5.00
    West Medway. Second Cong. Ch., bal. to const.
      HELEN C. ALLEN, L. M.                                   15.73
    West Newton. Cong. Ch., _for Talledega C._                53.85
    West Tisbury. First Cong. Ch.                              4.59
    Weymouth. S. F. Jenkins’ Bible Class, _for
      Wilmington, N.C._                                       10.00
    Whitman. “A Friend,” to const. MISS SARAH M.
      BATES and HARRY R. REED, L. M’s                         60.00
    Worcester. Plymouth Cong. Ch., (80 of which to
      const. REV. CHARLES WADSWORTH, L. M.) 187;
      Piedmont Cong. Ch., 100; Salem St. Ch. 38.55           325.55
    By Charles Marsh, Treas. Hampden Benev. Ass’n:
      Agawam. Feeding Hills                       15.00
      Chicopee. Second                            53.92
      Chicopee. Third                             13.97
      Chicopee. Third _for Indian M._              2.53
      Holyoke. Second                             86.98
      Huntington. Second                          13.15
      South Hadley Falls                          19.50
      Springfield. North                          37.17
      Springfield. South                          47.08
      Wilbraham                                   12.75
                                                 ——————      302.05
                                                          —————————
                                                          $3,403.19

    LEGACIES.

    Cambridge. Estate of A. E. Hildreth, by his
      Sons                                                   500.00
    Uxbridge. Estate of Mrs. A. H. Tucker, by
      Jacob Taft, Ex.                                        384.32
                                                          —————————
                                                          $4,287.51


  RHODE ISLAND, $174.97.

    Central Falls. “A Friend”                                 25.00
    Little Compton. Sab. Sch. of Cong. Ch., bal.
      _for Kreutzer Marie Adlof Sch’p_                         8.00
    Pawtucket. Cong. Ch.                                     115.97
    Providence. Young Ladies’ Mission Circle of
      North Cong. Ch., _for Indian M._                        26.00


  CONNECTICUT, $4,038.88.

    Berlin. Ladies’ Sewing Soc. of Cong. Ch., _for
      Conn. Ind’l School, Ga._                                21.25
    Bridgeport. Sab. Sch. of Second Cong. Ch.,
      _for Sch’p, Indian M._                                  25.51
    Bristol. Cong. Ch.                                        75.00
    Buckingham. Ladies’ Sewing Soc., _for Conn.
      Ind’l School, Ga._                                       5.00
    Burlington. Cong. Ch.                                      3.00
    Cheshire. Sab. Sch. of Cong. Ch., _for Rosebud
      Indian M._                                               5.50
    Clinton. Cong. Ch. and Soc., _for Indian M._               3.05
    Colebrook. Cong. Ch. (1 of which from Mrs. E.
      Penney, of Millbrook)                                   15.12
    Cornwall. First Cong. Ch.                                 15.07
    Durham. First Cong. Ch.                                   12.96
    East Granby. Cong. Ch.                                     5.00
    East Hampton. Sab. Sch. of Cong. Ch., _for
      Indian M._                                               6.00
    Ellsworth. Cong. Ch.                                       8.56
    Fairfield. Mrs. Jonathan Sturges, _for Indian
      M._                                                     25.00
    Farmington. Cong. Ch.                                     85.31
    Greenfield Hill. Cong. Ch.                                15.43
    Guilford. Third Cong. Ch., _for Student Aid,
      Atlanta U._                                             30.00
    Hadlyme. R. E. Hungerford, 100; Jos. W.
      Hungerford, 100; Cong. Ch., 5.70                       205.70
    Hartford. Warburton Chapel Sab. Sch., _for
      Rosebud Indian M._                                      20.25
    Hartford. “Friends,” 6; Fourth Cong. Ch.,
      6.25, _for Indian M._                                   12.25
    Higganum. Sab. Sch. of Cong. Ch.                          30.60
    Kensington. Cong. Ch., 25; Mrs. Edward Cowles,
      3                                                       28.00
    Lyme. Grassy Hill Cong. Ch.                                8.50
    Manchester. Sab. Sch., of North Cong. Ch.,
      _for Rosebud Indian M._                                 55.14
    Mansfield Center. Mrs. B. Swift                           25.00
    Mansfield Center. Sab. Sch. of Cong. Ch., _for
      Rosebud Indian M._                                      10.00
    Marlboro. Cong. Ch.                                       20.00
    Meriden. Center Ch.                                       50.00
    Middletown. First Ch., by R. H. Stothart,
      Treas.                                                  65.31
    Naubuc. “A Friend” (4 of which _for Indian M_)            84.00
    New Haven. Mrs. A. S. Farnam, _for Oahe Ind’l
      Sch._                                                   50.00
    New Haven. Sab. Sch. of First Cong. Ch., _for
      Kindergarten, Atlanta, Ga._                             25.00
    New Haven. Alfred Walker                                  10.00
    Norfolk. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                              100.00
    Norfolk. Cong. Ch., 19.77; Miss M. Curtis, 10,
      _for Indian M._                                         29.77
    North Cornwall. Cong. Ch., to const. DWIGHT
      ROGERS and GEO. HUGHES, L. M’s                          61.00
    Northfield. Cong. Ch.                                     42.46
    North Haven. Cong. Ch.                                   131.00
    Norwich. Broadway Cong. Ch.                              200.00
    Norwich Town. “The Other Girls,” by Fannie I.
      Williams, _for Conn. Ind’l Sch., Ga._                   22.00
    Norwich Town. First Cong. Ch.                             21.00
    Old Saybrook. Cong. Ch.                                   24.81
    Plainville. Solomon Curtiss                              100.00
    Plantsville. Walter W. Altwein, _for Rosebud
      Indian M._                                               0.10
    Putnam. Second Cong. Ch.                                  24.62
    Rockville. Second Cong. Ch.                              500.00
    Salisbury. Cong. Ch.                                      87.21
    Salisbury. Sab. Sch. Class, by T. J. Roraback,
      _for Oaks, N.C._                                         5.00
    Sharon. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                                 4.75
    Southbury. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                              8.40
    Southington. Cong. Ch. (of which 1.10 _for
      Conn. Ind’l Sch., Ga_)                                  51.10
    Southport. “A Friend”                                     25.00
    South Windsor. First Cong. Ch.                            11.96
    Suffield. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                              13.90
    Terryville. Sab. Sch. of Cong. Ch., _for
      Indian Student Aid_                                     17.50
    Washington. J. G. Fenn                                     1.00
    Waterbury. First Cong. Ch., _for Indian M._               80.00
    Watertown. Mrs. F. Scott’s S. S. Class, _for
      Student Aid, Fort Berthold, Dak._                       15.00
    West Hartford. Anson Chappell                             10.00
    Westport. Sab. Sch. of Saugatuck Cong. Ch.,
      _for Conn. Ind’l Sch., Ga._                             20.00
    Westport. Saugatuck Cong. Ch.                             18.00
    West Winsted. Second Cong. Ch. and Soc.                  229.11
    Windsor. First Cong. Ch.                                  45.00
    Windsor. Miss M. E. Sill, _for Oahe Ind’l Sch._           25.00
    Winsted. First Cong. Ch.                                  44.31
    Wolcott. Cong. Ch.                                         6.00
    Woman’s Home Missionary Union of Conn., by
      Mrs. S. M. Hotchkiss, Sec., _for Conn. Ind’l
      Sch., Ga._:
        Suffield. Young Ladies H. M. Circle                    7.37
                                                          —————————
                                                          $3,038.88
    LEGACY.

