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Title: Illustrated Horse Breaking
Author: Hayes, M. Horace (Matthew Horace)
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                  BY THE SAME AUTHOR.


A Guide to Practical Horsemanship. Third Edition. Illustrated by
STURGESS. Square 8vo. 10_s._ 6_d._

_The Standard._--“A master of his subject.”


A Popular Manual of Veterinary Surgery and Medicine. Fourth Edition.
Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 10_s._ 6_d._

_The Field._--“Of the many popular veterinary books which have come
under our notice, this is certainly one of the most scientific and


Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo. 7_s._ 6_d._

_The Veterinary Journal._--“No better guide could be placed in the hands
of either amateur horseman or veterinary surgeon.”

SOUNDNESS AND AGE OF HORSES. Over 100 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 8_s._

_The Field._--“Is evidently the result of much careful research, and the
horseman, as well as the veterinarian, will find in it much that is
interesting and instructive.”

8vo. 8_s._ 6_d._

_The Field._--“The last page comes all too soon.”


_The Times._--“Captain Hayes’s book deals exclusively with tactics, and
is a well-considered treatise on that branch of the art of war, giving
not merely rules, but, also, principles and reason.”

                            HORSE BREAKING.


                            HORSE BREAKING.


                        CAPT. M. HORACE HAYES,

                         LATE OF ‘THE BUFFS.’


                      Fifty-two Illustrations by
                          J. H. OSWALD BROWN.

                 W. THACKER & CO., 87, NEWGATE STREET.
                    CALCUTTA: THACKER, SPINK & CO.
                     BOMBAY: THACKER & CO. LIMITED




CHAPTER                                                             PAGE

I.--THEORY OF HORSE-BREAKING                                           1

II.--PRINCIPLES OF MOUTHING                                           41

III.--HORSE-CONTROL                                                   77

IV.--RENDERING HORSES DOCILE                                         147

V.--GIVING HORSES GOOD MOUTHS                                        166

VI.--TEACHING HORSES TO JUMP                                         188

VII.--MOUNTING HORSES FOR THE FIRST TIME                             197

VIII.--BREAKING HORSES FOR LADIES’ RIDING                            209

IX.--BREAKING HORSES TO HARNESS                                      212

X.--FAULTS OF MOUTH                                                  216

XI.--NERVOUSNESS AND IMPATIENCE OF CONTROL                           222

XII.--JIBBING IN SADDLE                                              227

XIII.--JUMPING FAULTS                                                230

XIV.--VICES IN HARNESS                                               233

XV.--AGGRESSIVENESS                                                  242


XVII.--STABLE VICES                                                  251

XVIII.--TEACHING THE HORSE TRICKS                                    259


XX.--ON IMPROVISED GEAR                                              272

APPENDIX                                                             274


FIG.                                                                PAGE

ANSWER TO THE PULL                                                    58

AT HIS FENCE                                                          61


4.--FIRST LOOP IN FORMING A HALTER                                    79

5.--SECOND STEP IN FORMING A ROPE HALTER                              79

6.--ROPE-HALTER ON POLE, READY FOR USE                                82


8.--PRATT’S METHOD OF HALTERING                                       87

9.--NOOSING A FORE-LEG                                                90

10.--PULLING UP A FORE-LEG WHEN NOOSED                                91

11.--PICKING UP A FORE-LEG                                            95

12.--HOW TO HOLD UP A FORE-LEG                                        97

13.--RAREY’S LEG-STRAP                                               100

14.--TYING UP FORE-LEG WITH STIRRUP LEATHER                          101

15.--THE BEST METHOD OF FASTENING UP A FORE-LEG                      103


17.--THE HALTER-TWITCH                                               109

18.--DO.   DO.                                                       110

19.--PRATT’S ROPE-TWITCH, FIRST PORTION                              114

20.--PRATT’S TWITCH COMPLETED                                        115

WORD “STEADY”                                                        116

22.--HEAD-STALL TWITCH ON HORSE                                      117

23.--THE BRIDLE-TWITCH, FRONT AND NEAR-SIDE VIEW                     119

24.--THE BRIDLE-TWITCH, OFF-SIDE VIEW                                120

25.--THE STRAIGHT-JACKET                                             122

26.--HORSE WITH STRAIGHT-JACKET ON                                   123

27.--PICKING UP A HIND-LEG                                           127

ASSISTANCE OF A HELPER                                               130

ASSISTANCE OF A HELPER                                               133

TAIL WITH A “DOUBLE SHEET BEND”                                      136

TAIL                                                                 137


33.--MODE OF FASTENING A ROPE TO A SHORT TAIL                        140


35.--IMPROVISED HOBBLE MADE WITH A STIRRUP IRON                      144

36.--WOODEN GAG                                                      145

37.--CRUPPER LEADING REIN                                            149

ROUND WITH A ROPE                                                    155


HAS FALLEN IN HARNESS                                                163

41.--HORSE WITH DRIVING GEAR ON                                      168

42.--HORSE WITH DRIVING PAD ON, NEW MODEL                            169

43.--BIRD’S-EYE VIEW OF POSITION OF DRIVER                           175

44.--DRIVING ON FOOT                                                 184

45.--DO. DO.                                                         185


47.--SECONG STAGE IN BREAKING A HORSE FOR RIDING                     201

48.--PULLING KICKER’S HEAD ROUND IN STALL                            253


50.--COMMANCHE BRIDLE, OFF SIDE                                      262

51.--COMMANCHE BRIDLE, NEAR SIDE                                     263



I offer this work to the favourable consideration of the public, as an
attempt to describe a reasoned-out system of horse-breaking, which I
have found, by practical experience, to be easy of execution, rapid in
its effects, and requiring the possession of no exceptional strength,
activity, pluck, or horsemanship by the operator, who, to become expert
in it, will, as a rule, need only practice. It is in accordance with our
English and Irish ideas on the subject; for it aims at teaching the
horse “manners,” and giving him a snaffle-bridle mouth; so that he will
“go up to the bridle,” and “bend” himself in thorough obedience to rein
and leg.

As a personal explanation, I may mention that after having spent many
years racing and training in India, during which time I practised the
ordinary methods of breaking, I returned to England, where I learned the
use of the standing martingale and long driving reins, as applied
specially to jumpers, from Mr. John Hubert Moore, who was the cleverest
“maker” of steeplechasers Ireland ever knew. He, I may remark, obtained
these methods, in his youth, from an old Irish breaker, named Fallon,
who was born more than a century ago. I had also valuable instruction in
“horse taming” from Professor Sample. Having read an account of MM.
Raabe and Lunel’s “_hippo-lasso_,” as a means of control for veterinary
operations, I conceived, with happy results, the idea of utilising this
ingenious contrivance in breaking. I also learned, about the same time,
how to halter a loose horse without running any danger of being kicked,
or bitten.

Having thus acquired a fair amount of information, on what has always
been to me a favourite subject, I naturally wished to put it into

As I knew, judging from my former ignorance, how much men in India stood
in need of instruction in horse-breaking, I determined to return to that
country with the object of teaching this art; so as to acquire the
experience I needed, and to “pay my expenses” at the same time. I am
glad to say that I was successful in both respects. During a two years’
tour, I held classes at all the principal stations of the Empire--from
Tricinopoly to Peshawur, and from Quetta to Mandalay--and, having met a
very large number of vicious animals and fine horsemen, I obtained
experience, and greatly added to my stock of knowledge, which I shall
now try to utilise for the benefit of my readers. As I proceeded through
India, I felt the necessity of rejecting some methods I had formerly
prized, altering others, and adopting new ones; so that the course of
instruction which I was able to give to my more recent classes, was far
more extensive, and of better proved utility, than what I had to offer
at the beginning of my travels. The great want which I had, at first,
felt was a method by which a person could secure and handle, with
perfect safety, any horse, no matter how vicious he might be. However,
after many kicks, a few bites, and several lucky escapes, I was able to
perfect the required method, which is so simple, that the only wonder is
that I did not think of it before. I may explain that the Australian
horses met with in India, where they form a considerable proportion of
the animals used for riding and driving, are far more dangerous and
difficult to handle and control, than British stock. Had I remained in
England all my life, I should not have acquired a quarter of the
experience of vicious horses I was afforded, during the time I lately
spent in India. It goes almost without saying, that the harder the
pupil is to teach, the greater chance has the instructor of becoming
expert in his business. I need hardly say, that I shall, always, be very
grateful to any of my readers who may favour me with special information
on this, or kindred subjects.

I may mention, that, after returning from India, I held classes in
England, Gibraltar, Malta, Egypt, Ceylon, Singapore, and China.

I have much pleasure in giving, in the body of this work, the sources
from which I have taken various hints.

The chief claim I, here, make to originality, is, that in bringing
together the results of experience in different countries, I have
endeavoured to reduce the art of breaking horses to a more or less
complete system, many of the principles of which, I venture to think, I
have been the first to expound, and that I have made several
improvements in existing methods. The new things which I have introduced
need no special mention here.

My best thanks are due to Mr. J. H. Oswald Brown, for the faithful and
painstaking manner in which he has illustrated the letter-press of this
book. The drawings speak for themselves.

Although I am aware that the proceeding on my part may be deemed
unusual; still, in order to strengthen my words, I have ventured to
submit to my readers, in an appendix, the recorded opinions of various
members of my classes on the practical working of the theories and
methods described in this book.

I shall, at all times, be ready to give practical instruction to persons
wishing to learn this art of making the horse a safe, and pleasant



_January 1, 1889._




     Object of horse-breaking--Causes of faults which can be remedied by
     breaking--Vice in the horse--Distinction between nervousness and
     deliberate vice--Mental qualities of the horse--Association of
     ideas in breaking--Value and scope of breaking--On the possibility
     of overcoming any form of vice--Necessity for obtaining control
     over the horse--On the nature of the coercion to be applied to
     unruly horses--Punishment--Fatigue as a means of
     subjugation--Effect of the voice--Personal influence in
     breaking--Advisability of possessing various methods of breaking--A
     good mouth, the chief requirement--Permanency in the effects of
     breaking--Expedition in breaking--The ordinary method of
     breaking--Breaking by kindness alone--The rough and ready style of
     breaking--Summary of the principles of the art of rendering horses

_The object of horse-breaking_ is to teach the animal to obey the orders
of his master in the best possible manner. Hence, this art includes
instruction in the advantageous application of his powers, as well as
methods for rendering him docile.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Causes of faults which can be remedied by breaking are_:--1.
Nervousness; or the unnecessary fear of the presence or handling of man,
or of the effect of any of the horse’s other surroundings, which,
however startling they might be to him in a wild state, he can find by
experience will not hurt him.

2. Impatience of control, which frequently co-exists with nervousness,
in the same animal.

3. Ignorance of the meaning of the indications used by man to convey his
wishes to the horse.

4. Deliberate disobedience. There is no doubt that sulkiness of temper
is, often, inherited.

5. Active hostility, which, as far as my experience goes, is, always,
the result of bad treatment, whether brought on by cruelty, or by
allowing a naturally fractious animal to get the upper hand.

It is evident that vices caused by disease, or infirmity, do not come
within the province of the breaker.

6. The fact of having been taught some trick--for instance, kicking when
touched behind the saddle--the practice of which constitutes a vice.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Vice in the Horse_, from a breaking point of view, may be held to
signify the practice, on the part of the animal towards man, of
disobedience--wilful or otherwise--of any legitimate command; or want of

       *       *       *       *       *

_The distinction between nervousness and deliberate vice_ may be easily
made, if we observe how a horse acts after we have proved to him that he
need have no fear of us. For instance, if we fix up a horse, say, in a
“strait-jacket,” (see page 118) so that he cannot kick, and continue to
“gentle” him over with our hand, until he is thoroughly assured of the
good faith of our intentions; we might justly term him a vicious brute
if he kicked at us, without our touching him, the moment the restraint
was removed. I may mention, in this connection, that fear of the near
approach of man will often induce a purely nervous animal to kick out,
if a person, and especially a stranger, ventures to come within reach.
Although we may frequently find a horse kick from nervousness, he will
rarely bite from that cause alone. As a verbal distinction between
faults due to deliberate vice, and those caused by fear of man, or of
the animal’s strange surroundings, would not, generally, be understood
at first glance, I need not attempt to make it in these pages.

The more experience I acquire in the breaking of horses, the more
convinced I become, that the so-called “nervousness” of animals that
have been handled some time, is largely made up of impatience of
control, and, in many cases, of active hostility. Without, for a moment,
imputing intentional deceit to a “nervous” “old stager,” I make bold to
assert that many crafty, dangerous brutes pose before their owners as
ill-used victims of a too highly strung nervous system. Take, for
instance, an aged horse, like many I have met, that snorts with apparent
terror at anyone that approaches him, and is ready, on the slightest
chance of reaching his mark, to strike out in front, or lash out from
behind, if saddling or mounting him be attempted. His nervous emotion,
the first time he was taken in hand, or the first time he began his
unpleasant tricks, may have been thoroughly genuine; but its exhibition
was evidently attended with the result of his more or less successfully
resisting control. This act of insubordination having revealed to the
horse the extent of his own power, which, to every animal, is a
pleasurable sensation, was naturally repeated again and again, until the
vicious habit was confirmed; although its necessity might have been,
scores and scores of times, disproved by the saddling or mounting
having been accomplished without the infliction of any pain to the
horse, however great the trouble may have been to the groom or rider. In
the case I have mentioned, the fault lay with the person who had charge
of the animal, and who ought to have, then and there, mastered him the
very first time he shewed resistance to a legitimate order. Whether the
continued failure to resist discipline was caused by the infliction of
cruelty, or by the exhibition of incompetence on the part of the man,
matters little as regards their detrimental result on the animal,
except, that unsuccessful punishment always aggravates a vice to a
deplorable extent. I am inclined to think that really nervous horses are
not as naturally “game” as their more placid fellows; while I am
thoroughly convinced, that the majority of the _pseudo_ nervous sort are
sulky, treacherous brutes. I am, however, ready to admit that there are
many exceptions to the rule I have ventured to lay down. At the same
time, it would be most unwise to ignore the fact that the repetition of
any trick, however it may be caused, the practice of which renders the
animal difficult of control, has an increasingly bad effect on him the
longer it be continued.

_Mental qualities of the Horse._--The possibility of our being able to
obtain an easy mastery over the horse, who is greatly our superior in
strength and activity, and quite our equal in pluck, rests on the fact
that instinct, rather than reason, guides his actions. To investigate
this, we may try the experiment, when standing to the side and a little
to the rear of a kicker, of touching him about the hocks or quarters
with a conveniently long stick, when, if he “lets out” straight behind
him, we may conclude that this is a purely reflex or instinctive action
on his part. If the animal kicks at the stick, as the cause of
annoyance, he certainly conducts himself in a manner that is not
altogether irrational. But if he tries to kick the man who holds the
stick, we cannot deny him the possession of reasoning power. In order
that my meaning be not misunderstood, I here suppose that this
experimental horse is one which would viciously kick a person who, when
standing behind him, would be rash enough to touch the animal, however
gently, with his hand; and not one whose kick would be more of a
push--to remove an offending object--than a blow. Luckily, horses that
can reason, even to such a small extent as this, are rare.

I usually teach horses to lie down (see page 153) by tying up, in the
first instance, one fore-leg, arranging the necessary gear, and then
making the animal forcibly “go down.” Although many horses will “fight”
desperately, time after time, when they are thus compelled to submit,
and at a moment when they are utterly helpless, I have never found one
that would resent, as a result of this hard-earned experience, the
preliminary tying up of the fore-leg. But after having even once been
twitched in the usual way, a horse will, as a rule, “fight” the moment
his muzzle is touched. In the first case, owing to the more distant
connection, the animal is unable to associate the idea of the irksome
compulsion employed to make him lie down, with that of tying up his leg;
apparently to us an extremely simple mental effort. In the second
instance, the action of the muscles, on the hand touching the muzzle,
would seem almost entirely instinctive.

The useful intelligence of the horse undoubtedly depends on the
retentiveness of his memory, upon which we should work in educating him
to become our faithful servant. If, however, we neglect the cultivation
of this his chief mental gift, and try to gain our end by stimulating
other and weaker qualities of his mind, we shall run a serious risk of
spoiling his disposition. It has been often remarked to me by good
judges--and it is my own experience--that teaching horses a lot of
tricks, the acquisition of which demands some strain on their reasoning
powers, and petting them, are very apt to cause them to become crafty
and difficult to manage. In acting as I have advised, we follow the
practice of judicious parents who educate their sons according to the
lads’ respective talents. Thus, for instance, a boy with an extremely
retentive memory, but small capacity for reasoning out problems, would
have a fair chance of shining as a linguist; although he would,
certainly, prove a failure as a mathematician.

The feeling of self-preservation is so strongly implanted in the mind of
every animal, and the retentiveness of the horse’s memory is so great,
that, if once the idea of his being our physical superior gets into his
head, he will, naturally, be inclined to resist our commands. Hence, it
is a maxim among all good breakers, that, if possible, a horse should
never be allowed to know his own power. As a corollary to this, I may
state that if we have a dispute as to discipline with a horse, we should
not part company before making him yield; lest he may carry away the
mischievous impression that he has got the best of the battle. The
breaker need not attempt too much in any one lesson; but what he
undertakes he should succeed in performing before quitting his pupil.
For instance, with a horse that will not allow his hind legs to be
touched, the breaker may reasonably content himself with making him
quiet to handle about these parts, without insisting on his standing
submissively to be shod behind--an operation that may be attempted on
the following day. We should also make use of our knowledge of the
limited scope of a horse’s reasoning powers, to change the subject of
contention, if we fear that there is any chance of our being worsted in
a pitched battle with the animal; so that the victory--even if it does
not affect the original cause of dispute--shall always remain on our
side. As an illustration, I may mention the advisability of forcibly
making a determined and headstrong runaway lie down, until he thoroughly
“gives in”; in order to make him yield the more readily to the
indications of the rein.

_Association of ideas in breaking._--As association of ideas is the most
valuable aid we possess to memory, we should largely utilise the
practical working out of this principle in breaking. The intelligent
obedience to the voice of their driver, in turning, stopping, going on,
and in varying their paces, displayed by many cart-horses, is a common
instance; as is, also, that of the ’bus horse, who starts onward the
moment he hears the door of the conveyance slammed-to by the conductor.
A friend of mine had a horse that became so increasingly difficult to
mount, that at last he found it impossible to get on to him by ordinary
means, on account of the animal “breaking away” the moment he attempted
to put his toe into the stirrup. Living near a river, he hit on the
expedient of placing the horse with his off side “broad-side on,” and
close to, a steep part of the bank, and then attempting to mount on the
near side. As usual, when the man’s foot touched the iron, the horse
swung round, and, on this occasion only, fell down twenty feet into the
river. The effect of this lesson, which was entirely harmless, was to
make the animal perfectly steady to mount, so long as he stood on the
bank of the river, in a position similar to that from which he had had
his tumble; but he was just as difficult to mount as ever, anywhere
else. Such a method, to be perfect, should be of universal, and not of
local, application. I may add, with reference to my remarks on page 4,
that my friend’s unruly brute of a horse would, by many, be deemed a
nervous creature, and a worthy recipient of any amount of kindness and
petting. The most effective means of applying the principle of
association of ideas to the breaking of vicious horses, is one by which
the animal arrives at the right conclusion from wrong premisses; as with
Pratt’s rope-twitch (see page 113), when making a horse steady to mount.
Evidently mistaking the cause of the pain inflicted on him by its
employment, he connects the idea of punishment with the word “steady,”
and not with the application of the cord. Were he able to argue rightly
on this subject, he would remain quiet only when the twitch was on, and
would entirely disregard the verbal admonition, for which he entertains
such marked respect.

_Value and scope of breaking._--The scope of breaking is wider than
persons might generally imagine; for not alone does it include the
education of the untutored animal, but it also embraces the correction
of faults, which, while seriously detracting from the horse’s value, are
usually looked upon as unavoidable dispensations that have to be borne
with becoming philosophy; as, for instance, prancing and refusal to walk
quietly, when “fresh”; chucking up the head; stargazing; boring to one
side; shewing excitement in harness when the whip is cracked; shying off
the ball at polo; refusal to stand perfectly steady when being mounted;
etc. I need hardly say that the knowledge, which I shall endeavour to
impart to my readers, of the art of giving a horse a snaffle-bridle
mouth and to render him steady and reliable, is of infinitely more value
to everyone, except, perhaps, to the showman who requires an
advertisement, than instruction, which I shall also supply, in methods
for taming man-eaters, and other exceptionally dangerous animals. This
art of “horse taming” is of very little practical use; for the need of
its application is of but rare occurrence. Even the celebrated Rarey,
after subduing three or four “savages,” when in England, had to content
himself with exhibiting them about the country, as reformed characters,
for lack of new subjects on which to shew his skill. When wishing to
form a class for practical instruction in breaking, during my tours, I
have frequently met with the objection that there were no vicious horses
in that particular place. As I always replied that I needed animals with
only common faults of mouth and temper, I was never at a loss for
subjects to demonstrate the fact, that there are but few horses that are
entirely free from some riding or driving fault, which, more or less,
impairs their value, and which, as a rule, can be readily overcome. The
more frequent vices I have encountered among army horses are:
unsteadiness at mounting; “rushing” at fences; refusing to quit the
ranks; refusing to jump; buckjumping (among Australian horses); and
“difficult to shoe behind.”

_On the possibility of overcoming any form of vice._--The influences
which man, being the weaker animal, can apply to making the horse
obedient to his wishes, are: affection; the natural submission yielded
by an inferior to a superior intellect; fear; and the impression--which
is, generally, erroneous--that the order given cannot be resisted. The
first three are the usual means for rendering docile a high-couraged
horse. Although we may, to a certain extent, use the last-mentioned
influence with quiet horses, and, especially in mouthing, we should
remember that it is our last resource, when all others fail, in reducing
a rebellious animal to submission. If, however, the horse which we have
taken in hand, happen to reason sufficiently well to enable him to “see
through” our artifices, our labour will, of course, be in vain. Herein
lies the whole question of success, or failure, in making vicious horses
docile. Man-eaters, like the historic Cruiser, the taming of whom made
Rarey famous, being actuated, almost entirely, by instinctive hostility,
yield far more readily to authority, than the sulky animal that, having
found out a method by which he can thwart the wishes of his would-be
master, craftily adheres to it, with a fair show of reason on his side.
I may mention that the assertion made by many “horse-tamers,” that they
can cure any horse of any kind of vice, is manifestly absurd.

Of all forms of vice, those caused by stubbornness are the most
difficult to eradicate; for the animal which sets its will in deliberate
opposition to ours, fights us with the weapons--those of reason--by
which, alone, we are, usually, superior to it. A horse that objects,
from nervousness, or from mere impatience of control, to have its hind
quarters handled, will quickly submit; as will, also, in the vast
majority of cases, a “refuser,” or jibber in saddle; if they be broken
in the manner which will be explained further on. A jibber in draught,
however, is apt to find out, that although the breaker is all-powerful,
when it has no harness on; the advantage is all the other way, as soon
as it gets between the shafts; it being easier, as Professor Sample
used to say, to break a horse than to break a horse _and_ trap. Besides
this, it is impossible, in many cases, to directly apply breaking
methods to animals in harness, in the same manner as we can do in
saddle. For instance, if a trapper be accustomed to jib, as soon as it
comes to a stiff incline; to back into the ditch, or fence; and, then,
to proceed to kick the vehicle to pieces; all that the breaker can do,
is to take it out, and endeavour to, indirectly, counteract the fault in
some convenient place. He may succeed, to all appearance; although the
pupil may forget the instruction received, if anything goes wrong, such
as an abrupt halt, which cannot always be avoided, the first time the
horse is driven up a hill in a crowded thoroughfare. In such a case, if
the animal “shows fight,” it will, almost to a certainty, gain the
victory, and the good influence of the previous teaching will be lost.
For vices unconnected with harness, on the contrary, the breaker can
always find some suitable spot on which to work his will on the
disobedient one, under every advantageous condition. I say this with
every reasonable reserve; for we may meet with cases, sometimes, of
saddle vices--such as running away on a race-course, only, when
galloped--to which it is difficult to directly apply efficient breaking

Unless when caused by disease, as, for instance, chronic sexual
excitement in the mare, defects of vision, and pain in the legs or feet,
which might make a horse refuse to jump, practically speaking, almost
any riding or driving vice (I naturally exclude those vices that concern
the veterinary surgeon, and not the breaker) can be overcome in time,
say within a week or ten days; although I readily admit that I have been
beaten in a few cases (about two per cent. of faulty horses) when my
time was limited, or when I did not possess the experience I have since

I have had many hundreds of horses with various forms of “pain in the
temper” pass through my hands, and, out of all these, selected from
thousands of other animals, I met with only one or two which I would
call incapable of being made serviceable on account of absolute idiocy.
Hence, I conclude that cases of marked mental aberration are extremely
rare in the horse. I do not think that I met with more than one horse
which appeared incapable, from natural nervousness, of being rendered
quite steady.

As the breaker has to work on the material at hand, and as he has no
power to change the nervous organisation of the animal, however well he
may establish the habit of implicit obedience, it is impossible for him
to make a naturally sulky animal work with the gaiety of heart and
pluck, that an honest horse will display.

_Necessity for obtaining control over the Horse._--In order to fulfil
the necessary conditions of safety for himself, the breaker should be
able, by the system under which he works--to quote the words of that
admirable horse-master, Professor Sample--to make the animal rideable
and driveable before he is either ridden or driven. The breaker who
employs the ordinary methods, is not alone exposed to danger when
mounting, or even driving his pupils for the first few times; but also
in the preliminary handling, unless, indeed, in the case of young foals.
The advice to go boldly up to the horse and show him that you are not
afraid of him, so freely tendered on such occasions, should be treated
by its recipient as a piece of “cheap swagger,” or the outcome of
pretentious ignorance; for, even granted that such a demeanour would
efficiently soothe a terrified animal, or cow a treacherously-disposed
one--suppositions that are altogether absurd--such counsel would in no
way supply the necessary foolhardiness for such an undertaking. My
advice to either amateur or professional is, never to give a horse a
chance of doing wrong; so, in order to be consistent after having said
this, I shall endeavour to describe a method by which any horse,
unsecured, say, in a yard or loose box, can be brought under complete
control with, practically speaking, no risk to the operator.

_On the nature of the coercion to be applied to unruly Horses._--The
only risk run in enforcing the obedience which it is absolutely
necessary to exact from unruly horses, is that of spoiling the animal’s
pluck and spirit--a contingency that can be incurred only when the
fractiousness arises from “nervousness,” or from want of comprehension;
for what we term pluck and spirit in the horse should have no taint of
stubbornness. The coercion employed should, naturally, be limited to
what would be sufficient to overcome the wilfulness; for we should never
employ a general effect, when a particular one will answer our purpose.
Thus, suppose we had a high-couraged, generous animal, that had been
made difficult to mount by a bad rider, on various occasions, prodding
the horse in the side with his toe, when attempting to get into the
saddle, we might get control over the animal by Pratt’s twitch (see page
113), or by tying him head and tail, and then prove to him that we would
not touch him with our toe, when mounting. The Rareyfying of such an
animal for this or any similar fault, would be injudicious in the
extreme; as it would, almost to a certainty, injuriously affect one of
his most valuable qualities, namely, his pluck. As a sulky animal has
little or no pluck to lose; we may well content ourselves in gaining his
obedience without troubling ourselves much about any possible
deterioration of his courage.

