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Title: Practical Stair Building and Handrailing - By the square section and falling line system.
Author: Wood, W. H.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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PRACTICAL STAIR BUILDING AND HANDRAILING



  PRACTICAL
  STAIR BUILDING AND HANDRAILING

  BY THE
  SQUARE SECTION AND FALLING LINE SYSTEM


  BY
  W. H. WOOD


  [Illustration]


  London:
  E. & F. N. SPON, 125 STRAND

  New York:
  SPON & CHAMBERLAIN, 12 CORTLANDT STREET

  1894



PREFACE.


The following book has been written to assist those who wish to acquire
a knowledge of the most practical and systematic methods adopted in the
execution of stair building and handrailing.

In compiling this work the author has kept steadily in view the
absolute necessity of treating most fully the elementary parts.
Therefore, if to some the details should appear tedious, he begs to
say they have been written to assist those who, being unable to obtain
a correct knowledge of the methods adopted, seldom advance beyond a
certain and very unsatisfactory stage.

The plates on stairs will be found to contain much useful and valuable
information, all of which the author has practically tested, some of
them many times over, and can therefore vouch for the accuracy of the
various methods shown.

The Plates 12 and 13 should be thoroughly understood before proceeding
with the handrailing, as the diagrams showing problems in solid
geometry have been carefully selected, bearing directly on the subject,
and it should not be left until the “why” and “wherefore” has been
reasoned out.

The system of handrailing is somewhat new, but the author has
continually put it to practical test for the last five years, and he is
convinced that it is only required to be known to be appreciated.

            W. H. WOOD.



CONTENTS.


                           _STAIR BUILDING._
 PLATE                                                              PAGE
   1  ELEMENTARY PROBLEMS                                              3

   2  CLOSE NEWELLED OR DOG-LEGGED STAIRS, THE SETTING OUT OF
        RODS, &C.                                                      5

   3  THE CONSTRUCTION OF VARIOUS PARTS OF STAIRS, SHOWING THE
        APPLICATION OF THE STEEL SQUARE FOR SETTING OUT STRINGS,
        &C.                                                            7

   4  PLAN AND ELEVATION OF OPEN NEWEL STAIRCASE, WITH SPANDRIL
        UNDER BOTTOM FLIGHT                                           11

   5  DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION                                         13

   6  DETAILS OF A NEWEL STAIRS, STARTING AND LANDING WITH
        WINDERS                                                       15

   7  HALF-SPACE LANDING, WITH A STRAIGHT FLIGHT ABOVE AND BELOW,
        AND A CONTINUED RAIL, STARTING WITH A SIDE WREATH FROM A
        NEWEL                                                         17

   8  DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION                                         19

   9  DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION                                         23

  10  DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION SHOWING AN APPARATUS FOR MARKING
       THE LENGTH AND CUTS OF BALUSTERS AROUND THE CIRCULAR PARTS     25

  11  DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION                                         29


                             _HANDRAILING._

  12  ON OBLIQUE PLANES AND THEIR TRACES                              37

  13  ON PROJECTION OF OBLIQUE PLANES, &C.                            41

  14  LEVEL LANDING WREATH, OR HALF TWIST                             43

  15  LEVEL LANDING WREATH, OR HALF TWIST                             45

  16  LEVEL LANDING WREATH, OR HALF TWIST                             47

  17  HALF-SPACE LANDING, WITH STRAIGHT FLIGHT ABOVE AND BELOW        49

  18  FROM THE LEVEL TO THE RAKE                                      53

  19  FROM THE LEVEL TO THE RAKE                                      55

  20  HALF-SPACE LANDING WITH THE RISERS IN THE SPRINGING             57

  21  WINDERS IN THE HALF-SPACE AND LEVEL LANDING AT TOP              59

  22  WINDERS IN THE HALF-SPACE, WITH A STRAIGHT FLIGHT ABOVE AND
       BELOW, WREATH TO FORM ITS OWN EASING                           61

  23  QUARTER-SPACE LANDING, WREATH IN ONE PIECE                      65

  24  QUARTER-SPACE LANDING, WREATH IN TWO PIECES                     67

  25  QUARTER-SPACE LANDING, WREATH IN ONE PIECE, TO FORM ITS OWN
       EASING INTO THE STRAIGHT RAIL                                  69

  26  WINDERS IN THE QUARTER-SPACE, WREATH IN ONE PIECE, TO FORM
       ITS OWN EASING INTO STRAIGHT RAIL                              71

  27  LANDING IN AN OBTUSE ANGLE, THE WREATH TO FORM ITS OWN
       EASING INTO THE STRAIGHT RAIL                                  73

  28  HALF TWIST STARTING FROM A SCROLL, AND A SIDE WREATH
       STARTING FROM A NEWEL                                          75

  29  WINDERS STARTING FROM A CURTAIL STEP                            77

  30  WINDERS IN THE QUARTER-SPACE, STARTING FROM A NEWEL             79

  31  THE PLAN OF RAIL FORMING PART OF AN ELLIPSE, STARTING FROM
       A NEWEL OVER WINDERS                                           81

  32  SHOWING THE MOULDING OF RAILS, AND A METHOD OF
       PROPORTIONATELY INCREASING OR DECREASING THE SIZE OF THEM      83



PRACTICAL

STAIR BUILDING AND HANDRAILING.



_STAIR BUILDING._


Stairs are a succession of steps leading from one landing to another
in a building. Each step comprises tread and riser, the tread being
horizontal and the riser vertical. The side pieces supporting the ends
of steps are called strings: that next to the wall, the wall string;
the other, the front, outside, well, cut, open, or close string. When
the steps are narrower one end than the other they are called winders.
The landing is a platform between the floors, and it is sometimes
arranged to give access to a door. A succession of steps between each
landing is called a flight. It is not often that the stair builder is
called upon to say how and where the stairs are to go, that being the
work of the architect; but the former must do his best to carry out the
wishes of the latter, who will leave to him the placing of risers, and
all details necessarily belonging to the stair builder, who will make
the best possible job, having all easings and falling lines as graceful
as it is possible to make them. An easing that is too long is almost as
objectionable as one that is too short.

He will take the dimensions off on to his rods, and from them set out
the whole stairs, showing all doorways, landings, headroom, &c., to 1½
inch scale if possible. All winders must be set out full size.



[Illustration: PLATE 1.]

PLATE I.

ELEMENTARY PROBLEMS.


Fig. 1. Draw a straight line, equal in length to the semicircle A B C.
With A and C as centres, and for radius A C, strike the two arcs to
intersect each other in S. Join S A and S C extended, to cut the line
through B in D and E. Then, D E is the length of the required line, and
if this was bent around the semicircle it would reach from A to C. This
line throughout this work is termed the stretch-out of the semicircle.

Fig. 2. Given the length D E, find the radius to strike a semi-*circle
equal in length to it. Draw a line from E at 60°, and from B at 45° to
D E, to cross each other at C. Draw from B square to D E, and from C
parallel to D E to meet in O; then O B will be the required radius.

Figs. 3, 4 and 5 show how to bisect any given angle. Let A B C be
the given angle. With B as centre, strike the arc D D to any radius.
With D D as centres, and for radius more than half the distance D D,
describe arcs intersecting in E. Then, a line from B to E will bisect
the angle.

Figs. 6, 7 and 8 show how to ease any given angle, that is to form a
curve that will connect the two straight lines, from any two given
points, on those lines. Let A B and B C be the two lines forming the
given angle, and it is required to connect those lines from A to C.
Divide A B and B C into any number of equal parts, connect those parts,
and the curve will be formed if A B and B C has been divided into a
sufficient number of parts.

Fig. 9 shows a semi-ellipse, A B being the semi-major axis, and B D the
semi-minor axis. Let A B and D B, Fig. 10, equal A B and D B, Fig. 9.
To strike the curve, move this rod around, keeping D on the major axis,
and A on the minor axis, and mark off points at the end of the rod all
round.

Fig. 11. Given a semi-ellipse, draw a normal tangent. Determine the
foci of the ellipse F F. With D as centre, and for radius A B strike
arcs of circles at F F. At any point on the curve, say at S, draw lines
to F F and bisect the angle. Now draw through S, square to this line
that bisects the angle for the required normal tangent.



[Illustration: PLATE 2.]

PLATE II.

CLOSE NEWELLED OR DOG-LEGGED STAIRS, THE SETTING OUT OF RODS, ETC.


Fig. 1 shows the plan of a dog-legged stair. The first thing to be done
is to take off the sizes on a rod. First take the rod, marked Fig. 3.
Cut this rod in between the brick walls, taking care to try it between
the walls where the two flights come together at risers 12 and 13.
Set off on each end of this rod the thickness of plaster; now set off
the face of wall strings so that they will be flush with the face of
the skirting. Then set back from face of the string half an inch, the
depth of the housing, this will be the end of the treads and risers.
Next set off the centre of the rod, draw the newel and string on the
rod, half their thicknesses on each side of the centre line. Then set
back towards the centre from each face of the centre string, half an
inch, the depth of the housing. This gives the length of the treads
and risers; and if ordinary care is taken in setting out this rod, and
working to it, no mistake can be made.

The height rod is seen at Fig. 4. Set off on this rod the height from
the top of the bottom floor to the top of the top floor. Now divide
this height into as many parts as there are to be risers, and the
distance from one division to another represents the height from the
top of one tread to the top of the next. The number of risers and the
height of them must be regulated by circumstances. A few hints only can
be thrown out here. The rise should not be less than 6 inches or more
than 7¼ inches, while the going and the rise added together should not
be less than 16½ inches or more than 18 inches. Thus, it will be seen,
the going should be regulated by the rise. For instance, say the rise
is 7¼ inches, then the going should not exceed 10¾ inches; this would
make the going and rise added together 18 inches. Now, the stairs
would be easier if the going was only 9¾, as this would make the two 17
inches, which is a better average than 18 inches. These remarks are not
laid down as a fixed and unaltered rule, but are intended as a guide in
the setting out of stairs of any description. Mark off on the height
rod the floors, joist and ceiling of both landings, as shown at Fig. 4.
In putting in the landing, use the height rod to get the height of the
joist, but care must be taken to take the height from the proper floor
level, in case the floor is not down.

Fig. 5 shows the going rod. Put one end of this rod against the back
wall, and mark on to it all doorways, trimmer joists, &c. The width
of landing and the going must be regulated by circumstances, but the
risers, newels and all joists must be marked on to the rod as shown. In
putting in these trimmers it is always as well to square them, that is,
put them in square to the side walls, then should the back wall be out
of square the difference will be in the landing.

Fig. 6 shows the pitch board. These are best made of zinc. Make the
rise equal the height of one rise on the height rod, and the going
equal the going of one step on the going rod.

Fig. 7 shows the construction of one step. A plan and elevation of
the stairs should always be made to a scale of, say, ¾ of an inch to
the foot, or, if possible, to 1½ inch to the foot, and all openings,
headroom, &c., should be shown. The line H H, Fig. 2, is drawn parallel
to the line of nosings on the bottom flight, and at a height above them
of 7 feet. Then the bottom edge of the top landing must be kept above
this line to give sufficient headroom. The setting out of the strings
and glueing up of the steps, &c., will be seen on Plate III.



[Illustration: PLATE 3.]

PLATE III.

THE CONSTRUCTION OF VARIOUS PARTS OF STAIRS, SHOWING THE APPLICATION OF
THE STEEL SQUARE FOR SETTING OUT STRINGS, ETC.


Fig. 1 shows a cradle for glueing up the steps. Let A be a piece of
wood about 18 inches long by 6 inches wide by 2 inches thick, and B
should be a piece about 2 feet 6 inches long by 3 inches wide by 2
inches thick. Put a ¾-inch mortise through B and tenon A into it. Well
glue and wedge, and pin as shown. Two of these should be made. It will
be noticed that E is cut out for the projection of the front edge of
the tread past D, which is the face of the riser, and the mortise in B
is kept back to E. F is cut out to fit over the scotia. The holes in
the edges C and D are for pins to go in, to wedge against when glueing
up the steps. The process of glueing up the steps is as follows: first
cut off treads, risers, and scotia about 1 inch or 1½ inch longer than
their proper length. Now plane up the treads, and shoot the front edges
straight and square; then plough the under side for the scotia to go in
about ¼ inch deep; then plane up the scotia and gauge them to a width
and thickness so as to fit tight into the groove. These scotias should
next be glued into the grooves and allowed to dry while the risers are
being planed up. Plane up the face of the risers, and shoot the edge
to go against the tread straight and square. Now fix the two cradles
on the bench, by screwing them through B into the top of the bench. In
fixing these, try them with one of the treads so as to get them square;
keep them about 6 inches from each end.