    Norwich. Estate of Mrs. H. B. Norton, by Miss
      E. F. Norton                                         1,000.00
                                                          —————————
                                                          $4,038.88


  NEW YORK, $1,409.80.

    Batavia. Miss Sarah F. Lincoln                            10.00
    Brooklyn. South Cong. Ch., 50; “A Friend,” to
      const. HON. NEAL DOW, L. M., 30; Rev. S. W.
      Powell, 3                                               83.00
    Candor. Cong. Ch.                                         10.08
    Chenango Forks. Cong. Ch.                                  3.00
    Chittenango. Mrs. Amelia L. Brown                          5.00
    East Bloomfield. Cong. Ch. and Soc.                       54.00
    East Bloomfield. Sab. Sch. of Cong. Ch., _for
      Santee Indian M._                                       30.00
    East Bloomfield. Mrs. Eliza S. Goodwin                     1.00
    Ellington. Mrs. M. Ellsworth                               1.00
    Geneva. J. V. Ditmars                                      3.00
    Greene. Cong. Ch.                                         12.00
    Hamilton. Cong. Ch., 6.25; O. S. Campbell, 5              11.25
    Homer. Cong. Ch.                                          26.19
    Hopkinton. First Cong. Ch.                                17.00
    Howell’s. Cong. Ch.                                        9.00
    Lockport. Sab. Sch. of Cong. Ch.                          75.00
    Lowville. Mrs. L. C. Hough, bal. to const.
      REV. L. R. WEBBER, L. M.                                20.00
    Madrid. First Cong. Ch.                                    5.00
    Munnsville. Sab. Sch. of Cong. Ch., _for
      Santee Indian M._                                        7.00
    New York. S. T. Gordon                       200.00
    New York. S. T. Gordon, _for Howard U._      125.00
    New York. Sab. Sch. of Broadway Tab.,
      _for Student Aid, Fort
      Berthold, Dak._                             50.00
    New York. Bethany Sewing Sch., _for
      Student Aid, Fort Berthold, Dak._           36.08
                                                 ——————      411.08
    Patchogue. First Cong. Ch.                                19.41
    Portland. First Cong. Ch.                                  5.35
    Poughkeepsie. Cong. Ch.                                   23.30
    Sinclearville. E. Williams                                 5.00
    Spencerport. Sab. Sch. of Cong. Ch., to const.
      J. C. BRIGHAM, L. M.                                    40.00
    Union Center. Cong. Ch.                                    2.85
    Woodville. Cong. Ch.                                      10.00
    Woman’s Home Missionary Union of N. Y., by
      Mrs. L. H. Cobb, Treas., _for Woman’s Work_:
        Danby. Acorn Band                          6.80
        Walton. Ladies’ Aux.                      20.00
                                                 ——————       26.80
                                                            ———————
                                                            $926.31

    LEGACY.

    Albany. Estate of Mrs. Joanna T. D. Carner               483.49
                                                           ————————
                                                          $1,409.80


  NEW JERSEY, $280.00.