_Punishment._--The chief practical reasons against the employment of
punishment in the breaking of horses are: that it is very liable to fail
in its object; and that it is calculated to break the spirit of
high-couraged animals, and to increase the sulkiness of stubborn ones.
Of course I don’t mean to say that a vigorous “shaking up,” and a sharp
cut or two with a stick (for preference), or whip, is not advisable for
stopping the exhibition of “calfish” tricks by a young colt. Owing to
the galling failures I have had--they were not many, for I stopped in
time--I have made it a rule for my own guidance, never to touch a mare,
so as to hurt her, when breaking.

I am aware that punishment, pushed to extreme limits, has, often, proved
efficacious in reducing an animal to obedience, when all other means
have failed. As it would, then, amount to gross cruelty, I cannot
recommend its adoption in this form.

_Fatigue as a means of subjugation._--Fatigue may be used as a valuable
adjunct to other means of breaking, but should seldom be employed
alone; its effect, usually, appearing to be as transitory as the
sensation itself. Thus, if we, while riding or driving a bolter, in
order to cure him of his vice, allow him to run himself to a
stand-still, we shall, in all probability, find the animal quite as
ready, if not more so, to run away, the next time he is “fresh.” In such
a case, the fact of the horse having been allowed to do the very thing
he wanted to accomplish, in defiance of the wishes of his would-be
master, can have no possible effect in forming in him the habit of
obedience. Fatigue may, often, appear to be the sole cause of the
quietness evinced by an animal under treatment of some of the breaking
methods I describe. This, however, will, on investigation, be found to
be incorrect. Even the fatigue caused in, say, rendering an unruly horse
quiet to shoe behind, by keeping him on the ground and “gentling” him
(see page 157), is out of all proportion small compared to the amount of
control obtained. One of the best examples I know of the fact, that it
is the feeling of powerlessness to rebel, and not the sensation of
fatigue, that compels obedience by these methods, is furnished by the
experiment of making a violent horse, like an Australian buckjumper,
quiet to mount in the manner described on page 197; the effect produced
being striking; the feeling of helplessness, evident; and the amount of
fatigue, small.

_Effect of the voice._--The human voice has a powerful controlling
effect over the horse. To apply it to advantage, the same tone and the
same word or words should be invariably used to express the same
meaning. All ambiguity of sound should be avoided. The words employed
should be expressed in a decided manner, and in a clear tone of voice. I
have seen some very dangerous animals approached and handled by
“shouting at” them, and adopting a resolute manner, when going up to
them in the stable. A horse, undoubtedly, recognises the voice more
quickly than the appearance of a man.

_Personal influence in breaking._--For obtaining quick results, the
breaker should have the horse entirely to himself; so that no disturbing
influence may distract the animal’s attention. The great objection to
the practice of personal influence, as a breaking agent, is that,
although the animal may be perfectly obedient to the man who has had the
exclusive handling of him, he may be refractory with other people, and
may, even, jealously resent any interference from an outsider. I have
frequently been struck with this fact when breaking savage horses who
would, if they could help it, allow no one, except their groom, to
meddle with them; for I always found that they were far more vicious to
approach when their stable attendant was holding them, than when he was
absent. We may often see the same trait of character evinced by dogs
that would fly at any stranger who dared to touch them, as long as they
were with their master; although they might be fairly amiable if he were
not present. However much we may admire, in the abstract, this fidelity
to one, in the horse, it is very apt to detract from the animal’s
usefulness under civilised conditions, especially, if the owner be not
regarded as the confidential friend in question. When the groom is the
object of this exclusive form of affection, it is generally advisable to
have him changed for a new man. If a horse has to be rendered
serviceable for general, as well as particular use, the breaker should
refrain from accomplishing his ends by the exercise of his own personal
influence, and hence, should get him to obey by rein and leg, rather
than by voice and petting.

_Advisability of possessing various methods of breaking._--As the
removal of the cause is the only proper plan for the treatment of either
disease, or vice, and as these causes differ, the breaker, to be
successful, should be provided with various methods for enforcing his
commands. Hence, we may rest assured that the horse-tamer who advertises
his one particular method, as a certain cure for all forms of vice, is
as arrant a quack as the man who foists on the public a pill for the
removal of every kind of disease. In the following pages I shall
describe various breaking methods, which the reader can apply according
as he recognises the cause of resistance to his wishes, or of inability
to understand them.

_Giving a Horse a good mouth, the chief requirement in breaking._--The
horse’s mouth ought to be the foundation of all good breaking; for an
animal with a good mouth can hardly “do wrong”; unless, indeed, under
very exceptional circumstances. As it is impracticable to be constantly
repeating any “taming” method, such as Rareyfying, or tying a horse by
his head and tail, we must disregard such practices as means for the
maintenance of a permanent state of discipline--however useful they may
be for enforcing authority in the first instance--and must trust to the
influence of the rein, which is ever constant on the mouth, when riding
or driving, to keep the horse mindful of his duty when in action. The
use of the leg should, of course, not be neglected in riding. The taming
methods will, naturally, be required with animals that are difficult to
handle when dismounted, or when out of the shafts.

_Permanency in the effects of breaking._--The primary step to establish
the habit of obedience, is, naturally, to make the horse obey in the
first instance, and then to repeat the process as may be needed. Such a
procedure is thoroughly rational; for it is founded on the fact that
force of habit is the strongest influence which rules the equine mind. I
have often, what I think unjustly, incurred blame because, after I had
practically demonstrated to my pupils the feasibility of making a
confirmed jibber, obstinate refuser, or almost unrideable buckjumper,
willing and quiet in one lesson, that such animals have, in the course
of time, become just as bad as ever; on account of their respective
owners not taking the trouble, as advised by me, of repeating the easy
methods I shewed. The reason men usually fail to subdue “difficult”
horses, is because they do not know how to take the first step towards
making the animal obedient. If, however, they be supplied with this
all-important information, their task should be one of increasing
facility after each repetition; and, if persevered in, would be rapidly
completed; but it must be repeated until the desired habit is

However well a horse may have been broken of a bad habit, he will be far
more likely to acquire it again under bad management, than he would have
been, had he been originally free from it; for no course of discipline,
although it may keep the animal under thorough control, can efface out
of his mind the memory of the practice of a former habit. I need
scarcely say that injudicious treatment will always be capable of
spoiling any horse, whether invariably quiet, or reformed. Hence, a
teacher of breaking will be wise to confine himself to showing “how it
is done,” and not to risk his reputation in making the impossible
attempt of _permanently_ “curing” a vicious horse. Besides, it is only
“human nature” for the owner of an animal that has reverted to his evil
courses, to blame the breaker, and not himself.

_Expedition in breaking._--In order to give some idea of the
possibilities of the system of breaking which I advocate and practise, I
may state that, by it, any unhandled horse, no matter how wild or how
old he may be, can be made quiet to ride and obedient to the ordinary
indications of the rein, in from, say, two to four hours. Such a horse,
to become a reliable “conveyance,” would, probably, require about six
more lessons--two a day--of an hour and a half’s duration each. He
ought, by that time, to have acquired a good mouth, steady paces, and
“cleverness” to jump any ordinary fence. Army remounts that have never
had even a halter on them, should, on an emergency, speaking generally,
be fit for the riding-school in a couple of days. I need not dwell on
the value of such expedition in military exigencies, and in all cases
where time is an object. “Spoiled” horses, such as jibbers, rearers,
kickers, and buckjumpers, that have learned to know their own power,
would, naturally, take longer to break, than entirely unhandled animals;
although the limit of five days need not, usually, be exceeded even with
them. The possibility of horses going back to their old tricks may
always be provided against by judicious repetition of the necessary
discipline, which will be very rarely needed after the first three or
four days, if the animal be “mouthed” in the manner I shall hereafter
describe. Without using any forcible methods, which, as a rule, would
not be required with a valuable horse, the breaker ought not to need
more than a week to make any ordinary horse thoroughly fit for all the
usual requirements of saddle or harness.

To those who might advance the argument that because the ordinary method
of breaking takes about ten times as long as the system I advocate, it
must, therefore, be more permanent in its influence, I would beg to
submit that such a contention would hold good, only, on the untenable
supposition that the effects of the respective processes were equal in
force. I see no possible benefit, except the very questionable one of
giving the animal an exaggerated opinion of his own powers of
resistance, in taking a month to accomplish what may be quite as
efficiently done in an hour; as, for instance, making a fractious horse
steady to mount, or quiet to shoe behind, or a sulky refuser to jump
kindly. We must surely admit that the repetition of an effect, and not
the time occupied in its production, is the cause of the permanency of
its influence.

_The ordinary method of breaking._--The usual method of rendering horses
docile by early and continued handling, followed by patient and skilful
riding, answers fairly well with men who regard breaking as a pleasure,
and have plenty of spare time to indulge their taste in this respect.
It is, however, inapplicable to circumstances under which the number of
animals to be broken is out of proportion to the supply of labour;
especially in the case of inexpensive stock. It is, also, besides being
tedious, often ineffective in the reduction to obedience of “spoiled
horses,” and of those that have been allowed to run wild for a
considerable time before being “taken up”; the reason being, that it
does not supply us with means for enforcing our commands, then and
there, on exceptionally unruly animals, which, in order to be rendered
docile, must be confirmed in the habit of obedience.

_Breaking by kindness alone._--While fully admiring the kindness of
heart of those enthusiasts who regard a horse as a friend to be won by
affection, I must say that the better plan for making him a useful
member of society, is to treat him as a servant who has to be taught his
work, and from whom implicit obedience has to be demanded. Until he
does his work honestly and well, the less petting he gets the better;
for he is an animal that is very apt to become headstrong and fractious,
by a small amount of indulgence in his own way. I entirely deprecate any
fighting with the horse, or punishment with whip and spur, which he can
resist; but I insist on the necessity--after proving to the horse that
he has nothing to fear, and after teaching him to understand one’s
wishes--of shewing that he must obey. I shall endeavour, in due course,
to explain to the reader how such obedience can be peremptorily

_The rough and ready style of breaking._--The method of reducing a horse
to discipline, by forcibly securing him, getting on his back, and
sticking on until he bucks himself to a standstill, is applicable only
to unbroken animals of a more or less mature age, whose owners demand
nothing further, than to have them made “quiet to ride.” The objections
to this method, as far as I can see, are: that it is not always
possible to obtain the services of a rider of sufficient pluck and
adhesiveness; that some horses, by “throwing themselves over,” can get
rid of any man off their back; that if the horse wins the fight, the
victory will have the effect of making him much worse than he was
before; that the mastery, even if the process be repeated, is, often,
not permanent, especially with a new rider; that it is apt to spoil the
horse’s mouth; and that, in the case of nervous or sulky animals, it is
liable to increase their particular faults. The buckjumping style of
breaking is, of course, only good as far as it goes, and has no just
claim to teach the manners that make the horse, as assuredly as they do
the man.

_Summary of the principles of the art of rendering Horses docile_ may be
summed up as follows:

1. To obtain control over the animal.

2. To prove to him that he has nothing to fear from us, or from the
surroundings in which we place him: in other words, to give him
“confidence” and cure him of “nervousness.”

3. To teach him to understand the meaning of the indications by which we
desire to convey our orders to him.

4. To make him obey our orders in the most implicit manner, in the event
of his offering deliberate resistance to them.

5. To instruct him how to use his powers to the best advantage.

6. To make, by repetition, these acts of obedience and “cleverness” thus
taught, into confirmed habits; so that the horse, who is, essentially,
an animal of habit, may become a permanently useful servant.

As an illustration, I may say that we should conduct the education of a
colt or filly, according to the principles we should adopt with a
recently-caught young savage whom we desired to make a useful servant.
While shewing him that we had complete control over him, we should prove
to him that he had nothing to fear from us, and, in doing so, would
gain his confidence and affection. We should teach him our language,
and, according as he understood our words, so should we demand implicit
obedience to our orders, and would, thus, quickly establish the desired



     Making a horse obey the rein--Manner in which a horse should carry
     his head and neck, when in motion--Suitability of the horse to the
     bridle--How the mouth-piece should act--Teaching the horse to bend
     his neck to the rein--Proper direction for the pull of the
     reins--The running martingale--Bearing reins, side reins, and
     running reins--Teaching the horse to turn--Reining
     back--Lunging--Good hands--Snaffles and curbs--Elastic reins on
     dumb jockeys--The standing martingale--Nose-bands.

_Making a Horse obey the rein._--In mouthing, we should act on the
principle I have advocated, in the preceding chapter, of making our
equine servant accord ready obedience to the lawful commands of his
master; after we have taught him to understand our wishes expressed by
the proper “indications.” The breaker will do well always to bear in
mind the old maxim, that “a horse should never get the chance of
pulling successfully against the bit, or unsuccessfully against the
collar.” As a man on foot has as thorough command over a horse, as the
animal has over its rider--supposing that both know how to exercise
their respective powers--the breaker should, naturally, commence his
mouthing lessons on foot, and should, as a rule, refrain from giving the
horse the advantage of having him in the saddle, until the habit of
obedience to rein, leg, and, if need be, to voice, is fully confirmed.
In all this, we act on the retentiveness of the horse’s memory, which is
his strongest mental quality, in guarding ourselves from the ill
consequences that might ensue from the exercise of the animal’s
reasoning powers, which, luckily for us, are comparatively feeble, or
from his natural impatience of control.

With some horses, especially with those that have learned to know their
own power, the process of inculcating the habit of obedience to the
rein, by simply working on the horse’s mouth, may be ineffective, or
may be too tedious for practical requirements. In such a case, I would
advocate the advisability of exacting obedience, in the first instance,
by some readily feasible method, as advocated on page 11; so as to
impress the animal with the idea of our supreme power over him, and to
banish from his mind any thought of resisting our will, even on a point
concerning which he would always prove victorious, had he sufficient
intelligence to see through our artifice. Our power over the horse, when
we are on his back, being necessarily limited in extent, it follows
that, with all our teaching, we may, at times, be unable to control our

Although young horses, well bred and truly shaped, will, generally,
“carry” themselves to the best advantage, we may find that many animals,
even in a state of freedom, and, more particularly, those that have been
in bad hands, contract a stiff and awkward carriage, which, as a rule,
may be easily remedied by two or three days’ “mouthing,” on the system
I shall describe further on, followed by good handling and the ordinary
routine of saddle, or harness work. I in no way mean to say that careful
riding or driving would not, _in time_, accomplish the object in view,
without the aid of the work on foot; but I maintain that the preliminary
mouthing is invaluable in the saving of time, and that it can produce
effects which are unattainable by any rider, however good his hands may

_Manner in which a Horse should carry his head and neck, when in
motion._--When the animal takes a stride to the front, the fore-limb,
which is connected to the body by muscular attachment, is drawn forwards
and upwards by certain muscles of the neck; their action being naturally
regulated by the depression or elevation of the head. If the head be
unduly raised, the forward reach of the fore-legs will be curtailed by
this “high” style of going; and the speed will, consequently, suffer.
If, on the contrary, the head be brought down too low, the animal, if at
the gallop or canter, instead of “going level,” will have a more or less
pitching motion, from too much weight being thrown on his forehand; and
will lose time in his stride by excessive bending of his knees, which is
necessary to enable his feet, in that case, to clear the ground.

Owing to the variety in the conformation of different horses, and in the
work they are called upon to do, it is impossible to lay down any fixed
rule as to the angle at which the neck should be carried: a fact that is
of little moment; as experience will enable us to form a sufficiently
near approximation for all practical purposes.

The neck muscles, which draw the fore-limb forward, will naturally act
to the best advantage when the neck vertebræ are extended on each other;
that is, when the neck is straight. According as the neck is bent, so
will this forward “pull” be diminished.

The chief muscle that draws the fore-limb forward is attached to the
head in such a manner, that it acts best when the head is carried, more
or less, at right angles to the neck. Hence, we may take for granted,
especially, as the correctness of the assumption can be verified by
experience, that this position of the head is the best one for
requirements demanding the exhibition of speed, or strength. For
military purposes, “pace” is to some extent sacrificed for obtaining
increased control and “handiness.”

_Suitability of the Horse to the bridle._--When the horse carries his
head and neck in an easy, natural manner, in fact, in the best one for
the display of his powers--as we have seen in the preceding paragraphs
of this chapter--the mouth-piece of the snaffle will rest on the “bars”
of the mouth, as long as the reins are held not much above the level of
the withers. Hence, from the peculiar conformation of the horse, we
obtain two special advantages for rendering him obedient to the rein.
First, the “bars”--that portion of the gums of the lower jaw which are
devoid of teeth and which are in front of the molars--are singularly
suitable for the application of pressure; being sensitive and smooth.
Secondly, when the horse carries his head and neck in the best manner
for facilitating his movements, the mouth-piece will be in the position
easiest for the rider or driver to control the animal by the reins. The
breaker’s task, therefore, as regards the carriage of the horse’s head
and neck, will simply be to teach him to carry them in a perfectly
natural way.

_How the mouth-piece should act._--If an impetuous, hard-pulling horse
gets his head up and tries to “break away” with a good rider, the man
will ease the reins, “drop his hands,” and wait till the animal lowers
its head, before he takes a pull: a rule that is followed by all our
best horsemen. When the animal finds its head released, he will quickly
bring it “down.” The reasons for not pulling at the reins when the head
is “up,” are: that, when it is carried in this position, the mouth-piece
falls on the corners of the mouth, pressure against which, we find by
experience, is not effective in restraining the horse; and that the
horse will not, as a rule, lower his head as long as the rider continues
to haul on the reins. As soon as the head is brought down into its
natural position, the pressure of the mouth-piece will fall on the bars.
We may readily conceive, that far more pain results from the superficial
nerves of the bars being squeezed between two hard bodies--the
mouth-piece and the bone--than that caused by pressure on the loose and
mobile tissue which forms the corners of the mouth. If, in the case I
have imagined, the horse tries to get his head too low down, our typical
good rider will endeavour to make the animal bring it into its proper
position. The relief to the mouth obtained by arching the neck and
bringing the chin close in to the chest, as some hard-mouthed horses
will do, is due to a portion of the pull of the reins being, then,
taken by the crown-piece of the bridle; instead of the whole of the
pressure, as it should do, falling on the bars. A horse may, also, by
stretching his head out, get the mouth-piece off the bars, and on to the
corners of the mouth. It is needless to say that such actions on his
part, are done with the object of “saving” the mouth. As they are
opposed to the possession of proper control over the horse, the breaker
should teach him to abandon, if he has learnt, these tricks, and to
acquire the habit of bending his neck to the rein, and slackening his
speed, as his sole defence against the pressure of the mouth-piece. The
only alternative I can see for the use of pressure on the bars, would be
its application on the nose by some form of nose-band.

_Teaching the Horse to bend his neck to the rein._--Having taught the
horse to hold his head, when he is ridden or driven, in an easy, natural
position--namely, in one that will allow the mouth-piece always to rest
on the bars--we must then teach him, on the reins being “felt,” to bend
his neck in order to “save” his mouth. The partial check to the action
of the muscles that draw the fore-limb forward, caused by the bending of
the neck (see page 45) will be an easily understood signal to the animal
to moderate his pace.

_Proper direction for the pull of the reins._--When the horse is in
motion, the forward propulsion by the hind-legs is given through the
hip-joints; while that by the fore-limbs, passes through, we may roughly
say, the elbow-joints. As the former impetus greatly exceeds the latter,
we may assume that the centre of motion is a little in front of, and a
little below the level of, the hip-joints. To comply with mechanical
requirements, any pressure of the bridle on the mouth must, therefore,
be in the direction of this centre of motion, so that the regularity of
the stride may be interfered with as little as possible. The rule,
taught by experience, of holding the hands, when riding, and especially
when galloping, just below the withers, is in entire agreement with this

If the rider’s hands be unduly raised, so as to make the horse carry his
head too high, there will be too much weight put on the hind-quarters.

As a point of interest, I may state that, under ordinary circumstances,
when a horse begins to tire in his gallop, he will, instead of “going
level,” throw increased weight on his forehand, and his croup, when his
hind-quarters make their stroke, will become more and more raised. To
accurately express this “dwelling on his stride,” we may say, that as
the horse becomes fatigued, the forward motion becomes, proportionately,
converted into one of rotation, the chief cause of this being that the
weight of the rider falls principally on the forehand. Hence, we find
that, at the finish of a race, a good jockey “sits down” in his saddle,
“catches a good hold” of the animal’s head, and holds his hands a
little above the withers: actions on his part which tend to relieve the
horse’s forehand of weight, and, consequently, to make him use his
powers to the best advantage.

In military riding, which demands special control over the animal’s
movements, the horse’s head is drawn in, and the rider’s hand raised,
much more than they would be in ordinary work.

_The running martingale._--The legitimate uses of this gear are to aid
in keeping the horse straight, and to prevent the reins going over his
head; but not to keep the head down. If this martingale be so short as
to exert a downward pull on the reins, too much weight will be thrown on
the forehand. If the horse raises his head even when this martingale is
lengthened out, so as to bring its rings on a level with the withers,
when it is pulled up, the downward direction of the reins, from the
mouth-piece to the rings of the martingale, will produce the same ill
effect. Hence, it is a maxim among all good jockeys, that the head of
the race-horse, with whom a level style of galloping is one of the chief
essentials to success, should be kept down by the rider’s hands, and not
by the running martingale. It is the custom, therefore, among jockeys,
when they use this gear, to lengthen it out, so that, when it is drawn
up, to test its length, its rings will come up to the angle of the lower
jaw, when the head is held in a natural position--a length which will
obviate any chance of there being a downward pull on the reins.

In the training of a race-horse that “star-gazes,” the use of a running
martingale, in order to keep his head down, besides interfering with his
action, is detrimental to the soundness of his legs and feet, by reason
of the extra weight thrown, thereby, on his forehand.

Respecting the injurious effects of hampering the action of the neck
muscles, and of putting a severe downward pressure on the mouth,
especially during rapid motion, I may quote the following interesting
extract from ‘White’s Veterinary Art,’ which was written many years ago:
“There is a great danger, however, of attempting to make the mouth at
the time of riding, by means of a running rein; for if he is a stubborn
or runaway horse, there is great danger of throwing him down, and in the
most dangerous manner that can be. For, if he is determined to run away,
and the rider endeavours to prevent him by a running rein, in drawing
the nose down to his chest, the muscles of the shoulder are so
restrained that he must of necessity pull him down topsy-turvy. Since
the body being propelled by the muscles of the hind parts, the restraint
thus imposed upon the extensor muscles of the fore-leg, prevents their
being thrown out to the extent required, and he comes down with the most
dangerous violence. I have known this accident happen with horses that
have had upright shoulders and very well-formed hind parts; and I have
also known very safe horses, that have contracted a habit of going with
their noses poked out, become very unsafe, and soon get broken knees by
the endeavour to improve their carriage by a martingale or running

_Bearing reins, side reins, and running reins._--I would dispense with
the use, in breaking, of these three appliances, as ordinarily employed;
for the first acts by exerting pressure on the corners of the bars,
while the other two tend to keep the head in an unnaturally low
position. Were the side reins lengthened out so as to act as a properly
arranged standing martingale (see page 70), or were the running reins
attached high up on the saddle; as near as possible on the level of the
withers, their use would be wholly unobjectionable. With the long reins
(see page 172), the standing martingale (see page 70), and driving pad
(see page 166), the horse can be quickly taught to carry himself
properly, without any injurious effect being produced.

_Teaching the Horse to turn._--When we fail to make a horse turn
properly, we find, almost always, that our want of success is due to the
animal’s hind-quarters not “coming round” in concert with his head and
neck, which, as a rule, can be “bent” to the right or left with
facility. I venture to dissent, with all diffidence, from the principle
of the “suppling” lessons enjoined by that great master of equitation,
M. Baucher, as first steps for “forming the mouth,” for teaching the
horse to bring his head round to one side or the other, according to the
indication used, while the hind limbs remain fixed. To my thinking,
precision in the simple movements of advancing to the front, reining
back, and turning, should be sought for, before attempting any
artificial evolutions,--such as the “passage,” and “shoulder-in,”--only,
in which, the bending of the head and neck is made independently of that
of the hind-quarters. As, in riding, all turns should be made with the
aid of the support of the “outward leg”--a fact too widely recognized
for the

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--Horse bending his neck to the rein without
swinging round his hind-quarters at the same time, in answer to the

necessity of proof here--we should teach our pupil, from the outset, to
avail himself of such assistance. As the rider’s weight tends to advance
the position of the centre of gravity, the natural turn, especially at
fast-paces, will be a compromise between the turn “on the centre,” and
that “on the haunches.” I may remark, that the further the weight is
thrown back, and the greater is the support of the outward leg, the more
will the turn be made on the haunches. The use of this leg-pressure,
although necessitated by the unequal distribution of the rider’s weight,
is, besides this, valuable in all sharp turns made at speed. The turn
“on the forehand” can be taught by the rider, after the simpler one is
mastered. In treating about turning, I draw no distinction between the
saddle and harness horse; for the latter should be made as “clever” as
the former, in “collecting” himself and “coming round.”

Let us suppose that a horse is ridden at a fence, A B (see Fig. 1), and
that he “runs out” to the left; although the rider has pulled the
animal’s head round to the right, in his endeavour to keep him straight.
In this case, the horse yielded to the rein with his neck, but refused
to swing round his hind-quarters--a movement, on his part, which would
have brought him at right angles to the fence (see Fig. 2); so that he
would have had either to jump or to stop, neither of which actions would
affect in any way the precision with which the turn had been made.
Again, if a horse jibs in harness, and refuses to turn, say, to the
right, we shall, in the vast majority of cases, have no difficulty in
making him turn his head round in the required direction, although he
will obstinately keep his hind-quarters fixed. The same may be said of a
horse that rears. If these animals would only turn their hind-quarters
round with the same facility that they bend their necks, they would lose
their strongest “defence” against our “aids” (the reins and legs of the
rider). It is evident that in every turn, the hind-quarters have to move

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--Shews horse having answered the pull of off rein
as he should, and consequently coming straight at his fence.]

in the opposite direction to the head and neck; the centre round which
the movement is made, being advanced or brought back, according as the
turn is made “on the forehand,” or “on the haunches.”

_Reining back._--It is an axiom of the riding-school, worthy of implicit
acceptance, that, until a horse has learned to rein back with facility
and precision, he cannot be considered to have a good mouth; for, by
performing this movement in the manner described, he shews that he is
intelligently obedient to the indications of the rein, in yielding to
its pressure, and, at the same time, in bringing his hind-legs “well
under” him. Herein lies the value of the practice of reining back, which
teaches the animal to understand that a pull on the reins is quite as
much a signal for him to “collect” himself, as to moderate his pace.
Hence, the use of a judicious pull when going at high “timber,” or when
galloping through heavy ground, especially, when the horse is tired. If,
when travelling fast, the animal will only bend his neck to the rein,
while letting his hind-quarters sprawl out behind, he will quickly tire,
and will, also, be a most unsafe “conveyance,” from inability to raise
his forehand, as occasion may require.

