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Title: The 21st Missouri Regiment Infantry Veteran Volunteers - Historical Memoranda
Author: Various
Language: English
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  THE
  21ST MISSOURI REGIMENT
  INFANTRY VETERAN VOLUNTEERS.

  HISTORICAL MEMORANDA.

  COMPILED BY
  N. D. STARR AND T. W. HOLMAN.

  [Illustration]

  JULY, 1899.

  ROBERTS & ROBERTS, PRINTERS,
  FORT MADISON, IOWA.



EXPLANATORY PREFACE.


At the close of the war and after their discharge the members of the
21st Missouri Regiment scattered over Missouri and other States of
the Union. No effort was made to keep the organization alive until
1888, when T. W. Holman, responding to the whisperings of memory for
a sight and hand clasp of the old comrades of ’61-’66, on his own
responsibility published a call, in August, 1888, for a meeting of
the survivors at Arbela, Mo. The result was a large gathering of the
veterans and the organization of the 21st Missouri Infantry Veteran
Volunteers Association. From that date to the present time annual
meetings have been held. At the meeting in 1896, Messrs. T. W. Holman
and N. D. Starr were made Regimental Historians, to compile and
perpetuate the history of the regiment. At the next meeting, in 1897,
these comrades made a partial report, and at the Edina, Mo., meeting in
1898, submitted the result of their labors in manuscript form. A motion
was then made and carried that T. W. Holman continue the labor and
revise and prepare the manuscript for publication and have it printed
for the use of the Association. In accordance with the foregoing
instructions the succeeding pages are respectfully submitted.

                                                           T. W. HOLMAN.


[Illustration: DAVID MOORE,
Colonel 21st Regiment Missouri Inf. Vet. Vols.]



THE CALL TO ARMS.

  Organization of the 1st and 2d North Missouri Regiments, June and
    July, 1861.--Campaigning in North Missouri During the Summer of
    1861.--Order Consolidating the 1st and 2d North Missouri Regiments,
    Thereafter Known as the 21st Regiment, Missouri Infantry Vols.


After the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 many political
disturbances and difficulties arose and he was inaugurated during a
time of overwhelming excitement. The government of Missouri at that
time was in the hands of those who were clamoring for secession from
the Union of States. Claiborne F. Jackson, who had been trained in the
political school of “States Rights,” was elected Governor. Early in the
spring of 1861 Camp Jackson was established in St. Louis and troops for
State service were mustered at that point.

The Southern states, one after another, withdrew from the Union and on
April the 11th, 1861, Fort Sumter was fired on by the Confederates.
This was the bugle call to arms, and President Lincoln’s proclamation
for 75,000 men to serve for ninety days followed. Frank P. Blair,
afterwards Major General, received authority from the general
government to organize and muster into service troops for the
prosecution of the war for the preservation of the Union.

The muster of troops for the state was very irregular and was the cause
afterwards of considerable confusion. Some men were enlisted for the
war, some for one year, then for three years; some to serve in the
state only, while others were enlisted for service in the northern part
of the state and others for the southern part. The army thus organized
was one of questionable authority. The Governor maintained that the
general government had no right to invade the state, and the latter
hesitated in regard to sending troops into a state not in open revolt
against the government.

During this period of hesitation and confusion Col. D. Moore was
commissioned Colonel and received authority to enlist and organize the
1st North Missouri Volunteers; and Col. H. M. Woodyard was given like
authority to organize the 2d North Missouri Volunteers. In the summer
and fall of 1861 these troops, acting separately, held North Missouri
against the Confederates under Cols. Porter and Green. The anomalous
conditions then existing in the state are explained by the position of
the Confederates, who claimed that they were resisting armed invasion
of the State by the Federal Government.


THE FIRST NOTE OF DEFIANCE.

About May 30, 1861, Col. Moore received authority from Gen. Lyons to
raise a regiment for the Federal service, taking the field at the head
of ten men. Clear and ringing as a bugle blast he sounded the following
challenge, which was posted in hand bills over Northeast Missouri and
Southern Iowa:

  The undersigned is authorized to raise a company of volunteers in the
  county, for the Union service. All who are willing to fight for their
  homes, their country and the flag of the glorious Union, are invited
  to join him, bringing with them their arms and ammunition. Until the
  Government can aid us we must take care of ourselves. Secessionists
  and rebel traitors desiring a fight can be accommodated on demand.

                                                               D. MOORE.


(The above is a verbatim copy.--T. W. H.)

Cols. Moore and Woodyard, with their commands, were so continuously
engaged with the enemy either in skirmishing, scouting or fighting,
that no time was left them for looking after recruits. Hence when the
time came to be regularly received into service both regiments were
short of the requisite number of men. Consequently the two regiments
were consolidated into what is known as the 21st Regiment of Missouri
Volunteers, by the following order:


                                       HEADQUARTERS STATE OF MISSOURI, }
                                       ADJUTANT GENERAL’S OFFICE.      }
                                       ST. LOUIS, DECEMBER 31, 1861.   }

  SPECIAL ORDERS, NO. 15.

  1st. The battalion of Missouri Volunteers heretofore known as 1st
  North Missouri Regiment, under the command of Col. D. Moore, and
  the battalion of Missouri Volunteers heretofore known as the 2d
  North Missouri Regiment, under the command of Col. H. M. Woodyard,
  are hereby consolidated into a regiment to be hereafter known and
  designated as the 21st Regiment of Missouri Volunteers.

  2d. Col. D. Moore is hereby appointed Colonel, and Col. H. M.
  Woodyard is hereby appointed Lieutenant-Colonel, of the regiment thus
  formed.

  By order of the Commander in Chief.

                                               CHESTER HARDING, JR.
                                                       Adjutant General.


As a result of the above order the two regiments were consolidated
on the 1st day of February, 1862, and were mustered into the service
of the United States by Lieut. Col. Fetterman, as the 21st Missouri
Infantry Volunteers, with the following field officers:

  D. Moore, Colonel.
  H. M. Woodyard, Lieutenant Colonel.
  B. B. King, Major.
  Charles C. Tobin, Adjutant

The ten companies of the regiment had the following officers:

  Company A--Charles Yust, Captain.
             Henry Menn, 1st Lieutenant.
             Edwin Turner, 2d Lieutenant.
  Company B--Joseph Story, Captain.
             L. D. Woodruff, 1st Lieutenant.
             Edward Fox, 2d Lieutenant.
  Company C--Simon Pearce, Captain.
             William Lester, 1st Lieutenant.
             T. H. Richardson, 2d Lieutenant.
  Company D--N. W. Murrow, Captain.
             Henry McGonigle, 1st Lieutenant.
             Louis J. Ainslee, 2d Lieutenant.
  Company E--Geo. W. Fulton, Captain.
             T. M. McQuoid, 1st Lieutenant.
             Wm. J. Pulus, 2d Lieutenant.
  Company F--Joseph T. Farris, Captain.
             Alex. F. Tracy, 1st Lieutenant.
             F. A. Whitmore, 2d Lieutenant.
  Company G--T. H. Roseberry, Captain.
             E. R. Blackburn, 1st Lieutenant.
             Daniel R. Allen, 2d Lieutenant.
  Company H--Jno. H. Cox, Captain.
             Peter S. Washburn, 1st Lieutenant.
             Wm. P. Rickey, 2d Lieutenant.
  Company I--Wm. Harle, Captain.
             Joseph Oliver, 1st Lieutenant.
             Hudson Rice, 2d Lieutenant.
  Company K--Frederick Leeser, Captain.
             A. D. Starkweather, 1st Lieutenant.
             Geo. M. Davis, 2d Lieutenant.

It was in Canton where the regiment was mustered into service and
about the 15th of February it left that place and marched by way of
LaGrange and Palmyra to Hannibal, Mo., where several weeks were spent
in training in military duties. On the 28th of March orders came to
go to the front. Camp equipments were soon packed and the regiment on
the way to St. Louis. After a brief stop there it was taken by boat to
Savannah, Tennessee. This place was General Grant’s headquarters, who
was then making the plans which resulted in the fall of Corinth. The
regiment reported to Gen. Grant and was sent immediately to the front
and assigned to the 1st Brigade, 6th Division, Army of West Tennessee,
under command of Gen. B. M. Prentiss.

The men were soon to see fighting in earnest now. They were on the
ground where the memorable battle of Shiloh was fought a few days after
their arrival, to-wit: the 6th and 7th of April, 1862, and on account
of their advanced position they were the first to become engaged with
the enemy. The regiment suffered heavily in the fight, losing one
officer and thirty men killed, with four officers and one hundred
and fifty men wounded. Three officers and sixty-eight men were also
taken prisoners. It was here that the gallant Maj. King fell mortally
wounded. The reports of the battle by Cols. Moore and Woodyard,
published here, give a full account of the part taken by the regiment:


  COLS. MOORE AND WOODYARD’S REPORTS.

