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Title: Modern Cotton Spinning Machinery - Its principles and construction
Author: Nasmith, Joseph
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Modern Cotton Spinning Machinery - Its principles and construction" ***

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Transcriber’s notes:

Italic and underscored text is denoted _thus_.

Bold text is denoted =thus=.

Superscript text is shown ^{thus}

The spelling, hyphenation, punctuation and accentuation are as the
original, except for apparent typographical errors which have been

In Chapter XII., note below Table 6.

  ... and of the Empty Bobbin 71 ozs.
  This should probably read:—
  ... and of the Empty Bobbin 0·71 ozs.
  This has been changed accordingly.
















In submitting the following pages to the judgment of the public, the
Author does not pretend to have written an exhaustive treatise. This
would require a volume much larger than the present. It has rather
been his aim to treat a branch of the subject thoroughly, which has
hitherto had scant justice done to it. While the market is flooded
with books detailing the rules by which speeds are calculated, and the
necessary wheel changes made, those dealing with the construction of
the machinery employed are few in number. This is the more singular,
because England is, beyond doubt, the true mother of this department of
mechanics, and to-day her textile machinists head the lists alike for
excellence of production and fertility of invention.

Since the issue of the late Mr. Evan Leigh’s “Science of Modern Cotton
Spinning”—comparatively a long time ago—no book has appeared which
treats the subject from the machinist’s point of view. The well known
book of Mr. Richard Marsden, “A Handbook of Cotton Spinning,” as
its name implies, deals more with the operation than the machinery,
although the latter is described in considerable detail. In the present
work, while it has been impossible to avoid saying something of
spinning, the enunciation of the principles on which the machinery is
constructed forms its _raison d’être_. On the Continent, more than one
ponderous treatise has been published, which possess the peculiarity
of foreign technical works in the disproportionate way in which the
small details are treated. While this is valuable from the professorial
point of view, it is apt to be prejudicial in actual practice, because
the operation of these details varies considerably at different times.
The avoidance of pedantry is very essential in any book dealing with
practical work, and with this in view, the Author has endeavoured,
while fully considering every principle involved, to do so in a plain
manner, which will be readily understood. It has rather been the aim
to suggest the inferences to be drawn than to dogmatically state
inflexible rules.

The whole of the machines have been considered fully, and the most
important modifications described. The preparation of the drawings has
been a long labour, but the Author believes they have not hitherto been
so fully given in any English work. In order to keep the book within
bounds, it has been almost rigidly confined to a consideration of the
art of textile mechanics as applied to the spinning of cotton to-day.
It is believed that the book will provide an accurate account of the
state of present knowledge, and will be valuable for that reason.

It should be distinctly understood that the mention of any machinist
does not imply any approval or otherwise of his particular appliance,
but is simply given in order to identify the maker of it, which it is
only fair to do. The Author’s opinions can be easily gathered, but it
is no part of the scheme to enter into controversy about different
methods, or to make the book a treatise on comparative textile

The Author desires to thank all those firms who have aided him by
the loan of drawings, or in other ways. Without this aid the labour
involved would have been largely increased. Thanks are due to Signor
Alfredo Galassini and the Director of the Unione Tipografico-Editrice
of Turin for permission to reproduce some of the drawings relating to
Messrs. Platt Brothers and Co.’s mule, which will be found in Chapter
XI. These had appeared in the “Enciclopedia Delle Arti E Industrie,”
and were so much in accord with the treatment the Author had resolved
to give that machine, that the permission to use them was of great
service. The special thanks of the Author are also due to Mr. B. A.
Dobson for the permission to reproduce two photographs of a lap, given
in Chapter VI., and other drawings from his pamphlet on “Carding.” In
conclusion, before leaving the book to the indulgent judgment of his
readers, the Author wishes to say that the proofs have been read by
gentlemen conversant with the whole of the details, and every care has
been taken to make it at once accurate and instructive.



  Introductory                                          5


  The Structure of Cotton                              12


  Ginning and Mixing Machines                          15


  The Opening Machine                                  23


  The Scutching Machine                                35


  The Carding Machine                                  53


  Card Clothing, Grinding, and Stripping Machines      91


  The Combing Machine                                 120


  The Drawing Machine                                 137


  Slubbing and Roving Machines                       147


  The Mule                                           176


  The Ring Spinning Machine                          234


  Reeling, Winding, Gassing, and Spooling Machines   262


  Miscellaneous Machines and Accessories             282

  Appendix                                           297

  List of Illustrations                              301

  Glossary                                           308

  General Index                                      309


The reader is requested to make the alterations enumerated below at
once in order to prevent any misunderstanding.

  On page 51, end of line 23, for “it” read “is.”
  On page 66, line 15, for “Fig. 51” read “Fig. 52.”
  On page 162, third line from bottom, for “n = b - 21”
   read “n = 21 - b.”
  On page 163, line 7, for “n = 250 - 2 (250÷40)”
    read “n = - 250 - 2 (250÷40).”
  On page 165, second line from bottom, for “=G=” read “=E=.”
  On page 210, line 3, for “=B=” read “=D=.”
  On page 212, end of last line, for “fallen” read “faller.”
  On page 267, line 4, for “straps” read “shafts.”

The author is fully conscious of many shortcomings, which are
inevitable in a task of this magnitude, but he believes that
something has been done to formulate present knowledge and practice.
Any suggestions of improvements or enlargements will be gratefully
received, so as to enable future issues to be more valuable and



(1) The rapid growth of the cotton trade is in no small degree due to
the exertions and ingenuity of the engineers and machinists who have
devoted themselves to the subject. It is remarkable how few of the
later inventions, at any rate, are those of persons actually engaged
in the operations of spinning or weaving. It is quite true that James
Smith, of Deauston, forms a conspicuous exception, and that many others
could be also named who were at once manufacturers and mechanicians,
but the general fact is as stated. To-day, the spinner, who is in a
difficulty requiring a mechanical solution, turns the whole matter over
to the machinist, who puzzles it out without, in many cases, getting
his due reward. It is, however, a general practice for machinists to
originate improvements, and the competition in this respect is so keen,
that a spinner is never at a loss for a choice of appliances.

(2) In the early part of the century it was no uncommon thing to find
textile machines made in a workshop where engines, machine tools, and
other forms of machinery were also constructed. For about the last
forty years this practice has ceased, and it is now the universal
custom to make textile machines only, in any works where they are
produced. This practice has led to a subdivision, not only of labour,
but of procedure, which enables good results to be attained. The
machine of to-day, although not absolutely, is comparatively, cheaper,
and is constructed in a way that even thirty years ago would have been
deemed impossible. When the author was an apprentice, about twenty
years since, the fitting of cotton machinery was a byeword to the
engineer and tool maker. To-day, it would be difficult to find more
accurate workmanship or sounder construction in any machine of whatever

(3) This is a matter of more importance than might be supposed. The
cotton spinning machine making trade in England is a very extensive
one, finding employment in Lancashire alone for not less than 25,000
men and boys. This does not include the large number of persons
employed in the various businesses which are allied to it, such as
spindle and card clothing manufactories. The field for spinning
machines is ever enlarging, the possible extent of the cotton industry
being enormous. The number of spindles at work in Great Britain exceeds
44,000,000; on the Continent the number is about 23,800,000; in the
United States 14,500,000; and in India and Japan it exceeds 3,000,000.
These figures, which are approximate only, give a grand total of
85,300,000 spindles, which may all be said to have sprung into being
during the present century. Assuming the value of a mill to be equal
to 21 shillings per spindle in England, the fixed capital embarked in
this branch of the trade alone is £44,220,000. If the very moderate
amount of 20 per cent be added to this for working capital, the sum
invested in cotton spinning concerns in this country is not less than
£53,000,000. The cost per spindle in other countries is much in excess
of the amount stated above, being in many cases doubled. In the United
States the cost of a fully equipped spinning-mill ranges from 40 to
42 shillings per spindle, and the capital needed for working is also
greater than in this country. On the Continent, and in India, the cost
per spindle will be less than in America, but the working expenses are
also higher than in Great Britain. In thus stating the facts it is
impossible to accurately fix the capital employed, but it will probably
approach in the aggregate £150,000,000 for spinning mills alone.

(4) The foregoing figures, which are very briefly put, are sufficient
to show the magnitude of the industry for which spinning machinists
cater. But there is another aspect of the question which is noteworthy,
and illustrative of the effect of the work of machine makers. This is
the large increase in the productive capacity of the machinery. The
production of a self-acting mule in 1835 is given in the following
statement, issued by the eminent firm of Sharp, Roberts and Co., and
extracted from Dr. Ure’s work on “Cotton Spinning.”

“Statement of the quantity of Yarn produced on Messrs. Sharp, Roberts
& Co.’s self-acting mules in twelve working hours, including the usual
stoppages connected with spinning, estimated on the average of upwards
of 20 mills:—

                  No. of hanks per spindle.
  No. of yarn.      Twist.     Weft.
      16’s          4-1/2      4-7/8
      24’s          4-1/4      4-5/8
      32’s          4          4-3/8
      40’s          3-3/4      4-1/8”

This statement is dated December 23rd, 1834, so that it may fairly
serve as a basis of comparison, assuming the number of turns of yarn to
be in each case the same. Testing the advance by taking the production
of 32’s, as stated above, the amount spun per spindle in a working
week of 50-1/2 hours—its present duration—would be 18-2/3 hanks. Mules
at that period were only made 400 to 500 spindles long. To-day they
contain over 1,200 spindles, and produce of 32’s 32-1/2 hanks per
spindle. This is an increase of 60 per cent.

(5) The increase of production has not, however, required a larger
number of workpeople to obtain. On the other hand, fewer persons are
needed to attend to the long mules named than were formerly required
for less than half the number of spindles. The effect of this is
seen in the decreased margin between cotton and yarns, which is very
striking. The average price of 30’s twist yarn in 1832 is stated in
Dr. Ure to be 12·7d. per lb., and of cotton 7·1d., leaving a margin of
5·6d. At the time of writing the price of 32’s twist is 8-11/16d., and
of cotton 6-9/16d. per lb., leaving a margin of 2-1/8d. These figures
are based upon the assumption that American cotton of middling quality
is used in each case. Thus the price of yarn is much less, while that
of cotton is little reduced. It is true that a margin of 2-1/8d. is
barely sufficient to permit of a profit being made, but 1/8d. per lb.
added will do 80, and a margin of 2-1/2d. is considered a large one in
these days.

(6) This reduction in the cost of production has not been brought about
by any diminution in the wages of the operatives, as could very clearly
be shown if it were necessary. Nor is it the result of a lessened cost
of erection. A spinning mill of 40,000 spindles, which in 1835 would be
looked upon as a large one, cost, at that time, from 24 to 26 shillings
per spindle to erect, including the buildings and accessories. At the
present time mills are built to contain as many as 110,000 spindles,
and these are filled ready for work at a cost not exceeding 21
shillings per spindle, the apportionment of which is as follows: The
machinery costs nine shillings, the buildings eight shillings, and the
engines, boilers, furnishings, and all accessories four shillings per
spindle. Considering the great increase in the productive power of the
machinery, the fact that it is so much less expensive to work, and
that each machine is of much greater capacity, the figures given show
that the tendency towards diminished cost is owing very largely to the
efforts of machine makers.

(7) It is not necessary to pursue this matter further, as the
present work is not intended as a statistical abstract, but the
few facts stated show that in the general march of improvement the
textile mechanic has not been idle. A consideration of the methods
of construction adopted to-day, as compared with those in vogue even
so recently as twenty years ago, will further demonstrate this fact.
Formerly the work of construction was very largely if not mainly
carried out by fitters who were engaged in manually shaping the
brackets and fitting them to the frames. The brackets were formed with
feet, on which were cast nipples or projections. These were used to
reduce the labour in filing, and, as the bracket was always fitted on
to the face produced in the ordinary operation of casting, it will
be seen that anything tending to diminish the work of fitting was
valuable. But as the bedding of the brackets was dependent upon the
proper shaping of a few points, the tendency to slip was considerable.
Although, by being always engaged in fitting a few patterns of
brackets, the workmen became extraordinarily expert, the method was
at best an uncertain one, and did not lead to the rigidity absolutely
essential in high-speed machines.

(8) All this is now changed, and the machine tool enables the work to
be at once more expeditiously and economically carried out. The labours
of mechanics of precision, like the late Sir Joseph Whitworth, are
bearing fruit, and the effect is seen in the comparative excellence
of the product. The solidity of English machinery has been sometimes
scoffed at by Continental and American rivals, but it would be
difficult to find any which runs at higher velocities with greater
steadiness and less repairs. It cannot be too often insisted on
that the rigidity which arises from mere weight is by no means an
unimportant quality. Of course, there are limits to this as to every
other principle, but generally it is a true one. Of quite as much
importance is the rigidity which comes from sound construction; and
in this respect modern spinning machinery is remarkable. Instead of
a framing built up by hand with its various pieces manually fitted,
it is now made in a much more enduring way. Raised faces are formed
on the framing, which are planed or milled, so as to be quite true.
To these the cross-beams or bars, the ends of which are similarly
treated, are bolted. Thus, instead of the contact of several narrow
faces, two broad plane surfaces are bolted together, and it will be
easily seen how much more solid the framing will be in consequence.
Again, in lieu of each part being at once like and unlike, as must
necessarily happen when it is hand-fitted, it is now shaped by special
machinery to templates, thus being interchangeable. The rails or beams
to which bearings, brackets, or spindles are to be attached are
planed or milled accurately on their surfaces, so that the long and
unsatisfactory labour of fitting each piece separately is substituted
by a true mechanical process. The advent of the milling machine and the
discovery of the wonderful economic power of the circular cutter has
had a wide-reaching influence. In brief, the present is an age of an
increased development of machine instead of manual treatment, which has
gone far to revolutionise the machinery used in spinning. Every student
who may hereafter be engaged in the construction of this class of
machinery should impress firmly upon his mind the fact that the machine
tool is the best instrument for his purpose, and should develop it as
far as possible. A special tool is invaluable, and the opportunities
for its use are always increasing.

(9) A comparison of the speeds of various machines will demonstrate
the value of improved construction. Mule spindles, which in 1834 were
run at a maximum velocity of 4,500 revolutions per minute, are now
revolved 11,000 times per minute with much greater ease and freedom
from vibration. The throstle spindles running at a speed of 4,500
revolutions, are superseded by ring spindles, which rotate from
9,000 to 11,000 times per minute. As shown in Chapter XII, it would
be impossible to attain such a velocity unless the spindles were
accurately constructed by special tools. Although the mechanism of a
ring spindle is much more elaborate than that of a throstle spindle,
the cost of the one but little exceeds that of the other. Again, a
carding engine cylinder, formerly made of wood, and running 80 to
100 revolutions, is now constructed entirely of iron, and revolved
at from 160 to 180 times per minute. In spite of this increase it
is more free from vibration than its slower running predecessor. A
similar comparison can be made of every machine with like results,
but it is not necessary. Enough has been said to show the important
part played by the machinist, to whom, as was pointed out in paragraph
1, most of the credit is due. The economical improvement which is
noticeable in the condition of the workpeople is largely the result
of the improvements made in the machinery. In fewer hours more work
can be turned out, and this with a constantly decreasing strain upon
the operatives. The breakage of the fibres in the various stages of
manufacture is reduced to a very low point, with the twofold advantage
of diminished waste and decreased labour.

(10) A modern mill differs from its immediate predecessor, not only
in the quality of the machinery but in its general construction. The
height and width of the whole building have materially increased, and
the result is that the rooms in which the operations of spinning are
conducted are both lighter and more airy. The building is usually made
as far as possible fire-proof, and is of very substantial design and
construction. The larger number of spindles in a mill necessarily imply
greater capacity, but there is no comparison between the low-ceilinged,
imperfectly lighted and ventilated rooms of the last generation with
the airy and light erections of to-day. The sanitary arrangements are
infinitely superior, and there is a noticeable improvement in the
health and physique of the workpeople arising therefrom.

(11) Among the features which deserve mention is the improved type of
engines used. In lieu of the old-fashioned beam engine, compounded
or otherwise, working at a steam pressure of 50lb. or less, the
modern engine is of the horizontal type. The favourite class for mill
driving is the tandem compound, in which the high pressure cylinder is
behind the low-pressure, but on the same bed. Latterly the vertical
triple expansion engine has been adopted in a few cases, and there
is a continual tendency towards higher steam pressures and more
expansions. The introduction of steel boiler plates has rendered the
construction of steam boilers for high pressures much more easy, and
the author has seen a Lancashire boiler, intended for habitual use at
a pressure of 220lb., tested with highly satisfactory results. Within
limits, therefore, there is room for a further increase from the normal
working pressure of 80lb. The steam-engines used are mostly of the
Corliss type, with quick cut-off gear of high efficiency, and they are
constructed to develop in many cases from 1,000 to 2,000 horsepower.
The water used for condensing purposes is stored in reservoirs or
“lodges,” from which it is drawn as required. It is sometimes difficult
to cool it sufficiently to get a good vacuum, owing to the fact that
the cooling and storage space is insufficient. For this purpose a
type of condenser known as Theisen’s, which has been largely adopted
in Germany and is now being introduced into this country, will be of
value. It is arranged as a surface condenser, the steam passing through
the tubes and being cooled by water surrounding them. In lieu of giving
the water a circulatory movement it always remains in one position, any
loss by evaporation being replaced. Between each vertical row of pipes
cast-iron discs revolve, which are fixed on a shaft suitably driven.
As each disc dips into the water—which is usually about 160 deg. F.—it
picks up a thin film and carries it round in its revolution. At the
upper part of the case, in which the discs revolve, an air propeller is
fixed, which sends a current of air past and through the spaces between
the discs. This leads to a rapid cooling of the disc and its water
film, the heat absorbed by the water being in this way dissipated. The
action is one of evaporative cooling, of which many instances abound,
and is very effective. An equal weight of water will effectually
condense any given volume of steam, and this quantity is not difficult
to find in most places. The results obtained by the Union Engineering
Company in this country have been satisfactory, and there appears to
be no doubt as to the efficacy of the machine. Steadiness of rotation
is a _sine qua non_ in mill engines, a very slight difference in their
velocity having a great effect upon the work of the mill. This is now
attained in most cases with certainty, and by means of the Moscrop
Recorder—an instrument denoting graphically the changes of speed—a
very salutary check is kept upon the engineer. In order to prevent any
variations occurring high-speed governors are largely employed, and in
some cases their action is aided by special means, such as Knowles’s
supplementary governor or Higginson’s patent regulator. Either of these
appliances give good results, and the last named is very simple and

(12) Up to within 15 or 20 years ago the most common mode of
transmitting the power developed by the steam engine was by means of
toothed gearing. About that period the American method of driving by
a series of broad belts was introduced and for a time was largely
adopted. When toothed gearing was used the power was conveyed to the
various flats or storeys of the mill by means of an upright shaft, on
which were bevel wheels gearing with others on the line shafts. The
introduction of belt driving led to a system of transmitting the power
to the main shaft in each room independently of its fellows, and this
system found further development when driving by a series of ropes was
adopted a short time afterwards. In this case the power is taken off
by a number of ropes working in the grooves of a large pulley on the
engine shaft and of smaller ones fixed on the line shafts. This is
now the favourite method of driving and is more extensively adopted
than any other. The reason for this is principally the ease with which
breakdowns can be guarded against. If a rope breaks it falls into the
race, and in rare instances does it become entangled. It is only
necessary to replace it, and any delay thus caused is not great.

(13) As the question of driving is a somewhat important one a few
remarks may be made on it. There is no doubt that toothed gearing
properly constructed forms the most economical method, the loss of
power in transmission not exceeding 2-1/2 per cent. In constructing
wheels for this purpose care should be taken that the tooth is not too
long, 5/8ths of the pitch being a sufficient length. Next to toothed
wheels for economy belts may be placed. The loss in transmission
varies, if the belts are properly applied, from three to five per cent.
A good speed for leather belts is 3,000 feet per minute if they are
single, and 4,000 feet if double. Rope driving is the least economical
of the three methods, this arising from a variety of causes. Chief
among these is the difficulty of maintaining an equal diameter in
every rope of the series, which leads to a difference in their driving
power, owing to their unequal engagement with the V grooves. Another
cause of this loss of power is found in the fact that they jam in the
grooves and have to be forcibly extracted as the pulleys revolve. The
following rules laid down by Mr. Alexander Rea in a discussion, at a
meeting of the Manchester Association of Engineers, on the subject
of the comparative merits of the three systems of driving, are worth

“The ropes should not be too large in diameter; it is much safer to
use 25 1-3/4 inch ropes than 20 2 inch diameter ropes. The tension in
the several ropes should be kept as low as possible. The power should
be subdivided to different points. The centres of the several shafts
should be kept well apart. The pulleys should be large in diameter. The
best speed for the ropes is from 4,000 to 6,000 feet per minute. Care
should be taken in turning the V groove pulleys; the best angle for
these is now found to be 45 degrees.”

(14) As this subject of rope driving is an interesting one, it is
worth noting that Mr. George Goodfellow, of Hyde, who has had a wide
experience in this matter, confirms the advice as to small diameter
of ropes. In the same discussion he stated that he did not now use
larger diameters than 1-3/4 inch, and had ropes running successfully,
the diameter of which was only 1-1/4 inches. Mr. James Hartley also
bore out this experience. By the reduction of ropes from 2 inches to
1-1/4 inches diameter the friction diagram from the engine had been
materially reduced, indicating a saving of power. Mr. J. H. Ratcliffe,
of Dukinfield, has recently revived a method by which, instead of using
a series of ropes, he uses one only, this being endless, and being
wrapped spirally on the pulleys. At one point the slack is taken up
by a compensating apparatus, so that the whole of the coils are tight
back and front instead of having one side slack and bellying. For
this arrangement Mr. Ratcliffe claims that it materially reduces the
friction diagram, inasmuch as there is no necessity to drag the rope
forcibly out of the grooves at each revolution. It is not necessary for
a detailed examination of this subject to be made, but the hints given
will probably prove useful to many readers.

(15) It is essential, owing to the peculiar structure of the cotton
fibre, to which reference will be made in the next chapter, that the
rooms in which spinning is conducted should be heated to a certain
temperature. Closely allied to this question is that of humidification.
It is not only essential to have heat, but that must be accompanied
by a certain amount of moisture, a point which is often neglected.
Spinning rooms are often heated to over 90° F., which is quite
unnecessary, and is, moreover, detrimental to good work. At such a
temperature much of the natural moisture of the cotton is extracted,
and the fibre becomes harsh and brittle. A temperature of from 75° to
80° F., with a humidity of about 75 percent, is absolutely the best
condition for spinning. The question is an important one, and deserves
greater consideration at the hands of spinners. The artificial heat
required is now obtained by the use of wrought-iron steam pipes,
through which high-pressure steam is passed. The radiation from these
is much greater than from cast-iron pipes of larger diameter filled
with low-pressure steam.

(16) Having thus briefly glanced at some of the chief features of
modern practice, it is now only necessary to say that the utmost
cleanliness is absolutely essential to good working. The manipulation
of the cotton is now so largely automatically performed that there is
much less difficulty in keeping a mill clean than formerly. It should
be the aim of every spinner to diminish the handling of the material as
much as possible, and students of this subject should remember that it
is never too early to begin to deal with the cotton so as to prepare it
for subsequent treatment. Efficient purification at an early stage is a
great help towards economical and efficient spinning. In conclusion, it
may be remarked that one of the worst faults in studying a subject of
this sort is any kind of crystallised thought. The conditions of work
vary from day to day, and there are wise variations in procedure which
can easily be discovered by the observant mind. This watchful attitude
is the proper one to cultivate, and the succeeding pages are written
in the hope that they will lead some reader to a deeper and closer
observation of the facts which are discoverable in the actual work of
construction or spinning.

[Illustration: page decoration]



(17) The cotton plant is indigenous to many tropical countries, in
which it is often found in a wild state. The product of the wild plant
is, however, quite unsuitable for manufacturing purposes, and, even in
cases where cotton is produced by cultivation, the value of the fibre
varies very largely. Into the question of the growth and structure of
the fibre it is not necessary to go in detail, as this is a subject
which has a literature of its own. The student who is desirous of
obtaining a thorough knowledge of the subject can find it fully treated
in the “Structure of the Cotton Fibre,” by Dr. Bowman, and in a recent
work by Mr. Hugh Monie, jun., of Glasgow. It will suffice for present
purposes to state briefly the characteristics of cotton, which are of
essential importance in its subsequent treatment mechanically. The
cotton fibre is a hollow tube of cellular construction, and is of an
oval or flattened cylindrical shape. Ripe or fully matured fibres of
the best cotton are convoluted or spirally twisted on their axis,
and the edge of such a fibre presents a corrugated appearance. The
regularity of the convolutions, or twists, is greatest in the highest
class of cotton, and reaches its lowest point in the poorer grades.
One important effect of such a formation is that each fibre naturally
tends to coil round its neighbour, and thus lends itself to spinning.
The outer sheath of each fibre is apparently continuous, and the
diameter is greater at the end which is attached to the seed. The
diameter of the fibre varies from 1/1562 of an inch in the case of
Sea Island cotton, to 1/1185 of an inch in Indian cotton. In length a
similar variation is observable, reaching a mean of 1·8 inch in Sea
Island, and being as low as 0·8 inch in Indian cotton. The length of
the fibres in any particular class of cotton is known as the “staple,”
and this is one of the chief commercial merits of the better kinds.
The strength of cotton fibres varies very materially, and on the
authority of Mr. Charles O’Neill, of Manchester, the order in which the
various classes ought to be placed is as follows:—Surat (Comptah), New
Orleans, Queensland, Surat (Dhollerah), Pernambuco, Egyptian, Maranham,
Upland, Sea Island. It does not necessarily follow that the possession
of greater strength by one class of fibre over another involves an
advantage, for the greatest strength is possessed by a fibre which is
the most deficient in regularity of the convolute form and length,
which are much more important than strength. Again, the diameter of
Comptah cotton is much greater than that of longer stapled varieties,
and this is important in determining the value to be placed upon the
strength. Viewed in this light, Egyptian cotton is the strongest,
and this fact, in conjunction with certain other qualities to which
attention will afterwards be called, renders it of high value. It only
remains to be said that a waxy covering is found on the outside of
each fibre, which requires to be softened by heat during spinning so
that the flexibility of the fibre may be fully maintained. Where it
is intended to dye fabrics it is necessary to remove the whole or the
greater part of this wax, and so permit the dye to penetrate the fibre.
Having briefly indicated the chief characteristics of the cotton fibre,
a detailed account of some of the principal varieties may now be given.

(18) Sea Island Cotton. This is the finest class of cotton produced,
being long in the staple, very flexible, and having very regular
convolutions. If care be taken in ginning, so that the fibre is not
broken, the finest yarns can be produced from this variety. The length
of Sea Island Cotton is stated by Dr. Bowman to reach 2·20 inches in
the case of Florida grown, but Mr. Monie states the average length to
be 1·8 inches. Mr. Evan Leigh confirms the higher length, but only in
the case of cotton grown on the Edisto Island. Varieties of this grade
are grown in Peru, Fiji, and Australia, the average lengths being
respectively 1·56, 1·87, 1·65 inches. Fijian Sea Island is spoiled
by bad ginning, which breaks the fibres very much. The colour of Sea
Island cotton is a light creamy one, and is peculiar to it.

(19) Egyptian Cotton. Egyptian cotton varies considerably in colour,
length, and quality. The variety known as Gallini is of a golden
colour, the fibres being tough and strong, and the convolutions very
regular. It has a mean length of 1·5 inch. Brown Egyptian is, as its
name implies, of that colour, and like Gallini, the fibres are strong
and tough, but are coarser, the convolutions are less regular, and the
wall of the fibre is also denser. The mean length is 1·4 inch and the
diameter 1/1325 inch. White Egyptian is, perhaps, the most valuable
of all this class of cotton when properly treated. It is of a light
gold colour, the fibres being strong and pliable, but only partially
spiral. As a result of this, the yarn spun is greater in diameter than
that spun from Gallini (weights being equal), the fibres not lying so
closely together. This cotton mixes well with American and Brazilian.

(20) Brazilian and Peruvian Cotton. Pernambuco cotton is of a slightly
golden colour, and is, comparatively speaking, hard and wiry, being
thus well adapted for twist yarn. The twists in the fibre are well
developed, and the average length is 1·25 inch. Maranham is of a dull
gold colour, mixing well with American cotton. There are several other
varieties of Brazilian cotton, which need not be further referred
to. Rough Peruvian cotton is very clean, of a creamy colour, and is
possessed of an average strength. The fibres are only irregularly
twisted, and an average length is 1·3 inch. The smooth variety is
fairly regularly convoluted, and mixes well with Orleans.

(21) American. There are several varieties of American cotton, which
are grown in the Southern States. Taking them in their order as regards
length of staple, the first to notice is Orleans. The better classes
of this are very uniform in length, clean and light in colour, often
being pure white. One feature of Orleans cotton which renders it very
acceptable to spinners, is that it is very flexible, and possessed of
a high elasticity. In addition to this, as has been previously noted,
its strength is fairly great, and generally its spiral form is well
developed. The average length is about 1 inch. Texas cotton is less
pliable than Orleans, darker in colour, and is not put on the market
so free from immature fibre. Its diameter is greater, and its average
length about equal to Orleans. Upland cotton is clean, and little
waste is produced from it. The fibres are well suited for weft yarns,
being soft and elastic, and of a very light colour. Spun without any
admixture of other cotton, yarns as high as 425’s can be produced, but
when mixed with Egyptian or some other strong fibre, higher counts
can be obtained. Mobile is similar in colour to Orleans, and is equal
to Uplands in strength. It is not so good as either of these for
manufacturing purposes, being much dirtier, and having more flattened
fibres in it.

(22) Indian. The whole of the cottons grown in India are less valuable
than the preceding varieties, owing to the facts that they are not so
regularly spiral, and that the staple is more variable. The highest
class is Hingunghat, which is more convolute than any other Indian
grown cotton. The fibres vary in diameter, but have an average length
of 1·03 inch. Broach is brownish gold in colour and is fairly clean,
although it is not thoroughly cleaned, and contains a good deal of leaf
and nep. It is about 0·9 inch long, and is more regular in this respect
than Hingunghat. The spirals are fewer in number, and it is stated by
Mr. Monie that the walls are very liable to rupture. Dhollerah is of a
white colour, and is best adapted for weft yarn. Oomrawuttee is creamy
in colour, being strong but rather short in the staple. A good deal of
impurity is found in this quality, but the convolute form is moderately
developed. Tinnivelly is grown in the Madras Presidency, and is a
fairly good cotton. In strength it is high and is very elastic, its
colour being a dull, creamy one. The fibres have a small bore and thick
walls, and are, in addition, only slightly twisted. The worst Indian
fibre is Bengal, which is short, strong, and dirty.

(23) Commercial qualities. The recapitulation of the principal features
of various growths of cotton just given enables their relative value
for spinning to be pointed out, and at the same time to indicate the
qualities it is desirable to retain during the subsequent mechanical
treatment. Sea Island cotton is beyond doubt the finest quality
existing, and, in the manufacture of fine counts, is absolutely
essential. Its general excellence is undoubtedly attributable to the
conditions under which it is grown, and even this might be improved by
more careful cultivation. Egyptian cotton is also of great value in the
production of good yarns, and is very largely used for this purpose.
Owing to the existence of a number of short fibres, always found in
commercial quantities, but present here in larger proportion, it is
necessary to comb all Egyptian cotton. The chief advantage of its use
is that being relatively stronger, smoother surfaced, and more flexible
than qualities other than Sea Island, a large range of yarns for
various uses can be spun at a price which enables them to be profitably
used. The fibres are very regular in diameter, and when twisted lie
very close together. The most widely used cotton is, however, the
various brands of American, which have the advantage of careful
attention during their growth and collection. In consequence of this,
there is a very high uniformity attained, together with great freedom
from all sorts of impurities, these two qualities rendering American
cotton highly suited for general use. Indian cotton is coarser,
harsher, and not so clean as other varieties, and requires greater
care in its manufacture. Summing up, the desirable points in cotton
are the length and regular convolute form of the fibre, together with
its freedom from mechanical and chemical impurities. The object of the
earlier mechanical processes through which cotton passes is to remove
all the impurities, lay the fibres regularly and in equal numbers
alongside each other, without breaking or rupturing them, and without
destroying their natural tendency to twist round each other. In doing
this, not merely do the seeds, leaf, and sand require removal, but
also the short immature fibres which form into little knots or tangles
called “neps.” Great care is needed in the preparatory stages so as to
avoid damage, and it is especially necessary to avoid the removal of
the waxy sheath which plays an important part in the manufacture of
the fibre. The necessity for a warm, humid atmosphere has already been
referred to, but it may be noted that it is very important on account
of its softening effect upon the waxy sheath. If the latter be removed
the heat becomes a source of difficulty instead of a help, as the
natural moisture existing in the fibre is more speedily absorbed.



(24) When the cotton is ready for harvesting it is picked from the
shrubs by hand. There have been many attempts to pick it by machinery,
but these have not hitherto been very successful. After picking, it is
subjected to the action of a machine called a “gin,” which is sometimes
arranged to be worked by hand, but more often by power. In the latter
case the machines are placed in a shed, and the cotton is brought there
for treatment. The object of ginning is to remove from the cotton the
seeds, which adhere closely to the fibre, and which have of late years
acquired considerable value for oil-producing purposes. In order to
remove them it is necessary that the fibre should be held in some way
while it is submitted to a rubbing or scraping action, by which the
seed is separated. To effectually perform this function great care is
required, as otherwise a quantity of the seed is broken, and the fibres
are rubbed up into “neps.” If either of these effects is produced
additional labour is thrown on the spinner in his subsequent treatment,
and it is therefore desirable to avoid such a manipulation of the
machine as would lead to so undesirable a result.

(25) In Figs. 1 and 2 a single Macarthy gin is illustrated in part
sectional side elevation and front elevation. This is a type which, in
principle, is now largely adopted. It consists of a roller =A=, rotated
in the direction shown by the arrow, by means of a strap passing over
a pulley fixed on the end of the roller shaft. The latter is square,
and is passed through the centre of the roller, fitting a corresponding
hole in the latter, and being carried by suitable bearings fixed on the
machine frame. In constructing the roller =A= the following method is
adopted. Wood segments are fitted together so as to form the complete
cylinder, or the latter may be made in one piece. Having produced the
body, it is fixed on the shaft, and is then turned quite round and
parallel. Upon the surface so prepared a thick covering of walrus
leather =B= is fixed, in which spiral grooves are formed. The rough
surface of the leather, as the roller is revolving, seizes the cotton
fibres as they are fed along the table =F=, which has a grid =G= at
its inner end, a special feed being sometimes fitted. When the fibres
are drawn in by the roller they are taken under a knife blade =C=,
which is fixed above the roller by means of the sets of clamps =D= and
=E=. The clamps =D= bind the blade to its bearings, and those marked
=E= are used to regulate its pressure on the roller =A=. As the roller
occasionally becomes hollow the wisdom of this procedure will be seen.
A crank shaft is placed and driven from the shaft of the roller, and
gives a rapid reciprocating motion to a connecting rod =I=, which has
at its upper end a blade =H=. The height of the blade =H= is regulated
by means of the adjustment of the connecting rod strap, to which it is
jointed, and which can be packed to any desired amount. The blade is
coupled to radius arms =J=, adjustable by nuts at their outer ends, and
oscillating on a rod fixed below the feed-table.

(26) As the fibres are drawn under the upper blade =C=, the lower blade
=H= pushes up the seeds, which cannot pass between the roller and the
blade =C=. In this way the seeds are freed from the fibre, which is
carried forward and thrown off at the front of the machine, or it may
be stripped by a fixed blade. The setting of the blades =C= and =H=
should be arranged so that the necessary pressure is applied to the
seeds to free them, but care must be taken that the lower blade does
not rise so high as to crush them. It should also be set relatively
to the roller, so as not to roll up the fibre by having close contact
with either the roller or upper blade, while effectually removing the
seeds. Other forms of ginning machines are made, including one in which
rollers formed of a number of saws are employed, but their use is not
so large as that of the Macarthy machine, which may be taken as typical.

(27) After the cotton is ginned, it is pressed in large hydraulic
presses into bales of various sizes and weights, ranging from 400
to 600lbs. each. In this form it is imported into this country, and
delivered to the mill-owners. The purchases of the material are made
from samples of a few pounds taken from one or two bales of a lot of
the same brand, and it is essential in purchasing that not only the
“staple” but the condition in which the cotton is packed should be
taken into account. In some seasons the percentage of moisture is much
higher than in others, and in wet seasons a large weight of adherent
sand is certain to be found. This, indeed, is the case always, but it
is much greater after a bad season than when the weather is normal
during picking. The question of the delivered condition of the fibre
is a very sore one commercially, as it results in serious loss to the
millowner, and there is little doubt that in many cases a fraudulent
intermixture of sand is made.

[Illustration: FIGS. 1, 2. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4. J.N.]

(28) Whatever may be the condition in which the cotton is received,
the first operation at the mill is to open out the bale and break it
up into pieces of a convenient size. For many years this was conducted
purely as a manual operation, but an arrangement which was made by
Messrs. Platt Bros. and Co., in 1855, and has been working ever since,
is shown in Fig. 3. This consists of a lattice feed table =F=, which
delivers the cotton and brings it into the range of action of an opener
cylinder =C=. The latter opened the material to a considerable extent,
and threw it on to a second lattice =H=, by which it was delivered
to a third one, and conveyed to the mixing stacks in a manner to be
afterwards described. The operation is now almost always carried out
by a machine known as a “bale breaker,” a perspective view of which,
as made by Messrs. Platt Bros. and Co. Limited, is shown in Fig. 4.
It consists of a feed table, placed between the projecting framework,
and is usually of the lattice type. The lattice feed apron consists of
a number of narrow strips of wood fixed to two endless bands passing
round rollers at each end of a longitudinal frame fixed to the machine.
By suitably driving one or both of the rollers a continuous motion
is obtained, and the wood strips being each free from the other no
difficulty is experienced in forming an endless apron or feed table.
The cotton is placed upon the table in large pieces or lumps, just as
these are taken from the bale, and they are carried forward until they
come into contact with the first pair of rollers. There are usually
four pairs of rollers driven by means of the spur pinions shown in the
illustrations. The first pair are provided with coarsely-pitched blunt
teeth or spikes, which seize the cotton and pass it onward to the next
pair, which are of similar construction. The last pair of rollers are
usually made with coarse, longitudinal corrugations, or flutes, as
shown in Fig. 4, which deliver the cotton either on to the floor of
the room, or on to lattice aprons arranged as hereafter noted. The top
rollers are weighted by helical springs in the manner shown, and can
easily yield if any obstruction or unusually large piece of material
passes between them. The speed of the rollers increases rapidly, but
there is a divergence of opinion as to the proportion of increase over
the whole series. It will be well, therefore, at this point to state
the conditions of the case fully.

(29) Before doing so, however, it is necessary to explain a term which
even at this early stage is used, and which is a common one throughout
the whole series of operations constituting spinning. The variation in
the speed of the rollers of the bale breaker is known as its “draught.”
In other words, an elongation or enlargement of the bulk of the cotton
occurs in exact proportion to the velocity of the rollers. Thus, if
the relative speed of the first and last of the series of rollers is
as 1: 30, the draught of the machine is the same. In the case of the
bale breaker the draught results merely in an increase in the bulk of
the cotton, but subsequently it leads to an elongation of the sheet or
sliver into which it is formed.

(30) It being highly desirable that the naturally open fleecy condition
of the cotton shall be restored at the earliest moment, the question
arises, What shall be the draught of the bale breaker rollers? Is it
necessary to do more than break up the lumps of cotton into smaller
pieces, which can be readily treated by the subsequent machines? To
these questions different answers are given. On the one hand, it is
contended that what is required is to reproduce the conditions of
hand breaking, by which the cotton was pulled from the bales in small
tufts ready for delivery to the opening machinery. Another practice
advocated is to so pull the lumps into which the bale is broken up that
the cotton when delivered is in an open fleecy condition. It would be
preferred by spinners if they could obtain the cotton in the loosely
packed condition in which it is received by the Indian spinners, for
instance. As this cannot be done, owing to commercial and transit
considerations, the question arises whether the first stage in the
processes conducted in this country is not the right one to restore
this condition.

(31) Between the two positions formulated there is a wide divergence,
but, to the author, the latter appears to possess the balance of
advantage. There can be no doubt that the preparation of the fibre
cannot be commenced at too early a stage, and, as efficient cleansing
is one of the first objects to be attained, it follows that the earlier
the open condition of the cotton is reached the more readily can
cleaning be effected. It must not be forgotten that care is necessary
to avoid possible damage to the fibres, but, with rollers properly
speeded, there appears to be no reason to expect such a result.

(32) In consequence of the divergent views held, the draught of a bale
breaker varies considerably. In some cases it is only 2: 1, while in
others it reaches 30: 1. The former is the rule adopted by Messrs.
Crighton and Sons, who advocate the first course named, and the latter
that adopted by Messrs. Lord Brothers, who prefer the second. Messrs.
Platt Brothers and Company recommend a wise variation in this respect,
proceeding upon the principle that different staples require different
treatment. Thus one machine made by them has four rollers with a large
draught, this being used for good staples, and producing as much as
90,000lbs. weight in 50 hours. In dealing with Surat cotton, which
is more hardly pressed, two sets of rollers are used, followed by a
beating cylinder by which the cotton is thoroughly broken up (Fig. 8).
In each case it is customary to attach lattices to the machine, by
which the cotton is carried forward and deposited in the mixing bins
(=E= Fig. 13). (See also Figs. 6, 7, and 8). Another method is to treat
Surat cotton by first passing it through breaker rollers, and thence
through a Crighton cylinder, described in Chapter IV. The bale breaker
may in this case be used either singly or as part of the combination.

(33) The rollers are made in two ways. They are cast in one piece and
are mounted upon the shaft; or are built up from a number of discs
threaded and fastened upon the shaft and bolted together. The latter
is the preferable course, the breakage of a few teeth being easily

[Illustration: FIG. 5. J.N.]

(34) Before proceeding further, reference may be made to Fig. 5, which
is a transverse section of the machine as made by Messrs. Dobson
and Barlow. The top rollers of the machine, as ordinarily made, are
provided with spring weighting, in order to permit them to rise if an
unusually large piece of cotton is passed between them. If this enters
at one side of the machine it will be at once seen that the roller will
be raised at that side, and that its axis will be angularly disposed to
that of the bottom roller. The two rollers will only be near each other
at one side, and between them, across the whole of the width of the
machine, will be a gradually increasing space through which lumps of
cotton can pass unpulled. This is a defect of more or less magnitude,
but is one which is ingeniously remedied in the machine shown in Fig.
5. Only one line of rollers, marked =U V Y Z=, is used, by two of
which the pulling is effected. Below these the noses of iron bars or
levers, =Q R=, fulcrumed on knife edges, are placed. The bars are a
few inches wide, and extend below the rollers over their entire width.
The cotton passes over these “pedal” levers, which are weighted at
their other end, and yield, as shown by the dotted lines, when an extra
large piece of cotton passes. The weight is sufficient to enable the
cotton to be held until it is pulled by the roller. It will be at once
seen that only the pedals affected by the lump will be depressed, the
remainder occupying their normal relative position to the roller, which
is fixed by the stop shown. In this way the presence of a thick piece
at one point in the width of the rollers does not affect the pulling at
another point.

[Illustration: FIG. 6. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 7. J.N.]

(35) The cotton being palled, it is necessary to mix it. This is
effected by delivering it upon a second lattice, =B= Fig. 13, which
can be made of any desired length, and by which the cotton can be
delivered on to a third lattice =C= running transversely or in any
other direction. Three such arrangements—the sketches supplied by
Messrs. Platt Bros. and Company—are shown in Figs. 6, 7, and 8, but
there is practically no limit to them. By means of these devices as
much as 90,000lbs. weight can be laid down per week by two workmen.
To avoid the risk of fire, the flutes are so arranged as not to come
into contact, but it is advisable to place the machine in a building
removed, if possible, from the main structure.

(36) Having broken up the bale as described, the cotton is in a
condition to be mixed. This operation is one of the most important
in the economy of a cotton mill, and on its judicious and thorough
accomplishment depends very often the production of a profit or loss.
In order to obtain the best possible yarn the longest-stapled cotton
should be used, and should be selected so that the fibres, when spun,
are as nearly as possible of one length. By careful selection a
practically perfect yarn can be produced, but it would naturally be a
dear one. It is, however, possible to apply the same principle in the
production of cheaper qualities of yarn. Briefly stated, the principle
is, that to spin a good yarn it is necessary to use cotton in which the
fibres are of approximately the same length. The longer the “staple” of
the cotton the better the yarn; but, even when short staples are used,
this selection is still essential to success. This does not necessarily
mean that the same grade of cotton should be used exclusively, but,
on the contrary, several can be mixed, provided that the staples are
equal, even if they are not of the same commercial value, and differ in
other characteristics. By a careful selection of cotton a mixture can
be obtained from which a good even yarn of fair strength can be spun,
the cost of which would be lower than it would be if a single good
grade only was used.

[Illustration: FIG. 8. J.N.]

(37) It is the practice in making a mixing to place round the breaker
bales of the various grades which are to compose it. The attendant
takes a layer from each bale in succession, and places it on the feed
lattice of the bale breaker, by which it is broken and partially mixed,
so that when stacked the elements of the mixing are well incorporated.
The size of the stack depends very largely on the requirements of
the spinner, but as most mills now are employed on a small range of
counts, some of them on one or two, it is most usual to make a large
one containing sufficient cotton to last for several weeks. By pursuing
this course there is a very much better chance of getting a regular
quality of yarn, which is essential to the commercial success of the
mill. In taking cotton from the heap it is the best plan to begin
at the top of the face and work downwards in a straight line, as by
this procedure a uniform quantity of the different elements in the
mixing is obtained. It is desirable to make a small stack of the same
classes of cotton as the larger one is to be composed of, and in the
same proportion. By passing this through the various machines a test
can be made of its yarn producing qualities, and the mixture of the
larger stack can be varied so as to remedy any defects discovered in
the smaller one. It is impossible to lay down any definite rule as to
mixings, the production of which is a matter of experience, and can
only be arrived successfully at in that way. Not only must the strength
and cost of the yarn be considered, but also its colour, and it is for
this reason essential that a thorough knowledge of the structure and
characteristics of various growths should be acquired in addition to
one of commercial values.

(38) It will be easily seen, when the operations of the various
machines employed in cotton spinning are considered, how essential it
is that the fibres in a mixing should be approximately equal in length.
Unless this condition is observed there is likely to be a good deal of
loss from fly in the carding engine, and the slivers in the drawing
frame would tend to have the long fibres in the centre and the short
ones on the surface, owing to the difficulty experienced in drawing
different lengths with the same setting of rollers. These remarks are,
of course, only relatively true, as it is possible to mix different
staples economically, but the process is a difficult one. For instance,
in the scutching room, laps, each consisting of cotton of different
staples, can be fed simultaneously on the same lattice, and so produce
a lap of the mixed staples. It is found to give the best results when
the laps are made on the opener and mixed on the intermediate scutcher
in the proportion required. By these means a better mixing is obtained
than if the laps are put on the finishing scutchor only. Individual
experience is the guide to a thorough comprehension of this department
of spinning, and beyond enunciating these general principles no aid
can be given to the student which is likely to be of value. The actual
condition of even the same class of cotton, in different seasons,
varies so largely that a mixture which is valuable one season is
unsuitable in the next.

[Illustration: page decoration]



(39) Mixing being completed, the cotton is treated by machines
specially designed to remove the impurities which are always mixed with
it as received from the shipper. These impurities include sand, dirt,
broken seed, and leaf. In addition to these there is a certain quantity
of “nep” which is caused, as previously described, by the matting
together of short, unripe, or immature fibres. To eliminate the whole
of these substances, two sets of machines are required; the first being
responsible for the removal of the heavier foreign bodies, such as sand
and dirt, and the second for that of leaf, nep, and short fibres.

(40) Of the machines in the first division the opening machine, or
more briefly the “opener,” is the first. Its _raison d’être_ is found
in the matted condition of the cotton as taken from the bale, and the
less open it is when taken from the stack, the greater the work of
the machine. As the name indicates, the object of the latter is to
disentangle the fibres, but it is also designed to remove many of the
impurities held by the cotton. This twofold aim is the one with which
all the series of cleaning machines are constructed.

(41) The method invariably pursued in opening is to beat the cotton
by subjecting it to the blows of arms revolving with considerable
velocity. It may aid in the understanding of the process, if a few
words are said as to the primitive method of cleaning. Formerly the
material was laid upon grids in small quantities, and was submitted
to repeated light blows of rods or sticks delivered manually. In
this way the mass was gradually beaten into a fleecy condition, and
the dirt held by it dropped through the interstices of the grid. In
some respects, this treatment has never been equalled, but it is, of
necessity, very slow, and could not be commercially employed at the
present day. At the same time, it affords a clear indication of the
needs of the case, and is a guide to the proper treatment.

(42) In dealing with the fibre by revolving beaters of any kind, two
things are essential to success. First, the blow given must be of such
a character that the fibres are completely separated, while any rupture
or breakage of them is avoided. Second, the surface against which the
cotton is flung after being struck by the beater, must be arranged to
permit of the free passage of all impurities, while, at the same time,
so arresting the movement of the tufts or pieces of cotton as to shake
out the extraneous substances.

(43) The direction in which the cotton enters the machine, the
diameter, construction, and shape of the beater arm, and the speed of
the beater, are three of the essential features of a machine of this
kind. The successful removal of the impurities depends on the rate of
the feed—that is, the amount of material passed into the machine in a
given time—the shape of the projections on the casing surrounding the
beater, and the distance of these from each other; in other words,
their pitch. It is not a difficult matter to effectually cleanse the
cotton, so long as regard is not paid to the loss arising from damaged
or broken fibres, or from the amount of fibre driven out with the dirt.
It is, however, always to be remembered that it is desirable in any
process to utilise every portion of the material which is capable of
being worked up, and herein lies the chief difficulty of the subject.
In brief, the essential consideration is a commercial one, and that
machine is the best, and is used most skilfully, which effectually
opens the matted cotton and shakes out the largest body of impurities
with the least loss of fibre, either from its being driven out with
the dirt or by breakage or rupture. Economy and efficiency are the
watchwords of a good spinner, and nowhere is this combination more
desirable than in the early stages of the manufacture.

(44) There are three principal forms of machine used for the purpose
of opening—the Oldham Willow, the Porcupine, and the Crighton Opener.
The former is now employed rarely for cotton, but extensively for the
manufacture of yarn from waste. The other two are often employed, but
the Crighton type of machine is perhaps more widely used than any
other. There is another type of machine, which is also in extensive
employment, to which reference should be made, viz., a modified opener,
on the Willow model, of which a description will be given.

(45) The Willow is constructed with a revolving cylinder, about forty
inches wide and the same diameter, fixed on a shaft borne by suitable
pedestals. It is provided with several rows of blunt teeth on its
periphery. Above the cylinder a semi-circular casing is fixed, which
is provided with similar projections to those of the cylinder. Below
the latter a grating, grid, or “undercasing,” formed of a number of
parallel bars, is placed. The cotton is flung against these bars, and
the loosened dirt falls through the spaces between them, being drawn
away by an exhaust fan and delivered outside the room. It is the usual
practice to feed the machine by an endless lattice, or apron, of a
similar construction to that previously described. When the cotton
enters the machine it is struck by the teeth on the cylinder and thrown
forcibly against the projections on the casing. The blow thus given,
combined with the periodical arrest of its motion, causes the cotton to
be thoroughly opened and shaken, the dirt falling downwards and being
drawn away by the air current. As has been said, the Willow is falling
into disfavour. The cotton is subjected to too severe punishment, and
is therefore damaged. In addition to this, it is sometimes carried
round several times, and is formed into a sort of rope, which renders
its subsequent treatment more difficult. Moreover, the waste is greater
than is desirable, and, generally speaking, the use of this machine for
cotton is of doubtful utility.

(46) In Fig. 9 a longitudinal section of an opener, which in some
respects is a modified type of Willow, is illustrated. This machine is
made by Messrs. Taylor, Lang and Co., Limited. It consists of a feed
lattice =Q=, which travels in the direction of the arrow, and delivers
the cotton to the pair of feed rollers shown. These are duplicated when
no regulating apparatus is used, and are three inches in diameter. The
cotton is delivered at any desired speed by the rollers, and as it
projects from them is struck by the spikes or teeth on the cylinder
=O=, which revolves in the direction shown by the arrow. Surrounding
the cylinder is a case =P=, the inner surface of which has a number
of projecting nogs formed on it, against which the cotton is flung
with considerable force. This shakes out the dirt to a great extent,
and opens the material. After passing the casing =P= the cotton is
taken over a circular grid surrounding one side of the cylinder, and
contained in the body of the machine. This grid is formed of a number
of steel bars, between each pair of which an opening is left. Thus as
the disentangled cotton passes over it the heavy dirt falls out through
the openings into a space left for the purpose. After passing the grid
the material leaves the cylinder by the passage shown, immediately on
entering which it travels over the top of fixed grids =R=, through
which the sand and similar material can fall. After this the cotton
is either delivered into the room or is carried forward to a pair of
“cages” =S=, through which a current of air is drawn. This part of the
machine will be described in the next chapter, and it is only necessary
to say that the fleece of cotton is formed into a sheet and rolled up
as shown at =L=, into a “lap.” If the cotton is delivered loose it is
thrown on to a second lattice, by which the delivery is made. In order
to secure a regulation of the air current the louvre openings =I= are
provided. The area of the cleansing surface in this machine is great,
and 50,000lbs. of cotton can be cleaned in a week of 60 hours unless a
“lap” is formed, when the quantitity is reduced to 28,000lbs.

[Illustration: FIG. 9. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 10. J.N.]

(47) In Fig. 10 is illustrated, also in longitudinal elevation, a
machine made by Messrs. Dobson and Barlow. The cotton is fed by a
lattice =L=, as in the preceding example, the course of which is
clearly shown. In this case the machine is fitted with pedal levers
=V=, these being employed to regulate the feed. This motion and its
method of action will be described at length in the next chapter. It
suffices to say that the cotton on issuing from the feed roller is
struck by teeth or projections on the surface of the cylinder =O= which
revolves from left to right. Surrounding the latter is a semi-circular
grid =K= with conical teeth, which encircles the cylinder for more than
half its circumference, through which the dirt is thrown, the cotton
being cleaned by these means. It will be noticed that in this machine
the area of the circular grid =K= is large, and that the material at
once passes upon it after it is struck by the cylinder. As soon as the
cotton leaves the surface of =K= it is carried forward over the grid
=U=, placed in a position well calculated to allow of the easy movement
of the material, and by means of which the removal of the dirt and sand
is more easily effected. The grid =U= is also made of considerable
area, so as to afford a large cleaning surface, which is a desideratum
in this class of machine. After leaving =U= the cotton is collected on
the cages =D=, and subsequently passed through the scutching machine,
which in this case is combined with the opener. As this machine is used
as a separate one, it will be better to leave its description until it
is dealt with by itself. It is only necessary to say that it will be
shown by numerous examples that the whole of the cleaning machines are
often combined in various ways, which are arranged to suit the special
circumstances of any case. These are so different that the combinations
are widely diverse.

[Illustration: FIG. 11. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 12. J.N.]

(48) The Porcupine opener is so named from the employment of a cylinder
or beater consisting of a number of teeth spikes or blades. Two forms
of the beater, as made by Messrs. Lord Brothers, are shown respectively
in Figs. 11 and 12. The form shown in Fig. 11 is intended for use in
cleaning long-stapled cotton, and consists of a number of discs secured
to a central shaft. To these steel blades are bolted, which are so
shaped that they can be reversed when worn. The beater illustrated
in Fig. 12 is formed of a number of cast-iron discs, each of which is
hollowed on one side, and has a projecting flange or boss on the other.
These are turned to fit one another, and are bolted together by long
screws. They are further bound by a nut fitting on a screwed part at
one end of the shaft, by which they are pressed against a collar at
the other end. The teeth are =V= shaped and are chilled, being readily
sharpened after wear. In the event of the teeth of one of the discs
being broken, it is only necessary to remove it by breaking it up. An
additional disc can then be put on the end of the shaft, and the whole
screwed up again as at first. In this way the whole of the advantages
of a solid roller are secured, with much greater facilities for repair.

[Illustration: FIG. 13. J.N.]

(49) However the cylinder is constructed it is sustained by bearings
secured to the framing of the machine. Beneath it a grating or grid
is fixed, similar in construction to those previously described.
The bars are in all cases shaped so as to present a sharp angle to
the cotton as it is thrown forward by the cylinder. A dirt chamber
is, as usual, formed below the grid. The cotton is fed by a lattice
and feed rollers. The latter are formed in the ordinary way, with a
number of circumferential =V= grooves, crossed by a series of similar
longitudinal grooves, so as to form a large number of teeth, which
securely hold the material as it is fed. As the cylinder revolves 1,000
times per minute, the teeth strike the cotton and disentangle the
fibres, throwing them with considerable force against the grid.

(50) Although the Porcupine opener can be used separately and the
cotton discharged into the room, it is more usually employed in
connection with some other type of opener, or with a scutching machine.
Formerly it was a common practice to use this machine separately, in
which case it was fitted with two cylinders one behind the other.
Now it is mostly employed as a feeder to another machine, and the
combination gives very effective cleaning.

(51) Such an arrangement is shown in Fig. 13, which is a special one of
Messrs. Platt Bros. and Co. The lattice feed =F= is placed alongside
the mixing bins, and is provided with a large collecting roller,
behind which are a series of pedals, described in the next chapter, and
two pairs of breaker cylinders. By these the cotton is fed regularly
and broken up into small pieces, or partially opened before being
passed forward to the opener cylinder. The Porcupine feed rollers =G=
deliver the cotton, in the case illustrated, into the air tubes =D=,
and thence over a patent dust trunk =K=, where much of the dirt is
deposited, and which is afterwards described.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.]

(52) The opener, as made by Messrs. Platt Brothers and Co., Limited,
is shown in perspective in Fig. 14. The cotton enters the opener
chamber by the tube, as described, and is at once acted on by the
cylinder, which revolves horizontally. The cylinder is surrounded
by grids, against which the cotton is thrown, and through which the
dirt is ejected. The forward movement of the cotton is induced by the
exhaustion of the air, produced by means of a pair of fans, placed one
at each side of the machine and adjoining the exit orifice from the
cylinder chamber. Power of lateral adjustment is given to these fans,
so that they may be set in towards the centre of the machine to a
greater or less extent. In this way the stream of cotton, as it issues
from the cylinder, is directed on to the cages as required, and a very
even lap or sheet is thus obtained. It is obvious that the guiding
power of the air current is the right thing to rely upon, and, by the
arrangement described, ample regulation of it is obtained. A lap which
is even in thickness is absolutely essential to good work, and the
arrangement of fans in the way described ensures this being obtained.
The author recently saw the first lap made on a machine of this type in
a large Oldham spinning mill, and the regularity of the thickness and
evenness of the selvedge was very noticeable. The machine as shown in
Fig. 14 is a combined one.

(53) The Crighton Opener is a machine the distinctive feature of which
is the employment of a vertical conical beater. A sectional elevation
of the machine as made by Messrs. Crighton and Sons is shown in Fig.
15. The beater consists of a number of cast-iron discs =D= securely
keyed upon a vertical shaft, which is sustained at its lower end by a
bearing =E= in the frame =F=, and at its upper end by the bearing =A=.
On the discs are fastened steel blades, and it will be noticed that
their diameter increases from 18in. to 33in. Surrounding the beater is
a casing =B=, in which are a number of longitudinal slots, the inner
surface of the grids being in most cases made of the shape shown in
section in Fig. 16. A recent improvement by Messrs. Crighton and Sons
is shown in Figs. 17, 18, and 19.

[Illustration: FIG. 15. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 17.]

(54) The cotton is fed by the tube placed at =C=, and a fan is fixed
just below the entrance of the tube into the beater chamber. The
direction in which the cotton enters and the positions of the fans
are important points of construction. The feed tube is not fixed in a
straight line, but is slightly curved so as to direct the cotton upward
as it enters the beater chamber. As it enters it comes in contact
with the serrated surface of a truncated conical dish, within which
the lowest arm =D= of the beater revolves. Immediately below this
dish a fan disc of the Schiele type is fixed in machines in which a
combination of feed table, air trunks, and opener is made. The object
of this fan is to exhaust the air in the tubes up to that point, and
draw the cotton forward until it reaches the cylinder. There is a
decided advantage in this arrangement over one in which the fan is
placed beyond the exit orifice at the top of the opener chamber. In
the latter case the air is required to draw the cotton through the
dust trunks into the opener, upwards past the cylinder, and so on to
the cages. In the machine as made by Messrs. Crighton, the fan at the
bottom of the dish is sufficient to bring the cotton to that point,
and all that is subsequently required of the fans placed beyond the
cylinder is to lift the cotton upwards during its progress through the
beater chamber. On this account a slower moving current of air can
be employed, and the fans connected with the cages can be revolved
at a less velocity. The full advantages of this arrangement will be
afterwards pointed out, but as the cotton is raised slowly while being
beaten, it is thoroughly opened and cleaned.

[Illustration: FIG. 16.]

[Illustration: FIG. 19.]

[Illustration: FIG. 18. J.N.]

(55) When the cotton enters the beater chamber it is at once struck by
the blades of the beater, which revolve at a speed of about 1,000 turns
per minute. The peripheral velocity of the blades is thus at the bottom
4,712 feet per minute, and at the top 8,639 feet. The blow thus given
disentangles the cotton and flings it against the inner surface of the
grid, thus momentarily arresting its motion. As the beater revolves,
the cotton continues to find its way upwards, and in its course is
repeatedly struck by the blades, which, as has been seen, have a
continually increasing peripheral velocity as they near the top. In
this way, as the cotton nears the exit orifice, which is placed at the
upper part of the machine frame, on the opposite side to the tube =C=,
it is thoroughly beaten into a fleecy condition, with its fibres well

(56) The shape of the grids surrounding the cylinder is an important
matter. In the form illustrated in Fig. 16, the projections on the
grid are triangular in shape, and have slots between each pair through
which the dirt can freely pass. It will be easily seen that the shape
of these grids is one which will only exercise a little clinging
effect upon the cotton, which, as it is impelled by the stroke of the
beating blade, will very readily roll pass the projections. As the
rapid rotation of the cylinder tends to slightly compress the air,
the latter finds an outlet if possible. This is the object of the
slots in the grid casing, and they fulfil it very well. But there is
always a liability that along with the air and dirt—which also passes
the grids—a little fibre may escape. It is desirable to avoid “fat
droppings” as they are called, and the grid shown in Figs. 17 to 19 has
been designed for this purpose. Each of the pockets =C= Fig. 18 shown
becomes a resting place for the opened fibre, and as its lower end
=C^{2}= is open, the dirt can fall freely. In order that the air can
easily get away, between each pair of pockets a small slot is formed,
and in this way there is no downward impulse given to the cotton while
held in the pocket. Thus each blow given to the material opens it,
drives it into the pockets where it dwells for a short time, and from
which after the passage of the beater blade =A=, it is drawn by the
suction of the air. By this system there are given short periods of
rest, which very materially facilitate the fall of the dirt.

(57) Instead of feeding the opener manually as shown in Fig. 15,
a lattice feed can be adopted. Among the many important points in
connection with the Crighton, or, as it is sometimes called, the
“exhaust” opener, none is more so than the construction and lubrication
of the footstep. This is arranged so that the foot of the beater shaft
revolves in a constant bath, either of oil or water, and great care is
taken to cover it so as to prevent the entrance of sediment or dust.

(58) In Fig. 20, a longitudinal section of the machine as made by
Messrs. Lord Bros., is given, and is accompanied by a plan of the same
machine as combined with a porcupine feed. Referring first to the
plan, the lattice feed =A= delivers the cotton to the porcupine roller
=C=, by which it is passed in a partially opened condition to the air
trunks =D=. By these it is conducted to the opening chamber =F=, being
admitted to it by flap valves =G=. The cotton enters the chamber =F= by
the tube =H=, terminating in the dish =I=. The exit orifice is placed
at the top of the chamber =F=, the course of the cotton being shown by
the arrows. The cylinder is similar to the Crighton, but the blades =E=
are fixed in malleable iron arms =L= fastened to the shaft, and can,
after wear, be reversed. Below the foot of the shaft, and within the
bearing =O=, is a loose washer =P=, which can rotate with the pressure
of the shaft, this arrangement considerably lessening the wear. At
each side of the exit of the delivery tube, fans =N= are fixed, which,
like those in the Platt machine, can be adjusted sideways for the same
object. The cotton then passes over grids =R= on to the cages =T=, from
whence it passes through the scutching beater =W= to another pair of
cages =S=, as indicated by the arrows, and is finally formed into a lap
as shown. The special construction of the beaters enables the cotton to
pass freely upwards, and prevents any stringing occurring. The speed of
the beater in this machine is 520 revolutions per minute for American
cotton, and 720 for Indian. The slower velocities used necessarily
imply the use of less power.

(59) There are one or two points to be noticed in concluding the
consideration of the Crighton type of machine. The distance from the
face of the grids to the ends of the beater blades should be carefully
arranged to suit the class of cotton treated, as, if it is too great,
the opening is not properly effected, and, if too little, the cotton is
liable to be damaged. The rate at which the feed is conducted should
always be carefully watched, because, if the material is passed in too
quickly, its bulk becomes so great in the lower part that the dirt
cannot fall freely, but is received by the entering cotton. Cleaning
is not, therefore, so effectually carried out. In addition to this, it
is desirable that the cotton should be allowed to assume a perfectly
open condition, which it would do with difficulty if the space were
overfilled. Cotton has been passed through, for a short time, at the
rate of 110,000lbs. per week of 60 hours, but for the reasons stated,
30,000lbs. is ample.

(60) It might be thought that the pitch of the projections on the
inner surface of the grid should be as small as possible, but this is
a mistake. It is essential that the cotton should strike not merely
the top or apex, but one face or side of the projection, if the full
cleaning effect is to be obtained. It is obvious that if the pitch
is too fine no such face blow would be given, and very inefficient
purification would occur. The considerations thus stated are founded on
actual experience in working the machines, and should be borne in mind
in constructing or controlling an opener of this type.

(61) It is considered by some makers to be advisable when using
this style of machine to employ one with two beaters revolving in
separate chambers, connected to each other by an air pipe. This is
more especially the case when Indian or short stapled cotton is used.
When the double machine is used, the conducting tube between the two
leaves the first chamber at the top, and enters the second at the
bottom. The driving of the opening machine is usually obtained from a
counter shaft, by which means the speed of the driving pulley becomes a
moderate one.

(62) A machine, of which large numbers have been made by Messrs. Lord
Brothers and Howard and Bullough, has a conical beater placed in a
horizontal position, and the opener proper is usually combined with a
scutching and lap machine. As this type of machine is very similar in
its general principles to that previously described, and is not now
so largely made as formerly, it is not necessary to give a detailed
description of its mechanism.

(63) It has been repeatedly stated that the various machines are united
by means of tubes, so that the cotton can readily be taken from one
machine to another. It does not matter whether the machines are in the
same room or not, or what distances separate the rooms in which they
are placed. This has been shown in Figs. 6, 7, and 8, referred to in
the preceding chapter, and the further arrangement is illustrated in
Fig. 13. In this case the cotton, after being delivered into the dust
trunk, or tube =D=, on its way to the opening cylinder, may be carried
two or three hundred yards, if desired, before it reaches the latter.
There is, of course, a limit to the distance it may be conveyed, but
it is a very wide one. There are many conveniences arising from this
procedure. It is becoming a very common practice to build the mixing
and scutching rooms away from the main body of the mill in order to
minimise the risk of fire. But even where this practice does not
obtain, the employment of air tubes is a good one, as it enables the
material to be transferred from one point to another without handling.
In this way the cost of labour is much reduced, and in addition the
cotton is less liable to damage.