_Lunging._--Although lunging usually forms a considerable portion of the
work given to young horses, during their period of breaking, I mention
it, here, solely with the object of advising its discontinuance
altogether. Making a horse circle with the weight on his forehand, while
his hind-quarters are “thrown out,” not alone teaches him an awkward
style of moving, but is also a fertile cause of sprain to the tendons
and ligaments of the fore-limb. Again, as it is much more easy for the
vast majority of men to keep turning round in one direction--in one
opposite to that in which the hands of a clock revolve, for right-handed
people--than in the other; it follows, that the generality of men, when
they lunge a colt or filly, will circle the young one more to the left
than to the right; just as we may see done any day on Newmarket Heath,
opposite the railway station. The injurious effects of such a practice
are self-evident. I shall describe, further on, a method of circling a
horse--the breaker being on foot--by which the animal is made to move in
a thoroughly “balanced” manner, and by which his mouth can be “formed”
at the same time. I am confident that all good horsemen to whom it is
new, will, on seeing how it is done, adopt it unreservedly. I am aware
that the practice of lunging is discredited by many good breakers who
are unacquainted with the method of circling which I have introduced.

_Good hands._--The term “Good hands” signifies the ability of taking a
pull at the rein--supposing it be required--when the horse’s head is in
the proper position for the mouth-piece to act on the “bars” of the
animal’s mouth; and of slackening them when the horse attempts to escape
the pressure by bringing his head into a wrong position, or when the
animal yields to the indication of the rein. The action of the
mouth-piece, and the advisability of refraining from pulling at the
reins when the head is in a wrong position, have been fully dealt with
in the preceding pages. I may, however, draw attention to the fact that
when the horse’s head is in the wrong position for the action of the
bridle, it is in an unfavourable one for the movements of the fore-limb;
being raised or depressed to an undue extent, or too much flexed or
extended on the neck (_i.e._ chin drawn in, or poked out). Hence, the
natural tendency of the horse will be, if his mouth be not interfered
with, to bring his head in the position which is the best for his own
movements, and which is the most suitable for the action of the
mouth-piece of the bridle. A hard-pulling horse, for instance, ridden or
driven by a man with “good hands,” will, probably, get his head “up,” on
feeling the pressure of the mouth-piece, when he tries to break away.
Being inconvenienced in his movements by this awkward carriage of the
head, and lacking, on account of the slackness of the reins, the
incentive to keep it “up,” he lowers it, to again experience the
restraining pull. This will, probably, go on for a few times, until,
wearied by a contest in which he finds himself baffled, he yields to the
indication of the rein, and slackens his pace. Feeling that he “saves”
his mouth the moment he does this, by the rider “giving” to him, he
remains “in hand” for the rest of the journey. The typical
“mutton-fisted” man, on the contrary, will keep hauling away at the
reins, after the horse has got the mouth-piece on to the corners of the
mouth, or, by getting his chin into his chest, and his head down, has
transferred the pressure on to his poll. Consequently, the animal,
experiencing the relief thus obtained, will naturally conclude that he
has got the best of the battle, and will continue on his own course as
long as he pleases. The harder such a man pulls on the reins, the more
likely will he be to incite the animal to shew fight. In this case, the
man foolishly pits the strength of his arms against the greatly
superior power of the horse’s neck. The rider with good hands, on the
contrary, uses a pull on the reins, merely as a means of letting the
animal know, that, if it will obey his wishes, it will “save” its own
mouth; a hint which, as a rule, is readily taken. I need hardly say that
the severer the bit, the better should be the hands of the man who
employs it. A really fine horseman can ride with success in almost any
kind of bit.

_Snaffles and curbs._--The only advantage possessed by the curb over the
snaffle is, as a rule, its greater power of control. This superiority is
attended with the serious objections that: (1) the use of the curb is,
often, irritating to the horse, who, if roused, can always successfully
resist its control; and (2) that it is, more or less, detrimental to the
action of the horse, by tending to make him averse from “going up to his
bridle,” and by obliging him, so as to “save” his mouth, to carry his
head in a more or less constrained manner. As we can easily obtain the
necessary control with the snaffle during breaking, it is evident that
we should altogether dispense with the use of the curb during this
process, so as to avoid the introduction of any disturbing element in
the working out of the principle of using indications, rather than

The thin, so-called, racing snaffle should not be used; as it is apt to
wound the bars of the mouth, and thereby irritate the horse into shewing
fight, which is the very thing we should seek to avoid while using the
reins, of which, when we are in the saddle or driving seat, we are
masters only on sufferance.

_Elastic reins on dumb jockeys._--These contrivances should not be
employed in breaking; for they never allow the complete freedom from
pressure which the horse should experience as a reward for obedience,
when he bends his neck and yields to the rein; unless, indeed, the
elastic lines are ineffectually loose, or the animal draws in his head
to an immoderate extent.

[Illustration: Fig. 3.--The proper length for a standing martingale.]

_The standing martingale._--The use of this martingale is to prevent the
horse from getting the mouth-piece off the bars, when he throws up his
head. Hence, if we employ it lengthened out, so that it will be just
short enough to accomplish this object, and no more (see Fig. 3), it
will give us the immense advantage of having the mouth-piece always in
an effective position, with but little drawback. I, here, suppose that
it is attached to the rings of the snaffle and not to the nose-band. At
first glance, it may be considered that this mechanical restraint would
be a constant source of danger, in the event of the animal getting into
difficulties. I have frequently heard it urged,--but only by men who had
not seen its use practically demonstrated,--that if a horse, on making a
“blunder” at a fence, could not extend his head more than the properly
lengthened out martingale would allow him to do, he would, being thus
deprived of this supposed means of recovering his equilibrium, run a
great risk of falling. We may see the fallacy of this argument, if we
consider that the only effect of this poking out of the head, is to
endanger the equilibrium, which becomes unstable, the moment a
perpendicular line drawn through the centre of gravity, falls beyond
the fore-feet. We find, therefore, by observing the comparative
tightness, before and after jumping, of the standing martingale, that
the horse’s tendency, when fencing, is to bring his head back, on
advancing the fore-limbs. If he adopts, with the martingale on, the
other and unsafe course, the pain caused by the consequent severe
pressure of the mouth-piece on the bars, will soon teach him to save his
mouth by holding his head in a proper position. Besides the increased
control obtained by the mouth-piece always remaining on the bars, the
presence of the standing martingale, by stopping him from poking out his
nose, will tend to prevent him going “uncollectedly” behind, and, even
on this account alone, will be specially useful for the hunter, chaser,
and polo pony. Whatever be the horse’s work, whether on the flat, across
country, or in harness, he should be ridden or driven in a standing
martingale, if he has the habit of trying to get the mouth-piece off the
bars of the mouth, or has any tendency to go uncollectedly. Objection
to its use can be taken, only, in the case of the ’cross-country horse,
who will be much more liable to be brought to grief by the practice of
either of the faults just mentioned, than by this martingale. When he
has learnt to carry himself properly, but not till then, should its
employment be discontinued. Its constant use quickly teaches the horse
to hold his head and to carry himself in the desired style; for
obedience to the indications it automatically affords, is at once
rewarded by relief to the mouth. No such useful lesson can be learned by
the employment of the running martingale; for, with it, no saving of the
mouth is obtained by any yielding of the head and neck to the rein. When
it is on, whatever relief is procured, must be the result of the action
of the rider’s hands, which cannot possibly “give and take” with the
same precision as the fixed martingale. I may mention, that this gear
has the great advantage of preventing a rider with “bad hands,” from
hauling on the reins when the mouth-piece is on the corners of the
mouth. Hence, the worse the rider, the more need he has of using a
standing martingale with a horse that requires one.

That good horseman, Mr. Blew of _The Field_, remarks to me that he has
seen one or two falls result from the use of the standing martingale, in
cases of horses, out hunting, getting their fore-feet into a deep
“gripe,” and, then, being prevented by this gear, from throwing up the
head, and, thus, relieving the fore-hand. He, consequently, advises that
it should be employed, only, in breaking. Those fine steeplechase
riders, Colonel Hickman of the 21st Hussars and Colonel Wardrop of the
12th Lancers, as well as many other good ’cross-country performers,
consider, with me, that its addition renders horses requiring such
restraint, safer over fences than they would be without it. Although the
solution of this debatable question may be left to each man’s own
individual feeling on the matter, there can be no doubt as to its
paramount importance in breaking, which is the subject, at present,
before us.

The statement may be advanced, that men with really fine hands will gain
nothing from the employment of the standing martingale. I entirely
dissent from this; for it is impossible for any man, however delicate
his touch may be, or strong his arms, to prevent, as this martingale
will do, the animal from getting his head up, and thereby successfully
resisting control, for the time being. I may mention that many of our
finest Irish riders are its devoted admirers.

When a horse pulls hard, he will, almost invariably, try to advance his
chin further than the standing martingale--at a proper length, let it be
understood--will allow him to do. Hence, this amount of restraint will
always be a direct saving to the arms; while it will be taken off the
mouth, and the controlling indication afforded, the moment the animal
brings his head back into its natural position. I need hardly explain,
that the horse being unable to bring forward the bars of the lower jaw,
will try, when resisting the action of the standing martingale, to
advance his poll as much as possible, by bending the joint connecting
the lower jaw to the head, and that by which the head is attached to the

If the standing martingale be fixed on to the nose-band, it will fail to
act in the manner described; owing to the fact that the pressure thus
exerted on the nose by this strap, causes little or no pain; unless,
indeed, it be specially arranged to produce this effect, as in the way
described on page 217.

_Nose-bands._--The use of the nose-band is to prevent the horse
relieving the bars of some of the pressure of the mouth-piece, by
opening his mouth; an action on his part which will tend to render this
pressure oblique, and to transfer a portion of it to his poll.



     The breaking enclosure--Making a rope-halter--Haltering a loose
     horse--Making a loose horse stand still--Taking up a
     fore-leg--Holding up a fore-leg--Tying up a fore-leg--Blindfolding
     a horse--Applying the halter-twitch--The rope-twitch--The
     head-stall twitch--The bridle-twitch--The strait-jacket--Lifting up
     a hind-leg--Gagging a horse.

_The breaking enclosure._--In order to carry out the system of breaking
horses, it is a great advantage to have a proper enclosure, of about 20
yards square, with walls around it about 7 ft. high. The ground inside
should be quite soft, so that horses which are made to lie down on it,
may not run any chance of hurting themselves.

I may here impress on the reader the danger there is to the breaker of
having any one standing right behind him when he is handling vicious
horses; for, in such a case, if the animal make an offensive movement,
the man will probably knock up against the other, and thus fail to get
out of harm’s way.

_Making a rope-halter._--The simplest way to do this is to take a
half-inch rope, about 9 yards long; make it double for about 3 ft. 6
in.; put a knot on the doubled part, so as to form a large loop, in
which make a small loop, for the leading rein to pass through. The
second knot should divide the large loop, so that the head-piece should
be about twice as long as the nose-band. The halter will now be ready to
be put on (see Figs. 4 and 5). The nose-band may be made sufficiently
long, and the loop through which the loose end passes, tight enough to
prevent the nose-band and leading rein (the free end of the rope),
forming a running noose, which might hurt the horse. Or, if required, a
knot may be made with the leading rein at the ring through which it
passes; so that the nose-band of the halter may not squeeze the horse’s
jaws together.

[Illustration: Fig. 4.--First loop in forming a rope-halter.]

[Illustration: Fig. 5.--Second step.]

The rope employed should be soft, and not too thick, so as to allow the
knots to be made with facility.

The reader will observe, that this halter which I have devised, is only
an improvised adaptation, which need not take half a minute to make, of
the ordinary rope-halter. I have no doubt that others, prompted by
necessity, like myself, have hit on this rough-and-ready method;
although I have never seen a halter made in quite the same manner as I
have described.

_Haltering a loose Horse._--Let us suppose that the animal is in some
suitable enclosure, such as a yard, loose box, or small paddock; for it
is almost needless to say, that if he were at liberty in the open, and
averse from being captured, no man unaided could possibly catch him. The
first thing to do is to make the rope-halter--as described in the
preceding part of this chapter--if one be not at hand, and then to get
the horse to stand quietly in some convenient corner. We may make him
move, or stop, as may be required, by gently working a long pole held in
the hands across the body, alternately, behind and in front of him; and,
having got him into the proper position, we may induce him to stand
steady, as I have found by experience, by touching him on the neck, and
then rubbing it with the end of the pole. I have hardly ever known this
to fail in its object. Horses, almost always, like having their necks
scratched. As soon as the animal will stand still, while his neck is
being “gentled” with the stick, the halter may be put on the end of the
pole by a couple of turns (see Fig. 6), while the free end of the rope
may be twisted once or twice round the pole, to prevent it hanging down
too low. The operator will now take the pole, with the halter then
rigged on to it, and will endeavour to bring the crown-piece of the
halter behind the ears, without frightening the animal; while holding
the end of the pole a little above

[Illustration: Fig. 6.--Rope-halter on pole, ready for use.]

its head (see Fig. 7). He can take the precautions I have described, for
making the horse stand still, as he may think necessary. As soon as the
crown-piece of the halter comes behind the ears,

[Illustration: Fig. 7.--Haltering vicious horse with rope-halter on

the operator should swing the pole smartly down in front of the animal’s
nose, and then under the lower jaw; a proceeding which will bring the
halter into its proper place. Nothing now remains except to withdraw the
pole. Care should be taken not to bring the pole under the lower jaw,
until the nose-band is in front of the ears; for, if it remains behind
them, when the end of the stick is brought down, the horse will be
lassoed and not haltered. The precautions necessary to be taken in
haltering the horse will depend on the amount of his vice, or timidity.
A horse can be thus caught best, when he is standing in the corner of a
wall which is too high for him to look over. In a circular enclosure,
the animal will be able, by turning round, to defeat the intentions of
his would-be captor, much more easily than he could do in a rectangular
one. In a roped-in arena, the horse can get his head away from the
halter, easier than he could do when close to a wall. There is no fear
of a horse, however vicious he may be, of “charging home” on the
operator, if the man keeps the pole across the animal’s face, ready, if
need be, to give him a tap or two on the muzzle. The larger the
enclosure, the less will a horse attempt to “savage” any one approaching
him. In extreme cases, a blow on the forehead might be necessary. I may
mention that the brain is covered at the forehead, by only a thin plate
of bone. Mr. O. S. Pratt, the American “horse-tamer,” gives, in his
book, a method for haltering a loose horse, by putting the crown-piece
of the halter on the end of the pole (see Fig. 8). In applying this, the
horse is very apt to shy away from the halter, which has to be put on
from the front. The manner of haltering which I have described, and
which was shewn to me by Mr. Banham, F.R.C.V.S., appears to be much
better than Pratt’s plan.

_Making a loose Horse stand still._--If timidity

[Illustration: Fig. 8.]

is the only cause that renders a loose horse difficult to halter, we may
make him stand still after having put him in a proper enclosure, by
cutting him, with the whip, about the hocks and hind-heels whenever he
attempts to turn round, and to shew his hind-quarters to the breaker. If
the animal attempts to pass by, the man should stop him with the point
of the whip. As soon as the horse understands that he exposes himself to
punishment by turning round, he will, proportionately, abstain from
doing so. He will then be readily induced to stand still by the point of
the whip preventing him from passing; and the fear of punishment, from
turning round. As a rule, the operator can quickly get up to his
forehand by “gentling” his crest with the end of the whip or pole, and
afterwards with the hand. The foregoing method, which I learned from
that excellent teacher, Professor Sample, is not altogether suitable for
horses that “strike out in front.” The punishment that has to be
inflicted during its application, may be an objection to its employment.

_Taking up a fore-leg._--Having haltered the horse, we may, in order to
gain further control over him, take up a fore-leg in two ways.

1. If we are afraid that the horse, on our approaching him, will “strike
out,” or kick, we

[Illustration: Fig. 9.--Noosing a fore-leg.]

[Illustration: Fig. 10.--Pulling up a fore-leg when noosed.]

may, as Colonel Rawlins, R.H.A., shewed me, form a noose about two feet
and a half in diameter, with a rope, and having laid it on the ground,
give the free end to an assistant to hold. We may, then, make the horse
move about until he places one fore-foot within the noose (see Fig. 9),
when the assistant should pull the rope, and thus lasso the pastern. The
end of the rope may, now, be thrown over the animal’s back to the other
side, and the leg pulled up (see Fig. 10); or, if the animal will not
stand this being done, the leg may be pulled back by the rope, and
lifted up by another assistant. If the horse “shews fight,” it may be
necessary to blindfold him at this stage of the proceedings. The long
pole may, also, be called into requisition to “gentle” the horse, and
thus render him comparatively quiet. The operator can always quickly
accomplish his object, in the manner described, if he will only exercise
a little patience.

I may mention that this method of noosing the leg, is precisely similar
to that employed in securing the limbs of wild elephants, in India, when
they have been driven into a stockade.

2. The best way for lifting up a fore-leg, with the hand, is, as I have
found out, to grasp, say, the near fore, with the left hand; pinch it
with the fingers to stimulate the flexors of the knee to contract; turn
the elbow in, and press it against the upper part of the fore-arm, so as
to throw the weight from the near, on to the off fore, and thus to
render the picking-up of the near fore a very easy matter (see Fig. 11).
If required, an upward pull is given with the left arm, and the foot is
caught with the right hand as the horse lifts it up. I may add, that the
muscles against which the man’s elbow presses assist in raising the foot
from the ground. By this plan the breaker can stand at the side of the
leg that has to be raised, and a little away from it, thus keeping out
of danger, as much as possible. If

[Illustration: Fig. 11.--Picking up a fore-leg.]

he attempts to lift the fore-leg of a bad cow-kicker, in the ordinary
way, by catching hold of the pastern, he will run a great risk of
getting hit on the head or body, by having to stoop down while standing
close to, and a little behind, the fore-leg.

Mr. J. Leach, M.R.C.V.S., shewed me a neat method for lifting up the leg
of a heavy cart-horse, by catching the hair of the fetlock, and then
drawing up the leg. The slight irritation caused by the pull at the
roots of the hair will cause the horse to readily bend the knee.

_Holding up a fore-leg._--If the fore-leg be held up by the hand passing
under the fetlock or pastern, as is frequently done, the horse, by
bearing a portion of his weight on the man’s hand, can easily kick with
either hind-leg. The foot should, on the contrary, be held by the hoof,
under which the fingers pass, while the thumb presses down on the sole
(see Fig. 12). The animal will now avoid placing weight on the man’s
hand; for by doing so he would cause the joints of the foot to become
bent in a painful manner.

[Illustration: Fig. 12.--How to hold up a fore-leg.]

A convenient way for holding up the fore-leg, for “gentling” and other
purposes, is that shewn by Fig. 10.

_Tying up a fore-leg._--Having “picked up” the foot, we may secure it as

1. By Rarey’s leg strap, which is about 3 ft. long, and is furnished, at
one end, with a buckle, below which, a leather “keeper” is placed on
both sides (see Fig. 13). To apply it, the free end is passed round the
pastern, from the outside, through the keeper at the back of the buckle,
thus forming a loop. Another turn is taken round the forearm, and a
second loop is made by passing the end through the buckle. The strap can
now be tightened up as may be required, and the end run through the
second keeper. Fig. 14 shews how this can be equally well done with a
stirrup leather, with which two or three turns have been taken round the
pastern; so as to bring the punched holes sufficiently near

[Illustration: Fig. 13.--Rarey’s leg-strap.]

the buckle. (See, also, Fig. 16.) The objections to the employment of
this method of tying up the leg are: (_a_) That it is apt to irritate
the animal by the compression needed to keep the strap in its place;
(_b_) That, when the leg is thus fixed, the horse, in the event of his
“coming down,”

[Illustration: Fig. 14.--Tying up fore-leg with stirrup-leather.]

is liable to hurt his knee, “capped knee” being the usual result of the
injury; on account of the broad extensor tendon being, necessarily,
tightly stretched over the part. I have had this accident occur, on
different occasions, when making a horse lie down, even when he had
knee-caps on, and when the ground was quite soft; (_c_) The heel of the
shoe, if one be on, is apt to bruise and cut the elbow; (_d_) The
compression exercised by the strap on the fore-arm numbs the leg, and
tends to make the animal fall awkwardly, if he is made to lie down;
(_e_) Unless the strap is kept very tight, it is apt to slip down the
fore-arm, and thus exercise an injurious strain on the fetlock joint.

2. By far the best way for tying up a fore-leg is the one described by
Mr. Saunders in ‘Our Horses,’ by which the leg is simply suspended, at
any length required, from the surcingle. Mr. Saunders advises the use of
a small loop to connect the surcingle and strap together (see Fig. 15),
with the object, I presume, of keeping the limb in a plane parallel to
the general direction of the horse’s body. This is certainly an
advantage when making a horse lie down, although I have found, for
ordinary purposes of control,

[Illustration: Fig. 15.--The best method of fastening up a fore-leg.]

that the employment of the small loop may be dispensed with, and the
leg-strap passed through the surcingle, or girth.

This method of suspending the leg is most useful, when gentling the
fore-limb, and when shoeing a “difficult” animal; as the foot can be
retained at any convenient height from the ground without irritating the
horse, and, consequently, without inciting him to “fight.”

I have learned, on more than one occasion, by bitter experience, that it
is possible for a horse to effectually cow-kick with the hind-leg of the
side on which a fore-leg is tied up.

A stirrup leather, with two or three holes punched at convenient
distances, will make a capital leg-strap (see Fig. 16). It has the
advantage of having, at the back of the buckle, no leather keeper, which
is always liable to give way, by reason of the strain exerted on it.

For suspending a fore-leg, we need punch no extra holes in the leather,
if we take, as before

[Illustration: Fig. 16.--A stirrup-leather as used for holding up a

described, a few turns with it round the pastern, before passing its end
through the lower part of the buckle. This way would naturally take a
few seconds longer than if the holes were punched at proper distances,
and, consequently, is not as applicable as the other, to horses that
are extremely difficult to handle.

_Blindfolding a Horse._--After the animal has been secured in the manner
described, or after he has been simply haltered, a further step in the
process of rendering him helpless may be taken, by throwing a rug, or
other convenient cloth, over his head, and then applying the rope-twitch
(see page 113). If he be dangerous to approach, the rug may be placed on
the end of a long pole, and then brought over his head, or a
blindfolding halter may be put on, now, or in the first instance. The
originating idea of this appliance is, I believe, of French origin. It
consists of an ordinary halter, with a cloth filling up the space
between the cheek-pieces, brow-band, and nose-band; so as to cover the
horse’s eyes.

Blindfolding is an efficient means of control with the majority of
horses, although it excites some to offer more vigorous resistance than
they would otherwise do. I have never found a horse that would, when
blindfolded, attempt to kick, or strike out, on the chance of hitting
his man, unless he was touched about the limbs or body; nor bite,
whether touched or not, under similar circumstances. I, therefore, think
that the breaker runs no risk whatsoever in going up to the animal’s
head, when it is, thus, temporarily deprived of sight, no matter how
vicious it may be.

_Applying the halter-twitch._--At this stage of the proceedings, the
breaker may apply a modification of Pratt’s twitch, by making a half
hitch with the free part of the rope of the halter, passing the loop
over the ears (see Fig. 17), bringing the lower part of the loop under
the animal’s upper lip, and then pulling it taut (see Fig. 18). He may
jerk the rope (leading rein) three or four times, accompanying the
action on each occasion with the word “steady.” I may

[Illustration: Fig. 17.--The halter-twitch.]

mention that the part of the rope which passes under the upper lip,
should be kept slack, except

[Illustration: Fig. 18.]

when the jerk is given, and that any other suitable word may be
substituted for that of “steady.” It is now perfectly safe to remove
the blindfolding apparatus; as no horse will attempt any aggressive
movement towards the man who holds the leading rein, when thus secured.
The rope may be jerked and the word “steady” used, as may be required.
The pain inflicted by the application of this twitch, is a necessary
evil, which may well be disregarded; for its amount is trifling in
comparison with the extent of control obtained by its means. If employed
carefully, no mark need be left on the mucous membrane. The proper use
of this twitch is thoroughly rational, for it keeps the horse quiet by
its deterrent effect, and not by retaining the horse in a continued
state of suffering, as is done by the ordinary twitch. The word
“steady,” or any convenient substitute for it, should never be omitted;
for, after the animal has learned, as he will do in a minute or two, to
connect it with the idea of pain, the twitch may be removed, and the
word alone used, in order to keep him in subjection. In this experiment,
it is evident that the horse fears the word, and not the twitch; for,
no matter how often the rope is put on, he will not resent its
application more than he did on the first occasion. The oftener, on the
contrary, the ordinary twitch is employed, the shyer will the animal
become of having his muzzle touched. The chief advantages of the
rope-twitch over the common one, are: that it can be easier procured and
applied; it does not inflict so much pain, which, with it, is momentary,
and not continuous, as with the other; it is more effective; it is not
so liable to slip off; it can be retained in position for any reasonable
length of time, to be used as required; it has a more or less
permanently good effect on the horse’s temper, and not a bad one, like
the other; and it does not make the horse shy of having his mouth
touched. The fact of numbers of horses being rendered difficult to
bridle, by the employment of the ordinary twitch, will, naturally, occur
to the reader. The general substitution of this twitch for the ordinary
one, by veterinary surgeons, would certainly remove a grave reproach
against us which now exists. It is, of course, used by them, only,
_faute de mieux_.

If, when the ordinary twitch is twisted up tight, its stick be struck or
jerked, as some do, on the animal moving, it will doubtless have a
deterrent effect, as well as the one produced by the brutal and needless
infliction of continued pain.

_The rope-twitch._--Everything I have said in the preceding paragraphs,
respecting the halter-twitch, applies equally well to its original form,
as described in Mr. O. S. Pratt’s book, ‘The Horse’s Friend,’ which was
published at Buffalo in 1876. Mr. C. G. Frasier, who was Pratt’s
assistant for some years, in America, tells me, that this twitch was not
invented by Pratt, long before whose time it was in use. He thinks that
it was, probably, the idea of the “horse-tamer,”

[Illustration: Fig. 19.--Pratt’s rope-twitch, first portion.]

Fanchion, who practised his art many years ago in the States. Pratt
calls it “the double-hitch Bonaparte bridle.” It is made as follows:
Take a rope, and make a simple knot with it at one end, at a distance of
about eighteen inches from which make another knot loosely, and pass

[Illustration: Fig. 20.--Pratt’s twitch completed.]

first knot through the second, so as to form a loop which will not draw
tight. Make a halter by taking a turn of the rope through the fixed
loop (see Fig. 19). Place the halter over the horse’s head, and the loop
in his mouth. Make a half hitch with the free part of the rope, pass it
over the horse’s head and under his upper lip, and draw moderately tight
(see Figs. 20 and 21). By making the fixed loop long, one can obtain
more power than with the halter-twitch.