                                  HEADQUARTERS 21ST MO. INFANTRY,      }
                                  6TH DIVISION, ARMY OF THE TENNESSEE, }
                                  APRIL 11TH, 1862.                    }

  SIR:--In pursuance of the order of Brig. Gen. B. M. Prentiss,
  commanding 6th Division, Army of West Tennessee, I, on Saturday,
  (April 5th,) proceeded to a reconnoisance on the front of the line of
  Gen. Prentiss’ division, and on the front of Gen. Sherman’s division.
  My command consisted of three companies from the 21st Missouri
  Regiment, companies commanded by Capt’s Cox, Harle and Pearce. A
  thorough reconnoisance over the extent of three miles failed to
  discover the enemy. Being unsuccessful, as stated, I returned to my
  encampment about 7 p. m. On Sunday morning, the 6th inst., at about 6
  o’clock, being notified that the picket guard of the 1st Brigade, 6th
  Division, had been attacked and driven in, by order of Col. Everett
  Peabody, commanding the 1st Brigade, 6th Division, I advanced with
  five companies of my command a short distance from the outer line
  of our encampment. I met the retreating pickets of the 1st Brigade
  bringing in their wounded. Those who were able for duty were ordered
  and compelled to return to their posts, and learning that the enemy
  were advancing in force I advanced with the remaining companies of
  my regiment, which companies having joined me I ordered an advance
  and attacked the enemy, who was commanded by Brig. Gen. Ruggles, of
  the Rebel army. A terrific fire was opened upon us from the whole
  front of the four or five regiments forming the advance of the enemy,
  which my gallant soldiers withstood during thirty minutes, until I
  had communicated the intelligence of the movement against us to my
  commanding General. About this time, being myself severely wounded,
  the bone of the leg below my knee being shattered, I was compelled to
  retire from the field, leaving Lieut. Col. Woodyard in command.

                                                      D. MOORE,
                                            Colonel 21st Mo. Volunteers.

  To Capt. Henry Binmore,
    Act. A. G., 6th Division,
      Army of West Tennessee.


                                     HEADQUARTERS 21ST MO. INFANTRY,   }
                                     PITTSBURG, TENN., APRIL 12, 1862. }

  SIR:--I have the honor to report that on the morning of the 6th
  of April, before sunrise, Gen. Prentiss ordered Col. Moore, with
  five companies of our regiment, to sustain the pickets of the 12th
  Michigan Infantry. The Col. had not proceeded more than half a mile
  when he met the pickets coming in with many killed and wounded. Col.
  Moore immediately dispatched Lieut. Menn for the remaining five
  companies. Gen. Prentiss being in camp, ordered me to join Col.
  Moore. We marched some three hundred yards together, after I formed
  the junction, in a nearly westerly direction, flank movement, four
  ranks, when the head of the column came to the northwest corner (this
  should have been the northeast corner.--T. W. H.) of a cotton field.
  We were here fired upon and Col. Moore received a severe wound in the
  right leg, and Lieut. Menn was wounded in the head. I then assumed
  command of the regiment and formed a line of battle on the brow of a
  hill, on the cotton field, facing nearly west. I held this position
  for some half or three-quarters of an hour and kept the enemy in
  check. He fell back and endeavored to outflank me. Discovering this
  I moved my line to the north of the field again. I was then joined
  by four companies of the 16th Wisconsin Infantry. Having no field
  officers with them I ordered them to a position east of the field,
  and as soon as this was done joined them with my command. This line
  of battle was formed facing south, behind a small incline, enabling
  my men to load and be out of range of the enemy’s fire. The position
  proved a strong one and we managed to hold it for upward of an hour.
  Finding they could not dislodge us the enemy again tried to outflank
  us and deal a cross fire. I then fell back in good order, firing
  as we did so, to the next hill. Col. Peabody, commanding the 1st
  Brigade, here came up with the 25th Missouri Regiment. I requested
  him to bring his men up to the hill on our right, as it would afford
  protection to his men and be of assistance to my command. He did
  so, but the enemy coming by heavy main center and dealing a heavy
  cross-fire from our right and left, we could not maintain this
  position for over thirty minutes. We gradually began to fall back
  and reached our tents, when the ranks got broken in passing through
  them. We endeavored to rally our men in the rear of our tents and
  formed as well as could be expected, but my men got much scattered, a
  great many falling into other regiments, under the immediate command
  of Gen. Prentiss. Others divided to other divisions but continued to
  fight during the two days.

  Falling back to the second hill, Maj. Barnabas B. King received a
  mortal wound and died in about thirty minutes. He rendered me great
  assistance in the action, cheering on and encouraging my men. His
  death is a heavy loss to us. He was ever active, energetic and at his
  post of duty, vigilant in attending to the wants of the men. Adjt.
  C. C. Tobin, who is now missing, also proved himself very active on
  the field. He is supposed to be a prisoner and taken at the same
  time with Gen. Prentiss. I cannot too highly praise the conduct of
  the officers and men of my command, and of the companies of the 16th
  Wisconsin, who acted in concert with me.

                                      Respectfully submitted,

                                                         H. M. WOODYARD,
                                      Lieut. Col. Com’d’g 21st Mo. Regt.

  To Capt. Henry Binmore,
    Act. A. G., 6th Division,
      Army of West Tennessee.


To go back to the battle of Shiloh:

It was here that Gen. Prentiss was captured and Gen. Peabody killed.
The 21st, after losing Gen. Prentiss, was under the command of his
successor, Gen. McKean, who then directed the movements of the 6th
Division. The 1st Brigade of the 6th, to which the 21st was attached,
was commanded, after Gen. Peabody, by Gen. McArthur.

The gallant 21st had no time to rest and recuperate after its severe
fight at Shiloh. Under Gen. Halleck, who succeeded Gen. Grant after
the Shiloh engagement, the regiment took an active part in the siege
of Corinth. On the 30th of April began the march on this formidable
Confederate stronghold. It was fighting, advancing and building
breastworks, until the enemy finally evacuated the town and our
victorious soldiers entered, on the 29th day of May, 1862.

The regiment laid around Corinth until about June 10th, when it was
taken to Chewalla, Tennessee, about ten miles away, on the Memphis &
Charleston R. R. Here they did light guard duty and enjoyed a well
deserved rest until August 30th. The country was picturesque and
beautiful and abounded in fruits of all kinds; but even here the 21st
had its troubles and trials. Small pox broke out in the camp. More
than seventy cases were on hand at one time--and those not afflicted
or doing guard duty had to take their turns at nursing their comrades.
But the malady finally run its course, after leaving a death list of
thirty-odd men. On leaving Chewalla, the regiment returned to Corinth
and was ordered, on September 10th, to Kossuth, Mississippi, for
outpost duty; but in a few days was ordered back to Corinth, reaching
there on the morning of the 3d of October.

The regiment had just got settled in its tents, on the morning of the
3d of October, on its return from Kossuth, when the bugle call to arms
summoned the men to rush out and fall into line of battle. The battle
of Corinth began about daylight, and the men of the 21st were in the
midst of it. The report of Col. Moore, here published, shows the part
the 21st took in the engagement:


  COL. MOORE’S REPORT.

                                 HEADQUARTERS 21ST MO. INFANTRY VOLS., }
                                 1ST BRIGADE, 6TH DIVISION.            }
                                 CORINTH, MISS., OCTOBER 17, 1862.     }

  CAPT. J. BATES DICKERSON,
      Ass’t Adjt. Gen. 1st and 2d Brigades, 6th Division.

  CAPTAIN:--I have the honor to report the part taken by the 21st Mo.
  Vols, in the engagement before Corinth, Miss., October 3 and 4, 1862.
  On the afternoon of Oct. 2, 1862, I was relieved from outpost duty
  and command of the post of Kossuth, Miss., by Col. Smith, 43d Ohio.
  We returned to our camp at Corinth, Miss., the same night, arriving
  at 3 o’clock a. m. About 4:30 a. m. we heard artillery fire some
  distance to the front; the battalion was formed promptly in line, and
  shortly after we were directed to take position upon the Memphis &
  Charleston R. R., in support of battery E; here we remained until 9
  a. m., when we were ordered to march two miles to the front and take
  position upon a high ridge to the left of the Memphis & Charleston
  R. R., and upon the extreme left of the line of battle, continuously
  with the 16th Wisconsin Vols., of the 6th Division, and two regiments
  of Gen. Davie’s Division, who were stationed immediately to the right
  of the railroad. We had been in position but a few minutes when the
  enemy opened fire on our flank and front. We replied promptly and
  continued showing the most determined resistance, the enemy being
  in so far superior numbers that we were temporarily driven from the
  line. About this time my horse was shot under me, bruising severely
  my amputated leg. I here turned the command over to Major Moore,
  who, with great gallantry, assisted by the officers of the regiment,
  rallied the men and repeatedly drove the enemy from the hill. The
  fire to the right became very severe,--the regiment stationed there,
  and battery, gave way before the masses of the approaching enemies.
  Seeing this, and our men being nearly out of cartridges, having fired
  forty rounds, the battalion was ordered to fall back, which was done
  in good order and firing. It is with pleasure I notice the bravery of
  my field staff and line officers--they were equal to the emergency.
  Corporal Jesse Roberts, Company I, 21st Mo. Inf. Vols., showed great
  bravery; he gallantly seized the colors (after Color Sergeant had
  fallen back), causing great enthusiasm among the men. Respectfully,
  your obedient servant,

                                                             D. MOORE,
                                       Col. Com’d’g 21st Mo. Inft. Vols.


  MAJ. ED. MOORE’S REPORT.

