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Title: The Book of Husbandry
Author: Fitzherbert, Anthony
Language: English
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  There were many quite different printings of this Book of
  Husbandry. As the editor of this printing, Rev. Walter Skeat, notes
  in his Introduction: “The present volume contains a careful reprint
  of Berthelet’s edition of 1534” collated throughout “with the
  curious edition of 1598” that was authored by “I. R.”--his actual
  name is unknown.

  This “careful reprint” retains all the spelling variations and
  inconsistencies of those original editions, and so does this etext.
  (1882) English. He has inserted some corrections to the reprinted
  text; these are shown in [brackets]. Obvious typographical errors
  and punctuation errors in his Notes and Sidenotes have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  Some minor changes are listed at the end of the book.

  Footnote anchors are denoted by [number], and the footnotes have
  been placed at the end of each major section of the book.

  The line numbering on each section of the reprinted 1534 text has
  been retained and is shown as a number (4, 8, 12 etc) on the right
  side of the etext. Original line-breaks in the 1534 text have been

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  Bold text is denoted by =equal signs=.

  The 3-star inverted asterism symbol is denoted by ***.

  The right-pointing finger symbol is denoted by ==>.

  A superscript is denoted by ^n or ^{nn}, for example xxix^{th}.













  [Illustration: (A plough)]





  INTRODUCTION                                 vii

  THE AUTHOR’S PROLOGUE                          1

  THE TABLE (which see)                          3

  THE BOOK OF HUSBANDRY                          9

  NOTES                                        127

  GLOSSARIAL INDEX                             149


One question of chief interest respecting the volume here printed
is--who was the author? We know that his name was “Mayster
Fitzherbarde” (see p. 125), and the question that has to be settled
is simply this--may we identify him with Sir Anthony Fitzherbert,
judge of the Common Pleas, the author of the Grand Abridgment of
the Common Law, the New Natura Brevium, and other legal works?

The question has been frequently discussed, and, as far as I have
been able to discover, the more usual verdict of the critics is in
favour of the supposed identity; and certainly all the evidence
tends very strongly in that direction, as will, I think, presently

Indeed, when we come to investigate the grounds on which the
objections to the usually received theory rest, they appear to be
exceedingly trivial; nor have I been very successful in discovering
the opposed arguments. Bohn’s edition of Lowndes’ Bibliographer’s
Manual merely tells us that “the treatises on Husbandry and
Surveying are by some attributed to the famous lawyer Sir Anthony
Fitzherbert, by others to his brother John Fitzherbert.”

In the Catalogue of the Huth Library, we find this note: “The Rev.
Joseph Hunter was the first person to point out that the author of
this work [Fitzherbert’s Husbandry] and the book on Surveying was
a different person from the judge of the same name.” It will be at
once observed that this note is practically worthless, from the
absence of the reference. After considerable search, I have been
unable to discover where Hunter’s statement is to be found, so that
the nature of his objections can only be guessed at.

In Walter Harte’s Essays on Husbandry (ii. 77) we read--“How
Fitzherbert could be a practitioner of the art of agriculture for
40 years, as he himself says in 1534, is pretty extraordinary. I
suppose it was his country amusement in the periodical recesses
between the terms.” We are here presented with a definite
objection, grounded, as is alleged, upon the author’s own words;
and it is most probable that Harte is here stating the objection
which has weighed most strongly with those who (like Hunter) have
objected to the current opinion. The answer to the objection is, I
think, not a little remarkable, viz. that the alleged statement is
_not_ the author’s at all. By turning to p. 125, it will be seen
that it was Thomas Berthelet the printer who said that the author
“had exercysed husbandry, with greate experyence, xl. years.” But
the author’s _own_ statement, on p. 124, is _differently worded_;
and the difference is material. He says: “and, as touchynge the
poyntes of husbandry, and of other artycles conteyned in this
present boke, I wyll not saye that it is the beste waye and wyll
serue beste in all places, but I saye it is the best way that euer
I coude proue by experyence, the whiche haue _ben an housholder_
this xl. yeres and more, and haue assaied many and dyuers wayes,
and done my dyligence to proue by experyence which shuld be the
beste waye.” The more we weigh these words, the more we see a
divergence between them and the construction which might readily
be put upon the words of Berthelet; a construction which, in all
probability, Berthelet did not specially intend. Any reader who
hastily glances at Berthelet’s statement would probably deduce from
it that the author was a farmer merely, who had had forty years’
experience in farming. But this is not what we should deduce from
the more careful statement of the author. We should rather notice
these points.

1. The author does not speak of husbandry _only_, but of _other
points_. The other points are the breeding of horses (not a
necessary part of a farmer’s business), the selling of wood and
timber, grafting of trees, a long discourse upon prodigality,
remarks upon gaming, a discussion of “what is riches,” and a
treatise upon practical religion, illustrated by Latin quotations
from the fathers, and occupying no small portion of the work. This
is not the work of a practical farmer, in the narrow acceptation
of the term, meaning thereby one who farms to live; but it is
clearly the work of a country gentleman, rich in horses and in
timber, acquainted with the extravagant mode of life often adopted
by the wealthy, and at the same time given to scholarly pursuits
and to learned and devout reading. Indeed, the prominence given to
religious teaching can hardly fail to surprise a reader who expects
to find in the volume nothing more than hints upon practical
agriculture. One chapter has a very suggestive heading, viz. “A
lesson made in Englysshe verses, that _a gentylmans seruaunte_
shall forget none of his gere _in his inne behynde hym_” (p. 7).
This is obviously the composition of a gentleman himself, and of
one accustomed to take long journeys upon horseback, and to stay at
various inns on the way.[1]

2. Again he says, “it is the best way that euer I coude proue by
experyence, the whiche ... haue assaied _many and dyuers_ wayes,
and done my dyligence to proue by experyence which shuld be the
beste waye.” Certainly this is not the language of one who farmed
for profit, but of the _experimental_ farmer, the man who could
afford to lose if things went wrong, one to whom farming was an
amusement and a recreation, and who delighted in trying various
modes that he might benefit those who, unlike himself, could not
afford to try any way but that which had long been known.

3. We must note the language in which he describes himself. He
does not say that he had “exercised husbandry” for forty years,
but that he had “been a householder” during that period. The two
things are widely different. His knowledge of agriculture was, so
to speak, accidental; his real employment had been to manage a
household, or, as we should rather now say, to “keep house.” This,
again, naturally assigns to him the status of a country gentleman,
who chose to superintend everything for himself, and to gain a
practical acquaintance with everything upon his estate, viz. his
lands, his cattle, his horses, his bees, his trees, his felled
timber, and the rest; not forgetting his duties as a man of rank
in setting a good example, discouraging waste, giving attention
to prayer and almsgiving, and to his necessary studies. “He that
can rede and vnderstande _latyne_, let hym take his booke in his
hande, and looke stedfastely vppon the same thynge that he readeth
and seeth, _that is no trouble to hym_,” etc. (p. 115). Are we to
suppose that it could be said generally, of farmers in the time of
Henry VIII., that Latin was “no trouble to them”? If so, things
must have greatly changed.

I have spoken of the above matter at some length, because I much
suspect that the words used by Berthelet are the very words which
have biassed, entirely in the wrong direction, the minds of such
critics as have found a difficulty where little exists. It ought to
be particularly borne in mind that Berthelet’s expression, though
likely to mislead _now_, was not calculated to do so at the time,
when the authorship of the book was doubtless well known. And we
shall see presently that Berthelet himself entirely believed Sir
Anthony to have been the author of this Book on Husbandry.

Another objection that has been raised is founded upon the apparent
strangeness of the title “Mayster Fitz-herbarde” as applied to
a judge. The answer is most direct and explicit, viz. that the
printer who uses this title did so wittingly, for he is _the very
man_ who helps us to identify our author with the great lawyer.
It is therefore simply impossible that he could have seen any
incongruity in it, and any objection founded upon it must be
wholly futile. The title of _master_ was used in those days very
differently to what it is now. Foxe, in his Actes and Monuments,
ed. 1583, p. 1770, tells us how “maister Latymer” encouraged
“maister Ridley,” when both were at the stake; and, chancing to
open Holinshed’s History (ed. 1808, iii. 754), I find a discourse
between Wolsey and Sir William Kingston, Constable of the Tower, in
which the latter is called “master Kingston” throughout.

I cannot find that there is any reason for assigning the
composition of the Book of Husbandry to John Fitzherbert, Sir
Anthony’s brother. It is a mere guess, founded only upon the
knowledge that Sir Anthony had such a brother. It looks as though
the critics who wish to deprive Sir Anthony of the honour of the
authorship think they must concede somewhat, and therefore suggest
his brother’s name by way of compensation.

We have no proof that John Fitzherbert ever wrote anything, whilst
Sir Anthony was a well-known author. All experience shows that a
man who writes one book is likely to write another.

When we leave these vague surmises and come to consider the direct
evidence, nearly all difficulties cease. And first, as to external

The author of the Book of Husbandry was also author of the Book of
Surveying, as has always been seen and acknowledged.[2] The first
piece of distinct evidence on the subject is the statement of
Thomas Berthelet. He prefixed some verses to Pynson’s edition of
the Book of Surveying (1523), addressing the reader as follows:

       “This worthy man / nobly hath done his payne
        I meane hym / that these sayde bokes[3] dyd deuyse.
        He sheweth to husbandes / in right fruteful wyse
        The manyfolde good thynges / in brefe sentence
        Whiche he hath well proued / by long experyence.
      ¶ And this[4] I leaue hym / in his good wyll and mynde
        That he beareth / vnto the publyke weale.
        Wolde god _noblemen_ / coude in their hertes fynde
        _After such forme_ / _for the cōmons helth_ to deale;
        It is a true token / _of hyghe loue and zeale_
        Whan _he_ so delyteth / and taketh pleasure
        By his busy labour / _mens welth to procure_.”

This cannot well be mistaken. It is obvious that Berthelet believed
the author to be a _nobleman_, one who “shewed things to husbands”
which he had gained by his own “long experience;” one who wrote
out of the “good will and mind that he bare unto the public weal,”
thereby proving his “high love and zeal,” in that he delighted
“to procure men’s wealth,” _i.e._ the welfare of others, not his
own riches, by means of his “busy labour.” We hence conclude that
Berthelet knew perfectly well who the author was; and indeed it
would have been strange if he did not, since he was writing in 1523
(while the author was still alive), and subsequently printed both
the books of which he is here speaking. He plainly tells us that
the author was a nobleman, and merely wrote to benefit others out
of pure love and zeal.

But this is not Berthelet’s only allusion to these books. In
an edition of the Book of Surveying, printed by Berthelet,[5]
there are some remarks by him at the back of the title-page to
the following effect. “To the reder. Whan I had printed the
boke longyng to a Justice of the peace, togither with other
small bokes very necessary, I bethought me vpon this boke of
Surueyenge, compyled sometyme by master Fitzherbarde, how good
and howe profitable it is for all states, that be lordes and
possessioners of landes, ... or tenauntes of the same, ... also
how well it agreeth with the argume_n_t of the other small bokes,
as court-baron, court-hundred, and chartuary, I went in hande and
printed it in the same volume that the other be, to binde them
al-togither. And haue amended it in many places.”

The mention of “the boke longyng to a Justice of the peace” is
interesting, as bringing us back again to Sir Anthony Fitzherbert.
“In 1538,” says Mr. Wallis,[6] Robert Redman printed “The newe Boke
of Justices of the Peas, by A. F. K. [Anthony Fitzherbert, Knight],
lately translated out of French into English, In the yere of our
Lord God, M.D.xxxviii. The 29 day of December, Cum priuilegio.”[7]
Mr. Hobson’s list (Hist. Ashborne, p. 234) mentions this as “the
first work on the subject ever printed,” but this is not the case.
Wynkyn de Worde and Copland both printed, as early as 1515, “The
Boke of Justices of the Peas, the charge, with al the proces of
the Cessyons, Warrants, Superseders, wyth al that longyth to ony
justice, &c.” It is not pretended that this was our author’s work;
but he improved upon it, as he did also upon the Natura Brevium.
In his preface to La Novel Natura Brevium (Berthelet, 1534), he
says that the original book was written by a learned man, whom he
does not name: and that it was esteemed as a fundamental book for
understanding the law. In the course of its translations, and of
the alteration of the laws, many things had been retained which
were unnecessary, and much desirable matter was omitted. This was
what induced him to compose the new one.

Upon this I have to remark, that it is incredible that Berthelet
should mention a work which he knew to be by Sir Anthony
Fitzherbert in one line, and in the next should proceed to speak
of “Master Fitzherbarde” without a word of warning that he was
speaking of a different person. The obvious inference is that
the author of the Book on Surveying was, in his belief, the same
person as the “A. F. K.” who wrote “the boke longyng to a Justice
of the peace.” As it is, he takes no trouble about the matter; for
he could hardly foresee that any difficulty would thence arise.
It is remarkable how frequently writers just stop short of being
explicit, because they think that, at the moment of writing, a fact
is too notorious to be worth mentioning.

Here the direct external evidence ceases. We now come to consider
the internal evidence, which is interesting enough.

In the first place, the author of the Book of Husbandry was also
the author of the Book of Surveying, as he tells us explicitly in
his prologue to the latter book. But whoever wrote the Book of
Surveying must have been a considerable lawyer. It is of a far
more learned and technical character than the Book on Husbandry,
and abounds with quotations from Latin statutes, which the author
translates and explains. In Chap. 1 he says of a certain statute,
that, _in his opinion_, it was made soon after the Battle of
Evesham, in the time of Henry III.; and he frequently interprets
statutes with the air of one whose opinion was worth having. In
Chap, xi., he enlarges upon the mistakes made by lords, knights,
squires, and gentlemen who know but little of the law. “They come
to the court or sende their clerkes, that can [know] as litle law
as their maister or lasse, but that he vnderstandeth a lytell
latyn.” At the end of the same chapter, he is deep in law-terms,
court-roll, fee simple, fee tayle, franke tenement, and all the
rest of it. He then gives numerous forms, all in Latin, to be used
by owners who wish to lease, grant, or surrender lands; but only
a good lawyer would venture to recommend forms suitable for such
important purposes.

Some other points of internal evidence have already been
incidentally noticed, such as the author’s familiarity with the
mode of life of the rich; his lesson made for “a gentylmans
seruaunte”; his readiness to try many ways of farming as an
experimentalist who could afford to lose money; and his statement
that Latin was no trouble to him. I proceed to notice a few more.

Something further can be inferred from the author’s mention of
places. He speaks of so many counties, as Cornwall, Devon, Essex,
Kent, Somerset, Buckinghamshire, Yorkshire, and Lancashire, that
we can at first obtain no definite result. But there is an express
allusion to “the peeke countreye” at p. 44; whilst at p. 81 he
alludes to the parts about London by using the adverb “there,” as
if it were _not_ his home. Yet that he was perfectly familiar with
London is obvious from his allusions to it in chap. xix. of the
Book on Surveying. But there are two more explicit references which
are worth notice. At p. 27, he speaks of “the _farther syde_ of
Darbyshyre, called Scaresdale, Halomshyre, and so _northewarde_
towarde Yorke and Ryppon.” Now Scarsdale is one of the six
“hundreds” of Derbyshire, and includes the country about Dronfield
and Chesterfield; whilst Hallamshire is a name given to a part of
Yorkshire lying round and including Sheffield. We hence fairly
deduce the inference that the author lived on the _western side of
Derbyshire_, in the neighbourhood of Ashborne, so that he looked
upon Chesterfield as lying on the _farther_ side of the country,
and at the same time _northward_, which is precisely the fact. We
are thus led to locate the author in the very neighbourhood of Sir
Anthony Fitzherbert’s home.

Again, at p. 65, he says that if he were to say too much about
the faults of horses, he would break the promise that he made “at
Grombalde brydge,” the first time that he went to Ripon to buy
colts. After some search as to the place here intended, I found, in
Allen’s History of Yorkshire, that one of the bridges over the Nidd
near Knaresborough is called “Grimbald bridge;”[8] and, seeing that
Knaresborough is exactly due south of Ripon, it follows that the
author came from the south of Knaresborough. We seem, in fact, to
trace the general direction of his first ride to Ripon, viz. from
his home to the farther side of Derbyshire, through the northwest
corner of Scarsdale to Sheffield, and “so northward” through Leeds
and Knaresborough. Nothing can be more satisfactory.

A very interesting point is the author’s love of farming and of
horses. As to horses, he tells us how he first went to Ripon to
buy colts (p. 65); how many secrets of horse-dealing he could
tell; how, in buying horses, he had been beguiled a hundred times
and more (p. 63); how he used to say to his customers that, if
ever they ventured to trust any horse-dealer, they had better
trust himself (p. 73); and how he had in his possession at one
time as many as sixty mares, and five or six horses (p. 60). In
this connection, it becomes interesting to inquire if Sir Anthony
Fitzherbert was fond of horses likewise.

It so happens that this question can certainly be answered in the
affirmative; and I have here to acknowledge, with pleasure and
gratitude, the assistance which I have received from one of the
family,[9] the Rev. Reginald Fitzherbert, of Somersal Herbert,
Derbyshire. He has been at the trouble of transcribing Sir
Anthony’s will, a complete copy of which he contributed to “The
Reliquary,” No. 84, vol. xxi. April, 1881, p. 234. I here insert,
by his kind permission, his remarks upon the subject, together with
such extracts from the will as seem most material for our present

“The following will of Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, of Norbury, is
transcribed from the Office Copy at Somerset House (Dingley, fol.
20), and is now printed, as I believe, for the first time. The
contractions have been written out _in extenso_.

“Sir Anthony married, secondly, the co-heir of Richard Cotton, and
with her he acquired the estate of Hampstall Ridware, which he
probably kept in his own hands, and farmed himself. He succeeded
his brother John at Norbury in 1531, and died there in 1538, aged

“Fuller, in his _Worthies_, says that Sir Anthony Fitzherbert’s
books are ‘monuments which will longer continue his Memory than
the flat blew marble stone in Norbury Church under which he lieth
interred.’ Camden (Gibson’s ed. 1753, vol. i. p. 271) calls him
_Chief Justice_ of the Common Pleas; but Thoroton (Notts., ed.
1677, p. 344) says, ‘I do not find that Anthony Fitzherbert was
ever Chief Justice;’ and it does not appear that he was more than,
as he describes himself, ‘oon of the kings Justices.’”


  “In nomine patris et filii et spiritus sancti Amen.”

  “I Anthony ffitzherbert oon of the kings Justices being hole in
  body and of parfite remembraunce thankes to almighty god make my
  last will and testament the xii day of October in the xxix^{th}
  yere of the Reign of king Henry the eight[10] in fourme folowing
  ffirst I bequeth my soule to almighty god my saviour criste my
  Redemer and to our blissed Lady his mother and to Mighel my
  patron and to all the holy company of hevyn....

  And I bequethe XLs to amende the high wayes[11] bitwixt Abbottes
  Bromley [and] Vttaxather. And to sir Thomas ffitzwilliam Lord
  Admyrall fyve markes _and the best horsse or gelding that I
  haue_. And to Humfrey Cotton V markes to ffraunces Cotton fyve
  markes and _a gelding or a horsse of XLs price_. And to euery of
  my housholde seruentes a quarter wagis besides their wagis due.
  And to euery of my seruentes _that be used to Ryde with me[12]
  oon heyffer_ of two yere olde and vpward or ellse _oon felde
  Colt_ of that age.

  And to sir Henry Sacheuerell and to sir William Basset to euery
  of them _oon horsse Colt_ of twoo yeres olde and aboue....

  And _tenne kyne_ and _a bull_ and _VIII oxen_ and _a wayn_ and
  the _ploez and other thinges longing to a wayne_, to remayn at
  Rydwar for heire Lomes. And _XII mares_, and a _stallande_, and
  VI. fetherbeddes and VI mattresses and Couerynges blankettes
  shetes and Counterpoyntes thereunto to logge honest gentilmen,
  and to remain at Rydwar for heire lomes to the heires males of

  And I will that Kateryn my doughter haue _foure bullockes_ and
  _four heiffers_ and twoo ffetherbeddes and twoo bolsters and
  twoo mattresse and bolsters for them and shetes blankettes and
  other stuffe to make hir twoo good beddis yf I geve hir non by my

  And where I caused Thomas ffitzherbert to surrendre the
  Indenture of _the fferme of the parsonage of Castelton in the
  Peeke_ to the Abbot of Vayll Royal to the intent, to thentent
  (_sic_) that I and he shulde haue fourty yeres terme therin more
  then was in the olde Indenture, And to take a newe leesse for
  terme of threscore and tenne yeres which olde leesse the same
  Thomas had by the mariage of the doughter and heire of sir Arthur
  Eyre whiche sir Arthur Eyre willed that his bastard sonne shulde
  haue fyve markes yerely of the profites of the same fferme as
  apperith by his wille wherfor I will that the same bastard sonne
  haue the same fyve markes according to the same will And the
  Residue of the profites of the same fferme I will and require the
  same Thomas my sonne that John ffitzherbert his brother may haue
  the profites therof during his lyfe And after his decesse Richard
  ffitzherbert his brother And I will that _my fferme at Caldon_
  And the _fferme that I haue of the King_ And the _howe Grange_
  Remain to my heires males of Norbury And I will that the _lande
  that I purchased at Whittington besides Lichefelde_ goo foreuer
  to kepe the obite at North wynfelde for my brother doctour soule
  according to his will and to be made sure--therfor as moche as
  may reasonably be devised therfor to stande with the lawe yf I do
  not assigne other landes therfor hereafter....

  And I will that my Cosyn Richard Coton haue _one good amblyng
  Colt_ or _oon good horsse_ of myn to Ryde on by the discrecion
  of my wife and my son Thomas to be deliuered And to my Cosyn
  Alice his wyfe oon of my best habites with the Cloke and Hood and
  the Lynyng and the furr of the same. Written the day and yere

The will was proved at Lichfield, August 26, 1538.

I may add that the will mentions his wife dame Maude, his son
Thomas, his three younger sons John, Richard, and William, and his
daughter Kateryn; also his cousin Richard Coton and his wife Alice.
Thomas Fitzherbert married the daughter of Sir Arthur Eyre.

It hence appears that Sir Anthony had no less than _three farms_,
one at Castleton in the Peak, one at Caldon in Staffordshire,
near Dove Dale, and a farm which he held of the King; besides the
How Grange and some land at Whittington near Lichfield, as also
some purchased lands and tenements in the counties of Stafford,
Northampton, and Warwick, mentioned in a part of the will which I
have not quoted. There was also the estate of Hampstall Ridware
in Staffordshire, to which he attached considerable importance,
directing his heir-looms to be kept there. He also makes mention,
in all, of _six horses_ (including a stallion and two geldings),
_twelve mares_, _three colts_, _one bull_, _four bullocks_, _five
heifers_, _eight oxen_, and _ten cows_, though it is obvious that
these by no means include all his stock, but merely a selection
from it. All this precisely agrees with the statements in the Book
of Husbandry.

I do not think it necessary to pursue the subject further, but
a word must be added as to the chronology. Not having seen the
first edition of the Book of Husbandry printed by Pynson in 1523,
I cannot certainly say whether the statement that the author had
“been a householder for 40 years” occurs there. It occurs, however,
in an undated edition by Peter Treuerys,[13] which is certainly
the _second_ edition, and printed between 1521 and 1531, as
Treuerys is only known to have printed books during that period.
Now this edition professes to have corrections and additions,
the title being--“Here bygynneth a newe tracte or treatis moost
p_ro_fytable for all husba_n_de men / and very [frutefu]ll for
all other persones to rede / newly cor[rected] & amended by the
auctour with to dyuerse other thynges added thervnto;” and it
agrees very closely with the copy here printed. The date assigned
for Sir Anthony Fitzherbert’s birth is 1470. If we suppose him to
have begun housekeeping at 21, a period of 40 years will bring
us to 1531, which is not inconsistent with his statement, if such
be the date of the copy above mentioned. If, however, it should
appear that the statement exists even in the first edition printed
in 1523, then the “forty years” would lead us to suppose that, if
the assigned date of his birth be correct, Sir Anthony began to be
a householder, in his own estimation, at the early age of twelve or
thirteen. This is of course a difficulty, but not an insuperable
one, for the phrase “have been a householder” is somewhat vague,
and the phrase “forty years or more” has rather the air of a
rhetorical flourish.

It may here be noticed that Berthelet’s first edition (here
reprinted) has nothing on the title-page but the words “THE BOKE OF
HVSBANDRY,” with the date 1534 below. Later reprints which follow
Berthelet have accordingly no statement as to the book being “newly
corrected and amended by the auctour,” etc.; whilst those which
follow Treuerys naturally copy it. This accounts for the fact that
the later editions are, to the best of my belief, all very much the
same, and that the claim to possess “corrections and amendments”
means practically nothing, except with reference to the _first_
edition only.

Of Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, one of the best accounts seems to
be that given in the Biographia Britannica, 1750, vol. iii. p.
1935, where Camden’s statement as to his being “Chief Justice” is
refuted. Briefly recapitulated, this account tells us that he was
born in 1470, and was the younger son of Ralph Fitzherbert, Esq.,
of Norbury in Derbyshire; that he went to Oxford, and thence to
the Inns of Court; was made a serjeant-at-law, Nov. 18, 1511; was
knighted in 1516; was made one of his majesty’s serjeants-at-law,
and finally one of the Justices of the Court of Common Pleas in
1523. He died May 27, 1538, and was buried at Norbury. “Two things
are mentioned in reference to his conduct; first, that, without
fear of his power, he openly opposed Cardinal Wolsey in the
heighth of his favour; the other, that, when he came to lie upon
his death-bed, foreseeing the changes that were like to happen
in the Church as well as State, he pressed his children in very
strong terms to promise him solemnly, neither to accept grants,
nor to make purchases of abbey-lands; which it is said they did,
and adhered constantly to that promise, though much to their
own loss.” The authorities referred to are Pits, De Illustribus
Angliæ Scriptoribus, p. 707; Wood, Athenæ Oxonienses, i. col.
50; Fuller, Worthies, Derbyshire, p. 233; Tanner, Bibliotheca
Britannico-Hibernica, p. 283; Chronica Juridicialia, pp. 153, 155.,

The number of editions of the Book of Husbandry is so large, and
many of these are nevertheless so scarce, that I do not suppose
the list here subjoined is exhaustive; nor have I much information
about some of them. I merely mention what I have found, with some

1. A newe tracte or treatyse moost profytable for all Husbandemen,
and very frutefull for all other persons to rede. London: by
Rycharde Pynson. 4to. (1523). See Typographical Antiquities, by
Ames and Herbert, ed. Dibdin, ii. 503. This is the _first_ edition,
and very rare. It was described by Dibdin from Heber’s copy,
supposed to be unique. See Heber’s Catalogue, part ix. p. 61. The
note in Hazlitt that a copy of this edition is in the Bodleian
Library is a mistake, as I have ascertained. It is not dated, but
the Book on Surveying, printed just afterwards, is dated 1523; and
there is no doubt as to the date. It is remarkable for an engraving
upon the title-page, representing two oxen drawing a plough, with

2. “Here begynneth a newe tracte,” etc. (See p. xx.) London,
Southwark; by P. Treuerys, 4to. (No date; but between 1521 and
1531). In the Camb. Univ. Library. This is the only other edition
which (as far as I know) has the picture of ploughing upon the

3. By Thomas Berthelet, in 1532 (Lowndes). It is “12mo in size,
but in eights by signatures,” and therefore 8vo. (A. Wallis; Derby
Mercury, Nov. 1869).

4. By Thomas Berthelet; 8vo.; the edition here reprinted from
the copy in the Cambridge University Library. There are also two
copies of it in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. The title-page has
merely the words: “THE | BOKE OF | HVS- | BANDRY;” printed within
a border bearing the date 1534. The reverse of the title-page
is blank. On the second leaf, marked A ij, begins “The aucthors
prologue.” The rest of sheet A (which contains in all only _six_
leaves) is occupied with the Prologue and “the Table;” and is
not foliated. Then follow sheets B to M, all of _eight_ leaves,
and sheet N, of _two_ leaves only. Sheets B to H have the folios
numbered from 1 to 56; sheets I, K, L have the folios numbered from
51 to 75; and sheets M and N, from 81 to 90. Thus the six numbers
51-56 occur twice over, and the five numbers 76-80 do not occur
at all. It is not quite certain that the apparent date is also
the real one; for at the end of Berthelet’s print of Xenophon’s
treatise of Housholde, which has 1534 within the same border upon
the title-page, there is a colophon giving the date as 1537. This
border was evidently in use for at least three years. See Dibdin,
iii. 287.

5. By Berthelet; 1546. This edition also contains the Treatise on
Surveying. (Lowndes; compare Dibdin, iii. 348.)

6. By Berthelet; 1548. (Lowndes; Dibdin, iii. 334, where it is
described as 12mo.) A copy of this is noticed in the Catalogue of
the Huth Library.

7. By Thomas Marshe; (1560). This edition is said to be “newly
corrected and amended by the author, Fitzherbarde;” but is, of
course, a mere reprint. See remarks upon this above. (Lowndes;
Dibdin, iv. 534.) In Arber’s Transcript of the Stationers’
Registers, i. 128, we find--“Recevyd of _Thomas Marshe_ for his
lycense for pryntinge of a boke Called the boke of husbondry,
graunted the xx of June [1560] ... iiij. _d._” Hence the date,
which is not given, may be inferred.

8. By John Awdeley; 16mo. 1562; “wyth diuers addicions put
ther-vnto.” (Dibdin, iv. 566.)

9. By John Awdeley; 8vo. 1576; “with diuers additions put
therunto.” (Dibdin, iv. 568.)

10. Fitzharbert’s | BOOKE OF | Husbandrie. | DEVIDED Into foure
seuerall Bookes, very ne | cessary and profitable for all sorts |
of people. _And now newlie corrected, amended, and reduced into a
more pleasing forme of English then before. Ecclesiast. 10. ver.
28._ Better is he that laboureth, and hath plentiousnesse of all
thinges, then hee that is gorgious | and wanteth bread. AT LONDON,
| Printed by J. R. for Edward White, and are | to be sold at his
shoppe, at the little North doore of Paules Church, at the signe
of the Gunne. | _Anno Dom._ 1598. Dedicated “To the Worshipfull
Maister _Henrie Iackman Esquire_” ... by “Your Worships in
affection I. R.” Of this book I shall say more below. I have used
the copy in the Douce Collection in the Bodleian Library.[15]

11. etc. There are numerous other editions. Hazlitt mentions
one by R. Kele (no date), “newlye corrected and amended by the
auctor Fitzherbarde, with dyuers additions put therunto.” Lowndes
says: “London, by Richard Kele, 16mo. There are two editions, one
containing H, the other I, in eights.” Dibdin (iii. 533) mentions
one by John Wayland, 8vo. (no date), Lowndes mentions an edition
printed at London “in the Hovs of Tho. Berthelet,” 16mo.; eighty
leaves; also--another edition, slightly differing in orthography,
and having at the end “Cum privilegio;” also another “in the House
of Thomas Berthelet,” 16mo. A, 6 leaves, B--M, in eights, N, 2
leaves, with the date of 1534 on the title-page; but this can be
nothing else than the very book here reprinted, and it is not clear
why he mentions it again. Lowndes also notices undated editions by
John Walley, Robert Toye, Jugge, and Myddylton.

It hence appears that the book was frequently reprinted between
1523 and 1598, but the last of these editions was such as to
destroy its popularity, and I am not aware that it was ever again
reprinted except in 1767, when the Books on Husbandry and Surveying
were reprinted together[16] in a form strongly resembling the
edition of 1534.[17] The title of this book is--“Certain Ancient
Tracts concerning the management of Landed Property reprinted.
London, printed for C. Bathurst and J. Newbery; 1767.” This is a
fairly good reprint, with the old spelling carefully preserved; but
has neither note nor comment of any kind. A copy of it kindly lent
me by Mr. Furnivall has proved very useful.

The editions of the Book on Surveying are almost as numerous as
those of the Book on Husbandry, though this was hardly to be
expected, considering its more learned and technical character.
It is not necessary to speak here particularly of Sir Anthony
Fitzherbert’s acknowledged works. The most important are the
Grand Abridgment of the Common Law (1514, folio), Office of
Justices of the Peace (1538), Diversity of Courts (1539), and the
New Natura Brevium, of which the ninth edition, with a commentary
by Lord Hale, appeared in 1794. The first edition of the Grand
Abridgment was printed by Pynson, who was also the printer of the
first edition of the Book of Husbandry. The New Natura Brevium was
printed in 1534 by Berthelet, who reprinted the Book of Husbandry
in the same year. In a bookseller’s catalogue, March, 1880, I
chanced to see the following. “Early English Printing; Black
Letter; Law Books in Latin and Norman-French (1543-51). Natura
Brevium; newely and most trewely corrected with diverse additio_n_s
of statutes bokes cases plees in abatements, etc.; London,
Wyllyam Powel, 1551.--Articuli ad Narrationes novas; London, W.
Powel, 1547.--Diuersite de courtz et lour jurisdiccions, et alia
necessaria et utilia, London, W. Myddylton, 1543. The three works
in 1 vol., sm. 8vo., old calf neat, quite perfect and very rare,

The present volume contains a careful reprint of Berthelet’s
edition of 1534, which is a fairly good one. I have collated it
throughout with the curious edition of 1598, which abounds with
“corrections,” some of them no improvements, and with additional
articles. It is a very curious book, and I have given all the
more interesting variations in the notes, with a description of
the additions. The author, who only gives his initials “I. R.”
(by which initials I have been often obliged to quote him[18])
has the effrontery to tell us that he has reduced Fitzherbert’s
work “into a more pleasing forme of English then before;” and says
that he has “labored to purge the same fro_m_ the barbarisme of
the former times.” Again he addresses the reader, saying--“Gentle
Reader, being vrged by the consideration of the necessitie of this
worke, and finding it almost cast into perpetuall obliuion, I haue
purged it from the first forme of missounding termes to our daintie
eares.” This means, of course, that he has altered terms which he
did not understand, and occasionally turns sense into nonsense; yet
he seems to have taken considerable pains with his author, and his
additions are frequently to the point. Whether his discourses upon
the keeping of poultry (p. 145, note to sect. 144) were really due
to his “owne experience in byrds and foules,” or whether he copied
much of it from some of his predecessors, I have not been curious
to discover. His references to Virgil, to the fable of Cynthia
and Endymion, the Cinyphian goats, and the rest, are in the worst
possible taste, and he was evidently far too staunch a Protestant
to be able to accept all Fitzherbert’s religious views, though
modestly and unobtrusively introduced. After carefully reading his
production, I infinitely prefer Fitzherbert’s “barbarisme” to I.
R.’s pedantic mannerism, and I find the patronising tone of his
occasionally stupid amendments to be almost insufferable; but he
may be forgiven for his zeal. The art of sinking in poetry has
rarely been so well exemplified as in the verses which are printed
at pp. 145 and 148.

The reader can best understand what I. R. conceives to be elegance
of style by comparing the following extract with section 1 at p. 9.

“_Chapter 2._ ¶ _By what a Husbandman cheefely liueth._

The most generall and _commonest experienst liuing_ that the
_toyle-imbracing_ Husbandman liueth by, is either by plowing and
sowing of his Corne, or by rearing and breeding of Cattell, and
not the one without the other, _because they be adjuncts, and may
not be disceuered_. Then sithens that the Plough is the first good
instrument, by which the Husband-men _rips from the Earths wombe
a well-pleasing liuing, I thinke_ it is most conuenient first to
speake of the _forme, fashion, and_ making therof.”

The words italicised (except in the title) are all his own.

The Glossarial Index, a very full one, was almost entirely
prepared, in the first instance, by my eldest daughter, though I
have since added a few explanations in some cases, and have revised
the whole, at the same time verifying the references. As to the
meaning of a few terms, I am still uncertain.

Fitzherbert’s general style is plain, simple, and direct, and he
evidently has the welfare of his reader at heart, to whom he offers
kindly advice in a manner least calculated to give offence. He is
in general grave and practical, but there are a few touches of
quiet humour in his remarks upon horse-dealing. “Howe be it I saye
to my customers, and those that bye any horses of me, and [_if_]
euer they wil trust any hors-master or corser whyle they lyue,
truste me.” I would have trusted him implicitly.

The difficulties of his language arise almost entirely from the
presence of numerous technical terms; and it is, indeed, this fact
that renders his book one of considerable philological interest,
and adapts it for publication by the English Dialect Society. By
way of a small contribution to English etymology, I beg leave to
take a single instance, and to consider what he has to tell us
about the word _peruse_.

The whole difficulty as to the etymology of this word arises
from the change of sense; it is now used in such a way that
the derivation from _per-_ and _use_ is not obvious; nor does
it commend itself to such as are unacquainted with historical
method. For this reason, some etymologists, including Webster,
have imagined that it arose from _peruise_ = _pervise_ to see
thoroughly, the _i_ being dropped, and the _u_ (really _v_) being
mistaken for the vowel. This is one of those wholly unscrupulous
fictions to which but too many incline, as if the cause of truth
could ever be helped forward by means of deliberate invention. But
there is no such word as _peruise_, nor any French _perviser_.
Fitzherbert is one of the earliest authorities for _peruse_, though
it also occurs in Skelton, Philip Sparrow, l. 814. Investigation
will show that, at the commencement of the sixteenth century, there
was a fashion of using words compounded with _per-_, a number of
which I have given in my Dictionary, s. v. _peruse_. The old sense
was ‘to use up, to go through thoroughly, to attend to one by one;’
and the word was sometimes spelt with a _v_, because _vse_ (_use_)
was generally so spelt. Examples are:--

“Let hym [i.e. the husbandman who wants to reckon the tithe of his
corn] goo to the ende of his lande, and begynne and tell [i.e.
count] .ix. sheues, and let hym caste out the .x. shefe in the
name of god, and so to _pervse_ from lande to lande, tyll he have
trewely tythed all his corne;” sect. 30, l. 4.

“And thus [let the shepherd] _peruse_ them all tyll he haue doone;”
sect. 40, l. 23.

“Than [let the surveyor who is surveying property go] to the second
howse on the same east side in lyke maner, and so to _peruse_
from house to house tyll he come to St. Magnus churche;” Book of
Surveying (1767), chap. xix.

“Begyn to plowe a forowe in the middes of the side of the land, and
cast it downe as yf thou shulde falowe it, and so _peruse_ both
sydes tyl the rygge be cast down,” etc.; Book of Surveying (1767);
chap. xxiv.

The special application to a book may be seen in Baret’s Alvearie:
“To ouerlooke and _peruse_ a booke againe, _Retractare librum_.”
And accordingly it need not surprise us that Levins, in 1570,
translated _to peruse_ by _peruti_.

There is just one more suggestion which I venture to make, though
I fear, like most conjectures which are made with respect to
Shakespeare, it is probably valueless. When King Lear appears, in
Act iv. sc. 4--

      “Crowned with rank fumiter and furrow-weeds,
      With _hor-docks_, hemlock, nettles, cuckoo-flowers,
      Darnel, and _all the idle weeds that grow
      In our sustaining corn_”--

I cannot help being reminded of Fitzherbert’s list of weeds in
sect. 20 (p. 29), in which he includes _haudoddes_, _i.e._ corn
blue-bottles, as is obvious from his description; see also Britten
and Holland’s English Plant-names. It is certainly remarkable that
the _haudod_ is precisely one of “the idle weeds that grow in
corn,” and that its bright colour would be particularly attractive
to the gatherer of a wild garland. We must not, however, overlook
the form _hardhake_, which Mr. Wright has found in a MS. herbal as
a name for the knapweed; see his note upon the passage. The two
results do not, however, greatly differ, and it is conceivable
that the same name could be applied at different times to _both_
these flowers, the latter being _Centaurea nigra_, and the former
_Centaurea Cyanus_. We also find the term _hardewes_, occurring as
a name for the wild succory; see _Hawdod_ in the Glossarial Index,
p. 156. In any case, the proposal of Dr. Prior to explain _hordock_
by the burdock (_Arctium lappa_), merely because he thinks the
burs were sometimes entangled with flax, and so formed lumps in it
called _hards_, is a wild guess that should be rejected. _Hards_
are simply the coarse parts of flax, without any reference to
burdocks whatever.

The wood-cut on the title-page is copied from the edition of 1598.
The longer handle of the plough is on the left. See the description
on p. 128.


[1] “And [I give] to euery of my seruentes that be used to Ryde
with me,” etc.; Sir A. Fitzherbert’s Will, quoted below at p. xviii.

[2] “Of late by experience I contriued, compyled, and made a
Treatyse, ... and callyd it the booke of husbandrye;” Prol. to Book
of Surveying.

[3] _I.e._ the Books on Husbandry and Surveying.

[4] Read _thus_.

[5] The date is 1539; the words here quoted appear also in
Berthelet’s edition of 1546.

[6] I am quoting from an article by Mr. A. Wallis entitled “Relics
of Literature,” which appeared in the _Derby Mercury_, Nov.
1869. It contains some useful information about the editions of
Fitzherbert’s works. It should be observed that 1538 was the very
year of Sir Anthony Fitzherbert’s death, which took place on May 27.

[7] In an edition printed by T. Petit in 1541, a copy of which is
in the Cambridge University Library, the title is--“The Newe Booke
of Justyces of Peas, made by Anthony Fitzherbard Judge, lately
tra_n_slated out of Frenche into Englyshe, The yere of our Lord God

[8] Canon Simmons kindly tells me--“I find from the Ordnance Map
that Grimbald Bridge is the one over the Nidd below the town,
_i.e._ a mile or a mile and a quarter from the town. There are two
crossing to the town. The upper one is on the Harrogate Road, a
second ‘Low Bridge,’ and then the third, ‘Grimbald bridge’.”

[9] It is the family tradition (which should go for something),
that the author of the Book of Husbandry was Sir Anthony
Fitzherbert, and no other.

[10] The date is, therefore, October 12, 1537.--W.W.S.

[11] See p. 81.--W.W.S.

[12] See p. 93.--W.W.S.

[13] This early edition, clearly the _second_, and using Pynson’s
woodcut, was kindly pointed out to me by Mr. Bradshaw. It is not
noticed in the usual books upon early printing, but a copy of
it exists in the Cambridge University Library. The woodcut on
the title-page is (as I have just said) the same as that on the
title-page of the first edition.

[14] Probably printed in 1531, as it professes to be “amended, with
dyuerse other thynges added thervnto;” for observe, that after this
date, editions follow in quick succession.

[15] Mr. Wallis (see p. xiii, note 2) mentions also an undated
edition, printed by _James Roberts_ for E. White.

[16] The volume also contains a translation of Xenophon’s Treatise
of Household (Λόγος οἰκονομικός), written by “Gentian Heruet.”

[17] The colophon is the same. The Book on Surveying is dated 1539.
The copy in the Cambridge Univ. Library contains the Husbandry
(1534); Surveying (1539); and Xenophon (1537); all bound together.

[18] Possibly James Roberts; see p. xxiv, note 1.


  In the first side-note on p. 18, _for_ Beating _read_ Beeting.
  See _Beate_ in the Glossary, p. 150.

  P. 120, sect. 169, l. 36. For _a ut_ read _aut_.

  P. 136. Headline. For _Notes_ (=34.= 1-=43=) read _Notes_ (=34.=

  P. 140, last line. For _Hellebor_ read _Hellybor_.


  ==> The aucthors prologue.

      [Sidenote: Man is born to labour.]
  _Sit ista questio._ This is the questyon, whervnto is
  euerye manne ordeyned? And as Job saythe, _Homo
  nascitur ad laborem, sicut auis ad volandum_: That is
  to saye, a man is ordeyned and borne to do labour, as                4
  a bird is ordeyned to flye. And the Apostle saythe,
  _Qui non laborat, non manducet: Debet enim in obsequio dei
  laborare, qui de bonis eius vult manducare_: That is to saye,
      [Sidenote: He that laboureth not should not eat.]
  he that laboureth not, shulde not eate, and he ought to              8
  labour and doo goddes warke, that wyll eate of his goodes
  or gyftes. The whiche is an harde texte after the lyterall
  sence. For by the letter, the kynge, the quene, nor all
  other lordes spirituall and temporal shuld not eate, without        12
  they shuld labour, the whiche were vncomely, and
  not conuenyente for suche estates to labour. But who
      [Sidenote: The Book of the Chess]
  that redeth in the boke of the moralytes of the chesse,
  shal therby perceyue, that euerye man, from the hyest               16
      [Sidenote: is divided into six degrees,]
  degree to the lowest, is set and ordeyned to haue labour
  and occupation; and that boke is deuyded in vi. degrees,
  that is to saye, the kynge, the quene, the byshops, the
      [Sidenote: viz. king, queen, bishops, knights, judges,
       and yeomen,]
  knightes, the iudges, and the yomenne. In the which                 20
  boke is shewed theyr degrees, theyr auctorytyes, theyr
  warkes, and theyr occupations, and what they ought to
  do. And they so doynge, and executynge theyr auctorytyes,
  warkes, and occupatyons, haue a wonders great                       24
      [Sidenote: concerning which it is too long to write.]
  study and labour, of the whiche auctorytyes, occupations,
  and warkes, were at this tyme to longe to wryte.
  Wherfore I remytte that boke as myn auctour therof:
  The whiche boke were necessary to be knowen of euery                28
  degree, that they myghte doo and ordre them selfe accordynge
      [Sidenote: As the yeomen defend the rest, I shall speak
       of husbandry.]
  to the same. And in so moche the yomen in
  the sayde moralytyes and game of the chesse be set
  before to labour, defende, and maynteyne all the other              32
  hyer estates, the whiche yomen represent the common
  people, as husbandes and labourers, therfore I purpose
  to speake fyrste of husbandrye.


  ¶ The table.


  =1.= First wherby husbande-men do lyue. fo. i.[19]                   9

  =2.= Of dyuers maner of plowes. fol. eod.                            9

  =3.= To knowe the names of all the partes of the ploughe. fol. ii.  10

  =4.= The temprynge of plowes. fo. iii.                              12

  =5.= ¶ The necessary thynges that belonge to a plowe, carte, or
       wayne. fol. iiii.                                              14

  =6.= ¶ Whether is better, a plowe of oxen or a plowe of horses.
       fol. v.                                                        15

  =7.= ¶ The dylygence and the attendaunce that a husbande shulde
       gyue to his warke, in maner of an other prologue, and a
       specyall grounde of all this treatyse. fol. vi.                16

  =8.= ¶ Howe a manne shulde plowe all maner of landes all tymes of
       the yere. fo. vii.                                             17

  =9.= To plowe for pees and beanes. fol. viii.                       18

  =10.= Howe to sowe bothe pees and beanes. fol. viii.                18

  =11.= Sede of Discrecyon. fol. ix.                                  20

  =12.= Howe all maner of corne shulde be sowen. folio eodem          21

  =13.= To sowe barley. fol. x.                                       22

  =14.= To sowe otes. fol. xi.                                        23

  =15.= To harowe all maner of cornes. fol. xii.                      24

  =16.= To falowe. fol. xiii.                                         25

  =17.= To carry out donge or mucke, and to sprede it. fol. xiiii.    27

  =18.= To set out the shepe-folde. fol. xv.                          28

  =19.= To cary wode and other necessaries. fol. xvi.                 29

  =20.= To knowe dyuers maner of wedes. fol. eod.                     29

  =21.= To wede corne. fol. xvii.                                     31

  =22.= The fyrste sturrynge: and (=23=) to mowe grasse. foli.
        xviii.                                                        32

  =24.= How forkes and rakes shuld be made. fo. xix.                  33

  =25.= To tedde and make hey. fol. eod.                              33

  =26.= Howe rye shulde be shorne. fol. xx.                           35

  =27.= Howe to shere whete. fol. xxi.                                35

  =28.= To mowe or shere barley and otes. fol. eod.                   36

  =29.= To repe or mowe pees and beanes. fol. xxii.                   36

  =30.= Howe all maner of corne shoulde be tythed. folio eodem        37

  =31.= Howe all maner of corne shoulde be couered. fol. xxiii.       38

  =32.= To lode corne and mowe it. fol. eod.                          38

  =33.= The seconde sturrynge. fo. xxiiii.                            39

  =34.= To sowe whete and rye. fol. eodem                             39

  =35.= To thresshe and wynowe corne. fol. xxv.                       41

  =36.= To seuer beanes, pees, and fetches. fol. eod.                 41

  =37.= Of shepe, and what tyme of the yere the rammes shulde be
        put to the ewes. fol. xxvi.                                   42

  =38.= To make a ewe to loue her lambe. fol. xxvii.                  43

  =39.= What tyme lambes shulde be wayned. fo. eod.                   44

  =40.= To drawe shepe and seuer them in dyuerse partes. fol.
        xxviii.                                                       44

  =41.= To belte shepe. fol. xxix.                                    45

  =42.= To grece shepe. fol. eod.                                     46

  =43.= To medle terre. fol. eodem                                    46

  =44.= To make brome salue. fol. eod.                                46

  =45.= If a shepe haue mathes. fol. xxx.                             47

  =46.= Blyndenes of shepe and other dyseases, and remedyes
        therfore. fo. eod.                                            47

  =47.= The worme in a shepes fote, and helpe therfore. fol. xxxi.    48

  =48.= The bloudde, and remedye if he comme betyme. fol. eodem       48

  =49.= The pockes, and remedy therfore. fol. eod.                    49

  =50.= The wode euyl, and remedy therfore. fol. xxxii.               49

  =51.= To washe shepe. fol. eod.                                     49

  =52.= To shere shepe. fol. eod.                                     50

  =53.= To drawe and seuer the bad shepe frome the good. fol. eod.    50

  =54.= What thynge rotteth shepe. fol. xxxiii.                       50

  =55.= To knowe a rotten shepe dyuerse maner ways, wherof some of
        them wyll not fayle. fol. xxxiiii.                            51

  =56.= To by leane cattell. fol. eod.                                52

  =57.= To bye fatte cattell. fol. xxxv.                              53

  =58.= Dyuerse sickenesses of cattell, and remedies therfore, and
        fyrste of murren. fol. eod.                                   53

  =59.= Long sought, and remedy therfore. fo. xxxvi.                  54

  =60.= Dewbolue,[20] and the harde remedye therfore. fol. eod.       55

  =61.= Ryson vppon, and the remedye therfore. fol. xxxvii.           55

  =62.= The turne, and remedy therfore. fol. eod.                     56

  =63.= The warribred, & remedy therfore. fol. xxxviii.               56

  =64.= The foule, and remedy therfore. fol. eod.                     57

  =65.= The goute without remedy. fol. eod.                           57

  =66.= To rere calues. fol. eod.                                     57

  =67.= To gelde calues. fol. xxxix.                                  58

  =68.= Horses and mares to drawe. fol. xl.                           59

  =69.= ¶ The losse of a lambe, a calfe, or a foole. fol. xli.        61

  =70.= What cattell shulde go together in oone pasture. fol. xlii.   62

  =71.= The properties of horses. fol. xliii.                         63

  =72.= The two propertyes that a horse hath of a man. fol. eod.      63

  =73.= The ii. propertyes of a bauson. fol. eod.                     64

  =74.= The iiii. properties of a lyon. fol. eod.                     64

  =75.= The ix. properties of an oxe. fol. xliiii.                    64

  =76.= The ix. properties of an hare. fol. eod.                      64

  =77.= The ix. properties of a foxe. fol. eod.                       64

  =78.= The ix. properties of an asse. fol. eod.                      65

  =79.= The x. properties of a woman. fol. eod.                       65

  =80.= The diseases and soraunce of horses. fol. xlv.                65

  =81.= The lampas. fol. eod.                                         65

  =82.= The barbes. fo. eod.                                          66

  =83.= Mournynge on the tonge. fol. eod.                             66

  =84.= Pursye. fo. eod.                                              66

  =85.= Broken wynded. fol. eod.                                      66

  =86.= Glaunders. fo. eod.                                           66

  =87.= Mournynge on the chynne. fol. eod.                            66

  =88.= Stranguelyon. fol. eod.                                       67

  =89.= The hawe.     fol. eod.                                       67

  =90.= Blyndnesse.   fol. xlvi.                                      67

  =91.= Uyues.        fol. eod.                                       67

  =92.= The cordes.   fol. eod.                                       67

  =93.= ¶ The farcyon. fol. eod.                                      67

  =94.= ¶ A malander. fol. eod.                                       68

  =95.= ¶ A salander. fol. eod.                                       68

  =96.= ¶ A serewe. fol. eod.                                         68

  =97.= ¶ A splent. fo. eod.                                          68

  =98.= ¶ A ryngebone. fol. xlvii.                                    69

  =99.= ¶ Wyndgall. fol. eod.                                         69

  =100.= ¶ Morfounde. fol. eod.                                       69

  =101.= ¶ The coltes euyll. fol. eod.                                69

  =102.= ¶ The bottes. fo. eod.                                       70

  =103.= ¶ The wormes. fol. eod.                                      70

  =104.= ¶ Affrayd.           fo. eod.                                70

  =105.= ¶ Nauylgall.         fo. eod.                                70

  =106.= ¶ A spauen.          fol. eod.                               70

  =107.= ¶ A curbe.           fol. eod.                               71

  =108.= ¶ The strynge-halte. fol. eod.                               71

  =109.= ¶ Enterfyre.         fo. eod.                                71

  =110.= ¶ Myllettes.         fol. eod.                               71

  =111.= ¶ The paynes.        fol. eod.                               71

  =112.= ¶ Cratches.          fol. eod.                               72

  =113.= ¶ Attaynt.           fol. xlix.                              72

  =114.= ¶ Grauelynge.        fol. eod.                               72

  =115.= ¶ Acloyd.            fol. eod.                               72

  =116.= ¶ The scabbe.        fol. eod.                               72

  =117.= ¶ Lowsy.             fol. eod.                               72

  =118.= ¶ Wartes.            fol. eod.                               73

  =119.= ¶ The sayenge of the frenche man. fo. eod.                   73

  =120.= ¶ The dyuersitie bytwene a horse mayster, a corser, and a
         horse leche. fol. l.                                         74

  =121.= ¶ Of swyne. fo. eod.                                         74

  =122.= ¶ Of bees.  fol. li.                                         75

  =123.= ¶ How to kepe beastes & other catel. fol. lii.               76

  =124.= ¶ To get settes and set them. fol. liii.                     78

  =125.= ¶ To make a dyche. fol. liiii.                               79

  =126.= ¶ To make a hedge. fol. eod.                                 79

  =127.= ¶ To plasshe and pleche a hedge. fol. eod.                   80

  =128.= ¶ To mende a hye waye. fo. lv.                               81

  =129.= ¶ To remoue and sette trees. fo. lvi.                        82

  =130.= ¶ Trees to be sette without rootes and growe. fol. lvii.     83

  =131.= ¶ To fell woode for houssholde or to sell. fol. eodem.       83

  =132.= ¶ To shrede, lop, or crop trees. fol. lviii.                 84

  =133.= Howe a man shoulde shrede loppe or croppe trees. fol. eod.   85

  =134.= To sell woode or tymbre. fol. lix.                           85

  =135.= To kepe sprynge woode. fo. lx.                               86

  =136.= Necessary thynges belongynge to graffynge. fol. eod.         87

  =137.= What fruyte shulde be first graffed. fol. lxi.               88

  =138.= Howe to graffe. fol. eod.                                    88

  =139.= To graffe bytwene the barke and the tree. fol. lxii.         89

  =140.= To nourysshe all maner of stone fruyte and nuttes. fol.
         lxiii.                                                       90

  =141.= A shorte information for a yonge gentyllman that entendeth
         to thryue. fol. eod.                                         90

  =142.= A lesson made in Englysshe verses, that a gentylmans
         seruaunte shall forget none of his gere in his inne
         behynde hym. fo. lxv.                                        93

  =143.= A prologe for the wyues occupation. fo. eod.                 93

  =144.= A lesson for the wyfe. fol. eod.                             94

  =145.= What thynges the wyfe of ryghte is bounde to do. fol. lxvi.  94

  =146.= What warkes the wyfe oughte to doo generally. fo. eod.       95

  =147.= To kepe measure in spendynge. fo. lxvii.                     98

  =148.= To eate within thy tedure. fo. lxviii.                       99

  =149.= A shorte lesson vnto the husbande. fol. lxix.               101

  =150.= Howe menne of hye degree do kepe measure. fol. eodem        101

  =151.= Prodygalytie in outragyous and costelye araye. fol. lxx.    102

  =152.= Of delycyous meates and drynkes. fol. eod.                  103

  =153.= Of outragious playe and game. fo. lxxi.                     104

  =154.= A prologue of the thyrde sayinge of the philosopher. fo.
         lxxii.                                                      105

  =155.= A dyuersytie bytwene predycation and doctryne. fol. eodem   105

  =156.= What is rychesse. fo. lxxiii.                               106

  =157.= What is the propertie of a rych man. fo. lxxiiii.           108

  =158.= What ioyes & pleasures are in heuen. fo. lxxv.              109

  =159.= What thynge pleaseth god most. fol. lxxvi.                  109

  =160.= What be goddes commaundementes. fo. eod.                    110

  =161.= Howe a man shulde loue god and please hym. fol. eodem       110

  =162.= Howe a man shoulde loue his neyghbour. fol. lxxvii.         111

  =163.= Of prayer that pleaseth god verye moche. folio lxxviii.     112

  =164.= What thynge letteth prayer. fol. eod.                       112

  =165.= Howe a man shulde praye. fo. lxxix.                         113

  =166.= A mean to put away ydle thoughtes in prayenge. fol. lxxx.   115

  =167.= A meane to auoyde temptation. fol. lxxxi.                   116

  =168.= Almes-dedes pleaseth god moche. fo. lxxxii.                 118

  =169.= The fyrst maner of almes dede. fo. lxxxiii.                 119

  =170.= The ii. maner of almes dede. fo. lxxxiiii.                  120

  =171.= The iii. maner of almes dede. fol. lxxxv.                   121

  =172.= What is the greattest offence that a man maye doo and
         offende god in. fo. lxxxvi.                                 122

  Thus endeth the table.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 1.]]
  1. ¶ Here begynneth the boke of husbandry, and fyrste
  where-by husbande-men do lyue.

      [Sidenote: Husbandmen live by the plough and by cattle.]
  The mooste generall lyuynge that husbandes can haue,
  is by plowynge and sowyng of theyr cornes, and rerynge
  or bredynge of theyr cattel, and not the one withoute
  the other. Than is the ploughe the moste necessaryest              4
  instrumente that an husbande can occupy. Wherfore
  it is conuenyent to be knowen, howe a plough shulde
  be made.

  2. ¶ Dyuers maners of plowes.