[Illustration: Fig. 21.--Pratt’s twitch on horse’s head, and tightened
at word “steady.”]

If an ordinary head-stall or snaffle-bridle is on, the twitch may be
applied by knotting the end of the rope to one of the D’s on the
cheek-pieces of the former, or to one of the rings of the latter, and
passing the half hitch over the ears and under the upper lip, as before

[Illustration: Fig. 22.--Head-stall twitch on horse.]

If there be much difficulty in applying the rope-twitch, the horse may
be tied head and tail (see page 197), and it can then be put on without
trouble; the animal being, of course, released, immediately after this
is done.

_Head-stall twitch._--Fig. 22 will explain this ready and effective
method of applying the twitch. The rope is passed through the upper ring
of the cheek-piece of the head-stall, and is tied on to the lower ring.
The turn over the ears and under the upper lip is, then, taken, with the
portion of rope which, after being drawn out, is included between the
two rings.

_The bridle-twitch._--This is a useful and ready means for making the
horse stand quiet after he is bridled, and is applied by passing one of
the snaffle-reins under the upper lip, and drawing it tight to the
opposite side (see Figs. 23 and 24). I was shewn this twitch by Mr. Esa,
of the firm of Shaikh Ibrahim & Co., Poona.

_The strait-jacket._--For English readers, I

[Illustration: Fig. 23.--The bridle-twitch, front and near-side view.]

venture to apply this term to the _hippo lasso_ of MM. Raabe and Lunel.
It consists of a

[Illustration: Fig. 24.--The bridle-twitch, off-side view.]

breachen and breast-band, supported by straps passing over the back, and
connected by traces, which proceed from the breachen, through D’s, with
rollers on them, at the end of the breast-band, back again through
similar D’s on the breachen, and then forward; to become finally
attached to buckles on the sides of the breast-band (see Fig. 25). A
strap and buckle, laid along the top of the back, connects the two back
straps together. A felt guard may be used with the supporting strap of
the breast-band, so as to prevent it hurting the back. The breachen
should be lined with felt. The back straps should be made of strong
stirrup leather. The traces should be particularly strong, close to the
breachen. The breachen and breast-band should be provided, at their
respective centres, with a D, to which ropes may be attached, in order
to keep the animal steady, before and behind.

This gear may be applied in the following way:

If the horse is quiet, the breast-band and breachen may be put on
separately, with the back straps supporting them, and may be

[Illustration: Fig. 25.--The strait-jacket.]

connected together by the strap on the top of the

[Illustration: Fig. 26.--Horse with strait-jacket on.]

back, and by the traces on each side. The breast-band should rest high
up against the fore-arms, and the breachen behind, and a little below
the level of the stifles (see Fig. 26).

If the animal is dangerous to handle, only, behind; the breast-band may
be put on, and the breachen attached to it, in the manner just
described, but without putting it over the quarters. A rope can now be
fixed to the D in the centre of the breachen, which, by the aid of the
rope, can be pulled over the croup into its proper position, by an
assistant from behind. Before doing this, the traces should be let out,
to be pulled tight, the moment the breachen slips over the tail. In this
and other cases of difficulty, ropes may be attached to the ends of the
traces, so that the assistants who hold them, need run no risk of
getting kicked.

When the horse strikes out, as well as kicks, the different parts of the
strait-jacket may be connected together, with the exception of, say,
the near trace, the end of which may be held by an assistant, while
another helper holds a rope attached to the D which is on the near side
of the breast-band. The loop formed by the breast-band and its back
strap is, now, passed over the horse’s neck, the end of the near trace
passed through the near side D of the breast-band, and the remaining
fixings accomplished. Or, if the animal be not very violent, the gear
may be connected together; the loop made by the breast-band and its back
strap, passed over the head and neck; and the breachen pulled over the
croup by a rope.

If the precaution of putting on the rope-twitch be taken, no difficulty
need be experienced in subsequently applying the strait-jacket.

_Lifting up a hind-leg._--The two methods to which I need direct my
readers’ attention, for performing this operation, are as follows:

1. If the operator has two assistants--one to

[Illustration: Fig. 27.--Picking up a hind-leg.]

[Illustration: Fig. 28.--First step in picking up a hind-leg without the
assistance of a helper.]

hold the horse, the other to hold up, say, the near fore-leg--he may get
alongside the animal’s near hind; catch the _tendo Achillis_ (the
hamstring) with the left hand, and the pastern, backhanded, with the
right hand; give a signal to the assistant to let go the near fore; then
lift the leg, and place it resting on his left thigh (see Fig. 27).

If he has no one to hold up the near fore, he may “pick it up” in the
way previously described; grasp the hoof with the right hand, while
facing to the horse’s rear (see Fig. 28); take a step forward with the
left foot; catch the hamstring with the left hand (see Fig. 29); let go
the near fore, and, at the same moment, seize the pastern, backhanded,
with the right hand; and place, as before, the animal’s leg on the left
thigh. This method, which, I believe, I have been the first to devise,
ensures almost complete immunity from danger. As long as one has hold of
the fore-hoof with the hand, one can get forward, out of danger, if the
horse tries to kick. The grasp of the left hand deprives the hind-leg
of the greater part of its action, and the hind pastern is caught so
quickly after, even if not before, the near fore reaches the ground,
that the animal has not time to make a deliberately offensive movement.
By catching the pastern in the way described, we aid in preventing the
animal from cow-kicking, to do which, he must bend his hock; for the
muscle which flexes the foot extends the hock. Were we to catch the
canon bone, instead of the pastern, we should, besides losing this
advantage, have less ability to act on the lever formed by the bones
below the hock, by reason of our shifting the point of application of
the “power,” closer to the fulcrum (the head of the _tibia_). The
irritation caused by the grasp of the hand on the hamstring--which is
composed of two tendons--stimulates their muscles to contract, and,
thus, to keep the hock extended. In this operation, we should follow the
principles, already laid down, of removing the cause of any pain or

[Illustration: Fig. 29.--Second step in picking up a hind leg without
the assistance of a helper.]

inflicted by us on the horse, the moment he yields to our wishes. I need
hardly say, that if the horse overpowers the grip of our hands on his
hind-leg, and kicks out behind, he can do us no harm, for we are then in
front of his hind-leg. If the animal will not submit, we should apply
the rope-twitch (see page 113); and, by its aid, and a little
“gentling,” proceed as before described.

2. In order to “gentle” the hind limb, or to take it up and let it down
at will, while maintaining complete control over it, we may proceed as
follows: Put on, say, the near hind pastern, a hobble with a D attached
to it. Take a strong cord about 20 ft. long, and tie with it a “double
sheet bend” (see Fig. 30) to the end of the tail, in the middle of the
cord. Pass one end through the D to the near side, the other end through
it to the off side, and give the respective ends to an assistant on each
side to hold (see Fig. 31). These men should stand at right angles to
the horse, and can lift the leg by

[Illustration: Fig. 30.--Shewing how to fasten a rope to the end of
horse’s tail with a “double sheet bend.”]

pulling equally on their respective cords. In this manner, the leg will
be brought straight up under

[Illustration: Fig. 31.--Hind hoof held up by two assistants with rope
from tail.]

[Illustration: Fig. 32.--Leg pulled back with one rope, a method which
should be avoided; as it throws the horse off his balance.]

the body, so as not to throw the animal off his balance. The fact of
thus keeping the joints of the leg flexed will obviate any chance of his
straining himself while struggling, which he might do by the old method
of using only one cord,

[Illustration: Fig. 33.--Mode of fastening a rope to a short tail.]

which will necessitate the leg being pulled back, and will,
consequently, disturb the animal’s equilibrium

[Illustration: Fig. 34.]

(see Fig. 32). By the other and better method, which was taught me by
Colonel W. Gatacre, the foot may be lifted up, and put down again,
without causing the animal any inconvenience. It is a most valuable
means for “gentling” the hind limb; for its action is irresistible, and,
at the same time, causes no irritation. If the horse’s tail is too short
to make a knot in its hair, we may pass a loop made in the middle of a
doubled cord over the dock, and further secure it by a half hitch (Figs.
33 and 34).

I have devised the following method for improvising a hobble for lifting
up a hind-leg, which, I think, will be found useful. Place a stirrup
iron, foot part pointing to the rear, at the back of the hind pastern;
take a few turns, with the stirrup-leather, round the pastern and iron,
and buckle up (Fig. 35).

_Gagging a Horse._--This is useful for preventing the animal using his
teeth aggressively, and, also,

[Illustration: Fig. 35.--Improvised hobble made with a stirrup iron.]

for breaking him of this objectionable habit. The

[Illustration: Fig. 36.--Wooden gag.]

one I use is made out of a block of hard wood, 5 inches long and 2
inches square, which is made octagonal by planing off the corners.
Lately, I have had this gag made with a semicircular groove, about a
third of an inch broad, running down the centre of each face of the
octagonal, in order to make it more “punishing.” A hole is bored, down
the centre, for a chain which is attached to the head-stall. I use
leather guards on each side to prevent the animal from getting the gag
out of his mouth (see Fig. 36). This is a modification of Rarey’s wooden
mouthing bit, which was a round block of wood.

General Peat suggested to me the advisability of having the gag made
with sharp edges, and not round; so as to teach the horse, by the pain
inflicted on his gums, not to bite.



     The crupper leading rein--Gentling the horse--Throwing the horse
     with the strait-jacket--Making the horse lie down by means of the
     cord--Keeping the horse in a constrained position on the ground.

In this chapter, we need consider only quick methods of removing a
horse’s nervousness, and proving to him that he need have no fear of us,
or of his other surroundings; for the ordinary ways of accustoming him
to the presence of man, are too self-evident to need any special mention
here. The breaker, however, should remember that, by adopting a system
of “gentling,” which requires several days, if not weeks, for its
completion, he runs the risk of allowing the horse to find out his own
power of resistance--a species of knowledge which our rapid style of
breaking never permits him to acquire. If the animal sulks, or exhibits
deliberate impatience of control, he should be conquered, then and
there, as I have mentioned on page 11.

_The crupper leading-rein._--Whichever style of breaking be adopted, the
first step that I would advise, is to accustom the horse to the “crupper
leading-rein,” which can be readily made by taking a long rope, doubling
it, making a loop in the middle by knotting it, and passing the loop
under the horse’s tail, and the ends of the rope through the halter, or
rings of the snaffle (see Fig. 37). By using this leading-rein in
preference to one attached to the head-stall or halter, the animal will
never attempt to “hang on” the leading-rein, as he will often do with
the other, and, when led, instead of “going on his fore-hand,” will
move, as he ought to do, “collectedly,” on

[Illustration: Fig. 37.]

account of the pressure of the rope making him “bring his hind-quarters
well under him.” I do not know who invented this form of crupper, which
was known to Fanchion, Magner, Pratt, Rockwell, and all the other
American “horse-tamers.”

_Gentling the Horse._--Having put on this crupper leading-rein, the
horse may be gentled all over with a long pole. We may, then, lift up
his fore and hind legs, successively, and handle him all over. Every
display of confidence on his part should be rewarded by encouraging
words, patting, and, if procurable, a piece of carrot, or, if he will
eat it, a bit of bread, or lump of sugar. If we have got a strait-jacket
at hand, we may use it with advantage, in the event of his proving very
nervous. If the horse shews fight, we may employ the gag and
rope-twitch, invariably using, with the latter, the word “steady,” and
discontinuing the application of the rope as soon as the animal obeys
the word.

_Throwing the Horse with the strait-jacket._--If we want to produce a
stronger, or different effect, we may make the horse lie down by means
of the strait-jacket. To do this, one assistant should stand at his
head, another should hold a rope attached to his tail, so that he may
not throw himself forward on to his mouth; while an assistant at each of
the traces should pull them tight, and thus bring him down. As soon as
he is on the ground, he should be gentled and handled, all over, for a
few minutes. The process may be repeated, or lengthened, as may be
required. If, say, the off-trace be tightened up and buckled, the aid of
the assistant, who would otherwise have held this trace, may be
dispensed with. This method of throwing the horse is the gentlest in its
action of any I have ever seen. If the appliances and help be at hand,
and the breaker be not pressed for time, I would recommend that this
method of throwing should be always used, as a preliminary to that of
making a horse lie down by pulling his head round, which I shall
presently describe; so as to take some of the “fight” out of him, and to
prevent him, as much as possible, from “knocking himself about.”

_Making the Horse lie down by means of the cord._--If the horse refuses
to give in, we may make him lie down in the following manner, which
Professor Sample informs me was invented by the American “horse-tamer,”
Hamilton. It is a modified and greatly improved form of Rarey’s method.
Place on the horse, a surcingle which has three rings on its pad, and
attach a crupper to the rearmost ring. Tie a rope to the tail for an
assistant to hold; so as to be able to pull the horse over, on the
proper side, if he appears likely to fall the wrong way. Put on the
horse’s head, a leather head-stall, having a circular D on one side, or
attach an iron ring to the D, so that the cord which has to be employed,
may run smoothly through it. Fix a strong cord to the middle ring on
the pad; pass it through the ring on the side of the head-stall, and
back through the front ring on the pad. Put kneecaps on, and suspend to
the surcingle the fore-leg of the side, away from which the head will be
turned (see Fig. 38). The buckle of the leg-strap should be put on the
inside, so that when the horse lies on his off side, there may be no
difficulty in undoing the strap, in order to let him up. Then, all being
ready, take the end of the cord, draw the head round, say, to the near
side, bring the cord across the base of the neck, and pull on it from
the off side, until the animal yields, and rolls over on to that side.
When the horse goes down, comparatively, easily, the free part of the
cord may be drawn over his back, as in Fig. 38, and not under his neck.
No attempt should be made to throw him forcibly down; for the effect we
should aim at is that produced by his “giving in” to power which he
finds irresistible. Hence, the more he fights, and

[Illustration: Fig. 38.--Throwing a horse by means of pulling his head
round with a rope.]

pits the strength of his muscles against the action of our mechanical
appliances, the better will be the result. If the horse appears likely
to fall on his near side, the assistant who holds the rope should pull
him over on to his off side; for, if he fell on the near side, he would
be in the awkward position of having his neck doubled under him. The
horse may now be kept, say ten minutes, on the ground, with his head
pulled round to his side (see Fig. 38), and “gentled.” When “gentling”
the horse on the ground, the breaker should remain at his back, so as to
keep out of reach of his heels.

Having carefully attached a rope-noose to the off hind pastern, the
breaker may pull that hind limb toward himself, and gentle it.

I need hardly say that it is quite immaterial to which side the horse’s
head is drawn, provided that, in either case, the opposite leg be tied

_Keeping a horse in a constrained position on the ground._--If the
animal goes down without a struggle, and sulks on the ground, he should
be forced to “shew fight” by keeping him in the constrained position
depicted in Fig. 39, until he has got rid of the most of his “temper” by
ineffectual struggling. When a horse begins to groan, and to
considerably moderate the violence of his struggles, we may feel
confident that “the sulk” has been taken out of him, more or less, and
that he is fit to be allowed to get on to his feet again. If an error
happens to be made with respect to the amount of the effect produced, it
should be on the side of leniency, rather than on that of severity; for
the operation can be always repeated, and more time given on the next
occasion, without running any risk of unduly cowing the animal. Whatever
punishment we employ, should never be pushed beyond the point necessary
to gain our required object, which, in this case, is the attainment of
authority over the horse.

My own practice is, with animals that are

[Illustration: Fig. 39.--Horse with his head pulled round when

simply impatient of control, to produce the desired effect by making
them lie down several times; and, with stubborn ones, by keeping them
down, with their heads pulled round. The latter method might alone be
employed, if the ground be hard or slippery, or if the horse’s fore-legs
be liable to become sprained. In such cases, both the strait-jacket and
throwing gear might be put on the horse, who might be made to lie down
with the former, and have his head pulled round by the latter; after
doing which, the strait-jacket could be taken off, so as to give the
animal entire liberty to kick as much as he pleased. We might use a
body-piece on the horse to save the point of his hip that is on the
ground, from getting rubbed.

I cannot impress my readers too much with the value, for overcoming
stubbornness, of the foregoing method, which, I believe, I have been the
first to use.

This throwing gear is exactly similar in its action to that described
in Pratt’s book, although differing from it in its construction. Pratt
used to employ a rope which was looped round the neck and passed through
the mouth, for pulling round the head. He also had a single rope to form
both surcingle and crupper. The chief objection to Pratt’s method, as
far as I can see, was, that the ropes passing through the mouth and
under the tail were apt to hurt those parts.

The employment of the tail-rope is an improvement which I have devised,
and which I have found most useful. As the surcingle has to be girthed
up tight, I like to use a felt saddle-cloth, or numdah, under it, to
prevent it slipping forward; in which case, it might squeeze the
withers, or the crupper might rub the root of the tail.

In order to make a horse “give in” to the required degree, after he
submits to lie down readily with one leg tied up, I like to continue the
process with both fore-legs free, until he goes down without any

[Illustration: Fig. 40.--Best method of keeping a horse on the ground
that has fallen in harness.]

The process of obtaining control over the horse, as a rule, had best be
completed in one lesson, which can be repeated as may be required.

We may utilise the knowledge that a horse cannot get up off the ground,
when his head is pulled round, for keeping him down--for instance, when
he has fallen in harness--by holding his head in an upward and backward
direction, while keeping his neck bent by aid of the pressure of the
knee (see Fig. 40).



     Mouthing gear--Bridling and saddling a horse for the first
     time--Mouthing on foot.

_Mouthing gear._--The gear I use for giving a horse a good mouth--in
other words, for teaching him to obey the indications of the rein and
leg--consists of a bridle with a heavy, smooth snaffle, which has
leather guards on each side; a standing martingale; long reins; a
driving pad, or cross-trees which prevent the reins going over the
horse’s back, and which is kept in place by a crupper and rein-bearers
hanging down on each side of the quarters (see Figs. 41 and 42).

The standing martingale is attached to the

[Illustration: Fig. 41.--Horse with driving gear on.]

[Illustration: Fig. 42.--Horse with driving pad on, new model.]

rings of the snaffle and to the girth of the driving pad, and is
lengthened out, as much as is compatible with its preventing the animal
from getting the snaffle off the bars of his lower jaw, and on to the
corners of his mouth (see page 70 and Fig. 3). The reins are 22 ft.
long, are made of 1½ inch “circular” webbing; they pass through the
rein-bearers, and buckle on to the rings of the snaffle. The reins are
separate from each other; so that, if the horse tries to bolt away when
being driven on foot, he can always be pulled round and held fast, by
letting go one rein and holding the other tight. The rein-bearers are
made about 3 ft. 6 in. long on each side for a horse about 15·2 high,
and can be taken up or let out as may be necessary.

_Bridling and saddling a Horse for the first time._--These operations
may be accomplished with great ease, by means of the rope-twitch (see
page 113), and, if necessary, by tying up one fore-leg; especially, if
the animal has been rendered quiet in the manner described in Chapter

_Mouthing on foot._--After making the horse sufficiently steady to pay
attention to the instruction about to be given--if this has not already
been done--the breaker, while remaining on foot, should take the reins
in his hands, and, by gently “feeling the mouth,” “clucking” to him,
and, at times, cracking the whip, should get him to circle round him, to
the left, for instance. If the animal resents the outward rein touching
his quarters, the driver should, at first, work with this rein on the
driving pad or cross-trees, as in Fig. 41, and then, as the horse
gradually learns to bear the pressure without flinching, he should bring
it down, as in Fig. 44. By the aid of the rope-twitch (see page 113), to
be used by an assistant as may be necessary, it is very easy to overcome
any resentment the horse may evince to the rein coming against his
hind-legs. We need not, except, perhaps, in very rare cases, employ
this form of punishment here; for the horse, on finding that the rein
does not hurt him, will quickly cease from manifesting irritation at its
presence. The employment of pressure with the outward rein will teach
the horse the use of support from the rider’s outward leg.

When we have got the animal to circle quietly to the left for a few
times, we should turn him to the right with the right rein, acting on
his mouth and quarters, so as to teach him, on feeling the indication of
the rein on his mouth and side, to turn his quarters, as well as his
head and neck (see page 56). He should now be circled to the right on
the same principle. After he has learned to do his circles readily and
collectedly, with the reins hanging down, he should be made to perform
them with the outward rein on the driving pad; so as to accustom him to
the feel of the rein in the position it would occupy, when he is being
ridden, or driven in harness. If he refuses to turn when the rein is on
the pad, a cut or two with the whip will soon teach him to come round
quickly. When he is perfect in circling and turning at the trot, we
should teach him to rein back, taking care to ease the reins and allow
him to “collect” himself, after each step he takes to the rear. When
turning, stopping, restraining, or reining back the horse, our pull on
the reins--to use Mr. John Hubert Moore’s expression--should resemble
that which we would employ in drawing a cork out of a bottle, it being
free from any snatch or jerk. While circling the horse, the breaker
should stand to the side and a little to the rear of the animal (see
Fig. 43). This mouthing on foot should, I think, be confined almost
entirely to circling, with, of course, frequent changes, and occasional
reining back, and should be continued until the required softness of
mouth and suppleness of neck are attained. If the animal be found to be
“harder” on one side of the mouth, than on the other, he should be
worked more on the former, than on the latter;

[Illustration: Fig. 43.--Bird’s-eye view of position of driver.]

until he goes equally well on both. The reader need only see this method
of driving on foot practically demonstrated, to recognise its immense
utility, and to acknowledge the fact that it entirely does away with any
necessity for the objectionable process of lunging (see page 64).

American horse-tamers use the long reins, without the standing
martingale or driving pad, and pass them through rings on a specially
prepared surcingle, through the shaft tugs of ordinary single harness,
or through the irons of stirrup leathers. Men who try to mouth horses in
this manner, are apt to fail to teach their pupils to bend their necks
to the rein, and, at the same time, to go up to the bridle; for the
animal thus instructed, will always be liable to resist the action of
the mouth-piece by chucking up his head and getting the mouth-piece off
the bars, and on to the corners of the mouth. In breaking for harness,
and, especially, for fast trotting on level ground, the necessity for
teaching the horse to bend his neck, to get his hind-quarters under
him, and to moderate his speed in response to a pull on the reins, is
not nearly so imperative, as in educating the charger, hunter and
steeple-chaser, who must have always a “spare leg,” ready for any

The principle of the specially constructed driving pad and cross-trees,
is an idea of my own, which I have found of great use. By its
employment, we have no need of the bearing reins, which some of the old
Irish breakers were accustomed to use; for, if the horse holds his head
too low down, it can be easily got up into its proper position when
circling the animal, by “playing” with the outward rein, which, in this
case, should rest on the driving pad. I cannot approve of rendering the
neck rigid by the combined employment of martingale and bearing reins.
With respect to the objections to the use of the last-mentioned
appliance, see page 55. With skittish animals that jump about much when
being mouthed, and with horses that rear, the standing martingale is of
great service in preventing the rein getting over the back, and in
giving the breaker command over these refractory subjects. Besides this,
I find that the presence of the driving pad and rein-bearers is of great
use in allowing me to shift the rein up and down as I like.

The breaker should avoid driving the horse on foot, straight in front of
him, more than he can help; for, if he does so, he can hardly escape, at
times, from keeping a “dead pull” on the animal’s mouth. The
objectionable practice of driving “youngsters” on foot for miles along a
road, as may be seen in full operation at Newmarket and other training
resorts, is the fruitful cause of the dead mouths and habit of boring
possessed by many race-horses. The young animal, to relieve the bars of
his mouth of the constant pressure of the mouth-piece, naturally, gets
his chin into his chest, in order to transfer a portion of the pull on
to the crown of his head. Instead of acting in this fashion, the
breaker, if he wants to take his pupil for a walk on foot, might, after
having mouthed him in the manner I have described, put on the
leading-rein crupper (see page 148), and lead him where he wished,
without incurring any risk of spoiling his mouth.

The whole of this mouthing on foot, might be taught the horse in one
lesson of, say, an hour’s duration. With a young animal that had never
been bridled before, the instruction might be spread over two days, a
couple of lessons of half-an-hour’s duration each, being given on each
day. In point of fact, one or two lessons will, in almost all cases, be
sufficient to teach the horse to obey the indications of the rein
properly. After that, he will require only a few days’ careful riding
and bending to make his mouth perfect.

If the animal prove headstrong or sulky, he should be brought under
control, in the manner described in the preceding chapter.

The method of mouthing which I have described, is as applicable to
“spoiled” horses, as it is to animals that have never been handled. To
my thinking, one great beauty in it--apart from its immense advantage of
never giving the animal the chance of getting the upper hand, which he
might easily do, were the rider in the saddle--is, that the breaker who
employs it, can tell at any moment how his pupil is progressing, by his
touch on the reins, and can, accordingly, with well-grounded confidence,
use his own judgment in regulating the amount of instruction. The man,
however, who trusts to tying the horse up with side-or pillar-reins to
the breaking snaffle, in order to get his mouth soft, must necessarily
work, more or less, in the dark, and by rule of thumb. Instead of tying
a horse up in a fixed position, and thereby cramping the action of his
muscles, we retain them supple and ready to respond to our slightest
touch, by keeping them in a constant state of change, from contraction
to relaxation, without, however, inducing fatigue, the effect of which,
on the nerves, is to cause the muscles to work in a slow and
ill-regulated manner.

After having broken the horse thoroughly to the snaffle, we may, if
required for special work, break him, in the same manner, to the curb,
the principles of which I have described in my book on _Riding on the
Flat and Across Country_.

When one is unprovided with a driving pad made after my pattern, one may
use, as a makeshift, a saddle, through the stirrup-irons of which one
may pass the reins (see Fig. 44); not forgetting the standing
martingale, a substitute for which may be readily made by connecting the
rings of the snaffle to the rings of a running martingale, by a loop of
leather, or cord.

Colonel Wardrop, who commands the 12th Lancers, shewed me a method he
practises, of driving horses over jumps with long ropes which pass

[Illustration: Fig. 44.--Driving on foot.]

[Illustration: Fig. 45.]

through the stirrup-irons and rings of the snaffle, and are fixed on
tightly to the girths and stirrup-irons, on their respective sides (see
Fig. 45). This excellent authority on the art of training horses to
safely negotiate the difficult lines of country met with in Ireland,
tells me that he has found this method of great use for teaching horses
to “gather themselves together” in proper style, when coming up to the
big banks and ditches that may be seen to perfection in the counties of
Kildare and Tipperary. For reasons which I have fully explained in this
book, I would advise that the horse should, at first, be thoroughly
taught to obey the indications of the rein in the manner I have
described. After that, Colonel Wardrop’s plan might be useful for giving
the horse a few practical lessons over the obstacles in question.