Fig. 2 shows one of these cradles with a part of a step glued up. Lay
the step on the cradle and stick a pin in one of the holes in B, and
put in a wedge between the pin and the back edge of the step to keep
the step in its place. Now glue the tread for the edge of the riser,
also the back of the scotia; well rub the riser to get the glue rubbed
out, and put in the wedge to keep the riser down, as shown. Then put in
two screws and three blocks as shown at Fig. 7, Plate II. In putting on
the blocks take care to well rub the glue out.

Fig. 3 shows a part of the outer string housed out for the treads and
risers. The steel square is used to get the lines on the strings for
the treads and risers, as shown. Get a piece of stuff long enough,
marked F, and let it be about 2 inches square; put a good thick saw
cut in each end and slip the square in the cuts as shown. Hold the
hypothenuse of the pitch board against the fence F and set the blade to
the going, and the tongue of the square to the rise of the pitch board.
Now to mark the string. Gauge the hypothenuse line about 2½ inches from
the top edge of string, and make the distance between A A on this line
equal the hypothenuse of the pitch board. Slide the square along from
A to A and mark both treads and risers. To mark the housing on the
back side of the treads and risers, get two pieces of thin stuff and
cut wedge-shaped, allowing them the wedge wider than the thickness of
treads to mark the housing for the treads, and the wedge wider than the
thickness of the risers for the housing for the risers. Fig. 4 shows a
section of the steps with bracketed carriages showing. These carriages
are only used in this description of stairs; they average from 2 inches
to 3 inches thick; they are put on with the grain running in the same
direction as the strings, they are screwed to the under side of the
steps and to each other, as shown, and well blocked to treads and
risers. They are placed according to the width of the stairs, three
under each flight.

Fig. 5 shows a part of the wall string, moulded to match the skirting,
and housed out for treads and risers. In putting stairs of this sort
together, lay the wall string on the ground, as shown, taking care
to get it straight and solid. Then place one end of the steps in the
grooves of the wall string, after all the steps have been placed in
position, then lay the outer string on the ends of steps, and after
the steps have been got into the grooves. Well strut from the ceiling
or any convenient place on to the outer string, forcing the steps into
all the grooves. Then put in the wedges, glueing them before they are
driven in. After they have been screwed up and blocked the struts can
be removed.

The nosing and scotia are worked after the steps have been glued up;
this is the best method of working in either a machine or a hand shop.

Fit the nosing and scotia into the strings on the bench before putting
together, also get the rises to a width and number each step where it
is to go.

Fig. 6 shows how the strings are tenoned into the newel; the dotted
lines show the tenons and the haunching, the tenon being 3 inches deep
and the haunching ½ inch deep; this is shown at Fig. 7. The housing out
of the newels is described later on where there are winders.

The thickness of treads, &c., varies according to the class of work,
but the following may be taken as a good example.

Treads, 1¼ inch thick. Project over risers, 1¼ inch.

Risers, 1 inch thick.

Scotia, 1¼ inch by ⅝ inch.

Strings, 1½ inch.



[Illustration: PLATE 4.]

PLATE IV.

PLAN AND ELEVATION OF OPEN NEWEL STAIRCASE, WITH SPANDRIL UNDER BOTTOM
FLIGHT.


Fig. 1 shows the plan of an open newelled stairs, starting from a
bull-nose step at bottom, and having a short piece of rail along the
top to give sufficient headroom. The dotted lines show the joist.

Fig. 2 shows the elevation, with spandril and newels. After having
taken the width, height and going or run on to the rods, set up an
elevation to 1½ scale, when the size of strings can be taken off;
newels, length of rails and spandril can all be set out. Draw the line
H H parallel to the line of nosing and 7 feet above. Keep the bottom of
facia crossing over the bottom flight above this line. After having set
out the stairs to this scale mark off the rods full size.

Fig. 3 shows the width rod, with the two newels marked on it.

Fig. 4 is the going rod, with newels, face of risers, joist, &c., all
marked on it.

Fig. 5 shows the height rod. Mark on to this rod the two landings.

Fig. 6 shows the newels on the half-space landing. The newel A being
the bottom one, runs right down to the floor, the bottom square on
it being to receive the bottom handrail, while the short level rail
is above this. The newel B, the top square, is to receive the top
handrail, and the short rail is below it. Thus it will be seen the
twining on the top newel is shorter than on the bottom one marked A.

The details will be found on the following plate.



[Illustration: PLATE. 5.]

PLATE V.

DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION.


Fig. 1 shows the top rail of spandril, with the tenon cut ready to go
together.

Fig. 2 is the middle rail tenoned and haunched ready to go together to
fit into the stile.

Fig. 3 shows the other end of the same rail ready to go into the top
rail.

Fig. 4 shows the bottom rail tenoned ready to go into the stile against
the newel.

Fig. 5 is the same rail tenoned ready to go into the top rail under the
string.

Fig. 6 shows a part of one panel with the moulding. To cut the moulding
in, bisect the two angles as A B and C D; this was shown on Plate I.
Make cuts in the mitre, cut to A B and C D, and cut the mitres to it.
In putting the spandril together, put all muntings, rails, panels, top
rail, bottom and middle rails first, and the stile against the newel
last.

Fig. 7 shows a part section enlarged of the top rail of spandril,
string of stairs and capping.

Fig. 8 shows a round-ended step. This is got out in three thicknesses,
as shown at Fig. 9. This block is prepared as shown; the riser is cut
to the thickness of a veneer, it is glued and screwed at the back,
is well glued, brought around and well wedged and screwed as shown;
the scotia is glued and screwed to the block, and the tread is well
glued and screwed from the bottom. The newel is mortised into the step
diagonally, as shown.

Fig. 10 shows the elevation of the trimmer at the top.

Fig. 11 shows the plans of the trimmer, with wedge and method of
jointing.

Fig. 12 shows the section of newel and a part of door, frame and
spandril.



[Illustration: PLATE 6.]

PLATE VI.

DETAILS OF A NEWEL STAIRS, STARTING AND LANDING WITH WINDERS.


In planning stairs of this description several things have to be
considered. First take off the height and going on a rod. Then decide
how many steps there are to be. Draw a plan and elevation, as shown
at Figs. 1 and 2. Set off the width of the stairs and draw the two
newels. Now draw the line of travel 15 inches from the centre of rail.
Take the centre of newels for centre, and strike the quarter of circle
top and bottom in continuation of this line, which divide into as
many divisions as there are to be steps. In drawing the winders keep
the narrow ends as wide as possible, and for this purpose they can be
brought past the newels into the strings; as we can have no sympathy
with the system that crowds all the narrow ends of winders into the
newels, by that means making the stairs unnecessarily dangerous. The
dotted lines show the trimmers and joist; care must be taken to have
sufficient headroom. It will be noticed that the wall string is jointed
at both ends, so as to get sufficient width. When these strings are set
out like this to a scale, it is seen at once what there is to joint on.
Fig. 3 shows the short string at the bottom, and Fig. 4 that at the
top. These short strings must be made to ease into the long wall string
at the same height, also to ease into the skirting. To fix these stairs
proceed as follows: set the steps 1, 2 and 3 at the bottom, and 12, 13
and 14 at the top, out full size on a board, with the wall strings and
newels. Tongue and groove the strings together in the corners, having
the tongue on the long string at the bottom. Mark the treads off the
board to cut and not try to fit on the job. If the rods have been set
out correct in the first place, and as correct can be worked to, they
can be cut in the shop for the bottom winders, but for the top ones
the lines should be taken off the board out to them, and cut when
fixed. Put the flight together, including step No. 12 at the top and 3
at the bottom, then fix on the bottom newel, after which step No. 2 can
be fixed in position. Then put the short string in its place, also step
No. 1. Now let the stairs go down into their place and do all necessary
blocking and screwing. It will be understood that everything has been
fitted before this, also that these bottom winders are glued up. Next
put on the long newel and glue and pin it; slip the short string at top
into its place, then fix in the risers 13, 14 and 15, and treads 13 and
14 and the nosing at top. Glue, screw and block these after they are
in. Before cutting the treads and risers at the top, try with a rod to
see if the lines on them taken off the board are correct, and if there
is any difference allow for it when cutting them in.

Fig. 5 shows the plan and Fig. 7 the elevation of the newel for the
bottom, with part of winders to 1½ inch scale. In setting out the
newels mark the position of risers on to them, thus, make 1, 2, Fig. 7,
equal to 1, 2, Fig. 5, and set up the height of a rise, and square out
a line and make 2, 3 equal 2, 3, Fig. 5; this riser, it will be seen,
comes on the edge; again set up a rise, as shown by 3, 3. From 3 square
out a line and make 3, 4 equal 3, 4, Fig. 5, and set up the height of
a rise. The same process would be repeated as long as there were any
risers striking the newel on plan. Of course the newel would be set out
full size on the board that the winders were set out on.

Fig. 6 shows the plan of newel, and Fig. 8 the elevation of a part of
it. Repeat the process described at Figs. 5 and 7.



[Illustration: PLATE 7.]

PLATE VII.

HALF-SPACE LANDING, WITH A STRAIGHT FLIGHT ABOVE AND BELOW, AND A
CONTINUED RAIL, STARTING WITH A SIDE WREATH FROM A NEWEL.


Fig. 1 shows the plan, and Fig. 2 the sectional elevation. The previous
plates have shown stairs with close strings--that is, the outside
strings are housed out for the treads and risers, in the same way as
the wall string, and the top of the string is kept above the nosings,
and a capping is fixed on the top of it, and the balusters are cut
on, or let into this capping, according to the class of work. But in
this case is shown a cut or open string. The treads and risers are
housed into the wall string as before, but the outside strings are cut
so as to allow the treads and risers to pass right through, and the
balusters are dovetailed into the ends of treads, details of which are
shown on Plate VIII. The carriages and the landing joist are shown by
dotted lines on plan. The carriages fit close up under the bottom edge
of treads, and rough brackets are nailed to the side of them, and fit
close up to the under side of treads, and glued and blocked. In this
description of stairs it is usual to have four iron balusters, placed
as follows, one each on steps 7, 13, 18 and 24. There should be a
joist, or good solid block let into them, immediately under the newel,
so that a bolt can be let up into the centre of newel, and through this
block, or joist, and screwed tight from the bottom. The wall string
should be well plugged and nailed to the wall. If there is no spandril
under the bottom flight, the carriages should be stiffened by cutting
pieces of the same stuff in between each carriage and let into the
wall. Get a long bolt made to go through all the carriages, and the
pieces between them and into the wall, with a screw on the outside end
to screw them all up tight together. To bore them for the bolts: After
the carriages have been fitted in their place, before they are fixed,
lay them together and bore them; then bore the short pieces before
putting them into their place.

Fig. 3 shows the width rod. Care should always be taken to try this
rod at the landing, where the two flights are connected, and allow for
the stairs to fit in between the walls, just slack enough to go in
their place without any trouble. They want, in fact, to drop into their
place. Mark on each end of the rod the face of the skirting on the
landings, and let this be the face of the wall string. Mark the centre,
and set off on each side the centre line of rail, also the string and
brackets. The face brackets will be the outside face of balusters.

Fig. 4 is the going rod. Of course, the going must be regulated by
circumstances, but this rod must have the face of all the risers marked
on it, also each springing, as shown by S S S, and the landings,
doorways, &c.

Fig. 5 is the height rod, which must have landings, &c., marked on it
as shown. These rods should be used to put in the landing by. The pitch
board will be taken off the rods, as was before explained. Remember, a
little care in setting out and working to these rods is true economy.

Fig. 6 shows how the carriages may be fastened to the floor. Let A be a
fillet nailed well through the floor into the joist.

Fig. 7 shows the top and bottom carriages bolted to the trimmers
at the landing. The short trimmer is sufficiently long to take the
top carriages. The dotted lines show how the bottom end of the top
carriages is let into the short trimmer, and bolted through. The bottom
carriages cut against the long trimmer, and bolted through, as shown.
It sometimes happens the short trimmer has to be blocked out from the
long one, so as to receive the top carriages. In that case it is packed
out sufficiently and bolted together.

Fig. 8 shows the carriages bolted to the trimmer on the top landing.



[Illustration: PLATE 8.]

PLATE VIII.

DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION.