      [Sidenote: Different kinds of ploughs.]
  There be plowes of dyuers makynges in dyuers
  countreys, and in lyke wyse there be plowes of yren
  of dyuers facyons. And that is bycause there be many
  maner of groundes and soyles. Some whyte cley, some                4
  redde cley, some grauell or chylturne, some sande, some
  meane erthe, some medled with marle, and in many
  places heeth-grounde, and one ploughe wyll not serue
  in all places. Wherfore it is necessarye, to haue dyuers           8
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 1_b_.]]
      [Sidenote: Somersetshire.]
  maners of plowes. In Sommersetshyre, about Zelcester,
  the sharbeame, that in many places is called the ploughe-hedde,
  is foure or fyue foote longe, and it is brode and
  thynne. And that is bycause the lande is verye toughe,            12
  and wolde soke the ploughe into the erthe, yf the sharbeame
      [Sidenote: Kent.]
  were not long, brode, and thynne. In Kente
  they haue other maner of plowes, somme goo with
  wheles, as they doo in many other places, and some wyll           16
  tourne the sheldbredth at euery landes ende, and plowe
      [Sidenote: Buckinghamshire.]
  all one waye. In Buckynghamshyre, are plowes made
  of an nother maner, and also other maner of ploughe-yrons,
  the whyche me semeth generally good, and lykely                   20
  to serue in many places, and specially if the ploughbeame
  and sharbeame be foure ynches longer, betwene the
  shethe and the ploughe-tayle, that the sheldbrede myght
  come more a-slope: for those plowes gyue out to sodeinly,         24
  and therfore they be the worse to drawe, and for noo
      [Sidenote: Leicestershire, &c.]
  cause elles. In Leycestershyre, Lankesshyre, Yorkeshyre,
  Lyncoln, Norfolke, Cambrydge-shyre, and manye other
  countreyes, the plowes be of dyuers makinges, the whyche          28
  were to longe processe to declare howe, &c. But how
  so euer they be made, yf they be well tempered, and
  goo well, they maye be the better suffred.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 2.]]
  3. ¶ To knowe the names of all the partes of the plowe.

      [Sidenote: Parts of the plough.]
  Men that be no husbandes maye fortune to rede this
  boke, that knowe not whiche is the ploughe-beame, the
  sharebeame, the ploughe-shethe, the ploughe-tayle, the
  stilte, the rest, the sheldbrede, the fenbrede, the roughe         4
  staues, the ploughe-fote, the ploughe-eare or coke, the
  share, the culture, and ploughe-mal. Perauenture I gyue
  them these names here, as is vsed in my countre, and yet
  in other countreyes they haue other names: wherfore ye             8
      [Sidenote: Plough-beam.]
  shall knowe, that the ploughe-beame is the longe tree
      [Sidenote: Share-beam.]
  aboue, the whiche is a lytel bente. The sharbeame is the
      [Sidenote: Plough-sheath.]
  tre vnderneth, where-vpon the share is set; the ploughe-sheth
  1is a thyn pece of drye woode, made of oke, that is               12
  set fast in a morteys in the plough-beame, and also in to
  the share-beame, the whiche is the keye and the chiefe
      [Sidenote: Plough-tail.]
  bande of all the plough. The plough-tayle is that the
  husbande holdeth in his hande, and the hynder ende of             16
  the ploughebeame is put in a longe slyt, made in the same
  tayle, and not set faste, but it maye ryse vp and go
  dow[n]e, and is pynned behynde, and the same ploughe-tayle
  is set faste in a morteys, in the hynder ende of the              20
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 2_b_.]]
      [Sidenote: Plough-stilt.]
  sharebeame. The plough-stylte is on the ryghte syde of
      [Sidenote: Rest.]
  the ploughe, whervpon the rest is set; the rest is a lyttell
  pece of woode, pynned fast vpon the nether ende of the
  stylt, and to the sharebeame in the ferther ende. The             24
      [Sidenote: Shield-board.]
  sheldbrede is a brode pece of wodde, fast pinned to the
  ryghte side of the shethe in the ferther ende, and to the
      [Sidenote: Fen-board.]
  vtter syde of the stylte in the hynder ende. The fenbrede
  is a thyn borde, pynned or nayled moste commonly                  28
  to the lyft syde of the shethe in the ferther ende, and to
  the ploughe-tayle in the hynder ende. And the sayde
  sheldbrede wolde come ouer the sayde shethe and fenbrede
  an inche, and to come past the myddes of the                      32
  share, made with a sharpe edge, to receyue and turne the
      [Sidenote: Rough staves.]
  erthe whan the culture hath cut it. There be two roughe
  staues in euery ploughe in the hynder ende, set a-slope
  betwene the ploughe-tayle and the stilt, to holde out             36
  and kepe the plough abrode in the hynder ende, and the
      [Sidenote: Plough-foot.]
  one lenger than the other. The plough-fote is a lyttell
  pece of wodde, with a croked ende set before in a morteys
  in the ploughe-beame, sette fast with wedges, to                  40
  dryue vppe and downe, and it is a staye to order of
      [Sidenote: Plough-ear.]
  what depenes the ploughe shall go. The ploughe-eare
  is made of thre peces of yren, nayled faste vnto the ryght
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 3.]]
  syde of the plough-beame. And poore men haue a                    44
  croked pece of wode pynned faste to the ploughbeame.
      [Sidenote: Share.]
  The share is a pece of yren, sharpe before and brode
  behynde, a fote longe, made with a socket to be set on
      [Sidenote: Coulter.]
  the ferther ende of the share-beame. The culture is a             48
  bende pece of yren sette in a morteys in the myddes of
  the plough-beame, fastened with wedges on euery syde,
  and the backe therof is halfe an inche thycke and more,
  and three inches brode, and made kene before to cutte             52
  the erthe clene, and it must be wel steeled, and that
  shall cause the easyer draughte, and the yrens to laste
      [Sidenote: Plough-mall.]
  moche lenger. The plough-mal[21] is a pece of harde
  woode, with a pynne put throughe, set in the plough-beame,        56
  in an augurs bore.

  4. ¶ The temprynge of plowes.

      [Sidenote: Tempering of ploughs.]
  Nowe the plowes be made of dyuers maners; it is necessarye
  for an housbande, to knowe howe these plowes
  shulde be tempered, to plowe and turne clene, and to
      [Sidenote: Rest-baulk.]
  make no reste-balkes. A reste-balke is where the plough            4
  byteth at the poynte of the culture and share, and cutteth
  not the ground cleane to the forowe, that was plowed laste
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 3_b_.]]
  before, but leaueth a lyttell rydge standynge betwene,
  the whiche dothe brede thistyls, and other wedes. All              8
  these maner of plowes shulde haue all lyke one maner
  of temperyng in the yrens. Howe-be-it a man maye
  temper for one thynge in two or thre places, as for
  depnes. The fote is one: the setting of the culture of            12
  a depnes, is a-nother: and the thyrde is at the ploughe-tayle,
      [Sidenote: Slot wedges.]
  where be two wedges, that be called slote-wedges:
  the one is in the slote above the beame, the other in
  the saide slote, vnder the plough-beame; and other whyle          16
  he wyll set bothe aboue, or bothe vndernethe, but alway
  let hym take good hede, and kepe one generall rule, that
  the hynder ende of the sharebeme alway touche the erthe,
  that it may kyll a worde,[22] or elles it goth not truly. The     20
      [Sidenote: Narrow and broad tempering.]
  temperynge to go brode and narowe is in the settyng of
  the culture: and with the dryuinge of his syde-wedges,
  forewedge, and helewedge, whiche wolde be made of
      [Sidenote: Setting on of the share.]
  drye woode, and also the settynge on of his share helpeth         24
  well, and is a connynge poynte of husbandry, and
  mendeth and payreth moch plowyng: but it is so narowe
  a point to know, that it is harde to make a man to vnderstande
  it by wrytynge, without he were at the operation                  28
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 4.]]
  therof, to teache the practyue: for it muste leane moche
  in-to the forowe, and the poynt may not stande to moch
  vp nor downe, nor to moche in-to the lande, nor in-to
      [Sidenote: Setting of the coulter.]
  the forowe. Howe-be-it, the settynge of the culture               32
  helpeth moche. Somme plowes haue a bende of yron
  tryanglewise, sette there as the plough-eare shulde be,
  that hath thre nyckes on the farther syde. And yf he
      [Sidenote: Seed-furrow.]
  wyll haue his plough to go a narowe forowe, as a sede-forowe      36
  shulde be, than he setteth his fote-teame in the
      [Sidenote: Mean furrow.]
  nycke nexte to the ploughe-beame; and yf he wyll go
  a meane bredth, he setteth it in the myddell nycke,
      [Sidenote: Broad furrow.]
  that is beste for sturrynge; and if he wolde go a brode           40
  forowe, he setteth it in the vttermoste nycke, that is beste
  for falowynge: The whyche is a good waye to kepe the
  bredthe, and soone tempered, but it serueth not the
  depenesse. And some men haue in stede of the plough-fote,         44
  a piece of yron set vpryghte in the farther ende
      [Sidenote: ‘A coke.’]
  of the ploughe-beame, and they calle it a coke, made
  with ii. or thre nyckes, and that serueth for depenes.
      [Sidenote: Wheel-ploughs.]
  The plowes that goo with wheles, haue a streyghte                 48
  beame, and maye be tempred in the yron, as the other be,
  for the bredth; but their most speciall temper is at the
  bolster, where-as the plough-beame lyeth, and that
  serueth both for depnes and for bredth. And they be               52
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 4_b_.]]
  good on euen grounde that lyeth lyghte, but me semeth
  they be farre more costly than the other plowes. And
  thoughe these plowes be well tempred for one maner
  grounde, that tempre wyll not serue in an other maner             56
  of grounde; but it muste reste in the dyscretion of the
  housbande, to knowe whanne it gothe well.

  5. ¶ The necessary thynges that belonge to a ploughe,
  carte, and wayne.

      [Sidenote: Bows, yokes, &c.]
  Bvt or he begyn to plowe, he muste haue his ploughe
  and his ploughe-yren, his oxen or horses, and the geare
  that belongeth to them; that is to say, bowes, yokes,
  landes, stylkynges, wrethynge-temes. And or he shall               4
  lode his corne, he muste haue a wayne, a copyoke, a
  payre of sleues, a wayne-rope, and a pykforke. This
      [Sidenote: The wain.]
  wayne is made of dyuers peces, that wyll haue a greate
  reparation, that is to saye, the wheles, and those be made         8
  of nathes, spokes, fellyes, and dowles, and they muste
  be well fettred with wood or yren. And if they be yren
  bounden, they are moche the better, and thoughe they
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 5.]]
  be the derer at the fyrst, yet at lengthe they be better          12
      [Sidenote: Iron-bound wheels.]
  cheape; for a payre of wheles yren bounde wyl weare vii.
  or viii. payre of other wheles, and they go rounde and
  lyght after oxen or horses to draw. Howbeit on marreis
  ground and soft ground the other wheles be better,                16
  bycause they be broder on the soule, and will not go so
      [Sidenote: Axle-tree, linch-pins, and axle-pins.]
  depe. They must haue an axiltre, clout with .viii.
  waincloutes of yren, ii. lyn-pinnes of yren in the axiltre-endes,
  ii. axil-pynnes of yren or els of tough harde                     20
  wodde. The bodye of the wayne of oke, the staues, the
  nether rathes, the ouer rathes, the crosse somer, the keys
  and pikstaues. And if he go with a hors-ploughe, than
  muste he haue his horses or mares, or both his hombers or         24
  collers, holmes whyted, tresses, swyngletrees, and togwith.
      [Sidenote: The cart.]
  Alsoo a carte made of asshe, bycause it is lyghte, and
  lyke stuffe to it as is to a wayne, and also a cart-sadel,
  bakbandes, and belybandes, and a carte-ladder behinde,            28
  whan he shall carye eyther corne or kyddes, or suche
      [Sidenote: Cart-ladders.]
  other. And in many countreys theyr waynes haue carte-ladders
  bothe behynde and before. Also an husbande
      [Sidenote: Axe, hatchet, &c.]
  muste haue an axe, a hachet, a hedgyngebyll, a pyn-awgur,         32
  a rest-awgur, a flayle, a spade, and a shouell. And howe-be-it
  that I gyue theym these names, as is most comonly
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 5_b_.]]
  vsed in my contrey, I knowe they haue other names in
  other contreyes. But hereby a manne maye perceyue                 36
      [Sidenote: Expense of husbandry.]
  many thynges that belonge to husbandry, to theyr greate
  costes and charges, for the mayntenance and vpholdyng
  of the same. And many moo thynges are belongynge to
  husbandes than these, as ye shall well perceyue, er I             40
  haue made an ende of this treatyse. And if a yonge
  husbande shulde bye all these thynges, it wolde be
      [Sidenote: It is better to make than buy.]
  costely for hym: wherfore it is necessarye for hym to
  lerne to make his yokes, oxe-bowes, stooles, and all              44
  maner of plough-geare.

  6. ¶ Whether is better, a plough of horses or a plough of

      [Sidenote: Ox-plough and horse-plough.]
  It is to be knowen, whether is better, a plough of
  horses, or a plough of oxen, and therin me semeth
  oughte to be made a distinction. For in some places an
  oxe-ploughe is better than a horse-plough, and in somme            4
  places a horse-ploughe is better: that is to say, in euery
  place where-as the husband hath seueral pastures to put
  his oxen in whan they come fro theyr warke, there the oxe-ploughe
      [Sidenote: The ox.]
  is better. For an oxe maye nat endure his                          8
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 6.]]
  warke, to labour all daye, and than to be put to the
  commons, or before the herdman, and to be set in a folde
  all nyghte without meate, and go to his labour in
  the mornynge. But and he be put in a good pasture all             12
  nyghte, he wyll labour moche of all the daye dayely.

  And oxen wyl plowe in tough cley, and vpon hylly
  grounde, where-as horses wyll stande st[i]ll. And where-as
      [Sidenote: The horse.]
  is noo seuerall pastures, there the horse-plowe is better,        16
  for the horses may be teddered or tyed vpon leys, balkes,
  or hades, where as oxen maye not be kept: and it is not
  vsed to tedder them, but in fewe places.

  And horses wyl goo faster than oxen on euen grounde               20
  or lyght grounde, & be quicker for cariage: but they be
  ferre more costly to kepe in winter, for they must haue both
  hey and corne to eate, and strawe for lytter; they must
  be well shodde on all foure fete, and the gere that they          24
  shal drawe with is more costely than for the oxen, and
      [Sidenote: Oxen are cheap,]
  shorter whyle it wyll last. And oxen wyll eate but straw,
  and a lyttell hey, the whiche is not halfe the coste that
  horsis must haue, and they haue no shoes, as horses haue.         28
  And if any sorance come to the horse, or [he] waxe olde,
  broysed, or blynde, than he is lyttell worthe. And if any
  sorance come to an oxe, [and he] waxe olde, broysed, or
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 6_b_.]]
  blinde, for ii._s._ he maye be fedde, and thanne he is mannes     32
      [Sidenote: and they can be eaten.]
  meate, and as good or better than euer he was. And the
  horse, whan he dyethe, is but caryen. And therfore me
  semeth, all thynges consydered, the ploughe of oxen is
  moche more profytable than the ploughe of horses.                 36

  7. ¶ The dylygence and attendaunce that a husbande shulde
  gyue to his warke, in maner of an other prologue, and
  the speciall grounde of all this treatyse.

      [Sidenote: Take pains, keep measure, and be rich.]
  Thou husbande, that intendeste to gette thy lyuynge
  by husbandry, take hede to the sayenge of the wyse
  phylosopher, the which sayth, _Adhibe curam, tene mensuram,
  et eris diues_. That is to saye, Take hede to thy charge,          4
  kepe measure, and thou shalt be ryche. And nowe to
  speke of the fyrste artycle of these .iii. s[cilicet] _Adhibe
  curam_. He that wyll take vpon hym to do any thinge,
  and be slouthefull, recheles, and not diligent to execute          8
  and to performe that thynge that he taketh vpon hym,
  he shall neuer thryue by his occupation. And to the
  same entente saythe our lorde in his gospell, by a parable.
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 7.]]
  _Nemo mittens manum suam ad aratrum respiciens retro, aptus       12
      [Sidenote: Luke ix. 62.]
  est regno dei._ The spirytuall constructyon of this texte, I
  remytte to the doctours of dyuynitie, and to the greate
  clarkes; but to reduce and brynge the same texte to my
      [Sidenote: No man, putting his hand to the plough, &c.]
  purpose, I take it thus. There is noo man, puttynge his           16
  hande to the plough, lokyng backewarde, is worthy to
  haue that thynge that he oughte to haue. For if he
  goo to the ploughe, and loke backewarde, he seeth not
  whether the plough go in rydge or rayne, make a balke,            20
  or go ouerthwarte. And if it do so, there wyll be lyttell
      [Sidenote: Be not idle.]
  corne. And so if a man attende not his husbandrye, but
  goo to sporte or playe, tauerne or ale-house, or slepynge
  at home, and suche other ydle warkes, he is not than              24
      [Sidenote: Do what you came to do.]
  worthy to haue any corne. And therfore, _Fac quod venisti_,
  Do that thou comest fore, and thou shalte fynde that thou
  sekest fore, &c.

  8. ¶ Howe a man shulde plowe all maner of landes all tymes
  of the yere.

      [Sidenote: Times of the year.]
  Nowe these plowes be made and tempered, it is to
  be knowen howe a man shoulde plowe all tymes of
  the yere. In the begynnynge of the yere, after the
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 7_b_.]]
  feast of the Epiphany, it is tyme for a husbande to                4
      [Sidenote: Plough leas early.]
  go to the ploughe. And if thou haue any leys, to
  falowe or to sowe otes vpon, fyrste plowe them, that
  the grasse and the mosse may rotte, and plowe them
  a depe square forowe. And in all maner of plowynge,                8
  se that thy eye, thy hande, and thy fote do agree,
  and be alwaye redy one to serue a-nother, and to turne
      [Sidenote: Lay the mould flat.]
  vp moche molde, and to lay it flat, that it rere not
  on edge. For if it rere on edge, the grasse and mosse             12
  wyll not rotte. And if thou sowe it with winter-corne,
  as whete or ry, as moche corne as toucheth the mosse
  wyll be drowned, the mosse dothe kepe such wete in
  it self. And in some countreys, if a man plowe depe,              16
  he shall passe the good grounde, and haue but lyttel
  corne: but that countrey is not for men to kepe husbandry
  vppon, but for to rere and brede catell or shepe, for
      [Sidenote: Beeting land with mattocks.]
  elles they muste go beate theyr landes with mattockes,            20
  as they do in many places of Cornewayle, and in som
  places of Deuonshyre.

  9. ¶ To plowe for pease and beanes.

      [Sidenote: Peas and beans.]
  Howe to plowe for pees and beanes, were necessarye
  to knowe. Fyrst thou muste remember, whiche is
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 8.]]
  mooste cley-grounde, and that plowe fyrste, and lette
  it lye a good space, er thou sowe it: bycause the                  4
  froste, the rayne, the wynde, and the sonne may cause
  it to breake smalle, to make moche molde, and to
      [Sidenote: Plough a square furrow.]
  rygge it. And to plow a square forowe, the bredthe
  and the depenes all one, and to laye it close to his               8
  felow. For the more forowes, the more corne, for a
  generall rule of all maner of cornes. And that may
  be proued at the comynge vp of all maner of corne,
  to stande at the landes ende and loke toward the other            12
  ende; And than may ye se, howe the corne groweth.

  10. ==> Howe to sowe bothe pease and beanes.

      [Sidenote: Sowing of peas and beans.]
  Thou shalt sowe thy peas vpon the cley-grounde,
  and thy beanes vpon the barley-grounde: for they
  wolde haue ranker grounde than pease. How-be-it
  some husbandes holde opynion, that bigge and styffe                4
  grounde, as cley, wolde be sowen with bigge stuffe,
  as beanes; but me thynke the contrary. For if a dry
  sommer come, his beanes wil be shorte. And if the
  grounde be good, putte the more beanes to the pease,               8
  and the better shall they yelde, whan they be thresshed.
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 8_b_.]]
  And if it be very ranke grounde, as is moche at euery
  towne-syde, where catel doth resort, plowe not that
  lande, tyll ye wyll sowe it; for if ye do, there wyll             12
      [Sidenote: In rank ground sow beans.]
  come vppe kedlokes and other wedes. And than sowe
  it with beanes; for if ye sowe pees, the kedlokes wyll
  hurte them; and wha_n_ ye se seasonable time, sow
  both pees and beanes, so that they be sowen in the                16
  begynnynge of Marche. Howe shall ye knowe seasonable
      [Sidenote: If the land sing, it is too wet to sow.]
  tyme? go vppon the lande, that is plowed, and if it
  synge or crye, or make any noyse vnder thy fete, than
  it is to wete to sowe: and if it make no noyse, and               20
  wyll beare thy horses, thanne sowe in the name of god.
      [Sidenote: How to sow peas.]
  But howe to sowe? Put thy pees in-to thy hopper, and
  take a brode thonge, of ledder, or of garthe-webbe of
  an elle longe, and fasten it to bothe endes of the                24
  hopper, and put it ouer thy heed, lyke a leysshe; and
  stande in the myddes of the lande, where the sacke
  lyethe, the whiche is mooste conueniente for the fyllynge
  of thy hopper, and set thy lefte foote before, and take           28
  an handefull of pees: and whan thou takeste vp thy
  ryghte foote, than caste thy pees fro the all abrode; and
  whan thy lefte fote ryseth, take an other handeful, and
  whan the ryght fote ryseth, tha_n_ cast them fro the.             32
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 9.]]
  And so at euery ii. paces, thou shalte sowe an handful
  of pees: and so se that the fote and the hande
      [Sidenote: Cast them wide.]
  agree, and than ye shal sowe euen. And in your
  castynge, ye muste open as well your fyngers as your hande,       36
  and the hyer and farther that ye caste your corne, the
  better shall it sprede, excepte it be a greatte wynde.
  And if the lande be verye good, and wyll breke small
  in the plowynge, it is better to sowe after the ploughe           40
  thanne tarye any lenger.

  11. ¶ Sede of discretion.

      [Sidenote: Seed of Discretion.]
  There is a sede, that is called Discretio_n_, and if
  a husband haue of that sede, and myngle it amonge
  his other cornes, they wyll growe moche the better;
  for that sede wyll tell hym, how many castes of corne              4
  euery lande ought to haue. And a yonge husbande, and
  may fortune some olde husbande, hath not sufficyente
      [Sidenote: Borrow discretion, if you have it not.]
  of that sede: and he that lackethe, let hym borowe
  of his neyghbours that haue. And his neyghbours                    8
  be vnkynde, if they wyll not lende this yonge housbande
  parte of this sede. For this sede of Discretion
  hath a wonders property: for the more that it is taken
  of or lente, the more it is. And therfore me semeth,              12
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 9_b_.]]
  it shoulde be more spyrituall than temporall, wherin
      [Sidenote: Temporal things, when divided, wane.]
  is a greate dyuersitie. For a temporall thynge, the
  more it is deuyded, the lesse it is: and a spirytuall
  thynge, the more it is deuided, the more it is. _Verbi            16
  gratia._ For ensaumple, I put case a wyfe brynge a
  lofe of breade to the churche, to make holy breade
  of; whan it is cut in many smal peces, and holy
  breade made therof, there may be so many men, women,              20
  and children in the churche, that by that tyme the priest
  hath delte to euery one of them a lyttell pece, there
  shall neuer a crume be lefte in the hamper. And a
      [Sidenote: Spiritual things, when divided, wax.]
  spiritualle thynge as a _Pater-noster_, or a prayer, that any     24
  man can say, let hym teache it to .xx., a .C., or to a .M.,
  yet is the prayer neuer the lesse, but moche more. And
  so this sede of Discrecio_n_ is but wisdome and reason: and
  he that hath wysedome, reason, and discretion may teche           28
  it, and enforme other men as he is bounde to do. Wherein
  he shall haue thanke of god: and he doth but as god hath
      [Sidenote: Matt. x. 8.]
  commaunded hym in his gospell, _Quod gratis accepistis,
  gratis date_: That thynge that ye toke frely, gyue it frely       32
  again, and yet shall ye haue neuer the lesse.

  12. ¶ Howe all maner corne shoulde be sowen.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 10.]]
  Bvt yet me thynkethe it is necessarye to declare, howe
  all maner of corne shuld be sowen, and howe moch
  vpon an acre most comonly, and fyrste of pease and
      [Sidenote: An acre of ground.]
  beanes. An acre of grounde, by the statute, that is to say         4
  xvi. fote and a half to the perche or pole, foure perches
  to an acre in bredth, and fortye perches to an acre in
      [Sidenote: London bushels.]
  lengthe, may be metelye well sowen with two London
  busshelles of pease, the whyche is but two strykes in              8
  other places. And if there be the .iiii. parte beanes, than
  wylle it haue halfe a London bushelle more: and yf it be
  halfe beanes, it wyll haue thre London bushels: and if it
  be all beanes, it wyll haue foure London busshelles fullye,       12
  and that is half a quarter; bycause the beanes be gret, and
  grow vp streight, & do not sprede and go abrode as
      [Sidenote: Beans worth more than peas.]
  pease do. An acre of good beanes is worth an acre & a
  half of good pees, bycause there wylle be more busshelles.        16
  And the beste propertie that belongeth to a good
  husband is, to sowe all maner of corne thycke ynough,
  and specially beanes and barley. For commonly they be
  sowen vpon ranke ground, and good grounde wylle haue              20
  the burthen of corne or of wede. And as moche
  plowynge and harowynge hath an acre of grounde, and
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 10_b_.]]
  sowe thervppon but oone busshelle, as yf he sowed .iiii.
  busshelles. And vndoutedly .i. busshell may not gyue so           24
  moche corne agayne, as the .iiii. busshels, though the .iii.
  bushels, that he sowed more, be alowed and set aparte.
      [Sidenote: White, green, and grey peas.]
  And i. busshel and an halfe of white or grene pees, wyll
  sowe as moche grounde, as two busshels of gray pees:              28
  and that is bycause they be so smal, and the husband
  nedeth not to take so great an handful. In some
  countreys they begyn to sowe pees soone after Christmasse:
  and in some places they sowe bothe pees and                       32
  beanes vnder forowe: and those of reson must be sowen
      [Sidenote: Feb. 2.]
  betyme. But moste generally, to begyn sone after Candelmasse
  is good season, so that they be sowen ere the
  begynnynge of Marche, or sone vpon. And specially let             36
  them be sowen in the olde of the mone. For thopinion of
  olde husbandes is, that they shoulde the better codde,
  and the sooner be rype. But I speke not of hasty pees,
  for they be sowen before Christmasse, &c.                         40

  13. ¶ To sowe barley.

      [Sidenote: Barley.]
  Every good housbande hath his barleye-falowe well
  dounged, and lyenge rygged all the depe and colde of
  wynter; the whiche ryggynge maketh the lande to be
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 11.]]
  drye, and the dongynge maketh it to be melowe and                  4
  ranke. And if a drye season come before Candelmasse,
  or sone after, it wolde be caste downe and waterforowed
  bytwene the landes, that the wete rest not in the raine:
  and in the begynnynge of Marche, rydge it vppe agayne,             8
      [Sidenote: Sow five bushels to the acre.]
  and to sowe in euery acre fyue London bushelles, or
  foure at the leaste. And some yeres it maye so fortune,
  that there cometh no seasonable wether before Marche,
  to plowe his barley-erthe. And as soone as he hath                12
  sowen his pees and beanes, than let hym caste his barley-erthe,
  and shortly after rygge it agayne: soo that it be
  sowen before Apryll. And if the yere-tyme be paste,
  than sowe it vpon the castynge.                                   16

  ¶ It is to be knowen that there be thre maner of barleys,
  that is to say, sprot-barleye, longe-eare, and beare-barley,
      [Sidenote: Sprot-barley.]
  that some menne call bigge. Sprot-barley hath a flat
  eare most comonly, thre quarters of an inche brode,               20
  and thre inches long, and the cornes be very great
      [Sidenote: Long-ear.]
  and white, and it is the best barley. Long-eare hath
  a flatte eare, halfe an inche brode, and foure inches
  and more of length: but the corne is not so greate                24
  nor soo whyte, and sooner it wyll turne and growe
      [Sidenote: Bear-barley.]
  to otes. Bere-barleye or bygge wolde be sowen vppon
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 11_b_.]]
  lyghte and drye grounde, and hathe an eare thre ynches of
  lengthe or more, sette foure-square, lyke pecke-whete,            28
  small cornes, and lyttel floure, and that is the worste
  barley, and foure London bushels are suffycient for an
  acre. And in some countreyes, they do not sowe theyr
  barley tyll Maye, and that is mooste commonly vpon                32
  grauel or sandy grounde. But that barley generally is
      [Sidenote: Sow in March.]
  neuer soo good as that that is sowen in Marche. For if it
  be verye drie wether after it be sowen, that corne that
  lyeth aboue, lyeth drie, and hath noo moysture, and that          36
  that lyeth vndernethe, commeth vp: and whan rayne
  cometh, than sprutteth that that lyeth aboue, and often-tymes
  it is grene whan the other is rype: and whan it is
  thresshen, there is moche lyghte corne, &c.                       40

  14. ==> To sowe otes.

      [Sidenote: Oats.]
  And in Marche is tyme to sowe otes, and specially vpon
  lyght grounde & drie, howe-be-it they wylle grow on
  weter grounde than any corne els: for wete grounde
  is good for no maner of corne; and thre London bushels             4
  wyl sowe an acre.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 12.]]
  And it is to be knowen, that there be .iii. maner of otes,
      [Sidenote: Red oats.]
  that is to saye, redde otes, blacke otes, and roughe otes.
  Red otes are the beste otes, and whan they be thresshed,           8
  they be yelowe in the busshell, and verye good to make
      [Sidenote: Black oats.]
  otemele of. Blacke otes are as great as they be, but they
  haue not so moche floure in them, for they haue a thycker
  huske, and also they be not so good to make otemele.              12
      [Sidenote: Rough oats.]
  The roughe otes be the worste, and it quiteth not the
  coste to sowe them: they be very lyghte, and haue longe
  tayles, wherby they wyll hange eche one to other. All
  these maner of otes weare the grounde very sore, and              16
      [Sidenote: Observe how thick to sow.]
  maketh it to beare quyche. A yonge housbande ought to
  take hede, howe thycke he sowethe all maner of corne,
  two or three yeres: and to se, howe it cometh vp, and
  whether it be thycke ynoughe or not: and if it be thynne,         20
  sowe thycker the nexte yere: and if it be well, holde his
  hande there other yeres: and if it be to thynne, let hym
  remember hym selfe, whether it be for the vnseasonablenes
  of the wether, or for thyn sowynge. And so                        24
  his wysedome and discretion muste discerne it.

  15. ¶ To harowe all maner of cornes.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 12_b_.]]
  Nowe these landes be plowed, and the corne sowen, it
      [Sidenote: Harrowing.]
  is conuenient, that they be well harowed; or els crowes,
  doues, and other byrdes wyll eate and beare awaye the
  cornes. It is vsed in many countreys, the husbandes to             4
      [Sidenote: The ox-harrow.]
  haue an oxe-harowe, the whiche is made of sixe smal
      [Sidenote: Harrow-bulls.]
  peces of timbre, called harowe-bulles, made eyther of
  asshe or oke; they be two yardes longe, and as moche as
  the small of a mannes legge, and haue shotes[23] of wode           8
  put through theym lyke lathes, and in euery bull are syxe
  sharpe peces of yren called harowe-tyndes, set some-what
  a-slope forwarde, and the formes[t] slote[24] must be bygger
  than the other, bycause the fote-teame shall be fastened          12
  to the same with a shakyll, or a withe to drawe by. This
      [Sidenote: The horse-harrow.]
  harrowe is good to breake the greatte clottes, and to make
  moche molde, and than the horse-harowes to come after,
  to make the clottes smaller, and to laye the grounde euen.        16
  It is a greate labour and payne to the oxen, to goo to
      [Sidenote: ‘The ox is never woe, Till he to the harrow go.’]
  harowe: for they were better to goo to the plowe two
  dayes, thanne to harowe one daye. It is an olde saying,
  ‘The oxe is neuer wo, tyll he to the harowe goo.’ And             20
  it is bycause it goeth by twytches, and not alwaye
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 13.]]
  after one draughte. The horse-harrowe is made of fyue
  bulles, and passe not an elne of lengthe, and not soo
  moche as the other, but they be lyke sloted and tinded.           24
  And wha_n_ the corne is well couered, than it is harowed
  ynough. There be horse-harowes, that have tyndes of
  wodde: and those be vsed moche about Ryppon, and
      [Sidenote: Boulder-stones.]
  suche other places, where be many bulder-stones. For              28
  these stones wold weare the yren to soone, and those
      [Sidenote: Tines of the harrow made of ash.]
  tyndes be mooste commonly made of the grounde ende of
  a yonge asshe, and they be more thanne a fote longe in
  the begynnynge, and stande as moche aboue the harowe              32
  as benethe.

  And as they weare, or breake, they dryue them downe
  lower; and they wolde be made longe before, ere they be
  occupied, that they maye be drye; for than they shall             36
  endure and last moche better, and stycke the faster.
      [Sidenote: Horses for harrows.]
  The horses that shall drawe these harowes, muste be well
  kepte and shodde, or elles they wyll soone be tyred, and
  sore beate, that they may not drawe. They must haue               40
  hombers or collers, holmes withed about theyr neckes,
      [Sidenote: Swingle-tree.]
  tresses to drawe by, and a swyngletre to holde the tresses
  abrode, and a togewith to be bytwene the swyngletre and
  the harowe. And if the barleye-grounde wyll not breake            44
  with harrowes, but be clotty, it wolde be beaten with
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 13_b_.]]
  malles, and not streyght downe; for than they beate the
  corne in-to the erthe. And if they beate the clot on
  the syde, it wyll the better breake. And the clot wyll lye        48
  lyghte, that the corne maye lyghtely come vp. And they
      [Sidenote: Rolling the ground.]
  vse to role theyr barley-grounde after a shoure of rayne,
  to make the grounde euen to mowe, &c.

  16. ¶ To falowe.

  Nowe these housbandes haue sowen theyr pees, beanes,
  barley, and otes, and harowed them, it is the beste tyme,
      [Sidenote: Fallow in April.]
  to falowe, in the later ende of Marche and Apryll, for
  whete, rye, and barley. And lette the husbande do the              4
      [Sidenote: Plough broad and deep.]
  beste he can, to plowe a brode forowe and a depe,
  soo that he turne it cleane, and lay it flat, that it rere
  not on the edge: the whiche shall destroy all the thistils
  and wedes. For the deper and the broder that he gothe,             8
  the more newe molde, and the greatter clottes shall he
  haue, and the greatter clottes, the better wheate. For
  the clottes kepe the wheate warme all wynter, and at
  Marche they wyll melte and breake, and fal in manye               12
  small peces, the whiche is a newe dongynge, and refresshynge
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 14, _misprinted_ 16.]]
  of the corne. And also there shall but lyttell
  wedes growe vpon the falowes, that are so falowed. For
  the plough goth vndernethe the rootes of all maner of             16
      [Sidenote: Never fallow in winter; else]
  wedes, and tourneth the roote vpwarde, that it maye not
  growe. And yf the lande be falowed in wynter tyme, it is
  farre the worse, for three principall causes. One is, all the
      [Sidenote: (1) rain will wash the land;]
  rayne that commeth, shal washe the lande, and dryue               20
  awaye the dounge and the good moulde, that the lande
      [Sidenote: (2) rain will beat it flat;]
  shall be moche the worse. An other cause is, the rayne
  shall beate the lande so flat, and bake it so hard to-gyther,
  that if a drye Maye come, it wyll be to harde to stere in         24
      [Sidenote: (3) the weeds will take deep root.]
  the moneth of June. And the thyrde cause is, the wiedes
  shall take suche roote, er sterynge-tyme comme, that they
  wylle not be cleane tourned vndernethe, the whiche shal
  be great hurte to the corne, whan it shall be sowen, and          28
  specially in the weding-tyme of the same; and for any
  other thynge, make a depe holowe forowe in the rydge of
      [Sidenote: Do not rest-baulk.]
  the lande, and loke wel, thou rest-balke it nat; for if
  thou do, there wyll be many thystels: and than thou               32
  shalte not make a cleane rydge at the fyrste sterynge,
  and therfore it muste nedes be depe plowed, or elles
  thou shalt nat tourne the wiedes cleane.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 14_b_.]]
  17. ¶ To cary out donge or mucke and to sprede it.

  And in the later ende of Apryll, and the begynnynge of
      [Sidenote: Carry out dung.]
  Maye, is tyme to cary out his dounge or mucke, and
  to lay it vppon his barley-grounde. And where he hath
  barley this yere, sowe it with whete or rye the next               4
  tyme it is falowed, and so shal he mucke all his landes
  ouer at euerye seconde falowe. But that husbande that
  can fynd the meanes to cary oute his donge, and to laye
      [Sidenote: Lay dung on the land after the first stirring,]
  it vpon his lande after it be ones sturred: it is moche            8
  better than to laye it vppon his falowe, for dyuer causes.
  One is, if it be layde vpon his fallowe, all that fallethe
  in the holowe rygge shall do lyttell good; for whan
  it is rygged agayne, it lyeth soo depe in the erthe, that         12
  it wyll not be plowed vp agayne, excepte that whan he
  hath sprede it, he wyll with a shouell, or a spade, caste
  out all that is fallen in the rygge. And if it be layde
      [Sidenote: and soon after stirring.]
  vpon the sturrynge, at euery plowynge it shall medle              16
  the donge and the erthe togyder, the whiche shall
  cause the corne moche better to growe and encreace.
  And in somme places, they lode not theyr donge,
  tyll harvest be done, & that is vsed in the farther               20
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 15.]]
  syde of Darbyshyre, called Scaresdale, Halomshyre,
  and so northewarde towarde Yorke and Ryppon: and
  that I calle better thanne vppon the falowe, and specyally
  for barley: but vppon the fyrste sturrynge, is beste              24
  for wheate and rye, and that his dunge be layde vpon
      [Sidenote: Spread it evenly.]
  smal hepes nygh together, and to sprede it euenly, and
  to leue no dounge there-as the mucke-hepe stode, for
  the moystnes of the dounge shall cause the grounde to             28
      [Sidenote: Mix it with earth.]
  be ranke ynoughe. And if it be medled with erthe,
  as sholynges and suche other, it wyll laste the longer,
  and better for barley than for whete or rye, bycause of
  wedes. Horse-donge is the worste donge that is. The               32
  donge of all maner catell, that chewe theyr cudde,
      [Sidenote: Doves’ dung.]
  is verye good. And the dounge of douues is best,
  but it must be layde vppon the grounde verye thynne.

  18. ¶ To set out the shepe-folde.

      [Sidenote: The sheep-fold.]
  Also it is tyme to set out the shepefolde in May,
  and to sette it vppon the rye-grounde, if he haue any,
  and to flyte it euery mornynge or nyght: and in the
  mornynge, whan he cometh to his folde, let not his                 4
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 15_b_.]]
  shepe out anone, but reyse theym vp, and let them
  stande stylle good season, that they may donge and
      [Sidenote: See if the sheep have maggots.]
  pysse. And go amonge them to se whether any of
  them haue any mathes, or be scabbed: and se them                   8
  thre or foure tymes on the oone syde, and as ofte on
  the other syde. And whan the kelles begonne besyde
  the grounde, than lette theym out of the folde, and
  dryue theym to the soundest place of the felde. But               12
      [Sidenote: Folding sheep is not a good plan.]
  he that hath a falowe felde, seueral to hym-selfe, let
  hym occupie no folde. For foldynge of shepe maketh
  them scabbed, and bredeth mathes; and whanne a
  storme of yll wether commeth in the night, they can               16
  nat flee nor go awaye, and that appeyreth them sore
  of their flesshe. But lette that man that hath such a
      [Sidenote: Drive stakes in the field.]
  seueral falowe-felde, driue twentie, thyrty, or forty stakes,
  accordynge to the nombre of his shepe, vpon his falowe,           20
  where he wolde sette his folde, and specially in the
  farthest parte of the fyelde frome thense as they comme
  in, for the goynge vppon dothe moche good. And
  lette the sheparde brynge his shepe to the stakes, and            24
      [Sidenote: The sheep will rub against them.]
  the sheepe wylle rubbe them on the stakes. And lette
  the sheparde goo aboute them, tyll they be sette, and
  thus serue theym two or three nyghtes, and they wyll
  folowe those stakes, as he flytteth them, and syt by              28
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 16, _misprinted_ 14.]]
  them. And if any yll wether come, they will ryse vp,
  and go to the hedge. And this maner of foldynge
  shall brede noo mathes nor scabbe, nor appeyre theym
  of theyr flesshe, and shall be a greate sauegarde to the          32
  shepe for rottynge: and in the mornynge put them out
  of theyr pasture, and thou shalte not nede to bye any
      [Sidenote: Use no hurdles.]
  hurdels nor shepe-flekes; but howe ye shall salue them
  or dresse them, ye shall vnderstande in the chaypter of           36
  shepe after.

  19. ¶ To cary wodde and other necessaryes.

      [Sidenote: In May carry wood.]
  And in May, whan thou hast falowed thy grounde, and
  set oute thy shepefolde, and caryed oute thy dounge or
  mucke, if thou haue any wodde, cole, or tymbre to
  cary, or suche other busynes, that muste nedes be doone,           4
  with thy charte or wayne, than is it tyme to do it. For
      [Sidenote: The days are then long.]
  than the waye is lyke to be fayre and drye, and the days
  longe, and that tyme the husbande hath leeste to doo in
  husbandry. Perauenture I set one thynge to be done at              8
  one tyme of the yere, and if the husbande shulde do it,
  it shulde be a greatter losse to hym in an other thynge.
  Wherefore it is moste conuenient to do that thynge fyrst,
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 16_b_.]]
  that is moste profytable to hym, and as soone as he               12
  can, do the other labour.

  20. ¶ To knowe dyuers maner of wedes.

      [Sidenote: In June weed the corn.]
  In the later ende of Maye, and the begynnynge of
  June, is tyme to wede thy corne. There be diuers maner
  of wedes, as thistyls, kedlokes, dockes, cocledrake,
  darnolde, gouldes, haudoddes, dogfenell, mathes, ter,              4
  and dyuers other small wedes. But these be they that
      [Sidenote: Thistles.]
  greue mooste: The thistyll is an yll wede, roughe and
  sharpe to handell, and freteth away the cornes nygh it,
  and causeth the sherers or reapers not to shere cleane.            8
      [Sidenote: Charlock.]
  Kedlokes hath a leafe lyke rapes, and beareth a yelowe
  floure, and is an yll wede, and groweth in al maner corne,
  and hath small coddes, and groweth lyke mustard sede.
      [Sidenote: Docks.]
  Dockes have a brode lefe, and diuers high spyres, and             12
      [Sidenote: Cockle.]
  very small sede in the toppe. Cockole hath a longe small
  lefe, and wyl beare fyue or vi. floures of purple colour, as
  brode as a grote, and the sede is rounde and blacke, and
  maye well be suffred in a breade-corne, but not in sede,          16
      [Sidenote: ‘Drake.’]
  for therin is moche floure. Drake is lyke vnto rye, till it
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 17.]]
  begynne to sede, and it hath many sedes lyke fenell-sedes,
  and hangeth downewarde, and it maye wel be suffred in
  breade, for there is moche floure in the sede: and it is an       20
      [Sidenote: Darnel.]
  opinion that it commeth of rye, &c. Dernolde groweth
  vp streyght lyke an hye grasse, and hath longe sedes on
  eyther syde the sterte, and there is moche floure in that
  sede, and growethe moche amonge barley: and it is                 24
      [Sidenote: Golds.]
  sayde, that it cometh of small barley. Golds hath a shorte
  iagged lefe, and groweth halfe a yarde hygh, and hath a
  yelowe floure, as brode as a grote, and is an yll wede, and
      [Sidenote: Hawdod.]
  groweth commonlye in barleye and pees. Hawdod hath                28
  a blewe floure, and a fewe lyttell leues, and hath .v. or syxe
  braunches, floured in the toppe: and groweth comonly in
      [Sidenote: Dog-fennel.]
  rye vpon leane grounde, and dothe lyttel hurte. Dogge-fenell
  and mathes is bothe one, and in the commynge vp                   32
  is lyke fenell and beareth many white floures, with a
  yelowe sede: and is the worste wede that is, excepte terre,
  and it commeth moste commonly, whan great wete commeth
      [Sidenote: Tares.]
  shortly after the corne is sowen. Terre is the                    36
  worste wede, and it neuer dothe appere tyll the moneth
  of June, and specyallye whanne there is great wete in
  that mone, or a lyttell before, and groweth mooste in rye,
  and it groweth lyke fytches, but it is moche smaller, and         40
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 17_b_.]]
  it wyll growe as hyghe as the corne, and with the weyght
  therof it pulleth the corne flatte to the erth, and freteth
  the eares away; wherfore I haue seene housbandes mowe
  downe the corne and it together: And also with sharp              44
  hokes to repe it, as they doo pees, and made drye, and
  than it wyll be good fodder.

      [Sidenote: Dee-nettles.]
  There be other wedes not spoken of, as dee-nettylles,
      [Sidenote: Dodder.]
  dodder, and suche other, that doo moche harme.                    48

  21. ¶ Howe to wede corne.

      [Sidenote: How to weed.]
  Nowe it wolde be knowen, howe these cornes shulde be
  weded. The chyefe instrument to wede with is a paire
  of tonges made of wode, and in the farther ende it is
  nycked, to holde the wed faster; and after a shoure of             4
  raine it is beste wedynge, for than they maye be pulled
  vp by the rotes, and than it cometh neuer agayne. And
      [Sidenote: Weeding-hook.]
  if it be drye wether, than muste ye haue a wedynge-hoke
  with a socket set vpon a lyttel staffe of a yarde longe, and       8
  this hoke wolde be well steeled, and grounde sharpe bothe
      [Sidenote: Forked stick.]
  behynde and before. And in his other hande he hath a
  forked stycke a yarde longe, and with his forked stycke
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 18.]]
  he putteth the wede from hym, and he putteth the hoke             12
  beyond the rote of the wede, and pulleth it to hym, and
  cutteth the wede fast by the erthe, and with his hoke he
  taketh up the wede, and casteth it in the reane, and if
  the reane be full of corne, it is better it stande styll,         16
  whan it is cut, and wyddre: but let hym beware, that he
  trede not to moche vppon the corne, and specyallye after
      [Sidenote: Cut not the corn.]
  it is shotte, and whan he cutteth the wede, that he cut
  not the corne: and therefore the hoke wolde not passe             20
  an inche wyde. And whanne the wede is soo shorte,
  that he can not with his forked stycke put it from hym,
  and with the hoke pull it to hym, thanne muste he set
  his hoke vppon the wede, fast by the erthe, and put it            24
  from hym, and so shall he cutte it cleane. And with
      [Sidenote: Stoop not.]
  these two instruments, he shall neuer stoupe to his warke.
  Dogfenell, goldes, mathes, and kedlokes are yll to wede
  after this maner, they growe vppon so many braunches,             28
      [Sidenote: Pull up darnel.]
  harde by the erthe: and therfore they vse most to pul
  them vppe with theyr handes; but loke well, that they
  pull not vppe the corne with all; but as for terre, there
  wyll noo wedynge serue.                                           32

  22. ¶ The fyrst sturrynge.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 18_b_.]]
  Also in June is tyme to rygge vppe the falowe, the
  whiche is called the fyrst sturrynge, and to plowe it as
  depe as thou canste, for to tourne the rotes of the wedes
  vpwarde, that the sonne and the drye wether maye kyll              4
  them. And an housbande can not conuenyentelye plowe
      [Sidenote: How to plough and load out dung.]
  his lande, and lode out his dounge bothe vppon a daye,
  with one draughte of beastes: but he maye well lode oute
  his dounge before none, and lode heye or corne at-after            8
  none: or he maye plowe before none, and lode hey or
  corne at-after none, with the same draughte, and noo
  hurte to the cattell: bycause in lodynge of hey or corne,
  the cattel is alwaye eatynge or beytynge, and soo they            12
  can not doo in lodynge of dounge and plowynge.

  23. ¶ To mowe grasse.

      [Sidenote: End of June.]
  Also in the later ende of June is tyme to begyn to
  mowe, if thy medowe be well growen: but howe-so-euer
      [Sidenote: July.]
  they be growen, in July they muste nedes mowe, for
  diuers causes. One is, it is not conuenient to haue hey            4
      [Sidenote: Mow hay early.]
  and corne bothe in occupation at one tyme. An other is,
  the yonger and the grener that the grasse is, the softer
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 19.]]
  and the sweter it wyll be, whan it is hey, but it wyll haue
  the more wyddrynge; and the elder the grasse is, the               8
  harder and dryer it is, and the worse for al maner of
  cattell: for the sedes be fallen, the whiche is in maner
  of prouander, and it is the harder to eate and chowe.
  And an other cause is, if drye wether come, it wyll drye          12
  and burne vpon the grounde, and waste away. Take
      [Sidenote: How to mow.]
  hede that thy mower mow clene and holde downe the
  hynder hand of his sith, that he do not endent the grasse,
  and to mowe his swathe cleane thorowe to that that                16
  was laste mowen before, that he leaue not a mane bytwene,
  and specyallye in the common medowe: for in
  the seuerall medowe it maketh the lesse charge, and that
      [Sidenote: Mole-hills.]
  the moldywarpe-hilles be spredde, and the styckes cleane          20
  pycked out of the medowe in Apryll, or in the beginnynge
  of Maye.

  24. ¶ Howe forkes and rakes shulde be made.

      [Sidenote: Forks and rakes.]
  A Good husbande hath his forkes and rakes made
  redye in the wynter before, and they wolde be gotte
  bytwene Mighelmasse and Martylmasse, and beyked, and
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 19_b_.]]
  sette euen, to lye vpryght in thy hande: and than they             4
  wyll be harde styffe and drye. And whan the housbande
  sytteth by the fyre, and hath nothynge to do, than maye
  he make theym redye, and tothe the rakes with drye wethy-wode,
      [Sidenote: Bore holes for the teeth of the rakes.]
  and bore the holes with his wymble, bothe aboue                    8
  and vnder, and driue the tethe vpwarde faste and harde,
  and than wedge them aboue with drye woode of oke, for
  that is hard, and wil driue and neuer come out. And if
  he get them in sappe-tyme, all the beykyng and drienge            12
  that can be had shal not make them harde and styffe,
      [Sidenote: Use hazel and withy.]
  but they woll alwaye be plyenge: for they be moste
  comonly made of hasell and withee, and these be the
  trees that blome, and specially hasell: for it begynneth          16
      [Sidenote: Use no green wood.]
  to blome as sone as the lefe is fallen. And if the rake
  be made of grene woode, the heed wyll not abyde
  vppon the stele, and the tethe wyll fall out, whan he
  hath mooste nede to them, and let his warke, and lose             20
      [Sidenote: Make all evenly.]
  moche heye. And se that thy rake and forke lye vpryghte
  in thy hand, for and the one ende of thy rake, or the syde
  of thy forke, hang downe-warde, than they be not handsome
  nor easy to worke with.                                           24

  25. ¶ To tedde and make hay.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 20.]]
  Whan thy medowes be mowed, they wolde be well
      [Sidenote: Tedding hay.]
  tedded and layde euen vppon the grounde: and if the
  grasse be very thycke, it wolde be shaken with handes,
      [Sidenote: Ted hay carefully.]
  or with a shorte pykforke. For good teddynge is the                4
  chiefe poynte to make good hey, and than shall it be
  wyddred all in lyke, or elles not: and whan it is wel
  wyddred on the ouer syde, and dry, than turne it cleane
  before noone, as soone as the dewe is gone: And yf thou            8
  dare truste the wether, lette it lye so all nyghte: and
  on the nexte daye, tourne it agayne before none, and
  towarde nyght make it in wyndrowes, and than in smal
      [Sidenote: Hay-cocks.]
  hey-cockes, and so to stande one nyghte at the leaste, and        12
  sweate: and on the nexte fayre day caste it abrode
  agayne, and tourne it ones or twyse, and than make it
      [Sidenote: Larger hay-cocks.]
  in greatter hey-cockes, and to stande so one nyght or
  more, that it maye vngiue and sweate. For and it sweate           16
  not in the hey-cockes, it wyll sweate in the mowe; and
  than it wyll be dustye, and not holsome for hors, beastes,
  nor shepe. And whan it standeth in the cockes, it is
  better to lode, and the more hey maye be loded at a lode,         20
      [Sidenote: Quich-hay.]
  and the faster it wyll lye. Quyche-hey commeth of a
  grasse called crofote, and groweth flatte, after the erthe,
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 20_b_.]]
  and bearethe a yelowe floure halfe a yarde hygh and
  more, and hath many knottes towarde the roote, and it             24
  is the beste hey for horses and beastes, and the sweteste,
  if it be well got; but it wyll haue moch more wyddrynge
  than other hey, for els he wyll be-pysse hym-selfe and
      [Sidenote: How to know when hay is dry.]
  waxe hote, and after dustye. And for to knowe whanne              28
  it is wyddred ynoughe, make a lyttell rope of the same,
  that ye thinke shulde be moste greneste, and twyne it as
  harde to-gether bytwen your handes as ye canne, and soo
      [Sidenote: Twist a wisp, and then cut it.]
  beynge harde twon, let one take a knyfe, and cut it faste         32
  by your hande; and the knottes wyll be moyste, yf it be
  not drye ynough. Shorte hey, and leye-hey, is good for
  shepe, and all maner of catell, if it be well got. A man
  maye speke of makynge of hey, and gettynge of corne,              36
  but god disposeth and ordreth all thynge.

  26. ¶ Howe rye shulde be shorne.

      [Sidenote: In July, shear rye.]
  In the later ende of July, or in the begynnynge of
  Auguste, is tyme to shere Rye, the whiche wolde be
  shorne cleane, and faste bounden. And in somme
  places they mowe it, the whiche is not soo good to the             4
  housbandes profytte, but it is the sooner done. For
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 21.]]
  whan it is mowen, it wyll not be so fast bounden: and
  he can not gather it soo cleane, but there wyll be moche
  losse, and taketh more rowme in the barne than shorne              8
  corne dothe. And also it wyll not kepe nor saue it selfe
  from rayne or yll wether, whan it standeth in the couer,
  as the shorne corne wyll do.

  27. ¶ Howe to shere wheate.

      [Sidenote: Shear wheat clean.]
  Wheate wolde be shorne cleane, and harde bounden
  in lyke maner; but for a generall rule, take good hede,
  that the sherers of all maner of whyte corne cast not
  vppe theyr handes hastely, for thanne all the lose corne,          4
  and the strawes, that he holdeth not fast in his hande,
  flieth ouer his heed, and are loste: and also it wyll pull
  of the eares, and specyallye of the cornes that be verye
      [Sidenote: Shear wheat clean.]
  rype. In somme places they wyll shere theyr cornes                 8
  hyghe, to the entente to mowe theyr stubble, eyther to
  thacke or to bren: if they so do, they haue greate cause
  to take good hede of the sherers. For if the eares of
  corne croke downe to the erthe, and the sherer take               12
  not good hede, and put up the eare er he cut the
  strawe: as many eares as be vnder his hoke or sicle
      [Sidenote: Fol. 21_b_.]
  fall to the erthe, and be loste; and whan they mowe
  the stubble, it is great hyndraunce to the profytte of            16
      [Sidenote: Near Ilchester and Martock they shear low.]
  the grounde. And in Sommersetshire, about Zelcestre
  and Martok, they doo shere theyr wheate very lowe,
  and all the wheate-strawe that they pourpose to make
  thacke of, they do not thresshe it, but cutte of the              20
  eares, and bynde it in sheues, and call it rede: and
  therwith they thacke theyr houses. And if it be a
      [Sidenote: Best kind of thatching.]
  newe house, they thacke it vnder theyr fote: the
  whiche is the beste and the surest thacking that can              24
  be of strawe, for crowes and douues shall neuer hurte it.

  28. ==> To mowe or shere barley and otes.

      [Sidenote: Mow barley and oats.]
  Barley and otes be moste commonly mowen, and a
  man or woman folowythe the mower with a hande-rake
  halfe a yarde longe, with .vii. or .viii. tethe, in the
  lyfte hande, and a syckle in the ryghte hande, and                 4
  with the rake he gethereth as moche as wyll make a
  shefe. And thanne he taketh the barley or otes by the
  toppes, and pulleth out as moche as wil make a band,
  and casteth the band from him on the land, and with his            8
  rake and his syckle taketh vp the barley or otes, &
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 22.]]
  layeth them vppon the bande, and so the barley lyeth
  vnbounden .iii. or .iiii. dayes, if it be fayre wether,
  and than to bynde it. And whan the barley is ledde                12
      [Sidenote: Rake afterwards.]
  away, the landes muste be raked, or els there wyll be
  moche corne loste, and if the barley or otes lye, they
  muste nedes be shorne.

  29. ¶ To repe or mowe pees and beanes.

      [Sidenote: Reap or mow peas and beans.]
  Pees and benes be moste commonly laste reped or
  mowen, of diuers maners, some with sickles, some
  with hokes, and some with staffe-hokes. And in some
  places they lay them on repes, and whan they be dry,               4
  they laye them to-gether on heapes, lyke hey-cockes,
  and neuer bynde them. But the beste way is, whan
      [Sidenote: Bind them together.]
  the repes be dry, to bynde them, and to set theym on
  the rydge of the landes three sheues to-gether; and                8
  loke that your sherers, repers, or mowers geld not
      [Sidenote: Cut beans low.]
  your beanes, that is to saye, to cutte the beanes so hye,
  that the nethermoste codde growe styll on the stalke;
  and whan they be bounden, they are the more redyer                12
  to lode and vnlode, to make a reke, and to take fro
  the mowe to thresshe. And soo be not the repes.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 22_b_.]]
  30. ¶ Howe all maner of cornes shulde be tythed.