Before this instruction is commenced, the horse ought to be got under
control, and thoroughly well mouthed. We may begin to teach him to jump
in an enclosure, similar to that described on page 77: first of all,
making him circle and turn with the long reins on foot, at a smart trot.
A rounded log of wood, not less than 15 feet in length, and 10 inches or
more in diameter, may then be placed across the horse’s track, which
should have been made soft. If the animal shews a little reluctance to
face the obstacle, we may “work” him up to it with the reins, keeping
him straight by the pressure of the outward rein against his quarter,
as he turns from one side to the other, and stimulating him with the
voice and sound of the whip. If he persists in refusing, we should put
on the crupper leading-rein (see page 148), and after running him about,
and pulling him from side to side by it, a few times, in order to make
him understand its use, we should try to lead him over in this manner.
Or, having given it to an assistant to go on in front, we may give him
another trial with the long reins. In this, as in all other breaking
operations with the horse, we should exercise great patience, and should
renew our efforts again and again if we do not at first succeed. If the
animal “shews fight,” I would advise that the whip should be put aside
altogether; for the moment, according to my experience, its cut, or even
crack, fails to prompt him to go on, it will incite him to offer
increased resistance. Instead of its effect, we should employ that of
the long reins, in circling him, turning him sharply and backing him,
until he gives in, or until we are forced to employ stronger means. Mr.
John Hubert Moore, who taught me this admirable method for curing this
and other forms of jibbing, considers that its great efficacy is due to
the punishment inflicted on the animal’s mouth and hocks. Professor
Sample, however, holds that it is owing to the fact of the animal
imagining that he has no power to resist the command to go forward,
after having been forced to turn as the breaker wished. I may observe
that it is not the act of turning a jibber to the right and to the left
which will overcome his sulkiness, but its continued repetition; and
that the sharper this is done the better will be the effect. Hence, I am
inclined to think that the punishment theory is the right one. The horse
seems, as with the rope-twitch (see page 111), to fail to connect the
idea of pain, in this case, with the man who inflicts it, as he
undoubtedly does, when whipped, or spurred; and, probably, on that
account, yields the more readily to its influence.

If the animal prove thoroughly stubborn, and time be of consequence, he
should be made to lie down, and held with his head turned round (see
page 158), until he appears to “give in.” The driving gear should be
again put on, and another trial given. This process may have to be
repeated. Such strong measures will hardly ever be necessary, if we
commence with the fence low enough.

When putting the animal through the course of the discipline which I
have described, for overcoming stubbornness by the use of the long
reins, I have found that the good effect has been greatly increased, by
utilising the action of the outward rein on the pad.

The log may be gradually raised to a height of three feet, which will be
sufficient for the first lesson, and the horse made to jump freely, when
circling to the right, as well as to the left. A second fence may be
made on the other side of the enclosure, opposite to the first one.
When the horse has learned to jump with the outward rein low down, he
should be taught to do so with it resting on the pad; as it will then
be, more or less, in the position it will occupy, when held by the

By teaching a horse in an enclosure, he will be free from outside
disturbing influences, and, having become accustomed to go round the
track, will the more readily jump any obstacle placed across it.

By this method, horses may quickly learn to jump, and not alone to clear
the obstacle, but also to negotiate it in the exact style they are
required to do, when a man is on their back. The more horses are
practised in this manner, the more they appear to like jumping, and very
rarely exhibit, as they will do with a rider, any dislike to the work,
from numerous repetitions, backwards and forwards, over the same fence.

The old plan of teaching a horse to jump by leading him over fences with
a cavesson and one or two leading-reins, is an abomination that no
horseman should perpetrate; for its tendency is to make the animal jump
in the very way he ought not to do, namely, with the weight on the
fore-hand, and not on the hind-quarters. Besides this, horses are very
apt to resist any forward pull on either cavesson or head-stall. The
action of the crupper leading-rein, on the contrary, while leaving the
head entirely free, is to make the horse get his hind-legs well under
him, as we may see by the way he throws up his hind-quarters, when being
led by it over a fence. We all have, of course, heard the well-founded
objection to the use of the cavesson and leading-rein for teaching
horses to jump, that it makes them slow to “get away” on landing over a
fence; a fault, no doubt, caused by the habit of having the weight on
the fore-hand. If we want a horse to jump “big” and “get away” quick, we
must “catch a good hold of his head;” the very opposite of which is done
by the cavesson method.

The system of turning horses loose into a small circular course, fenced
in and provided with obstacles, and then making them jump with a long
whip, is good as far as it goes; but neither it, nor the lunging plan,
has any pretensions to teaching obedience to the rein when jumping,
without which a safe and clever style is unattainable.

By using a circular track, the horse can be taught to jump at any pace,
and the nature of the fences, which should never be made weak enough to
“chance,” varied as may be desired. The breaker might have three
circles, each containing three jumps of different kinds; for instance, a
post and rails, water jump, hurdle, double bank, stone wall, hedge, open
ditch, ditch and bank, and bank and ditch.

Two or three lessons of this sort will be sufficient to make the
generality of horses clever enough to carry a rider in good style. The
horse should then be saddled; a man or boy put up, without giving him,
at first, any reins to hold; and the horse driven over the fences, as
before. When the breaker finds that the animal jumps as well with the
man up as he did without him, he may take off the long reins, put on the
ordinary ones, and hand them to the rider, who should then take the
horse over the fences as before; the breaker using the crack of the
whip, as a stimulus, if required. The rider should not be given spurs,
unless he is a fine horseman, and unless the horse requires them to make
him more lively; but not as a means for overcoming any reluctance he may
have to jumping, which should be accomplished in the manner I have laid

After the animal has learned all we can teach him in our enclosures, he
should be made over to a good rider, to school him in the country, and,
if possible, with hounds.

I need hardly say, that a horse should not be jumped, if he is at all
sore on his legs or feet.

This plan of schooling horses over a circular line of fences, was, in
my case, the natural outcome of the practice I adopted during my various
tours, of breaking horses in a square enclosure of about 20 yards side.
I have never seen or heard of it done by any one else, except those I
have taught; although it could hardly fail to suggest itself to a person
accustomed to drive horses on foot, in a confined space, with the object
of teaching them to jump.

One great advantage, among many others, of teaching a horse to jump in
the way I have detailed, is, that, by circling and turning the animal in
front of the fences, we can cure him of all impetuosity caused by their
proximity, and, at the same time, make him willing to jump, with
thorough light-heartedness, the moment he receives the indication from
the rein to go straight, and clear the obstacle. We can all understand,
how valuable such training is, for the hunter and trooper.



Having rendered the horse quiet, given him a good mouth, and taught him
to jump, we may next proceed to mount him in the following safe and easy
manner, which, I believe, I have been the first to adopt. Put on a
snaffle bridle, and knot the reins on the animal’s neck, so that they
will not hang down. Place over the bridle a head-stall, to the off-side
D of which, attach a short leading-rein, and saddle the horse. Take a
strong cord; tie a double sheet bend in the hair of the tail with one
end of it (see Fig. 30); pass the other end through the D of the halter
on the near side; pull the horse’s head well round, and secure the cord
by a slip knot. If the animal resents his head being brought round, tie
him loosely at first, and let him go round and round, stopping him, if
necessary, by catching hold of the leading-rein until he stands still.
When he does this, he may be tied a little tighter, and so on. The
requisite extent to which the head should be turned round, will be
attained when he is tied up just short of what would cause him to fall
down, if he were allowed to go round on his own account. The outer girth
should be unloosed, passed over the cord, and buckled again, so as to
bring the cord close to the animal’s near side (see Fig. 46); or the
surcingle may be placed over it. Having taken the leading-rein in the
left hand, we should walk the horse round and round several times,
testing him as to his amenability to discipline by stopping him by means
of the leading-rein, and then pulling him round again. If he resists
these actions on our part, we may feel convinced that he is not under
proper control. In which case, we may continue

[Illustration: Fig. 46.--Horse prepared to be mounted for the first

[Illustration: Fig. 47.--Second stage in breaking a horse for riding.]

to make him revolve, or may force him to lie down, and hold him with his
head turned round, as described on page 158, until he gives in.

As many horses, especially Australian buck-jumpers, are very shy of
being touched with the heels, or even gripped closely with the knees, it
is well to try if the animal we have in hand is affected with this form
of timidity. For this object, we may gently prod the horse with the
rounded end of a pole, in the ribs, while an assistant takes him round
with the leading-rein, until he ceases to mind the touch of the pole. A
few applications of the rope-twitch (see page 113), will also have a
good effect in rendering him quiet in this respect. We may now get an
assistant to catch hold of the mane, on the near side, with his left
hand, the stirrup-iron with his right hand, and go through the various
stages of mounting, beginning with putting his left foot in the stirrup
(see Fig. 47), catching the pommel or cantle of the saddle, as he sees
fit, with the right hand, and hopping round on the right foot, while we
keep the horse revolving by means of the leading-rein. I may add that
the Australian rough-riders, who are marvellously expert at getting on
to a difficult horse, place the right hand on the pommel of the saddle,
and not on the cantle, as is the practice in other places, and
consequently place the left hand high up on the mane. As a matter of
course, the assistant should not finally throw his leg over, until the
animal ceases to resist. When the horse has got accustomed to the
presence of the man in the saddle, the rider may touch him with his
heels, lightly at first, and gradually stronger, without hurting him,
until he stands the contact unmoved. When the horse has stopped trying
to get free, we may slacken off the cord a little, take him round and
round again, and so on, until it is safe to let him loose altogether.
Before doing this, we should, as before, test his quietness, by stopping
him with the leading-rein, and then pulling him round again. When most
of the tension has been taken off the cord, we may give the
leading-rein to the rider, to hold in his right hand, so that he can
stop the horse if necessary; while we make the animal go round by
touching him lightly with the whip. After the cord has been removed, the
rider may take the reins, and keep the animal, at first, going round in
small circles, and, then, gradually enlarging them, until he can take
the horse in any direction he likes.

In all my experience with numbers of horses that had, for years,
successfully resisted the most determined efforts to mount them, I have
never failed to accomplish this object in one lesson, by means of the
method just described; nor has any horse, after I have removed the cord,
shewed the slightest return to unruliness. The method of making the
horse, by the use of the rope-twitch (see page 113), steady to mount,
which I shall describe in Chapter IX., is specially valuable for this
particular purpose; while the head and tail plan, by producing a
powerful moral effect, renders the animal not alone easy to mount, but
also quiet to ride. As I have pointed out on page 31, we should, in all
cases, confirm the habit of obedience by repetition. I may mention that
the method of tying a horse “head and tail,” with the object of making
him quiet, has been in use for many years; though I am unable to say who
was its inventor. If practised without my improvements of leading-rein
and surcingle, or girth, over the cord, it has the serious faults, that
as soon as the horse begins to revolve quickly, the operator has,
practically, no further control over him until he stops of his own
accord, or tumbles down “all of a heap,” and that it is impossible to
mount him safely. The man, if expert, and if the horse has no tendency
to hit out with his off-fore, might run in and catch him by the
head-stall, if he thought that the animal was in danger of falling, on
account of going round too fast. The conduct of such confidential
horses, I need hardly say, is not the standard by which we should gauge
the safety of any method of breaking, which, in order to be generally
useful, should not demand from the person who practises it, the
possession of exceptional activity, or foolhardiness. When the off-side
leading-rein is on, the breaker can, with perfect safety, catch it while
the horse is turning round; for, at that time, it swings entirely clear
of the fore-limb, and in a convenient position for the breaker to lay
hold of it. If a man mounts a horse tied head and tail, with the cord
unconfined by girth or surcingle, he is placed in the uncomfortable
dilemma of riding without any “grip” on the saddle, by having his left
leg pulled upwards and outwards by the cord, or of having this limb
imprisoned between the cord and the animal’s side; while, in either
case, the man is in a most dangerous position, on an animal that is
revolving round and round, with little or no control over its own
movements. We may see, therefore, that the simple head and tail method,
without the improvements I have described, is not applicable for
mounting purposes.

The plan of gaining command over a horse by tying him head and tail, and
allowing or forcing him to revolve round until he falls down, is
unworthy the consideration of educated men. It is based on the wrong
assumption that all ailments of temper spring from the same cause; the
supposed remedy is not under the control of the operator; the effect is
physical, rather than moral, and consequently is not lasting; and the
results of the violent twisting of the hocks, and of the fall, if the
animal comes down on the side to which his head is turned, as he often
does, are apt to injure him.

Professor Sample gives a thoroughly sound and rational exposition of the
head and tail method, which would well repay the attention of all
horsemen who have not already seen it. This American gentleman is
unrivalled in the marvellous power he possesses of teaching, in a
wonderfully short time, horses to perform difficult feats of obedience.



Almost any horse that is quiet for a man to ride, will carry a lady
steadily the first time the attempt is made. The few special
requirements to make a well-broken-in saddle horse perfect as a lady’s
hack, are: (1) That he must stand without moving when she is being put
on, or when she mounts from a chair or block. (2) That he must not shy
at the habit, or sidle away from it. (3) That he must “bend” himself
more readily, and go more “collectedly,” than if he had to carry a man.
(4) That he must understand the touch of the whip on his off side, as
equivalent to the pressure of the right leg. (5) And that he must
learn, always, to “strike off,” in the canter, with the off fore
leading. On a good mover, a fine horsewoman will neither feel, nor
exhibit discomfort when the animal may happen to lead with the near
fore; although, at first starting, the lead with the other leg is more
agreeable. I may add, that the canter is a pace of three time; the
succession of beats being: _a._ leading fore; _b._ non-leading fore and
its opposite hind-leg; _c._ hind-leg of side opposite to leading fore.
Hence, the more a fore-leg leads in the canter, the more likely is it to
suffer from the injurious effects of concussion. It is obvious that if
we wish to keep a horse sound, we should not let him canter too much
with the same leg leading.

The first three of the conditions, just mentioned, which are
indispensable to the lady’s horse, can be quickly fulfilled by
instruction on foot; although the remainder of the animal’s education
should be completed by a good rider. I may remark, that many ladies
ride so well, that any special preparation for their use, is almost
needless. Besides this, the short habits of the present day are but
little apt to make animals go unsteadily.

The employment of the rope-twitch (see page 113) will speedily correct
any unsteadiness at mounting which cannot be remedied, without delay, by
ordinary means. The horse may be broken of any tendency to shy at, or
sidle away from, the habit, by putting the side-saddle on, fixing a rug
to its near side, and giving the animal a few circling lessons on foot
with the long reins (see page 172). The same practice, with frequent
spells at reining back, will teach him to bend and collect himself to
the required extent. Some work with the long reins, while the lady is in
the saddle, will do the horse good, if he be at all awkward.



The place which I prefer to all others, for breaking a horse to harness,
is an enclosure about thirty yards square, the ground of which is level,
and hard enough to allow the wheels to run smoothly.

Whether intended partially for saddle purposes, or not, I would advise
that the horse should be broken in the manner already described, before
trying him between the shafts. Before putting him in, we should circle
him for half-an-hour or more, with the long reins on foot (see page
172), and get an assistant, while the animal is going round, to gentle
him under the belly and about the hind-quarters, as recommended by
Pratt and others, with a long pole, without hurting him, so as to
accustom him to its touch. The whip should also be cracked about the
horse, without hitting him, until he ceases to mind its noise. If the
horse resents these operations, which inflict no pain on him, the
rope-twitch (see page 113) may be employed to enforce the required
obedience; or the animal may be made to lie down (see page 153), and
gentled. When the horse has been made quiet, he will readily take to
double harness if put alongside a steady break-horse for a few times,
and, when accustomed to this work, will, as a rule, go by himself
without any trouble; although he may be a little awkward at first. If we
want to put the animal into single harness, right off, and if we have
got the gear at hand, we may harness the horse, put the strait-jacket
over the harness, buckling it up, just tight enough, to prevent him
kicking when it is on; and then drive him, on foot, with the long reins
passed through the shaft-tugs, for a short time. We may now put him into
the shafts of some suitable, light two-wheeled trap, retaining the
strait-jacket over the harness. Two assistants, one on each side, may be
employed to hold separate reins attached to the snaffle, while the
driver stands on the near side, on about a line with the wheels, holding
another pair of reins, which pass through the rings of the pad, and are,
of course, fixed to the snaffle. If sufficient help be at hand, it is an
advantage to have two other assistants to hold the traces of the
strait-jacket ready to let out or draw tight, as may be required. After
the horse has gone quietly for a bit, the strait-jacket may be removed,
a kicking-strap substituted, and, after a little, an assistant may be
put on the driving seat, with all proper precaution. When the horse has
thoroughly settled down to his work, the breaker may get on to the seat,
and dispense with the help of the other men, if he sees fit. With one
man to hold the rope-twitch, and with the aid of a kicking-strap, the
breaker, if expert, may easily manage to put a horse in single harness
for the first time. In an enclosure such as I have described, the
breaker may circle the horse in the trap, with the long reins on foot,
by himself, and, in a short time, after the animal has settled down, he
may get an assistant to sit in the trap. When the horse is found to go
quietly inside the enclosure, he may be tried outside. I think it always
the best and easiest plan to break a horse to harness, without



     Boring--Chucking up the
     difficult to--Yawing.

The classification of vices and faults adopted in this, and the
following chapters, is, necessarily, somewhat arbitrary; as their causes
are more often complex, than simple. The fact of many of them not
possessing generally accepted names, has obliged me, in some cases, to
sacrifice elegance and correctness of expression, for an attempt at
conciseness and clearness of meaning.

_Boring._--When the horse has got into the habit of carrying his head
too low, we should get it into proper position by circling the animal
on foot with the long reins (see page 172), and by reining him back.
When he bores on one rein more than the other, we should adopt the same
procedure; although we should devote our attention, mainly, to getting
him to turn readily to the side on which his mouth is “hard,” until he
bends to it, as easily as to the other. After half-an-hour’s judicious
driving, the horse ought to carry himself, and obey the rein in the
desired manner; although he may require half-a-dozen lessons to confirm
the habit.

_Chucking up the head._--Here we should teach the horse, in the manner
just described, to “save” his mouth, by carrying his head in a proper
position, and by bending his neck to the pull of the rein (see remarks
on the standing martingale, page 70). Mr. Kemp, A.V.D., tells me that
the animal may be easily broken of this objectionable habit by using a
nose-band, inside the part that goes over the nose, three or four
cowrie shells [small marbles would have the same effect] are sewn; the
nose-band being kept in position by a standing martingale, which, of
course, should be of the proper length (see page 70). This plan is on
the same principle, as the method I have described; for, in both, the
horse relinquishes the trick, on finding out that its practice inflicts
pain, and that he can save himself from punishment, by obeying the rein.

_Pulling._--We should give the hard puller, at least, a dozen lessons
with the long reins on foot, teaching him, somewhat sharply, that he
must obey the rein. It is, also, well to use the word whoa,” or any
other suitable one, as recommended by Pratt, Magner, and others,
whenever we pull him up; so that he may learn to stop on hearing it.
Making him lie down and keeping him on the ground (see page 158) will be
of great service in reducing the runaway to obedience. The breaker will
naturally have to regulate the severity and frequency of this beneficial
discipline, as he may see fit.

_Rearing._--The rearer should, in the same manner, be taught to swing
his quarters round, on either rein being pulled, with the outward rein
kept low down; and, when he is perfect at this, the lesson should be
completed, with this rein on the driving pad. If he rears, as a defence
against the action of the rein, the breaker should pull all the harder.
If this brings the animal “over;” so much stronger will be the effect
produced. When jibbing is combined with rearing, if we find that the
desired result is not obtained by the process of driving on foot, as
speedily as we may wish; we may make the horse lie down, and keep him on
the ground, with his head turned round (see page 158), until he gives
in. We may also apply the same discipline to those terribly dangerous
animals that endeavour to crush their rider, by throwing themselves

_Shying._--Leaving out all cases of shying which are due to defective
sight, I venture to say that the vast majority of shyers can be made to
relinquish this annoying trick, merely by giving them good mouths with
the long reins on foot. This mouthing practice, not alone, makes the
horse attentive, as well as obedient, to the indications of the rein,
but it also teaches discipline, and gives the animal confidence in his
director; and, hence, removes the two causes of shying: namely, fear,
and wilfulness. If the shyer shows great timidity, which is often
combined with impatience of control (see page 4), the animal should be
rendered quiet, as described in Chapter III. All these remarks apply
equally well to shying off the ball at polo, and off the peg at
tent-pegging, and to other forms of yawing about, and not going

_Stargazing._--See “Chucking up the head.”

_Tender-mouthed._--We may overcome any undue tenderness of the mouth,
or unwillingness to “go up to the bridle,” by circling the horse on foot
with the long reins, with, and without, a rider on the animal’s back.
When the horse finds that he does not get his mouth “pulled about,” he
will, in two or three lessons, gain confidence, and will allow a steady
pull on the reins.

_Turn, difficult to._--The practice with the long reins on foot,
advocated for the correction of shying, etc., will be found to be an
effective remedy in this case; and is specially applicable for polo
ponies that shy off the ball, and are difficult to turn quickly.

“_Yawing._”--The animal may be broken of this habit, when ridden, of
going from side to side, instead of straight, by the method recommended
for shying.



     Buck-jumping--Difficult to bridle, handle, mount, dismount, ball,
     or drench--Difficult to put into a railway train, ship’s horse-box,
     etc.--Difficult to shoe--Nervous of being touched with the
     heel--Unsteady with the whip; under fire; when drawing swords, etc.

_Buck-jumping._--The best procedure I know to overcome this vice, is to
circle the horse with the long reins on foot, frequently turning him
(see “Shying,” page 220), for about half-an-hour; make him lie down, and
keep him on the ground with his head turned round (see page 158), till
he, apparently, “gives in”; then let him up; tie him head and tail, and
saddle him, with one girth over the cord (see page 197); let him revolve
round, and while he does so, gentle him on the ribs with the end of the
long pole (see page 203), until he stands its touch. The horse can now
be mounted in the manner described on page 197. If we have got a rider
that does not mind the chance of a fall, we may omit the head and tail
business, and have the horse saddled and mounted with the long reins on
him, when he recovers his feet after undergoing his discipline on the
ground. The breaker who holds the long reins, should pull the horse
round, from side to side, the moment the assistant gets into the saddle;
and, having obtained control over him, should circle and turn him
several times, until he goes quite freely. The long reins can now be
taken off, and the snaffle reins given to the rider, who, previous to
this, should not touch the reins; although he may use the breast-plate,
or other convenient object, as an aid, in case of accident, for
retaining his balance.

_Difficult to bridle, handle, mount, dismount, ball, or
drench._--Teaching the animal, with the rope-twitch, to pay attention
to the word “steady!” (see page 111), will cure all these vices. In
Chapter III. I have described at some length various methods to be
adopted with horses difficult to handle. The use of the rope-twitch is
singularly efficacious for making animals steady to mount and dismount.
Mr. D. C. Pallin, A.V.D., informs me that he has invariably succeeded
with horses that were deemed impossible to drench, in making them drink,
by mounting them; sitting well forward; drawing the head round to the
off-side by the head-stall with the left hand; and then giving them the
draught out of a bottle with the right hand. This gentleman also advises
to have a man on the back of a horse that is difficult to ball, while
the operator is giving the bolus. I need hardly say that the aim of
these expedients, valuable as they are, is to make the horse take the
drench, or ball, at the time, and not to make him permanently quiet, in
this respect.

_Difficult to put into a railway train, ship’s horse-box, etc._--Use the
crupper leading-rein, the rope-twitch, or the Comanche bridle (see page
261), or both. Before making the actual attempt, the appliance,
whichever one be used, should be put into requisition a few times, so
that the animal may understand what is demanded of him.

_Difficult to shoe._--Use the rope-twitch (see page 113); lift the foot,
if a fore one, with the rope-noose (see page 88), or suspend it from the
surcingle (see page 102); if a hind one, with the hobble, and double
cord attached to the tail (see page 135). Gentle the limb, and gradually
accustom the hoof to the hammer; correcting the horse with the twitch,
if obliged to do so. If the horse be very obstinate, or very violent, it
may be well to bring him under control, by making him lie down, and, if
necessary, holding him down with his head pulled round (see page 158).

_Nervous of being touched with the heel._--Tie the horse head and tail
and gentle him with the end of the long pole in the ribs (see page 203);
or use the rope-twitch while the rider is in the saddle, and while he
touches the animal, so as not to hurt him, with his unarmed heel.

_Unsteady with the whip; under fire; when drawing swords, etc._--Teach
the horse, while he is under the provocation to which he objects, by the
use of the rope-twitch (see page 113), to stand quietly on receiving the
command “steady!”; or use the head-and-tail method.



Speaking generally, we may consider jibbing to be the determined
manifestation of stubbornness in the horse.

Acting on the sound principle that we should apply no more coercion to
the animal than is absolutely necessary, we should at first try the
effect of driving the jibber, on foot, with the long reins (see page
172). After it has consented to go quietly without anyone on its back,
we may put an assistant in the saddle without giving him the reins, and
continue driving the animal until it moves freely in every direction.
The rider may then take the reins, and circle and turn the animal
several times before taking it for a regular ride. If the horse
resolutely sulks, the breaker, to expedite matters, may make it lie down
with the proper tackle and hold it down, with its head turned round (see
page 158), until it, apparently, gives in; after which it may get
another trial at circling. If it still resists, it should be put down
again, and, so on, for three, or four times. This change of discipline
is most efficacious for the jibber, who quickly seems to recognise the
fact, that the irksome constraint on the ground is a punishment for its
misbehaviour. Having failed, after putting forth all its powers of
opposition, to resist the one form of coercion, it will have but little
energy left to stiffen its neck against the other. By adopting this plan
with patience, as well as firmness, and without using the whip, except
to crack it, the breaker ought to succeed with almost any jibber in one
lesson of a couple of hours’ duration. The desired effect can be
produced much easier in a secluded enclosure, than in the open. I
believe I have been the first to employ this method of making a horse
lie down in combination with the driving on foot as a remedy for

It is not uncommon to meet with, in the mounted branches of the Army,
horses that will go anywhere in company, but will refuse to quit the
ranks by themselves, or to act as single riding horses. This
peculiarity; the habit of trying to shoulder the rider’s leg up against
a wall, tree, or other convenient object; and all other forms of
jibbing, should be treated in the manner just described.

For jibbing in harness, see page 236.



     “Chancing” fences--Jumping too slowly--Refusing--Running out at
     fences--Rushing at fences.

_“Chancing” fences._--This dangerous fault may be corrected by driving
the horse with the long reins over fences (see Chapter VI.) which are
too stiff to chance, but which are well within the compass of the
animal’s powers.

_Jumping too slowly._--Many horses commit this fault without attempting,
in any way, to refuse. It is often caused by the practice of teaching
animals to jump by means of the cavesson and leading-rein; for, by
employing this method, the weight is unduly thrown on the fore-hand,
and consequently the horse, not having his hind-legs well under him when
he “lands” over the fence, is unable to get quickly away from it.
Besides this, the horse has to moderate his speed in accordance with
that of the man in front of him. By driving horses with the long reins
on foot, in the manner described in Chapter VI., we teach them to go
with their hind-legs well under them and at any pace we like; and, by so
doing, we can quickly get them out of the habit of “dwelling” at their

“_Refusing._”--See Chapters VI. and XII. Before taking in hand a horse
that jumps “unkindly,” we should carefully examine him in order to see
if his fault arises from disease, or infirmity. If such be the case, the
animal should not be tried at jumping, until he is sound.

_Running out at fences._--For this, we should use the long reins on
foot. By their proper employment, we can make a horse go so straight
that he will turn neither to one side, nor to the other, when jumping a
3 ft. 6 in. post and rails, for instance, which is only 3 ft. long, and
is unprovided with wings of any sort.