Fig. 1 shows the plan, and Fig. 2 the elevation of a part of an open
or cut string. It will be seen the risers are cut like a bare face
tenon 5/16 inch thick, the same thickness as the ornamental brackets,
and shouldered to fit against the inside of the string. These brackets
are glued and bradded to the outside face of the string, and mitred
to the ends of the risers. That part of the string where the shoulder
of the risers fits against, should be gauged to an exact thickness.
The brackets fit close up under the ends of the treads, which project
the thickness of the brackets past the strings, and mitred on the
front edge to receive the return nosing and scotia, which is mitred
and returned into the string, as shown at E, Fig. 1. The best method
to adopt is as follows:--Get the risers shouldered and mitred, then
plough the treads for the scotia; now cut off the ends of the treads
as far as the mitre, which mark and cut in a little way, finishing the
cut after the nosing has been worked and the stairs are together. Cut
in the dovetails for the balusters, but not chop them out before the
stairs are fixed. Now glue in the scotia, and, when dry, put the steps
together, the same as was explained in Plate III. Then get the length
of steps from the width rod, and cut them off. Gauge the risers to a
width with a gauge as seen at Fig. 4. Fit the steps in the wall string,
and cut out for nosing and scotia. To put them together, lay the wall
string on the floor, having it straight and solid; put the steps into
it, and lay the outer string on, and, with struts from the ceiling or
any convenient place, force the cut string on to the shoulders of the
risers, and the steps into the housing of the wall string. See that
the stairs are square before doing all necessary wedging, blocking,
screwing, &c. Then remove the struts and put on the brackets and return
nosing, glueing and bradding the former, while the latter should only
have two brads into the steps, so that they can be easily removed to
fix the balusters when the handrail is fixed, after which they can be
permanently nailed. The iron balusters are screwed to a block fixed
for the purpose. This block is marked A, Figs. 1 and 3. The riser is
reduced to allow the block to come forward, so as to get the screws
well into it; it is stub-tenoned into the under side of the tread, as
shown by the dotted lines, Fig. 3; it is also screwed into the back of
the next tread below, and well glued and blocked. There will have to
be a special baluster turned, out of pine, for a pattern, and turned
a little longer to allow for shrinkage in the casting, which is about
⅛ inch to each foot. The square parts must be made to draw out of the
sand when cast--that is, they must be a trifle thicker in the middle
on the sides shown at Fig. 3 than they are at the edges, as they are
cast in two halves. They will be drilled and countersunk for the screws
after they are cast.

Fig. 5 shows the side and Fig. 6 the front elevation of a mitre shoot
for shooting the mitres of the ends of risers. The sides are two 9-inch
boards, set up at 45°, and screwed to the bottom, marked D, and to the
back, marked H. Two ledges are screwed on the bottom, marked N. Also a
longer piece on the top, in front, marked C, for the trying plane to
slide on when shooting the mitres. A false bottom is put in, and set
up at 45°, marked B, this is screwed or nailed through the sides, and
kept ½ inch above C, as shown. The triangular piece is put in, and the
bottom side S P is kept the thickness of a bracket above B, and S P
must be the exact size of the thickness of the string where the risers
fit against it. The risers are put in with the shoulders against S R
and shot off. The brackets can be mitred in the same way. This box will
do for any job by having different triangular pieces.

Fig. 7 shows how to get out the continuation of the brackets along the
top landing, and finish against the wall. It often happens that the
brackets require to be reduced in length for unders or diminished
flyers, or increased for a large well, or where the risers are farther
apart than on the straight flights. Figs. 8 and 9 show methods of
reducing or increasing the length of the brackets, and each member
proportionately. It is only necessary to describe one, as the method
for both is the same. Let A be the given, and B the required bracket.
Having drawn the bracket A, set off C E at any angle, the required
length. Join D E, draw any number of lines on the bracket A, square
to C D, draw these lines parallel to D E, and from where they cut C E
square outline, and make them equal corresponding lines on the bracket
A, as 3, 4 and 5 on B will equal 3, 4 and 5 on A. These brackets for
the circular parts may be got out of wood; in that case the grain
should be vertical, as the brackets are fixed. But for painted work the
best are two pieces of linoleum glued together.

Fig. 10 shows how the cut string, which is 12 inches wide, may be got
out of a 9-inch board. Shoot the bottom edge, then gauge a line on its
face to equal S S, Fig. 2. Then with the compasses set off on this
line, the hypothenuse of the pitch board as many times as is required,
as shown by N R S H. Then with the steel square mark each going and
rise, which cut, it will be found the board is not wide enough, but the
pieces cut out of the corners can be glued on to make it out as shown
by A and B.

In some cases, where there are no ornamental brackets, the ends of
treads are cut off flush with the outside face of string, except the
mitre for the return nosing, and the risers are mitred to the string.



[Illustration: PLATE 9.]

PLATE IX.

DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION.


Fig. 1 is the plan of the well and the steps, landing and starting, at
the half-space landing. The lines marked C S are the direction of the
cuts to be made through the circular or well string for the risers to
mitre to.

Fig. 2 shows a piece of thin stuff cut to a semicircle to fit the
inside of the string. This piece is laid on the plan, and the position
and direction of the cuts for risers is marked on it as seen by C C.

Fig. 3 shows a section of a staved well, the joints being ploughed out
and cross tongues put in as shown. Each joint must be well glued and
rubbed and screwed through the back. It will be noticed it is carried
past the springing into the straight on both sides; this makes a better
job, as a joint made in the springing always has a crippled appearance,
no matter how well the job may be done.

Fig. 4 shows a falling mould for marking the treads and risers, also
the bottom edge of the well in a continuous line with the bottom edge
of the two straight strings. Take a thin lath and bend it around
Fig. 2, and mark on it the springing and risers, as shown by S S and
R R. Lay this lath on the piece of stuff the falling mould is to be
cut out of, in a horizontal position, as shown, and mark the risers
and springing. Set up a step above and below the springings, and set
off S S to equal S S, Fig. 2, Plate VIII. Then draw the under side of
straight strings and continue it across the well, taking care to have
the best possible falling line. H H shows the length the pieces forming
the well will require to be. This falling mould may be made out of good
stiff brown paper, or any other suitable stuff. Now bend it around on
the inside of the well, and mark the treads and risers and the bottom
edge. Keep the springing lines on the mould to the springing marked
on the well. To mark the springing on the well take Fig. 2 and hold
in the well, and mark the springing top and bottom and finish it with
a straight edge. Also mark the direction of the cuts as shown by the
lines marked C.

Fig. 5 shows how the well is fixed to the straight strings. This must
be all fitted in the shop ready to slide up in its place when the
stairs are fixed, when it should be well glued, wedged and screwed. The
circular string for the starting and top landing of Fig. 1, Plate VII.,
may be got out and fixed in the same way. These kind of wells answer
the purpose for which they are used, but they are not so strong as a
veneered well, which is shown on Plate XI.

Fig. 6 shows the step starting from the half-space landing. This step
is slightly curved at the end to make it the same width on the end as
the rest. The risers, starting and landing are laid down to suit the
rail, as shown in Plate XVII.

Fig. 7 shows the return nosing for this step.

Fig. 8 shows the landing step. This is got out long enough to reach
from wall to wall. This step is glued up in the shop with the rest; the
nosing is worked on the solid and returned as far as E, about 2 or 3
inches on. The scotia is fixed around the circular part after all is
fixed.

Fig. 9 shows the top landing step. This too goes from wall to wall, and
is treated in the same way as Fig. 8, only the nosing is worked from
end to end.



[Illustration: PLATE 10.]

PLATE X.

DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION, SHOWING AN APPARATUS FOR MARKING THE LENGTH
AND CUTS OF BALUSTERS AROUND THE CIRCULAR PARTS.


Fig. 1 shows part plan of stairs for a side wreath starting from a
newel. The farther out the newel stands, within reason, the better will
be the appearance, provided it does not obstruct the passage in any way.

Fig. 2 shows the construction of the curved steps. Let the pieces
marked A be in two pieces, as shown, glued and screwed together,
with the grain crossing each other as much as possible. The riser is
reduced, as shown, as far as the work goes, to within about 3 inches
of the end, as shown by B. The little piece of straight on the face
of riser at B can be cleaned off in continuation of the curve after
it is glued up. Screw through the blocks into the end of riser at B,
then bend the veneer around, put on hand-screws to hold the riser and
block together while wedging, and before removing the hand-screws put
in the screws as shown. The scotia is screwed to the under side of
the tread, and holes bored in the bottom edge of riser so as to get a
screw-*driver in, and screw the riser on from the bottom, the screws
going through the scotia into the tread.

Fig. 3 shows the block for a curtail step. The step is struck from the
same centres as the handrail, which is explained on plate. The block is
got out in three thicknesses; the grain of two pieces can run in the
same direction as the riser, and the middle pieces in the direction of
S S. The balusters will regulate the size of the block, as shown. This
step is constructed on the same principle as Fig. 2, the scotia being
in the solid. The nosing will be worked on the tread in the solid and
returned at R through the string. The piece marked H is a piece of
¼-inch iron twisted so as to screw to the under side of the tread and
to the inside of the string. The last baluster on the step should be
iron, shouldered to fit on the top of the tread, and a ¾ pin on it to
go through the step, with a thread for a nut to screw it up tight from
the bottom. They are sometimes run in with sulphur instead of the nut;
in that case it can be fixed after the step is fixed, but the nut makes
the best job.

Fig. 4 shows an apparatus for cutting up the balusters around the
wreaths. It is a very simple affair, easily made and easily applied;
it makes a perfect fit, and the saving of time is very great. The box
is made the size of the baluster on the inside, the back C is 1½ inch
thick, and the sides ¾ inch. The pieces marked A are cut as shown, and
slotted, a couple of screws are screwed into the sides with washers on,
for A to slide up and down. B is a piece of zinc screwed on to A, as
shown, with the head countersunk flush. B must be about ⅛ inch narrower
than the balusters, so as to go into the groove of the under side of
handrail. The screws in B must be so that they can be turned either way
with the fingers, while those in the sides must be so that A will slide
up and down easy. The box will be about 2 feet long, cut off perfectly
square at the bottom end. To mark the balusters, stand the box on the
tread so that the inside of it will be immediately over where the
baluster has to go. Slide up A on either side so that B will go into
the groove of the under side of the handrail, then turn B on both sides
to fit the rail. Take it away and lay it down, and lay the baluster in
it, and mark it top and bottom. The dovetail has of course to be added.
The distance between the two pieces of zinc must be the same as the
balusters and inside of the box, and the centre of B must be in a line
with the centre of the side of inside of box.

Fig. 5 shows the plan, and Fig. 6 the sectional elevation, of a part of
stairs, with winders in the quarter space, and a quarter space landing
to give access to a doorway. The dotted lines show the carriages and
landing. The back edges of the treads are kept ½ inch beyond the back
of risers to form a ledge. The cross piece G is fixed to receive
the carriages, as shown. The pieces F are fixed, as shown, let into
the wall one end, and fixed to the back of the well the other. These
pieces are fixed under each tread flush with the back edge, the width
depends upon the well string; they are kept so that the plaster will
finish flush with the bottom of the well. The short carriages C are cut
tight in between F and F, and they must be wide enough to notch over
the projection of the back edge of the treads, as shown by E, Fig. 6.
If these short carriages are cut in tight it makes a good sound job,
and rough brackets can be nailed on them, and blocked and glued as for
the straight parts. The laths will go from F to F. D is put in to take
the laths, as the distance here from F to F is too much without them,
and E is to take the ends of laths along the wall. The landing will be
understood. The joists K are put in to receive the floor and laths.

Fig. 7 shows the joint of the two diagonal joists.

Fig. 8 shows the joints at the external angle of the landing, the bolt
going through the three, J A H, as shown.



[Illustration: PLATE 11.]

PLATE XI.

DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION.


Fig. 1 is an enlarged plan of Fig. 1, Plate X. The face of risers must
be set off on the centre line of rail to suit the falling line of
handrail, which should be ascertained first. The line of travel is 15
inches from the centre line of rail, and the winders are divided on
this line.

Fig. 2 shows the development. Cut a piece of thin board to fit the face
of string around the zinc circle on plan, as shown by Fig. 3. Bend a
thin lath around it, and mark the springing on to it and all risers
between. Lay this lath on Fig. 2, and mark the springing and position
of risers, as shown. The position of risers outside of the springing
can of course be taken off the plan. Draw one or two full size steps
top and bottom, and a part of the straight strings as shown. Continue
the bottom edge of string to form a nice easy falling line connecting
the straight parts, as shown by the curved parts, Fig. 2.