      [Sidenote: How to tithe.]
  Nowe that all these cornes before specyfyed be
  shorne, mowed, reped, bounden vp, and layde vppon
  the rydge of the lande, lette the housbande take
  hede of goddes commaundemente, and let hym goo                     4
      [Sidenote: Count 9 sheaves, and cast out the tenth.]
  to the ende of his lande, and begynne and tell .ix.
  sheues, and let hym caste out the .x. shefe in the
  name of god, and so to pervse fro_m_ lande to lande,
  tyll he haue trewely tythed all his corne. And beware,             8
  and take hede of the sayinge of our lorde by his
      [Sidenote: Malachi iii. 8, 9.]
  prophete Malachias, the whiche saythe, _Quia michi non
  dedisti decimas et primitias, id circo in fame et penuria
  maledicti estis_. That is to saye, Bycause ye haue not            12
  gyuen to me your tythes, and your fyrste-fruytes, therefore
  ye be cursed, and punysshed with honger and
      [Sidenote: Augustine.]
  penury. And accordynge to that saynte Austyn saythe:
  _Da decimas, alioqui incides in decimam partem angelorum_         16
      [Sidenote: Give tithes truly.]
  _qui de celo corruerunt in infernum_. That is to say, Gyue
  thy tythes truely, or els thou shalt fall amonge the tenthe
  parte of aungelles that felle from heuen in-to hell, the
  whiche is an harde worde to euery man, that oughte to             20
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 23.]]
  gyue tythes, and doth not gyue them truely. But saynte
      [Sidenote: Augustine.]
  Austyne saythe a comfortable worde again, to them that
  gyue theyr tythes truely, that is to saye: _Decimæ sunt_
      [Sidenote: Tithes are tributes to the needy.]
  _tributa egentium animarum_: Tythes are tributes or               24
  rewardes to nedye soules. And ferther he saythe: _Si
  decimam dederis, non solum abundantiam fructum recipies,
  sed etiam sanitatem corporis et animæ consequeris_, That
  is to saye, If thou haue gyuen thy tythes truely, thou            28
  shalte not onely receyue the profite, and the abundaunce
  of goodes, but also helthe of bodye and soule shall
  folowe. Wolde to god, that euerye man knewe the
  harde worde of our lorde by his prophete Malachias,               32
  and also the comfortable wordes of the holy saynte
  Austyn. For than wolde I truste verely, that tythes
  shulde be truely gyuen.

  31. ¶ Howe all maner of corne shulde he couered.

      [Sidenote: How to cover corn.]
  Nowe these cornes be shorne and bounden, and the
  tithes cast out, it is tyme to couer theym, shoke theym,
  or halfe-throne them, but couerynge is the beste waye
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 23_b_.]]
  of all maner of whyte corne. And that is, to set foure             4
  sheues on one syde, and .iiii. sheues on the other syde,
      [Sidenote: Set ten sheaves together.]
  and two sheues aboue, of the greatteste, bounden harde
  nyghe to the nether ende, the whiche must be set vpwarde,
  and the top downewarde spredde abrode to couer all the             8
  other sheues. And they wyll sta_n_d beste in wynde, and
  saue theym-selfe beste in rayne, and they wolde be set
  on the rydge of the lande, and the sayde sheues to leane
  to-gether in the toppes, and wyde at the grounde, that            12
      [Sidenote: For peas and beans set three together.]
  the winde may go through, to drye them. Pees and
  beanes wolde be set on the rydge of the lande, thre
  sheues together, the toppes vpwarde, and wrythen to-gether,
  and wyde benethe, that they maye the better                       16

  32. ¶ To lode corne, and mowe it.

      [Sidenote: To load corn.]
  Whanne all these cornes be drye and wyddred ynoughe,
  than lode theym in-to the barne, and laye euerye corne
      [Sidenote: Make many mows, if it be wet.]
  by it-selfe. And if be a wete haruest, make many mowes:
  and if thou haue not housynge ynoughe, thanne it is                4
  better to laye thy pees and benes without vppon a reke,
  than other corne, and it is better vppon a scaffolde than
  vppon the grounde: for than it muste be well hedged
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 24.]]
  for swyne and catel, and the grounde wyll rotte the                8
  bottom, and the scaffolde saueth both hedgynge and
  rottynge: but they must be well couered bothe. And the
      [Sidenote: The scaffold.]
  husband may set shepe or catel vnder the same scaffold
  and wyll serue hym in stede of an house, if it be well            12
  and surely made, &c.

  33. ¶ The second[25] sturrynge.

      [Sidenote: August.]
  In August, and in the begynnyng of September, is
      [Sidenote: Second stirring.]
  tyme to make his seconde sturrynge, and most commonly
  it is cast downe and plowed a meane forowe, not to depe
  nor to ebbe, so he turne it clene. And if it be caste, it          4
      [Sidenote: Water-furrow the land.]
  wolde be water-forowed bytwene the landes, there-as
  the reane shulde be, and it wyll be the dryer, whan the
  lande shall be sowen. And if the landes lie high in
  the ridge, & highe at the reane, & lowe in the                     8
  myddes of the side, that the water may not ronne easely
  in-to the reane, as I se dayly in many places: than let
  the husband set his plough .iii. or .iiii. fote fro_m_ the
      [Sidenote: How to ridge it up.]
  rydge, and cast all the rydge on bothe sydes, and whan            12
  the rydge is cast, set his plough there-as he began, and
  rydge vp the remenant of the lande, and so is the land
  bothe cast and rydged, and all at one plowynge. And this
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 24_b_.]]
  shall cause the lande to lye rounde, whan it is sowen             16
  at the nexte tyme, and than shall it not drowne the corne.

  34. ==> To sowe wheat and rye.

      [Sidenote: Michaelmas.]
  Aboute Myghelmasse it is tyme to sowe bothe wheate
      [Sidenote: Sow wheat and rye.]
  and rye. Wheate is mooste commonlye sowen vnder the
  forowe, that is to saye, caste it vppon the falowe, and
  than plowe it vnder. And in some places they sowe theyr            4
      [Sidenote: Pease stubble.]
  wheate vppon theyr pees-stubble, the whiche is neuer
  soo good, as that that is sowen vppon the falowe: and
  that is vsed, where they make falowe in a fyelde euery
      [Sidenote: In Essex a child sows.]
  fourthe yere. And in Essex they vse to haue a chylde,              8
  to go in the forowe before the horses or oxen, with a
  bagge or a hopper full of corne: and he taketh his hande
  full of corne, and by lyttel and lytel casteth it in the
      [Sidenote: He ought to have much discretion.]
  sayde forowe. Me semeth, that chylde oughte to haue               12
  moche dyscretion.

  Howe-be-it there is moche good corne, and rye is
      [Sidenote: Sow 2 London bushels to an acre.]
  mooste commonlye sowen aboue and harrowed, and two
  London busshelles of wheate and rye wyll sowe an acre.            16
  Some grounde is good for wheate, some for rye, and
  some is good for bothe: and vppon that ground sowe
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 25.]]
  blend-corne, that is both wheate and rye, the whyche is
  the surest corne of growyng, and good for the husbandes           20
      [Sidenote: Wheat and rye mixed.]
  houshold. And the wheate, that shall be medled with
  rye, muste be suche as wyll soone be rype, and that is
  flaxen wheate, polerd wheate, or whyte wheate. And ye
  shall vnderstande, that there be dyuers maners of wheates.        24
      [Sidenote: Flaxen wheat.]
  Flaxen wheate hath a yelowe eare, and bare without anis,
  and is the bryghtest wheate in the busshell, and wyll
  make the whytest breed, and it wyll weare the grounde
  sore, and is small strawe, and wyll growe very thycke,            28
      [Sidenote: Pollard wheat.]
  and is but small corne. Polerde wheate hath noo anis,
  thycke sette in the eare, and wyll soone fall out, and is
      [Sidenote: White wheat.]
  greatter corne, and wyll make whyte breed. Whyte
  wheate is lyke polerde wheate in the busshell, but it             32
  hath anis, and the eare is foure-square, and wyll make
  white breed: and in Essex they call flaxen wheate
      [Sidenote: Red wheat.]
  whyte wheate. Red wheate hath a flat eare, an inche
  brode, full of anis, and is the greatteste corne, and             36
  the brodeste blades, and the greatteste strawe, and
  wyl make whyte breed, and is the rudeste of colour
  in the busshell.

      [Sidenote: English wheat.]
  Englysshe wheate hath a dunne eare, fewe anis or none,            40
  and is the worste wheate, saue peeke-wheate. Peeke-wheete
      [Sidenote: Peek-wheat.]
  hath a red eare, ful of anis, thyn set, and ofte
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 25_b_.]]
  tymes it is flyntered, that is to saye, small corne wrynkeled
  and dryed, and wyll not make whyte breade, but it wyl             44
  growe vpon colde grounde.

  35. ¶ To thresshe and wynowe corne.

      [Sidenote: Carefully clean seed-corn.]
  This wheate and rye, that thou shalte sowe, ought to
  be very cleane of wede, and therfore, er thou thresshe
  thy corne, open thy sheues, and pyke oute all maner of
  wedes, and than thresshe it, and wynowe it cleane,                 4
  and so shalt thou haue good clene corne an other
      [Sidenote: In Essex and Kent they fan the corn.]
  yere. And in some countreys, aboute London specyallye,
  and in Essex and Kente, they do fan theyr corne, the
  whiche is a verye good gise, and a great saueguarde for            8
  shedynge of the corne. And whan thou shalte sell it,
  if it be well wynowed or fande, it wyll be solde the
  derer, and the lyghte corne wyll seme the husbande in
  his house.                                                        12

  36. ¶ To seuer pees, beanes, and fytches.

      [Sidenote: Sift your peas and beans.]
  Whan thou haste thresshed thy pees, and beanes,
  after they be wynowed, and er thou shalte sowe or selle
  them, let theym be well reed with syues, and seuered in
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 26.]]
  thre partes, the great from the small, and thou shalte gette       4
  in euerye quarter a London busshell, or there about. For
      [Sidenote: Separate small from large.]
  the small corne lyeth in the holowe and voyde places of
  the greate beanes, and yet shall the greate beanes be solde
  as dere, as if they were all together, or derer, as a man          8
  may proue by a famylier ensample. Let a man bye
      [Sidenote: 120 herrings, at 2 a penny, cost 5 shillings;]
  .C. hearynges,[26] two hearynges for a penye, and an other
  .C. hearynges, thre for a peny, and let hym sell these
  .CC. hearinges agayne .v. heringes for .ii. d.; nowe hath         12
  he loste .iiii. d. For C. hearinges, .ii. for i. d., cost v. s.,
      [Sidenote: 120 herrings, at 3 a penny, cost 3_s._ 4_d._;
       or 8_s._ 4_d._ in all.]
  and C. hearynges, .iii. for a peny, coste .iii s. and .iiii d.,
  the whiche is .viii. s and .iiii. d.; and whan he selleth
  .v. herynges for .ii. d., xx. heringes cometh but                 16
      [Sidenote: 20 herrings, at 5 for 2_d._, cost 8_d._; 12 times
       as much are 24 groats, or 8_s._]
  to .viii. d. and there is but .xii. score heringes, and that
  is but .xii. grotes, and xii. grotes, and that cometh but to
  .viii. s. and so he hath lost .iiii. d. and it is bicause there be
  not so many bargeins, for in the bienge of these .CC.             20
  heringes there be .v. score bargeins, and in the sellinge
  of the same there be but .xlviii. bargeyns, and so is
  there lost .x. hearinges, the whiche wolde haue ben .ii.
      [Sidenote: Always buy by gross sale, and sell by retail.]
  bargeyns moo, and than it had ben euen and mete. And              24
  therfore he that byeth grosse sale, and retayleth, muste
  nedes be a wynner. And so shalt thou be a loser, if
  thou sell thy pees, beanes, and fytches together: for than
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 26_b_.]]
  thou sellest grosse sale. And if thou seuer them in thre          28
  partes, than thou doest retayle, wherby thou shalte wynne.

  37. ¶ Of shepe, and what tyme of the yere the rammes
  shulde be put to the ewes.

  An housbande can not well thryue by his corne,
  without he haue other cattell, nor by his cattell, without
  corne. For els he shall be a byer, a borower, or
      [Sidenote: Sheep are the most profitable cattle.]
  a begger. And bycause that shepe in myne opynyon is                4
  the mooste profytablest cattell that any man can haue,
  therfore I pourpose to speake fyrst of shepe. Than
  fyrst is to be knowen, what tyme thou shalt put thy
      [Sidenote: Rams and ewes.]
  rammes to thy ewes; and therin I make a distinction, for           8
  euery man maye not put to theyr rammes all at one
  tyme; for if they doo, there wyll be greate hurte and
  losse; for that man, that hath the best shepe-pasture for
  wynter, and soone spryngynge in the begynnynge of the             12
  yere, he maye suffre his rammes to goo with his ewes
  all tymes of the yere, to blyssomme or ryde whan they
  wyll: but for the comon pasture, it is tyme to put to his
      [Sidenote: Sept. 14.]
  rammes at the Exaltation of the holye crosse: for than            16
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 27.]]
  the bucke goth to the rut, and so wolde the ra_m_me.
  But for the common husbande, that hath noo pasture but
  the common fieldes, it is tyme ynoughe at the feste of
      [Sidenote: Sept. 29.]
  saynt Mychaell the archangel. And for the poore                   20
  housbande of the Peeke, or suche other, that dwell in
  hylly and hyghe groundes, that haue no pastures, nor
  common fieldes, but all-onely the comon hethe, Symon
      [Sidenote: Oct. 28.]
  and Jude daye is good tyme for theym, and this is the             24
  reason why. An ewe goth with lambe .xx. wekes, and
  shall yeane her lambe in the .xxi. weke; & if she haue
  not conueniente newe grasse to eate, she maye not gyue
  her lambe mylke: and for wante of mylke, there be                 28
  manye lambes perysshed and loste: and also for pouertye,
  the dammes wyll lacke mylke, and forsake theyr lambes,
  and soo often tymes they dye bothe in suche harde
  countreys.                                                        32

  38. ¶ To make an ewe to loue her lambe.

  If thy ewe haue mylke, and wyll not loue her lambe,
  put her in a narowe place made of bordes, or of smothe
  trouse, a yarde wyde, and put the lambe to her, and
      [Sidenote: If a ewe]
  socle it, and yf the ewe smyte the lambe with her                  4
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 27_b_.]]
  heed, bynd her heed with a heye-rope, or a corde, to
      [Sidenote: smite her lamb, tie up her head.]
  the syde of the penne: and if she wyl not stande
  syde longe all the lambe,[27] than gyue her a lyttell hey,
  and tye a dogge by her, that she maye se hym: and                  8
  this wyll make her to loue her lambe shortely. And
  if thou haue a lambe deed, wherof the damme hath
      [Sidenote: Put a dead lamb’s skin on a live lamb, and so
       change its dam.]
  moche mylke, fley that lambe, and tye that skynne vpon
  an other lambes backe, that hath a sory damme, with               12
  lyttell mylke, and put the good ewe and that lambe to-gether
  in the penne, and in one houre she wyll loue
  that lambe; & than mayst thou take thy sory weyke
  ewe awaye, and put her in an other place: and by this             16
  meanes thou mayste fortune to saue her lyfe, and the
  lambes bothe.

  39. ¶ What tyme lambes shulde be wayned.

  In some places they neuer seuer their lambes from
  theyr dammes, and that is for two causes: One is, in
  the beste pasture where the rammes goo alwaye with
      [Sidenote: In the best pastures, lambs wean themselves.]
  theyr ewes, there it nedeth not, for the dammes wil                4
  waxe drye, and wayne theyr lambes theym-selfe. An
  other cause is, he that hath noo seuerall and sounde
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 28.]]
  pasture, to put his lambes vnto whan they shoulde be
  wayned, he muste eyther sell them, or let them sucke               8
  as longe as the dammes wyll suffre theym; and it is
  a common sayinge, that the lambe shall not rotte, as
  longe as it souketh, excepte the damme wante meate.
      [Sidenote: Lambs to be weaned at 16 weeks, or 18.]
  But he that hath seueral and sounde pasture, it is tyme           12
  to wayne theyr lambes, whanne they be .xvi. wekes
  old, or .xviii. at the farthest, and the better shall the
  ewe take the ramme agayne. And the poore man of
  the peeke countreye, and suche other places, where as             16
  they vse to mylke theyr ewes, they vse to wayne theyr
      [Sidenote: In the Peak, lambs are weaned at 12 weeks.]
  lambes at xii. wekes olde, and to mylke theyr ewes
  fiue or syxe wekes, &c. But those lambes be neuer
  soo good as the other that sucke longe, and haue                  20
  meate ynoughe.

  40. ¶ To drawe shepe, and seuer them in dyuers places.

  Than thou grasier, that hast many shepe in thy
      [Sidenote: Have a large sheep-fold;]
  pastures, it is conuenient for the to haue a shepefolde
  made with a good hedge or a pale, the whiche wyll
  receyue all thy shepe easyly that goo in one pasture,              4
  sette betwene two of thy pastures, in a drye place;
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 28_b_.]]
  and adioynynge to the ende of the same, make an
      [Sidenote: another to hold 90 sheep;]
  other lyttell folde, that wyll receyue lxxxx. shepe or
  moo, and bothe those foldes muste haue eyther of                   8
  theym a gate in-to eyther pasture, and at the ende
  of that folde make an other lyttell folde, that wyll
      [Sidenote: and another for 40 sheep.]
  receyue .xl. shepe or mo, and betwene euery folde a
  gate. And whan the shepe are in the greate folde,                 12
  let .xl. of them, or there about, come into the myddle
      [Sidenote: Let the shepherd examine them in the middle fold.]
  folde, and steke the gate. And than let the shepeherde
  turne them, and loke them on euery syde, and if he se
  or fynde any shepe, that nedeth any helpynge or mending           16
  for any cause, lette the shepeherde take that shepe
  with his hoke, and put hym in the lyttell folde. And
  whan he hath taken all that nedeth any mendyng, than
  put the other in-to whether pasture he wyll, and let in as        20
      [Sidenote: Put the sick ones in the little fold.]
  many out of the greate folde, and take those that nede
  any handling, and put them into the lyttell folde. And
  thus peruse them all tyll he haue doone, and than let the
  shepeherde go belte, grese, and handel all those that he          24
  hath drawen, and than shall not the great flocke be taryed
  nor kepte from theyr meate: and as he hath mended
  them, to put them into theyr pasture.

  41. ¶ To belte shepe.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 29.]]
  If any shepe raye or be fyled with dounge about the
      [Sidenote: How to belt sheep.]
  the tayle, take a payre of sheres and clyppe it awaye, and
  cast dry muldes thervpon: and if it be in the heate of the
  sommer, it wolde be rubbed euer with a lyttell terre, to           4
      [Sidenote: Have a board to lay a sheep upon.]
  kepe awaye the flyes. It is necessarye that a shepeherde
  haue a borde, set fast to the syde of his lyttell folde, to
  laye his shepe vpon when he handeleth theym, and an
  hole bored in the borde with an augur, and therin a                8
  grayned staffe of two fote longe, to be set fast, to hang
      [Sidenote: A shepherd wants a dog, a hook, shears, and a
  his terre-boxe vpon, and than it shall not fall. And a
  shepeherde shoulde not go without his dogge, his shepe-hoke,
  a payre of sheres, and his terre-boxe, eyther with                12
  hym, or redye at his shepe-folde, and he muste teche his
  dogge to barke whan he wolde haue hym, to ronne whan
  he wold haue hym, and to leue ronning whan he wolde
  haue hym; or els he is not a cunninge shepeherd. The              16
  dogge must lerne it, whan he is a whelpe, or els it wyl
  not be: for it is harde to make an olde dogge to stoupe.

  42. ¶ To grease shepe.

      [Sidenote: How to grease sheep.]
  If any sheepe be scabbed, the shepeherde maye perceyue
  it by the bytynge, rubbyng, or scratchynge with
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 29_b_.]]
  his horne, and mooste commonly the woll wyll ryse, and
  be thyn or bare in that place: than take hym, and shede            4
  the woll with thy fyngers, there as the scab is, and with
  thy fynger laye a lyttell terre thervpon, and stroke it a
  lengthe in the bottom of the woll, that it be not seen
      [Sidenote: Part the wool and put tar on.]
  aboue. And so shede the woll by and by, and laye a                 8
  lyttell terre thervppon, tyll thou passe the sore, and than
  it wyll go no farther.

  43. ¶ To medle terre.

      [Sidenote: How to mix tar.]
  Let thy terre be medled with oyle, gose-grease, or
  capons grease, these three be the beste, for these wyll
  make the terre to ronne abrode: butter and swynes grease,
  whan they be molten, are good, soo they be not salte; for          4
  terre of hym-selfe is to kene, and is a fretter, and no
  healer, without it be medled with some of these.

  44. ¶ To make brome salue.

  ¶ A medicyne to salue poore mennes shepe, that thynke
  terre to costely: but I doubte not, but and ryche men
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 30.]]
  knowe it, they wolde vse the same. Take a shete ful of
      [Sidenote: Chop broom small, and boil it;]
  brome, croppes, leaues, blossomes, and all, and chop               4
  them very smal, and than sethe them in a pan of .xx.
  gallons with rennynge water, tyll it begyn to waxe thycke
  like a gelly, than take two pounde of shepe suet molten,
      [Sidenote: add suet and brine;]
  and a pottell of olde pysse, and as moche bryne made               8
  with salte, and put all in-to the sayde panne, and styrre it
  aboute, and than streyne it thorowe an olde clothe, and
  putte it in-to what vessell ye wyll, and yf your shepe be
      [Sidenote: use it warm with a sponge.]
  newe clypped, make it luke-warme, and than washe your             12
  shepe there-with, with a sponge or a pece of an olde
  mantell, or of faldynge, or suche a softe cloth or woll,
      [Sidenote: It can be used at any time.]
  for spendynge to moche of your salue. And at all tymes
  of the yere after, ye may relent it, and nede require: and        16
  make wyde sheydes in the woll of the shepe, and anoynt
  them with it, & it shal heale the scabbe, and kyll the
  shepe-lyce, and it shall not hurte the woll in the sale
  therof. And those that be washen wyll not take scabbe             20
  after (if they haue sufficient meate); for that is the beste
  grease that is to a shepe, to grease hym in the mouthe
  with good meate; the whiche is also a greate saueguarde
      [Sidenote: Good meat in the mouth]
  to the shepe for rottynge, excepte there come myldewes,           24
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 30_b_.]]
      [Sidenote: is the best grease for sheep.]
  for he wyl chose the beste, if he haue plentye. And
  he that hath but a fewe shepe moderate this medicyne

  45. ¶ If a shepe haue mathes.

      [Sidenote: Maggots in sheep.]
  If a shepe haue mathes, ye shall perceyue it by her
  bytynge, or fyskynge, or shakyng of her tayle, and mooste
  commonlye it is moyst and wete: and if it be nyghe vnto
  the tayle, it is ofte tymes grene, and fyled with his              4
      [Sidenote: How cured.]
  dounge: and than the shepeherde muste take a payre
  of sheres, and clyppe awaye the woll bare to the skynne,
  and take a handfull of drye moldes, and cast the moldes
  thervpon to drye vp the wete, and then wype the muldes             8
  away, and lay terre there as the mathes were, and a lyttell
  farther. And thus loke theym euery daye, and mende
  theym, if they haue nede.

  46. ¶ Blyndenes of shepe, and other dyseases, and
  remedies therfore.

      [Sidenote: Blindness in sheep.]
  There be some shepe that wyll be blynd a season, and
  yet mende agayn. And if thou put a lytel terre in his eye,
  he will mende the rather. There be dyuers waters, &
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 31.]]
  other medicyns, that wolde mende hym, but this is                  4
  [the] mooste common medicyne that shepeherdes vse.

  47. ¶ The worme in the shepes fote, and helpe therfore.

  There be some shepe, that hath a worme in his foote,
      [Sidenote: Worms in a sheep’s foot.]
  that maketh hym halte. Take that shepe, and loke betwene
  his clese, and there is a lyttell hole, as moche as a
  greatte pynnes heed, and therin groweth fyue or syxe               4
  blacke heares, lyke an inche long and more; take a sharpe
  poynted knyfe, and slytte the skynne a quarter of an inche
  long aboue the hole and as moche benethe, and put thy
      [Sidenote: How cured.]
  one hande in the holowe of the fote, vnder the hinder              8
  clese, and set thy thombe aboue almooste at the slytte,
  and thruste thy fyngers vnderneth forward, and with thy
  other hand take the blacke heares by the ende, or with
  thy knyues poynte, and pull the heares a lyttell and a            12
  lyttell, and thruste after thy other hande, with thy fynger
  and thy thombe, and there wyll come oute a worme lyke
  a pece of fleshe, nygh as moche as a lyttel fynger. And
  whan it is out, put a lyttel tarre into the hole, and it wyll     16
  be shortely hole.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 31_b_.]]
  48. ¶ The blode, and remedy if one come betyme.

  There is a sicknes amo_n_g shepe, and is called the
      [Sidenote: ‘The blood’ in sheep.]
  bloude; that shepe, that hath that, wil dye sodeinly, and
  er he dye, he wil stande stil, and hange downe the heed,
  & other-while quake. If the shepeherde can espye                   4
  hym, let him take and rubbe hym about the heed, &
  specyally about his eares, and vnder his eyen, & with
      [Sidenote: Cut off the sheep’s ears.]
  a knyfe cut of his eares in the middes, & also let hym
  blode in a veyne vnder his eien: and if he blede wel,              8
  he is lyke to lyue; and if he blede not, than kil him, and
  saue his fleshe. For if he dye by hym-selfe, the flesshe is
  loste, and the skyn wyll be ferre ruddyer, lyke blode,
  more than an other skynne shall be. And it taketh                 12
  mooste commonly the fattest and best lykynge.

  49. ¶ The pockes, and remedy therfore.

      [Sidenote: Pocks in sheep.]
  The pockes appere vppon the skyn, and are lyke reed
  pymples, as brode as a farthynge, and therof wyll dye
  many. And the remedy therfore is, to handle all thy
  shepe, and to loke on euery parte of theyr bodyes: and             4
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 32.]]
  as many as ye fynde taken therwith, put them in fresshe
  newe grasse, and kepe them fro theyr felowes, and to
  loke thy flocke ofte, and drawe theym as they nede. And
  if it be in sommer tyme, that there be no froste, than             8
      [Sidenote: Wash them.]
  washe them. Howe be it some shepeherdes haue other

  50. ¶ The wode euyll, and remedy therfore.

  There is a sickenes among shepe, and is called the
      [Sidenote: ‘Wood-evil’ in sheep.]
  wode euyll, and that cometh in the sprynge of the yere,
  and takethe them moste commonly in the legges, or in
  the necke, and maketh them to halt, and to holde theyr             4
  necke awry. And the mooste parte that haue that sicknes,
  wyl dye shortely in a day or two. The best remedy is,
      [Sidenote: Wash them and change their pasture.]
  to wasshe theym a lyttell, and to chaunge theyr grounde,
  and to bryng them to lowe grounde and freshe grasse.               8
  And that sycknes is moste commonly on hylly grounde,
  ley grounde, and ferny grounde, And some men vse to let
  them bloudde vnder the eye in a vaine for the same cause.

  51. ¶ To washe shepe.

      [Sidenote: Wash and shear sheep in June.]
  In June is tyme to shere shepe, and er they be shorne,
  they muste be very well wasshen, the whiche shall be to
  the owner great profyte in the sale of his woll, and also to
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 32_b_.]]
  the clothe-maker; but yet beware, that thou put not to many        4
  shepe in a penne at one tyme, neyther at the washyng,
  nor at the sheryng, for feare of murtheryng or ouer-pressyng
  of their felowes, and that none go awaye, tyll he be
  cleane washen, and se that they that hold the shepe by             8
  the heed in the water, holde his heed hye ynoughe for

  52. ¶ To shere shepe.

      [Sidenote: How to shear sheep.]
  Take hede of the sherers, for touchynge the shepe with
  the sheres, and specially for pryckyng with the poynte of
  the sheres, and that the shepeherde be alway redy with
  his tarboxe to salue them. And se that they be well                4
      [Sidenote: Mark them well.]
  marked, bothe eare-marke, pitche-marke, and radel-marke,
  and let the wol be well folden or wounden with
  a woll-wynder, that can good skyll therof, the whiche shal
  do moche good in the sale of the same.                             8

  53. ¶ To drawe and seuer the badde shepe from the good.

      [Sidenote: Separate the sheep into flocks.]
  Whan thou haste all shorne thy shepe, it is than best
  tyme to drawe them, and soo seuer theym in dyuers sortes;
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 33.]]
  the shepe that thou wylte fede by them-selfe, the ewes by
  theym-selfe, the share-hogges and theyues by them-selfe,           4
  the lambes by theym-selfe, wedders and the rammes by
  them-self, if thou haue soo many pastures for them: for
  the byggest wyll beate the weikeste with his heed. And of
      [Sidenote: Put those of one kind together.]
  euery sort of shepe, it may fortune there be some, that            8
  like not and be weike; those wolde be put in freshe
  grasse by theym-selfe: and whan they be a lyttel mended,
  than sel them, and ofte chaunge of grasse shal mend all
  12 maner of cattell.

  54. ==> What thynges rotteth shepe.

  It is necessary that a shepeherde shoulde knowe what
  thynge rotteth shepe, that he myght kepe them the
      [Sidenote: Spear-wort.]
  better. Ther is a grasse called sperewort, and hath a
  long narowe leafe, lyke a spere-heed, and it wyll growe            4
  a fote hyghe, and beareth a yelowe floure, as brode as a
  peny, and it growethe alwaye in lowe places where the
  water is vsed to stande in wynter. An other grasse is
      [Sidenote: Penny-grass.]
  called peny-grasse, and groweth lowe by the erthe in a             8
  marsshe grounde, and hath a leafe as brode as a peny of
  two pens, and neuer beareth floure. All maner of grasse,
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 33_b_.]]
  that the lande-floudde renneth ouer, is verye ylle for
  shepe, bycause of the sande and fylthe that stycketh              12
      [Sidenote: Marshy ground is bad.]
  vppon it. All marreys grounde, and marsche grounde is
  yll for shepe; the grasse that groweth vppon falowes is
  not good for shepe; for there is moche of it wede, and
  ofte tymes it commeth vppe by the rote, and that bryngeth         16
      [Sidenote: Mildew.]
  erthe with it, and they eate both, &c. Myldewe-grasse
  is not good for shepe, and that ye shall knowe two
  wayes. One is by the leaues on the trees in the mornynge,
  and specyally of okes; take the leaues, and putte                 20
  thy tonge to them, and thou shalt fele lyke hony vppon
  them. And also there wyll be many kelles vppon the
  grasse, and that causeth the myldewe. Wherfore they
  may not well be let out of the folde tyll the sonne haue          24
      [Sidenote: Hunger-rot.]
  domynation to drye them awaye. Also hunger-rotte is
  the worst rotte that can be, for there is neither good
  flesshe nor good skynne, and that cometh for lacke of
  meate, and so for hunger they eate suche as they can              28
  fynde: and so will not pasture-shepe, for they selden
  rot but with myldewes, and than wyll they haue moch
      [Sidenote: White snails.]
  talowe and fleshe, and a good skyn. Also white snailes
  be yll for shepe in pastures, and in falowes. There               32
      [Sidenote: Pelt-rot.]
  is an other rotte, whiche is called pelte-rotte, and that
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 34.]]
  commeth of greatte wete, specyally in woode countreyes,
  where they can not drye.

  55. ¶ To knowe a rotten shepe dyuers maner wayes,
  wherof some of them wyll not fayle.

      [Sidenote: How to know rotten sheep.]
  Take bothe your handes, and twyrle vpon his eye, and
  if he be ruddy, and haue reed stryndes in the white of
  the eye, than he is sounde; and if the eye be white, lyke
  talowe, and the stryndes darke-coloured, thanne he is              4
  rotten. And also take the shepe, and open the wolle
  on the syde, and yf the skynne be of ruddy colour and
  drye, than is he sounde; and if it be pale-coloured, and
  watrye, thanne is he rotten. Also whanne ye haue                   8
      [Sidenote: Rotten sheep have loose wool.]
  opened the woll on the syde, take a lyttell of the woll
  bytwene thy fynger and thy thombe, and pull it a lyttell,
  and if it sticke faste, he is sounde, and if it comme
  lyghtely of, he is rotten. Also whan thou haste kylde a           12
  shepe, his belly wyll be full of water, if he be sore
  rotten, and also the fatte of the fleshe wyll be yelowe,
  if he be rotten. And also if thou cut the lyuer, therin
      [Sidenote: Rotten sheep have flukes in the liver.]
  wyll be lyttell quikens lyke flokes, and also the lyuer           16
  wyll be full of knottes and whyte blysters, yf he be
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 34_b_.]]
  rotten; and also sethe the lyuer, if he be rotten it wyll
  breke in peces, and if he be sounde, it wyll holde
  together.                                                         20

  56. ¶ To bye leane cattell.

  These housbandes, if they shall well thryue, they
  muste haue bothe kye, oxen, horses, mares, and yonge
  cattell, and to rere and brede euery yere some calues,
      [Sidenote: How to buy oxen.]
  and fools, or els shall he be a byer. And yf thou shalte           4
  by oxen for the ploughe, se that they be yonge, and
  not gowty, nor broken of heare, neyther of tayle, nor
  of pysell. And yf thou bye kye to the payle, se that
      [Sidenote: How to buy cows.]
  they be yonge and good to mylke, and fede her calues               8
  wel. And if thou bye kye or oxen to feede, the yonger
  they be, the rather they wyll fede; but loke well, that
  the heare stare not, and that he lycke hym-selfe, and
  be hoole-mouthed, and want no tethe. And thoughe he               12
  haue the goute and be broken, bothe of tayle and
  pysell, yet wyll he fede. But the gouty oxe wyll not
      [Sidenote: How to choose an ox.]
  be dryuen ferre; and se that he haue a brode ryb, and
  a thycke hyde, and to be lose-skinned, that it stycke not         16
  harde nor streyte to his rybbes, for than he wyll not fede.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 35.]]
  57. ¶ To bye fatte cattell.

      [Sidenote: How to buy fat cattle.]
  If thou shalte bye fatte oxen or kye, handel them,
  and se that they be soft on the fore-croppe, behynde
  the shulder, and vpon the hindermost rybbe, and upon
  the hucbone, and the nache by the tayle. And se                    4
  the oxe haue a greate codde, and the cowe great
  nauyll, for than it shulde seme that they shuld be wel
      [Sidenote: See where, and of whom, you buy.]
  talowed. And take hede, where thou byeste any leane
  cattel or fat, and of whom, and where it was bred. For             8
  if thou by out of a better grou_n_d than thou haste thy-selfe,
  that cattell wyll not lyke with the. And also
  loke, that there be no maner of sycknes amonge the
  cattell in that towneshyp or pasture that thou byest thy          12
  catel oute of. For if there be any murren or longe
  sought, it is great ieoperdy: for a beast maye take sycknes
  ten or .xii. dayes or more, ere it appere on hym.

  58. ¶ Dyuers sycnesses of cattell, and remedies
  therfore, and fyrst of murren.

      [Sidenote: Murrain.]
  And yf it fortune to fall murren amonge thy beastes,
  as god forbede, there be men ynough can helpe them.
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 35_b_.]]
  And it commeth of a ranknes of bloudde, and appereth
  moste commonly fyrste in the heed; for his heed wyll               4
  swell, and his eyen waxe greate and ronne of water
  and frothe at the mouthe, and than he is paste remedy,
  and wyl dye shortely, and wyll neuer eate after he be
      [Sidenote: Flay the dead beast, and bury it.]
  sycke. Than flee him, and make a depe pytte faste by,              8
  there as he dyeth, and caste hym in, and couer hym with
  erthe, that noo dogges may come to the caryen. For as
  many beastes as feleth the smelle of that caryen, are
  lykely to be enfecte; and take the skynne, and haue it            12
  to the tanners to sell, and bryng it not home, for peryll
  that may fal. And it is commonly vsed, and cometh of
      [Sidenote: Set the beast’s head, on a pole, in the hedge.]
  a greate charytie, to take the bare heed of the same beaste
  and put vpon a longe pole, and set it in a hedge, faste           16
  bounden to a stake, by the hyghe-waye syde, that euerye
  man, that rydethe or goeth that waye, maye se and knowe
  by that signe, that there is sycknes of cattell in the towneshyp.
  And the husbandes holde an opynyon, that it shall                 20
  the rather cease. And whanne the beaste is flaine, there
  as the murren dothe appere bytwene the flesshe and the
  skynne, it wyll ryse vppe lyke a ielly and frothe an inche
      [Sidenote: Remedy for murrain.]
  depe or more. And this is the remedy for the murren.              24
  Take a smalle curteyne-corde, and bynde it harde aboute
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 36.]]
  the beastes necke, and that wyll cause the bloudde to
  come in-to the necke, and on eyther syde of the necke
  there is a vayne that a man may fele with his fynger; and         28
      [Sidenote: Bleed the sick cattle.]
  than take a bloud-yren, and set it streight vppon the
  vayne, and smyte him bloudde on bothe sydes, and let
  hym blede the mountenaunce of a pynte or nyghe it, and
  than take awaye the corde, and it wyll staunche bleding.          32
  And thus serue all thy cattell, that be in that close or
  pasture, and there shall no mo be sicke, by goddes leue.

  59. ¶ Longe sought, and remedy therefore.

  There is an nother maner of sycknesse among bestes,
      [Sidenote: ‘Long sought.’]
  and it is called longe soughte; and that sickenes wyl
  endure lo_n_g, and ye shal perceyue it by his hoystynge;
  he wyl stande moche, and eate but a littel, and waxe very          4
      [Sidenote: The beast coughs 20 times an hour.]
  holowe & thin. And he wil hoyst .xx. times in an houre,
  and but fewe of them do mende. The best remedy is to
  kepe thy cattell in sondrye places, and as many as were
  in companye with that beast that fyrst fell sycke, to let          8
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 36_b_.]]
  them a lyttel bloude. And there be many men, that can
      [Sidenote: Cut the dewlap.]
  seuer them, and that is to cutte the dewlappe before, and
  there is a grasse that is called feitergrasse, take that
  grasse, and broyse it a lyttell in a morter, and thanne put       12
  therof as moche as an hennes egge in-to the sayd dewlappe,
  and se it fall not oute. Thus I have seen vsed,
  and men haue thought it hath done good.

  60. ¶ Dewbolne,[28] and the harde remedy therfore.

      [Sidenote: ‘Dewbolne.’]
  An other dysease amonge beastes is called dewbolne,[28]
  and that commeth whan a hungry beaste is put in a
  good pasture full of ranke grasse, he wyll eate soo
  moche that his sydes wyll stande as hygh as his backe-bone,        4
  and other-whyle the one syde more thanne the
  other, and but fewe of them wyll dye; but he maye
      [Sidenote: The beast is swollen.]
  not be dryuen hastely, nor laboured, being so swollen,
  and the substaunce of it is but wynde; and therfore                8
  he wolde be softly dryuen, and not sytte downe. Howe
      [Sidenote: Some men pierce a hole in the beast.]
  be it I haue seen a manne take a knyfe, and thruste hym
  thorowe the skynne and the flesshe two inches depe, or
  more, vi. inches or more from the ridge-bone, that the            12
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 37.]]
  wynde maye come out. For the wynde lyeth bytwene
  the fleshe and the grete paunche.

  61. ¶ Rysen vpon, and the remedy therfore.

      [Sidenote: ‘Risen upon.’]
  An other dysease is called rysen vppon, and no man
  can tell howe, nor wherof it cometh: but ye shall perceyue
  that by swellynge in the heed, and specyallye by
      [Sidenote: The beast’s eyes run.]
  the eyen, for they wyll ronne on water, and close his              4
  syght; and wyll dye shortly within an houre or two, if
  he be not holpen. This is the cause of his dysease.
  There is a blyster rysen vnder the tounge, the whiche
  blyster must be slytte with a knyfe a-crosse. Whan ye              8
      [Sidenote: Find the blister under the tongue, and cut it.]
  haue pulled out the tongue, rubbe the blyster well with
  salte, and take an hennes egge, and breake it in the
  beastes mouthe shell and all, and cast salte to it, and
  holde vp the bestes heed, that all maye be swalowed               12
  downe into the body. But the breakynge of the blyster
  is the greate helpe, and dryue the beaste a lyttell aboute,
  and this shall saue hym, by the helpe of Jesu.

  62. ==> The turne, and remedy therfor.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 37_b_.]]
      [Sidenote: ‘The turn.’]
  There be beastes that wyll turne about, whan they
  eate theyr meate, and wyll not fede, and is great
  ieoperdy for fallynge in pyttes, dyches, or waters: and
      [Sidenote: There is a bladder between the brain and
  it is bycause that there is a bladder in the foreheed              4
  bytwene the brayne-panne and the braynes, the whiche
  must be taken out, or els he shal neuer mende, but dye
  at lengthe, and this is the remedy and the greatest cure
  that can be on a beaste. Take that beast, and cast him             8
  downe, and bynde his foure fete together, and with thy
  thombe, thrust the beast in the foreheed, and where
  thou fyndest the softest place, there take a knyfe, and
  cut the skyn, three or foure inches on bothe sides                12
  bytwene the hornes, and as moche benethe towarde
  the nose, and fley it, and turne it vp, and pyn it faste
  with a pyn, and with a knyfe cut the brayne-pan .ii.
      [Sidenote: Cut the bone, but not the brain, and take out
       the bladder.]
  inches brode, and thre inches longe, but se the knyfe             16
  go no deper than the thycknes of the bone for perysshynge
  of the brayne, and take away the bone, and than
  shalt thou se a bladder full of water two inches longe
  and more, take that out, and hurte not the brayne, and            20
  thanne let downe the skynne, and sowe it faste there
  as it was before, and bynde a clothe two or thre folde
  vpon his foreheed, to kepe it from colde and wete .x. or
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 38.]]
  .xii. dayes. And thus haue I seen many mended. But                24
  if the beaste be fatte, and any reasonable meate vpon
  hym, it is best to kyll hym, for than there is but lyttell
  losse. And if the bladder be vnder the horne, it is
  past cure. A shepe wyll haue the turne as well as a               28
  beast, but I haue seen none mended.

  63. ==> The warrybrede, and the remedy therfore.

      [Sidenote: ‘Warrybrede.’]
  There be beastes that wyll haue warrybredes in dyuers
  partes of theyr body and legges, and this is the remedy.
  Cast hym downe, and bynde his foure fete together, and
      [Sidenote: Take a hot iron, and sear it.]
  take a culture, or a payre of tonges, or such an other             4
  yren, and take it glowing hote: and if it be a longe
  warrybrede, sere it of harde by the body, and if it be
  in the beginninge, and be but flatte, than lay the hot
  yren vpon it, and sere it to the bare skyn, and it will be         8
  hole for euer, be it horse or beast.

  64. ¶ The foule, and the remedy therfore.

      [Sidenote: ‘The foul.’]
  There be bestes, that wyll haue the foule, and that
  is betwene the cleese, sometyme before, and sometyme
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 38_b_.]]
  behynde, and it wyll swell, and cause hym to halt, and
  this is the remedy. Cast hym downe and bind his foure              4
      [Sidenote: Rub a rope between his claws till he bleeds.]
  fete together, & take a rope of heare, or a hey-rope,
  harde wrythen together, and put it betwene his cleese,
  and drawe the rope to and fro a good season, tyll he
  blede well, and than laye to it softe made terre, and              8
  binde a cloute aboute it, that noo myre nor grauell
  come betwene the clese: and put hym in a pasture, or
  let hym stande styll in the house, and he wyll be
  shortly hole.                                                     12

  65. ¶ The goute, without remedy.

      [Sidenote: The gout.]
  There be beastes, that wyll haue the goute, and moste
  commonly in the hynder fete, and it wyll cause them to
  halt, and go starkely. And I knewe neuer manne that
      [Sidenote: No remedy.]
  coulde helpe it, or fynde remedye therfore, but all-onely          4
  to put hym in good grasse, and fede hym.

  66. ¶ To rere calues.

      [Sidenote: To rear calves.]
  It is conueniente for a housbande to rere calues, and
  specyally those that come bytwene Candelmasse and
  Maye, for that season he may spare mylke beste; and by
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 39.]]
  that tyme the calfe shall be wayned, there wyll be grasse          4
  ynoughe to put hym vnto. And at winter he wyll be
  bygge ynoughe to saue hym-selfe amonge other beastes,
  with a lyttell fauoure. And the damme of the calfe shall
  bull agayne, and brynge an other by the same time of               8
  the yere: and if thou shalt tary tyll after May, the calfe
  wolde be weyke in wynter, and the damme wolde not
  bull agayne: but ofte tyme go bareyn. And if thou
  shalte rere a calfe that commeth after Myghelmasse, it            12
  wyll be costly to kepe the calfe all the wynter-season at
  hey, and the damme at harde meate in the house, as they
  vse in the playne champyon countrey. And a cowe shall
      [Sidenote: A cow gives more milk on grass than on hay.]
  gyue more mylke with a lyttell grasse and strawe, lyenge          16
  without in a close, thanne she shall doo with hey and
  strawe, lyenge in an house; for the harde meate dryeth
  vp the mylke. But he that hath no pasture, muste do as
  he may; but yet is it better to the housbande to sell those       20
  calues than to rere them, bycause of the cost, and also
  for the profytte of the mylke to his house, and the rather
  the cowe wyll take the bull. If the husbande go with
  an oxe-plough, it is conuenient that he rere two oxe-calues       24
  and two cowe-calues at the least, to vpholde his
  flocke, and if he maye do moo, it wyll be more profyte.
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 39_b_.]]
  And it is better, to wayne thy calues at grasse before.
  And that man, that maye haue a pasture for his kye, and           28
  an other for his calues, and water in them both, maye
  rere and brede good beastes with lyghte coste. And if
      [Sidenote: Do not wean calves on hay.]
  thou waine thy calues with hey, it wyl make them haue
  great belyes, and the rather they wyll rotte whan they            32
  come to grasse, and in wynter they wolde be put in a
  house by them-selfe, and gyuen hey on the nyghtes, and
  put in a good pasture on the day, and they shal be moche
  better to handell, whan they shal be kye or oxen.                 36

  67. ==> To gelde calues.

      [Sidenote: To geld ox-calves.]
  It is tyme to gelde his oxen calues in the olde of the
  mone, whan they be .x. or .xx. dayes olde, for than it is
  leaste ieoperdye, and the oxe shall be the more hyer, and
  the lenger of body, and the le_n_ger horned: and that maye         4
  be well prouyd, to take two oxe-calues, both of one kynde,
  of one makynge, and both of one age; gelde one of
  them, and let the other goo forthe and be a bull, and
      [Sidenote: A gelt calf grows bigger than a bull.]
  put theym bothe in one pasture, tyll they be foure or              8
  fyue yere olde: and than shall ye se the oxe-calfe ferre
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 40.]]
  greatter euery waye than the bull; there is noo cause but
  the geldynge; and yf thou gelde them not tyll they be
  a yere olde, there is more ieopardye, he shall be lesse of        12
  bodye, and shorte-horned.

  68. ¶ Horses and mares to drawe.

      [Sidenote: Horses and mares.]
  A husbande maye not be withoute horses and mares,
  or bothe; and specially, if he go with a horse-ploughe, he
  muste haue both his horses to drawe, and his mares to
  brynge coltes, to vpholde his flocke, and yet at manye             4
  tymes they maye drawe well, if they be well handled.
  But they maye not beare sackes, nor be rydden vppon
  noo iourneys whan they be with foole, and specyally
  whanne they haue gone with foole .xx. or .xxiiii. wekes,           8
      [Sidenote: Take care of the mares.]
  for than is the greateste ieopardy. For yf she be rydden
  vppon, and sette vp hotte, or tourned out and take cold,
  she wil caste her foole, the whiche woll be a greatte losse
  to the housbande. For she wyll labour and beare whan              12
  she hath fooled, and drawe whan she is with foole, as
  well as the horse. It is conuenient for the husbande to
  knowe, whanne his mare wolde be horsed. It is the
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 40_b_.]]
  common sayenge, that she wyll take the hors within .ix. or        16
  .x. dayes, nexte after that she hath fooled: but that saying
  I holde not with, for and she do so, she wyll not holde
  therto, for the hors dothe dryue her to it. But .xx.
  days after, is tymely ynoughe to brynge her to a hors.            20
  For she wyl not holde to it, excepte she be kene of horsyng,
  and that shal ye knowe by her shap, for that wyll twyrle
  open, and close agayne, many tymes in an houre: and than
  brynge her to a hors, and let her be with hym a day or a          24
  nyght, and that is suffycyent. For it is better, to kepe
      [Sidenote: Keep the horse from the mares.]
  the horse frome the mares, than to go with them, for
  dyuers causes, and specyally he shall be more lusty, and
  the moo horse-coltes shall he gete. But he that hath              28
  very many mares, may not alway attende them, but let
  them go to-gether, and take as god sendes it. Some
  men holde an opinion, that if the horse be put to the
      [Sidenote: Men have various opinions about foals.]
  mare in the begynnynge of the moone, after it be prime,           32
  he shall gete a horse-foole. And some men saye the contrary:
  that if he be putte to the mare in the olde of
  the mone, he shoulde gete horse-fooles. And I saye,
  it maketh noo matter, whether: for this cause I haue              36
      [Sidenote: I have 60 horses myself.]
  proued. I haue my selfe .lx. mares and more, able to
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 41.]]
  beare the horse, and from Maye daye vnto saynte Barthylmewes
  daye, I have .v. or .vi. horses goynge with
  theym bothe daye and nyghte, and at the foolynge-tyme             40
  I haue vpon one daye a horse-fole, and on the nexte
  daye, or seconde, a mare-fole, and on the thirde or
  fourth day next after, a horse-fole agayne, and soo euery
  weke of bothe sortes, and by theyr opynyon or reason,             44
  I shulde haue .xiiii. dayes together horse-fooles, and
      [Sidenote: With men who speak sophistically,]
  other .xiiii. dayes together mare-foles. And me semethe,
  that those men that holde that opinyon, speke sophystycallye;
  that if soo be they layde any wagers thervppon,                   48
  that they shoulde bothe wynne in theyr owne conceyte
  by this reason. Whether it were gette in the newe of
      [Sidenote: a filly may be called a horse-foal; and a colt
       may be called a mare-foal.]
  the mone or in the olde of the mone, it is a horse-foole,
  bycause a horse gate it, though it be a felly-fole; and it        52
  is a mare-fole, bycause a mare fooled it, thoughe it be
  a horse-colte. And so (_Diuersis respectibus_) theyr opynions
  maye be trewe. But of one thynge I am certayne,
  that some one horse wyll gette more horse-fooles than             56
  other horse wyll doo, and lyke wyse a mare wyll beare moo
  mare-fooles than some other mare wyll do, thoughe they
  be horsed bothe with one horse. Me semeth there is
  no reason why, but the lustynes of the nature of bothe            60
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 41_b_.]]
  partes, whether of them shall haue the domination.
  But and ye haue mares of dyuers colours, than do as
  I do, seuer them in diuers parcels, and put to your
      [Sidenote: With white mares put a gray horse.]
  white mares a grey horse, or a whyte horse that hath              64
  noo whyte rathe in the foreheed; and to your grey
  mares a white horse, so that he be not al white-skynned
  aboute the mouthe. And to your mares of colour, that
  haue no white vpon them, a coloured horse that hath               68
  moch white on hym, and to your coloured mares of
  mayne whyte, a horse of colour of mayn whyte. And
  thus shal ye haue well coloured coltes. It maketh noo
  mater of what colour the horse be, soo he be neyther              72
      [Sidenote: Put not a white horse with a coloured mare.]
  whyte nor grey. For if ye put a whyte horse to a
  coloured mare, she shall haue moste comonly a sandy
  colte, lyke an yren-gray, neyther lyke syre nor damme.
  Howe be it I haue seen and knowen many mares, that                76
  wyll haue theyr colte lyke the horse that gate it, the
  whiche is agaynste kynde of mares, for a manne maye
  rather gette one good horse than many good mares.

  69. ==> The losse of a lambe, a calfe, or a foole.

  It is lesse hurte to a man, to haue his cowe caste her
  calfe, thanne an ewe to caste her lambe. For the calfe
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 42.]]
  wyll soucke as moche mylke, er it be able to kyll, as it
  is worthe, and of the ewe commeth noo profytte of the              4
      [Sidenote: Some men milk ewes, but it is a loss.]
  mylke, but the lambe. Howe be it they vse in some
  places to mylke theyr ewes, whan they haue wayned
  theyr lambes: but that is great hurte to the ewes, and
  wyll cause them, that they wyll not take the ramme at              8
  the tyme of the yere for pouertye, but goo barreyne.
      [Sidenote: A lost foal is a great loss.]
  And if a mare caste her foole, that is thryse soo great
  a losse, for if that foole be commen of good brede, as
  it is necessary euery man to prouyde, for as moche                12
  costes and charges hath a badde mare as a good, in
  shorte space the foole, with good kepynge, maye be solde
  for as moche money as wolde bye many calues and lambes.           15

  70. ¶ What cattell shulde go to-gether in one pasture.

  Beastes alone, nor horses alone, nor shepe alone,
  excepte it be shepe vppon a verye hyghe grounde, wyll
  not eate a pasture euen, but leaue many tuftes and hygh
  grasse in dyuers places, excepte it be ouer-layde with             4
      [Sidenote: Put beasts and horses in a pasture together.]
  cattell. Wherfore knowe that horses and beastes wyll
  agree well in oone pasture, for there is some maner of
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 42_b_.]]
  grasse that a horse[29] wyll eate, and the beast wyl
  not eate, as the fytches, flasshes, and lowe places, and           8
  all the holowe bunnes and pypes that growe therin. But
  horses and shepe wyll not so well agree, excepte it be
  shepe to fede, for a shepe wyll go on a bare pasture, and
  wyll eate the sweteste grasse: and soo wyll a horse, but he       12
  wolde haue it lenger. Howe be it he wyll eate as nyghe
  the erthe as a shepe, but he can not so sone fyll his
      [Sidenote: With 100 beasts put 20 horses.]
  belly. To an hundred beastes ye maye put .xx. horses,
  if it be lowe ground, and if there be grasse ynoughe,             16
  put in an hundred shepe, and so after the rate, be the
  pasture more or lesse. And after this maner they may
  fede and eate the close euen and leue but fewe tuftes.
  And if it be an hyghe grounde, put in moo shepe,                  20
  and lesse bestes and horses. Melch kye, and draught
  oxen, wyll eate a close moche barer than as many fatte
      [Sidenote: Milch kine should not be too fat,]
  kye and oxen. And a melche cowe may haue to moch
  meate: for if she waxe fatte, she wyll the rather take            24
  the bull, and gyue lesse mylke. For the fatnes stoppeth
  the poores and the vaines, that shuld brynge the mylke
  to the pappes. And therfore meane grasse is beste
      [Sidenote: but have a moderate diet.]
  to kepe her in a meane estate. And if a cowe be                   28
  fatte, whan she shall calue, than is there great ieoperdy
  in her, and the calfe shall be the lesse: but ye can not
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 43.]]
  gyue your draught-oxe to moche meate, excepte it be
  the aftermath of a late mowen medowe. For that wyll               32
  cause hym to haue the gyrre, and than he maye not well
      [Sidenote: Too much grass is bad.]
  laboure. And there be to moche grasse in a close, the
  cattel shall fede the worse, for a good bytte to the erthe
  is suffycyente. For if it be longe, the beaste wyll byte          36
  of the toppe and noo more, for that is swetest, and the
  other lyeth styll vppon the grounde and rotteth, and
  no beaste wyll eate it but horse in wynter; but these
  beastes, horses and shepe, maye not be fodered to-gether          40
      [Sidenote: In winter, beasts will gore horses and sheep.]
  in wynter, for thanne they wolde be seuered: for els
  the beastes with theyr homes wyll put bothe horses
  and the shepe, and gore them in theyr bellyes. And it
  is necessarye to make standynge cratches, to caste theyr          44
  fodder in, and the staues set nyghe ynough togyther,
  for pullynge theyr fodder to hastely out, for shedynge.
  And if it be layde vppon the erthe, the fourthe parte
  therof wyll be loste: and if ye laye it vpon the erthe,           48
  laye it euerye tyme in a newe place, for the olde wyll
  marre the newe.

  71. ¶ The properties of horses.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 43_b_.]]
      [Sidenote: Grazier, be not beguiled!]
  Thou grasyer, that mayst fortune to be of myne
  opynyon or condityon, to loue horses and yonge coltes
  or foles to go amonge thy cattel, take hede that thou
      [Sidenote: I have been so 100 times.]
  be not begyled, as I haue ben an hundred tymes and                 4
      [Sidenote: A good horse has 54 properties;]
  more. And first thou shalt knowe, that a good horse
  hath .liiii. propertyes, that is to say .ii. of a man, .ii. of
  a bauson or a badger, .iiii. of a lyon, .ix. of an oxe, .ix.
  of an hare, .ix. of a foxe, .ix. of an asse, and .x. of a          8

  72. ¶ The two properties, that a horse hath of a man.

      [Sidenote: two, of a man:]
  The fyrste is, to haue a proude harte; and the seconde
  is, to be bolde and hardy.

  73. The .ii. propertyes of a bauson.

      [Sidenote: two, of a badger:]
  ¶ The fyrste is, to haue a whyte rase or a ball in the
  foreheed; the seconde, to haue a whyte fote.

  74. The .iiii. properties of a lyon.

      [Sidenote: four, of a lion:]
  ¶ The fyrste is, to haue a brode breste; the seconde, to
  be styffe-docked; the thyrde, to be wylde in countenaunce;
  the fourthe, to haue foure good legges.

  75. The .ix. propertyes of an oxe.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 44.]]
      [Sidenote: nine, of an ox:]
  ¶ The fyrste is, to be brode-rybbed; the .ii. to be lowe-brawned;
  the thyrde, to be shorte-pasturned; the .iiii.
  to haue greatte senewes; the fyfte, to be wyde betwene
  the challes; the syxte is, to haue great nosethrylles;             4
  the .vii. to be bygge on the chyn; the .viii. to be fatte
  and well fedde; the .ix. to be vpryghte standynge.

  76. The .ix. propertyes of an hare.

      [Sidenote: nine, of a hare:]
  ¶ The fyrste is styffe-eared; the seconde, to haue greate
  eyen; the thyrde, round eyen; the fourthe, to haue a
  leane heed; the .v. to haue leane knees; the syxte, to be
  wyght on foote; the .vii. to turne vpon a lyttell grounde;         4
  the .viii. to haue shorte buttockes; the .ix. to haue two
  good fyllettes.

  77. The .ix. propertyes of a foxe.

      [Sidenote: nine, of a fox:]
  ¶ The fyrste is, to be prycke-eared, the seconde, to
  be lyttell-eared; the thyrde, to be rounde-syded; the
  fourthe, to be syde-tayled; the fyfte, to be shorte-legged;
  the syxte, to be blacke-legged; the .vii. to be                    4
  shorte-trottynge; the .viii. to be well coloured; the .ix.
  to have a lyttell heed.