(64) At one portion =K= of the conducting tube =D= an arrangement
is fitted by which a partial cleansing of the cotton occurs before
it reaches the opener. Below the level of the tube a chamber nearly
square in section is formed, as shown in section at the left-hand
corner in Fig. 20, forming the tube into a =D= shape. This chamber is
made of a length which is determined by the character of the material
used and considerations of its position, etc. At intervals of a few
inches plates are arranged so as to divide the chamber into a number
of compartments, as shown by the sectional view. Over the top of
these plates the material rolls in its forward movement, and a large
quantity of dust, sand, and heavy impurities are deposited in the
trunk. Doors are fitted to the underside of the chamber, by which the
droppings can be removed at intervals as desired. The use of these
grids has been attended with unmistakeable benefit, and leads to a much
more effective cleaning of the cotton.

[Illustration: FIG. 20. J.N.]

(65) By the method just described it is necessary to cleanse the trunks
manually at intervals, and if any neglect occurs there is some danger
of the dirt being carried forward. To obviate this, Messrs. Platt Bros.
and Co. Limited have patented and applied the arrangement shown in Fig.
21. In this case the dust chamber =L= is sustained in a manner arranged
to suit the circumstances of the case. Instead of being fitted with the
vertical plates described, an endless band is carried over two drums,
one at each end of the chamber. This band =K= is driven from the pulley
shown by means of worm gear, and receives a traverse at its top side
in the reverse direction to the air current. On the band are fitted a
number of blades or teeth, between which the dust or dirt can fall.
The traverse of the lattice carries the dirt forward, and when the
teeth are turned downward it falls into the spout or receptacle =N=,
and on to the top of an iron flap =P=, usually kept in a horizontal
position by the balanced lever fitted on the spindle on which the flap
oscillates. The collection of a sufficient quantity of dirt destroys
the equilibrium and causes the flap to tip, allowing the dirt to fall
into a sack suspended below the orifice to receive it. In the event of
any dirt falling on to the bottom of the chamber, two or three special
blades are arranged to scrape along it and draw the dirt to the other
down spout =O=, where a similar action occurs. This arrangement has two
advantages. It constantly presents to the advance of the cotton new and
clean receptacles for the dirt, and it automatically removes the latter
from the path of the material. These are decided improvements, and the
arrangement is a considerable advance on its predecessor.

[Illustration: FIG. 21. J.N.]




(66) After the cotton has been opened by any of the machines just
described it is passed into a machine commonly known as a “scutcher.”
In this it is subjected to a further beating action, which in this
case, however, has the object of cleansing rather than opening it.
Machines of this class may be either single or double, that is, the
cotton may in passing through the machine be subjected to the action of
one or two beaters. Occasionally, but very rarely now, three beaters
are used. It is becoming a more general practice to use an opener and
single beater combined as a first stage and a single beater machine as
a second stage, but there is no fixed rule in this respect, the actual
facts of each case determining the procedure. At one time the opened
cotton was ejected in a loose condition from the opener, and was placed
upon the scutching machine feed-table by hand, often being weighed. As
an English practice this is becoming obsolete, the system of pneumatic
suction being employed to convey the cotton from one machine to
another. Openers have very often attached to them a lap machine, which
forms the cotton into a roll or “lap.” As the “lap” attachment is one
which is common to most cleaning machines a description may be given of
it at this point.

(67) This attachment consists of two fluted rollers (=L L= Fig. 22),
which are suitably revolved, and on which the roll of cotton =M= is
formed, being lapped round a rod or tube by the frictional contact of
its surface with the rollers =L=. Before it reaches this point the
cotton is formed into a sheet on the dust cages, as described in the
preceding chapter. The iron rod or tube is made long enough to act as
an axis for the lap to revolve on, and to enable it to be carried about
from place to place for further treatment by succeeding machines. As
the sheet or fleece leaves the dust cages =J= it is passed between a
pair of smoothly turned rollers, the upper one of which is weighted
so as to calender or compress the lap. This is a matter of some
importance, as it renders the surface of the lap smoother and prevents
the various layers adhering to each other when unrolled. An arrangement
is fitted by which the attainment of a defined diameter of lap releases
the setting on handle, causing the latter to move and transfer the
strap on to the loose pulley stopping the machine. The importance of
forming laps is now well recognised, and will be dealt with at greater
length at the end of this chapter.

(68) Fig. 22 represents a side elevation of a single scutching machine,
as made by Messrs. Lord Brothers, that is, one which beats the cotton
once. It contains a revolving beater =A=, fixed upon a central shaft
and driven at a high velocity from a counter shaft. The beater consists
of arms, forged solid, with a central boss, and having feet at their
outer ends. The arms are keyed firmly on the shaft, and may be either
round or elliptical in shape. There are either two or three arms on
each boss, and a number of them are secured to the shaft along its
length within the beater case. According to its construction the
beater is known as a two or three “winged” beater. However made, it is
carefully shaped and machined, so as to be in perfect balance, and this
is a most important point in the construction of the machine. Too much
stress cannot be laid on the necessity for extreme care in this matter.
Not only should the beater arms be balanced prior to fixing, but after
having been keyed on the shaft the same operation should be carried
out. In order to balance the beaters thoroughly it is better to revolve
them rapidly, while sustained in bearings having freedom of sliding
movement in a frame. The velocity at which they are tested should be
considerably in excess of that at which they work, and no pains ought
to be spared to get the beater in absolutely true balance when working.
Otherwise the vibration set up would be considerable, and the character
of the blow given would be intermittent instead of regular. Before the
final balance is given the blades should be attached to the arms. The
blades are made of steel—or of a combination of steel and iron fused
together—of an irregular section, angularly formed at one side, so as
to present a moderately sharp face to the cotton as it strikes it. The
blade requires to be made with a slight clearance, so as not to rub the
cotton after striking it.

[Illustration: FIG. 22. J.N.]

(69) The question as to which is the better form of beater to use—a two
or three-winged—is one which is difficult to answer. Most makers to-day
are using the former, while others—as for instance, Messrs. Platt,
Brothers and Co.—while employing a two-winged beater for the “breaker,”
use a three-winged for the “finisher” scutching machine. From the
constructor’s point of view the two-winged beater has undoubted
advantages, as it is at once more easily made, and balanced with much
less difficulty. The diameter of a two-winged beater is usually 14
inches across the blades, and of a three-winged 16 to 18 inches. The
velocity of the former is greater than that of the latter, being in
one case 1,200 to 1,500 revolutions per minute, and in the other 900
to 1,000. Thus the peripheral velocity of the two-winged beater is
from 4,314 to 5,497 feet per minute, and that of a three-winged, 4,100
to 4,700 feet per minute. Although a three-winged beater, running at
1,000 revolutions, will strike the cotton 3,000 times per minute, the
two-winged form, running at the higher velocity of 1,500 revolutions,
will give the same number of blows. There is, however, the character
of the blow to be considered. The smaller diameter in the case of the
two-winged enables the higher velocity to be reached, and the blow
given is sharp and quick. In addition to this, the smaller circle
described by this form of beater causes the blade, after having struck
the cotton, to leave it rapidly; whereas the larger diameter of the
three-winged one leads to the blade being longer in contact with the
cotton than it otherwise would be. This, coupled to the comparative
slowness of its peripheral velocity, gives a dragging blow, which is
not a good thing for the cotton, as it is apt to crush or bruise the
fibres. The longer the staple the slower the velocity of the beater
should be, and this has an important bearing on the subject. For
instance, with good cotton, the velocity of a two-winged beater is
sometimes reduced to as low as 1,000 revolutions, while with Indian
cotton the higher velocity is preferable. These considerations tend to
show that the two-winged beater is the most suitable.

(70) There is another point which, however, deserves a word or two.
The regularity of the pulsations of a scutcher beater is a matter
requiring consideration. It is a subject not always thought of, but
it has a great influence upon the resultant lap. The cotton—as will
be hereafter shown—is struck from a roller or pedal, and is thrust
into the range of action of the beater blades at a defined and regular
rate. As it is desirable to beat it into small tufts before flinging it
on to the grids, and as the cotton is liable to damage if the pieces
struck off are too large, it follows that the oftener the blades
strike the better. That is, of course, assuming they do not strike so
often as to powder or crush the fibre. Now, there is no reason in this
consideration, for the employment of a three-bladed beater, which does
not strike the cotton more frequently than is the case with one with
two blades.

(71) It is usual to form laps at the termination of each scutching
process. These are first made, in most cases, on the opener, or failing
that, on the breaker scutcher. The laps thus made are fed to a second
machine called the finisher scutcher, where a new lap is made, which
is fed to the carding engine. It is therefore desirable to obtain
the utmost regularity in the last lap named, and for this reason the
pulsations of the beater become important. On this account Messrs.
Platt Bros. and Company use a three-winged beater in their finisher
scutcher, believing that the result is more satisfactory.

(72) Surrounding the beater at its upper portion is a case, made quite
air-tight. Beneath the beater a grid =H= is placed, the bars of which
are set to present a sharp edge to the cotton. The number of these
varies according to the class of cotton used. Careful regard should be
given to this factor. In fixing the bars they should be placed as shown
in Fig. 24. The front bars =C= should have their cleaning edges set a
little in advance of a perpendicular line drawn across an imaginary
line horizontal to the axis. The angularity thus given should decrease
as the bars are further from the feed roller. The reason of this is
obvious. As the cotton is struck from the feed rollers it is desirable
that it should receive a sharp check at once, in order to shake out
the freshly-freed impurities. This requirement becomes less urgent as
the cotton passes onward and the arrestment of its traverse is less

(73) The circle described by the top of the bars should not be
concentric with that of the beater blades, but ought to be as shown in
Fig. 24, further from the centre of the beater shaft at the back than
it is at the front of the grid. The reason for this is that the bulk of
the cotton after being scutched becomes greater, owing to its more open
condition, and it naturally requires more room, to avoid any choking or
entanglement. Further, if the grid is comparatively long the distance
between the bars—in other words, their pitch—must be increased. Below
the bars is a chamber into which the dirt can fall freely, and which
is closed by doors from without. The pitch of the bars should be large
enough to permit of the easy passage of the dirt.

[Illustration: FIG. 23. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 24.]

(74) Messrs. Howard and Bullough use, in addition to the fixed bars
shown, the additional bars =D=, which are pivoted at their lower end,
as shown, in a movable plate. This plate is attached to a lever =E=,
which can be operated from the outside. The purpose of these bars is to
admit of the admission of more or less air as desired. The space below
the fixed bars and that below the air bars are separated by a thin
division plate =F=. It is claimed for this arrangement that the fall of
the dirt through the bars =C= is considerably facilitated.

(75) After passing the dirt grids, the cotton falls on to a second
grid, or plate, as preferred, and then between a short “dead” plate
and “beater sheet” to the cage =J= on to which it is drawn. The cage
=J= consists of a skeleton cylinder revolving on a shaft, and having
its periphery formed of finely-perforated sheet metal. Each end of the
cage terminates in an air passage or trunk extending upward as shown.
At the foot of the trunk the fan =I= is placed, which exhausts the air
through the cages, and sucks the cotton on to them so as to form a
continuous sheet or fleece. From the cages the fleece is taken to the
lap attachment, which has been previously described.

(76) Messrs. Crighton and Sons, a perspective view of whose machine is
given in Fig. 25, make their cages in a somewhat different manner to
that just described. The ends of the cages are fitted into the framing,
which is recessed at each side to receive them. Their peripheries are
formed of woven wire webbing, instead of the perforated zinc sheets
mostly used. At the end of the cage the webbing is protected by a brass
ring, which keeps it firmly in position. The effect of this arrangement
is two-fold. A greater space is left for the passage of the air than
is possible with a perforated metal covering, and as a result, the
intensity of the current is reduced. In addition to this, the fleece
of cotton is laid on the whole of the face of the cages, because the
manner in which they are fitted into the framing practically causes the
latter to act as a guide, beyond which the cotton cannot spread. In
this way the edge, or “selvedge,” of the lap is rendered very even, a
subject the importance of which is further dealt with in paragraph 99.

[Illustration: FIG. 25.]

(77) Another point of special construction, adopted by the same firm,
is the position of the “dead plate.” This is the name given to a plate
below which the scutched cotton travels, extending across the machine
immediately behind the beater. As the cotton leaves the range of the
beater, it falls upon a plate or sheet called the “beater sheet,”
immediately below the “dead plate.” Now, for reasons to be given, the
position of this plate is important, and in the machine as made by
Messrs. Crighton, its distance from the beater sheet is 2-1/2 inches.
Immediately beyond this point the same firm use an appliance known
as a “leaf extractor,” of which an illustration is given in Fig. 26.
It consists of an endless brattice or canvas band =D=, as wide as
the space between the frames, and having fastened to it transverse
bars of wood =B=. These are shaped as shown, with an edge meeting the
cotton as it moves forward, thus scraping off the leaf, and the space
contained between each pair of these practically forms an air-tight
box for the reception of the leaf. The brattice moves in the direction
of the arrow, and thus meets the cotton as it passes from the beater.
It is kept in tension by means of the rollers =E= =F= and =G=, and as
the bars pass over =E=, which is unattached, its weight causes them
to open, and so drop the leaf into the chamber below. Having thus
described the mechanism of this special arrangement, it is necessary to
say something of the draught regulation and the effect it has upon the

[Illustration: FIG. 26. J.N.]

(78) The regulation of the air current is one of the most important
features in the working of a scutcher. Other things being equal, it is
not too much to say that success or failure largely depends upon it. On
the one hand, it is necessary to provide sufficient suction to draw the
cotton forward and lay it evenly on the cages; on the other, an excess
of suction is very detrimental, as, if the movement of the cotton is
too rapid it will be drawn over the dirt grids _before_ instead of
_after_ the dirt and leaf has fallen. More especially for the sake of
the removal of leaf does the current require to be slow. With any other
procedure the lighter matter cannot fall, and is carried forward to
the cages. An excess of suction further results in the cotton fibres
being drawn into the interstices of the cage surface, and the fleece
does not in that case leave the latter easily. This results in a rough
surface of the lap, and leads when it is rolled up to “licking,” or
adhesion of the different layers.

(79) It is therefore desirable to get the draught as nearly balanced
as is consistent with the required onward movement of the cotton.
What is wanted is rather a large volume of air moving at a slow pace
than a smaller one travelling more quickly. The fan should therefore
be as large as can be conveniently arranged, and should be run at a
comparatively slow velocity. Its exit orifice must be of ample size,
and no obstruction be presented to the current of air. The latter
is delivered into a passage or conduit running below the floor and
terminating either in the open air or a specially-arranged chimney.
All these passages must be made of ample size, and cases are numerous
in which neglect of this requirement has resulted in the inefficient
working of a machine which otherwise ought to have worked well. The
atmospheric changes render it necessary to watch the regulation of the
current so as to suit them, within limits.

[Illustration: FIG. 27. J.N.

(80) The precise effect of the arrangement of the dead-plate and
beater-sheet referred to in paragraph 77 is to decrease the work thrown
upon the fans. The beater, by reason of its rapid rotation, creates a
sufficient current to carry the cotton on to the grids or extractor, if
the space between the dead-plate and sheet is narrowed as described. If
that be increased the effect of the impulse thus given is diminished
proportionately. When so arranged, the cotton impelled as described
passes gently over the leaf extractor, being aided by the slow current
created by the fans, and thus allows the leaf to fall freely and
without difficulty.

(81) In Fig. 27 a diagrammatic representation of Messrs. Platt Brothers
and Company’s arrangement is given. In this case, also, the dead-plate
is arranged so as to narrow the exit orifice from the beater, with a
similar beneficial effect to that described. The cotton then passes
over the bars of a dirt box =L=, into which the leaf can fall, being
periodically removed.

(82) The feed apparatus used is now almost universally combined with a
regulator which bears the name of its inventor, the late Mr. E. Lord,
of Todmorden, and is commonly known as the “piano feed.” It is one of
the most effective motions in the whole range of textile mechanics,
and has considerably increased the regular working of this particular
machine. Referring now to Figs. 28 to 31, which are respectively side,
end, and plan views, it will be seen that the cotton is fed from the
lattice =H= over the nose of the pedal lever =A= and under the feed
roller =B=. After this it is struck by the beater =G= in its rotation.
The shape of the pedal nose varies considerably, according to the
length of the cotton used, the modification in Fig. 28 being that used
for short, and the one in Fig. 29 being employed for long stapled
cotton. The pedal lever is hinged upon a rod, and has behind its
fulcrum a long tail piece which terminates in a hook =I=. On to this
a pendant lever =C= is suspended. The lower portion of each of these
pendants is widened so as to form a double taper surface, as shown in
the end view at =D=. Between each pair of pendants, at its lower end,
small runners or bowls are placed, these being fixed in rods sliding in
the double frame =F=, which at the end =E= is tied together. The last
of the series of pendants =C=^{1} is formed with a slot, as shown, with
which a lever is jointed, as will afterwards be described, and as is
further shown in Fig. 23, which is an end view of the machine shown in
Fig. 22. All the pendants can swing freely upon the pedal levers. The
latter are placed, as shown in the plan, in close proximity to each
other, so as to cover the whole space below the feed roller, while at
the same time they have freedom of movement.

(83) Referring now more particularly to Figs. 22 and 23, the last
pendant lever is coupled by the connecting rod =O= and the levers
shown to the two strap levers =E=, which have sectors formed at one
end gearing with each other. These levers carry the guides for the
strap =N=, which is tightly placed upon the cones =D= =D=^{1}. These
are respectively convex and concave, their outline being a parabola.
The cone =D=^{1} is driven by means of the strap shown from a pulley
on a counter shaft, and revolves at a velocity of 600 revolutions. The
other cone =D= is driven from =D=^{1} by the strap =N=, and is fixed
upon a spindle or shaft which is carried upward (Fig. 23). On the upper
end of the shaft is a worm =P= engaging with a worm wheel =R= on the
feed roller, which is driven by these means, or a change wheel may be
interposed if desired.

(84) The action of this mechanism is as follows. As the cotton is
delivered by the lattice it passes over the nose of the pedal and
between it and the feed roller. If there happens to be a thick piece
in the feed it depresses the nose of the pedal over which it passes.
This raises the pendant rod =C=. Now the space between the thinnest
portion of the pendant foot and the bowls is only sufficient to enable
the pendant to rise a little before pressing on the bowl next it.
Its motion being limited in this way, and the tendency to rise still
occurring, either the pendant must become jammed or the bowl must have
liberty to move to one side. This is what occurs, the lateral movement
of the bowl being permissible to the extent which corresponds to the
space between the remaining pedals and their adjoining bowls. After
this is taken up, pressure exercised by the rising pendant upon the
bowl causes the bar in which the latter is fixed to move in the box to
an extent which is regulated by the depression of the pedal nose. In
other words, the pendant swings on the end of the pedal lever either
to the right or the left as may be required, giving a similar movement
to the rest of the series. The movement thus set up is communicated
to the strap levers =E= by means of the connecting rod =O= and its
attachments, and the strap is accordingly raised or lowered as required
by the circumstances of the case. The weight of the parts connected to
the pedal levers are sufficient to press their noses against the feed
roller unless prevented by means of the cotton being fed. Thus a thin
place in the material at any part of the width of the feed roller is
followed by the reverse action to that named, the strap being moved
on the cones in a similar manner. The presence of a thick place in
the feed decreases the velocity of the driven cone and feed roller,
while the reverse action occurs when a thin place is presented. Thus
the retardation of the cotton in the one case leads to any extra
thickness being rapidly beaten out, more blows being given to the same
length fed than would be under ordinary circumstances. On the other
hand, a thin place results in the quickening of the feed roller and
a greater quantity of cotton is beaten off in the same time. In this
way an evenly-weighted delivery takes place, and this, in conjunction
with the lap feed, of which more will be said hereafter, enables a
lap to be finally produced, in which the variations of thickness are
comparatively slight.

[Illustration: FIGS. 28, 29, 30, AND 31. J.N.]

(85) At one time it was the universal custom to strike the cotton
directly from the pedal nose Fig. 32, a practice which, however the
latter was shaped, had many defects. A much better method is adopted
by Messrs. Platt Brothers and Company, and is shown in Fig. 33, which
illustrates the new practice. It will be seen that, when the beater
strikes the cotton directly from the pedal nose, the fibres will be
bent sharply round an angle. In the case of long-stapled cottons
especially this is detrimental, as it is liable to lead to rupture or
breakage of the fibre. With the shorter-stapled varieties this is not
so likely to occur, and the use of a pedal and feed-roller is more
permissible. The arrangement shown in Fig. 33 is a much better one, and
consists in the employment of an additional pair of feed rollers placed
between the pedal and the path of the beater. There are two distinct
advantages from this procedure. The cotton is bent round a larger
curve when it is struck by the beater, and is, therefore, less liable
to rupture; and the feed-rollers exercise a certain amount of drawing
action. The latter point is of some value. The cotton in passing under
the feed roller and between it and the pedal nose is held by them. The
correction of thick or thin places and the alteration of the speed of
the feed to meet them is controlled from this point. If the second set
of rollers revolves at a slightly quicker speed than the one above the
pedal the cotton will be a little drawn. In any case, this action will
take place to a greater or less extent, and the thick places will thus
be partially thinned out before being struck by the beater. The shock
of the stroke is thus considerably diminished, and the risk of damage
much lessened.

[Illustration: FIGS. 32-34. J.N.]

(86) It only remains to be said with regard to the Lord pedal motion
shown in Figs. 28 to 31 that it is now amended by the introduction of
two bowls between each pair of pendants, which are acted upon singly by
the pendant they adjoin. The latter point is illustrated in Fig. 34,
which represents the old method of arranging the pendants and rollers,
and an improved plan of Messrs. Howard and Bullough. In the former
case each pendant engaged with one side of a bowl, with the other side
of which the adjoining pendant also engaged. In the event of both of
the latter rising at once, it is apparent that the bowl will tend to
be rotated in opposite directions. In effect it becomes practically
inoperative, and the friction set up is considerable, preventing the
easy movement of either pendant. To obviate this, the three-bowl
arrangement shown in Fig. 34 is adopted. The pendants are made with
one flat face, and with one on which a rib is formed. On the spindle
three bowls are placed, the centre one being of smaller diameter than
the others. The two outer bowls engage with the flat side of one of
the pendants, but are entirely out of contact with the adjoining one.
On the other hand, the central bowl engages with the rib formed on one
pendant, but is too small in diameter to engage with the flat face
of the next of the series. Thus the whole of the pendants could rise
simultaneously without setting up the friction referred to owing to the
cross torsion on the rollers. The sensitiveness of the motion is thus
largely increased. The adoption of two bowls, each independent of and
out of contact with the other, produces a similar result.

[Illustration: FIG. 35. J.N.]

(87) There are several modifications of the pedal motion in use, but,
before passing on, the arrangements used by Messrs. Platt Brothers and
Company may be described. Dealing first with the driving of the cones
reference may be made to Fig. 35. The spindle of the driving cone =B=
is prolonged so as to rest in a footstep and has fixed upon it the
double-grooved pulley =S=. An endless rope or band is passed round the
pulley =I=, which is the driving pulley, and thence passes round the
pulley =G=, carried on a pin, the position of which can be regulated
by the screw shown. After going once over the pulley =G= the band is
conveyed round the upper groove of the pulley =S=, back to =G=, thence
to the carrier pulley shown, again round =S=, and finally returns to
the driving pulley =I=. A little consideration of the course thus
followed will show that there is a pull upon the spindle of the cone
=B= in diametrically opposite directions, and as the pull is in each
case equal, the wear of the shaft and footstep is materially reduced.
The consequence is that high velocities can be attained with the utmost
ease, and without any undue strain upon the ropes or shafts.

(88) Referring now to Fig. 36, which is a front view of the pedal
arrangement, it will be noticed that the levers =P= are each of them
placed between two bowls, which are actuated by their own pendants
only. Instead of coupling the regulating levers to the last of the
series of pendants, a different arrangement is adopted. The hanging
lever =O= is fastened at its upper end on a pin carried by the horn
bracket shown, which is fixed to the bowl box. On the other end of the
pin is a second lever, shorter than =O=, and also fixed to the pin.
Thus any oscillation of the lever =O= is followed by a similar movement
of the second lever. The lever =O= is long enough to enter the bowl
box, and any lateral movement of the bowls causes a similar movement
in the lever. This is repeated by the shorter lever, which is coupled
to a connecting rod =Q=. The latter is made in two parts, connected
by a nut, with a right and left handed thread, so as to permit of
any adjustment necessary, which is also aided by the slots shown as
existing in the various levers in the series. The rod =Q= is jointed to
an =L= lever =R=, on the horizontal limb of which the balance weight
=T= is fastened by means of a pin passing through the slot. To the
extremity of this limb of the lever =R= a chain =F= is coupled, which,
passing over a grooved pulley placed above the cone box, is attached to
each of the strap levers =O P= (Fig. 35). These levers are hinged in
the manner shown, and carry strap forks acting upon the strap =C=. The
relative positions of the strap and levers, at a point midway of the
length of the cones, are shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 35. On the
spindle of the cone =A= is the worm =L=, by which the feed rollers are
driven, the three roller arrangement being in this case used, one of
them revolving above the nose of the pedal lever.

[Illustration: FIG. 36. J.N.]

(89) The action of this mechanism is easily explained. As the pedals
are depressed or elevated the bowls are moved laterally, as previously
described. The last of the series being in contact with the lever =O=
causes it to oscillate, and, in consequence, the shorter lever jointed
to the rod =Q= is moved. This motion is communicated to the chain
=F=, which exerts a pull upon the strap guides, and raises or allows
them to fall as described. One cardinal feature in this arrangement
is the power of adjustment which is given at every point, the balance
weight =T= being easily set to give the exact amount of pressure of
the lever =O= upon the last bowl, while at the same time permitting
it to oscillate without an excessive power being required. This makes
the motion very sensitive, which is assisted by the size of the cones,
and by placing the pedals on knife-edged supports instead of a shaft.
Usually the cones are made about 4 inches diameter at the large end and
2-1/2 inches at the smaller. In the machine, as made by Messrs. Platt,
the cones are 8 and 5 inches diameter respectively at each end, and,
as their velocity is high, a slight pull upon the strap vertically is
sufficient to move it up or down the cones.

(90) A special arrangement, made by Messrs. Dobson and Barlow, is
shown in Figs. 37 and 38 in elevation and plan. Here the pedals =W=
=W=^{1} are all of the same shape, and the last of the series =W= is
not coupled to a connecting rod, as shown in Fig. 22. Instead of this,
three bowls, =R R T=, are placed upon a pin which passes through the
forked end of the small frame =Z=. The rollers =R R= roll in the groove
in the box, and are provided with broad flanges which keep them in
position laterally. The roller =T= is in contact with one edge of the
last pendant =W=, and when the latter is pushed to one side it presses
upon the roller and causes it and the cradle =Z= to move in the same
direction. A pin in the other end of the cradle passes through the end
of a lever =Y=, which fits between the fork in =Z= and passes through
a hole in the cross-piece of the bowl-box. The thrust upon the rod =Y=
is therefore given in the centre of the pendants, and these are not
liable to be twisted. The rod =Y= is jointed to the =L= lever shown,
which forms part of the series connecting the pedals and strap guide
levers. As shown in the detached sectional view, Messrs. Dobson and
Barlow employ between each pair of pendants three anti-friction bowls,
=U V U=, which work loosely upon the pin =X=. The latter is made in the
centre with a boss, eccentric to its main portion, and in this way the
central bowl =V= is caused to engage with the pendant =W=, while the
other two =U= engage only with the pendant =W=^{1}. The pin =X= cannot
revolve by reason of being fitted into a square hole in one of the
bowls sliding in the groove in the box, so that the relative positions
of =U= and =V= are always maintained.

(91) In Figs. 39 and 40 a front and side elevation of the pedal
regulator as made by Messrs. Asa Lees and Co. Limited, is illustrated.
The pedals =E= are hinged at one end, and rest upon vertical rods =J=,
the lower ends of which press on the extremities of the balanced plates
=B=. Each of these is suspended on a larger plate =C=, of similar
construction, which in turn rests on the extremity of a plate =D=. The
latter is suspended by its centre from a lever, =F=, which is fulcrumed
on a knife edge at =H=. The lever =F= is coupled in the manner shown to
the strap guide lever =I=, which is moved by means of the horizontal
bar shown, which slides upon guide runners. The cones =A= =A=^{1}, are
placed horizontally, the advantage claimed for this position being that
the strap has a much easier motion along the cones than is the case
when the latter are vertical. It will be observed that the whole of the
balanced plates are in equilibrium, and are suspended on the end of the
lever =F=. Thus a slight movement of one of the smaller plates, =B=, is
multiplied before it acts upon the lever =F=, and the regulation of the
strap is thus rendered more sensitive.

(92) In Fig. 41 a side elevation of the driving gear used by Messrs.
Asa Lees and Co. is shown. In this case the whole of the essential
movements are driven by means of one endless rope. This plan obviates
the difficulties which arise if a beater strap breaks and the feed
continues, or if the delivery ceases from the same cause and under
the same circumstances. In this case the lap attachment and cages are
driven from the pulley =D=, the beater and the cones also by the same
rope. The direction of the rope’s movement is indicated by the arrows,
and a tightening screw is provided to keep the band in tension. On the
shaft of the beater is a friction clutch, one-half of which is formed
into a grooved pulley. By disconnecting the clutch, the beater can be
stopped independently of the rest of the machine.

[Illustration: FIG. 41. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIGS. 37 AND 38. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 39.]

[Illustration: FIG. 40. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 42. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 43. J.N.]

(93) Having thus described the principal methods of arranging the
mechanism adopted by various machinists, there are one or two words to
be said with reference to combined machines. These are very numerous
and various, being arranged in several ways to suit the requirements
of particular spinners. For instance, in Fig. 9, described in the last
chapter, there is a combined machine, viz., an opener and lapper. The
machine shown in Fig. 20 is an instance of a combined opener, scutcher,
and lap machine. So, again, the machines shown in Figs. 13 and 14 are
similar combinations, and in Fig. 8 is an example of a breaker feed
combined with an opening cylinder—in different rooms but coupled by an
air pipe—used as an aid in forming a stack of mixed cotton partially
cleaned. In Fig. 13 a representation of the arrangement of a scutching
room with a mixing room above it is given in section, and in Fig. 42 a
plan of the mixing lattices. In this the bale breaker =A= delivers the
cotton to a double ascending lattice =B= by which it is transferred to
the series of longitudinal aprons =C=. Openings are placed above each
bin =E= so that the cotton can be discharged into any of them at will.
Alongside the mixing bins is a longitudinal lattice =F=, on to which
the cotton is placed as it is taken from the stacks, and is carried
to the porcupine feed table =G=. Immediately after being treated by
that machine the material passes into the dust trunks =D=, over the
dirt grids at =K=, to the cylinder of the opener =H=. The laps there
formed are placed in the scutcher =L=, and those made in that machine
are fed to =M=. The laps formed on the opener are fed to the scutchers,
as shown in Fig. 22. In Fig. 43 a plan is given of one arrangement of
a scutching room, showing a complete set of machines for dealing with
Indian or other dirty cotton. For long stapled clean cotton, such as
Egyptian, only the two machines enclosed within the dotted lines are
necessary. Most of the figures dealing with these combinations are
representations of actual arrangements carried out by Messrs. Platt
Brothers. It is obvious that some plan must be adopted by which the
supply of cotton must be stopped when the scutching machine is knocked
off. If this was not the case, the air tubes and dust trunks would
speedily become full, and there would be the risk of a breakdown when
the machine was re-started. In view of this difficulty, Messrs. Platt
arranged that when the machine is being stopped, the porcupine feed
roller is stopped so much before the opener cylinder that the whole of
the cotton delivered by it is drawn out of the dust trunks. Conversely,
when the machine is being re-started, the feed mechanism is the first
to begin operations, so as to ensure an ample supply of cotton to the
cylinder, and thus avoid any thin places or failure in the resultant
lap. This is a matter of some importance, as upon it depends very
largely the regularity of the laps.

(94) It is of extreme importance to produce laps at an early stage,
as they play a great part in effective spinning. Before dealing with
this point a few words may be said about the necessity for care in
feeding the cotton. The fibre is easily ruptured, more especially
at the points, which, owing to their distance from the seed during
growth, are often solid. It is conceivable that the cotton might
be fed at precisely the same speed as that of the periphery of the
beater blades. In that case it would simply pass through the machine
without any treatment whatsoever. Or it might be fed so rapidly that
the beater in its rotation would knock it off the end of the lap in
tufts or lumps. As the blow of the beater is given transversely of the
fibre, such a treatment would produce a large amount of broken fibre.
It is, therefore, of importance to feed so that the cotton is neither
broken by overfeeding or pulverised by underfeeding, and in fixing the
right velocity the length of the fibre requires carefully taking into
account. The conditions of successful and economical work are well
known, and may be stated as follows: The blow given must be sharp,
and not dragging; the beater blades must be shaped to detach, without
rupturing, the fibres; the rate of the feed roller must be regulated
to insure the thorough detachment of the material; and, finally, the
cotton should not be struck from a sharply angular surface. It is,
of course, impossible so long as revolving beaters are used to avoid
bending the fibres, but it is quite possible to so shape the surface
from which they are struck as to minimise the risk of damage.

(95) The various illustrations given of both opening and scutching
machines show that it is the practice to form the cotton at as early a
stage as possible into a lap. Not only is this course more convenient,
but it is decidedly preferable where good work is required. In cases
where it is the custom to eject the cotton from the opener in its
opened condition, it is necessary to lay it on the feed lattice of
the scutcher, either manually or by means of a lattice. A practice
which is now almost obsolete is to weigh the cotton by means of
scales adjoining the feed apron, and spread it on the latter by hand.
Even with expert attendants, the risk of uneven feeding by this
plan is great, and uneven feeding means unevenly-weighted laps as a
result. By the exercise of a little care, and more especially if the
piano-feed be fitted to the opener, a lap it produced on that machine
the inequalities of which are much reduced. The author recently saw
a lap, paragraph 52, produced on the combined feed, opener, and
scutcher of Messrs. Platt, which was the first made on the particular
machine employed, and which was remarkably regular in thickness. The
same result has been seen in other cases, and by obtaining a regular
sheet at this early stage many advantages arise. Whether an opener be
employed in conjunction with a breaker scutcher or not, the formation
of a lap is a great help to good work. Where such a combination exists,
it is customary to fit pedal regulators immediately before the scutcher
beater is reached, so that the inequalities existing in the sheet
as it is taken from the first pair of cages are at once corrected.
A reference to Figs. 10 and 20 will show this application fitted
respectively to the opener feed and the scutcher beater.

(96) Whatever may be the practice with regard to the opener, the
breaker scutching machine is invariably provided with the lap
attachment, and the finisher scutcher is fed from laps. A reference to
Fig. 22 will show that the machine is fed from three laps =F=, which
are laid upon the travelling lattice apron =G=. The forward movement of
this lattice unrolls the laps and delivers them to the feed rollers,
they being prevented from moving forward by the rods through their
centres, which press against the vertical projections on the lattice
frame. It is often customary to use four laps instead of three,
especially in passing them through the last machine.

(97) It will be apparent on reflection that the laps as produced will
vary considerably in weight and substance. When first formed, and
taken from the machine, each lap is weighed, and a record kept of its
weight. In selecting the laps from which the finisher scutcher is to be
fed, regard is paid to these variations. If one or two laps are under
weight to a certain extent, while others are over it to a corresponding
amount, the machine is supplied with both. As they are all fed at the
same time, it follows that to a large extent the irregularity existing
in one is corrected by the converse irregularity of another. This is,
of course, a matter of degree, but roughly speaking, the correction is
an effective one. By this system of doubling, as it is called, and by
the regulation afforded by the pedal motion, the lap produced finally
has rarely more variation than 5 per cent., and in many cases the
variation does not exceed 1-1/2 per cent.

(98) There must be with a machine fed from four laps, as there is even
in the opener, a considerable amount of draught existing, for it is
obvious that the resultant lap will be no heavier than one of those
fed, and is in most cases lighter. That is to say, the lap is elongated
so that an equal length of the finished lap weighs less than that of
those fed. Thus the irregularities of thickness existing in any of the
laps fed to the machine are diminished by the draught of the machine,
and when this factor is combined with that arising from the treatment
of four laps together, the result is found in the regularity stated. It
is desirable to get as many doublings as possible, and where very good
work is required the material is passed through three machines before
the final laps are produced. This part of the subject is so easily
understood that it is not necessary to further treat it.

(99) A point which is almost as important is the necessity for getting
even selvedges to the laps when produced. The lap referred to in
paragraph 52 had this feature, and there can be little doubt that the
regulation of the air current plays an important part in this respect.
It is of the highest importance that no thin places shall be found
in the selvedges, as their effect is afterwards seen through every
succeeding stage in spinning. Messrs. Platt Brothers have adopted a
construction of their various machines, by which a gradually decreasing
width is found in each of the series. Thus, if the opener produces a
lap 48 inches wide, it will be fed to a scutcher 47 inches wide only,
the lap so produced being that width. A similar or greater reduction
is effected in the last of the series, the width being correspondingly
reduced. In this way a very even selvedge is produced, with the
consequent advantages.

(100) The weight of a lap is determined by weighing one or two yards.
If it be afterwards desired to see what “hank” the lap is, the weight
of the piece is obtained, and the weight of a pound calculated from
it. That is divided into a constant number, obtained as afterwards
described, and the resulting decimal gives the hank lap.

(101) The draught in a scutching machine takes place at the following
points: 1st, between the feed lattice and rollers; 2nd, between the
feed and the lap rollers.

(102) It only remains to be said that by the employment of air trunks
and combined machines the finished laps can be produced by the aid of
only two or three workpeople. The cotton requires no handling from the
mixing room till the first lap is produced, and only then requires
weighing and placing upon the finisher scutcher lattice table.



(103) The scutching process being complete the heavy impurities are
practically removed, but there are still to be found in the material
the bulk of the lighter ones. The severe treatment of the cotton
during scutching adds to the number of broken and short fibres, and
also increases the neps. There are also still adhering to the material
small particles of broken seed and leaf, which are technically known as
“motes.” The removal of all of these is part of the duty of the carding
engine. In addition to this, it is requisite to arrange the fibres in
what is practically parallel order, as only in this way can a strong
yarn be produced. This object is attained by attenuating the “lap,”
and then treating its fibres by a number of fine wire points, so as to
comb or card them. The objects of carding are, then, briefly stated,
three-fold—the completion of the cleansing process, the parallelisation
of the fibres, and the attenuation of the fleece.

(104) Cotton was originally carded much in the same way that wool was
combed, viz., by drawing a hand comb through a mass of it while held
on a table or bench. As soon, however, as the manual art of spinning
was superseded by a mechanical process, a similar change occurred in
carding. The earliest mechanical carding engine was invented either by
Paul or Bourne, about 1748, and shortly afterwards Arkwright developed
his roller carding engine, which, in its essential features, is
identical with many machines of the present day. A full description of
the early development of the carding engine will be found in Mr. Evan
Leigh’s work. The invention of the doffing comb, the revolving flat
principle (by Jas. Smith, of Deanston); the coiler (by David Cheetham,
of Rochdale); and the self-stripping card, all form stages in the
growth of the machine. Latterly the attention of machinists has been
directed to improving the mode of manufacture and the simplification of
details, the main principle of the machine having been fixed for some
years. All carding engines have a few essential parts which are common,
and it will be better to give a general description of these before
dealing with the details.

(105) The perspective view of a revolving flat carding engine, as made
by Messrs. Ashworth Bros., given in Fig. 44 (page 63), will enable the
description to be easily followed. The lap from the scutching machine
is lifted by the iron roller on which it is wound, and the ends of the
latter are slipped into the grooves formed in the brackets =A=. The
surface of the lap rests upon a roller =C=, which is steadily revolved,
and is geared with the feed-roller =D=. The sheet is drawn off the
lap from the bottom, and is passed over a polished iron feed-table
or plate, which at its inner end is dished. The feed-roller revolves
in the curved part or dish of the plate, and is from 2in. to 3in. in
diameter, being formed with longitudinal and circumferential flutes
along its entire surface between the bearings.

(106) The projecting end of the lap, as it is delivered by the
feed-roller, is thrust over the nose of the dished plate, and is struck
by teeth fixed on the surface of a roller =B=, revolving at a rapid
rate. The direction of the rotation of this roller is shown in Fig. 46
by the arrow. It is called the “licker” or “taker-in,” and is made of
cast-iron, keyed on a wrought-iron spindle, which revolves in bearings
fixed to the framing. It is driven from a pulley on the cylinder shaft
by means of a crossed belt. It is usually made 8in. or 9in. diameter,
and the same width as the cylinder. Its surface is accurately turned,
and it is covered when ready for work with a special wire clothing, to
which further reference will be made in the succeeding chapter. The
licker-in teeth strike off the cotton from the end of the lap, and
carry it forward until it comes into contact with the cylinder teeth.

(107) The cylinder =E= is made from 40in. to 50in. diameter, and from
37in. to 50in. wide. It consists of a cylindrical shell, strengthened
throughout its length by small internal ribs, and having near its edges
a flange formed. Its position is clearly shown in Fig. 46, and the way
in which it is built in Fig. 51. The inner part of the ends of the
cylinder and the face of the vertical flanges are bored out accurately
by a specially constructed machine. Into each of these recesses a
spider is fitted, consisting of a central boss, arms =U=, and rim =V=.
The boss is first bored to the size of the shaft upon which it has
to fit, and the edge and inner face of the rim are turned to a size
corresponding with the recess in the cylinder. The two spiders so
prepared are fitted into their places, and are then securely bolted
to the cylinder. In this way a firm and accurate fit is secured. A
mandrill is fitted into the bosses, and the cylinder is then turned
truly on its face. After the shaft is fitted in it is sometimes the
practice to grind the face of the cylinder, but, if the needful care is
taken in turning it, this is not necessary. It is essential that the
periphery of the cylinder shall be rigid, but it is equally important
that the latter shall not be too heavy. A velocity ranging from 140
to 200 revolutions per minute is given to it, and it is clear that
lightness and perfect balance are alike important. After the turning
is completed the surface of the cylinder is drilled with a number of
rows of holes about half an inch diameter, into which wooden plugs are
driven, so as to facilitate the “clothing” of the cylinder. As a rule
the latter is balanced, or rather tested for its balance, by running it
at its working speed in bearings which slide when the equilibrium is
disturbed. When working, the direction in which the cylinder revolves
is indicated by the arrow in Fig. 46, and the cotton is carried from
the licker-in =B= to the doffer =F=, being treated on its way thither
by a special set of teeth, the arrangement of which will be hereafter

(108) The doffer is a cast-iron roller, 22in. to 26in. in diameter,
the same width as the cylinder, and is placed as shown at =F=. The
doffer is constructed and clothed in a similar way to the cylinder.
It revolves, as shown by the arrow, in the contrary direction to the
cylinder, and at a much slower rate, making usually about twelve
revolutions per minute. In this way the carded fibres are transferred
from the cylinder to the doffer, and are placed on the surface of the
latter in a thin fleece. The removal of the latter is effected by a
narrow thin steel blade =G=, Fig. 44, known as the “doffer comb,” which
is fixed on the ends of short arms fastened on a shaft carried by
bearings at each end. A rapid oscillatory motion is given to the comb
by means of an eccentric or cam, driven from a pulley on the cylinder
by a cord or band, the number of beats per minute reaching 1,100.
An arc of about an inch long is described by it, and in this way a
continuous fleece, called the “sliver,” is taken off the doffer.

(109) The sliver is loosely gathered together into a strand by means of
a specially shaped plate, and passed through a pair of calender rollers
=H= Fig. 44 by which it is partially compressed. A slight traverse is
sometimes given to the trumpet-shaped tube through which the sliver is
taken to the calender rollers. After leaving the latter the sliver is
taken upwards to an opening in the plate at the upper part of the frame
=I=. This frame forms part of the apparatus known as the “coiler,”
which is illustrated in vertical section in Fig. 45.

(110) The coiler consists of a frame =I= within which is a vertical
shaft =V= driven by means of the short horizontal shaft from the
calender rollers. At the upper end of the shaft a second pair of
bevelled wheels are geared, which drive the calender or feed rollers
placed immediately below the trumpet-shaped orifice in the cover =T=,
which is hinged as shown. One of the rollers is supposed to be removed
in order to show the arrangement more clearly. The sliver entering by
the orifice in =T= and, passing the rollers, is delivered into a short
tube =X= forming part of the plate =Z=. The latter is driven in the
direction shown by the arrows by means of the spur wheel =Y= gearing
with a rack formed on the edge of the coiler plate =Z=. The sliver is
thus given a slight twist, and is delivered into the can =W=, placed
on a plate free to revolve and borne in the lower part of the coiler
frame. The can is placed eccentrically to the coiler plate =Z=, and is
slowly revolved in the opposite direction to it, as indicated by the
arrows. In this way the sliver is laid within the can in coils, which
are peculiarly disposed so that they do not become entangled. Often,
within the can, a pair of discs, coupled by a coarsely pitched helical
spring, are placed, upon which the cotton is received. The object of
this device is to relieve the strain upon the sliver, which would
otherwise arise if it were unsupported as far as the bottom of the can.
As the weight comes upon the upper disc the spring compresses.

(111) The parts thus described are common to all cotton carding
machines, and would remove the major portion of the motes and heavier
impurities, but only a partial parallelisation of the fibres would
occur; nor would more than a small portion of the short, broken, or
immature fibres or “neps” be removed. It therefore becomes necessary to
devise a means by which, while the cotton is on the cylinder, it may
be treated so that the completion of the cleansing and the arrangement
of the fibres are carried out. In order to do this the fibres must be
submitted to a combing process, by which, while held by the cylinder
teeth, another set of teeth act upon them. The form of carding engine
which first found extensive employment, and which is yet preferred by
many spinners, is known as the “roller and clearer card.” This machine
is illustrated in Fig. 47, as made by Mr. John Mason, in perspective,
and in Fig. 46 diagrammatically. After the cotton has been taken from
the licker-in =B= by the cylinder =E= it is carried past a roller =J=,
known as a dirt roller. The diameter of this is from 5in. to 6in.,
and it revolves at about eight revolutions a minute. When the fibres
are taken up by the cylinder wire, they are partially embedded in the
interstices of the clothing, but the motes remain on the surface, from
which they are easily removed. The dirt roller =J= takes these up,
and, being covered with a coarser pitched wire than =E=, the motes
become fixed in the former, from which they can be stripped. This can
be effected by a hand comb at regular intervals, or by an oscillating
comb suitably operated in the way made by Messrs. John Hetherington
and Sons, as illustrated in Fig. 48 (page 60). In this case the dirt
roller =A= is driven by a side shaft by means of the worms =B= and
=D=, the latter gearing into the wheel =E=, which is keyed on the dirt
roller spindle. A cam =F= fixed on the first working roller gives a
reciprocating motion to the rail =G= by which the comb =H= is operated,
the roller =J= being thus stripped. An iron tray =I= is fixed, as
shown, into which the strippings fall.

[Illustration: FIG. 46. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 47.]

(112) After passing the dirt roller the cotton is treated by the teeth
on a smaller roller, =K=, known as a “worker” roller, which revolves
in the direction of the arrow. Each worker has a smaller roller,
=L=, placed in contact with it and called a “clearer.” The teeth
on the worker have an inclination which is the reverse of those on
the cylinder, and any cotton which is not fixed in the wire surface
of the latter, or which is flung up by the centrifugal action of
the cylinder, is seized by the worker teeth and removed. The worker
revolves at a slower speed than the cylinder, its surface velocity
being about 20 feet per minute, and varies in diameter from 5 to 6
inches. The clearer, which is 3 or 3-1/2 inches in diameter, has its
teeth set in the same direction as its motion, and its surface speed
being about 400 feet per minute, it takes the cotton from the worker
and again transfers it to the cylinder. As the surface velocity of
the latter is higher than that of the clearer, the cotton is struck
by its teeth and is drawn off the clearer and carried forward to
the next pair of rollers. It should be pointed out that, although
the cotton on the cylinder passes the clearer before it reaches the
worker, the inclination of the clearer teeth is such that they cannot
take up the fibres; while, on the other hand, the worker teeth are so
set that, as previously pointed out, they take up the fibres from the
cylinder. Again, the different velocities off the workers, clearers
and cylinders cause a series of condensations and attenuations of the
fleece to occur. The short fibres and “nep” are laid hold of, and are
either sufficiently loosened to be thrown off as “fly,” or are embedded
in the teeth of the workers and clearers, which, in consequence,
require periodical stripping, this being usually effected manually.
The setting of the rollers must be such that they do not approach
the cylinder too closely, but simply deal with the fibres thrown up
by the revolution of the cylinder. The lighter the carding, provided
cleanliness is achieved, the better for the cotton, as with too heavy
carding considerable damage is done to the material.

[Illustration: FIG. 45. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 48. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 49. J.N.]

(113) The rollers and clearers are fitted with spindles, projecting
beyond the cylinder and framing, and sustained by suitable bearings. On
the projecting ends of both worker and clearer rollers, pulleys, with
grooved peripheries, are fixed, over which an endless belt or rope is
passed, deriving its motion from a pulley on the cylinder shaft. The
worker driving pulleys are on one side of the machine, and those of the
clearers on the other. The setting of the rollers is important, and it
is necessary to make special provision for it. Fixed on the framework
of the machine, forming the base =S=, Fig. 46, is a semi-circular
frame, which is known as the “bend.” On this are fitted a number of
brackets, the centre lines of which are radial to the cylinder centre,
each forming a bearing for one end of the roller spindle. Mr. John
Mason employs a special form, which is produced by planing the soles
or feet of two of the frames, bolting them together and turning them
on the edge. They are reduced to the required diameter to permit of
the necessary setting, and when separated form half a circle. Each of
these is bolted to the upper edge of the frame, =S=, which is planed to
receive them, and thus a firm and accurate surface is provided for the
roller brackets. The latter are constructed so that one portion of them
can be set radially, or the whole bracket may be moved, if desired.
Semicircular ribs are formed on the side of the bend, through which
setting screws, locked on each side of the rib by nuts, pass. In this
way the necessary setting can be easily obtained. As the machine is
worked the wire points wear, and, when they are sharpened, the relative
distance of the centres of the cylinder and rollers is not disturbed.
In other words, the space between the points of the teeth on the
rollers and those on the cylinder remains unaltered. It is absolutely
essential that a definite distance shall be preserved, and means of
setting the rollers and clearers readily are imperative. This subject
is treated at greater length at a later stage, when the revolving
flat-card is described. A bracket made by Messrs. Lord Bros. is shown
in Fig. 49, and it will be seen that ample provision is made for both
lateral and radial adjustment.

(114) The whole of the worker and clearer rollers are covered by a
case, as are also the doffer and licker-in. The emission of fly into
the room is thus prevented, and its production materially diminished
by the reduction of the disturbance of the air set up by the rapid
rotation of the cylinder. The roller and clearer machine is often made
with two cylinders, being then known as a “double” card. The cotton,
after passing all the rollers placed above one cylinder, is transferred
to the second by means of a small drum, similar in construction to
a doffer, and known as a “tummer.” The second cylinder bearings are
fastened to the framing of the machine, which is made continuous, thus
giving great solidity and strength. Double carding is undoubtedly
effective in producing a good sliver, and is used in some cases where
yarns of a good quality and as fine as 60’s are spun. There has been,
and still is, a controversy going on as to the respective merits of the
various systems of carding, about which a good deal could be said. In
the meantime it is sufficient to note that many spinners continue to
put down roller cards in preference to some of the newer types.

(115) At the present time the “revolving flat” machine is the favourite
one, and is being widely adopted. The peculiarity of its construction
consists in the employment of a number of =T= shaped bars or “flats”
extending across the top of the cylinder, and sustained at each end by
the bend, or a plate attached to it. They are coupled by an endless
pitched link chain, by means of which they are slowly traversed at
a rate of about an inch per minute, in the same direction as the
revolution of the cylinder. Referring now more particularly to Fig.
44 it will be seen that during the passage of the cotton from the
licker-in to the doffer it is carried below the flats =N=, each of
which has its underside covered with wire clothing. The chain passes
round carrier pulleys, one of which is arranged to drive it, being
itself driven at a regular speed in the manner shown. Each flat is thus
carried over a certain portion of the circumference of the cylinder,
and is then turned with its wire face upward. When this happens, an
oscillating comb =P= strips the teeth, and they are then brushed out
by the brush =Q=, usually formed with spirally arranged bristles, and
sometimes made of wire. The flats vary in number from 89 to 110, of
which there are from 40 to 50 always working. As they are specially
constructed, it will be as well to describe the method of doing so at

(116) The flats are made of a =T= section for the greater part of their
length, but have flat surfaces formed at each end, as shown in Fig. 51.
On these surfaces they travel, and are sustained in their course by the
bend. The width of each flat is usually from 1-1/8in. to 1-3/8in.—the
narrower ones being generally preferred—and the length varies with
the width of the cylinder. The underside of each flat is made quite
level, in order to afford a surface from which the various mechanical
operations can be conducted. As the wire clothing is fastened to this
face it is obvious that, by making it the base of all subsequent
treatment of the flat, a decided advantage is obtained. The first
operation is that of milling two surfaces at the upper side of each
end of the flat, at the same time trueing up the faces of the ears to
which the chain is attached. A double-ended machine is used, fitted
at each end with an instantaneous grip chuck, at the bottom of which
is a steel face on to which the ends of the flat are placed, the flat
having been previously stretched and straightened. The flat is then
cramped down, and the cutter brought into operation. The flat is placed
on the faces thus formed in the next machine, which is constructed with
chucks at the end of two long radius arms. A cross spindle has a worm
fitted on it, which gears with a segment at the end of the arms, and by
revolving which the flat is brought under the cutters, and has a hollow
cut into it of the desired radius. The flat is then chucked edge up and
milled by a cutter on its upper side at the ends, so as to provide the
necessary clearance for the chain. The next operation is to cut out, by
means of a similar machine to the one with the long radius arms, the
under surface of the flat end, which had been treated by that machine,
so as to leave two surfaces on which the flat travels, the radius arms
in this case being shorter. These surfaces have two objects—to lessen
the friction when the flat is travelling, and to allow of the flat
having the necessary heel given to it. The flat is then cramped down on
the surface thus formed, and the snugs are drilled by a double-ended
machine fitted with an automatic motion for withdrawing the drill. By
the same machine the hole is tapped, the tap reversing when it has gone
the requisite depth. After drilling the flat along the edges in order
to enable the clothing to be fastened, it is complete so far as its
treatment by machines is concerned.

(117) There are one or two things to notice in respect to the
operations just described. The first is, that all the faces are formed
from that on which the wire clothing is subsequently placed, and that
consequently the flat when traversing is provided with working surfaces
which ensure it being parallel to the cylinder all across, provided
the bends are correctly set. This is, as will be seen, an important
point. Again, the whole of the surfaces to which the chains are
attached are true with the flat ends, so that there is no tendency to
pull the flat askew. Having thus constructed, by the means indicated,
the flat as perfect as is possible by machine, it is necessary to put
the “heel” in, and also to correct any twist which may have arisen by
the spring of the flat whilst being milled. There are two methods of
testing this point, one mechanical and the other electrical. As will
have been noticed from the description of the method of milling the
flats, two parallel surfaces are formed at the upper and lower side of
each end of the flat. It will be evident that, if the flat is placed
upon either of these surfaces and tested by a suitable apparatus, the
other surface should be as nearly as possible parallel with the first.
In order to see that this is so, the flat is placed face downwards on
two steel faces perfectly parallel with each other. At each end of the
table carrying these faces is an indicating apparatus consisting of a
graduated scale and two pairs of compound levers, so arranged that a
slight inaccuracy is multiplied to a large extent. If, therefore, the
flat is laid on the blocks and the points of the levers are allowed to
fall on the four surfaces left after the flat is milled by the long and
short radius machines, the setter can see at a glance if the surfaces
are accurately formed. In practice, the two ridges or surfaces at the
front of the flat—that is, the edge nearest to the doffer end of the
card—are reduced somewhat by hand, thus throwing up the back edge.
This is what is known as giving the “heel” to the flat, and its object
is to leave a slight space between the wire points of the flats and
cylinder at the back of the flat, while at the front these are as
close as possible together without touching. The object of this is to
prevent a rolling up of the strippings and cotton fibre, which has been
found to exist where the wire at the back or “toe” of the flat nearly
approached that of the cylinder. The heel having been given the flat is
then tested by the apparatus described, but instead of all the fingers
corresponding, this only occurs with the two which are in contact with
the same surfaces on each edge of the flat. One pair registers the
variation caused by the heel and should correspond, while the other
pair registers the position of the untouched surface and must also
correspond. This device is the one most commonly used, and gives very
accurate results. Messrs. Howard and Bullough adopt an electrical test
which is also said to give good results. Similar devices are used in
some cases to set the bends accurately with the cylinders; in others
a simple scriber or pointer being used and set down, so that a small
slip of steel can be easily moved across the bend under its point.
As the latter is carried in a bracket fixed to the cylinder the bend
can easily be tested all round. Messrs. Howard and Bullough use an
electrical scriber, contact with which rings a bell, and thus indicates
the point requiring adjustment. The use of the graduated indicators
as shown in Fig. 60 enables this to be easily made, and delicacy of
adjustment attained.

[Illustration: FIG. 44. J.N.]

(118) As the function of the flats is to remove by means of the
wires attached to them the short fibre and nep, the more accurately
the distance between the wire clothing on them and the cylinder
is preserved, the better will be the effect produced. In order to
attain this object it is necessary that the flats should be specially
constructed and carried. A reference to Fig. 51 will show the
construction of the flat, which is so finished (as was explained in
paragraph 116) that the faces upon which it travels are parallel with
the face upon which the wire is fixed. Thus, if the flat is borne
upon a surface which is concentric with the surface of the cylinder,
but so far from the centre of the latter as to compensate for the
length of the wire on both, and provided that the two wire surfaces
are accurately and evenly ground, it will be clear that over the whole
of the surface there will be the same distance between the points of
the wires. This is the condition which is absolutely the best for
carding, but its constant maintenance is the problem. The flat course
may be either formed on, or attached to, the frame =O=, and in either
case is technically termed the “bend.” This phrase is often very
indifferently used, and is sometimes applied to the framing =O= when
the latter is acting as a support for the flats, and sometimes to the
surface attached to or borne by it for the same purpose. It ought,
however, to be insisted on, for the sake of clearness and definiteness,
that the phrase “bend” should only be applied to that portion of the
mechanism upon which the flats actually travel. If it be assumed that
a machine is in condition for starting for the first time, that the
surface of the flat end upon which it travels is set back from the
flat wire surface 1/2 inch, and that the wire projects 1/2 inch beyond
the cylinder surface, there is a necessity for a circle with a radius
of 26 inches. It is, of course, perfectly easy to form a track on
the edge of the frame =O=, which should be accurately machined so as
to be quite concentric and of the radius required, in which case the
required distance between the two wire surfaces could be perfectly
established. But, during the operation of the machine, the wire points
become blunted and no longer deal with the cotton as efficiently as
they ought. This necessitates their re-sharpening by grinding, which
involves a reduction of the size of the circle described by the points
of the cylinder wire, and an enlargement of that described by the
covering of the flats. As has been pointed out, it is better that the
two wire surfaces should approach one another as closely as possible
without touching, the most effective results being obtained in this
way, and it therefore becomes necessary to find some method of lowering
the flats in order to re-establish these conditions. This is precisely
the difficulty which has to be overcome. It is perfectly clear that
any flat course formed on the frame =O= cannot be so adjusted, and it
is essential that some other adjustable surface sustained by =O= shall
be found. If for a minute or two the work to be done is considered it
will be seen that there is a very difficult problem to solve. If a
circle is struck 51 inches in diameter, and at the same time a second
circle 52 inches in diameter is described, from the same centre, some
idea can be obtained of the actual conditions of the case. Supposing
that the circle 51 inches diameter is reduced to 50-1/4 inches (this
representing the extreme variation in size arising from grinding), it
will be at once observed that the dropping of the 52 inch circle in a
radial line will be followed by the destruction of its concentricity
with the other. In the case thus supposed the smaller circle represents
the surface of the wire on the cylinder, while the larger one
represents that of the ring upon which the end of the flats traverse.
Now, while the former is reduced with ease by grinding, the latter is
not so easily reduced, and the action of moving it nearer the centre,
without its reduction, simply means that its centre is moved to the
same extent, while the centre of the ground surface remains constant.
In other words, the concentricity of the two circles is destroyed. As
the concentricity of the flat course with the cylinder is absolutely
essential, in order to get that close approach over the whole of the
wire surfaces which has been shown to be necessary, it follows that its
destruction implies ineffective and bad carding.

[Illustration: FIG. 50.]

(119) The arc occupied by the flats in their traverse varies from 120
to 150 degrees, speaking roughly, so that in some way or other a flat
course of that length, capable of adjustment, requires to be provided.
By far the most common method of providing this is to fasten to the
side of the machine at the upper edge of the frame =O= a flat plate,
shown in Fig. 50, with its upper edge forming a segment of the circle
required. This arrangement is the invention of the late Mr. Evan Leigh,
and has been widely adopted. The shape of this plate, so far as its
depth is concerned, is so arranged that it can be sprung or compressed
into a smaller circle with the minimum amount of difficulty and strain.
This is what is known as a “flexible” bend, and is in wider use than
any other form. It is attached to the frame side by bolts, slots
being formed in the bend casting at each end through which the bolts
pass. It will be seen that the slots allow of a considerable range of
movement in the bend, which is made use of in setting it after the
wire has been ground. The setting is effected by springing the bend by
means of screws, until a circle is formed equal to that required to
enable the wire surface of the flats to be concentric with the wire
surface of the cylinder. As a matter of fact, the setting is done by
the carder by sound and by the use of a gauge, the combination of
which permits him to ascertain fairly accurately that the flats are in
a good working position. When the bend is set, it is locked against
the frame by the bolts, and stops, which are placed midway between
the points of support, are brought up to the under edge of the bend.
The object of these is to uphold the bend, so as to avoid deflection
from the weight of the flats. As the cylinder, which weighs 9 or 10
cwts., revolves always in one direction at a steady rate of 140 to
170 revolutions per minute, and as the pull of the driving strap is
usually towards the front, it will be perceived that a tendency, at
least, will always exist towards wear in the brasses at their front
side. Thus it is possible that in addition to the necessity for
providing for the lessened circle, it may be also requisite to take
into account the movement of the centre in a horizontal direction. The
latter difficulty, however, has been to a large extent overcome by the
elongation of the bearings, which are now much longer in proportion to
the diameter than was the case formerly. The special construction of
the bearings in order to resist the action of wear or to afford means
of setting will be treated at a later stage in this chapter.

(120) It has been the ordinary practice to place the flexible bend
outside the framing, but it is becoming the practice to decrease the
width of the cylinder, and consequently the length of the flat. The
cylinder is now ordinarily made 37in. wide when fed from 40in. laps,
the lap being narrowed as it approaches the feed roller by specially
placed and designed guides. By diminishing the length of the flat, the
tendency to deflection is also lessened, and, in addition to this, an
improvement occurs in the selvedge of the sliver. It will be seen that
in diminishing the width of the lap 3 inches, it is only possible to do
so by squeezing in its edges or folding them over somewhat. Thus any
thin place on the edge of the lap is thickened, and the sliver when
produced has a better selvedge. This advantage is partially derived by
the means mentioned, but there is a further cause of ragged selvedges,
to which a good deal of attention has been given. Usually between
the edge of the cylinder and the bend a space has been left, through
which, when the cylinder is revolving, a current of air is induced. As
the cotton is held in the wire clothing, which comes right up to the
edge of the cylinder, the suction thus caused draws it out and causes
ragged places. Messrs. Ashworth Brothers remedied this defect by the
employment of a circular shield about the height of the cylinder wire,
which is fixed to and revolves with the cylinder. This gap is now
entirely closed by all makers.

[Illustration: FIGS. 51 AND 52.]

(121) Messrs. John Hetherington and Sons adopt the plan shown in Figs.
51 and 52, which are cross sections of the cylinder, bends, and flats.
Fig. 51 represents the old method of construction. The flat =T= is
sustained by the flexible bend =Z=, which is controlled by the setting
screws =W=, and is attached to the framing =Y= by the bolt shown. The
cylinder =V= in this case is 40in. wide, and between it and the fixed
bend a space is left, which is filled up by the introduction of the
wood packing =X=. The latter is fastened to the fixed bend =Y= by
screws as shown. The new plan is shown in Fig. 51. In this case the
flexible bend =Z= is fastened on the inside of the framing =Y=, the
setting screw =W= being placed as shown. It will be seen that the edge
of the cylinder =V= comes close up to the bend =Z=, and no induced
air current is possible. The cylinder is reduced to 37in. wide as
previously mentioned. The same firm adopt a very good method of dealing
with the flexible bend, which is shown in Figs. 53 and 54 in transverse
section and side elevation respectively. On the cylinder shaft a
segmental rack =V= is fixed, which is driven by means of worm gearing,
and the bands =W= =U= from the pulley =X= placed on the shaft. This
also drives a spindle =Z=, borne in frames attached to the cylinder,
on each end of which is a milling cutter. The cutters are kept in
contact with the flexible bend =Y=, which is made a little larger than
is necessary, and is bolted in its place after being accurately set.
It is weighted with suspended weights =R= =T=, together equal to the
weight of the flats when resting upon the bends, and attached to the
bends at points midway between those at which they are set. In this way
the actual conditions of working are established as nearly as possible
before the mechanism is started. On commencing operations the milling
cutters are at one end of the bend, and the cylinder is slowly revolved
so as to traverse them over its surface. In this way it is accurately
shaped to suit the conditions of the case, and is as true as a fixed
bend could be made. Of course, as soon as the bend requires to be reset
it is necessary to adopt the ordinary plan, but the treatment described
undoubtedly facilitates subsequent setting.

[Illustration: FIGS. 53 AND 54. J.N.]

(122) The plan adopted by Messrs. Platt Bros. and Co. Limited is shown
in Figs. 55 and 56, the former being the new, and the latter the old,
method. A perspective view of this machine fitted with the new bend
is given in Fig. 57. Dealing with Fig. 56 first, the cylinder =A= is
separated from the framing =B= by the distance shown, this being filled
up by the wood packing =G=. The flexible bend =C= is fastened to the
framing on the outside, and is set by the screws shown. The cylinder
in this case is 40 inches wide, and it will be noticed that the arms
of the cylinder are level with its edge. In Fig. 55 the cylinder =A=
is recessed so that it projects beyond the arms sufficiently to
permit the bend =B= to come within the recess. The flexible bend =C=
is attached in the manner shown to =B=, and is fulcrumed on the pin
in its centre. The setting is obtained by means of the screws, as in
the previous case. The clothing on the flat is secured at the ends by
the clip or plate =F=, shown separately in side view and plan, and a
thin plate =E= is fastened to the cylinder by which means the ingress
of air is quite prevented. There is also a reduction in the widths of
the cylinder and machine, in the latter case about 8 inches, so that a
machine fed from a lap 45 inches wide occupies only the same space as a
machine made on the old principle with a 40 inch lap.

[Illustration: FIG. 57.]

(123) Before leaving this point there is one thing to be noticed which
is important. A reference to either Fig. 52 or 56 will show that the
chain is attached at the end of the flat immediately over the bend,
whereas in Figs. 51 and 55 it is further from it. The former method is
best, as being less likely to deflect the flat, and is being adapted to
the new construction by both the firms named.

(124) The construction of machines with flexible bends, in spite of
many objections which are continually being alleged, continues to be
large. It is held by some spinners and machinists that the necessity
for adjusting the flexible bend manually from three points is faulty,
and that it is better to provide mechanism whereby the setting
can be made by positive means and from one point. Several patented
arrangements with this view have been made, and illustrations of most
of them are given. In most cases a flexible bend—somewhat differently
constructed—is used, although it does not always have that name given
to it.