Fig. 4 shows a cylinder made to fit the inside face of the circular
string. Before the veneer is put on, glue some paper all over the
outside of this cylinder and let it dry. Then, should any glue get
between the veneer and cylinder, it will pull the paper off instead
of sticking to the wood, and perhaps break the veneer; the paper can
be washed off. Bend the lath around the cylinder on top of the paper,
and mark the springing, as shown, on both sides. Do this at both ends,
and mark the springing down the sides with a straight-edge. Now get a
piece of veneer a full 1/16 inch thick, the size shown by the straight
dotted lines, Fig. 2. Cut the bottom edge to the curve S S. Mark the
springing and each step on the veneer. It is as well to mark these
on both sides. In putting this on the cylinder take care to have it
the right hand. Fix on one side first with a hand-screw, so that the
springing on the veneer is on the springing on the cylinder, then bend
it around and fasten the other side temporarily. Then get two pieces
of veneer, ⅛ inch thick and about 1 inch wide, cut to the shape of
the curves S S and N N. Now bend the two pieces around on the top
of the first piece, keeping the edge S S flush with the bottom edge
of the large veneer. It will be seen that the three thicknesses of
veneer will form the sinking in the string 5/16 inch deep. Next get
a piece the exact thickness of the sinking 5/16 inch, and cut it to
the shape of the sinking, as seen at Fig. 5. Put plenty of saw kerfs
in the direction shown, that is, parallel to the springing. Let the
kerfs go past the springing a bit on both ends. Now bend this around
the cylinder with the kerfs next to it, and the edge close up to the
veneers. Now get the staves about 2 inches by 2 inches, and bevel the
edges to fit each other around the circle and hollow the under side to
fit in the veneer, also cut the ends out to fit over the sinking. Start
one side first with straight pieces as far as the springing and screw
it down, then work from this piece and go right around, screwing each
piece as it is fitted, until they are all on. Next start in the centre
and take off one side, numbering each piece as it is taken off, lift
up each of the three pieces of veneer and glue between them, screw the
staves on again except the centre one, take them off on the other side
and glue in the same way, after which screw on all the staves again.
To glue the staves, again start in the centre and take off one, well
glue the bottom next to the veneer and screw it down tight. Take off
the next one to it and glue the bottom and side going against the one
already glued. Repeat this process until all are fixed, but never glue
more than one at a time. It may be found necessary to steam the veneer.
This is sometimes done in a box made for the purpose, where there is
steam to be had, but failing that, boiling in the glue-pot is used. But
this is not a good thing to do if it can be avoided, as the dryer it is
put on the better for the job.

Fig. 6 shows an enlarged section through the joint A B, Fig. 4. F is a
section of Fig. 5.

Fig. 7 shows the well in position. If a ⅝-inch bead is used for the
bottom edge, a piece of ⅝-inch cane can be bent around the well in
continuation of the bead. This work must be all fitted before it leaves
the bench, ready to go into its place when fixed.



_HANDRAILING._


The handrail is that portion of the fence carried up on the outside of
the stairs and supported by the balusters, which are let into the ends
of the treads. While these balusters form protection, the rail is to
assist in the ascent and descent of the stairs. It is very evident the
rail should be a uniform height over the line of nosings. This height
should be 2 feet 8 inches, measured vertically over the face of risers,
from the top side of tread to the top side of rail. And it will be seen
that the risers around the circular parts should be placed so as to
have the best possible falling line of rail, while the balusters should
be, if anything, a trifle longer than on the straight parts.

The method adopted in this work is as follows:--The plan of centre line
of rail is first laid down, and the tangents and face of risers drawn.
Next the centre line of rail is unfolded, or developed, on a board,
with position of risers thereon. Then the centre falling line of rail
is drawn, resting on the corners of the full-size steps and continued
across the well. And here it is where good taste and judgment is
required, so as to get a good falling. After the falling line has been
drawn it will be seen at once if any improvement can be made in the
position of the risers. The development of tangents is next drawn to
suit the falling line of rail.

The face moulds are next got out of some thin stuff. The tangents on
the moulds will equal the tangents developed in the elevation. This
will be better understood by referring to the succeeding drawings. Two
face moulds are used, one for each side of the plank. The tangents and
sections are the same on each mould, but as the width is on the inside
of one mould and on the outside of the other, this gives the wreath
the necessary twist. The wreath having been cut out square through the
plank and the joints made, and the tangents squared across the joints,
the face moulds are then tacked on, with the ends of both moulds flush
with the joints, and the tangents on both face moulds are put to the
tangents squared across the joints of wreath, there being no pushing
or sliding the mould in any shape or form. The inside and outside
is now sawn off, the saw always being held in the same direction as
the section lines on the face moulds. A bevel is obtained for each
section and set off on a board. The width of rail is also drawn on
the same board, and where the bevel cuts the centre of width of rail,
is the centre of plank. Now as the face mould gives the height of the
centre of plank at each section, these heights are transferred to the
elevation, which shows at once if the falling line is any, and how
much, out of the centre of plank. Then the sections of rail are drawn
on the board above, or below, where the bevel cuts the centre of width
of rail, according to what the falling line is out of the centre of
plank at each section. This shows what superfluous stuff there is to
come off the top side of the wreath at each section, which is marked
on to the wreath before the face moulds are removed. This superfluous
stuff is then sawn off, keeping the saw in the direction of the
section lines, after which the wreath is gauged to a thickness and the
superfluous stuff sawn off the bottom.

I may say that this system has been put to practical test, and some of
the very best examples of handrailing have been done by it with the
very best results. But it was found to be a great advantage to use a
machine gig-saw: they can be bought the same as any other saw, and if
it is fixed into a bow-saw frame, or a frame made for it, no difficulty
will be experienced in sawing out any wreath shown in this book.

The advantages of this system are:--

1. The tangents are made to conform to the falling line of rail,
instead of the falling line having to conform to the tangents, as is
the case in most systems.

2. The wreath being sawn out to the section lines instead of vertical,
as is the case with cylindrical wreaths, saves more than half the time
in squaring.

3. The wreath being straight across on the inside and outside in the
direction of the section line, instead of concave on the inside and
convex on the outside, as is the case with a cylindrical wreath, is
much easier to mould, and has a much better appearance by far when
finished.

4. It has all the advantages of falling moulds without the trouble of
getting them out, and it can always be ascertained what any part of the
falling line is out of the centre of the plank.

5. It takes the minimum thickness of stuff, as it can always be seen
exactly what thickness will be required.

6. The system of bevelled joints does away with the short ramps, and
thereby saves both labour and material; besides there is only one joint
instead of three.

It will be seen that in no case in this book is extra thickness of
stuff required.



[Illustration: PLATE 12.]

PLATE XII.

ON OBLIQUE PLANES AND THEIR TRACES.


If the surface of a solid is neither horizontal or perpendicular it is
oblique.

Thus, if we place a box on the table, the top of the table represents
the horizontal plane and the side of the box the vertical plane, and
the intersection of the box and the table is the ground line, or X Y.
Draw a line out square from the box on the table, marked N N, Fig. 1.
Hold the end of a book on this line, with its edge against the side of
the box in an inclined position; mark a line on the side of the box:
this line is the vertical trace, because the oblique plane has cut the
vertical plane on this line. Before moving the book mark a line on
the table: this is the horizontal trace, for the same reason that the
oblique plane has cut the horizontal plane on this line.

Fig. 2 shows the horizontal trace inclined 60° to the vertical plane.
Draw the dotted line N N on the table, making an angle of 60° with the
box. Place the end of a book on this line, and while in an inclined
position mark the vertical and horizontal traces the same as in Fig. 1.
To find the true inclination of the oblique plane take F for centre,
and for radius F R, strike the arc to cut X Y in P; join E P, which
is the true length and inclination of a line on the oblique plane, to
stand vertically over F R. All lines on the oblique plane parallel to
the horizontal trace will be level, and all lines square to it will be
the true inclination of the surface of the oblique plane.

Fig. 3. It is required to cut a block of wood the size of the square
A B C O, its side A B to be 5 inches high, and its top surface inclined
30° to the horizontal plane. On the oblique surface project an ellipse
that will stand vertically over the quarter of circle on plan. Let
A B C O be the plan and B C R N the elevation. Project 7, 8, 9 on to
the oblique surface, as shown by 1, 2, 3.

Fig. 4 shows a cuneiform sketch of the block. Make B N and C R equal
corresponding letters, Fig. 3; join R N; square out lines from N R;
make N A´, R O´ equal A B, Fig. 3. To complete the figure, make A A´
equal B N, and O O´ equal C R. To draw the ellipse, make N 1 2 3 R
equal N 1 2 3 R, Fig. 3. Make 1 7 and 2 8 and 3 9 equal 4 7 and 5 8 and
6 9, Fig. 3. Trace the curve through A´ 7 8 9 R as shown. If this block
is cut out in a vertical direction to the ellipse on its surface it
will stand correctly over the quarter of circle, its plan.

Fig. 5. Cut a block of wood so that its edge will stand vertically over
A B C O. The top of the block to be hard down at A. From A to B rise
3 inches, and from B to C 4 inches more. Make B F equal 3 inches and
C 5, 7 inches. Join 5, F extended to cut X Y in E. Join E A, which is
the horizontal trace, and E F 5, the vertical trace. F 5 will be the
inclination of the edge of the block over B C. To get the length and
inclination of the edge over A B, take B for centre and B A for radius,
strike an arc to cut X Y in H. Join F H for the required edge.

The process of getting the lines on the oblique surface of this block,
as shown at Fig. 6, is the same as most of the face moulds as laid down
in this book, and let it be understood that if the problems on this
and the following Plate are properly mastered, the foundation upon
which this system depends has been laid, and all the plates that follow
are purely a matter of detail. Let the instructions given here be
carried out, and cut the blocks of wood as described, when the meaning
and intention of every line will be clearly illustrated, and the way
cleared for further progress.

Make E F 5 equal E F 5, Fig. 5. Take the distance F H, Fig. 5, in
the compasses, with F, Fig. 6, as centre, strike an arc at A. With
E A, Fig. 5, as a radius, and E, Fig. 6, as centre, strike an arc to
intersect the first one at A. Join E A for horizontal trace and F A
for the top edge of the block over A B. Draw from 5 parallel to F A,
and from A parallel to F 5. Then O will be the centre of the ellipse,
as it will be vertical over the centre on plan. A line drawn on an
oblique plane square to the horizontal trace and passing through its
centre is the major axis, and a line drawn parallel to the H T and
passing through its centre is the minor axis. Make 2 3 0 5 equal
2 3 0 5, Fig. 5. Make 3 6 and 0 7 equal 8 6 and 0 7, Fig. 5, and trace
the curve through A 6 7 5.



[Illustration: PLATE 13.]

PLATE XIII.

ON PROJECTION OF OBLIQUE PLANES, ETC.


Should any part of a plan be a circle, it will when projected on to an
oblique plane be an ellipse.

Thus, take any one round piece of wood, cut one end off square to its
side, this end will be a true circle. Cut the other end to any angle,
which will then be an ellipse, and when the piece is stood on end will
be vertical over the circle, its plan. Fig. 1 shows this. And it will
be seen, no matter what angle the oblique plane may be, the minor axis
never changes, it is always the same length as on plan, as are all
lines parallel to it; but not so with the major axis, which always
lengthens as the angle increases.

Fig. 2 shows a quarter of a circle projected on to an oblique plane,
inclined 45° to the horizontal plane.

Fig. 3 shows a plank inclined 45° to the horizontal plane, with a
quarter of an ellipse traced on its oblique surface. At any point on
the curve draw a section line and a normal tangent. Cut the plank
square through to the section line. Draw a level line on the square
cut, and produce a bevel that will, when the stock is held to the
section line on the oblique surface, produce with its blade a line
across the cut that will be perpendicular to the level line on the
square cut.

At any point on the curve, say at S, draw a line square to, and to
cut the major axis in P; draw the level line on the edge to cut the
vertical line from the centre O in N; draw R N square to the major
axis. Join R S, which is the section line; draw the tangent square to
it through S. Cut the plank through to the lines S R and R N; join N S
after the cut is made. To get the bevel, draw A A parallel to, and at
a distance away from O N, equal to minor axis or radius of circle on
plan. Take the compasses, and for centre put one foot at O, and for
radius strike an arc just touching the tangent through S, bring it
around to cut A A in H, join O H for the required bevel. This bevel,
when applied across the cut, will be square to the level line S N.



[Illustration: PLATE 14.]

PLATE XIV.

LEVEL LANDING WREATH, OR HALF TWIST.