_Rushing at fences._--This fault can also be easily overcome by the
employment of the long reins on foot, and the horse made to regulate his
pace, according to the wish of his rider, without shewing any



     Difficult to harness--Difficult to unharness--Getting the tail over
     the rein and kicking--Hanging against the
     pole--Jibbing--Kicking--Lying down--Plunging forward at
     starting--Pulling away from the pole--Undue fear of the whip.

_Difficult to harness._--Place the trap in the centre of the enclosure,
and drive the horse, on foot, with the long reins, all about it, and
back him between the shafts, so that he may get accustomed to it. We may
then tie up one fore-leg, apply the rope-twitch, and have the horse
harnessed by drawing up the cart, while he is kept standing still. After
repeating this, once or twice, the leg may be let down, and the
harnessing performed as before. After the horse has become quite steady,
he may be backed into the shafts. Or, we may put the strait-jacket on
over the harness, make the horse lie down two or three times with it,
and having got him on to his feet again, draw the traces of the
strait-jacket so tight, that, if he attempt to move, he will fall down.
While keeping him in this position, we may try to bring the shafts over
his back, letting him fall if he begins to struggle. In the great
majority of cases, the horse will quickly learn to regard the falling
down as a punishment for his unsteadiness, which he cannot resist; and
will accordingly give in, and stand quietly. After he does so, we may
gradually slacken out the traces of the strait-jacket, until we can
remove this apparatus altogether. We may tie up the leg, or employ the
rope-twitch, as may be advisable. For safety sake, in single harness, we
should use a kicking-strap. If the animal is very determined in his
resistance, we may take the obstinacy out of him, by making him lie
down, and keeping his head turned round (see page 158).

_Difficult to unharness._--Use the rope-twitch, which will be sufficient
in almost all cases. To prevent the animal springing forward, we may
employ the strait-jacket, or make him lie down.

_Getting the tail over the rein and kicking._--I regret to say that I
know no means of permanently breaking a horse of the habit of whisking
his tail over the rein, at times, when it is within reach. We may,
however, by driving the animal on foot, and accustoming him to bear the
rein under the tail, or by using the rope-twitch (see page 113), teach
the horse not to kick, when he finds the rein in that position. I
presume that the horse might be taught, by the rope-twitch, not to whisk
his tail over the rein, on feeling it touch his hind-quarters; although,
not having practically tested this expedient, I cannot speak positively
as to its merits. I have rendered several animals that were previously
addicted to the habit in question, quiet when the rein got under their
tails, or touched their quarters, by the means described; and by
gentling those parts when the animal was tied head and tail (see page
203). I have met some cases, in which the kicking was caused by pain due
to pressure on melanotic tumours that were on the under surface of the

_Hanging against the pole._--The remedy, here, would be driving with the
long reins. For the first few times that the animal was driven with
another horse, he might have a pair of reins to himself, as well as the
pair which connects him to his fellow.

_Jibbing._--We should break the unharnessed horse of jibbing in the
manner described in Chapter XII., and may then put him in a light trap,
inside the enclosure, and try to circle him, with the long reins, on the
side to which he more readily bends. Having accomplished this, we
should endeavour to get him, by a wide sweep, to turn to the other rein,
and, if we are successful, should circle him freely in it; turning and
changing him, as we may deem advisable. If the animal remain obstinate,
we should take him out, and put him again through the necessary
discipline of the long reins; or we may keep him on the ground with his
head turned round (see Chapter XII.). As soon as we think he has given
in, we may put him into the shafts, and give him another trial. In
attempting to start, or turn the animal, we should, on no account, use
the whip, except, perhaps, to crack it; but should continue to pull the
horse’s head from side to side with the reins, so as to make him strike
off in the desired direction. I think it best to refrain from speaking
to the horse, while all this is being done. When the horse circles and
turns with perfect obedience to the rein, we may, while keeping him at a
walk, get an assistant to quietly mount into the trap, and give him the
reins, as soon as the animal shews that he does not mind his presence
behind him. The horse may now be taken into the open, and circled and
turned by the man in the cart, a few times, before being taken for a
steady drive.

Before the animal is harnessed, we should satisfy ourselves that the
jibbing is not caused by any ailment, such as sore shoulders, which
should be cured before we proceed further.

We should be careful not to use any words, or other signals that might
remind the animal of previous acts of disobedience which, presumedly,
had been successful in their object. As before remarked, I like to use,
when breaking a horse of jibbing, a plain bridle; because I find animals
go kinder without blinkers, than with them.

If a jibber appears afraid of the whip, it is well, in the first
instance, to prove to him (see page 241) that we are not going to hurt
him, when we crack it, or flourish it about.

_Kicking._--We should put the animal through the course of discipline
described in Chapter IX. The strait-jacket put on loosely, or the
kicking-strap, will prevent him doing any mischief. Before putting the
animal between the shafts, he should be well driven with the long reins,
for from thirty minutes, to an hour; so that he may pay attention to the
indications of the rein. If he persists in kicking, he should be made to
lie down, and, then, gentled on the ground; or he may be kept down with
his head turned round (see page 158) until he gives in. Mr. Mitchell,
A.V.D., who is an excellent breaker, tells me that he has obtained
admirable results with bad kickers, by fixing, parallel to their sides,
two stout poles, each about 7 feet long, secured in front of the chest
and behind the quarters, so that the animal cannot get free from them;
and then letting him kick, till he is tired. This method, by giving the
horse nothing to kick at, will soon teach him the uselessness of doing
so. In most cases, I would be inclined to use the rope-twitch, in order
to make the horse learn the salutary lesson of connecting, in his own
mind, the idea of punishment, with the practice of his favourite vice.

The old expedient of tying a kicker’s tail to the splinter bar, is often
successful in breaking the animal of this objectionable habit. In other
cases, it serves only to aggravate the vice. The tail may, here, be
easily secured by a double sheet bend (see Fig. 30).

_Lying down._--The habit of lying down in harness, is, no doubt, in many
instances, difficult to cure. To accomplish this end, particular
attention should be paid to making the animal obey the indications of
the rein, by driving him on foot with the long reins. The trap used to
practise him in, should be a very light, two-wheeled one. If he lies
down, a sharp slap on his muzzle will generally make him jump up. The
lesson, of course, should be given in the enclosure. In extreme cases,
he should be put through the discipline detailed for jibbing.

_Plunging forward at starting._--Use the rope-twitch (see page 113); or
drive the animal, in the enclosure, on foot, with the long reins, while
he is in the trap, after having given him a good long mouthing lesson
(see page 172), and practise him at circling, turning, starting, and
pulling up.

_Pulling away from the pole._--See that the coupling chain is not too
tight. Treat as for “Hanging against the pole” (page 236).

_Undue fear of the whip._--Circle the horse with the long reins on foot
(see page 172), and get an assistant to crack the whip all about him,
without touching him with it, until he ceases to mind it; or do so,
while he is tied head and tail. An application or two of the rope-twitch
(see page 113) will expedite matters. The breaker should “make much of”
the horse, when the animal stands quietly under the provocation given.



     Biting--Kicking--Savaging--Striking out in front.

_Biting._--Apply the wooden gag (see page 145); tie up one fore-leg, or
put on the strait-jacket; and gentle the horse all over, to shew him
that he cannot bite, and that, when he vainly attempts to do so, he will
hurt his mouth, by the pressure of the gag on his gums. On this account,
its action is most salutary, and differs entirely from that of a muzzle,
which simply protects the object of the animal’s resentment, without
either checking the practice of the habit, or punishing him for
indulging in it. I need hardly say, that, with the gag on, the horse is
unable to bring his teeth together. The fore-leg may be let down, or
the strait-jacket taken off, as soon as the horse is quiet to handle
with the gag alone. This instrument may be kept in the horse’s mouth,
for an hour at a time, during which period he should be handled with
gentleness and freedom; particular care being taken not to irritate the
animal, whose confidence and affection we should now endeavour to win.
The worst biter ought to be rendered safe to handle, when the gag is out
of his mouth, by three of these lessons a day, for two or three days.
For safety-sake, the breaker might teach the horse the use of the word
“steady!” with the rope-twitch (see page 113). Though many bad,
treacherous biters have passed through my hands, I have never met one
that would attempt to bite when the gag was taken out of his mouth,
after he had been gentled, with it on, for a quarter of an hour, or even
less. It might be advisable, with very vicious horses, to make them lie
down, and hold them with their heads turned round, until they had “given
in” (see page 158).

_Kicking._--A horse that tries to deliberately kick anyone that comes
within reach, may be broken of the habit by the rope-twitch (see page
113); or by making him lie down (see page 153). In such cases, it is
well to thoroughly mouth the animal on foot with the long reins; so as
to make him more attentive to the indications of the rein, than to the
practice of his favourite vice. The man who drives on foot, in the
enclosure, is secure from getting kicked by the horse; for, if the
animal attempts to lash out at him, he can always pull the horse’s head
round with the rein. Mouthing on foot, is specially applicable to horses
that are in the habit of kicking at other horses, hounds, etc.

It is advisable to teach a kicker to turn his hind-quarters away from us
(see page 86), when we approach him; supposing, of course, that he is
free to do so.

_Savaging._--Put the animal through the discipline advised for biting,
in the preceding paragraph; give several (say, half-a-dozen) good
mouthing lessons, with the long reins, on foot; and, if the animal be
inclined to savage horses, or men, while being ridden, substitute for
the ordinary breaking snaffle, the wooden gag (see page 145) during his
mouthing lessons; and, also, ride him in it, for a few times. _Savaging
at polo_ may be easily cured in this manner.

An expert breaker can always manage to pull round a horse that rushes at
him, while the animal is being driven on foot. Even when the horse backs
and kicks, as well as attempts to savage, the driver can easily keep him
in control, by pulling him round, alternately, with each rein. One has,
naturally, to be quicker when a horse rushes at one than when he backs.
I confine the expression, “savaging,” to the habit some animals have of
worrying the object of their dislike, with or without rushing at it;
and, “biting,” to the simple act of snapping with the teeth. Practical
horsemen will understand this somewhat arbitrary distinction. I may
remark that horses often bite, without, apparently, any vicious

_Striking out in front._--We may tie up one fore-leg, put the
strait-jacket on, apply the rope-twitch, or tie the horse head and tail,
and then gentle both fore-legs. The use of the rope-twitch will,
generally, be found to be the quickest method.



Having made the horse as perfect as we can on foot, we should complete
his education by riding him with skill and judgment. If we find that he
shews signs of becoming unruly, or of recommencing some of his old
tricks, it is far better to get off, and make him steady, in the manner
before detailed, before proceeding further; than to risk any chance of a
defeat while on his back. If he happen to develop such symptoms, we may
feel assured that the fault is on our side, in having carried out his
instruction on foot, in an imperfect manner. As I accord unqualified
admiration for our best English and Irish styles of riding, whether on
the flat, across country, or in the school, I shall refrain from going
over old ground, and shall content myself, here, with adding a few
remarks which have special reference to the recently handled animal.

When mounting, the breaker should make the animal stand perfectly still,
until it gets the proper indication to move forward.

He should make the horse carry himself in good style, by keeping him up
to the bit with the pressure of the leg, and by having a nice light
feeling on his mouth.

All horses should be taught to rein back with ease and precision.

According as the animal requires to be bent and collected for his own
particular work, so should he be instructed in turning, circling and
changing, with the proper leg, shouldering in, and passaging. When the
reins are taken up in both hands, they should be used in the same style
as that recommended for the long reins (see page 174). If necessary, the
horse may now be taught to obey the reins when held in one hand, and
may be practised in the use of the curb.

When the horse has learnt to go smoothly, his mouth should be interfered
with as little as possible. I am entirely against the practice of
keeping the animal in a constant state of attention to signals from the
reins; as it makes him rely on his rider, rather than on his own
cleverness, to extricate him out of difficulties, and renders him
uncertain, and lacking in self-confidence. This is especially the case
in jumping, at which work the rider should limit his interference, if
the horse is going too fast, to dropping his hands, and taking a pull,
thirty or forty yards from the fence, and, then, letting the horse
measure his own distance, and take off, as suits him best. If the
animal’s attention be distracted by the rider’s interference at this
critical moment, the risk of an accident will be greatly enhanced. The
foregoing is the substance of the advice given by Mr. John Hubert Moore
to his pupil, that well-known fine horseman, Colonel Hickman of the
21st Hussars, who attributes the immunity he has enjoyed from bad
falls, over all kinds of country, and on all sorts of horses, to its
rigid observance.

When the newly-broken horse is put into the shafts, he should be driven
according to the principles laid down for riding him, in so far as they
apply to harness work.



     Difficult and vicious to catch--Hanging back on the
     head-stall--Kicking--Kicking at night--Pawing at night--Pawing back
     the litter--Rubbing the tail--Sleeping standing.

_Difficult and vicious to catch._--If the animal be viciously inclined,
make him quiet by the methods described in the preceding chapters. Teach
him to come up to you when you call him (see page 261); and to turn his
quarters away from you, when you approach him (see page 87).

_Hanging back on the head-stall._--The Americans employ the crupper
leading-rein (see page 148), to hitch up a horse given to this fault. I
have been told that a good way is to shorten the rack chain, by tying
it with a piece of thin twine, so that when the animal pulls on the
chain, he will break the twine, and will then cease to pull, on the
presumed supposition that he has broken the chain. For horses with this
habit, it is common to place a broad band across the lower part of the
stall, so as to allow the animal to rest against it, if he likes.

_Kicking._--See Chapter XV. We may, also, teach the animal to “stand
over” in his stall, by pulling his head round with a cord attached to
the side of the head-stall, passed through a ring on the top of the
roller, and carried outside of the stall, while giving, simultaneously
with the pull on the cord, some appropriate verbal order, such as
“over!” (See Fig. 47.)

_Kicking at night._--I have no experience in breaking horses of this
habit. I would suggest the employment of the strait-waistcoat, which

[Illustration: Fig 47.--Pulling kicker’s head round in stall.]

be loose enough to allow the animal to lie down and get up. I have seen
it recommended, in such cases, to hang some soft object, such as a large
bag filled with hay, behind the animal, so that, when he kicked, it
would give to the stroke, and would then swing back and hit him, without
hurting him; the effect being that the horse would get tired of kicking
the inoffensive object, and would, accordingly, drop the habit. If this
method be adopted, I would suggest that the animal should, before being
left for the night, be accustomed to the stuffed bag, or whatever else
is used, touching him. Tying up one fore-leg, or applying the
rope-twitch, will keep him quiet while this is being done. I take for
granted that he has been, previously, made thoroughly docile, with the
exception of this particular vice. The strait-jacket, loosely put on,
would, I have no doubt, prevent the kicking. If it was properly applied,
and, gradually let out, say, a hole or two, each night, it would, in all
probability, break the horse of the habit.

_Pawing at night._--I have prevented the practice of this vice by
employing a spancel (coupling strap) to connect the animal’s fore-legs
together, so as to give him freedom to lie down, but not to paw. The use
of this strap would, no doubt, in time, cure the vice.

_Pawing back the litter._--I note that a correspondent, replying to a
query, in the _Field_, as to some means of stopping this practice, which
causes the horse to sleep, more or less, on the bare floor, states that
connecting the fore-legs in the manner I have just described, will
accomplish the object in view, and, after a few repetitions, will wean
the animal from the habit.

_Rubbing the tail._--Although this vice comes more within the province
of the veterinary surgeon, than within that of the breaker, a few
remarks on it may not, here, be out of place. Mr. D. C. Pallin, A. V.
D., who is a thorough good authority on all

[Illustration: Fig. 48.--Tail tied with tapes to prevent horse rubbing

matters connected with horses, tells me that he has always found the
plan of tying the animal’s tail round, with two separate pieces of tape
(see Fig. 48) to be efficacious in stopping the practice of this habit.
I may add, that this result may, also, as a rule, be obtained by the
application, with the finger, from time to time, of a little blue
mercurial ointment, round the inside of the anus. If the rubbing be due
to the presence of worms, or to skin disease, appropriate remedies
should be employed.

_Sleeping standing._--There are many horses that will never,
voluntarily, lie down--a habit which seriously detracts from their
capacity for work. Such horses might be taught to lie down (see page
153), and, when they had done so, might be kept in the recumbent
position by the strait-jacket. Having no experience in this matter, I
offer the advice, merely, as a possibly useful suggestion. In all cases,
a good, deep bed of straw will be a strong inducement for a horse to lie



     “Begging”--Bowing--Circling steadily for Circus Work--Coming up to
     Call--Driving without Reins--Following--Jumping over another Horse,
     etc.--Kissing--Laughing--Lying down--“No”--Picking up a
     Handkerchief, etc.--See-sawing on a Plank, etc.--Shaking
     Hands--Shaking the Head--Waltzing--“Yes.”

I may mention, that the pluckier a horse is, the more amenable will he
be to instruction.

In teaching these tricks, it is well to accustom the animal to some
invariable and suitable signal, whether vocal, or manual, for each
separate feat; and to award his obedience by a piece of carrot, lump of
sugar, crust of bread, bite of lucern, bit of sugar-cane, caress, or
other appropriate mark of approval.

“_Begging._”--The horse may be taught to “beg”--that is, to stand with
one fore-leg bent and off the ground--by attaching a strap, or cord, to
the pastern of that limb, and, then, pulling up the foot, while at the
same time, repeating the word “beg!” After a little, a cutting whip, or
cane, to tap the leg, may be substituted for the cord.

_Bowing._--While standing at the animal’s shoulder, lightly prick him on
the breast with a pin; so as to make him bend his neck, and bite at the
offending object. He will, thus, soon learn to make his bow, at the mere
advance of the hand in the direction of the indicated part.

_Circling steadily for circus-work._--Fix the horse’s head in position,
so as to obtain adequate control, by side-reins; and circle the horse in
the ring, with the long reins (see page 172), until he learns to canter
round, at a steady, uniform rate of speed. Gradually dispense with the
use of the long reins.

_Coming up to call._--We may make the horse come up to us, when we call
him, in two ways: 1. By getting him to stand still in the manner
described on page 86; and making him come up, by threatening him with
the whip, alternately, on either side. In this way, he can be taught to
come up, by, simply, holding up the whip. 2. By the use of the Comanche
bridle (see Figs. 49, 50, and 51), in making the horse turn round
towards one, first, at one side, and, then, on the other; always
accompanying the pull of the cord, with the words, “Come here!” or some
similar expression. Mr. C. G. Frasier taught me this method.

_Following._--See preceding paragraph.

_Jumping over another Horse, etc._--Let us suppose that we want to make
one horse stand

[Illustration: FIG. 49.--Comanche bridle, off side.]

perfectly still, and unheld, while another jumps over him. We might,
then, adopt the following procedure. Take an enclosed ring, like that of
a circus, and close to its side, and on one of its diameters, construct
a trench about 3 feet deep, and 2 feet 6 inches wide, with a ramp

[Illustration: FIG. 50.--Comanche bridle, near side.]

down to it. Within this trench, place a clotheshorse, or other
convenient stand, with rugs over it, and teach, with the long reins (see
page 172), the jumper to go round the circle, and jump this

[Illustration: FIG. 51.--The knot on off side of Comanche bridle

stand. We should continue the instruction, until he will jump it without
reins. To attain this, when he is loose, we may have to keep on the
standing martingale, or use side-reins; so as to obtain the necessary
control. We may, then, substitute, for the dummy, the real horse, and
teach him to stand perfectly still, by means of the rope-twitch (see
page 113). All that, now, remains, is to gradually fill up the trench,
while continuing the lessons.

_Kissing._--This is done by accustoming the horse to take some coveted
bit of food out of one’s mouth.

_Laughing._--This is accomplished in the same way, as a horse is taught
to shake his head, by pricking him with a pin, except that, here, the
irritation is applied to the muzzle. The horse, thus, learns, on the
signal being given, to turn up his upper lip, and shew his teeth. I
forget where I, first, saw mention of this trick, which appears to me,
neither useful, nor amusing.

_Lying down._--Make the horse lie down in the manner described on page
153. When he does so, without offering any resistance, let down the
strapped-up leg, and repeat the lesson, until perfect obedience is
obtained. We may, then, take off the throwing gear, and make him lie
down, by drawing his head round to, say, the near side, with the rein,
while standing alongside the off shoulder. The horse will, now, easily
learn to lie down, on receiving a signal to do so, by bringing his head
round, or, even, by simply saying the words, “Lie down,” if they have
been employed from the commencement of the teaching. It is, always, well
to conduct these lessons on a soft piece of ground with plenty of litter
on it; so as to afford the animal an inducement to lie down. Colonel
Salkeld of the 2nd Bengal Cavalry has suggested to me the advisability
of giving this instruction to army horses, when ordered, after parade,
at a time when they are, more or less, tired.

“_No._”--Take a pin, and prick the horse on the crest with it, until he
shakes his head, which he will, readily, do, on that part becoming
irritated; as that action is the only means he possesses of getting rid
of any annoying object which may pitch on that region. By continuing to
touch the horse with the pin, we can make him so sensitive as to shake
his head, when touched, only, by the finger; and, finally, even by,
merely, raising the hand, which will be a suitable signal to make an
animal signify his dissent from a question he may be asked. This is an
old circus trick.

_Obeying without reins._--Mr. Rockwell, the American horse-tamer,
instructed three horses so well, that he was able to drive them together
in a trap, and make them moderate their speed, turn, stop, and go on, in
perfect obedience, by signals, without reins. Professor Sample used to
drive tandem with a leader that did his work without either reins, or
traces! The following would be appropriate signals for performing these
feats:--“Clicking” with the tongue; for “go on.” “Steady”; for “moderate
speed.” Holding up whip, or saying “whoa!” for “stop.” Holding whip to
the left, or “left”; for “turn to the left.” Holding whip to the right,
or “right”; for “turn to the right.”

The right-about-turn, and left-about-turn, might be indicated by
bringing the whip round, to the right rear, or to the left rear, as the
case might be. The signals should be taught the horse by employing them,
on all occasions, when using the equivalent indications of the rein,
which, to be additionally impressive, should be given sharper than

_Picking up a handkerchief, etc._--This is, usually, taught while
standing at the horse’s side, by pricking him on the ribs with a pin, or
pinching him, so as to make him turn round and snap, and, consequently,
to seize with his teeth, a handkerchief that is held in a convenient
position for him to do so. When he catches hold of the handkerchief, the
teacher should take it gently away, and should substitute some
appropriate dainty. The horse will, then, soon learn to recognise the
fact, that he gets a reward for taking hold of the handkerchief; and,
then, can be readily taught to pick it up, or to take it off one of his
legs, to which it is loosely tied. Horses that are naturally ticklish,
and inclined to snap, are the quickest to learn this trick, in this
manner. Instead of getting the horse to catch hold by irritating him,
the same object may be obtained by tying up, in the handkerchief, a
piece of carrot, or other _bonne bouche_, and inducing the animal to
lift up the handkerchief, in his endeavour to get at the contained

_See-sawing on a plank, etc._--Employ the rope-twitch (see Figs. 19-22,
pages 108-18), and Comanche bridle (see Figs. 49-51).

_Shaking hands._--Teach, as in “begging, _q.v._, the animal to advance
his foot, by pulling it forward.

_Shaking the head._--See “No.”

_Waltzing._--Tie the horse head and tail (see Fig. 45, page 200), and
make him go round by flourishing the whip. As the animal obeys,
gradually slacken out the cord, until it can be removed.

“_Yes._”--See “Bowing.”



If we circle a horse with the long reins (see page 168), turn, jump, and
rein him back, we shall be able to form a good idea of his manners,
mouth, and temper, by the way in which he goes through his “facings.” We
may, further, test him, by cracking a whip near him, touching him all
over with a long pole, and gently prodding him in the ribs. As a final
proof, we may make him lie down, in the manner described on page 153;
when it will be easy to see whether he be actuated by a plucky spirit,
or by a sullen disposition, which will, always, cause him to adopt a
policy of passive resistance. The methods I have here, briefly
described, are of great practical value.



Although I have described in the foregoing pages, a variety of special
appliances; still it is well to draw attention to the fact that the
whole system of breaking can be carried out with gear which can be
improvised without difficulty. We can make a standing martingale with a
piece of doubled cord, knotted near the centre to form a loop for the
girth to pass through; while the free ends are connected to the rings of
the snaffle: or the cord, or strap may be attached to the ring of the
breast-plate, in front of the chest; or, as mentioned on page 182, a
cord may connect the rings of the standing martingale to those of the
snaffle. A stirrup-leather will serve as a leg-strap (see Figs. 14 and
16, pages 101 and 102). Ropes will do for driving reins; a saddle, for
a driving-pad (see Figs. 43 and 44, page 185). A head-stall, strong
roller, couple of iron rings, crupper, stirrup-leather, pair of
knee-caps, and a strong cord, are all that is required for making a
horse lie down. An ordinary rope will serve to form a twitch. Any stable
rug will do for blindfolding the horse. No special rope is needed for
forming a halter, or for noosing a fore-leg. For lifting up a hind-leg,
all that we require is a stout cord for the tail, and a stirrup-iron and
leather, with which to make a hobble (see Fig. 34, page 144). For
driving on foot, we would, of course, want a heavy smooth snaffle. I
need hardly say, that a person who wished to go in thoroughly for
breaking, ought to provide himself with a driving-pad, or pair of
cross-trees, specially made (see Figs. 40 and 41, page 168). Either of
these could be made for five-and-twenty shillings. The strait-jacket
(see Fig. 25, page 122) is not a necessity.



     “BOMBAY, _2nd February, 1887_.

     “TO “CAPTAIN M. H. HAYES, “_Great Western Hotel_.

     “DEAR SIR,--I am happy to inform you that the mare you broke for me
     to riding in September, 1885, still goes quietly. She has not given
     me any trouble at all since that day. Even when she had not had a
     saddle on for months, she gave no trouble. As she could not be made
     to move an inch under the saddle by whip, or spur, or coaxing,
     before you tried your hand on her, and as you spent only twenty
     minutes’ time on her, I think she is a good proof of the value of
     your system.

     “Yours truly,

     “_Managing Director, Bombay Tramways Company._”

_Copy of Testimonial from Captain Hayes’ Trimulgherry Class._

     TRIMULGHERRY, DECCAN, _8th November, 1885_.