[Illustration: FIGS. 55 AND 56. J.N.]

(125) In Figs. 58 and 59 the arrangement used by Messrs. Dobson and
Barlow—to which the name “Simplex” is given—is illustrated. Fig. 59
is a side elevation of that portion of the machine where the bend is
applied. Fixed to the framing =Q= of the machine are four brackets =P=,
=O=, =M=, =L=, the last three of which are specially curved on their
upper edge, while =P= is shaped to a curve on its inner surface. Fixed
in the metal strip =K=—which is practically the flexible bend—are four
pins, each bearing an anti-friction runner, which are kept in contact
with the edges of =O=, =M=, and =L=, and with the inner surface of the
bracket =P= respectively. Attached to =K=, at the opposite end to =P=,
is the crank =S=, oscillating freely upon a pin fastened in the frame
=Q=. At the end of the bend =K=, where it is controlled by the bracket
=P=, and, on its inner edge, a toothed rack is formed, with which a
small spur pinion engages. The pinion is fixed on the axis of a worm
wheel =R=, rotating on a pin fastened in the framing =Q=. With the
wheel a worm =R^{1}= gears, and this can be rotated by a handle to any
desired extent. When the bend =K= is moved by means of the rack in the
direction of the arrow, it is put into tension, and the anti-friction
bowls are drawn down on to the surfaces of the various branches. A
glance at the detached sectional view given will show that the various
brackets overlap the bend =K=, which slides between them and the frame
=Q=. The position of the bend is arranged so that between it and the
edge of the cylinder there is no open space left.

(126) Having thus described the actual mechanism a few words can be
said about Fig. 58, which is a diagrammatic representation of it. The
circle =A B= is that formed by the edge of the bend or plate =K= when
it is at its highest position—that is, when the wire is unworn. The
circle =D E= is that described by the edge of =K= when it has been
drawn down to allow the flats to come nearer the cylinder. The small
black dots represent the pins fixed in the bend =K=. When the latter
is moved by the action of the rack and pinion, the end of the crank
=S= follows the path of the circle described by it, moving from =B= to
=E= during the time the entire depression of the plate is made. The
anti-friction bowls in the same period travel in the paths shown, and
it will be noticed that each of the curves is differently shaped. If
the inner circle =F G= be supposed to represent that occupied by the
edge of =K= after the crank end has travelled from =B= to =G=—a half
circle—the curves =L= =M= =O= =P= would, if prolonged, be of the shape
shown. Having obtained them in the manner thus described on paper, they
are actually reproduced on the brackets by a milling machine fitted
with a copying arrangement. By forming an indicator scale on the worm
wheel =R= the amount of movement of the bend =K= can be regulated as
desired to any degree of accuracy. The proportions of the worm, worm
wheel, pinion, and rack, are so arranged that the advance of the wheel
1/50th inch will raise or lower the bend =K= 1/2000th inch. This method
is very simple and effective.

[Illustration: FIG. 60.]

[Illustration: FIGS. 58 AND 59. J.N.]

(127) The arrangement adopted by Messrs. Howard and Bullough has the
central idea of the employment of inclined surfaces, by withdrawing
one of which the other can be lowered. It is shown in front elevation
in Fig. 60 and in section in Fig. 61. The fixed bend has formed on one
side of it a broad flange, which is turned to a true circle on its
upper edge. Upon this a segment of a ring A is placed, which can be
slid in or out by means of the screw B and lock nuts. The back nut is
riveted to the index disc =E=, which is divided into 36 spaces, the
front lock nut securing the arrangement after setting. In front of the
dial plate =E= an indicator finger =D= is fitted, which points out any
alteration of the circular dial plate =E=. Upon the upper surface of
the ring =A= a second ring =C= of a smaller section is placed. =C= is
accurately turned on its inner side to correspond with the inclination
of the upper surface of =A=, and on its outer edge is horizontal, so
as to form a course for the end of the flat. The ring =C= is pressed
down upon =A= by the weight of the chain of flats as they pass over
it. The action of this mechanism is easily understood. By withdrawing
the segmental ring =A=, by means of the screw =B=, the flats are
lowered, the degree of their depression being sufficient to preserve
the necessary distance between their wire teeth =G= and those =F= upon
the cylinder =H=. The adjustment can be made in either direction, and
the graduation of the dial =E= enables it to be finely made. In this
case also, as shown in Fig. 55, the gap at the end of the cylinder is
closed by bringing the flange of the fixed bend close to the edge of
the cylinder.

[Illustration: FIG. 61. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 62. J.N.]

(128) In Figs. 62 and 63 a plan invented by Mr. Thomas Knowles, of
Bolton, and made by Messrs. John Tatham Limited is illustrated. This
consists of the employment of a wedge-shaped segmental ring, which
rests upon the upper edge of the fixed bend, and can be drawn along
it by means of the screw shown. The ring is pierced by a number of
holes of decreasing diameter, and a small slit is made through the
web left between the lower part of the hole and the inner surface of
the ring. The latter is thus rendered easily flexible, and the mere
weight of the flats is sufficient to make it accommodate itself to its
supporting surface. The ring is shaped so that the inner edge forms
part of a spiral curve, shown diagrammatically in Fig. 63, and with
its outer edge levelled so as to bear the flat. In like manner the
edge of the fixed bend is shaped to the spiral curve, both of these
being obtained by the use of a circular milling machine fitted with the
necessary shaping mechanism. The spiral curve to which the two surfaces
are formed would, if continued far enough, terminate in the centre of
the cylinder, so that if it were possible to traverse the ring far
enough it would actually cross that point. The action of setting this
mechanism is simple. The ring is drawn downwards by the screw, and its
outer edge thus moves nearer the centre of the cylinder to an extent
corresponding with that of its traverse. Any adjustment desired can
thus be given in either direction.

[Illustration: FIG. 63. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 64. J.N.]

(129) The machine made by Messrs. Ashworth Bros., of which a
perspective view was given in Fig. 44, is based upon an entirely
different principle. Before passing on to describe it, it is only fair
to say that to this firm belongs in great measure the great advance
which has been made in the construction of this form of machine. They
recognised the importance of accurate mechanical construction, with
the result that they produced a machine which could be run at much
higher velocities than had hitherto been thought possible. Referring
now to Fig. 64, on the top of the fixed bend =B=, a number (about 15)
of thin steel bands =E= are placed, being held at one end by the stud
=G= and kept in tension by the screw =C=, thus being firmly drawn
into position. The bands are of various thicknesses, from 1/30th to
1/100th inch. The end of the flat traverses on the top band =F=, and
any of them can be removed and replaced by a thinner one. Thus the
concentricity of the flat course is preserved, provided that the
amount of wear to be taken up corresponds with the difference between
the thickness of the band taken out and that replacing it. It may
happen that the amount of wear to be provided for is not enough to
justify the removal of the band, which, on account of the necessary
labour involved, takes some little time. In order to afford a ready
means of making the correction, and at the same time avoiding the
replacement of the bands, the makers have adopted the bold but
ingenious plan of forming the cylinder bearing so as to be adjustable
vertically. Referring now to Fig. 64 it will be noticed that the engine
bend and the pedestal are cast in one piece, bolted on to the lower
frame. The pedestal cap is fastened by means of set screws, but the
bottom brass can be lifted by means of the vertical screw shown in
dotted lines. This screw is fitted into the pedestal, which is tapped
to correspond, and has at its lower end a ring which is divided into
100 parts on its circumference. An indicator finger is fitted so that
the ring can set to any of the divisions as desired, and when so set
the screw can be locked by a lock nut. By proportioning the pitch of
the thread it is clear that any desired lift can be obtained. The pitch
adopted being 1/10th of an inch, a revolution of the screw one division
on the ring would mean a vertical movement equal to 1/1000th of an
inch. Now it is quite true that in a sense any vertical movement of
the cylinder destroys the concentricity of the flats, but this, after
all, is a relative matter. If reference is made to a drawing showing
the arc occupied by the flats in various positions, it will be seen
that with a total fall of 3/8ths of an inch the difference between
the ends and centres of the arcs described does not amount to a great
deal. Therefore if the cylinder was raised by the screw about 1/8th
inch it would not amount to an inaccuracy of any magnitude. But as the
thickest band is only 1/30th of an inch thick it would be most likely
that instead of lifting the cylinder anything like 1/8th inch a band
would be taken out and the wear thus compensated for. The raising of
the cylinder 1/30th of an inch would practically mean that the setting
of the flats would remain unaltered.

[Illustration: FIG. 65. J.N.]

(130) In Fig. 65 is given a side elevation of one side of a carding
engine, in which the bend is made in an entirely different manner to
any previously described. This is really a revival of a plan which was
suggested many years ago by James Smith, of Deanston, but which was
dropped on account of certain difficulties in adjustment which are now
overcome. The machine as illustrated is made by Mr. Samuel Brooks, and
is nearly the latest form put on the market. The pedestal =A= has a
circular flange formed on it about midway of its length, to which a
bush =C= can be bolted by the three bolts =M=. The bush is placed over
the inner boss of the pedestal, and can be set in its proper position,
which may be ascertained at any time by the pin =J=, passing through
a hole in the pedestal flange and one in the bush when the latter is
quite concentric with the cylinder, and only then. On this bush a wheel
=D=, with a flat periphery, is fitted and revolves. The periphery =E=
of this wheel sustains the flats =F=, the traverse of which cause it
to rotate at precisely the same circumferential speed as that of the
flats. The friction of the flat ends is in this way avoided, which is
claimed as one of the important features of the new arrangement. When
the machine is new the diameter of the wheel =D= is of the exact size
needed to sustain the flats, and keep the wire points the requisite
distance apart, theoretically, 1/1000th inch. But when the wire has
worn and has been re-ground, it is, of course, necessary to reset the
flats. This is effected by means of the milling cutters =G=, placed as
shown, which can be set in by the arrangement shown in side elevation
in Fig. 66, and in partial section in Fig. 67. The cutter =G= is fixed
on a shaft borne by the bracket =F=, which is attached to the bend, and
is moved inwards in a radial line by the screw =H=, the latter being
arranged on the micrometer principle. The screw is threaded 25 to the
inch, and the worm wheel =I= has 20 teeth. The rotation of the latter
one tooth implies a corresponding movement of the cutter =G= 1/500th
inch. By subdividing the disc =K= on the spindle carrying the worm =L=,
as much as desired, the cutters can be moved in or out to a very slight
but ascertainable degree. A similar arrangement is fitted to the bush
=C=, by which when unlocked it can be lowered as desired.

[Illustration: FIGS. 66 AND 67. J.N.]

(131) In setting, or, rather, in lowering the flats—because that is
practically all that can be done by this arrangement—the bush is
unlocked and the pin =J= taken out. It, with the wheel, is then lowered
until the wires on the central flat and those on the cylinder can
be heard to click. A careful note is taken of the amount which the
bush has been lowered, and it is again raised to its central position
and locked. Suppose that the amount was 1/250th inch—a very extreme
supposition—then the distance the flats have to be lowered is that
distance less 1/1000th inch, the standard distance between the wire
teeth, or 3/1000th inch. The disc =K= is therefore revolved 1-1/2
times, which moves the cutters =G= inward to that extent, and, in
consequence, the diameter of the wheel =D= is reduced, so as to provide
a course for the flats of the exact size required. The cutters =G=
are driven by a band from the cylinder shaft, and the wheels =C= are
traversed as usual during the process of reduction. This arrangement
is a novel one, but it is clear that, if successfully carried out, it
provides a perfectly concentric flat course.

(132) Before proceeding further, and dealing with another form of
machine, a few words may be said on the subject of setting the
flats. It has been shown that in many cases a delicate indicator
and micrometer screw is fitted, by which it is claimed the most
exact settings can be made. There can be no dispute as to the power
to do this which is thus provided, the only question is whether the
circumstances of the case call for it, and whether in actual work any
such accuracy is obtained and maintained. There are four points where
adjustment is required in a carding engine. These are between the dish
feed plate and licker-in; between the licker-in and cylinder; between
the cylinder and flats or rollers; and between the doffer and cylinder.
Messrs. Platt supply three gauges, respectively ·013, ·011, ·007 of
an inch thick. The finest of these it will be seen is 7/1000ths of an
inch thick, so that in this case at least the theory as to setting to
1/1000th is disregarded. In adjusting the flats, by far the commonest
plan is to do so during the time the mill is standing, when everything
is quiet. The bend is then dropped until the gauge which it is intended
to use can be pushed between the two sets of teeth. If it is afterwards
desired to get very fine setting, the bend is lowered until the slow
revolution of the cylinder produces a “click,” which shows that the
teeth of the cylinder and flats are in contact. A little elevation is
given to the bend so as to leave a space between the teeth. A skilful
setter can tell at any time by the “touch” of the teeth if they are
too closely set, but the vibration existing during working hours may
disturb his observation. When an indicator is used the practice is to
establish the clicking point, and then turn back the screw until the
flats are raised the desired distance.

(133) It is questionable whether it is possible to maintain so
accurate a setting during actual work over a long period after wear
has begun. It is hardly likely that many machines continue to work
with this close setting. The practice is rather the other way. Wider
spaces than ·011 are common, and it is unreasonable to expect anything
else. The function of the wires on the cylinder being to seize by
means of their points the fibres of cotton and bring them under the
influence of the flats, it is obvious that the question of efficient
carding turns very largely upon the charge of cotton in the wire. If
light carding is taking place—that is, if little cotton is passing
over the cylinder during a fixed time—the delicate setting is both
possible and desirable, as it would result in the cotton fibres being
thoroughly combed from end to end. But if the cotton is fed rapidly,
so that the cylinder becomes highly charged and its surface covered
with a comparatively thick fleece, a too close setting would result
in considerable damage to the fibre. As the prevailing practice is
generally based upon commercial considerations, the last is the more
usual condition existing, and extremely close setting is in this case
both impracticable and undesirable.

(134) Even if this extra fine setting named were adopted there is
nothing to show that it cannot be attained with the flexible bend.
True, the setting of the latter involves a little more labour, but is
it quite demonstrated that it is not necessary labour? The construction
of flexible bends is now such, as has been shown, that their flexure,
3/8ths of an inch, is made with absolute ease and accuracy by means
of the setting screws. There is an old adage that “the proof of the
pudding is in the eating,” and no candid person will contend that
carding engines made with flexible bends of the Leigh type produce
either worse slivers or make more waste than others. On the other
hand, it is only fair to say that the converse of this proposition
holds true, and that good slivers are obtained from machines made with
indicators and special setting appliances without more waste being made
than in the case of flexible bend machines. It is, however, more than
probable that the system of setting by the ear is adopted in every case
of successful carding.

(135) A further consideration in connection with this question is
the problem of adjustment after the cylinder bearing has worn so as
to alter the position of the centre of the cylinder. In this case
the cylinder can be followed by the flexible bend and concentricity
re-established, whereas, in the case of other arrangements which are
based upon an unyielding surface attached to the framing, no such
practice is possible. In this case it is necessary to provide a means
by which the cylinder centre can be restored to its original position.
The methods of doing this will be touched upon at a later stage.

(136) Before leaving the question of setting, it may be stated that the
distance between the licker-in and the dish feed-plate is regulated
according to the quality of cotton treated. Ordinarily the thickest
gauge ·013 is used by Messrs. Platt, but if the cotton is deficient
in strength the distance is increased by the thickness of the medium
gauge, or in all is made ·024 inch. The licker-in is set by the medium
gauge ·011, which is slipped easily between the licker-in teeth and
those on the cylinder. The space left between the doffer and cylinder
teeth is smaller, the finest gauge ·007 being employed in this case.

(137) In paragraph 132 it was stated that setting was mainly conducted
by means of a gauge and by ear. It is often desirable to ascertain
during work how the flats and cylinders are set relatively, and it is
highly desirable to do this without disturbing the flexible bend. Up to
quite recently this could only be done by gauging at each end in the
ordinary way, and in the centre by the ear. Messrs. Platt Brothers and
Company have, however, devised a method by which the setting of the
flats can be instantaneously ascertained, and power is thus given to a
spinner or overlooker to check the setting. In the flexible bend, at
four points, narrow oblong slots are formed by casting, and are made of
such a width that the carder’s gauge can be easily slipped between the
cylinder and flat teeth, whatever may be the condition of the wire. The
slots are, during work, stopped by plugs, which can be instantaneously
withdrawn. The makers state that they have made careful tests to
ascertain whether the presence of the slots affects the deflection of
the bend, but do not find any ill effects. This is an extremely simple
but very valuable improvement, and affords an opportunity of checking
the setting, which cannot but be beneficial.

(138) The third form of carding engine is that known as the “Wellman,”
or “Self Stripper.” It is extensively employed on the Continent, and
in the United States. It is the direct descendant of Paul’s machine,
inasmuch as it is based upon the principle of the employment of fixed
flats superimposed upon the cylinder. In the early days of carding
machines the flats surrounded a certain portion of the cylinder, and
when they became charged with fly were lifted and stripped by hand.
This practice was found to be very inconvenient, and a method of
raising the flats automatically was therefore welcomed. For the finer
counts of yarn cards on this principle were extensively employed in
England, but the improvement of the revolving flat card has displaced
it, and in this country at least it may be looked upon as an extinct
type. The mechanism of the Wellman is ingenious, but for the reasons
stated only a brief description of it will be given. Students who are
interested in the subject can study it in the works of Mr. Evan Leigh
in English, Mr. Neiss in German, or in one or two French books.

(139) The self-stripping card as made by Messrs. Dobson and Barlow, is
shown in side view in Fig. 68. The flats =A= cover the surface of the
cylinder for about the same extent as in the revolving flat card. They
are, however, stationary, and rest upon brackets =B=, each of which is
capable of separate and delicate adjustment. On the cylinder shaft =C=
an arm or lever =D= is placed, which is free to oscillate as required,
its position being regulated by a pinion engaging with the rack =E=.
The motion is driven from a grooved pulley, fixed on the cylinder
shaft, which gives movement to a wheel behind the catch plate or wheel
=F=. A sliding jaw traverses in the long slot at the top of the arm
=D=, and is raised by a cam fixed on the spindle of the wheel =F=. When
this upward movement of the jaw takes place the flat is lifted and
held tightly between it and a fixed jaw formed on the arm =D=. While
in this position the lever =G=, hinged at its lower end to =D=, is
drawn inwards, and as it carries a wire stripping brush =H= it causes
the teeth of the latter to pass through those of the raised flat, and
thus remove the dirt and short fly. Immediately one passage is made the
brush returns, and the flat is at once lowered into its position above
the cylinder. By an extremely ingenious arrangement of mechanism the
flats are not stripped consecutively, but are arranged to be stripped
oftener near the licker-in than at the doffer end. The reason of this
is obvious. By virtue of their position the earlier in the series of
flats retain more dirt, and therefore require stripping oftener.

[Illustration: FIG. 68. J.N.]

(140) From the mechanical point of view, the Wellman card and its
predecessors will repay careful study, but as stated in paragraph
138, it has ceased to be used in England, and does not, therefore,
come under the head of “modern” machinery. Yet there are principles
involved in the Wellman which are of high merit and importance, and a
system of carding is possible on this machine which is not possible on
any other. To begin with, the distance of the flats from the cylinder
may be varied at will, and instead of each flat being concentric with
the latter, the circle described by the series may have another and
distinct centre. That is to say, the flat at the feed end could be
1/8th inch away from the cylinder, while the one at the doffer end
approached within 1/500th inch, all the intermediate ones being set
proportionately. Again, the pitch of the wire teeth upon the various
flats can widely vary. Those at the feed end may be, and often are,
much coarser than those at the delivery end, a proportionate gradation
of pitch occurring throughout the whole series. It will be at once seen
that the conditions prevailing in a revolving flat machine are entirely
contrary to this practice. In that machine the setting of all the flats
is devised so as to make them equidistant from the cylinder centre, and
every flat must of necessity be covered with wire clothing of the same

(141) The effect of the peculiar setting referred to is, that, as the
cotton is carried round by the cylinder, the fibres are gradually
straightened by a series of combs which are at once nearer to the
cylinder surface and finer in pitch, as the doffer is approached.
Supposing, for instance, the pitch of the teeth on the first flat was
1/8th inch and their distance from those on the cylinder also the
same, it would follow that the fibres flung up by the rotation of
the cylinder would be at most only lightly treated. If, however, the
pitch of the teeth and their setting became gradually finer, until the
latter was reduced to 1/500th inch, it is easy to understand that the
fibres would be, by a series of grades or steps, carded or combed. This
treatment, on account of its gradual nature, results in the fibres
being drawn out very straight, and is, when properly conducted, the
nearest approach to combing which has been attained on a continuous
carding machine. For the longer stapled cottons the use of a machine
by which settings of gradually increasing fineness are obtained is
especially suitable, and it was for these that the machine was mostly
employed. Of course, the figures given above are merely hypothetical,
and are used only to illustrate the point at issue.

(142) The defect of the Wellman machine in modern eyes is principally
its slow velocity. The great weights which are now obtained from
revolving flat cards cannot, or at any rate have not, been obtained
from the self-stripper, and, in consequence, the latter has become
discredited. But it must not be forgotten that the former machine
has had an amount of mechanical skill lavished upon it which has
been absent from the latter. This does not mean that the Wellman has
not been well made, but it has not been so well constructed as the
revolving flat type has during recent years. It is quite within the
bounds of possibility that the self-stripper may have a revival, when
its undoubted capability for good work may be combined with great
productive power. It is often combined with a roller machine and used
as a finisher carding engine, and is in other cases fitted with two or
three rollers before the flats are reached.

(143) Reference was made in paragraph 105 to the use of a dish-feed.
In Fig. 69 illustrations are given of this part of the mechanism, as
made by Messrs. Dobson and Barlow, this being a reproduction of an
illustration contained in a pamphlet on “Carding,” by Mr. B. A. Dobson.
It will be seen that the feed-roller =A= revolves in the curved portion
of the plate =C=, and that the nose of the latter is specially shaped
to suit various classes of cotton. The principle involved here is
precisely that referred to in paragraph 94 in dealing with the scutcher
feed. The shorter the staple the more acute the surface from which
it is struck can be without damaging the fibre. While a long fibre
will permit of bending round a roller or lever end of large size, the
shorter stapled varieties will simply be dragged downwards and crushed
with precisely the same treatment. A close examination of the three
views marked =K=, =G=, and =R= will illustrate this point, these being
respectively for Surat, American, and Egyptian cotton. The adoption of
the dish-feed is one of the most important of the minor improvements
made in the carding engine, and leads to the straightening out of the
lap end, owing to the exactitude of the rate of feed which can be
attained. For the full success of this appliance it must be used in
conjunction with the saw tooth on the licker-in, a description of which
is given in the next chapter. This is a description of tooth which does
not become charged or choked with dirt, nor does it require grinding,
so that it is always in condition to deal effectually with the cotton.
The action of this class of tooth is very graphically shown in Figs. 70
and 71, two reproductions of photographs in Mr. Dobson’s paper above
referred to, of a lap end before and after the licker-in has acted
upon it. They very clearly demonstrate the enormous effect produced by
the licker-in teeth, and show how effectually all dirt and motes are

(144) Again referring to Fig. 69, it will be seen that below the dish
=C= two blades or “mote knives” are placed, which can be readily
adjusted so as to present a sharp edge to the cotton as it is flung
down by the licker-in, and so scrape off the “motes” from its
surface. The object of these knives is similar to that of the leaf
extractor used in a scutcher, and described in paragraph 77. Beneath
the licker-in and beyond the knives a casing =E= is placed. These
are usually made of tinned iron, and form a sort of grid through the
interstices of which the droppings can fall. From their position
they are known as “under casings.” The exact setting of these is a
matter of high importance during working, and should be ascertained
by observation when dealing with different classes of cotton. It has
been found that the use of under casings with the licker-in has been
attended with considerable economy. They are also used beneath the
cylinder, and should be as carefully set as is the case with those
under the licker-in. In determining the distance, regard should be
had to the quality of cotton used and its length of staple, as, if
the fibres actually strike the bars of the grid, they may adhere to
them and partially choke the latter. On the other hand it is found
that too wide a setting is followed by increased waste. It is both
possible and advisable to find the golden mean by observation. Messrs.
Platt Brothers and Co., Limited, have a special way of forming the
undercasings, the bars of which are secured to turned wrought iron
segmental rings, the position of which can be regulated from outside
the machine by special setting screws. They also attach the licker-in
casing and mote knives to the cylinder under casing, so that they
are all set in combination, and an alteration of the position of the
licker-in leads to a readjustment of all its attachments. The three
gauges mentioned in paragraph 132 are combined, and the casings set
sufficiently far from the cylinder to permit of the introduction of the
three gauges. That is to say, the space left is ·031 of an inch, which
is found to be generally ample, but this is subject to the remarks
previously made.

[Illustration: FIG. 69. J.N.]

(145) In addition to the necessity for under casings, covers are
required for the licker-in, cylinder, and doffer. As the circles
described by the teeth on these three parts approach each other, as
shown in Fig. 46, it is desirable that the covers used should go as
near to the point of approach as possible. If any space is left the
fly and dirt speedily fills it, and from time to time drops upon the
doffer, causing a thick place in the sliver. The arrangement used by
Messrs. Dobson and Barlow is shown in Fig. 72, and it will be seen that
the cover goes close down into the space left between the cylinder and
doffer, and effectually prevents any accumulation of dirt. The cover is
in three parts, and is hinged so as to permit of the surface of either
cylinder =H= or doffer =F= being stripped or ground as desired. Setting
arrangements are provided, by which the cover can be maintained in an
accurate position during the whole period of work, although it may
be necessary to set the doffer in towards the cylinder. The shape of
the centre portion is specially designed to permit it to receive the
strippings from the flats. Again referring to Fig. 69, it will be seen
that similar arrangements are made for the licker-in and flats, the
space between the flats and the cylinder wire being filled as shown,
as is also the space between the licker-in and cylinder. The cover
=F= over the cylinder and licker-in can be set up as desired, as can
also the filling piece =L= below. All the covers are arranged to fit
closely to the bend at the edges, so that there cannot be any blowing
out at the side of the cylinder.

[Illustration: FIG. 72. J.N.]

(146) The driving of the cylinder is obtained from the line shaft by
means of a fast pulley fixed on the cylinder shaft, a loose pulley
adjoining it to facilitate stoppage. The licker-in is usually driven
from the cylinder by a crossed strap, and the doffer from the licker-in
by a similar strap, which passes over a pulley mounted on a stud fixed
in a lever. The pulley has a pinion on its boss, which engages with
the doffer wheel =U=, and so drives it. The pinion, or “barrow-wheel,”
can thus be easily thrown out of gear, as desired. The feed-roller
is driven by a side shaft from the doffer shaft, placed on the other
side of the machine to the main driving and the doffer comb by a cord
passing over a grooved pulley on the cylinder shaft. The calender
rollers are driven from the doffer, and the coiler shaft from the
spindle of the calender roller.

(147) The pedestal is constructed with an extra long bearing, the
shaft being 3-1/2 inches diameter and the bearing 7 inches long. The
bush lining the pedestal is usually made of phosphor bronze, or some
equally good material, in order to resist wear. It was pointed out in
paragraph 119 that it is essential that the position of the centre
of the cylinder shall be continually maintained, and it is therefore
desirable to guard against its movement. If it is considered, it will
be understood that the centrifugal action set up by the rotation of so
heavy a body as a carding engine cylinder will cause it to endeavour
to roll forward, and thus induce wear in the front of the cylinder
bearing. This is aided by the pull of the strap, which is usually
towards the front. The provision of some ready means by which the wear
can be taken up and the position of the cylinder centre restored,
is, therefore, of great service. It is not practicable to employ the
conical bearings often used in other classes of machines, as the wear
not being equal, a tightening of the bearing would not take it up.

(148) Messrs. Howard and Bullough adopt a plan by which the pedestal is
fitted upon two wedges, or inclined metallic surfaces, placed one above
the other. By setting one or both of these wedges in either direction,
the pedestal is so adjusted that the cylinder centre can be moved
either laterally, vertically, or angularly, as is required. Another
plan, adopted by Messrs. Ashworth Bros., consists of the formation
on the pedestal of three projections, or claws. The inner surface of
these is bored concentrically with the pedestal bearing, so that when
the cylinder is in its true position, a cylindrical template, bored
to correspond with the diameter of the shaft, and turned on its outer
surface the same size as that to which the projections are bored, can
be easily pushed up to the face of the pedestal. Unless this can be
done the cylinder is not concentric, and the adjustment of the bearing
must be made accordingly. Messrs. Dobson and Barlow employ the device
shown in Fig. 73, which consists of two eccentric bushes, =X Y=,
surrounding the bush in which the shaft =Z= revolves. The eccentricity
of each of the bushes is equal, and thus by moving one or both the
position of the centre of the cylinder can be adjusted at will, either
laterally, vertically, or angularly. To facilitate the adjustment, two
screwed rods, =U V=, are attached respectively to lugs formed on the
bushes =X Y=, and pass through brackets formed on the pedestal. By
means of nuts placed at each side of the brackets the adjustment of the
position of the eccentric bushes can be made at will.

(149) In order to diminish the evil effects of the pull of the strap,
as mentioned in paragraph 119, the plan shown in Fig. 74 has been
adopted by Messrs. Ashworth Bros. Instead of keying the fast pulley
on the shaft, it revolves on a hollow boss =C=, which has a flange or
plate attached to the pedestal =F=. The pull of the strap on the fast
pulley =A= is therefore taken by the bush or hollow boss =C=, and not
by the shaft. Fixed on the shaft is a coupler =D=, which is formed with
two arms engaging with corresponding recesses in the centre of the boss
of the pulley =A=, something similar to the ordinary driver used in
turning. By these means the shaft is rotated without there being any
pull upon it, and one fruitful source of forward wear is thus removed.

(150) The three points which it is necessary to bear in mind in regard
to carding were indicated at the opening of this chapter. These were
the cleansing, parallelisation, and attenuation of the lap, and a few
words may be said about each in that order. The velocity with which
the teeth of the licker-in strike the end of the lap causes the fibres
to be effectually loosened, and shakes a good many of the motes out
of the cotton. Others are left on the surface of the fibres held by
the licker-in wire, and are removed by the mote-knives as described,
while some enter the spaces of the licker-in covering, from which they
are easily thrown. On passing to the cylinder, the short fibres are
largely thrown off as fly, or when they are subjected to the combing
action of the wire teeth on the rollers or flats they are removed, and
become fixed in the spaces in the covering. The “neps” are in a similar
way taken out of the fleece, and from this cause periodical stripping
is desirable of both rollers and flats. By reason of the centrifugal
action of the cylinder many short and nepped fibres are driven into
the roller or flat wire, but a certain proportion also remain in the
cylinder wire, which also requires stripping periodically.

(151) It is somewhat difficult to define the exact action of the wire
points by which the crossed and tangled fibres in the lap are laid in
approximately parallel order. There is little doubt, however, that the
speed of the cylinder plays an important part. The fibres are by the
action of centrifugal force thrown out, so that, while held at one end
by the cylinder wires, they are rapidly drawn through the wires on the
rollers or flats. If the grip of the fibre is slight, as in the case of
a short fibre, it will be removed, but, if it is sufficient to hold,
it follows that the fibre would be combed by the superimposed wire
teeth. In this way the thickness of the fleece on the cylinder plays an
important part in determining the amount of parallelisation the fibre
receives. If this is thin, each fibre, in all probability, receives
its due treatment, while, if it is thick, the fibres are dragged—so to
speak—through the wire teeth above, and would be likely to be injured,
besides which their arrangement is more difficult. For this reason, the
lighter the carding—that is, the less the weight of cotton passing at
a given time—the better, provided that this is not pushed so far as to
be uneconomical. It has been pointed out that the setting of the flats
in the self-stripper lends itself peculiarly to effective combing,
as the pitch of the wire teeth and the distance between them and the
cylinder teeth can be gradually made finer. In the case of the roller
card the fibres are lifted off the cylinder, and, if well held, would
be drawn straight in the process. In their transfer by the clearer to
the cylinder the fibres are further dealt with, but it is problematical
whether the alternate raising and return of the fibres from and to the
cylinder, results in a parallel order being obtained equal to that by
other machines. A good result arises from the use of a roller card as a
breaker, and a self-stripper as a finisher card, and this arrangement
is often adopted.

[Illustration: FIG. 73. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 74. J.N.]

(152) The attenuation of the lap is one of the most important functions
of the carding engine, because it is the first stage in the formation
of a thread, by reason of the easy condensation or collection of the
thin film into a strand. Assuming that the feed roller is 2-1/2 inches
in diameter and makes one revolution per minute, it will deliver 7·854
inches of lap. The licker-in being 8 inches in diameter, and revolving
at a speed of 400 per minute, is capable of delivering 10053·12
inches. As it cannot get this length of lap, it follows that in its
revolution the teeth remove a small portion of the cotton continuously,
and thus produce a layer or fleece, which is increased in length and
diminished in thickness. The ratio of this increase is that just
given, being equal to 1,280 : 1. When the cotton is transferred to
the cylinder a further reduction takes place. The cylinder, being 50
inches in diameter and revolving, say, 150 times per minute, is capable
of delivering 23,562 inches of cotton, or 2·34 times as much as the
licker-in. Thus, up to this stage, the lap is elongated 3,000 times, as
compared to its thickness when passing the feed roller. If the lap is
1/40 inch thick the fleece on the cylinder, if spread out, will only
be 1/120000 inch thick. It will be easily seen by a reference to the
sizes of the cotton fibres that this is much thinner than the smallest
diameter of individual fibres, and it follows, therefore, that if there
was only this amount of cotton on the cylinder there would be many bare
places. As the work of carding proceeds the cylinder becomes charged
with cotton, but is never so full that the fibres cannot be carded
thoroughly and individually, unless the rate of feed is excessive
or largely increased. As the fleece is deposited on the doffer the
reverse process occurs, as the doffer, being 24 inches diameter and
revolving only 12 times per minute, would only deliver 904·78 inches,
or 1/25th of that of the cylinder. Thus, the sliver, when collected,
would be about 1/115th of the thickness of the lap. These figures are,
of course, only approximations. As was previously shown in paragraph
112, the rollers and clearers in a roller card revolve at a much slower
speed than the cylinder. The cotton is therefore subjected to a series
of condensations and attenuations as it passes round the machine.

(153) An enlarged view of the sliver as it leaves the doffer is given
in Fig. 75, and shows that the fibres, although not in parallel
order, are arranged so that a slight additional pull is sufficient
to straighten them. This the sliver receives partially between the
calender rollers and the coiler, but it is in the drawing frame that
the greatest effect is obtained. The draught there exercised speedily
causes parallel order to be attained in the sliver, which is in good
condition for this action. The draught in a carding engine takes
place between the feed rollers and licker-in, between the licker-in
and cylinder, and between the calender rollers and coiler, the total
draught being reckoned between the feed roller and coiler. The question
as to the speed of the doffer turns upon the amount of condensation
required and the weight it is desired to get through the machine. There
is a distinct relation between the speed of the cylinder and that of
the doffer, but it has never yet been practically fixed, and carders
vary in their speeds considerably.


[Illustration: FIG. 75.]

[Illustration: FIG. 70.]

[Illustration: FIG. 71.]



(154) As was shown in the preceding chapter, the cylinder, doffer
rollers, &c., of carding engines are covered with a wire clothing, the
proper construction of which is of high importance. It forms a sort
of wire brush, in which the points are fixed in a special matrix, or
“foundation,” as it is called. Formerly it was the universal practice
to make the foundation of leather, but various considerations have led
to its abandonment, except in the case of woollen cards where an oily
or greasy material requires dealing with. In lieu of leather three
specially prepared materials are now employed, one being what is called
a cotton-wool-cotton, another cotton, and the third a natural rubber
foundation. The first of these consists of two thicknesses of cotton
cloth specially woven with a wool fabric cemented between them. The
rubber foundation consists of a thin sheet of natural india-rubber
imposed upon and securely cemented to a back of cotton and wool. Great
care is taken that the india-rubber shall be pure, and in some cases
the manufacturers of card clothing also produce their rubber sheets.
The object aimed at in each case is to obtain a foundation which shall
be strong enough to hold the wires securely, and at the same time be
possessed of some elasticity, so as to aid the wires to recover their
position when bent during work.

(155) It was at one time the practice to make the cards in sheets
four inches wide, and long enough to cover the width of the machine,
but this has been abandoned in favour of a plan by which they are
made in long strips or “fillets.” These are long enough to completely
cover the cylinder, on which they are wound in a way which will be
hereafter described. Having obtained the fillet for the foundation,
the next step is to introduce the wires. These are produced from a
reel of specially drawn steel wire, which is frequently hardened and
tempered by a continuous process. It is essential in conducting the
latter that the wire should be free from scale, and, in the great
majority of cases, this is attained. In fixing the wires into the
foundation the preliminary step is to cut off from the wire carried on
a reel a sufficient length, and bend it up into the form of a right
angled staple, having two parallel arms joined by the third side. The
extremities of these arms constitute two of the points to be fixed in
the foundation, so that it will be seen these are always introduced in
pairs, and not singly. In order to facilitate their passage through the
foundation, two holes, pitched to correspond with the distance of the
two points apart, are pierced in it, and immediately on the withdrawal
of the piercer the staple is pushed in, and forced up to its place.
Almost simultaneously with this operation it is set—that is, is bent
to an angle as shown in Fig. 85. After one pair of wire points are
fixed the fillet is traversed, so as to introduce another pair at the
required distance from the last one. When the width of the fillet has
been filled with teeth it is moved a little lengthways, far enough to
begin the next line, and the direction of the carriage is reversed.
It is highly important that the wire points should be set equidistant
over the whole of the surface, so that when the cylinder is clothed,
the regularity of the carding points will be unvarying. The whole of
the operations of feeding, cutting, and bending the wire, piercing the
fillet, forcing in the teeth, traversing and reversing the carriage,
and traversing the fillet longitudinally, are automatically performed
by a machine of great ingenuity, originally invented by Mr. J. C. Dyer.
It is one of the best examples in the whole range of mechanics of the
power of the cam, and works with great rapidity, being capable of
fixing over 300 pairs of wire points per minute.

[Illustration: FIG. 76.]

(156) The teeth can be set in the foundation in three ways—either
plain, twilled, or ribbed, these settings being shown in Fig. 76, the
dots representing the wire points, the back of the teeth being shown by
the dotted lines. In the first case the teeth are in straight lines;
in the second they are, as the name implies, set diagonally; while
in the third they are in straight lines, but set so that they are in
sets of three, each of which overlaps its predecessor. Generally,
plain setting is very little used, fillets being commonly made ribbed,
except in the case of the flat covering, which, when mild steel wire
is employed, is usually twilled. In manufacturing cards for covering
the flats it is common to commence with a large sheet equal in width to
the length of the flat. The teeth are then set for a space equal to the
width of the flat, when the sheet is rapidly traversed longitudinally
until the point for starting a new flat strip is reached. These strips
are cut out of the sheet, and thus leave the necessary margins for
fastening to the flat. In America twilled setting is preferred, but,
in this country, it is objected that spaces are left between each lap
when fixed on the cylinder, which is very objectionable. This fault
does not occur where ribbed fillets are used, and it is now almost
the universal practice to use this setting for cylinder and doffing
coverings. However the teeth are set in this respect, they vary also
in their distance from each other, and this variation depends on the
“counts” of the wire. This phrase is used to indicate the fineness of
the pitch of the wire teeth, and the method of counting is based on
the number of teeth in the width of the sheets formerly made. Thus, if
there were 100 teeth in a sheet four inches wide, the counts were said
to be 100’s, the same rule being applied to-day. Longitudinally, the
pitch of the teeth was ten “crowns,” or points, to the inch, this being
also retained as a standard of measurement. In this way it is possible,
by knowing the counts of wire, to calculate easily the number of teeth
per square inch. Thus, in the instance named, there would be 100 × 10 =
1,000 teeth in the four inches of width by one inch in length, which is
equal to 250 teeth in every square inch.

[Illustration: FIG. 77. J.N.]

(157) In clothing the various parts of the machine experience has
shown that there can be wise variations made in the kind used. Every
spinner has ideas of his own, and as there is a wide difference in
the class of material treated no rule can be laid down. In clothing
the licker-in, a tooth which is known as the “Garnett” is universally
used. An illustration of this is given, in full size, in Fig. 77, the
finer tooth shown being used when no undercasings are fitted, and
the coarser when they are. It will be noticed that the former is a
little more hooked than the latter, which enables it to carry round
the cotton without flinging it below the licker-in. The presence of an
undercasing obviates much of the necessity for this carrying power,
and the tooth is only required to beat off the cotton from the lap and
thus throw down the motes, etc. In covering the cylinders of roller
carding engines, where medium counts of yarn are being spun, clothing
with 90’s to 100’s wire is used, the rollers being covered with the
same counts, the clearers with a finer wire, and the doffers from 100’s
to 120’s. These, of course, are sizes which are commonly employed, and
indicate the usual limits, but, as has been observed, practice varies
considerably in this respect. In revolving flat carding engines the
cylinders are covered with 110’s, and doffers and flats with 120’s for
medium counts of yarn. It may be generally stated that the finer the
counts of yarn spun, all other things being equal, the finer the wire
clothing employed; but it can only be settled by practice what are the
best counts to use in any individual case.

(158) As has been observed, the wires are, in the process of setting,
bent to an angle, or, rather, a double angle, after leaving the
foundation. A reference to Fig. 85 will show that they leave the
foundation at an angle in one direction, and afterwards bend sharply
in the opposite direction. The diagram given in Fig. 78 illustrates
this construction. The foundation is shown by the letter =D=, to which
the line =A B= is perpendicular, leaving the upper surface of =D= at
=E=. The tooth is indicated by the line =A C E B^{1}=, and it will be
noticed that the point of the tooth at =A= is perpendicular to the
point =E= where it leaves the foundation. This is the correct setting,
or nearly so, for the following reason. Some makers, it may be stated,
prefer to let the point =A= be a little behind the perpendicular line
=A E=. In working, the wire point is pressed by the material and is
sprung backward, in which case it—when set as shown—will radiate round
=E= and move in the circle shown by the letters =F A G=. Thus, if
another set of wire points are imposed upon the lower ones, the flexure
of the latter, in either direction, is followed by their recession
from the former, and no danger exists of any interlocking, which, if it
occurs, is injurious to both sets of teeth. As the relative positions
of the upper and lower teeth are of the character described in the
previous chapter, the adoption of the method of setting the teeth
indicated is of considerable importance. It is, of course, possible to
vary the angularity or “keen” as desired, and the more acute the angle
=E C A= the more fibre caught and retained. Thus the proportion of
waste made in a machine during work is largely dependent on the angular
setting of the wires, and this is a point specially worth noting. The
essential element is the approximate perpendicularity of the point =A=
of the wire to that (=E=) where it leaves the foundation.

(159) With regard to the shape of the tooth a good deal can be said.
Ideal carding would be obtained by the use of fine needle points
closely set, as will be seen in dealing with the combing machine,
but it is manifestly impossible to employ teeth of this description
in a carding engine. Although they might be inserted and used in new
clothing, as soon as they became blunt it would be impossible to
restore their points owing to their position in the clothing. But the
principle remains; and, failing the employment of needle points, the
attention of makers has been directed to the production of a wire
which will present to the cotton what is practically a needle—or
more accurately—a knife edge, which can easily be renewed after
wear. To Messrs. Ashworth Brothers belongs undoubtedly the credit of
this important step, which brought in its train many changes in the
general construction of the machine. They use a wire which is round in
section, but which they grind at the side so that above the foundation
it becomes oblong, thus presenting a sharp edge to the fibres while
preserving all the necessary strength in the portion fixed in the
foundation. Various other sections have been employed, such as double
convex, triangular, and oblong, and by a special system of grinding the
same kind of edge is produced. The teeth when fixed in the fillets are
ground on their edges by thin emery disc wheels formed with bevelled
edges, which pass between the teeth and grind them to a sharp edge. A
pair of teeth of this character, magnified 13 times, are shown in Fig.
79, which is from a photograph lent by Messrs. J. Whiteley and Sons. It
will be noticed that the line of the tooth is gradually tapered until
the point, which assumes very nearly the character of a needle point,
is reached.

(160) The question as to how far this “plough” grinding is a good
thing is one which it is worth while dealing with at length. It is
undoubtedly true that steel wire carefully hardened and tempered will,
under equal conditions, wear longer than a softer variety, but it is
sometimes argued that the advantage thus derived is counterbalanced by
the grave faults often existing after a surface of this kind has been
side ground. The idea of a needle point is the right one, but it is
worse than useless unless the wire remains smooth. There are two evils
to be guarded against—the barbing or hooking of the wire points and the
striation of the sides of the teeth. Both of these faults are often
produced in side grinding, this fact having been fully established by a
number of investigations made by various observers.

(161) It is apparent that the abrasion of a wire surface by means of an
emery wheel is sure to produce a certain degree of roughness. If any
student of the subject will take the trouble to examine newly-ground
clothing by the aid of a glass magnifying from 10 to 20 times, the
scratches caused by the rotation of the emery wheel are easily seen.
It requires very little reflection to show that this is sure to be
detrimental. Mr. B. A. Dobson, of Bolton, who has gone very extensively
into the subject, published with an address delivered by him in America
an interesting series of photographic representations of side ground
teeth. These were enlarged a number of times, and were then reproduced.
Striated sides and barbed points are common in this series. Now the
inevitable effect of such a tooth is to break or destroy the fibre, or
remove from its surface a portion of the waxy covering. This leads to
an increased waste in the subsequent processes, although that produced
in the carding machine may be less. It is hardly worth while discussing
the point further, but there is one fact which speaks volumes as to the
general opinion on the subject. It is agreed that the treatment of the
teeth by those of a wire burnishing brush has a very beneficial effect
upon them, and the carding afterwards carried out is much cleaner and
better. This is one reason why the brush used to strip the flats is
occasionally made of wire. As the action of a burnisher is to remove
scratches previously made, its use is a confession of their existence.

[Illustration: FIG. 78. J.N.]

(162) The roughening of the wire teeth is not, however, inevitable.
In Fig. 80 is shown a side view of a plough ground tooth magnified 32
diameters. In this the striations are most marked, and there needs no
comment to demonstrate their existence. In Fig. 81 a similar tooth
ground in a special manner, and similarly enlarged, is shown. The
surface of this is so much smoother than the other, that practically it
is perfect. At any rate it is so much better than the one shown in Fig.
80, which is ground in the usual way, as to be an entirely different
article. Both of these photographs are supplied by Messrs. John
Whiteley and Sons, and the system of grinding by which the tooth shown
in Fig. 81 was obtained, is now in regular use by them. The objection
is not to needle or chisel shaped teeth side ground, but to these plus
striation, and if the addition can be removed, many of the objections
rightly entertained will be obviated.

(163) When the clothing has worn it is desirable to grind it frequently
but lightly. The practice of allowing the tooth to become very blunt
prior to grinding is very objectionable, as it leads to heavy grinding
and there is a danger of hooked teeth. It is impossible to state a
general rule on the subject, as the periods of grinding depend so
largely on the class of cotton treated, but it is better to give a
light grinding to the wire every few weeks.

(164) In the last chapter, in paragraph 107, it is pointed out that the
cylinder is drilled with a number of holes arranged in straight lines
across its periphery, in which wooden plugs are tightly driven. These
are intended to aid in fastening on the fillets, and before clothing
the cylinder or doffer, it is desirable to mark the centre of each line
of holes on each edge, and to set out the position of each hole in one
line on a staff. In this way, when the surface is covered, the exact
position of each plug can be ascertained, and the tack inserted without
damaging the wire. As the cylinder surface is quite level, the fillets
are in some cases wrapped on the bare face, but there is some danger
of the clothing slipping, especially if made with a rubber foundation.
To obviate this serious defect, the surface of the cylinder is covered
with a specially woven cotton cloth, or with brown paper, the former
being preferable. This covering is put on without any puckers or
creases—a very essential thing—and is attached to the cylinder by a
special kind of cement or paste. On a surface prepared in this manner
rubber foundations will not slip in working. With fillets in which the
foundation is a woollen one, these precautions are not necessary. If
it is intended to employ rubber foundations, great care must be taken
before proceeding to clothe the cylinder. The fillets must be kept in
a room heated to the same, or a little higher, temperature than the
card room in which they have to work. This treatment causes the fillet
to expand to a certain extent, and should be continued for some hours
prior to their being used. Thus when the fillets are fixed in their
position they do not expand as they would do if kept in a cold room
before being used. Woollen foundations do not expand by heat, and can,
therefore, be used and fixed without the preparation named. For this
reason they are suitable for employment in places where the direct
sunlight can fall on them. Oil being detrimental to india-rubber,
fillets with that foundation should never be used where oil is likely
to fall on them. A certain disintegration of rubber foundations occurs
in some cases in hot climates, but they are largely used in England.

[Illustration: FIG. 79.]

[Illustration: FIG. 80.]

[Illustration: FIG. 81.]

[Illustration: FIG. 82.]

(165) Having prepared the fillets for wrapping on, the operation is
completed. Formerly they were wound on manually, but this is now
almost invariably done automatically by a machine made by Messrs. J.
Whiteley and Sons, which is illustrated in Fig. 82. One end of the
fillet is securely fixed, and the cylinder is then started. The cross
slide =K= is fixed on the frame of the machine, or on a special frame
if preferred, when the doffers are being clothed, and the apparatus
is then ready for work. On the slide =K= a carriage is fitted which
is traversed by a screw, on the end of which is a chain wheel =L=,
by means of which the necessary movement can be given from the
chain-pulley =O= automatically, or it can be manually given by the
handle =R=. The carriage bears a drum mounted on a cradle hinged to the
carriage. The angular position of the drum is regulated by the tension
screw, and the tension put upon the fillet, in pounds, is registered by
a finger moving over a graduated scale. The card fillet is taken from
the basket through the trough =D=, thence over the drum, from which
it is taken to the cylinder. The cylinder is revolved by means of the
handle =R=, and the card clothing is slowly wrapped on, the traverse
of the carriage being arranged to be at the required speed. In lieu of
the drum Messrs. Dronsfield Brothers use a stepped cone, which gives
a similar result. Thus, cylinder fillets, when made of hardened and
tempered wire, can be wound under a tension of 270lbs., while doffer
fillets of the same quality only require one of 175lbs., and for
roller fillets, which are only 1 inch wide, 120lbs. is sufficient.
What is required is to so wrap the fillets that, without straining
them, they adhere closely to the surface of the cylinder or doffer; and
do not, after working, rise in places or “blister,” as it is called.
After the cylinder is covered the fillet is fastened at its free end,
and is then allowed to rest for a few hours, so that it adjusts itself
throughout its length. It is necessary to shape the fillet at each end
so that, when wound, no break in the carding surface occurs; and, for
this purpose, it is usually cut to a shape which permits the first and
second coils and the last two to lie close together. It is then tacked
on in the way previously described, a special tool being used to drive
the tack and avoid damaging the wire.

[Illustration: FIG. 83. J.N.]

(166) In fastening the clothing upon the flats several methods are
pursued. A reference to Fig. 83 shows two of these. In =A=, which
is 2 inches wide, and =B=, which is 1-3/8 inches wide, the edges of
the flats are drilled with small holes, and the strip of clothing is
similarly punched. One side of the strip is then fastened to the flat
by means of lead rivets, and it is then drawn tight along its whole
length by a special clip. The other edge is, while the strip is held
in tension, riveted firmly in a similar manner. A machine for this
purpose, made by Messrs. Dronsfield Brothers, is shown in Fig. 84.
Another method is one originated by Messrs. Ashworth Brothers, and is
shown in =C= and =D=. In this case the strip is attached by means of
wire stitching, the flat being sawn at its edge at regular intervals,
as is very clearly shown. A third plan is illustrated in Figs. 85 and
86 in partial perspective and transverse section, this being made by
Messrs. John Whiteley and Sons. A clip is passed through the clothing
and flat, and is then clenched, as shown separately in Fig. 87. The
strip of clothing is then drawn tight, and the second clip fixed in
the same way. This method is rapid and effective, and possesses one
important advantage. By it the margins of the flat strip are protected
from being frayed by the revolving brush used to clean them.

(167) In dealing with the construction of the flats it has been shown
that there is a movement towards the use of shorter ones, for the
reason that it is felt to be desirable to prevent any deflection
by having a stiff flat. Upon this point the consideration of the
advantages of various systems of fastening the clothing largely turns.
It is quite clear that any removal of metal, either by drilling or
sawing, is likely to weaken the flat. It is, however, not so readily
seen which is the most weakening, but actual experiments show that
wire sewing is so. Mr. B. A. Dobson, of Bolton, has made a series of
tests of flats, both drilled and sewn, to ascertain the deflection
during working and grinding positions, and the side deflection. These
establish very clearly the superior strength of the riveted flat,
which is very considerable. For instance, a flat 45-5/8 inches long
by 1-3/8 inches wide, with the same thickness in flat and web, gave
the following deflections when loaded with a 1lb. and 2lbs. weight
respectively. Unclothed, sawn for wire sewing: 1st, when face up,
1/380th and 1/200th inch; 2nd, when on its side, 1/330th and 1/166th
inch; and, 3rd, when face downwards, 1/660th and 1/400th inch.
Unclothed, drilled for rivets, the deflections in the three positions
named were as follows: 1st, 1/1000th and 1/500th inch; 2nd, 1/400th
and 1/275th inch; and, 3rd, 1/875th and 1/400th inch. The reason for
this is not far to seek. The riveted flat has throughout its length an
unbroken metallic surface along its edge, while the sewn flat is broken
at intervals to permit the passage of the wire. For the reasons given
in paragraph 118, the difference between 1/660th and 1/875th inch is
material, especially when the settings of the flats are supposed to be
regulated to the 1/1000th inch.

(168) In Fig 88 is illustrated a plan by which the necessity for
piercing the flat either with holes or nicks is entirely obviated. This
is patented by Mr. Tweedale, manager for Messrs. Howard and Bullough,
and consists in the employment of a metallic clip, which grips the
clothing at one side, and is bent round and under a small rib on
the underside of the flat. The clip is closed by means of a special
machine, which runs rapidly along the flat, the two sides being gripped
simultaneously, and the fillet stretched by the same machine and at the
same time. With this construction the maximum strength of the flat is
preserved throughout all its positions and under all working pressures.
A similar arrangement is used by Messrs. Ashworth Brothers, but the
shape and construction of the clip and the method of fixing slightly
varies from that described. It is to be noted, however, that the width
of the flat strip must be rather less in each case than that of the
flat, and that the strip must in consequence be stretched so as to
cover the surface. It is essential that the clips shall be fixed so as
to be in contact with the planed edge of the flat throughout its entire
length. The edges of the flats ought to be quite straight, especially
if they are closely pitched, as otherwise they would come into contact
in places. If, therefore, the clips referred to are not pressed closely
against the sides of the flats throughout their entire length the
danger of touching is increased.

[Illustration: FIG. 84.]

[Illustration: FIG. 85.]

[Illustration: FIG. 86.]

[Illustration: FIG. 87.]

[Illustration: FIG. 88.]

(169) Messrs. Platt Brothers and Company have recently devised a
fastening of tinned wire, which is bent up by special machinery so as
to form a continuous series of staples, the pitch of the points of
which is about 1/2 inch. The staples are connected at the points, so
that a length can be produced sufficient for fastening any flat. Holes
are drilled in the flat through which the staples are pushed, and are
pressed downwards and held. While in that position the points are
clenched similarly to Messrs. Whiteley’s clip, and the clothing thus
secured. This arrangement is practically a system of sewing without
the disadvantage arising from the sawing of the edge of the flat. A
strength equal to a riveted flat is obtained, with the advantage of a
continuous grip along the flat strip. All these arrangements, however,
imply the use of special machines to fix them, which is a condition not
always attainable in a mill. For these reasons, where it is difficult
to return the flats to a machinist for re-clothing, the use of rivets
is most desirable.

(170) No less important than the proper fixing of the clothing in
position is the operation of grinding it before starting work and after
the points have worn. The licker-in is not ground, as the teeth do not
require it, and their shape is such that grinding is impracticable. The
cylinder is ground in position, and the question as to which is the
correct method is one about which there is a good deal of controversy.
In theory it is quite true that the periphery of a cylinder revolving,
say, 180 times per minute, will tend to follow a path which is not
an absolutely true circle. Further, the vibration set up in working,
and the constant tendency from centrifugal action for the cylinder to
roll forward, have a certain bearing on the subject. For these reasons
there are some persons who contend that during the grinding of the
cylinder teeth the cylinder should be run at its normal velocity, and
the emery grinding roller be driven at a surface speed approximating to
that of the cylinder. While this contention is theoretically correct,
the disturbance caused by the high velocity of the cylinder is not of
practical moment, and it is found to give the best results to run the
cylinder slowly and the emery roller quickly. In all operations in
which a true surface has to be established these conditions are found
to be the best, and the grinding of a carding engine cylinder forms no
exception to the rule. The danger of damage to the wire joints is much
less likely, and the high speed of the grinder aids materially in light
grinding, which it will be shown is of great moment. It is, therefore,
the universal practice to reduce the normal speed of the cylinder
to one varying from 7 to 1-1/2 revolutions per minute, and several
special devices are in the market for the purpose. Before passing on to
describe these, it may be said that the cylinder is ground by an emery
roller, sustained in special brackets fitted to the machine framing,
the position of which is shown in Fig. 44 at =R=. A similar method of
procedure is adopted with the doffer, the brackets being placed at =S=.

(171) The most common appliance to obtain a slow motion of the cylinder
is that known as Sykes’, which is shown in Fig. 89, as made by Messrs.
Dronsfield Brothers, of Oldham. This consists of fast and loose
pulleys, which are driven by a strap from a pulley on the line shaft.
The pulleys are sustained in a frame which also carries a short strap,
on which is fastened at one end a bevel and at the other end a worm.
The frame is supported by the two legs shown, which can be adjusted
to any length. The worm wheel is fixed on the cylinder shaft in place
of the ordinary pulley, and is driven by the worm and gearing as
described. A slow motion is thus given to the cylinder, and at the same
time the grinding rollers are driven by bands or cords from grooves
formed in a flange on the fast pulley.

[Illustration: FIG. 89.]

[Illustration: FIGS. 90-92.]

(172) A motion patented by Messrs. John Hetherington and Sons is
illustrated in Figs. 90 and 91. In Fig. 92 a side view of a carding
engine is shown, with the motion applied to it. On the stud =G=, which
usually carries the intermediate band pulleys, shown by the dotted line
=I=, the boss =F= of the supporting frame =A= is fitted. The apparatus
is shown in Fig. 90 in section, and consists of the supporting frame
named, the boss =A^{1}= of which forms a bearing for the shaft =B=,
with the eccentric =B^{1}= formed on it. On one end of the shaft the
double grooved pulley =C= is fixed, by means of which it is revolved.
An internal rack =A^{2}= is formed on the fixed frame =A=, and
adjoining the latter is the compounded pulley =D=. =D= is also formed
with an internal rack and a single grooved pulley, and revolves on
the outer end of the shaft =B=, being kept in position by the nut and
washer shown. There are thus two racks, each containing the same number
of teeth, one fixed and the other free to revolve. Mounted on the
eccentric =B^{1}= are two wheels =E= =E^{1}=, the latter being smaller
in diameter than the other, this arrangement being shown clearly in
front view in Fig. 91

(173) The action of this mechanism is as follows: The pulley =C= is
driven by a band =K= passing over the pulley =J= on the main cylinder
shaft =H=. In this way =C= is revolved, and the eccentric movement of
the shaft =B= causes the wheel =E=^{1} to fall into gear with the rack
=A^{2}=. This gives a rotary motion to the wheels =E= =E^{1}=, and the
larger diameter of =E= causes it to revolve at a greater rate than
=E^{1}=. The revolution of =B=, in addition to setting up this rotary
motion in the compound wheel =E= =E^{1}=, also puts E into gear with
the rack =D^{1}=, and causes the latter to revolve. The motion of the
pulley =C= is thus communicated to =D=, but the latter is revolved at
a much slower velocity in the direction of the shaft. By proportioning
the pulleys and wheels the necessary reduction in speed can be
obtained. The revolution of =D= is communicated to the cylinder by the
band =L= passing over the grooved pulley =M=.

[Illustration: FIG. 93. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 94.]

(174) In the machine as made by Mr. Samuel Brooks, the motion is
compounded with the barrow wheel detaching motion, as illustrated in
Figs. 93 and 94. On the same stud as the barrow wheel is a helical
wheel =C=, which is driven from the former by a clutch, and which
engages with a wheel =D= fastened on the lower end of a shaft placed
at an angle of 97°. On the other end of the shaft a worm =F= is fixed,
and gearing with the wheel =G=. During grinding the barrow wheel is
disengaged by means of the lever in which the stud carrying the former
is fixed, and the worm is thrown into gear. The speed of the cylinder
is thus reduced to about one revolution, the necessary rotation of the
wheel =C= being obtained from the pulley on the cylinder shaft. When it
is desired to grind the cylinder the strap is thrown on to the pulley,
and the necessary rotation given to the barrow wheel =B= and helical
wheel =C=. The arrangement thus described is always in position, and
does not require separately attaching to the machine, as is the case
with most of the motions in use.

[Illustration: FIGS. 95 AND 96. J.N.]

(175) Another form of apparatus recently introduced by Mr. Thomas
Knowles is the one shown in Figs. 95 and 96. In this case the boss of
the loose pulley =L= carries a pinion =J= inside the pulley which gears
with =I=, fixed on a short shaft borne by a central plate. Through the
train of wheels =H G F E C= and =B= the central pinion =A=, fastened on
the inner boss of the fast pulley =M=, is revolved. Over the central
plate, in which the spindles on which the wheels =E F G H= and =I= are
fixed, are fitted, a band =K= is passed. By tightening the latter the
plate can be prevented from revolving. In grinding, the strap is moved
on to the loose pulley, the band =K= is tightened, and the revolution
of the pulley gives motion to the whole of the wheels, thus reducing
the ultimate velocity to the required extent. During work the band =K=
is slipped off the plate, and the whole nest of wheels is carried round
with the pulleys as they revolve.

[Illustration: FIG. 97.]

(176) The rollers used for grinding the cylinder and doffer are made
in two forms. One of these is shown in Fig. 97. It consists of a light
roller made with a thin wrought iron shell secured upon a shaft,
running in brackets fixed to the frame side. The driving pulley is
fastened at one end, and at the other is a traverse arrangement,
consisting of an eccentric rotated by a worm on the shaft. By means
of a short rod the revolution of the eccentric gives a small lateral
movement—about an inch—to the roller during the whole time it is in
motion. The surface of the roller can be covered with emery in the
ordinary manner, and is either made plain or grooved. Another method
adopted by Messrs. Dronsfield Brothers, is to wrap round the roller a
narrow fillet of emery cloth, either plain or grooved as desired. In
covering, one end of the fillet is passed into the slit Fig. 98, and
is then secured by the clamp shown. About half of the width of the
fillet is left projecting, and after it is secured, it is wound on by
revolving the roller. As soon as the fillet is wound its loose end is
passed into one of the three slits Fig. 99, formed at the other end of
the roller, and is secured by the clamps. The ends are then trimmed
off, and the roller is ready for its work. The grooved covering is
preferred by many carders, as it is found to grind the wire teeth
better, and to meet the various requirements of the trade it is made
in various degrees of fineness. Three of these are shown in Figs. 100,
101, and 102, the coarser of the three being used for mild steel or
iron wire, and the finer variety for hardened and tempered wire. All
the rollers are carefully made, so as to be evenly and truly balanced,
and great care is taken to ensure them having a perfectly true surface
on which to wrap the filleting. This method of covering rollers has
a good many advantages, the chief of which is the ease with which
the operation can be conducted as compared with the older method of

[Illustration: FIGS. 98, 99.]

[Illustration: FIGS. 100-102.]

(177) Another form of roller is shown in Fig. 103, this being a
modification of the Horsfall type. It differs from the one previously
described, which covers the whole width of the surface to be ground,
whereas the Horsfall roller is a narrow roll to which a rapid
reciprocal movement is given across the surface of the wire. It
consists of a light shaft, in which is formed a straight groove for the
greater part of its length. In the bottom of this a zig-zag groove is
formed, into which a fork enters. The fork in the roller shown in the
illustration is mounted in a plug fitted into the boss of the grinding
roller, and can be removed and replaced without difficulty. Oil pads
are fitted at each end of the grinding pulley, and are covered with
brass caps, so as to keep them in position. In this way the parts are
always efficiently lubricated, while at the same time grit and dirt are
excluded. The emery roll or pulley is traversed as described by the
engagement of the fork and the spiral groove, and as soon as it reaches
either end of the longitudinal groove, it is automatically reversed.
This action takes place throughout the whole period of grinding. On the
whole, the employment of the Horsfall type of roller is not so great as
that of the continuous roller shown in Fig. 97. When the latter is used
all the teeth are ground in a straight line across the cylinder, while
the use of the Horsfall implies the grinding of the teeth in a spiral
line over the whole surface. It is quite true that the whole of the
teeth are ground in either case, but there is an obvious advantage in
treating all those in the same line at one time.

[Illustration: FIG. 103.]

(178) In grinding the cylinder the cover above the doffer is removed,
and the wire surface bared. The cylinder is then stripped in a way
which will be afterwards described, and the roller is fixed in brackets
=R=, Fig. 44, placed to receive it. The construction of these brackets
is a matter of importance. They are accurately planed, and fitted
so as to move to and from the cylinder centre in radial lines. They
must be so fixed to the bend or framing that they are quite level and
parallel with the surface of the cylinder or doffer, as otherwise they
would grind more off the wire at one side than the other. This is an
essential feature, and it is also required that they should be set so
as to grind lightly, otherwise there is a danger of producing hooked
teeth, which are very detrimental to good work. Generally, the remarks
just made apply also to the grinding of the doffer, which is effected
by means of the brackets =S=, the doffer cover being removed, and the
doffer stripped.

(179) The grinding of the flats in revolving flat engines is usually
performed by a roller sustained by the brackets =T=, which are fitted
on the side nearest the cylinder, with a surface against which the flat
end is pressed by the weighted levers shown. The accurate grinding of
the flats involves a nice problem which is worth a special explanation.
As was stated in the last chapter, paragraph 117, the flats are formed
with a heel which throws up the edge nearest the licker-in, and thus
prevents any rolling up of the fibre. In Fig. 104 a diagrammatic
representation of the relative position of the flat end and wire
surface is given. The flat end is shown by the letters =A B C D=, and
the wire by =C D E F=. It will be noticed that the line =E F= is not
parallel with =A B=, which represents the surfaces on the top of the
flat ends, but is parallel with =C D=, which represents the surface
on which the flat travels. It is obvious that if during grinding the
flat is held against a prepared surface, by means of its face =A B=,
and traversed thereon, there will be a corresponding formation of
the face =E F= of the wire, which would become parallel with =A B=.
If this happened, the whole object of reducing one of the faces on
the surface =C D= would be destroyed, as while the heel would be in
that surface it would be removed from the wire face. But if, on the
other hand, the flat is sustained on the face =C D= during its passage
under the grinding roller, the parallel relation of =C D= and =E F= is
not altered, and therefore the flat is as fit for its work as before
grinding. How to sustain the flat when being ground so as to maintain
this parallel position is the problem, which is, however, in a fair
way towards solution. The steady, forward movement of the flats during
grinding somewhat increases the difficulty, but as it is one of the
necessary elements of the case it must be duly taken into account.

[Illustration: FIG. 104.]

[Illustration: FIG. 105. J.N.]