Fig. 1 shows the plan of the rail, with the top riser placed in the
springing and the level rail 4 inches above the landing, so that when
the rail is raised to its proper height, 2 feet 8 inches above the
treads, measured vertically over the face of the risers to the top
of rail, it will be 3 feet from the landing to top of level rail. To
get the radius of the centre line of rail, make B H, Fig. 3, equal 4
inches; then A B will be the required radius. At Fig. 2 set up one
step and landing. Draw the centre falling line resting on the corners,
also draw the level rail 4 inches above the landing. Make N C equal
the stretch-out of the centre line of rail, Fig. 1, and complete the
falling line from A to C, as shown.

Fig. 4 shows the face mould. Draw A B C at right angles. Make A S equal
A S, Fig. 2, and A B equal A H, Fig. 3, and B C equal B C, Fig. 1, and
C P equal C P, Fig. 2. From A draw A O parallel to B C, and from C draw
C O parallel to A B. Then O will be the centre, A O the semi-minor
axis, and O C the semi-major axis. To get points in the curve and draw
section lines, take O C, Fig. 1, for radius and C, Fig. 4, for centre;
strike an arc on the left; draw V L through the centre, and tangent to
this arc; draw from C square to V L. Say there are to be two sections
marked 5 and 6, Fig. 1. Make C 2 1 equal C 2 1, Fig. 1. Draw from 1 and
2 parallel to V L to cut O C in 3 and 4. From 3 and 4 draw parallel to
A O, and make 4 5 and 3 6 equal 1 6 and 2 5, Fig. 1; then 5 and 6 will
be points in the curve. From 3 and 4 draw square to and cut V L in 7
and 8; from 7 and 8 draw square to and cut O C in 9 and 10; join 9 5
and 6 10 for section lines. To get bevels, width of mould, &c:--On a
piece of board draw two parallel lines, at a distance apart equal to
radius of centre line of rail, as shown by the lines R R, Fig. 5; also
draw the width of rail, as shown by W W. For the section at C, make
1 2, Fig. 5, equal O C, Fig. 4; draw section of rail; draw E F parallel
to 1 2, to cut the top corner of section of rail. Then O C will be half
thickness of plank and E C F the width of mould. For section 5, with O,
Fig. 4, as centre, strike an arc to just touch the tangent from 5; make
3, 4, Fig. 5, equal this distance. Make O 5 equal half thickness of
plank and draw R N parallel to 3 4, then R 5 N will be width of mould
on this section. The process of getting bevel and width of mould for
section 6 is the same, always squaring out the line from the centre of
section of rail and setting off half thickness of plank, and drawing
the top or bottom side of plank parallel to the bevel line through the
centre of section. To complete the face mould make C E and C F equal
C E and C F, Fig. 5. For section 5 make 5 R and 5 N equal 5 R and 5 N,
Fig. 5. For section 6 make 6 S and 6 P equal 6 S and 6 P, Fig. 5. The
section on the minor axis requires no bevel, as was explained in Plates
XII. and XIII. This line never exceeds its plan, therefore on this line
the face mould never exceeds the width of rail. Complete the face mould
as shown.



[Illustration: PLATE 15.]

PLATE XV.

LEVEL LANDING WREATH, OR HALF TWIST--_continued_.


Fig. 1 shows the plank from which the wreath is to be cut out. Lay the
face mould on, and transfer the tangents on the face of the stuff.
Mark off each side of the tangent at P, O H to equal C H, Fig. 5,
Plate XIV., and cut the wreath out square through the plank, as shown
by dotted lines, taking care to have the wreath cut full on the minor
axis at A, and along the shank to S, as this part does not exceed the
width of the rail.

Fig. 2 shows the wreath after being cut out square through the plank.
Plane one side perfectly true, then get it to its required thickness.
It is very important that the stuff should be got to the same thickness
as drawn at the sections, that is, twice the thickness of O C, Fig. 5,
Plate XIV. Now make the joints square to the face of stuff and square
to the tangents, applying the square as shown. So much depends upon the
trueness of the joints that too much care cannot be taken with them.

Fig. 3 shows the face mould for the other side of the stuff. Lay the
face mould, Fig. 4, Plate XIV., on a thin piece of stuff, and mark off
on to it the tangents S A B C P and the section lines, stick a bradawl
through 5 and 6, and mark off on the section lines, on each side of
C 5 and 6, the width as shown opposite to the first face mould. Fig. 4
shows the application of moulds.



[Illustration: PLATE 16.]

PLATE XVI.

LEVEL LANDING WREATH, OR HALF TWIST--_continued_.


Fig. 1 shows the same wreath after the inside and outside has been cut
off, so that a straightedge will touch both face moulds all round when
held in the direction of the section lines, as shown marked across the
inside.

To cut the wreath out get a machine gig-saw and either make a frame
for it or fit it into a bow-saw frame: this saw will be found to be
much better than the ordinary bow-saw, as it is much stiffer and will
not bend in the cut, and being thick on the teeth and thin on its back
edge, works free.

Every wreath shown in this book can be squared with this saw, and
if care is taken in cutting the superfluous stuff off, very little
cleaning up is required. The saw must always be held in the same
direction as the section lines. After the inside and outside has been
cut off and cleaned up, before taking the face moulds off mark down
from the top on each section, inside and out, the distances as shown
by the shaded parts on each section at Fig. 5, Plate XIV., and marked
F Y, R J, S K, &c. The shaded part at Fig. 1 shows this; the moulds can
now be removed and the superfluous stuff cut off to the lines traced
through E J K on the inside and Y A B on the outside. The bottom can be
gauged from the top with an ordinary gauge, but should be sawn full and
jointed to the straight rails before being cleaned up.

Fig. 2 shows the same wreath, only the rail is cut out of the top of
the plank all round, instead of the centre, as at Fig. 1. And this
wreath has a much better appearance on the inside when finished. The
face moulds and their application are the same, but as the rail is to
come out of the top of the plank, it will throw the level rail too high
on the landing. To obviate this the rising landing must be brought out
from the springing. Make A B, Fig. 3, equal A B, Fig. 4, draw section
of rail at H as shown, draw S S parallel to A H, make P P equal half
thickness of rail, make B A N, Fig. 4, equal B A N, Fig. 3, and draw
riser as shown.



[Illustration: PLATE 17.]

PLATE XVII.

HALF-SPACE LANDING, WITH STRAIGHT FLIGHT ABOVE AND BELOW.


Fig. 1 shows the plan of rail with the risers landing and starting,
placed half a tread from C on each side along the centre line of rail.
By this arrangement we get two balusters on the landing the same
distance apart as on the steps, and the centre falling line straight.

Draw plan of rail and enclose the centre line with tangents A B C D E.
Mark off from C along centre line of rail on each side half a tread,
and draw face of risers landing and starting.

Fig. 2 shows the elevation. Make A N equal stretch-out of centre line
of rail. Set up two steps and landing, taking care to draw the face
of risers as they occur on the centre line of rail, Fig. 1. Draw the
falling line resting on the corners as shown. For development of
tangents make F D S equal E D C, Fig. 1. From D, square up a line to
cut the falling line in R, then E R will be the pitch of the tangent
over E D, Fig. 1; join R S for pitch of tangent over D C, Fig. 1. Make
E D F, Fig. 1, equal F D C, Fig. 2, join F C, which is the horizontal
trace.

Fig. 3 shows the face mould. Make E D S equal E R C, Fig. 2, with D
for centre, and R S, Fig. 2, as radius; strike an arc at C with S as
a centre, and F C, Fig. 1, as radius; strike an arc to intersect the
first one at C, join D C. From C draw parallel to D E, and from E draw
parallel to D C; these lines will meet at the centre O. Join S C, which
is the horizontal trace. Draw the semi-major axis square to it through
the centre and the semi-minor axis parallel. With F as centre, and O N,
Fig. 1, as radius, strike an arc at H; draw V L through the centre and
tangent to the arc. Say we have one section between the minor axis
and C marked 1. Make H N equal O N, Fig. 1. Draw N J parallel to V L.
Make J I equal N I, Fig. 1. Draw J P square to V L and P R square to
F O; join R I for section line. For bevels, width of moulds, &c., take
O for centre and for radius open the compasses to touch each tangent;
transfer these distances to Fig. 4, always making the distance between
the lines N R, Fig. 4, equal the radius of centre line of rail on plan.
Draw the section of rail on each bevel and set off half thickness of
plank, and complete the sections as shown. For width of mould make
C I P and 1 3 4 and E 6 5 on section lines Fig. 3 equal C I P and
1 3 4 and E 6 5 at sections Fig. 4. It will be noticed that, while
at sections C and I the face mould has less stuff on the inside, at
section E, on the other side of the minor axis, it has more.

Fig. 5 shows the face mould for the other side of the plank. To cut
the wreath out, lay either mould on and transfer the tangents on to
the stuff, and mark off on each side of face mould on the minor axis.
The stuff should be cut full on this line. Mark off on each side of
the tangents at the joint C the distance C P as seen at the section,
and on each side of E, E Y as seen at Fig. 4. Draw around roughly from
P to the minor axis to Y. The stuff is cut square through the plank
to this line inside and out. Plane the stuff true and gauge it to its
proper thickness and make the joints square to face of stuff and to the
tangents. The application of the face moulds is seen at Fig. 6; the
tangents on both face moulds must lie on the tangents marked across
both joints of the wreath. Now saw the inside and outside off as shown
by the shaded parts at Fig. 6, keeping the saw in the direction of
the section lines. Clean up the wreath both inside and out, always
keeping the straight edge in the direction of the section lines. Before
removing the moulds mark from the top side 22, 33, 44, 55, 66 and 77,
as shown by the shaded parts of sections at Fig. 4. Cut the superfluous
stuff off the top to these lines, after which, gauge to a thickness,
set the gauge full so as to allow the wreaths being cleaned up after
the pair are bolted together. Before they are bolted and dowelled
together at the centre joint them to the straight rails, and clean off
any superfluous stuff there may be on the shanks in a line with the
straight rails, and mark the section of rail on the ends of shanks
before removing the straight rail; now joint the two together.

But before cleaning the pair off it would be well to test the
correctness of the centre joint. Make N Y, Fig. 2, equal S Y, Fig. 1,
and join E Y; now if the distance from the centre of the thickness of
one wreath to the centre of the thickness of the other on the inside
at the sections, at the springing, equals E Y, Fig. 2, the joint will
be correct. Having proved the joint in this way, clean them off while
together, then take them apart before glueing up. Mark the pattern of
rail on the joint and mould them; use a handrail screw to bolt the
joints together with and keep them as near as possible the centre of
section of rail. There should be two dowels in each joint to keep them
from twisting, placed according to pattern of rail.

In taking the length of straight rails, take the length of strings from
springing to springing and allow for length of shanks of wreaths, as
measured from the joint to springing, in a line with straight rails.



[Illustration: PLATE 18.]

PLATE XVIII.

FROM THE LEVEL TO THE RAKE.


The principal thing to consider in planning stairs of this kind is to
place the riser starting, so as to get a good falling line. Fig. 1
shows the plan with the centre line enclosed with tangents A B C D E.

Fig. 2 shows the elevation with the centre falling line and development
of tangents. Make R N S equal stretch-out of centre line of rail,
Fig. 1. Draw the landing and the level part of falling line 4 inches
above it to cut the centre line at H. Draw H E to pitch of pitch-board
and complete the falling line from E to J; set up the height of a riser
above the landing on the right, and draw the top of step to cut the
line H E for position of riser. Make E P, Fig. 1, equal S P and draw
face of riser starting on plan. This riser must be slightly curved, so
as to get it the same width on the end as the others. For development
of tangents, make 1 2 3 4 E equal A B C D E, Fig. 1. From 4 square down
a line to cut H E in D; from where the falling line cuts the centre
line, square out a level line to cut 3 in C; join D C extended to cut
the line 2 in B; draw A B level. Then A B and B C will be the tangents
for the bottom mould, and C D and D E for the top mould; make E F,
Fig. 1, equal W F, Fig. 2, and join F C for H trace.

Fig. 3 shows the face mould for the upper wreath. Make E D F equal
E D F, Fig. 2, and F C equal F C, Fig. 1, and D C equal D C, Fig. 2.
Draw the major axis through the centre square to F C. With S as centre
and O N, Fig. 1, as radius, strike an arc at N; draw V L through the
centre and tangent to the arc. For section marked 3, make N H equal
O H, Fig. 1, draw H J parallel to V L, make J 3 equal H 3, Fig. 1.
Draw J P parallel to S N, and P L square to major axis, join L 3 for
section line.

Fig. 4 shows the sections, width of mould, &c. The process of getting
the bevels being the same in every case, it would be useless repetition
to describe it every time. The shaded parts of sections show the
superfluous stuff to come off the top side of wreath at each section.

Fig. 5 shows the face mould for the other side of the wreath. In
applying these moulds care must be taken to get the twist the right way.