                                  HEADQUARTERS 21ST MO. INFANTRY VOLS. }
                                  OCTOBER 18, 1862.                    }

  LIEUT. R. REES,
      Adjt. 21st Mo. Infantry Vols.

  SIR:--I have the honor to report the part taken by the 21st Mo.
  Vol. Infantry Regiment in the Battle of Corinth, Miss., on Friday
  and Saturday, the 3d and 4th of October, 1862. After Col. Moore,
  commanding the regiment, was carried off the field, I assumed the
  command. The men were going back from their original position. With
  the assistance of the line officers I succeeded in rallying the men,
  who went boldly forward to the front and drove the enemy from the
  position that we occupied at the commencement of the engagement. As
  soon as the position was gained fighting became desperate, our lines
  being distant from those of the enemy less than fifty paces. The
  command held this ground until the force upon our right, consisting
  of artillery and infantry, had given away and was in full retreat.
  About this time the enemy was flanking us on our left and dense
  columns of infantry pressed us on our front. I ordered the regiment
  to retire. In doing so some of our men got scattered. We succeeded
  again in rallying the men, and formed on the flanks of a line being
  formed by Brig. Gen. McArthur, to construct a temporary breastwork
  of logs, and did so; but before completing the same we were ordered
  to a position on the extreme left in the vicinity of the seminary.
  We were engaged with the enemy while in this position. About 2:30 P.
  M., I was ordered to proceed to Battery C and report to Brig. Gen.
  McArthur. Having three companies of skirmishers in the rear, under
  his direction we scoured the woods but found no enemy excepting a
  few stragglers. We then took the south bridge road in the direction
  of Mr. Alexander’s, the rebel cavalry fleeing before our advance. We
  succeeded in capturing a great number of prisoners, from one of whom
  I learned the rebel hospitals were in the vicinity. It was now dark.
  I pushed forward and took possession of all property and persons. A
  great many prisoners were taken that night and early next morning
  trying to escape through the lines. The total number captured,
  including the wounded, amounted to nearly 900 officers and men. We
  also captured 460 muskets, 400 cartridge boxes and a quantity of
  belts, etc. Under the instructions of Brig. Gen. McArthur I remained
  at the hospitals with the command until Sunday about noon, when Col.
  Moore took command of the regiment. Our loss during the engagement
  is one killed, seventeen wounded and six prisoners. I mention with
  satisfaction the behavior of the line officers. They used every
  exertion to keep their men together and remained with them during the
  engagement, thereby setting a good example to the men to do their
  duty. During the action a great many of our guns were useless; after
  firing fifteen or twenty rounds of ammunition it was impossible to
  load them.

      I have the honor to be,

                        Your obedient servant,              EDWIN MOORE,
                                            Maj. 21st Mo. Infantry Vols.


At the close of the Corinth engagement the whole number of the regiment
did not exceed 400 men. Over 600 during the period the command had
been in active service had been lost either in battle, sickness or
captured by the enemy. While at Chewalla a detail had been sent home
to muster recruits and a few days after the Corinth fight the whole
regiment, or what was left of it, was furloughed for thirty days.
The men returned home, where they found recruiting offices had been
opened by the detail of men sent from Chewalla, at Memphis and Edina.
North Missouri was still bubbling over with patriotism for the Stars
and Stripes. The tattered and worn condition of the 400 survivors of
the 21st, with their battle torn flag, gave a new impetus to the war
spirit. Volunteers sprung up from every side and in an incredibly short
while the regiment was recruited to double its number. Canton was the
rallying point for the men and from that place on the 10th of December,
1862, tents were folded, good-byes to loved ones said, and the gallant
old 21st once more started for the bloody theatre of war. The objective
point was Holly Springs, Miss., where the old 6th Division of the Army
of West Tennessee was encamped.

At St. Louis the regiment boarded the steamer known in history as the
Di Vernon, and got as far as Columbus, Ky., on December the 20th,
where the command was stopped. Instead of proceeding to Holly Springs,
the regiment was ordered by Gen. Asboth, commander of the Columbus
Post, to Union City, Tenn., twenty miles from Columbus, to do outpost
duty guarding Gen. Grant’s line of communication between Columbus and
Corinth, which had been interrupted by raids of Confederate cavalry
under Gen. Forrest.

Here barracks of logs and stockades were built and the men camped for
the winter, doing guard duty and everything else incident to a military
camp, facing a vigilant enemy. In this time Gen. Grant had gotten as
far as Milliken’s Bend, on his way to Vicksburg, and on the first of
March, 1863, the regiment pulled up stakes to join him. But again the
fortunes of war decreed otherwise. Gen. Forrest, of the Confederacy,
had made another raid in the rear of Gen. Grant, and at Columbus the
regiment was switched off to Clinton, Ky., where for two months it was
engaged again in the same kind of service as at Union City. On May
11th orders again came to move on towards Vicksburg. At Columbus the
regiment boarded the steamer J. J. Rowe and started south to join the
old 6th Division operating under Gen. Grant. On May 15th Memphis was
reached and orders were found waiting us to report to Gen. Hurlburt,
Post Commander there. Here the regiment was kept at garrison duty
until about January 25th, 1864. While in garrison at Memphis the 21st
was attached to the 1st Brigade, 3d Division, of the 16th Army Corps,
commanded by Gen. A. J. Smith. The 1st Brigade was composed of, besides
the 21st, the 89th Indiana, 119th Illinois, 58th Illinois, and the 9th
Indiana Battery, commanded by Col. David Moore. On January the 28th
the command boarded a steamer en route for Vicksburg. On the way down
the river, opposite Islands Nos. 70 and 71, the vessel was fired on
from the shore by Confederates under Gen. Marmaduke, and three men were
killed and four wounded. With no other incident the regiment reached
Vicksburg on the 1st of February.

On the next day, with the army under Gen. Sherman, the march to
Meridian, Miss., began. They met and skirmished with the enemy at
Champion Hills, on February 5th, Brandon on February 12th, and
Meridian on February 14th.

[Illustration: MAJ. ABEL C. ROBERTS.
Surgeon 21st Regiment Missouri Inf. Vet. Vols.
President 21st Missouri Inf. Vet. Vols. Association.]

From Meridian, Miss., the regiment was sent back to Vicksburg,
returning by the way of Canton, reaching there on March 4th, where most
of the regiment re-enlisted for three years more, or till the war was
ended. At Meridian and on the trip back our army destroyed some forty
miles of railroad and inflicted other damages on the enemy.

Returning to Vicksburg the veterans re-enlisting were granted a thirty
days’ furlough. There was a happy home-coming for these scarred
warriors of the 21st, who had, by their gallant services, well earned
their holiday. But there was quite a number of the 21st, about two
hundred and fifty, who failed to enlist as veterans under the holiday
offer. These were assigned to Gen. Banks’ army and took part in what is
known to history as the Red River Campaign.



THE RED RIVER CAMPAIGN.

  Seventy Days of Almost Uninterrupted Fighting, When the Singing
    of the Bullets was the Only Music Heard from Morning till
    Night.--General Banks Criticised.--How General Smith’s Division
    Became Known as Smith’s Guerrillas.--Fighting A. J. Smith.--General
    Banks Anxious to Get Back to New Orleans.


A GRAPHIC ACCOUNT OF THE CAMPAIGN TOLD BY T. W. HOLMAN.