     “We, the undersigned, having on several occasions witnessed Captain
     Hayes’ method of breaking all sorts of horses, have much pleasure
     in recording our appreciation of its merits. This system of
     breaking the most nervous or vicious animals is, in our opinion,
     except with those suffering from some form of disease, invariably
     efficacious. In addition to the breaking in, Captain Hayes has
     shewn us many new and very useful points connected with the
     management of horses. The system is very cheap at the money:--

    “C. F. MORTON, COLONEL, _14th Hussars_.
    A. J. ENGLISH, CAPTAIN, _14th Hussars_.
    A. H. WADDEL, _V. S._, _14th Hussars_.
    T. GRAHAM, RIDING MASTER, _14th Hussars_.
    G. HAMILTON, CAPTAIN, _14th Hussars_.
    C. E. SKYRING HEMERY, LIEUT., _14th Hussars_.
    STUART ROBERTSON, LIEUT., _14th Hussars_.
    R. GARTH, MAJOR, _14th Hussars_.
    L. J. RICHARDSON, LIEUT., _14th Hussars_.
    F. J. NORMAN, LIEUT., _14th Hussars_.
    H. W. MITCHELL, LIEUT., _14th Hussars_.
    A. C. KING, CAPTAIN, _14th Hussars_.
    GEO. H. GOUGH, BT., LT.-COL., _14th Hussars_.
    T. MILLER, LIEUTENANT, _14th Hussars_.
    LOFTUS THACKWELL, CAPT., R. FS., _14th Hussars_.
    F. MUGFORD, _Q. M._, _14th Hussars_.
    GEO. H. ARBUTHNOT, LIEUT., _3rd M. L. C._
    F. C. LOGAN-HOME, LIEUT., _3rd M. L. C._
    J. VANS AGNEW, LIEUT., _3rd M. L. C._
    C. J. O. FITZGERALD, LT.-COL., _3rd Cavalry, H. C._
    A. J. GARRETT, _A. A. G., H. C._
    E. NICOLLS, LIEUT., _R. A._”

_The “Pioneer,” 18th November, 1885._



SIR,--Captain Hayes is shortly going from this to the Bengal Presidency,
and as during his stay he has taught his system of breaking in all sorts
of nervous and vicious horses to a large number of people (and horses)
here, I shall be much obliged if you can find room in the _Pioneer_ for
this (and I am but endorsing the opinion of many) my testimony to the
excellence of his system. It is most easily acquired, and has only to be
seen to be appreciated. His simple method of compelling a refractory
horse to enter a railway-box is, in my opinion, alone worth all the
money asked for the whole system.

DECCAN.      C. F. MORTON, Colonel.

_14th Hussars._

_Copy of Testimonial from Members of Captain Hayes’ Calcutta Class._

We, the undersigned, having attended a series of lectures conducted by
Captain Hayes on the theory and practice of horse-breaking, hereby
certify that Captain Hayes has completely succeeded in all that he
promised to effect. We have seen him cure confirmed buck-jumpers and
jibbers, so that they were quietly ridden and driven round the school;
also savage or nervous horses have speedily been reduced to quietness
and obedience. All this had been effected without violence or cruelty.
His system appears to us admirable:--

    “F. B. PEACOCK, _C. S._,  }
    CHARLES H. MOORE,         }  _Stewards, Calcutta Turf Club_.
    W. F. MCDONNELL, _V. C._, }
    J. J. J. KESWICK,         }
    H. S. CUNNINGHAM, _High Court, Calcutta_.
    J. LAMBERT, _Deputy Commissioner of Police_.
    F. W. PERMAN.
    H. B. BEAMES.
    A. MILTON.
    T. PALMER.
    W. D. KILBURN.
    H. K. GORDON.
    F. HILTON.
    J. LAUTER, _V. S._
    J. G. APCAR.
    J. POSFORD, _C. S._
    C. GRAF.
    J. D. EDWARDS, _A. V. D._
    S. A. APCAR.
    F. J. ROWE.
    L. P. D. BROUGHTON, _Barrister-at-Law_.
    J. J. REID, _M. D._
    J. HARD.
    J. G. DICKSON.
    A. J. S. DOUGLAS.
    J. D. WEST.
    H. PAGET.
    G. WENSE.
    C. DEAS.
    H. R. MCINNES.
    J. R. MAPLES, _Manager, Calcutta Tramways Co._
    R. A. TURNBULL, _M.R.C.V.S._
    R. HARDIE.
    J. A. BOURDILLON, _C. S._
    W. H. EGERTON.
    H. MELVILL, _Bo. S. C._
    R. E. S. THOMAS.
    T. A. ST. QUINTON, _Major, 10th Hussars_.
    O. DIGNUM.
    R. C. ONSLOW, _10th B. Lancers_.
    A. A. APCAR.
    F. C. BARNES.
    F. DE C. H. HELBERT, _R. W., Fusiliers_.
    E. V. WESTAMACOTT, _C. S._”

“_Indian Planters’ Gazette,” 9th March, 1886._

“Regarding a most determined jibber cured by Captain Hayes at
Mozufferpore, Mr. Tom Barclay of Bhicanpore writes us as follows:--‘I
have driven him daily, or rather Colonel Fergus Graham, who has been
staying here, has driven him daily for miles, stopping at different
places, and starting again, and we have never had any trouble. He trots
nicely, and in fact goes as kindly as the most perfect trap horse ever
foaled. Captain Hayes may congratulate himself on curing the most
vicious, inveterate jibber in India. I tried to sell him in Calcutta for
Rs.500, and no one would look at him. Now I would not take Rs.1,500, for
he is as fine a trapper as there is in the country.’”

_Copy of Testimonial from Captain Hayes’ Lucknow Class._

“We, the undersigned, wish to place on record our appreciation of
Captain M. H. Hayes’ methods of breaking horses of all kinds. The
methods are various, and are applicable to all sorts of unbroken or
refractory horses; most simple in application, and thoroughly
efficacious. Some of the subjects submitted to Captain Hayes to test his
methods, were as follows:--

     “A chestnut waler of E-A., R. H. A., would not allow itself to be
     mounted, being most violent if mounting it were attempted, in a
     short time allowed any one to mount and dismount.

     “An unbroken remount and bad buck-jumper of 17th Lancers, in the
     course of two hours, became quiet to ride and perfectly tractable.
     Ample proof was afforded of the complete control that could be
     quickly gained over any horse. A stubborn refuser of the 8th B. C.
     very soon took a delight in jumping; and a confirmed jibber of the
     17th Lancers was glad in a short time to move in any direction
     asked. These few instances we consider convincing proof of the
     great power of Captain Hayes’ system:--

    “T. A. COOKE, _Lt.-Col._, _17th Lancers_.
    B. P. PORTAL, _17th Lancers_.
    H. C. JENKINS, _Capt._, _17th Lancers_.
    C. D’AGUILAR, _17th Lancers_.
    H. MCGEE, _Capt._, _17th Lancers_.
    S. M. BENSON, _Major_, _17th Lancers_.
    C. COVENTRY, _17th Lancers_.
    A. PORTER, _Capt., B. S. C._
    J. COOK, _Bt. Lt.-Col., A. A. G._
    BARNARD SMITH, _Lt.-Col._
    F. G. POLLOCK, _8th B. C._
    R. K. RIDGEWAY, _Capt., B. S. C._
    W. P. HARRISON, _Major, G. L. I._
    G. L. EVANS, _C. S._
    G. R. GAMBIER, _Major, R. H. A._
    H. ARCHDALE, _Capt., R. W. Fus._
    H. CHAPMAN, _Col._, _8th B. C._
    J. L. ABERIGH-MACKAY, _Capt._, _8th B. C._
    R. D. LOUDON, _Capt., R. A._
    S. D. BROWN, _Lieut., R. H. A._
    G. W. BIDDULPH, _Lieut., R. H. A._
    A. H. HEWAT, _Capt., R. H. A._
    P. C. B. PEMBERTON, _Col., R. E._
    H. STEVENSON, _H. L. I._
    CHARSLEY THOMAS, _Lt.-Col._”

_Copy of Report by the Director, Army Remount Operations for India._

     “Captain Hayes visited the Saharanpore Army Reserve Remount Depôt
     on the 16th and 17th of April, 1886, and gave some lectures on
     horse-breaking, as well as proving by practical demonstration his
     power of curing horses of nervousness, and rendering them easy to
     handle. He first of all operated on a bay waler gelding that had
     only recently arrived from Australia in February last, and would
     not allow himself to be handled or approached for treatment in

     “In five hours after making him over to him, he was saddled and
     bridled, and ridden round the school by a Depôt Riding-boy.

     “A brown waler mare, which had been five months in the Depôt and
     would not allow herself to be snaffled or handled in any way, was
     then taken in hand, and in five hours was able to be saddled,
     bridled, and ridden about by Captain Hayes’ Assistant ‘Ted.’

     “I am of opinion, and so were those who witnessed his mode of
     breaking a horse of obstinacy, nervousness, vice, &c., that the
     treatment he showed us will be a valuable adjunct to those who have
     executive work to do in Remount Depôts.

     “BEN. WILLIAMS, Colonel.

     “_Director, Army Remount Operations for India._”

     SAHARANPORE, _20th April, 1886_.

_Copy of Testimonial from Colonel Truman and Officers, 7th Dragoon

     “MHOW, CENTRAL INDIA, _21st January, 1887_.

     “Having attended one of Captain Hayes’ Classes of Instruction in
     horse-breaking here, we have much pleasure in testifying to the
     excellence of the system adopted by him:--

    W. R. TRUMAN, LT.-COL., _7th Dragoon Guards_.
    J. H. BANKS, MAJOR, _7th Dragoon Guards_.
    U. G. C. DE BURGH, CAPT., _7th Dragoon Guards_.
    D. MACDOUGAL, CAPT., _7th Dragoon Guards_.
    C. W. THOMPSON, LIEUT., _7th Dragoon Guards_.
    L. A. BROOKS, LIEUT., _7th Dragoon Guards_.
    H. S. FOLLET, LIEUT., _7th Dragoon Guards_.
    B. R. DIETZ, LIEUT., _7th Dragoon Guards_.
    W. E. DANBY, LIEUT., _7th Dragoon Guards_.
    R. COOPER, LIEUT., _7th Dragoon Guards_.
    W. D. DAUNT, LIEUT., _7th Dragoon Guards_.”

_The Calcutta “Englishman,” February 19, 1886._

     “To the Editor.

     “SIR,--In the interests of humanity and in justice to Captain
     Hayes, who has so successfully introduced his system of taming
     vicious horses in Calcutta, I hope you will give publicity to the
     following case of the complete cure of a terribly vicious horse
     belonging to this company. The horse in question is a roan Kabulee,
     which has been in our possession, and worked well in a car for over
     two years, but was so savage that no European could approach him
     either in or out of his stall. Any attempt to go near him was
     always met by vigorous striking with his fore feet and biting,
     generally followed by a rush at the person nearest to him, and an
     endeavour to get his fore legs over the man’s head. He was always
     dangerous, on one occasion having savaged off a syce’s hand, and at
     another time he took off a man’s finger in one vicious snap. On
     Tuesday afternoon last I took him to Captain Hayes, who, in about
     an hour, completely cured him, and this without punishment or
     cruelty of any kind. Two simple, but ingenious contrivances were
     used, which, without hurting him in any way, prevented him from
     doing any mischief to those approaching him, and after a few
     minutes, handling by Captain Hayes, he was pronounced cured, and I
     was agreeably surprised to find that, on the removal of his gear,
     he was not only quiet but safe. I must confess to some scepticism
     at first, as to the performance of the cure, but both yesterday and
     to-day he is perfectly quiet and tame, and will not only allow
     Europeans to approach and handle him, but will follow them about
     the yard when loose. Captain Hayes has clearly demonstrated that
     jibbers, kickers, buck-jumpers, and extremely nervous horses, can
     all be cured without even being touched by the whip.


“_Managing Agent, Calcutta Tramways Company._”

_Copy of Testimonial from class held in the Royal Artillery Riding
School, Woolwich._

     “WOOLWICH, _August, 1887_.

     “We, the undersigned, having been through a course of Practical
     Instruction in Lectures given by Captain Hayes on his system of
     Breaking, Mouthing Horses, and curing them of bad habits, &c.,
     have great pleasure in certifying that we have gained much valuable
     practical knowledge. Captain Hayes gives such excellent reasons for
     all he does, that he infuses confidence into those he instructs.
     With practice any one may use his various methods with the
     probability of arriving at as great success as himself in the
     management of horses:--

    “S. PARR LYNES, _Col. Supt. Riding Estab., R.A._
    H. H. CROOKENDEN, _Major, R.A._
    H. B. JEFFREYS, _Capt. R.H.A._
    C. H. VORES, _Lieut. R.H.A._
    H. MCLAUGHLIN, _Capt. R.A_
    H. ROUSE, _Lieut. R.A._
    H. L. POWELL, _Lieut. R.A._
    CHARLES D. GUINNESS, _Lieut. R.H.A._
    J. ST. L. WHEBLE, _Capt. R.A._
    G. MCMICKING, _Lieut. R.H.A._
    HECTOR CORBYN, _Lieut. R.A._”


Aggressiveness, 242

Association of ideas, 12

Ball, Difficult to, 223

Banham, Mr., 86

Banks and ditches, 187

Bars of the mouth, 46, 65

Baucher, 56

Bearing-reins, 55

Begging, 259

Bending the neck to the rein, 49

Biting, 242

Blew, Mr., 74

Blindfolding, 107

Boring, 216

Bowing, 260

Boy, 10

Bridle, difficult to, 112, 223

Bridle, suitability of horse to the, 46

Bridle twitch, 118

Bridling horse for first time, 171

Buck-jumpers, 203, 222

’Bus horse, 12

Capped Knee, 101

Carrying head and neck, 44

Cart horses, 12

Catch, difficult to, 251

Causes of faults, 2

Chance of doing wrong, 23

“Chancing” fences, 230

Chucking up the head, 217

Circling, 172, 260

Coercion, 23

Collar, 42

Comanche bridle, 262, 263

Coming up to call, 261

Control, horse, 77

Cowkicking, 105

Cruiser, 17

Crupper leading-rein, 148

Curbs, 68

Defeats, 20

Defence, 60

Deliberate vice, 3

Difficult to ball, 223

   “       “ bridle, 112

   “       “ catch, 251

   “       “ dismount from, 223

   “       “ drench, 223

   “       “ handle, 223

   “       “ harness, 233

   “       “ mount, 10, 12, 223

   “       “ put into train, 225

   “       “ shoe, 225

Difficult to unharness, 235

Direction of pull of the reins, 50

Dismount from, difficult to, 223

Docile, rendering horses, 147

Dogs, 28

Doing wrong, not getting a chance of, 23

Double hitch Buonaparte bridle, 114

Double sheet-bend, 136

Drench, difficult to, 223

Driving newly-broken horse, 247

Driving pad, 166

Dumb jockeys, 69

“Dwelling” on his stride, 51

Elastic reins, 69

Esa, Mr., 118

Expedition in breaking, 33

Fatigue, 25

Fanchion, 114, 151

Fence, riding at a, 59

Fences, running out at, 231

  “   , rushing at, 232

Field, the, 256

Fighting the horse, 37

Finish of a race, 51

Fire, unsteady under, 226

First step, 32

Fixing hind quarters, 60

Following, 261

Foreleg, holding up, 96

  “    , lifting up, 93, 94, 96

  “    , taking up, 88

  “    , tying up, 99, 102

Frasier, Mr., 113

Gagging a horse, 143

Gag, wooden, 145

Gateacre, Colonel, 143

“Game,” nervous horses not, 6

Gear, improvised, 272

Gentling hind leg, 135

Gentling neck, 81, 88

Gentling the horse, 151

Going level, 51

Good hands, 65

Good mouth chief requirement, 30

Groom, 28, 29

Ground, keeping horse on the, 157

Haltering, Pratt’s Method of, 86

Halter, rope, 78

Halter twitch, 108

Haltering loose horse, 80

Hamilton, 153

Hands, good, 65

Handle, difficult to, 223

Hanging against the pole, 236

  “     on the headstall, 251

Handkerchief, picking up a, 268

Hard pulling, 66

Harness, breaking to, 212

  “    , difficult to, 233

  “    , faults in, 233

  “    , lying down in, 240

  “    , plunging when starting in, 241

Head and neck, carrying the, 44

Head and tail, tying the, 197, 206

Head, chucking up the, 217

  “ , position of the, 66

Headstall, hanging on the, 251

Headstall twitch, 117, 118

Hickman, Colonel, 74, 249

Hind-leg, gentling, 135

  “   “ , lifting up, 126, 135

Hind-quarters, fixing, 60

Hippo-lasso, 119

Hobble, improvising a, 143

Holding horse down, 165

Holding up fore-leg, 96

Horse-breaking, object of, 1

  “     “     , scope of, 14

  “     “     , value of, 14

Horse-control, 77

How it is done, 32

Idiocy, 21

Improvised gear, 272

Instinct, 7

Intelligence of the horse, 9

Jibbing, 18, 19, 60, 227, 236

Jump, teaching to, 188

Jumping faults, 230

Jumping over another horse, 261

Jumping too slowly, 230

Keeping a horse on the ground, 157

Kemp, Mr., 217

Kicker, touching a, 7

Kicking, 238, 244, 252

Kicking at night, 252

Kicking from nervousness, 4

Kindness, 36

Kissing, 265

Ladies’ horses, breaking, 209

Laughing, 265

Leach, Mr., 96

Leading-rein, crupper, 148

Leg, outward, 56

Leg strap, Rarey’s, 99

  “   “  , stirrup leather, 105

Lie down, making a horse, 153

Lifting up fore-leg, 93, 94, 96

  “      “ hind-leg, 126

Linguist, 10

Litter, pawing back the, 256

Log for jumping, 188

Loose horse, haltering, 80

Lunging, 64

Lying down, 265

Lying down in harness, 240

Magner, 151, 218

Making horse lie down, 153

Manners, testing, 271

Martingale, running, 52

  “       , standing, 70

Mathematician, 10

Memory of the horse, 9

Mental qualities of the horse, 7

Methods of breaking, various, 29

Military exigencies, 34

  “      riding, 52

Mitchell, Mr., 239

Moore, Mr. J. H., 174, 190, 249

Mount, difficult to, 12, 223

Mounting, Australian method, 204

  “      horse for first time, 197

Mouth, 30

  “  , faults of, 216

  “  , testing, 271

Mouthing gear, 166

  “     , on foot, 172

  “     , principles of, 41

Mouth-piece, action of, 47

Muscles of the neck, 44, 45

Mutton fist, 67

Neck, gentling, 81, 88

Neck muscles, 44, 45

Neck, scratching the, 81

Nervousness, 3, 18, 226

Newmarket, 65, 179

Night, kicking at, 252

  “  , pawing at, 256

“No!”, 266

Noosing fore-leg, 93

Nose-bands, 76

Obeying the rein, 41

Obeying without reins, 265

Obey, making horse, 37

Object of horse-breaking, 1

Ordinary method of breaking, 35

Outward leg, 56

Pad, driving, 166

Pallin, Mr., 224, 256

Pawing at night, 256

Pawing back the litter, 256

Peat, General, 146

Permanency of breaking, 31, 35

Personal influence, 28

Petting horses, 10

Plunging when starting in harness, 241

Pole, gentling with the, 81, 88, 93

  “ , hanging against the, 236

  “ , pulling away from the, 241

Polo, savaging at, 245

  “ , shying off the ball at, 220

Possibility of overcoming any vice, 16

Pratt, Mr., 113, 151, 218

Pratt’s method of haltering, 86

  “     twitch, 113

Principle of rendering horses docile, 38

Pulling, 66, 218

Pulling away from the pole, 241

  “     successfully, 42

Punishment, 24

Quick breaking, 33

Quiet to ride, 37

Raabe and Lunel, 119

Racing snaffle, thin, 69

Ranks, refusing to quit the, 229

Rarey, 15, 17

Rareyfying, 24

Rarey’s leg strap, 99

Rawlins, Colonel, 93

Rearing, 60, 219

Reasoning, 8, 17

Refusing, 231

Rein-bearers, 171

Rein, getting tail over the, 235

Reining back, 63

Rein, obeying the, 41

Reins, 171

Reins, pull of the, 50

Rideable and driveable, 22

Riding newly-broken horse, 247

River, 13

Rockwell, Mr., 151, 267

Rope-halter, 78

Rope-twitch, 113

  “    “   , advantages of, 112

Rough and ready method, 37

Rubbing the tail, 256

Running martingale, 52

Running out at fences, 231

Running reins, 55

Rushing at fences, 232

Saddling horse for first time, 171

Salkeld, Colonel, 266

Sample, Professor, 19, 22, 190, 208, 267

Saunders, Mr., 102

Savage, young, 39

Savaging, 244

Savaging at polo, 245

Saving the mouth, 49, 50, 67, 68

Scope of breaking, 14

Scratching horse’s neck, 81

See-sawing on a plank, 269

Self-preservation, 10

Shaking hands, 269

Shaking the head, 270

Sheet bend, double, 136

Shoe, difficult to, 225

Short tail, tying rope to, 143

Shying, 220

Shying off the ball at polo, 220

Side reins, 55

Sleeping standing, 258

Snaffles, 68

Spoiled horses, 34, 36

Sprinter bar, tying tail to, 240

Stable vices, 251

Standing behind breaker, 78

Standing martingale, 70

Stand still, making horse, 86

Stargazing, 53, 220

“Steady!”, 111

Stirrup leather for leg strap, 105

Strait jacket, 118

  “      “   , throwing with the, 152

Striking out in front, 246

Stubbornness, 18

Suitability of horse to bridle, 47

Sulking, 158

Sulky horse, 24

Sword, unsteady with a, 220

Tail over the rein, getting the, 235

Tail, rubbing the, 256

Tail, short, 143

  “   to sprinter bar, tying 240

  “   with tape, tying, 257

Taking up fore-leg, 88

  “     “ hind-leg, 126

Tape, tying tail with, 257

Teaching horses tricks, 10, 259

Temper, testing, 271

Tender mouthed, 220

Testing manners, 271

  “     mouth, 271

  “     temper, 271

Then and there, 36

Thin racing snaffle, 69

Throwing with strait jacket, 152

Tiring in the gallop, 51

Touched, nervous of being, 226

Touching a kicker, 7

Train, difficult to put into, 225

Turn, difficult to, 221

  “ , teaching to, 56

Turning, 59

Twitch, bridle, 118

  “   , headstall, 117, 118

  “   , ordinary, 112, 113

  “   , Pratt’s, 113

Twitch, rope, 113

Tying up fore-leg, 99, 102

Unharness, difficult to, 235

Value of breaking, 14

Various methods, 29

Vice, deliberate, 3

Vice in the horse, 3

Vices, 20

  “  , stable, 251

Voice, 27

Waltzing, 270

Wardrop, Colonel, 74, 182

Whip, undue fear of, 241

  “ , unsteady with the, 226

White’s Veterinary Art, 54

Without reins, obeying, 267

“Yawing,” 221

“Yes,” 270

Yield, making the horse, 11

Young horses, 43

  “   savage, 39




       *       *       *       *       *

_Capt. Hayes’ Books on Horses._



     A Handbook of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, written in popular
     language. Fourth Edition, Revised and Enlarged, with Additional
     Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 10_s._ 6_d._

[_In the press._

     “Of the many popular veterinary books which have come under our
     notice, this is certainly one of the most scientific and reliable.
     Some notice is accorded to nearly all the diseases which are common
     to horses in this country, and the writer takes advantage of his
     Indian experience to touch upon several maladies of horses in that
     country, where veterinary surgeons are few and far between.”--_The

     “The work is written in a clear and practical way.”--_Saturday

     “The book leaves nothing to be desired on the score of lucidity and
     comprehensiveness.”--_Veterinary Journal._

     “The present edition is nearly double the size of the first one,
     and the additional articles are well and clearly written, and much
     increase the value of the work. We do not think that horse-owners
     in general are likely to find a more reliable and useful book for
     guidance in an emergency.”--_The Field._

RIDING: on the Flat and Across Country.

     A Guide to Practical Horsemanship. Illustrated by STURGESS. Third
     Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Imperial 16mo. 10_s._ 6_d._ [_In the

     “The book is one that no man who has ever sat in a saddle can fail
     to read with interest.”--_Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News._

     “A master of his subject.”--_Standard._

     “An excellent book on riding.”--_Truth._

     “It has, however, been reserved for Captain Hayes to write what in
     our opinion will be generally accepted as the most comprehensive,
     enlightened, and ‘all round’ work on riding; bringing to bear, as
     he does, not only his own great experience, but the advice and
     practice of many of the best recognized horsemen of the
     period.”--_The Sporting Life._

     “An eminently practical teacher, whose theories are the outcome of
     experience, learned not in the study, but on the road, in the
     hunting-field, and on the racecourse.”--_Baily’s Magazine._

       *       *       *       *       *

_Cap. Hayes’ Books on Horses._


Fourth Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo. 8_s._ 6_d._

     “We entertain a very high opinion of Captain Hayes’ book on Horse
     Training and Management in India, and are of opinion that no better
     guide could be placed in the hands of either amateur horseman or
     veterinary surgeon newly arrived in that important division of our
     empire.”--_The Veterinary Journal._

     “A useful guide in regard to horses anywhere ... Concise,
     practical, and portable.”--_Saturday Review._

     “We have always been able to commend Captain Hayes’ books as being
     essentially practical, and written in understandable language. As
     trainer, owner, and rider of horses on the flat and over country,
     the author has had a wide experience, and when to this is added
     competent veterinary knowledge, it is clear that Captain Hayes is
     entitled to attention when he speaks.”--_The Field._


With 52 Plates by J. H. OSWALD BROWN. Uniform with “Riding.” 21_s._


     A Veterinary and Legal Guide to the Examination of Horses for
     Soundness. By Capt. M. H. HAYES. With upwards of 100 Illustrations.
     Crown 8vo. 8_s._ 6_d._

     “‘Soundness and Age of Horses’ is more technical, and shows that
     Captain Hayes has not confined his experiences of horses to the
     mere riding of them. All who have horses to buy, sell, or keep,
     will find plenty to interest them in this manual, which is full of
     illustrations, and still fuller of hints and ‘wrinkles.’”--_The

     “Captain Hayes’ work is evidently the result of much careful
     research, and the horseman, as well as the veterinarian, will find
     in it much that is interesting and instructive.”--_The Field._

       *       *       *       *       *

_Capt. Hayes’ Books on Horses._


     Being Anecdotes of Men, Horses, and Sport. Illustrated with
     Twenty-two Portraits and a number of smaller Engravings. Imperial
     16mo. 8_s._ 6_d._

     “All sportsmen who can appreciate a book on racing, written in a
     chatty style and full of anecdote, will like Captain Hayes’ latest
     work. In this book, as in his others, Captain Hayes shows himself a
     thorough master of his subject, and has so skilfully interwoven
     technicalities, history, and anecdote, that the last page comes all
     too soon.”--_The Field._

     “No racing reminiscences have ever been recorded so graphically,
     with such a loving lingering over the days that were, and with such
     a wide personal acquaintance with the horses, the men, and the
     times, as Captain Hayes has done in his new book.”--_The Indian
     Planter’s Gazette._


Crown 8vo. 6_s._

     “Captain Hayes’ book deals exclusively with tactics, and is a
     well-considered treatise on that branch of the art of war, giving
     not merely rules, but also principles and reasons. We would
     particularly draw attention to the chapter on the defensive, which
     subject is treated with more fulness than is usually found in
     English books.... A valuable chapter on machine-guns winds up the
     work.”--_The Times._


     =THE HORSEWOMAN.= A Practical Guide for Ladies in the Art of Riding.
     Illustrated. By M. H. and A. M. HAYES. Imperial 16mo.