  78. The .ix. propertyes of an asse.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 44_b_.]]
      [Sidenote: nine, of an ass:]
  ¶ The fyrste is to be small-mouthed; the seconde, to be
  longe-rayned: the .iii. to be thyn-cressed; the fourthe,
  to be streyght-backed; the fyfth, to haue small stones;
  the syxte, to be lathe-legged; the .vii. to be rounde-foted;       4
  the eyght, to be holowe-foted; the .ix. to haue a toughe

  79. The .x. properties of a woman.

      [Sidenote: ten, of a woman:]
  ¶ The fyrst is, to be mery of chere; the seconde, to be
  well paced; the thyrde, to haue a brode foreheed; the
  fourth, to haue brode buttockes; the fyfthe, to be harde
  of warde; the syxte, to be easye to lepe vppon; the .vii.          4
  to be good at a longe iourneye; the .viii. to be well
  sturrynge vnder a man; the .ix. to be alwaye besye with
  the mouthe; the tenth, euer to be chowynge on the
  brydell. ¶ It myght fortune I coude shewe as many                  8
      [Sidenote: I could tell you faults of horses, but then I
       should break my promise.]
  defautes of horses, as here be good propertyes, but than
  I shulde breake my promyse, that I made at Grombalde
  brydge, the first tyme I wente to Ryppon for to bye coltes.
  But it is to suppose, that if a horse want any of these           12
  good propertyes, that he shulde haue a defaute in the
  same place. And this is suffycient for this time.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 45.]]
  80. ¶ The diseases and sorance of horses.

      [Sidenote: Diseases of horses.]
  Nowe it is to be knowen, the soraunce and dyseases of
  horses, & in what partes of theyr bodyes they be; that
  a man maye the rather perceyue them. And howe be it
  that it may be against my profyt, yet I wil shewe you              4
  suche as cometh to my mynde.

  81. The lampas.

      [Sidenote: The lampas.]
  ¶ In the mouthe is the lampas, & is a thycke skyn full
  of bloude, hangynge ouer his tethe aboue, that he may
  not eate.

  82. The barbes.

      [Sidenote: The barbs.]
  ¶ The barbes be lyttell pappes in a horse mouth, and
  lette hym to byte: these two be sone holpen.

  83. Mournynge of the tonge.

      [Sidenote: Mourning of the tongue.]
  ¶ Mournynge of the tonge is an yll dysease, and harde
  to be cured.

  84. Pursy.

      [Sidenote: Pursiness.]
  ¶ Pursy is a dysease in an horses bodye, and maketh
  hym to blowe shorte, and appereth at his nosethrilles,
  and commeth of colde, and may be well mended.

  85. Broken-wynded.

      [Sidenote: Broken wind.]
  ¶ Broken-wynded is an yll dysease, and cometh of
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 45_b_.]]
  rennynge or rydynge ouer moche, and specially shortely
  after he is watred, and appereth at his nosethryll, at his
  flanke, and also at his tuell, and wyll not be mended;             4
  and wyll moche blowe and coughe, if he be sore chafed;
  and it wyl leaste appere, whan he is at grasse.

  86. Glaunders.

      [Sidenote: Glanders.]
  ¶ Glaunders is a disease, that may be mended, and
  commeth of a heate, and a sodeyne colde, and appereth
  at his nosethrylles, and betwene his chall-bones.

  87. Mournynge on the chyne.

      [Sidenote: Mourning on the chine.]
  ¶ Mournynge on the chyne is a dysease incurable, and
  it appereth at his nosethryll lyke oke-water. A glaunder
  whan it breaketh, is lyke matter. Broken-wynded, and
  pursynes, is but shorte blowynge.                                  4

  88. Stranguellyon.

      [Sidenote: Stranguelion.]
  ¶ Stranguelyon is a lyght dysease to cure, and a horse
  wyl be very sore sycke therof, and cometh of a chafynge
  hote, that he swete, and after he wyll ryse and swell in
  dyuers places of his body, as moche as a mannes fyste;             4
  and wyll breake by it selfe, if it be kepte warme, or els
  is there ieoperdy.

  89. The hawe.

      [Sidenote: The haw.]
  ¶ The hawe is a sorance in a horse eye, and is lyke
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 46, _misprinted_ 49.]]
  gristell, and maye well be cutte oute, or els it wyll haue
  out his eye; and that horse that one, hath commonly
  two.                                                               4

  90. Blyndnes.

      [Sidenote: Blindness.]
  ¶ A horse wyll waxe blynde with laboure, and that
  maye be cured betyme.

  91. Viues.

      [Sidenote: The vives.]
  ¶ The viues is a sorance vnder a horse ere, bytwene the
  ouer ende of the chall-bones and the necke, and are
  rounde knottes bytwene the skyn and the fleshe lyke
  tennes-balles; and if they be not kilde, they wyl waxe             4
  quicke, and eate the rotes of the horse eares, and kil hym.

  92. The cordes.

      [Sidenote: The cords.]
  ¶ The cordes is a thynge that wyll make a horse to
  stumble, and ofte to fall, and appereth before the forther
  legges of the body of the horse, and may well be cured
  in .ii. places, and there be but fewe horses but they              4
  haue parte therof.

  93. The farcyon.

      [Sidenote: The farcion.]
  ¶ The farcyon is an yll soraunce, and maye well be cured
  in the begynnynge, and wyll appere in dyuers places of his
  bodye, and there wyll ryse pymples as moche as halfe a
  walnutshell, and they wyll folowe a veyne, and wyll                4
      [Sidenote: Other horses will catch it.]
  breake by it selfe. And as manye horses as do playe with
  him that is sore, and gnappe of the matter that renneth
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 46_b_.]]
  out of the sore, shall haue the same sorance within a
  moneth after; and therfore kepe the sycke frome the                8
  hole. And if that sorance be not cured betyme, he wyll
  dye of it.

  94. A malander.

      [Sidenote: The malander.]
  ¶ A malander is an yl sorance, and may wel be cured
  for a tyme, but with yl keping it wyl comme agayne,
  and appereth on the forther legges, in the bendynge of
  the knee behynde, and is lyke a scabbe or a skal: and              4
  some horses wyll haue two vpon a legge, within an
  inche together, and they wyl make a horse to stumble,
  and other whyle to fall.

  95. A selander.

      [Sidenote: The selander.]
  ¶ A selander is in the bendynge of the legge behynde,
  lyke as the malander is in the bendynge of the legge
  before, and is lyke a malander, and may be well cured.

  96. A serewe.

      [Sidenote: The serewe.]
  ¶ A serewe is an yll soraunce, and is lyke a splent, but
  it is a lyttell longer and more, and lyeth vppe to the knee
  on the inner syde. And some horses haue a throughe
  serewe on bothe sydes of the legge, and that horse must            4
  nedes stumble and fall, and harde it is to be cured.

  97. A splent.

      [Sidenote: A splent.]
  ¶ A splent is the leaste soraunce that is, that alwaye
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 47.]]
  contynueth, excepte lampas. And many men take vpon
  them to mende it, and do payre it.

  98. A ryngbone.

      [Sidenote: Ring-bone.]
  ¶ A ryngbone is an yll soraunce, and appereth before on
  the foote, aboue the houe, as well before as behynde,
  and wyll be swollen three inches brode, and a quarter
  of an inche or more of heyghte, and the heare wyll stare           4
  and waxe thyn, and wyll make hym to halte, and is yll
  to cure, if it growe longe.

  99. Wynd-galles.

      [Sidenote: Wind-galls.]
  ¶ Wyndgalles is a lyghte sorance, and commeth of great
  labour, and appereth on eyther syde of the ioynte aboue
  the fetelockes, as wel before as behynde, and is a lyttell
  swollen with wynde.                                                4

  100. Morfounde.

      [Sidenote: Morfound.]
  ¶ Morfounde is an yll sorance, and cometh of rydynge
  faste tyll he swete, and than sette vp sodeynely in a colde
  place, without lytter, and take cold on his fete, and
  specially before, and appereth vnder the houe in the hert          4
  of the fote, for it wylle growe downe, and waxe whyte,
      [Sidenote: It affects the feet.]
  and cromely lyke a pomis. And also wyl appere by
  processe by the wryncles on the houe, and the houe
  before wyll be thycker, and more bryckle than and he               8
  had not benne morfounde; nor he shall neuer trede so
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 47_b_.]]
  boldely vpon the harde stones as he dydde before; nor
  wyll not be able to beare a man a quarter of a yere or
  more; and with good paryng and shoynge, as he oughte              12
  to be, he wyll do good seruyce.

  101. The coltes euyll.

      [Sidenote: The colt’s evil.]
  ¶ Coltes euyll is an yll disease, and commeth of ranknes
  of nature and bloudde, and appereth in his scote, for
  there wyl he swel great, and wyll not be harde, and
  soone cured in the begynnynge.                                     4

  102. The bottes.

      [Sidenote: Bots in the maw.]
  ¶ The bottes is an yll dysease, and they lye in a horse
  mawe, and they be an inche long, white-coloured, and
  a reed heed, and as moche as a fyngers ende, & they
  be quycke, and stycke faste in the mawe-syde; it apperethe         4
  by stampynge of the horse, or tomblynge, and in the
  beginninge there is remedy ynoughe, and if they be
  not cured betyme, they wyll eate thorowe his mawe, and
  kyll hym.                                                          8

  103. The wormes.

      [Sidenote: Worms in the belly.]
  ¶ The wormes is a lyght dysease, and they lye in the
  greatte paunche, in the belye of the horse, and they
  are shynynge, of colour lyke a snake, syxe inches in
  lengthe, greate in the myddes, and sharpe at bothe                 4
  endes, and as moche as a spyndel, and wyll sone be

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 48.]]
  104. Affreyd.

      [Sidenote: ‘Affreyd.’]
  ¶ Affreyd is an yll disease, and commethe of great
  labour and rydynge faste with a contynuall sweate, and
  thanne sodeynly to take a great colde, his legges wyll
  be styffe, and his skyn wyll stycke fast to his sydes, and         4
  may be well cured.

  105. Nauylgall.

      [Sidenote: Navel-gall.]
  ¶ Nauylgall is a soraunce, hurte with a saddle, or with a
  buckle of a croper, or suche other, in the myddes of the
  backe, and maye be lyghtely cured.

  106. A spauen.

      [Sidenote: Spavin.]
  ¶ A spauen is an yll sorance, whervppon he wyll halte,
  and specyally in the begynnynge, and appereth on the
  hynder legges within, and agaynste the ioynte, and it wyll
  be a lyttell swolen and harde. And some horses haue                4
  throughe spauen, and appereth bothe within and without,
  and those be yll to be cured.

  107. A courbe.

      [Sidenote: A curb.]
  ¶ A courbe is an yll sorance, and maketh a horse to halte
  sore, and appereth vppon the hynder legges streyght
  behynde, vnder the camborell place, and a lyttell benethe
  the spauen, and wyll be swollen, and yll to cure, if it growe      4
  longe vpon hym.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 48_b_.]]
  108. The stringe-halte.

      [Sidenote: String-halt.]
  ¶ The stryng-halte is an yl disease, and maketh hym
  to twyche vp his legge sodeynly, and maketh hym to
  halte, and cometh ofte with a colde, and doth not appere
  outwarde.                                                          4

  109. Enterfyre.

      [Sidenote: Enterfire.]
  ¶ Enterfyre is a sorance, and cometh of yll shoynge, and
  appereth ofte both behynde and before, betwene the
  fete agaynst the fetelockes; there is no remedy but good
  showynge.                                                          4

  110. Myllettes.

      [Sidenote: Millets.]
  ¶ Myllettes is an yll sorance, and appereth in the fetelockes
  behynde, & causeth the heare to sheede thre or
  foure inches of length, and a quarter of an inche in brede,
  lyke as it were bare; and yll to cure but it maye be perceiued,    4
  and specially in wynter tyme.

  111. The peynes.

      [Sidenote: ‘The peynes.’]
  ¶ The peynes is an yll soraunce and appereth in the fetelockes,
  and wyl swel in wynter tyme, and oyse of water,
  and the heare wyll stare and be thyn, and yl to cure,
  but it wyl be seen in winter.                                      4

  112. Cratches.

      [Sidenote: Cratches.]
  ¶ Cratches is a soraunce that wyll cause a horse to halt,
  and commeth of yll kepynge, and appereth in the
  pasturnes, lyke as the skyn were cut ouerthwarte, that a
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 49.]]
  man maye laye a white strawe, and it is sone cured.                4

  113. Atteynt.

      [Sidenote: Attaint.]
  ¶ Atteynt is a sorance, that commeth of an ouer-rechynge,
  yf it be before; and if it be behynde, it is of
  the tredynge of an other horse, the whiche maye be soone
  cured.                                                             4

  114. Grauelynge.

      [Sidenote: Gravelling.]
  ¶ Grauelynge is a hurte, that wyll make a horse to halte,
  and commethe of grauell and lyttel stones, that goth in
  betwene the shough and the herte of the fote, and is sone
  mended.                                                            4

  115. A-cloyed.

      [Sidenote: A-cloyed.]
  ¶ A-cloyde is an hurte, that commeth of yll shoynge,
  whan a smyth dryueth a nayle in-to the quycke; the
  which wyll make hym to halt, and is sone cured.

  116. The scabbe.

      [Sidenote: The scab.]
  ¶ There is a disease amonge horses that is called the
  scabbe, and it is a skorfe in dyuers places of his body.
  And it commeth of a pouertie and yll kepynge; and is
  most commonly amonge olde horses, and wyll dye                     4
  thervpon, and maye be well cured.

  117. Lowsy.

      [Sidenote: Lousy horses.]
  ¶ There be horses that wyll be lowsy, and it cometh of
  pouertie, colde, and yll kepynge; and it is moste commonly
  amonge yonge horses, and menne take lyttell
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 49_b_.]]
  hede vnto it; and yet they wyll dye thervppon, and it              4
  maye be soone cured.

  118. Wartes.

      [Sidenote: Want of warts behind.]
  ¶ There is a defaute in a horse, that is neyther sorance,
  hurte, nor disease, and that is, if a horse wante wartes
  behynde, benethe the spauen-place, for then he is noo
  chapmannes ware, if he be wylde; but if he be tame,                4
      [Sidenote: _Caveat emptor._]
  and haue ben rydden vpon, than _Caueat emptor_, beware
  the byer, for the byer hath bothe his eyen to se, and
  his handes to handell. It is a sayenge, that suche a
  horse shoulde dye sodeynely, whan he hath lyued as                 8
  many yeres as the mone was dayes olde, at suche tyme
  as he was foled.

  119. The sayinge of the frenche-man.

  ¶ These be soraunce, hurtes, dyseases, that be nowe
      [Sidenote: A French proverb.]
  comme to my mynde; and the frenche-man saythe, _Mort
  de langue et de eschine Sount maladyes saunce medicine_.
  The mournynge of the tongue, and of the chyne, are                 4
  diseases without remedy or medicyne. And ferther he
      [Sidenote: Another French proverb.]
  saythe, _Gardes bien, que il soyt cler de vieu, Que tout
  trauayle ne soit perdue_: Be wel ware that he be clere
  of syghte, lest all thy trauayle or iourneye be lost or            8
  nyght. And bycause I am a horse-master my-selfe, I
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 50.]]
  haue shewed you the soraunce and dyseases of horses, to
  the entent that men shulde beware, & take good hede
  what horses they bye of me or of any other. Howe                  12
      [Sidenote: If ever you trust a horse-master, trust me.]
  be it I saye to my customers, and those that bye any
  horses of me, and euer they wil trust any hors-master
  or corser whyle they lyue, truste me.

  120. ¶ The diuersitie bytwene a horse-mayster,
  a corser, and a horse-leche.

      [Sidenote: A horse-master buys wild colts and breeds them
       and breaks them in.]
  A Horse-mayster is he, that bieth wylde horses, or
  coltes, and bredeth theym, and selleth theym agayne
  wylde, or breaketh parte of them, and maketh theym
  tame, and than selleth them. A corser is he, that byeth            4
      [Sidenote: A courser merely deals in them.]
  all rydden horses, and selleth them agayne. The horse-leche
  is he, that takethe vppon hym to cure and mende
      [Sidenote: A horse-leech cures their diseases.]
  all maner of diseases and soraunce that horses haue.
  And whan these three be mette, if ye hadde a potycarye             8
      [Sidenote: Add to these an apothecary, and you have
       4 rogues.]
  to make the fourthe, ye myghte haue suche foure, that
  it were harde to truste the best of them. It were also
  conuenyent to shew medicynes and remedyes for al these
  diseases and sorances; but it wolde be to longe a processe        12
  at this tyme, for it wolde be as moche as halfe
  this boke. And I haue not the perfyte connynge, nor
  the experyence, to shewe medycynes and remedyes for
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 50_b_.]]
  theym all. And also the horse-leches wolde not be                 16
  content therwith, for it myghte fortune to hurte or
  hynder theyr occupation.

  121. ¶ Of swyne.

  Nowe thou husbande, that haste bothe horses and
  mares, beastes and shepe: It were necessary also, that
  thou haue bothe swyne and bees; for it is an olde
      [Sidenote: Whoso hath sheep, swine and bees, shall surely
  sayinge: he that hath bothe shepe, swyne, and bees,                4
  slepe he, wake he, he maye thryue. And that sayenge
  is, bycause that they be those thinges that moste profyt
  riseth of in the shortest space, with least coste. Than
  se howe manye swyne thou art able to kepe; let them                8
      [Sidenote: Have only boars and sows; no hogs.]
  be bores and sowes all, and no hogges. And if thou
  be able to rere vi pigges a yere, than let two of them
  be bores, and foure of them sowes, and so to contynue
  after the rate. For a bore will haue as lyttell kepynge           12
      [Sidenote: A boar is better than a hog.]
  as a hogge, and is moche better than a hogge, and more
  meate on hym and is ready at all tymes to eate in the
  wynter season, and to be layde in souse. And a sowe, er
  she be able to kyl, shall bryng forth as many pyggs or            16
  moo, as she is worth; and her bodye is neuer the worse,
  and wyll be as good baken as a hogge, and as lyttell
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 51.]]
  kepynge, but at suche tyme as she hath pygges. And if
  thy sowe haue moo pygges than thou wilt rere, sel them,           20
      [Sidenote: Rear pigs in spring and early summer.]
  or eate them, & rere those pigges that come about lenten-time,
  specyally the begynnynge of somer, for they can-not
  be rered in winter, for cold, without great coste.

  122. ==> Of bees.

  Of bees is lyttell charge but good attendaunce; at the
  tyme that they shall cast the swarme, it is conuenient, that
      [Sidenote: Put the beehive in a garden or orchard.]
  the hyue be set in a garden, or an orchyarde, where as
  they maye be kepte from the northe wynde, and the                  4
  mouthe of the hyue towarde the sonne. And in June
      [Sidenote: They commonly swarm in June or July.]
  and July they do most commonlye caste, and they
  wolde haue some lowe trees nyghe vnto them before
  the hyue that the swarme maye lyght vpon; and whan                 8
  the swarme is knytte, take a hyue, and splente it within
  with thre or foure splentes, that the bees maye knytte
  theyr combes therto; and annoynte the splentes, and
      [Sidenote: How to take a swarm.]
  the sydes of the hyue, with a lyttell honye. And if thou          12
  haue no honye, take swete creame, and than set a stole
  or a forme nyghe vnto the swarme, and laye a clene
  washen shete vppon the stole, and thanne holde the
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 51_b_.]]
  smalle ende of the hyue downewarde and shake the                  16
  bees in-to the hyue, and shortely sette it vppon the stole,
  and turne vppe the comers of the shete ouer the hyue,
  and to leue one place open, that the bees may come in
      [Sidenote: Never strive with bees.]
  and out: but thou mayst not fight nor stryue with theym           20
  for noo cause; and to laye nettyls vppon the bowes,
  where as they were knytte, to dryue them from that
  place; and soo watche them all that daye, that they go
  not away; and at nyght, whan al be goone vp into the              24
  hyue, take it away and set it where it shall stande, and
  take awaye thy shete, and haue claye tempered to laye
  aboute it vppon the borde or stone, where it shall stande,
  that noo wynde comme in, but the borde is better and              28
      [Sidenote: Leave a hole for the bees to go in and out.]
  warmer. And to leaue an hole open on the south syde,
  of three inches brode, and an inche of heyghte, for the
  bees to come in and out. And than to make a couerynge
  of wheate-strawe or rye-strawe, to couer and house the            32
      [Sidenote: Set the hive on stakes, at least two feet from
  hyue about, and set the hyue two fote or more from the
  erthe vpon stakes, soo that a mouse cannot come to it,
  and also neyther beastes nor swyne. And if a swarme be
  caste late in the yere, they wolde be fedde with honnye in        36
  wynter, and layde vppon a thynne narowe borde, or a
  thynne sclatte or leade; put it into the hyue, and an other
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 52.]]
  thynne borde wolde be set before euery hyues mouthe,
  that no winde come in; and to haue foure or fyue                  40
  lyttell nyckes made on the nether syde, that a bee maye
  comme out or go in, and so fastened, that the wynde
  blowe it not downe, and to take it vp whan he wyll.
      [Sidenote: If a hive is fed on honey, stop the mouth of it.]
  And that hyue that is fedde, to stoppe the mouthe cleane,         44
  that other bees come not in; for if they doo, they wyll
  fyghte, and kyll eche other. And beware, that noo
  waspes come in-to the hyue, for they wyll kyl the bees,
  and eate the honny. And also there is a bee called a              48
      [Sidenote: Drones.]
  drone, and she is greatter than an other bee, and they wyll
  eate the honny, and gather nothynge: and therfore they
      [Sidenote: It is said, the drone hath lost her sting.]
  wolde be kylde, and it is a sayenge, that she hath loste
  her stynge, and than she wyl not labour as the other              52

  123. ¶ Howe to kepe beastes and other cattell.

      [Sidenote: How to keep beasts.]
  If a housbande shall kepe cattell well to his profytte,
  he must haue seuerall closes and pastures to put his cattel
  in, the which wolde be wel quickesetted, diched, &
  hedged, that he maye seuer the byggeste cattell frome              4
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 52_b_.]]
  the weykeste at his pleasure, and specyallye in wynter-tyme,
  whan they shall be fodered. And thoughe a man
  be but a farmer, and shall haue his farme xx yeres, it
      [Sidenote: It is best to quickset, ditch, and hedge
       cattle in.]
  is lesse coste for hym, and more profyte, to quyckeset,            8
  dyche, and hedge, than to haue his cattell goo before the
  herdeman. For let the housbande spende in thre yeres
  as moche money as the kepynge of his beastes, swyne,
  and shepe doth cost him in iii yeres, than alwaye after,          12
  he shal haue all maner of cattell with the tenthe parte of
  the coste, and the beastes shal lyke moche better. And
      [Sidenote: A herdman expects 2_d._ per beast; and a
       swineherd 1_d._]
  by this reason. The herdeman wyll haue for euery beast
  .ii.d. a quarter, or there aboute: And the swyneherde             16
  wyll haue for euery swyne .i.d. at the leaste. Than he
  must haue a shepeherde of his owne, or elles he shal
  neuer thryue. Than reken meate, drinke, and wages
  for his shepeherde, the herdmans hyre, and the swyneherdes        20
  hyre, these charges wyll double his rent or nyghe
  it, excepte his farme be aboue .xl. s. by yere. Nowe see
      [Sidenote: It is better to spend the money on hedges.]
  what his charges be in .iii. yeres, lette hym ware as moche
  money in quickesettynge, dychynge, and hedgynge, and              24
  in thre yeres he shall be discharged for euermore, and
  moche of this labour he and his seruauntes maye do with
  theyr owne handes, and saue moche money. And than
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 53.]]
  hath he euery fyelde in seueraltye. And by the assente            28
  of the lordes and tenauntes, euery neyghbour may exchaunge
  landes with other. And than shall his farme be
  twyse so good in profytte to the tenaunte as it was before,
  and as moche lande kepte in tyllage; and than shall not           32
  the ryche man ouer-eate the poore man with his cattell,
      [Sidenote: You will save in hay and straw.]
  and the fourth parte of heye and strawe shall serue his
  cattell better in a pasture, than iiii. tymes soo moche wyll
  do in a house, and lesse attendaunce, and better the              36
  cattel shall lyke, and the chiefe sauegarde for corne bothe
  daye and nyghte that can be.

  124. ¶ To get settes and set them.

  And if thou haue pastures, thou muste nedes haue
  quyckesettynge, dychynge and plasshynge. Whan it is
      [Sidenote: Quickset hedges.]
  grene, and commeth to age, than gette thy quyckesettes
  in the woode-countreye, and let theym be of whyte-thorne           4
  and crabtree, for they be beste; holye and hasell be good.
  And if thou dwelle in the playne-countrey, than mayste
  thou gete bothe asshe, oke, and elme, for those wyll
      [Sidenote: Set young oaks and ashes.]
  encrease moche woode in shorte space. And set thy oke-settes       8
  and the asshe .x. or .xii fote a-sonder, and cut them
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 53_b_.]]
  as thou dost thy other settes, and couer theym ouer with
  thornes a lyttell, that shepe and cattell eate them not.
      [Sidenote: Clear away the weeds.]
  And also wede them clene in mydsomer mone or soone                12
  after: for the wedes, if they ouer growe, wyl kyl the settes.
      [Sidenote: Never have blackthorn.]
  But get no blacke-thorne for nothynge, for that wyl grow
  outwarde into the pasture, and doth moch hurte in the
  grasse, and tearyng the woll of the shepe. It is good             16
  tyme to set quickesettes, fro that tyme the leaues be fallen,
      [Sidenote: When to set quicksets.]
  vnto oure lady daye in lente; and thy sandye grounde or
  grauell set fyrste, than clay grounde, and than meane
  grounde, and the medowe or marreys grounde laste, for             20
  the sande and grauell wyll drye anone, and than the
  quyckeset wyll take no rote, excepte it haue greate weate;
  for the muldes wyll lye lose, if it be dyched in February or
      [Sidenote: How to set quicksets.]
  marche, and lyke wise clay ground. And make thy settes            24
  longe ynough, that they maye be set depe ynough in the
  erth: for than they wyll growe the better. And to stande
  halfe a foote and more aboue the erthe, that they maye
  sprynge oute in many braunches. And than to take a lyne,          28
  and sette it there as thou wylte haue thy hedge, and to
      [Sidenote: Make a straight trench.]
  make a trenche after thy lyne, and to pare awaye the
  grasse there the quyckesettes shal be set, and caste it by,
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 54.]]
  where the erthe of the dyche shall lye, and dygge vp the          32
  muldes a spade-graffe depe, and to put in thy settes, and
  dygge up more molde, and laye vppon that set, and so
  peruse, tyll thou haue set all thy settes, and let them lene
      [Sidenote: Have the ditch a foot from the hedge.]
  towarde the dyche. And a foote from that make thy                 36
  dyche. For if thou make it to nyghe thy settes, the
  water maye fortune to weare the grounde on that syde,
  and cause thy settes to fall downe.

  125. ¶ To make a dyche.

      [Sidenote: Of what size to make ditches.]
  If thou make thy dyche foure foote brode, than wolde
  it be two foote and a halfe depe. And if it be .v. fote
  brode, than .iii. fote depe, and so accordynge; and if it
  be fyue fote brod, than it wolde be double sette, and the          4
  rather it wolde fence it-selfe, and the lower hedge wyll

  126. ¶ To make a hedge.

      [Sidenote: Stakes for a hedge.]
  Thou muste gette the stakes of the harte of oke, for
  those be best; crabtre, blacke-thorne, and ellore be good.
  Reed wethy is beste in marsshe grounde; asshe, maple,
  hasel, and whyte-thorne wyl serue for a time. And set              4
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 54_b_.]]
  thy stakes within .ii. foote and a halfe together, excepte
  thou haue very good edderynge, and longe, to bynde with.
      [Sidenote: Ethers for a hedge.]
  And if it be double eddered, it is moch the better, and
  gret strength to the hedge, and moche lenger it wil last.          8
  And lay thy small trouse or thornes, that thou hedgeste
  withall, ouer thy quickesettes, that shepe do not eate the
      [Sidenote: Drive the stakes firmly.]
  sprynge nor buddes of thy settes. Let thy stakes be well
  dryuen, that the poynt take the hard erthe. And whan              12
  thou haste made thy hedge, and eddered it well, than take
      [Sidenote: Wind in the ethers.]
  thy mall agayne, and dryue downe thy edderinges, and
  also thy stakes by and by. For with the wyndynge of the
  edderynges thou doost leuse thy stakes; and therfore              16
      [Sidenote: Then drive the stakes again.]
  they muste nedes be dryuen newe, and hardened agayne,
  and the better the stake wil be dryuen, whan he is wel

  127. ¶ To plasshe or pleche a hedge.

      [Sidenote: How to pleach a hedge.]
  If the hedge be of .x. or .xii. yeres growing sythe it
  was first set, thanne take a sharpe hachet, or a handbyll,
  and cutte the settes in a playne place, nyghe vnto the
      [Sidenote: Cut the sets more than half through,]
  erthe, the more halue a-sonder; and bende it downe                 4
  towarde the erthe, and wrappe and wynde theym to-gether,
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 55.]]
  but alwaye se that the toppe lye hyer than the
      [Sidenote: and bend them down, but not too low.]
  rote a good quantytie, for elles the sappe wyll not renne
  in-to the toppe kyndely, but in processe the toppe wyll            8
  dye; and than set a lyttel hedge on the backe-syde, and
  it shall nede noo more mendynge manye yeres after.
  And if the hedge be of .xx. .xxiiii. or .xxx. yere of age,
      [Sidenote: How to pleach an older hedge.]
  sythe it was fyrst sette, than wynde in first al the              12
  nether-moste bowes, and wynde them together, and than cutte
  the settes in a playne place a lyttel from the erth, the
  more halfe a-sonder, and to lette it slaue downewarde,
  and not vpwarde, for dyuerse causes: than wynde the               16
  bowes and braunches therof in-to the hedge, and at euery
  two fote, or .iii. fote, to leaue one set growyng not
  plasshed; and the toppe to be cut of foure fote hygh,
  or there-aboute, to stande as a stake, if there be any            20
  suche, or els to set an-other, and to wynd the other that
  be pleched about them. And if the bowes wyll not
  lye playne in the hedge, than cut it the more halfe
      [Sidenote: How to pleach a very old hedge.]
  a-sonder, and bynd it to the hedge, and than shal he not          24
  nede for to mende the hedge, but in fewe places, .xx.
  yeres after or more. And if the hedge be olde, and be
  great stubbes or trees, and thyn in the bottome, that
  beastes may go vnder or betwene the trees: thanne                 28
  take a sharpe axe, and cutte the trees or stubbes, that
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 55_b_.]]
  growe a fote from the erthe, or there-about, in a plaine
  place, within an inche or two inches of the side, and let
  them slaue downward, as I sayd before, and let the                32
  toppe of the tree lye ouer the rote of an other tree, and
  to pleche downe the bowes of the same tree, to stoppe
  the holowe places. And if all the holowe and voyde
  places wyl not be fylled and stopped, than scoure the             36
  olde dyche, and cast it vp newe, and to fyll with erthe all
  the voyde places. And if soo be these trees wyll not
  reche in euerye place to make a sufficyent defence, than
  double quicke-set it, & diche it new in euery place that          40
  is nedeful, and set a hedge thervpon, and to ouerlay the
  settes, for eatynge of shepe or other cattel.

  128. ¶ To mende a hye-waye.

      [Sidenote: How to mend a road.]
  Me semeth, it is necessarye to shewe mine opinion,
  howe an hye-way shulde be amended. And fyrste and
  pryncypally, se that there be noo water standynge in the
      [Sidenote: Let no water stand on it.]
  hye-waye, but that it be alwaye currante and rennynge,             4
  nor haue none abydynge more in one place thanne in another.
  And in somer, whan the water is dryed vp, than
  to get grauell, and to fyll vp euery lowe place, and to
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 56.]]
  make theym euen, somewhat dyscendynge or currante,                 8
      [Sidenote: Fill up the holes with gravel.]
  one waye or other; and if there be noo grauell nor
  stones to gette, yet fyll vp with erthe in the begynnyge
  of somer, that it maye be well hardened with
  caryage and treadynge vppon, and it shall be well                 12
  amended, if the water maye passe away from it; the
  whiche wolde be well consydered, and specially aboute
      [Sidenote: About London they mend roads badly, putting in
       earth before the gravel.]
  London, where as they make moche more coste than
  nedeth; for there they dyche theyr hye-wayes on bothe             16
  sydes, and fyll vp the holowe and lowe places with erthe,
  and than they caste and laye grauell alofte. And whan
  a greatte rayne or water commeth, and synketh thorowe
  the grauell, and commeth to the erthe, than the erthe             20
  swelleth and bolneth and waxeth softe, and with
      [Sidenote: Then the gravel sinks, and the road is like a
  treadynge, and specyally with caryage, the grauell
  synketh, and gothe downewarde as his nature and kynde
  requyreth, and than it is in maner of a quycke-sande,             24
  that harde it is for any thynge to goo ouer. But yf they
  wolde make no dyche in sommertyme, whan the water is
  dryed vp, that a man may se all the holowe and lowe places,
      [Sidenote: They should use gravel only.]
  than to cary grauel, and fyl it vp as hygh as the other           28
  knolles be; than wold it not bolne ne swell, nor be no
  quycke-sande, and euery ma_n_ may go beside the hie-way
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 56_b_.]]
  with theyr cariage at theyr pleasure. And this me semeth
  is lesse coste, and lenger wyll last with a lyttell mendynge      32
      [Sidenote: This should be looked to.]
  whan nede requyreth. Therfore me thynketh, yf this
  were well loked vpon, it shuld be bothe good and
  necessarye for that purpose: for soo haue I seen done in
  other places, where as I haue ben, &c.                            36

  129. ¶ To remoue and set trees.

      [Sidenote: How to remove and set trees.]
  If thou wylte remoue and sette trees, get as manye
  rotes with them as thou canste, and breake them not, nor
  bryse theym, by thy wyll. And if there be any rote
  broken and sore brused, cut it of harde by, there as it is         4
  brused, with a sharpe hatchet, elles that roote wyll dye.
  And if it be asshe, elme, or oke, cut of all the bowes
      [Sidenote: Cut off some of the boughs.]
  cleane, and saue the toppe hole. For if thou make hym
  ryche of bowes, thou makeste hym poore of thryfte, for             8
  two causes. The bowes causeth theym to shake with
  wynde, and to leuse the rotes. Also he can-not be
  soo cleane gete, but some of the rotes muste nedes be cut,
  and than there wyll not come soo moche sappe and                  12
  moystenes to the bowes, as there dyd before. And if
  the tree be very longe, cut of the top, two or thre
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 51; _So misnumbered all the way to the
       end. We may call it 51*._]]
  yardes. And if it be an apple-tree, or peare-tree, or
  suche other as beareth fruyte, than cut away all the              16
  water-bowes, and the small bowes, that the pryncipall
  bowes may haue the more sap. And if ye make a
  marke, which syde of the tree standeth towarde the
  sonne, that he may be set so agayne, it is soo moche              20
  the better.

  130. ¶ Trees to be set without rotes and growe.

      [Sidenote: Some trees can be set without roots.]
  There be trees wil be set without rotes, and growe
  well, and sprynge rotes of them-selfe. And those be
  dyuerse apple-trees, that haue knottes in the bowes, as
  casses, or wydes, and suche other, that wyll growe on              4
      [Sidenote: Poplar and withy.]
  slauynges, and lykewyse popeler and wethy: and they
  must be cut cleane besyde the tree, that they growe on,
  and the toppe cut cleane of .viii. or .x. fote of lengthe,
  and all the bowes betwene, and to be set a fote depe or.           8
  in the erthe, in good grounde. And ye shall vnderstande,
      [Sidenote: Four withies, viz. white, black, red, and osier.]
  that there be foure maner of wethyes, that is
  to say, white wethye, blacke wethy, reed wethy, and
  osyerde wethy. Whyte wethye wyll growe vppon drye                 12
  grounde, yf it be sette in the begynnyge of wynter, and
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 51*_b_.]]
  wyll not growe in marsshe grounde; blacke wethy wyll
  growe better on marshe grounde, and redde wethy in
      [Sidenote: Osiers will grow in water.]
  lyke maner: and osyerde wethy wyll growe beste in water           16
  and moyste grounde. And they be trees that wyll soone
  be nourysshed, and they wyll beare moche woodde, and
      [Sidenote: Crop them every seven years.]
  they wolde be cropped euery .vii. or .viii. yere or els they
  wyll dye; but they maye not be cropped in sappe-tyme,             20
  nor no tree els. And in many places, bothe the lordes,
  freeholders, and tenauntes at wyll, sette suche wethyes, and
  popelers, in marsshe grounde, to nourysshe wodde, &c.

  131. ¶ To fell wodde for housholde, or to sell.

      [Sidenote: Fell underwood in winter; let the cattle
       browze on it.]
  If thou haue any woddes to felle, for thy householde
  to brenne, or to sell, than fell the vnder-wodde fyrste in
  wynter, that thy cattell or beastes maye eate and brouse
  the toppes, and to fell noo more on a daye but as moche            4
  as the beastes wyll eate the same daye, or on the morowe
  after. And as soone as it is well eaten or broused,
  thanne kydde it, and set them on the endes, and that
      [Sidenote: Make it up into faggots.]
  wyll saue the bandes from rottynge, and they shall be              8
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 52*.]]
  the lyghter to carye, and the better wyll they brenne,
  and lie in lesse rowme. And whan thou shalt bryng them
      [Sidenote: How to stack faggots.]
  home to make a stacke of them, set the nethermoste
  course vpon the endes, and the seconde course flat vppon          12
  the syde, and the endes vpwarde, and the thyrde cou[r]se
  flatte on the syde ouerthwart the other. And so to
  peruse them, tyll thou haue layd all vp. And whan thou
  shalte brenne them, take the ouermoste fyrste.                    16

  132. ¶ To shrede, lop, or croppe trees.

      [Sidenote: How to shred, lop, and crop trees.]
  If thou haue any trees to shrede, loppe, or croppe
  for the fyre-wodde, croppe them in wynter, that thy
  beastes maye eate the brouse, and the mosse of the
  bowes, and also the yues. And whanne they be broused               4
  and eaten, dresse the wodde, and bowe it clene, and
  cutte it at every byghte, and rere the greatte wodde to
  the tree, and kydde the smal bowes, and set them on
  ende. And if thou shalte not haue sufficyent wodde,                8
      [Sidenote: Do not head trees too low.]
  excepte thou heed thy trees, and cut of the toppes, than
  heed theym thre or foure fote aboue any tymber: and
  if it be noo tymbre tree, but a shaken tree, or a hedge-rote
  full of knottes, than heed hym thyrty foote hyghe,                12
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 52*_b_.]]
  or twenty at the leaste, for soo ferre he wyll beare
  plentye of woode and bowes, and moche more, thanne
      [Sidenote: Trees grow only to a certain height; then
       they spread.]
  if he were not heeded. For a tree hath a propertye to
  growe to a certayne heyght, and whan he commeth to                16
  that heyghte, he standeth styll, and groweth noo hyer,
  but in brede; and in conclusion the toppe wyll dye
  and decrease, and the body thryue. And if a tree be
  heeded, and vsed to be lopped and cropped at euerye               20
  .xii. or .xvi. yeres ende, or there-about, it wyll beare
  moche more woode, by processe of time, than if it were
  not cropped, and moche more profyte to the owner.

  133. ¶ Howe a man shoulde shrede, loppe, or croppe

      [Sidenote: In shredding trees, some men begin at the top.]
  It is the comon gyse, to begynne at the top of the
  tree, whan he shall be shred or cropped, bycause eche
  bough shulde lye vppon other whan they shall fal, so
  that the weight of the bowes shall cause theym to be               4
      [Sidenote: It is not the best way.]
  the rather cut downe. But that is not beste, for that
  causeth the bowes to slaue downe the nether parte,
  and pulleth awaye the barke from the bodye of the tree,
  the whiche wyll cause the tree to be holowe in that place          8
  in tyme commynge, and many tymes it shall hynder
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 53*.]]
  hym. And therfore lette hym begynne at the nether-moste
  boughe fyrste, and with a lyghte axe for an hande,
  to cut the boughe on bothe sydes, a fote or two foote             12
  from the bodye of the tree. And specially cut it more
  on the nether syde, than on the ouer syde, soo that
  the boughe fall not streyght downe, but turne on the
  syde, and than shall it not slaue nor breke no barke.             16
  And euery boughe wil haue a newe heed, and beare
      [Sidenote: Never crop or head a tree with a north or
       east wind,]
  moche more woode; and by thy wyll, without thou must
  nedes do it, crop not thy tree, nor specyallye heed hym,
  whan the wynde standeth in the northe, or in the eest.            20
  And beware, that thou croppe hym not, nor heed hym
      [Sidenote: nor in sap-time.]
  (specially) in sappe-tyme, for than wyll he dye within
  fewe yeres after, if it be an oke.

  134. ¶ To sell woode or tymber.

      [Sidenote: Retail the wood yourself.]
  If thou haue any woode to selle, I aduyse the, retayle
  it thy-selfe, if thou mayste attende vppon it: and if not,
  thanne to cause thy baylye, or somme other wyse or
      [Sidenote: If small, sell in faggots.]
  dyscrete man, to do it for the. And if it be small wode,           4
  to kydde it, and sel it by the hundredes, or by the thousandes.
  And if there be asshes in it, to sell the smalle
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 53*_b_.]]
  asshes to cowpers for garches, and the gret asshes to
  whele-wryghtes, and the meane asshes to plowe-wrightes,            8
  and the crabbe-trees to myllers, to make cogges and
  ronges. And if there be any okes, bothe gret and smal,
      [Sidenote: Fell oaks and sell them.]
  fel them, and pyl them, and sel the barke by it-selfe; and
  than sorte the trees, the polles by them-selfe, the myddel        12
  sorte[30] by them-selfe, and the greattest by them-selfe, &
  than sel them by scores, or halfe scores, or .C. as thou
  maist, and to fel it hard by the erth, for i. fote next
  vnto the erth is worthe .ii fote in the top; and to cut           16
  thy tymber longe ynoughe, that thou leue no timber in
  the toppe. And to sell the toppes as they lye a greatte,
  or elles dresse them & sel the great wodde by it-selfe,
  & the kyd-wodde by it-selfe, and to fal the vnder-wode            20
  fyrst at any tyme between Martilmas and holyrode-day.
      [Sidenote: Ash-trees.]
  And al the asshes, bytwene Martylmasse and Candelmas,
  and all okes, as soon as they wyl pyl, vntyl May be done,
  and not after. Perauenture the greattest man hath not             24
      [Sidenote: Selling wood requires care.]
  the beste prouisyon. And that is bycause the seruauntes
  wyll not enfourme hym these wayes, and also may fortune
  they wold bye suche woodes theym-selfe, or be partener
  of the same and to auyse his lorde to sel them. It is not         28
  co_n_uenient that the salesman, that selleth the wod, shuld
  be partener with the bier.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 54*.]]
  135. ¶ To kepe sprynge-wodde.

  In the wynter before that thou wilt fel thy wodde, make
  a good and a sure hedge, that no maner of cattel can get
  in. And as shortly as it is fallen, let it be caryed away, or
      [Sidenote: Of plantations or ‘spring-wood.’]
  the sprynge come vp, for els the cattell, that doth cary           4
  the wodde, wyll eate the sprynge: and whan the top is
  eaten, or broken, it is a great lette, hurte, and hynderaunce
  of the goodnes of the sprynge; for than where it is eaten,
  it burges oute of many braunches, and not soo fayre as             8
  the fyrst wolde haue ben. A parke is best kept, where
  there is neyther man, dogge, nor foure-foted beast therin,
  except dere. And so is a spryng beste kepte, where
      [Sidenote: If there is much grass there, put in only
       calves and colts.]
  there is neyther manne nor foure-foted beastes within             12
  the hedge. But if there be moche grasse, and thou were
  lothe to lose it, than put in calues, newly wained and
  taken from theyr dammes, and also waynynge coltes, or
  horses not paste a yere of age: and let thy calues be             16
  taken away at Maye; the coltes may go lenger for eating
  of any wodde; but there is ieoperdy bothe for calues,
  foles, and coltes, for tyckes or for beinge lowsy, the
  whiche wyl kyl them, if they be not taken hede vnto.              20
  And .vii. yeres is the lest that it wil saue it-selfe, but
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 54*_b_.]]
  .x. yeres is best. And than the vnder bowes wolde be
  cutte awaye, and made kyddes therof, and the other
  wyll growe moche the better and faster. And if the                24
      [Sidenote: Cut away the underwood.]
  vnder bowes be not cutte awaye, they wyll dye, and than
  they be loste, and greatte hurte to the sprynge, for they
  take awaye the sappe, that shoulde cause the sprynge to
  growe better.                                                     28

  136. ¶ Necessary thynges belongynge to graffynge.

      [Sidenote: Pears, apples, cherries, filberts, bullace,
       damsons, &c.]
  It is necessarye, profytable, and also a pleasure,
  to a housbande, to haue peares, wardens, and apples of
  dyuerse sortes. And also cheryes, filberdes, bulleys,
  dampsons, plummes, walnuttes, and suche other. And                 4
  therfore it is conuenyent to lerne howe thou shalte
  graffe. Than it is to be knowen what thynges thou
      [Sidenote: A grafting-saw.]
  must haue to graffe withall. Thou muste haue a graffynge-sawe,
  the whiche wolde be very thynne, and                               8
  thycke-tothed; and bycause it is thynne, it wyll cut the
  narower kyrfe, and the cleaner, for brusynge of the barke.
  And therfore it is sette in a compasse pece of yren,
  syxe inches of, to make it styffe and bygge. Thou                 12
      [Sidenote: Grafting-knife.]
  muste haue also a graffynge-knyfe, an inche brode, with
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 55*.]]
  a thycke backe, to cleue the stocke with-all. And also
      [Sidenote: Mallet, and sharp small knives.]
  a mallet, to dryue the knyfe and thy wedge in-to the
  tree: and a sharpe knife, to pare the stockes heed, and           16
  an other sharpe knyfe, to cutte the graffe cleane. And
      [Sidenote: Two wedges.]
  also thou muste haue two wedges of harde wood, or elles
  of yren, a longe small one for a small stocke, and broder
  for a bygger stocke, to open the stocke, whan it is clouen        20
      [Sidenote: Clay, moss, and bast.]
  and pared: and also good tough claye and mosse, and
  also bastes or pyllynge of wethy or elme, to bynde them
  with, &c.

  137. ¶ What fruite shuld be fyrste graffed.

      [Sidenote: Graft pears before apples.]
  Peares and wardens wolde be graffed before any maner
  of apples, bycause the sappe commeth sooner and rather
  in-to the peare-tree and warden-tree, thanne in-to the
      [Sidenote: Graft from Feb. 14 to March 25.]
  apple-tree. And after saynt Valentynes daye, it is tyme            4
  to grade both peares and wardens, tyll Marche be comen,
  and thanne to graffe appels to our lady daye. And than
  graffe that that is gette of an olde apple-tree fyrste, for
  that wyll budde before the graffe get of a yonge apple-tree        8
  late graffed. And a peare or a warden wolde be
  graded in a pyrre-stocke; and if thou canst get none,
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 55*_b_.]]
  than graffe it in a crabbe-tree stocke, and it wyll do well:
  and some men grade theym in a whyte-thorne, and than              12
      [Sidenote: A crab-stock is best for apples.]
  it wyll be the more harder and stonye. And for all
  maner of appels, the crabtree stocke is beste.

  138. ¶ Howe to graffe.

      [Sidenote: Select the graft.]
  Thou muste get thy graffes of the fayrest lanses, that
  thou canste fynde on the tree, and see that it haue a good
      [Sidenote: Saw the crab-tree,]
  knotte or ioynte, and an euen. Than take thy sawe, and
  sawe in-to thy c[r]abbetree, in a fayre playne place, pare it      4
      [Sidenote: cleave and open the stock;]
  euen with thy knyfe, and thanne cleaue the stocke with
  thy greatte knyfe and thy mallet, and set in a wedge, and
  open the stocke, accordynge to the thyckenesse of thy
  graffe; thanne take thy smalle sharpe knyfe, and cutte             8
  the graffe on bothe sydes in the ioynte, but passe not the
  myddes therof for nothynge, and let the inner syde, that
  shall be set in-to the stocke, be a lyttel thynner than the
  vtter syde, and the nether poynte of the graffe the               12
      [Sidenote: then put the graft into the stock.]
  thynner: than proferre thy graffe in-to the stocke; and
  if it go not close, than cut the graffe or the stocke, tyll
  they close cleane, that thou canste not put the edge of
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 56*.]]
  thy knyfe on neyther syde betwene the stocke and the              16
  graffe, and sette them so that the toppes of the graffe
  bende a lyttell outewarde, and see that the wodde of the
  graffe be set mete with the wodde of the stocke, and the
  sappe of the stocke maye renne streyght and euen with             20
      [Sidenote: The bark of the graft is thinner than that
       of the stock.]
  the sappe of the graffe. For the barke of the graffe is
  neuer soo thicke as the barke of the stocke. And therfore
  thou mayste not sette the barkes mete on the vtter
  syde, but on the inner syde: than pulle awaye thy wedge,          24
  and it wyl stande moche faster. Than take toughe cleye,
  lyke marley, and ley it vppon the stocke-heed, and with
  thy fynger laye it close vnto the graffe, and a lyttel vnder
  the heed, to kepe it moyst, and that no wynde come into           28
      [Sidenote: Cover with moss, and bind with bast.]
  the stocke at the cleauynge. Than take mosse, and laye
  thervpon, for chynynge of the claye: than take a baste
  of whyte wethy or elme, or halfe a bryer, and bynd the
  mosse, the clay, and the graffe together, but be well ware,       32
  that thou breake not thy graffe, neyther in the clayenge,
  nor in the byndynge; and thou muste set some-thinge
  by the graffe, that crowes, nor byrdes do not lyght vpon
  thy graffe, for if they do, they wil breake hym, &c.              36

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 56*_b_.]]
  139. ¶ To graffe bytwene the barke and the tree.

  There is an other maner of graffinge than this, and
  soner done, & soner to growe: but it is more ieoperdy for
      [Sidenote: Another way of grafting.]
  winde whan it begynneth to growe. Thou muste sawe
  thy stocke, and pare the heed therof, as thou diddest              4
  before, but cleue it not: than take thy graffe, and cut it in
  the ioynt to the myddes, and make the tenaunte therof
  halfe an inche longe or a lyttell more, all on the one syde,
  and pare the barke awaye a lyttel at the poynt on the              8
      [Sidenote: Use a punch of hard wood.]
  other syde: than thou muste haue made redy a ponch of
  harde wood, with a stop and a tenaunte on the one syde,
  lyke to the tenaunte of the graffe. Than put the tenaunt
  of the ponche betwen the barke and the woode of the               12
  stocke, and pull it out agayne, and put in the graffe,
  and se that it ioyne close, or els mende it. And this
  can-not fayle, for now the sappe cometh on euery syde,
  but it wyl spring soo faste, that if it stande on playne          16
      [Sidenote: The graft requires protection from the wind.]
  grounde, the wynde is lykelye to blowe it besyde the
  heed, for it hath no fastnes in the wodde. And this is
  beste remedy for blowynge of, to cutte or clyppe awaye
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 57.]]
  somme of the nethermooste leaues as they growe. And               20
  this is the beste waye to graffe, and specyally a greate
  tree: than claye it, and bynde it as dyddest the other, &c.

  140. ¶ To nourishe all maner of stone fruite, and nuttes.

      [Sidenote: Stone-fruits.]
  As for cheryes, dampsons, bulleys, plummes, and suche
  other, maye be sette of stones, and also of the scyences,
  growynge aboute the tree, of the same, for they wyll
      [Sidenote: Filberts and walnuts.]
  sooneste beare. Fylberdes and walnuttes maye be set of             4
  the nuttes in a gardeyne, and after remoued and sette
  where he wyll. But whan they be remoued, they wolde
  be set vpon as good a grounde, or a better, or els they
  wyll not lyke.                                                     8

  141. ¶ A shorte information for a yonge gentyl-man, that
  entendeth to thryue.

      [Sidenote: Get a copy of this book, and read it from
       beginning to end.]
  I auyse hym to gette a copy of this presente boke,
  and to rede it frome the begynnynge to the endynge,
  wherby he maye perceyue the chapyters and contentes
  of the same, and by reason of ofte redyng, he maye                 4
  waxe perfyte, what shulde be doone at all seasons. For
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 57_b_.]]
  I lerned two verses at grammar-scole, and they be these:
      [Sidenote: Cf. Ovid, ex Ponto Epist. IV. x. 5.]
  _Gutta cauat lapidem non vi, sed sæpe cadendo: Sic homo fit
  sapiens non vi, sed sæpe legendo_: A droppe of water perseth       8
  a stoone, not al-onely by his owne strengthe, but by his
  often fallynge. Ryghte so a man shall be made wyse,
  not all-onely by hym-selfe, but by his ofte redynge. And
  soo maye this yonge gentyllman, accordynge to the                 12
      [Sidenote: Read a chapter to your servants now and then.]
  season of the yere, rede to his seruauntes what chapyter
  he wyll. And also for any other maner of profyte conteyned
  in the same, the whiche is necessary for a yonge
  husbande, that hath not the experyence of housbandrye,            16
  nor other thynges conteyned in this presente boke, to
  take a good remembraunce and credence thervnto, for
  there is an olde sayinge, but of what auctorytie I cannot
  tell: _Quod melior est practica rusticoru_m, _q_uam _scie_n_tia   20
      [Sidenote: Practice is better than theory.]
  philosophorum._ It is better the practiue or knowlege of
  an husband-man well proued, than the science or connynge
  of a philosopher not proued, for there is nothynge
  touchyng husbandry, and other profytes conteyned in               24
  this presente booke, but I haue hadde the experyence
  therof, and proued the same. And ouer and beside al
  this boke, I wil aduise him to ryse betime in the morning,
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 58.]]
  according to the verse before spoke of, _Sanat, sanctificat,      28
  et ditat surgere mane_: And go about his closes, pastures,
  fieldes, and specially by the hedges, & to haue in his
      [Sidenote: Keep a pair of tables, and make notes of all
       that seems amiss.]
  purse a payre of tables, and whan he seeth any-thing,
  that wolde be amended, to wryte it in his tables: as if he        32
  fynde any horses, mares, beastes, shepe, swyne, or geese
  in his pastures, that be not his owne: And perauenture
  thoughe they be his owne, he wolde not haue them to
  goo there, or to fynde a gap, or a sherde in his hedge,           36
  or any water standynge in his pastures vppon his grasse,
  wherby he maye take double hurte, bothe losse of his
  grasse, and rotting of his shepe and calues. And also
  of standynge-water in his corne-fieldes at the landes             40
  endes, or sydes, and howe he wolde haue his landes
      [Sidenote: Look to the corn, cattle, ditches, etc.]
  plowed, donged, sturred, or sowen. And his corne weded
  or shorne or his cattell shifted out of one pasture into
  an other, and to loke what dychyng, quicsettyng, or plashing,     44
  is necessary to be had, and to ouer-se his shepeherd,
  how he handleth and ordreth his shepe, and his seruantes
      [Sidenote: Look to the gates.]
  howe they plowe and do theyr warkes, or if any gate
  be broken down, or want any staues, and go not lyghtly            48
  to open and tyne, and that it do not traile, and that the
  windes blowe it not open, with many mo necessary
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 58_b_.]]
  thynges that are to be loked vpon. For a man alwaye
  wanderynge or goinge aboute somewhat, fyndeth or seeth            52
  that is a-mysse, and wolde be amended. And as soone
  as he seeth any suche defautes, than let hym take oute his
  tables, and wryte the defautes. And whan he commeth
  home to diner, supper, or at nyght, than let hym call his         56
      [Sidenote: Tell your bailiff of all that needs to be done.]
  bayly, or his heed-seruaunte, and soo shewe hym the
  defautes, that they may be shortly amended. And whan
  it is amended, than let him put it out of his tables. For
  this vsed I to doo .x. or .xii. yeres and more. And thus          60
  let hym vse dayely, and in shorte space he shall sette
  moche thynges in good order, but dayely it wyll haue
      [Sidenote: If you cannot write, make nicks on a stick.]
  mendynge. And yf he canne not wryte, let hym nycke
  the defautes vppon a stycke, and to shewe his bayely, as          64
  I sayde before. Also take hede bothe erly and late, at
  all tymes, what maner of people resorte and comme to thy
  house, and the cause of theyr commynge, and specially
  if they brynge with them pytchers, cannes, tancardes,             68
      [Sidenote: Keep an eye on the servants, and on all who
       come to your house.]
  bottelles, bagges, wallettes, or busshell-pokes. For if thy
  seruauntes be not true, they maye doo the great hurte,
  and them-selfe lyttel auauntage. Wherfore they wolde be
  well loked vppon. And he that hath .ii. true seruauntes,          72
  a man-seruaunte, and an-other a woman-seruaunt, he hath
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 59.]]
  a great treasure, for a trewe seruaunte wyl do iustly hym-selfe,
  and if he se his felowes do amysse, he wyl byd them
  do no more so, for if they do, he wyll shewe his master           76
  therof: and if he do not this, he is not a trewe seruaunt.

  142. ¶ A lesson made in Englisshe verses, to teache a gentylmans
  seruaunt, to saye at euery tyme whan he
  taketh his horse, for his remembraunce, that he shall
  not forget his gere in his inne behynde hym.

      [Sidenote: Hexameter verses, to help the memory.]
  Pvrse, dagger, cloke, nyght-cap, kerchef, shoyng-horne,
        boget, and shoes.
  Spere, male, hode, halter, sadelclothe, spores, hatte, with
        thy horse-combe.
  Bowe, arrowes, sworde, bukler, horne, leisshe, gloues,
        stringe, and thy bracer.
  Penne, paper, inke, parchmente, reedwaxe, pommes, bokes,
        thou remember.                                               4
  Penknyfe, combe, thimble, nedle, threde, poynte, leste
        that thy gurthe breake.
  Bodkyn, knyfe, lyngel, gyue thy horse meate, se he be
        showed well.
  Make mery, synge and thou can; take hede to thy gere, that
        thou lose none.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 59_b_.]]
  143. ¶ A prologue for the wyues occupation.