(180) In Fig. 105 an illustration is given of an arrangement patented
by Messrs. Knowles and Tatham. The grinding bracket carries a pivot
on which the weighted lever =F= oscillates. The unweighted end of =F=
presses against the top side of the flats as they are successively
brought within the sphere of its influence, being of course turned
upside down at this point. A plate =B= is fixed in the position
indicated, being of sufficient width to engage with the flat end
without touching the wire. =B= is, as shown, formed with a shoulder,
the difference in the height of the two planed surfaces, =D= and =E=,
thus obtained being equal to the heel of the flat. The grinding roller
is indicated by the dotted line, as is also the bearing. The position
of the shoulder on =B= is such that the whole of the wire has been
ground before the flat end passes over the shoulder, and the flat
is thus kept approximately in correct position for maintaining the
parallel relation of the wire and working faces. Before the wire on the
succeeding flat begins to be ground, one of the ridges on it passes
on to the lower surface =E=, so that the wire face is brought into a
horizontal position.

[Illustration: FIG. 106. J.N.]

(181) In Fig. 106 an arrangement made by Messrs. John Hetherington
and Sons is illustrated. The ordinary grinding bracket is replaced by
another one, fixed in the same position, which carries at its upper end
a slide =K=. This moves in a bed prepared for it in the bracket, and
has the necessary bearings formed for the roller =M=. Attached to the
slide =K= and the bracket is a spiral spring =T=, which always tends to
draw =K= against a stop. The vertical lever =L= extends upward, and its
upper end presses against the inner side of the horn of the slide =K=,
so that when =L= is oscillated the slide is moved forward. On the same
spindle, forming a centre for =L=, a lever =Q= is fixed, which has a
vertical tail-piece =P=. A rib is formed on =L= through which a screw
is threaded, the point of which presses against the edge of the tail
=P=, and is, when adjusted, locked by means of a nut. The flats pass
beneath a plane surface fixed to the inside of the grinding bracket,
and their working faces are pressed against it by means of the weighted
lever =P=. The line of the flat traverse while so pressed is shown
by the dotted line =U V=. When a flat enters upon the surface on the
bracket it is pressed upwards, as described, and, while so held, the
grinding bracket is moved forward over the teeth by the action of the
cam =R= fixed on the chain roller shaft. The rotation of =R= depresses
the lever =Q=, and gives the required movement to the lever =L= and
to the slide =K=. It will be noticed that the slide =K= is placed at
such an angle that it traverses to meet the flat, the object of this
being to establish such a line of motion of the grinding roller as
corresponds to the inclination of the flat relatively to the cylinder
during work. The roller traverses in the opposite direction to that in
which the flat moves for a certain distance, when it returns and again
passes over the wire surface as that is moving forward. During the
reverse movement it moves vertically to the same extent as previously
made, so that in both cases it grinds the wire points in the desired
plane, and thus maintains the true relative distance of both sets of
teeth. By the time the reverse movement has taken place, the flat being
ground has moved forward sufficiently to pass beyond the range of the
roller, and the latter is then ready to grind the next of the series.
In this device the principle of grinding by the movement through an
angular plane of the roller axis is the central idea, and there can be
no question that this is a very likely method of getting a true result.
For it is obvious that if the flats were held stationary, and the
roller traversed in an inclined plane, the necessary regularity would
be given to the wire surface with great exactitude. A similar result is
obtainable by similar means although the flats may be slowly moving,
and this is demonstrated by the motion just described, which has been
used with great success.

(182) In Fig. 107 is shown a side elevation of Edge’s grinding
apparatus, which is made by Mr. Samuel Brooks. Its essential feature
consists of a curved plate =B=, which is fixed either to the grinding
bracket =A=, or to a fixing attached to it. Over this the flats =C=
traverse, and when they reach the centre the snugs at the back are
drawn upon the raised portion =B^{1}=, which is sufficiently long to
permit of each flat being in contact with it the whole of the time it
is passing under the grinding roller. A plate =D= is maintained in a
position above the flats, and the method of forming it and regulating
its position constitutes one of the chief features of this arrangement.
The grinding roller =G= is sustained by a bracket or bearing, in
which its axis =F= rotates. The bracket rests upon a cylindrical stem
=E^{1}=, fitting inside a cup, and also in a similar recess or barrel
=E=. The latter has a long boss which forms part of, or is attached to,
the plate =D=, and =E^{1}= is screwed and fitted with two cylindrical
nuts. Thus, by adjusting the nuts, the distance of the centre of =F=
from the under surface of =D= can be varied at will, and the pressure
of the grinding roller upon the wires fixed. The action of this
mechanism is as follows: As the flats =C= traverse they ride upon the
projection =B^{1}=, and their working surfaces are forced against the
under side of the plate =D=. The latter is shaped so that the traverse
of the flat causes one side of it to become depressed and the other to
be elevated. The peculiarity of this arrangement lies in the fact that
the change of position of the plane of the flat faces is sufficient
to ensure all the wire points being presented to the action of the
grinding roller in their correct plane. In other words, the effect is
nearly identical with that obtained when flats are held separately in
a stationary frame, and the grinding roller passed over them. Not less
important is the ease with which the position of the setting plate =D=
can be adjusted relatively to that of the grinding roller. This power
of adjustment is the chief feature of this mechanism, and as, when it
is once made it is constantly maintained, each of the series of flats
will be so ground that the distance of its wire points from its working
face will be identical with that of each of its fellows. Thus a set
of thoroughly good flats is obtained, each of which is in the best
condition to do its work. A further point which it will, perhaps, be
well to mention is, that the power of adjustment, existing by reason
of the two nuts shown, permits of the flat ends being subject to the
required pressure during grinding, which is afterwards constantly

[Illustration: FIG. 107. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 108. J.N.]

(183) Fig. 108 represents in partial section Higginson and Mc.Connell’s
patent, which has been adopted by Messrs. Dobson and Barlow. It
consists of a bracket =A= fixed as usual to the machine framing, and
having at its upper portion =C= a slot in which the small slide =D= is
fitted. This slide has its underside shaped to the extent necessary
to give the flats the required amount of inclination during grinding,
and at the end of this surface is formed with a lip as shown. A spiral
spring =E= is fitted in the slot, and presses against the end of the
slide when the latter is in its normal position. The flats =G=, of
which there are only two shown, travel in the direction of the arrow,
and when turned face up the chain lugs mount upon the nose of the short
lever =H=. A bell-cranked lever =F= is fixed on the same shaft as =H=,
its vertical limb having a set screw =I= fitted, by which its range
of movement is limited, while its horizontal arm carries a balance
weight. As the flats traverse they alternately mount upon the higher
part of =H=, and are thus pressed into contact with the inclined part
of the slide =D=. Immediately afterwards the flat comes in contact with
the lip, which prevents its further forward movement. At this time it
is in such a position that the wire surface is horizontal, and while
in that position it is passed under the grinding roller =B=. As it
traverses it carries the slide =D= along with it, gradually compressing
the spring =E= until the wire has been entirely ground. When this has
happened the slide makes a little further forward movement—its entire
traverse being shown by the two vertical dotted lines—when the chain
lugs pass off the nose of =H=, and the flat falls clear of the slide
=D=. Immediately this occurs the spring =E= pushes the slide back, and
it is ready to receive another flat. The chief feature of this motion
is the employment of the sliding wedge. When the flat is pressed on to
this it is held as though it was on a stationary bed, and is, by reason
of the horizontal position of the slot, maintained in a constant plane.
Thus the wire surface is presented to the action of the roller in a
plane parallel to that of the slot, so that, whatever the variation
in the flat end caused by wear, it is not affected. There is another
point which is somewhat important. The tension upon the chain links
caused by the friction of the flats upon the bend is very considerable,
and results in a gradual lengthening of the pitch of the chain. If,
in addition to this, the extra friction set up by the pressure of the
lever =H= on the flat, thus causing the latter to be forced against the
surface of a plate, be taken into account, this tendency to lengthen
will be increased. The extent to which this is to be considered varies
naturally with the pressure exerted. Although it is not perhaps great
it is appreciable, and it is a matter to be considered. In Higginson
and Mc.Connell’s motion this friction is slight, as the slide =D= is
arranged to move without much power, although the compression of the
spring towards the end increases the amount required. As the wedge
springs back into position it has to slide over the face of the next of
the series of flats, which by this time has passed upon the end of the
lever =H=. Thus, although the flat travels forward without friction,
there is a certain amount to be considered as the wedge is passing into
position on each flat, the pressure being then exerted as in the case
of a fixed plate until the flat presses against the lip, and the wedge
begins again to slide.

[Illustration: FIG. 109. J.N.]

(184) In Fig. 109 a side elevation of an arrangement made by Messrs.
Platt Brothers and Company, Limited, is shown. In this case, also, the
device of a sliding angular surface is employed. A slide =H=, which
is guided in the upper part of the grinding bracket, and upon which a
pull is constantly exercised by the balance weight =M= and chain shown,
has affixed to its lower side the angular or inclined surface against
which the flat end is pressed during grinding. As in the mechanism
just described, the surface to receive the flat is formed with a lip,
so that the forward traverse of the flats causes it and the slide =H=
to move in the direction of the arrow. A slight curve corresponding
to that of the bend is given to the sustaining surface of the slide,
and the flat is thus held in a corresponding position to its working
position. On the axle of the chain wheel by which the flat chain is
driven is a toothed cam plate =K=, which is shaped as shown, so that
it can give a forward movement to the lever =L=. The latter has fixed
in it a tooth or catch, which constantly presses on the surface of
the wheel =K=. The lever or bar =L= is formed with a slot at one end,
with which a pin fixed in the end of the chain wheel axis engages, so
that the lever can freely slide upon it. The other end of the lever
is jointed to a lever =B=, fixed upon a short shaft on which is also
fastened the short lever =F= and the curved arm =D=. There is a similar
arrangement of mechanism at either side of the machine, and the two
arms =D= are coupled by means of a round bar =E=, which acts as a
weight. In this way a certain torsion is put upon the short shaft, and
a tendency is set up in the lever =F= to move upwards. In doing so =F=
presses against the slide =G= placed inside the framing and bend. The
upper end of =G= when pushed up presses against the back of the flat
and forces it against the inclined surface, where it remains until the
flat is ground.

(185) The action of the mechanism is as follows: When a flat has
passed under the grinding roller completely the rotation of the wheel
=K= causes one of the teeth to push the lever =L= forward, and so
oscillate the shaft upon which the lever =B= is fastened. This raises
the arm =D=, and relieves the slide =G= of the pressure exerted
by the weight =E=. The flat =I= at once falls out of contact with the
surface of the slide =H= which is thus free to fall back into position
to receive the next of the series, this being the position shown in
Fig. 109. It is essential to notice that, while the backward movement
of the slide =H= is taking place it is out of contact with the flat,
so that, neither during its forward or backward traverse is there any
extra tension put on the chain. Immediately the slide has completed
its movement the engagement of the catch in =L= with the tooth in =K=
ceases, and =L= is free to slide inwards, which it is caused to do
by means of the weight =E=. At the same time the slide =G= is pushed
upwards, and lifts the next flat into contact with the inclined surface
on =H=. It only requires to be said further that the pitch of the teeth
on =K= ensures the requisite movements being given to =G= to cause the
latter to engage every flat in its turn.

(186) The rollers and clearers are ground after removal from their
places in the machine. A machine of which Fig. 110 is a perspective
view is employed for this purpose, this being the type made by Messrs.
Dronsfield Brothers, who have specially devoted themselves to this
class of machines. The machine consists of a frame which has bearings
formed, in which the shaft of the grinding roller revolves. Affixed
to the lower portion of the frame is a counter shaft from pulleys,
on which the emery roller is driven at a speed of 300 revolutions
per minute. The roller to be ground is borne by the two bearings
shown, which are slid laterally by the extremities of arms secured
to a transverse spindle sustained by brackets fixed to the framing.
The two arms are moved to or from the frame by means of a hand wheel
which is keyed on a short spindle, on which is also fixed a worm. This
engages with a quadrant fastened on the transverse spindle, so that
the rotation of the worm in either direction gives a movement to or
from the grinding roller. In this way the card roller is brought into
contact with the grinding roller equally over its whole surface, the
axis of the bearings in the arms being always parallel with those of
the grinding roller. A bonnet is placed above the machine, and the
dust is removed by the small centrifugal fan shown. The card roller is
driven by a separate strap from the counter shaft.

(187) The flats of self-stripping machines are removed from the latter,
and are secured on suitable bearings formed on the frames of a special
grinding machine. The bearings are adjustable, so that the correct
position is given to the flat during grinding. The faces of the flats
when so held are moved across the grinding roller, which revolves at
a high speed. As the arrangement is a very simple one, and does not
present any great novelty, it is not necessary to describe it in great

[Illustration: FIG. 110.]

(188) As the wire clothing on the cylinder, doffer, rollers, and flats
becomes filled with motes, neps, and short fibres, it is necessary
to remove these periodically. This operation is called “stripping,”
and it is a very important one. Whatever may be said to the contrary,
stripping cannot be dispensed with unless some specific be found for
the removal of the impurities as fast as they are taken out of the
cotton. The plan formerly adopted for this purpose has fallen into
disuse, as it implied the stripping of the card during work, and led
to the mixing of the stripping with the finished sliver. It has been
shown that a clean wire surface is the best for carding, and it will
be easily seen that the filling of the spaces between the teeth will
materially reduce the elasticity of the wires. Regular stripping is for
this reason advisable; but the ease with which, if so carried out, the
dirt can be removed, constitutes a further reason for this procedure.
Carding speedily becomes poor in quality unless this is looked to, and
all spinners should carefully watch this point. Another matter is,
that inasmuch as it is practically impossible to strip all the cards
simultaneously, the operation should be effected so that there should
be an equal proportion of clean and dirty or half dirty machines.
These are all little points, but they are of great importance in the
effective working of a machine.

[Illustration: FIG. 111.]

(189) The stripping of cylinders and doffers was usually carried out
by a wire hand brush, the teeth of which are thrust into the wire
spaces and then drawn downwards, so removing the “strips.” This is now
entirely superseded by the revolving wire brush, such as is shown in
Fig. 111, as made by Messrs. John Whiteley and Sons. This is a roller
on which is wound card clothing made of hardened and tempered wire.
It can be revolved by hand or power, and is carried in the grinding
brackets. In stripping it should be set so that the teeth finally
penetrate about 1/16th inch into those on the cylinder, but should be
gradually set in to that depth so as to avoid damaging the wire. A
speed of 200 revolutions for hardened and tempered, and 150 for mild
steel cards is recommended by the makers, the cylinder revolving slowly
in the meanwhile. The fleece of strippings thus produced is removed
from the roller by dividing it along the narrow uncovered space shown,
after which it will lift off by slowly revolving the roller. A similar
plan is followed with the doffer. The rollers and clearers are usually
stripped by hand, and it is hardly possible to adopt a better plan.

(190) In closing the consideration of the carding engine and its
accessories, it is necessary to enforce upon the reader the dictum
that good carding is absolutely essential to good work. With it a
good even yarn can be made. Without it no such result need be looked
for. It is impossible to lay too much stress upon this point, and the
care bestowed upon the machine and its clothing will amply repay the
spinner. Cleanliness is essential, and it is certain that the want
of it often leads to trouble and loss in the subsequent stages of



(191) The process of combing is only carried out when the finer
and better qualities of yarn, such as are used for thread and lace
purposes, are spun. The production of these is conducted with greater
care than is necessary with the ordinary quality, and it is essential
that the short fibres and neps shall be removed. This can only be done
to the extent required by a process of combing. It was pointed out
in paragraph 23 that in Egyptian cotton a good many short fibres are
found, and as the better qualities of yarn are spun from that class of
cotton there is a great advantage to be derived from combing. Carding,
as was shown, is a continuous process, while combing is an intermittent
one, in which small portions of the fibre are dealt with separately
and successively. The parallelisation of the fibres is very completely
effected, and in addition they are, in a sense, sorted, all below a
certain length being removed. It is true that the mechanism can be
adjusted to treat fibres of various lengths, within certain limits,
but once it is adjusted only the fibres which approximate to the fixed
length pass onward through the machine. This procedure results, as will
be very readily understood, in the production of a strong thread or
yarn, as, in any portion of its length, the number of fibres contained
in the cross section will be almost always the same. The nearly
complete parallel order given to the fibres has the same effect, and
tends to the production of a thread in which exists all the conditions
of absolute strength. The combing machine is, with the exception of
the mule, the most interesting from a mechanical point of view in the
whole range of spinning machines. In the form which is mostly used
it was invented by Heilmann, about 1845, and is best known by his
name. Although many attempts have been made to construct machines
on a different principle, they have not been more than moderately
successful, and the Heilmann machine remains to-day the most approved
one for the purpose.

(192) The carded slivers intended for use in the combing machine are
first treated by a special set of machines, the object of which is
to draw the fibres into an approximately parallel condition. It was
remarked in paragraph 153 that, although the fibres in the sliver as
it left the carding engine were in a more or less crossed condition,
they were so openly laid that a slight endwise pull would draw them
into a practically parallel order. In spinning ordinary yarns this is
done by the drawing frames, which are described in the next chapter.
Although the sliver eventually delivered from the combing machine is
also drawn, it has been found desirable to commence this action before
combing commences, and the result is that a sliver is produced which is
exceptionally even and strong. The exact operation of drawing will not
at this juncture be described, as it will be necessary to go over the
same ground at a later stage.

(193) The first machine by which the slivers are treated is known as
the Sliver Lap Machine, and as made by Messrs. Dobson and Barlow, is
shown in perspective in Fig. 112. It consists essentially of drawing
rollers, to the action of which the slivers are fed from the cans.
From 12 to 16 slivers are treated at one time, and on their way from
the guide plate to the rollers, they pass over the spoons formed at
the ends of detector levers, this part of the mechanism being clearly
shown. The failure of any one of the slivers causes the machine to be
stopped as in the drawing frame, so that any unevenness in the lap is
avoided. The slivers in passing the drawing rollers are laid side by
side, and are in this way flattened, so that when they are delivered by
the rollers, they have assumed the form of a ribbon, which is rolled
up into a lap, by means of a specially driven roller. This treatment
straightens the fibres, and prepares them for further treatment.

[Illustration: FIG. 113.]

(194) This is given on the Ribbon Lap Machine, which is illustrated in
Fig. 113. The laps obtained in previous machines are to the number of
six, placed behind the drawing rollers in the machine. Four lines of
rollers are provided, as in the drawing machine, and the laps are thus
reduced in thickness until they become like a thin ribbon. By this time
the various fibres of cotton are pulled into parallel order, and are
in a good condition for combing. They are respectively guided round
the curved plates shown, and are laid flat upon a highly polished iron
plate. The lap which is delivered at the end of the machine furthest
from the driving head is laid upon the plate first, and all the others
are subsequently imposed upon it. The combined six laps are then passed
through a pair of calender rollers at the end of the machine, by which
they are compressed, and the combined lap is subsequently wound into
rolls of 7-1/2 or 8-1/2 inches wide. These rolls or laps are fed to
the combing machine. The chief advantages of this arrangement are
those arising from the parallel order of the fibres. These are evenly
laid in an uncrossed state, and there is consequently little danger
of any rupture of them by the comb teeth. Further, the latter are not
strained in the effort to disentangle the fibres, and a fruitful source
of breakage is thus avoided. There is another point, to which special
reference was made in Chapter V., namely, the equalisation of the
thickness arising from the imposition of the laps upon each other.

[Illustration: FIG. 115.]

[Illustration: FIG. 112.]

(195) The lap being produced is placed upon two rollers, =A A^{1}=,
as shown in Fig. 114, which is a transverse section through one head
of a Heilmann machine, as made by Messrs. John Hetherington and Sons.
Enlarged views of portions of the mechanism are shown in Figs. 115 and
116. A combing machine is usually constructed with from six to eight
heads, the driving mechanism for all of which is placed at one end of
the machine. The lap rollers =A A^{1}= are positively rotated at a
speed corresponding to that of the passage of the cotton through the
machine. The lap as it is unrolled is carried along the trough =B=,
made of its full width, the lower end of which terminates a little
distance from the feed rollers =C C^{1}=. The bottom rollers of each
head are suitably carried on brackets fixed to the roller beam, being
made of steel, and a little longer than the width of the lap. They
are fluted longitudinally, and drive the top rollers by frictional
contact. The top rollers are also made of steel, being plainly
cylindrical and covered with a sheath of cloth and leather, but a
porcupine roller is often used instead of a pair of rollers. This, it
is contended, opens the lap and decreases the waste. They are weighted
by means of hooks on their axes, to which springs are attached.
Immediately in front of the rollers the nipper is placed. This consists
of two jaws, the upper one, =D=, being fastened to the lever =E=, which
oscillates on the short shaft =F=, receiving its motion from a cam at
the driving end of the machine through a shaft, short lever, and the
connecting rod =G=. The lower jaw, =H=, is also made of steel, being
rounded at its outer edge and covered with smooth leather. As the upper
jaw is peculiarly fluted, as shown, the contact of the two establishes
a nip of the cotton at the points of the flutes. The lower nipper
blade, =H=, is fixed to two levers, =I=, which rock upon the shaft =J=.
The spiral springs, =K=, are attached to the tail ends of the levers,
=I=, and ordinarily keep the lower jaw in the position shown in Fig.
116, but also permit of it making a slight receding motion when pressed
by the upper jaw after the nip is created.

[Illustration: FIG. 116. J.N.]

(196) The foregoing portion of the machine constitutes what may be
called the feed part, there being three distinct operations in the
process—feeding, combing, and detaching. In front of the nipper the
top comb, =L=, is fixed, being attached to the lever =M= in such a
way that the necessary adjustment can be made. Below the nippers
the comb cylinder =N= is placed, being constructed with a barrel or
“comb stock,” to which is attached the comb needles. Of these there
are seventeen rows, fixed in a metallic bed, or piece, known as the
“half lap.” These should be accurately shaped, so as to be readily
renewed or replaced when required, and are fastened to the comb stock
by screws. The width of each row of combs is a little greater than
that of the lap, and each row is parallel to the others. The needles
are set at different pitches, beginning with one of 1/30th inch in
the first row and terminating with one of 1/90th inch in the last. On
the opposite side of the barrel a segment =N^{1}= is fixed, which is
fluted longitudinally. A circular brush, =O=, is fixed so as to clear
the needles as they revolve, and can be easily set up so as always to
be in touch with the combs. This brush revolves between the comb stock
and the doffing cylinder =P=, and running at a higher velocity than
the latter, it removes the waste taken from the cylinder and transfers
it to the doffer, which is clothed with a metallic brush surface. An
oscillating comb removes the waste from the doffer and beats it into a
receptacle formed to receive it.

(197) The detaching portion of the mechanism consists of the three
rollers =Q= =S= and =T=, but the fluted segment =N^{1}= also aids
in this portion of the work. The roller =S= is known as the “steel
detaching” roller, and receives an intermittent motion in both
directions from a cam at the end of the machine. The roller =Q= is
known as the “top detaching” or the “leather” roller, and is covered
with leather, being borne by levers =R=, to which the necessary
oscillation is given by a cam and the connecting rod R^{1}. The heads
of the levers R are arranged with a block and setting screw, by which
the period of contact of the roller Q and segment =N^{1}= is regulated.
The movement of Q is round the detaching roller towards the comb
cylinder until it comes in contact with the fluted segment =N^{1}=,
after which it is again returned to its original position. The top
roller =T= is made brass-covered, having longitudinal flutes, and is
of sufficient weight to nip the sliver firmly. It, of course, receives
its rotary motion from the detaching roller, and is carried in a lever
known as the “horse tail.” After passing the rollers =S T= the combed
sliver is carried along a trough through a trumpet-shaped guide to
the calender rolls =U V=, which deliver it on to a highly-polished
plate. It is thus guided to a draw box at the front of the machine, in
which are drawing rollers, and is then passed into a coiler, as in the
carding engine, being delivered into similar cans.

[Illustration: FIG. 114.]

(198) Having thus described the mechanism employed, its method of
action can now be explained. The lap, being passed to the feed rollers,
is delivered by them intermittently in short lengths corresponding
to that of the staple. This intermittent rotation is obtained by the
use of a star wheel, which is revolved by a train of gearing from
the cylinder shaft. The extent of the forward movement is regulated
by the length of the fibre, the roller making such a portion of a
revolution as causes its surface to move that distance, usually from
1/8th to 1/10th of a revolution. The roller being one inch diameter,
the relative distance its surface would travel, and the length of fibre
delivered in each case, would be ·39 or ·31 inch. The nipper jaw =D=,
while this movement is being made, is open, and the top comb =L= is
dropped. As soon as the rotation of the feed rollers ceases the nipper
closes and grips the fibre. The downward movement of the top nipper
blade =D= is, however, continued beyond that point, and the lower jaw
=H= receives a further downward movement which puts the helical springs
=K= into tension. In the ordinary position of the nippers the comb
needles in their revolution would pass the cotton, but the recession
of the nipper, as described, brings the uncombed end of the lap into
the path of the needles, which accordingly pass through and comb it.
It may be here explained that after the process of combing the combed
and uncombed parts of the lap are separated, and that, after the free
end of the latter is combed, a small portion is pulled away from it,
and joined to the previously combed portion in the manner about to be
described. For convenience it will be as well to refer to the uncombed
cotton as the lap, and to the combed cotton as the sliver.

(199) The circular combs having passed, the continued revolution of the
nipper cam allows the nipper to again move forward, and to carry the
combed end of the lap into a position in which it can be dealt with by
the fluted segment =N^{1}=. The top comb =L= drops into the lap at a
point in advance of the uncombed portion, and the leather roller =Q= at
the same time is moved round the detaching roller =S=. As the fluted
segment =N^{1}= comes under the cotton the leather roller engages
with it, and the continued revolution of the former causes the two to
act as a sort of revolving nipper. The nipper =D= has been previously
opened and a tuft of cotton is drawn away from the lap, partially by
the action of the segment and leather roller. To the latter a peculiar
motion is given by a cam, which acts through special mechanism. It
is not enough that the combed tuft should be detached from the lap,
but it must also be attached to the sliver. In order to effect this
the detaching roller moves backward to the amount of one-third of a
revolution, previously to the engagement of =Q= with =N^{1}=. This,
of course, carries a corresponding length of the sliver with it, and
lays the free end of the combed tuft on to the free end of the sliver,
to which it is at once attached by the pressure of the leather roller
=Q=. The backward motion of the detaching roller commences after the
combs have passed through the lap end, before which it is stationary.
The piecing being complete, the segment =N^{1}= and leather roller
=Q= recede from each other, and the detaching roller makes a forward
movement of two-thirds of a revolution. This results in the complete
attachment of a tuft of cotton, the uncombed part of which is drawn
through the top comb, this preventing the passage of short fibres and
nep, which are retained in the lap, and removed by the next passage
of the rotating combs. The attachment having been accomplished the
detaching roller becomes stationary, the top comb is raised, a fresh
portion of lap is fed, and the process is recommenced.

(200) There are thus three distinct stages in combing, viz., the
feeding, combing, and detaching, and in the course of the operation
the tuft of cotton is completely separated from the lap, and joined to
the sliver. It is, of course, absolutely necessary in a machine the
movements of which are so delicate, to establish and maintain a very
accurate setting. For this reason ample provision is made by which
the adjustment of the various parts can be accurately effected, as
a reference to Fig. 114 will show. Although the motion given by the
cams is of necessity a positive one, and its range fixed to suit the
material, the timing of the movements of the different portions of the
mechanism is secured by the facilities named. The full importance of
this power will be appreciated when it it is stated that from 80 to 95
“nips” or beats are made per minute. Without the most delicate setting
it would be impossible to ensure successful work, and this explains the
reason for the many adjusting screws shown in Fig. 114.

[Illustration: FIG. 117. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 118. J.N.]

(201) In treating of the carding engine it was explained that the
production of an even sliver was of high importance. This is equally
so in the combing machine. It has been explained that the cotton is
held by the nipper jaws, while the projecting end of the lap is combed,
and it will be readily understood that this action will tend to widen
or flatten it a little. This result is also produced by the action of
the feed and detaching rollers. Thus a sliver is produced with uneven
edges, which is very undesirable. In order to remedy this, Messrs. John
Hetherington and Sons have adopted the device which is shown in front
elevation and section in Figs. 117 and 118. In this case the lower
nipper jaw, or cushion plate =A=, has attached to it at each side a
guide plate, which has two projecting pieces =C D=, one at the front
and the other at the back of the nipper. =D= is curved so as to allow
the jaw =B= to descend without difficulty. The two guiding portions
=C= and =D= are coupled by a connecting piece =E= so as to form one
casting. The nipper plate is cut away, as shown at =F=, to clear the
front guide, which is arranged so as to be in contact with the front
edge of the cushion plate =A=. By this arrangement it is practically
impossible for the fibres to escape sideways as the lap is nipped. The
length of the nipper plate is sufficient to hold all the fibres firmly,
thus ensuring their perfect combing. The fibres are prevented from
lifting during the descent of the nipper by a small projecting piece
and by the back guide =D=. The cylinder is also formed with a flange
to obviate spreading. By these arrangements a wider lap can be used
than would otherwise be the case, and the amount of cotton passed is
therefore greater. In addition to this the selvedge is much more even,
and the sliver produced in better condition for drawing.

[Illustration: FIG. 119.]

[Illustration: FIGS. 121 AND 122. J.N.]

(202) In Fig. 119 a perspective view, and in Fig. 120 a sectional view
is given of Messrs. Dobson and Barlow’s Heilmann combing machine. In
the main it is similar to the machine previously described, but there
are some alterations in detail which require explanation. One of
these is shown in elevation and plan in Figs. 121 and 122, and is an
improvement in the mode of working the detaching rollers, which it was
shown have to revolve a little distance in each direction alternately.
This motion is placed at the end of the machine, and consists of a
large cam =F=, which is suitably driven and with which a bowl fastened
in quadrant =C= engages. =C= is formed on its outer edge with a
toothed rack, which engages with the pinion =B=, loose and sliding upon
the spindle of the detaching roller =C^{1}=. =B= is part of a toothed
clutch, as shown at =E=, and has a ring groove formed on its boss, with
which a claw at the end of the lever =G= engages. The sliding half of
the clutch is usually drawn inwards by the spiral spring shown in the
plan, so that the normal tendency of the two parts is to engage. At
the end of the lever =G= a pin carrying a bowl is fastened, the latter
being constantly in contact with a cam surface fixed on the shaft on
which the cam =F= is secured. The action of this mechanism is easily
understood. The cam surface which actuates the lever =G= at the moment
when the detachment of the tuft of cotton is completed, allows the
clutch to become engaged. Simultaneously with this the cam =F= causes
the quadrant to make its stroke, and thus rotate the detaching roller
=C^{1}= as much as is required when the lever =G= is moved, so as to
disengage the clutch, and the detaching roller is free to revolve. The
advantage of this motion is principally its simplicity, which causes it
to be easily worked at a high speed without endangering its positive
action. It can readily be adjusted to suit different staples of cotton,
without any change pieces.

[Illustration: FIG. 120. J.N.]

(203) Referring now more particularly to Fig. 120, it will be noticed
that a change is made in the construction of the nippers. In the
machine as usually constructed, the lower blade =H= is used as a
cushion, being covered with leather, an operation which is a somewhat
delicate and difficult one. In Messrs. Dobson’s machine the lower
nipper blade =H= is made a somewhat blunt =V= shape, while the upper
blade or knife =D= is fitted with a narrow strip of india-rubber or
leather. The nip is obtained between these surfaces, and owing to the
yielding nature of the strip, an efficient grip is always established.
As a corollary of this the lower nipper blade =D= is fixed, and does
not yield as in the ordinary mode of construction. The cam for working
the nipper is shown at =K=, and its motion is communicated through the
lever and rod =G=. Its shape is such that it works easily and smoothly
without any difficulty, at a speed of from 80 to 95 nips per minute.

(204) In order to avoid misapprehension, it may be as well to say
at this point that the mechanism employed being similar to that in
the ordinary machine, the various parts are all marked with the same
reference letters in each case. The cotton is marked =Z= and its
passage through the machine can be clearly followed. This will avoid
any special reference to the mechanism common to both machines. The
leather roller =Q= is in this case carried at the ends of two levers
=R=, which are coupled directly to the lever =W=, which receives the
necessary reciprocal motion, and the joint =X= at the end of =W= is so
arranged, that it can be very readily set. The setting is very easily
made, and as the operation of the “leather” or “piecing” roller is one
of the most delicate in the machine, any means by which this can be
more readily adjusted is of importance. The top roller =T= is made of
a large size, so as to press well down upon the detaching roller, and
not to vibrate, however high the speed of the machine may be. A minor
improvement is made by arranging that as the bristles of the cleaning
brush wear, they can be driven at a quicker speed.

(205) Although the Heilmann machine has been in use for about 40 years,
it is a singular fact that no other machine for the same purpose has
had anything like the same success. A machine, invented by Mons. Imbs,
has been used to a certain extent on the Continent, but it has not
been adopted except in a small percentage of the cases in which the
Heilmann has been used. A machine, which is extremely ingenious in its
mechanism, and which has been a little used for short stapled cotton,
is the joint invention of Messrs. Pinel, Lecœur, and Hetherington. In
this machine the principle of a revolving nipper is adopted. A long
pipe forms the main moving piece of the machine, and is of sufficient
length to constitute six heads, its circumference being divided into
three parts. For each head three longitudinal slots are cut in the
pipe equal in length to the width of the lap. Three sets of nippers
are fitted to each head, the fixed jaw of each coming up to the edge
of the slot, which, when the nipper is closed, is covered by the loose
jaw. When the nipper is open the slot is exposed. Between each pair
of nippers is placed a comb segment with thirteen rows of needles.
A feed nipper presents the end of the lap to the needles, the pipe
then revolving at its highest speed. When the end of the lap has been
combed the revolving nipper comes opposite the feed nipper, which
is stationary, and the pipe revolves at a slower speed to allow the
combed end of the lap to be drawn into the nipper. This is effected by
the suction of an air current induced by a fan connected to the tube.
This operation being completed, the revolving nipper closes on the lap
and the feed nipper allows a short length of lap to be taken through.
The separation of the tuft is then made, and its other end is combed
by being drawn through a top comb as in the Heilmann. The pipe then
continues to revolve, and while the next in the series of nippers is
taking its feed, the one holding the combed tuft opens slightly on
arriving at a table placed at the front of the machine. By the aid of
a pusher the fibres are superposed on those already on the table, a
continuous fleece being thus made which is taken forward by two pairs
of draw rollers. The sliver is made exactly as in the Heilmann. The
Lecœur machine is not suitable for long stapled cotton, but it will
comb very effectively the short Indian and American staples. Of these
it will produce 400lbs. per week, with a per centage of waste of from
16 to 20. It is only in special cases that the combing of this class of
cotton is remunerative.

(206) The waste from the combs, which varies from 15 to 17 per cent, is
carried away by the brush, which in turn is stripped by a comb, and the
strippings fall upon a lattice. By this they are carried to a calender
roll and made into a lap which, as it contains fibres of good quality,
but of insufficient length for the ordinary combed yarns, is used up
in the manufacture of coarser qualities. The waste from the combing
machine being considerable, its utilisation is important.

[Illustration: page decoration]



(207) The slivers produced on the carding engine, although, as
previously noted, composed of approximately parallel fibres, are
not perfectly laid in that way. If, however, they are subjected to
a pull in a longitudinal direction they easily assume the parallel
position. Even slivers produced on a combing machine, in which the
fibres are, as has been observed, in much better order than when
treated in a carding engine, are improved by being subjected to this
drawing action. The net result of the process is an improvement in the
strength of the resultant thread. Not only is it essential to improve
the parallelisation of the fibres in the sliver, but it is equally
desirable to produce a sliver of even weight and thickness. As it
leaves the carding or combing machine the sliver is not so regular in
weight as is requisite, and if this irregularity were allowed to go
uncorrected a yarn of varying thickness would eventually be spun. It
is true that the variations are not serious in amount, but they are of
sufficient importance to render it desirable to correct them. Again,
it is necessary to reduce these irregularities in order to facilitate
future manipulation, and, generally speaking, the proper conduct of the
drawing process is of prime importance to successful spinning.

(208) The essential feature in a drawing machine or frame is, of
course, the mechanism by which the extension or drawing of the sliver
is effected. As it is necessary to pass the material continuously
through the machine while reducing it to parallel order, the use of
rollers becomes imperative. These are arranged in pairs, one above the
other, and there are four pairs arranged in parallel lines with each
other, as shown in Fig. 124. That illustration is a transverse section
of the drawing frame as made by Mr. S. Brooks, Figs. 123 and 125
being respectively end and front views of the same machine. The lower
rollers are borne, as shown, by brackets =B= fastened to a longitudinal
beam =C=, known as the “roller beam.” They are made in sections and
are coupled throughout the length of the frame, so as to form four
continuous “lines,” which are driven from one end of the machine.
Each set of four lower and four upper rollers constitutes a “head,”
and there are usually from two to four heads in a machine. The lower
rollers are made of a special class of wrought iron, very fine and
clear in the grain, and are accurately turned throughout, being formed
with two or three bosses to each head. They are also fluted with fine
flutes in a longitudinal direction, great care being taken to ensure
the flutes being smooth and quite free from anything likely to catch
the cotton. The upper rollers are made of cast-iron, and are placed on
the top of the lower lines, against which they are constantly pressed
by means of the hooks =D= and weights =E=, the former passing over
the arbors of the rollers. The arbors of the top rollers engage with
grooves in the roller brackets, and the rollers are thus prevented from
moving laterally, although they have freedom of vertical movement. Bars
forming caps for the arbors of the top rollers are fitted, being known
as “cap bars.” It is the practice to form the top rollers with as many
bosses as there are on the bottom rollers in each head, and of a length
corresponding to that of the latter. Thus if, in each head, the bottom
rollers had three bosses the top rollers would be formed to correspond,
and the slivers to be drawn would be passed between them. In this case
the head would be said to be one of three “deliveries,” and a machine
is usually described as being one of so many heads of a certain number
of deliveries. It will be easily understood that the top rollers are
not positively driven, but derive their motion by frictional surface
contact with the lower set. The top rollers are accurately turned, and
are usually covered with a specially-prepared soft leather, formed
into a sheath, which can be drawn over the boss of the roller. Special
care is taken in forming these coverings, so that they have no extra
thickness at their joints, and, after they are drawn on to the rollers,
the latter are subjected to a rolling and pressing action, which beds
the leather firmly and ensures the roundness of the roller. The mode
of preparing the rollers will be described in full in Chapter XIV.
It is now almost the universal practice to use the loose boss top
roller invented by the late Mr. Evan Leigh, and illustrated in Fig.
126 in longitudinal section and elevation. Its advantages are many,
and arise from the lessened friction consequent upon the more perfect
lubrication, which is also obtained with a smaller quantity of oil.

[Illustration: FIG. 126. J.N.]

(209) The rollers are driven from the end of the machine in the way
shown in Fig. 123 in end elevation. They may be arranged with all their
driving wheels at one end of the frame, or may be—as is the case in
Messrs. Howard and Bullough’s machine—driven at both ends. That is to
say, the driving of the first and fourth rollers may be effected at
the gearing end of the machine, while that of the intermediate lines
is obtained at the other end. It will be, perhaps, as well to say that
the first line here means the back rollers, and the fourth the front.
Whatever be the system of driving adopted, the front roller is always
the primarily driven one, and for this course there are good reasons.
The thickness of the emerging sliver is determined by the relatively
superior speed of the front roller, which runs at a faster rate than
any of the others. Thus it becomes an easy matter to reduce the speed
of the remaining rollers, and this course is preferable to using a slow
running wheel as the driver from which higher velocities are to be

[Illustration: FIGS. 123 AND 124. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 125.]

Between the driver and driven roller a series of wheels are interposed,
which are used as change wheels, so as to allow of an easy adjustment
of the relative speeds of the whole series.

(210) The proper construction of a drawing frame turns largely upon the
consideration of a number of small points. In this, as in all other
machines used in the preparation of cotton, due regard must be had to
the material which is being treated. Especially is this the case in
drawing. The “staple” here plays an important part. If the distance
between the centres of each line of rollers exceeds that of the length
of the “staple” it is quite clear that no drawing worthy of the name
will take place. To draw anything one end of it must be firmly held,
and if the fibres could lie between two pairs of rollers without being
gripped by either it is obvious they would not be drawn. Thus the
distance between the centres of the rollers must be regulated to suit
the material being treated, and the roller bearings are arranged to
permit of that adjustment. This leads to the necessity, where very
short slivers are drawn, for the reduction of the diameter of the
rollers so as to permit of their being set in together more closely
than could otherwise be done. Thus East Indian cotton is best dealt
with by rollers of a small diameter set closely; while Sea Island or
Egyptian can be drawn by larger rollers set wider apart. The principle
underlying this practice has been indicated, but may be formally
stated. The necessity exists for the fibre being drawn to be held at
one end by one roller, while it is subjected at the other to the pull
of a faster running roller. It is therefore essential that the distance
between the centres of the rollers shall be such that the fibres are
sufficiently drawn without being subjected to overstrain, by which a
liability to rupture is incurred.

(211) It is the universal practice to effect the major part of the
drawing between the third and fourth rollers, the increase in speed
prior to that having been comparatively small. The exact speeds at
which the various lines run depend largely upon the material treated,
but a common acceleration is as follows: Assuming the first or back
roller to revolve at 100 times per minute, the second line would run
at 125, the third at 175, and the fourth at 275. The attenuation of
the sliver between the first and second line is only 25 per cent; that
between the second and third 40 per cent; and between the third and
fourth 57 per cent. Putting it in another way, assuming one foot of
sliver to have passed through the back rollers, it would become 15
inches long after passing the second roller; 21 inches as it leaves
the third roller; and 33 inches as it finally emerges from the front
roller. Thus, although the _percentage_ of increase between the third
and fourth is not largely in excess of that arising between the second
and third rollers, the actual increase is exactly twice as much. These
proportions are approximations to those which are actually employed,
but, as was said, much depends on the character of the material which
is being treated. In dealing with a soft elastic fibre like Sea Island
cotton, light weighting and an easy draught is possible, while, if a
harsh strong fibre is subjected to the same treatment there would be
little effect produced. It is therefore necessary to put additional
weight upon the rollers and thus increase their grip. A severe
treatment of this character, which would be fatal to a weak or fine
cotton, is beneficial to the coarser varieties, which can easily be
subjected to a coarser draught. All these are points which require
attention in practice, and careful observation will do more than many
instructions in giving the knowledge of the right course to pursue.

(212) Another point requiring close attention is the preservation of
absolute cleanliness. All cotton in its passage through the machines
used, gives off a certain quantity of loose, short fibre, to which the
name of “fly” is given. This is found all over the machine, and it
adheres to the rollers in considerable quantity. Unless it is removed
in some way it is apt to collect into thick pieces, or “slubs,” which
attach themselves to the sliver, and thus cause thick places. These,
of course, are perpetuated in every subsequent stage, and the removal
of the fly, therefore, becomes of great importance. To accomplish
this desirable end appliances known as “clearers” are fitted. These
are flannel-covered surfaces, either flat or cylindrical, which rest
upon the rollers. One common form is a plain, wooden cylinder covered
with rough flannel, which is placed upon, and rests between, two of
the lines of rollers, the rotation of which causes it to revolve. The
rougher surface of the flannel licks up the fly from the rollers, and
a periodical stripping is sufficient to keep the clearer effective. A
simpler and also a common arrangement consists of a strip of flannel
stretched within a cover and resting on the whole of the top rollers.
A third modification is known as “Ermen’s revolving clearer,” and is
an endless band of flannel passed over two rollers fixed in the cover.
The lower part of the band rests upon the top rollers, and the clearer
is slowly traversed, so as to remove the fly and convey it to the upper
part of the case when the band is turned up. Here an oscillating comb
is placed, and scrapes up the fly into small rolls, which can easily
be removed periodically. A further form of clearer is made by Messrs.
Dobson and Barlow. It consists of two wooden rollers sustained in a
frame which is hinged at one end. One of the rollers which presses
upon the back rollers is suitably driven so as to take up the fly
from the first and second pair. The other roller is loose upon its
spindle, which is much smaller than the bore of the roller, so that the
revolution of the front rollers causes it to rotate at a speed somewhat
below that of the rollers. Both of the wood cylinders are covered with
flannel, and thus take up the fly with very great ease. It was found
by practice that the positive driving of the back clearer effectually
cleaned the first two sets of rollers, while a similar procedure with
the front clearer did not lead to the same result. By allowing the
latter to be frictionally driven, the rollers can be kept clean without
difficulty. To strip the clearers they only require raising, when the
fly can be readily removed.

(213) A reference to Figs. 123 and 125 will show that extending along
the frame is a shaft having a hand-wheel at the end, and a number of
worms keyed on it. The latter gear into worm wheels, on the axes of
which cams are fixed by which a bar—through which the weight-rods
pass—is lifted. As the rods have a loop at their upper end which cannot
pass through the holes in the bar, it is clear that the elevation of
the latter will also raise the weights. In this way the pressure on
the rollers is relieved. This is of value when the frame is stopped
for any prolonged period, as the maintenance of the pressure during
that time results in the formation of flat places on the rollers, which
are detrimental to good work. It is undesirable to put on or take off
the weight suddenly, and some makers prefer to use a simple lifting
appliance by which each weight can be released singly.

(214) The important features in connection with the roller portion of
the mechanism are—first, their perfect finish; second, the adoption of
such diameters and distances as are suitable for different lengths of
staples; third, their effectual cleansing; and, fourth, the regulation
of their velocity so as to suit the material being dealt with.

(215) It was pointed out in paragraph 207 that there are certain
irregularities in the size of the slivers, as obtained from the carding
engine. Up to the present the machine has been considered as though
each sliver was treated separately, a course which would result in
the delivery of a sliver longer than, but possessing the same defects
as, the original one. That this must be so is apparent, unless some
provision is made for the acceleration of the speed of delivery when a
thin place was passing, or its retardation when a thick place occurred.
It therefore becomes necessary to find a method of rectifying these
defects, and it is obtained by passing several slivers through the
machine simultaneously. Reference is now more particularly made to
Fig. 123, which shows the mode pursued clearly. A number of full cans
from the carding engine—up to eight—are placed behind each delivery,
and the slivers they contain are combined and passed through the
rollers together. Before passing on to consider the exact effect of
this arrangement, a few words may be said as to the method of feeding
the cans to the machine. As each can contains approximately the same
length, it follows that, the rate of passage being the same throughout
the machine, they would all become empty at practically the same time.
This implies the necessity for the attendant to remove the cans and
piece up the new slivers all along the frame almost simultaneously.
This is practically impossible, and it is therefore highly desirable
that there should be an arrangement adopted which would enable the cans
to be substituted at different times along the frame. In a little but
valuable work, “Progress in Cotton Carding,” the late Mr. F. A. Leigh,
of Boston, U.S.A., makes the following remarks: “If there are 10 pounds
(or 1,000 yards), say, in a full can, instead of putting them all up
full at first, it is better to put them up at back of drawing in four
sections, say:—

   4 or 6 cans       4 or 6 cans       4 or 6 cans       4 or 6 cans
  -------------     -------------     -------------     -------------
    2-1/2lbs.          5lbs.            7-1/2lbs.          10lbs.

After that replace with the full 10 pounds (or the 1,000 yard) cans,
and they will continue to empty in rotation, all full cans having the
same length. The tender [minder] will know exactly where to find them.”

(216) The diminution of the irregularities in the slivers is most
important. The plan pursued is to pass several slivers through the same
set of rollers, and deliver the combined sliver at the front of the
machine. The number of slivers which are combined varies considerably
according to the practice of different spinners, but is not more than
eight. Now, if it be assumed that an irregularity of 40 per cent
existed in one sliver, and that it was drawn simultaneously with five
others in which that irregularity did not exist, the latter would be
reduced to one-sixth, or 16-2/3 per cent. It is, however, the custom
to “put up,” or feed, the slivers so obtained to another head of the
machine, and subject several of them to a second or even a third
drawing. Assume, therefore, that four of the partially drawn slivers
were fed and again drawn. The irregularity would be reduced to 1-2/3
per cent, and a further drawing would again reduce it. The figures
given are hypothetical, and it is not likely, of course, that only one
sliver would be irregular in thickness, but the example serves to show
the principle. The number of “doublings” given to the sliver is arrived
at by multiplying the number of ends passed through at each drawing.
Thus, in the case stated, the doublings are 6 × 4 × 4 = 96, and it can
be easily seen that any difference in substance which existed at first
would be very speedily rectified, and would not be of much moment by
the time the finished sliver was produced.

(217) The number of times the material is passed through the machine
and the draught to which it is subjected varies, as was shown, with
the class of cotton treated. Thus, the harsh, wiry varieties of cotton
stand more drawing, but if well drawn will spin fairly well into
weft, which does not receive so much twist as warp, and should be
full bodied. How much any class of cotton should be doubled and drawn
is a matter to be determined by practice only, and even then great
variations in the course pursued will occur. The one thing which must
be remembered is that as soon as an even sliver is produced further
drawing is unnecessary, and only results in a diminution of the
strength of the spun yarn.

(218) A necessary corollary to the process of doubling slivers is the
provision of means whereby the passage of all the combined slivers is
ensured throughout their entire length. Assuming, for instance, that
eight ends were being passed through the machine, and one of them
from some cause failed, it is clear that the delivered sliver would
be diminished in thickness one-eighth. Of course the attendant would
rectify this at the earliest moment, but, in the interim, a large
amount of the thin sliver might have been produced. In order to avoid
this serious evil, it is the practice to fit all machines of this class
with a detector motion, which operates on the failure of any of the
ends. Referring now to Fig. 123, it will be seen that, after passing
through the guide-plate =F=, the sliver is conducted over the end of
the short lever =G=, which oscillates on a knife-edge bearing. The end
over which the sliver passes is hollowed out, and is highly polished,
while the other end—which is slightly heavier—is beneath a curved
guide-plate, shown in section. The lever =G= is balanced so that the
pressure of the sliver during its passage is sufficient to keep the
spoon-shaped end down, while, on the breakage or failure of the sliver,
the lever oscillates on its bearing. A reference to Fig. 124 will show
that a shaft =H=, driven from the main shaft, as shown, has on it an
eccentric, to which the rod =I= is attached. This rod is attached to a
bell crank lever =J=, on the shaft =K=, which is oscillated, and thus
gives a reciprocal movement to the levers =L=, carrying a square bar. A
bell crank lever =M= is also placed upon the shaft =H=, and ordinarily
engages with a snug on the stop rod =N=. The latter has a helical
spring attached, which always tends to pull it longitudinally, and when
it is released, to throw over the strap from the fast to the loose

(219) Assuming now that one of the slivers has failed, its spoon lever
will oscillate and its weighted end will fall. It thus comes in the
path of the reciprocating bar in the lever =L=, which is prevented
from completing its traverse. The result is that the lever =M= is
oscillated and the stop rod =N= released, so that the spring named at
once throws the strap on to the loose pulley and stops the machine. As
the reciprocations of =L= are very rapid, no considerable length of
the sliver can pass without causing the stoppage of the machine. The
attendant is compelled to piece up the broken end, and “single” is thus

(220) The sliver may, however, fail between the drawing rollers and the
delivery can, and it is therefore necessary to provide a means whereby
the machine can be arrested in this event also. In its passage to the
can the sliver is collected by a trumpet-mouthed tube and carried over
another spoon lever =O=, balanced and borne exactly as the lever =G=.
The failure of the sliver is followed by the fall of the inner end
of =O=, which comes in the path of the lever =P=, to which a lateral
reciprocal motion is given from the shaft =H=, as shown. This results
in the stoppage of the machine exactly as in the case of the back

(221) After passing the detector lever, the sliver goes through another
tube and is compressed by the calender rolls =Q=, driven as shown in
Fig. 124. These give the sliver more cohesion, and slightly flatten
it, after which it is treated by the coiler head =R=, which is of
the same construction as that employed on the carding engine, and is
driven by the gearing indicated in Fig. 123. Some makers provide a
full can stop motion, which operates when the can gets quite filled
with cotton. There is a danger, if the attendant is careless, of it
becoming jammed under the coiler plate and serious damage occurring. In
order to obviate this, a thin plate is fitted below the coiler plate,
thus forming a sort of false bottom. This is weighted suitably for
various strengths of slivers, it being desirable to press the sliver
to a certain degree in order to get as great a length in each can as
possible. The amount of this pressure is, of course, variable, and care
must be taken not to make it too great. When the loose plate is raised
it lifts a vertical stop which comes in front of a lever coupled to the
front end of a lever corresponding to =P=, in Fig. 124, and the motion
of the latter is arrested as before, with the same result. This is the
arrangement used by Messrs. Platt Brothers and Co., Limited.

(222) It sometimes happens that a sliver in coming out of the can
will be formed into a knot, or loop, which, when it comes into the
guide plates, =F=, cannot pass through the holes in the latter. The
result is, that the sliver is broken and requires re-piecing. Now, it
is desirable to prevent the breakage of the sliver when possible, and
the case named is met by Mr. Brooks by the use of the motion shown in
detail separately. The bar fixed in =L= oscillates under a catch lever
=S=, which is balanced by the plate =F=, so as to be raised above the
path of =L=. When, however, a knot occurs, the plate =F= is drawn
inward, and the catch lever =S= brought in the way of the bar in =L=,
the oscillatory movement of the latter being arrested. The machine is
thus stopped, as in the cases previously named. In order to make this
movement more sensitive, the plate =F= is balanced by the weighted
lever fixed on the same rod on which =F= oscillates, the weight being
adjustable to suit different strengths of sliver.

(223) Messrs. Howard and Bullough have for some years made an
application of electricity to this machine for the purposes of stop
motions. Their arrangement is shown in Fig. 127, in transverse section.
The machine is practically divided into two pieces, which are joined
together, but have pieces of some insulating material introduced into
the joint. One half of the machine thus constitutes one pole, and is
connected to the battery, or dynamo, by the rod =R=; and the other
half being the other pole, also coupled to the battery by the rod
=O=. The sliver, as it passes to the back roller, goes between two
rollers =S T=, which are coupled to the positive and negative poles
respectively. The lower roller is fluted and is the full length of the
machine, while the upper roller is only long enough for two slivers.
Failure of an end is followed by the contact of the two rollers, thus
establishing the circuit and causing a current to pass through the
magnet =X=, which attracts the catch =Z=. The latter engages with a
constantly revolving cam and thus stops the latter, this being followed
by the release of the knocking-off lever. The lapping of a sliver in
passing through the drawing rollers causes the top front roller =H=,
which is coupled to one pole, to engage with a pin =L=, connected to
the other, and so stop the machine. The breakage of the sliver before
reaching the calender rollers =N K=, is followed by the establishment
of contact between them, with the usual result. Over filling of the can
lifts the tube plate in the coiler =O=, and completes the circuit with
the same result. The use of electricity in this connection has greatly
simplified the machine, and has proved to be a great success.

[Illustration: FIG. 127. J.N.]

(224) It only remains to be said that the diameter of the front roller
is from 1 inch to 1-3/8 inches, according to the work required, and the
speed at which it is run, from 290 to 450 revolutions per minute.



(225) The sliver as left by the drawing frame consists of a number
of fibres arranged in a parallel order, and contains a little
twist introduced by the coiler. It is not practicable to carry the
parallelising process much further, as the drawn slivers are so
attenuated that very little more draught would pull the fibres asunder.
As, however, it is essential, in order to produce a yarn of the
requisite fineness, that a further reduction shall be effected, it is
the practice to gradually introduce into the sliver a small amount of
twist. This is done by stages, and at each stage the partially twisted
fibre is subjected to the action of drawing rollers. The machines about
to be described, therefore, have a dual action, and, in most cases,
are three in number, known respectively as slubbing—second slubbing
or intermediate—and roving frames. While this is the rule, it is not
the universal practice. In spinning coarse counts, for instance, only
the first and third of the series are sometimes employed, while the
production of very fine yarns is aided by the use of a fourth machine,
known as a “jack” frame. Whatever may be the number of steps by which
the process is completed the object is the same—to reduce the sliver to
an even round thread of such proportions that it can be readily twisted
into yarn of the requisite diameter. The introduction of a slight twist
binds the fibres together, and enables them to be drawn as required
without breakage. The thread finally produced is technically known as
a “roving.” The various machines being practically identical in their
details, varying only in correspondence with the increasing fineness of
the thread, it is only necessary to give a description of one of the

(226) In Fig. 128 a front view of a slubbing frame, and in Fig. 134
a back view of a roving frame, as made by Mr. John Mason, are shown.
The sliver is brought from the drawing frame in the cans in which it
is coiled, these being placed at the back of the slubbing machine. It
is drawn from the cams over a guide roller, and is then conducted to
the drawing rollers. After being treated in the slubbing frame the
bobbins produced are placed upon wooden pegs, pointed at both ends,
which are sustained in bearings in the light frame =S= shown in Fig.
134, this being known as a “creel.” The bobbins are borne in an almost
vertical position, and revolve easily as the slubbing is being drawn
off. There may be two or three rows placed in the creel, which is
described as a one, two, or three height creel accordingly. In either
case the material is conducted as in the slubbing frame to the drawing
rollers. Of these there are usually three, but sometimes four lines,
their construction being generally similar to those used in the drawing
frame, the back set of top rollers being ordinarily heavier than the
front ones. The rollers are carried in brass bearings, fixed to the
roller beam, and are weighted as in the drawing frame. Top clearers
are fitted above the rollers, which are quite covered by polished
cast-iron covers. The bottom rollers are kept clean by the aid of a
revolving clearer kept closely pressed against them by a two-armed
spring, the ends of the arms being grooved to form bearings for the
axes of the clearer roller. The “under clearer” spring is attached to
the roller beam, and is usually made of flat steel, stamped out of a
sheet. A better form, made from round bright wire, has been recently
introduced by Mr. C. H. Pugh, of Birmingham, which has the great
merits of catching less fly and being more easily cleaned. As was said
in the previous chapter, the absolute cleanliness of the rollers is
essential, as otherwise the sliver will adhere to them—this being known
as “licking”—and will be wrapped round them, thus producing “roller
laps.” The drawing action having been fully described in the preceding
chapter, it is not necessary to go over the same ground. The diameter
of the front rollers in the slubbing frame are about 1-1/4 inch, and in
the roving frame 1-1/8 inch. The weights are heavier in the slubbing
frame, and in all the series the back rollers are more lightly weighted
than the front. Thus the weights used for the front, middle, and back
lines in the slubbing frame are respectively 18, 14, and 10lbs; in
the intermediate frame 14, 10, and 8lbs.; and in the roving frame
(with single bossed rollers) 10, 8, and 6lbs; and (with double bossed
rollers) 18, 14, and 12lbs.

(227) The mode of constructing the spindles A, is illustrated in
sectional elevation in Fig. 129. The spindles are made from round
steel from 9/16 inch to 7/8 inch diameter, and are arranged in two
rows, one behind the other, with their centres alternating thus _
-_ - _. This arrangement permits of more spindles being fitted into
the space at liberty. Usually the distance from centre to centre
of adjoining spindles denotes the “gauge” of a machine, but in the
series of machines now being dealt with, the peculiar setting of the
spindles prevents this. The “gauge” in this case is denoted by the
number of spindles in a defined number of lineal inches. Thus, to
take an illustration from actual practice, a slubbing frame may have
4 spindles in 17-1/2 inches, that being its gauge; an intermediate, 6
in 19-1/2 inches; or a roving frame 8 in 20-1/2 inches. The spindles
are accurately ground so as to be quite round, and vary in length from
28 to 42 inches. At the “foot” the diameter of the spindle is reduced,
and the extreme lower end or “toe” is conical, being borne by a brass
footstep fixed in a longitudinal rail. Immediately below the bobbin is
an upper bearing or bolster, fixed in a similar rail. On the top of
the spindle a flyer =B= is placed, this being of the shape shown, and
constructed of steel. The legs are oval in section, and may be either
tubular or solid, being made as light as possible. At the centre of
the bridge connecting the legs is a circular double boss =C=, which
is bored throughout, the hole so formed being carefully rounded and
polished at its upper orifice. At a point near the top a hole is bored
penetrating to that in =C=, and being also well rounded and polished.
The lower portion of =C= constitutes a socket, into which the upper end
of the spindle fits, the latter passing above the point at which the
bridge is attached to the boss. A slot is cut across the upper end of
the spindle, and a round pin, engaging with the slot, is fixed in the
socket of the flyer, which is thus positively driven.

[Illustration: FIG. 128. WATKINSON ENG.]

[Illustration: FIG. 129. J.N.]

(228) Attached to one or both legs of the flyer are two snugs or
projections =D D^{1}= acting as bearings for pressure fingers or
“pressers” =E=. The latter are round rods, hooked at their upper ends
and bent at right angles at their lower ends. The hooked portion can
be dropped into a socket in the upper snug =D=, and the presser thus
oscillates freely on the centre of the bearings =D D^{1}=. The inner
end of the finger =E= is flattened and curved so as to correspond with
the surface of the bobbin =F=, being formed with a guide-eye, as shown.
It is made of such a length as always to press upon the surface of the
bobbin during the rotation of the flyer, which it is caused to do by
the centripetal action set up by the latter. The amount of pressure
exerted depends entirely on the rate of the revolution of the flyer,
and the practical effect is that the roving is more tightly wound on
the body than it would otherwise be. It was at one time customary to
use two pressers with each flyer, but it is more generally the practice
now to employ one only. Great care is taken to balance the flyer, and,
when single pressers are used, one leg is made solid and the other
tubular, the presser being fitted to the latter. The sliver, after
leaving the rollers, is passed through the upper part of the boss =C=,
emerging by the small hole referred to, being then wrapped round the
presser two or three times, and finally conducted through the guide-eye
in the finger to the bobbin =F=. Both the inner and outer surface of
the flyer must be absolutely smooth, as otherwise it catches the fibre
and forms “fly.” For this reason, steel, as a constructive material,
has entirely superseded the fine iron formerly used.

(229) The spindle is borne, as was shown, by a bolster and footstep.
In order to give steadiness and reduce friction it is the practice to
fit in the former a collar or tubular bearing. This is either “short”
or “long.” Formerly short collars were the rule, these merely acting
as a somewhat longer bearing, the bobbin in its vertical movement
sliding upon the spindle. Mr. John Mason then introduced the “long”
collar which is shown in Fig. 128. The collar =I= is of sufficient
length to extend from the bolster, bearing upwards through the bobbin
to a point within the flyer. It is recessed internally, so as not to
bear the entire length, but simply to be in contact with the spindle at
two points. The latter is thus sustained high up, in addition to being
borne, as usual, at the two lower points. The effect is that a much
less amount of vibration is set up, and the flyer revolves with greater
steadiness. This has an important bearing upon the operation, as it
diminishes considerably the risk of breakage.

(230) Another method which, in many respects, is superior to any other,
is that shown in Figs. 130 and 131 in vertical section and elevation.
This is the plan previously adopted by Messrs. William Higgins and
Sons, and now made by Messrs. Crighton and Sons, and Shepherd and
Ayrton. In this case the spindle =A= is carried in a long tube =I=,
which extends downwards until it is formed, as shown, into a footstep
for the spindle toe. In short, the spindle is sustained in a kind of
tubular cradle, being to a certain extent entirely free of the fixed
bearing rails =J K=. To these the tube =I= is attached by swivel
joints, so arranged that they are universal, thus allowing the spindle
=A= and flyer =B= to adjust themselves as required to compensate for
any unevenness of balance which may exist in the bobbins or flyers.
The tube =I= is recessed for a certain part of its length, so as to
form an oil chamber and reduce the friction set up during work. The
advantages arising from this arrangement are that, even when the
spindle is running at high velocities, any untrueness in the balance
of the spindle merely causes it to find its true centre of gravity,
and thus avoid vibration or wear. Spindles constructed in this manner
can be worked for many years without showing any wear which is at all
detrimental, and on this account higher velocities are attainable with
ease than can be reached with the ordinary methods of construction.

(231) The spindles are positively driven as shown in Fig. 130, by means
of bevel wheels fastened near the foot. In the arrangement shown in
these drawings the spindle pinions =F= are formed with square holes,
into which the spindles, similarly shaped, are fitted. This allows the
spindle to be easily lifted out when required for examination. Usually
the pinions =F= are fastened to the spindle by means of a set screw. In
either case they engage with a bevel wheel =G= fastened on a shaft =H=,
carried in brackets fixed to the framing, and extending longitudinally
along the frame. The spindles being set zig-zag, as described, there
are two lines of them, and consequently there must be two shafts =H=
to drive them, and in order to distinguish between the two, they are
supposed to be shown in position in Fig. 131, and the back wheels are
marked =F^{1} G^{1}=. The shafts =H= are geared so as to revolve at the
same velocity, but in opposite directions, and, as it is imperative
that the spindles shall revolve in the same direction, this is attained
by gearing the pinions =F F^{1}= on different sides of the centres of
the wheels =G G^{1}=, as clearly shown. To enable this to be done, the
teeth of the wheels are cut at a special angle or “skew” to suit.

[Illustration: FIGS. 130 AND 131. J. N.]

(232) The bobbin =L= rests upon a flange of the bevel pinion =M= placed
on the collar, and driven by the wheel =N=. The pinions are, as shown
in Fig. 129, fixed in the “bobbin rail,” or, as in Fig. 130, carried on
the top of a bearing sustained by the swivel joint. The upper flange
of each pinion has formed on it oblong “snugs” or projections, which
take into corresponding slots made in the bottom of the bobbins. The
wheels =N= are keyed on the shafts =O=, which also extend the whole
length of the machine, and are suitably borne by brackets fastened
to the underside of the bobbin rail. Thus the latter sustains both
the driving shafts and the bevel pinions which, as in the case of the
spindles, are driven by wheels gearing at different sides of the centre.

(233) This mode of construction lends itself very easily to the
formation of the bobbin or spool of roving, which, at its completion,
is of the shape shown in Fig. 128, cylindrical with conical ends. In
order to wrap the yarn upon the bobbin =L= it is necessary to give the
latter not only a rotary but a vertical movement. It is, of course,
possible to give this motion to the spindle and flyer and not to the
bobbin, but this is not a convenient method in the case of machines
like those under notice, for many reasons. The rail, therefore, which
carries the bobbin pinions and bobbin, known as the “bobbin rail,”
receives a vertical traverse to an extent which is determined by the
class of material to be dealt with. This traverse is a reciprocal one,
and is technically known as the “lift,” a machine being said to have a
lift of so many inches according to the extent of the vertical movement
of the bobbin rail. This varies from 10 or 12 inches in the case of the
slubbing frame to 5 or 6 inches in the roving frame, and is obtained in
a manner which will be presently described. While it is taking place
the bobbins are slid upon the spindle, the presser eye continuing
to revolve in the same horizontal plane. From this it follows that
any yarn drawn through the eye by the rotation of the bobbin is of
necessity wound upon a fresh portion of the surface of the latter.
It only remains now to point out, before proceeding to deal with the
machine in detail, that it has been shown the spindles and bobbins
are driven independently, and may, if desired, rotate at various and
different speeds; and that provision is also made for the maintenance
of the vertical position of the spindles and flyers while permitting
that of the bobbin to be altered. These, added to the regular delivery
of sliver by means of the rollers, constitute the essential features of
these machines, but the effective manipulation of them gives rise to a
number of interesting mechanical problems.