Fig. 6 shows the face mould for the lower wreath. As this one has only
one pitch, draw A B C at right angles and make A B and B C equal A B
and B C, Fig. 2. With A as centre and A O, Fig. 1, as radius, strike an
arc, draw V L through the centre and tangent to the arc; make H S equal
O S, Fig. 1; draw S 4 parallel to V L, make 4 2 equal S 2, Fig. 1. Draw
4 5 parallel to A H, and 5 6 square to major axis A O; join 6 2 for
section line.

Fig. 7 shows the sections for this wreath. The section at the joint C
will be in the centre of plank, but that at A and 2 will be below the
centre. The difference between O H, Fig. 6, and Y J, Fig. 2, is what
the section on shank will be below the centre; and that between O 5,
Fig. 6, and 5 6, Fig. 2, for section 2. Draw the sections below the
centre as shown at Fig. 7.

Fig. 8 shows a sketch of the bottom wreath with the inside and outside
worked. The shaded parts show the superfluous stuff to come off top and
bottom.



[Illustration: PLATE 19.]

PLATE XIX.

FROM THE LEVEL TO THE RAKE--_continued_.


The plan, elevation and falling line, and position of risers in this
case are the same as in Plate XVII., but show a different way of
getting out the wreaths. This may not be such a correct method as the
former one, as the centre joint will be vertical instead of square to
the tangent across the well as was the case there, but nothing could
be more simple than the method here described. Having the plan and
elevation drawn, square out a bevel line from C, to cut the springing
in R. Make R F equal E D, Fig. 1; say the joint is to be at S on the
right, join S F, draw the joint S P square to the straight rail, and
draw S N square to the tangent F E S.

Fig. 3 shows the face mould. Draw S E D C at right angles, make S E D
equal S E F, Fig. 2, and C D equal C D, Fig. 1. To complete the mould,
make O N and C N equal E R and F R, Fig. 2. Draw V L through O N; make
C R and P H equal C R and R H, Fig. 1. As will be seen, the straight
rail is not in a line with the tangent, and as the joint must be square
to the straight rail it cannot be square to the face of the plank.
Therefore, the face mould for the top side will require to be a trifle
longer, while the mould for the bottom side must be the same distance
shorter. To find out how much the joint will require to be bevelled,
mark off along S N, Fig. 2, S J to equal half thickness of plank; then
the distance between the two lines S P and S N at J is what the joint
will be out of square to face of plank through half its thickness.
The shank of top face mould must be increased, and that of the bottom
reduced to this amount as shown by the shaded parts. The face mould
shown at Fig. 3, being for the under side, is reduced.

Fig. 5 shows the application of the face moulds; as there is no bevel
on the shank E S the joint will only be out of square to face of plank
and not to the tangent. Fig. 6 shows the bottom half; this having no
twist can be struck with the compasses, the same as the plan. It must
be the distance C H, Fig. 2, thicker than the rail. The shaded part
shows how the superfluous stuff must be taken off top and bottom.

Fig. 7 shows the pair in position after being squared.



[Illustration: PLATE 20.]

PLATE XX.

HALF-SPACE LANDING, WITH THE RISERS IN THE SPRINGING.


Fig. 1 shows the plan of a half-space landing with the centre line of
rail struck with a 9-inch radius, and the risers starting and landing
placed in the springing. As the steps are only 10 inches it is very
evident that if the tangents A B and D E were the same pitch as the
straight rail the tangent across the well would pitch the wrong way,
which of course would not do. To obviate this the tangent A B must only
rise half a riser over B, and the tangent D E only fall half a riser
over D, and the tangent across the well level and the joint on the end
of shanks must be bevelled so as to joint square to the straight rail.

Fig. 1 shows the plan with the risers in the springing.

Fig. 2 shows the elevation. Make S N equal stretch-out of centre line
of rail. Set up one step above and below and draw landing; also draw
the centre falling as shown, this line must pass through the centre at
the height of half a riser above the landing, and make a good easing
into the straight rail above and below the springing. For development
of tangents make F B equal A B, Fig. 1, and draw from B to the joint
below the springing; draw R P square to the straight rail, which will
be the joint, and R N square to the tangent A B.

Fig. 3 shows the face moulds. As the tangent B C is level draw A B C
at right angles; make R A B equal R A B, Fig. 2, and B C equal B C,
Fig. 1, and complete the mould as usual. It will be seen that the
sections will be in the centre of the plank at both joints. For
section P, make F H, Fig. 2, equal A P, Fig. 1, and H J, Fig. 2,
equal H J, Fig. 3. The difference between J and the falling line is
what the section is out of the centre of plank as shown at Fig. 4.
The difference between the tangent A B and the falling line at the
springing shows that the section A is out of the centre. The stuff must
be thick enough to get this section out as required. Make R Y, Fig. 2,
equal half thickness of plank. Add Y C to the end of shank of one face
mould and reduce the other to the same amount, as shown by the shaded
parts.



[Illustration: PLATE 21.]

PLATE XXI.

WINDERS IN THE HALF-SPACE AND LEVEL LANDING AT TOP.


Fig. 1 shows the plan with the centre line enclosed with tangents.
Having laid down the risers on plan, keeping the narrow ends of winders
as near as possible half a step, then with one baluster on each they
will be the same distance apart as on the square steps which have two.
This is not intended as a fixed rule but merely as a guide. The risers
must be placed so as to get a good falling line, and this can only be
ascertained by developing or unfolding the centre line and tangents on
a board.

Fig. 2 shows the development of centre line and tangents. Set up all
the treads and risers as they occur on the centre line of rail, Fig. 1.
Draw the springing through A and E. Draw the centre falling line
resting on the corners of square step at bottom and 4 inches above the
landing at top. It is better for the falling line to be a little higher
over the winders, especially near the top. To develop the tangents make
the distance between the lines 1 2 3 D E equal A B C D E, Fig. 1. Draw
D E level. From the centre joint on the falling line square out a line
to cut the line 3 at C, join D C extended to cut the line 2 in B. From
where the falling line cut the lower springing, square out a line to
cut the line 1 in A; join A B; then A B C will be the tangents for the
lower wreath and C D E for the top. Decide where the joint is to be
below the springing, and draw a line parallel to the tangent A B, and
tangent to the curve of the falling line where the joint is to be. The
joint must be square to this line. It will be necessary to have a ramp
here to ease into the straight rail, this is shown by the dotted lines.
In the next plate is shown a method of easing the wreath into the
straight rail without the aid of a ramp.

Fig. 3 shows the bottom face mould. Make C B F and B A equal C B A
and B A, Fig. 2, and F A equal F A, Fig. 1, and complete the mould as
usual. To find what each section is out of the centre of the plank,
make W 4 5, Fig. 2, equal C 4 5 on the centre line of rail, Fig. 1;
make 4 4 and 5 5, Fig. 2, equal N O and N H, Fig. 3. The difference
between the falling line and 4 is what the section 4 on the minor axis
is above the centre; and that between 5 and the falling line is what
the section 5 is out of the centre. The section at both joints is in
the centre, but at the springing A the falling line is a little above
the centre, as it cut the springing above the level line A W, which
is the height of the centre of the plank there. Get out the mould for
the opposite side of the plank in the usual way, by laying Fig. 3 on a
thin piece of stuff, and transfer the tangents and section lines on to
it. Stick a bradawl through A 5 4 C and mark off out to it A 7 5 8 and
5 9, and C 10 and C 11, only on the opposite side. Work the inside and
outside off first with a gig-saw, as before described. The shaded parts
of sections at Fig. 4 show the superfluous stuff there is to come off
the top side.

Fig. 5 shows the face mould for the top half. Draw C D E at right
angles, and to equal C D E, Fig. 2. To see what the sections are out
of the centre, make E 3 2, Fig. 2, equal E 3 2 on centre line of rail,
Fig. 1. Make 2 2 and 3 3, Fig. 2, equal S R and S L. The difference
between 2 and the falling line is what the section 2 is below the
centre of plank, and that between 3 and the falling line is what the
section 3 is below the centre. And that between E and the falling line
is what it is below there.

Fig. 6 shows the sections, and the shaded part shows the superfluous
stuff there is to come off the top at each section, after the inside
and outside have been cut off.

Fig. 7 shows the wreath after the inside and outside have been cut off;
the dotted lines show the wreath cut square through the plank.



[Illustration: PLATE 22.]

PLATE XXII.

WINDERS IN THE HALF-SPACE, WITH A STRAIGHT FLIGHT ABOVE AND BELOW,
WREATH TO FORM ITS OWN EASING.


Fig. 1 shows the plan with face of risers laid down. It will be noticed
that the winders commence at the springing at the top, while they are
brought past the springing at the bottom; this causes the rail to be
high at E and, therefore, safer for any one coming down the stairs
with their hand on the rail; and by bringing the winders below the
springing it makes a better easing into the straight rail. This will be
understood by referring to Fig. 2, where the centre line and tangents
are developed. Set up the treads and risers as they occur on the centre
line of rail, Fig. 1; also draw the springing and the centre line W.
Draw the centre falling line resting on the corners of square steps top
and bottom, and continue it up over the winders as shown by the dotted
line. To develop the tangents make the distance between 1 2 3 4 5
equal A B C D E, Fig. 1. From where the falling line cuts the centre
line square out a level line to cut the line 3 at C. Continue the top
tangent down in a line with the straight rail to cut the line 4 in D.
Join D C extended to cut the line 2 in B. Now make the joint below the
springing, as near to it as possible, so that it will be clear of the
easing. There being no ramp on the straight rail, the joint should be
well clear of the easing and into the straight so as to avoid any signs
of a cripple when the wreath is jointed to the straight rail, which
there would be if the joint was made in the easing. Square out a level
line from the joint P, and make P R equal the distance between the line
1 and the springing. Join R B, this has cut the line 1 at A. From A
draw A W level. From R draw the joint square to the straight rail, and
R P square to the tangent A B R. Make D F, Fig. 1, equal 4 F, Fig. 2,
and join F E for the horizontal trace of the top wreath. Make B S,
Fig. 1, equal 6 S, Fig. 2, and join S A for the horizontal trace of the
bottom wreath.

Fig. 3 shows the face mould for the top wreath. Make C D F equal
C D F and D E equal D E, Fig. 2, and F E equal F E, Fig. 1. Draw from
E parallel to D C and from C parallel to D E to meet at the centre
O. Draw the major axis square to the horizontal trace F E. With M as
centre and O M, Fig. 1, as radius strike an arc at N; draw V L through
the centre and tangent to the arc, and complete the mould as usual; M S
will equal M S, and T J will equal S J, Fig. 1.

Fig. 4 shows the sections. S S will equal the radius of centre line of
rail, Fig. 1, and for bevels place one foot of the compasses on the
centre O, Fig. 3, and open out to touch each tangent, then transfer
these distances to each section, Fig. 4. To find what each section is
out of the centre of the plank, make E J K, Fig. 2, equal E J K on the
centre line of rail, Fig. 1. Make J J and K K, Fig. 2, equal N H and
N O, Fig. 3. Now the difference between E and the falling line is what
the section is below the centre at the springing, and that between J
and the falling line is what the section is below the centre, and that
between K and the falling line is what the section on the minor axis K
is above the centre; the sections at both joints are in the centre of
the plank.

Fig. 5 shows the bottom face mould. R A B will equal R A B, and S B C
will equal S B C, Fig. 2, and A S will equal A S, Fig. 1. Proceed as
usual to get bevels, sections and width of mould. Now, as the tangent
A B is not in a line with the straight rail, and the joint being
square to the latter, the end of shank must be bevelled so as to joint
correctly to the straight rail. Draw P P, Fig. 7, to the same bevel as
that for the shank marked O O, Fig. 6. Draw C D, Fig. 7, square to P P,
make C N equal 2 2 at section A, Fig. 6, draw the level line through N
to cut P P in E and C D in D. Now, at Fig. 2 mark off along R P, R S to
equal 2 2 or 1 1, Fig. 6. Make C S and C S, Fig. 7, equal S S, Fig. 2,
and join S E and S D for bevels T and S. Apply the bevel T as shown and
S as shown at Fig. 8. The face mould for the under side will be S S,
Fig. 2, longer, and that for the top side the same amount shorter.



[Illustration: PLATE 23.]

PLATE XXIII.

QUARTER-SPACE LANDING, WREATH IN ONE PIECE.


Fig. 1 shows plan of centre line of rail enclosed with tangent A B C.
Draw risers, landing, and starting half a tread from B. This will cause
the tangents on face moulds to be the same pitch as the straight rail.
This arrangement answers very well if the rail is small, but if the
rail is a wide one, say 4 inches or more, the inside has a crippled and
awkward appearance.