    Chester. “A Friend”                                       25.00
    Jersey City. Mrs. Henry O. Ames                            5.00
    Montclair. First Cong. Ch.                                25.00
    Montclair. Sab. Sch. of Cong. Ch., _for
      Student Aid, Talladega C._                               5.00
    Orange. “A Friend”                                        50.00
    Stanley. “The Helping Hands” of Cong. Sab.
      Sch., _for Indian M._                                   50.00
    Westfield. Mission Band, by Matilda C. Alpers             20.00
    ——. “A Friend in New Jersey”                             100.00


  PENNSYLVANIA, $32.95.

    Centre Road. J. A. Scovel                                 12.00
    Drifton. Sab. Sch. Class, by Rev. J. P.
      Humphreys                                                1.20
    Neath. Cong. Ch.                                           3.33
    Ridgway. Minnie Kline, _for Oaks, N.C._                    5.00
    Scranton. Plymouth Ch.                                    11.42


  OHIO, $509.24.

    Akron. Cong. Ch.                                         156.73
    Alexis. Cong. Ch.                                          4.10
    Alliance. Sab. Sch. of Cong. Ch., 5.68; Mrs.
      Rev. J. M. Thomas, 5, _for Indian M._                   10.68
    Brownhelm. O. H. Perry                                    10.00
    Burton. Mrs. H. H. Ford                                    4.00
    Cincinnati. Mrs. Rachel M. Smith                           2.50
    Conneaut. H. E. Pond                                       5.00
    Cuyahoga Falls. Cong. Ch.                                  7.82
    Harmar. Cong. Ch.                                        176.21
    Lodi. Cong. Ch., 9.34; Ladies’ Miss’y Soc.,
      2.50                                                    11.84
    Marion. Mrs. M. B. Vose                                   10.00
    Medina. “The Opportunity Club,” by Lulu
      Ainsworth                                                2.00
    Newark. First Welsh. Cong. Ch.                            12.81
    Oberlin. The Young Ladies’ Miss’y Soc., by A.
      Grace Allyn, Treas.                                     30.00
    Oberlin. Y. W. C. A., _for Student Aid,
      Williamsburg, Ky._                                       3.00
    Painesville. First Cong. Ch.                              30.05
    Randolph. W. J. Dickinson                                 10.00
    Saybrook. Cong. Ch.                                       12.00
    Wayne. Mrs. Parker, 5; Mrs. A. Jones, 50c.;
      Mrs. L. C. Bearss, $5                                   10.50


  INDIANA, $13.00.

    Dunrieth. “A Friend”                                       5.00
    Michigan City. “Grains of Sand,” (in memory of
      Sterling Kent), _for Kindergarten, Atlanta,
      Ga._                                                     3.00
    Versailles. Mrs. J. D. Nichols, _for Indian M._            5.00


  ILLINOIS, $6,546.12.

    Albion. James Green                                       10.00
    Byron. Cong. Ch.                                          15.00
    Chicago. New England Cong. Ch., 41.64; Lincoln
      Park Cong. Ch., 25.70; Y. L. M. Soc. of
      South Ch., 20                                           87.34
    Danville. Mrs. A. M. Swan                                  5.00
    Evanston. Cong. Ch., to const. REV. N. H.
      WHITTLESEY, SILAS D. JENNINGS, CHAS. P.
      MITCHELL and N. D. WRIGHT, L. M’s                      139.59
    Galesburg. Elizabeth G. Furness                            5.00
    Hinsdale. Cong. Ch.                                       23.00
    Jacksonville. Cong. Ch.                                    1.00
    Kewanee. Ladies’ Miss’y Soc., by Mrs. W. H.
      Lyman, Treas.                                           10.00
    Lamoille. Cong. Church                                    20.10
    La Salle. “A Friend”                                      50.00
    Lowell. “A Friend”                                         5.00
    Malta. Cong. Ch.                                           5.00
    Morrison. Cong. Ch.                                       30.00
    Odell. Ladies of Cong. Ch.                                 8.00
    Polo. Ind. Presb. Ch.                                     26.75
    Princeton. Cong. Ch.                                      33.30
    Providence. Cong. Ch.                                      7.04
    Rockford. Miss’y Soc. of Rockford Sem.                     8.00
    Sycamore. Cong. Ch.                                      106.06
    Wheaton. Cong. Ch.                                        12.50
    Wheaton. Mrs. J. C. Webster, “In Memoriam”                 5.00
    Woodburn. A. L. Sturges, 10; Cong. Ch., 2.95              12.95
      Woman’s Home Missionary Union, of Ill., by
      Mrs. Leavitt, Treas., _for Woman’s Work_:
        Ashkum. L. M. S. of Cong. Ch.              0.20
        Galva. L. M. S. of Cong. Ch.              33.50
        Illini. L. M. S. of Cong. Ch.             10.30
        Payson. L. M. S. of Cong. Ch.             10.00
        Rockford. L. M. S., of Second Ch.,
          to const. MRS. J. P. PERKINS,
          L. M.                                   32.60
        Thawville. L. M. S. of Cong. Ch.           2.00
                                                 ——————       88.60
    By Rev. T. L. Riggs, _for Oahe Ind’l Sch._:
      Chicago. W. F. M. Soc., Third
        Presb. Ch., 25.75; Miss Farrand, 1        26.75
      Evanston. Cong. Ch.                         42.78
      Glencoe. “A Friend” 50; Cong. Ch.
        “Friends,” 49.78 Sab. Sch. of
        Cong. Ch., 3.37; Geo. Scott,
        10; Mrs. Swan, 10; Mrs.
        Stoutenberg, 4; “A Friend,” 1            128.15
      Kenwood. “Two Ladies”                        1.75
      Lakeview. The Church of the
        Redeemer, 20.21; Evanston Av.
        Sab. Sch., 10.28                          30.49
      Oak Park. Cong. Ch.                         39.04
      Ravenswood. First Cong. Ch., 35.83;
        and Sab. Sch., 2.70                       38.53
      Winetka. Cong. Ch.                          21.00
      —— From Sale of Elizabeth’s Pictures         3.40
                                                 ——————      381.89
                                                           ————————
                                                          $1,046.12

    LEGACIES.