(234) It has been pointed out that the action of the rollers in
attenuating the sliver is identical with that of those in the drawing
frame, so that no special description need be given of them. But these
machines are the first in which the process of twisting is carried
out, and the rollers form an important part of the mechanism for this
purpose. In introducing twist into any strand or sliver it is necessary
that one end of it should be held, while the other is also held and
turned at a higher or lower speed. If this is done the strand will be
twisted, and the amount of twist is strictly defined by the number of
times it is turned. In actual working it is not practicable to continue
so to twist the strand without at the same time submitting it to the
action of the spindles continuously. Unless it was so delivered it
would be broken because of the shortening which takes place during
twisting, and it is therefore necessary to furnish a fresh portion of
the sliver to the action of the twisting mechanism. For this reason
the sliver, while being firmly held by the nip of the front rollers,
is also delivered by them at a definite rate, which depends on their
size and rate of revolution. Now, assuming that no such delivery takes
place, and that a length of sliver of 10 inches is turned 100 times,
there would be in each inch of it 10 turns or twists. Suppose, now,
that another 10 inches was delivered and the same number of turns
made, a similar result would be obtained. It does not matter whether
the delivery is constant or intermittent, provided only that the ratio
of the length delivered and the number of revolutions of the twisting
mechanism remain the same. Intermittent delivery would, however, be
very inconvenient in practice in producing rovings, and thus it is
requisite to provide for a steady and regular delivery of yarn, as well
as a uniform speed of the spindle and flyer. Granting the attainment of
these conditions, it is easy to define the amount of twist put into any
thread, it being in the same ratio as the number of revolutions made
by the twisting mechanism during the delivery of one inch of sliver or
roving. Twists are always defined as being so many “turns” per inch,
and are arrived at in the way just indicated. As a matter of fact
there is a little slip in the rollers, which does not, however, to any
large extent modify the rule enunciated. The constants in a machine
of this kind are therefore the rate of revolution of the spindles and
front rollers; and, generally speaking, the amount of twist increases
as the roving becomes finer. This can be attained by an increase of
spindle speed or a decrease of that of the rollers, as will be readily
understood, but considerations of a mechanical nature generally lead
to the latter course being pursued. The spindle speeds in a slubbing
intermediate, and roving frame, dealing with the same class of roving,
would be approximately 700, 800, and 1,100 revolutions per minute. A
table of productions, speeds, etc., is given on page 174, which will
throw some light on this point.

(235) It has been already noticed that the bobbin receives a vertical
traverse, while the spindle is vertically stationary, and that, in
consequence, the yarn is wrapped upon the bobbin in spiral coils. The
speed of this traverse is carefully regulated so that each layer is
quite free from any overlap, while, at the same time, no space should
be left between the coils. When the bobbin has wrapped round it for
the whole of its length one layer of roving, its diameter is increased
by an amount equal to double the thickness of the roving. Thus its
circumference is enlarged, and every revolution it makes requires a
longer length of material to cover the surface than it did when it was
bare. This extra amount must either be fed to the bobbin, or its speed
must be reduced, and as the rollers deliver at a constant rate, the
latter is the course pursued. Further, the length of roving wrapped
upon the bare bobbin during the whole lift is, of necessity, less than
that which would be wrapped upon it after a layer has been wound on
if the lift were constant. It is essential that the length of each
complete layer should be as nearly as possible equal, and for this
reason the traverse of the bobbin is shortened slightly after each of
its reciprocal movements. The amount of the diminution in lift is in
exact correspondence with the excess of length which would be taken up
if it remained constant. The increase in the diameter of the spool has
thus an important bearing on the lift, and it is of equal moment in
relation to another function of the machine.

(236) A reference to Fig. 129 will show that the flyer and bobbin
rotate round the same centre, and the roving delivered by the rollers
is passed on to the bobbin through the presser eye, as pointed out. If
it be assumed that the yarn passes on to the bobbin at some imaginary
point in the circumference of the latter, and that this occupies during
its rotation a definitely relative position to that of the flyer eye
during its revolution in a concentric circle, it follows that no
roving can pass from the flyer to the bobbin. A little thought will
make this clear, but Fig. 132 will serve to illustrate it. In this
figure, =A= is the spindle, =B= the circumference of the bobbin,
and =C= the path of the flyer eye. Now, as =A= and =C= are attached
in the manner previously described, they must of necessity revolve
at the same speed. On the other hand, the rate of rotation of =B= is
capable of variation by reason of its independent driving. Let =D=
and =E= represent respectively the points at which the yarn leaves
the flyer =C= find passes on to the bobbin =B=. It is obvious that
if the relative position of =D= and =E= remain unchanged—that is, if
they travel at equal speeds, so that the line between them is always
alike—there can be no passage of roving from =D= to =E=; or, in other
words, there can be no winding. But if the point =E= makes a complete
revolution in less time than =D= does, or _vice versâ_, winding will
take place. In the first case the quicker motion of =E= would result in
the bobbin =B= taking up roving from =D=; and in the second the greater
velocity of =D= would cause it to wrap the roving round the bobbin. To
make this clear, suppose the lines =A D= and =A E= to represent radial
lines drawn through the points =D E= at the commencement of winding,
and that at the termination of say three revolutions, the position of
these lines relatively is the same. It is perfectly clear that the line
=D E= will have remained unaltered, and no passage of the roving will
have occurred. But now assume that the flyer =C= had moved so much
faster than the bobbin =B=, that the radial lines through =D= and =E=
were in the position shown in Fig. 133. It will at once be seen that
=C= will have drawn forward a certain length of roving corresponding to
its gain, and that the portion of its circumference between the point
where the material from =D= passes on to it and the point =E= will be
covered by the roving. In the event of =B= moving faster than =C=, the
effect is identical with that described, although it is obtained in an
entirely different way.

[Illustration: FIGS. 132 AND 133. J.N.]

(237) This statement of the general principle is sufficient to show
the conditions under which winding is successfully effected. The gain
either of the bobbin or flyer upon the other is technically called
the “lead,” and thus a frame is said to be constructed with a bobbin
or flyer “lead.” The determination of the amount of lead is very
simple, and is fixed by the speed of the rollers, it being manifestly
impossible to take up more yarn than is delivered. It follows,
therefore, that the excess of the surface speed of the bobbin or spool
at any stage of its development must accurately correspond with that
of the front rollers. If this condition be departed from, either by
the lead given being too great or too little, the result will be
broken yarn; in the first case by stretching, and in the second by
the production of slack places which become entangled and broken. It
may here be stated that it is now almost universally the practice to
let the bobbin lead, as, with the flyer leading, a certain amount of
stretch is put into the yarn, which is very injurious. This defect
is especially noticeable in starting the frame, and it is entirely
remedied by giving the lead to the bobbin.

(238) Assuming, then, that the bobbin leads, it is necessary to
consider the effect of the gradual increase in the size of the bobbin,
caused by the winding on of the yarn. This difficulty is rendered acute
by reason of the positive driving of the bobbin. In flyer frames, used
for spinning or doubling, the bobbin has a little slip which can be
easily adjusted, but which is not obtainable in this case. The slip of
the bobbin is caused by the drag of the yarn, a procedure which at this
stage is practically impossible. Every traverse of the bobbin rail is,
as has been seen, accompanied by an increase of the circumference of
the bobbin corresponding to the diameter of the roving. Thus, to take
an extreme case, assuming the diameter of the empty tube to be 1-1/2
inch, it would take up at each revolution 4·7 inches of yarn. If the
yarn was 1/8 inch thick, the diameter of the bobbin would be 1-3/4
inch after one layer, and each revolution would take up 5·5 inches
of yarn. This is, of course, assuming that the flyer is absent, and
that the bobbin was winding. As the surface velocity of the bobbin
and front roller must correspond, and no more sliver is delivered at
one time than at another, it follows that the rate of revolution of
the bobbin must diminish in exact proportion to the increase of its
circumferential speed. It is, therefore, easy to calculate the exact
amount of retardation at each traverse by a knowledge of the diameter
of the yarn, or the number of layers to be wound on any spool.

(239) It is thus easy to see that with the bobbin leading it should
gradually diminish in speed, and it is consequently the practice to
run it at a much higher speed at the beginning than at the termination
of winding. For instance, an empty spool 1 inch diameter takes up per
revolution 3·1416 inches of roving, while one 3 inches diameter would
take up 9·42 inches. It thus becomes imperative to reduce the speed of
the bobbin wheels, and these being constantly geared with their driving
wheels, it is necessary to reduce the velocity of the bobbin shafts.
These are driven, as described hereafter, by a train of gearing from
the main shaft, and special means are adopted to compass the reduction.
The spindles are running at a constant speed, and it follows, in
consequence, that the bobbin must run at the same rate, plus the number
of revolutions necessary to take up the length of yarn delivered in any
given time. If, for instance, the spindles made 100 revolutions while
10 inches of yarn was being delivered, the bobbin must revolve 100
times plus the number necessary to take up the 10 inches of yarn.

(240) When the flyer leads, the application of this principle is not
quite so clearly seen at first sight, but a little reflection will
make it understood. In this case the winding is effected by the excess
of the speed of the flyer over that of the bobbin. This is exactly
the reverse of the practice when the bobbin leads, but the essential
condition is, as before, the preservation of the relative surface
speeds of the bobbin and roller. Suppose that, in starting, the
diameter of these two are the same, then the bobbin must lag behind
the flyer to the extent of one revolution for each revolution of the
roller. But as the bobbin increases in diameter, it requires more
yarn to cover its surface, and a less difference in speed is needed,
as, if the bobbin continues to lag one revolution, the difference
between the speed of delivery and that of winding become so great as
to stretch and break the roving. Instead of wrapping it round, for
instance, a circumference of three inches it has eventually to be
wound on one of six inches, and it is obvious that if the speed of the
bobbin remains constant the roving will be drawn and broken. It is,
therefore, necessary to gradually increase the speed of the bobbin so
that for every inch of yarn delivered, an inch of the circumference
will be covered by it. The difference between this and the former
case consists in the fact that the roving is wrapped on a concentric
surface, revolving in the same direction at a slower speed, while,
with the bobbin leading, the surface on which the roving is wound,
moving in excess of the speed of the flyer, draws the roving through
the flyer eye at a rate equal to that of its delivery. In other words,
it is in one case _wrapped_ on by the excess of the flyer speed or the
drag of the bobbin, while, in the other, it is _drawn_ on by the excess
of speed of the bobbin. The conclusion is thus arrived at that when
the flyer leads, the bobbins must start at their slowest speed, and
gradually increase; while, when the bobbin leads, it must begin at its
highest speed and gradually diminish.

(241) Having thus explained the principle of the machine, it now
remains to describe the mechanism by which it is carried into effect,
referring for this purpose to Fig. 134. The driving, or “jack,” shaft
A has a fast and loose pulley on its outer end, and has fastened on it
two spur wheels. One of these drives, by means of a carrier wheel, a
wheel fixed on one of the spindle shafts, and motion is given to the
spindles in the way previously described. The speed of the spindles,
being independently obtained, can be changed without reference to
the other motions. The pinion =C= is known as the “twist wheel,” and
is made as large as convenient. It drives, by the intervention of a
carrier wheel, a pinion =D= fixed on the shaft on which the cone =E= is
also keyed. The shaft carrying =D= has also fastened on it, within the
framing, a pinion which directly gears into a wheel fixed on the roller
axis. Thus the twist wheel =C= drives the cone =E= and the rollers, so
that if it is replaced by a smaller wheel, both of these revolve at a
lower speed, or _vice versâ_. This is important, because as the speed
of the rollers and that of the bobbins are both regulated from the
twist wheel, the alteration of their velocities is made simultaneously.

[Illustration: FIG. 134. J.N.]

(242) This part of the mechanism is easily understood and involves no
difficulty, but the driving of the bobbins gives rise to a complex
problem which necessitates the employment of some ingenious mechanism.
The upper cone =E= drives, by means of a strap or band, the lower cone
=E^{1}=. The circumferences of each of these cones are accurately
turned to corresponding, but converse, parabolic curves, one cone
being convex and the other concave. They must be exactly the same in
their largest and smallest diameters, and are turned in lathes fitted
with “former” plates, by which the slide rest is guided in its correct
path. The lower cone is carried in bearings =B=, formed in two arms
connected by a tubular stay, oscillating on a shaft (=M=, Fig. 134),
on which is the pinion =H=. This arrangement is shown separately in
plan and elevation in Figs. 135 and 136. A pinion =G= is fixed on the
spindle of the lower cone, and gears with a spur wheel =F= fastened on
the shaft named. Thus, when the cone =E^{1}= is raised or lowered, the
pinion =G= rolls round its engaging wheel =F=, being always fully in
gear. This arrangement is utilised to keep the strap tight, the lower
cone being coupled by an adjustable connecting rod or chain =I= to
a disc fixed on the cross shaft shown, the former being preferable. By
revolving the shaft =J=, the cone =E^{1}= can be raised or lowered,
and the tension on the strap can be regulated by means of a right and
left-handed nut which couples the two parts of the connecting rod
=I=, Fig. 134. Motion is given to the pinion =H=, as will be easily
understood, from the cone =E^{1}=, and from it to the shaft =K= by the
carrier pinion which gears with =H^{1}= on =K=. On =K= also is fixed
a spur pinion =L^{1}= driving the plate wheel =L=, and the worm which
engages with the worm-wheel on the upright shaft =M=. The latter is
thus revolved, its precise function being explained hereafter.

[Illustration: FIGS. 135 AND 136. J.N.]

(243) The wheel =L= forms a part of the ingenious winding, or, as it
is sometimes called, “the differential motion,” invented by Mr. Henry
Holdsworth. This is one of the class of epicyclic wheel trains, of
which many instances are known and which are very interesting. Fig.
137 is a drawing on an enlarged scale of this motion, the reference
letters, with the exception of =L= and =N=, being used for this figure
specially. Upon the shaft =A= a fixed cast-iron tube is placed, upon
which the wheel =L= and the compound wheel =D N= revolve. The jack
shaft =A= revolves in the tube, and on the shaft is fastened a bevel
wheel =B= which gears with similar pinions =C= and =E=. These are
carried in bearings formed in the wheel =L= at equal distances from
its centre, and have perfect freedom of revolution. They also engage
with the bevel wheel =D=, cast in one piece with the spur wheel =N=,
which is known as the “bobbin wheel.” The latter gears with a spur
pinion carried in a double swing frame =O O^{1}= (Fig. 134), centred
on the jack shaft and attached at its other end to the bobbin rail. In
this way, as the latter rises and falls, the swing frame or “swing”—as
it is shortly called—oscillates on its centre, and the spur pinion
rolls round the bobbin wheel =N=, being always in full gear. By means
of a carrier wheel—also borne by the swing—the motion of the bobbin
wheel is communicated to a spur wheel on one of the bobbin shafts, and
by equal sized pinions on each shaft to the other. Thus, the bobbins
are driven by a train of wheels, which are always in gear, no matter
what the vertical position of the bobbin may be. The bobbin wheel and
its compound bevel run loose upon the cast-iron tube, as previously

(244) The foregoing description of the winding motion will serve to
show the principle of its construction, and its mode of action can now
be explained. Suppose first, that the bearings of the pinions =C= and
=E= are fixed instead of revolving with the wheel =L=, and that the
shaft =A= is revolved, it is obvious that the revolution of the wheel
=B= would be communicated to =C= and =E=. These would rotate on their
axes, and would consequently drive the wheel =D N= at the same speed
as =B=, but in the opposite direction. This may be called one pole of
the operation of this motion. The other is reached when the plate wheel
=L= is rotated in the same direction as =B= at an equal velocity, the
wheel =D N= being then carried round in the same direction, and at the
same speed as =B=. But if the relative velocity of =L= is reduced,
there will be a lessened speed communicated to the wheel =D N= in
the proportion of two revolutions less than that of =B= for every
revolution of =L=. That is to say, if =B= was running at 20 revolutions
per minute and =L= in the same time made one revolution, =D N= would
make 18 revolutions. This gives rise to a curious result in working.
When the number of revolutions made by =L= is half of those made by
=B=, the motion of =D N= entirely ceases, but as the proportion is
varied so as to be slower than =B=, the velocity of =D N= is reduced as
described, but its direction of rotation will be different. That is,
if =L= makes more than half as many revolutions as =B=, the wheel =D
N= will move in the same direction as =B=; but if it makes less than
half, =D N= will rotate in the opposite direction to =B=. This motion
is admirably treated in Professor Goodeve’s “Elements of Mechanism,”
where its rationale is fully described, and where the student will find
ample explanations of the operation of this class of mechanism. It is
sufficient for the present purpose, however, to reiterate that the
loss of motion in the bobbin wheel =D N=, is equal to two revolutions
of =B= for each one of =L=; and that the direction of motion of =D N=
depends on the speed of =L=. It may be said, in amplification, that
when =L= revolves at less than half the speed of =B=, the velocity of
=D N= increases as that of =L= decreases; while if the plate wheel =L=
makes more than one-half the number of turns of =B= the speed of =D N=
increases with that of =L=. The middle point thus becomes a sort of
zero, a fact which it is desirable to remember. Treated algebraically,
the formula may be stated as follows, where _b_ = the velocity of the
driving pinion =B=, _l_ = that of the plate wheel =L=, and _n_ that of
the bobbin =D N=, if =L= revolves in the same direction as the shaft,
_n_ = _b_ - 2_l_; but if in the contrary direction, then _n_ = -_b_ -

(245) The effect of the application of this formula in the latter case
is different entirely to the results already described. If the wheel
=L= revolves at the same speed as =B=, but in the contrary direction,
then _n_ = - 3_b_, if the value of _b_ be substituted for that of
_l_. If =L= makes half the number of revolutions that =B= does, then
_n_ = -2_b_. The relations of =B= and =D N= can thus be accurately
ascertained, and by the aid of this formula the speed of the bobbin
wheel can be easily calculated. It is only necessary to know the value
of the entire train of gearing from the fixed wheel =B= to the plate
wheel =N= to be able to apply the formula given above. Thus, if it is
found that the ratio of the velocity of =L= and the fixed wheel =B= be,
say, as 1: 40, and that =B= makes 250 revolutions per minute, the speed
of =D N= could be arrived at easily. Substituting the arithmetical
value of _l_ and _b_ for those signs, the result would be _n_ = 250 -
2(250÷40) = -262·5. As the changing position of the cone strap is the
only variable factor in the problem, it is only necessary to know the
diameters at various points to ascertain accurately the reduction or
acceleration of speed which will occur during the time it is making the
necessary traverse. It should be explained, before passing on to deal
at greater length with the practice of the subject, that the minus sign
merely indicates that the bobbin wheel revolves in a contrary direction
to the wheel =B= and the shaft =A=.

[Illustration: FIG. 137. J.N.]

(246) The application of this mechanism to the purposes of winding
depends, therefore, upon the regulation of the speed of =L=. It has
been seen that the motion of the latter is derived from the bottom cone
=E^{1}=. Assuming the plate wheel to run in the same direction as the
wheel =B=, it follows that when the bobbin leads, the wheel =L= must
start at its slowest relative speed, and increase as the bobbin fills.
It is for many reasons desirable that the speed of the plate wheel
should be as low as possible, which is the course generally adopted.
If the flyer leads, the opposite plan is pursued. When, as is the
case in the machine made by Mr. John Mason, the plate wheel revolves
in the reverse direction to that of the wheel =B=, it commences
at its quickest and finishes at its lowest relative speed, with a
bobbin lead. Under these circumstances the full value of the special
arrangement, illustrated in Fig. 137, is seen. The highest velocity of
the cone is obtained when the bobbins are empty and have in consequence
the lightest weight. Where spindles are revolving at 800 to 1,000
revolutions per minute, this is undoubtedly a great consideration,
because the strain upon the strap is lessened by reason of the
decreased velocity at a time when the strap is on the smallest diameter
of the driving cone. It is sometimes the practice to run =L= and =D=
on the bare jack shaft in the contrary direction, this creating a good
deal of friction and necessitating extra driving power. For this reason
the introduction of a tubular bush, such as is shown in Fig. 137, is
attended with considerable advantage. The friction existing when the
wheels run upon the bare shaft, but in the contrary direction, is very
great, as will be understood when the speed of the wheels—about 400
revolutions per minute—is remembered. Any rotation of one or more of
the wheels in the opposite direction to the shaft is therefore equal to
an increase of the friction on the latter by the rate of the movement
of the former.

[Illustration: FIG. 138. J.N.]

(247) To overcome this defect, therefore, the motion has been
re-arranged in one or two cases, so that all the parts revolve in the
same direction. Messrs. Curtis, Sons, and Co. employ Curtis and Rhodes’
motion, which is illustrated in section in Fig. 138. The bobbin wheel
=A= is cast in one piece with, or fixed to, an internal wheel =C=,
which is loose upon the shaft =B=. The disc =D= is fastened on the
shaft, revolving with it, and carrying a pin or spindle, on each end of
which are fastened the pinions =E= and =F=. =E= gears with the internal
wheel, and =F= with a compound pinion =G=, which in turn engages with
the pinion =H=. The latter is cast on the collar =L=, which is driven
from the lower cone and is loose upon the shaft =B=, revolving in the
same direction. If the collar =L= is fastened to the shaft, the whole
of the wheels become locked together, and the bobbin wheel =A= and the
driving pinion =H= will revolve together at the same speed and in the
same way. This arises from the fact that the disc =D= is fixed on the
shaft, and as it carries the train of wheels the fastening of =L= keeps
the teeth of =E= and =F= locked, so causing the rotation of the latter
and its attached wheel =A=. The carrier wheels would be standing under
these conditions, while the Holdsworth motion in the same circumstances
would have the whole of the wheels in rapid motion. Thus, if in actual
work, when the collar =L= is loose, it is revolved at the same speed as
the disc =D= or at one nearly approaching it, there would be no motion
in the carrier wheels, or very little, and the speed of =A= would equal
that of =H=. As the velocity of the latter is reducing, more motion is
given to the wheels, which thus retard the wheel =A= while allowing
it to rotate in the same direction as the shaft. In this way the wear
and tear of the parts, and the power required to drive them, are alike
materially reduced.

[Illustration: FIG. 139. J.N.]

(248) Messrs. Howard and Bullough use Tweedale’s motion, which is
illustrated in Fig. 139. The shaft =A= has a boss fastened on it,
which is constructed with a second boss =G= at right angles to, but on
one side of it. The latter is bored to receive a short shaft, on each
end of which the two wheels =F H= are fixed. The wheel =B= is driven
from the lower cone, and is compounded with the bevel wheel =E=, both
being free to revolve on the shaft. The bobbin wheel =C= is cast in
one piece with the wheel =D=, and also runs loosely upon the shaft.
It will be noticed that only the wheels =F= and =H= are positively
rotated on the shaft =A=, being carried round with the boss. The motion
is communicated from =E= to =D= as follows: =E= drives the wheel =F=,
thus rotating the short cross shaft and the pinion =H=. The latter
gears with and drives the wheel =D=, the pinion =F= acting merely as a
carrier. The action of this mechanism can be readily understood from
the preceding explanation, and it need only be pointed out that the
regulation comes from the wheel =B=. There is introduced into this
mechanism the element of a double set of driving and driven wheels.
Thus =G= drives the wheel =F=, and =H D=, so that there is a difference
between this and the Holdsworth motion, in which the intermediate
pinions act as carriers only. In order, therefore, to get the speed
communicated to the wheel =D=, it is necessary to multiply the number
of teeth in the driving wheels and divide by those of the driven, by
which means the proportions of the two are arrived at. By the use of
the following formula the speed of =D= can easily be arrived at. Let
_m_ = revolutions of the shaft, _n_ = revolutions of the pinion =B=,
which is variable, _a_ = the constant arrived at as above, and _v_ =
the speed of bobbin wheel =D=, then _v_ = _m_ - _a_(_m_ + _n_). Having
obtained the speed _v_ it is of course easy to calculate the necessary
wheels to give the speed of the bobbins.

(249) The operation of the differential motion is controlled, as has
been seen, by the lower cone, the speed of which is carefully regulated
by altering the position of the driving strap laterally. It has been
pointed out that the cones are correspondingly but conversely curved,
the reason for this being that the actual increase which takes place
in the diameter of the bobbin is not in the same proportion to the
actual diameter at the end as at the beginning of winding. There is a
slight decrease occurring as the bobbin fills, and in the early stages
of spinning it was the practice to use a rack with uneven teeth cut
to a parabola, which was a costly process, and is entirely avoided by
the use of cones of that shape. Further, it is found that the bite of
the strap is better during a change of position. It will be readily
understood that the position of the strap on the two cones determines
the speed of the plate wheel =L=. It is therefore essential to provide
means by which the traverse of the strap can be effected, and, as the
addition of one layer of roving implies the necessity for a change in
the bobbin speed, the movement of the strap is given at the termination
of each lift, at the moment of the change of traverse. It follows,
therefore, that the mechanism by which the strap is moved, and that by
which the reversal of the lift is effected, must be connected. Before
proceeding to describe how this is done it may be stated that the strap
passes between two guides fastened to the toothed rack or slide =P=
(Fig. 134), sustained by bearings fixed to the frame of the machine.
The operation of traversing the rack is performed by an interesting
piece of mechanism which has several functions.

(250) The “building motion,” or “box of tricks” as it is sometimes
called, is placed in the position shown in Fig. 133 by the letter
=Q=. In order that its details may be better understood, a front and
back elevation and plan of it is given in Figs. 140, 141, and 142,
to which special reference will be made. The objects of the building
motion are three-fold: 1st, to give the requisite traverse to the cone
strap; 2nd, to give the reciprocal traverse to the bobbin; and 3rd,
to shorten that traverse or lift at the termination of the winding of
each layer. It has been already explained why the two first objects
have to be attained, and it will be profitable to explain the reason
for the third. Suppose that in commencing winding the tube is 1-1/4
inches diameter, the lift say 10 inches, and the diameter of the roving
1/8 inch, there would be wrapped upon that surface during one lift 80
coils or 314 inches of roving. Now, assuming that four layers have
been wound, the diameter of the bobbin would be 2-1/4 inches, which,
if the lift remained constant, would cause 563 inches to be wound on
the surface. But as the rate of delivery by the rollers is definite
during the time occupied by the lift, it follows that such a length of
roving could not be wound. It, therefore, becomes necessary to reduce
the lift after each layer of yarn is wound, so as to compensate for the
increased area of the cylindrical surface, and provide that the whole
of the length delivered by the rollers is taken up, but no more.

[Illustration: FIG. 140. J.N.]

(251) Referring now to Figs. 140 and 141 it will be noticed that there
are two cradles =A= and =B=, centred respectively on the pins =A^{1}=
and =B^{1}=. Fixed in the upper cradle =A= are hooks, one at each side,
which are connected, as shown, with double hooks =C D=, passing through
ears on the lower cradle =B=, having weights attached to their lower
ends. The lower cradle =B= has fixed in it a pin =E^{1}=, engaging with
a slot in the lever =E=. =E= is centred on the pin =F=, and is coupled
at its lower end to the rod =R=, which is connected with the double
bevel wheel =T T=, this connection being shown in Fig. 134. Two catches
=G G^{1}=, centred at their lower ends to the frame carrying the
cradles, are coupled by the helical spring =H=. It will be noticed that
the pawls of the catch levers are differently shaped, so as to engage
with the teeth of the rack or ratchet wheel =I= on the upper and lower
side of the centre respectively. The rack wheel is fixed on the same
centre as the cradle =A=, as is also a bevel pinion =J=, gearing with
a similar one =J^{1}= fixed on the upright shaft =K=, Fig. 141. At a
higher point on =K= a spur pinion =P^{1}= is fastened, which gears with
the teeth on the rack =P=, controlling the strap guides. Two levers
=L L^{1}= are pivoted to the frame as shown, and are coupled at their
inner ends by a helical spring =M=, which is carried round the centre
=B^{1}=. The inner ends of =L L^{1}= engage with shoulders or corners
=N N^{1}=, formed in the lower cradle =B=. Fixed to the bobbin rail
is the double slide =Q=, which has a pin =O= sliding in it, on which
the end of the connecting rod =S= is centred. This rod passes through
bearings placed in the cradle =A= (see Fig. 140), and is formed with
a toothed rack at its lower side with which a wheel =T= fixed on the
pin =A^{1}= gears. These are the whole of the parts of this particular
mechanism, but a reference to Fig. 134 will show that the rack =P= has
a weight attached to it by a chain, which is always tending to draw it
inwards, and move the strap. In addition to this it causes a torsional
strain to be exercised on the shaft =K=, and consequently on the rack
wheel, which causes the latter, when released by the catches, to rotate.

(252) The action of this mechanism is as follows: The slide =Q= in its
reciprocal vertical movement causes by means of the “diminishing rod”
or “hanger bar” =S=, the upper cradle =A= to oscillate in its centre.
When the bobbins are midway in their lift, the centre of the slide =Q=
should be in a line drawn horizontally through the centre of the pin
=A^{1}=, and the rod =S= should be capable of being moved horizontally
without producing any oscillating movement in the cradle =A=. When
this is the case, the two levers =L L^{1}= engage respectively with
the shoulders =N N^{1}=. Assuming that the bobbins are descending, the
cradle =A= is turned from left to right when looked at from the back of
the frame as in Fig. 141. In this way the hook =D= is raised with its
pendant weight, while =C= is simultaneously lowered. As the shoulder on
the upper part of the hook =C= prevents it passing through the hole in
the ear on the cradle =B=, it follows that a pressure is exercised on
the latter, which causes it to turn in the same direction as =A=. The
weight attached to =D= is finally completely taken off the cradle =B=,
and the continuance of the movement causes the point of contact of =L=
and =N= to become the fulcrum by which the rotary movement of =A= is
arrested for the time. This movement closely resembles the action of
an anchor, the cradle =B= being practically fixed as a ship is by its
anchor. In some modifications of the mechanism this resemblance is more
pronounced than in the one immediately under notice. Thus the point
through which =D= passes continues to be free, while the whole weight
is thrown upon the hook =C=, which thus exercises a proportionate
strain on =B=. The continued oscillation of =A= in the direction
indicated causes the screw =X=, fixed in the left hand arm of =A=,
as shown in Fig. 140, to come into contact with the outer end of the
lever =L=. The increasing pressure so applied causes =L= to turn upon
its centre, destroying the contact of its inner end with the shoulder
=N=, and allowing the cradle =B= to make a sudden movement, which is
partially rotary, but is also vertical in character. The movement being
reversed, the parts assume the position shown in Fig. 140, shortly
after the reversal. The screws fixed in the arms of the cradle =A= can
be readily adjusted and locked so as to make the release of the lower
cradle =B= simultaneous with the termination of the bobbin traverse.

[Illustration: FIG. 141. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 142.]

(253) In consequence of the sudden release so effected, the lever
=L^{1}= assumes the position shown in Fig. 140, and at the same time
the pin =E^{1}= strikes one side of the hole in the lever =E= (see Fig.
141), and causes the latter to turn rapidly on the pin =F=. This is
followed by three things. The head of the lever =E= strikes the catch
=G^{1}= and throws it out of gear with the ratchet wheel. The latter
at once makes a rotary movement to the extent of half a tooth, but is
then arrested and retained by the catch =G=. As the catch levers =G
G^{1}= are coupled by the spring =H= it will be easily understood how
the movement of one of them to the right or left is accompanied by a
corresponding movement of the other. By this release of the ratchet
wheel and its partial revolution, the upright shaft =K= also moves
and causes the rack =P= to travel inwards and so move the strap on the
cones. This is the first effect of the movement of the lever =E=.

(254) As shown in Fig. 134, and also in Fig. 141, the lower end of the
lever =E= is attached to the rod =R=, which is connected at its other
extremity by a forked lever to the double bevel or “striking” wheel
=T T^{1}=. The latter engage alternately with the small bevel pinion
fixed on the lower end of the upright or “change” shaft =M= and slide
upon a short shaft =U=, which they drive by means of a feather key. On
=U= is also fixed a spur pinion =V= which drives, by the intervention
of suitable gearing, a shaft running longitudinally and placed just
behind the spindles. This shaft has a number of spur pinions fixed on
it, which engage with vertical racks or “pokers” fastened to the bobbin
frame. In this way the rotation of the pinion =V= in either direction
is followed by the traverse of the bobbins either upwards or downwards.
When, therefore, the rod =R= is traversed by the oscillation of the
lever =E= and the bevel wheels =T T^{1}= are respectively thrown into
gear with the pinion on =M=, the bobbin traverse in a corresponding
direction is obtained.

(255) A further effect which arises from the rotation of the ratchet
wheel is found in the fact that the wheel =T= (Fig. 140) also moves,
and as it engages with the rack on the underside of the rod =S= draws
the latter inward. As will be readily understood, the position of the
pin =O= plays an important part in the oscillation of the cradle =A=.
If, for instance, the pin were at the extreme point of =Q= furthest
from =A=, the motion of the latter would be made much more slowly than
if =O= were at the other end of the slide, when, owing to the shorter
radius, =A= would make its oscillatory movement more quickly, and, if
=Q= made the same vertical traverse, =A= would move through a greater
arc. Thus, if =O= is drawn inwards, it is followed by a more rapid
movement of the cradle =A=, and, as a consequence, the change of the
position of the lever =E= occurs at an earlier moment. This causes the
reversal of the traverse of the bobbin rail to take place sooner, and,
in this way, each succeeding layer of roving occupies a shorter portion
of the bobbin surface longitudinally than its predecessor. Thus the
bobbin is built accurately in the double conical shape required, and
the shortening of the lift, the necessity for which has been previously
demonstrated, is properly effected.

(256) A reference to Fig. 134 will show that the weight attached to
the rack =P= is fastened to the latter by a chain, which passes over
a pulley at the lower end of the lever =W=, which is sustained in
position by a catch placed at =X=. When the rack =P= has made its
extreme inward traverse the catch is released, and the lever =W= is
caused to strike the collar on the rod =Y=, so as to cause the latter
to move longitudinally. As the rod is connected with the driving strap
fork, the strap is thrown over on to the loose pulley, and the frame
is stopped. Attached to the bobbin frame are chains, to the other end
of which balance weights are fastened so as to relieve the work of the
lifting pinions. These chains are passed over pulleys fixed to the
framing as shown in Fig. 134.

(257) Recurring now to the action of the building and winding motions,
it is necessary to note that the number of the releases of the ratchet
wheel =I= correspond to those of the reversals of the bobbin rail,
and consequently to the number of the layers of roving. It therefore
becomes necessary to alter the wheel =I= whenever a change in the
roving which is being produced is made. As the ratchet wheel is the
governing factor in the regulation alike of the speed of the strap
traverse and of that of the inward movement of the rod =S=, the reason
for changing it is easily seen. Thus the increase in the diameter of a
bobbin on which a roving 1/16th inch diameter is being spun would be
less than that which occurs when a roving 3/32nd inch diameter is made.
It follows, therefore, that the rate at which the strap is moved along
the cones would in the first case be only two-thirds of that at which
it moves in the last case. Again, the lessened increase in diameter
involves, as was shown, the winding on of a shorter length of roving
during the “lift” of the bobbin, and consequently the latter does not
require to be diminished in the same ratio. Therefore, it is desirable
to substitute for the ratchet wheel one with more teeth, the number of
which must be in direct ratio to the number of coils it is intended to
wind on the full bobbin.

(258) Let it be assumed that the pitch of the teeth of the rack =P=
and of that in =S= is one-quarter inch; that the ratchet wheel =I= has
30 teeth, the pinion engaging with =P= 31 teeth, and the pinion =T=
19 teeth. As was shown, the wheel =I= moves to the extent of half the
pitch of the tooth every time the traverse of the bobbin rail takes
place. In this case 60 such reversions would take place during the time
that the ratchet wheel made a complete revolution. During that time the
wheel engaging with =P= would also have made a complete revolution,
and =P= would have moved in 7-3/4 inches, giving a corresponding
traverse to the strap. In the same time the pinion =T= would have made
a revolution, and the “diminishing rod” =S= would move in 4-3/4 inches.
Assuming—a purely hypothetical assumption—that the distance from the
centre =A^{1}= of the cradle =A= to the outermost point of the slide
=Q= to which the pin =O= can be pushed is 15 inches, and that the lift
of the bobbin be 7 inches, it will follow that the above reduction of
the distance of =O= from =A^{1}= will cause a more rapid oscillation
of the cradle =A=. A simple calculation will show that this would
cause the change of the direction of the lift to take place when 4-3/4
inches was covered. This example will serve to illustrate the principle
involved, but does not necessarily represent any actually existing
case. It is only intended to show that the reduction of the lift takes
place in exact accordance with the period occupied by the ratchet wheel
=I= in its rotation. During the time the traverse has been shortened
the speed of the bobbin, owing to the traverse of the strap along the
cones, has also been diminished in the exact proportion required to
compensate for the increased diameter.

(259) Now, if it be assumed that a coarser roving requires producing,
and that the ratchet wheel =I= is changed for one containing only 20
teeth, it will be seen that while the same necessity exists for the
full traverse of the strap guide and diminishing rod, a smaller number
of layers of roving will be wound in the same time. In this case 40
layers only will be laid, although the strap makes the same movement.
That is, the same reduction of the speed of the bobbin is made while 40
layers are wound that was previously made while 60 were wound. Now, as
the diminution of the speed of the bobbin must be exactly proportionate
to the increase of its diameter, it follows that the roving in the
former case must be correspondingly thicker. It should also be observed
that the inward traverse of the diminishing rod =S= is quickened as
well as that of the racks =P=, because the time occupied by the ratchet
wheel in making a complete revolution is, of course, less than when one
with 30 teeth is employed. Thus the speed of the bobbin and the length
of its traverse are both decreased at a more rapid rate when a ratchet
wheel is employed, which is exactly what is wanted when coarser roving
is being produced.

(260) A locking motion is fitted to the machine by which, when the rack
=P= is released in the manner described, the stop rod is locked in
such a way that until the rack has been wound back by hand into proper
position the frame cannot be started. There are two advantages in this
motion, viz., that the size of the bobbins is accurately regulated, and
damage to the frame is prevented.

[Illustration: FIGS. 143, 144, 145, AND 146.]

(261) In order to avoid the uneven wear of the top rollers, caused by
the slubbing or roving passing through them at one point constantly,
it has become the practice to give a slight lateral traverse to the
guide bar. One of the latest developments of this special treatment
is illustrated in Figs. 143 to 147, this being the invention of Mr.
George Paley, a spinner, of Preston. It consists of a worm =I= fixed
upon the end of the roller spindle, which gears into two wheels =G
H=, carried on a pin fixed in a bracket. The number of teeth in the
wheels are different, =H= having one more tooth than =G=. In this
way =G= is revolved once for every 24 revolutions of the worm, while
=H= requires 25 revolutions of the latter before making a complete
rotation. The wheel =H= has a boss =J=, the upper part of which =K= is
formed eccentrically, and on this portion the eccentric =L= is placed.
To the clip of =L= the traverse rod =P= is coupled. =L= is driven from
the wheel =G= by means of a pin fastened in =L=, and engaging with a
slot in =G=. Thus the rotation of the eccentric =L= is followed by the
traverse of the guide bar.

(262) It will be noticed that the outer eccentric =L= is not only out
of centre with the pin =S=, but also with the inner eccentric =K=. Thus
the rotation of the latter perpetually establishes a new condition of
eccentricity. At one point the throw of the combined eccentrics is
smaller than at another, and there are fixed limits within which many
positions are assumed. If the throw of =K= is 3/8 inch, and of =L= 5/8
inch, it is obvious that if they are both at the front centre their
combined throw will be 1 inch. But if =K= is at its back centre and
=L= at its front one the combined throw is only 1\4 inch. Now owing to
the fact that the wheels =G= and =H= are made with one tooth more or
less, it happens that 25 complete revolutions of the eccentrics are
needed before they are brought with their centres coinciding after
that position had been abandoned. The result is, that during every one
of the 25 traverses a different throw occurs, and the length of the
traverse is varied, as shown diagramatically in Fig. 147. By altering
the size of the wheels =G H= any number of variations desired can be


  FIG. 147.]

(263) Messrs. Howard and Bullough fit to their intermediate frame an
electric stop motion. It should be explained that it is customary to
pass two slubbings through the rollers at once, twisting them together
to form one thread. If from any cause one of these ends breaks, the
other may go on twisting, and a thin defective place would result. To
obviate this, the arrangement named is applied. The slubbing bobbins
are placed in a creel, and are passed between the surface of a metallic
spring, and a roller placed at the back part of the machine. The
drawing rollers are fixed in their usual position, and the spring
is held by a bracket attached to one pole of an electro magnet and
battery, the back roller being connected to the other pole. When the
thread of slubbing breaks, contact between the spring and the roller
occurs, and the circuit is closed. Thereupon a current is passed
through the magnet, and one end of a lever is attracted so as to bring
its other end in the path of a constantly rotating ratchet wheel. This
arrests the motion of the latter, and so releases a catch on the stop
rod, allowing it to be drawn along by the action of a helical spring.
In this way the machine is rapidly stopped.


  |       |Speed of Spindles.|Twist  |           |                    |
  |Hank   |  Revolutions     |per    |Production.|  Maker’s Name.     |
  |Roving.|  Per Minute.     |Inch.  |           |                    |
  |  ·50  |        600       |   ·85 |  114      |John Mason.         |
  |  ·50  |        600       |   ·85 |  116      |Crighton and Sons.  |
  |  ·50  |        700       |   ·84 |  115      |Howard and Bullough.|
  | 1·00  |        700       |  1·20 |   56      |John Mason.         |
  | 1·00  |        700       |  1·20 |   56      |Crighton and Sons.  |
  | 1·00  |        700       |  1·20 |   59      |Howard and Bullough.|
  | 3·00  |       1000       |  2·08 |   17      |John Mason.         |
  | 3·00  |       1000       |  2·08 |   16      |Crighton and Sons.  |
  | 3·00  |       1100       |  2·07 |   16·53   |Howard and Bullough.|
  | 6·00  |       1400       |  2·94 |    7·25   |John Mason.         |
  | 6·00  |       1300       |  2·94 |    7·20   |Crighton and Sons.  |
  | 6·00  |       1100       |  2·92 |    6·25   |Howard and Bullough.|

NOTE.—The velocity of the spindles and amount of twist introduced
will largely influence the productions as given above, which are only
illustrative of the capacity of these machines.



(264) The last process in the production of yarn is that in which the
rovings, obtained in the manner described, are elongated and twisted
into a thread. To many persons this is known as “spinning,” although
strictly speaking, that phrase is applicable to the whole range of
treatment by which cotton is converted into yarn. Using the term,
however, in its narrower sense, spinning may be either an intermittent
or continuous operation, that is, the rovings can be twisted for a
portion of the time only during which the machine is working, or for
the whole of that period. Although the latter system is the most
ancient, for the last century the former has been more generally
pursued. It is, therefore, advisable to describe first the machine by
which it is carried out.

(265) This is known as the “mule,” and owing to the practical
automaticity of its mechanism, as the “self-acting” mule or “self
actor.” It is without exception the most interesting of the whole
series of machines used in cotton manufacture, combining an intricate
sequence of mechanical movements with great ingenuity. As a further
consideration will show, one piece or part of the mechanism used
performs work widely diverse in its character at different periods,
and it is this fact which renders the mule so difficult a machine to
understand. The time occupied in completing the cycle of operations
which constitute mule spinning is so small that the action of the
various parts must be very rapid and certain. In order to understand
the description which follows, it will be advisable to define the
stages or periods which succeed each other and form the entire process.

(266) In order to facilitate the grasp of the subject by the reader,
it will be better to describe first and briefly the essential or
primary parts of the machine. These are shown in Fig. 148, which is a
purely diagrammatic representation. The roving bobbins =A= are fitted
on a skewer and placed in the frame or creel arranged at the back of
the machine, being held in an almost vertical position. The roving
=R= is guided as shown to the nip of triple lines of drawing rollers
=B B B=. From the rollers the roving passes to the tip or point of a
steel spindle =H=, sustained by an upper bearing or bolster =O=, and
a footstep =N=. These are fixed in wooden rails which form part of
a box or frame =I=, known as the “carriage.” The carriage is fitted
at convenient distances along its length, with cross brackets, in
each end of which bearings are formed for the axes of the pulleys
or runners =P=. These rest upon the edges of oblong iron bars or
“slips” =Q=, which are securely fastened to the floor of the room. The
spindle receives a rapid rotary motion, being driven by a band =M=,
carried tightly round a small =V= grooved pulley or “warve” fixed on
the spindle, and a light roller =K= extending longitudinally of the
carriage, and fastened on a shaft =T=. The roller—or more correctly the
“tin roller”—=K= is suitably driven, and, it will be easily understood
that the direction and velocity of =H= will depend upon those of
=K=. In its passage to the spindle the roving is taken under a small
guide wire =D=—known as the “faller wire” or shortly the winding
“faller”—fastened on the outer end of a curved arm or “sickle” secured
on the shaft =F=—known as the “faller shaft.” The roving also passes
over a second wire =C=—called the “counter faller”—which is fixed in
a similarly shaped arm fastened on the “counter faller shaft” =E=. By
the oscillation of the shafts =E F=, the winding faller and counter
faller are elevated or depressed, thus enabling the finished yarn to be
wound into the spool or “cop” =G=, which is made of the shape shown.
The above form the essential portions of a mule and their respective
functions can now be explained.

(267) The rollers =B= perform the same office as those used in the
drawing and roving machines, namely, the attenuation and delivery of
the roving. Each of the three lines revolve at different velocities,
that of the front line being the superior one, with the result that
roving which, as was shown, has been already considerably reduced in
diameter is still further attenuated prior to being twisted.

(268) The roving is wrapped round the spindle two or three times in
commencing operations, being sometimes rendered adhesive by paste, and
sometimes wrapped on a paper tube placed on the spindle. Being thus
held at one end by the spindle, and at the other by the nip of the
front rollers, the rotation of the former will necessarily further
twist the partially twisted roving. On the degree of twist—that is the
number of turns per inch—depends the amount of roving delivered by the
rollers in a given time, as explained in paragraph 234.

(269) In the roving machines the relative positions of the spindle
and front rollers are fixed, but in the mule an important variation
in this practice occurs. The carriage I receives by suitably arranged
mechanism an alternate movement from and towards the roller =B=. During
the period they are delivering roving it is drawn away from them until
it has travelled about 63 inches, when its motion ceases. While this
traverse is taking place the spindles are revolving, and twist is
therefore being introduced into the roving. The cessation of the motion
of the carriage is accompanied by a similar stoppage of the rollers
and spindles, and there is then a number of lengths of yarn—each 63
inches—held in tension by them. This traverse of the carriage is called
its “stretch” or “draw.”

(270) The yarn, as thus spun, requires winding upon the spindle, so as
to form the cop, but before doing this it is necessary to free two or
three turns which are wrapped on the spindle between its point and the
point or “nose” of the cop. This operation is called “backing off.” In
order to effect it the roller =K= has its motion reversed for a short
time, so as to give the necessary backward rotation to the spindles.
The slack yarn thus produced is taken up, first, by the ascent of the
counter faller, and, second, by the descent of the winding faller. The
former rises sufficiently to preserve the tension of the yarn as it is
freed, and the latter is drawn down so as to assume a proper position
to commence winding when the operation of backing off is completed.

(271) As soon as this stage is finished the inward traverse of the
carriage =I= commences, an operation which is accompanied by the
forward revolution of the spindles, which thus wrap or “wind” on to
the cop the 63 inches of twisted yarn. The rollers during winding are,
of course, stationary. By the time the carriage has again reached its
innermost point the full length of yarn is wound, and during that
period the faller has risen from the base of the upper cone of the cop
to its nose. This ascent is a gradual one, and causes the yarn to be
wound in finely pitched spiral coils upon the cop. With the termination
of the inward traverse or “run” of the carriage winding ceases, the
winding faller and counter faller wires are released, and the whole of
the operations begin anew.

(272) It is now possible to define the various stages in the whole
process of mule spinning. These are as follows:—

First. The period during which roving is being delivered and twisted.
During it, the rollers are revolving at a defined speed; the carriage
is being drawn outwards at a constant rate; the spindles are revolving
rapidly at a velocity definitely relative to that of the front roller.
During this period the faller and counter faller are held in the
position shown in Fig. 148, being quite clear of the yarn.

[Illustration: FIG. 148. J.N.]

Second. The period during which the movements just named are stopped.
The roller driving gear is detached; the mechanism by which the
carriage is drawn out is stopped; the spindles are stopped because
of the transfer of the driving strap to the loose pulley and the
consequent cessation of the motion of the driving band; and preparation
for the engagement of the faller and counter-faller with the yarn takes

Third. This is the period of “backing-off.” During it the driving band
is driven in the contrary direction to its normal one, and the spindles
are reversed. The faller wire is drawn down, depressing the yarn; the
yarn between the nose of the cop and spindle point is uncoiled; the
counter faller rises and takes up the slack yarn; and the faller is

Fourth. During this period “winding” takes place. The rollers are
stationary; the carriage is “running in” at a variable speed; the
spindles are revolving in the same direction as when twisting; and the
winding faller is operated so as to guide the yarn on the cop.

Fifth. The carriage comes to rest; the faller and counter faller are
released; the roller driving gear is re-engaged; the strap is moved on
to the fast pulley and the driving band put in motion; and the drawing
out gear is again engaged.

With this the cycle of movements is completed, and the whole of the
operations begin anew.

(273) There are thus five periods, viz., 1st, twisting; 2nd,
arrestation; 3rd, backing-off; 4th, winding; and 5th, re-engagement. In
addition to these, when fine yarns are spun, there is sometimes a sixth
period, which takes place immediately after the termination of the
first as at present defined. This is a period of supplementary twisting
after the rollers have stopped. This operation is sometimes known as
“twisting at the head,” and will be dealt with at a later stage.

(274) It is thus indicated that at various times one part of the
mechanism performs different functions. The rollers revolve for the
whole or part of the first period and remain stationary afterwards. The
spindles revolve at a constant and maximum velocity in their normal
direction during the first period, at a slower but constant velocity
in the reverse direction during the third period, and at a variable
speed in their normal direction during the fourth stage. The carriage
makes its outward run at a regular speed during the first period, is at
rest during the second and third, and makes its inward traverse at a
variable speed during the fourth. The winding faller remains stationary
and free from contact with the yarn until the third period, when it
makes a rapid descent to the winding point, after which it first
descends quickly to its lowest point, and then ascends slowly to the
nose of the cop during the fourth. The counter faller remains below and
out of contact with the thread during the first and second periods, and
ascends during the third, remaining in contact with and sustaining the
yarn until the termination of the fourth.

(275) This preliminary explanation will enable the detailed description
following to be more easily understood and appreciated. As there are
many variations in the construction of the mule it is desirable to
select one of the most widely used, and for this reason the machine
constructed by Messrs. Platt Brothers and Co. has been chosen for
description. Front and back perspective views of the machine are given
in Figs. 149 and 150. The Parr-Curtis mule is also largely employed,
and many modifications of it exist. All the root principles which are
contained in the machine are, however, found in the Platt machine. That
is to say, it contains mechanism founded upon certain rules which are
essential to all mules, so that, although the details may be, and are,
varied, the main features are identical. A detailed description of its
mechanism, therefore, will enable the subject to be fully understood,
but, at the close of the chapter, particulars will be given of special
features in other makers’ machines. To enable the construction of the
machine to be more fully grasped, a series of diagrammatic views are
given of each motion separately, and the reference letters are arranged
so that each part is marked with the same letter in all the views in
which it occurs, although the same letter, in some cases, refers to
various parts in different diagrams.

[Illustration: FIG. 151. J.N.]

(276) It may be first explained that the greater number of the parts
by means of which the required motion is given to the various portions
of the mechanism are contained in a longitudinal framing placed in
the centre of the machine, this part of the mule being called the
“headstock.” At right angles to the headstock, and at each side of it,
the rollers and carriages extend for the entire length of the machine.
The arrangement of a “pair” of mules is clearly shown in Fig. 151,
the machines being usually placed with their headstocks zig-zag to
one another. The carriage of one mule is coming out while that of the
one opposite to it is at the roller beam, this arrangement permitting
the free movement of the workman attending to the machines, and
preventing the broken threads in each machine requiring piecing at the
same time. It might, perhaps, be explained that “piecing” is always
effected when the carriage is making the first part of the outward
run, so that some inconvenience would arise if both carriages were in
that position at the same time. A special motion is sometimes fitted
by which each carriage is released alternately by the movement of the
carriage opposite to it. Referring now to Fig. 151, =H= represents the
headstocks of the two mules, =E= the lines of rollers, =F= the end
frames, and =O= the carriages. It will be noticed that the headstock
divides the machine into two portions of unequal length, each of which
contains its own rollers and spindles. The special object of this is to
enable the mules to be placed in closer proximity than could be done
if both sides were of the same length, and the headstocks were placed
quite opposite to each other.

(277) The rollers are in three lines, and are borne in brackets or
stands fastened to longitudinal iron “roller beams,” sustained at
intervals by light frames or “spring pieces.” The lower lines of
rollers are finely fluted, and are made of the same superior quality
of iron as those used in the roving frames. Their diameter is usually
an inch, but this varies with the staple to be spun. The front line of
top rollers are generally of Leigh’s loose boss type, cloth and leather
covered, and are weighted by a saddle, stirrup, and lever weight. The
middle and back lines are “common rollers,” also covered in the same
manner. The front lines of the right and left-hand set in each mule are
coupled by a short shaft, and the second and third are driven from the

[Illustration: FIG. 149.]

[Illustration: FIG. 150.]

(278) The carriage has a rectangular frame, being built with strong
longitudinal timbers, securely tied together by cross pieces. These
carry, as was shown, the bolster and footstep rails. On the cross
cast-iron “muntins” the bearings for the tinroller shafts are fastened.
The carriages at each side of the headstock are coupled by a strong
iron frame, to which they are securely fastened. This is known as the
“square,” and carries some of the mechanism for giving motion to the
spindles and building the cop.

(279) The tin roller is generally six inches in diameter, and consists
of a series of cylinders made from sheets of tinned iron, securely
soldered together. In each end of the rollers so formed an iron disc
is fastened, and the lengths are coupled by means of short shafts. The
whole of the lengths are thus connected, and a bearing is placed at
each junction, so that the tin roller is well sustained throughout.
The rollers in each of the two carriages are coupled by a short shaft,
extending across the square, and carried by means of pedestals, fixed
to the latter. On this short length of shaft the driven tin roller
pulley is secured, as will be hereafter fully described.

(280) The spindle is made of steel, and is from 13-1/2 to 18 inches
long, according to the class of material being dealt with. For coarse
counts and for “twist” yarn a larger cop is made, and the spindle is of
necessity longer. For 32’s twist yarn a spindle about 17 inches long
is used, and its diameter varies from 3/8ths inch to less than 1/8th
inch. The part between the two bearings is called the “haft,” and that
above the bolster—on which the cop is wound—the “blade.” The spindle
is thickest in the haft, terminating in a small foot, but the blade is
tapered throughout. Great care is taken with the spindles to ensure
their accuracy, and they can, therefore, be run at velocities as high
as 11,000 revolutions per minute without vibration. The extra diameter
of the haft ensures the necessary resistance to flexure caused by the
pull of the driving band. The latter is a thin cotton cord-made of the
best grades of cotton—passed tightly over the spindle warve and the
tin roller. It is highly important that the bands should not be either
too tight or too slack. In the one case the friction generated would
be excessive and detrimental, and in the other the twist would not be
fully put into the roving, which would be said to be “slack twisted.”
Varying atmospheric conditions materially alter the tension of the
bands, and their proper piecing is only to be mastered after long
practice. The spindle is disposed in the carriage at a varying angle,
to suit the material being spun.

(281) The description of the general construction of the machine thus
given clears the ground for the detailed explanation which follows.
For convenience it will be as well to begin by describing the mode of
obtaining the motion of the spindles. This is illustrated in Fig. 152,
which is a diagrammatic representation of the course of the bands and
driving pulleys. The mule is driven from the line shaft, or a counter
shaft by means of a strap passing over the pulley =A= fastened upon the
shaft =C=. The latter is termed the “rim shaft,” and upon it the loose
pulley =B= is also placed. Free to revolve and slide upon the same
shaft is the spur wheel =A^{1}=, formed with a large internal cone, the
exact object of which will be hereafter described. The fast pulley is
about 5 inches wide, and the loose pulley 5-1/4 inches, the diameter
being about 15 inches. Thus, when the strap is on the fast pulley it is
also partially on the loose pulley, which is always revolving. At the
other extremity of the rim shaft a double, treble, or quadruple grooved
pulley =C^{1}= is fixed, which is called the “rim.” Over this the
endless cord or band driving the spindles is passed—being known as the
“rim band”—its course being clearly shown by means of the arrows. It
will be noticed that it is first passed round a carrier pulley on the
carriage square, and then round the tin roller pulley on the tin roller
shaft =T=, being then taken round the carrier pulley =Y= fixed at the
end of the headstock frame, afterwards returning to the rim pulley. It
will, of course, be understood that the explanation just given relates
to the course of the rim band, considered as a single rope. When the
rim is double or treble grooved, corresponding arrangements must
necessarily be made in the rim band course. The rollers =E= are driven
from the rim shaft by the train of wheels and the side shaft =G= shown,
and the drawing out of the carriage is effected by the band passing
round the scrolls at =H= and round the pulley =Z=. This will be more
particularly described presently.

(282) Particular reference will now be made to Figs. 153 and 154,
which are respectively longitudinal sections of the driving gear and
back view of the same. The loose pulley =B= has formed upon its boss
a spur pinion =B^{1}=, from which, by means of a carrier wheel, the
side shaft =D= is driven. On the other end of this shaft a pinion
=D^{1}= is fixed, which gears with and constantly drives the spur
wheel =A^{1}=, this being the object of the overlapping of the driving
strap previously referred to. The wheel =A^{1}= is formed, as shown,
on its inner side with a large internal conical surface, which, at
the proper moment, engages with a corresponding leather-covered
surface formed on the pulley =A=. This engagement takes place for the
purpose of backing-off, and the cone =A^{1}= is therefore known as
the “backing-off cone” or “friction.” The engagement of the friction
cone with the fast pulley causes it first to act as a brake, and the
strap having been moved upon the loose pulley it then exerts sufficient
force to revolve the backing-off cone in the contrary direction. To
enable this contact to take place a ring groove is formed in the boss
of the backing-off wheel, in which a claw engages, which is oscillated
as afterwards described. The effect of this arrangement is that the
rotation from the loose pulley =B= of the friction wheel =A^{1}=,
whilst it is engaged with the fast pulley =A=, causes the rim shaft
to be rotated in the opposite direction to that normal to it. The
direction in which the various parts revolve normally is clearly shown
by the arrows. The extent of the backward movement of the rim shaft
depends, of course, entirely upon the length of time during which the
friction cone =A^{1}= is allowed to engage with that on the pulley =A=,
this being regulated by the amount of yarn to be unwound.

(283) The rollers =E= are driven from a pinion =G^{1}= fastened on the
rim shaft, by means of which the shaft =G= is revolved, and motion is
thus given to a bevel wheel loose upon the short shaft coupling the two
front lines of rollers. One half of a toothed or claw clutch is formed
on the boss of the wheel, the other half of which is secured to but
slides upon the coupling shaft, being formed with a ring groove on its
boss into which the two arms of a claw are fitted so as to engage and
disengage the clutch.

[Illustration: FIG. 152. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIGS. 153 AND 154. J.N.]

(284) On the boss of the bevel wheel is a spur wheel which, by means
of the train of wheels shown, communicates the forward movement to the
“back” shaft =H= on which are fixed the scrolls =H^{1}=. On these the
ropes or bands shown are wound, being attached to the carriage as shown
in Fig. 152. As the carriage extends to the right and left of the
headstock, as explained, the back shaft =H= is similarly extended, and
has placed upon it a number of scrolls at suitable distances apart, on
which other bands are wound. This enables the carriage to be evenly
drawn out throughout its entire length. The method of attaching the
bands to the end frames of the carriage is shown in Fig. 155, and it
will be seen that there is power of adjustment given, which enables
the carriage to be “squared” or kept parallel with the roller beam.
The last of the train of wheels =P^{1}=, by which the back shaft is
driven, is loose upon it, and forms one half of a clutch, the teeth of
which are peculiarly shaped. The other half =P= slides upon the boss
of a disc which is keyed upon the shaft, and has a ring groove in its
boss, being ordinarily pushed up to its position by a spiral spring
surrounding the back shaft and kept in compression by a stop hoop or
collar which can be set up as desired. This, combined with the peculiar
construction of the teeth, enables the clutch to open and its teeth to
glide over one another in the event of any obstruction being offered
to the free outward run of the carriage. The forked end of an =L=
lever fits in the groove in the clutch, being oscillated as afterwards

[Illustration: FIG. 155.]

(285) The bevel wheel on the outer end of the taking-in side shaft
=D= gears with a similar one fixed on the upper end of the vertical
shaft =I=, on the lower end of which is loosely placed the friction
cone =K=. With the latter the hollow cone =I^{1}= engages, this being
able to slide in a vertical direction on a disc keyed to the shaft.
It is usually kept out of gear by means of a hinged forked lever,
the fork of which fits in the groove shown in =I^{1}=, and which is
sustained at its free end so that it can be readily released to allow
the sudden engagement of the friction cone. On the half cone =K=, at
its underside, is cast a small bevel pinion; which engages with a bevel
wheel =K^{1}= fixed on the shaft =L=, extending transversely of the
headstock at the back. Spirally grooved or “scroll” pulleys =L^{1}= are
fixed on the shaft =L=, on which ropes are wound, these being attached
to the carriage square as shown in Fig. 168, page 212. An additional
scroll is fitted on the shaft =L=, and is set at such an angle that
when the rope is fully drawn off the other scrolls it is wound on the
additional one. When the friction cone is in gear the ropes are wound
on to the scrolls, and the carriage is drawn in. From the fact that
these scrolls are employed, and that their object is to draw in the
carriage, the shaft =L= is called the “scroll” or “taking-in” shaft,
and the friction cone is commonly styled the “taking-in friction,” or,
more shortly, the “friction.”

(286) The means just described are those which are in use on a large
number of mules constructed by Messrs. Platt, and worked satisfactorily
until the speed of the rim shaft was largely increased. Up to about
750 revolutions the train of gearing driving the taking-in side shaft
could be used, but as the rim is now run at speeds as high as 900
revolutions it is the practice to drive the taking-in side shaft by
means of a grooved pulley fastened upon it, and driven by a separate
band from the counter shaft. In this way much of the strain is taken
from the rim shaft, and the use of gearing obviated for the taking-in
and backing-off. When this method is adopted—as is now almost generally
done—there are many advantages gained, and it is the most modern

(287) Another method of driving, also largely employed by Messrs.
Platt, is a patented system of duplex driving. This is shown in plan
in Fig. 157. Instead of using one belt only, by means of which the
power is transmitted, two narrower ones are employed, each of which is
2-3/4 inches wide. The fast pulleys =A= are also 2-3/4 inches on their
face, while the loose pulleys =B= are 3 inches wide. The strap guide
is made, as shown, double, and the distance which it has to traverse
is only half that which is usual. The advantages of this arrangement
are derived both from the smaller width of the belts, and the shorter
distance they need moving. The diminished width causes the belt to be
more pliable and less rigid, and in consequence the pressure applied is
more readily responded to. The shortened traverse enables the change of
the belts to be made more easily and in less time, and, in consequence
of the latter fact, the time the edges of the belts are pressed upon by
the guider is reduced. This reduction involves considerably less wear
of the strap edges, which, alike on this account and because of their
easier and less strained motion, are found to have a much longer life.
The smooth action of the belts produces another effect. It enables the
full speed of the rim shaft to be more readily reached, and so tends to
increase the production of the machine. The makers have now constructed
a large number of mules with this arrangement, and its use is steadily

(288) The mechanism just described is that on which depends the driving
of the whole of the parts, and its mode of action can now be easily
explained. Beginning with the commencement of the outward run, when the
rim band is traversing in its normal direction, the rollers commencing
to deliver yarn, and the spindles revolving, the position of the parts
is as follows. The strap is on the fast pulley, and the rim shaft is
revolving. The backing-off friction is out of gear, the necessary
motion is given to the roller shaft, and as the claw clutch is engaged
the front line of rollers is revolved, roving being delivered. At the
same time the back shaft is driven, the clutch on it being in gear, and
the carriage is drawn out. The scrolls on the back shaft are shaped
so as to allow the carriage to move at a constant velocity. While the
carriage is running out the rim band is giving the required revolution
to the tin roller shaft, and the spindles rotate in consequence at
their normal velocity. The carrier pulley on the square shown in Fig.
152 is arranged at such an angle that the rim band passes freely on
to and from the pulley on the tin roller shaft. A similarly accurate
setting is given to the guide pulleys at the back of the headstock,
the wear of the bands being much reduced in consequence. The velocity
given to the carriage is slightly in excess of that of the surface
speed of the rollers, so that the roving is a little stretched. The
excess of the carriage traverse is from 1 to 3 inches, and is known as
its “gain.”

(289) When the carriage reaches the termination of its outward run,
or, as is commonly said, the end of its stretch, it becomes necessary,
first to arrest and then to reverse its movement, these operations
necessitating a complete change in the positions of the various parts.
The chief agent in making these changes is the shaft =M=, placed
parallel to but a little higher than the rim shaft. It is known as
the “cam shaft,” and plays an important part in the operation of the
machine. It is entirely distinct both by position and function from the
rest of the mechanism, and a separate view of it and its connections is
given in Fig. 156, which is a detached sectional elevation.

(290) Hinged to one side of the headstock framing is the lever
=T=—known as the “long lever”—at each end of which pins are fastened,
which carry the bowls =R R^{1}=. Fastened to the carriage by bolts are
two horn brackets =S S^{1}=, to which power of adjustment is given.
The underside of the brackets is curved, and they are fixed at such a
height, that, as the carriage approaches either end of its run, one
of them will engage with the bowl or runner carried on a stud fixed
in the end of the long lever, as shown very clearly by the dotted
lines. At the outer end of the long lever, the bell crank lever =Q= is
pivoted, and is ordinarily drawn towards the end of the long lever by a
spiral spring =O=. In this way, when the latter has assumed a position
in consequence of the pressure of the horn brackets =S S^{1}=, the
pressure of =Q= upon it prevents it from moving until a similar force
is again applied. In short, the long lever is locked.

(291) On the cam shaft three cam or eccentric surfaces are placed,
marked respectively =W Y= and =Z=. These are shown with their
connections in detached views. The cam =W= is compounded with the male
half of the friction clutch =X=, and can slide along with the half
clutch upon a feather key fixed in the shaft. The other half of the
clutch is loose upon the shaft, and has formed upon its boss a spur
pinion which, as shown in Fig. 153, engages with the teeth of the
backing-off wheel =A^{1}=. Thus the continuous rotation of the latter
leads to a similar movement of =X=, and, as a consequence, the latter
is always in a state of readiness to rotate the cam shaft. A spiral
spring surrounds the cam shaft, being sunk into a recess in the bearing
and continually pressing upon a flange formed on the sliding half of
the friction clutch, thus tending to force the latter into gear. On the
inner side of the flange two cam surfaces are formed, as shown at =V=,
with which the nose of the rocking or escape lever engages. The latter
is connected by a short rod to the end of the long lever, the whole
attachment being very clearly indicated in the illustration. Suppose
the end of the lever to be in the position shown in the left hand view
of =V=, the friction clutch would then be engaged, and the cam shaft
would revolve until the outer cam surface on =V= came into contact with
the end of the lever, when the sliding half clutch would be disengaged
and arrested, and the motion of the cam shaft would cease. In this
position the parts remain until the long lever is again moved, this
time having its inner end depressed by reason of the contact of the
bracket =S^{1}=, and bowl =R^{1}=. The nose of the escape lever is
then moved off the outer cam surface into the flat or level portion
of the inner cam course. This permits the re-engagement of the
friction clutch, and the cam shaft makes the second half turn, causing
the inner cam course to engage with the nose of the lever and again
disengaging the friction clutch. The raised cam surfaces on =V= are
directly opposite one another, so that the cam shaft can only make a
half turn before it is disengaged. The next movement of the long lever,
which takes place at the end of the next outward run, is caused by the
engagement of =S= and =R=, and the escape lever nose is then moved on
to the level surface of the outer cam course. This alternate movement
of the long lever takes place, as will be readily understood, when the
carriage reaches the termination of its inward and outward runs.

(292) If it be assumed that the carriage has reached the end of its
outward run, and the cam shaft has made a half revolution, three things
take place. The back shaft clutch is disengaged, and the shaft ceases
to revolve; the roller clutch is detached, stopping the delivery of
roving; and the cam =Y= is moved into such a position that the strap
lever can traverse so as to allow the strap to pass on to the loose

(293) The back shaft clutch is controlled by the internal cam =Z=, in
which a bowl on a pin fixed in the bell crank lever =Z^{1}=, Fig. 162,
page 201, to which reference will be made for this part of the subject,
works. In the groove of the sliding half =P= of the clutch, the forked
end of the lever =T= fits, this lever being hinged at its lower end
and having a horizontal arm, the end or nose of which rests upon the
horizontal limb of the rocking lever =Z^{1}=. Thus, when the latter is
rocked so as to make an upward movement, the lever =T= is raised, and
causes a disengagement of the clutch =P P^{1}=. The back shaft is thus
freed, and all motion of the carriage ceases.