About the 5th of March, the regiment having returned to Vicksburg
from the Meridian Campaign, the veterans were sent home on a thirty
days’ furlough. Those of the regiment who did not re-enlist, about one
hundred, and about one hundred and forty recruits, were assigned to
the 24th Missouri for duty. The 24th Missouri belonged to Col. Shaw’s
brigade and was designated the 2d Brigade, 3d Division, 16th Corps, and
was composed of the following named regiments: The 14th, 27th and 32d
Iowa, and 24th Missouri, with the detachment of the 21st Missouri. The
21st Missouri men were consolidated and made three companies, about
eighty men to the company. There being no commissioned officers with
us, Lieuts. Denny, Yarbrough and Shadel, officers of the 24th, were
assigned to command the three companies of the 21st.

Gen. Banks having called on Gen. Sherman for ten thousand men to assist
him in the Red River Campaign, the 1st Division, 17th Corps, Gen. Joe
Mower commanding, and the 3d Division, 16th Corps, Col. R. C. Moore, of
the 117th Illinois, commanding, under Gen. A. J. Smith, were assigned
to this duty, and ordered to report to Gen. Banks. The expedition left
Vicksburg about the 8th of March, reached the mouth of Red river on
the 12th, and was there met by Admiral Porter with a gun boat fleet.
Under convoy of the same the expedition started up Red river, reaching
Simm’s Landing, on the Atchafalaya river, about 5 p. m. Col. Shaw was
ordered to disembark his brigade and picket the road towards Fort De
Russy. March 13th Col. Shaw was ordered to move out on the Fort De
Russy road. He advanced with his brigade along Bayou Rapides about four
miles to Yellow Bayou. Here he found some earth works and a regiment
of Confederate troops, with two pieces of artillery. On our approach
they at once fell back towards Fort De Russy. We then returned to the
landing. During our absence the balance of our troops disembarked and
went into camp.

On the 14th we had orders to move with two days’ rations and forty
rounds of ammunition, and 7 a. m. found us on the road with Col.
Shaw’s brigade in the advance, the 24th and 21st Missouri in front.
It was about eighteen miles across the bend of Red river, where rumor
reported heavy earthworks and forts, and some six thousand Confederate
troops under command of Gen. Walker. The roads were good and our
column moved rapidly, reaching Fort De Russy about 3 p. m. Col. Shaw’s
brigade went into line some four hundred yards from the upland fort,
with the 3d Indiana battery in the center. We met a warm reception
from fourteen guns in the upland fort and from heavy guns in the water
battery. We advanced sharpshooters and our Indiana battery of four
guns and commenced pounding away on the upland fort. By 5 p. m. our
sharpshooters had the guns in the forts silenced, or at least made it
such hazardous work to load and fire that the guns were only served
occasionally. This was the signal for the assault. About 6 p. m. Gen.
Mower ordered Col. Shaw to charge. His brigade fixed bayonets and with
a yell made a dash for the enemy’s works. The ground over which we
had to pass was open, the timber having been used in the construction
of the forts and bomb proofs. In our charge we were supported by the
balance of our division. While charging we received a fringe of musket
fire from the thin line of men inside the fort. In three minutes we
were at the ditches and the garrison, seeing that further resistance
was useless, ran up a white flag. The 24th and 21st Missouri were the
first regiments to plant their flags on the fort, and in recognition
of that fact and as a reward, we were detailed the guard of honor and
remained in the fort during the night, with our regimental colors
flying on the ramparts.

The fruits of the victory were: in the upland fort, fourteen guns;
in the water battery, three guns, two of them 120 pounders, and one
rifle 42, a large amount of ammunition and quartermaster’s stores,
with three hundred and fifty prisoners. Commodore Porter, who was on
his way up the river with his gun boat fleet, did not get up in time
to participate in the capture. About ten miles below the forts the
enemy had driven piling and anchored a large raft of timber across the
channel of the river, preventing his arrival.

During the night our transports arrived, and at 10 a. m. on the 15th we
hauled down our colors, marched out of the fort and embarked with the
balance of the troops, and again, under convoy of the gun boats, moved
up the river to Alexandria, arriving there about 4 p. m. on the 16th.
The enemy fell back, burning some of his quartermaster’s stores and
forage. We disembarked and went into camp east and south of town, to
await the coming of Maj. Gen. Banks with the 13th and 19th Army Corps.

Alexandria was a small town of some eight hundred inhabitants, situated
at the foot of the rapids of the river. The country around Alexandria
was very rich and the inhabitants very disloyal and bitter. We now
had to wait until about March 25th for the coming of Gen. Banks to
form a junction with Gen. Smith at this place. Gen. Banks’ troops
were leisurely marching across the country from the south, and upon
his arrival with the 13th and 19th corps, our combined forces of all
arms consisted of about 35,000 men. Gen. Banks’ men having been doing
garrison duty at New Orleans, were well clothed, and with their new
uniforms and paper collars made a very fine appearance compared with
the men of the 16th Corps, who had been fighting and marching for the
past three months and were ragged and dirty, which condition no doubt
had much to do with influencing Gen. Banks to remark when he saw us,
“Why! I asked Gen. Sherman to send me 10,000 soldiers and he has sent
me a band of ragamuffins and guerrillas.” This is where, and how it
came to pass that we received the name which stuck to us until the
close of the war. Intended in derision by Gen. Banks, no doubt, it soon
became a pseudonym by which one of the best divisions in the western
army was ever afterwards known, “Smith’s Guerrillas.”

March 26th we broke camp and marched up the river. It was now generally
known that Shrevesport was our objective point--a strongly fortified
position. March 29th we reached and camped at a point on Red River
known as the Burr Patch. We here again embarked on transports and
under convoy of gunboats moved up the river to a landing called Grand
Ecore. At this point we disembarked and lay in camp till the 7th of
April, when we moved out in the rear of Gen. Banks’ army, which had
passed this point some two days. It seemed that we had made such an
unfavorable impression on Gen. Banks that he wished us as much out of
sight as possible and hence kept us about a day’s march in the rear.


Battle of Sabine Cross Roads.

The 13th Corps encountered in force at Sabine Cross Roads, on the 8th
of April, Generals Kirby Smith and Taylor, commanding the enemy, who
were apprised of the fact that Gen. Banks’ troops were scattered along
the road for twenty miles. Upon this knowledge they determined to give
battle outside the defenses at Shrevesport, and chose this point, about
forty-five miles southeast. The result of the battle was a complete
defeat and route of Gen. Banks’ army in detail. The night of the 8th
of April closed in with the 13th and 19th Corps in full retreat,
falling back on Pleasant Hill. The 16th Corps, under Gen. A. J. Smith,
had marched hard all day the 8th, reaching Pleasant Hill at dark, and
went into camp in close column by regiments. We had heard Gen. Banks’
artillery all the afternoon of the 8th, and knew he was being driven
back. This meant that the men whom Gen. Banks had called guerrillas
would be in demand on the morrow.


Battle of Pleasant Hill.

On the morning of the 9th of April Gen. Smith’s guerrillas had no
revielle. About 3 a. m. our company officers came around nudging the
sleeping men in the sides, in commands given in whispers ordered them
to fall in line, and we were held in readiness to move. At daylight
Col. Shaw’s brigade moved out on the Mansfield road about one mile,
relieving our cavalry, who were already skirmishing. We were posted in
a strong position along the east side of a cotton field, facing west,
with a section of the 25th N. Y. Battery. We lay in this position all
the forenoon with nothing to relieve the monotony except an occasional
shell from our artillery feeling for the enemy in the woods beyond and
frequent shots from the enemy’s sharpshooters. About 2 p. m. the enemy
opened on our line with artillery. Our two pieces of artillery at once
limbered up and went to the rear under whip. The enemy, thinking this
was a continuation of the rout of the day before, charged our lines
with a regiment of Texas cavalry. They, little dreaming that in the
timber on the other side of the field lay a line of grim veterans
who had seen service at Fort Donelson, Corinth, the Hornet’s Nest at
Shiloh, and in the trenches around Vicksburg, made a magnificent charge
to defeat and death. The enemy’s infantry then charged and our small
brigade was soon fighting in front and flank. We held our position
until the enemy had nearly cut us off from our main line, when we were
compelled to fall back. We took a position two hundred and fifty yards
from our first stand, which we held for over an hour and a half. Here
occurred the most desperate fighting of the day, being almost a face to
face combat. Overwhelming numbers at last forced us back to our reserve
line, after losing quite a number taken prisoners. About sundown the
final crash came when the enemy dashed against our massed line of
artillery and infantry held in reserve. Night closed in with Smith’s
guerrillas victorious and the enemy in full retreat towards Mansfield.
The heaviest loss in the battle fell on Shaw’s brigade, being estimated
at two thirds of the whole loss sustained in the engagement, amounting
to some five hundred men killed, wounded and taken prisoners. The
enemy’s loss was estimated at one thousand killed and wounded, eight
hundred prisoners and eleven pieces of artillery.