    Chicago. Estate of Mrs. Almira Barnes, by Rev.
      Henry Willard, Adm.                                    500.00
    Lamoille. Estate of Joseph Allen, by J. Y.
      Burnett, Ex. (30 of which to const. J. Y.
      BURNETT, L. M.)                                      5,000.00
                                                           ————————
                                                          $6,546.12


  MICHIGAN, $1,034.08.

    Alma. Mrs. L. A. Van Antwerp                               5.00
    Bay City. Cong. Ch.                                       25.00
    Blissfield. Miss Clara M. Janes                            1.00
    Detroit. Woodward Ave. Cong. Ch., 66.25; Sab.
      Sch. of Woodward Ave. Cong. Ch., 20                     86.25
    Eastlake. Cong. Ch.                                        2.60
    Grand Blanc. Cong. Ch.                                    12.36
    Ingham. Prof. R. C. Kedzie                                10.00
    Irving. Cong. Ch.                                          2.00
    Ithaca. Rev. and Mrs. A. H. Norris                        10.00
    Kalamazoo. Timothy Hudson, 30; Cong. Ch.,
      8.29., _for Oahe Ind’l Sch._                            38.29
    Middleville. Cong. Ch.                                     4 28
    Milford. Wm. A. Arms to const. WILLIAM A.
      CRAWFORD, L. M.                                         30.00
    Milford. Mrs. T. O. Bennett                                5.00
    Saint Josephs. By Rev. J. V. Hickmott to
      const. NEWTON VANDERVEER, L. M.                         32.16
    Union City. “A Friend”                                   200.00
    Webster. Cong. Ch.                                        20.40
    White Lake. Robert Garner                                 10.00
    Woman’s Home Missionary Union of Mich., by
      Mrs. E. F. Grabill, Treas., _for Woman’s
      Work_:
      Detroit Ladies Union, First Cong. Ch.                   50.00
    Detroit. By Rev. T. L. Riggs, _for Oahe
      Industrial Sch_:—Mrs. Addison Moffat, 50;
      Fort St. Cong. Ch., 37.10; Woodward Av.
      Cong. Ch., 36.81; Woman’s M. Soc.
      Westminster Presb. Ch., 26.58; Frederic
      Buhl, 25; S. Scolten, 25; C. H. Buhl, 20;
      Mrs. Allen Shelden, 20; Mrs. R. A. Alger,
      20; C. L. Freer, 20; Sab. Sch. of Fort St.
      Presb. Ch., 20; Sab. Sch. of St. Paul’s
      Episcopal Ch., 20; Sab. Sch. of Fort Wayne
      Cong. Ch., 15; Newell Avery, 15; Third Av.
      Presb. Ch., 15; T. D. Buhl, 10; Geo.
      McMillan, 10; C. Buncker, 10; Mrs. Black,
      10; Mrs. D. Whitney, 10; Woman’s Mich.
      Indian Ass’n, 5; Mrs. Walter Buhl, 5; Union
      Meeting W. M. I. Ass’n, 5; Frank J. Hecker,
      5; Mrs. Ford, 5; F. C. Stoepel, 5; E. C.
      Walker, 5; Bryant Walker, 5; S. C. Caskey,
      5; C. A. Strelinger, 5; Dr. H. K. Lathrop,
      4; “Two Ladies,” 2; Miss Leet, 2; C. A.
      Robinson, 1;——, 1; “Two Young Ladies,” 50c.;
      Sale of Elizabeth’s pictures, 3.75                     489.74


  WISCONSIN, $401.81.

    Appleton. First Cong. Ch.                                 28.60
    Arena. First Cong. Ch.                                     5.00
    Arena. W. H. Jones, _for Oahe Ind’l Sch._                  5.00
    Beloit. First Cong. Ch., 151.07; “A Friend”, 85c.        151.92
    Blake’s Prairie. Cong. Ch.                                 1.55
    Eau Claire. Sab. Sch. of First Cong. Ch.                  10.00
    Evansville. Cong. Ch.                                     24.00
    Fond du Lac. Cong. Ch.                                    49.64
    Fulton. Sab. Sch. of Cong. Ch., _for Rosebud
      Indian M._                                               5.79
    Lake Geneva. Cong. Ch.                                    11.00
    Menomonie. Cong. Ch.                                      15.00
    Peshtigo. Rev. H. C. Todd                                  5.00
    Platteville. Cong. Ch.                                    20.00
    Racine. Cong. Ch.                                         34.84
    Windsor. Cong. Ch.                                         8.00
    Woman’s Home Missionary Union of Wis., _for
      Woman’s Work_:
      Beloit. Prof. J. Emerson                     1.00
      Berlin. W. H. M. S.                          5.00
      Brodhead. W. H. M. S.                        2.00
      Kankauna. S. S. of Cong. Ch.                 2.00
      Madison. W. H. M. S. Cong. Ch.               8.00
      Madison. Mrs. Cramers S. S. Class            1.22
      Milton Junction. Mrs. Chapman and Sister     1.25
      Ripon. W. H. M. S.                           1.00
      Ripon. Mrs. E. H. Merrill                    5.00
                                                 ——————       26.47


  IOWA, $360.99.