  Nowe thou husbande, that haste doone thy dylygence
  and labour, that longeth to an husbande, to get thy
  lyuynge, thy wyues, thy chyldrens, and thy seruauntes:
      [Sidenote: Seldom thrives the husband without his wife’s
  yet are there other thynges, that muste nedes be done,             4
  or elles thou shalte not thryue. For there is an olde
  common sayenge, that seldom doth the housbande thryue,
  withoute the leue of his wyfe. By this sayenge it shoulde
  seme, that there be other occupations and labours, that            8
  be moste conuenient for the wyues to do. And howe be
      [Sidenote: I will tell the wives part of their duties.]
  it that I haue not experyence of al theyr occupations and
  warkes, as I haue of husbandry, yet a lyttell wyl I speke
  what they ought to do, though I tel them nat howe they            12
  shulde doo and exercyse theyr labours and occupations.

  144. ¶ A lesson for the wyfe.

  But yet er I begynne to shewe the wyfe, what warkes
      [Sidenote: A lesson of Solomon.]
  she shall do, I wyll firste teche her a lesson of Salomon,
  as I did to her husbande a lesson of the philosopher,
  and that is, that she shulde not be ydle at noo tyme:              4
  for Salomon saythe, _Ociosus non gaudebit cum electis in
  cælo: sed lugebit in æternum cum reprobis in inferno_: That
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 60.]]
  is to say, The ydle folke shall not ioye with the chosen
  folkes in heuen, but they shall sorowe with the reproued           8
      [Sidenote: A lesson of Jerome.]
  and forsaken folkes in hell. And saynt Iherom saythe:
  _Semper boni operis aliquid facito, vt te diabolus inueniat
  occupatum: Quia sicut in aqua stante generantur vermes: sic
  in homine ocioso generantur malæ cogitationes_: That is to say,   12
  Alwaye be doinge of some good werkes, that the dyuell
  may fynde the euer occupied: for as in standynge water
  are engendred wormes, ryghte soo in an ydle body are
  engendred ydle thoughtes. Here mayste thou se, that               16
  of ydelnes commeth damnation, and of good warkes and
  labour cometh saluation. Nowe arte thou at thy lyberty,
      [Sidenote: Choose either idleness or labour.]
  to chose whether waye thou wylt, wherin is a great
  diuersitie. And he is an vnhappy man or woman, that               20
  god hath giuen bothe wyt and reason, and putteth hym
  in chose, and woll chose the worst parte. Nowe thou
  wyfe, I trust to shewe to the dyuers occupations, warkes,
  and laboures, that thou shalt not nede to be ydle no tyme         24
  of the yere.

  145. ¶ What thynges the wyfe is bounden of ryght to do.

      [Sidenote: Let the wife love her husband.]
  First and prynycypally the wyfe is bounde of ryghte to
  loue her housbande, aboue father and mother, and aboue
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 60_b_.]]
  all other men. For our lorde saythe in his gospell;
      [Sidenote: Matt. xix. 5.]
      [Sidenote: Mark x. 7.]
  _Relinquet patrem et matrem, et adherebit[31] vxori suæ_: A man    4
  shulde leue father and mother, and drawe to his wyfe:
  and the same wyse a wyfe shulde do to her husbande.
  And are made by the vertue of the sacrament of holy
      [Sidenote: One body, and two souls.]
  scripture one fleshe, one bloude, one body, and two                8
  soules. Wherfore theyr hartes, theyr myndes, theyr
  warkes, and occupations, shulde be all one, neuer to
  seuer nor chaunge durynge theyr natural lyues, by any
  mannes acte or dede, as it is sayde in the same gospel:           12
      [Sidenote: Matt. xix. 9.]
      [Sidenote: Mark x. 9.]
  _Quod deus coniunxit, homo non separet_: That thynge that
  god hath ioyned to-gether, noo man maye seuer nor
  departe. Wherfore it is conuenyente that they loue
  eche other as effectually as they wolde doo theyr owne            16
  selfe, &c.

  146. ¶ What warkes a wyfe shulde do in generall.

      [Sidenote: First, at rising, bless thyself.]
  First in a mornyng whan thou arte waked, and purposeste
  to ryse, lyfte vp thy hande, and blesse the, and
  make a sygne of the holy crosse, _In nomine patris, et filii,
  et spiritus sancti. Amen._ In the name of the father, the          4
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 61.]]
  sonne, and the holy gooste. And if thou saye a _Pater
  noster_, an _Aue_, and a _Crede_, and remember thy maker,
  thou shalte spede moche the better. And whan thou arte
      [Sidenote: Sweep the house,]
  vp and redy, than first swepe thy house, dresse vp thy             8
  dyssheborde, and sette all thynges in good order within
      [Sidenote: milk the cows, dress the children.]
  thy house: milke thy kye, socle[32] thy calues, sye vp thy
  mylke, take vppe thy chyldren and araye theym, and
  prouyde for thy husbandes brekefaste, dynner, souper,             12
  and for thy chyldren and seruauntes, and take thy parte
      [Sidenote: Send corn to the mill, and measure it before
       it goes.]
  with theym. And to ordeyne corne and malte to the
  myll, to bake and brue withall whanne nede is. And
  meete it to the myll, and fro the myll, and se that thou          16
  haue thy measure agayne besyde the tolle, or elles the
  myller dealeth not truely with the, or els thy corne is not
      [Sidenote: Make butter and cheese.]
  drye as it shoulde be. Thou must make butter, and chese
  whan thou maist, serue thy swyne bothe mornyng and                20
  euenynge, and gyue thy poleyn meate in the mornynge;
  and whan tyme of the yere cometh, thou must take hede
      [Sidenote: Gather the eggs.]
  howe thy hennes, duckes, and geese do ley, and to gather
  vp theyr egges, and whan they waxe brodye, to sette               24
  them there as noo beastes, swyne, nor other vermyn
  hurte them. And thou muste knowe, that all hole-footed
  fowles wyll sytte a moneth, and all clouen-footed fowles
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 61_b_.]]
  wyll sytte but three wekes, excepte a peyhenne, and greatte       28
  fowles, as cranes, bustardes, and suche other. And whan
  they haue broughte forthe theyr byrdes, to see that they
  be well kepte from the gleyd, crowes, fullymartes, and
      [Sidenote: Put in order the garden.]
  other vermynne. And in the begynnynge of Marche, or               32
  a lyttell afore, is tyme for a wyfe to make her garden, and
  to gette as many good sedes and herbes as she canne,
  and specially suche as be good for the potte, and to eate:
  and as ofte as nede shall requyre, it muste be weded, for         36
  els the wedes wyl ouergrowe the herbes. And also in
  Marche is tyme to sowe flaxe and hempe, for I haue
      [Sidenote: Better are March hards than April flax.]
  harde olde houswyues saye, that better is Marche hurdes
  than Apryll flaxe, the reason appereth: but howe it               40
  shulde be sowen, weded, pulled, repeyled, watred,
  wasshen, dryed, beaten, braked, tawed, hecheled, spon,
  wounden, wrapped, and wouen, it nedeth not for me to
  shewe, for they be wise ynough; and therof may they               44
      [Sidenote: Make sheets, towels, and shirts.]
  make shetes, bordclothes, towels, shertes, smockes, and
  suche other necessaryes, and therfore let thy dystaffe
  be alwaye redye for a pastyme, that thou be not
  ydle. And vndouted a woman can-not gette her lyuynge              48
  honestely with spynnynge on the distaffe, but it stoppeth
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 62.]]
  a gap, and muste nedes be had. The bolles of flaxe,
  whan they be ripeled of, must be rideled from the wedes,
      [Sidenote: Dry the flax.]
  and made drye with the son, to get out the sedes. Howe            52
  be it one maner of linsede, called loken sede, wyll not
  open by the son: and therfore, whan they be drye, they
  muste be sore brused and broken, the wiues knowe howe,
  and than winowed and kepte drye, tyll yere-tyme come              56
  agayn. Thy female hempe must be pulled from the
  churle hempe, for that beareth no sede, and thou must
  do by it, as thou dydest by the flax. The churle hempe
  beareth sede, and beware that byrdes eate it not, as it           60
  groweth: the he_m_p therof is not soo good as the female
      [Sidenote: Sometimes there is a great deal to do.]
  hempe, but yet it wyll do good seruyce. May fortune
  somtime, that thou shalt haue so many thinges to do, that
  thou shalt not well knowe where is best to begyn. Than            64
  take hede, which thing shulde be the greattest losse, if
  it were not done, and in what space it wold be done:
  than thinke what is the greatest losse, & there begyn.
      [Sidenote: Leave that till last which will best wait.]
  But in case that thynge, that is of greateste losse, wyll         68
  be longe in doynge, and thou myghteste do thre or foure
  other thynges in the meane whyle, thanne loke well, if
  all these thynges were sette together, whiche of them
  were the greattest losse; and if all these thynges be of          72
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 62_b_.]]
  greater losse, and may be all done in as shorte space, as
  the other, than doo thy many thynges fyrste.

  ¶ It is conuenyente for a housbande to haue shepe of
  his owne, for many causes, and than maye his wife haue            76
      [Sidenote: With some of the wool make clothes.]
  part of the woll, to make her husbande and her-selfe
  some clothes. And at the leaste waye, she may haue the
  lockes of the shepe, eyther to make clothes or blankettes
  & couerlettes, or bothe. And if she haue no woll of her           80
  owne, she maye take wol to spynne of clothe-makers, and
  by that meanes she maye haue a conuenyent lyuynge, and
  many tymes to do other warkes. It is a wyues occupation,
      [Sidenote: Winnow corn, brew, wash, make hay, etc.]
  to wynowe all maner of cornes, to make malte, to wasshe           84
  and wrynge, to make heye, shere corne, and in tyme of
  nede to helpe her husbande to fyll the mucke-wayne or
  dounge-carte, dryue the ploughe, to loode hey, corne, and
      [Sidenote: Sell the butter, cheese, hens, geese, and corn.]
  suche other. And to go or ride to the market, to sel butter,      88
  chese, mylke, egges, chekyns, capons, hennes, pygges,
  gese, and all maner of cornes. And also to bye all maner
      [Sidenote: Keep accounts.]
  of necessarye thynges belongynge to houssholde, and to
  make a trewe rekenynge and a-compte to her housbande,             92
  what she hath payed. And yf the housbande go to the
  market, to bye or sell, as they ofte do, he than to shewe
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 63.]]
  his wife in lyke maner. For if one of them shoulde vse
  to deceyue the other, he deceyueth hym-selfe, and he is           96
  not lyke to thryue. And therfore they muste be trewe
      [Sidenote: I will not explain all points of deceit.]
  eyther to other. I coulde peraduenture shewe the housbandes
  dyuerse poyntes that the wyues deceyue them
  in: and in lyke maner, howe husbandes deceyue theyr              100
  wyues: but if I shulde do so, I shulde shewe mo subtyll
  poyntes of deceypt, than eyther of them knewe of before.
  And therfore me semeth beste to holde my peace, least
      [Sidenote: Else I should act like the Knight de la Tour,]
  I shoulde do as the knyght of the toure dyd, the whiche          104
  had many fayre doughters, and of fatherly loue that he
  oughte to them, he made a boke, to a good entente, that
  they myghte eschewe and flee from vyces, and folowe
  vertues. In the whiche boke he shewed, that if they              108
  were wowed, moued, or styred by any man, after suche
  a maner as he there shewed, that they shulde withstande
      [Sidenote: who wrote a book against vice,]
  it. In the whiche boke he shewed so many wayes, howe
  a man shoulde atteyne to his purpose, to brynge a woman          112
  to vice, the whiche wayes were so naturall, and the wayes
  to come to theyr purpose were soo subtylly contryued,
  and craftely shewed, that harde it wold be for any woman
      [Sidenote: but really taught vice.]
  to resyste or deny theyr desyre. And by the sayd boke            116
  hath made bothe the men and the women to knowe more
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 63_b_.]]
  vyces, subtyltye, and crafte, than euer they shulde haue
  knowen, if the boke had not ben made: in the whiche
  boke he named hym-selfe the knight of the towre. And             120
  thus I leue the wyues, to vse theyr occupations at theyr
  owne discreation.

  147. ¶ To kepe measure in spendynge.

      [Sidenote: Take care.]
  Nowe thou husbande and huswyfe, that haue done
  your diligence and cure, accordynge to the fyrste artycle
  of the philosopher, that is to saye: _Adhibe curam_. And
  also haue well remembred the sayeng of wyse Salomon:               4
  _Quod ociosus non gaudebit cum electis in cælo: sed lugebit in
  æternum cum reprobis in inferno_: Thanne ye must remembre,
  obserue, and kepe in mind, the seconde article of
  the sayinge of the philosopher, that is to saye, _Tene             8
      [Sidenote: Keep measure.]
  mensuram_: That is to saye in englysshe, holde and kepe
  measure. And accordynge to that sayenge, I lerned two
      [Sidenote: Spendthrifts come to poverty.]
  verses at grammer-schole, and they be these, _Qui plus expendit,
  quam rerum copia rendit: Non admiretur, si paupertate             12
  grauetur_: he that dothe more expende, thanne his
  goodes wyll extende, meruayle it shall not be, thoughe
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 64.]]
  he be greued with pouertee. And also accordynge to
  that sayenge speketh sayncte Paul and saythe, _Iuxta              16
  facultates faciendi sunt sumptus, ne longi temporis victum,
      [Sidenote: Spend according to your income;]
  breuis hora consumat_: That is to saye, A[f]ter thy faculty
  or thy honoure, make thyne expences, leste thou spende
  in shorte space that thynge, that thou shouldest lyue             20
  by longe. This texte toucheth euery manne, from the
  hyest degree to the loweste; wherfore it is necessary to
  euerye manne and womanne to remembre and take good
  hede there-vnto, for to obserue, kepe, and folowe the             24
  same; but bycause this texte of sayncte Paule is in latyn,
  and husbandes commonely can but lyttell laten, I fere
      [Sidenote: or, in plain English,]
  leaste they can-not vnderstande it. And thoughe it
  were declared ones or twyse to theym, that they wolde             28
  forgette it: Wherfore I shall shewe to theym a texte
  in englysshe, and that they maye well vnderstande, and
      [Sidenote: eat within your tether.]
  that is this, Eate within thy tedure.

  148. ¶ To eate within the tedure.

  Thou husbande and huswife, that intend to folowe
  the sayinge of the philosopher, that is to saye, kepe
      [Sidenote: Spare at the brink, not at the bottom.]
  measure, you muste spare at the brynke, and not at the
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 64_b_.]]
  bottom, that is to vnderstande, in the begynnynge of               4
  the yere, sellynge of thy cornes, or spendynge in thy
  house, vnto the tyme that thou haue sowen agayne thy
  wynter-corne, and thy lente-corne, and than se what
  remayneth to serue thy house, and of the ouerplus thou             8
  mayste sell and bye suche other necessaryes, as thou must
      [Sidenote: Do not spend much at the beginning of the year.]
  nedes occupie. And if thou spende it in the begynnynge
  of the yere, and shall want in the hynder ende, than
  thou doste not eate within thy tedure, and at the laste           12
  thou shalte be punyshed, as I shal proue the by ensample.
  Take thy horse, and go tedure him vpon thyne owne
  lees, flytte hym as ofte as thou wylte, no manne wyll
  saye ‘wronge thou doste’; but make thy horse to longe             16
      [Sidenote: Give not your horse too long a tether.]
  a tedure, than whan thou haste tyed hym vppon thyne
  owne lees, his tedure is so longe, that it recheth to the
  middes of an-other mans lees or corne: Nowe haste
  thou gyuen hym to moche lybertye, and that man, whose             20
  corne or grasse thy horse hath eaten, wyll be greued at
  the, and wyll cause the to be amerced in the court, or
  elles to make hym amendes, or bothe. And if thy
      [Sidenote: If the horse break his tether,]
  horse breake his tedure, and go at large in euery mans            24
  corne and grasse, than commeth the pynder, and taketh
  hym, and putteth hym in the pynfolde, and there shall
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 65.]]
  he stande in prison, without any meate, vnto the tyme
  thou hast payde his raunsome to the pynder, and also              28
      [Sidenote: he will be impounded.]
  make amendes to thy neyghbours, for distroyenge of
  theyr corne. Ryght so, as long as thou eatest within
      [Sidenote: Wherefore, ‘eat within thy tether.’]
  thy tedure, that thou nedest not to begge nor borowe of
  noo man, soo longe shalte thou encrease and growe in              32
  rychesse, and euery man wyll be content with the. And
  if thou make thy tedure to longe, that thyne owne
  porcyon wyll not serue the, but that thou shalte begge,
  borowe, or bye of other: that wyll not longe endure,              36
  but thou shalte fall in-to pouertye. And if thou breake
      [Sidenote: Do not break your tether.]
  thy tedure, and ren ryot at large, and knowe not other
  mennes goodes frome thyne owne, than shall the pynder,
  that is to saye, the sheryffe and the bayly, areste the,          40
  and putte the in the pynfolde, that is to say, in prison,
  there to abyde tyll the truth be knowen: and it is
  meruayle, if thou scape with thy lyfe, and therfore eate
  within thy tedure.                                                44

  149. ¶ A shorte lesson for the husbande.

      [Sidenote: Do not waste candle-light.]
  One thinge I wyl aduise the to remembre, and specially
  in wynter-tyme, wha_n_ thou sytteste by the fyre, and hast
  supped, to consyder in thy mynde, whether the warkes,
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 65_b_.]]
  that thou, thy wyfe, & thy seruauntes shall do, be more            4
  auauntage to the than the fyre, and candell-lyghte, meate
  and drynke that they shall spende, and if it be more
      [Sidenote: Rather go to bed, and rise early.]
  auantage, than syt styll: and if it be not, than go to thy
  bedde and slepe, and be vppe betyme, and breake thy                8
  faste before day, that thou mayste be all the shorte
  wynters day about thy busynes. At grammer-scole I
      [Sidenote: Early rising makes a man healthy, holy,
       and rich.]
  lerned a verse, that is this, _Sanat, sanctificat, et ditat
  surgere mane_. That is to say, Erly rysyng maketh a man           12
  hole in body, holer in soule, and rycher in goodes. And
  this me semeth shuld be sufficient instruction for the
  husbande to kepe measure.

  150. ¶ How men of hye degree do kepe measure.

      [Sidenote: Men of high degree are too prodigal and wasteful.]
  To me it is doubtefull, but yet me semeth, they be
  rather to lyberall in expences, than to scarce, and
  specyally in three thynges. The fyrste is prodigalytie in
  outragious and costely aray, fer aboue measure; the                4
  seconde thynge is costely charge of delycyous meates and
  drynkes; the thyrde is outragious playe and game, ferre
  aboue measure. And nowe to the fyrste poynte.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 66.]]
  151. ¶ Prodigalite in outragious and costely aray.

      [Sidenote: I have seen noblemen’s inventories of apparel
       very moderate as compared with what is worn now.]
  I haue seen bokes of accompte of the yomen of the
  wardropes of noble men, and also inue_n_torys made after
  theyr decease of their apparell, and I doubte not but at
  this daye, it is .xx. tymes more in value, than it was to          4
  suche a man of degree as he was an .C. yere a-go: and
  many tymes it is gyuen away, er it be halfe worne, to a
  symple man, the whiche causeth hym to weare the same;
  and an other symple man, or a lyttell better, seynge him           8
      [Sidenote: Other men try to dress like them.]
  to weare suche rayment, thynketh in his mynde, that he
  maye were as good rayment as he, and so causeth hym to
  bye suche other, to his great coste and charge, aboue
  measure, and an yll ensample to all other: and also to see        12
      [Sidenote: Even servants dress too much.]
  mens seruantes so abused in theyr aray, theyr cotes be so
  syde, that they be fayne to tucke them vp whan they ryde,
  as women do theyr kyrtels whan they go to the market or
  other places, the whiche is an vnconuenient syght. And            16
  ferthermore, they haue suche pleytes vpon theyr brestes,
  and ruffes vppon theyr sleues, aboue theyr elbowes,
  that yf theyr mayster, or theym-selfe hadde neuer so
  greatte nede, they coude not shoote one shote, to hurte           20
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 66_b_.]]
  theyr ennemyes, tyll they hadde caste of theyr cotes, or cut
  of theyr sleues. This is fer aboue measure, or common
  weale of the realme. This began fyrste with honour,
  worship, and honesty, and it endeth in pryde, presumption,        24
  and pouertye. Wherof speketh saint Austin, _Que_m_cunque
  superbum esse videris, diaboli filiu_m _esse ne dubites_: That is
      [Sidenote: The proud man is a child of the devil.]
  to say, who-so-euer thou seest that is proude, dout the not,
  but he is the diuels chylde. Wherfore agaynst pryde he            28
  byddeth the remembre: _Quid fuisti, quid es, et qualis post
  mortem eris_: That is to say, what thou were, what thou
  art, and what thou shalte be after thy death. And S.
  Bernarde saythe, _Homo nihil aliud est, q_uam _sperma             32
  fetidum, saccus stercorum, et esca vermium_: That is to saye,
      [Sidenote: Man is but worm’s meat.]
  A man is nothynge but stynkynge fylthe, a sacke of
  dounge, and wormes meate. The whiche sayinges wolde
  be reme_m_bred, and than me semeth this is sufficient at this     36
  time for the first point of the thre.

  152. ¶ Of delycyouse meates and drynkes.

  Howe costely are the charges of delycious meates &
  drynkes, that be nowe most commonly vsed, ouer that it
  hath ben in tymes paste, and howe fer aboue measure?
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 68; _no fol. 67_.]]
  For I haue seen bokes of accompte of householde,                   4
  and brumentes vpon the same, & I doubte not, but
      [Sidenote: Men now spend four times as much upon feasts
       as they used to.]
  in delycyous meates, drinkes, and spyces, there is at
  this daye foure tymes so moche spent, as was at these
  dayes, to a lyke man in degree; and yet at that tyme               8
  there was as moche befe and mutton spent as is nowe,
  and as many good housholdes kept, and as many
  yomenne wayters therin as be nowe. This began with
  loue and charytye whan a lorde, gentylman, or yoman               12
  desyred or prayed an other to come to dyner or soupper,
  and bycause of his commynge he wolde haue a dysshe
  or two mo than he wolde haue had, if he had ben
      [Sidenote: This has come about gradually.]
  away. Than of very loue he, remembrynge howe louyngely            16
  he was bydden to dynner, and howe well he fared, he
  thynketh of very kyndnes he muste nedes byd hym to
  dyner agayne, and soo ordeyneth for hym as manye maner
  of suche dysshes and meates, as the other man dyd, and            20
  two or .iii. mo, & thus by lyttel and litell it is commen fer
      [Sidenote: Begun in kindness, it ends in pride.]
  aboue measure. And begon of loue and charyte, and
  endeth in pryde and glotony, wherof saynte Ierome
      [Sidenote: Jerome.]
  saythe: _Qui post carnem ambulant, in ventrem et libidine_m,      24
  _proni sunt, quasi irrationabilia iumenta reputa_n_tur_. That is
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 68_b_.]]
  to say, They that walke, and be redy to fulfill the lust of
  the fleshe and the bely, are taken as vnreasonable beastes;
      [Sidenote: Gregory.]
  and sayncte Gregory sayth, _Domina_n_te vicio gulæ, omnes_        28
  _virtutes per luxuriam et vanam gloriam obruuntur_: That is
  to saye, where the vice of glotony hath domination, all
  vertues by luxury and vayne glory are cast vnder: the
  whiche sayinges wold in lykewise be remembred; and                32
  this me semeth sufficient for the .ii. poynte of the thre.

  153. ¶ Of outragious playe and game.

      [Sidenote: Have some recreation.]
  It is conueniente for euery man, of what degree that he
  be of, to haue playe & game accordynge to his degree.
      [Sidenote: Dionysius Cato, Distich. iii. 7.]
  For Cato sayth, _Interpone tuis interdum gaudia curis_: Amonge
  thy charges and busynes thou muste haue sometyme ioye              4
  and myrthe; but nowe a-dayes it is doone ferre aboue
      [Sidenote: Poor men now play too high.]
  measure. For nowe a poore man in regarde wyll playe
  as great game, at all maner games, as gentylman were
  wont to do, or greater, and gentilmen as lordes, and               8
  lordes as prynces, & ofte tymes the great estates wyll
  call gentylmen or yomen to play with them at as great
  game as they do, and they call it a disport, the whiche
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 69.]]
  me semeth a very trewe name to it, for it displeaseth             12
  some of them er they departe, and specyall god, for
  myspendynge of his goodes and tyme. But if they
      [Sidenote: If men played for less, it might then be
       called play.]
  played smalle games, that the poore man that playeth
  myght beare it thoughe he loste, and bate not his                 16
  countenaunce, than myght it be called a good game, a
  good playe, a good sporte, and a pastyme. But whan
  one shall lose vpon a day, or vpon a nyght, as moche
  money as wold fynde hym and all his house meate and               20
  drynke a moneth or a quarter of a yere or more, that
  maye be well called a disporte, or a displeasure, and ofte
      [Sidenote: But now men lose their lands and become
  tymes, by the meanes therof, it causeth theym to sell theyr
  landes, dysheryte the heyres, and may fortune to fall to          24
  thefte, robbery, or suche other, to the great hurte of them-selfe,
  & of theyr chyldren, and to the displeasure of god:
  and they so doinge, lyttel do they pondre or regarde the
  saying of saynt Paule; _Iuxta facultates faciendi sunt            28
  sumptus, ne longi temporis victum breuis hora consumat_:
      [Sidenote: Play, begun in love, ends in wrath.]
  This play begun with loue and charity, and oft times
  it endeth with couetous wrath and enuy. And this me
  thynketh shoulde be a sufficient instruction for kepynge          32
  of measure.

  154. ¶ A prologue of the thyrde sayinge of the

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 69_b_.]]
  Nowe thou housbande and housewife, that haue done
  your diligence and cure about your husbandrye and huswyfry,
  accordynge to the fyrste sayenge of the philosopher,
      [Sidenote: Pay attention;]
  _Adhibe curam_: And also haue well remembred and                   4
  fulfylled the seconde sayinge of the sayde philosopher,
      [Sidenote: Be frugal; and thou shalt be rich.]
  _Tene mensuram_: I doubte not but ye be ryche accordyng
  to the thyrde sayinge of the sayde philosopher, _Et eris
  diues_. Nowe I haue shewed you the sayinge of the                  8
  philosopher, wherby you haue goten moche worldely
  possession, me semeth it were necessary, to shewe you
  howe ye maye gette heuenly possessions, accordynge to
      [Sidenote: Matt. xvi. 26.]
  the sayenge of our lorde in his gospel, _Quid prodest             12
  homini, si vniuersum mundum lucretur, animæ vero suæ detrimentum
  paciatur_: What profyteth it to a man, thoughe
  he wyn all the worlde, to the hyndraunce and losyng
  of his soule? Howe be it, it shoulde seme vnconuenient            16
  for a temporall man to take vpon hym to shewe
  or teache any suche spirytuall matters; and yet there is
  a great diuersytie betwene predication and doctrine.

  155. ¶ A diuersitie betwene predication and doctrine.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 70.]]
  As sayncte Iherome saythe, there is greate difference or
      [Sidenote: Difference between preaching and doctrine.]
  diuersitie betwene preachinge and doctrine. A preachyng
  or a sermon is, where [is] a conuocation or a gatherynge
  of people on holye dayes, or other dayes in churches or            4
  other places, and times sette and ordeyned for the
  same. And it belongeth to theym that be ordeyned
      [Sidenote: Every man may teach.]
  there-vnto, and haue iurisdiction and auctorytie, and to
  none other. But euery man may lawefully enforme and                8
  teache his brother, or any other, at euery tyme and place
  behouable, if it seme expedient to hym, for that is an
  almes-dede, to the whiche euery man is holden &
  bounde to do, accordyng to the sayenge of saynt                   12
      [Sidenote: 1 Pet. iv. 10.]
  Peter, _Vnusquisq_ue, _sicut accepit gratiam, in alterutrum
  illam administrare debet_. That is to saye, as euery man
  hath taken or receyued grace, he oughte to mynyster
      [Sidenote: Chrysostom.]
  and shewe it forthe to other. For as Chrisostome saythe,          16
  great merite is to hym, and a great reward he shall haue
  in tyme to come, the which writeth or causeth to be
  writen, holy doctrine, for that entent, that he may se in
  it, howe he may lyue holylye, and that other may haue             20
  it, that they maye be edyfyed or sanctyfyed by the same;
  for he saythe surely, knowe thou, that howe many soules
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 70_b_.]]
  be saued by the, soo many rewardes thou shalte haue for
      [Sidenote: Gregory.]
  eyther. For saynt Gregory saythe, _Nullum sacrificium ita         24
  placet deo, sicut zelus animaru_m: There is no sacrifyce
  that pleaseth god so moche, as the loue of soules. And
      [Sidenote: Gregory.]
  also he saythe, _Ille apud deum maior est in amore, qui ad
  eius amorem plurimos trahit_: He is greateste in fauour           28
  with god, that draweth moste men to the loue of god.
  Wherfore me semeth, it is co_n_uenient to enforme and
  shewe them, how they maye gette heuenly possessions,
  as well as I haue shewed them to get worldly possessions.         32
  Than to my purpose, and to the poynt where I lefte,
  ‘nowe thou art ryche.’

  156. ¶ What is rychesse.

      [Sidenote: What is riches.]
  It is to be vnderstande what is rychesse; and as me
  semeth, rychesse is that thynge, that is of goodnes, and
  can-not be taken awaye from the owner, neyther in his
  temporall lyfe, nor in the lyfe euerlastynge. Than these           4
  worldly possessions, that I haue spoken of, is no richesse,
  for why they be but floures of the worlde. And that may
  be wel consydered by Iob, the whiche was the rychest
  man of worldely possessions, that was lyuynge in those             8
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 71.]]
  daies, and sodeynely he was the poorest man agayne that
  coulde be lyuynge, and all the whyle he toke pacyence, and
      [Sidenote: Job i. 21.]
  was content, as appereth by his sayenge, _Dominus dedit,
  dominus abstulit: sicut domino placuit, ita factum est, sit       12
  nomen domini benedictum_: Our lorde hath gyuen it, our
  lorde hath taken it awaye, and as it pleaseth our lorde,
  so be it, blessed be the name of our lorde. The whiche
  Iob may be an ensample to euery true chrysten man, of             16
  his pacyence and good liuing in tribulation, as appereth
  in his storye, who that lyste to rede therin. And saynte
      [Sidenote: Augustine.]
  Austyne saythe: _Qui terrenis inhiat, et æterna non cogitat,
  utrisq_ue _in futuro carebit_: he that gathereth in worldly       20
  thynges, and thynketh not vppon euerlastynge thynges,
  shall wante bothe in tyme to come. For sayncte
      [Sidenote: Ambrose.]
  Ambrose saythe, _Non sunt bona hominis, quæ secum ferre
  non potest_: They are not the goodes of man, the whiche           24
      [Sidenote: Bernard.]
  he can-not beare with him. And saynte Bernarde saythe:
  _Si vestra sint, tollite vobiscum_: Yf they be yours, take them
  with you. Than it is to be vnderstande, what goodes a
  man shall take with hym. And these be the good dedes              28
  and warkes that thou doste here in this temporall lyfe,
      [Sidenote: Chrysostom.]
  wherof speketh Crysostome: _Fac bene, et operare iustitiam,
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 71_b_.]]
  vt spem habeas apud deum, et non desperabis in terra_: Doo
  well, and worke ryghtwysly, that thou mayste haue truste          32
  in god, and that thou be not in despayre in this worlde.
      [Sidenote: Ps. xxxvii. 25.]
  Accordynge to that saythe the prophete Dauyd, _Iunior
      [Sidenote: (Ps. xxxvi. 25, Vulgate.)]
  fui, etenim senui, et non vidi iustum derelictum, nec semen
  eius querens panem_: I haue ben yonge, and I haue waxen           36
  olde, and I haue not seen a ryghtwyse man forsaken, nor
  his chyldren sekynge theyr breade.

  157. ¶ What is the propertie of a riche man.

  In myne opynyon the propertye of a ryche manne is, to
  be a purchaser; and if he wyll purchase, I councell hym
      [Sidenote: Augustine.]
  to purchase heuen. For sayncte Austyne saythe, _Regnum
  cælorum nulli clauditur, nisi illi, qui se excluserit_: The        4
  kyngedome of heuen is to noo man closed, but to hym
  that wyll putte oute hym-selfe. Wherfore this texte
  maye gyue the a courage to prefixe thy mynde, to make
  there thy purchase. And Salomon saythe: _Quod mali                 8
  carius emunt infernum, quam boni cælum_: Ill men bye
  hell derer, thanne the good men bie heuen. And that me
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 72.]]
  semeth maye well be proued by a common ensample: As
  if I had a .M. shepe to sell, and dyuers men come to me,          12
      [Sidenote: Suppose I sell 1000 sheep, 100 to each of
       10 men.]
  and bye euery manne a .C. of the shepe, all of one price,
  to paye me at dyuers dayes. I am agreed, and graunt
  them these dayes; some of the menne be good, and kepe
  theyr promesse, and paye me at theyr dayes, and some of           16
  theym doo not paye me. Wherfore I sue theym at the
      [Sidenote: Those who do not pay I imprison for debt.]
  lawe, and by course of the common lawe, I doo recouer
  my duetie of them, and haue theyr bodyes in prisone for
  execution, tylle they haue made me payment. Nowe these            20
  men, that haue broken me promesse, and payed not theyr
      [Sidenote: These men buy their sheep dearer than the others.]
  dewetye, bye theyr shepe derer thanne the good menne
  bought theyrs. For they haue imprysonment of theyr
  bodyes, and yet must they pay theyr duetyes neuer the             24
  lesse, or elles lye and dye there in pryson: the whiche
  sheepe be derer to them, then to the good men that
      [Sidenote: So it is with men who buy heaven.]
  kepte theyr promes. Righte so euery man chepeth
  heuen, and god hath sette on it a pryce, and graunted             28
  it to euery man, and giuen to them dayes of payment:
  the pryce is all one, and that is to kepe his commaundementes,
  duryng theyr lyues: the good men kepe his
  commaundementes, and fulfyll theyr promesse, and haue             32
  heuen at theyr decease. The yll men breake promesse,
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 72_b_.]]
  & kepe not his commaundementes, wherfore at theyr
  decease they be put in pryson, that is to say in hell,
  there to abyde his ryghtuousenes. And soo the yll men             36
      [Sidenote: Ill men buy hell dearer than good men buy
  bye hell derer, than the good menne bye heuen. And
  therfore it is better, to forgoo a lyttel pleasure, or suffer[33]
  a lyttell payne in this worlde, than to suffer a moche
  greatter and a lenger payne in an other worlde. Nowe              40
  sythe helle is derer than heuen, I aduyse the specyally
      [Sidenote: Wherefore buy heaven.]
  to bye heuen, wherin is euerlastynge ioye without ende.

  158. ¶ What ioyes or pleasures are in heuen.

      [Sidenote: Augustine.]
  Saynt Austyn saythe, _Ibi erunt quæcunq_ue _ab hominibus
  desiderantur, vita et salus, copia glorie, honor, pax, et
  omnia bona_: That is to saye, There shall be euery thynge
  that any man desyreth, there is lyfe, helth, plenty of ioye,       4
  honour, peace, and all maner of goodnes. What wolde a
      [Sidenote: 1 Cor. ii. 9. Isa. lxiv. 4.]
  man haue more? And saynt Paule sayth, _Occulus non vidit,
  nec auris audiuit, nec in cor hominis ascendit, quæ preparuit deus
  diligentibus se_: That is to say, The eye hath not seen, nor       8
  the eares hath herde, nor the herte of a man hath thought
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 73.]]
  of so goodly thynges, that god hath ordeyned for theym
  that loue hym. O what a noble acte that were for an
  husbande or houswyfe, to purchase suche a royall place in         12
  heuen, to whiche is no comparyson. Than it is to
  be knowen, what thynge pleaseth god most, that we myght
  do it.

  159. ¶ What thynges pleaseth god most.

      [Sidenote: 1 Cor. ii. 9.]
  By the texte of sayncte Paule, before sayd, loue pleaseth
  god aboue al thinge, and that maye be well proued by the
      [Sidenote: Prov. xxxiii. 26.]
  sayinge of our lorde hym-selfe, where he saythe: _Da mihi
  cor tuum, et sufficit mihi_; Gyue me thy harte, and that is        4
  sufficiente for me; for he that hath a mannes harte, hath
  all his other goodes. What is this mans harte? it is
  nothyng elles, but very trewe loue. For there can be no
  true loue, but it commeth meryly and immediately from              8
  the harte: and if thou loue god entyerlye with thy harte,
  than wylte thou do his commaundementes. Than it wolde
  be vnderstande and knowen whiche be his commandementes,
  that a man may obserue and kepe them.                             12

  160. ¶ What be goddes commaundementes.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 73_b_.]]
  There be in all .x. commaundementes, the which were
  to long to declare, but they be all concluded and comprehended
      [Sidenote: Deut. vi. 5. Lev. xix. 18.]
  in two, that is to say: _Diliges dominum deum tuum
  super omnia: Et proximum tuu_m _sicut te ipsum_: Loue thy          4
  lorde god aboue al thing, and thy neyghboure as thy-selfe.
  These be lyghte commaundementes, and nature byndeth
  a man to fulfyll, obserue, and kepe them, or els he is not
  a naturall man, remembryng what god hath doone for the.            8
  Fyrste he hath made the to the symylytude and lykenes
  of his owne ymage, and hathe gyuen to the in this worlde
  dyuerse possessions, but specyally he hath redemed thy
  soule vpon the crosse, and suffered great payne and               12
  passion and bodelye deathe for thy sake. What loue,
  what kyndenes was in hym, to doo this for the? What
  couldest thou desyre hym to do more for the? And he
      [Sidenote: God asks love for love.]
  desyreth nothynge of the agayne, but loue for loue. What          16
  can he desyre lesse?

  161. ¶ Howe a man shulde loue god and please hym.

  Surelye a man maye loue god and please hym very many
  wayes: but fyrste and principally, he that wyll loue god,
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 74.]]
  and please hym, he muste doo as it is sayde in Symbalo
      [Sidenote: Athanasian Creed.]
  Athanasii: _Quicunq_ue _vult saluus esse, ante omnia opus est      4
  vt teneat catholica_m _fidem_, Who so euer wyll be saued,
  aboue all thynge he must nedes be stedfast in the faythe
  of holy churche. And accordynge to that, saythe sayncte
      [Sidenote: Heb. xi. 6.]
  Paule: _Sine fide impossibile est placere deo_; Without faythe     8
      [Sidenote: Seneca.]
  it is impossible to please god. And Seneca sayth: _Nichil
  retinet, qui fidem perdidit_: There abydeth no goodnes in
  hym, that hath loste his faythe. And soo thou mayste
  well perceyue, that thou canst not loue nor please god,           12
  without perfyte fayth. And ferther-more thou mayste not
  presume to study, nor to argue thy faithe by reason. For
      [Sidenote: Gregory; xl. Homil. in Evang. ii. 26.]
  saynte Gregory saythe: _Fides non habet meritum, vbi humana
  ratio prebet experimentum_: Faythe hath no meryte, where          16
  as mannes reasone proueth the same. This faythe is a
  pryncypall sygne, that thou loueste god. Also thy good
  dedes, and thy warkes, is a good sygne, that thou loueste
      [Sidenote: Jerome.]
  god. For saynt Iherome saythe: _Vnusquisque, cuius opera          20
  facit, eius filius appellatur_: whose warkes euery man dothe,
      [Sidenote: Bernard.]
  his son or seruaunt he is called. And sayncte Bernarde
  saythe, _Efficatior est vox operis, q_uam _vox sermonis_: The
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 74_b_.]]
  dedes and the warkes of a man is more euydent profe,              24
      [Sidenote: Seven works of mercy.]
  than his wordes. The fulfyllynge of the .vii. workes of
  mercye is an other specyall sygne, that thou louest god:
  and many mo there be, whiche were to longe to reherse
  them all.                                                         28

  162. ¶ Howe a man shulde loue his neyghbour.

      [Sidenote: Love of our neighbour.]
  Thou must loue thy neyghboure as thy-selfe, wherin
  thou shalt please god specially: for if thou loue thy
  neyghbour as thy-selfe, it foloweth by reason, that
  thou shalte do nothyng to hym, but suche as thou                   4
  woldest shulde be done to the. And that is to
  presume, that thou woldest not haue any hurte of thy
  body, nor of thy goodes, done vnto the, and lykewyse
  thou shuldest none do vnto hym. And also if thou                   8
  woldest haue any goodnes done vnto the, eyther in thy
  bodye, or in thy mouable goodes, lykewyse shuldest thou
  do vnto thy neyghbour, if it lye in thye power, accordynge
      [Sidenote: Gregory.]
  to the sayinge of saynte Gregorye, _Nec deus sine proximo,        12
  nec proximus vere diligitur sine deo_: Thou canste not loue
  god, with-out thou loue thy neyghbour, nor thou canst not
  loue thy neighbour, without thou loue god. Wherfore
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 75.]]
  thou muste fyrste loue god pryncypallye, and thy neyghbour        16

  163. ¶ Of prayer that pleaseth god very moche.

      [Sidenote: Prayer pleaseth God much.]
  Prayer is honour and laude to god, and a specyall
  thynge that pleaseth hym moche, and is a greate sygne,
  that thou louest god, and that thou arte perfyte and
  stedfaste in the faythe of holy churche: and that it is so,        4
  it maye be well consydered by our forefathers, that haue
  for the loue and honour of god made churches. And a
  man muste dayly at some conuenyente tymes exercyse and
  vse prayer hym-selfe, as he oughte to doo. For saynt               8
      [Sidenote: Ambrose.]
  Ambrose sayth, _Relicto hoc, ad quod teneris, ingratum est
  spiritui sancto quicquid aliud operaris_: If thou leaue that
  thynge vndone, that thou arte bounde to doo, it is not
  acceptable to god, what-so-euer thou dooste elles. Than           12
  it is necessarye, that thou do praye, and a poore manne
  doynge his labour trewely in the daye, and thinketh well,
  prayeth well: but on the holye daye, he is bounde to come
  to the church, and here his diuyne seruyce.                       16

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 75_b_.]]
  164. ¶ What thynge letteth prayer.

  There be two impedimentes, that lette and hynder
  prayer, that it maye not be herde. And of the fyrste impedimente
      [Sidenote: Isa. i. 15.]
  speketh Ysaye the prophete: _Quia manus vestræ
  plenæ sunt sanguine .i. peccato, ideo non exaudiet vos dominus_:   4
  Bycause your handes be full of bloude, that is to saye,
  full of synne, therfore our lorde dothe not graciousely
      [Sidenote: Prov. xv. 29.]
  here you. And also prouerbiorum tertio, _Longe est dominus
  ab impiis, et orationes iustorum exaudiet_. Our lorde is ferre     8
  fro wycked men, and the prayers of ryghtewyse men he
      [Sidenote: Bernard.]
  gracyously hereth. And sayncte Bernarde saythe, _Qui a
  præceceptis dei auertitur, quod in oratione postulat non meretur_:
  He that dothe not goddes commaundementes, he                      12
  deserueth not to haue his prayer harde. The seconde
      [Sidenote: Anastasius.]
  impediment, saythe Anastasius, is, _Si non dimittis iniuriam,
  que tibi facta est, non orationem pro te facis, sed maledictionem
  super te inducis_: If thou forgyue not the wronge done            16
  vnto the, thou doste not praye for thy-selfe, but thou
      [Sidenote: Isidore.]
  enducest goddes curse to fall vppon the. And Isodorus
  saythe, _Sicut nullum in vulnere proficit medicamentum, si
  adhuc ferrum in eo sit: ita nihil proficiat oratio illius, cuius  20
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 81; _sic._]]
  adhuc dolor in mente vel odium manet in pectore_. Lyke as
  the playster or medycyne can-not heale a wounde, if there
  be any yren styckinge in the same, ryghte soo the prayer
  of a man profyteth hym not, as longe as there is sorowe           24
  in his mynde, or hate abydynge in his breste. For
      [Sidenote: Augustine.]
  sayncte Austyne saythe, _Si desit charitas, frustra habentur
  cetera_. If charitie wante, all other thynges be voyde.
  Wherfore thou muste se that thou stande in the state of           28
  grace, and not infecte with deedly synne, and than praye
  if thou wylt be harde.

  165. ¶ Howe a man shulde praye.

  It is to be vnderstande that there be dyuers maner
      [Sidenote: Public prayer.]
  of prayinges, _Quedam publica, et quedam priuata_; That
  is to saye, some openlye, and some priuately. Prayer
  openly muste nedes be done in the churche by the                   4
  mynystratours of the same people. For it is done for
  all the comynaltye, and therfore the people in that oughte
  to conferme theym-selfe to the sayde mynystratours, and
  there to be presente to praye vnto god after a dewe                8
      [Sidenote: Private prayer.]
  maner. _Oratio priuata._ The prayer pryuately done,
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 81_b_.]]
  oughte to be doone in secrete places, for two causes.
  For prayer eleuateth and lyfteth vp a mannes mynde
  to god. And the mynde of man is sooner and better                 12
  lyfte vppe whan he is in a pryuye place, and separate
  frome multytude of people. An other cause is to auoyde
  vaynglory that myghte lyghtely ensue or ryse thervppon,
  whan it is doone openly; and therof speketh our                   16
      [Sidenote: Matt. vi. 5.]
  sauyour, where he sayth, _Cum oratis, non eritis sicut
  hypocritæ, qui amant in sinagogis et in angulis platearum
  stantes orare_. That is to saye, whan ye praye, be not
  you as the hypocrytes, the whiche loue to stande in               20
  theyr synagoges and corners of hyghe-wayes to praye.
  Also some folkes pray with the lyppes or mouthe, and
  not with the herte, of whome spekethe our lorde by his
      [Sidenote: Isa. xxix. 13.]
  prophete, _Hij labiis me honorant, cor autem eorum longe          24
  est a me_; They honour me with theyr mouthe, and
      [Sidenote: Gregory.]
  theyr hertes be ferre from me. And sayncte Gregory
  saythe, _Quid prodest strepitus labiorum vbi mutum est cor?_
  What profyteth the labour of the mouthe, where the                28
      [Sidenote: Isidore.]
  herte is dombe? And Isodore saythe, _Longe quippe a
  deo est animus, qui in oratione cogitationibus sæculi fuerit
  occupatus_. His soule is far from god, that in his prayer
  his mynde is occupied in warkes of the worlde. There              32
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 82.]]
  be other that pray both with the mouth and hart, of
      [Sidenote: John iv. 24.]
  whom speketh sayncte Iohan .x. _Veri adoratores, adorabunt
  patrem in spiritu et veritate_. The true prayers wylle
  worshyp the father of heauen in spirite and with trouthe.         36
      [Sidenote: Isidore.]
  Isodorus saythe, _Tunc veraciter oramus, quando aliunde
  non cogitamus_. Than we praye truely, whan we thynke
      [Sidenote: Richard of Hampole.]
  on nothynge elles. _Richardus de Hampole. Ille deuote
  orat, qui non habet cor vacabundum in terrenis occupationibus,    40
  sed sublatum ad deum in cælestibus._ He prayeth deuoutly,
  that hath not his harte wauerynge in worldelye occupations,
  but alwaye subleuate and lyfte vppe to god in
  heuen. There be other that praye with the harte. vnde             44
      [Sidenote: Matt. vi. 6.]
  Mat. vi. _Tu autem cum oraueris, intra [in] cubiculum tuum
  .i. in loco secreto, et clauso hostio, ora patrem tuum._ Whan
  thou shalte praye, entre into thy chambre or oratory,
  and steke the doore, and praye to the father of heuen.            48
      [Sidenote: Isidore.]
  Isodorus, _Ardens oratio est non labiorum sed cordium, potius
  enim orandum est corde q_uam _ore_. The hoter prayer is
  with the harte than with the lyppes, rather pray with
      [Sidenote: 1 Sam. i. 13.]
  thy herte than with thy mouth. _Regum primo. Anna                 52
  loquebatur in corda._ Anna spake with the harte.

      [Sidenote: [Fol. 82_b_.]]
  166. A meane to put away ydle thoughtes in prayinge.

      [Sidenote: Against idle thoughts.]
  And to auoyde wauerynge myndes, in worldlye occupations
  whanne thou shalte praye, I shall shewe vnto you
  the beste experience that euer I coulde fynde for the same,
  the whiche haue benne moche troubled therwith, and that            4
      [Sidenote: If you understand Latin, keep your eye on the
       book, and remember the English of it.]
  is this. He that can rede and vnderstande latyne, let
  hym take his booke in his hande, and looke stedfastely
  vppon the same thynge that he readeth and seeth, that
  8 is no trouble to hym, and remembre the englysshe of              8
  the same, wherin he shall fynde greatte swetenes, and shall
  cause his mynde to folowe the same, and to leaue other
  worldly thoughtes. And he that canne-not reade nor
      [Sidenote: If not, think of Christ’s passion,]
  vnderstande his pater noster, Aue, nor Crede, he must             12
  remembre the passyon of Christe, what peyne he suffered
  for hym, and all mankynde, for redemynge of theyr soules.
  And also the miracles and wonders that god hath doone,
  and fyrste what wonders were doone the nyghte of his              16
      [Sidenote: and of His miracles;]
  natiuitie and byrthe. And howe he turned water in-to
  wyne, and made the blynde to se, the dombe to speake,
  the deafe to here, the lame to go, the sycke to be hole.
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 83.]]
  And howe he fed fyue thousande with two fysshes, and              20
  fyue barley loues, wherof was lefte .xii. coffyns or skyppes
  of fragmentes. And howe he reised Lazare from deathe
  to lyfe, with manye moo myracles that be innumerable to
  be rehersed. And also to remembre the specyall poyntes            24
      [Sidenote: how He was betrayed,]
  of his passion, howe he was solde & betrayed of Judas,
  and taken by the iewes, and broughte before Pylate, than
  to kynge Herode, and to bysshope Cayphas, and than to
  Pylate agayne, that iudged hym to death, and howe he              28
      [Sidenote: scourged,]
  was bounde to a piller, and how they scurged, bobbed,
  mocked hym, spytte in his face, crowned hym with thornes,
  and caused hym to beare the crosse to the mounte of
      [Sidenote: and crucified;]
  Caluary, whervppon he was nayled both handes and                  32
  fete, and wounded to the harte with a sharpe spere, and
      [Sidenote: went down to hell; and rose again.]
  soo suffered deathe. And howe he fette out the soules of
  our forefathers forthe of hell. Howe he rose frome deathe
  to lyfe, and howe ofte he appered to his discyples and            36
  other moo. And what myracles he wroughte afterwarde,
  and specyally what power he gaue to his dyscyples, that
  were noo clerkes, to teache and preche his faythe, and
  worke many myracles, and specyally whan they preached             40
  before menne of dyuers nations and languages, and euerye
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 83_b_.]]
  man vnderstode in theyr own language, the whiche is
  a sygne that god wolde haue euery manne saued, and
  to knowe his lawes, the whiche was a myracle able to              44
  conuerte all the infydeles, heretykes, and lollers in the

  167. ¶ A meane to auoyde temptation.

  It is ofte-tymes seen, that the holyer that a man is, the
      [Sidenote: The holier a man is, the more he is tempted.]
  more he is tempted, and he that soo is, maye thanke god
  therof. For god of his goodnes and grace hath not gyuen
  to the dyuell auctoritie nor power to attempte any man             4
  ferther and aboue that, that he that is so tempted, maye
  withstande. For sayncte Gregory sayth, _Non est timendum_
      [Sidenote: Gregory.]
  (sic) _hostis, qui non potest vincere nisi volente_m. An enemye is
  not to be dradde, the whiche maye not ouercome, but if a           8
  manne be wyllynge. And it is to presume, that he that is
  soo tempted, standeth in the state of grace. For sayncte
  Ambrose saythe, _Illos diabolus[34] vexare negligit, quos iure
      [Sidenote: Ambrose.]
  hæreditario se possidere sentit_. The dyuell despyseth to         12
  vexe or trouble those, the whiche he felethe him-selfe to
  haue in possessyon by ryght inheritaunce. And if thou
  be so tempted, vexed, or troubled, I shall shewe vnto the
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 84.]]
  two verses, that if thou do therafter, thou shalte be eased       16
  of thy temptacyon, and haue greatte thanke and laude of
  god and rewarde therfore; these be the verses.

      [Sidenote: Two useful verses.]
        _Hostis no_n _ledit, nisi cum te_m_ptatus obedit._
        _Est leo si sedit, si stat quasi musca recedit._             20

  ¶ That is to say, The gostly enemy hurteth not, but whan
      [Sidenote: The tempter is a lion, if we sit still;]
  he that is tempted obeyeth to his temptation. Than his
  ghostly enemy plaieth the lyon, if that he that is so
  tempted syt styll and obey to hym. And if he that is              24
      [Sidenote: but if we resist, he is but a fly.]
  tempted, stande styfly agaynste hym, the ghostlye ennemye
  flyeth awaye lyke a flye. This me semeth maye be wel
  proued by a famylier ensaumple. As if a lorde had a
      [Sidenote: A fainthearted captain loses his castle,]
  castell, and deliuered it to a capitayne to kepe, if there        28
  come ennemies to the castell, and call to the capytayn,
  and byd hym delyuer them this castell. The capytayne
  cometh and openeth them the gates, and delyuereth the
  keyes. Nowe is this castell soone wonne, and this                 32
     [Sidenote: and is a traitor. But if he resist, the enemy
      will not tarry.]
  capytayne is a false traytour to the lorde. But lette
  the capitaine arme hym-selfe, and steke the gates, and
  stande styfly vpon the walle, and commaunde them to
  auoyde at theyr peryll, and they wyll not tary to make            36
      [Sidenote: Every man is captain of his own soul.]
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 84_b_.]]
  any assaut. Ryght so euery man is capitayne of his owne
  soule, and if thy gostely ennemy come and tempte the,
  and thou, that art capytayne of thyne owne soule, wyll
  open the gates, and delyuer hym the keyes and let hym             40
  in, thy sowle is soone taken prysoner, and thou a false
  traytour to thy soule, and worthye to be punysshed in
  pryson for euer. And if thou arme thy-selfe and stande
  styfly agaynste hym, and wyll not consente to hym, he             44
  wyll auoyde and fle away, and thou shalt haue a greate
  reward for withstandynge of the sayde temptation.

  168. ¶ Almes-dedes pleaseth god moche.

      [Sidenote: Almsdeeds.]
  Almes-dedes pleseth god very moche, and it is great
  sygne that thou loueste bothe god and thy neyghboure.
  And he of whome almes is asked, oughte to consyder
  thre thynges, that is to saye, who asketh almes, what he           4
      [Sidenote: God asketh.]
  asketh, and wherevnto he asketh. Nowe to the fyrste,
  who asketh almes, _Deus petit_. God asketh. For saynte
      [Sidenote: Jerome.]
  Jerome sayth, _Quia deus adeo diligit pauperes, quod quicquid
  fit eis propter amorem suum, reputat sibi factum_. That is         8
  to saye, bycause that god loueth poore men so moche,
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 85.]]
  what-someuer thynge is gyuen vnto them for the loue of
  hym, he taketh it as it were done to hym-selfe; as it is
      [Sidenote: Matt. xxv. 15.]
  sayde in his gospell, _Quod vni ex minimis meis fecistis,         12
  michi fecistis_. That thynge that ye gyue or do to the
  least of those that be myne, ye do it to me. Thanne to
      [Sidenote: He asks not ours, but his.]
  the seconde, what asketh god? _Non nostrum, sed suum._ He
  asketh not that thynge that is ours, but that thynge that is      16
  his owne. As saythe the prophete Dauid, _Tua sunt domine
  omnia: Et quæ de manu tua accepimus, tibi dedimus_. Good
  lorde, all thynges be thyne, and those thynges that we
  haue taken of the, of those haue we gyuen the. Thanne             20
      [Sidenote: He asks only to borrow, and to repay a
  to the thyrde, Where-vnto dothe god aske? He asketh
  not to gyue hym, but all-onely to borowe, _Non tamen ad
  triplas, s[c]ilicet, immo ad centuplas_. Not all-onely to haue
  thryse soo moche, but forsothe to haue an hundred tymes           24
      [Sidenote: Augustine.]
  soo moche. As saynt Austyn saythe, _Miser homo, quid
  veneraris homini; venerare deo, et centuplum accipies, et vitam
  æternam possidebis?_ Thou wretched manne, why doste thou
  worshyp or dreade manne: worshyp thou god and dreade              28
  hym, and thou shalte receyue an hundred tymes so moche,
  and haue in possessyon euerlastynge lyfe, the whiche many-folde
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 85_b_.]]
  passeth all other rewardes? Prouerbiorum xiiii.
  _Veneratur domino,[35] qui miseretur pauperibus_: He worshyppeth  32
      [Sidenote: Prov. xix. 7.]
  our lorde, that hath mercye and pytye on poore
  folkes. And the glose therof sayth, _Centuplum accepturus_.
  And thou shalte receyue an .C. tymes so moche. And it
      [Sidenote: Three kinds of alms-deeds.]
  is to be vnderstande, that there be thre maner of almes-dedes,    36
  that is to saye: _Egenti largire quicquid poteris:
  dimittere eis a quibus lesus fueris: Errantem corrigere, et in
  viam veritatis reducere._ That is to saye, to gyue to the
  nedy what thou well mayste, to forgyue theym that haue            40
  trespaced to the, and to correcte them that do amysse,
  and to brynge them into the way of ryghte.

  169. ¶ The fyrste maner of almes.