While Smith’s guerrillas were fighting the battle of Pleasant Hill,
Gen. Banks, with the 13th and 19th Corps, were improving the time in
retreating. After caring for our wounded by placing them in hospitals
and detailing surgeons and nurses from our ranks to care for them,
about noon of the 10th we commenced to fall back towards Grand
Ecore, following Gen. Banks’ army, which had preceded us, a shameful
retreat and one that would never have been made had Gen. A. J. Smith
been commander-in-chief. But Gen. Banks was whipped and thoroughly
incompetent to command, and seemed to only have one idea--that was
to get back to New Orleans as quickly as possible. His men under him
seemed to share fully his demoralized condition. The 16th Corps were
saucy and full of fight and had the utmost confidence in Gen. Smith, a
feeling that was mutual between the commander and the men under him. We
arrived at Grand Ecore on the 12th, and learning that our transports
and gunboats were cooped up at Blair’s Landing, some twenty miles
up the river, with some of the transports aground and a confederate
battery below them, Gen. A. J. Smith at once crossed the river and
hurried to their relief with the 16th Corps. After driving away the
battery below and seeing the fleet safely on their way down the river,
we returned to Grand Ecore and on the 22d of April took up our line
of retreat for Alexandria. During this time Generals Kirby Smith and
Taylor, commanding the Confederate forces, had not been idle, but were
moving troops down the river to harass our retreat as much as possible.
On the 23d we had a lively skirmish with them at Coulterville. Again
at Monett Bluff April 23d. Here we found the enemy posted in a strong
position on the bluff on the east side of the river. The 16th Corps was
guarding the rear; the 13th and 19th Corps failing to drive the enemy,
we were ordered up from the rear, forming on the right of the 19th
Corps, fixed bayonets and charged. The enemy fell back and gave us for
the time undisputed possession of the right of way. It was here that
Gen. A. J. Smith informed Gen. Banks, in language more forceful than
eloquent, that he would do the fighting at either end of the line of
retreat, front or rear, but would not do both. We resumed our march on
the 24th, the 16th Corps guarding the rear, without much trouble from
the Johnnies, but when they pushed us too closely we would form a line
of battle and they would very prudently keep at a safe distance. In
this manner we continued to retreat to Alexandria, reaching there about
April 30th.

[Illustration: N. D. STARR.
1st Lieut. Co. E, 21st Regiment Missouri Inf. Vet. Vols.
Vice-President 21st Missouri Inf. Vet. Vols. Association.]

The fleet had already arrived, but the water on the falls was so low
it began to look like we would have to lose our gunboats or stay there
and guard them. In the meantime, to complicate the situation, Gen.
Dick Taylor, commanding the Confederate forces, came up with about
18,000 men. On the 2d of May the 16th Corps was busily engaged at
Henderson’s Hill skirmishing with their advance lines. The situation
was now a gloomy one indeed, but at this critical moment Col. Bailey,
of the 28th Wisconsin, suggested that the water on the falls could be
raised by building wing dams, and as chief engineer he was detailed
to superintend this work, and the 13th and 19th Corps placed at his
disposal to do the work, while Gen. Smith, of the 16th, was drawn up in
line of battle, south and east of town, watching the enemy; skirmishing
with them May 3d at Jones’ Plantation, May 4th at Bayou LaMore, May
6th and 7th at Bayou Boeuf. Gen. Taylor then drew off, moving down the
river some twenty miles, planting his batteries on the river bank and
sinking two of our light gunboats and capturing our mail boat and mail.

About the 12th of May, the dam proving a success, the fleet passed
below the falls. On the 14th we resumed our line of march for the mouth
of Red River, Gen. Taylor falling back in front of us. On the 16th we
found him drawn up in line of battle on the Marksville Prairie. After
three hours’ fighting he fell back and took a position on Bayou De
Glaze. On the 17th, after a sharp skirmish with him, he drew off to one
side and let us pass. We then moved on down, the 13th and 19th Corps
going into camp at Simmsport, on the Atchafalaya river, while the 16th
Corps took up a position some three miles in the rear, on the east bank
of Yellow Bayou.


Battle of Yellow Bayou.

May the 18th, 1864, the long roll called us to arms about 12 m. Shaw’s
Brigade with Battery E, 2d Mo. Artillery, crossed the Yellow Bayou and
double-quicked about a half mile to the front and immediately became
engaged with the enemy’s advance. As fast as the several regiments of
the 16th and 17th Corps reached the field they formed on our left. All
the afternoon the tide of battle ebbed and flowed along the south
bank of Bayou Rapides. Night closed in with Gen. Taylor falling back
and Gen. Smith’s men in possession of the battle-field. Our loss was
about five hundred killed and wounded. The enemy’s must have been
much greater as they made several determined assaults on our lines.
We captured about three hundred and fifty prisoners and from them we
learned that Gen. Taylor had about fifteen thousand men engaged, about
twice the number under Gen. Smith. About dark on the evening of the
18th, the 13th Corps arrived on the field and took position in front of
Smith’s tired and bleeding troops.

May the 19th, early in the morning, the 13th Corps marched back to
Simm’s Landing, leaving Gen. Smith with the 16th and 17th Corps, at the
front. Gen. Taylor showing no disposition to resume hostilities and
learning that the 13th and 19th Corps were safely across the pontoons
on the Atchafalaya river, about 1 p. m. we took up our pontoon bridge
across Yellow Bayou and the 16th Corps followed and crossed to the
east bank of the Atchafalaya and camped, just sixty-five days from the
time we first camped on the west bank on our way to Fort De Russy. On
the 20th of May we reached the mouth of Red River. We here met our
transports and the portion of the 21st Mo. that went home on veteran
furlough, and embarked for Vicksburg. The 13th Corps went south to New
Orleans.


Comments on the Seventy Days’ Campaign.

The Red River Campaign was at last, after seventy days, at an end. It
was a failure and as barren of results so far as having any visible
effects in hastening the close of the war, as it would have been if
made to the North Pole. History records it as one of the severest
campaigns of the war. The men suffered more from hardships and
privations than any other portion of the army. Especially was this
true of the 16th Corps, which, on account of the incompetency of Gen.
Banks and his apparent dislike of the Corps, was always placed in the
most exposed positions, either in the advanced front or in the rear.
It was also unprovided with clothing and shoes and at the close of the
campaign presented a most abject appearance. Indeed Gen. Banks might in
truth have called the men, from their appearance, “Smith’s Guerrillas.”


SUMMARY.

The following is the list of the battles and skirmishes engaged in
during the seventy days’ fighting by the detachment from the 21st
Missouri.

  Fort De Russey,   La.  March 14th, 1864
  Pleasant Hill,     “   April  9th,   “
  Coulterville,      “    “     22d,   “
  Cane River,        “    “     23d,   “
  Henderson’s Hill,  “   May     2d,   “
  Jones’ Plantation, “    “      3d,   “
  Bayou La More,     “    “     4th,   “
  Bayou Boeuf,       “    “ 6th-7th,   “
  Marksville,        “    “    16th,   “
  Bayou De Glaize,   “    “    17th,   “
  Yellow Bayou,      “    “    18th,   “

Gen. Banks’ losses in the 13th and 19th Army Corps were about three
thousand men, killed, wounded and prisoners, twenty-two pieces of
artillery and one hundred and forty-five wagons loaded with commissary
stores and camp equipments. The losses of the parts of the 16th and
17th Army Corps present, commanded by Gen. A. J. Smith, were about one
thousand from all causes. In the several battles and skirmishes we were
engaged in we captured from the enemy two thousand prisoners and thirty
pieces of artillery. These captures were made in battles fought by Gen.
Smith’s command, in which Gen. Banks’ men had no part. Col. Shaw’s
Brigade sustained the greatest loss of any on the expedition and it was
equal to about one-half that sustained by the whole command under Gen.
Smith.

The detachment of the 21st Missouri lost about fifty men, killed,
wounded and prisoners, including one officer of the 24th Missouri,
assigned. That we did our whole duty, I need only call attention to
the fact that after the battle of Pleasant Hill, La., Maj. Robt. Fyan,
commanding the 24th and detachment of the 21st Missouri, personally
thanked the members of the 21st for gallantry during the action. The
loss of the 24th and 21st combined during the campaign was three
officers killed, namely: Capt. Robinson, Lieuts. Shadel and Stone,
and one Color Sergeant killed and one wounded, Wm. O’Connor of the
21st, making a total loss of about one hundred men killed, wounded and
missing.


Parting Between the 21st and 24th.

We reached Vicksburg about the 21st of June and there took leave of the
24th Missouri, and returned to our own regiment, which had returned
from its veteran furlough north. While we were with the 24th Missouri
we became very much attached to the officers and men. The officers were
courteous and the men true comrades.