Fig. 2. Make R S equal stretch-out of the quadrant, Fig. 1. Set up
one tread and riser above and below, as they occur on the centre line
of rail, Fig. 1. For development of tangents make C 2 1 equal A B C,
Fig. 1. Square out a level line from the springing at S to cut the line
1 at A. Join A C for tangents, which will be the same pitch as the
straight rail.

Fig. 3 shows face mould. Make C B S equal C B A and B C equal B C,
Fig. 2, and S C equal the diagonal of the square on plan. Draw C O
and B O parallel to A B and B C. Draw sine major axis and sine minor
through O. Notice the major axis is parallel to the diagonal from A to
C, and the minor axis is the other diagonal. Both pitches being the
same throws the horizontal trace parallel to the diagonal from the
centre to B. One bevel will do for both shanks, as the pitches are the
same. The falling line will be in the centre of plank at both ends and
at the minor axis.

Fig. 4 shows the section, which is the same for both ends, only of
course the reverse hand.


SIDE WREATH STARTING FROM A NEWEL.

Fig. 6 shows the plan of centre line of rail of a side wreath starting
from a newel. Lay down the tangents A B and B C equal in length and to
the required angle, according to circumstances, the size of the hall,
&c. The farther it stands out into the hall the better it will look,
but it must not obstruct the passage or be out of proportion to the
size of the stairs. B should be in front of the second riser, or it
will make the rail too high at the newel. A will be the face of the
newel. Draw from A square to A B, and from C square to C B to meet in
O. Then O A will be the radius of the centre line of rail, which draw.
Then A B being level will be the horizontal trace.

Fig. 7 shows the elevation. Set up a tread and risers and draw the
springing C as it occurs on the plan. Make C 3 equal C B, Fig. 6, and
draw B C S resting on the corners.

Fig. 8 shows the face mould. Draw the line A P, and make A D P equal
A D O, Fig. 6. Draw V L through P at right angles to A P. Draw D 8
parallel to V L, make D 8 equal B 3, Fig. 7; join A 8 extended to
cut V L in O; then O will be the centre. Make A B and 8 C equal A B
and D C, Fig. 6. The completion of the mould will be understood. The
tangent C B will equal C B, Fig. 7, if the drawing is correct.

Fig. 9 shows the sections which will be in the centre of plank all
round.



[Illustration: PLATE 24.]

PLATE XXIV.

QUARTER-SPACE LANDING, WREATH IN TWO PIECES.


It was said in a previous case that with a wide rail and the tangents
on the same pitch as the straight rail, the inside of rail has a
crippled appearance. This can be remedied by having the wreath in two
pieces.

Fig. 1 shows the plan laid down so as to make the inside falling line
of rail a straight line; and the risers landing and starting placed in
the springing. To find the radius of centre line of rail, Fig. 1. Make
S N, Fig. 7, equal one step. From N draw N R at 45° with S N, and from
S draw a line at 60° with S N to meet the line from N in R, from R draw
square to and cut S N in P; then R P will be the radius for the inside
of the rail on plan.

Fig. 2 shows the development. Make H R equal stretch-out of centre line
of rail on plan. Set up one tread and risers above and below, with the
risers in the springing. Draw the centre falling line, resting on the
corners and passing through the centre, at the height of half a riser
above the landing. To develop tangents, make C S R Fig. 2, equal C B A,
Fig. 1, and complete tangents as shown. To draw the horizontal trace
at Fig. 1, make A B F, Fig. 1, equal R S F, Fig. 2. Join F C for the
required trace. Draw N O square to it.

Fig. 3 shows the face mould. Make A B F equal A B F and B C equal B C,
Fig. 2, and F C equal F C, Fig. 1. Make C P equal C N, Fig. 1. Draw the
major axis from N square to N C F. Draw from A parallel to F C P to
cut major axis in 7. Now if the drawing is correct A 7 will equal A R,
Fig. 1. With P as centre and N R, Fig. 1, as radius, strike an arc at
S; again, with 7 as centre and A R, Fig. 2, as radius, strike an arc
to intersect the first one in S. Join 7 S and P S extended, and P N
equal O N, Fig. 1. Draw from N parallel to 7 S to cut the major axis in
O, then O will be the centre.

Fig. 4 shows the sections and bevels. Make N N equal radius of centre
line of rail, Fig. 1, with O as centre, and for radius just touching
each tangent, which distances transfer to Fig. 4. All the sections in
this case will be in the centre of the plank.

Fig. 5 shows the face mould for the other side of the plank.

Fig. 6 shows the application of the face moulds to the stuff.

Both joints are square to tangents and face of plank in this case.



[Illustration: PLATE 25.]

PLATE XXV.

QUARTER-SPACE LANDING, WREATH IN ONE PIECE, TO FORM ITS OWN EASING INTO
THE STRAIGHT RAIL.


Fig. 1 shows the plan laid down exactly the same as in Plate XXIII.

Fig. 2 shows the elevation. Make Y Y equal the stretch-out of centre
line of rail, Fig. 1, and set up one step above and below as shown.
Draw the centre falling line resting on the corners and passing through
the centre at the height of half a riser above the landing. For
development of tangents, make 1, 2, 3 equal A B C, Fig. 1. Square out
a level line from the lower joint H, and make H R equal the distance
between the line 1 and the springing; join R N; then A B C will be
the tangents of face mould. From R draw the joint line square to the
straight rail, and R P square to the tangents.

Fig. 3 shows the face mould. Make R A B S equal R A B C, Fig. 2, and
S C equal the diagonal on plan, and B C equal B C, Fig. 2. Draw C O and
A O parallel to A B and B C, make C N equal C N, Fig. 2. The bevel A
and C will be the same, as both pitches are the same.

Fig. 4 shows the sections at the two joints, and the section on the
minor axis will be in the centre of the plank. But section A will be
above, and that at C below the centre. The distance between C and the
falling line is what the section at C will be below, and A above the
centre. It will be seen one corner of the rail is cut off at these
sections; this makes no difference so long as the moulding of the rail
will work it out.

Fig. 5 shows the bevels for the joints to be worked off to, so as to
make them joint to the straight rail. Draw P P to the same pitch as
O O, Fig. 4; draw C H square to P P; make C N equal 4 4, Fig. 4. At
Fig. 2 mark along R P, R S to equal 4 4, Fig. 4; make C S and C S equal
S S, Fig. 2, and draw S E for the bevel T to be applied across the end
of shank and along the tangent. Join S D for the bevel S, to be applied
through the end of shank and along the surface of the stuff; this bevel
must be held parallel to the tangent across the joint, that is, square
through the plank. Notice that in all these bevel joints if the tangent
is steeper than the straight rail, the bevel T is applied so that
the ends of shank diminish towards the inside, while if the tangent
is flatter, the end of shank will diminish towards the outside. This
will be understood by referring to Fig. 3 in this plate, and Fig. 5,
Plate XXI.

Fig. 6 shows the face mould for the under side; the shaded part N S
shows the extra length required; this will equal S S, Fig. 2, the other
end R S will be the same amount shorter. This mould is reverse to
Fig. 3.

Fig. 7 shows the wreath cut out square through the plank, before the
moulds are put on. The application of the bevels is seen here.



[Illustration: PLATE 26.]

PLATE XXVI.

WINDERS IN THE QUARTER-SPACE, WREATH IN ONE PIECE, TO FORM ITS OWN
EASING INTO STRAIGHT RAIL.


Fig. 1 shows plan with face of risers laid, and centre line of rail
enclosed with tangents A B C.

Fig. 2 shows the development. Make Y Y equal stretch-out of centre of
rail, Fig. 1. Set up treads and risers, placing the risers as they
occur on the centre line of rail, Fig. 1; draw the centre falling line
as shown. To development tangents make 1 2 C equal A B C, Fig. 1.
Continue the tangent C B in a line with straight rail; make H R equal
the distance between the line 1 and springing; join R B extended to cut
the level line in F. Draw the joint line square to the straight rail,
and R P square to the tangent; mark off along R P, R S to equal half
thickness of plank.

Fig. 3 shows the face mould for the top side of the plank. Make R A B F
and B C equal corresponding letters, Fig. 2, and F C equal F C, Fig. 1;
draw C O and A O parallel to A B and B C; draw the major axis O M
square to F C through the centre, with M as centre and M O, Fig. 1, as
radius strike an arc at P; draw V L through the centre and tangent to
the arc. Make M H equal M H, Fig. 1; draw Y J parallel to V L; make Y E
equal H E, Fig. 1. Draw Y J parallel to M P, and J K square to major
axis; join K E for section line; draw the short tangent from E square
to K E.

Fig. 4 shows bevels, width of mould, thickness of plank. Get the levels
by taking O, Fig. 3, as centre, and for radius open out to touch each
tangent; transfer these distances to Fig. 4 for each bevel as shown,
and complete the sections as usual; the section at each joint will
be in the centre, but each of the others will be below. Make C E D,
Fig. 2, equal C E D, Fig. 1. Make E E and D D equal P J and P O,
Fig. 3. Then the difference between K D E and C and the falling line,
is what each section will be out of the centre of plank.

Fig. 5 shows the bevels for the bevelled joint at R. Draw P P to the
same bevel as the bevel for the shank, marked O O, Fig. 4; draw C H
square to P P. Make C N equal 1 1, Fig. 4, make C S and C S equal
S S, Fig. 2, and join S E and S P for bevels T and S. Cut the wreath
out square through the plank as usual, except at this joint, which is
worked across the top and bottom to the bevel T, the bevel S being
for the sides. If the joint is worked true to these bevels, it will
joint correctly to the straight rail. S S, Fig. 2, is what the face
mould will require to be longer for the under side; this is shown by
the shaded part on end of shank, Fig. 6, while R S on the shank of the
top face mould, Fig. 3, shows the same amount shorter. It is presumed
that the method of squaring the wreath is fully understood, and needs
no further explaining here, as it can only be a repetition of what was
described in the first few plates.



[Illustration: PLATE 27.]

PLATE XXVII.

LANDING IN AN OBTUSE ANGLE, THE WREATH TO FORM ITS OWN EASING INTO THE
STRAIGHT RAIL.


Fig. 1 is the plan with the risers placed in the springing, and the
rail drawn with a radius so as to make the inside falling line nearly
a straight line. Draw the centre line of rail to the angle, and bisect
it from B. Set off on each side half a tread marked 2 2 and 3 3.
Now draw the inside of rail to cut these two lines in 4 and 5; draw
through 4 and 5 square to the centre line of rail to meet in O, then
O will be the centre and A O the radius. Complete the plan as shown.
The elevation is shown at Fig. 2. Make S S equal the centre line of
rail, Fig. 1, from A to C. Set up one step above and below and draw the
falling line. To develop tangents, make 1 2 C equal A B C, Fig. 1. Make
the joints at N and H. Make H R equal the distance between the line
1 and the springing. Join R N for development of tangents. Draw the
joint line square to the straight rail, and R P square to the tangents.
Mark off along R P, R S to equal 1 1 or 4 4, Fig. 4. Make B F, Fig. 1,
equal 2 C, Fig. 2, and join F C. Fig. 3 is the face mould. Make R A B F
equal R A B C, Fig. 2, and B C equal B C, Fig. 2, and F C equal F C,
Fig. 1. Draw the minor axis from B parallel to F C, and make B O equal
B O, Fig. 1. Draw the major axis square to it. The sections are seen
at Fig. 4. Make R R equal radius of centre line of rail on plan; make
O O equal O O, Fig. 3, and complete sections as usual. The difference
between C and the falling line at Fig. 2 is what the section at C will
be below the centre, and that at A above; the sections at the joints
and at the minor axis will be in the centre of plank.

Fig. 5 shows the face mould for the under side of the plank.

Fig. 6 shows the wreath worked inside and out ready for squaring.

Fig. 7 shows the bevels for the bevelled joints on both ends of wreath.
They will be applied the same as in Plate XXV.



[Illustration: PLATE 28.]

PLATE XXVIII.

HALF TWIST STARTING FROM A SCROLL, AND A SIDE WREATH STARTING FROM A
NEWEL.