(294) The rollers are disengaged by the cam =W=, which acts upon the
cranked lever shown, the vertical arm of which is forked and fits in
the groove in the loose half of the roller clutch =I=. When the cam is
in the position shown in Fig. 156, the rollers are engaged, but when
the cam shaft makes its half revolution the lever is oscillated and the
clutch is detached. As previously noted, the cam course is formed in
the loose half of the friction clutch =X=, which thus serves a double

(295) The compound strap guide lever is placed almost vertically, as
shown in Fig. 158, being hinged upon a pin in the headstock frame. The
part =G= carries a short pin on which a small runner or bowl can freely
revolve. While the carriage is running out, the bowl is at the point of
the cam =Y=, but when the half revolution of the cam shaft is made it
assumes a position at the base of the cam. These two positions are very
clearly shown in the right hand bottom corner of Fig. 156. This allows
the strap to move, in a manner more particularly described afterwards,
on to the loose pulley, so that the backing off friction can be engaged.

[Illustration: FIG. 156. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 157. J.N.]

(296) It has thus been shown that the half revolution of the cam
shaft causes the stoppage of the motion of the carriage, rollers,
and spindles. This is the second stage or period, and it is at once
followed by the third. Before passing on it is worth while reiterating
that there is a decided advantage in the constant rotation of the loose
half of the clutches =X= and =A^{1}=, their engagement being made more
rapidly and with less strain. The power derived from the portion of
the strap upon the loose pulley is sufficient to rotate the cam shaft,
and cause it to make the changes. It is also capable of maintaining the
steady rotation of the backing-off and taking-in friction clutches, so
long as these are not in gear, or communicating motion to the spindles
or carriages.

(297) The strap guide arrangement is shown in detail in Fig. 158. The
guider is fixed at the upper end of a lever =F=, which is hinged, as
shown, at its lower end to the heel of the lever =G=. =F= has also an
arm =F^{1}=, which is coupled to a horizontal limb of the lever =G= by
the spring =S=. The two or compound levers are therefore constantly
drawn towards each other. The lever =G= is secured on a short shaft,
and has a second spring =Q= attached, which pulls it in the direction
of the arrow, when it is freed by the rotation of the cam =Y=. A short
stud bowl is fixed in =G=, and the pull of the spring presses it
constantly against the cam. Coupled to a short arm, fixed on the shaft
to which =G= is secured, but at the other side of the headstock, is the
horizontal lever =H=, the outer end of which is drawn upwards by the
spring =P=, fastened to the framing. A shoulder or recess is formed in
=H=, which ordinarily engages with the fixed catch =L=, by which the
strap guide lever is locked in position when the strap is on the fast
pulley. On the inner end of the rim shaft a worm =K= is formed, which
gears with a worm wheel compounded with a spur pinion, which, in turn,
gears with the spur wheel shown. On the spindle of the last-named wheel
a small crank =O= is keyed, the outer end of which has a pin, carrying
a bowl, fixed in it.

(298) The action of this mechanism is as follows: The revolution of the
rim shaft causes the crank =O=, which is, at the commencement of the
outward run, just clear of the nose of the lever =H=, to revolve. By
the time the outward run is completed, the crank will have made almost
a complete revolution. When the necessary twist has been put in the
yarn, the crank =O= comes in contact with the front end of the lever
=H= and releases the catch =L=. Immediately this happens the spring =Q=
acts, and the strap guide lever oscillates, causing the strap to glide
upon the loose pulley.

(299) This step having been accomplished, the next operation is to
engage the backing-off friction. As shown in Fig. 158, the boss of
the wheel =A^{1}= is formed with a ring groove, into which a claw
fastened on a short stud fits. The lever =D= is also fixed on the same
stud, so that any movement given to it is communicated to the claw and
backing-off friction. The lower end of the lever is forked and passes
over a rod =X= extending along the side of the headstock. This rod
is guided by a bracket fixed to the side of the frame, and has the
two stop hoops =X^{1} X^{2}= fastened on it. Between the stop hoops a
spiral spring, always in compression, is threaded upon the shaft, one
end pressing against the lever =D=, and the other against the hoop
=X^{2}=. It will be readily understood that the compression of the
spring will tend to push the lever =D= in the direction of the arrow,
until its motion is stopped by a link connected with the slide in the
arm, to which is fastened the lever =H=. It is essential that the
engagement of the backing-off clutch should be practically simultaneous
with the transferring of the strap from the fast to the loose pulley,
and it is therefore desirable that the spring on =X= should be put in
compression a little before the actual traverse of the strap.

(300) This is accomplished by means of the swinging lever =V= shown in
Fig. 162. This is hinged upon the square, and is formed, as shown, with
an open mouth, at the upper part of which is an angular projection or
lip. Pivoted on the framing is the lever =L=, the horizontal arm of
which carries a small runner, which engages with the incline of =V= as
the carriage runs out. The lever =V= cannot, until the termination of
the stretch, be swung upon its pivot by reason of its connection with
the faller locking lever =A=. When, therefore, the bowl in the lever
=L= engages with the incline of =V=, the lever =L= is oscillated, so
that the spring on =X= is further compressed. The spring is, therefore,
in a position to push the backing-off lever forward, as soon as the
latter is freed. The engagement of the lever =L= with the lever =V=
takes place a few inches before the carriage arrives at the end of its
outward run.

(301) When the outward run is completed, and the cam shaft begins to
revolve, the lever =D= has sufficient pressure on it to push it over
if it were free to move. Reverting again to Fig. 158, the horizontal
lever =H= and the arm previously referred to are coupled by a small pin
in the latter, which takes into a slot in the former. When, therefore,
the lever =H= is locked, the vertical lever =D= cannot move, but when
the unlocking of the lever =H= by the crank =O= occurs, the oscillation
of the strap lever draws, by means of the arm, the lever =H= in the
direction of the arrow. This permits the spring =X= to extend and push
the lever =D= forward and so engage the backing-off friction. This
movement is rapid and nearly simultaneous with the transferal of the
driving strap. The mechanism is set to permit the backing-off friction
to come gradually into gear for the purpose of acting as a brake, as
was explained in paragraph 282.

(302) The friction cones being engaged and the strap placed on the
loose pulley, the rim shaft is driven in the contrary direction, thus
reversing the spindles. It therefore becomes necessary to take up the
yarn as it is delivered from the spindles. This is effected by means of
the faller and counter faller, as indicated in paragraph 270, and the
precise mode of action of these can now be described.

(303) The faller arms =M= and =U=, as shown in Fig. 161 (page 205), are
sickle or crescent shaped, so that they can readily pass down between
the cops without touching them. The arms are keyed on the winding
faller and counter faller rods =B B^{1}= at convenient intervals,
and the wires are threaded through them. The latter are thus well
sustained, and do not deflect to any appreciable extent, this being
fatal to the effective building of the complete set of cops. The rods
or shafts =B B^{1}= are borne by brackets fastened to the carriage, so
that their axes are quite parallel to the centre line of the carriage.
The winding faller shaft is oscillated by suitable mechanism, by which
at the proper moment it is drawn downwards, while the upward movement
of the counter faller is regulated from the winding faller. There is
an important difference in the action of these parts. As the winding
faller is to act as a guide to the yarn during winding, it is essential
that it is, at the beginning of each inward run, in the correct initial
position for that purpose, and that, when it has reached that position,
it shall be locked. On the other hand, the function of the counter
faller being merely to maintain the tension of the yarn during winding
and backing-off, it is necessary that it should be free, so as to bear
constantly against the underside of the threads without exercising an
undue strain. The pressure thus exerted should be a little in excess of
the downward pull of the whole of the threads which are being spun in
the machine, but not so much in excess as to prevent the counter faller
yielding a little if from any cause an extra pull is put upon the
threads. In other words, the action of the winding faller is positive,
while the counter faller acts as a regulator of the yarn tension.
In order to maintain this relation it is desirable to establish a
connection between the descent of the faller and the ascent of the
counter faller. This is done by making the latter dependent on the
former, and by leaving it free after it has been released.

[Illustration: FIG. 158. J.N.]

(304) The controlling mechanism is shown in Fig. 159, which is a
representation of the parts affecting the counter faller. Hinged, as
shown, to a bracket on the underside of the carriage is a lever =J=,
to which are attached two chains =E^{1} I=. The former is coupled to
a sector =E=, which is secured on the counter faller shaft or rod
=B^{1}=. If it is assumed that the latter is free to rotate, as it
is, the pull exercised by the lever =J= would be sufficient to cause
it to do so. But until the winding faller makes its descent so as
to assume the winding position, as afterwards described, the weight
of the lever =J= is taken by the chain =I=, which at its upper end
is fixed to the hook shown. The latter is hinged to the bracket or
lever =S=, the other arm. of which rests upon the counter faller rod
=B^{1}=, and thus limits the upward movement of the winding faller.
A steady torsional pull is exercised upon the bracket =S=, so as to
draw the chain =I= upwards, by the spring =V=, attached as shown. The
unwinding of the two or three coils of yarn during backing-off takes
place during the time the winding faller is descending. Immediately
backing-off is completed, the carriage begins to run in, and the yarn
is wound. It is therefore necessary for the counter faller to rise,
so as to take up any slack yarn. Unless this is done, the yarn—owing
to its tightly twisted condition—runs into small loops or kinks,
technically known as “snarls.” The oscillation of the winding faller
rod =B= has caused a similar movement in =S=, and, as a result, the
chain =I= becomes slackened and ceases to sustain the lever =J=. As,
therefore, the carriage =O= begins to run in the lever =J= descends,
and the whole of its weight is borne by the chain =E^{1}=, which is
caused to pull upon the sector =E=. In this way the counter faller rod
=B^{1}= is oscillated, and the counter faller wire =M= is raised. The
extent of its upward movement is regulated solely by the tension of the
threads, which is sufficient to act as a counterbalance to the lever
=J=. In order that this equilibrium shall be sufficient to preserve
the necessary tightness of the threads, without any danger existing of
either slack threads or of the counter faller being unyielding when an
extra strain is put upon the yarn, balance weights can be added at the
end of the lever =J=, as shown. In this way the necessary sustainment
of the yarn threads is obtained without any likelihood of straining or
breakage. When the carriage has completed its inward run the weight
of the lever =J= is relieved by the roller =W=, so that the faller,
when released, as afterwards described, can easily assume its proper
position during spinning or twisting.

(305) While the counter faller is being freed in the manner described
the downward movement of the faller is also proceeding. Referring now
to Fig. 160, which is a detailed view of the faller arrangement, the
faller shaft has fixed on it an arm or backing-off finger =D=, to which
is fastened one end of a chain =E=. One end of =E= passes round the
small bowl =F=, and its other end is fastened to a snail or scroll
=G= mounted on the tin roller shaft. The snail is geared by a ratchet
clutch which engages only when the tin roller is revolving during
backing-off, being disengaged during the whole period of spinning. The
size of the snail is arranged so as to draw down the faller finger =D=
during the period of backing off to such an extent that the faller is
brought into the proper position for the commencement of winding. In
dealing with the latter operation it will be shown that the faller
is a little below the cop nose when winding begins, and then rapidly
descends until the base of the upper cone is reached. At present it
is only necessary to note this fact, as it has a somewhat important
bearing on the mechanism being described. During the period of the
faller descent a pull is exercised on the rod =F^{1}=, by which the
bowl or runner =F= is carried. The other end of =F= is hinged to the
“locking” lever =A=, to which the curved arm or sector =C= is hinged
at its upper end. This arm is fixed on the faller shaft, so that the
oscillation of the latter, which is caused by the pull of the chain
=E=, gradually raises the “locking” lever =A=. This elevation goes on
until the shoulder or bracket =K= is high enough for its under side to
slip over the small bowl fixed in the lever or slide =L=. The latter is
at the end of a lever hinged at one end to the carriage and carrying
the runner or bowl =L^{1}=. This is drawn along with the carriage, and
the lever is consequently called the “trail” lever. As soon as =K=
slips on to the bowl in =L= the “locking” lever and faller are said to
be “locked,” and are then in a position to begin winding. This action
is practically simultaneous with the termination of backing-off. This
method of locking the faller is now general, having quite superseded
the older method of locking at the top.

[Illustration: FIG. 160. J.N.]

(306) In order to render the action of backing-off more perfect, and
to ensure that the slack of the yarn, as it is unwound, shall be taken
up by the faller, Messrs. Platt Brothers and Company have adopted
the mechanism also shown in Fig. 160. The reversal of the direction
of rotation of the spindles takes place a little in advance of the
downward movement of the faller, and it is therefore found that a short
length of yarn is unwound before the faller presses upon it. The actual
extent of the unwinding is relatively greatest when the cop is almost
built. It therefore becomes necessary to expedite the action of the
backing-off chain as the cops are built, so that the faller is drawn
into contact with the yarn at the earliest moment. A little reflection
will show that at the period when the cops are beginning to be built
the faller wire has a much longer distance to travel than when they are
almost finished. As will be afterwards shown, the period at which the
faller is locked is gradually made earlier as building proceeds, so
that a much shorter traverse of the faller prior to locking takes place
correspondingly. Thus, for instance, if it has to be depressed one
inch before it touches the yarn at the commencement of a set of cops,
the relative proportion of that distance to the whole traverse prior
to locking is less than when the traverse is so much diminished at the
end of a set. Thus it follows that a degree of lagging permissible at
one stage is absolutely detrimental at the other. From this it may
be deduced that an earlier and accelerated motion of the faller is
necessary in order to take up the slack yarn during backing off.

[Illustration: FIG. 159. J.N.]

(307) It is hardly practicable to fit a motion of absolute accuracy to
effect this purpose, but an approximation to it can be obtained. It
is, therefore, arranged that at the beginning of a set the backing-off
chain shall be slack, and during building shall be gradually tightened
until at the end of it is nearly in a state of tension. The snail is
proportioned so as to give a quick downward movement to the faller, and
in combination with the arrangement about to be described gives very
good results. Referring again to Fig. 160, attached to the snail =G=
is a second chain, the other end of which is fastened to a lever =H=,
hinged on the bracket shown. The other end of =H= rests on an inclined
plate =N=, which slides on a bedplate fastened to the floor. The plate
=N= is fastened to the copping plate connecting rod—afterwards referred
to—which passes through a horn fastened on =N=. As the copping plate is
moved in, =H= is also caused to assume the position indicated by the
dotted lines, =N= having also moved in. The effect is that a pull is
put upon the snail which gradually rotates it, and causes it to wind
on the slack of the chain =E=, so that, when backing-off occurs, the
faller is drawn downwards at an earlier moment. The restoration of =N=
to its original position accompanies that of the copping plate, and is
made at the beginning of a new set of cops.

(308) The various movements in connection with backing-off having
thus been described, it is necessary to show how the traverse of the
faller is obtained during the inward traverse of the carriage. This is
shown in Fig. 161, page 205, which is a separate view of the copping
or building mechanism. The faller “locking” lever =A= is, as has been
described, raised until the shoulder =R= slips on to the slide =L=, in
which position it remains until it is released at the termination of
the inward run. On the underside of =L= a small bowl or runner =L^{1}=
is carried, which rests upon the upper surface of a longitudinal, or
“copping” rail =P=, made of a strong section. If the latter was placed
in such a position that its upper surface was horizontal, it is plain
that the slide =L= would receive no vertical motion during the period
that the runner =L^{1}= was traversing it. In consequence the sickle
=U= would remain in one position during the same time. But if the
rail =P= is raised at one end so that its upper edge is inclined, the
slide =L= will, during the run in of the carriage, receive a vertical
traverse corresponding to the difference in the altitude of the two
ends of the copping rail. That is to say, if one end of the rail
was six inches from the floor line, while the other end was seven,
=L= would ascend or descend to the extent of one inch while it was
travelling from one end to the other of the rail =P=. The question as
to whether it would ascend or descend depends entirely upon which end
of the rail was highest. From this it may be inferred that by varying
the angularity or profile of the copping rail any desired traverse,
either regular or intermittent, could be given to the slide =L=. Now it
was shown that the winding faller sickles are keyed on the shaft =B=,
which is oscillated by the backing-off finger =D= fastened upon it.
The latter being jointed to the “locking” lever =A=, it follows, that,
as the latter is raised, the winding faller moves in an arc, which
corresponds in length and direction to the length and inclination of
the copping rail.

(309) It is necessary when the carriage arrives at the end of its
stretch to lock it in that position during the time that backing-off
is taking place, and the motions of releasing the counter faller and
locking the winding faller are in operation. A reference to Fig. 162 is
necessary to understand this part of the mechanism. That illustration
is a diagrammatic representation of the mechanism relating to locking
the carriage, and the engagement and disengagement of the taking-in
gear. The parts are not in their working position, but are projected
so that their operation may be better understood. The actual relative
position of the various motions is shown by the diagrammatic sketch in
the right hand top corner of Fig. 162. Upon the carriage =O= a bracket
=O^{1}= is fixed, which carries at its outer end a pin or catch, with
which the hook at the end of the horizontal arm of the =L= lever =S=
can engage. The hook readily falls over the pin in =O^{1}=, as the
carriage is pushed up to it near the end of its traverse. The lever
=S= is coupled in the manner shown to the horizontal rod =R=, which,
at its other end, is jointed to a bell crank lever =U^{1}=. The rod
=R=, on account of its function, is termed the “holding-out catch rod.”
The lever =U^{1}= is in turn connected with the rod =U=, jointed at
its upper end to the lever =W=, which is coupled to the horizontal arm
of the lever =Z^{1}= by the connecting rod =M=. A connection is thus
established between the cam =Z= on the cam shaft and the “holding-out”
catch lever =S=. During the run out of the carriage the friction
clutch =I^{1} K= is disengaged by means of the lever =W=. The rod =R=
is also locked by the small vertical slide =S^{1}=, which engages with
the catch notch formed in it. The movement of the backing-off rod =X=,
which is hinged to the lever =L=, causes the projecting arm in the
lever =Y= to be pushed under the end of the lever =W=, thus sustaining
the latter and preventing the engagement of the upper half =I^{1}= of
the taking-in friction with the lower half =K=. This action occurs just
before the termination of the outward run, being a little in advance of
backing-off, but simultaneous with the compression of the backing-off
spring on =X=. Whatever movement of =W= may take place after the arm
on =Y= is thus projected into the path of the end of the lever =W=,
the friction cannot fall into gear until the support of the arm is
withdrawn. The whole of these parts are thus locked together, and
fall into gear simultaneously. It will be noticed that the connection
between the lever =S= and the rod =R= is such that the latter can
make a certain movement forward before the lever falls. Further, the
carriage can be arrested during its outward run by the pedal lever
fixed to the floor.

(310) The action of the mechanism is as follows: When the carriage
arrives at its outermost point the connecting rod =R= is unlocked, and
is free to move. In this way the catch lever =S= can be easily raised
by the bracket on the carriage =O=, over which it falls, and securely
holds it, the slot in the rod =R= permitting this movement. In this
position it remains during the whole period of backing-off, when in
a way which is afterwards described, it is released simultaneously
with the taking-in friction with which, as shown, it is connected. The
locking of the carriage is the last operation requiring explanation
before proceeding to deal with the movements, which, together, make
up the fourth stage or period. This is the one in which the nicest
problems require solution, and in which the mechanism used is the most

(311) The first step in commencing to wind is, of course, to release
the carriage and draw it in. Before proceeding to show how this is
effected, it will be as well to recapitulate and describe the position
of the various parts. The strap is entirely upon the loose pulley; the
backing-off friction clutch is in gear; the spindles are revolving in
the opposite direction to that normal to them; the winding faller is
drawn down and locked in a position a little below the nose of the cop;
the counter faller is held just out of contact with the threads, but
free to rise as soon as an inward movement of the carriage occurs; the
roller and back shaft clutches are disengaged; and the upper half of
the taking-in friction is out of gear with the lower, but revolving
with the vertical shaft on which it slides.

(312) When the chain =E= (Fig. 160) has sufficiently raised the faller
locking lever =A= to permit it to lock, the swinging lever =V= is
suddenly drawn back. An examination of the drawings, either Fig. 160
or Fig. 161, will show that so long as the face of the locking lever
presses against the face of the slide no lateral movement of the
former is possible. Further, the connection established between the
locking lever =A= and the lever =V=, by means of the lever =F^{1}=,
ensures that as soon as the inward movement of the lever takes place
when locking occurs, the lever =V= must necessarily oscillate on its
pivot. This movement of the lever =V= causes its lower jaw to exercise
a pressure upon the lever =L= in the contrary direction to that
previously noted, and so draws the stop =X^{1}= in contact with the
bottom of the backing-off lever =D=. This action is aided by the spring
on the backing-off rod, which is free to extend, and its whole force
can be exerted on the lever =D=. In this way =D= is drawn back, and the
backing-off clutch is disengaged.

(313) The same movement draws away the supporting piece on the vertical
lever =Y=, and allows the upper half of the taking-in friction to fall
into gear with the lower half, this action being aided by the spring
=Q=. The slot in the end of the connecting rod =M= permits the upward
movement of the left hand end of the lever =W= to be made rapidly and
freely. In this way the engagement of the friction clutch is a very
quick one. This upward movement of the lever =W= is communicated, in a
manner described, to the holding out catch, which is also raised nearly
simultaneously, and the carriage released.

[Illustration: FIG. 162. J.N.]

(314) It is, of course, highly essential that all the three releasing
motions shall be accurately “timed,” so as not to take place either
before or after the proper moment. Accordingly, ample means of
adjustment are provided, both on the rod =X= by the regulation of the
stops =X^{1}= and =X^{2}=; on the connecting rod =M= coupling the
levers =Z= and =T=; and also on the holding-out rod. In this way it
is possible to secure that simultaneous movement of the three parts,
which is so essential for effective working. It is obvious that the
backing-off friction and holding-out catch must be released before the
taking-in friction gears, but the interval between these is so slight
that they occur practically simultaneously.

(315) The taking-in friction being in gear, the rotation of the
loose pulley is, by the train of wheels shown, communicated to the
“scroll” shaft, on which the taking-in scrolls are fixed. These have
bands attached to and wrapped round them when the carriage is at the
roller beam. As the carriage runs out, the bands, which are fastened
to it, are drawn off the scrolls, the scroll shaft being then free
to revolve. The engagement of the taking-in friction reverses this
process and winds on the bands, thus drawing up the carriage. It will
be observed that the scrolls vary in diameter, being about 9 inches
in the largest part, and about 3 inches in the smallest. The reason
of this construction is to give a varying traverse to the carriage,
so as to start it easily, and bring it up to the back stops gently.
The scrolls are designed so that, so long as they are revolving, they
exercise a pull upon the carriage which is steady and constant. In this
way, over-running is avoided, but to prevent any possibility of it a
scroll =L^{1}=, shown in a detached position in Fig. 153, is fixed on
=L= at an angle of 180 degrees to the others, the point of attachment
of its rope being diametrically opposite that on the other scrolls.
Thus when the bands on the drawing out scrolls are unwound, that on
the “check scroll” is wound and vice versa. The purpose of this scroll
is, as its name indicates, to check any tendency to over-running,
which it effectually does. In all mules above a certain length, it is
desirable to provide some means whereby the carriage shall be drawn in
evenly throughout its length, and shall not be in danger of twisting
or warping. The scroll shaft, it will be noticed, only extends across
the headstock, so that the bands can only exercise any pull on the
square, and if no other points of attachment were made, the carriage
would at its extremities lag behind the centre. A considerable amount
of friction would be thus caused, and the spindles at the end of the
carriage would not take up the full length of yarn. It was shown that
the back shaft is, during winding, disengaged, so that it is only
necessary to establish a connection between it and the scroll shaft,
to enable the carriage to be drawn in at several points throughout
its length, instead of at one only. Accordingly, the scroll shaft is
extended, and an extra scroll shown in Fig. 154 at the right hand side
is fitted, from which a band is taken to a drum upon the back shaft.
Thus the back shaft is converted into a taking-in shaft, and during
that operation revolves of necessity at a variable speed given to it by
the scrolls. In this way the carriage is kept parallel to the roller
beam throughout its course, and comes up to the back stops along its
entire length at one time.

(316) The arrangements for taking-in having thus been described, it now
becomes necessary to describe the operation of winding. Before doing
so, it will be better to deal with the problem to be solved, and it
will aid in understanding it if the construction and method of building
the cop be described. For this purpose a reference to the diagrams
given in Figs. 163 and 164, page 207, is necessary. The cop is built,
as before explained, upon the blade or taper part of the spindle, and,
when finished, is of the shape shown in Fig. 163, viz., a cylinder with
conical ends. The central part of the cop, =E G K F=, is cylindrical,
and at the top and bottom of this part are two cones. The lower cone,
=A E B C F D=, forms what is known as the “cop bottom,” and the upper
one, =G H I K=, the “nose,” although the latter term is more often and
strictly applied to the extreme apex at the points =H I=. As previously
stated, the yarn may be wound either upon the bare spindle, upon a
short paper tube, as indicated by the thick line inside the cop bottom,
or upon a similar tube the whole length of the cop. The use of paper
tubes of this character is preferable, especially in cases where the
cop is likely to be much handled, as it prevents it from being crushed
in, and enables the introduction of a skewer for subsequent winding
without there being any danger of the cop being pierced or “stabbed,”
this being a fruitful source of waste.

(317) In commencing to wind, the yarn is wrapped on the lower part of
the spindle in close coils or spirals for a length of a little more
than an inch. The whole of one stretch is wrapped upon this space, and
when the next stretch requires winding, it is laid upon the previous
layer, and so on until the double cone =A E B C F D= is produced. The
length of the traverse of the winding faller wire, or the length of
each layer vertically, is called the “chase” of the cop or faller.
From this point the yarn is wound in successive layers, beginning
always at a higher point, until the final traverse is obtained by which
the winding is conducted upon the surface or nose represented by the
letters =G H I K=. It was stated in paragraph 311 that the winding
faller wire, when the winding faller is locked, is in a position a
little below the point =H I=. As soon as the carriage begins to run
in, the vertical movement of the winding faller locking lever begins,
and is so arranged that the first movement of the wire is a rapid
downward one. The effect is that the yarn is laid on the nose of the
cop in coarsely-pitched descending spirals, as shown in Fig. 164, these
extending downwards until the winding faller wire reaches a point
opposite the base of the upper cone, in this case shown in Fig. 163
at =K=. From this point a slower ascent of the winding faller wire
is made, so that the yarn is laid in the more finely pitched spirals
shown, until the nose of the cop is reached. By this time the carriage
has arrived at the roller beam, and the whole of the 63 inches of yarn
has been wound.

(318) When the first layer of yarn is wound, and the winding faller is
assuming its position to wrap on the second, the initial point of its
traverse is a little raised. In this way the yarn is gradually wound
in layers, which are represented by the angular lines springing from
the lines =A E= and =D F= towards the spindles. During this period the
enlargement of the diameter of the cop bottom is proceeding until at
the points =E F= the full diameter of the cop is reached. As soon as
this occurs the initial point of each layer is gradually raised, and
the length of the traverse is slowly diminished as the completion of
building is approached, until at the termination of a cop the angle
of the layers is shown by the lines =G H= and =I K=. There are thus
two adjustments shown to be necessary—first, the starting point of
each traverse of the winding faller requires altering; and second, its
extent also needs regulation.

(319) These two objects are attained by the regulation of the copping
rail =P=, as shown in Fig. 161. The ends of this rail rest upon
inclined “copping” plates =Y X=, which are fastened together by the
rod =W=, and which receive, as will afterwards be described, an inward
movement during the building of the cop. It was shown that the locking
of the faller lever and its vertical movement leads to a corresponding
movement of the faller. If, for instance, the faller locking lever fell
an inch, the winding faller sector would be oscillated and the faller
wire drawn upwards. The rate of the ascent of the latter is absolutely
relative to the period of the descent of the locking lever. Referring
now to Fig. 165, which is a small diagrammatic sketch of the copping
rail and its supports, suppose the line =G H= to represent the top of
former, =O P= the latter, and =L= the bowl at the foot of the locking
lever, if =L=, starting from the left hand position, be supposed to
travel in the direction of the arrow =V=, it will be seen that it will
fall to the extent indicated by the space =Y Z=. If, on the other hand,
the slides =O P= are moved into the position shown by the dotted
lines, the rail =G H= will also fall into that indicated in a similar
manner. The result is that if =L= now makes the same traverse as before
it will rise a little as indicated by the space =W X=. The effect on
the winding faller would be that in the first case it would be raised,
and in the second it would be depressed to an extent corresponding to
the depression of the locking lever. The extent to which this elevation
or depression is made depends upon the vertical traverse of the locking
lever, and the ratio of the distance of the point of junction of the
sector =C= with the faller shaft and that of the faller wire from the
same rod. If, for instance, this proportion was 1:2, an elevation of
the locking lever half an inch would result in a depression of the
faller an inch. It is therefore necessary, during the inward run of
the carriage, to provide for the inclination of the carriage to such
an extent as to secure the requisite traverse of the faller wire. As
the amount of such traverse varies during the building of the cop,
it follows that the inclination of the copping rail must be varied

[Illustration: FIG. 165. J.N.]

(320) Referring again to Fig. 161, the ends of the copping rails
have pins fixed in them, on which are anti-friction bowls, which run
upon the edges of the copping plates. The latter are duplicated, so
as to sustain the rail at each side, and thus maintain its vertical
position. At one side of one of the plates =Y= is an ear =S^{1}=,
which is threaded to correspond with a square threaded screw =S=
passing through a fixed bracket fastened to the floor. In this way
the screw =S= is free to revolve, but cannot make any longitudinal
movement. On the end of the screw =S= a ratchet wheel is fixed with
which a pawl =S^{2}= engages, which is oscillated so as to move the
wheel one tooth at convenient times. The speed of the revolution of
the screw varies according to the counts being spun, the elevation of
the point of locking being more quickly effected when coarse yarns are
being made than when the finer varieties are produced. Whatever may
be the velocity at which this elevation is accelerated, the profile
of the copping plates is such that the inner end of the copping rail
=P= is lowered at a more rapid rate during the formation of the cop
bottom than at a subsequent stage. The reason of this will be easily
comprehended, if the description of the mode of building the latter
be borne in mind. It was then shown that the traverse of the winding
faller rapidly increased in extent until the full length of the cop
bottom was built. It, therefore, follows that the descent of the
locking lever must be largely increased at this period at a quick rate,
in order to produce the result indicated. When the outer end of the
copping rail begins to descend at a rate which more nearly corresponds
to that of the inner end, it gradually approaches to the horizontal,
and the vertical motion of the slide, locking lever, and faller is
proportionately limited.

(321) The regulation of the winding faller as just described was the
one which was usual until recent years. It has been found necessary,
however, to obtain a more accurate regulation, so as to ensure that
the faller wire shall be in its correct position when locking occurs,
especially during the period between the beginning of a cop and the
attainment of its full diameter. It is now customary to attach to the
front end of the copping rail a loose plate =Q=, which is hinged at one
end to the rail, and which carries at its outer extremity a pin and
bowl resting upon a third inclined plate =Z=. By varying the profile
of the plate =Z=, the regulation of the faller during the early part
of its traverse can be accurately made and the proper position of the
wire ensured. As a glance at the illustration will show, the upper
edge of the copping rail is not straight, but is shaped so as to give
a variable speed to the slide =L= in its vertical movement. The proper
shaping of the copping rail gave rise to some difficulty, and it will
be seen that the loose copping rail =Q= is shaped so as to produce the
proper effect, while being much more easily adjusted.

[Illustration: FIG. 161. J.N.]

(322) The actual operation of this mechanism is as follows: When the
carriage is at its outermost point, and the winding faller is locked,
the wire is, as previously mentioned, a little below the nose of the
cop. As the inward run proceeds, the bowl first runs up the loose
incline, thus raising the locking lever and depressing the winding
faller wire. The distance, from the extreme outward point reached by
the bowl =L^{1}= and that where the loose rail =Q= is hinged and the
downward inclination of the copping rail begins, is so short that
the initial depression of the winding faller is very rapid. This
produces the coarsely pitched coils referred to in paragraph 317, and
illustrated in Fig. 164. By the time the bowl =L^{1}= is at its highest
point the winding faller wire is opposite the base of the upper cone.
The subsequent downward inclination of the copping rail is much less
acute, and the consequent descent of the faller locking lever less
rapid. As a result the upward traverse of the winding faller wire
is made more slowly, and the yarn is wound in more finely pitched
spirals. It only remains to be said, in connection with this part
of the subject, that owing to the shape of the copping plates their
inward movement is accompanied by a gradual fall of the copping rail,
and, consequently, the locking point of the faller lever is relatively
elevated. In other words, the traverse of the locking lever prior to
locking is gradually lessened as the trail lever slide =L= is lowered,
and this is equivalent to an elevation of the winding faller lever and
its locking point or shoulder =K=. This causes the depression of the
winding faller wire prior to locking to be gradually diminished, so
that there is an elevation of its initial point.

(323) The method of obtaining the traverse of the winding faller having
been described, the equally important points relating to the mode of
rotating the spindle during winding require to be dealt with. A little
thought will show that so long as the surface upon which the yarn is
wound remains small the spindles must revolve at a more rapid rate
than when the surface is enlarged. As the extreme diameter of the cop
bottom is enlarged the conditions of successful winding are continually
changing. At the commencement of the cop the yarn is wound upon what
is practically a parallel surface with a diameter of 5/16 inch and a
circumference of ·98 inch. This implies that to wind the 63 inches
of yarn 64·3 revolutions are required, these being made during the
run up of the carriage. But as the diameter of the cop is enlarged
the circumference of the conical surface becomes a variable one, and
owing to its enlargement the number of revolutions required to wind
the same length of yarn is fewer. This is quite clear and needs no
demonstration. Thus when the cop bottom is formed the extreme range
of variation is reached, and it follows that in the interval between
the commencement of winding and the formation of the cop bottom each
stretch must be accompanied by a diminution of the velocity of the
spindle proportionate to the increase of diameter. In addition to this
it is necessary to take into consideration the varying diameter of the
conical surface on which winding takes place, which necessitates a
greater terminal than initial velocity of the spindle.

[Illustration: FIGS. 163 AND 164. J.N.]

(324) A further point requires elucidation. If the spindle blade were
parallel, the number of revolutions necessary to wind the 63 inches of
yarn properly, when the cop bottom is formed, being fixed, no further
alteration would be necessary. But these conditions do not exist, and
the nose of the cop is wound upon a continually diminishing diameter.
It is of the utmost importance that the yarn is wound tightly at the
nose during the whole of the building of the cop. The rate of the
vertical traverse being practically uniform, unless an acceleration of
the spindle velocity occurred, there would be slack winding during the
latter part of the building of the cop. This would produce a sponginess
of the nose, which, when the yarn was drawn off in the subsequent
process of winding, as shown by the arrow in Fig. 164, would result in
several rings or coils being pulled out in an entangled condition, thus
producing waste. Technically the cop would be said to be “halched.”
Illustrating this part of the subject by figures, if the diameter of
the spindle at the point =B=, Fig. 163, be assumed to be 1/4 inch, its
circumference would be ·7854 inch; while if the diameter at =H= be
assumed to be 1/8 inch, the circumference would be only ·3927 inch. To
wind, say, 10 inches of yarn in each case, would require about 12 and
25 revolutions of the spindle respectively. It is therefore clear that,
if the same length is to be wound with equal tension upon the nose of
the cop throughout the whole process of building, there must be a
gradual acceleration of the terminal velocity of the spindle. Although
this is only slight at first it is required at an earlier point as the
cop is formed, and becomes of increasing importance.

[Illustration: FIG. 166. J.N.]

(325) It will be shown, a little later, that the rotation of the
spindles during winding is obtained by the pull of the carriage on a
chain, which has its other end attached to an oscillating arm, being
fastened to a drum on the carriage. To get a clear idea of the action
of this part of the mechanism the two diagrams shown in Figs. 166 and
167 are given, a study of which will be profitable. In Fig. 166 the
circles =B C D= represent three positions of the barrel or drum after
it has moved in a horizontal plane in the direction of the arrow. To
the drum a chain is supposed to be attached, which is held at the point
=A=. It is, of course, understood that the barrel is mounted upon a
shaft or axis so that it can freely revolve. If it be now assumed that
the barrel is in the left hand of the three positions =B=, the chain
will be wrapped completely round it. As it is moved horizontally in
the direction of the arrow it is revolved, as indicated by the curved
arrows, and, by the time it has reached its middle position =C=, has
been rotated sufficiently to unwind about half a turn of the chain. A
further horizontal motion to the right hand position =D= will complete
the unwinding, and, by this time, the drum will have made one complete
revolution. It will be at once seen that the rate at which the drum
will be revolved will depend upon two factors—its diameter, and the
speed of its horizontal traverse. If the point =A= at which the chain
is held is stationary, and the horizontal movement uniform, then the
rotation of the barrel will be constant. But if the barrel be traversed
at a variable rate then its rotation will also be variable. In actual
practice this uniformity does not exist, for, as was shown in paragraph
315, the taking-in scrolls vary considerably in diameter. Assuming this
variation to be 1:3:1, it would follow that the rotation of the barrel
would increase and diminish in the same ratio. In practice this is
what happens, and the speed of the revolution of the barrel is quicker
about the middle of the taking-in than at any other time.

(326) The assumption that the point =A= is stationary was only made to
illustrate the point at issue, and is not founded upon the actual facts
of the case. If now it be assumed that not only the barrel but the
point at which the chain is held makes a forward movement, a new set
of conditions arises. In this case the unwinding of the chain during a
given time will be diminished by the amount of the advance of the point
=A= in the same period. Assuming the latter to be made at a regular
rate it would be easy to calculate the extent of the unwinding. If the
effect of the horizontal movement of the barrel from =B= to =C= be to
unwind half of one coil of chain—say a length of 7 inches—and that in
the same space of time the point =A= moved 3 inches, the amount unwound
would be reduced to 4 inches. But this is not the actual condition of
things in practice. The point moves at a variable velocity, its forward
motion gradually diminishing, so that the acceleration of the rotary
velocity of the barrel is greater at the end of its horizontal traverse
than at the beginning. In other words, its terminal velocity is highest.

(327) The point of the attachment of the chain at =A= is made in an
oscillating arm which, during the inward run of the carriage, receives
a forward movement at a speed which is controlled by the velocity of
the back shaft. As the latter is, in turn, commanded by the scroll
shaft during this period—see paragraph 315—it follows that the
variation in the forward movement of the arm is coincident with that
of the carriage. Thus the advance of the point =A= will always be in
strict correspondence with the velocity of the carriage traverse.

(328) Referring now to Fig. 167, and, assuming =A B= to be the arm to
which the chain is fastened, and =O J= and =H C= to represent the arcs
through which the point of attachment of the chain travels at different
times, it will be seen that the periods of movement are well marked.
In each case the arcs are of the same number of degrees, although the
chord of one is shorter than that of the other. Dealing first with the
inner arc, which represents the position of the point of attachment
when nearer the centre, the whole period of movement is divided into
equal parts. These are represented by the letters =J K L M N O=. Now,
if vertical lines are drawn from these, until they terminate in a
straight line drawn parallel to a horizontal line through the point
=B=, a clear idea can be formed of the effect of the oscillation of the
vertical arm =A B=. The lines terminate at =J^{1} K^{1} L^{1} M^{1}
N^{1} O^{1}=. It can be easily seen that the horizontal movement of
the point of attachment of the chain gradually becomes less as the
arm is oscillated from its most backward position =B C= to its most
forward one =B H=, this diminution occurring most after the point
=L= is reached. In the movement from =J= to =K= and =K= to =L= the
horizontal traverse is about equal. It shows a decrease from =L= to
=M=, a greater one from =M= to =N=, and a still greater one from =N= to
=O=. The same thing happens if the chain be supposed to be attached at
the point =D=. In this case also the decrease in the horizontal forward
traverse is variable, but occurs in the same way. The periods here are
marked by the letters =C= to =H=, and the extent of the forward motion
by those =C^{1}= to =H^{1}=. It will be noticed that the amount of the
traverse is greater than that previously noted, the total space covered
being respectively =J^{1}= to =O^{1}= and =C^{1}= to =H^{1}=. That
is to say, the point at which the chain is fastened moves forward in
the same direction as the barrel, but at a different speed. In other
words, when the chain is held at =K=, the total forward movement is
comparatively small, and if it were held at a point shown by the small
inner circle, it would be still less. On the other hand, its attachment
at =B= implies a greater total forward movement. It therefore happens
that the retardation of the chain by the arm is less in the early part
of the oscillation of =A B=—or, to put it differently, the delivery of
the winding chain by the arm is greater when it is fixed at =D= than
when it is fixed at =K=. Therefore the barrel is more slowly rotated
during the same period in the former than in the latter case, but
as it completes its lateral movement it is rapidly and considerably

(329) The application of this principle is as follows, and it can now
be stated that the end of the chain is attached to a nut which slides
along the arm, being actuated by the rotation of a screw upon which
it fits. Remembering that an acceleration of the terminal velocity
and a regulation of the revolution of the spindle is required, the
demonstration just given shows that these are obtained by the removal
of the nut further from the centre of oscillation. The influence of
the pull of the chain upon the barrel when the nut is in the position
=K= is much slighter, and shows less variation than when it is at =D=.
Every inch which the nut travels outwards has an influence upon this
factor, and the conditions of winding are thus accurately regulated.
When the winding of the cop begins, the nut is in its lowest position,
and the rotation of the barrel is then practically equal. As the nut
moves away from the centre the barrel gradually rotates more slowly
at the beginning of its inward movement. By the time the most outward
position is reached—which, in practice, coincides with the formation of
the cop bottom—the variation in the velocity has reached its greatest
amount. This, it can be easily seen, is what is wanted. Referring again
to Fig. 163, one revolution of the spindle when the yarn is being wound
on =A D= would practically take up the same length as would be taken
up at the top of the paper tube. But when the faller is guiding the
yarn on the conical surface from =E= to =B=, one revolution of the
spindle would wind on a greater length at =E= than it would at =B=.
Therefore, the initial velocity requires to be less than the terminal.
But when the point =E= has become the initial position, the conditions
of winding remain thereafter constant, except in so far as is affected
by the taper of the blade, and there is no further need for an outward
movement of the nut.

(330) The theory underlying the method of winding having thus been
dealt with, the mechanism employed can be described. This is shown in
Fig. 168, which is a diagram of the whole of the apparatus, and in
Fig. 169, which is an enlarged view of a portion of it. The winding
arm =M= is centered at its lower end, and has formed on it a toothed
quadrant =M^{1}=. The “quadrant” =M= oscillates on a short shaft,
securely carried by the headstock framing, and receives its forward
movement by means of a pinion =Z=, which engages with its teeth. The
extent of the quadrant movement is about a quarter circle. The pinion
=Z= is mounted on the same centre as a grooved pulley, over which a
cord from the back shaft =H= is passed. Thus the rotation of =H= in
either direction produces a similar movement in the pinion =Z=; and the
effect is, that, while the back shaft is drawing the carriage out, the
pinion is revolving so as to raise the arm =M= or cause it to make a
backward oscillation. When the back shaft acts as a taking-in shaft, as
described in paragraph 315, the pinion =Z= is revolved so as to move
the arm =M= forward. The velocity at which the forward stroke is made
is by this arrangement a variable one, and completely corresponds to
that of the carriage traverse. Inside the winding arm a long slot is
formed in which a screw =P= is placed, this being free to revolve. It
may be made with a thread of equal pitch throughout, but, as shown, is
provided with a thread of varying pitch, which gradually becomes finer
towards the outward end of the arm. The reason of this is obvious. The
effect of each layer of yarn upon the problem of winding is greater
at the beginning of the formation of the cop bottom than when it is
more nearly finished. That is, the enlargement of its diameter is
relatively greater at the first stage than at any other. For instance,
if the diameter is 3/8 inch and it be increased 1/16 inch, the ratio is
1/6th; while if the diameter is 3/4 inch, and the same increase takes
place, the ratio is 1/12th only. The variation required in the speed of
winding as each layer is wrapped is therefore less in the latter than
in the former case. This is the purpose of the helical screw, which
gives a quicker advance to the nut in the earlier stages of winding
than when the cop bottom is nearly formed.

[Illustration: FIG. 167. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 168. J.N.]

(331) The screw has fixed upon it, at its lower extremity, a small
bevel pinion, gearing with a similar one placed loosely on the short
shaft forming the centre for the arm. During the oscillation of the
arm the pinion moves with it, and it is clear that if both remained in
this position only this alternate action would occur, and no rotation
of the screw would be made. If, however, the pinion on the short shaft
be rotated it communicates its motion to the screw =P=, and thus
traverses the nut. This is what takes place, and the precise method of
effecting it will be described in detail at a little later period. The
nut engages with the screw and originally had an eye or hook formed in
it, to which the end of the winding chain or band =C= was fastened. The
attachment is now made in a different manner, a frame =A= being fixed
to the nut along with which it can slide. At the upper end of the frame
a small drum is carried, round which the winding chain is wrapped,
passing over a small bowl =D= at the lower end of the frame. The
other end of the chain or band =C= is fastened to the drum or scroll
=X^{1}= which is mounted on a shaft =X= carried in suitable bearings
in the square. On the same shaft a spur wheel is geared which engages
with a pinion loose upon the tin roller shaft, which it revolves by
special mechanism afterwards described in detail. The use of a scroll
is intended to accelerate the revolutions of the spindles during the
latter part of the fallen traverse. This, like the winding arm, is a
modified application of the fusee, and it will be easily understood
that when the chain is being unwound from the larger diameter of the
scroll, the number of revolutions given to the scroll will be less than
when it is being taken off the smaller diameter.

(332) It has been previously shown that the diminishing diameter of
the spindle causes it to be necessary that, as the cop is built higher
upon it, a correspondingly higher rotary velocity shall be given to it,
in addition to the increased terminal velocity produced in the manner
described. The most usual method of doing this has been to provide
at the end of the quadrant arm a bracket carrying a pin known as the
“nosing peg.” The object of this device is to shorten the chain by
deflecting it from a straight line about the time when the carriage
nears the end of its inward run. This is equivalent to a sudden
shortening of the chain, and gives a sudden acceleration to the winding
drum. In some cases an automatic arrangement is fitted by which the
peg is brought into contact with the chain at an earlier point every
stretch, so that the acceleration of the spindle takes place sooner,
as the nose of the cop is formed higher up the spindle. It is not
difficult to obtain a clear notion of the action of the nose peg if a
short length of string be held at one end and attached to a sliding
piece at the other. If then the string be pressed down by a rod at the
same point, but a little further every time, it will be seen that the
sliding piece is moved to a greater extent with each depression.

(333) The arrangement used in the Platt mule is shown in detail in Fig.
169. It consists of the sliding bracket A, carrying, as described,
at its upper part, a small drum on which the winding chain =C= is
fastened. On the spindle of the winding drum a ratchet wheel =E= is
fixed, with which the detent pawls =E^{1}= engage, thus ensuring that
=E= is held in any position assumed by it. Also fastened on the spindle
of the drum is the curved sector arm =F=, to which a chain =G= is
secured. By means of the guide pulleys shown the chain =G= is conducted
over the arm or lever =K=, and is attached to the bracket =I=. The
lever =K= is hung from its upper end, and has a projecting short arm
=K^{1}= attached to it, which can move upwards in the direction of
the arrow. The outer end of =K^{1}= presses against a bracket =K^{2}=
attached to the quadrant, so shaped that the backward movement of the
quadrant pushes the lever =K= back at its lower end. In the bracket
=I= a finger =I^{1}= engaging with the copping nut is fixed. The parts
having been adjusted to their proper position the slide =A= is at the
bottom end of the quadrant =M=, as shown, and the curved arm =F= is
in such a position that it has wound upon it a certain length of the
chain =G=. The latter is a little slack at first, but as the nut moves
out this is rapidly taken up until the chain =G= is in tension. As
soon as this happens, each of the forward oscillations of the arm =M=
leads to the chain being drawn, and causes the lower end of the lever
=K= to be swung forward. The return movement of the quadrant leads
to the bracket =K^{2}= pressing upon the arm =K^{1}=, so as to push
back the end of the arm or lever =K=. In this way the chain =G= is
pulled and the curved arm =F= is drawn a little forward, thus causing
the drum and ratchet wheel =E= to revolve. As the winding chain is
wound on the barrel, every rotary movement of the latter in a forward
direction takes up a little more chain and shortens its length. The
amount of this shortening is not great up to the time of the completion
of the cop bottom and the arrival of the slide =A= at the end of its
traverse along the arm. The position of the parts at this period is
shown in the detached view at the right hand top corner of Fig. 169. Up
to this time only about the same length of chain is taken up which is
needed by the increased distance of the slide =A= from the centre, and
the greater forward traverse of the quadrant arm, which, in a sense,
releases a certain length of winding chain. When this point is reached
the finger =I^{1}= begins to be pressed against by the nut =S^{1}= of
the shaper screw, and the bracket =I= commences to be drawn inward. To
facilitate the correct action of this mechanism the finger =I^{1}= is
adjustable, and the exact moment of its contact with the nut =S^{1}= is
thus regulated. The forward movement of the shaper nut which follows
gives a similar motion to the bracket =I=, and the chain =G= is thus
drawn forward. In this way the drum and ratchet wheel =E= are rotated,
and the winding chain gradually shortened. Thus more of it is unwound
from the scrolls at each traverse of the carriage, and as it is drawn
from the smaller diameter of the scroll towards the end of the run in,
the velocity of the spindles is considerably accelerated. The position
of the various parts when the carriage is at the back stops is shown in
Figs. 170 and 171.

(334) These represent respectively the places occupied by the different
portions of the mechanism immediately at the completion of the cop
bottom, and at the finish of building a set of cops. The positions of
the various parts connected with the slide =A= when winding is complete
are shown also in Fig. 169, at the top end of the quadrant arm.
Referring to Fig. 170, it will be noticed that the winding chain =C= is
unwound from the large part of the scroll only, while Fig. 171 shows it
almost entirely unwound from the smaller portion. As was shown, this
implies a high terminal velocity of the winding scroll and spindles.

(335) It has been previously mentioned that the rotation of the
quadrant screw is obtained by means of the engagement of two bevel
wheels, one on the foot of the screw and the other upon the spindle,
forming the centre of the quadrant. It was also stated that the
last-named wheel was held so as to move round the centre with the
quadrant. This is effected by means of a brake spring =P^{2}= which
clips the boss of the wheel and holds it. The resistance thus created
causes the bevel wheel to move with the quadrant, and prevents it from
rotating on its axis. The wheel is compounded with a grooved cord
pulley =P^{1}=, over which an endless band =Q= passes. The band =Q=
fits the groove in the pulley, and is afterwards guided by the various
carrier pulleys shown. Two of these, =S S^{1}=, are borne by brackets
fixed to the carriage, and =S= is formed with teeth so as to allow
of the engagement of the vertical detent catch on the lever =Y=. If
the whole of the pulleys over which the band =Q= passes are free to
revolve, except that on the quadrant centre, the inward run of the
carriage gives no motion to the cord or band. No effect is produced
beyond the rotation of the carrier pulleys, and the forward stroke
of the quadrant is made without any effect being produced upon the
position of the nut.

(336) It was shown that the gradual accretion of yarn by the cop
results in the necessity for a graduation of the velocity of the
spindle in winding. This takes place during the whole period of
building, and it follows that the traverse of the nut must be governed
during the whole period. After a layer of yarn has been wound the nut
remains in the position occupied by it during the preceding inward
run, until the carriage has made another outward run, and is again
commencing to run in. At the commencement of the run in of the
carriage the spindles revolve at the same speed as that at which they
rotated in the preceding period of winding. If the yarn is a coarse one
this is sure to be too fast, because of the increase in the diameter
of the cop, owing to the yarn wound during the last inward run. The
initial velocity of the spindles is, therefore, such that they take up
the yarn too rapidly, and put an extra amount of tension upon it. As
was shown in paragraph 303, this causes a depression of the counter
faller wire. This is utilised to revolve the quadrant screw and
traverse the nut and slide. In other words, the winding is said to be
“governed,” and the motion is known as the “governing” or “strapping”

[Illustration: FIG. 169. J.N.]

(337) Fixed on the winding faller and counter faller shafts =B B^{1}=
(Fig. 168) are two arms =U U^{1}=, to which the ends of a light chain
=Y^{1}= are attached. The chain passes round a runner, or pulley,
placed in the outer end of the hinged lever =Y=, which is in this way
sustained. It is obvious that the vertical position of the lever will
be strictly regulated by the position of the two arms =U U^{1}=. As
they follow the oscillations of the winding and counter faller shafts,
the elevated position of these during spinning ensures the lever =Y=
being raised at its free end. This results in the tooth, or detent,
being taken out of contact with the teeth on the pulley =S=. When the
counter faller is depressed by reason of the tension of the yarn upon
it a similar movement occurs in the lever =Y=.

(338) In the early stages of winding, when the winding faller is
depressed to a comparatively large extent prior to being locked, the
vertical position of the lever =Y= is naturally lower than when the
winding faller is not pushed down so far. It thus occurs that, when
the cop bottom is being formed, which is the stage during which the
traverse of the nut is required, and the winding faller is locked at
its lowest point, the clearance of the detent catch on =Y= and the
teeth on the pulley =S= is least. At this period, therefore, they are
most easily engaged by any depression of the counter faller. When
the higher initial velocity of the spindle, produced as described in
paragraph 336, causes the yarn to be put into tension and the counter
faller wire depressed, an engagement of the catch and pulley teeth

[Illustration: FIGS. 170 AND 171. J.N.]

(339) The effect is that the rotation of the toothed pulley is stopped,
and the band =Q= is practically gripped by =S= and its fellow pulley
=S^{1}=, which are borne by the carriage. Instead, therefore, of
slipping over the pulleys as before, the band is drawn along with the
carriage and the remaining pulleys are caused to revolve. The force
so applied is sufficient to rotate the grooved pulley =P^{1}= by
overcoming the resistance of the spring clip, and the bevel wheels and
quadrant screw are rotated. The nut is thus moved outwards, and the
winding chain relieved as previously described. This causes a slight
diminution in the speed of winding, sufficient to relieve the pressure
of the threads on the counter faller wire, which rises and breaks the
contact of the detent and the toothed pulley. The further movement of
the nut is thus arrested.

(340) The necessity for a diminution of the initial velocity of the
spindle is strictly relative to the counts of yarn being spun. Some of
the finer counts require a very slow traverse of the nut, and there may
be practically none during several draws of the carriage. As the nut
slowly rises and the locking point of the winding faller is elevated,
the period of the engagement of the detent catch and the wheel =S=
becomes shorter, and the rotation of the screw is not so prolonged.
When the cop bottom is fully formed, the nut is at its most outward
point, and the “governing” motion is not therefore required. At this
point, the relative positions of the arms =U U^{1}= are such, that the
chain =Y^{1}= will not permit the lever =Y= to fall sufficiently to
allow its tooth to engage with the wheel. The motion, therefore, falls
out of use until the commencement of another set of cops.

(341) The motion of the winding scroll is communicated to the tin
roller by means of a catch or “click” plate shown in detail in
Fig. 168. On the spindle of the winding scroll =X^{1}= is a spur
wheel—indicated by dotted lines—which engages with a small pinion on
the tin roller shaft =T=. The whole of this special mechanism is shown
in longitudinal section in the right hand top corner of Fig. 168. The
pinion is cast in one piece with the disc =V= which is loose upon the
shaft =T=. The latter has a pin fixed in it, on which the small catch
or “click” =V^{1}= is hinged. The click catch is ordinarily held out
of position by the bent spring =W^{1}=, which surrounds the boss of a
ratchet wheel =T^{1}=—to which the name of the “click wheel” is given.
When the “click spring” =W^{1}= is slightly oscillated in the same
direction as the rotation of the ratchet wheel, it allows the click
catch to fall into gear with the click wheel. As the latter is keyed
upon the tin roller shaft =T=, the engagement with it of the catch
causes the tin roller to be revolved, and thus rotates the spindles.

(342) It was formerly the practice to allow the click catch to fall
into gear when the disc =V= began to rotate upon the commencement of
the inward run of the carriage. It was, however, found that the click
catch engaged with the wheel earlier at one stretch than at another,
and that, consequently, winding began a little more slowly than it
should. The effect of such an occurrence is that a little slack yarn
was produced as the carriage was running in, although winding was
not taking place. Under these conditions tight winding at the nose
throughout was practically impossible. It will be easily understood
that, when the click catch is released, it may very readily be left
either close to the tooth with which it has to engage or only just over
the point of the preceding tooth. In the first case the engagement
would take place at once, while in the second instance almost the
distance of a tooth would have to be travelled by the click catch
before engagement occurred. In hard twisted yarns this is especially
objectionable, and its prevention is of importance.

(343) To overcome the defect thus explained a hanging lever =W= is
fitted on the tin roller shaft, and the click spring =W^{1}=, instead
of fitting on the boss of the disc =V=, fits on the inner boss of
the lever =W=, which it clips. A slight oscillation of the lever is,
therefore, at once followed by the movement of the spring, and the
click catch is engaged. The tail end of the lever =W= comes in contact
with a stop =R^{1}= on the holding-out catch rod =R=. When =R= is moved
in order to release the catch it causes the lever =W= to move into
the position shown by the dotted lines, and so oscillate the spring
=W^{1}=. The tail of the click spring passes between a fork formed
in the click catch, and thus presses the catch in either direction,
according to which side of the fork it gears with. When, therefore, the
click spring is oscillated by the releasing movement of the holding-out
rod acting upon the lever =W=, the click catch is forced hard up to the
tooth with which it is engaging. The continued movement of the rod, if
made, has, of course, no further effect upon the click catch, but the
parts are quite ready for winding with the click in gear. Immediately
the carriage begins its inward run winding commences. Thus, whatever
may be the position of the click catch at the end of an outward run,
it is always ready for its work before the inward run commences. The
weight of the rod =W= is sufficient to keep the click catch disengaged
during the whole period of spinning and backing-off.

(344) The whole of the points relating to winding having been
considered, the motions used in the fifth and last period require
describing. When the carriage is near the completion of its inward run,
the various parts are in the following position: The strap is on the
loose pulley and the backing-off side shaft is being revolved either by
the gearing named, or by its independent band; the back shaft clutch is
disengaged and the back shaft is revolving so as to aid in drawing up
the carriage; the rollers are disengaged and are not delivering roving;
the taking-in friction is engaged, and the scroll bands are drawing
in the carriage; the quadrant arm is completing its forward movement,
and the spindles are revolving in their normal direction; the winding
faller is locked and the wire is approaching the nose of the cop; and
the counter faller is in contact with and sustaining the threads. As
soon as the carriage arrives at the roller beam, the whole of these
motions require changing, so that the different parts shall occupy the
positions indicated in paragraph 286.

(345) This operation is mainly the work of the cam shaft, but in part
is performed by other mechanism. As soon as the carriage arrives at,
or near, the end of its outward run, the horn =S^{1}= on the carriage
comes in contact with the anti-friction bowl =R^{1}= in the long lever
=T= and depresses it (see Fig. 156). This removes the nose of the
releasing lever from the raised surface on =V= and allows the friction
clutch =W X= to come into gear. The cam shaft immediately begins to
rotate, and the three cams to act upon the various parts in the reverse
way to that previously described. The rotation of the cam =Z= (Fig.
156) performs the two functions of disengaging the taking-in friction
clutch and engaging the back shaft clutch, the motions of these always
being closely related. The cam =W= during the same period allows the
roller clutch to go into gear, and the delivery of roving again begins.
The rotation of the cam =Y= causes it to exercise a thrust on the pin
fixed in =G= (Fig. 158), so forcing the driving strap over on to the
fast pulley, this giving renewed motion to the spindles. The same
movement causes the lever =H= to be pushed forward until the shoulder
formed in it can again engage with the fixed catch =L=, the spring
=P= pulling the end of =H= upwards as soon as it is sufficiently far
forward. The strap guider is thus again locked when the strap is on the
fast pulley. By the time these engagements and disengagements have been
made, the cam shaft =M= has made its second half revolution, and the
end of the release lever again presses upon the raised surface on the
cam =V= and detaches the friction cone =W= from =X=. The cam shaft is
thus stopped and remains stationary until the end of the outward run as
described in paragraph 291.

(346) The whole of the parts governed by the cam shaft having thus
resumed their original position, it remains to be shown how the winding
and counter fallers are released, so as to be able to assume their
relative positions out of contact with the yarn. The unlocking of the
winding faller must be made as late as possible in the inward run, but
the exact period at which it is made is affected by the height of the
cop nose on the spindle. The termination of winding requires to be
made throughout the whole period of building a set of cops, at such a
point as to leave sufficient yarn to coil on the spindles between their
points and the cop nose. It will be easily seen that this quantity is
varying throughout the whole of the formation of the cop, and that
the length to be wound on is greatest at the commencement of the cop.
This implies the unlocking of the winding faller at a point which is
made gradually later, and this is well carried out in the Platt mule.
At the lower end of the locking lever is a curved arm or “boot leg,”
which, at the termination of the inward run, comes in contact with
the fixed stop bracket =G= (Fig. 161). The face of this is so shaped
that the moment of unlocking is regulated in accordance with the
requirements of the case throughout the whole of the formation of the
cop. This is an important point, and requires careful attention. In
a special form of mule, made by Messrs. Platt Brothers and Co., for
finer counts, the stop bracket is a movable one, and is released by the
run of the carriage, so as to slide forward and unlock at the exact
moment required. The finer the yarns the more care is required in this
respect, owing to their greater liability to breakage.

(347) Referring now to the release of the winding and counter fallers,
it is essential that they should leave the yarn free as soon as
spinning begins. For this purpose the lever =J= is raised by contact
with the small roller =W= (Fig. 159), and its weight is removed from
the counter faller shaft, and also from the winding faller. Still
further to facilitate the descent of the counter faller, which is
sometimes a little sluggish, a stop is placed in the headstock, which
engages with a tail piece on the counter faller shaft when the carriage
has run in. This arrangement is shown in the dotted lines at the
right hand top corner of Fig. 161. The weight of the winding faller
connections is, of course, sufficient to lift it quickly out of contact
with the yarn.

(348) The operations thus described constitute the fifth period, and at
its termination the mechanism is again engaged in the work of spinning
or twisting, being at the commencement of another cycle of movements.
There is, however, one more piece of mechanism to refer to before the
description of this machine can be brought to a close. It was seen
that during the period of winding the chain was drawn off the winding
scroll during the forward stroke of the quadrant arm. Referring to
Fig. 172, which represents a portion of the mechanism relating to the
quadrant, it will be seen by the arrows that during the outward run of
the carriage, the quadrant =M= also makes its backward stroke. During
the same period it is necessary to rewind on the winding scroll the
chain =C= which was previously unwound, and this is effected by the
cord =S=. =S= is attached at one end to a hook or staple =T=, fixed
to the framing, and at its other end to a weighted lever =U=, pivoted
on a bracket fixed to the floor. The cord =S=, in its course, passes
over the two pulleys shown fixed to the carriage, and its tension
is sufficient to cause the pulley on the shaft =X= to be rotated by
the inward run of the carriage, thus winding the chain =C= on to
the scroll. By the termination of the outward run this operation is
concluded, and the chain is ready to act again efficiently as soon as
winding recommences. When a “set” of cops—that is, the whole number
spun on a mule—is finished, it is “doffed” or stripped from the
spindles. As soon as this is completed the winding nut is wound back
by hand to the bottom of the quadrant, and the copping plates are also
restored manually to their original position.

(349) The description thus given of the machine as made by Messrs.
Platt will enable an accurate idea to be obtained of the mechanical
movements which are found in the work of a mule. It is true that this
special machine differs in some of its details from many of other
makers, and that there are motions fitted to it which are not found
in other machines. When the latter are used, however, they tend to
increase the automaticity of the machine. The winding chain shortening,
or, as it is more correctly called, the nosing motion, and the
backing-off chain tightening motion, are of this class, both tending to
an increased efficiency. The main principles in a machine of this class
are embodied in the mule described, and the general explanations given
will prove serviceable, whatever may be the make of mule studied.

[Illustration: FIG. 173. J.N.]

(350) One of the important points of difference between this and mules
of other makes is found in the position of the cam shaft. This, it was
seen, is in the Platt machine placed above the axis of the rim shaft.
In other cases it is placed, as shown diagramatically in Fig. 173,
along the headstock of the mule, and below the centre of the long or
“balanced” lever =T=. In this case the cam shaft =K= is a tubular one,
and has passed through its centre the shaft =M=, which is suitably
driven from one end. The cam shaft is fitted with a friction clutch at
=P=, the fixed half being on the tubular shaft. The other half slides
on the shaft =M=, being pressed up to the fixed half by the spiral
spring shown. On the long lever =T= at the point =L= a pendant cam
plate is hung, which surrounds the cam shaft as shown in a detached
front view and section in Figs. 174 and 175, and is formed with a
slot so as to permit it to rise and fall freely. The cam plate has
two raised cam surfaces or courses, against which the end of a pin is
pressed by the action of the spiral spring. The pin passes through the
half clutch fixed on the cam shaft, and presses against the sliding
half on the shaft =M=. Thus when the pin is on the raised part of the
cam plate the clutch is detached, while if it is on the lower part the
clutch is in gear. When, therefore, the inner end of the balanced lever
=T= is depressed, the fall of the pendant plate causes the pin to come
upon the lower part of the cam course, and permits the engagement of
the clutch. The cam shaft thus makes a half circle turn, and effects
the necessary changes for beginning spinning. This causes the end of
the pin to run on to the second cam course, and by the time the half
revolution is made, it comes on the raised surface and disengages the
cam. In this position it rests until the outer end of the long lever is
depressed, when a similar action occurs, terminating in a similar way.

[Illustration: FIG. 172. J.N.]

(351) The back shaft is also engaged and detached in a different
manner. It is driven from the roller shaft by a train of wheels, but
the last of the train is a compound one, consisting of a large wheel
with a smaller pinion. The latter gears with the back shaft wheel, and
is put into or out of gear accordingly, as it is desired to revolve
or stop the rotation of the back shaft. For this purpose the compound
wheel is borne on a hinged lever, called commonly the Mendoza lever,
which is weighted in a suitable manner. The exact origin of the word
Mendoza, as applied to this lever, is difficult to define, but it
probably arises from the French phrase, _main douce_—Anglicè, the soft
hand. However this may be, the function of the lever is to put the
pinion into and out of gear with the backing-off wheel, and to effect
this, its motion is controlled by a cam or eccentric on the cam shaft.
This cam works in a fork in a lever, and the rotation of the cam shaft
raises or lowers the Mendoza. The object of the weight is to ensure the
full engagement of the pinion and back shaft wheel, so as to obviate
any jumping out of gear at the commencement of winding. There is some
tendency towards this unsteadiness of driving in the early part of the
outward run, and it is desirable to lock the Mendoza lever in position.

[Illustration: FIGS. 174 AND 175. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 176.]