In writing the foregoing account of the part taken by our brigade
and regiment I have had nothing to aid me except my memory of the
events narrated, in all of which I was an active participant. And in
conclusion I now ask the charitable consideration of comrades and the
general reader for any imperfections it may contain.

                                                           T. W. HOLMAN,
                                          Co. D, 21st Missouri Infantry.

[Illustration: T. W. HOLMAN.
Private, Co. D, 21st Regiment Missouri Inf. Vet. Vols.
Sec’y and Treas., 21st Missouri Inf. Vet. Vols. Association.]



Resumption of the History of the 21st.


At Vicksburg the detachment of the 21st taking part in the Red River
campaign joined their comrades who had returned at the expiration of
their thirty days’ furlough. On June 4th the regiment left Vicksburg
on a steamer, en route up the river for Memphis. The Confederates,
however, had erected batteries on the west bank of the river,
preventing the transports from proceeding. A landing was made at a
point called Columbia, on June 5th, and on the following day the
regiment was marched around Lake Providence and had an engagement with
the enemy at Lake Chicot. The Confederates were completely routed and
the blockade of the river removed. On the 7th the command re-embarked
on the transports and arrived at Memphis on the 10th without any
further incident.

On June the 12th the regiment was ordered to the relief of Gen.
Sturgis, who had been defeated a few days previous at Gun Town. The
retreating Federals were met at Colliersville, and under the escort of
the 21st made the trip into Memphis without being molested by the enemy.

On June 25th the regiment, along with the 1st Brigade, 3d Division, to
which it belonged, moved out of the city and encamped at Moscow, on the
Memphis and Charleston Railroad, and on the 26th held Division review.
On June 27th the regiment was moved to La Grange, Tenn., where it was
encamped until July 8th. At this time it was marched to Pontotoc,
Miss., going by way of Ripley, and traversing a distance of over one
hundred miles, and on the route the regiment was continuously fighting
and skirmishing with the cavalry of the enemy under Gen. Forrest. On
July 13th another move was made, to Tupelo, Miss., a distance of twenty
miles, where an engagement with the enemy, known to history as the
battle of Tupelo, took place. The 21st took a conspicuous part in this
engagement, as will be seen by reading the report of Col. Edwin Moore,
here published:

  COL. MOORE’S REPORT.

                                      HEADQUARTERS 21ST MO. INF. VOLS. }
                                      MEMPHIS, TENN., JULY 18TH, 1864. }

  LIEUT. SAM’L D. SAWYER,
    A. A. GEN’L., 1ST BRIGADE.

  LIEUTENANT:--I have the honor to report the part taken by the 21st
  Mo. Infantry Volunteers at the battle of Tupelo on the 14th day of
  July, 1864. About 6 o’clock a. m. we were formed in line of battle
  with the brigade, the 119th Illinois Infantry Volunteers being on
  our left and the 58th Illinois Infantry on our right. About 7:30 a.
  m. the enemy opened on us with artillery, which continued until 9
  o’clock a. m., when they advanced their infantry in line of battle,
  driving in our skirmishers precipitately. They came within twenty
  paces of our line when I gave the order to fire and immediately
  after to advance. The fire was well directed and took the enemy by
  surprise, who fled in great disorder, with the regiment in pursuit,
  and for fifteen or twenty minutes a continuous and deadly fire was
  poured in upon them; its effect was visible on the field. There being
  no enemy in sight after advancing four hundred and fifty yards, we
  returned to our former position and were not again attacked during
  the day, although frequently subjected to a heavy artillery fire. The
  officers and men of the command behaved with the utmost gallantry,
  obeying every order with that promptness which secures success. Our
  loss was one man killed and fifteen wounded.

                                                            EDWIN MOORE,
                                   Lieut.-Col. 21st Mo. Inf. Vols., Com.


On the day following the Tupelo fight the command was ordered back
to Memphis. On the same day, while encamped for dinner, we were
attacked by the Confederates who were, however, repulsed after a
lively skirmish, and the men resumed their meal. This time they were
allowed to eat in peace and to finally reach Memphis without any
further brushes with the enemy. On August 5th the regiment was sent
on another excursion in pursuit of the Confederate General Forrest,
who was reported to be rendezvousing in the vicinity of Memphis. On
the Talahatchie river they first encountered the enemy, when a lively
skirmish took place. This was on August 9th. The next brush with the
Confederates occurred on the 12th, and again at Hurricane Creek on the
13th. Oxford, a distance of one hundred and fifty miles from Memphis,
was reached August 22d. Here, after meeting and repulsing the enemy,
startling news was received from Memphis, by courier, to the effect
that Forrest had captured and was in possession of the city. There
was an immediate call to arms and in double quick time the command
was hurried on the journey back to recapture the city. They arrived,
however, to find that the Confederate leader had been in the city but
had taken his departure.

On September 5th, 1864, the regiment embarked on the steamer W. R.
Wallace for Cairo, Ill. They were confined on board transports at
Cairo when orders were received to proceed to St. Louis to assist in
repelling the invasion of Missouri by the Confederates under Gen.
Price. On arriving at St. Louis the regiment was moved down the Iron
Mountain R. R., to De Sota, to intercept Gen. Price, who was reported
at or near Pilot Knob. Gen. Price failed to show up at that point but
was reported moving in the direction of Jefferson City. On learning
this fact the command was hastily put on cars and returned to Jefferson
Barracks, near St. Louis. Then commenced the long, weary march after
Price, through Central Missouri, going by way of Franklin, Jefferson
City, Sedalia, Lexington and Independence. The command came up with
the rear guard of the enemy at Little Blue, about three miles west
of Independence, on October 23d. Here, after skirmishing, they were
routed. Gen. Price being harassed by Federal troops, both front and
rear, commenced retreating out of the State, the infantry following him
south to Harrisonville, where the chase was abandoned by the infantry,
the cavalry following him on into Arkansas. The infantry returned
towards St. Louis, marching by way of Pleasant Hill, Lexington and
Glasgow, where they crossed over to the north side of the Missouri
river; resuming the march from the river, by way of Fayette, Columbia,
Warrenton, High Hill and St. Charles, where the command crossed back
to the south side of the Missouri river, marching to and arriving in
St. Louis on the 23d of November. On this pursuit after Gen. Price
the division, with which was the 21st Missouri, made a forced march
of fifty-six miles, which was the longest continued march known in
military history.

On the trip back to St. Louis the command was being continually annoyed
by Quantrell’s and Anderson’s guerrillas, and lost several men killed
by these outlaws.

Gen. A. J. Smith, commanding the 16th Army Corps, having received
orders to report to Gen. George H. Thomas at Nashville, Tenn., the 21st
Missouri embarked on board the steamer Mars en route for Nashville,
where they arrived on the 30th of November. Leaving the steamer,
the 21st was moved out two miles southwest of the city and threw up
breastworks to assist in repelling the attack of the Confederate
General Hood, which was hourly expected. Hood appeared on December the
1st and began a regular siege of Nashville, which continued until the
15th of December, when Gen. Thomas moved out of his intrenchments,
hurling the 16th Corps, which held the position on his right, against
Hood’s left. The enemy was driven back, doubling his left flank back
on his center, capturing a number of prisoners and several pieces of
artillery. The night of the 15th closed in with Hood’s crushed and
bleeding army driven back to a strongly fortified position in the
Brentwood Hills, some three miles from the position he held in the
morning. The battle was resumed early on the morning of the 16th, with
varying results until 3 p. m., when Gen. Thomas, seeing the decisive
moment had come, ordered a general assault, and Hood’s broken and
reeling columns were sent whirling down the pikes in the direction of
Columbia, Tenn. Thus ended the vain boast of President Davis, at Macon,
made to the Tennessee troops after the capture of Atlanta by Sherman:
“Tennesseeans, be of good cheer; you will soon see the green fields of
Kentucky.” The remnant of the proud army that had dealt Gen. Sherman
so many crushing blows was hurrying to make its escape across the
Tennessee river--to escape complete annihilation.

On the morning of the 17th of December, 1864, the 16th Corps, under
Gen. A. J. Smith, was ordered in pursuit of Gen. Hood’s fleeing
army. The pursuing army followed to Clifton, by way of Pulaski, and
arrived at Clifton on the 2d of January. Here they embarked on board
transports en route for Eastport, Miss., where they arrived on the 7th
of January, 1865, and went into camp, remaining in camp and performing
usual routine duty until February 9th, when they embarked on transports
for New Orleans, where they landed on February 21st. They remained in
New Orleans in camp until March 22d, when they took steamer and were
carried, by way of Lake Pontchartrain and the Gulf, to Dauphin Island,
at the foot of Mobile Bay, where they camped, arriving on the 24th. A
few days afterwards another move was made to Spanish Fort, near Mobile,
_via_ Fish river and a land march. The Fort was invested and captured
on April 8th. On the 3d of April the division, in which was the 21st
regiment, began operations against Fort Blakely, taking part in the
many skirmishes in the approach and siege of that important Confederate
stronghold, and in its final capture on April 9th. In the charge on the
fortifications on the 9th, the 21st had two color bearers killed and
was the first regiment to plant its flag on the ramparts. In the charge
the loss of the regiment was heavy, about equal to that of the whole
brigade.