Fig. 1 shows the plan of a stair starting with a scroll. Make D E equal
about 4 times the width of rail, which divide into 9 equal parts; make
D I equal 5 of these parts; this will be the radius for the largest
quadrant of the rail. To find the radius for each of the remaining
quadrants, make D 1, Fig. 5, equal D 1, Fig. 1; make 1 2 equal one of
the 9 parts, with D as centre and D 1 as radius; strike an arc from 2;
square up a line to cut the arc in A; join A D with D as centre and D 2
as radius; strike an arc to cut A D in B; from B draw B 3 square to
D 1. Continue the process as far as required to complete the scroll,
D 2 will strike the second quadrant and D 3 the third, and so on. The
face mould is seen at Fig. 3. Draw C B A at right angles and make C B
equal C B, Fig. 2, and A B equal A B, Fig. 1. Make A R equal radius of
centre line of rail C 1, Fig. 1, and complete the mould as usual. The
scroll itself will only require to be the thickness of the rail, as it
is level. All the sections in the wreath will be in the centre of the
plank.

Fig. 6 shows the plan, and Fig. 7 the elevation of a side wreath
starting from a newel. Make A P, Fig. 8, equal the radius of centre
line of rail, Fig. 6, and draw V L through P square to A P. Make A E
equal A E, Fig. 6, draw E 8 square to A E, and make E 8 equal B D,
Fig. 7. Join A 8 extended to cut V L in O; then O will be the centre
and A O the major axis. Make A B and 8 C equal A B and E C, Fig. 6.
Join C B, which is the tangent, and if the drawing is correct, this
will equal C B, Fig. 7. The tangent A B being level is of course the
same length as on plan. All the sections will be in the centre of the
plank; these are seen at Fig. 9. The short shank A N is to let into the
newel; A being the face of newel.



[Illustration: PLATE 29.]

PLATE XXIX.

WINDERS STARTING FROM A CURTAIL STEP.


Fig. 1 shows the plan of a scroll, and wreath to stand over the curtail
step and winders. Divide N N into 9 equal parts. Make N 1 equal 5 of
these parts and draw the largest quadrant. To draw the remainder make
N 1, Fig. 7, equal N 1, Fig. 1; with N as centre and N 1 as radius,
strike the arc. Make 1 2 equal 1 of the 9 parts; from 2 erect a
perpendicular to cut the arc in 7. Join 7 N. Now with N as centre and
N 2 as radius, strike the second arc to cut N 7 in 8; draw 8 3 parallel
to 7 2. Again, with N as centre and N 3 as radius, strike the arc to
cut N 7 in 9; draw 9 4 parallel to 8 3. This process can be continued
as far as required. N 1 will strike the largest quadrant, N 2 the next,
and N 3 the next, and so on until the scroll is completed. The centre
and inside lines of rail will be struck from the same centres. Make the
joint at A, and draw the radius line from 2, which is the centre of
this part of the scroll; draw the tangent A B square to it.

Fig. 2 shows the elevation. Set up the treads and risers as they occur
on the centre line of rail, Fig. 1, and draw the centre falling line so
that it will finish level, about on the line N N, and at a height of
about 1 or 2 inches above the top of the first step. Make 3 7 equal the
stretch-out of the centre line of rail, Fig. 1 from A to C. Draw the
level line through the falling line at 7, and make 3 8 and 8 A equal
C B and B A, Fig. 1, and complete the development of tangents as shown.
Draw the joint at 7 square to the tangent A B. The scroll must be the
distance S S thicker than the thickness of rail, and the joint worked
to the bevel as shown.

Fig. 3 is the face mould for the top side of the plank. Make B F,
Fig. 1, equal 8 F, Fig. 2, and at Fig. 3 make C B F equal C B F and
B A equal B A, Fig. 2, and F A equal F A, Fig. 1. Draw C 11 and A 5
parallel to the horizontal trace F A, and make A 5 and C 11 equal A 5
and C 7, Fig. 1, and draw the major axis through 5 and 11. With 5 as
centre and 5 7, Fig. 1, as radius, strike an arc at 7; draw a line
through 11 and tangent to the arc. Now, if the drawing is correct, 7 11
will equal the height 3 C, Fig. 2. Make 5 4 3 1 6 7 equal corresponding
figures, Fig. 1, and complete the mould as usual. Notice O will be the
centre for sections D E R and C, and S S, Fig. 4, will equal the radius
1 D, Fig. 1. But for the section at the joint A, 2 will be the centre
and S S, Fig. 5, will equal the radius 2 A, Fig. 1. The bevels, &c.,
are got as usual. Make 3 4 5 6 7, Fig. 2, equal C R E D A, Fig. 1. Make
4 4 and 5 5 and 6 6, Fig. 2, equal 1 S and 1 O and 1 W, Fig. 3. Now,
the difference between 4 5 and 6 and the falling line is what each
section is out of the centre of plank.

Fig. 6 is the face mould for the under side of the plank.



[Illustration: PLATE 30.]

PLATE XXX.

WINDERS IN THE QUARTER-SPACE, STARTING FROM A NEWEL.


Fig. 1 shows the plan. There will be one baluster on the bottom step,
and the remainder placed as shown. In planning stairs of this kind care
must be taken not to let the newel obstruct the passage. No fixed rule
can be laid down for the position of the newel; circumstances alone
must regulate that; but the further the newel is brought round the more
graceful will be the falling line of rail.

Fig. 2 is the elevation. Make C A equal the stretch-out of centre line
of rail from C to A, Fig. 1, and C D equal C B, Fig. 1. Let B be 12
inches above the floor line; now draw the centre falling line from the
joint at R at the top, and to strike the face of the newel level at
the height of B, as shown by the dotted lines. Join R B for pitch of
tangent B C. The tangent A B will be level, therefore the same length
as on plan. Draw the joint at R square to the straight rail, and R P
square to the tangent. Mark off along R P, R S to equal 5 5, Fig. 4.

Fig. 3 is the face mould for the top side of the plank. Draw the lines
A E and N E at right angles, and make A E equal A E, Fig. 1, and N E
equal B D, Fig. 2; join A N, which is the major axis; make C R equal
C R above the springing at Fig. 2; add S S, Fig. 2, on to the end of
shank, as shown by shaded part. The completion of the face mould will
be understood.

Fig. 4 shows the sections. It will be noticed that the sections S and R
are above the centre of plank. Make F S R, Fig. 2, equal A S R on the
centre line of rail, Fig. 1, and make S S and R R below the falling
at Fig. 2 equal R F and R O, Fig. 3. The difference between S and the
falling line is what the section at S is above the centre of plank,
while that between R and the falling line is what the section at R on
the minor axis is above the centre of plank.

Fig. 5 shows the bevels for the bevelled joint at R. Draw H H to the
same pitch as the bevel for the section C and draw C E square to H H
and C N vertical; draw E D level through N; make C S and C S equal S S,
Fig. 2, and join S D and S E for bevels T and S. To cut out the wreath,
lay the face mould on the stuff, transfer the tangents on to it, mark
off on each side of the tangent at A A 1, and on each side of the
tangent at C C N, and on each side of R on the minor axis, ¼ of an inch
more than half width of rail, marked P P, Fig. 4. Trace around through
I P N inside and outside. Cut the wreath out square through the plank.
Before bevelling the wreath, work the joint to the bevels T and S. The
bevel T to be applied across the top and bottom, while the bevel S will
be applied on the sides. S S is the extra length of stuff required on
end of shank, as shown by shaded part on end of face mould. To get
out the face mould for the under side, lay Fig. 3 on a thin piece of
stuff and transfer the tangents and section lines on to it, and stick
a bradawl through A S R C and mark off on each section the width of
mould on the opposite side to Fig. 3. The shank will be the same amount
shorter that Fig. 3 is longer.



[Illustration: PLATE 31.]

PLATE XXXI.

THE PLAN OF RAIL FORMING PART OF AN ELLIPSE, STARTING FROM A NEWEL OVER
WINDERS.


Fig. 1 shows the plan of rail with the risers in position. The line O C
is the minor axis, and O D the major axis of the ellipse on plan; and
as the tangent A B is level, it is of course the H T. From the foci
P P draw to A, and bisect the angle, as shown by A Y; this will be the
face of the newel on plan. Draw the tangent A B square to it. Draw F S
through the centre O V square to A B. Draw O E parallel to A B; this
line will be the minor axis on the face mould.

Fig. 2 shows the elevation. A S will equal the stretch-out of the
centre line of rail from A to C, Fig. 1; and S B will equal C B,
Fig. 1. Draw the falling line as shown so as to strike the face of
newel level, at a height of 12 inches above the floor. Square out A B
from A and join B R for pitch of tangent. Draw the joint line square to
the straight rail and R P square to the tangent.

Fig. 3 shows the face mould for the under side. Draw F S and S P at
right angles, and make F S equal F S, Fig. 1; and S P equal the height
S C, Fig. 2. Join F P for the major axis of face mould. Make F R equal
F O, Fig. 1. Draw R O parallel to S P. Draw O E square to the major
axis F P; then O E is the minor axis, and O R is the same line as is
marked V L in previous plates. Make O 5 E 6 equal O 5 E 6, Fig. 1. Make
F N equal F N, Fig. 1, and draw N Y parallel to R O, and Y D square to
major axis. Make Y D equal N D, Fig. 1, and complete the section as
usual. Also make P C equal S C, and F A B equal F A B, Fig. 1. Join C B
extended, and make C R equal C R, Fig. 2. Now if the drawing is correct
C B will equal C B, Fig. 2.

Fig. 4 shows the bevel and section A. Make A B equal O F, Fig. 1; and
B C equal O F, Fig. 3. Draw the section of rail, and draw A 2 to cut
the top corner parallel to B C. Then A O will be half thickness of
plank and A 2 width of mould here.

Fig. 5 shows bevel and section D. Make A B equal O D, Fig. 1. With O as
centre for radius, open out the compasses to touch the tangent from D;
transfer this distance to Fig. 5, as shown by B C. Now make A D E S,
Fig. 2, equal A D E S on the centre line of rail, Fig. 1. Make D N and
E H, Fig. 2, equal N Y and R O, Fig. 3. The difference between N and
the falling line shows that the latter is nearly in the centre of plank
at the section D. Make D 3 and D 4, Fig. 3, equal D 3 and D 4 at the
section.

Fig. 6 shows the section on the minor axis, which of course requires no
bevel. The difference between 4 and the falling line at Fig. 2 shows
what this section is out of the centre of the plank.

Fig. 7 shows bevel and section C. Make A B equal O C, Fig. 1, and with
O as centre, and for radius a distance to just touch the tangent, C B,
Fig. 3. Transfer this to Fig. 7 as shown by B D, and complete the
section as usual.

Fig. 8 shows the bevels for the bevelled joint at R. The method of
getting them and their application will be understood.

Fig. 9 shows the face mould for the top side. The difference between
this mould and Fig. 3 is that A 2 and D 4 and C 7 is on the inside of
A D and C, instead of the outside, as at Fig. 3. In sawing around on
the inside, leave the stuff full on the section D, and gauge to a width
after the moulds have been removed.



[Illustration: PLATE 32.]

PLATE XXXII.

SHOWING THE MOULDING OF RAILS, AND A METHOD OF PROPORTIONATELY
INCREASING OR DECREASING THE SIZE OF THEM.


Figs. 1 and 2 show pattern of rails full size, both of which look well
when finished, and nice to handle. The shaded parts at Fig. 1 show how
the rail should be worked out before it is moulded. It will be seen
that Fig. 1 has three dowels, while Fig. 2 has two.

At Fig. 2 is seen a method by which a rail may be proportionately
increased or decreased to any size. Let S be the given rail and R the
required one. Make A B equal the width of S, and A E the thickness of
R; from E draw square to A B, and make E F equal the thickness of S;
join A B. From A square out a line and make A D equal the width of the
required rail R. From B and D square out lines to meet in C; join A C.
From each member in S draw ordinates to cut A C and A F, and where
these meet again in R will be the same member in the required rail.

Fig. 3 shows a handrail screw, A being a round nut, a section of which
is seen at Fig. 4, and B a square one; W is a round washer. These
screws are let into about the centre of the section of rail at the
joints. A hole is cut in the under side of each piece for the nuts to
go in, and a small bent chisel, made for the purpose, is used to turn
the nut A.


  LONDON:

  PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, STAMFORD STREET
  AND CHARING CROSS.



Transcriber’s Notes


Punctuation and spelling were made consistent when a predominant
preference was found in this book; otherwise they were not changed.

Simple typographical errors were corrected; occasional unbalanced
quotation marks retained.

Ambiguous hyphens at the ends of lines were retained; occurrences of
inconsistent hyphenation have not been changed.

Each “Figure” reference is to a portion of the Plate illustration
immediately preceding the text.

The captions of all illustrations included this credit line:

    Thos. Kell & Son, Lith.

which have been omitted in this eBook.

The right-side edges of several illustrations were missing or illegible.

Page 43: Two occurrences of “sime” were changed to “semi-” to conform
with the rest of the book.





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