  _Egenti largire quicquid poteris._ Gyue to the nedye what
      [Sidenote: Luke xi. 41 vi. 38.]
  thou well maye. For our lorde saythe in his gospell: _Date
  elemosinam, et omnia munda sunt vobis. Et alibi. Date, et
  dabitur vobis_: Gyue almes, and all worldly rychesse is            4
  yours; gyue, and it shall be gyuen to you. Almes-dede
  is a holy thynge, it encreaseth a mans welthe, it maketh
  lesse a mannes synnes, it lengtheth a mans lyfe, it maketh
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 86.]]
  a man of good mynde, it delayeth yll tymes, and closeth            8
  all thynges, hit delyuereth a manne from deathe, it ioyneth
  a manne with aungelles, and seuereth hym from the dyuell,
  and is lyke a wall vnable to be foughten agaynst. And
  saynt James saythe: _Sicut aqua extinguit ignem, ita elemosina    12
  peccatum._ As water slecketh fyer, soo dothe almes-dede
      [Sidenote: Prov. xxviii. 27.]
  slake synne. Salomon saythe, _Qui dat pauperi, non
  indigebit._ He that giueth vnto a poore man, shal neuer
      [Sidenote: Prov. xxi. 13.]
  haue nede. And also he sayth, _Qui obturat aurem suam             16
  ad clamorem pauperis, et ipse clamabit, et non exaudietur._
  He that stoppeth his eare at the clamoure or crie of a
  pore man, he shall crye, and he shall not be gracyousely
  herde. There maye no manne excuse hym from gyuynge                20
  of almes, thoughe he be poore. And let hym doo as
      [Sidenote: Mark, xii. 42;]
      [Sidenote: Luke, xxi. 2.]
  the poore wydowe dyd, that offered a farthynge, wherfore
  she hadde more thanke and rewarde of god, thanne the
  ryche men that offered golde. And if thou mayste not              24
  gyue a farthynge, gyue lesse, or gyue fayre wordes, or
  good information, ensaumple, and token: and god shall
  rewarde the bothe for thy dede and for thy good wyll. And
  that thou dooste, do it with a good wyll. For saynte              28
      [Sidenote: 2 Cor. ix. 7.]
  Paule saythe, _Hilarem datorem diligit deus_. God loueth
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 86_b_.]]
  a glad gyuer, and that if it be of true begotten goodes.
  For Salomon saythe, _De tuis iustis laboribus ministra
  pauperibus_. Of thy trewe labours mynystre and gyue to            32
      [Sidenote: Isidore.]
  the poore folkes. For Isodorus saythe, _Qui iniuste tollit,
  iuste nunquam tribuit_. He that taketh wrongfully, cannot
  gyue trewelye. For it is wrytten Ecclesiastici xxxv.
      [Sidenote: Eccles. xxxiv. 24.]
  _Qui de rapinis, aut vsuris, aut de furto immolat: e[s]t quasi    36
  qui coram patre victimat filium._ He that offereth of the
  goodes, that he getteth by extortyon, vsurye, or thefte,
  he is lyke as a man slewe the sonne in the presence of
  the father. Thou mayste ryghte well knowe, the father             40
  wolde not be well contente. Noo more wolde god be
  pleased with the gyfte of suche begotten goodes.

  170. ¶ The seconde maner of almes.

  _Dimittere eis, a quibus lesus fueris._ To forgyue theym
  that haue trespaced to the, wherin thou shalte please
  god moche. For it is in the gospell of sayncte Marke
      [Sidenote: Mark, xi. 6.]
  .xii. _Si non dimiseritis aliis, nec pater vester celestis dimittet  4
   vobis peccata vestra._ If you forgyue not, your father of
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 87.]]
  heuen wyll not forgyue you your synnes. Also if thou
  doo not forgyue other, thou shalte be founde a lyer, as
  ofte as thou sayeste thy _Pater noster_, where thou sayste:        8
      [Sidenote: Matt. vi. 12.]
  _Et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus
  nostris._ And forgyue to vs our dettes, as we forgyue
  to our detters. By these dettes maye be vnderstande the
  thynges that we oughte to do to god, and doo not them.            12
  And also the trespaces and the synne that we haue
  offended to god, in that we aske mercye of. And if
  thou wylte not forgyue, thou mayst not aske mercy of
      [Sidenote: Matt. vii. 2.]
  ryght. _Eadem mensura, qua mensi fueritis, remetietur vobis._     16
  The same measure that ye meate other men by, shall be
  moten vnto you. _Dimittere autem rancorem et maliciam
  omnino necessitatis est, dimittere vero actionem et emendam
  opus est consilii._ To forgyue all rancour and malyce, that       20
  a manne oweth to the in his harte, thou arte bounden
  of necessitie to forgyue all the hole trespace, or to leaue
  thyne actyon, or a reasonable mendes. Therfore it is
  but a dede of mercye if thou so do, and no synne though           24
  thou sue the lawe with charytie. But and a manne haue
  done to the a trespace, and that thou arte gladde that
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 87_b_.]]
  he hathe soo done, that thou mayste haue a quarell, or
  a matter, or an accyon agaynste hym, and nowe of malyce           28
  or yll wyll thou wylte sue hym, rather than for the
  trespace; nowe thou synnest dedely, bycause thou doest
  rather of malyce than for the trespace, and than haste
      [Sidenote: Prov. xxii. 9.]
  thou loste thy charitie, Prouerbiorum .xxxii. _Qui pronus         32
  est ad misericordiam, benedicetur._ He that is redy to forgiue,
  shall be blessed.

  171. ¶ The thyrde maner of almes.

      [Sidenote: Three ways of correction.]
  _Errantem corrigere, et in viam veritatis reducere._ To
  correcke a misdoer, and to brynge hym into the waye of
  ryghte. It is to be vnderstand, that there be thre maner
  of corrections.                                                    4

      [Sidenote: First, as an enemy.]
  ¶ The fyrste correction is of an ennemye, the seconde
  is of a frynde, and the thyrde correction is of a Iustyce.
      [Sidenote: Chrysostom.]
  The fyrste saythe Chrisostome, _Corripe non vt hostis
  expetens vindictam, sed vt medicus instituens medicinam_.          8
  Correcke not as an enemye doinge vengeaunce, but as
      [Sidenote: Secondly, as a friend.]
  a phisicyon or surgyon, mynistringe or gyuynge a medicyne.
  To the seconde saythe Salomon. _Plus proficit
  amica correctio, quam correctio turbulenta._ A frendelye          12
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 88.]]
  correction profyteth more than a troublous correction.
  For yf thou speke courteysly to a man that hath offended,
  and with sweete wordes of compassion, he shall rather
  be conuerted by theym, than with hye wordes of great              16
      [Sidenote: Isidore.]
  punysshement. And Isodorus saythe, _Qui per verba blanda
  castigatus non corrigetur, acrius necesse est, vt arguatur_.
  He that wylle not be chastysed by fayre wordes, it is
  necessary that he be more hardlyer and straytlyer reproued        20
      [Sidenote: Jerome.]
  or punysshed. To the thyrde saythe sayncte Ierome,
  _Equum iudicium est, vbi non persona sed opera considerantur_.
      [Sidenote: Thirdly, as a judge.]
  There is an euen Iugemente, where the personne is not
  regarded, but the warkes are consydered. And alsoo hit            24
      [Sidenote: Matt. xvi. 27.]
  is wrytten. _Reddet vnicuique iuxta opera sua._ He shall
  yelde vnto euery manne after his workes. And sayncte
      [Sidenote: Augustine.]
  Augustyne saythe, _Sicut meliores sunt, quos corrigit amor,
  ita plures sunt quos corrigit timor_. As those be better,         28
  that be chastysed by loue, soo there be many moo that
  be chastysed by feare. For and they feared not the
  punyshement of the lawe, there wolde be but a fewe
      [Sidenote: Gregory.]
  chastysed by loue. And saynte Gregory sayth, _Facientis           32
  procul dubio culpam habet, qui quod potest corrigere negligit
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 88_b_.]]
  emendare, et illicita non prohibere consensus erroris est_. He
  that maye correcke, and dothe not, he taketh the offence
  to hym-selfe of the dede; and he that dothe not forbede           36
  vnlawefull thynges, consenteth to the same, &c.

  172. ¶ What is the greattest offence that a manne may doo
  and offende god in.

  In myne opynyon, it is to be in despayre of the mercye
  of god. And therefore what soo euer thou haue doone
  or offended god, in worde, warke, thought, or dede, be
      [Sidenote: Isidore.]
  neuer in despayre for it; for Isodorus saythe, _Qui veniam         4
  de peccato desperat, plus de desperatione peccat quam de culpa
  cadit_. He that despayreth to haue forgyuenes of his
  synnes, he synneth more in despayrynge than he dyd in
      [Sidenote: Jerome.]
  the synne doynge. For saynte Iherome sayth, _Magis                 8
  offendebat Iudas deum in hoc quod suspendebat, quam in
  hoc, quod eum tradidit_: Judas offended god more in
  that that he hanged hym-selfe, than he dydde whanne he
      [Sidenote: Ezek. xxxiii. 11.]
  betrayed god. For god sayth in his gospell, _Nolo mortem          12
  peccatoris, sed magis vt conuertatur et viuat_. I wyll not the
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 89.]]
  deathe of a synner, but rather that he maye be conuerted
      [Sidenote: Luke v. 32.]
  and lyue. And also he saythe, _Non veni vocare iustos,
  sed peccatores ad penitentiam_. I am not comen to call            16
  ryghtwyse men, but to call synners to do penaunce.
  For thou canste not so soone crye god mercy with thy
  harte, but he is as redye to chaunge his sentence, and to
  graunte the mercy and forgyuenes of all thy synnes. For           20
      [Sidenote: Augustine.]
  saynte Austyne saythe, _Sicut scintilia [sic] ignis in medio
  maris, sic omnis impietas viri ad misericordiam dei_. As a
  sparke of fyer is in comparison able to drye vppe all the
  water in the se, noo more is all the wyckednes of man             24
  vnto the me[r]cyfulnes of god. And therfore it is conuenyent
  that a manne shulde be penytent, contryte, and aske
  god mercye and forgyuenesse of his synnes and offences,
      [Sidenote: Chrysostom.]
  that he hath done; wherof speketh Chrysost[o]me, _Nemo            28
  ad deum aliquando flens accessit quod non postulauerit accepit_.
  No man hath gone any tyme wepynge to god, but he
  hath taken or had that thynge that he hath asked. And
      [Sidenote: Bernard.]
  sayncte Bernarde saythe, _Plus cruciant lacrime peccatoris        32
  diabolum quam omne genus tormentorum_. The teares of a
  synner tourmenteth the deuyll more, than all other kyndes
      [Sidenote: Augustine.]
  of turmentes. And sayncte Austyne saythe, _Acriores
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 89_b_.]]
  dolores demonibus non inferrimus, q_uam _cum peccata nostra       36
  penitendo et confitendo plangimus_. We canne not doo more
  sharper sorowes to the dyuell, than whan we wayle or
  wepe in confessyon, and doynge of penaunce. And
      [Sidenote: Mary Magdalen.]
  that maye be well proued by Mary Magdaleyn,                       40
  whanne she kneled downe and cryed god mercye, and
  kyste his fete, and wasshed theym with the teares of
  her eyen, and wyped them with the heare of her
  heed, to whom our lorde sayde, as in his gospell,                 44
      [Sidenote: Luke vii. 48.]
  _Dimittuntur tibi peccata tua_. Thy synnes are forgyuen
      [Sidenote: Luke vii. 50.]
  to the; and also he sayde to her: _Fides te saluam fecit,
  vade in pace_. Thy faythe hath saued the, goo thou in
  peace. To the whiche mercy and peace I besech                     48
  almyghty Iesu brynge all chrysten soules. Amen.

         *       *       *       *       *

      [Sidenote: The author’s protestation.]
  Be it knowen to all men bothe spirytuall and temporall,
  that I make protestacion before god and man,
  that I entende not to wryte any-thynge that is or                 52
  maye be contrary to the faythe of Chryste and al holy
  churche. But I am redye to reuoke my sayenge, if
  any-thynge have passed my mouthe for wante of lernynge,
  and to submytte my-selfe to correction, and my boke               56
  to reformatyon. And as touchynge the poyntes of
      [Sidenote: [Fol. 90.]]
  husbandry, and of other artycles conteyned in this
  present boke, I wyll not saye that it is the beste waye
  and wyll serue beste in all places, but I saye it is the          60
  best way that euer I coude proue by experyence, the
      [Sidenote: The author’s experience of forty years as a
  whiche haue ben an householder this .xl. yeres and
  more. And haue assaied many and dyuers wayes, and
  done my dyligence to proue by experyence which shuld              64
  be the beste waye.

  ¶ The Auctour.

      [Sidenote: The author’s address to his book.]
  ¶ Go, lyttell quere, and recommende me
  To all that this treatyse shall se, here, or rede;
  Prayenge them therwith content to be
  And to amende it in places, where as is nede:                      4
  Of eloquence, they may perceyue I want the sede,
  And rethoryke, in me doth not abounde,
  Wherfore I have sowe_n_, such sedes as I fou_n_d.


          [Sidenote: [Fol. 90_b_.]]
          [Sidenote: This book was compiled by Master Fitzherbert.]

  ¶ Thus endeth this ryghte profytable boke
  of husbandry, compyled sometyme by mayster
   Fitz-herbarde, of charytie and good zele
   that he bare to the weale of this mooste
       noble realme, whiche he dydde not
        in his youthe, but after he had
           exercysed husbandry, with
               greate experyence,
                   xl. yeres.

  [Illustration: (decorative icon)]

  ¶ Imprinted at London in fletestrete,
     in the house of Thomas Ber-
     -thelet, nere to the condite
          at the sygne of Lu-
            -crece. Cum pri-

  [Illustration: (decorative icon)]


[19] The references are to the folios of the original edition. That
the reader may find his place more readily, I have _numbered_ each
section. The numbers in thick type are, accordingly, not in the

[20] _Read_ Dewbolne.

[21] Misprinted ‘blough-mal.’

[22] _Sic_; ed. 1598 has ‘worme’.

[23] ‘slotes’?

[24] Misprinted ‘flote.’

[25] _Misprinted_ fyrst.

[26] Note that the symbol “C.” here does _not_ mean 100, but the
_great hundred_, _i.e._ 120.

[27] _Printed_ ewe, _which gives no sense._

[28] _Misprinted_ Dewbolue, dewbolue.

[29] _Misprinted_ or horse; _but the catchwords are_ a horse.

[30] _Misprinted_ shorte.

[31] Printed _abherebit_.

[32] _Printed_ secle.

[33] _Misprinted_ suker.

[34] Misprinted _diabolis_.

[35] Printed _dominus_; but the right reading is _Fæneratur domino_.


These Notes are principally concerned with the numerous variations
exhibited in the edition printed by I. R. in 1598. See the Preface.

The references are to the _Sections_ and _lines_, as numbered.

       *       *       *       *       *

=Prologue=; lines 2, 6. See Job, v. 7; 2 Thess. iii. 10.

15. The allusion is to Caxton’s Book of the Chess; see the
description of it in Ames’ Typographical Antiquities, ed. Dibdin,
i. 36, where woodcuts will be found representing the several pieces.

20. _iudges._ Caxton calls them _rooks_, as at present, but he
describes them as being vicars and legates of the king, i.e. as
occupying the position of judges.

_yomenne_, pawns. In Caxton, we find the division of pawns into
eight classes (answering to the eight pawns on each side), in
which the king’s rook’s pawn represents the _husbandman_. The next
in order, the king’s knight’s pawn, is the _smith_; after which,
in due order, we find the _notary_, _merchant_, _physician_,
_taverner_, _guard_ (or watchman), and the _ribald_ or dice-player,
whose character is not well spoken of. This eight-fold division
seems to me to have suggested the well-known formula which
divides men into the eight classes of ‘soldier, sailor, tinker,
tailor, gentleman, apothecary, ploughboy, thief;’ which is
sometimes otherwise varied. The German formula is. ‘Edelmann,
Bettelman, Amtmann, Pastor, Kaufmann, Laufmann, Maler, Major;’
also, be it observed, eight-fold. Our soldier, tinker, tailor,
apothecary, ploughboy, and thief, may be imagined to correspond,
with sufficient exactitude, to Caxton’s guard, smith, merchant,
physician, husbandman, and ribald.

27. _Remytte_, leave. A word is evidently omitted; we must supply
_to_ after _as_, or else substitute _to_ for _as_. In the Book of
Surveying, ch. ix, we find, “I remytte that to menne of lawe;” and
again, in ch. xii, “I remytte all those poyntes to menne of lawe.”
See also sect. 7, l. 14.

=1.= 1. For the manner in which I. R. rewrites this section, see
the Preface.

=2.= 5. _Chylturne._ As to the sense, we find, in the Book of
Surveying, c. 37, the following. “Chylturne grounde and flyntye
grounde be light groundes and drye, and full of small stones, and
chalke grounde is moche of the same nature, and they wyll weare and
washe awaye with water.”

6. _Meane erthe_, earth of ordinary character. _Mean_ is moderate,
ordinary. I. R. alters it to ‘_maine_ earth,’ which was probably
not intended. After _marle_, he inserts--“some neither Sand nor
Clay, but like a mixture of both, yet neither, which is called a
Hassell ground.”

9. I. R. has--“In Sommerset-shiere, Dawset-shiere, and

_Zelcester._ The old character Ʒ, which had the force of _y_ at
the beginning of a word,[36] was often printed as Z, by confusion.
Bishop Percy used to print such ludicrous forms as _zow_,
_zour_, instead of _yow_, _your_. I conclude that _Zelcester_ =
_Yelcester_, _i.e._ Ilchester. The form occurs again in sect. 27,
l. 17.

16. _many other places._ J. R. says--“in some parte of
Hartford-shiere, Sussex, and Cornwall.”

24. _aslope_] I. R. has _a flote_, _gyue out_, i.e. spread out, are
too obtuse.

26. I. R. says--“In Cambridge-shiere, Huntington-shiere,
Bedford-shiere, and for the most part of Northamton-shiere, theyr
Ploughes haue but one hale. In Leister-shiere, Lankishiere,
Yorkshiere, Lincolnshiere, and Notingham-shiere, they haue two; for
all other Countries [_counties_] vnnamed, there is none of them but
plow with some of these Ploughes before-mentioned.”

=3.= 1. The parts of a plough are enumerated in Gervase Markham’s
Complete Husbandman (1614), which is quoted at length in Rogers’s
Hist. of Agriculture and Prices, vol. i. p. 534. It is probable
that the plough, as described by Fitzherbert, did not materially
differ from that in use in 1614.

The principal parts, according to Markham, are as follows.

(1). ‘The _ploughbeam_, a large and long piece of timber, which
forms an arch for the other parts of the plough.’ It is, says
Fitzherbert, the long beam above, which is slightly bent. The
plough-sheath, the coulter, and the plough-foot, are all mortised
into it, pointing downwards.

(2). ‘The _skeath_ (i.e. _sheath_), a piece of wood two and a half
feet long, eight inches broad, and two inches thick, which is
mortised into the beam, and sloping forwards below it.’ Fitzherbert
says it is a thin piece of dry oak, fixed both in the plough-beam
and the share-beam, and is the chief ‘band,’ i.e. strengthening
piece or support, of the whole plough. By ‘thin,’ he must mean that
it is thin (2 inches) in proportion to its breadth (8 inches);
it is necessary that it should be very strong, as it holds the
implement together.

(3). ‘The plough’s _principal hale_ on the left hand, a long bent
piece of wood, somewhat strong in the midst, and so slender at the
upper end that a man may easily gripe it.’ This is Fitzherbert’s
_plough-tail_ (l. 16), which he says is mortised into the sharebeam
behind, and pinned to the ploughbeam behind also. The ploughman
holds it in his _left_ hand. It is also called the _ploughstart_;
where _start_ means _tail_, as in _red-start_.

(4). ‘The _plough-head_, which is fixed with the skeath and the
hale, all at one instant, into two several mortise-holes; a
flat piece of timber, about three feet in length, seven inches
in breadth, and two and a half in thickness, and having two
nicks towards the head of the plough.’ This is the same as what
Fitzherbert calls the _sharebeam_; see the explanation in sect. 2,
l. 10.

(5). ‘The _plough-spindles_, two round pieces of wood which couple
the hales [handles] together.’ These are what Fitzherbert calls the
_rough staves_; see l. 35.

(6). ‘The _right-hand hale_, through which the other end of the
spindles run, much more slender than the left-hand hale, because no
force is put on it.’ This is Fitzherbert’s _plough-stilt_; see l.

(7). The _plough-rest_, a small piece of wood, fixed at one end
in the further nick of the plough-head, and on the other end to
the right-hand hale.’ ‘In the Middle Ages,’ says Prof. Rogers,
‘it appears that this part was made of iron, and that it was
occasionally double.’ We must remember that _plough-head_ means the

(8). ‘The _shelboard_ [i.e. shield-board], a board of more than an
inch thick, covering the right side of the plough, and fastened
with two strong wooden pins to the skeath and right-hand hale.’

(9). ‘The _coulter_, a long piece of iron made sharp at one end,
passing on one side by a mortise-hole through the beam, and held in
place by an iron ring which winds round the beam and strengthens
it.’ Fitzherbert’s description is slightly different; see l. 48.
The use of the coulter is to make the first incision into the
earth; it precedes the share, which follows it and completes its

(10). ‘The _share_. If this be needed for a mixed earth, it is made
without a wing, or with a small one only: if, however, it be needed
for a deep or stiff clay, it should be made with a large wing or an
outer point.’

(11). ‘The _plough-foot_. This is an iron implement, passed through
a mortise-hole, and fastened at the farther end of the beam by a
wedge or two, so that the husbandman may at his discretion set it
higher or lower; the use being to give the plough earth or to put
it from the earth, for the more it is driven downward the more it
raises the beam from the ground and makes the irons forsake the
earth, and the more it is driven upward, the more it lets down
the beam and makes the irons bite the ground.’ Fitzherbert well
describes it as ‘a stay to order of what deepness the plough shall
go.’ The word _ploughfote_ occurs in Piers Plowman, B. vi. 105; see
my notes to that poem, vol. iv. p. 161. This part of the plough
was also called a _plough-shoe_ (in Latin, _ferripedalis_); see
Rogers (as above), p. 538. In a modern plough, the plough-foot is
generally replaced by small wheels. I may remark that it was placed
in front, before the coulter.

If we compare the preceding account with that given by
Fitzherbert, we shall see that the two nearly agree. Fitzherbert’s
_plough-beam_, _plough-sheath_, and _plough-tail_ are Nos. 1, 2,
and 3 above; his _stilt_, _rest_, and _shieldboard_ are Nos. 6, 7,
and 8; his _rough staves_, _plough-foot_, _share_, and _coulter_,
are Nos. 5, 11, 10, and 9. But he has three additional terms,
viz. the _sharebeam_, which is the wooden frame for the _share_,
and is called by Markham the _plough-head_ (No. 4). Secondly, the
_fen-board_, i.e. _mud-board_, covering the _left_ side of the
plough, and fastened to the _left_ of the sheath and the _left_
hale, much as the shield-board is fastened to the _right_ of the
sheath and the _right_ hale. Lastly, the _plough-ear_, defined
as ‘three pieces of iron, nailed fast to the right side of the
plough-beam,’ for which poor men substituted ‘a crooked piece of
wood pinned fast to the plough-beam.’ What was the use of this
appendage we are not expressly told; but it seems to have been used
for fastening the trace to, for draught; see =4.= 34.

Fitzherbert also notices the _plough-mal_, i.e. plough-mall or
plough-mallet (l. 55), which seems to have consisted of a head of
hard wood and a ‘pynne,’ or handle, and to have been loosely stuck
into the plough-beam by passing the handle through ‘an augurs
bore,’ i.e. through a hole bored in the beam by an augur for this
especial purpose. This was no real _part_ of the plough, but only a
tool conveniently kept at hand. He does not, however, mention the
plough-staff (or akerstaff), which was ‘a pole shod with a flat
iron, the purpose of which was to clear the mould-board from any
stiff earth which might cling to it while the plough was at work’;
Rogers, as above, p. 539. This was originally held in the right
hand (see my notes to P. Plowman); but I think it likely that, when
a second handle, or _stilt_, came into use, the plough-staff was
given up. Wright’s Prov. Glossary gives “_mell_, _mellet_, a square
piece of wood fitted with a handle, a mallet.”

10. I. R. says of the _sharbeame_, that “in some Countries it is
called the plough-head.” Fitzherbert has already said this, see
=2.= 10.

12. _Oke_] Oake or Ashe; I.R.

15. I. R. says of the _plough-tayle_, that “in many Countries [it
is] called the Plough-hale, of which they haue two, but the other
is fastened to the rough staues and the shelboard.” The other
_hale_ is the _plough-stilt_.

25. _sheldbrede_] Shelboard; I. R.

27. _fenbrede_] Senbred; I. R. This is wrong.

32. _to come past_] compasse; I. R.

34. _roughe_] long; I. R.

49. _bende_, _i.e._ bent] broad; I. R. This is inappropriate, for
it is somewhat narrow, viz. of the breadth of three inches; see
line 52.

55. _plough-mal_] Plough Maule; I. R. As to the parts of a plough,
cf. Tusser’s Husbandry, 17. 10, 11; and see above, note to =3.= 1.

=4.= 14. _slot-wedges_] flote wedges; I. R. I. R. does not seem to
have understood it, as he alters _slote_ to _flatte_ in the two
lines following.

19. After _erthe_, I. R. has--“so that it may, as the best
experienced Plow-men say, kill a worme, or els it goeth not truly.”
_Worme_ is clearly right. He further inserts--“The poynt of your
Culture, and the poynt of your Share, must runne both in one
leuell, so that they may cutte both in one instant, chiefely if the
ground be stiffe and tough; but if it be in a light land, then if
the point of your Culture be a little longer it shall be so much
the better, and in such light groundes, let your Culture be somwhat
sickell-wise bowed, for the finer cutting, but in tough Clay ground
it ought to be as straight as may be.”

26. _payreth_] hurteth; I. R. This is a gloss.

29. _practyue_] practise; I. R.[37]

33. _bende_] band. But _bende_ probably means ‘bent piece.’

35. _he_] you (throughout). This shews that this idiomatic use of
_he_ was obsolescent in 1598.

46. _coke_] Cocke.

58. I. R. adds--“In diuers Countries, as namely in Cambridgshiere,
Huntington, Hartford, Bedford, and Northamton, the share is alwayes
nayled with certaine nayles vnto the shelboard, to which I am not
so well affected, because by that meanes the shelboard can neuer
be turnd, or after he is once worne be [_sic_] for other purpose,
whereas in the Northerne partes of this Land, the share being only
fastned in his socket to the Plough-head, which may at ease be done
with a crooked horne of a Ramme, which being put ouer the poynt
of the share, may be knocked fast at ones pleasure, the shelboard
being worne at the one end may be taken off, and the other end set
forward, which will as sufficiently serue as euer it did before,
yeelding to the Plough-man a double profit.”

=5.= 1. _But or he_] Before we.

2. _geare_] implements. A genteel improvement! So again in l. 45.

4. _stylkynges_, _wrethyng-temes_] stilting wrethen teames.

6. _sleues_] cleuisse. _pykforke_] Pitchforke.

9. _fellyes_] follies (!). 10. _fettred_] fettered or tyed.

17. _soule_] sole.

19. _lyn-pinnes_] limpins.

23. _pikstaues_] pickstaues, all which are best of Ashe.

24. _hombers_] humbers. _holmes whyted_, _tresses_] holmes, withed

29. _or kyddes, or suche other_] faggots, or Kids.

=6.= 5. I. R. adds--“yet in all _Virgils_ writing the Oxe-plough is
most preferred.” There are other unimportant variations here.

17. _teddered_] teathered.

18. _hades_] hadds.

24. _gere that they shal_] harnes and tyer they.

27. _hey_] hay mingled, which Plough-men call bendfoder.

28. _and they haue, &c._] and for shooes for the most part that
cost in them is saued, except it be for some long iourney, or in
stony wayes for feare of surbayting.

30. _lyttell worthe_] worth nothing, except for a kennell of
noyse-begetting Hounds.

32. _ii._ s.] tenne shillings.

=7.= I. R. omits this section altogether.

=8.= I. R. greatly expands this section, after the following manner.

Chapter 8. ¶ How a man should plough all manner of Lands all times
of the yeare.

Now that I haue prescribed the manner to make and temper the most
or all the sorts of Ploughs, it shall next seeme expedient for me
to show the manner and time of the yeare in which a man ought to
Plough, and for the better vnderstanding of the ignorant, I will
begin at the beginning of the yeare, and so succeede downe-ward:
After the feast of _Epiphanie_ it is time for a Husbandman to goe
to Plough, to wit, if your ground be a stiffe and a tough clay,
then shall you begin and Plough your Pease-earth, which is, where
you had your Wheate, Rye, and Barley, the yeere before: this
ground being ploughed, you shall let it so lye, which is called
bayting some fiue or sixe dayes, that it may receaue a frost or
two, which frost will so lighten and deuide the earth, that when
you shall come to harrow it, it will runne to a very good mold,
that otherwise it would neuer doe. If your ground be naturally
light and sandy, then may you immediatly vpon your ploughing sowe
without giuing your ground any bayte at all. When your Pease earth
is sowne, and the Spring is creeping on: then if you will follow
_Virgils_ famous principles, begin to fallow your ground which must
rest that yeare. In the beginning of Lent sow your Barley upon clay
grounds, but in hote sandy grounds, if you stay a moneth or more
longer it will be much the better. At mid-sommer stirre vp a-new,
that is, Plow againe your fallow ground: & before the rising of
the North-starre, which is eleuen dayes before the _Æquinoctial
Autumnal_, or the thirteenth of September, then sow your Wheate and
Rye, and these be the seasons and the graynes to sow, except Oates,
which is alwayes to be vsed in like manner as Barley is. If you
haue any ley ground to fallow or breake vp for to sowe Oates vpon,
then let that be the first thing you take in hand, that the grasse
and the mosse may be rot in it, and let your Plough runne a deepe
square furrow, and in all manner of ploughing, see that your eye,
your hand, and your foote agree, and be alwaies ready one to serue
another, and to turne vp so much mold and to lay it flatte that it
reare not an edge: for if it stand vp vpon an edge, the grasse and
mosse can neuer kindly rotte, which being vsed as it should, is an
excellent manuring.

If you sowe Winter-corne, as eyther Wheate or Rye vpon swarth
ground, looke how much Corne toucheth the mosse, so much will be
drowned and cannot spring, the mosse in his owne nature dooth keepe
so much wette in it selfe. In some Countries, if a man plow deepe,
hee shal plough past the good ground, and so haue little Corne, but
that Country in my iudgement is not fitte for tyllage, but rather
thereto to reare and breede Cattell, as Oxen, Kine, or Sheepe, or
els they must goe beate their lands with Mattocks, as they doo in
many places of Cornwall, and in some places of Deuonshiere. The
manner of plowing land is in three formes: eyther they be great
Lands, as with high ridges and deepe furrowes, as in all the
North parts of this Land, and in some sotherne parts also, or els
flatte and plaine, without ridge or furrow, as in most parts of
Cambridge-shiere: or els in little Lands, no Land containing aboue
two or three furrowes, as in Midlesex, Essex, and Hartfordshiere.

For the first, it is needfull, where the grounde is stife, tough,
and binding, beeing alwaies capable of much wette, that if the
Lands did not lie hie, not onely would the fatnesse choake the
Corne ere it could come foorth, but also the colde soaking wette,
would confound the vigor and strengthe of the seede. For the
second, that is good where the ground is somewhat light, and giuen
to barrennesse: so that what forcst [_read_ forct] vertue soeuer
you thrust into the ground, either by manure or otherwise, the Land
lying flatte and plaine, shall still retaine it, not suffering it
as els it would to wash away with euery shower. For the last, that
is, where the grounde is both barren, cold, and stiffe: if there
you plough in large Lands, the wether and season will so binde it
together, that the seede shall burst, but not finde any passage to
sproute. Againe, such ground is subiect to much weede, besides, if
your lands should be any greater, you should neuer possibly come to
weede them, eyther as they would or they should be done.

=9.= I. R. alters this section, noting--“Neuer sowe Pease or Beanes
on a light, hote sand ground, for that will neuer beare them, but
for the Beane, the extreamest and the stiffest ground is the best.
If it bee lesse stiffe, then the mingled ware[38] is best, as Pease
and Beanes well sorted. If it bee neither stiffe nor light, then
cleane Pease is the best, for they wil prosper most kindliest.”

13. I. R. adds--“Pease are an excellent seede, and inrich ground
as much as the light manuring: which is the reason, that in many
places of Lincoln-shiere, and els where, sowing their inam Wheate
where theyr Pease grew, they haue the finest Corne.”

=10.= 1-9. Varied by I. R.

13. _kedlokes_] Kellocks (_but elsewhere_ Kedlocks).

41. I. R. adds--“because the freshnes of the molde is to the seede
very comfortable.”

=11.= 11. _wonders_] wonderous (which is the later form). The whole
of this section is re-written, merely to alter the language.
Fitzherbert speaks again of ‘the seed of discretion’ in the Book of
Surveying, c. 39.

=12.= 8. _strykes in other places_] two Northerne strikes. And as
the measure Northward is greater, so are their Akers larger.

13. _quarter_] quarter, or halfe a seame.

31. _Christmasse_] Christmas, as for the most part Northward, or
generally vpon fat clay grounds.

=13.= 7. _landes_] land and the balke.

18. _sprot-barleye_] sport-Barley. So also in l. 19.

28. _lyke pecke-whete_] like to an eare of Wheate.

40. I. R. adds--“but how so euer the season of the yeare is, that
Barley naturally of it selfe is a withered, deepe, yellow Corne,
that yeldeth much bran, & but litle flower. Barley for the most
part chiefly in clay grounds would be sown vnder furrow, that is, a
cast or two about the Land, then ploughed, then sowne agayne, and
so harrowed.”

=14.= 15. I. R. adds--“These are for the most barranest Heath or
forrest ground that may be, as in Darbishiere, where they call them
Skeyggs, and not Oates.”

*** After section =14=, I. R. introduces section =34=, to bring
all the kinds of sowing together.

=15.= This is section =17= in the edition of 1598.

7. _moche_] bigge (which is a gloss). So also in l. 24.

8. _shotes_] flores. But this can hardly be right. See below.

11. _slote_] slope. But this can hardly be right. It is clear that
the right word is _slote_, with the sense of ‘cross-bar,’ the
_bulls_ being the thicker bars of the harrow.

13. _withe_] withy.

24. _sloted and tinded_] floted and tyned.

27. _about Ryppon_] in Notinghamshire and more Northward.

28. _bulder-stones_] bolder-stones. Also spelt _bulder-stones_ in
the Book on Surveying, c. 40.

41. _hombers_] humbers. _withed_] writhed.

42. _tresses_] traces (in both places).

50. _after a shoure_, &c.] with great roles of wood, which
_Virgill_ much commends, and doubtless is very good after a shower
of raine, to make the ground euen to mow. And note that the dryer
your Lands be when you clot them, the sooner wil your clots break,
and the more mold you shall haue.

=16.= 3. _for whete, &c._] on which fallowes the next yeare
following, you shall sow your Rye, Wheat and Barly.

24. _stere_] stirre (which is a later form).

35. I. R. adds--“To fallow withall, sixe Oxen, or sixe Horses are
no more then sufficient.”

=17.= 29. I. R. adds--“Also let not your heapes stand too long ere
they be spread, for if they doo, the goodnesse of your manure,
chiefely if it take a shower of raine, will runne into the ground
where the heape stands, and the rest when it is spread will little

29-35. I. R. makes a new section of this, headed “Chapter 20. Of
the diuers kindes of Manure, and which is the best.” It is as

There be diuers sorts of Manures, and first of those that bee
worst, as Swines dunge, which Manure breedeth and bringeth vp
thistles; the scourings of Hay-barnes or Corne barnes, which
bringeth vp sundry weedes and quirks [quicks?]; and rotten
Chaffe, which diuers vse, but brings little good. The shoueling
of highwayes and streetes is very good, chiefely for Barley.
Horse-dunge is reasonable. The dunge of all maner of Cattel that
chew the cudde is most excellent. Doues dunge for colde ground is
best of all, but it must be spred very thinne. For grounds that are
giuen to riue and chap, ashes is excellent, for they will binde and
knit together. Also for such grounds it is most singular to burne
the stubble on the ground, which is worth tenne manurings: for it
fatneth (saith _Virgill_) the soyle, and yeeldeth a secrete force
of nourishment vnto the seede. Also, euery euill is tryed out by
the fire, and the vnprofitable moisture is forced to sweat out,
it giueth a vent and passage for the iuyce that quickeneth the
Corne, and it closeth the gaping vaines and holes of the earth,
through which, eyther extreame moysture, extreame heate, or wind,
would blast the Corne. Also in Cheshiere, Lankishiere, and other
Countreys, they vse for manure a kinde of blewe Marble-like earth,
which they call Marle. This is for those Countries an excellent
manure, and though it be exceeding chargeable, yet through good
neighbour-hood it quiteth the cost: for if you manure your groundes
once in seauen or twelue yeares, it is sufficient, and look how
many yeares he beareth Corne, so many yeares he will beare grasse,
and that plenty. Straw layd to rot in the Winter, is good dung.

30. _sholynges_; _i.e._ shovellings. Note “the _shoueling_ of
highwayes” in the extract given just above.

=18.= 3. _flyte_] shift (which is a gloss). So also in l. 28.

10. _kelles begonne_] kells be gone. This shews that the reading
_begonne_ in the original is a misprint for _be gone_.

17. _appeyreth them sore_] abateth them much.

23. _goynge vppon_] treading or going upon with their feete.

31. _appeyre_] abate or diminish.

33. _for_] from. This shews that the old idiomatic use of _for_ (=
against) was obsolescent in 1598.

=19.= 5. _charte_] Cart. And perhaps we should read _carte_ in the
text; the meaning of _charte_ is, of course, _cart_.

8. Here I. R. inserts--“And for this purpose of carrying, I take
the Horse-Cart to be best, because they be most nimble, and goe
with best speede; & if the Horses be good, they will not at any
time loose company with his neighbours.”

=20.= 3. _cocledrake_] Cockell, Drake. And such should be the
reading; for see ll. 13, 17.

4. _darnolde_] Darnell. _gouldes_] Golds. _haudoddes_] Hadods.

6. _roughe_] tough.

23. _sterte_] stalke (a gloss).

32. _is_] are. Fitzherbert makes _is_ agree with _one_.

47. _dee-nettles_] Dee, Nettels (wrongly).

=21.= 15. _in the reane_] away. I. R. omits the rest, down to

=22.= 10. _at-after none_] in the after-noone. But _at-after_ is an
old form, signifying much the same as _after_. See Glossary.

12. _beytynge_] resting. At the end of the section, I. R.
adds--“For this stirring foure horses are sufficient.”

=23.= 8. _wyddrynge_] withering (the later form).

11. _chowe_] chewe.

16. _swathe_] swaithe.

17. _mane_] man (!). The sense is, I suppose, a ridge of grass,
which is likened to a horse’s mane.

20. _moldywarpe-hilles_] Mole-hills. _styckes_] sticks and stones.

In the Book on Surveying, c. 25, we are told that the best way to
spread _mouldy-warpe hilles_] is by bush-harrowing.

=24.= 3. _beyked_] keyked (which I suspect to be nonsense). In line
12, _beykyng_ is altered to _baking_.

15. _hasell and withee_] Hassell or Withy.

19. _and let his warke_] wherby he shall hinder his worke.

21. _and_] if (a gloss of an obsolescent conjunction). So again in
sect 25, 1. 16.

=25.= 7. _ouer_] vpper. See the Glossary.

22. _crofote_] Crow-foote.

27. After _wyll_, I. R. inserts “as they say.”

32. _twon_] twined (the weak form).

=26.= 5. I. R. alters this so as to give a different sense--“when
it is mowne, it will be so fast bound that no man can gather it so
cleane but there wil be great losse.” This is contradictory, and
probably he missed the word _not_.

=27.= 17. I. R. omits the phrase--“about Zelcestre and Martok.”

=28.= 13. _And whan the barley_, &c.] and when the Barley is lead
away, the Land must be raked with a great Rake with yron teeth,
made fast about a mans necke with a string, and so drawne vp and
downe the Lande, or els much Barley wil be lost. If Barley or
Oates be layd through winde or ill weather, then it must needes
be shorne, els not. The binding of barley in sheaues is very
profitable, yet many that haue great crops will not attend so great
trouble, but as soone as it is mowne make it in cocks like hay, and
so carry it home: yet must they haue good respect vnto it, for if
it bee full of weede and greeues (_sic_, _for_ greenes), then must
it lye till they be withered, or els it will burne in the mow.

=29.= 2. _sickles_] steeles. After _staffe-hokes_, I. R. adds--“and
some mow downe with Sythes.”

4. _on repes_] in reaps.

11. _codde_] codds. This is a better reading.

=30.= 7. _to pervse_] peruse. This early use of _peruse_ in the
sense of go through, lit. use up thoroughly, should be noted. It
occurs again in the Book of Surveying, capp. 19, 24; see note to
33. 7.

18. As to the fall of the tenth part of the angels, see my notes to
P. Plowman.

21. After _truely_, I. R. adds--“but how eyther of the sayings hold
with vnconscionable impropriations, adiudge the learned, let me

=31.= 3. _halfe-throne_] halfe-theame (_sic_).

=32.= 5. _reke_] Reeke, stack, or houell.

6. _scaffolde_] houell; and in 11. 9, 11.

7. _hedged for_] hedged or paled from.

11. _shepe or catel_] Sheep, Cattel, Horse, Carts, Wains, or

=33.= 3. _meane_] reasonable.

4. _ebbe_] shallow.

6. _reane_] raine of balke.

=33.= 7. So also in the Book of Surveying, c. 24. “And if it so be,
than take thy ploughe, and begyn to plowe a forowe in the myddes of
the syde of the land, and cast it downe as yf thou shulde falowe
it, and so pervse both sydes tyl the rygge be cast down, and than
take thy plough agayn, and begyn to plowe where thou dyddest plowe
fyrste, and rygge all the remeynant upwarde, and so shalt thou
bothe cast thy landes, and rigge them, and all at one plowyng. And
this wyl make the lande to lye rounde, the whyche is good bothe for
corne and grasse.”

=34.= This is Chapter 15 in I. R.’s edition. After _rye_ (l. 2), I.
R. adds--“chiefely, if your ground be rich, clayie, and cold, but
if it be dry and hote, then may you stay the latter season, as till
the latter end of October.”

6. After _falowe_, I. R. adds--“and plow it vnder without

8. After _yere_, I. R. adds--“as in other places euery third yeere,
for the one haue four fieldes, the other three.”

23. _whyte wheate_] Oygrane Wheate. So in l. 31 below, he has
“Oygrane or white Wheate.”

25. _anis_] anns; so also in l. 29, and again in ll. 33, 36, 40,
42; we should rather have expected the spelling _auns_.

33. _and wyll make white breed_] it yeeldeth the finest flower of
all. These three sorts of Wheat must euer bee sowne eyther on the
Pease stubble, or on a fallow ground that is not very proud or
rich, for too rich ground for these Wheats wil make them mildewe
and not prosper.

35. After _whyte wheate_, I. R. adds--“but they are deceaued.”

38. _rudeste_] ruddiest. This is clearly the right sense.

43. _flyntered_] flintred. At the end of the section I. R. adds a
long piece, as follows.

Lastly, there is another Wheat, which is called hole-straw Wheat;
it hath the largest eare of al Wheats, the boldest Corne, and
yeeldeth the most, the finest, though not the whitest floure; it
is foure-square, and hath short anns; the straw is not hollow, but
hath a strong pith throughout, by reason wherof in his growth no
weather whatsoeuer can beare him downe, but still he will stand and
prosper; his straw yeeldeth as good thatch as Reeds, a singular
profit for a Husbandman: and it is an excellent fewell to bake or
brew with, euen as good as Gorsse or Whins: Onely Cattell will not
eate it, nor is it good for litter; this of all Wheats is the best:
these last named are to be sowne on the fallow ground, and the
better the ground is, the better they will prosper.

When you sowe your Rye choose a dry season, for small wet killeth
Rye. Rie, as the old husbands say, will drowne in the Hopper, that
is, if in the Hopper hee catch a shower, his vigor is slaine.
Wherfore the drier his mold, is the better, which is the cause that
the hote, dry, and light sand is onely for Rye most excellent: his
mold must harrow small like a Garden-bed, for the smallest clot
hindereth his comming vp; his sprout is so small and tender.

Here I. R. inserts a whole chapter, as follows.

Chapter 16.

¶ How to make barraine ground bring foorth good Corne.

If thy ground be barraine and hard, yeelding nothing but ill Hay
of insuing profit, then shal it be necessary for thee to vse these
secrets in Art which is most auaileable. And first for thy Pease,
Beanes, Barley, and Oates, if thou sowest any of them: sowe them
vpon the eight day of April, which is the Equinoctiall vernall,[39]
when _Libra_[40] draweth the houres of the day and night to an
euen and iust proportion, and what Corne is so sowne prospereth
greatly: but if thou wilt be assured that no Corne thou sowest
shall faile, then take Salt-peeter and mingle with thy Corne,
and sow it, and thy labor shall neuer be frustrate. For want of
it, take the black dreggs of Oyle, and wette thy seede ere thou
sow it, and it shall vndoubtedly spring vp. If thou hast none of
these, then take Pigions dunge, and mingle it with thy seede in thy
hopper, and sow it: though it be not so good as the other, yet is
the profitable vertue wonderfull.

=35.= 7. _Kente_] Kent, and Hartfordshiere.

8. _gise_] vse. _Gise_ = guise, way, manner, plan. I. R. has “great
safety for sheding the Corne,” retaining here the old use of _for_.

12. I. R. adds--For your seede, if you will be aduised by me,
you shall change it alway once in two or three yeare. For to sow
continually one seede bred in one soyle it will decay & grow ill:
and in your exchange draw it alwayes from the harder soyle, and
being brought into a better, it must the rather prosper.

=36.= 3. _reed_] reeded. This form is wrong, like our use of
_wonted_ for _wont_ (= won-ed).

At the end of this section, I. R. closes his First Booke.

=37.= 6. Here I. R. inserts--Of Sheepe there be two sorts, that
is, blacke and white, but the white is the best, for the Wooll
they beare there bee of diuers Staples: some long and hairie, as
those bredde in barren cold Countries, and that is the worst;
some hard, short, and curld, as those bred in woody grounds, and
that is better: some long, thicke, soft, and curled, and that is
the best of all: and they be bredde vpon fine heathes, where they
haue short, dry, and sweet foode. The profit of wooll the world
can witnesse, and yeerely your Ewes will bring forth Lambes,
which is an other commoditie; and lastly, in some Countries, as
in Suffolke, Essex, and Kent, with many other, they milke their
Ewes, a gaine equall to the rest. Therfore when you chuse sheepe,
elect them big-boand and well-woolld, their colours beeing white.
For _Virgill_ faines, that _Cynthia_, the Goddess of Chastitie,
in whose thoughts could neuer enter impuritie, was enamored of
_Endimion_ onely through hys flocke of white sheepe. When therfore
you haue got a flock of white sheepe, then you must chuse Rams to
equall them, for preseruing the breede: your Ram would bee white
also, and ouer and beside you must looke in his mouth, and if the
roofe thereof be blacke, then is hee not good: for either hee will
then get blacke Lambes, or at least staine theyr fleeces with a
duskie colour. The greater the homes of your Ram is, the worse; for
the pollard is the chiefest Ram.

14. _blyssomme or ryde_] blossome and arride.

16. _at the Exaltation of the holye crosse_] in September.

32. I. R. adds--Wherfore be carefull to keepe thy sheepe well, both
with hay in Winter as well as with grasse in Sommer. Also in the
Winter such Sheepe as thou intendest to fatte and sell, let them
either haue straw or fleakes to lie vpon, for the cold earth will
both disease them and hinder their feeding.

=38.= 3. _trouse_] brouse. See these words in the glossary.

6, 7. The sense is--and if she (the ewe) will not stand sideways
beside the lamb; _i.e._ in such a position that the lamb can
approach her side. There is an evident misprint in l. 7, where
the original has _ewe_ for _lambe_. I. R. tries to make sense
by turning _all_ into _call_; thus--“and if she wil not stand
side-long, call the Ewe and giue her a little hay.” This is an
evident attempt at making sense by falsifying the grammar of the
text; for Fitzherbert does not say “_and_ give her,” but “_than_
gyue her,” _i.e._ then give her. Consequently all that precedes the
word _than_ belongs to the clause containing the supposition.

=39.= 9. After _theym_, I. R. inserts--Yet _Virgill_ aduiseth you
in such a case to haue a leather full of sharp poynted nayles,
which being put about the musell of the Lambe, if it offer to
sucke, it will so pricke the dugges of the Ewe th_a_t she will not
suffer it, but by that meanes weane it perforce: and by the same
deuise you may weane all maner of Cattell whatsoeuer. See Virg.
Georg. iii. 399.

=40.= 14. _steke_] shutt (which is a gloss).

24. _go belte, grese_, _i.e._ go and belt them, and grease them.
As to _belting_, see the next section. I. R. very stupidly alters
the phrase to _goe melt grease_, though he has to retain the word
_belt_ below.

=41.= 18. It is hard to make an old dog stoop; _i.e._ it is hard to
make him submit to being taught. This occurs in Heywood’s Proverbs,
1562 (Hazlitt). In the most insipid way, I. R. alters _to stoupe_
into _for Sheepe_, spoiling the whole saying.

=43.= To _medle terre_ is to mix tar. I. R. alters _medle_ in the
rubric to _melt_, and then substitutes _mingled_ for _medled_ in l.
1. This is very clumsy.

=44.= In the rubric, I. R. alters _brome_ to _browne_, which is
certainly wrong; see the context.

7. _gelly_] Ielly. Yet the spelling with _g_ is well enough.

8. _pysse_] pisse or lye. See _lye_ in the glossary.

14. _or of faldynge_, &c.] or a folding of some such soft cloth or
wooll. It is clear that I. R. did not know the word _faldynge_, or
he would not thus have altered the text.

17. _sheydes_] sheeds; _i.e._ partings; see sect. 42, l. 4.

24. _for_] from (as in other places). _For_ = against, to prevent.

=45.= 4. _fyled_] filled. This is wrong; _fyled_ means fouled,

=46.= 3. _rather_] sooner. I. R. adds--There be diuers waters for
this purpose, as water made of Sandiuer and burnt Allom, or the
iuyce of Housleeke strained and mingled with Rose-water; or the
braines of an hatched, as thus: Take a linnen cloth, and burne it
vpon the head of a hatchet, then blow away the ashes, and there
wilbe on the hatchets head a kind of oyle, that taken and put in a
sheepes eye, is most excellent.

=47.= 3. _clese_] clawes.

9. _clese_] clea. _Clea_ is _claw_; _clese_ = _cleas_, claws.

15. _pece of fleshe_] peece of fleame (i.e. phlegm).

=48.= 12. I. R. adds--to the great hinderance of the sale.

=49.= 1. _pockes_] Pox (the modern spelling).

9. I. R. adds--but if you cannot wash them, then let them blood in
the roofes of the mouth, and after they haue left bleeding, giue
them a supping of milke and Saffron mingled together.

=51.= 6. _murtheryng or ouer-pressyng_] smoothering or oppressing.
And certainly _smothering_ seems the right word.

10. I. R. adds--Wash your sheepe in running Riuers, for standing
Ponds are ill.

=52.= 4. _tarboxe_] Tarbox, or bronne salue. Here _bronne_ is a
misprint for _broune_; and _broune_ is a mistake for _brome_. See
note to sect. 44 above.

=54.= 14. After _shepe_, I. R. inserts--salt marshes onely excepted.

22. _kelles vppon the grasse_] kels vpon the grasse like to
Spinners webs. (A _spinner_ is a spider.)

31. _white snailes_] white finells (not clearly printed).

=55.= 2. _stryndes_] strings (badly). So also in l. 4.

16. _lyttel quikens_] a little quicknes (absurdly). _flokes_]
flocks. But _flukes_ are meant.

Here I. R. inserts a chapter on goats, as follows.

Chapter 20.

¶ Of Goates and their profit or vse.

Thus hauing sufficiently debated touching the choosing, cherishing,
and curing of sheep, I thinke it good a little to speake of Goates
and their vse: a kinde of Cattell which albe heere in England we
estimate not to his worth, yet in other places they be of highest
valuation: and the excellent poet _Virgill_ in his Countrey muse,
draweth them and sheepe to march in one euen equipage. Thus
comparing them, the Goate (saith he) yeeldeth in milke three times
the quantity a sheepe doth, theyr young ones are more plentifull,
for they will haue two or three, and sometimes more, and their
beards yearely being shorne and spunne, haue made an excellent
during stuffe, which for the continuance, hath made Marriners
desirous onely to weare it in their garments, so that though their
beards cannot in quantity and fineness be equall with the fleece of
the sheepe, yet ioyning their milke and their young ones to their
beards, there is no wonderfull difference.

Their manner of keeping, both wintering and sommering, is in the
Poets rules the same that the Sheepe hath, onely theyr foulding
and feed excepted: for the foulding they are not needfull, and
for their feede, Woods are the best, or the toppes of Mountaines:
bushie and thorny grounds vnprofitable for any other vse, for the
feede of Goates is most excellent. They will obserue custome much
better than Sheepe, for beeing but once or twice vsed there-vnto,
they will duely euery morning and euening come home, to pay theyr
due debt or tribute to the milke-paile. Theyr milk is excellent,
and a great restoratiue, principally for a consumption, of what
nature soeuer. The fourth howre after the Sun rise, is the best
time for Goates to drinke in. For the weaning of young Kidds from
their Dams, vse the meanes that you doo with Ewes and Lambes.

Of all Goates that are, _Virgil_ most commends the _Cinyphian_
Goates, bred by the Towne _Cinyps_, as Cattell of wondrous great
co_m_moditie: their disprofit is onely amongst young springs or
plants, for they wil crop any young thing that groweth, and hinder
the springing thereof, also they wil pill away the barke of Trees,
to the spoyle of the trees: yet no more then fallow Deare, or redde
Deare will, wherfore where the one is suffered, the other may be
tollerated. Cf. Virg. Georg. iii. 306-317.

=56.= 4. _and fools_] foales, and pigs.

7. _kye_] Kine. And so in l. 2 above.

9. After _wel_ I. R. inserts--let thy Cowe be beetle-browed, and
sterne of looke, her head and necke big, and from her throate
hanging downe to her shanks a large and long dew-lappe; let her
sides be proportionlesse and great, and euery part of her, euen her
very foote, so bigge as bigge may be. Let her eares be large and
hairie, and her taile long, euen to the grounde, and bushie: if she
be spotted with white, or shrewd or wicked with her horne, it is an
error, but no fault, for it shewes mettle and goodnes; in generall,
the more bull-like a Cow is, the better she is. Let thy Cowe be
foure yeeres old ere she take the Bull, and at tenne yeeres sell
her off, for then is her best caluing-time past. And thus much for
thy Kine whose profit must goe to thy paile.

17. I. R. adds--because he is hyde-bound, which is a foule

=57.= 1. _kye_] fatte Kine.

2. _fore-croppe_] fore-crops.

4. _hucbone_] huckle-bone. _nache_] natch.

5. I. R. inserts _a_ after _cowe_; this is an improvement.

=58.= 20. _husbandes_] antient Husbandmen. That is, I. R.
repudiates the notion as erroneous.

32. I. R. adds--then giue him in a horne to drinke, olde Ale,
Saffron, Treakle, and _Diascordion_, boyled together.

34. _by goddes leue_] as writeth Chyron, Phillyrides, and Melampus.
A singular variation.

=59.= 11. _feitergrasse_] Fetter-grasse.

=60.= 1. _dewbolne_] dew-boulne. _Bolne_ = bollen, swollen.

14. I. R. adds--and then with a little Tarre and fresh Butter to
cure the wound.

=61.= 4. _ronne on water_] runne and water. The substitution is
needless; to _run on water_ means to run _with_ water.

15. _and this_, &c.] to chafe him [_i.e._ to warm him]: and this
cure is failelesse, so God be pleased.

=62.= Rubric. _The turne_] Of the turne, otherwise called the

3. _for_] of (this use of _for_ being obsolescent).

18. _for perysshynge_, _i.e._ to avoid piercing. _Perish_ for
_pierce_ occurs in the various readings to P. Plowman, B. xvii.
189, and Wycliffe, Job xl. 19.

24. I. R. inserts--and anoynt it eyther with fresh butter or
clarified Hoggs greace.

=65.= 3. _Starkely_] stakely (a misprint). _Starkly_ is stiffly.

5. I. R. adds--yet if a poore man shall haue such a beast & cannot
spare his worke: if he will euery morning or euening bathe his legs
with Lynseede Oyle: it shall make him indure his worke, and keepe
the beast from any great paine or swelling.

Here I. R. inserts two chapters, as follows.

Chapter 31.

¶ A soueraigne vnguent to cure the scabbe, itch, botches, or
any surfeite whatsoeuer that commeth of heat or pouerty: or by
mischance: taken from a most authentique Authour.

Take a good quantitie of the blacke dregges of Oyle, foure
penny-worth of Quicksiluer wel killed,[41] as much Brimstone,
Pitch, Wax, and Hoggs-grease as will make it thicke like an
oyntment: boyle these together, and with it annoynt the beast that
is vnsound, and this will vndoubtedly cure him, and that in very
short season, if he be diligently tended.

Chapter 32.

¶ Another most excellent receite, to cure all manner of wounds,
impostumes, vlcers, or Fistulaes.

Take the iuyce of the Onion called _Scilla_, take _Hellybor_, and
_Bitumen Iudaicum_, mingle these together, and incorporate them
in manner of a plaister. The _Macedonians_ and _Gelonians_ to
this receit adde the opening of a vaine in the sole of the foote
of a beast, and then to giue him to drinke milke and horses blood
mingled together, which cureth all inward impostumes, surfeits or
poysons, and to the outward griefe to apply the plaister, which was
neuer knowne to be frustrate.

=66.= 27. I. R. has--and it is better to weane thy Calues at grasse
then at hard meate, if they went to grasse before.

=68.= Here I. R. introduces a long flourish about the nobleness of
horses, instancing the fabulous brood born to Neptune and Ceres
(who transformed herself into a mare), the transformation of Saturn
into a horse, and the like.

22. I. R. has--and that shall yee knowe by diuers signes, as by
her riding of other Horses, by her flinging about the fieldes, or
lastly by her priuie part, for that will twirle open, and shut
againe, many times in an houre.

37. _lx._] fortie (by misreading lx. as xl.).

63-79. I. R. varies this, and has--put to your white Mares a
daple-gray Horse, so shall he gette all daples; to your bright
bay mares a blacke bay horse, and so shall you gette all broune
bayes; and to your blacke Mares, a blacke Horse, so he haue white
feet, white ratch, and white feather; so shall he gette well-marked
blacke Colts. But for the Carte it much matters not for colours,
but for knowledge sake know that th_e_ broune bay, the daple-gray,
the bright bay, and the white lyard, are the best colours; all
other colours haue defects and are imperfect: of markes one white
foote, a white starre, a white snyp, or a white rache is good: and
an Ostrige feather in any place where the horse cannot see it, is
the best of all the markes that can be for a horse. And thus much
for horses or mares to be chosen or vsed.

=70.= 3. _and hygh grasse_] and much fogge.

8. _flasshes_] and flagges.