We had at Blakely the rumor of Lee’s surrender, during the afternoon
of the charge and capture of the fort. The bugle sounded the charge at
6 o’clock p. m. and in seven and one-half minutes the fort surrendered.
This was the last battle of the war. The Federal loss was two thousand
killed and wounded. We captured thirty-two cannon and four thousand
prisoners. Thus the 21st Missouri was engaged in the last battle of the
war as well as in one of the first.

On April 13th the 21st Regiment marched with the 16th Corps to
Montgomery, Alabama, arriving on the 27th and going into camp two miles
northeast of the city. Here they remained in camp until June 1st,
when they were taken, with the brigade, to Providence Landing, on the
Alabama River, reaching there June 4th, and embarked on a steamer the
same day for Mobile. On the arrival of the regiment at Mobile they went
into camp in the suburbs. Here they remained, doing outpost and other
guard duty until March, when they were ordered to Fort Morgan for duty,
and on April 19th, 1866, were mustered out.

This was the last day of the organization known as the 21st Missouri
Infantry Volunteers. After their long and arduous labors in defence
of their country came the soldiers’ reward--an honorable discharge
from the service and then the going home to family and loved ones. But
there was many a long drawn sigh, for who among the survivors of this
heroic band failed to recall some gallant comrade, who, full of pride
and patriotic ambition, left the Missouri home never to return. On this
battle field and that one their bodies lay buried; a soldier’s grave,
unmarked and unidentified; a family of expectant loved ones, in fond
old Missouri, waiting and watching in vain. But this was war, the cruel
war now over.

Camp was broken on the 19th of April, 1866, and with their discharges
the men took their departure for their Missouri homes.


SOME STATISTICAL FACTS.

In service from July 15th, 1861, to April 19th, 1866. For the whole
period of service, total enrollment:

  Field Officers                             21
  Line Officers                              78
  Privates and Non-Commissioned Officers,  1580
                                           ----
          Grand total                      1679
  Losses during the war from all causes     834
                                           ----
      Survivors on April 19th, 1866         845

The above figures are not claimed to be absolutely correct. There is
a great lacking of data in the written records of the regiment and
reports of officers, but they are compiled by those familiar with the
history of the regiment, from its organization to its discharge, and
after great pains and labor they give them, believing that they are at
least very nearly true.


DATES OF CHANGES IN NUMBERS OF DIVISIONS.

December 30th, 1864, the designation of the 3d Division, 16th Army
Corps, was changed to 2d Division, Detachment Army of the Tennessee,
Maj. Gen. A. J. Smith commanding; Brigadier Gen. Kenner Garrard
commanding the 2d Division.

February 22d, 1865, the designation of the Army of the Tennessee was
changed to the 16th Army Corps, and the 2d Division, Brig. Gen. Garrard
commanding, formerly the old 3d, 16th Army Corps, was thereafter known
as the 2d of the reorganized 16th Corps.

During the war the 21st Missouri was attached to the following
Divisions:

  1st Brigade, 6th Division, Army of West Tennessee.
  1st Brigade, 3d Division, 16th Army Corps.
  1st Brigade, 2d Division, Detachment Army of the Tenn.
  1st Brigade, 2d Division, 16th Army Corps.


COMPLETE ROSTER.

  Col. D. Moore, Jan. 17, 1862; mustered out, expiration of term, Feb.
      11, ’65.

  Col. James D. Lyon, Aug. 17, 1865; resigned as Lieut. Col. Aug. 7,
      1865.

  Col. Joseph G. Best, Sept. 30, 1865.

  Lieut. Col. H. M. Woodyard, Jan. 17, 1862; resigned Jan. 27, 1864.

  Lieut. Col. Edwin Moore, March 30, 1864; mustered out, expiration of
      term, Feb. 11, 1865.

  Lieut. Col. James D. Lyon, April 20, 1865; promoted Colonel.

  Lieut. Col. Joseph G. Best, Aug. 17, 1865; promoted Colonel.

  Lieut. Col. Henry McGonigle, Sept. 30, 1865.

  Maj. Barnabas B. King, Jan. 17, 1862; killed at Shiloh, Tenn., April
      6, ’62.

  Maj. Edwin Moore, May 27, 1862; promoted Lieut. Col. March 30, 1864.

  Maj. George W. Fulton, Aug. 5, 1864; resigned Dec. 11, 1864.

  Maj. Charles W. Tracy, Jan. 25, 1865; revoked.

  Maj. James D. Lyon, Sept. 29, 1864; transferred from 24th Mo.
      Infantry; promoted Lieutenant Colonel.

  Maj. Joseph G. Best, May 30, 1865; promoted Lieut. Col. Aug. 17, 1865.

  Maj. Henry McGonigle, Aug. 17, 1865; promoted Lieut. Col. Sept. 30,
      ’65.

  Maj. E. K. Blackburn, Sept. 30, 1865.

  Adjt. Chas. C. Tobin, March 27, 1862; died in prison May 6, 1862.

  Adjt. Jas. B. Comstock, July 9, 1863; promoted Capt. A. A. G. U. S.
      Vols.

  Adjt. Stephen Hall, Aug. 2, 1865.

  Quarter Master D. W. Pressell, March 25, 1862.

  Surgeon R. H. Wyman, Dec. 21, 1861; mustered out S. O. 241, April 23,
      ’62.

  Surgeon R. H. Wyman, May 21, 1862; restored to service; resigned June
      11, 1862.

  Surgeon David Skillings, June 18, 1862; vacated S. O. 108, A. A. G.
      Mo.

  Surgeon J. H. Seaton, July 26, 1862; resigned June 2, 1863.

  Surgeon Abel C. Roberts, July 9, 1863.

  Ass’t Surg. J. H. Seaton, March 25, 1862; promoted Surgeon July 22,
      1862.

  Ass’t Surg. W. Knickerbocker, April 25, 1863.

  Ass’t Surg. F. G. Stanley, June 12, 1863.

  Chaplain John H. Cox, May 20, 1862; resigned April 23, 1864.


Co. A.

  Capt Charles Yust, March 27, 1862.

  1st Lieut. Henry Menn, March 27, 1862; resigned July 12, 1862.

  1st Lieut. August Gloeser, July 22, 1862; resigned April 21, 1864.

  1st Lieut. Thomas E. Amburn, Nov. 26, 1864.

  2d Lieut. Edwin Turner, March 27, 1862; resigned May 1, 1862.

  2d Lieut. Edward F. Nelson, May 27, 1862; resigned Oct. 27, 1864.

  2d Lieut. G. F. Malthaner, Sept. 30, 1865.


Co. B.

  Capt. Joseph Story, March 27, 1862; resigned July 12, 1862.

  Capt. Josiah W. Davis, Jan. 5, 1862.

  1st Lieut. L. D. Woodruff, March 27, 1862; resigned July 13, 1862.

  1st Lieut. Richard Reese, Aug. 2, 1862.

  2d Lieut. Edward Fox, March 27, 1862; died May 19, 1862.

  2d Lieut. Jeremy Hall, Oct. 4, 1862; mustered out at expiration of
      term of service, Dec. 5, 1864.

  2d Lieut. Owen S. Hagle, Sept. 30, 1865.


Co. C.

  Capt. Simon Pearce, March 27, 1862; mustered out March, 1865.

  Capt. Benjamin S. Palmer, Sept 30, 1865.

  1st Lieut. William Lester, March 27, 1862; resigned March 29, 1862.

  1st Lieut. W. H. Simpson, May 20, 1862; resigned Aug. 31, 1862.

  1st Lieut. T. H. Richardson, Jan. 5, 1862; died in hospital at
      Memphis, Tenn., June 11, 1863.

  1st Lieut. Frank M. Goff, Sept. 12, 1864; died of wounds April 10,
      1865.

  1st Lieut. Stephen Hall, July 6, 1865; promoted Adjutant Aug. 20,
      1865.

  1st Lieut. Benjamin S. Palmer, Aug. 2, 1865; promoted Captain.

  1st Lieut. C. D. Dowell, Sept. 30, 1865.

  2d Lieut. T. H. Richardson, March 27, 1862; promoted 1st Lieut. Dec.
      29, ’62.

  2d Lieut. James McFall, Jan. 5, 1863; resigned March 21, 1864.