    Anamosa. Cong. Ch. and Soc., 24.17; Sab. Sch.,
      5.83                                                    30.00
    Anita. Cong. Ch.                                           5.60
    Decorah. Cong. Ch.                                        48.35
    Farragut. Cong. Ch.                                       28.10
    Fort Dodge. First Cong. Ch.                                9.00
    Grinnell. Cong. Ch.                                      137.06
    Humboldt. Cong. Ch.                                       16.60
    Independence. Cong. Ch.                                    5.45
    Percival. Cong. Ch., 5; Rev. A. M. Beman, 1                6.00
    Red Oak. Cong. Ch.                                        18.80
    Webster. Cong. Ch.                                         2.50
    Woman’s Home Miss’y Union of Iowa, _for Woman’s Work_:
      Des Moines. North Park                       2.48
      Fairfield                                    4.75
      Grinnell                                     8.38
      Le Mars                                      4.30
      Marion                                      10.00
      Osage                                        2.66
      Polk City                                    1.38
      Sheldon                                      1.08
      Traer                                       16.00
      Wells—Madison Co.                            2.50
                                                 ——————       53.53


  MINNESOTA, $376.23.

    Ada. Cong. Ch.                                             2.57
    Brainerd. First Cong. Ch.                                 12.90
    Faribault. Cong. Ch.                                      28.88
    Glyndon. “The Ch. at Glyndon,” 4.75; Union
      Sab. Sch., 70c.                                          5.45
    Leech Lake. C. P. ALLEN, to const. himself, L. M.         30.00
    Mankato. Cong. Ch.                                         4.00
    Minneapolis. Plymouth Ch., 28; Lyndale Ch., 22.06;
      Prof. W. M. Bristoll, 5                                 55.06
    Rushford. Cong. Ch.                                        1.32
    Saint Cloud. First Cong. Ch.                               3.80
    Saint Paul. Y. L. M. Ass’n of Park Cong. Ch.,
      _for Jonesboro, Tenn._                                  40.00
    Saint Paul. Plym. Cong. Ch.                               14.25
    Three Lakes. Mrs. E. Leonard                               1.00
    Tivoli. Lyman Humiston                                     1.00
    Waseca. First Cong. Ch.                                   21.00
    ——. “Minnesota Friends”                                  100.00
    ——. “A Friend”                                            55.00


  MISSOURI, $57.15.

    Amity. Cong. Ch.                                          15.15
    Ironton. J. Markham                                        2.00
    Saint Louis. Pilgrim Cong. Ch.                            40.00


  KANSAS, $26.80.

    Carbondale. Cong. Ch.                                      1.10
    Manhattan. Cong. Ch., Mrs. Mary Parker, 20; S.
      D. Moses, 1; Mrs. Clara Castle, 50c.; Rev.
      R. M. Tumell, 50c                                       22.00
    Ridgeway. Cong. Ch.                                        3.70


  DAKOTA, $188.64.

    Canton. Cong. Ch., _for Oahe Ind’l Sch._                   5.45
    De Smit. Cong. Ch., _for Oahe Ind’l Sch._                 10.58
    Huron. Cong. Ch., 12.50; “Two Little Girls,”
      50c., _for Oahe Ind’l School_                           13.00
    Lake Preston. Cong. Ch.                                    8.00
    Oahe. Interest on Endowment, _for Oahe Ind’l
      School_                                                 20.00
    Scotland. German Cong. Ch., _for Oahe Ind’l
      Sch._                                                   25.00
    Valley Springs. Cong. Ch., _for Oahe Ind’l
      Sch._                                                    3.76
    Valley Springs. Cong. Ch.                                  2.85
                                                              —————
                                                             $88.64

    LEGACY.

    Dwight. Estate of Mrs. L. H. Porter, by Rev.
      Sam’l. F. Porter                                       100.00
                                                             ——————
                                                            $188.64


  COLORADO, $46.48.

    Highlandlake. Sab. Sch. Miss’y Soc                        16.35
    West Denver. Cong. Ch., 17.66; Ladies’ Miss’y
      Soc., 9.25; Sab. Sch., 3.22; by Rev. R. T.
      Cross                                                   30.13


  NEBRASKA, $95.00.

    Cambridge. Mrs. J. L. Hall                                 2.00
    Nebraska City. Woman’s Miss’y Soc. of Cong. Ch.            3.00
    Omaha. W. N. McCandlish, to const. MRS. FANNIE
      W. MCCANDLISH and CORA MCCANDLISH, L. M’s               60.00
    Santee. “Friend,” _for Indian M._                         10.00
    Santee Agency. Mary Ward Green                            20.00


  CALIFORNIA, $19.00.

    Belmont. Mrs. E. L. Reed                                  10.00
    Berkely. Park Ch. (Young People)                           2.50
    Oakland. Christian Endeavor Soc., of Second
      Cong. Ch.                                                2.50
    Woodland. Cong. Ch.                                        4.00


  OREGON, $7.00.