     =THE POINTS OF THE HORSE.= A Familiar Treatise on Equine
     Conformation. Describing the Points in which the perfection of each
     class of Horses consists. Illustrated by numerous Drawings from
     Photographs and exact measurements of Living Typical Animals.
     Illustrated by J. H. OSWALD BROWN. Oblong 4to.

       *       *       *       *       *







_January, 1889._

       *       *       *       *       *


In Imperial 16mo. Uniform with Hayes’ “Riding: on the Flat and Across
Country,” “Hindu Mythology,” &c.

_Handsomely bound. Rs. 10._ (12_s._ 6_d._)


With Hints on the Stable.



_With 91 Illustrations drawn expressly for the Work by A. Chantrey


This able and beautiful volume will form a Standard on the Subject, and
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understood by the following:


    I. Ought Children to Ride?
   II. “For Mothers & Children.”
  III. First Hints to a Learner.
   IV. Selecting a Mount.
    V., VI. The Lady’s Dress.
  VII. Bitting.  VIII Saddling.
   IX. How to Sit, Canter, &c.
    X. Reins, Voice, and Whip.
   XI. Riding on the Road.
  XII. Paces, Vices, and Faults.
 XIII. A Lesson in Leaping.
  XIV. Managing Refusers.
   XV. Falling.
  XVI. Hunting Outfit Considered.
 XVII. Economy in Riding Dress.
XVIII. Hacks and Hunters.
  XIX. In the Hunting Field.
   XX. Shoeing.  XXI. Feeding.
 XXII. Stabling. XXIII. Doctoring.
 XXIV. Breeding. XXV. “Tips.”

“When there may arise differences of opinion as to some of the
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may feel assured she will not go far astray in accepting what is said by
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brush.’’ ‘‘Riding for Ladies’’ is certain to become a classic.””

--_New York Sportsman._

       *       *       *       *       *






Handsomely Bound. _Rs. 10._ _Cash Rs. 9._ (12_s._ 6_d._)

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       *       *       *       *       *



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       *       *       *       *       *



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       *       *       *       *       *



In One Volume, 8vo. WITH ILLUSTRATIONS. _Rs. 16._ (25_s._)

A Text Book of Medical Jurisprudence for India.

BY I. B. LYON, F.C.S., F.I.C.,

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       *       *       *       *       *








In Imperial 16mo. Uniform with “Riding,” “Riding for Ladies,” “Hindu
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BY R. A. STERNDALE, F.R.G.S., F.Z.S., &c.,




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       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration: (_Reduced from Original._)]



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       *       *       *       *       *


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In Demy 4to. Thirty Plates and Map. _Rs. 25._ (£2 2_s._)




[Illustration: _Reduced from the Photo-Lithographed Original._]

     “Colonel Kinloch, who has killed most kinds of Indian game, small
     and great, relates incidents of his varied sporting experiences in
     chapters, which are each descriptive of a different animal. The
     photo-gravures of the heads of many of the animals, from the grand
     gaur, popularly miscalled the bison, downwards, are extremely
     clever and spirited.”--_Times._

       *       *       *       *       *


Splendidly Illustrated Book of Sport. In Demy 4to; _Rs. 25_; elegantly
bound. (£2 2_s._) Thirty Plates and a Map.

     =Large Game Shooting in Thibet, the Himalayas=, and Northern India.
     By Colonel ALEXANDER A. KINLOCH. Containing descriptions of the
     country and of the various animals to be found; together with
     extracts from a journal of several years’ standing. With thirty
     illustrations and map of the district.

     “An attractive volume, full of sporting adventures in the valleys
     and forest hills extending along the foot of the Himalayas. Its
     pages are also interesting for the graphic description they give of
     the beasts of the field, the cunning instinct which they show in
     guarding their safety, the places which they choose for their lair,
     and the way in which they show their anger when at bay. Colonel
     Kinloch writes on all these subjects in a genuine and
     straightforward style, aiming at giving a complete description of
     the habits and movements of the game.”--_British Mail._

     “If Carlyle had ever condescended to notice sport and sportsmen he
     might probably have invented some curious and expressive phrase for
     the author of this book. It is the work of a genuine Shikhari. The
     heads have been admirably reproduced by the photograph. The spiral
     or curved horns, the silky hair, the fierce glance, the massive
     jaws, the thick neck of deer, antelope, yak or bison, are realistic
     and superior to anything that we can remember in any bookshelf full
     of Indian sport.”--_Saturday Review._

     “The splendidly illustrated record of sport. The photo-gravures,
     especially the heads of the various antelopes, are lifelike: and
     the letterpress is very pleasant reading.”--_Graphic._

     =Indian Notes about Dogs=: their Diseases and Treatment. By Major
     C----. Third Edition, Revised. Fcap. 8vo., cloth. _Rs. 1-8._

     =Indian Horse Notes=: an Epitome of useful Information. By Major
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     Enlarged. Fcap. 8vo., cloth. _Rs. 2._

     =Horse-Breeding and Rearing in India=: with Notes on Training for the
     Flat and Across Country; and on Purchase, Breaking-in, and General
     Management. By Major J. Humfrey. Crown 8vo. _Rs. 3-8._ (6_s._)

     =Useful Hints to Young Shikaris on the Gun and Rifle.= By “THE LITTLE
     OLD BEAR.” Reprinted from the _Asian_. Crown 8vo. _Rs. 2-8._

       *       *       *       *       *


Rudyard Kipling’s Stories in Prose and Verse.

_Crown 8vo. Rs. 4._ (6_s._)



Author of “Departmental Ditties and other Verses.”

     “There are rattling stories of flirtation and sport, with a good
     deal of the Lever swing; there are funny stories of practical jokes
     and sells, full of the irresponsible vivacity of the youngsters
     whom such toys delight; and there are sad little stories of deeper
     things, told with no affectation of solemnity, but rather more
     throat-lumping for that.”--_Sunday Times._

     “They sparkle with fun; they are full of life, merriment and
     humour.”--_Allen’s Indian Mail._”

     “We have seen entertainers who, with nothing but a piano and a
     decanter of water, could move an audience to laughter and tears for
     a whole evening; and Mr. Rudyard Kipling’s skill as a raconteur
     irresistibly reminds us of such feats.”--_Broad Arrow._

_In square 32mo.; 4s. 6d._





     “They reflect with light gaiety the thoughts and feelings of actual
     men and women, and are true as well as clever.... Mr. KIPLING
     achieves the feat of making Anglo-Indian society flirt and intrigue
     visibly before our eyes.... His book gives hope of a new literary
     star of no mean magnitude rising in the east.”--_Sir W. W. Hunter
     in The Academy._

     “As for that terrible, scathing piece, “The Story of Uriah,” we
     know of nothing with which to compare it, and one cannot help the
     wretched feeling that it is true.... ‘In Spring Time’ is the most
     pathetic lament of an exile we know in modern poetry.”--_Graphic._

       *       *       *       *       *


Crown 8vo. Uniform with “Veterinary Notes.” _Rs. 6._ (8_s._ 6_d._)




_A Complete Guide to all those features which require attention when
purchasing Horses, distinguishing mere defects from the symptoms of
unsoundness; with explicit instructions how to conduct an examination of
the various parts._







       *       *       *       *       *

Uniform with “Riding,” &c. (21 _s._)



Capt. M. H. HAYES.


1. Theory of Horse Breaking.

2. Principles of Mounting.

3. Horse Control.

4. Rendering Docile.

5. Giving Good Mouths.

6. Teaching to Jump.

7. Mount for First Time.

8. Breaking for Ladies’

9. Breaking to Harness.

10. Faults of Mouth.

11. Nervousness and Impatience.

12. Jibbing.

13. Jumping Faults.

14. Faults in Harness.

15. Aggressiveness.

16. Riding and Driving
  Newly-broken Horse.

17. Stable Vices.


       *       *       *       *       *

Uniform with “Lays of Ind,” “Hindu Mythology,” &c. _Third Edition.
Revised and Enlarged. Imperial 16mo. Rs. 7-8._ (10_s._ 6_d._)








Third Edition. Enlarged. _Rs. 7-8._ (10_s._ 6_d._) In the Press.




_Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News._--“The book is one that no man
who has ever sat in a saddle can fail to read with interest.”

_The Field._--“The general directions are in most cases in accordance
with our own opinions; and Mr. Hayes has supplemented his own experience
of race-riding by resorting to Tom Cannon, Fordham, and other well-known
jockeys for illustration. ‘The Guide’ is, on the whole, thoroughly
reliable; and both the illustrations and the printing do credit to the

_The Sporting Life._--“It has, however, been reserved for Captain Hayes
to write what in our opinion will be generally accepted as the most
comprehensive, enlightened, and ‘all round’ work on riding, bringing to
bear as he does not only his own great experience, but the advice and
practice of many of the best recognized horsemen of the period.”


_Society._--“The whole book is written in a style eminently suited to
the subject.”

_Athenæum._--“Is an eminently sensible and useful manual.... Is in all
respects satisfactory.”

_Scotsman._--“A thoroughly practical treatise.”

_Graphic._--“Is as practical as Captain Horace Hayes’ ‘Veterinary Notes’
and ‘Guide to Horse Management in India.’ Greater praise than this it is
impossible to give.”

_Vanity Fair._--“Three-fourths of those who indulge in what they call
riding in Hyde Park would do well to learn this book by heart.”

       *       *       *       *       *



Third Edition, thoroughly revised and with many new Illustrations.


_A Handbook of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, written in Popular



_Saturday Review._--“The work is written in a clear and practical way.”


_The Field._--“Of the many popular veterinary books which have come
under our notice, this is certainly one of the most scientific and
reliable. The author tells us, in the preface to the first edition, that
any merit which the book may possess is to be ascribed to the teaching
of the Principal and Professors of the New Veterinary College at
Edinburgh, where he studied. It is much to be desired that every student
would make as much use of his opportunities as Capt. Hayes has done.

“Some notice is accorded to nearly all the diseases which are common to
horses in this country, and the writer takes advantage of his Indian
experience to touch upon several maladies of horses in that country,
where veterinary surgeons are few and far between. The description of
symptoms and the directions for the application of remedies are given in
perfectly plain terms, which the tyro will find no difficulty in
comprehending; and, for the purpose of further smoothing his path, a
chapter is given on veterinary medicines, their actions, uses, and
doses. This information will be most acceptable to the majority of
horse-owners, and may be invaluable in an emergency when no advice
better than that of the village cow doctor can be obtained.”

       *       *       *       *       *


In Imperial 16mo. Illustrated. _Rs. 6._ (8_s._ 6_d._)




Illustrated with Twenty-Two Portraits and a Number of Smaller



“Such a useful work as this cannot fail to be useful and interesting
both in England and the Colonies.”--_Indian Daily News._

“Captain Hayes has done wisely in publishing these lively sketches of
life in India. The book is full of racy anecdote, and the author writes
so kindly of his brother officers and the sporting planters with whom he
came into contact, that one cannot help admiring the genial and happy
temperament of the author. He is well known as an authority on
everything connected with the horse and horse-racing.”--_Bell’s Life._

“In this book, as in his others, Captain Hayes shows himself a thorough
master of his subject, and has so skilfully interwoven technicalities,
history, and anecdote, that the last page comes all too soon. All
sportsmen who can appreciate a book on racing, written in a chatty style
and full of anecdote, will like Captain Hayes’ latest work.”--_Field._

Fourth Edition. Revised. Crown 8vo. _Rs. 6._ (8_s._ 6_d._)



“No better guide could be placed in the hands of either amateur horseman
or veterinary surgeon.”--_The Veterinary Journal._

“A useful guide in regard to horses anywhere.... Concise, practical, and
portable.”--_Saturday Review._

       *       *       *       *       *


The Second Edition, Revised, and with additional Illustrations by the
Author. Post 8vo. _Rs. 6._ (8_s._ 6_d._)




A Tale of Indian Adventure.




Illustrated by the Author.

With a Map and an Appendix containing a brief Topographical and
Historical account of the District of Seonee in the Central Provinces of

       *       *       *       *       *


Uniform with “Lays of Ind,” “Riding,” &c. _Rs. 7-8._ (10_s._ 6_d._)






_Illustrated by One Hundred Engravings chiefly from Drawings by Native



     “His aim has been to give a faithful account of the Hindu deities
     such as an intelligent native would himself give, and he has
     endeavoured, in order to achieve his purpose, to keep his mind free
     from prejudice or theological bias. To help to completeness he has
     included a number of drawings of the principal deities, executed by
     native artists. The author has attempted a work of no little
     ambition and has succeeded in his attempt, the volume being one of
     great interest and usefulness; and not the less so because he has
     strictly refrained from diluting his facts with comments of his
     own. It has numerous illustrations.”--_Home News._

     “Mr. Wilkins has done his work well, with an honest desire to state
     facts apart from all theological prepossession, and his volume is
     likely to be a useful book of reference.”--_Guardian._

     “In Mr. Wilkins’ book we have an illustrated manual, the study of
     which will lay a solid foundation for more advanced knowledge,
     while it will furnish those who may have the desire without having
     the time or opportunity to go further into the subject, with a
     really extensive stock of accurate information.”--_Indian Daily

       *       *       *       *       *




Poems Illustrative of Anglo-Indian Life.


_Eighth Edition. Cloth, gilt. Rs. 7-8._ (10_s._ 6_d._)


     “This is a remarkably bright little book. ‘Aliph Cheem,’ supposed
     to be the _nom de plume_ of an officer in the 18th Hussars, is,
     after his fashion, an Indian Bon Gaultier. In a few of the poems
     the jokes, turning on local names and customs, are somewhat
     esoteric; but, taken throughout, the verses are characterized by
     high animal spirits, great cleverness, and most excellent
     fooling.”--_The World._

     “Aliph Cheem presents us in this volume with some highly amusing
     ballads and songs, which have already in a former edition warmed
     the hearts and cheered the lonely hours of many an Anglo-Indian,
     the pictures being chiefly those of Indian life. There is no
     mistaking the humour, and at times, indeed, the fun is both ‘fast
     and furious.’ Many portions remind us of the ‘Bab Ballads.’ One can
     readily imagine the merriment created round the camp fire by the
     recitation of ‘The Two Thumpers,’ which is irresistibly droll....
     The edition before us is enlarged, and contains illustrations by
     the author, in addition to which it is beautifully printed and
     handsomely got up, all which recommendations are sure to make the
     name of Aliph Cheem more popular in India than ever.”--_Liverpool

       *       *       *       *       *


Reviews of “Lays of Ind.”

     “The ‘Lays’ are not only Anglo-Indian in origin, but out-and-out
     Anglo-Indian in subject and colour. To one who knows something of
     life at an Indian ‘station’ they will be especially amusing. Their
     exuberant fun at the same time may well attract the attention of
     the ill-defined individual known as ‘the general


     “To many Anglo-Indians the lively verses of ‘Aliph Cheem’ must be
     very well known, while to those who have not yet become acquainted
     with them we can only say read them on the first opportunity. To
     those not familiar with Indian life they may be specially commended
     for the picture which they give of many of its lighter incidents
     and conditions, and of several of its ordinary personages.... We
     have read the volume with real pleasure, and we have only to add
     that it is nicely printed and elegantly finished, and that it has
     several charming woodcuts, of which some are by the author, whom
     Indian gossip, by the way, has identified with Captain Yeldham, of
     the 18th Hussars.”--_Bath Chronicle._

     “Satire of the most amusing and inoffensive kind, humour the most
     genuine, and pathos the most touching pervade these ‘Lays of Ind.’
     ... From Indian friends we have heard of the popularity these
     ‘Lays’ have obtained in the land where they were written, and we
     predict for them a popularity equally great at home.”--_Monthly
     Homœopathic Review._

     “The author, although assuming a _nom de plume_, is recognised as a
     distinguished cavalry officer, possessed of a vivid imagination and
     a sense of humour amounting sometimes to rollicking and contagious
     fun. Many of his ‘Lays’ suggest recollections of some of the best
     pieces in the ‘Ingoldsby Legends,’ or in the ‘Biglow Papers’ of
     Russell Lowell, while revealing a character of their
     own.”--_Capital and Labour._

       *       *       *       *       *


THE CLOSE OF THE LAST CENTURY._ Post 8vo. _Rs. 6._ (8_s._ 6_d._)


Door of Black Hole.       Grated Windows.


       *       *       *       *       *


In Post 8vo, uniform with “Seonee.” _Rs. 6._ (8_s._ 6_d._)






     “We hear that Dr. H. E. BUSTEED, whose charming little book on ‘Old
     Calcutta’ commanded a deserved popularity among Indian readers, is
     now engaged in his retirement at home in bringing out a new
     edition, which will be much amplified, and illustrated by portraits
     of ladies and gentlemen of the settlement who were local
     celebrities a century ago. Dr. BUSTEED has devoted himself to
     research with indefatigable industry, and fortunately his literary
     style is as graceful and entertaining as his knowledge is profound
     and accurate.”--_Calcutta Englishman._

     “It is a pleasure to reiterate the warm commendation of this
     instructive and lively volume which its appearance called forth
     some few years since. It would be lamentable if a book so fraught
     with interest to all Englishmen should be restricted to
     Anglo-Indian circles. A fresh instalment of letters from Warren
     Hastings to his wife must be noted as extremely interesting, while
     the papers on Sir Philip Francis, Nuncomar, and the romantic career
     of Mrs. Grand, who became Princess Benevento and the wife of
     Talleyrand, ought by now to be widely known.”--_Saturday Review._

     “Dr. Busteed has unearthed some astonishing revelations of what
     European Life in India resembled a century back. Perhaps for the
     first time has the Black Hole drama been told in a way fully to
     bring home to the mind the appalling nature of the sufferings
     undergone by our countrymen and countrywomen.”--_Daily Telegraph._


  IV.--           “                      2. NUNCOMAR.
   V.--           “                      3. DUEL BETWEEN FRANCIS AND HASTINGS.
  VI.--           “                      4. HOME AND SOCIAL LIFE.

       *       *       *       *       *







8vo, folding lengthways for the Pocket, Rs. 10. (15_s._)

       *       *       *       *       *








8vo, folding
lengthways for
the Pocket,
Rs. 10. (15_s._)



     “Compact in form, excellent in method and arrangement, and, as far
     as we have been able to test it, rigidly accurate.”--_Knowledge._

     “Will be a source of great delight, as every ornithological detail
     is given, in conjunction with the most artistic and exquisite
     drawings.”--_Home News._

       *       *       *       *       *


_With Description of a Planter’s Life and Resources. By_ W. M. READ.
_With Nineteen Illustrations by the Author._ Rs. 5. (7_s._ 6_d._)


     “A concise and readable manual, not only of everything relating to
     the industry, but of the whole round of business and recreation
     that makes up the Planter’s life.... The writer is at once accurate
     and graphic, and on the strength merely of reading these bright
     pages one almost feels competent to take full charge of a

       *       *       *       *       *


_300 Illustrations. Imperial 16mo._ _Rs. 10._ (12_s._ 6_d._)

Uniform with “Lays of Ind,” “Hindu Mythology,” “Riding,” “Natural
History of the Mammalia of India,” &c.






     “It is the first special book of portable size and moderate price
     which has been devoted to Indian Ferns, and is in every way
     deserving of the extensive circulation it is sure to

     “I have just seen a new work on Indian Ferns which will prove
     vastly interesting, not only to the Indian people, but to the
     botanists of this country.”--_Indian Daily News._

     “‘The Ferns of India.’ This is a good book, being of a useful and
     trustworthy character. The species are familiarly described, and
     most of them illustrated by small figures.”--_Gardeners’

     “Those interested in botany will do well to procure a new work on
     the ‘Ferns of British India.’ The work will prove a first-class
     text book.”--_Free Press._



       *       *       *       *       *


Crown 8vo. _Rs. 5-8._ (7_s._ 6_d._)





This book aims at conveying to all interested in India and the tea
industry an entertaining and useful account of the topographical
features of Assam; the strange surroundings--human and animal--of the
European resident; the trying climate; the daily life of the planter;
and general details of the formation and working of tea gardens.

“Mr. Barker has supplied us with a very good and readable description,
accompanied by numerous illustrations drawn by himself. What may be
called the business parts of the book are of most value.”--_Contemporary

“Cheery, well-written little book.”--_Graphic._

“A very interesting and amusing book, artistically illustrated from
sketches drawn by the author.”--_Mark Lane Express._

A Complete List of Indian Tea Gardens, Indigo Concerns, Silk Filatures,
Sugar Factories, Cinchona Concerns, and Coffee Estates; with their
Capital, Directors, Proprietors, Agents, Managers, Assistants, &c., and
their Factory Marks by which the chests may be identified in the market.
5_s._ (_Rs. 3._) With Supplement containing List of CEYLON TEA GARDENS
with their Acreage. 6_s._ (_Rs. 3-8._)

“The strong point of the book is the reproduction of the factory marks,
which are presented side by side with the letterpress. To buyers of tea
and other Indian products on this side, the work needs no
recommendation.”--_British Trade Journal._

Ceylon Tea Estates, a List of, with their Districts and Acreage under
Tea. Compiled by W. STRAFORD. 8vo. 1_s._ 6_d._ (_Rs. 1._)

       *       *       *       *       *


Fourth Edition, Crown 8vo. (_in preparation_).







_Editor of “The Indian Agriculturist._”




     Chap. I.--Climate--Soils--Manures.

     Chap. II.--Laying-out a Garden--Lawns--Hedges--Hoeing and

     Chap. III.--Seeds--Seed Sowing--Pot
     Culture--Planting--Cuttings--Layers--Gootee--Grafting and
     Inarching--Budding--Pruning and Root Pruning--Conveyance.

     Chap. IV.--Calendar of Operations.



1. Culinary Vegetables.

2. Dessert Fruits.

3. Edible Nuts.

4. Ornamental Annuals.

5. Ornamental Trees, Shrubs,
  and Herbaceous Perennials.

Crown 8vo, cloth. _Rs. 2-8._



And various Recipes connected with the above subjects
   which are not commonly found in Recipe Books.

       *       *       *       *       *


Complete in One Volume, _Rs. 5_ (7_s._ 6_d._); Interleaved, _Rs. 5-8._
(8_s._ 6_d._)








Crown 8vo. _Rs. 5._ (7_s._ 6_d._)




1. Origin and Character of Soils,--2. Ploughing and Preparing for
Seed.--3. Manures and Composts.--4. Wheat Cultivation.--5. Barley.--6.
Oats.--7. Rye.--8. Rice.--9. Maize.--10. Sugar-producing Sorghums.--11.
Common Sorghums.--12. Sugarcane.--13. Oil Seed.--14. Field Pea
Crops.--15. Dall or Pulse.--16. Root Crops.--17. Cold Spice.--18.
Fodder.--19. Water-Nut.--20. Ground-Nut.--21. Rush-Nut or Chufas.--22.
Cotton.--23. Tobacco.--24. Mensuration.--Appendix.


     “A work of extreme practical value.”--_Home News._

     “Mr. Pogson’s advice may be profitably followed by both native and
     European agriculturists, for it is eminently practical and devoid
     of empiricism. His little volume embodies the teaching of a large
     and varied experience, and deserves to be warmly
     supported.”--_Madras Mail._

       *       *       *       *       *


Prepared for the use of the Survey Department of India, and published
under the authority of the Government of India.

Royal 8vo. _Rs. 16._ (30_s._ 0_d._)










       *       *       *       *       *


Eighth Edition. Crown 8vo. _Rs. 7._ (10_s._ 6_d._)



_Surgeon-Major, Bengal Establishment._


     _Dr. Goodeve._--“I have no hesitation in saying that the present
     edition is for many reasons superior to its predecessors. It is
     written very carefully, and with much knowledge and experience on
     the author’s part, whilst it possesses the great advantage of
     bringing up the subject to the present level of Medical Science.”

     _The Medical Times and Gazette_, in an article upon this work and
     Moore’s “Family Medicine for India,” says:--“The two works before
     us are in themselves probably about the best examples of medical
     works written for non-professional readers. The style of each is
     simple, and as free as possible from technical expressions. The
     modes of treatment recommended are generally those most likely to
     yield good results in the hands of laymen; and throughout each
     volume the important fact is kept constantly before the mind of the
     reader, that the volume he is using is but a poor substitute for
     personal professional advice, for which it must be discarded
     whenever there is the opportunity.”



_With Special Reference to the Work and Duties of a District Officer in


_Rs. 4-4._ (6_s._)

     “In eleven chapters Mr. Phillips gives a complete epitome of the
     civil, in distinction from the criminal, duties of an Indian
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     detract from the value of the very complete collections of facts
     and statistics given.”--_London Quarterly Review._

     “It contains much information in a convenient form for English
     readers who wish to study the working of our system in the country
     districts of India.”--_Westminster Review._

     “A very handy and useful book of information upon a very momentous
     subject, about which Englishmen know very little.”--_Pall Mall

       *       *       *       *       *



Under the Patronage of the Government of India.

=Statistics of Hydraulic Works, and Hydrology of England, Canada, Egypt,
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“Canal and Culvert Tables,” “Hydraulic Manual,” “Aid to Engineering
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=The Reconnoitrer’s Guide and Field Book=, adapted for India. By Major M.
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_Rs. 4._

Can be used as an ordinary Pocket Note Book, or as a Field Message Book;
the pages are ruled as a Field Book, and in sections, for written
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=The Student’s Manual of Tactics.= By Capt. M. H. HAYES. For the use of
candidates preparing for the Militia, Military Competitive Examination,
and for promotion. Crown 8vo. _Rs. 4-4._ (6_s._)

“There is no better Manual on Tactics.”--_Naval and Military Gazette._

“Principles reasoned out, and details explained in such a way that the
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=Calcutta to Liverpool, by China, Japan, and America, in 1877.= By
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       *       *       *       *       *



Super Royal 8vo. Leather backs, 36_s._



_With Complete and Detailed Information of the Cities of Calcutta,
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_From the London_ “TIMES.”

“The work now ‘includes in the Mofussil Directory an account of every
district and principal town in British and Foreign India, and every
native State,’ thus forming a complete guide to the whole of our
possessions in the East. The value of such a work, if it is accurate and
trustworthy, is obvious, and almost goes without saying; and, after
putting its pages to the test of a careful scrutiny where our personal
experience enables us to do so, we are able to pronounce it apparently
deserving of all commendation.... The alphabetical list of residents
throughout India in the three great provinces, with their addresses,
must be of great service to those who have business with our Eastern



A Record of Medicine, Surgery, and Public Health, and of General Medical
Intelligence, Indian and European.

Edited by K. McLEOD, M.D., and L. A. WADDELL, M.B.

_Published Monthly. Subscriptions Rs. 18 per Annum, including Postage._

_The Indian Medical Gazette_ has earned for itself a world-wide
reputation by its solid contributions to Tropical Medicine and Surgery.
It is the sole representative medium for recording the work and
experience of the Medical Profession in India; and its arrangements with
all the leading Medical Journals in Great Britain and America enable it
not only to diffuse this information broadcast throughout the world, but
also to cull for its Indian readers, from an unusual variety of sources,
all information which has any practical bearing on medical works in

It is indispensable to every Member of the Medical Profession in India
who wishes to keep himself abreast of medical progress.

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