  2d Lieut. Frank M. Goff, Aug. 22, 1864; promoted 1st Lieut.

  2d Lieut. Ezra Hambleton, Sept. 30, 1865.


Co. D.

  Capt. N. W. Murrow, March 27, 1862; resigned July 12, 1862.

  Capt. Henry McGonigle, Oct. 4, 1862; promoted Major Aug. 17, 1865.

  Capt. Joshua Hagle, Sept. 30, 1865.

  1st Lieut. Henry McGonigle, March 27, 1862; promoted Capt. July 13,
      ’62.

  1st Lieut. Joshua Hagle, Feb. 11, 1863; promoted Captain.

  1st Lieut. Charles L. Norton, Sept 30, 1865.

  2d Lieut. Lewis J. Ainslie, March 27, 1862; resigned Oct. 22, 1862.

  2d Lieut. Charles C. Murray, Feb. 27, 1863; resigned Aug. 29, 1865.

  2d Lieut. Benjamin F. Jenkins, Oct. 18, 1865.


Co. E.

  Capt. Geo W. Fulton, March 27, 1862; resigned Jan. 16, 1863.

  Capt. E. B. Shafer, Sept. 12, 1864.

  1st Lieut. T. M. McQuoid, March 27, 1862; resigned Dec. 17, 1862.

  1st Lieut. James B. Comstock, Feb. 24, 1863; commissioned Adjutant.

  1st Lieut. E. B. Shafer, April 23, 1864; promoted Captain.

  1st Lieut. Nehemiah D. Starr, Sept. 12, 1864; resigned Aug. 2, 1865.

  1st Lieut. Martin N. Sinnott, Sept. 30, 1865.

  2d Lieut. W. J. Pulis, March 27, 1862; resigned April 22, 1862.

  2d Lieut. James B. Comstock, Aug. 14, 1862; promoted 1st Lt. Jan. 1,
      ’63.

  2d Lieut. E. B. Shafer, Feb. 24, 1863; promoted 1st Lieut. April 23,
      1863.

  2d Lieut. N. D. Starr, May 24, 1864: promoted 1st Lieut.

  2d Lieut. Martin N. Sinnott, Sept. 12, 1864; promoted 1st Lieut.

  2d Lieut. William H. Smith, Sept. 30, 1865.


Co. F.

  Capt. Joseph T. Farris, March 27, 1862; resigned Jan. 16, 1863.

  Capt. Alex. F. Tracy, Feb. 23, 1863; resigned Aug. 29, 1865.

  Capt. Isaac C. Schram, Sept. 30, 1865.

  1st Lieut. Alex. F. Tracy, March 27, 1862; promoted Captain Jan. 17,
      ’63.

  1st Lieut. F. A. Whittemore, Feb. 23, 1863; mustered out expiration
      term of service, Feb. 11, 1865.

  1st Lieut. Richard D. Andrews, Sept. 30, 1865.

  2d Lieut. F. A. Whittemore, March 27, 1862; promoted 1st Lt. Jan. 17,
      ’63.

  2d Lieut. Peter H. Orr, Feb. 23, 1863; killed on picket duty Oct. 27,
      1863.

  2d Lieut. Isaac C. Schram, April 22, 1864; promoted Captain.

  2d Lieut. David Danforth, Sept. 30, 1865.


Co. G.

  Capt. T. H. Roseberry, March 27. 1862; resigned Aug. 31, 1862.

  Capt. E. K. Blackburn, Jan. 5, 1863; promoted Major Sept. 30, 1865.

  Capt. Daniel R. Allen, Sept. 30, 1865.

  1st Lieut. E. K. Blackburn, March 27, 1862; promoted Capt. Dec. 29,
      ’62.

  1st Lieut. Daniel R. Allen, Jan. 5, 1863; promoted Capt. Sept. 30,
      1865.

  1st Lieut. Robert H. Harris, Sept. 30, 1865.

  2d Lieut. Daniel R. Allen, March 27, 1862; promoted 1st Lieut. Dec.
      30, ’62.

  2d Lieut. Robert H. Harris, Jan 5, 1863; promoted 1st Lieut. Sept.
      30, ’65.

  2d Lieut. Thomas H. Roseberry, Sept. 30, 1865.


Co. H.

  Capt John H. Cox, March 27, 1862; commissioned Capt. April 22, 1862.

  Capt. Charles W. Tracy, May 27, 1862.

  Capt. James Smith, July 6, 1865.

  1st Lieut. Peter Washburn, March 27, 1862; resigned Aug. 31, 1862.

  1st Lieut. Logan Tomkins, Nov. 19, 1862; resigned Dec. 20, 1864.

  1st Lieut. James Smith, Feb. 24, 1865; promoted Captain.

  1st Lieut. G. K. Jones, July 6, 1865.

  2d Lieut. W. P. Rickey, March 27, 1862; resigned April 22, 1862.

  2d Lieut. James Smith, May 27, 1862; promoted 1st Lieut.

  2d Lieut. G. K. Jones, Feb. 24, 1865; promoted 1st Lieut.

  2d Lieut. Geo. Coffman, Sept. 30, 1865.


Co. I.

  Capt. W. H. Harle, March 27, 1862; resigned July 11, 1862.

  Capt. Joseph G. Best, July 22, 1862; promoted Major May 30, 1865.

  Capt. Jeremiah Hamilton, July 6, 1865.

  1st Lieut. Joseph Oliver, March 27, 1862; resigned June 12, 1862.

  1st Lieut. Joseph G. Best, June 18, 1862; promoted Captain.

  1st Lieut. Geo. W. Stein, Jan. 5, 1863; mustered out expiration of
      term of service, Dec. 5, 1864.

  1st Lieut. Jeremiah Hamilton, Dec. 17, 1864; promoted Captain.

  1st Lieut. Henry Deems, July 6, 1865.

  2d Lieut. Hudson Rice, March 27, 1862; resigned July 22, 1862.

  2d Lieut. Geo. W. Stein, Aug. 2, 1862; promoted 1st Lieut.

  2d Lieut. Cyrenus Russel, Jan. 5, 1863; mustered out at expiration of
      term of service Feb. 3, 1865.

  2d Lieut. William H. Smith, Sept. 30, 1865.


Co. K.

  Capt. Frederic Leeser, March 27, 1862; resigned Jan. 7, 1863.

  Capt. Louis Puster, March 28, 1863.

  1st Lieut. A. D. Starkweather, March 27, 1862; resigned Oct. 27, 1864.

  1st Lieut. W. A. Weaver, Dec. 16, 1864.

  2d Lieut. Geo. M. Davis, March 27, 1862; discharged disability Dec.
      11, ’63.

  2d Lieut. Carlton T. Shamp, Sept, 30, 1865.

All officers not noted by death or otherwise discharged, or resigned
from the service, served until the close of the war and were mustered
out with the regiment on the 19th of April, 1866.

All officers whose commissions are dated March 27, 1862, ranked from
July 15th, 1861; all others from date of commission.



THE REUNION

Of the 21st Missouri at Edina, Missouri.

It is near thirty years since we came here to recruit after the battles
of Shiloh and Corinth.

POETRY INSPIRED BY THE OCCASION.


  As we grasp old comrades by the hand,
      The tears unbidden flow,
  And memory swiftly calls us back
      To some thirty years ago.

  When with but one blanket to our back,
      As we lay upon the snow,
  And slowly munched our last hard tack
      Near thirty years ago,

  And talked of scenes of mortal strife
      Through which we’ve had to go,
  Thinking of home and the dear wife,
      While time moved on so slow.

  And as we pass the lone grave yards,
      Where all in time must go,
  We often think of lonely graves
      Made some thirty years ago.

  Think of the breast works we have charged,
      Where the dead so thickly lay,
  And how we tumbled them into the trench,
      The blue as well as the gray.

  We seem to hear the long roll beat,
      That warns us of the foe,
  Then hear them sound their own retreat,
      And it’s all peace here below.

  And when we’ve heard the last roll call,
      Seen our last of earthly scenes,
  With our old blue coat for a pall
      We’ll lay down to pleasant dreams.

  And with our flag still waving o’er us,
      That blessed emblem of the free,
  We’ll join in that immortal chorus
      And help sound the jubilee.

                           _Composed by A. W. Harlan, of Co. F, 21st Mo.
                                        Croton, Iowa, Sept. 24th, 1892._



TRANSCRIBER’S NOTE:


  Obvious typographical erros have been corrected.

  Text in italics is surrounded by underscores: _italics_.

  Archaic or alternate spelling which may have been in use at the time
    of publication has been retained from the original.

  Inconsistencies in the spelling of names have been retained from the
    original, e.g. Whittemore vs. Whitmore, Ainslee vs. Ainslie, etc.





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