(352) Messrs. John Hetherington and Sons employ a special device
by which this difficulty is overcome. The mule, as made by
them—arranged to be driven with the rim shaft transversely, instead
of longitudinally, placed in the headstock—is illustrated in Fig. 176
in longitudinal elevation, and in Fig. 177 in back view. Both views
show the method of driving quite clearly. On the outward end of the
Mendoza weight a pin is fixed which takes into a fork formed at the
upper end of a vertical lever. The fork is shaped with a shoulder or
recess, below which the pin referred to can slip when desired to lock
the Mendoza in position. A small ear is formed on the vertical lever,
through which a set screw is passed, the point of which comes in
contact with the end of a horizontal lever centred on a pin fixed in
the headstock. The last named lever has a long tail extending outwards
toward the carriage. When the carriage comes up to the back stops and
the Mendoza lever falls, putting the driving pinion into gear with the
back shaft wheel, the long tail of the horizontal lever is raised,
and the effect is that the pin in the Mendoza weight passes under
the shoulder of the fork in the vertical catch lever, and so firmly
holds the Mendoza lever down. As the latter carries the driving wheel,
the pinion is kept firmly in gear, and the effective driving of the
carriage is obtained. As soon as the carriage has run out a little—by
which time it has gained momentum—the horizontal lever is released,
and its long end falls, thus freeing the catch or pin in the Mendoza.
Sometimes the minder, in cleaning, runs out the carriage a little and
then changes the cam, without freeing the horizontal or locking lever.
If afterwards the mule is started the carriage endeavours to run in,
although the back shaft wheel and its driving pinion are in gear. This
leads to breakages, and in order to avoid these, Messrs. Hetherington
have arranged a small relieving lever, coupled to the long lever, so
that any motion of the latter causes the relieving lever to act and
free the Mendoza catch pin, without reference to the position of the
horizontal locking lever. This mule is arranged with the extra band
for driving the taking-in side shaft =D= referred to in paragraph 286.
The band =E= is driven from the counter shaft =R=, and passes round a
double grooved pulley on =D=. It is kept in tension by the pulley =F=,
carried by a frame which can be moved inwards by the quadrant rack =G=
with which a worm gears. The remaining reference letters indicate the
same parts as in the other illustrations.

[Illustration: FIG. 177.]

[Illustration: FIG. 178.]

(353) It was shown that to perfect the action of winding at the nose
of the cop it is customary to deflect the chain by means of a nose
peg. A motion based upon the principle of the deflection of the chain,
but in which that object is attained in a different fashion, is shown
in Fig. 178 in side elevation, and in Fig. 179 in enlarged detail.
This is Dobson and Hardman’s patent, and is made by Messrs. Dobson and
Barlow. Two main objects have been aimed at. These are the control of
the winding from the faller—so that the relation of the two will be
strictly maintained—and the deflection of the chain by a pull from
below instead of a push from above. On the faller shaft a tappet is
fixed, to which is jointed a lever =J= with an arm or finger =K=
secured to it. A bracket =H= is attached to the quadrant arm a few
inches from its centre, and its outer edge =H^{1}= is formed into a
rack with which two catches engage. These are carried by a lever =G=,
which is hung on a pin in the upper part of the bracket =H=. =G= has
a projecting shoulder at its outer end, to which is fastened one end
of the chain =E= passing over the pulley =F=, and having its other
end attached to the lower end of the link =C=. The winding chain =B=
is also attached to the link =C=. The lever =G= is formed with an arm
=G^{1}=, to which is jointed a double tumbler =I=, each part of which
is free to move as required. A projection is cast on =I=, which causes
it to rest on =G= when in its normal position. This mechanism acts in
the following manner: When a set of cops is begun the lever =G= is at
its lowest position relatively to the quadrant rack =H^{1}=, and the
winding chain =B= and link =C= are then almost straight. At the end of
each stretch the finger =K= comes into contact with the lower part of
=I=, which is raised to allow =K= to pass. When the inward run begins
=K= causes the projection on =I= to press upon the lever =G= and raise
it if the pressure is maintained a sufficient time. Whether this is so
or not is determined solely by the vertical position of =J=, which,
in turn, is regulated from the winding faller. If the latter is not
substantially raised from stretch to stretch the position of =G= in
like manner remains unaltered. If this is not the case =G= is a little
lifted, and the chain =E= is thus drawn forward a little over the
pulley =F=. The result is that a pull is exercised on the link =C=,
which is drawn down so that it and the chain =B= no longer represent
a straight line. This is equivalent to shortening the chain =B=, and
the result is that the necessary acceleration of the winding drum is
effected. The chief feature of this motion is the regulation which is
obtained from the faller, the position of which fixes the amount of
extra _pull_ put on the drum. However slowly the building proceeds the
necessary acceleration is made in exact proportion.

[Illustration: FIG. 179. J.N.]

(354) In the description of the governing motion, given in paragraph
339, it was shown that the rotation of the screw in the quadrant arm is
made during the inward run of the carriage. There are some objections
made to this procedure on the ground of the extra tension put on the
yarn in the early part of winding, which is of some moment when fine
or tender yarns are being spun. In Fig. 180 a side view is given of a
motion made by Messrs. Dobson and Barlow, which is designed to obviate
the necessity for altering the screw during the inward run, and provide
means by which it can be made during the outward run. In lieu of the
ordinary grooved pulley on the quadrant axis, a toothed wheel =U= is
used, with which a toothed rack =R= can engage under circumstances
presently to be described. The rack =R= is carried by a sliding frame
=S=, which is fixed upon a longitudinal rod =T=, extending backwards
in the headstock, and carried by brackets fastened to the floor. The
rack is fitted at one end with an inclined foot, and at the other with
a spring, which prevents too deep an engagement of the rack and wheel.
The rack passes—during its outward stroke—over a frame fastened to the
headstock, in which is a screw =X= on which is threaded the sliding
stop =W=. The pitch of the screw thread is varied to correspond with
the thread in the quadrant arm =Q=, and the screw is rotated by a
ratchet wheel, with which a pawl, oscillated by a finger, engages. At
the point =I= a loose tongue is hinged, which at the end of the stroke
of the frame engages with the nut =W=. On the winding faller a sector
=Y= is fixed, in which a stud, formed with two portions of different
diameters, is bolted. On the counter faller a sector =Z= is fastened,
carrying a screwed staple, to which is secured one end of a chain,
indicated by dotted lines. The chain passes round the bowl =R= at the
upper end of the pendant lever =O=, guided in brackets at the front of
the carriage. The loose end of the chain is formed into a loop, which
can be slipped on to either of the surfaces of the bowl in the sector
=Y=. A hinged finger =L= is carried by a bracket on the rod =T=, and
has a little range of movement in a circular direction.

(355) In beginning a set of cops the stop =W= is turned back to its
proper position, which is determined by the size of the cop about to
be spun. The frame =S= is then pushed forward as much as possible, and
the chain is slipped on to the smaller portion of the bowl in =Y=. This
allows the pendant =O= to fall a little, and its height subsequently is
regulated strictly by the position of the fallers. During the outward
run the horizontal arm =P=, which forms part of the pendant =O=,
engages with the vertical projection on the frame =S= and causes it
to move forward. The rack =R= being raised engages with the wheel =U=
and rotates it, this movement being consequently communicated to the
quadrant nut. Thus the latter is put into position for action during
the next period of winding and any straining of the yarn is avoided.
As the stroke of the rack is continued, the tongue =I= engages with
the nut and causes the rack to drop out of gear with the pinion, and
any further movement of the quadrant nut is avoided. It has been shown
that the traverse of the latter is gradually diminished as the cop is
built, and, in like manner, the inward motion of the stop =W= causes
the engagement of the rack and pinion to be limited. This is a sort of
“trip” motion very familiar to students of steam engine practice, and
is well applied in this case. The slide =S= is drawn back into position
by the engagement of the lower end of the pendant =O= with the finger
=L=. A slight contact at first between these becomes a firm one by
the backward movement of the finger when pressed upon by the pendant
=O=, but it will be obvious that, if the latter is too high to move
the finger =L=, the rack will remain untraversed until a sufficient
depression of =O= takes place. It only remains to be said that once the
nut =W= has been set at the beginning of winding, all that is required
is for the minder to slip the loop of the chain on the right portion
of the bowl in =Y=, and the motion acts automatically until winding is

(356) A somewhat similar attachment has been recently introduced in
France, and is the invention of Mons. Dubs. The author is informed by
a trustworthy mechanician that the motion acts perfectly throughout
winding, and it may, therefore, be well to give a brief description
of it. As in the motion of Messrs. Dobson and Barlow, the regulation
of the nut takes place during the outward run, and it is unnecessary
to again detail the reasons for this course. The chief operating part
of the mechanism is the rack finger =A=—shown in its position when
in gear—which is hinged on a vertical rod or plunger =K=, sustained
in a frame or bearing =S= fastened to the carriage. Referring to
Fig. 181, the whole of the apparatus moves with the carriage and is
self-contained. Attached to the faller is a connecting rod or link =B=,
which is coupled to a hinged lever =O= formed at its outer end with
a toothed rack or quadrant finely pitched. With this rack, which has
two sets of stepped teeth, two detent catches =H= engage. The lever
=O= is hinged to a plunger =L=, which has at its lower end a screwed
shank fixed to a plate =F= also secured in the same manner to the
plunger =K=. The inner end of the rack lever =A= has a hanging piece
=D= which can engage with a catch =E= on the plate =F=, but which in
the view is shown out of gear. The downward motion of the inner end of
=A= is regulated by the stop screw =R=, and it is coupled by the chain
=C= to the counter faller. The spring =M= constantly presses the inner
end of =A= down, tending to raise the rack. When the various parts are
adjusted the parts =F K= and =L= move together and simultaneously with
the lever =O=.

[Illustration: FIG. 180. J.N.]

(357) The action of this mechanism is as follows: Assuming that the
inward run of the carriage is nearing completion, the lever =G=
engages with a stop or bracket fixed to the floor, which causes =D=
to fall out of gear with the catch =E=. This leaves the plate =F= and
all its connections to the control of the chain =C= and the counter
faller. When the faller locks it raises the rod =B= and the lever
=O=, which is then held in position by the detent catches =H=. During
the first inward run =O= is lifted to its highest point, which, of
course, affects all the parts attached to it. Just before the end of
each stretch the catches =H= are released, so that the whole of the
subsequent regulation depends on the counter faller. As the locking
point of the winding faller wire is gradually raised the elevation of
the fork at the upper end of =K=—which by reason of the connection
of the plate =F= with the lever =O= always takes place—occurs at a
gradually lower point throughout building. The effect is that when =D=
is released, as described, an elevation of the rack =A= takes place if
needed. If not, =D= falls over the catch =E= as the carriage begins to
run out and thus locks it, preventing the rack =A= from rising. If,
however, the tension on the yarn at the end of winding is such that the
counter faller is depressed, the catch =D= cannot recover its position.
The end of the rack lever consequently falls on to the stop screw
=R=, and the rack is raised into contact with a wheel on the quadrant
axis formed with teeth of a similar shape. Thus the screw is given a
turn while the carriage is running out, and the nut is in the correct
position for winding the next length.

(358) Quite recently Messrs. Curtis, Sons and Co. have constructed a
mule in which the cam shaft, as an instrument for making the “changes,”
is entirely done away with. A side elevation of the mechanism for
effecting this is shown in Fig. 182, and a plan of the same in Fig.
183. The back shaft clutch =F= is formed so that its driving half
slides, this being controlled by the action of a lever =L=, connected,
as shown, at two points to the rods =R M=. The taking-in friction
is placed horizontally, and is controlled by the vertical lever =H=
connected with the sliding rod =R=. The lever =F^{1}=, by which the
back shaft clutch is disengaged, is coupled by the link going across
the carriage—shown in Fig. 183—to the roller clutch box, so that the
engagement or disengagement of the roller clutch box is simultaneous
with the attachment or detachment of the roller gear. The mechanism for
actuating these parts is based upon the principle of the push and pull
of spiral springs, a partial application of which was shown in the case
of the backing-off rod. On the axle of the quadrant a short arm =S= is
fixed, which is coupled with the rocking lever =T=, connected to the
sliding boss on the rod =M=. Two springs =M^{1} M^{2}= are threaded on
the shaft, and are placed respectively between the sliding boss and
stop hoops fixed on the shaft. The rod =M= is coupled at the back to
the lever =L=, the function of which is, as indicated, to actuate the
back shaft clutch. At the front end of the rod =M= a catch lever =Q=
is fixed, which detains it as the carriage is running out. When this
happens, the spring =M^{1}= is compressed by the oscillation of the
quadrant axle acting through the crank =S= and its connections, the
other spring =M^{2}= being then out of compression. As soon as the
end of the outward run is reached a boss on the counter faller shaft
=B^{1}= comes in contact with the underside of the catch lever =Q= and
raises it, thus freeing the rod =M=. The spring =M^{1}= is thus free
to extend, and, acting upon the lever =L=, disengages the back shaft
and roller clutches. This accounts for one part of the changes; and
while it is taking place a catch lever =O=, which had previously been
raised, is lowered. When the inward run of the carriage is made by the
operation of the same parts the spring =M^{2}= is compressed. On the
arrival of the carriage at the roller beam the lever =O= is tripped by
a boss on the faller shaft =B=, allowing the spring =M^{2}= to extend
and re-engage the two clutches named.

(359) The taking-in or scroll shaft is operated from the rod =R=, which
is fitted with one spring only at its back end. This is compressed by
the intervention of a second lever, fastened on the same shaft on which
the rocking lever =T= oscillates, the compression taking place during
the outward run of the carriage. The spring is held in compression by a
latch =P=, which engages with a lug on the rod =R=. When the carriage
runs in, a boss on the faller shaft releases the latch, and the
extension of the spring disengages the taking-in friction clutch. The
latter is put into gear by the locking of the faller in the ordinary
manner, and is held in gear until the latches =O= and =P= are tripped
in the manner described. The spring =R= presses on a collar carried
by the lever =H=, and the releasing of the friction is aided by the
lever =L=, which comes against the head of =H= when the spring =M^{2}=
is extended. The levers =H= and =L= are so arranged that they cannot
both act together, so that the two motions of taking-in and drawing-out
cannot be in action at the same time.

[Illustration: FIG. 181. J.N.]

(360) The angle of the spindle relatively to the vertical line is such
as is necessary to suit the material being spun, but there is another
feature which it is necessary to mention. As the point of the spindle
moves in a horizontal plane, it is obvious that the yarn will pass on
to it from the rollers at an angle varying with its distance from them.
That is to say, the angle formed by the yarn, in passing on to the
spindle, will be more acute when the carriage is near to the rollers
than it will be when it is further away. This has a little influence
upon the problem of spinning, and an arrangement exhibited at the
Manchester Jubilee Exhibition, applied to Messrs. Asa Lees and Co.’s
mule, is shown in Fig. 184. In this case there are two carriage slips
instead of only one, and these are inclined so as to compensate for
the difference in angle. On one of the slips =A= the front carriage
runner =D= travels, and on the other the back one =C=. The result
is that the inclination of the spindles is slowly altered, with the
result that the angle formed by the yarn and the spindle in each case,
is nearly the same in all positions. This device worked well, but the
difficulty existing does not appear to be great enough to lead to any
wide adoption of it.

[Illustration: FIGS. 182 AND 183. J.N.]

(361) Having thus described in detail the construction and principles
of the mule, it is only necessary to say a few words on the subject
of its application to the spinning of the finer counts, which require
specially delicate treatment. It is found necessary to fit a few
special attachments which are supplementary to the ordinary mechanism
employed. In dealing with fine yarns the rollers are stopped a little
before the carriage has completed its outward run, and this results in
the yarn being a little stretched. A more important result, however,
is that if there be any unevenness in the diameter of the yarn, the
twist speedily runs into the thin places, which become hardened, and
do not easily elongate or draw. The thicker places remaining untwisted
are, therefore, drawn down until the full twist runs into them also.
This supplementary twisting and drawing is called “jacking,” and
its amount varies, of course, with the staple of the cotton being
spun, the further movement of the carriage being sometimes as much as
five inches. In order to permit the jacking to be effective, it is
the custom to put into the yarn very little twist before the roller
delivery ceases, after which it is rapidly introduced. This tends to
shorten the yarn and puts it in such a state of tension, that unless
relieved, it would break. There are two methods of obviating this
difficulty. The first is to move the carriage in a little during the
period of twisting, and the other to cause the rollers to deliver a
short length of yarn. The latter is now the most usual method, and
by the adoption of a special engaging motion, the amount delivered
can be regulated at will. When long stapled cotton is being spun, it
is the practice to cause the rollers to deliver a little yarn during
the inward run, while winding is going on. The amount varies, but is
about three inches, so that only 60 inches is wound on the spindle
during each inward run. Messrs. Platt Brothers and Co. make a very good
fine spinning mule with a number of well thought out motions of great
ingenuity, a full description of which will be found in the Proceedings
of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1880, pages 516 to 527.

[Illustration: FIG. 184. J.N.]

(362) Mr. Richard Threlfall of Bolton has devoted himself to the
construction of fine spinning mules, and has produced a self-acting
machine, which is capable of spinning the highest counts. With a brief
description of it as made by him, the present treatment of this machine
must be closed. In the Threlfall mule the roller delivery after jacking
is effected by a short shaft on which is a catch box, the outer surface
of which constitutes a cam course, which is revolved from the twist
shaft. On this cam shaft is the first of a train of wheels, which
gear up to the roller, and the first wheel has motion given to it by
a ratchet and pawl, the movement of the latter being controlled by
the throw of the cam. The cam can be set so as to give a whole turn
to the rollers, or only one flute, and by means of changes in the
train of wheels further regulation can be made. The copping rail is
specially constructed, so as to enable short cops of any shape to be
easily built. The fallers are arranged so as to be very sensitive in
action. The action of the quadrant is aided by a special contrivance
consisting of a narrow pulley placed alongside the loose backing-off
pulley, but fast on the shaft. Connected to the strap guide is a
lever which is coupled to a rod suitably carried in brackets, and on
which is a regulating screw and nut. This regulation is provided so
that the passage of the strap on to the narrow pulley is effected as
desired. The strap is prevented from traversing from the loose pulley
by a catch, and the release of the latter is effected by a finger on a
bracket fastened to the carriage square. When the latter runs in the
finger pushes over a tumbler holding the catch in position and releases
the latter. The weight of the parts then throws the strap over on to
the fast narrow pulley, and the winding is thus accelerated. By fixing
the finger and setting the adjusting screw, this motion may be brought
into play at any desired moment. On the faller shaft is a bracket, to
the outer edge of which is attached by a bolt or screw a grooved cam
surface. To this is attached a cord actuated by the governor motion. By
suitably setting the cam, winding is effected during each inward run
with equal tension. A brake is applied to the faller shaft, consisting
of a lever fastened to the carriage, one end of which engages with
an inclined plane, and the other end has a cord attached passing
over a pulley on the faller shaft. By tightening the band the faller
is held perfectly steady. The combination of the last three motions
effectually prevents snarls. A roller delivery motion is added, and the
most perfect adjustment of the whole of the movements is provided. The
spindles revolve at two speeds, the final or twisting velocity being
about 8,000 revolutions per minute.

(363) Such is a description of the most intricate machine in the whole
range of textile mechanics, which, although threatened more than once
with extinction, is yet more largely used to-day than at any previous
time. On it yarn of varying qualities can be spun, either soft or hard
twisted. The yarn which is used for warp purposes is more commonly
known as twist, and that employed for weft is known by that name. Weft
yarn, as will be shown at the end of the next chapter, is always more
softly twisted than warp yarn, and the mule spindles revolve in the
opposite direction to that employed when the latter is spun. About
the question of twists and the system of the arrangement of draughts
throughout the whole process of spinning, a few words will be said in
concluding the next chapter.

(364) The mule is used in a modified form to produce “doubled”
warps-that is, two strands of yarn twisted together. When so employed,
the machine is known as a “twiner,” and is constructed with a low
creel. With the necessary alterations to suit the circumstances
peculiar to the case, the machine is largely employed in certain
districts. In its main features, however, it resembles the mule, and
does not require a detailed description. Another modified form is used
for spinning yarns made from waste, being nearly identical with the
machine as employed in spinning fine worsted yarns. The student who is
interested in this subject will find a description of the woollen mule
in “Spinning Woollen and Worsted,” by Mr. W. S. Bright McLaren, M.A.

(365) A table is appended of actual productions from Messrs. John
Hetherington and Sons’ mule. These are given from 74 machines for the
ordinary working week of 56-1/2 hours. A great variety of counts are
included, all of which were being spun at the same time. An additional
table is given of productions from Messrs. Platt Brothers and Co.’s
mule. An explanation of the value of the hank is appended to the next



  | No. of |  Hanks.  | Counts. | Hanks per |
  |  Mule. |          |         |  Spindle. |
  |   2    |  77,250  |   39    |   31·14   |
  |   4    |  70,750  |   43    |   28·52   |
  |   6    |  71,000  |   43    |   28·62   |
  |   8    |  75,500  |   41    |   30·44   |
  |  10    |  65,750  |   32    |   32·42   |
  |  12    |  68,750  |   28    |   33·90   |
  |  14    |  61,750  |   36    |   30·44   |
  |  16    |  71,750  |   45    |   28·73   |
  |  18    |  69,750  |   45    |   27·94   |
  |  20    |  72,250  |   45    |   28·94   |
  |  22    |  71,750  |   45    |   28·73   |
  |  24    |  71,000  |   45    |   28·43   |
  |  26    |  71,250  |   45    |   28·53   |
  |  28    |  71,250  |   45    |   28·53   |
  |  30    |  72,250  |   45    |   28·93   |
  |  32    |  73,000  |   42    |   29·23   |
  |  34    |  72,500  |   42    |   29·03   |
  |  36    |  61,500  |   36    |   29·97   |
  |  38    |  66,750  |   32    |   32·52   |
  |  40    |  62,000  |   38    |   30·21   |
  |  42    |  58,500  |   38    |   28·50   |
  |  44    |  62,750  |   36    |   30·57   |
  |  46    |  62,250  |   38    |   30·33   |
  |  48    |  63,250  |   36    |   30·82   |
  |  50    |  60,250  |   38}   |   29·35   |
  |        |          |   33}   |           |
  |   52   |  64,750  |   34    |   31·55   |
  |   54   |  65,750  |   36    |   32·03   |
  |   56   |  65,000  |   40    |   30·52   |
  |   58   |  61,750  |   40    |   29·91   |
  |   60   |  61,000  |   42    |   29·55   |
  |   62   |  60,000  |   42    |   29·06   |
  |   64   |  63,000  |   40    |   30·52   |
  |   66   |  61,500  |   40    |   29·79   |
  |   68   |  61,500  |   42    |   29·79   |
  |   70   |  61,250  |   42    |   29·67   |
  |   72   |  59,750  |   42    |   28·94   |
  |   74   |  65,750  |   40    |   31·85   |
  |      Total Weight, 59,920-1/2 lbs.      |
  |         Average Counts, 39·53.          |
  |    Average Hanks per Spindle, 29·88.    |



  |              TWIST.               |
  |    No. of   | Counts   | Hanks    |
  | Spindles in |   spun.  |  per     |
  |  each Mule. |          | Spindle. |
  |    1044     |   30’s   |   32     |
  |     „       |   32’s   |   31·5   |
  |     „       |   33’s   |   30·65  |
  |     „       |   24’s   |   30     |
  |     „       |   50’s   |   28     |
  |     „       |   54’s   |   27     |
  |               WEFT.               |
  |   No. of    | Counts   | Hanks    |
  | Spindles in |   spun.  |  per     |
  |  each Mule. |          | Spindle. |
  |    1280     |   28’s   |  33·81   |
  |     „       |   29’s   |  34      |
  |     „       |   34’s   |  31·85   |
  |     „       |   36’s   |  31      |
  |     „       |   38’s   |  30·46   |
  |     „       |   40’s   |  30      |
  |     „       |   46’s   |  29      |

NOTE.--The production of any mule varies of course with the class of
cotton used, the amount of twist required, and the length of mules; but
the figures given in the tables are, in each case, figures of actual



(366) The term Ring Spinning is applied to that process by which yarn
is spun by means of a machine in which a spindle, revolving in the
centre of an annular ring, is used. The ring is formed with a flange
or bead over which a =C= shaped clip or “traveller” is sprung, being
drawn round the ring by the yarn during the revolution of the spindle.
It is from the use of such a “ring” that the system has been named.
The difference between mule and ring spinning is mainly that between
continuous and intermittent work. The ring frame is the successor of
the throstle, as it was called, in which the twisting was conducted by
the aid of a two-armed flyer, formed with a curl at the end of each
arm, through one of which the yarn passed on its way to the bobbin. The
flyer was fixed on the end of a vertical spindle, and the bobbin was
super-imposed on it, resting on a rail having a reciprocal traverse,
flannel washers being placed between the flange of the bobbin and the
rail to give the necessary drag to the bobbin. Generally, the principle
of the throstle is similar to that of the roving frame, when allowance
is made for the fact that the bobbin is not positively driven. As
it is not now in extensive use it is unnecessary to describe it in
further detail, but its general construction can be easily understood
if a spindle and flyer be substituted for the spindle and ring in the
succeeding description.

[Illustration: FIG. 186. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 187. J.N.]

(367) Referring now to Figs. 185, 186, and 187, the mechanism will be
easily understood, and, as described, is common to most machines made
at present, the illustrations being those of the machine as made by
Mr. Samuel Brooks. Fig. 185 is a front, Fig. 186 an end view, and Fig.
187 a transverse section of the machine. A detached and enlarged view
of one spindle and its necessary roller stand and lifting mechanism is
given in Fig. 188. The roving bobbins =B= are placed in a two-height
creel, and are conducted to the three lines of rollers carried by the
stand =A=. From the front roller the roving passes through the wire
eye =E=, fixed in a wooden board known as the “thread board,” to the
ring =F=, which is held by a suitable clip on a rail extending the
length of the frame, and known as the “ring rail.” The thread boards
are hinged, and can be simultaneously thrown up by the levers =I= and
their connecting rods, which are worked from the end of the frame.
The spindle =C= is, as shown, self-contained, and is fastened into
the “spindle rail” =G= by a nut. The top rollers are weighted by a
stirrup, lever =H=, and weight =M=, ordinarily but not invariably. The
spindles are driven by bands from the tin rollers in the centre of
the machine, and the cop or spool is built by the reciprocal traverse
vertically of the ring rail. The ring is approximately of the section
shown in Fig. 188, and has slipped on to it the traveller. Without
stopping to inquire at present the precise action of the latter, it
is sufficient to say that the yarn is passed through the traveller on
its way to the bobbin, and it is evident that as the ring is raised
or lowered the yarn will be wound on the corresponding portion of the
spindle. Specially referring now to Fig. 186, the vertical reciprocal
motion of the rail =G= is obtained from the cam =E=, which is keyed on
the same shaft as the wheel =D=, driven by the worm =A=, which derives
its motion from the main shaft. Each revolution of =E= depresses the
lever in contact with it, the weight of the ring rails and their
attachments keeping the cam and lever in contact. The chain attached to
the axis of the wheel =D= is thus unwound from a pulley, which being
fixed on a longitudinal shaft causes the latter to rotate. On the
shaft small pulleys =H= are keyed, to which the ends of chains, the
other ends of which are attached to the lower ends of vertical rods
or “pokers” sustaining the ring rail, are fastened. It is a common
practice, instead of using this chain arrangement, to key levers on
the shaft, the free ends of which come under the feet of the pokers.
An arrangement of this character is shown in Fig. 202. The rotation
of the shaft obtained in the manner described raises the ring rail,
the descent being obtained by gravity, but is regulated as to speed by
the shape of the cam =E=. As this reciprocal movement is only about
1-3/4 to 2 inches, while the length of the cop or spool spun is five or
six inches, it will be seen that the ring rail must be slowly raised
and a fresh starting point at each lift of the rail be obtained. This
is effected by means of a ratchet motion automatically operated by
the rise and fall of the lever. The rotation of the ratchet wheel is
communicated through a train of gearing to the wheel =I=, and the chain
connecting =I= and =H= is thus wound on to the former and from the
latter. In this way a limited rotation of the shaft to which =H= is
attached is effected, and the lift of the pokers commences gradually
at a higher point. This elevation of the ring rail is of course a very
slow one, but it is always taking place, and the result is that a
thoroughly well built cop is obtained.

[Illustration: FIG. 185. J.N.]

(368) The history of the ring frame is interesting, and keeping in mind
the fact that a stationary annular ring is an essential feature of a
machine of this description, no earlier date than 1828 can be assigned
to it. In that year a patent was granted in the United States to one J.
Thorp, who invented a ring somewhat resembling that in Fig. 201. The
ring was in two pieces, and a groove was thus formed in which a solid
hoop was placed. The yarn was conducted between the two rings, and was
drawn round the periphery of the hoop by the pull of the spindle. In
the next year a patent was taken out in the United States by Messrs.
Addison and Stevens, in which the first mention is made of a traveller.
The first patent taken out in this country was by Messrs. Sharp and
Roberts in 1834, the next by C. de Bergue in 1836, and after that by J.
G. Bodmer in 1837. In 1847 Messrs. John Platt and Thomas Palmer took
out letters patent for spinning cops on a spindle similar to a mule
spindle by the aid of a ring and traveller, a task which is not even
yet accomplished. After this date nothing was done in this direction
for some time, and inventors in this country appear to have dropped the
subject, while in America it received much greater attention, and was
finally brought to a successful conclusion there.

(369) In the year 1866 Messrs. J. and P. Coats and Messrs. Clark and
Co., both of Paisley, and both having mills in America, introduced
into this country short sample ring frames for the purpose of twisting
sewing cottons, and in February 1867, Messrs. J. and P. Coats ordered
from Messrs. P. and J. Mc.Gregor, of this city, eight sample frames
of 238 spindles, each for doubling purposes. In May of the same year
Messrs. Clark ordered from the same firm a sample frame, and during
that and immediately succeeding years many repeat orders were executed
by Messrs. Mc.Gregor. Messrs. Wm. Higgins and Sons, of Salford, also
made machines on the American pattern for the same firms, and for
the United States. In June, 1867, Messrs. Mc.Gregor made for Messrs.
Knowles, of Burnley, a ring _spinning_ frame, all those previously
referred to being for doubling, and in October, 1869, they made for
Messrs. John Dugdale and Bros., of Lowerhouse, near Burnley, fourteen
frames of 364 spindles each. The author is not aware of any earlier
actual use in this country on a large scale of ring frames either for
spinning or doubling. At the latter end of 1872 Mr. James Blakey,
a representative of Mr. Samuel Brooks, paid a visit to the United
States, and there investigated closely the use which was being made of
the machine. It is extremely probable that shortly before this time
accuracy of workmanship was being better attained in the manufacture
of these frames, and at any rate the _renaissance_ of this as a
spinning machine began about 1866. Mr. Blakey very fully studied the
machine in its original home, and he became so imbued with a belief
in its possibilities that he advocated its modern use with great
earnestness to Mr. Brooks, who, being convinced of the future success
of the machine, began its manufacture with considerable energy, and
soon established a large business in it for doubling sewing threads.
It was not however until the difficulties arising from the use of the
ordinary spindle were overcome that the machine became unequivocally
successful. This special point need not now be enlarged on, as it will
subsequently be dealt with in detail. It is worth noting, however, that
the first extensive use made of these frames was for doubling and not
for spinning.

(370) The general description and history of the machine just given
will convey a fairly accurate idea of its development, and the details
of the machine can now be dealt with. The drawing rollers being common
to all spinning machines no further description than that given need
be furnished; but a reference to Fig. 188 will show that the roller
stands, the thread board mechanism, and the relation of the spindle and
ring are the chief points requiring explanation. It will be convenient,
therefore, to consider these details in their order, and afterwards
to deal with a few special points arising. As will be noticed, the
roller brackets A are formed so that a line drawn through the axes of
the rollers is at an angle with the horizontal. This has been found
to be absolutely essential in order to obtain good work, and for this
reason. It has been noted, and is well known, that the number of turns
per inch put into the yarn depends on the relative speed of delivery of
the rollers, and the revolution of the spindle. Now, in order to ensure
that the twist shall be put in the entire length of yarn from the
spindle to the rollers, it is essential that no portion of it shall be
held in any way by any part of the mechanism, but should be quite free
to receive the twist from the spindle to the nip of the front rollers.
But if the rollers were in a horizontal plane, a certain portion of the
yarn would be pressed against the bottom roller for about a fifth of
its circumference. This is detrimental, because the twist cannot run up
to the nip of the rollers, but is remedied by giving the roller stand
the inclination referred to. In a lesser degree the same evil arises
if the yarn passes through the wire eye =E= in the thread board at too
acute an angle. To obviate this, it is now the practice to adjust the
brackets =A= so that the nip of the front rollers is almost vertical to
the spindle. The amount of the inclination of the roller stand varies
according to the class of yarn to be spun, and whether the rollers are
self-weighted or are pressed downwards by saddle and weights. If, for
instance, weft is being spun, the number of turns per inch being less
in this way than in warp or twist, and the yarn being correspondingly
softer, the inclination is about 35°, while in the case of twist it
will vary from 25° to 35°. Different makers alter this inclination to
suit different requirements, and there are variations existing in it
from 5° to 35°, but the angles given are usual ones. The thread boards
are arranged, as described, to be lifted simultaneously by means of a
lever, this being necessary when the frame is being doffed or stripped
of its bobbins when the latter are full, the doffer being thus enabled
to give a straight lift to the bobbin and avoid any straining of the

(371) The chief feature is, however, the relation of the spindle and
ring to each other, and their special construction. It is essential
that the spindle should be so fixed in its sustaining rail as to be
truly vertical, and when its construction is dealt with it will be
seen how perfectly this is obtained. The ring must be attached to the
ring rail so as to be absolutely concentric with the spindle, and on
the actually efficient performance of this duty depends very largely
the success of the machine. Bearing these two points in mind, it will
be convenient to deal first of all with the special construction of
the spindle. As would naturally be expected, the first form used for
this purpose resembled a throstle spindle without the flyer, or a mule
spindle, but eventually the shape adopted generally was that which
is shown in Fig. 189, the bobbin being also very light. A good many
modifications took place, but in every case the bobbin was pressed on
to the spindle above the top bearing or bolster. In 1870, however,
Mr. J. H. Sawyer, of Lowell, Mass., patented the spindle bearing his
name, and which was introduced into this country under the name of the
“Booth-Sawyer.” The main principle of this form was the provision of a
means by which the top bearing was carried up inside the bobbin =B=,
thus sustaining it at a higher point than had been before possible.
Referring to Fig. 190 the bolster =A= is formed as a hollow tube
extending upwards from the rail, and having at the upper end a phosphor
bronze bush, which acts as the bearing. A spiral groove is formed in
the bolster by means of which the oil, being fed at =C= and held in
the chamber =D=, is carried upwards so as effectually to lubricate the
spindle. Special provision is made for the footstep, and both bolster
and footstep are supplied with covers. The Booth-Sawyer spindle is
beyond doubt an efficient one, and constituted a very great advance
on those previously used. The position of the top bearing was higher
than in any previous form, and it does not require any long comment to
demonstrate the value of this improvement. It must be noticed, however,
that it is necessary to oil every day, and that there are two bearings
which are fixed in rails quite independently of each other. In spite
of these defects, however, the Booth-Sawyer spindle has done, and is
doing, excellent service in this country and elsewhere, and so far as
output is concerned, is quite equal to any other spindle in the market.

(372) As has been previously stated, the most essential point in the
successful construction of a ring frame is the preservation of the
exact concentricity of the spindle and ring. If this is destroyed a
very detrimental effect is produced, and it does not need to be pointed
out that where there are two bearings to a spindle each of which is
attached to a different rail, the difficulty of preserving a correct
vertical alignment is very great. For these reasons the introduction of
the Rabbeth spindle into this country by Messrs. Howard and Bullough
about the year 1874 led to its wide adoption, and the practical
supercession of the Sawyer, and gave a great impetus to this system of
spinning. The principle of the Rabbeth is that of the Sawyer so far as
the position of the upper bearing is concerned, but it has the further
merit of being entirely self-contained. The latter feature was not new
in the annals of British invention, but it was never thoroughly worked
out nor made a success in this country until the firm just named took
up the Rabbeth spindle. Students who desire to take up the history
of this subject, can refer to a patent granted to William Wright in
1836, and also to one obtained by David Cheetham in 1857. The Rabbeth
is entirely self-contained, its construction being that illustrated
in section in Fig. 191. The spindle =B= revolves in a case or bolster
=C= made of cast iron, which acts as a bearing for the spindle both at
its upper and lower portions. The bolster is formed with a flange, as
shown, and is accurately turned and bored all over. It has its shank
screwed with a fine thread, so that when passed through the hole in
the spindle rail, it can be firmly fixed in position by the nut shown.
As the underside of the flange is quite square with the hole in the
bolster, it follows that the spindle rail being planed on the top,
the bolster case =C= will be in a perfectly vertical position. The
spindle =B= is borne by a bronze bush at =C=, and by the footstep at
=F=, the case being recessed so as to form a chamber containing such a
quantity of oil that the necessity for lubrication more than once in
six months is obviated. Fitting on the spindle is a sleeve with a warve
or grooved pulley at its lower end as shown at =E=, the sleeve being
bored with a conical hole and being tightly pressed on the spindle.
The driving band passes round the warve and thus rotates the sleeve
and consequently the spindle. A brass cup =D= is placed on the lower
part of the sleeve, into which the foot of the bobbin is pushed, the
upper part fitting the spindle as shown at =A=. In this way the bobbin
is positively driven, and the pull of the band being low down, the
spindle can be run at a high speed with great steadiness. The sleeve
is prevented from lifting by the hook =G=, which is carried in a small
specially balanced frame suitably pivoted so as to allow of the sleeve
being removed easily when required. This device is a patented one of
Messrs. Howard and Bullough’s, and is one of the best for the purpose.
Various modifications of the Rabbeth spindle have been made, including
the Dobson-Marsh, which provides for a readier means of oiling by
taking off a cap at the lower end of the spindle and thus allowing the
dirty oil to run away, this necessitating pumping out in the Rabbeth.
In all essential features the Rabbeth may be taken as the best type of
self-contained spindle, in which the spindle proper is sustained by
rigid bearings, and one of its chief merits is that it can be readily
adjusted so as to be quite true with the ring. As a matter of fact this
was practically the only advance noticeable in the Rabbeth over its
predecessors, and was not perceived even by its inventor until after
spindles made under his first patent had been working some time.

(373) During the past few years, however, a new type has been
introduced, of which there are now several examples, and which is
rapidly superseding all others. Everyone is aware of the tendency of a
rapidly revolving body, such as a humming top a little out of balance,
to assume such a position that its axis is out of the perpendicular
while its revolution is going on with absolute steadiness. The high
rate of speed which is attained with ring spindles, running up to
11,000 revolutions per minute, produced as might be expected, a certain
amount of vibration which it is desirable to avoid. Consequently, a
spindle was produced in America to which the designation of the “top”
or “elastic” spindle was given, and which was, while held in a long
bearing at the top of the bolster, free to move at its foot until it
found its position of steadiness. It was found, however, that the
changes of position when the balance was disturbed were so abrupt that
it was necessary to restrain the movement to a certain extent.

[Illustration: FIG. 189.]

[Illustration: FIG. 190. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 188. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 191. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 192. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 193. J.N.]

(374) In Fig. 192 a spindle known as the “Whitin Gravity” is
illustrated, being made in this country by Mr. Wm. Ryder, of Bolton.
The spindle =B= has fitted on to it the sleeve =A=, made shorter than
usual. On =A= the warve is formed, as well as a conical shoulder on
which the lower end of the bobbin fits tightly. The bolster =C= has the
usual screwed shank, and passes upward into the sleeve. A noticeable
feature of the Whitin is the employment of a loose sleeve in which
the spindle fits, and which has an external diameter at the point =D=
about 1/500 inch less than the internal diameter of the bolster at
that point. The lower part of the sleeve is recessed so as to pass
over a nipple =G= formed in the bolster, the size of the sleeve being
such as to allow of its adjustment in any direction. On the top of
the nipple =G= a small pad of cork =F= is placed, the object of which
is to limit by its friction the movement of the sleeve and spindle,
and also to absorb vibration. The bolster is recessed so as to form a
cavity surrounding the tube =D=, in which the oil is placed, finding
its way to the spindle by means of small holes bored in =D=. The
spindle does not, therefore, as in the Rabbeth, revolve in oil, and
any sediment which may be in the latter is allowed to settle in a
cavity or recess at the foot =H=. The Whitin can be run without any
difficulty at very high speeds. Another spindle in which this principle
is used has been largely adopted, and is known as the “Ferguslie.”
The inner sleeve in this case has freedom of oscillation, which is
controlled by a barrel-shaped spring placed round the upper part of
the bearing. It may be noted that the lower end of the inner sleeve
is quite free, and that the entire control comes from the spring at
the top. There are many other forms of this type of spindle, Messrs.
Dobson and Barlow, for instance, employing a cork cushion in lieu of
a spring. Mr. John Dodd, of Messrs. Platt Brothers and Co., Limited,
has patented the spindle illustrated in Fig. 193, which the author
is informed is running at a very high velocity, and giving very good
results. The spindle =A= is carried in a tube or bolster =D=, formed
with a rectangular nipple =C= at its lower end, in order to prevent its
turning with the rotation of the former. The spindle =A= is formed,
as shown, of a special shape, being strengthened above the top of
the bolster, so as to be stiffened somewhat where the bobbin fits.
The main arrangement of the bolster case, sleeve, etc., is similar to
the Rabbeth, but the bolster case extends upwards a little above the
bolster, and on the spindle a collar =B= is formed, by which the oil
which works up above the top of =D= is thrown off so as to catch on
the bolster case and run down again into the chamber which is formed
at its lower end. The oil passes through holes in the tube, thus
providing for an efficient lubrication, and the tube is so fitted into
the case as to be a little less than its internal diameter. It is
probable that in working =D= will be constantly surrounded with oil,
which will form a pretty effective cushion. At any rate it is found
that high velocities can be attained with this spindle, combined with
complete steadiness. In Fig. 194 (see p. 249), the “Bee” spindle,
which is the invention of the late Mr. George Bernhardt, of Radcliffe,
is illustrated. This gentleman gave a good deal of attention to this
special class of spinning machines, and was the inventor of many
useful appliances in connection therewith. The chief feature of the
Bee spindle is the formation of the bearing in the shape of a long
tube, which can be withdrawn from the bolster case and emptied of oil
without disturbing the spindle. The tube is held in position by a
bayonet catch, and can be withdrawn and replaced in a very short space
of time. If desired, the tube can be arranged to rotate as it is acted
on by the revolving spindle, but this is not essential. The use of
a withdrawable tube is a very valuable feature in principle, and is
worth favourable consideration. In passing it may be stated that the
adoption of spindles with elastic bearings has led to a shortening of
the driving sleeve, and a reduction of the height of the top bearing,
as a comparison of Figs. 191 and 192 will show.

(375) The ring, the use of which gives its name to the system, is made
of the form shown in the drawings, and varies in diameter from 1 inch
to 5 or 6 inches, as required, 2 inches being a very common size. The
diameter is, of course, determined by the counts being spun, the cop
or spool produced being larger in proportion to the coarseness of the
counts. A table of the ordinary sizes employed will be found at the
end of this chapter. The important points in a ring are its perfect
circularity, smoothness of surface, and hardness, three features
which tax the energies of manufacturers to obtain at the prices
paid for these articles, Formerly rings were produced out of iron
of good quality, which was formed into a hoop and perfectly welded,
but latterly steel has come largely into use, and it is the practice
to obtain the blank without a joint. The rings are in some cases
milled, and in others turned and bored to the required section, and
are subsequently case-hardened. A large percentage of the soft rings
fail in the case-hardening, and the production of a perfect article is
only possible with a proportion of the blanks dealt with. In the great
majority of cases the ring is made single—that is, with one bead only
(Fig. 195)—but Messrs. Thomas Coulthard and Co., of Preston, produce
a double ring, shown in Fig. 196, which can be reversed when needed.
This firm provide a special holder for their ring, which is fitted
on to the rail, and is also formed with a vertical arm or projection
which knocks the fly off the traveller as the latter revolves. The
fly is—as explained—the collection of loose fibres which are thrown
off from the surface of the yarn in its passage to the spindle, and
which if left adhering to the ring or traveller increases the drag and
causes breakage. It may be repeated here that cleanliness is a most
important feature, and requires constant attainment if spinning is to
be conducted successfully. A special lubricant is provided for the ring
and traveller, ordinary oils being useless.

(376) The travellers are, as previously mentioned, made of a =C= shape,
but this is not invariable, and are of various weights to suit varying
circumstances. There are two standards of weight used in manufacturing
travellers in this country, one known as the Scotch and the other as
the United States. The Scotch standard probably derived its name from
the fact that it was originally, and still is, manufactured in Paisley,
by Messrs. Eadie Brothers. The difference between the two lies in the
size of the bow for fine numbers from 1/0 to 3/0—used in spinning 28’s
counts yarn and finer. The smaller bow is used in the Scotch standard,
and it enables a thicker steel to be used, giving greater strength to
the traveller and preventing it being pulled off the ring so easily.
Thus, in spinning 32’s, a number 2/0 to 3/0 Scotch standard can be
used, whereas the number in United States standard would be 3/0 to
4/0. For fine yarns a light traveller is necessary, while for coarse
counts or strong doubled yarn a proportionately heavier one is used.
A good deal depends, however, on the quality of cotton used, good Sea
Island, for instance, enabling yarn to be spun with a traveller three
or four sizes heavier than that permissible with inferior cotton. The
diameter of the ring used, the number of twists per inch, and the
speed of the spindles are among the things which influence the choice
of the traveller used. It may be said that, although definite rules
are made as to the weight of traveller used for certain counts under
fixed conditions, a careful overlooker can make a vast difference in
the production by selecting the exact size of traveller best adapted to
particular yarns.

[Illustration: FIGS. 195 AND 196.]

(377) Having thus described the essential portions of a ring spinning
machine, some of the difficulties and principles of the mechanism
may be dealt with. It is quite certain that the full theoretical
reasons for the successful accomplishment of this work are not now
forthcoming, but an approximation to them is possible. The actual
spinning process is merely a twisting together of the fibres of any
material by the rapid revolution of a flyer or spindle while the fibre
is being delivered at a definite rate. In this case the twist is put
in by the rotation of the traveller, which, as shown, is actuated from
the spindle. As it has never yet been accomplished to take off the
yarn from the spindle at the same rate as it is being wound on, it is
necessary that the twisted fibre should be collected on the spindle
or on a bobbin super-imposed on it. In order to do this, as was shown
in Chapter X., it is essential that the eye or guide through which it
is delivered to the spindle should travel either faster or slower
than any fixed imaginary point on the spindle. The latter is the
invariable rule with the ring frame, and it will be seen that as the
bobbin is revolving at a quicker rate than the flyer eye, or in this
case the traveller, it will take up the yarn and gradually wind it
on to itself. Of course, in the case of a mule this does not happen,
the winding arrangement being there altogether different. The amount
of “lead” which the bobbin has should correspond approximately to the
number of inches of yarn delivered by the rollers. That is to say, if
the yarn is receiving ten twists to the inch, the bobbin should take
up approximately, during ten revolutions, one inch of yarn. Now it is
quite clear that if the velocity of the bobbin varies, the speed at
which the traveller is pulled round the ring will vary also, but that,
owing to the resistance caused by its weight and frictional contact
with the ring, it will always tend to lag behind the bobbin. A little
examination will show that the weight of the traveller is really the
determining, or, at any rate, the most important, element in the case.
As has been explained, the rotation of the traveller is caused by
the pull exercised on it by the yarn. Now the velocity at which ring
spindles are revolved is very great, averaging in ordinary cases at
least 8,000 per minute. It is quite clear that a traveller rotating at
that speed will tend by centrifugal force to fly outwards, and thus
cause its inner lip or edge to press against the inside of the ring.
Although it is quite true that this contact is only a slight one it
exists, and constitutes one of the elements in the case. But it is
also evident that the greater the weight of the traveller the greater
will be the force that is exerted against the inside of the ring.
While the author does not wish to do more than express his own opinion
in this matter, there seems to be substantial ground for belief that
the tangential pull on the yarn between the traveller and the point
at which it reaches the bobbin will to a great extent counterbalance
the tendency to fly outwards. It therefore seems probable that the
reasonable explanation of the drag of the traveller is to be found
in the resistance set up by its weight rather than by its frictional
contact with the ring. This is the principle upon which travellers are
made, their weight being carefully graded in order to suit various
counts of yarn and velocities of spindles. There is another feature in
which the weight of the traveller is evidently of importance, and that
is its relation to what is known as ballooning.

[Illustration: FIG. 194.]

(378) A glance at Fig. 188 will show that between the ring rail and
the nip of the front rollers there is about ten inches of yarn, which,
when it is being twisted, is held by the traveller and the rollers, and
tends to fly outwards and assume a curved course, which from its shape
is called a “balloon.” This is caused by the centrifugal action of the
yarn and the resistance of the atmosphere, and leads, unless checked,
to a serious loss of twist. In addition to this as the distance between
the centres of the spindles is only 2 or 3 inches ordinarily, it is
obvious that if this tendency is unchecked contiguous ends will come
into contact and frequent breakages occur. The author was informed by
Mr. Bernhardt that a careful trial made by him established the fact
that, where the balloon is unchecked and allowed to attain its greatest
size, the breakages are six and a half times as numerous as when its
size is in some way limited. There are two methods of doing this, one
by surrounding the spindle with a guard which prevents the balloon
attaining more than a certain fixed maximum diameter, and the other by
so adjusting the position of the thread board that the distance between
the wire eye and the traveller is such that not more than a certain
sized balloon can be formed. It is a well known fact that a balloon
is absolutely essential to good spinning, as its centrifugal action
enables a lighter traveller to be used, and the drag upon the yarn is
thus reduced to a minimum. The use of a heavy traveller undoubtedly
will check ballooning, but the yarn will suffer, and therefore a well
formed but not excessive balloon is of advantage. Mr. Brooks employs
a plate (=L=, Fig. 188) pierced with a number of holes and mounted
on pokers, which gradually rise higher as the bobbin fills, so that
the balloon is checked by the hole in the plate. Other makers, such
as Messrs. Platt Brothers and Co., Howard and Bullough, and Dobson
and Barlow, employ forked wire guards which serve the same purpose as
the plates referred to. Fig. 194 represents the appliance used by Mr.
Bernhardt, which is very effective and is worth attention. Instead of
depending upon a guard of the character referred to, the ballooning
is checked by maintaining a defined distance between the guide eyes
and the ring rail. It is clear that as the latter rises, if the guides
are stationary, there will be a greater tendency to balloon when the
rail is at its lowest position than when at its highest. More than
that, the attainment of the full diameter of the cop is followed by
more ballooning than when the building is just beginning, and it is
therefore advisable to slightly shorten the distance between the guide
and the point of the spindle. The guides are in this case mounted on a
rod borne by and attached to vertical pokers =A=. The vertical position
of =A= is determined by the cam =C=, which is slowly rotated as
building proceeds. The shape of =C= is such that when spinning begins,
the guide eye =A= is about an inch above the nose of the bobbin, but
gradually falls until within 3/8 inch of the same point, after which
it slowly rises until the relative positions at the commencement and
finish are as indicated by the dotted and full lines. The rise begins
as soon as the cop is formed of full diameter, and one important
feature in this invention is that the vertical reciprocations of the
guide eyes are independent of, less than, although simultaneous with,
those of the ring rail. It is certainly remarkable how effective this
contrivance is in checking ballooning, and this without submitting
the yarn to any injurious rubbing action. The size of the balloon is
accurately checked, while at the same time it is as large as can be
permitted under the existing conditions. The inventor stated that the
effect of this arrangement is that a bobbin of 6 inch lift can be
employed, where in other cases not more than a 5 inch bobbin could
be used. The extra length of yarn so wound on is of great service in
subsequent processes, giving rise to other advantages which are well

(379) So far the mechanism employed has been designed to spin on
bobbins placed on the spindles, but there is another branch of the
subject to which reference must be made. Although the attempt to spin
on bare spindles was made so far back as 1847, this special method of
spinning is not even yet completely successful, though it is quite true
that many efforts have been made which have attained partial success.
It may perhaps help to the understanding of the difficulties of the
case to remember that weft yarn is most urgently needed in the form
of cops. Now, yarn which is used for weft has many less twists per
inch put into it than warp yarn, and is in consequence much softer
and more tender than the latter, breaking with less strain, and being
altogether more difficult to spin. It is, therefore, under conditions
which are the most unfavourable possible that the attempt to spin on
the bare spindle in ring frames has to be made. In forming a cop, the
diameter on which the yarn is wound is constantly changing, and the
largest diameter is only a little smaller than the internal diameter
of the ring, while the smallest will be about 3/16 of an inch. Now,
it will be easily understood that the drag exercised by the yarn on
the traveller will be greater when it is being wound on the larger
diameter than when on the smaller, it being remembered that the spindle
is always revolving at a regular rate, and consequently taking up
more yarn per revolution on the body of the cop than on the spindle.
Thus, if a regular rate of traverse of the ring rail were adopted it
is clear that at one point the yarn would be taken up too rapidly,
or too slowly at another. In the mule this difficulty is overcome by
increasing the speed of the spindles when the yarn is being wound on
the nose. It is not possible to adopt any such method in the case of
ring spinning, and the solution has been attempted by the adoption
of a mode of giving a very quick traverse at the beginning of its
downward stroke to the ring rail, so that less yarn is wound on at
that point. Of course this difficulty more or less exists even where
spools and bobbins are used, but it is not so acute as when only the
spindle is employed. The speed of the traveller varies continually,
being greater when the yarn is being wound on the larger diameter and
less when on the smaller. There is thus a greater resistance when
winding is going on at the nose, and breakages occur more frequently
at that point. In addition to this there is the difference existing
in the way the pull is exerted on the traveller at both points, which
will be readily understood by a reference to Fig. 197. It will be seen
that the direction of the draught of the yarn is in the first case
from =B= to =C=, and is an angular or tangential one, whereas in the
second case the pull is from =A= to =C=, and is almost radial. As the
yarn in proceeding from the rollers to the bobbin is passed through
the traveller, it will be clear that while the revolution of the
spindle will in the first case draw the traveller round the ring in the
direction of the arrow, in the second case it will exercise no tractive
power, or at any rate very little, on the traveller, tending rather
to pull it against the ring. As the point =A= is, however, constantly
changing its position, a certain drag is given to the traveller, but
it is a periodical one, for as soon as its position is altered the old
conditions are again established. In this way the yarn is in a sense
twitched or wrenched, and breakages occur in consequence. In addition
to this difficulty there is another, arising from the different speeds
at which the traveller runs, to which reference has been made. Owing
to this difference more twist is put in when winding is going on at
the largest diameter, and less when at the nose of the cop. Now, the
latter place is where it is most wanted, owing to the increased drag,
and as weft yarn is always more softly spun a decrease in the number of
turns per inch is a fruitful source of breakage. The difference amounts
to between one and two per cent, and constitutes really the chief
difficulty to be overcome.

[Illustration: FIG. 197. J.N.]

(380) As this subject is one of some interest a few words may be
profitably expended on it. There is some confusion existing as to the
way in which the loss in twist should be arrived at. On the one hand
it is contended that the number of coils made in one lift of the ring
rail should be counted, and the loss of twist calculated from that. On
the other hand, it is urged that the coils laid in a double lift of the
rail should be taken as a basis. This is the view held by Mr. Charles
Lancaster, of Manchester, who has given a good deal of attention to
the subject, and with whom the author is inclined to agree. To arrive
at a conclusion it is necessary to ascertain the smallest and largest
diameter of the surface of the bobbin, calculating therefrom their
respective circumferences. The mean of the latter will give the average
length of yarn wound per revolution, and the difference of the two the
relative loss in twist. Mr. Lancaster put this matter very clearly,
and the demonstration may be given in his own words: “To prove this
calculation measure the length of a ‘draw’—_i.e._, the yarn deposited
in one up or one down motion of the ring rail—and multiply by the
number of turns per inch, count the number of coils in this layer of
yarn (which represents the actual loss), and divide into total number
of turns. Thus, if the up motion of the ring rail deposits 72 inches of
20’s yarn with 16·75 calculated turns per inch, then 72 x 16·75 = 1,206
÷ 20 coils = 1·8 per cent of loss; and if the down motion deposits 178
inches of yarn with 16·75 calculated turns, then 178 x 16·75 = 2,981·5
÷ 46 coils = 1·6 per cent, or an average of one up and one down motion
of the ring rail of 1·7 per cent.”[A] Of course the finer the yarn spun
the less the percentage of loss of twist.

(381) Whatever be the mode of calculation adopted, whether only the
single or double lift be taken into account, the fact remains that
there is a loss of twist, and that this is of most account when weft
yarns are being spun. It being most desirable to spin these upon the
bare spindle, so that they may be used in the shuttles, it will be
seen that the subject is one of some importance. Various methods have
been tried to overcome the difficulty, one mode being to take the yarn
away from the nose of the cop as quickly as possible, but it has only
been partially successful. Another, and more successful plan, is to
form a special traveller, so arranged that the yarn in passing to the
bobbin does not give a radial but a tangential pull to the traveller.
The final form of traveller adopted by Mr. William Lancaster, who has
tried a large number of shapes for this purpose, is arranged in this
way, and to a certain extent frames made by him have been successfully
used. The mode of construction adopted by Mr. Lancaster is shown in
Figs. 198 and 199. In these the traveller is made at one end with an
open fork, and at the other is =C= shaped, fitting the ring as shown
in Fig. 199. Referring to that figure it will be seen that the yarn
is carried through the =C= shaped eye, and then round the foot of the
open fork =B= to the spindle =A=. The result is that the point where
the traveller rests on the spindle acts as a fulcrum, and the yarn
exercises a pull on the end of the arm carrying the =C=, this portion
of the traveller practically becoming a lever. In this way the direct
radial pull upon the yarn is avoided, and the traveller is readily
drawn round the ring. Its actual position on the cop is shown in Fig.
198, where =B= is the fork, =A= the yarn, and =C= the spindle. In this
form a number of frames are working with considerable success.

(382) In Figs. 200 and 201 a special form of ring and traveller applied
to a bare spindle is illustrated, these being made by Messrs. Platt
Brothers and Co., Limited. The ring =B= has a groove =A= formed in
it, in which a traveller =D= made of the shape shown is placed. The
traveller has a loop or hook =E= near one extremity, and a second loop
=C= nearer the centre. The yarn is first passed under the loop =E=,
and then through =C=, thus giving a drag to the traveller at the point
=E=, and causing it to travel round the groove. The loop =C= lies close
up to the spindle when the yarn is at the nose of the cop, so that the
yarn passes at once on to the former. The machine so constructed has
been in use for some time, and it is found possible to stop it with
the ring rail opposite the extreme point of the cop and re-start it
without any considerable breakage of ends. In considering this portion
of the subject past experience will form a base on which to found
future efforts. A combination of a rapid traverse of the ring rail with
some means of avoiding the direct pull of the yarn might be effective,
but the subject is one for experimental work and not theorising.
The latter is more likely to retard than aid in the solution of the
problem. A differential speed of the spindles has been proposed, but
no data exist by which a correct judgment can be formed. If by simple
means an approximation to an equal twist can be obtained a great step
towards the solution of this extremely difficult problem will have been
made. The whole question is environed with difficulty and requires
constant attention to a number of little points, but the advance made
during the past few years is so remarkable that a good deal of hope
can be entertained as to eventual success. In the meantime weft is
being spun successfully on small wooden pirns which possess the great
advantage of allowing the whole of the yarn to be unwound from them,
and thus save the waste often made by “stabbed” cops. A frame for this
purpose, made by Messrs. Howard and Bullough, is shown in Fig. 202, and
about 400 grains of No. 20’s yarn can be wound on each.

[Illustration: FIG. 198. HILL.]

[Illustration: FIG. 199. HILL.]

[Illustration: FIGS. 200 AND 201.]

(383) With reference to the details of the machine it has latterly
become the practice to drive both tin drums positively, so that
there is no variation in the twist of the yarn on different sides of
the machine. Such an arrangement—made by Messrs. Asa Lees and Co.,
Limited—is shown in Fig. 203, the course of the ropes being clearly
indicated by the figures attached. The lift of the spindles varies from
5 to 6 inches, and their gauge from 2-1/2 to 2-3/4 inches. The diameter
of the front roller is usually 1 inch.

[Illustration: FIG. 203. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 202.]

(384) Akin to the ring spinning machine is that employed for doubling.
It is, however, heavier in construction, and has a different
arrangement of rollers. The rings used are as large as three inches in
diameter, and the spindles have a lift of six inches. The travellers
are of a different shape, being made to engage with both the top and
bottom flange, or bead of the ring. There are two systems of doubling
pursued. In the English system the delivery rollers are placed in front
of longitudinal water troughs, so that the yarn may be either passed
through the water or not as preferred. In the Scotch system the rollers
are placed above the water troughs, and the bottom rollers can, by
means of a special arrangements, be lowered into the water. In both
cases there are but one line of rollers usually, and, in the case of
Scotch doublers these are invariably brass covered. The rollers are
much heavier than those used in spinning, as the delivery of the
yarn is accomplished by the nip of the top and bottom rollers, the
former not being weighted in any way. In the Scotch frames the rollers
are carried by short arms securely keyed on a longitudinal shaft,
which, by means of a worm and worm quadrant, can be oscillated so as to
lower or raise the rollers into the water trough. In the English system
of wet doubling, the yarn is taken underneath a glass rod immersed
in the water in the trough, and then through the rollers. It is not
necessary to deal further with the details of this machine, as it is
practically similar to the spinning machine.

(385) There is a large trade done in “double” yarns—that is, yarns
composed of two threads twisted together—these being used for the warps
of some of the stronger calicoes, and in the finer grades for many
other purposes, such as the manufacture of lace. There is no difficulty
in producing these, but the manufacture of sewing thread involves
a more elaborate treatment. In carrying this out the yarn is first
wound on a machine provided with a detector mechanism, and known as a
doubling winding machine—this being described in the next chapter. The
object of this machine is to enable a two-fold yarn to be produced free
from knots of large size, from single, and from slack places in any
of the strands, this producing “corkscrews.” The latter is the phrase
used, when one end of the yarn being twisted has been more slackly
wound than the other, thus becoming bagged, and resulting in it being
twisted round the other irregularly. These are very objectionable, and
not permissible in producing sewing thread, as they cause thick places
which catch in the eye of the needle. Having obtained the two-fold
yarn, the next operation is that of “cabling”—that is, the twisting
together of three of the double yarns. These are, therefore, again
wound on to a bobbin or spool on a similar machine to that previously
used, and are then twisted together into a six-fold or “six-ply”
thread. The advantages of doubling winding will be more fully explained
when the machine is described.

(386) In order to enable some idea of the class and weight of the
travellers used, the relative speeds of front roller and spindles,
and production, a table is appended to this chapter in which a few
representative counts are selected. Other tables give the result
of a number of tests made with the Emerson Power Scale and other
instruments, which enable the amount of driving power required to be

(387) The consideration of the various machines employed in spinning
being now concluded, a few words may be said generally about the
whole system. Before doing so, however, it may be as well to define
the meaning of one or two words which are habitually used to define
the relative fineness of the yarn. It will be noticed in the table
appended to Chapter X. that the roving was described as such a “hank”
roving, while the yarn is said to be of certain “counts.” Although
apparently contradictory, these terms are not really so, being simply
different expressions of the same fact. The standard upon which all
definitions of the fineness of yarn are based is the “hank” of 840
yards. A hank is the thread wound into coils of 54 inches circumference
until a length of 840 yards is obtained. That forms the basis by which
the “counts” of yarn are calculated, and the “counts” are simply the
number of such “hanks” in one pound weight. In ascertaining the “hank”
of roving a certain length is wrapped into a coil and weighed. The
weight is obtained in grains, and that sum is then divided into a
constant number obtained as follows: The number of yards of roving
taken is multiplied by 100 and divided by 12. This practically means
taking 8·33 as a constant number and multiplying it by the number of
yards of roving wound. The same procedure is pursued with the lap and
sliver on the scutching, carding, and drawing machines. It is no part
of the scheme of the present work, however, to do more than glance at
these modes of calculation, as there are many books of rules already
in existence, but it may just be stated that the amount of twist which
is put into any yarn is determined by the following method: The square
root of the count is taken as the basis of the calculation, and is
multiplied for mule twist by 3·75, for ring frame or extra hard twist
by 4, and for weft yarns by 3·25. The product of these calculations
give the twist per inch for any counts of yarn it is desired to spin.
The three multipliers thus given are sufficient for ordinary uses, but
if yarn is spun for doubling purposes the multiplier is 2·75, and if
for hosiery purposes 2·50.

(388) In conducting the manufacture of cotton into yarn, it is
desirable to remember that a gradual reduction in its substance is
wanted, and all the draughts throughout the whole series should be
carefully graded to ensure this. It is extremely undesirable to
overstrain the cotton at any point, and this would be the inevitable
result, unless the whole of the speeds were designed to give a gradual
reduction. This is a factor which it is unwise to neglect, and by
a little careful observation, the correct draughts throughout the
process can easily be arrived at. It is, however, essential, if it is
desired to produce a good yarn, that the mode of obtaining it should be
carefully thought out before passing the cotton through the scutchers.
Practically, the hank drawing and hank sliver are the same, but the
former is obtained from several slivers, so that there is at this stage
a considerable reduction. After this point the attenuation should be
steadily kept in view, until the completion of spinning. In conclusion,
it may again be urged that cleanliness and care in the use of spinning
machines will well repay the spinner. It is worth his while to see that
the machinery he employs is well made to begin with, and is kept in
good order subsequently. By doing so, he will ensure the production of
a good yarn, which cannot be spun in profitable quantities, without an
undue amount of waste, on machines which are neglected and allowed to
fall out of repair.



  |       |        |          |            |            |
  |Counts |Speed of| Speed of |  Diameter  |   Turns    |
  |of Yarn| Spindle|  Front   |  of Front  |    per     |
  | to be |  per   |Roller per|  Roller.   |  inch of   |
  | Spun. | Minute.| Minute.  |            |  Twist.    |
  |  10’s |  6,020 |  158     |     1      |   12·12    |
  |  16’s |  6,800 |  133-1/2 |     1      |   16·21    |
  |  20’s |  7,300 |  132     |     1      |   17·60    |
  |  24’s |  7,500 |  130     |     1      |   18·36    |
  |  28’s |  7,500 |  116-1/2 |     1      |   20·49    |
  |  30’s |  7,500 |  119     |     1      |   20·00    |
  |  32’s |  7,500 |  111-1/2 |     1      |   21·41    |
  |  34’s |  7,500 |  107     |     1      |   22·31    |
  |  36’s |  7,500 |  101     |     1      |   23·63    |
  |  38’s |  7,500 |   97     |     1      |   24·50    |
  |  40’s |  7,500 |   94-1/2 |     1      |   25·25    |
  |       |        |  Number  |Production per spindle   |
  |Counts |Diameter|   of     |per week of 56-1/2 hours.|
  |of Yarn|   of   |Traveller.+------------+------------+
  | to be |  Ring. |  U. S.   | In Pounds. |  In Hanks. |
  | Spun. |        |Standard. | lbs. ozs.  |            |
  |  10’s |  1-3/4 |7’s or 6’s| 5    4     |  52-1/2    |
  |  16’s |  1-3/4 |4’s or 3’s| 2   12     |  44        |
  |  20’s |  1-3/4 |2’s or 1’s| 2    2-1/2 |  43-1/2    |
  |  24’s |  1-3/4 |1/0 or 2/0| 1   12-1/4 |  42-1/2    |
  |  28’s |  1-1/2 |2/0 or 3/0| 1    5-3/4 |  38        |
  |  30’s |  1-1/2 |3/0 or 4/0| 1    4-3/4 |  39        |
  |  32’s |  1-1/2 |4/0 or 5/0| 1    2-1/2 |  37        |
  |  34’s |  1-1/2 |5/0 or 6/0| 1    0     |  34-1/2    |
  |  36’s |  1-1/2 |6/0 or 7/0|     14-1/2 |  33        |
  |  38’s |  1-1/2 |7/0 or 8/0|     13-1/4 |  31-1/2    |
  |  40’s |  1-1/2 |8/0 or 9/0|     12     |  30-1/2    |

NOTE.—With elastic spindles an increase of production occurs of about
20 per cent.



  |         |              |                  |        |          |        |
  |  Date.  |   Time.      |  Make of Frame.  |Spindle.|  No. of  | Counts.|
  |         |              |                  |        | Spindles.|        |
  |April 9th| 2-0 to 5-30  |Lowell Spinning   |Rabbeth |    192   |  28’s  |
  |         | (3 tests)    |                  |        |          |        |
  |         |              |                  |        |          |        |
  |         |              |                  |        |          |        |
  | „  10th |10-30 to 11-30|        Do.       |  Do.   |    192   |  28’s  |
  |         |              |                  |        |          |        |
  |         |              |                  |        |          |        |
  | „  11th |8-15 to 11-30 |        Do.       |Common  |    208   |  21’s  |
  |         |              |                  | 11 oz. |          |        |
  |         |              |                  |        |          |        |
  | „  13th | 9-0 to 2-30  |Biddeford Spinning|Sawyer  |    144   |  21’s  |
  |         |              |                  |        |          |        |
  |         |              |                  |        |          |        |
  |         |              |                  |        |   H.P.   | No. of |
  |  Date.  |   Time.      |   Condition.     |Spindle |required  |Spindles|
  |         |              |                  |Speeds. |for Frame.|per H.P.|
  |April 9th| 2-0 to 5-30  |  Bobbins from    | 7439   |  1·5915  |  120·7 |
  |         | (3 tests)    |1/2 full doffed to|        |          |        |
  |         |              | 1/2 full again.  |        |          |        |
  |         |              |                  |        |          |        |
  | „  10th |10-30 to 11-30| Bobbins 1/2 full | 7324   |  1·5094  |  127·2 |
  |         |              |    till full     |        |          |        |
  |         |              |                  |        |          |        |
  | „  11th |8-15 to 11-30 | Mean of 11 tests,| 6409·5 |  2·4930  |   83·4 |
  |         |              |  Bobbins empty,  |        |          |        |
  |         |              | running an hour. |        |          |        |
  |         |              |                  |        |          |        |
  | „  13th | 9-0 to 2-30  | Bobbins 2/3 full | 7184·5 |  1·2565  |  114·9 |
  |         |              | till doffed and  |        |          |        |
  |         |              |  filling again.  |        |          |        |



  |   REVOLUTIONS     ||   POWER FOOT POUNDS PER      ||  Number of   |
  |   PER MINUTE.     ||     SECOND PER SPINDLE.      ||   Spindles   |
  +--------+----------++----------+----------+--------++   to One     |
  | Front  | Spindles.||  Empty   |   Full   |  Mean. || Horse Power. |
  |Rollers.|          || Bobbins. | Bobbins. |        ||              |
  | 59·2   |   5,408  ||   3·140  |   3·675  |  3·407 ||    161·4     |
  | 63·95  |   5,842  ||   3·536  |   4·139  |  3·837 ||    143·3     |
  | 69·9   |   6,386  ||   4·025  |   4·933  |  4·479 ||    122·8     |
  | 75·85  |   6,929  ||   4·659  |   5·655  |  5·157 ||    106·7     |
  | 82·5   |   7,539  ||   5·338  |   6·537  |  5·937 ||     92·6     |
  | 88·9   |   8,124  ||   6·034  |   7·331  |  6·682 ||     82·3     |
  | 97·95  |   8,948  ||   7·009  |   8·419  |  7·714 ||     71·3     |

The weight of the Spindle was 3·98 ozs., of the Full Bobbin 2·23 ozs.,
and of the Empty Bobbin 0·71 ozs.