    Portland. Sab. Sch. of First Cong. Ch., bal.
      to const. MRS. JAMES STEEL, L. M.                        7.00


  WASHINGTON TER., $2.70.

    Olympia. Sab. Sch. of Cong. Ch.                            2.70


  DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, $6.00.

    Washington. Lincoln Mem. Ch.                               6.00
    Washington. H. M. Soc. of First Cong. Ch.,
      Bbl. of C., _for Tougaloo U_.


  WEST VIRGINIA, $2.50.

    Lewisburg. Mrs. E. R. Marvin                               2.50


  KENTUCKY, $803.38.

    Lexington. Tuition, 753.30; Rent, $8.50; W. T.
      U., 1.83                                               763.63
    Williamsburg. Tuition, 34.25; Mrs. F. E.
      Jenkins, 2.50; “Friend,” by Mrs. A. A.
      Myers, 3                                                39.75


  TENNESSEE, $187.90.

    Grand View. Tuition                                       40.10
    Jonesboro. Tuition                                         3.25
    Pleasant Hill. Y. P. Miss’y Soc. of Second
      Cong. Ch.                                               10.00
    Sherwood. Tuition                                        134.55


  NORTH CAROLINA, $2.50.

    Troy. Cong. Ch.                                            1.00
    Wilmington. Tuition                                        1.50


  SOUTH CAROLINA, $188.00.

    Charleston. Tuition                                      188.00


  GEORGIA, $4.50.

    Marietta. Cong. Ch., 1.70, and Sab. Sch., 1.30             3.00
    Savannah. Rent                                             1.50


  ALABAMA, $160.77.

    Montgomery. Cong. Ch.                                      8.00
    Selma. Rent                                              100.00
    Talladega. Tuition                                        52.77


  MISSISSIPPI, $3,002.00.

    Tougaloo. State Appropriation                          3,000.00
    Tougaloo. Rent                                             2.00


  INCOMES, $725.00.

    Avery Fund, _for Mendi M._                               570.00
    DeForest Fund, _for President’s Chair,
      Talladega C._                                          125.00
    Scholarship Fund, _for Fisk U_.                           30.00


  CANADA, $5.00.

    Montreal. “A”                                              5.00


  ENGLAND, $10.00.

    ——. Miss S. L. Ropes                                      10.00
                                                           ========
    Donations                                            $16,041.24
    Legacies                                               8,000.63
    Tuition and Rents                                      1,219.72
    Incomes                                                  725.00
                                                         ——————————
          Total for July                                 $25,986.59
          Total from Oct. 1 to July 31                   229,507.33
                                                         ==========

       *       *       *       *       *

  FOR THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY.

    Subscriptions for July                                   $86.93
    Previously acknowledged                                  856.37
                                                             ——————
          Total                                             $943.30
                                                            =======

       *       *       *       *       *

  FOR ARTHINGTON MISSION.

    Hillsdale, Mich., Estate of Mrs. T. F. Douglass,
      by Mrs. S. V. Slaytor, Ass’t Adm.,                    $100.00

                                    H. W. HUBBARD, Treasurer,
                                                56 Reade St., N.Y.

       *       *       *       *       *



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genuine unless

                      “DR. WARNER’S CORALINE”

is printed on inside of steel cover.

                FOR SALE BY ALL LEADING MERCHANTS.

                         WARNER BROTHERS,

  359 Broadway,                                       New York City.


                 *       *       *       *       *


                     Hamilton Vocalion Organs

[Illustration]

of 2 manuals and 2 sets of pedals, $750; equalling in beauty,
variety and volume a pipe organ of 600 pipes by the best maker.
Circulars, with testimonials of leading musicians and organists of
the world.

“Without a doubt the Vocalion is at present the nearest approach to
a pipe organ.”—_Clarence Eddy, Organist First Presbyterian Church,
Chicago._

“I have only words of praise in its favor.”—_Henry Eyre Brown,
Organist, Brooklyn Tabernacle._

“Especially valuable for Churches and Concert Rooms.”—_A. H.
Messiter, Organist, Trinity Ch., N.Y._

“A tone so rich and musical must be recognized as valuable for
special and new orchestral effects.”—_Henry Carter, Organist, N.Y._

“Your Vocalion has a magnificent future.”—_Sir Arthur Sullivan._

“A rare combination of power and sweetness.”—_Adelina Patti._

                                             Catalogue sent free.

            WAREROOMS, 28 EAST 23d ST., NEW YORK, N.Y.


                 *       *       *       *       *


                         JOSEPH GILLOTT’S

                            STEEL PENS

                 GOLD MEDAL PARIS EXPOSITION—1878.

                     THE MOST PERFECT OF PENS


                 *       *       *       *       *


                 Ditson & Co’s Sunday-School Music

ranks with the very best, and no Sunday-school management should
adopt a new Singing Book without carefully examining one of their
“tried and true” =Sunday-School Song Books=.

=Voices of Praise= (40 cts., $4.20 per doz.) Rev. C. L. Hutchins.
Music and poetry dignified and classical, but not dull; in fact,
bright and enthusiastic. Very large collection for the money.

=Singing on the Way= (35 cts., $3.60 per doz.) by Mrs. Jewett, ably
assisted by Dr. Holbrook, whose noble compositions are known and
loved in all the churches. This, like the book above mentioned,
does excellently well for a Vestry Singing Book for prayer and
praise meetings.