9. _bunnes_] bands (wrongly).

32. _aftermath_] after-croppe.

33. _gyrre, &c._] gyre, and to scoure so much that hee wil hardly
endure to labour.

39. _horse_] horses. But _horse_ is the true old _plural_ form,
the sb. being neuter; A.S. _hors_, pl. _hors_. Nevertheless,
Fitzherbert himself has _horses_ in the line following.

42. _put_] strike and hurte.

=73.= 1. _rase or a ball_] starre. A _ball_ is a streak; hence the
mod. E. _bald_, M.E. _ball-ed_. See _bald_ in my Etym. Dict.

=74.= 2. _to be styffe-docked_] a stiffe docke or stearne of his

=77.= 3. _syde-tailed_; _syde_ means ‘long.’

=78.= 2. _cressed_] crested. And probably _cressed_ is a mere

5. _holowe-foted_] hollow-hooued.

=79.= 7. _chowynge_] chewing.

=80.= I. R. expands this chapter and the succeeding chapters
so much that it would take up too much space to print all his
additions. He gives recipes for the cure of the various diseases,
and inserts chapters ‘Of the head-ach or meagrum,’ ‘Of the
staggers,’ and ‘Of the Vines.’[42] I can only undertake to give
here a few notes to illustrate Fitzherbert’s text.

=83.= I. R. has--The mourning of the tongue most commonly called
the Canker.

=86, 87.= I. R. considers these two diseases together, and
discourses of them at length, saying that he has ‘cured many very
sore spent.’

=88.= I. R. explains ‘Strangulion’ as appearing ‘in a swelling
impostume as bigge as a mans fist, iust betweene a horses chaules.’

=89-113.= I. R. omits nearly all these sections, excepting 91
(which agrees with his ‘Chapter 42. Of the Vines’) and sect. 109
(which is his Chapter 54).

=109.= I. R. has the rubric--‘Of enterfayring’; and
says--‘Enterfairing is a griefe that commeth sometimes by ill
shooing, and sometimes naturally, when a Horse trots so narrow that
he hewes [knocks] one legge vpon another.’ It is what we now call
‘over-stepping.’ The derivation is from the French form of Lat.
_inter-ferire_; and it is from this term in farriery that we have
taken the mod. E. _interfere_.

=116.= I. R. omits this section.

=118.= I. R. introduces here ‘Chapter 55. How to make the pouder of
honey and lime.’

=119.= 2, 6. The French lines are in doggerel rime, and the English
translations seem also to be meant for verse, such as it is. The
omission of the words or _iourneye_ (in l. 8) would improve the

8. _or nyght_, i.e. ere night. Altered by I. R. to _out-right_.

=120.= 4. _tame_] lame (!); an ominous mistake, for which the
compositor should have the credit.

=121.= 4. We may feel sure that this _sayinge_ was originally in
verse. Perhaps it ran thus:

      “He that hath sheep, and swyne, and hyue,
      Slepe he, wake he, he maye thryue.”

Or we might write _been_ (Chaucer’s plural of _bee_), riming with
_theen_, the usual M. E. word for ‘thrive.’

9. _Hogges._ As to the exact sense of this word, see the note on
it in the ‘Corrections and Additions’ to the larger edition of my
Etymological Dictionary.

=122.= 38. _sclatte_] slate.

=124.= Here I. R. begins his third book, relating to timber and

12. _Midsummer-moon_ is an old phrase; it occurs in the second line
of the prologue to the Plowman’s Tale, which is inserted in some
editions of Chaucer, though really written by the anonymous author
of the Plowman’s Crede.

33. _muldes a spade-graffe depe_] mould with a spade a foot deepe.

35. _peruse_] doo still.

39. I. R. adds--or els beeing drowned, not to prosper.

=125.= 4. _fyue fote brod, &c._] fiue foote broad, then it would
be set with three chesses or rowes one aboue another, but of what
depth or breadth soeuer, it would be double sette, &c.

5. _hedge_] dead hedge.

=126.= 2. _ellore_] Elder (the later form).

6. _edderynge_] wood; see the glossary. So, in l. 7, I. R.
translates _eddered_ by _bounde_; and again in l. 16, he alters
_edderinges_ to _byndings_.

9. _trouse_] brouse (as above); see 38. 3.

=127.= 4. _the more halue_] more the_n_ halfe. But _the more
halfe_, i.e. the greater part, is right enough, and the older
phrase. In l. 23, it is left unaltered.

8. _in processe_] vnwares.

15. _slaue_] stand (clearly not the right word). In l. 32, I. R.
has the spelling _sleaue_. So also in sect. 133, I. 6.

=128.= 21. I. R. omits _and bolneth_; in l. 29, he alters _bolne_
to _rise_.

=129.= 10. _to leuse_] so looseneth.

11. _gete_] got. But _gete_ is the old form of the pp.; A.S.

=130.= 4. _casses_] Kasses. I. R. omits _or wydes_.

5. _slauynges_] sleanings (_sic_). The form _popeler_ reminds me
that I have heard the large poplar-tree at ‘Hyde-park Corner’ in
Cambridge called ‘the _popular_ tree.’ See l. 23.

12, 16. _osyerde wethy_] Asiere Withy.

=131.= 7. _kydde_] kid or faggot.

9, 16. _brenne_] burne.

14. _to peruse them_] persist.

=132.= 4. I. R. omits ‘and also the yues.’

5. _bowe_] hewe. But _bowe_ refers to the bending of it before it
is cut; the bent piece is called the _byghte_ in the next line. I.
R. alters _byghte_ to _bough_.

18. _brede_] breadth (which is the later form).

21. _xvi._] one and twenty (by misreading _xvi._ as _xxi._).

=133.= 1. _gyse_] vse of men.

6. _slaue_] sleaue; and in l. 16.

10. _hym_] the seller.

11. _an_] one (which is the meaning intended).

14. _ouer_] vpper.

=134.= 7. _garches_] garthes. In ed. 1534, it is plainly _garches_;
but confusion between _c_ and _t_ is extremely common, as they were
_written_ nearly alike.

18. _a greatte_] by great. The two phrases have different senses;
_a greate_ means ‘in the lump,’ without cutting or dressing the
trees, as appears from the next line. But _by great_ means ‘by
wholesale’; which contradicts l. 1.

=136.= 6. _graffe_] graft (throughout; which is the later form).

10. I. R. omits _the narower kyrfe, and_; to avoid the word _kyrfe_.

=137.= 10. _pyrre-stocke_] Peare-tree stocke.

14. I. R. says--a Crab-tree stocke is good, but the Apple-tree
stocke it-selfe is much better.

=138.= 1. _lanses_] branches.

10. _nothynge_] any thing.

26. _marley_] marle.

29. _cleauynge_] place clouen.

30. _for chynynge of the claye_] for feare the clay through drines
should cleaue or riue.

33. _clayenge_] cleauing (which is clearly wrong).

36. I. R. adds--And three grafts are enough for any stock
whatsoeuer, and sooner they will couer the head then foure, fiue,
or sixe.

=139.= 6. _tenaunte_] tennant.

9. _ponch_] punch.

10. _stop_] scope. _one syde_] other side.

19. _clyppe_] slip.

20. After _growe_, I. R. adds--and to fence it close about with
some thick-set hedge.

After this section I. R. inserts ‘Chapter 17. Howe to graft by
leafe, causing all manner of fruit to grow vpon one tree.’ His
method is to insert what we should now call a slip, with a stalk
and leaf growing from it.

=140.= 2. _scyences_] syens. In fact, _scyences_ (= scions-es) is a
double plural, and was probably a provincial term, like _nesteses_
or _nesses_ for _nests_. So also _fairies-es_ is a country name
for _fairies_, which some lexicographers, not understanding,
actually write and print as _Pharisees_!

6. _he wyll_] you will. This alteration is made wherever the phrase

8. _lyke_] like or prosper in any wise.

*** Here I. R. inserts a large portion of his own (or perhaps
copied from other sources) without any hint that it is not in his
original. The insertion extends from p. 103 to p. 143, and contains
the following chapters.

Chapter 19. Of gardening or planting.

Chapter 20. Of distillation, what it is.

Chapter 21. Of Beanes and the distillation thereof.

Chapter 22. Of Cherries and their distillation.

Chapter 23. Of Walnuts and their distillation.

Chapter 24. Of small Nuts and their distillation.

Chapter 25. Of Honny and the distillation thereof.

Chapter 26. Of Apples and their distillation.

Chapter 27. Of Peaches and their distillation.

Chapter 28. Of Mallowes and their distillation.

Chapter 29. Of Grapes and their distillation.

Chapter 30. Of Quinces and their distillation.

Chapter 31. The distillation of Cardus [_sic_] benedictus, or the
blessed thistle.

Chapter 32. The distillation of Angellica.

Chapter 33. The distillation of Cammomile.

Chapter 34. The distillation of Germander.

Chapters 35-40. The distillation of Eyebright, Hopps, wood Lilly,
Balme, Strawberries, and Cinamon.

Chapter 41. Of Nutmegs and their vse.

Chapters 42-44. Of Mace, Pepper, and Cloues.

Chapter 45. An excellent Balme to take away any blemish vppon the

Chapter 46. A receite to cure any wound or hurt.

Chapter 47. An approved receite for the gowte.

With this Chapter he closes ‘the third booke of Husbandry.’

The fourth book has an introductory chapter, not in Fitzherbert,
subdivided into sections with the following headings. The office of
a Steward of a houshold. For prouiding of victuals. The Steward and
Garniter.[43] The Steward and Miller. The Steward and Baker. The
Pantry. The Butler. The Seller.[44] The Ewrie.[45] Of the Cooke.
Of the Scullery. Of the Vsher of the Hall. Of the Yeoman of the
Wardrop [Wardrobe]. The Slaughter-man. The Cater [caterer]. The
Clarke of the Kitchin.

After this, I. R. condescends to return to his original.

=141.= 36. _sherde_] breach (which is a gloss).

49. _tyne_] shut (a gloss). _traile_] tale (probably a misprint).

59. _put it_] blot them.

72. _loked uppon_] attended vnto.

=142.= This is a most singular section, since it presupposes that
a gentleman’s servant would be able to recognise the rhythm of an
English hexameter. As an early experiment in hexameters, it is very
curious. In the original, it is printed as _prose_, but each line
ends with a full stop, and the next begins with a capital letter.
I have therefore printed it as verse. It is, however, of a rather
rude character; _horne boget_ hardly comes up to our idea of a
dactyl, nor _and shoes_ to that of a spondee. For the reader’s
assistance, I may remark that the _dactyls_ are as follows: _Purse
dagger, -chef shoyng-, horne boget, -ter sadel-, hatte with thy,
Bowe arrowes, stringe and thy, Penne paper, -waxe pommes, bokes
thou re-, -ble nedle, leste that thy, -gel gyue thy, se he be, Make
mery, synge and thou, hede to thy, gere that thou_. The rest are

I. R., not perceiving the law of rhythm, makes wild work of it. He
calls it “An excellent rude Lesson in rude ryme.” He divides the
lines rightly, and leaves the first three verses untouched. But the
rest assume the following fearful forms.

      Penne, paper, incke, parchment, redde waxe, punisse (_sic_),
        and bookes doe thou remember,
      Penknife, combe, thymble, needle, thred, and poynt,
        least that by chaunce thy garth breake.
      Bodkin, knyfe, rubber, giue thy horse meate,
        See he be shodde well, make merry, sing if thou can,
        And take heede to thy needments, that thou loose none.

I think we may fairly put these down as being the worst verses
extant in the English language; though this is saying a good deal.

=143.= 7. The saying doubtless represents a rude couplet in verse.
The dative case _wyfe_ (governed by _of_) was formerly spelt
_wyue_, and rimed with _thryue_.

=144.= _Salomon_, Solomon. But where to find, in his writings, this
remarkable sentence, I do not know.

*** After this section I. R. inserts a quantity of additional
matter, which he tells us (at p. 174) is drawn from his ‘owne
experience in byrds and foules.’ The additional chapters treat
of choice of cocks, hens for brood, number of eggs to each hen,
chickens, diseases of poultry (especially of the pip), choice of
poultry, how to fat poultry, how to make capons, where to keep
poultry, how to choose, keep, and fatten geese, how to keep ducks,
peacocks, ‘ginny or turkie-cocks,’ pigeons, pheasants, turtles,
partridges, and swans; after which digression he returns to his
text. I may remark that he considers it essential that a hen should
sit upon _an odd number_ of eggs, say 19, and that matters should
be so arranged as to provide for the hatching of chickens ‘in the
increase of the Moone.’ The leaves of a bay-tree, ‘or els some
Bents or Grasse,’ will preserve eggs ‘from the hurt of thunder.’
Chickens ought not ‘to be breathed vpon by any Snake, Toade, or
other venomous thing’; if they are, you must quickly burn amongst
them some ‘_Galbanum_, or womans hayre.’ Those that have the pip
should be dieted on Hearbgrace [rue] or garlic. Geese ‘are more
watchfull then Doggs.’ ‘You must vse in the time of brooding, to
lay vnder your egges [of geese] the rootes of Nettles, to the end
the Gosling may escape stinging of Nettles, which otherwise many
times killeth them.’ If geese are to have fat livers, feed them
on dry figs mingled with water. Ducks chiefly delight in acorns.
If you praise a peacock, ‘he will presently sette vp his taile.’
A turkey-cock ‘is very highly esteemed of, both for his rarenesse
and greatnes of body;’ and we are told that he changes the colour
of the wrinkled skin about his head at pleasure, either to white,
red, blue, yellow, ‘or what other colour els hee list; which thing
maketh him seeme wonderfull st[r]ange to them that behold it.’
... ‘Their greatest diseases is the Pip and the Squecke.’ As to
pigeons, ‘I haue knowne some that haue builded their Doue-houses
vpon high pillars ouer the midst of some Pond or great water, both
because they delight much in water, and also to keepe them the
safer from vermine.’ Swans ‘will, when they waxe olde, declare the
time of their own death to be neere approching, by a sweete and
lamentable note which they then sing.’

=145.= 15. I. R. has--‘Wherefore it is conuenient (I say) that
they loue each other as effectually as loue can in the best sence
comprehend: and this worke especiallie, a woman is bound both by
law and nature to performe.’ Why so?

=146.= I. R. omits ll. 2-7; he was certainly a Protestant.

8. _redy._ This is the old word for _dressed_, as might be shewn
by many examples. It may suffice to say that I. R. explains _araye
theym_ in l. 11 by _make them ready_.

10. _socle_] suckle. I. R. omits _sye vp thy mylke_, which he
probably did not understand.

13. I. R. omits _and take thy parte with theym_; and, for _serue
thy swyne_ (l. 20) he puts _looke to the seruing of thy Swine_.
Customs were probably changing.

31. _the gleyd_] Kites. And _fullymartes_ is omitted.

35. After _eate_, I. R. adds--in Sallets, or otherwise.

42. _hecheled_] heckled.

43. _wrapped_] warped.

51. _ripeled_, i.e. rippled; I. R. has _repled_. In l. 41 above, I.
R. has _repealed_; yet this is, I suppose, the same word.

53. _loken_] Locken. It means locked or tightly closed up; for
_lock_ was once a strong verb.

57. _pulled_] culled (which is an ingenious alteration and perhaps

104. The Knight of the Tour-Landry is the book here referred to,
and was one of the books printed by Caxton. The edition printed
by the Early English Text Society, and edited by T. Wright, is so
easily accessible that it is needless to say more here than that
Fitzherbert’s description of it is perfectly correct.

=147.= 12. _rendit_] tendit. This correction may be right, but I
am not sure of it. The Leonine (or riming) verses quoted cannot be
of any great antiquity, and it is quite possible that _rendit_ is
intended as a Low-Latin translation of the French _rend_, pr. s.
of _rendre_. The true Latin word is, of course _reddit_; which,
however, gives no rime. Fitzherbert’s translation is intended to be
in verse.

=148.= 3. _brynke_] brim. “Better spare at brim than at bottom”;
Hazlitt’s Proverbs. And see note to Tusser, 10. 35.

12. _tedure_] teathure (not a good spelling.)

15. _lees_] ground. _flytte_] shift.

17. _tyed_] stakt.

26. _putteth hym in the pynfolde_] impoundes him.

38. _ren ryot_] runne.

43. _it is meruayle_] gracious were th_e_ stars of thy natiuitie (a
fine phrase!).

=150, 151, 152, 153.= I. R. omits these four sections.

=153.= 3. This quotation, from Dionysii Catonis Disticha, iii. 7,
appears also in P. Plowman, B. xii. 23.

28. I do not know where to find this quotation.

=155.= 10. _behouable_] behoouefull (which is a better form).

=156.= In the rubric, I. R. has--‘what riches are’; but in l. 1, he
has--‘It is now requisite to know what riches is.’ Already _riches_
was becoming a plural substantive. It may be remarked that I. R.
omits the _Latin_ forms of all the quotations.

=157.= 19. _duetie_] debt (which is what is meant). So also in ll.
22, 24.

=160.= 2. After _declare_, I. R. inserts--and euery booke of Common
prayer dooth containe them. A pertinent remark.

=161.= 3. I. R. omits the reference to the Athanasian Creed, and
says we must ‘beleeue stedfastly the Catholick fayth.’

25. I. R. omits from _The fulfyllynge_ to the end of the section.
For a description of the seven works of mercy, see Spenser, F. Q.
1. 10. 36.

=163.= 3. I. R. has--and hast a stedfast fayth in Christ. He has
almost wholly rewritten this section, and says we are bound ‘to
come to common prayer;’ and omits the quotation from St. Ambrose.

=164.= 7. It is remarkable that the author should refer us to the
3rd chapter of Proverbs instead of the 15th. Our forefathers seem
to have had no idea either of giving a correct reference or of
verifying one.

10. _Qui a_ is printed, in Fitzherbert, as _Quia_, in one word. The
correction being obvious, I have made it.

18. _Isodorus_] Osorius. Why this alteration is made, I cannot
tell. In l. 29 of the next section, I. R. has _Isidore_, and in l.
37, _Isidorus_.

=165.= 39. _Hampole_] Hanapole (wrongly). Richard Rolle, of
Hampole, was the author of the Pricke of Conscience, edited by Dr.
Morris for the Philological Society, and of numerous other works,
including some Religious Treatises edited by Mr. Perry for the
Early English Text Society.

47. I. R. omits this line; he probably did not like the word

52. The first book of Samuel was formerly called the first book of

=166.= I. R. rewrites this section, and avoids any reference to
_Latin_ or to the _Ave Maria_.

=167.= 19, 20. I. R. gives the Latin lines, and his own
translation, as follows.

      The ghostly enemy doth not stay
      Till tempted persons doe obey:
      For yeelding, hee a Lyon is,
      Gainestood, a flie: his pray doth misse.

His syntax is as bad as his translation.

34. _steke_] shutte.

35. _styfly_] manfully. We have here an idea which is frequently
met with in our literature. It may suffice to refer to
Grosseteste’s Chastel d’Amour, the sermon called Soules Warde
printed in Dr. Morris’s Specimens of English, part i., the extract
from the Ayenbite of Inwyt printed in Morris and Skeat’s Specimens,
part ii., the Tower of Truth and Castle of Caro described in Piers
the Plowman, &c. We are also reminded of Bunyan’s Holy War.

=168.= 31. Here again Fitzherbert gives us the wrong reference to
the Proverbs, viz. to Chap. xiv. instead of Chap. xix. His reading
_Veneratur dominus_] is extraordinary.

=169.= 11. _vnable to be foughten agaynst_] inuinsible.

13, 14. _slecketh_] slacketh. _slake_] quench.

35. I. R. copies Fitzherbert’s reference to Chap. 35; but read 34.

=172.= 14. _conuerted_] conuarted (a peculiar pronunciation).

21. This quotation from St. Augustine appears also in Piers
Plowman, B. v. 291.

50. This last paragraph is called by I. R. ‘Fitzherberts
protestation;’ yet he actually alters his author’s words,
substituting ‘the holy scriptures’ for ‘al holy churche,’ with
various other smaller ‘corrections.’

To crown his effrontery, he gives the address of ‘The Authour to
his Booke’ in the following extraordinary (amended) form!

      Goe grosse fram’d image of a holy saint,
        present my loue, though rude my pensill paint;
      If any blame thee for deformitie,
        say Nature calld thee, and not Oratorie;
      If on thy browes be starres of ignorance,
        say Fortunes pype did neuer teach thee dance.
      Wish them amend which best can iudge thine ill,
        so shall both thou and I bee happy still.


[36] Such is the general rule; but in Lowland Scotch, we have
_Dalziel_, _Menzies_, pronounced as _Dalyell_, _Menyies_, _i.e._
with _z_ for _y_ in the _middle_ of a word, where it usually has
the force of _gh_.

[37] I shall in future drop the initials “I. R.” in these
collations. It will be understood that these various readings are
all from the same source.

[38] Cf. the name _pod-ware_, as applied to beans and peas. See

[39] Printed--“Vernall. When.” This cuts the sentence in half, and
makes nonsense.

[40] A singular mistake; he means _Aries_.

[41] I.e. mortified. “_Mortify_, to change the outward form of
a mixt body, as when quicksilver ... is dissolved in an acid
menstruum”; Phillips.

[42] _Sic_; but we commonly find _viues_ or _vives_. And in fact,
Fitzherbert treats of it below, in section 91.

[43] I.e. the servant who had charge of the _garners_ or granaries,
and whose business it was to send corn to the mill, the stable, and
the poultry-yard.

[44] Cellar.

[45] Ewery; where were kept ‘Napery, Basons, Ewers, sweete waters,
Perfumes, Torches, Supper-lights, Prickets, sises of Waxe, and such
like;’ also ‘tallow Candles, Candle-sticks, Snuffers, and such


  The references are to the _sections_ and _lines_, as numbered.
  Besides the usual contractions, note that _v._ = verb in the
  infinitive mood, _pr. s._ = present tense, _third_ person
  singular, unless 1 _p._ or 2 _p._ is added. Proper names are
  included in this index.

  Able, _adj._ fit, suitable, 121/16.

  Abrode, _adv._ abroad, 10/30.

  Abused, _pp._ ill-suited, 151/13.

  Accompte, _s._ account, inventory, 151/1; A-compte, account, 146/92.

  A-cloyde, _s._ accloyed; a hurt caused by running a nail into a
        horse’s foot, 115/1. From O. F. _cloyer_, same as _clouer_, to

  Acre, _s._ acre, 12/4.

  A-crosse, _adv._ on the cross, crosswise, 61/8.

  Affreyd, _s._ a disease in horses caused by hard riding, 104/1. Cf. E.
        _fray_; and see _frayer_ in Cotgrave.

  After, _prep._ according to, 15/22, 121/12; close to, 25/22.

  Aftermath, _s._ a second crop of grass, 70/32.

  All-onely, _adv._ only, 37/23, 65/4. Cf. Lowl. Sc. _al-anerly_, only.

  Almes, _s._ alms, 168/3.

  Almes-dedes, _s._ alms-deeds, 168/1.

  Al-onely, _adv._ alone, 141/9. See All-onely.

  Ambrose, St., 156/23, 163/9, 167/11.

  Amended, _pp._ mended, 141/32.

  Amerced, _pp._ fined, 148/22.

  An, _num. adj._ one, 133/11.

  Anastasius, 164/14.

  And, _conj._ if, 6/12, 24/21, 25/16, 68/62, 70/34, 142/7.

  Anis, _s. pl._ awns, 34/25, 29.

  Anna, Hannah, 165/53.

  Apparell, _s._ apparel, 151/3.

  Appeyre, _v._ injure, 18/31; appeyreth, _pr. s._ impairs, injures,

  Aray, _s._ array, 151/13.

  Araye, _imp. s._ dress, 146/11.

  A-slope, _adv._ slanting, 2/24.

  Assaut, _s._ assault, 167/37.

  At-after, _prep._ after, 22/10. (Not uncommon.) It occurs in Chaucer,
        C.T. 11531.

  Athanasii, _gen. s._ of Athanasius, 161/4.

  Attempte, _v._ to tempt, 167/4.

  Atteynt, _s._ attaint, a disease caused by overstepping, 113/1. “Of
        an upper _attaint_, or nether _attaint_, or any hurt by
        over-reaching.”--G. Markham, Husbandry, b. i. c. 54.

  Auctorytie, _s._ authority, 141/19; auctorytes, _pl._ powers, _prol._

  Aue, Ave Maria, 166/12.

  Augur, _s._ auger, tool for boring holes, 41/8; _gen._ augurs, i.e.
        made by an auger, 3/57.

  Auoyde, _v._ depart, 167/36.

  Austyn, St. Augustine, 156/19, 157/3, 158/1, 164/26, 168/25.

  Auyse, _pr. s._ advise, 141/1.

  Awry, _adv._ awry, 50/5.

  Axil-pynnes, _s. pl._ axle-pins, 5/20.

  Axiltre, _s._ axle-tree, 5/18.

  Backe-syde, _s._ back side, back, 127/9.

  Badger, _s._ badger, 71/7.

  Bagges, _s. pl._ bags, 141/69.

  Bakbandes, _s. pl._ back-bands for a horse in a cart, 5/28.

  Baken, _s._ bacon, 121/18.

  Balkes, _s. pl._ divisions of land (covered with grass) in an open
        field, 6/17.

  Ball, _s._ a white streak, 73/1. See _Bald_ in my Etym. Dict.

  Band, _s._ band for barley, 28/8. See below.

  Bandes, _s. pl._ bands, the bands that tie bundles of faggots
        together, 131/8.

  Bargeins, _s. pl._ transactions, 36/20.

  Barbes, _s. pl._ the barbles, small excrescences of flesh in a horse’s
        mouth, 82/1. _See_ Lampas.

  Baste, _s._ piece of bast, 138/30; bastes, _pl._ 136/22.

  Bate, _v._ to lower, abate, 153/16.

  Bauson, _s._ badger, 71/7.

  Bayly, _or_ Baylye, _s._ bailiff, 134/3, 141/57, 148/40.

  Bayting. See _note_ to sect. 8 (ch. 8, ll. 9 and 13); p. 131.

  Beate, _v._ improve [_not_ beat], 8/20. Lowl. Sc. _beet_, A. S.
        _bétan_, to better. “_Beet-axe_, the instrument used in
        _beeting_ ground in denshering.”--Wright.

  Beetle-browed, having projecting brows, _note_ to 56/9; p. 139.

  Begonne, prob. an error for _be gone_, i.e. are dropped, 18/10. See
        the note.

  Begotten, _pp._ obtained, 169/30, 42.

  Behouable, _adj._ fitting, 155/10.

  Belte, _v._ to shear the buttocks and tails of sheep, 40/24. _Burl_
        is used in the same sense; see _belt_ and _burl_ in Old Country
        Words, ed. Britten, pp. 134, 136.

  Belybandes, _s. pl._ belly-bands for a horse in a cart, 5/28.

  Bende, _adj._ bent, 3/49; _as s._ bent piece, 4/33.

  Bendfoder, _s._ fodder of straw and hay mingled, _note_ to 6/27; p.

  Be-pysse hym-selfe, give out moisture, 25/27.

  Bere-barleye, _s._ a kind of barley, 13/26. A reduplicated word.
        _Bere_ is the same as _bar-_ in _bar-ley_. A.S. _bere_, barley.

  Bernard, St., 156/25, 164/10.

  Best lykinge, _adj. superl._ goodliest, best in appearance, 48/13.

  Besyde, _prep._ on the one side, sideways out of, 139/17.

  Better, _adj. compar._ 5/12.

  Beyked, _pp._ warmed, dried, 24/23. M.E. _beken_, answering to an
        A.S. form _bécan_* (not found), formed as a secondary verb,
        by vowel-change, from A.S. _bóc_, pt. t. of _bacan_, to bake.
        So also _lay_ from _lie_, _set_ from _sit_, etc. See _beken_
        in Stratmann, who refers to Le Bone Florence, l. 99, Iwain and
        Gawain, l. 1459, O.E. Homilies, i. 269, and Test. of Creseyde,

  Beykyng, _s._ warming, drying, 24/12. See above.

  Beytynge, _pres. pt._ feeding, lit. baiting, 22/12.

  Bier, _s._ buyer, 134/30.

  Bigge, _adj._ big, large (with reference to clods), 10/4.

  Blacke-thorne, _s._ blackthorn, 124/14.

  Blankettes, _s. pl._ blankets, 146/79.

  Blend-corn, _s._ wheat mixed with rye, 34/19. (_Blend_ = blended.)

  Blesse, _v._ to bless, 146/2.

  Blome, _pr. pl._ bloom, 24/16.

  Bloude, _s._ blood, 145/8; also the name of a sickness among sheep,

  Bloud-yren, _s._ bleeding-iron, lancet, 58/29.

  Blyssomme, _v._ to copulate, said of sheep, 37/14. A ewe is said to be
        _blissom_, i.e. blithe-some, eager. Cf. _lissom_ = lithe-some.

  Bobbed, _pt. pl._, struck, 166/29.

  Bodkyn, _s._ bodkin, 142/6.

  Boget, _s._ a budget, wallet, 142/1.

  Boke, book, 3/2, etc.; bokes, _pl._ 142/4.

  Bolles, _s. pl._ pods, 146/50. Lit. “swellings;” see below. Cf. Du.
        _bol_, swollen.

  Bolne, _v._ to swell, 128/29; bolneth, _pr. s._ swells, 128/21. Cf.
        Swed. _bulna_, Dan. _bulne_, to swell.

  Bolster, _s._ place of support, 4/51. The bed of a timber carriage is
        called a _bolster_ (Wright).

  Bord-clothes, _s. pl._ table-cloths, 146/45.

  Borde, _s._ board, 122/27.

  Bores, _s. pl._ boars, 121/9.

  Bottelles, _s. pl._ bottles, 141/69.

  Bottes, _s. pl._ bots, a kind of worms troublesome to horses, 102/1.

  Bowes, _s. pl._ boughs, 122/21.

  Bowes, _s. pl._ the bent pieces of wood (beneath the yoke) which pass
        round the necks of yoked oxen, 5/3. Usually called _oxbows_, as
        in Tusser.

  Bracer, _s._ bracer, armour for the arms, 142/3. See Chaucer, C.T.

  Braked, _pp._ bruised in a brake or machine for crushing flax, 146/42.

  Breade-come, _s._ corn to be ground to _bread meal_, for making brown
        bread, 20/16. See note to P. Plowman, C. ix. 61.

  Breake thy faste, _phr._ breakfast, 149/8.

  Breaketh, _pr. s._ breaks in, 120/3.

  Brede, _s._ breadth, 110/3, 132/18. A.S. _brǽdu_.

  Brekefaste, _s._ breakfast, 146/12.

  Bren, _v._ burn, 27/10; brenne, 131/2.

  Brode, _adj._ broad, 2/14.

  Brodye, _adj._ ready to lay (as hens), lit. brood-y, 146/24.

  Broken-wynded, _s._ a being broken in the wind (said of a horse),

  Brome, _s._ the plant broom, 44/4.

  Brouse, _s._ small sprigs which the cattle eat, 132/3; and see _notes_
        to 38/3, 126/9. O. F. _broust_, a sprig.

  Brouse, _v._ to browze, eat off, 131/3. Derived from the sb. above.

  Broyse, _imp. s._ bruise, 59/12; broysed, _pp._ 6/30.

  Brue, _v._ to brew, 146/15.

  Brumentes, _s. pl._ inventories, 152/5. Roquefort gives: ‘_Brevememt_
        [obviously an error for _Brevement_], état de dépense, mémoire,
        agenda, bordereau.’ He also notes _breumen_, used for
        _brevement_, briefly. Hence _brument_ is for _brevement_, i.e.
        short list, abstract.

  Brused, _pp._ bruised, 129/4.

  Bryckle, _adj._ brittle, 100/8.

  Bryne, _s._ brine, 44/8.

  Brynke, _s._ brink, brim, top, 148/3.

  Bryse, _imp. s._ bruise, 129/3. _See_ Broyse.

  Buddes, _s. pl._ buds, shoots, 126/11.

  Bukler, _s._ buckler, 142/3.

  Bulder-stones, _s. pl._ smooth large round stones, 15/28.

  Bull, _s._ harrow-bull, 15/9. _See_ Harowe-bulles.

  Bulleys, _s. pl._ bullaces, 136/4, 140/1.

  Bunnes, _s. pl._ dry stalks, 70/9. “_Bun_, a dry stalk;” Wright. Cf.
        Gael. _bun_, a root, stock, stump; _bunan_, stubble.

  Burges, _pr. s._ buds, burgeons, 135/8.

  Burthen, _s._ crop, 12/21.

  Bussheles, _s. pl._ bushels, 12/8.

  Busshell-pokes, _s. pl._ bags or sacks holding a bushel, 141/69.

  Bustardes, _s. pl._ bustards, 146/29.

  But, _prep._ except, 122/1; but and, _conj._ if, 44/2.

  By, _v._ buy, 56/5; bye, 148/36.

  By and by, _phr._ exactly, distinctly, in order one after the other,
        126/15; immediately, 42/8. See Wright’s Gloss.

  Byd, _v._ to bid, invite, 152/18.

  Byer, _s._ buyer, 118/6.

  Bygge, _s._ bigg, the name of a kind of barley, 13/27. _Bigg_ occurs
        as the name of a kind of barley A.D. 1474-5; see Rogers, Hist.
        Agric. vol. iii. Icel. _bygg_, Dan. _byg_, barley.

  Byghte, _s._ (bight), bend, 132/6.

  Byrdes, _s. pl._ birds, chickens, 146/30.

  Caluary, Calvary, 166/32.

  Cambrydge-shyre, 2/27.

  Camborell, _s._ the hock of an animal, 107/3. Usually _cambrel_ or

  Can, _pr. s._ knows, 52/7; _pr. pl._ 147/26.

  Candell-lyghte, _s._ candle-light, 149/5.

  Candelmas, _s._ the day of the purification of the Virgin, Feb. 2,

  Canker, cancer, a disease of horses, _note_ to 83/1; p. 141.

  Cannes, _s. pl._ cans, 141/68.

  Capitayne, _s._ captain, 167/28.

  Carte-ladder, _s._ a frame-work behind a cart, 5/27. See
        _carte-ladders_, 5/30.

  Cart-sadel, _s._ the small saddle placed on a horse in the shafts,

  Caryage, _s._ traffic of carts, 128/12.

  Caryen, _s._ carrion, 6/34, 58/10.

  Casses, _s. pl._ the name of a kind of apple, 130/4. Roquefort gives
        _casse_, as meaning an oak. Cf. Low Lat. _casnus_, F. _chêne_,
        an oak.

  Caste, _v._ to swarm, as bees, 122/6; caste, _pp._ thrown over, as
        ploughed earth, 33/4.

  Castynge, _s._ casting, 13/16. See 13/13.

  Cattell, _s._ cattle, 37/2.

  Cayphas, Caiphas, 166/27.

  Chafed, _pp._ heated, over-ridden, 85/5.

  Chafynge, _pres. pt._ growing warm, 88/2.

  Chall-bones, _s. pl._ jawbones, 86/3.

  Challes, _s. pl._ jaws, 75/3. _Chall_ = _jowl_; see _jowl_ in my Etym.

  Champyon, _s._ flat, open, said of country, 66/15. (The same as
        _champaign_.) See Tusser’s Husbandry.

  Chapmannes, _s. gen._ merchants, purchasers, 118/4.

  Chapyter, _s._ chapter, 141/13; _pl._ chapyters, 141/3.

  Charte, _s._ cart, 19/5.

  Cheape, _adj._ cheap; _better cheape_, cheaper (where _cheap_ was
        orig. a sb.), 5/13.

  Chekyns, _s. pl._ chickens, 146/89.

  Chepeth, _pr. s._ bargains for, 157/27.

  Cheryes, _s. pl._ cherries, 136/3, 140/1.

  Chesse, _s._ chess, _prol._ 15.

  Chesses, _s. pl._ rows, _note_ to 125/4. A _chase_ is “a row”; see
        Old Country Words, ed. Britten, p. 59.

  Chowe, _v._ chew, 23/11; chowynge, _pr. pt._ 79/7.

  Chrisostome, St. Chrysostom, 155/16; Crysostome, 156/30.

  Churle hempe, _s._ male hemp (so called), 146/58.

  Chylturne, _s._ the name of a kind of soil, 2/5. See note. We find
        _Ciltern_ as a place-name in the A. S. Chron. an. 1009. And
        see Old Country Words, ed. Britten, p. 11.

  Chyne, _s._ the chine, back, 87/1, 119/4.

  Chynynge, _s._ cracking, 138/30. A. S. _cínan_, to crack. Cf. E.
        _chine_, _chink_.

  Clarkes, _s. pl._ clerks, scholars, 7/15.

  Clayenge, _s._ putting on the clay, 138/33.

  Cleauynge, _s._ cleft, 138/29.

  Cleese, _s. pl._ claws, 64/2; clese, 47/3, 9. (Properly _clees_.)

  Clerkes, _s. pl._ scholars, 166/39.

  Cley, _s._ clay, 2/4.

  Close, _s._ an inclosure, 66/17; closes, _pl._ 123/2.

  Clothes, _s. pl._ cloths, 146/79.

  Clothe-makers, _s. pl._ cloth-makers, 146/81.

  Clot, _s._ clod, 15/47; clottes, _pl._ 15/14.

  Clotty, _adj._ lumpy, full of clods, 15/45.

  Clouen, _pp._ cloven, divided, 136/20.

  Clouen-footed, _adj._ cloven-footed, 146/27.

  Clout, _pp._ clouted, strengthened with nails or pieces of iron, 5/18.

  Cloute, _s._ rag, 64/9.

  Cockole, _s._ corn-cockle, 20/13.

  Cocledrake, _an error for_ cocle, drake, _two distinct words_; cocle
        = corn-cockle, 20/3. _See_ Drake; and see above.

  Codde, _s._ cod, 57/5; a pod, 29/11 (where _coddes_, pl. would be
        better); coddes, _pl._ pods, 20/11.

  Codde, _v._ bear fruit (said of peas), 12/38. Cf. _peascod_ = pea-pod;
        see above.

  Coffyns, _s. pl._ baskets, 166/21.

  Cogges, _s. pl._ cogs, 134/9. “But the _cogge-whele_ in a corne-mylne
        is a great helper, if it be well pycked [clean cut], well
        _cogged_, and well ronged; sixe ronges and xlviii. _cogges_
        are best for a great ryuer;” On Surveying, c. 39. Thus the
        _rungs_ are the divisions of the smaller, and the _cogs_ of the
        larger wheel, at the circumference.

  Coke, _s._ another name for the plough-ear, 3/5. Perhaps connected
        with _Cokers_, iron rims round clogs, and _calkins_, _cawkins_,
        the parts of a horse-shoe turned up and sharpened to prevent
        slipping (Wright; Gloss.)

  Coke, _s._ a piece of iron used instead of a plough-foot, 4/46. See

  Cole, _s._ coal, 19/3.

  Coltes euyll, _s._ a disease in colts, 101/1. See G. Markham;
        Husbandry, b. i. c. 32.

  Combe, _s._ comb, 142/5.

  Commons, _s. pl._ common pasture-grounds, 6/10.

  Common weale, _s._ general advantage, 151/22.

  Compasse, _adj._ circular, encompassing, 136/11.

  Conclusion, in, finally, at last, 132/18.

  Connynge, _s._ knowledge, 141/22.

  Content, _adj._ pleased, 120/17.

  Conuenyente, _adj._ fitting, _prol._ 14, 145/15, 146/75.

  Conuocation, _s._ gathering, 155/3.

  Copyoke, _s._ part of the harness for a waggon, 5/5. Wright gives
        _cop_, (1) top ... (7) the part of a waggon which hangs over
        the thiller-horse, (8) the beam placed between a pair of drawing
        oxen. _See_ Yoke.

  Cordes, _s. pl._ cords, a disease in front of a horse’s fore-legs,
        92/1. “_Cords_, or string-halt, is an unnaturall binding of the
        sinews;” G. Markham, Husbandry, b. i. c. 64.

  Corne, _s._ kind of corn, 32/2; cornes, _pl._ grains, 15/4.

  Corser, _s._ a horse-dealer, 119/15, 120/4. We also find _scorser_ in
        the same sense.

  Cotes, _s. pl._ coats, 151/13.

  Couer, _v._ cover, a term applied to collecting sheaves by tens, two
        of them covering the other eight by being laid across, 31/2.

  Couerlettes, _s. pl._ coverlets, 146/80.

  Countre, _s._ county, 3/7; countreys, _s. pl._ counties, 2/2, 35/6;
        countreyes, 2/28, 3/8.

  Courbe, _s._ a curb, a kind of lameness in horses, 107/l.

  Cowpers, _s. pl._ coopers, 134/7.

  Crabtree, _s._ crabtree, 124/5; crabbe-tree, 137/11.

  Cranes, _s. pl._ cranes, 146/29.

  Cratches, _s. pl._ racks, mangers, 70/44. F. _crèche_.

  Cratches, _s. pl._ scratches, a disease in a horse’s pasterns, 112/1.

  Credence, _s._ credit, belief, 141/18.

  Crofote, s. crowfoot, 15/22. A _crowfoot_ is a _Ranunculus_; see Dict.
        of E. Plant-names.

  Croke, _pr. pl._ crook, bend, 27/12.

  Croked, _adj._ crooked, 3/39.

  Cromely, _adj._ liable to crumble, 100/6.

  Croper, _s._ the crupper, 105/2.

  Croppe, _v._ to crop, to cut off the top-most shoots or the sprigs,

  Croppes, _s. pl._ shoots, sprigs, 44/4.

  Crosse, _adj._ going across, 5/22.

  Crume, _s._ crumb, 11/23.

  Cudde, _s._ cud, 17/33.

  Culture, _s._ coulter, 3/6, 34, 48; 63/4.

  Cure, _s._ endeavour, 146/2.

  Currante, _adj._ running, moving, 128/4; sloping downwards, 128/8.

  Customers, _s. pl._ customers, 119/13.

  Damme, _s._ dam, mother (said of a mare), 68/75.

  Dampsons, _s. pl._ damsons, 136/4, 140/1.

  Darbyshyre, 17/21.

  Darnolde, _s._ darnel, 20/4; dernolde, 20/21.

  Dauyd, David, 156/34, 168/17.

  Deceypt, _s._ deceit, 146/102.

  Declared, _pp._ explained, 147/28.

  Dee-nettylles, _s. pl._ purple dead-nettles, 20/47.

  Defautes, _s. pl._ defects, faults, 141/54.

  Departe, _v._ to part, separate, 145/15.

  Dernolde, _s._ darnel, 20/21.

  Detters, _s. pl._ debtors, 170/11.

  Dettes, _s. pl._ debts, 170/10.

  Deuyded, _pp._ divided, _prol._ 18, 11/15.

  Dewbolne, _s._ a disease; lit. “swollen with dew,” 60/1. _Bollen_
        = swollen. “_Dewboln_, a swelling, beginning at the neather part
        of the dewlap;” G. Markham, Husbandry, c. 37 (bk. ii.).

  Dewlappe, _s._ dewlap, 59/10.

  Discretion, _s._ discernment, wisdom, 11/1; discreation, 146/122.

  Displeasure, _s._ displeasure, offence, 153/22.

  Disport, _s._ sport, 153/11.

  Dockes, _s. pl._ docks, 20/3, 12.

  Dodder, _s._ a kind of weed, 20/47. See Dict. of E. Plant-names,
        p. 154; and _doder_ in Turner’s Names of Herbes.

  Dogfenell, _s._ stinking chamomile, _Anthemis Cotula_, 20/4, 32. See
        Dict. of E. Plant-names.

  Domynation, _s._ dominion, power, 54/22, 152/30.

  Dongynge, _s._ manuring, 13/4.

  Dounged, _pp._ manured, 13/2.

  Dout, _imp. s._ doubt, 151/27.

  Douues, _s. pl._ doves, 17/34.

  Dowles, _s. pl._ tholes, pegs, 5/9. “_Doul_, a nail or pin sharpened
        at each end;” Wright. “_Tholle_, a cart-pynne;” Palsgrave.

  Dradde, _pp._ dreaded, 167/8.

  Drake, _s._ a kind of darnel, 20/17. Also called _drawk_ (Wright);
        and see E. Plant-names, p. 159.

  Draughte, _s._ a team of horse or oxen, 22/10; a manner of drawing,

  Dresse, _v._ to prepare, by cutting off all small twigs, 132/5.

  Drone, _s._ a drone, 122/49.

  Duetie, _s._ debt, 157/19.

  Dunne, _adj._ dun, brown, 34/40.

  Dychynge, _s._ ditching, 124/2.

  Dysheryte, _v._ to disinherit, 153/24.

  Dyssheborde, _s._ dish-board, dresser, 146/9.

  Dystaffe, _s._ distaff, 146/46.

  Ebbe, _adj._ shallow, 33/4.

  Ecclesiastici, _gen. s._ of Ecclesiasticus, 169/35.

  Eddered, _pp._ bound at the top of the stakes, 126/7. See _yeather_
        in Ray, Gloss. B. 15, p. 75.

  Edderynge, _s._ the binding at the top of stakes used in making
        hedges, also called _ether_, 126/6; edderynges, _pl._ 126/14.

  Eest, _s._ east, 133/20.

  Effectually, _adv._ sincerely, 145/16.

  Ellore, _s._ the elder tree, 126/2. Usually _eller_, which also means
        the alder; see E. Plant-names, p. 168.

  Elne, _s._ an ell, 15/23.

  Encreace, _v._ increase, 17/18.

  Endent, _v._ indent, 23/15.

  Endure, _v._ to last, 148/36.

  Enfecte, _adj._ infected, 58/12.

  Enforme, _v._ inform, 11/29, 155/8; enfourme, teach, tell, 134/26.

  Englysshe, English, 166/8.

  Ensample, _s._ example, 36/9.

  Entente, _s._ purpose, 7/11.

  Enterfyre, _s._ interference of the feet, the knocking of one foot
        against the other, 109/1. See the note. “_Enterfayring_ is
        hewing one leg on another, and striking off the skin;” G.
        Markham, Husbandry, c. 58.

  Ere, _conj._ before, 15/35; er, 36/2.

  Eschewe, _v._ to eschew, 146/107.

  Estate, _s._ state, condition, 70/28; estates, _pl._ wealthy persons,

  Euery, _adj._ every, 127/40.

  Ewerie, _s._ ewery, place for pitchers, etc.; _note_ to 140/8.

  Exaltation of the holye crosse, i.e. Sept. 14, 37/16.

  Expende, _v._ to spend, 147/13.

  Extende, _v._ to extend, reach to, 147/14.

  Eyen, _s. pl._ eyes, 48/6; eien, 48/8.

  Faculty, _s._ ability, wealth, 147/18.

  Facyons, _s. pl._ fashions, kinds, 2/3.

  Faldynge, _s._ a kind of frieze, or rough cloth, 44/14. See Chaucer,
        C. T. 393.

  Falowe, _v._ to plough, 16/3. See below.

  Falowynge, _s._ ploughing land for the first time (for wheat), 4/42.
        See 16/3.

  Fan, _v._ to winnow corn, 35/6; fande, _pp._ 35/10.

  Farcyon, _s._ the farcy, a disease of horses, in which swellings
        appear on his body, 93/1. Cf. F. _farcer_, to stuff.

  Faste, _adv._ very near, close, 25/32.

  Fayne, _adj._ obliged, compelled, 151/14.

  Feitergrasse, _s._ the name of a kind of grass (spelt _fettergrass_
        in ed. 1598), 59/11.

  Felle, _v._ to fell, 131/1.

  Felow, _s._ fellow, _i.e._ neighbouring furrow, 9/9.

  Fellyes, _s. pl._ pieces of wood joined together to make the circle
        of a wheel, 5/9.

  Felly-fole, _s._ filly-foal, filly, 68/52.

  Female hempe, _s._ wild hemp, 146/57.

  Fenbrede, _s._ mud-board, or mould-board, 3/4, 27. See note to 3/1.
        _Fen_ = mud; as commonly in M. E.

  Fence, _v._ to form a fence, 125/5.

  Fenel-sedes, _s. pl._ fennel seeds, 20/18.

  Ferny, _adj._ covered with ferns, 50/10.

  Ferre, _adv._ far, 48/11, 150/6, 164/8.

  Ferthermore, _adv._ furthermore, besides, 151/17.

  Fetelockes, _s. pl._ fetlocks, 99/3.

  Fette, _pt. s._ brought, 166/34.

  Fettred, _pp._ fastened together, bound, 5/10.

  Filberdes, _s. pl._ filberts, 136/3.

  Flaine, _pp._ flayed, 58/21. See Fley.

  Flanke, _s._ flank, 85/4.

  Flasshes, _s. pl._ marshy places, 70/8. The usual sense is “pool.”

  Flaxen wheate, _s._ flaxen wheat, a kind of wheat, 34/23, 25.

  Flayle, _s._ flail, 5/33.

  Fley, _imp. s._ flay, 38/11; _spelt_ flee, 58/8.

  Flokes, _s. pl._ flukes, 56/16.

  Floures, _s. pl._ flowers, 156/6.

  Flyntered, _pp._ said of “small corn wrinkled and dried,” 34/43. Cf.
        _flinders_, fragments; and cf. _splintered_.

  Flytte, _imp. s._ remove, 148/15; flyte, _v._ 18/3; flytteth,
        _pr. s._ 18/28. Lit. “flit.”

  Fodered, _pp._ foddered, fed, 70/40.

  Folden, _pp._ folded, 52/6.

  Foled, _pp._ foaled, 118/10.

  Foole, _s._ foal, 68/7, 11; fools, _pl._ 56/4.

  Fooled, _pp._ foaled, 68/13.

  Foolynge-tyme, _s._ foaling time, 68/40.

  For, _prep._ against, to prevent, 18/33, 32/8, 35/8, 44/15, 51/9,
        52/1, 70/46, 139/19. (Observe this use.)

  For nothynge, _phr._ on no account, 124/14, 138/10.

  Forecroppe, _s._ fore-crop, a part of a cow or bullock, 57/2. I learn
        that the _fore-crop_ is the upper part of the fore quarter of
        an ox, and lies between the neck and the sirloin. “... it shews
        he is wel tallowed, and so doth the _crop_ behind the
        shoulders;” Markham, Husbandry, Of Oxen.

  Fore-wedge, _s._ fore-wedge (before the coulter), 4/23.

  Forowe, _s._ a furrow, 4/6.

  Forther, _adj._ front, foremost, 92/2. “_Forther-fete_, the
        forefeet;” Wright.

  Fortune, _v._ to chance, happen, 3/1, 120/17, 124/38, 153/24.

  Fote, plough-foot, 4/12. _See_ Plough-fote.

  Fote-teame, _s._ (apparently) the end of the drawing-gear which is
        fastened to a plough or harrow, 4/37, 15/12. _See_

  Foughten, _pp._ fought, 169/11.

  Foule, _s._ an ulcer in a cow’s foot, 64/1.

  Freeholders, _s. pl._ freeholders, 130/22.

  Freteth, _pr. s._ eats away, 20/7.

  Fretter, _s._ a corrosive, 43/5.

  Fullymartes, _s. pl._ polecats, 146/31. M.E. _fulmart_.

  Fyfte, _adj. num._ fifth, 75/3.

  Fylberdes, _s. pl._ filberts, 140/4.

  Fyled, _pp._ defiled, dirtied, 41/1, 45/4.

  Fyllettes, _s. pl._ fillets, 76/6. “_Filet_, the fillet of a beast;”
        Cotgrave. “_Fillets_, in a horse, are the foreparts of the
        shoulder next the breast;” Bailey’s Dict. vol. i. ed. 1735.

  Fynde, _v._ to provide with, furnish, 153/20.

  Fyre-wodde, _s._ fire-wood, 132/2.

  Fysking, _s._ fidgeting, roaming about, 45/2. See examples in my note
        to P. Plowman, C. 10/153.

  Fytches, _s. pl._ vetches, 20/40, 70/8.

  Garches, _s. pl. an error for_ garthes, i.e. hoops, 134/7. _See_

  Garniter, the officer who had care of the granary, _note_ to 140/8.

  Garthe-webbe, _s._ webbing for a girth, 10/23. “_Garth_, a hoop or
        band;” Wright. _See_ Garches. A _girth-web_ is mentioned A.D.
        1502; see Rogers, Hist. Agric. vol. iii.

  Geare, _s._ gear, implements, 5/2; gere, 142/7.

  Geld, _pr. pl._ cut too high (said of beans), 29/9.

  Gelly, _s._ jelly, 44/7.

  Gete, _pp._ gotten, taken up, 129/11; gette, gotten from, taken from,
        137/7. A.S. _geten_, pp.

  Gethereth, _pr. s._ gathers, 28/5.

  Gise, _s._ guise, fashion, way, 35/8.

  Glaunder, _s._ glander, usually in the plural, 87/2. See below.

  Glaunders, _s._ glanders, a disease in the glands, 86/1.

  Gleyd, _s._ kite, 146/31. A S. _glida_.

  Glose, _s._ gloss, comment, 168/34.

  Glotony, _s._ gluttony, 152/23.

  Gloues, _s. pl._ gloves, 142/3.

  Gnappe, _v._ to bite slightly; gnappe of, rub off with their teeth
        (said of horses), 93/6. The same as _kneppe_, to bite slightly,
        in Best’s Rural Economy in Yorkshire (Surtees Society); mod.
        E. _nip_.

  Golds, _s. pl._ corn marigold, 20/25; gouldes, 20/4. See Ray, Gloss.
        B. 16, p. 83; Tusser, note to 39/21.

  Gore, _v._ to gore, 70/43.

  Gostely, _adj._ spiritual, 167/38.

  Goten, _pp._ gotten, 154/9.

  Gouldes, _s. pl._ corn marigolds, 20/4; golds, 20/25.

  Goute, _s._ gout, 65/1.

  Gowty, _adj._ gouty, 56/6.

  Goyng vppon, walking about upon the ground, 18/23.

  Graffe, _v._ to graft, 136/6.

  Graffe, _s._ a graft, slip, 136/17.

  Graffynge-sawe, saw for grafting, 136/7.

  Grammer-schole, _s._ grammar-school, 147/11.

  Grasier, _s._ grazier, 40/1.

  Grauelynge, _s._ graveling, caused by gravel in a horse’s foot, 114/1.

  Grayned, _pp._ forked at the top, 41/9. “_Grain_, a prong of a fork;”
        Wright. (Common). “_Grain-staff_, a quarter-staff with a pair
        of short tines at the end, which they call _grains_;” Ray,
        Gloss. B. 16, p. 84.

  Greatte; a greatte, by wholesale, 134/18.

  Gregorye, St. Gregory, 162/12; Gregory, 155/24, 161/15, 165/26, 167/6.

  Grese, _v._ to grease, 40/24.

  Greued, _pp._ grieved, 147/15.

  Gristell, _s._ gristle, 89/2.

  Grombalde-brydge, Grimbald Bridge, near Knaresborough, 79/10.

  Grosse sale, wholesale, 36/25.

  Grote, _s._ groat, 20/15.

  Gurthe, _s._ girth, 142/5.

  Gyrre, _s._ a disease of cattle, probably giddiness, 70/33. Cf. F.
        _girer_, to turn.

  Gyse, _s._ guise, way, custom, 133/1.

  Hachet, _s._ hatchet, 127/2.

  Hades, _s. pl._ strips of greensward, 6/17. “_Hade_, a ridge of land,
        a small piece of greensward at the end of arable land;” Wright.

  Half-throne, _v._ to cover sheaves in some particular manner, 31/3.
        It is believed to be the same as the Shropshire _hackle_, which
        is to put four sheaves of wheat into a shock, and then to place
        another sheaf (upright) with the ears downwards, on the top.
        This agrees with _covering_ except in the use of 4 sheaves
        for 8.

  Halomshyre, Hallamshire (in which is Sheffield), 17/21.

  Halte, _v._ to go lamely, 98/5.

  Halter, _s._ halter, 142/2.

  Halue, _s._ half, 127/4.

  Hamper, _s._ hamper, basket, 11/23.

  Hampole, Richardus de, 165/39.

  Handbyll, s. small bill-hook, 127/2.

  Handel, _v._ to handle, 40/24.

  Handsome, _adj._ handy, convenient, 24/22.

  Harde, _pp._ heard, 164/30.

  Harde by, _phr._ close, 129/4.

  Harowe-bulles, _s. pl._ chief pieces of timber composing an ox-harrow,

  Harowed, _pp._ harrowed, 15/2.

  Harowe-tyndes, _s. pl._ tines or prongs of a harrow, 15/10.

  Hasell, _s._ hazel, 24/16, 124/5.

  Hassell, _adj._ stiff, said of a soil; see it partially defined in
        _note_ to 2/6. “_Hazle_, stiff, as clay; Essex.”--Wright.
        “A _haisel_ mould, which I count to be one of the best wealdish
        moulds, being a compound mould, and very good for marle.”--G.
        Markham, Inrichment of the Weald, 1649, p. 9.

  Hasty, _adj._ early, 12/39.

  Hatched, _put for_ hatchet, _note_ to 46/3. “Brains of a hatchet,” a
        term for the oily substance obtained by burning linen on the
        head of a hatchet.

  Hatte, _s._ hat, 142/2.

  Haue, _v._ take, 58/12.

  Hawdod, _s._ corn bluebottle, _Centaurea Cyanus_, 20/28; haudoddes,
        _pl._ 20/4. Cf. _hardewes_, a name for the wild succory
        (_Cichorium Intybus_) in Turner’s Names of Herbes.

  Hawe, _s._ an excrescence in the eye of a horse, 89/1.

  Hearbgrace, _s._ herb-grace, rue, _note_ to 144.

  Heare, _s._ hair, 64/5, 98/4; heares, _pl._ 47/5, 11.

  Hearynges, _s. pl._ herrings, 36/10.

  Hecheled, _pp._ heckled, combed, 146/42.

  Hedge-rote, _s._ hedge-root, stump, 132/12.

  Hedgyngebyll, _s._ bill for hedging, 5/32.

  Heed, _s._ head, 47/4, 102/3.

  Heed, _pr. s. subj._ 2 _p._ behead, cut off the top, crop, 132/9;
        heeded, _pp._ 132/15.

  Heeth-grounde, _s._ ground covered with heather, 2/7.

  Helewedge, _s._ heel-wedge (behind the coulter), 4/23.

  Helpe, _v._ mend, cure, 58/2.

  Herdman, _s._ herdsman, 6/10; herdeman, 123/15.

  Heringes, _s. pl._ herrings, 36/12.

  Herode, Herod, 166/27.

  Hert, _s._ heart, middle, 100/4; herte, 114/3.