=Songs of Promise= (35 cts., $3.60 per doz.) J. H. Tenney and Rev.
E. A. Hoffman—the first highly gifted, musically, and the second
the author of many hymns of refined and beautiful quality. One of
the newest books.

=Song Worship= (35 cts., $3.60 per doz.) L. O. Emerson and W. E.
Sherwin, both celebrated compilers, composers and leaders, and
the latter well-known as having had charge of the music at many
Chautauqua meetings.

For other good books, please send for lists and catalogues.

For a lovely little book for the young children of a Sunday-school,
look no further than FRESH FLOWERS (25 cts., $2.40 per doz.), Emma
Pitt. Sweet Hymns, Sweet Music, Pretty Pictures.

                     Mailed for Retail Price.

                   OLIVER DITSON & CO., BOSTON.

  C. H. DITSON & CO.,
    867 Broadway, New York.


                 *       *       *       *       *


                         _6%_, _7%_, _8%_.

                       _THE AMERICAN
                              INVESTMENT CO._

                       OF EMMETTSBURG, IOWA,

with a PAID-UP CAPITAL of $600,000, SURPLUS $75,000, offers First
Mortgage Loans drawing SEVEN per cent., both Principal and Interest
FULLY GUARANTEED. Also 6 per cent. ten-year Debenture Bonds,
secured by 105 per cent. of First Mortgage Loans held in trust by
the MERCANTILE TRUST COMPANY, New York. 5 per cent. certificates of
deposit for periods under one year.

  7⅔%

  CAN BE REALIZED BY CHANGING
  4 Per Ct. Government Bonds
  Into 6 Per Cent. Debentures.

  Write for full information and reference to the Company at

                   150 NASSAU STREET, NEW YORK.

          A. L. ORMSBY, Vice-President and Gen. Manager.


                 *       *       *       *       *


                            STATEMENT.


                     PHENIX INSURANCE COMPANY

                         OF BROOKLYN, N.Y.


                        JANUARY 1st, 1887.


  CASH CAPITAL                          $1,000,000.00
  GROSS SURPLUS                          4,383,171.68
                                        —————————————
                 Gross Assets           $5,383,171.68
                                        =============

                  ASSETS.

  United States Bonds, market value     $1,104,250.00
  Other Stocks and Bonds                 1,502,858.90
  Loans on Bond and Mortgage               294,900.00
  Loans on Call                             80,758.76
  Cash in Bank and Office                  495,135.83
  Real Estate                            1,082,787.53
  Premiums in Course of Collection         667,231.88
  Interest Accrued                          11,716.42
  Bills Receivable for Marine Premiums     140,284.55
  Rents Due and Accrued                      3,247.81
                                        —————————————
                                        $5,383,171.68
                                        =============

               LIABILITIES.

  CASH CAPITAL                          $1,000,000.00
  Reserve for Unearned Premiums          3,466,886.97
  Reserve for Unpaid Losses                353,759.83
  All Other Liabilities                      5,438.10
  NET SURPLUS                              557,086.78
                                        —————————————
                                        $5,383,171.68
                                        =============

  STEPHEN CROWELL, President,           GEO. H. FISKE,    }
  WM. R. CROWELL, Vice-President.       CHAS. C. LITTLE,  } Ass’t Sec’s.
  PHILANDER SHAW, Secretary.            JOHN H. DOUGHERTY,}


                 *       *       *       *       *


                        Clinton H. Meneely

                           BELL COMPANY

                            Troy, N.Y.,

                       MANUFACTURE SUPERIOR

                         Church, Chime and

                            Peal Bells.


                 *       *       *       *       *


             1850      Thirty-Seventh Year.      1887


                          Manhattan Life

                           INSURANCE CO.

                           OF NEW YORK,

                       156 AND 158 BROADWAY.


                          AGENTS WANTED.

We desire to engage the services of competent, reliable men as
Agents, in localities where this company is not now represented.
Liberal arrangements will be made with men who would like to
undertake the business. The requirements are, a good reputation
for honesty and integrity, popularity, intelligence, industry and
perseverance. With these qualities any man can succeed; if he can
add enthusiasm he can command great success. Send references as to
ability, integrity, etc.


  Accumulation                      _11,155,000_
  Surplus, by New York standard,     _2,254,000_

_Cash surrender values. Policy incontestable after five years. Very
liberal to insurers, embracing the non-forfeiture law of New York._


      JAMES M. McLEAN, President.
  J. L. HALSEY, 1st Vice-Pres’t.
      H. B. STOKES, 2d Vice-Pres’t.
          H. Y. WEMPLE, Secretary.
              S. N. STEBBINS, Actuary.


                 *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration: ham and bacon

  USE

  “Our constant
  aim is to make them
  the Finest in the World.”]


                 *       *       *       *       *


                    PAYSON, DUNTON & SCRIBNER.


                       THE NATIONAL SYSTEM.


               The Standard of American Penmanship.

                     TITLE WON, =NOT= ASSUMED.

               _In Rank: Leading the Advance._
                 _In Cost: Cheap as the Cheapest._


                         WHOLESALE PRICES.

  P., D. & S. Copybooks, large series      96 cents per dozen.
  P., D. & S. Copybooks, primary series    72 cents per dozen.
  P., D. & S. Copybooks, pencil series     45 cents per dozen.

               SAMPLE COPIES AT SATISFACTORY RATES.


                 POTTER, KNIGHT, AINSWORTH & CO.,

                 SCHOOL-BOOK PUBLISHERS, NEW YORK.


                      _DEPOSITORY AGENCIES_:

 BOSTON: 22 Bromfield Street.         CHICAGO: 377 Wabash Avenue.


                 *       *       *       *       *


                               HOME

                  INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW YORK.

                       OFFICE, 119 BROADWAY.


                SIXTY-EIGHTH SEMI-ANNUAL STATEMENT,

                            JULY, 1887.

  _CASH CAPITAL_,                                  _$3,000,000.00_
  _Reserve Premium Fund_,                           _3,108,596.00_
  _Reserve for Unpaid Losses and Accruing Taxes_,     _304,419.04_
  _Net Surplus_,                                    _1,442,494.58_
                                                    —————————————
        _CASH ASSETS_,                             _$7,855,509.62_


                        SUMMARY OF ASSETS.

  Cash in Banks                                             $91,685.16
  Bonds and Mortgages, being first lien on Real Estate      614,450.00
  United States Stocks (market value)                     2,567,000.00
  Bank and Railroad Stocks and Bonds (market value)       1,811,650.00
  State and City Bonds (market value)                       226,000.00
  Loans on Stocks, payable on demand                        848,400.00
  Interest due on 1st July, 1887                             33,587.32
  Premiums uncollected and in hands of Agents               281,955.86
  Real Estate                                             1,380,781.28
                                                          ————————————
                                              Total,     $7,855,509.62

                 *       *       *       *       *

                            DIRECTORS.

  Isaac H. Frothingham,
  Alfred S. Barnes,
  Levi P. Morton,
  Henry A. Hurlbut,
  William Sturgis,
  Charles J. Martin,
  John R. Ford,
  Wm. R. Fosdick,
  Wm. H. Townsend,
  Oliver S. Carter,
  Henry M. Taber,
  D. A. Heald,
  D. H. McAlpin,
  A. C. Armstrong,
  Cornelius N. Bliss,
  Edmund F. Holbrook,
  John H. Washburn,
  John H. Inman,
  Walter H. Lewis,
  Francis H. Leggett,
  Benjamin Perkins,
  H. E. Beguelin,
  George W. Smith,
  Fred. P. Olcott,
  J. Harsen Rhoades.

  T. B. GREENE,    }
  W. L. BIGELOW,   } Ass’t Sec’s.
  E. G. SNOW, JR., }

  CHAS. J. MARTIN, President,
  D. A. HEALD, Vice-President,
  J. H. WASHBURN, Vice-Pres’t & Sec’y.

       Agents at all important points in the United States.

                 *       *       *       *       *



                  THE FORTY-FIRST ANNUAL MEETING

                              OF THE

                 AMERICAN MISSIONARY ASSOCIATION,

                          WILL BE HELD AT

                     PORTLAND ME., OCT. 25-27.


Rev. A. J. F. Behrends, D.D., of Brooklyn, will preach the sermon.

The Meeting will be held in the Second Church, of which Rev. C.
H. Daniels is Pastor. The friends in Portland have already begun
preparations for the reception of the Association.

Life Members and Delegates chosen by contributing churches, Local
Conferences, and State Associations, constitute the Annual Meeting,
as will be seen by the following article of the Constitution.

  ART. III. Members of evangelical churches may be constituted
  members of this Association for life by the payment of thirty
  dollars into its treasury, with the written declaration at
  the time or times of payment that the sum is to be applied
  to constitute a designated person a life member; and such
  membership shall begin sixty days after the payment shall have
  been completed. Other persons, by the payment of the same sum,
  may be made life members, without the privilege of voting.

  Every evangelical church which has within a year contributed
  to the funds of the Association, and every State Conference
  or Association of such churches, may appoint two delegates to
  the Annual Meeting of the Association; such delegates, duly
  attested by credentials, shall be members of the Association
  for the year for which they were thus appointed.

So far as possible, the Portland churches will entertain those who
attend. Those purposing to be present and wishing entertainment are
requested to write to Rev. C. H. Daniels, Chairman of the Committee
of Entertainment, or Rev. S. K. Perkins, Secretary, Portland, Me.

Application must be made before Oct. 1st. Special rates will be
arranged at hotels for those who desire to pay their own way.
Railroad and steamboat favors will be secured as far as possible,
and notices of reductions and other matters will appear later in
the magazine and in the religious press.

       *       *       *       *       *


PRESS OF HOLT BROTHERS, 119-121 NASSAU ST., N.Y.



Transcriber’s Notes:


Obvious printer’s punctuation errors and omissions have been
corrected. Inconsistent hyphenation is retained due to the
multiplicity of authors. To facilitate eBook alignment, Ditto marks
have been replaced with the text they represent.

“Miscengenation” changed to “Miscegenation” on page 249.
(Miscegenation of Ideas)

Changed “hundreths” to “hundredths” on page 268. (ninety-nine
one-hundredths)

The first word of the last line on page 269 was incompletely
printed on all available copies and has been represented by a
dashed line. (high time for good men to ——)

“Christrians” changed to “Christians” in the Holliston entry on
page 273.

“Plymouh” changed to “Plymouth” in the first entry on page 277.

Missing “d” in “had” replaced in the Ditson advertisement.





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