  Hey, _s._ hay, 23/4, 66/14; heye, 146/85.

  Hey-cockes, _s. pl._ haycocks, 25/15.

  Hey-rope, _s._ hay rope, 64/5.

  His, _pr. gen._ its, 9/8.

  Hode, _s._ hood, 142/2.

  Hogges, _s. pl._ hogs, 121/9.

  Hole, _adj._ whole, healthy, 149/13.

  Hole-footed, _adj._ whole-footed, web-footed, 146/26.

  Holer, _adj. compar._ more whole; healthier, 149/13.

  Hole-straw wheat, wheat with a whole or solid straw, _note_ to 34/43.

  Holmes, _s. pl._ put for _homes_ = hames, 5/25, 15/41. _See_ Hombers.

  Holpen, _pp._ helped, cured, 61/6, 82/2.

  Holsome, _adj._ wholesome, 25/18.

  Holy bread, _s._ ordinary leavened bread cut into small pieces,
        blessed, and given to the people, 11/18. See note to P.
        Plowman, C. xvi. 210.

  Holye, _s._ holly, 124/5.

  Holyrode-day, the day of the holy cross, Sept. 14 (see 17/16), 134/21.
        See Phillips’ Dict. ed. 1706.

  Hombers, _s. pl._ horse-collars, 5/24, 15/41. Also called _hamberwes_,
        _hamboroughs_; from _hame_, one of the bent pieces of wood to
        which the trace is fastened, and A.S. _beorgan_, to protect.
        Lit. ‘hame-protectors.’

  Honger, _s._ hunger, 30/14.

  Hopper, _s._ a seed-basket, 10/22, 25; 34/10. M.E. _hoper_ (P.

  Horne, _s._ horn, 142/3.

  Horse, _s. gen._ horse’s, 82/1, 91/1.

  Horse-harowes, _s. pl._ harrows drawn by horses, 15/15.

  Horse-leche, _s._ horse-doctor, 120/6.

  Horse-mayster, _s._ horse-master, 120/1.

  Houe, _s._ hoof, 78/6, 98/2.

  Hoystynge, _s._ coughing, 59/3. ‘_Hoist_, a cough; East.’--Wright.

  Hucbone, _s._ hip-bone, 57/3. More commonly _huckle_.

  Hurdes, _s. pl._ hards, coarse flax, 146/39.

  Hurdels, _s. pl._ hurdles, 18/35.

  Husbandes, _s. pl._ husbandmen, 3/1.

  Huske, _s._ husk, 14/12.

  Huswife, _s._ housewife, 148/1.

  Hyer, higher, _prol._ 33.

  Hynder, _adj._ latter, 148/11.

  Iagged, _adj._ jagged, 20/26.

  James, St., 169/12.

  Ielly, _s._ jelly, 58/23.

  Ieoperdy, _s._ jeopardy, peril, 5/13, 139/2.

  Iherome, St. Jerome, 155/1, 161/20; Jerome, 168/7.

  In lyke, alike, 25/6.

  In regarde, _phr._ for his part, lit. according to his estimation,

  Inam, _applied to_ wheat, _note to_ 9/13. Cf. “_Innom barley_, barley
        sown the second crop after the ground is fallowed; _North_.”
        --Ray, Gloss. B. 15, p. 50.

  Infecte, infected, 164/29.

  Infydeles, _s. pl._ infidels, 166/45.

  Inke, _s._ ink, 142/4.

  Intend, _pr. pl._ intend, 148/1.

  Inuentorys, _s. pl._ inventories, 151/2.

  Iob, Job, 156/7.

  Iohan, John, 165/34.

  Isodorus, St. Isidore, 164/18; 165/37, 49; 169/33; Isodore, 165/29.

  Judas, 166/25.

  Iudges, _s. pl._ castles (in chess), _prol._ 20.

  Kedlokes, _s. pl._ charlock, _Sinapis arvensis_, 10/13, 20/3, 9. Also
        called _cadlock, cadlick, chadlock, chedlock, carlock, charlock,
        callock, etc._

  Kelles, _s. pl._ cases of maggots, 18/10; gossamer-threads, 54/22.
        “_Kells_, cones of silkworms; _kell_, a film over the eyes;”
        Wright. The usual sense is ‘caul.’

  Kente, Kent, 2/15.

  Kerchef, _s._ kerchief, handkerchief, 142/1.

  Keys, _s. pl._ part of a cart, 5/22.

  Knolles, _s. pl._ knolls, mounds, lumps, 128/29.

  Knowen, _pp._ known, 8/2.

  Knyfe, _s._ knife, 142/6.

  Knytte, _pp._ joined together as a swarm of bees, 122/9, 22; knytte,
        _v._ to join, 122/10.

  Kydde, _v._ to bind up faggots in bundles, 131/7, 132/7. See below.

  Kyddes, _s. pl._ faggots, 5/29. “_Kydde_, a fagotte;” Palsgrave.

  Kyd-wodde, _s._ faggot-wood, 134/20.

  Kye, _s. pl._ cows, 56/7, 146/10. A. S. _cý_, pl. of _cú_.

  Kylde, _pp._ killed, 103/6.

  Kynde, _s._ nature, 128/23.

  Kyrfe, _s._ incision, 136/10. “_Kerf_, an incision;” Wright. Derived
        from A.S. _ceorfan_, to carve, to cut. Spelt _kerfe_ in Ray,
        Gloss. B. 16, p. 85.

  Kyrtels, _s. pl._ kirtles, skirts, 151/16.

  Lampas, _s._ an excrescence of flesh above the teeth in horses, which
        often prevents their eating, 81/1. “_Hava de bestias_, the
        _lampas_, a disease in the mouth of beasts, when such long
        barbles grow in their mouthes, that they cannot well feed;”
        Minsheu, Spanish Dict.

  Landes, _s. pl._ 5/4. Evidently some part of the gear for ploughing,
        but I can find no such word. Perhaps an error for _bandes_,
        i.e. bands. Mr. Peacock, in his Glossary of Manley Words, has
        --“_Lanes_, _Lains_, an iron ring at the end of the beam of a
        plough to which the horses are yoked.” Perhaps this is it.

  Landes, _s. gen._ field’s, 2/17; landes, _s. pl._ ridges, 13/7.

  Lankesshyre, Lancashire, 2/26.

  Lanses, _s. pl._ shoots, 138/1.

  Lathe-legged, _pp._ slender-legged, 78/4.

  Lathes, _s. pl._ laths, 15/9.

  Laude, _s._ praise, 163/1, 167/17.

  Lazare, Lazarus, 166/22.

  Ledde, _pp._ carried, 28/12.

  Ledder, _s._ leather, 10/23.

  Lees, _s. pl._ leas, pastures, 148/18.

  Leisshe, _s._ leash, 142/3.

  Lene, _v._ to lean, 124/35.

  Lenger, _adj. compar._ longer, 3/38, 3/55, 70/13; _adv._ 67/4, 128/32.

  Lente-corne, _s._ Lent corn, spring corn, 148/7.

  Let hym blode, bleed him, 48/7.

  Let, _v._ hinder, 24/19: lette, _pr. pl._ 82/2, 164/1.

  Lette, _s._ hindrance, 135/6.

  Leue, _v._ leave off, 41/15.

  Leue, _s._ leave, 143/7.

  Leuse, _v._ to loosen, 126/16, 129/10.

  Ley, _v._ to lay, lay eggs, 146/23.

  Leycestershyre, 2/26.

  Leye-hey, _s._ meadow hay, 25/34.

  Leys, _s. pl._ pasture-grounds, 6/17, 8/5.

  Leysshe, _s._ leash, 10/25.

  Like, _pr. pl._ thrive, 53/9.

  Linsede, _s._ linseed, 146/53.

  Lockes, _s. pl._ pieces torn off a fleece, 146/79.

  Lode, _v._ load, carry, 32/2.

  Lodynge, _s._ loading, 22/11.

  Loken, _pp._ locked or closed up, 146/53. See note.

  Lollers, _s. pl._ lollards, 166/45.

  Long-eare, _s._ long-ear, a kind of barley, 13/22.

  Longe-rained, _pp._ long in the reins, 78/2.

  Longe-soughte, _s._ lung disease, 59/2. A.S. _suht_, disease (Grein).

  Loode, _v._ to carte, 146/87.

  Loppe, _v._ to lop, 132/1.

  Lose, _adj._ loose, 27/4.

  Louyngely, _adv._ lovingly, kindly, 152/16.

  Lowe-brawned, _pp._ strong in the lower muscles, 75/2.

  Lower, _adj. compar._ lower, 125/5.

  Lowsy, _adj._ full of lice, 117/1.

  Luke-warme, _adj._ lukewarm, tepid, 44/12.

  Lye, _s._ urine, _note_ to 44/8. Cf. 1 Hen. IV. ii. 1. 23. O.F. _lie_,

  Lyfte, _adj._ left, 28/4.

  Lyke, _v._ to thrive, 57/10, 123/14, 140/8.

  Lyncoln, 2/27.

  Lyne, _s._ measuring line, 124/28.

  Lyngel, _s._ a shoemaker’s thread, 142/6. “_Lyngell_, that souters
        sowe with, _lignier_;” Palsgrave.

  Lyn-pinnes, _s. pl._ linch-pins, 5/19. See _Linchpin_ in my Etym.

  Lytter, _s._ litter, straw for a horse’s bed, 100/3.

  Lyuer, _s._ liver, 55/15.

  Malander, _s._ a sore place on the inside of the fore-leg of a horse,
        94/1. “_Malandres_, the malanders, a horses disease;” Cotgrave.
        “_Malendre_,” the same.

  Male, _s._ bag, pack, portmanteau, 142/2.

  Mall, _s._ a mallet or club, 126/14; malles, _pl._ 15/46.

  Mallet, _s._ mallet, wooden hammer, 136/15.

  Malte, _s._ malt, 146/14.

  Mane, _s._ a piece of grass left unmown, 23/17.

  Maple, _s._ maple, 126/3.

  Marke, St. Mark, 170/3.

  Marle, _s._ rich earth used as manure, 2/6; a blue marble-like earth,
        _note_ to 16/29-35.

  Marley, _s._ marl, 138/26. See above.

  Marre, _v._ mar, spoil, 70/50.

  Marreis, _adj._ marsh, 5/15; marreys, 124/20.

  Marreys, _s._ marsh, 54/13.

  Martok, Martock (Somersetshire), 27/17.

  Martilmas, Martinmas, St. Martin’s day, Nov. 11, 134/21.

  Mathes, _s. pl._ maggots, 18/8, 45/1. “Cimex, _maðu_;” Wright’s
        Vocab. i. 24.

  Mathes, _s. pl._ stinking chamomile, corn chamomile, _Anthemis
        Cotula_, 20/4. Called _stynkynge maydweede_ in Turner’s Names
        of Herbes.

  Matter, _s._ pus in a sore, 87/3.

  Mattockes, _s. pl._ mattocks, tools to dig up roots and weeds, 8/20.
        _See_ Beate.

  Mawe, _s._ the stomach, 102/2.

  May, _pr. s._ can, is able, 66/20.

  Mayn whyte, principally white, 68/70.

  Meane, _adj._ middling, ordinary, 2/6, 124/19; neither very moist
        nor very dry, 70/27.

  Meane, _s._ means, way, 166, _rubric_; 167, _rubric_.

  Measure, _s._ measure, moderation, 147/10.

  Meete, _imp. s._ measure, 146/16.

  Medle, _v._ to mix, 17/16; medled, _pp._ 2/6, 34/21, 43/1.

  Melch kye, _s. pl._ milch cows, 70/21.

  Mete, _adj._ even, 138/23.

  Metelye, _adv._ meetly, 12/7.

  Middes, _s._ midst, 48/7.

  Mo, _adj. compar._ more (in number), 58/34; 141/50. A.S. _má_. _See_

  Moche, _adj._ large, 47/3, 15.

  Moderate, _v._ lessen, 44/26.

  Molde, _s._ mould, 9/6; moldes, _pl._ pieces of earth, 45/7.

  Molten, _pp._ melted, 43/4, 45/7.

  Moneth, _s._ month, 93/8.

  Moo, _adj. compar._ more (in number), 40/8, 121/20. _See_ Mo.

  Moralytes, _s. pl._ moral principles, _prol._ 15.

  More, _adj. compar._ greater, 127/4.

  More harder, _adj. compar._ harder, 137/13.

  More hyer, _adj. compar._ higher, 67/3.

  Morfounde, _s._ a disease in a horse’s feet, occasioned by its taking
        cold, 100/1. “_Se morfondre_, to take cold, catch cold;”

  Morteys, _s._ mortise, 3/13, 20, 39. (It is a hole in a piece of wood
        made to receive something that can be tightly wedged up in it.)

  Mosse, _s._ moss, 131/3.

  Mouldywarpe-hilles, _s. pl._ mole-hills, 23/20.

  Mountenance, _s._ amount, 58/31.

  Mournynge, _s._ a disease appearing either in the tongue or back of a
        horse, apparently cancer, 83/1, 87/1, 119/4. See _mourrues_,
        _mourue_ in Cotgrave.

  Mowen, _adj._ mown, 70/32.

  Mowes, _s. pl._ stacks, heaps, 32/3.

  Mucke, _s._ manure, 17/2.

  Mucke, _v._ to manure, 17/5.

  Muck-wayne, _s._ manure-cart, 146/86.

  Muldes, _s. pl._ pieces of mould or earth, 41/3, 45/8, 124/23.

  Murren, _s._ murrain, 57/13.

  Murtheryng, _s._ murdering, killing, 51/6.

  Musell, _s._ muzzle, _note_ to 39/9.

  Myldewe-grass, _s._ mildew-grass, 54/17.

  Myldewes, _s. pl._ mildews, 44/24.

  Myllettes, _s. pl._ a disease behind the fetlocks of horses, 110/1.

  Mynystratours, _s. pl._ ministers, 165/5.

  Nache, _s._ the point of the rump, 57/3. See Old Country Words, ed.
        Britten, p. 105. “A big _nach_, round and knotty,” said of an
        ox; G. Markham, Husbandry, Of Oxen.

  Narowe, _adj._ narrow, close, difficult, 4/26.

  Nathes, _s. pl._ naves of a wheel, 5/9.

  Nauyll, _s._ navel, 57/6.

  Nauylgall, _s._ navel-gall, described as a kind of sore on a horse’s
        back, 105/1.

  Necessaryest, _adj. superl._ most necessary, 1/4. (Used with _most_

  Nede, _s._ need, necessity, 44/16.

  Nedle, _s._ needle, 142/5.

  Nether, _adj. compar._ lower, 5/22, 31/7.

  Norfolke, 2/27.

  Nose-thrilles, _s. pl._ nostrils, 84/2; nosethrylles, 75/3; _sing._
        nosethryll, 85/3.

  Nother, _for_ other; an nother, another, 2/19.

  Nourysshe, _v._ nourish, 130/24.

  Nowe-a-dayes, _adv._ nowadays, 153/5.

  Nycked, _pp._ notched, 21/4.

  Nyckes, _s. pl._ notches, 4/38, 122/41.

  Occupy, _v._ use, 1/5; occupie, 148/10; occupied, _pp._ used, 15/36.

  Of, _adv._ off, away from it, 136/12; off, 27/7, 139/19.

  Of, _prep._ during, 6/13.

  Oke, _s._ oak, 15/7, 24/10.

  Oke-settes, _s. pl._ young plants or cuttings of oak, 124/8.

  Oke-water, _s._ oak-water, apparently water in which oak-galls have
        been steeped, 87/2.

  Olde, _adj._ old; the olde of the mone, at full moon, 12/37.

  Ones, _adv._ once, 147/28.

  Or, _adv._ ere, before, 5/1, 119/8.

  Oratory, 165/47.

  Orchyarde, _s._ orchard, 122/3.

  Order, _v._ determine, 3/41.

  Ordeyne, _v._ to order, send, 146/14.

  Osyerde, _s._ osier, 130/12.

  Otemele, _s._ oatmeal, 14/10.

  Otes, _s. pl._ oats, 13/26, 14/1.

  Other whyle, _adv._ sometimes, occasionally, 4/16, 48/4, 60/5.

  Ouer, _adj._ upper, 5/22, 91/2, 133/14.

  Ouerlay, _v._ cover by laying over, 127/41.

  Ouermoste, _adj. superl._ uppermost, 131/16.

  Ouerplus, _s._ overplus, surplus, 148/8.

  Ouer-rechynge, _s._ overstepping, 113/1.

  Ouerthwarte, _adv._ across, sideways, 7/21, 112/3, 131/14.

  Oughte, _pt. s._ owed, 146/106.

  Outragious, _adj._ extravagant, 150/6.

  Oxe-bowes, _s. pl._ bent pieces of wood passing round the necks of
        oxen, and fastened to the yoke, 5/44.

  Oygrane wheate, white wheat, _note_ to 34/23.

  Oyse, _v._ to ooze, 111/2.

  Pale, _s._ paling, 40/3.

  Paper, _s._ paper, 142/4.

  Parcels, _s. pl._ parts, divisions, 68/63.

  Parchment, _s._ parchment, 142/4.

  Pare, _v._ to pare, cut, 124/30, 136/16; pared, _pp._ 136/21.

  Partener, _s._ partner, 134/27, 30.

  Paryng, _s._ paring, 100/12.

  Paste, _adv._ past, over, 13/15.

  Pasturnes, _s. pl._ pasterns, 112/3.

  Pastyme, _s._ pastime, something to pass or fill up leisure time,

  Pater-noster, 166/12.

  Paule, St. Paul, 153/28, 158/6, 161/8, 169/29.

  Payle, _s._ pail, 56/7.

  Payre, _v._ to impair, make worse, 97/3; payreth, _pr. s._ spoils,

  Pease, peas, 10/3, 8. Properly a singular form.

  Peeke countreye, country round the Peak, in Derbyshire, 39/16.

  Peeke-wheate, _s._ peek-wheat, a kind of poor wheat, 34/41. Cf.
        _peeked_, thin.

  Pees, _s._ pease, 10/14. _See_ Pease.

  Pees-stubble, _s._ pea-stubble, 34/5.

  Pelte-rotte, _s._ rot in the fleece, 54/33.

  Penknyfe, _s._ penknife, 142/5.

  Penne, _s._ pen, 142/4.

  Pens, _s. pl._ pence, 54/10.

  Peny, _s._ penny, 36/11.

  Peny-grasse, _s._ a kind of grasse that never bears a flower, 54/8.
        It must therefore be distinct from _Rhinanthus Crista-galli_,
        also called _penny-grass_ by some; see Old Country Words, ed.
        Britten, p. 37.

  Perche, _s._ perch, 30¼ sq. yards, 12/5.

  Perfyte, _adj._ perfect, 141/5.

  Perseth, _pr. s._ pierceth, 141/8.

  Peruse, _v._ to go through with, continue, 131/15; _imp. s._ 124/35;
        examine, 40/23; survey, 30/7.

  Perysshynge, _s._ piercing, 62/17. See the note.

  Peter, St., 155/13.

  Peyhenne, _s._ peahen, 146/28.

  Peynes, _s._ pains; a disease in a horse’s fetlocks, 111/1.

  Pikstaues, _s. pl._ pikestaves (but here used, apparently, of a part
        of a cart, possibly the supports of the shafts), 5/23.

  Pill, _v._ to peel, _note_ to 55/16.

  Plasshed, _pp._ plashed, 127/19. See below.

  Plasshynge, _s._ plashing, 124/2. To plash is to lower and close up
        a broad-spread hedge, by partially cutting off the branches,
        and entwining them with those left upright.

  Playster, _s._ plaister, 164/22.

  Pleched, _pp._ pleached, plashed, 127/22. _See_ Plasshynge.

  Pleytes, _s. pl._ plaits, folds, 151/17.

  Ploughe-beame, _s._ plough-beam, 3/2, 9. See note to 3/1.

  Ploughe-eare, _s._ plough-ear, 3/5, 42; 4/34. See note to 3/1.

  Ploughe-fote, _s._ plough-foot, 3/5, 38. See note to 3/1.

  Plough-geare, _s._ instruments requisite for ploughing, 5/45.

  Ploughehedde, _s._ the same as the share-beam, 2/10. _See_ Sharbeame.

  Ploughe-mal, _s._ plough-hammer or mallet, 3/6. See note to 3/1.

  Ploughe-shethe, _s._ plough-sheath, 2/3. See note to 3/1.

  Plough-stylte, _s._ the right-hand handle of a plough, 3/21. See note
        to 3/1.

  Ploughetayle, _s._ the left-hand and longer handle of the plough,
        2/23; 3/15, 19.

  Ploughe-yren, _s._ plough-iron, iron part of a plough (share and
        coulter), 5/2; ploughe-yrons, _pl._ 2/19.

  Plowe, _v._ plough, 6/14.

  Plowes, _s. pl._ ploughs, 2/1.

  Plummes, _s. pl._ plums, 136/4, 140/1.

  Plyenge, _pres. pt._ bending, 24/14.

  Pockes, _s. pl._ pocks, pustules, a disease in sheep, 49/1.

  Pole, 12/5. _See_ Perche.

  Polerd wheat, _s._ coarse wheat, pollard wheat, 34/23. So called
        because it has _no awns_: to _poll_ is to clip, etc. _See_

  Poleyn, _s. pl._ poultry, fowls, 146/21.

  Pollard, short-horned, said of a ram, _note_ to 37/6. _See_ Polerd.

  Pommes, pumice, 142/4; pomis, 100/6.

  Ponch, _s._ punch, 139/9.

  Pondre, _v._ to ponder, consider, 153/28.

  Poores, _s. pl._ pores, 70/26.

  Popeler, _s._ poplar, 130/5.

  Potte, _s._ pot; good for the potte, good for boiling, 146/35.

  Pottell, _s._ a pottle, two quarts, 44/8.

  Potycarye, _s._ an apothecary, 120/8.

  Pouertee, _s._ poverty, 147/15.

  Pourpose, _v._ purpose, intend, 27/19.

  Poynte, _s._ a tagged lace, 142/5.

  Practyue, _s._ practice, 4/29; practiue, 141/21.

  Predication, _s._ preaching, 154/19.

  Prefixe, _v._ to fix beforehand, 157/7.

  Processe, _s._ relation, story, tale, 2/29, 120/13; in processe, in
        course of time, 127/8.

  Profe, _s._ proof, 161/24.

  Proferre, _v._ to put into, insert, 138/13.

  Profytablest, _adj. superl._ most profitable, 37/5.

  Promesse, _s._ promise, 157/16, 21.

  Propertie, _s._ method, 12/17.

  Prouander, _s._ provender, 23/11.

  Proued, _pp._ tried, 141/22, 23.

  Prycke-eared, _pp._ with sharply pointed erect ears, 77/1. Cf. the
        phr. ‘to _prick up_ one’s ears.’

  Pulled, _pp._ gathered, 146/41.

  Pursy, _s._ short-windedness (in a horse), 84/1. See _Pursy_ in my
        Etym. Dict.

  Pursynes, _s._ short-windedness, 87/4.

  Put, _v._ push, 70/42.

  Pygges, _s. pl._ pigs, 146/89.

  Pyke, _v._ pick, 35/3.

  Pykforke, _s._ pitchfork, 5/6, 25/4.

  Pyl, _v._ to peel, 134/23; _imp. s._ 134/11. _See_ Pill.

  Pylate, Pilate, 166/26.

  Pyllynge, _s._ strip of bark, 136/22.

  Pymples, _s. pl._ pimples, 49/2, 93/3.

  Pyn-awgur, _s._ a boring-tool for making holes for pins or pegs,
        probably a gimlet as distinguished from a _rest-awgur_, 5/32.

  Pynder, _s._ the petty officer of a manor, whose duty it was to
        impound all strange cattle straying on the common, 148/25, 39.

  Pynfolde, _s._ pound, 148/26.

  Pynte, _s._ pint, 58/31.

  Pypes, _s. pl._ hollow stalks, 70/9.

  Pyrre-stocke, _s._ a pear-stock, 137/10.

  Pysell, _s._ pizzle, 56/7.

  Pytchers, _s. pl._ pitchers, 141/68.

  Quicke, _adj._ alive; waxe quicke, become alive, 91/5.

  Quikens, _s. pl._ live things, 55/16.

  Quiteth, _pr. s._ requites, repays, 14/13.

  Quyche, _s._ couch-grass, 14/17.

  Quyche-hey, _s._ hay of couch-grass, 25/21.

  Quycke, _adj._ alive, 102/4.

  Quycke, _s._ quicke, sensitive part, 115/2.

  Quycke-sande, _s._ quicksand, 128/24.

  Quyckeset, _v._ make quickset hedges, 123/8.

  Quycksettes, _s. pl._ quickset hedges, 124/3.

  Rache, _s._ a streak or mark on a horse’s forehead (misprinted _rathe_
        in ed. 1534), 68/64. See the spelling _ratch_ in the note to
        the line. ‘_Raitch_, a white line in a horse’s face; _Yorksh._’
        --Wright. _See_ Rase.

  Radel-marke, _s._ a mark made on sheep with ruddle, or red ochre,

  Raine, _s._ gutter, water-course, furrow between ridges, 13/7; rayne,
        7/20. See _Rean_ in Wright, and below.

  Ranke, _adj._ rank, strong, 10/10, 12/20; fertile, 17/29.

  Ranknes, _s._ abundance, repletion, 101/1.

  Rapes, _s. pl._ turnips, 20/9. O. F. _rabe_, _rave_, ‘a rape or
        turnep’; Cotgrave.

  Rase, _s._ streak, mark, 73/1. _See_ Rache.

  Ratch. _See_ Rache.

  Rate, _s._ rate, 121/12.

  Rathe, _s._ an error, (in ed. 1534) for _rache_, 68/64. _See_ Rache.

  Rather, _adv. compar._ sooner, quicker, easier, 46/3, 66/22, 133/5.

  Rathes, _s. pl._ frames of wood placed on a cart to make it broader,
        for carrying hay, 5/22. (Also called _raves_.)

  Raunsome, _s._ ransom, 148/28.

  Raye, _pr. s. subj._ have diarrhœa, 41/1. “I _beray_, I fyle ones
        clothes with spottes of myer, properly aboute the skyrtes,
        _ie crotte_;” Palsgrave.

  Rayment, _s._ raiment, apparel, 151/9.

  Rayne, furrow, 7/20. _See_ Raine.

  Reane, _s._ gutter; furrow between the ridges of ploughed land to
        take off the water, 21/15; 33/6, 8, 10. _See_ Raine.

  Recheles, _adj._ reckless, 7/8.

  Red wheate, a kind of wheat, 34/35.

  Rede, _s._ reed, 27/21.

  Reduce, _v._ bring back, turn, 7/15.

  Redy, _adj._ dressed, 146/8. See note.

  Reed, _pp._ shaken in a sieve, so that the chaff collects to one
        place, 36/3. “_Ree_, to pass corn through a sieve for the
        purpose of cleaning it from chaff;” Wright. See E.D.S. Gloss.
        B. 16, p. 89.

  Reed, _adj._ red, 49/1, 55/2, 102/3.

  Reedwaxe, _s._ red wax, sealing-wax, 142/4.

  Regum primo, in the first Book of Kings (Samuel), 165/52.

  Reke, _s._ rick, 29/13, 32/5. A.S. _hreác_.

  Relent, _v._ to melt, 44/16.

  Remytte, _v._ to leave, 7/14; _pr. s._ 1 _p._ I pass over, _prol._ 27.
        See note.

  Ren ryot, _phr._ to run riot, 148/38.

  Renne, _v._ to run, 138/20; renneth, _pr. s._ runs, 54/11; rennynge,
        _pres. pt._ running, 44/6.

  Rennynge, _s._ running, 85/2.

  Reparation, _s._ repair, 5/8.

  Repes, _s. pl._ handfuls (of corn, also of beans, etc.), 29/4, 7.
        “_Repe_, a handful of corn;” Wright. Allied to E. _reap_.

  Repeyled, _pp._ rippled, 146/41.

  Reproued, _pp._ reprobate, 144/8.

  Rere, _v._ rear, rise, 16/6.

  Reson, _s._ reason; of reson, of course, 12/33.

  Rest, _s._ a plough-rest, 3/4, 22. See note to 3/1.

  Rest-awgur, _s._ perhaps a boring-tool, the head of which _rests_
        against a support (?), 5/33. Or, more likely, for _wrest-augur_,
        one which resembles a centre-bit, and is _wrested_ round (?).

  Rest-balke, _pr. s. subj._ 2 _p._ make a rest-balk, 16/31. See below.

  Reste-balkes, _s. pl._ ridges of land between furrows, 4/4.

  Retayle, _imp. s._ sell by retail, 134/1.

  Rideled, _pp._ sifted, 146/51.

  Ridge-bone, _s._ back-bone, 60/12.

  Ripeled, _pp._ rippled, stripped, 146/51.

  Role, _v._ roll, 15/50.

  Ronges, _s. pl._ steps of ladders, rungs, 134/10.

  Ronne, _v._ to run, 41/14. (Perhaps a misprint for _renne_, q.v.)

  Rote, _s._ root, 127/7; rotes, _pl._ 91/5, 129/10.

  Rounde, _adj._ in a rounded form, 33/16.

  Rowme, _s._ room, 26/8, 131/10.

  Ruddiest, _a better reading for_ rudeste; see _note_ to 34/38. _See_

  Ruddyer, _adj. compar._ redder, 48/11.

  Rudeste, _adj. sup._ ruddiest, reddest, 34/38. _See_ Ruddiest.

  Rut, _s._ rutting, 37/17.

  Ry, _s._ rye, 8/14.

  Rychesse, _s._ riches, 156/1.

  Rydge, _s._ ridge, 7/20. _See_ Rygge.

  Rygge, _s._ ridge; holowe rygge, the hollow between two ridges, 17/11.

  Rygge, _v._ ridge, 9/7; rygged, _pp._ ridged, in ridges, 13/2.

  Ryggynge, _s._ edging, 13/3.

  Ryghtuousenes, _s._ justice, 157/36.

  Ryghtwysly, _adv._ righteously, 156/32.

  Ryngbone, _s._ a disease on a horse’s foot, above the hoof, 98/1.

  Rysen-vppon, _s._ a disease; lit. ‘risen upon,’ swollen up, 61/1.

  Ryppon, Ripon, 17/22, 79/11.

  Sacke, _s._ sack, 10/26.

  Sadelclothe, _s._ saddlecloth, 142/2.

  Sacrament, _s._ sacrament, 145/7.

  Salesman, _s._ seller, 134/29.

  Salomon, Solomon, 157/8, 169/14, 31.

  Salue, _v._ salve, anoint, 18/35.

  Sandiuer, _s._ scoria of glass, _note_ to 46/3. “_Suin de verre_,
        sandever, the fatty substance floating on glasse when it is
        red-hot in the furnace, and which being cold is as hard as
        stone, yet brittle and easily broken;” Cotgrave.

  Sandy, _adj._ sandy (said of colour), 68/74.

  Sappe-tyme, _s._ sap-time, 133/22.

  Sauegarde, _s._ safeguard, 18/32, 123/37; saue-garde, 35/8.

  Scab, _s._ sore place, sore, 42/5; scabbe (in horses), 116/2.

  Scabbed, afflicted with scab, 18/8, 42/1.

  Scaffolde, _s._ support of a rick, to keep it off the ground, 32/6.

  Scape, 2 _pr. s. subj._ escape, 148/43.

  Scarce, _adj._ sparing, stingy, 150/2.

  Scaresdale, Scardale, a hundred of Derbyshire, 17/21.

  Sclatte, _s._ slate, 122/38.

  Scote, _s._ privy part of a colt, 101/2. See _colt-evil_, explained
        in Markham’s Husbandry, b. i. c. 32. Cf. _sheath_ in Wright.

  Scyences, _s. pl._ scions, suckers, 140/2. “_Sciens_ of cherry-trees;”
        W. Lawson, Orchard and Garden, 1648, p. 122. See note.

  Seame, _used as equivalent to_ a quarter (of beans), _note_ to 12/13.

  Sede-forowe, _s._ seed-furrow, 4/37.

  Selander, _s._ a disease in the bend of a horse’s leg, 95/1.

  Selden, _adv._ seldom, 54/29.

  Semeth, _v. impers._ appears; me semeth, it appears to me, 34/12.

  Seneca, 161/9.

  Senewes, _s. pl._ sinews, 75/3.

  Sere, _imp. s._ sear, 63/7.

  Serewe, _s._ a disease in a horse’s leg, on the inner side, 96/1.

  Serue, _v._ to feed animals, 146/20.

  Sethe, _v._ boil, 44/5; _imp. s._ 55/18.

  Sette, _v._ to plant, 129/1; _pp._ set, 129/20.

  Settes, _pl._ slips set in the ground to grow, cuttings, 124/10.

  Seuer, _v._ sever, separate, 53/2.

  Seueral, _adj._ several, separate, 6/6.

  Seueraltye, in, _phr._ separately, 123/28.

  Shaken, _adj._ full of cracks in the wood, 132/11.

  Shakyll, _s._ shackle, 15/13.

  Shap, _s._ privy part of a mare, 68/22.

  Sharbeame, _s._ the wooden frame to which the share of a plough is
        fixed, 2/10; sharebeame, 3/3.

  Share, _s._ ploughshare, 3/6.

  Share-hogges, _s. pl._ yearling sheep that have been once shorn, 53/4.

  Shede, _imp. s._ part, 42/4; sheede, _v._ to part, 110/2.

  Shedynge, _s._ spilling, 35/9, 70/46.

  Shefe, _s._ sheaf, 28/6.

  Sheldbrede, _s._ shield-board, 2/23; 3/4, 25. See note to 3/1. And see

  Sheldbredth, _s._ the same as _sheldbrede_, 2/17, 23. The form
        _bredth_ is corrupt, by confusion of _brede_ (= breadth) with
        _brede_ (= board).

  Sheparde, _s._ shepherd, 18/24.

  Shepe-flekes, _s. pl._ hurdles for sheep, 10/35.

  Shepehoke, _s._ sheep-hook, 41/12.

  Sherde, _s._ a breach, 141/36.

  Shere, _v._ to reap, 26/2, 146/85; shorne, _pp._ 26/3.

  Sherers, _s. pl._ reapers, 27/3; sheep-shearers, 52/1.

  Sheres, _s. pl._ shears, 41/12.

  Shertes, _s. pl._ shirts, 146/45.

  Sheryffe, _s._ sheriff, 148/40.

  Shete, _s._ a sheet, 122/15.

  Shethe, _s._ plough-sheath, 2/23, 3/29. See note to 3/1, and see

  Sheydes, _s. pl._ partings, 44/17. _See_ Shede.

  Shifted, _pp._ moved, 141/43.

  Shoke, _v._ to place sheaves together in rows, to shock, 31/2.

  Sholynges, _s. pl._ shovellings, i.e. road-scrapings, 17/30. See
        _note_ to 16/29-35.

  Shorte-pasturned, _pp._ having a short pastern, 75/2.

  Shote, _s._ shot, 151/20.

  Shotes, _s. pl._ (put for _Slotes_), 15/8. _See_ Slote.

  Shotte, _pp._ shot up, grown, 21/19.

  Shouell, _s._ shovel, 5/33, 17/14.

  Shough, _s._ shock, rough hair on a horse’s foot, 114/3.

  Showed, _pp._ shoed, 142/6.

  Showynge, _s._ shoeing, 109/4.

  Shoyng-horne, _s._ shoe-horn, 142/1.

  Shrede, _v._ to cut off the smaller branches of a tree, 132/1; shred,
        _pp._ having the smaller branches cut off, 133/2.

  Shuld, _pt. s._ would, 128/34.

  Sicle, _s._ sickle, 27/14; syckle, 28/4.

  Sith, _s._ scythe, 23/15.

  Skal, _s._ a scall or scab, 94/4.

  Skeyggs, _s. pl._ rough oats, _note_ to 14/15. Doubtless so called
        from the long awns; cf. Icel. _skegg_, a beard, Dan. _skjæg_,
        a beard, barb, awn. Cf. E. _shaggy_.

  Skorfe, _s._ scurf, 116/2.

  Skyppes, _s. pl._ baskets, 166/21. Usually _skeps_.

  Slake, _v._ to extinguish, 169/14.

  Slaue, _v._ to bend down, 133/15 (where it seems to mean tear by
        breaking down); to bend, 133/6; to slant, 127/15, 32. Cf.
        “I _slyue_ downe, I fall downe sodaynly;” Palsgrave. See below.

  Slauynges, _s. pl._ slips, scions, 130/5. Cf. _slive_, a slip,
        _slive_, to slice, _slift_, a scion of a plant for propagation,
        not cut, but pulled off at a joint; Wright. “I _slyue_ a floure
        from his braunche or stalke;” Palsgrave.

  Slecketh, _pr. s._ extinguishes, 169/13. _See_ Slake.

  Sleues, _s. pl._ sleeves (but in what sense is uncertain), 5/6.

  Slote, _s._ rod, thin piece of wood, cross-piece of a harrow, 15/11.
        A _slot_ or _slote_ is, properly, a thin flat bar. See Ray,
        Gloss. B. 15. See below.

  Slote, _s._ slit? (apparently the same as _slyt_ in 3/17), 4/15. The
        usual sense of _slot_ is ‘bar.’ See above.

  Sloted, _pp._ furnished with _slotes_ or bars, 15/24.

  Slote-wedges, _s. pl._ wedges fixed in the _slote_, 4/14. See Slote
        (= slit?).

  Small, _s._ small part, calf of the leg, 15/8.

  Smockes, _s. pl._ women’s shifts, 146/45.

  Socle, _imp. s._ suckle, cause to suckle, 38/4; give suck, 146/10.

  Socket, _s._ socket, fitted end, 3/47; means of fastening on, 21/8.

  Sodeinly, _adv._ suddenly, 2/24.

  Soke, _v._ suck, 2/13.

  Somer, _s._ rail or support, 5/22. Cf. _Bressomer_; also “_somers_,
        the rails of a cart;” Wright. See _sumpter_ in my Etym. Dict.

  Sommersetshyre, Somersetshire, 2/9.

  Sonne, _s._ sun, 9/5; _spelt_ son, 146/54.

  Soo, _conj._ so, provided that, 43/4.

  Sophystycallye, _adv._ sophistically, ambiguously, 68/46.

  Sorance, _s._ sore, injury, disease, 6/29, 89/1; soraunce, 80/1,

  Sought, _s._ 57/13. _See_ Longe soughte.

  Souketh, _pr. s._ sucks, 39/11.

  Souper, _s._ supper, 146/12.

  Souse, _s._ pickle, brine, 121/15.

  Sowen, _pp._ sown, 12/33, 35; 141/42.

  Sowes, _s. pl._ sows, 121/9.

  Spade-graffe, _s._ the depth to which a spade will dig, about a foot,

  Spauen, _s._ spavin, a kind of lameness, 106/1. Also, the place where
        spavin appears, 107/4.

  Spauen-place, _s._ place where a horse is subject to spavin, 118/3.

  Spere, _s._ spear, 142/2.

  Sperewort, _s._ spear-wort, a grass, 54/3. “_Flamula_ is the herbe
        whiche we cal in englishe _Sperewurte_ or _Spergrasse_;”
        Turner’s Names of Herbes. It is the lesser spear-wort,
        _Ranunculus Flammula_, as the greater spear-wort, or
        _Ranunculus Lingua_, is of larger growth. See _Speerworty_ in
        Pegge, Gloss. B. 6.

  Spinner, _s._ a spider, _note_ to 54/22. (In Shakespeare.)

  Splent, _s._ disease in a horse’s leg, 96/1; 97/1.

  Splente, _imp. s._ furnish with splents or laths, 122/9. See below.

  Splentes, _s. pl._ laths, 122/10.

  Spokes, _s. pl._ spokes of a wheel, 5/9.

  Spon, _pp._ spun, 146/42.

  Spores, _s. pl._ spurs, 142/2.

  Sporte, _s._ sport, 153/18.

  Sprede, _v._ spread, 10/38.

  Sprot-barley, _s._ sprout-barley, a kind of barley, 13/19.

  Sprutteth, _v._ sprouteth, 13/38.

  Sprynge, _s._ young wood, shoots, 126/11; 135/4, 7, 27.

  Spyndel, _s._ spindle, 103/5.

  Spyres, _s. pl._ shoots, sprigs, 20/12. See note to P. Plowman, C.
        xiii. 180.

  Squecke, _s._ a disease of turkeys, _note_ to 144.

  Stacke, _s._ stack, 131/11.

  Staffe, _s._ a staff, stick, 41/9; handle, 21/8.

  Staffe-hokes, _s. pl._ staff-hooks; sharp hooks fastened to long
        handles to cut peas and beans, and trim hedges, 29/3.

  Stare, _v._ to stand on end, bristle up, 56/11, 98/4, 111/3.

  Starkely, _adv._ stiffly, with difficulty, 65/3.

  Staues, _s. pl._ staves, bars, rails, 70/45, 141/48; ‘rough staves,’
        3/5, 35. See note to 3/1.

  Staunche, _v._ to staunch, stop, 58/32.

  Staye, _s._ support, 3/41.

  Steeled, _pp._ steeled, 21/9.

  Steke, _imp. s._ shut, fasten, 40/14, 165/48; _v._ 167/34.

  Stele, _s._ handle, 24/18. A. S. _stel._

  Stere, _v._ stir, 16/24.

  Sterte, _s._ stalk, 20/23. Cf. _start_ = tail.

  Steryngtyme, _s._ time for stirring, 16/26.

  Stilt, _s._ the right-hand handle of a plough, 3/4. See note to 3/1.

  Stocke, _s._ stock, stem, 136/19.

  Stocke-heed, _s._ head or top of the stock, 138/26.

  Stole, _s._ stool, 122/17.

  Stooles, _s. pl._ stools; but, apparently, part of the gear of a
        plough, 5/44.

  Stoupe, _v._ to stoop, 21/26; to obey, 41/18.

  Stranguellyon, _s._ strangury, retention of urine, 88/1.
        “Stranguyllyon, a sicknesse, _chauldepisse_;” Palsgrave. And
        see Markham, Husbandry, b. i. c. 30.

  Streyte, _adv._ close, 56/17.

  Stringe, _s._ string, 142/3.

  Strykes, _s. pl._ strikes, London bushels, 12/8. (The measure varied.)

  Stryndes, _s. pl._ streaks, 55/2.

  Stryng-halte, _s._ string-halt, a twitching lameness in horses, 108/1.

  Stubbes, _s. pl._ old roots, or stumps, 127/27.

  Sturdy, _s._ ‘the turn,’ _i.e._ giddiness, _note_ to 62 (rubric).

  Sturred, _pp._ stirred, 17/8, 141/42.

  Sturrynge, _s._ stirring, 4/40.

  Styffe-docked, _pp._ having a stiff stumpy part of the tail, 74/2.

  Styffe-eared, _pp._ having stiff ears, 76/1.

  Stylkynges, _s. pl._ some part of harness for oxen, 5/4.

  Styred, _pp._ stirred, 146/108.

  Subleuate, lifted up, 165/43.

  Suet, _s._ suet, 44/7.

  Swarth, _adj._ grassy, _note_ to sect. 8 (ch. 8, l. 30).

  Swathe, _s._ a row of cut grass, 23/16.

  Sweate, _v._ give out moisture, as cut grass, 23/13.

  Swyneherde, _s._ swineherd, 123/16.

  Swyngletre, the bar that swings at the heels of the horse when drawing
        a harrow, 15/42; swyngle-trees, _pl._ swinging bars to which
        traces are fixed, 5/25.

  Syde, _adj._ long, trailing, 151/14. A.S. _síd_, long.

  Syde-longe all, close beside, 38/7.

  Syde-tailed, _pp._ longtailed, 77/3. _See_ Syde.

  Syde-wedges, _s. pl._ side-wedges (at the side of the coulter), 4/22.

  Sye, _imp. s._ strain (milk), 146/10. “I sye mylke, or clense, _ie
        coulle du laict_. This term is to muche northerne;” Palsgrave.

  Symbalo, _for_ symbolo, _abl. s._ in the creed, 161/3.

  Symylytude, _s._ likeness, 160/9.

  Synagoges, _s. pl._ synagogues, 165/21.

  Synge, _v._ sing (as land), 10/19.

  Syre, _s._ sire (said of a horse), 68/75.

  Sythe, _conj._ since, 157/41.

  Syues, _s. pl._ sieves, 36/3.

  Syxte, _adj. num._ sixth, 75/3.

  Tables, _s. pl._ tablets, 141/31.

  Take, _pr. s. subj._ lay firm hold of, 126/12.

  Tancardes, _s. pl._ tankards, 141/68.

  Tarre, _s._ tar, 47/16. _See_ Terre.

  Tawed, _pp._ dressed, 146/42.

  Tayle, _s._ plough-tail, 3/18.

  Tedde, _v._ to spread or turn hay, 25, rubric; tedded, pp. 25/2.
        “I _teede_ hey, I tourne it afore it is made in cockes;”

  Teddered, _pp._ tethered, fastened, 6/17.

  Teddynge, _s._ spreading, 25/4.

  Tedure, _s._ tether, 147/31.

  Tedure, _v._ to tether, 148/14.

  Tell, _v._ count, 30/5.

  Temper, _s._ adjustment, 4/46; tempre, 4/56.

  Tempered, _pp._ adjusted, set, 2/30, 4/3; worked together (as clay),

  Temporal, _adj._ worldly, 154/17.

  Tenaunte, _s._ tenant, 123/31.

  Tenaunte, _s._ tenon, 139/6.

  Tennes-balles, _s. pl._ tennis balls, 91/4.

  Terre, _s._ tar, 41/4.

  Terre, _s._ tare, tares, 20/36; ter, 20/4.

  Terre-boxe, _s._ tar-box, 41/10.

  Thacke, _s._ thatch, 27/20. “_Thacke_ of a house, _chaume_;”

  Thacke, _v._ thatch, 27/10.

  Thacking, _s._ thatching, 27/24.

  Thanke, _s._ thanks, 169/23.

  There-as, _conj._ where, 33/13, 45/9, 58/9.

  Theyues, _s. pl._ ewes of the first year, 53/4. “_Theave_, a ewe of
        a year old (Essex); a sheep of three years old (North);”
        Wright. See _thaive_, _theave_, in Index to Old Country Words,
        ed. J. Britten (E.D.S.).

  Thimble, _s._ thimble, 142/5.

  Thistyls, _s. pl._ thistles, 20/3; thistyll, _s._ 20/6.

  Thopinion, the opinion, 12/37.

  Thorowe, _adv._ through, 23/16, 44/10, 128/19.

  Threde, _s._ thread, 142/5.

  Thresshe, _pr. s. subj._ 2. _p._ thresh, 35/2; thresshen, _pp._ 13/40;
        thresshed, _pp._ 10/9.

  Throughe, _adj._ passing through, continuous, 96/3.

  Thryfte, _s._ thrift, thriving, 129/8.

  Thyn-cressed, _pp._ thin in the crest, 78/2. The _crest_ is ‘the
        rising part of a horse’s neck;’ Wright.

  Tinded, _pp._ furnished with tines, 15/24. _See_ Tyndes.

  To, _adv._ too, 2/24, 2/29, 43/5, 148/34, 150/2.

  To, _prep._ in going to, 146/16.

  To, frequently inserted in imperative clauses; thus, to fel, i.e.
        remember to fell, 134/15; to sell, be sure to sell, 134/18; &c.

  Togwith, _or_ Togewith, _s._ part of the draught apparatus of a plough
        or harrow, to which the swingle-tree was attached, 5/25, 15/43.
        Lit. “tug-withe;” cf. “_tug-iron_, an iron on the shafts of a
        waggon to hitch the traces to;” Wright.

  Tolle, _s._ toll, 146/17.

  Tomblynge, _s._ tumbling, 102/5.

  Toppes, _s._ tops, 31/12.

  Tothe, _v._ furnish with teeth, 24/7.

  Toure, _s._ tower, 146/104.

  Towels, _s. pl._ towels, 146/45.

  Towne-syde. _s._ farm-yard side, 10/11.

  Traile, _v._ to drag on the ground, 141/49.

  Tree, _s._ piece of wood, 3/9; tre, 3/11.

  Trenche, _s._ trench, 124/30.

  Tresses, _s. pl._ traces (for drawing a plough), 5/25, 15/42.

  Trouse, _s._ the trimmings of a hedge, 38/3, 126/9. “_Trouse_, to
        trim hedgings”; Wright.

  Tryanglewise, _adj._ in the form of a triangle, 4/34.

  Tucke, _v._ to tuck up short, 151/14.

  Tuell, _s._ fundament (of a horse), 85/4.

  Tuftes, _s. pl._ tufts, 70/3.

  Turne, _s._ a disease of cattle, giddiness, 62/28.

  Twon, _pp._ twined, 25/32.

  Twyche, _v._ to twitch, 108/2.

  Twyrle, _v._ turn round; twyrle upon, i.e. turn round by pressing
        upon, 55/1.

  Twyse, _adv._ twice, 147/28.

  Twytches, _s. pl._ jerks, 15/21.

  Tyckes, _s. pl._ ticks, small insects, 135/19.

  Tyndes, _s. pl._ tines, teeth, 15/26.

  Tyne, _v._ to shut, 141/49. A.S. _týnan_.

  Tythes, _s. pl._ tithes, 30/13.

  Vaine, _s._ vein, 50/11; vaines, _pl._ 70/26.

  Valentynes daye, Feb. 14, 137/4.

  Vermynne, _s._ vermin (said of noxious beasts), 146/32.

  Viues, _s. pl._ “Certaine kirnels growing under the horsses eare;”
        (Topsell, 1607, p. 360), 91/1. “_Vyves_, a disease that an
        horse hath, _auiues_;” Palsgrave. See _Avives_ in Cotgrave.

  Vncomely, _adj._ unsuitable, _prol._ 13.

  Vnconuenient, _adj._ unsuitable, unbecoming, unfit, 151/16, 154/16.

  Vnderstande, _pp._ understood, 156/27.

  Vnder-wodde, _s._ underwood, 131/2.

  Vndouted, _adv._ doubtless, 146/48.

  Vngiue, _v._ to give out the damp, 25/16.

  Vnhappy, _adj._ unhappy, unfortunate, 144/20.

  Vpholdyng, _s._ maintaining in repair, 5/38.

  Vppe, _adj._ up, risen, 149/8.

  Vppe, _adv._ up, 13/8.

  Vpwarde, _adv._ upward, 16/17.

  Vse, _pr. pl._ are accustomed, 21/29.

  Vtter, _adj. compar._ outer, 138/12.

  Vttermoste, _adj. superl._ most outward, 4/41.

  Waincloutes, _s. pl._ pieces of iron for strengthening the axle-tree
        of a waggon, 5/19. On _clouts_, see J. E. T. Rogers, Hist. of
        Agriculture, i. 546.

  Wained, _pp._ weaned, 135/14.

  Waked, _pp._ awake, 146/1.

  Wallettes, _s. pl._ wallets, 141/69.

  Walnutshell, _s._ walnut-shell, 94/4.

  Walnuttes, _s. pl._ walnuts, 136/4, 140/4.

  Want, _v._ to lack, 79/12; wante, _pr. s. subj._ be lacking, 164/27.

  Warde, _s._ management; harde of warde, harde to manage, 79/4.

  Wardens, _s. pl._ large baking pears, 136/2.

  Warden-tree, _s._ a pear-tree, bearing large baking pears, 137/3.

  Wardropes, _s. pl._ wardrobes, 151/2.

  Ware, _s._ ware, merchandise, bargain, 118/4.

  Ware, _v._ to spend, 123/23. See Gloss. B. 15 (E. D. S.), p. 72;
        Gloss. B. 2, p. 42.

  Warke, _s._ work, 6/9, 21/26; warkes, _pl._ prol. 22, 143/11.

  Warrybredes, _s. pl._ worms just under the skin, 63/1. “_Wary-breeds_,
        or _Warnel-worms_, worms on the backs of cattle within their
        skin;” Bailey’s Dict. vol. i. ed. 1735. Cf. “_Warbot_, a worme,
        _escarbot_;” Palsgrave.

  Wartes, _s. pl._ warts, 118/2.

  Washen, _pp._ washed, 122/15; wasshen, 51/2.

  Waspes, _s. pl._ wasps, 122/47.

  Water-bowes, _s. pl._ smaller boughs or shoots of a tree (probably
        from their containing much sap), 129/17.

  Water-forowed, _pp._ drained by making furrows, 13/6, 33/5.

  Wauerynge, _pres. part._ wavering, 165/42.

  Waxen, _pp._ grown, 156/36.

  Wayne, _s._ a wain, waggon, 5/6.

  Wayne, _v._ wean, 39/5.

  Wayne-rope, _s._ a cart-rope, 5/6.

  Wayters, _s. pl._ waiters, 152/11.

  Weare, _v._ exhaust, 14/16.

  Weate, _s._ wet, moisture, 124/22.

  Wedders, _s. pl._ wether-sheep, 53/5.

  Wede, _v._ weed, 21/2.

  Wedes, _s. pl._ weeds, 146/37.

  Wedynge-hoke, _s._ weeding-hook, 21/7.

  Weike, _adj._ weak, 53/9. Icel. _veikr_.

  Were, _pt. s. subj._ would be, 121/2.

  Weter, _adj. compar._ wetter, 14/3.

  Wether, weather, 18/29.

  Wethy, _s._ a willow, 126/3, 130/5, 138/31.

  Wethy-wode, _s._ withy-wood, willow-wood, 24/8. [_Not_ osier.]

  Weyke, _adv._ weak, 66/10. _See_ Weike.

  What-someuer, whatsoever, 168/10.

  Whelpe, _s._ a young dog, 41/17.

  Whereas, _adv._ where that, where, 6/15.

  Whether, _adj._ which of the two, 40/20, 144/19.

  Whyted, _pp._ (= thwited), cut, whittled down into shape, 5/25. Cf.
        _whittle_ = _thwittle_, a knife; from _thwite_, to cut.

  Whyte-thorne, _s._ whitethorn, 124/4, 126/4, 137/12.

  Whyte wheate, _s._ a kind of wheat, 34/23.

  Wiedes, _s. pl._ weeds, 16/25.

  Winowed, _pp._ winnowed, 146/56.

  Winter-corne, _s._ winter-corn (such as wheat or rye), 8/13.

  Withall, with it, 146/15.

  Withe, _s._ withy, 15/13; withee, a twig of willow, 24/15. _See_
        Togwith and Wethy.

  Withed, _pp._ bound, wound, 15/41.

  Wodde, wood, 3/39; woddes, _pl._ trees, 131/1.

  Wode euyll, _s._ wood-evil; a disease in sheep, 50/2.

  Wolde, _pt. s. and pl._ ought to (lit. would), 3/31; should, ought,
        15/35; must, 15/45; should, 21/20, 122/36, 140/6.

  Woll, _s._ wool, 42/3, 146/77.

  Woll-wynder, _s._ wool-winder, 52/7.

  Wonders, _adv._ wondrously, prol. 24. (This afterwards became an adj.,
        and was turned into the Mod. E. _wondrous_.) See below.

  Wonders, _adj._ wonderful, 11/11.

  Wormes, _s. pl._ worms, 103/1.

  Wouen, _pp._ woven, 146/43.

  Wounden, _pp._ wound, 146/43.

  Wowed, _pp._ wooed, 146/109.

  Wrapped, _pp._ (probably) warped, drawn out into a warp, 146/43. Spelt
        _warped_ in ed. 1598.

  Wrethynge-temes, _s. pl._ part of the harness for oxen, 5/4. To
        _wrethe_ is to twist; a _team_ is ‘an ox-chain, passing from
        yoke to yoke;’ E. D. S. Gloss. B. 2, p. 40.

  Wryncles, _s. pl._ wrinkles, 100/7.

  Wrynge, _v._ to wring, 146/85.

  Wrynkeled, _pp._ wrinkled, 34/43.

  Wrythen, _pp._ wreathed, twisted, 31/15, 64/6.

  Wyddre, _v._ wither, 21/17, 31/17; wyddred, _pp._ 25/6.

  Wyddrynge, _s._ withering, 23/8.

  Wydes, _s. pl._ the name of a kind of apple, 130/4.

  Wyght, _adj._ active, swift, 76/4.

  Wymble, _s._ an auger, 24/8.

  Wyndgalles, _s. pl._ wind-galls, swellings or blisters above a horse’s
        fetlock, 99/1. “_Windgalls_ are little blebs or soft swellings
        on each side of the fetlock;” G. Markham, Husbandry, b. i. c.

  Wyndrowes, _s. pl._ rows of grass in hay-making, 25/11.

  Yeane, _v._ produce (as a ewe), 37/26.

  Yelde, _v._ yield, 10/9.

  Yere, _s. pl._ years, 67/9.

  Ylle, _adj._ ill, bad, 54/11.

  Yokes, _s. pl._ frames of wood to couple oxen for drawing, 5/3.

  Yomen, _s. pl._ keepers, 151/1; yomenne, yeomen, 152/11; yomenne _or_
        yomen, pawns (in chess), prol. 20, prol. 30.

  Yorke, York, 17/22.

  Yorkeshyre, Yorkshire, 2/26.

  Yren, _s._ iron, 2/2, 3/49; yrens, _pl._ 3/54.

  Yren-gray, _adj._ iron-gray, 68/75.

  Ysaye, Isaiah, 164/3.

  Yues, _s. pl._ ivies, 132/4.

  Zelcester = Ʒelcester, i.e. Ilchester, 2/9, 27/17.



  All changes noted in the ERRATA (pg xxxi, after the Introduction)
  have been applied to the etext, except for the page header
  (Headline) change which is not applicable for this ebook.

  Footnote [28] is referenced twice from page 55.

  Numerical values in the original (1534) text are in roman format,
  usually inside periods as ‘.xxiv.’, but this is not consistent.
  Some numbers of the form ‘xxiv.’ and ‘.xxiv’ and ‘xxiv’ have been
  left unchanged.

  Pg 3: page number ‘16’ for entry ‘=7.=’ moved from the first
        line of its text to the last line to be consistent with
        other entries.
  Pg 4: ‘fol. 32.’ replaced by ‘fol. xxxii.’ in entry ‘=50.=’.
  Pg 33: ‘M  e-hills’ (in Sidenote) replaced by ‘Mole-hills’.
  Pg 76: ‘she wyl not not labour’ replaced by ‘she wyl not labour’.
  Pg 101: Pilcrow symbol ¶ inserted after ‘149.’.
  Pg 110: ‘Nichil retinet’ has not been changed, but perhaps should be
  ‘Nihil retinet’.
  Pg 120: ‘Ecclus.’ (in Sidenote) replaced by ‘Eccles.’.

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