U.S., BY Mr. S. WEBBER, 13th MARCH, 1890. COUNTS SPUN 30’s.

  |                                          |  Bates    |  Whitin |
  |                                          | Spindle.  | Spindle.|
  | Revolutions of front rollers (counted)   |    100    |    100  |
  | Revolutions of spindles (calculated)     |   8360    |   8160  |
  | Average power in foot-pounds per spindle |    8·11   |   5·50  |
  | Average number of spindles per H.P.      |   67·4    |    100  |
  | Average H.P. per frame                   |    3·144  |  2·219  |



  |                                             |  Bates   | Excelsior |
  |                                             | Spindle. |  Spindle. |
  | Revolutions of front roller (counted)       |    102   |    107    |
  | Revolutions of spindles (calculated)        |   8039   |   8430    |
  | Foot-pounds per spindle (bobbins half full) |  7·35    |  6·89     |
  | Spindles per H.P.       ( do. )             |    75    |    80     |
  | H.P. per frame          ( do. )             |  2·737   |  2·554    |
  | Rollers disconnected H.P. for rollers alone |   ·462   |   ·481    |
  |    Do. H.P. for spindles and tin roller     |  2·264   |  2·064    |
  |    Do. H.P. for tin roller only             |   ·462   |   ·462    |
  |    Do. H.P. for spindles only               |  1·802   |  1·70     |
  | Spindles per H.P. spindles only             |    113   |    120    |

NOTE.—Tables 7 and 8 are merely given because they throw considerable
light on the question of the power required for ring frames. The Bates
spindle is not described, as it is a new form and has not yet been
thoroughly tried practically.


[A] _Textile Manufacturer_, Manchester, March 15th, 1890.



(389) There are two main classes of goods in the manufacture of which
yarn produced as described is used. By far the greatest bulk is
utilised in weaving fabrics of various kinds; and, before it can be so
employed it necessarily requires treatment by a series of machines.
With all the processes so involved it is not intended to deal, but
there is a second class of manufacture—the production of thread—which
requires special machines, and is worthy of separate treatment. It
is also a very common practice in England to form yarn into hanks,
a number of which are packed together, and formed into a “bundle.”
In this shape large quantities of yarn are shipped, being afterwards
employed abroad in the manufacture of cloth. A brief description of the
machines used in this connection will therefore be given, and as the
simplest mode of dealing with the material, reeling will be treated

(390) The yarn, spun either in the form of a cop or on ring bobbins,
can be formed into hanks by means of a machine known as a “reel.” It
depends upon whether it is employed to wind the yarn from cops or
bobbins whether it is known as a “cop” or “bobbin” reel. In either case
the hank is wound upon a “swift” or “fly,” consisting of a central
barrel or roller, which has centres or axles formed at each end. The
latter revolve in bearings in, or attached to, the framing, and the
“fly” can be driven either by hand or by a belt from the line shaft or
counter shaft. On the barrel is fitted a number of light wooden or iron
frames, to the arms of which are attached longitudinal bars or “staves”
of timber. These are made about 2 inches wide, and are rounded on their
outer edges, being well polished and smoothed so as not to adhere to
the yarn. The arms, as ordinarily constructed, are made double with a
central boss, so that each has two “staves” fixed to it. When desired,
the whole of the arms can be oscillated so as to bring the staves
together, and the hanks wound upon the swift are thus left loosely
hanging upon them. By drawing them to one end they can be easily
slipped off when that end is raised. The number of hanks usually formed
at one time is forty on each swift, and ordinarily one swift only is
used in a cop reel and two in a bobbin reel. The appearance of the last
named machine is well shown in Fig. 204, which is a representation of a
double bobbin reel as made by Mr. Joseph Stubbs.

[Illustration: FIG. 204.]

(391) The general description thus given of the reel enables some
of its details to be more particularly described. If cops are to be
“reeled” they are placed on “skewers”—which correspond in size to the
upper portion of mule spindles—fixed in a creel board. The cops are
held at such an angle that the yarn draws easily off the cop nose.
The threads are slipped into slits formed in a guide plate fixed to a
guide rail sliding in suitable bearings. The same course is taken with
the bobbin reel, but, in this case, the bobbins are mounted in a
somewhat different manner. Ring bobbins require a special arrangement
to enable the yarn to be easily drawn off without running into
“snarls.” The purpose of the guide rail is to traverse the yarn so that
the threads may be laid in one of two ways. Either the full hank of 840
yards is wound into seven smaller ones—each containing 120 yards—known
as “leas”; or it is “cross wound”—that is, a rapid reciprocal motion is
given to the guide rail, so that the coils are laid across each other
throughout the whole length. The latter is the usual procedure when
it is intended to dye or bleach the yarn, and the former when it is
to be shipped. The diameter of the swift across the staves is usually
sufficient to enable a hank of 54 inches circumference to be wound. In
France a hank of 56-1/4 inches is adopted, and the number of coils in
it are correspondingly arranged.

(392) If the hank is intended to be wound in seven “leas” the
arrangement shown in Fig. 205 is used. This is a partial side elevation
of one end of a bobbin reel. The barrel =B= of the swift is made of a
light wrought iron tube, into each end of which plugs, reduced at end,
are welded, so as to form the journals for the barrel as described.
On the end of the axle the fast and loose pulleys are placed, so that
the machine can be easily driven. The staves =A= are shown without
their connecting arms. On the end of the barrel a worm =C= is fixed,
which gears with the wheel =D= on the shaft, to which a lifting catch
or pawl =E= is fastened. This engages with the coarsely pitched rack
=F=, and every revolution of the wheel =D= causes the pawl to raise =F=
one tooth. The teeth =F= are formed at the lower end of the bracket or
“rack” =G=, which is guided by and glides in the frame. The upper end
of =G= is formed with seven steps, and a finger or pin, placed at =H=
in a bracket fastened to =K=, is constantly pressed against the face
of =G= by means of a spring exercising a longitudinal pull on =K=. The
raising of =G= to the extent of one of the teeth =F= is sufficient to
allow the pin =H= to slip on to the next step, and thus the yarn is
wound on to a fresh portion of the surface of the swift. This takes
place regularly until seven small hanks are wound, when the machine is
automatically stopped.

(393) The length of yarn in each of these “skeins” or “leas” is
ordinarily 120 yards, and it is, therefore, necessary to cause the
wheel =D= to make one revolution every time the swift has made 80
revolutions. The length of the hank being 1-1/2 yards—54 inches—that
number ensures 120 yards being wound prior to the rack =G= being lifted
one tooth. If it is desired to shorten the hanks, a smaller wheel must
be substituted for =D=, and to get the desired amount of exactitude, it
is sometimes necessary to use a series of change wheels.

(394) It was shown that in order to remove the hanks from the reel,
it is customary to close up the swift, and, after gathering the hanks
at one end, to lift it and thus remove them. There are two chief
objections to this course. First, a considerable danger exists of the
yarn being soiled by contact with the greasy bearing; and second, the
task of lifting a heavy swift with 40 hanks of yarn on it is sometimes
too great for the attendant, who is generally a woman. It is customary,
therefore, especially in bobbin reeling, to fit the machine with a
“doffing motion”—the operation of stripping a spindle or other surface
of yarn being known as “doffing.” The staves are fixed on the ends of
the arms of an iron spider, and two of them are sustained by a hinged
frame which can be released so as to oscillate in a forward direction,
thus “dropping” the two staves attached to it. This is called the
“drop motion.” The hanks are thus released, and can easily be drawn
up to the doffing motion. There are three forms of this. The first
consists of a wheel, grooved on its periphery and fitting in a circular
bracket turned to correspond. The centre boss of the “doffing wheel”
bears one end of the swift, and a segment is removed from the wheel, so
as to leave a space into which one side of the hanks can be placed. By
giving the wheel a half turn the hanks are brought to the front of the
swift, and can be easily removed. Another form, which was introduced
by Mr. Joseph Stubbs, was called the “gate” doffing motion, owing to
the fact that a hinged bracket similar to a gate was used, by removing
which the end of the swift was left free. The movement of opening the
gate oscillated a lever, on which was a cross bar enabling the swift
to be sustained during the operation of doffing. A further improvement
by the same firm bears the name of the “bridge” doffing motion, and is
shown in Fig. 204. It simply consists of a small bracket bridging a gap
formed in the frame end, in which a longitudinal slot is made, and at
each end of it pivots are formed upon which it can be oscillated. The
end of the swift barrel =A= (Fig. 206) is fitted into a round shell
=B=, in which the lubricant is retained, and a nipple on which slides
in the slot in the bridge bracket. The doffing is effected by simply
allowing the hank to be drawn into the gap named, and then by a smart
push making the bridge bracket rest upon its pivots at the other side
of the gap. This enables the hanks to be easily lifted, after which a
pull is sufficient to restore the swift to its working position. The
position of the bridge in its working position and during doffing, is
shown on the left and right hand side respectively of Fig. 204. This
motion is an undoubted improvement on its predecessors, and oiling of
the hanks is practically unknown.

[Illustration: FIG. 206.]

(395) Messrs. Guest and Brooks have recently introduced the skeining
motion shown in Fig. 207. In this case the rack =G= is driven, not
by a lifting tooth, but by means of the pinion =E= gearing with a
finely-pitched toothed rack =F=. In this way a continuous motion is
given to =G=. At the upper end of the latter, a bracket or arm =M= is
formed, having fixed at one end a centre pin =O=, on which the bracket,
or arm, =P= can be oscillated. The position of =P= is fixed by means
of a bolt and nut passing through it and the slot =R=. The stepped
portion of =G=, instead of being cast, is obtained by the use of six
bars =L=, which have a certain vertical movement given to them by
small pins engaged in the slot =Q= formed in the arm =P=. The pins are
fastened in the bars, and it is clear that the vertical elevation of
the arm =P= will shorten or lengthen the steps formed by the difference
in the length of the bars =L=. In this way skeins, or leas, of any
desired length can be wound, it being obvious that, if the steps be
shortened or lengthened, the engagement of the pin =K^{1}= with them
successively, will take place at proportionate intervals, and =K^{1}=
being fixed in the bracket =K= which is attached to the guide rail =H=,
a shorter or longer lea will be formed prior to the traverse of =H=
taking place.

[Illustration: FIG. 205. J.N.]

(396) The hanks being reeled, they are, if cross reeled, dyed or
bleached, and, if in leas, bundled. This operation is effected in a
machine called a “bundling press” (Fig. 208) consisting of two strong
frames securely fastened together by stays, and in which the bearings
for the necessary driving straps are formed. Bundles are usually either
5lbs. or 10lbs. weight each, and are generally fastened with five
strings. To the upper part of each of the frames wrought-iron plates,
extending upwards, are fastened, narrow spaces being left between each
pair of plates, so that the strings or bands for tying up the bundles
can be easily passed round them. To the upper end of one set of plates
cover bars are hinged, which can be pulled down on to the top of the
other set, where they are locked by bars hinged to the latter. In the
space between the two sets of vertical plates an iron table rises
and falls, and it will be readily understood that the elevation of
the table, when the top plates are closed and locked, compresses the
bundles. The extent to which the pressure is exerted depends on the
throw of two eccentrics fixed on the main shaft, these being connected
by means of strong rods to the underside of the sliding table. By this
arrangement the amount of pressure is strictly limited and cannot
become excessive. After the bundle is pressed it is tied up and the
pressure released, the top bars unlocked, and the bundle removed,
in addition to which a knocking off or stop motion is fitted. In an
improved form of press, invented by Mr. Thomas Coleby, the top plates
are automatically and simultaneously released.

[Illustration: FIG. 207. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 208.]

(397) The procedure thus followed is that which is adopted in the
case of yarns for export only. Where it is intended to twist them
into thread a special machine is employed to wind the several strands
together prior to doubling. Machines of this class are called “doubling
winding” machines, and they enable a more perfect thread to be
produced than is otherwise possible. When yarn is “doubled” by twisting
together threads drawn singly from cops or bobbins placed in a creel,
there are two chief evils existing. If one of the threads breaks, a
certain length of the single thickness may be wound on the doubling
bobbin, with the result that a faulty place in the finished article is
found. There is, in addition, the difficulty that the broken thread may
become wrapped round the top roller, producing a “roller lap,” which
is so much waste. The production of “single” and of “roller laps” is
undesirable, and should be avoided if possible. Further, if the two
threads in passing through the feed rollers are not both at the same
tension, one becomes loosely twisted round the other in a manner which
is technically known as “corkscrewing,” as explained in paragraph 385.
When thread is used for sewing machine, lace, or similar purposes,
either of these faults is very objectionable. By using a machine in
which the strands to be twisted are wound together before being so
treated, and in which detector mechanism is employed, a finished thread
is produced, which is generally quite free from the defects named.

[Illustration: FIG. 209.]

(398) In Fig. 209 a perspective view of a doubling winding machine
made by Mr. Joseph Stubbs, and in Fig. 210 a transverse section of the
same machine, are given. Mounted on a shaft, extending longitudinally
of the machine, is a series of drums =A=, which drive by frictional
contact flanged bobbins =B=. The latter are held in the head of forked
cradles =C=, and revolve freely upon a small spindle. The lower ends
of =C= are subjected to the pull of weights =J=, connected with them
by chains, as shown by the dotted lines. Coupled to the tail of the
cradle =C= is a double frame =E=, which carries at its outer extremity
a swinging or oscillating box or frame, in which are placed a series of
small wires—known as detector wires—corresponding in number to the
strands to be wound. The wires are formed at their upper ends =G= with
a curl, and their lower ends =F= are straight. Immediately below the
box a three winged wiper =H= revolves at a rapid rate. The operation
of this mechanism is as follows. The cops to be wound have skewers
thrust into them, which fit in adjustable cast iron brackets fixed on
a longitudinal rod in the bracket =O=, fastened to the “bottom box.”
In the case of bobbins, special provision is made for holding them.
In any case, the yarn is drawn upwards through a guide plate fixed as
shown, over a flannel-covered curved rail =Y=, the friction of which
is sufficient to ensure a sufficient tension being put upon the yarn.
Each “end” is then taken through one of the detector eyes =G= and
upwards over a light roller =X=, then through a guide wire =W=, secured
to the rod or rail =Z=. To the latter a reciprocal lateral motion is
given, corresponding in length to the length of the bobbin between the
flanges—in other words, to its “lift.” After passing the guide wire
=W= the yarn is taken to the bobbins =B=, and as the two bobbins are
by reason of their position on each side of the drum =A= driven in
opposite directions, the yarn is taken on to them at different sides of
the centre of the bobbin barrel. So long as the “ends” are being wound,
the lower end =F= of the detector wire is kept out of the path of the
wiper =H=, but when, from the failure, breakage, or slack tension of
an “end,” this sustaining power is withdrawn, the end =F= of the wire
affected comes in the path of =H=. This causes the oscillating box
to swing on its centres, and thus to release the holding down catch
=I=, which usually keeps the pivoted frame =E= pressed downwards.
This release is followed by a certain movement of the cradle =C=, set
up by the pull of the weight =J=, and brings the bobbin =B= on to a
brake surface =D=, by which its motion is instantaneously arrested. To
piece up, the bobbin can be drawn forward into the position shown on
the right hand side of the drawing in dotted lines, so that it can be
turned back as much as required. The position of the parts before and
after an “end” has failed is clearly shown on each side of the drawing
respectively. It only remains to be said that a box =T= is fixed on
the position shown, on which the wound bobbins can be placed prior to
removal. Although the yarn is wound at a speed of 4,000 to 5,550 inches
per minute, a broken end is usually arrested before it reaches the

(399) In preparing thread for the lace trade it is the practice to
remove the loose fibres, or “ooze,” projecting from its surface. This
is done by a machine called a “gassing” frame, a sectional view of
one head of which, as made by Mr. Stubbs, is shown in Fig. 211. This
represents one side of a machine only. The bobbin =B= is driven by
frictional contact with a drum =A=, revolving rapidly, and is held in a
weighted frame =C=, hinged at its inner end. =C= is raised by a bracket
or arm =D=, mounted on the same pin. At the inner end of =D= is a slot
in which a finger fixed on the stem of the burner =E= engages. The
burner derives its gas from a tube =G= running along the frame, and is
fixed in a swivel joint, being generally of the Bunsen type. The thread
is drawn from the bobbin =K=, mounted on a freely revolving spindle,
and is passed two or three times, as shown, over the grooved bowls =H=,
these being formed with four grooves for the purpose. A guide =I=,
receiving a longitudinal reciprocatory motion, guides the thread on to
the surface of the bobbin =B=. As the thread passes rapidly through the
gas flame from the upper end of the burner =E=, the “ooze” is rapidly
singed off. When an end breaks or is “burnt down” the lever =D= is
raised so as to lift the frame =C= and bobbin =B= out of contact with
the drum =A=, and is sustained by a catch during the time of piecing.
The same movement causes the burner =E= to be pushed at one side out
of the path of the thread, and the restoration of the parts to the
position shown again brings it gradually under the thread, but not
until after the winding has commenced.

[Illustration: FIG. 210. J.N.]

(400) In addition to these machines, where lace yarns are made it is
sometimes the practice to use a “clearing frame.” This is an ordinary
vertical spindle winding machine, but the yarn is passed through an
adjustable nick, which is finely set, so as to catch or stop any knots
or other unevenness in the yarn. This calls the attendant’s notice
to the defect, and the thread is re-pieced, so as to remove the lump
or knot. The best and most widely used “clearers” are those known as
“Suggitt’s” patent, and consist of two cast iron plates, one fixed and
the other adjustable. Vertical faces are formed on these, which come up
to one another throughout their whole length, thus providing an opening
or fine nick through which the yarn can be drawn.

(401) During the past few years it has become customary to dispense
with the large flanged bobbins, such as are shown in Figs. 210 and 211,
and to wind the yarn into a similar shape on a wooden or paper tube
or spool. To do this it is necessary to give a very rapid reciprocal
traverse to the guide rail, which is obtained by using a quick pitched
cam, one revolution of which will give the double traverse required.
In this way, instead of the yarn being wound in fine spirals, it is
wrapped in coarsely pitched layers, and it is found that when wound in
this manner a cylindrical spool or bobbin can be obtained which does
not require the large wooden flanges to prevent it from unravelling
at the ends. This object is attained in a winding machine made by Mr.
Samuel Brooks by forming a slot, corresponding to the cam course, on
the surface of the pulley driving the bobbin. The yarn is taken through
the groove on its way to the bobbin, and the groove thus acts as a
guideway or course. Messrs. Dobson and Barlow employ a quickly pitched
cam, and have recently adapted the principle to gassing machines.
Messrs. John Hetherington and Sons also make a machine on the same
principle, but all the different methods employed have—where a guide
rail is actuated—the fault that the working of the cam is rather noisy,
and there is still room for an effective noiseless motion of this

[Illustration: FIG. 211. J.N.]

[Illustration: FIG. 213.]

[Illustration: FIG. 212.]

(402) Sewing thread requires a special set of machines to fit it for
the market. It is sold in one of two forms, either bright or soft
finished. Bright thread is polished by being subjected to the action of
a rapidly revolving brush. Some of the machines for this purpose made
by Messrs. Shepherd and Ayrton are illustrated, and will serve to
show the principle of this class of appliances. The doubled thread is
formed into a beam, having first been wound on to special bobbins, 360
of which are placed in a creel, and the threads from them laid side by
side on the beam, which is a cylindrical barrel with large flanges at
its ends. The thread is then collected into a chain, or loose untwisted
rope, and is bleached or dyed by means of a special plant which it is
not necessary to describe. Having been so treated, the material is
wound on to a beam shown in the machine illustrated in Fig. 212, which
is provided with a special adjunct in a machine known as a holding back
machine, by which the required tension is put on the thread. After
being beamed for the second time the thread is passed through the
machine shown in Fig. 213. The beam on which it has been wound is shown
at the right hand side of this illustration, and contains, as stated,
360 threads. These are first taken through a size box, in which a pure
size or starch is placed, and are then passed through the bristles of
two cylindrical brushes. The brushes revolve at a high velocity, and
thoroughly polish the thread without altering its shape, it being very
desirable to preserve its rotundity. At the end of the machine, after
being dried, the threads are wound on three brass beams, each divided
equally by a central flange. 120 threads are wound on each beam, 60 of
these being in each of the divisions, These beams are placed, with the
threads on them, contiguous to a special form of winding machine, where
they are wound on to wooden spools or bobbins, each of which, when
full, contains 1-1/4lb. of the finished threads. These are used to feed
the spooling or balling machines afterwards described. In preparing
soft thread—that is, unpolished thread—a similar procedure is followed,
except that, after bleaching or dyeing, the threads, after being dried,
are wound on to the second beaming machine. This system is—with special
modifications adopted by various manufacturers—the one universally
employed. The polishing machine will polish 120lbs. weight of 30’s
3-cord thread in 10 hours, and soft thread can be produced in the same
numbers at a rate of 5,670lbs. in 56 hours. The cost in wages of this
system is much lower than that of the older method of hank polishing,
in addition to which fewer knots are made in the thread, owing to the
longer lengths treated continuously.

[Illustration: FIG. 214.]

(403) When thread is finally produced, by the processes described, in
a suitable condition for sale, it is necessary to form it into small
reels or bobbins, or into balls, each containing from 100 to 500
yards. The reels on which thread is wound for sale to the consumer are
small bobbins in which a short barrel is used, with a head or flange
at each end. The flange is bevelled on its inner side, and the length
of the opening between the flanges is greater at their peripheries
than at their roots. The reels are filled with thread by the action
of a machine of great ingenuity called the “spooling machine.” This
was originally invented by the late Mr. Wm. Wield, and is now made by
his successors, Messrs. Shepherd and Ayrton. A perspective view of it
is given in Fig. 214, and, as there shown, it has eight heads. The
empty spools are placed in a trough, the mouth of which terminates
immediately behind the winding head. The latter consists of two
spindles which grip the spool in the centre, being formed conically
at their extremities, so that they get a firm grip of the hole in
the centre of the barrel. The operative mechanism in this machine is
fixed in the double frame, or “headstock,” shown at the right hand of
the machine, and drives, by means of longitudinal shafts and wheels,
the spindles of the whole of the heads. The thread is guided by steel
guides, threaded on their underside to correspond with the pitch of the
spirals formed by the thread, upon which during winding they rest. The
guide rods, upon which the guides are fixed, receive an oscillatory
movement after the reels are filled, so as to leave the space free for
the removal and replacement of the spools. In addition to this they
have a reciprocal horizontal traverse equal in length to the length
of the spool, and gradually increasing as the surface upon which the
thread is wound increases, owing to the bevel of the heads of the
reels. This reciprocal movement is obtained from the revolution of a
finely pitched screw on a roller, with which two half nuts alternately
engage, one on each side of its centre. As these are thrown into gear
they give a traverse to the guide rail in each direction, and it will
be easily understood that the period of their engagement determines the
length of the guide traverse. In commencing to wind a set of reels the
first operation is to place them between the spindles. One reel falls
out of each trough on to a plate, which rises so as to hold the reel
or spool between the open spindles. The spindles close upon the spool,
which immediately begins to revolve and draw thread from its bobbin,
which, with its fellows, is held in a suitable creel. The thread is
passed through a spring tension clip, which holds it sufficiently to
keep it tight, and afterwards over the guide referred to. Winding
goes on until the required definite length is wound on, when it
automatically ceases. Immediately this occurs a knife placed in an arm
descends and cuts a nick in one end of the spool, and the thread is
drawn into this nick. In this way the end is secured, and, as soon as
this is effected the thread is drawn over a knife and cut. The spindles
then open and the spools fall down a shoot. Another set of spools is
then fed, as described, and the ends of the thread are so held that,
immediately the spindles begin to revolve, they are drawn on to the
spools, winding thus beginning automatically. Owing to the perfect
automaticity of the machine a high rate of speed is obtained, and 26
gross of spools, each containing 200 yards of thread, can be produced
from a machine in 10-1/2 hours.

(404) There are spooling machines in which the operations of feeding
and emptying the spools are carried out manually, but, as thread making
is now mostly carried out in large establishments, their use is not
great. In some cases, especially for “crochet” cottons, the thread is
wound into balls. In this case it is wound on short cylinders, revolved
at a slow speed, round which a flyer rotates. Through an eye in the
flyer the yarn is passed, and is wound on to the cylinders by the
superior speed of the flyers. To the former an alternate oscillating
movement is given, by which the coils of thread are wound in coarse
spirals. In the end a barrel shaped spool is formed. As a rule the
“balling” machine is worked by hand, but a machine has been made by
which the operation is nearly an automatic one. The use of balling
machines is, however, limited, and there is not the necessity for an
automatic machine, such as exists in spooling thread.

[Illustration: page decoration]



(405) It will be easily understood that there are a number of
accessories required to complete the equipment of a mill before the
machinery previously described can be fully utilised. It is neither
necessary nor profitable to deal with the whole of these, but some
of them may be advantageously described. Among the earliest needs in
the process of spinning are the cans which are used for the reception
of the sliver as it leaves the carding engine. These are made of tin
sheets, which are rolled into short cylinders and soldered together,
the various lengths being similarly connected. The cans are about 10
inches in diameter and 4 feet long, and are strengthened at the top and
bottom by iron hoops. In spite of this precaution they are often bulged
or dinted in consequence of the rough way in which they are handled. To
obviate this defect Mr. Lang Bridge has for a few years past made the
can with corrugations extending longitudinally of it, the additional
strength thus given being advantageous without adding anything to the

(406) The rollers used in the various operations of spinning and
drawing are, as has been pointed out, mainly of two types. The lower
lines are generally fluted and the upper lines smooth surfaced. The
former are usually made of a fine grained iron, and the flutes are
carefully made so as to be very smooth, their pitch depending upon the
character of the work to be done. The lower lines of drawing rollers
are, as was shown, continuous, and, it being manifestly impossible
to make them in one length, they are jointed or coupled at suitable
intervals. The coupling is made by forming the roller with a square
nipple at one end and a correspondingly formed socket at the other. By
fitting the nipple of one roller into the socket of the other a firm
and perfect union is effected. The rollers are coupled, so that they
are perfectly in line throughout, and when placed in the frame they
revolve steadily. The top rollers, as previously shown, are formed in
short lengths, and are smooth on their peripheries. In order to give
a soft yet firm grip to the yarn, as it is delivered, it is customary
to cover the top rollers with a sheath of woollen cloth and leather.
This is in many cases done by hand, the cloth and leather being cut
to length and formed into a sheath in this way, after which it is
drawn on to the roller. Such a mode of procedure has all the defects
of handwork, and a description of a complete set of machines made by
Messrs. Dronsfield Brothers will not be without interest.

(407) The first of the series is shown in Fig. 215, and is employed
to spread the paste upon the cloth. The cloth is fed from a roll,
and can be delivered by a slight addition of mechanism in measured
lengths. As it is drawn forward it passes through a paste box formed of
sliding plates =D=, adjoining the spreading plate =B=. By means of the
adjustable screw =C= the vertical position of the latter can be fixed
so as to give any amount of paste required. The cloth is cut into
lengths and wrapped on the roller, to which it adheres, the joint being
carefully made so as to leave no gap or thick place. After this surface
is prepared and dried a leather sheath is drawn over it.

[Illustration: FIG. 215.]

(408) The leather used for covering rollers is specially prepared from
sheep skins, and is very thin and soft. It is carefully polished or
glazed on one side, and must be free from any roughnesses or defects.
In spite of all the care bestowed on their preparation, “roller skins”
are often uneven in thickness, and in order to correct this fault, the
machine shown in Fig. 216 is used. The skins are cut up by a special
appliance into strips of the necessary width to cover the boss of
the roller, and these are subjected to a grinding action on their
unpolished side. The strips are held at one end by a clamp on the drum
=A=, which is revolved slowly, and which can be set in as desired by
the wheel =F= and screw. As the roller =A= revolves, it brings the
skins in contact with a grinding roller =B=, covered with sand or
glass paper. In this way the leather is ground down to one thickness
throughout the strip, and the chance of unevenness in the roller is
thus diminished. A fan is fixed to draw away the dust and deposit it in
a suitable receptacle. After the strips are so ground, they are passed
to a splicing machine—that is, a machine in which they are cut to the
necessary length to form a sheath. The edges in this operation are
bevelled, so that in overlapping no thick place is formed. The splicing
machine in its complete form is shown in Fig. 217. The leather strip
=A= is placed on the table face up, and is carried forward by the feed
rollers =B=. The extent of the roller traverse is determined by the
position of a stop =D=, which limits the oscillatory motion of a double
clip handle =C=. This is made in two parts, like a pair of tongs, each
end being centred on the spindle on which the wheel =M= is placed. By
squeezing the handle together =M= is gripped and can be rotated. The
handle =C= is ordinarily in the position shown, and, when it is moved
forward while gripping the wheel, it carries the latter with it until
the stop =D= is reached, when the motion ceases. Thus any length of
leather can be fed by one stroke of the handle. When the leather is fed
the pressing bars =F= are brought on to it, and the knife =K= held in
the frame =H= at a suitable angle is also brought into position. =H=
slides on a cross surface prepared for it, and by drawing it across
the leather while held in position, the latter is cut to the required
bevel, which remains constant throughout the whole of the working of
the machine.

[Illustration: FIG. 218.]

[Illustration: FIG. 219.]

(409) When the short lengths of leather are obtained, they are cemented
along their bevelled edges with a special cement, and are firmly
pressed together by a light screw press. In this way a sheath is formed
large enough to draw over the boss of the roller, but a little longer
than it. The covering so formed is then pulled over the roller by the
machine shown in Fig. 218, which is the type commonly used, however
the covering is prepared. The leather tubes are placed upon the spring
=A=, consisting of a thin cylinder of sheet metal, which is divided
into several ribs as shown. The roller to be covered is placed end
up on the recessed stop =B=, and by a revolution of the handle =C=
the spring is drawn over the roller leaving the sheath behind it. The
special construction of the spring enables it to pass over the boss of
the roller and draw out of the leather tube. A small portion of the
tube projects beyond the boss at each end, and this it is necessary
to wrap over so as to firmly secure the covering. This operation is
effected by placing the roller in suitable holders, and subjecting the
projecting ends of the tube to an end pressure. For this purpose the
rollers are revolved by being brought into frictional contact with a
rotating cylinder. The most complete machine for this purpose is shown
in Fig. 219. The rollers are held in arms =B B= on the cylinder =A=,
the bearings or steps in the arms being specially constructed, so as
to provide a very thin surface to sustain the roller. The ends of the
leather being cemented, they are turned over by means of a rod or bar,
and are thus perfectly secured. A fan =F= is placed under the hood
of the machine, and takes away any fumes produced by the process of
ending. The cylinder is made of thin steel, and is run at from 700 to
1,000 revolutions per minute.

[Illustration: FIG. 216.]

[Illustration: FIG. 217.]

(410) Having covered the rollers they are subjected to a rolling
pressure, so as to render them perfectly cylindrical. The machine
shown in Fig. 220 is a special one of Messrs. Dronsfield Brothers, and
consists of a steam chest to which steam is admitted. The upper side
of the chest is planed so as to be quite true, and upon it the rollers
are placed. Above the steam chest a table or plate =A= is imposed,
having a reciprocal motion to and fro over the steam chest, derived
from the cranks =N=. Four rollers are fed at one time, and after being
subjected to the action of the pressure plate during four of its double
movements, are delivered at the other end of the machine. Owing to the
heat of the surface on which they are rolled, and the peculiar movement
given to them, the rollers emerge in a truly cylindrical form. Ten
rollers can be thus rolled per minute, and no difficulty is experienced
in attending to the machine. It is, of course, essential that there
should be no unevenness of the rollers, and the treatment accorded them
by the series of machines described ensures this being avoided.

[Illustration: FIG. 220.]

(411) It is sometimes the practice to grind the leather covered
rollers so as to remove any flats formed during working. Messrs. John
Hetherington and Sons make a machine for this purpose. By it the
rollers, while held in suitable bearings, are subjected to the action
of a revolving grinding disc, covered with glass paper, which traverses
the whole surface of the roller and grinds it up perfectly true. The
rollers so produced are quite cylindrical, and a large number of the
machines are in use.

(412) The bobbins which are used in the various machines employed
are made of specially selected timber, which is kept in stock until
it is thoroughly well seasoned. The bobbins are carefully turned,
and are smoothly finished on their surface, so that the cotton does
not adhere to them when it is wound upon them. Their shape and
general construction is well shown in Fig. 221. In this =A= =B= and
=C= represent various types of roving bobbins, spools, or “tubes,”
these being drawn from samples supplied by Messrs. Wilson Brothers,
Limited. The tubes are shown of three designs. The one shown at =A=
is single ended—that is, can only be used one end up. In the foot of
the tube—which is enlarged—four notches are cut which engage with the
projections on the top of the driving bevel pinion described in Chapter
X., by means of which it is positively driven. A similar construction
is shown in =C=, but this is a shorter tube, suitable for a roving
frame, where the lift is less than that of the slubbing frame. =B= is
double ended, and can be used either end up, as desired. It will be
noticed that all these tubes are shelled out internally, so as to be
very light, and they are so constructed at the top that they fit easily
upon the spindle or collar. In this way, while they are steadily held,
they can slide without undue friction, which is a somewhat important
point. The bosses of the tubes, as shown, are hooped with metal rings
or shields. The object of this is to protect them from damage when,
after doffing, they are placed upon the spindles, this operation being
often very roughly carried out. The tubes are, as stated in Chapters
X. and XI., placed in the creels of the roving frames, mule and ring
frames, on “skewers,” the construction of which is shown at D and E.
These are made of ash usually, and are finely pointed, so as to revolve
easily and freely.

[Illustration: FIG. 222.]

[Illustration: FIG. 221.]

(413) Bobbins for ring frames are made as shown in =F=, =G= and =H=
(Fig. 222). The forms illustrated in =F= and =G= are intended for use
with Rabbeth spindles, and that marked =G= is hooped at its lower end
for the reasons indicated in the previous paragraph. The bobbin or
spool =H= is used for spinning weft on ring frames, and is much smaller
than the type employed for twist yarn. It is a common practice to fit
shields to all kinds of bobbins, several makers doing so in one form
or another. A special form of ring bobbin is made by Messrs. Wilson
Brothers, of Barnsley, in which the grip at the foot is entirely done
away with. The bobbin is a double flanged one, something like the type
shown by the letter =I=, but has a projecting lower boss or nipple
which loosely fits the spindle cup. This is the invention of Mr. W. R.
Sidebottom, of Stockport, and at the time of writing it is undergoing
an extensive trial. So far as this has gone the results are favourable,
and no loss of twist has been detected although the grip contact does
not exist. The bobbin shown by the letter =I= (Fig. 223), is the form
employed for doubling purposes on ring frames, and is driven by the
slot shown in the detached plan view. The bobbin =L= is the form used
on throstle spinning frames, as adapted for long collars, somewhat
resembling in principle the Mason collar described in Chapter X.

[Illustration: FIG. 223. J.N.]

(414) An important improvement in ring bobbins has been recently
adopted by Messrs. Wilson Brothers, Limited. This is a mode of
enamelling or coating them with a composition which is entirely
impervious to damp. The plan is an American one, but a series of
tests made by the author show that bobbins treated in this way can be
subjected to the action of hot or cold water or oil without being in
the least affected. It is a very usual practice in preparing yarns for
weaving purposes to “condition” them—that is, to allow them to absorb
a certain amount of moisture. This is often done while they are wound
on the spool or bobbin, and the result is that the latter speedily lose
their form and become out of balance. By coating them as described this
evil is avoided, and yarn can be conditioned with impunity while on the

(415) In order to ascertain the counts of yarn, a machine known as a
“wrap reel” is employed. This consists of a small fly or swift similar
in form to the swift employed in the reels described in the last
chapter, but smaller. This is revolved by a sun and planet arrangement
of wheels which is, in principle, like the differential motion
described in Chapter X. A short hank of yarn—one lea or 120 yards—is
wound on the wrap reel, the time when the exact length is wound being
denoted by the sounding of a bell, when, as the winding is a manual
operation, the machine can be stopped. The hank so formed is taken off
the reel and weighed, and the weight of a full hank can thus be easily
ascertained. By the aid of a table the counts of any of the short hanks
wrapped can be easily ascertained. By means of a small machine, the
strength of the yarn can be tested, the pull upon it being obtained
by a weighted arm. An indicating apparatus is provided, by which the
weight of the pull is registered.

(416) During the past few years one or two simple graduated indicators
or scales have been introduced, by which the weight of a piece of cloth
can be readily obtained. One of these, “Staub’s,” has been introduced
into this country by Messrs. George Thomas and Co., and by its aid
the counts of either the warp or weft in a piece of cloth can be
readily ascertained. It differs in form from the scale shown in Fig.
224, but is based upon the same principles. In the form shown in Fig.
224—which is Niess’ scale, and is controlled in England by Mr. Charles
Lancaster—a light hinged arm is formed at one end with a hook, on
which a length of 40 yards of yarn can be hung. This causes the arm to
be depressed, and a pointer finger traverses the face of a graduated
quadrant, a glance at which is sufficient to show the counts of yarn.
These yarn balances are simple and reliable, and are being used in
increasing numbers.

[Illustration: FIG. 224.]

[Illustration: FIG. 225.]

[Illustration: FIG. 226.]

(417) It is customary to fit to spinning machines indicators by which
the production is registered. One or two of these, as made by Messrs.
G. Orme and Co., are described, but it may be as well to say in passing
that these appliances are largely used, and are very instrumental
in preventing disputes as to the remuneration of the operatives in
cases where this is determined by the work done. The indicators are
attached to the back shaft, and can be made in two forms, either to
indicate the number of hanks produced in thousands, or the number of
draws made. The first is shown in Fig. 225, the second in Fig. 226, and
the details of the mechanism in Figs. 227 and 228. Referring to the
latter, an arm =B= is fixed on a shaft, forming a centre for it, being
constructed with two points =C= and =D=, acting as catches. On the
shaft on which =B= is centred is a sector =A=, gearing with a worm on
the back shaft. As was pointed out in Chapter X., the back shaft makes
an equal number of revolutions in each direction at each draw, so that
the sector is caused to oscillate, and partially rotate the shaft. In
this way the arm =B= is also oscillated in the same direction as the
sector. The triangular-shaped surface =E= is fastened on its shaft, and
the point =D=, on the arm =B=, comes in contact with the notch shown
in =E=, when the end of =B= is being raised. Thus =E= is rotated, and
when =B= is reversed as described, the point =C= engages with =E=, and
continues its rotation. While this is occurring the other end of =B= is
descending, so as to assume a position to act on the next point of the
triangle. The rotation of =E= is therefore continuous, and it makes a
complete revolution every three draws. On the triangular wheel =E= is
a flange or disc =F=, in which is secured a pin =G=. The wheel =M= is
fixed in the position shown, and is constructed with fourteen teeth,
half of which are the full width of =M=, the other half being only half
that width, but are a little longer. As =F= revolves the pin =G= comes
in contact with one of the long teeth in =M=, and moves it forward. If
the disc =F= were quite circular the overlapping of the broad teeth, as
a reference to Fig. 228 will show, would prevent any movement of =M=.
A notch =H= is therefore cut in the disc, so that only when one of the
broad teeth is opposite the notch can any motion of =M= take place. The
motion of =M= is thus prevented from taking place except when required,
and is communicated to the finger of the indicator by the gearing
shown. From this description it will be noticed that there are seven
operating and seven locking teeth in the wheel =M=, and in arranging
the gearing this fact is considered.

[Illustration: FIG. 229.]

[Illustration: FIG. 230.]

The figures on the dial represent thousands of hanks, the number being
arrived at from a calculation based on the number of spindles and the
length of draw of the mule. Where required to meet special local cases,
the indicator can be arranged to indicate the number of draws made
by the mule. In Figs. 229 and 230 the indicator used for slubbing,
roving, and drawing frames is shown. Instead of using a graduated
dial and finger the figures are arranged on discs, of which there are
three, one disc registering the decimal part of the hanks passed. The
worm shown in Fig. 230 is driven by direct attachment to the front
roller. The three discs are driven from one another, there being a very
similar locking motion to that described in connection with the mule
indicator. The effect of this arrangement is that the first disc has
to make a complete revolution before the second is moved one figure.
When the second has completed its revolution it in turn moves the
third. The discs are locked after each movement, so that until again
unlocked no motion can occur. The indicator is arranged to indicate up
to 100 hanks, with decimal parts of each hank. Owing to their special
construction no fly can enter the working parts, although there is easy
access to them.

[Illustration: FIG. 227.]

[Illustration: FIG. 228.]

[Illustration: FIG. 231.]

(418) It was stated in Chapter XI. that it was customary to paste or
starch the bottoms of cops, in order to render them adhesive and to
stiffen them. Usually the starch used is carried about in buckets,
and the method is both dirty and wasteful. Mr. Lang Bridge makes the
apparatus shown in Fig. 231, which consists of a copper pan in which
the starch is boiled, and round the inside of which a copper steam coil
is placed. An agitator or dasher is constantly revolved in the manner
shown, and a small gun metal pump is driven from the same shaft. By a
system of pipes the starch is raised to the various mule rooms, and is
discharged over enamelled basins placed as shown, the orifice of the
pipes being closed by a self-closing tap. The spinner can at any time
get a supply of starch, and any surplus returns by gravitation to the
mixing tank, where it is again used up. It is obvious that this method
possesses many advantages over the crude mode previously described.

(419) In concluding these pages the author is fully conscious of many
shortcomings, which are inevitable in a task of this magnitude, but he
believes that something has been done to formulate present knowledge
and practice. Many things could be added, but the intention with which
the book was commenced has been carried out, and it is confidently
believed that the information given and the treatment accorded to
the various machines will be found of value to many students. Any
suggestions of improvements or enlargements will be gratefully
received, so as to enable future issues to be more valuable and useful.

[Illustration: page decoration]



It will be interesting to many persons to have some particulars of the
arrangement of one of the most recently constructed Lancashire mills.
The Standard Spinning Company’s mill is not only one of the latest but
also one of the largest yet built. It consists of five floors and a
basement. Each of the main rooms is 250 feet long by 125 feet wide, and
adjoining the building on the ground floor is a shed 240 feet long by
40 feet wide, in which most of the cards are placed. The remaining four
floors contain the mules. Placed a little apart from the main building
is the scutching or blowing room, which is 70 feet by 60 feet, and has
placed above it two mixing rooms. The general arrangements are shown in
Fig. 232, which is a plan of the ground floor, showing the arrangement
of the machinery.

Referring now to that figure, and dealing first with the mixing and
scutching arrangements, the former are shown in the small detached
drawing. The arrangement of mixtures and cross lattices is well shown.
The three longitudinal lattices shown convey the cotton to the mixing
bin, the cross lattice receiving it from the bale breaker, which
is placed in the room above. There are four porcupine feed tables
employed, each with an extra length of lattice, which deliver the
cotton into the dust trunks, by which it is conveyed to the openers
fixed in the ground floor room. Of the opening machines there are four,
each of which is fed by its special tube or trunk, as clearly shown.
The openers are provided with lap attachments, so that the cotton is
formed into that shape at as early a point as possible. Adjoining the
openers, with their feed end close to the lap machine, six scutching
machines with single beaters are placed. These are fed with three laps,
and the cotton is, after being treated by them, again formed into laps,
which are fed to the six finisher scutchers placed immediately behind
the first six. The finishing machines are fed with four laps each, the
doubling being considerable. It will be noticed that the whole of the
arrangements are made so that the cotton moves steadily forward without
much handling. In this respect the design is admirable, and this part
of the work has been carried out by Messrs. Lord Brothers.

The carding machines are of the revolving flat type, made by Messrs.
John Hetherington and Sons. There are in actual use 128, and each is
made with a cylinder 50 inches diameter, being fed from 40-inch laps.
The drawing frames adjoin the carding engines, as shown, and are nine
in number, each machine having four heads with seven deliveries each,
the latter being indicated by the thick black dots. These machines
supply drawn slivers to twelve slubbing machines, fitted with long
collars, and each containing 90 spindles, their lift being 10 inches.
The gauge of these machines is four spindles in 19 inches. The slubbing
frames can be distinguished by the dotted lines behind them, which
represent the position of the cans, and each of them is fed by the
drawing machines placed relatively to them as shown by the curved
arrows. It will be noticed that the same readiness of access has
been kept in view as in the case of the scutching machines, and the
necessary carriage of the cans is reduced to a minimum. In addition to
the slubbing frames there are 18 intermediate frames, each containing
132 spindles of 10-inch lift and a gauge of six spindles in 19-1/2
inches. The equipment of this room is completed by 52 roving machines
of 168 spindles each, 7-inch lift, and a gauge of eight spindles in
20-1/2 inches. The whole of the drawing and roving machines are made
by Mr. John Mason, and the latter are fitted throughout with Mason’s
long collars. Before leaving this department a few words may be said
about the driving. The machinery is driven from a second motion
shaft, driven by ropes from the engine, the engine house and rope
race being indicated in the drawing. The carding machines are driven
by counter-shafts from the line shaft shown, as are also the drawing
frames. The roving machinery, on the contrary, is all directly driven
from the line shafts, two of which are specially arranged for the
purpose, as clearly shown. The belts are long and have a half twist,
but the advantages of direct driving are so great that this slight
disadvantage is not worth taking into account.

The mules are of an improved Parr-Curtis type, made by Messrs. Taylor,
Lang, and Co., Limited. They are almost equally divided between twist
and weft mules. Of the former there are 44 in all, each of which is
made of a spindle gauge of 1-3/8 inch. Half of them contain 1,038, and
the other half 1,044 spindles each, in all 45,804 twist spindles. There
are also 44 mules for weft, the gauge of the spindles being 1-1/8 inch.
Twenty-two of these contain 1,260 and twenty-two 1,272 spindles each
respectively, giving a total of 55,704 weft spindles. The total number
of spindles, therefore, in the mill is 101,508. The numbers spun are
from 40’s to 50’s twist, and 50’s to 70’s weft.

[Illustration: page decoration]

[Illustration: FIG. 232.]


NOTE.—In order to facilitate reference to the illustrations, they have
been so placed as to be easily found, without turning back. It has not,
however, always been possible to place them in consecutive and proper
order. To preserve the sequence, they are numbered in the order in
which they are referred to in the text, although—especially in Chapter
XI.—they are sometimes referred to in paragraphs widely apart.

  FIG.                                              PAGE.

  1, 2  The cotton gin                                16

  3  Elephant opener                                  17

  4  Bale breaker                                     17

  5  Dobson and Barlow’s bale breaker                 19

  6, 7  Diagrams of mixing arrangements               20

  8  Diagram of mixing arrangements                   21

  9  Taylor, Lang, and Company’s opening machine      25

  10  Dobson and Barlow’s opening machine             25

  11, 12  Lord Brothers’ porcupine cylinders          26

  13  Diagram of mixing and opening                   27

  14  Platt Brothers and Company’s opening machine    28

  15  Crighton and Sons’ opening machine              29

  16  Section of opener grid, ordinary type           30

  17  Crighton and Sons’ improved opener              29

  18  Longitudinal section of Crighton’s improved
        grid                                          30

  19  Cross section of Crighton’s improved grid       30

  20  Lord Brothers’ combined porcupine and Crighton
        opening machine                               33

  21  Platt Brothers and Company’s improved dust
        trunk                                         34

  22  Lord Brothers’ single scutching machine         36

  23  Lord Brothers’ single scutching machine, end
        view                                          38

  24  Howard and Bullough’s improved grid for
        scutching machine                             38

  25  Crighton and Sons’ scutching machine            39

  26  Crighton and Sons’ leaf extractor               40

  27  Platt Brothers and Company’s scutcher diagram
        of dead plate                                 41

  28, 29, 30, 31 Lord Brothers’ piano feed motion     43

  32  Platt Brothers and Company’s old form of pedal
        nose                                          44

  33  Platt Brothers and Company’s new form of pedal
        nose                                          44

  34  Old and new arrangement of pedal bowls          44

  35  Platt Brothers and Company’s rope driving
        for cones                                     45

  36  Platt Brothers and Company’s pedal regulator    46

  37, 38  Dobson and Barlow’s pedal regulator         49

  39, 40  Asa Lees and Company’s pedal regulator      49

  41  Asa Lees and Company’s rope driving for cones   48

  42  Plan of mixing room lattices. Platt Brothers
        and Company                                   50

  43  Plan of scutching room. Platt Brothers
        and Company                                   50

  44  Ashworth Brothers’ revolving flat carding
        engine                                        63

  45  Vertical section of coiler                      59

  46  Diagram of roller carding engine                56

  47  Perspective view of Mason’s roller carding
        engine                                        57

  48  John Hetherington and Sons’ stripper for
        roller carding engine                         60

  49  Lord Brothers’ setting bracket for roller
        carding engine                                60

  50  Leigh’s flexible bend                           65

  51  Hetherington’s old construction of flat         66

  52  Hetherington’s new construction of flat         66

  53  Hetherington’s transverse section of bend
        milling apparatus                             67

  54  Hetherington’s side elevation of bend
        milling apparatus                             67

  55  Platt Brothers’ new setting of flats            69

  56  Platt Brothers’ old setting of flats            69

  57  Perspective view Platt’s card                   68

  58  Diagram of Dobson and Barlow’s bend             71

  59  Front view of Dobson and Barlow’s bend          71

  60  Front view of Howard and Bullough’s bend        70

  61  Section of Howard and Bullough’s bend           73

  62  Front view of Knowles’ bend                     73

  63  Diagram of Knowles’ bend                        74

  64  Ashworth’s bend                                 75

  65  Side elevation of Brooks’ carding engine        76

  66  Front view of milling arrangement of Brooks’
        carding engine                                77

  67  Sectional view of milling arrangement of
        Brooks’ carding engine                        77

  68  Side elevation of Wellman card                  80

  69  Dobson and Barlow’s dish feed                   83

  70  Lap before acted on by licker-in                89

  71  Lap after being acted on by licker-in           89

  72  Dobson and Barlow’s doffer covers               84

  73  Dobson and Barlow’s pedestal                    87

  74  Ashworth Brothers’ driving arrangement          87

  75  Enlarged view of doffer fleece                  89

  76  Diagram of card setting                         92

  77  Diagram of Garnett teeth for licker-in          93

  78  Diagram of setting of teeth                     95

  79  Enlarged view of needle pointed teeth           97

  80  Enlarged view of side ground tooth              97

  81  Enlarged view of side ground tooth              97

  82  Whiteley’s fillet winding drum                  99

  83  Riveted and sewn flats                         101

  84  Dronsfield’s fillet stretcher for flats        103

  85  Perspective view of Whiteley’s clip            103

  86  Transverse section of flat with Whiteley’s
        clip                                         103

  87  Longitudinal section of flat with Whiteley’s
        clip                                         103

  88  Transverse section of Tweedale’s fastener      103

  89  Sykes’ slow motion                             106

  90  Transverse section of Hetherington’s slow
        motion                                       106

  91  End view of Hetherington’s slow motion         106

  92  Side view of card with Hetherington’s slow
        motion                                       106

  93  Side view of Brooks’ slow motion               107

  94  End view of Brooks’ slow motion                107

  95  Side view of Knowles’ slow motion              108

  96  Sectional view of Knowles’ slow motion         108

  97  Dronsfield’s grinding roller                   108

  98, 99  End views of Dronsfield’s grinding roller  109

  100, 101, 102  Views of emery filleting            109

  103  Horsfall grinding roller                      110

  104  Diagram of flat and wire                      111

  105  Knowles’ flat grinding apparatus              111

  106  Hetherington’s flat grinding apparatus        112

  107  Edge’s flat grinding apparatus                114

  108  Higginson’s flat grinding apparatus           115

  109  Platt’s flat grinding apparatus               116

  110  Dronsfield’s roller grinding machine          118

  111  Whiteley’s stripping brush                    119

  112  Dobson and Barlow’s sliver lap machine        123

  113  Dobson and Barlow’s ribbon lap machine        121

  114  Transverse section of Heilmann combing
         machine                                     127

  115  Enlarged section of Heilmann combing machine  122

  116  Enlarged section of nipper mechanism of
         Heilmann combing machine                    125

  117  Front view, Hetherington’s improved nipper    130

  118  Sectional view, Hetherington’s improved
         nipper                                      130

  119  Perspective view, Dobson and Barlow’s
         combing machine                             131

  120  Transverse section, Dobson and Barlow’s
         combing machine                             134

  121  Side view, detaching mechanism, Dobson and
         Barlow’s combing machine                    133

  122  Plan, detaching mechanism, Dobson and
         Barlow’s combing machine                    133

  123  End view, Brooks’ drawing frame               139

  124  Transverse section, Brooks’ drawing frame     139

  125  Front view, Brooks’ drawing frame             139

  126  Elevation and section, Leigh’s loose boss
         rollers                                     138

  127  Howard and Bullough’s electric stop motion    146

  128  Front view, Mason’s slubbing frame            149

  129  Sectional elevation, Mason’s long collar      151

  130  Sectional elevation, Higgins’ spindle         153

  131  Elevation of Higgins’ spindle                 153

  132  Diagram of winding on roving frames           156

  133  Diagram of winding on roving frames           156

  134  Back view of roving frame                     159

  135  Plan, Johnson’s cone motion                   161

  136  Elevation, Johnson’s cone motion              161

  137  Section of differential motion                163

  138  Curtis and Rhodes’s differential motion       164

  139  Tweedale’s differential motion                165

  140  Front view of building motion                 167

  141  Back view of building motion                  169

  142  Plan of building motion                       169

  143  Elevation of Paley’s traverse motion          173

  144  End view of Paley’s traverse motion           173

  145  Plan of Paley’s traverse motion               173

  146  Section of Paley’s traverse motion            173

  147  Diagram of variations of traverse             174

  148  Diagram of mule (essential parts)             178

  149  Front view of Platt’s mule                    181

  150  Back view of Platt’s mule                     181

  151  Diagram of setting of a pair of mules         180

  152  Diagram of driving bands for mule             185

  153  Longitudinal section of mule driving
         mechanism                                   185

  154  Back view of mule driving mechanism           185

  155  End view of rope attachment to end frame      187

  156  Diagram of cam shaft and connections          191

  157  Plan view of duplex driving                   191

  158  Diagram of belt guiding mechanism             195

  159  Counter faller regulator                      198

  160  Backing-off mechanism                         197

  161  Diagram of copping arrangement                205

  162  Diagram of taking-in and holding out          201

  163  Diagram of building of cop                    207

  164  Diagram of coils on nose of cop               207

  165  Diagram of copping rail arrangement           204

  166  Diagram of winding barrel movement            208

  167  Diagram of movement of quadrant arm           211

  168  Diagram of winding mechanism                  212

  169  Diagram of winding chain tightening motion    215

  170, 171  Diagram of position of scrolls
              beginning and end of set               216

  172  Diagram of winding-on motion for chain        221

  173  Diagram of ordinary arrangement of camshaft   220

  174  Section of pendant plate and clutch           221

  175  Front view of pendant plate                   221

  176  Side view of Hetherington’s mule              222

  177  Back view of Hetherington’s mule              223

  178  Elevation of Dobson and Hardman’s nosing
         motion                                      224

  179  Enlarged view of Dobson and Hardman’s
         nosing motion                               225

  180  Dobson and Barlow’s governing motion          227

  181  Dub’s governing motion                        229

  182  Side elevation of Curtis’ mule without cam
         shaft                                       230

  183  Plan of Curtis’ mule without cam shaft        230

  184  Inclined carriage slips for mules             231

  185  Front view of Brooks’ ring spinning frame     237

  186  End view of Brooks’ ring spinning frame       235

  187  Transverse section of Brooks’ ring spinning
         frame                                       236

  188  Longitudinal partial section of one spindle
         and roller stand                            243

  189  Common ring spindle                           243

  190  Booth Sawyer ring spindle                     243

  191  Rabbeth ring spindle                          245

  192  Whitin gravity ring spindle                   245

  193  Dodd ring spindle                             245

  194  Bernhardt’s bee spindle and anti-ballooner    249

  195  Single ring                                   247

  196  Coulthard’s double ring and holder            247

  197  Diagram of winding on ring frames             251

  198  Elevation of spindle with Lancaster’s
         traveller                                   253

  199  Perspective view of ring and Lancaster’s
         traveller                                   253

  200  Plan of Platt’s ring and traveller            253

  201  Section of Platt’s ring and traveller         253

  202  Howard and Bullough’s weft spinning frame     255

  203  Asa Lees and Co.’s rope driving for tin
         rollers                                     254

  204  Stubbs’ bobbin reel                           263

  205  Elevation of seven-lea arrangement            267

  206  Section of shell for swift end                266

  207  Guest and Brooks’ skeining motion             268

  208  Elevation of bundling press                   269

  209  Perspective view of doubling winding machine  271

  210  Transverse section of doubling winding
         machine                                     273

  211  Section of one head of gassing machine        274

  212  Thread beaming machine                        277

  213  Thread polishing machine                      275

  214  Wield’s spooling machine                      279

  215  Dronsfield’s cloth pasting machine            283

  216  Dronsfield’s leather grinding machine         285

  217  Roller leather splicing machine               285

  218  Roller pulling machine                        284

  219  Roller ending machine                         284

  220  Roller trueing machine                        287

  221  Roving bobbins                                289

  222  Ring spinning bobbins                         288

  223  Ring doubling and throstle bobbins            291

  224  Niess’ yarn scale                             292

  225  Mule indicator for hanks                      293

  226  Mule indicator for draws                      293

  227  Side view of indicator mechanism              295

  228  End view of indicator mechanism               295

  229  Front view of indicator for slubbing frames   294

  230  Back view of indicator for slubbing frames    294

  231  Bridge’s paste pump                           295

  232  Plan of card room of Standard Spinning
         Company Limited                             299


  =Changes.= In a mule the alteration of the motion of the various
  parts at the end of the outward and inward runs.

  =Chase.= The extent of the traverse of the winding faller wire.

  =Cop.= The spool of yarn formed on a mule.

  =Counts.= The number of hanks of yarn in one pound weight.

  =Creel.= A frame in which feed bobbins are placed.

  =Doffer.= In carding, the drum removing the fleece from the cylinder;
  the person removing bobbins or cops from the spindles.

  =Doffing.= The process of removing finished material from the

  =Doubling.= The combination of two or more laps, slivers, or threads;
  as a separate process the twisting together of strands of yarn.

  =Draught.= The amount of attenuation of a lap or sliver.

  =Draw.= The longitudinal traverse of a mule carriage.

  =Droppings.= The impurities removed from cotton during opening or

  =End.= One strand of sliver, roving, or yarn.

  =Fillet.= A narrow strip of cloth.

  =Fly.= The loose short fibres given off during spinning.

  =Gauge.= The distance from centre to centre of spindles or rollers.

  =Governing.= The regulation of the traverse of the quadrant nut.

  =Halching.= The entanglement of the coils of yarn at a cop nose.

  =Hank.= A length of 840 yards of yarn.

  =Lap.= A rolled fleece of cotton.

  =Lea.= One seventh of a complete hank.

  =Lead.= The excess of the revolution of a bobbin, flyer, or traveller
  over each other.

  =Licking.= The adhesion of cotton fibres to any surface.

  =Lift.= The extent of the traverse of a guide eye or bobbin.

  =Motes.= Fragments of broken seed or leaf.

  =Neps.= Small knots or tangles of fibres.

  =Nose.= The extreme upper point of a cop.

  =Piecing.= The union of two ends of sliver, roving, or yarn.

  =Poker.= The vertical rod sustaining a bobbin or ring rail.

  =Roller Laps.= Coils of roving or yarn wrapped on rollers after

  =Roving.= The attenuated and partially twisted sliver.

  =Selvedge.= The edge of a lap or sliver.

  =Shaper.= The mechanism by which the shape of a cop is determined.

  =Single.= A length of sliver, roving, or yarn in which only one
  strand exists.

  =Skeining.= The process of winding yarn into hanks.

  =Sliver.= The attenuated fleece of cotton from carding or combing

  =Slubbing.= The sliver after having passed through the first roving

  =Slubs.= Thick pieces of cotton attached to or twisted into the yarn,
  caused by accumulation of fly.

  =Snarls.= Small twisted loops of yarn.

  =Staple.= The length of individual fibres in any grade of cotton.

  =Stretch.= The longitudinal traverse of a mule carriage.

  =Stripping.= Removing the imbedded impurities from card clothing.

  =Twist.= The number of turns per inch in a thread or yarn; yarn used
  for warps.

  =Warp.= Yarn forming the longitudinal threads in cloth.

  =Weft.= Yarn forming the transverse threads in cloth.

  =Yarn.= The fully twisted roving.


                                               Par.    Page.
  Acceleration of winding velocity in mule      330      211

  Action of building motion in roving machines      252      168

  Action of building ratchet wheel in roving machines      257      171

  Action of combing machine      198      126

  Action of copping mechanism      322      205

  Action of mule at end of draw      289      189

  Action of fallers in mule      303      194

  Action of plate wheel in roving machines      244      162

  Action of rollers of mule      267      177

  Advantages of rotation of backing-off wheel      296      190

  Air current, conveyance of cotton by      63      32

  Air current, effect of passages on      79      41

  Air current in scutchers, velocity of      78      40

  American cotton      21      13

  Amount of lift in roving machines      233      154

  Angularity of brackets in ring frames      370      240

  Angularity of thread in mules      360      229

  Asa Lees and Company’s rope driving for ring frames    383    254

  Asa Lees and Company’s rope driving for scutchers      92      48

  Ashworth Brothers’ cylinder setting      129      75

  Ashworth Brothers’ cylinder driving      149      85

  Ashworth Brothers’ revolving flat carding machine    129    75

  Attachment of cards to cylinders and doffers      164      96

  Attachment of cards to flats by rivets      166      101

  Attachment of cards to flats by sewing      166      101

  Attachment of cards to flats by clips      166      101

  Attachment of carriage end frame bands      284      187

  Attachment of pressers      228      148

  Attachment of roving to mule spindles      267      177


  Back shaft connection with scroll shaft      315      202

  Back shaft connection of quadrant with      327      209

  Back shaft clutch, shape of teeth      284      187

  Back shaft clutch, disengagement of      293      190

  Back shaft, driving of      284      184

  Back shaft, driving of, ordinary method      351      221

  Back shaft, position of scrolls      284      187

  Backing-off chain, tightening motion      307      198

  Backing-off clutch, engagement of      299      193

  Backing-off clutch, release of      312      200

  Backing-off, compression of spring      300      193

  Backing-off, constant rotation of wheel      296      190

  Backing-off, driving of wheel      282      194

  Backing-off, effect of driving wheel      282      184

  Backing-off lever, release of      301      194

  Backing-off, operation of      270      177

  Backing-off, holding out catch during      310      200

  Backing-off, parts at end of      311      200

  Bale breaker      28      17

  Bale breaker, construction of rollers      33      19

  Bale breaker, Dobson and Barlow’s      34      19

  Bale breaker, draught of      30      18

  Baling of cotton      27      16

  Balling machines      404      281

  Bands, check      315      202

  Bands, tension of spindle      280      183

  Bands, mule end frame      284      187

  Bands, course of rim       281      183

  Beaters, balancing scutcher      68      36

  Beaters, blow of      69      37

  Beaters, construction of scutcher      68      36

  Beaters, space between grid and arms of      59      31

  Beaters, pulsations of      70      37

  Beaters, two and three winged      69      36

  Beaters, velocity of opener      55      30

  Beaters, velocity of Lord’s opener      58      31

  Beaters, velocity of scutcher      69      36

  Bearings, Higgins’ roving spindle      230      152

  Belts, main driving speeds      13      10

  Bend, Mason’s concentric      113      60

  Bend, Dobson and Barlow’s      125      69

  Bend, easy adjustment of flexible      134      78

  Bend, Hetherington’s setting of      121      66

  Bend, Hetherington’s trueing of      121      66

  Bend, Howard and Bullough’s      127      70

  Bend, Knowles’      128      73

  Bend, Legh’s flexible 119      65

  Bend, Platt’s flexible      122      67

  Bend, Platt’s inspection of setting of      137      79

  Bend, position of flexible      120      66

  Bend, setting brackets for      113      60

  Bend, setting flexible      119      65

  Bend, theory of flexible      118      64

  Bobbins, coated      414      291

  Bobbins, doubling and throstle      413      291

  Bobbins, driving roving      232      153

  Bobbins, lead, reasons for      237      156

  Bobbins, lift of      233      154

  Bobbins and flyer leads      240      158

  Bobbins, principle of driving roving      239      157

  Bobbins, retardation of roving      238      157

  Bobbins, ring frame      413      288

  Bobbins, roving      412      287

  Bobbins, Sidebotham’s patent      413      291

  Brazilian cotton      20      13

  Brooks’ adjustment of flats in card      131      77

  Brooks’ drawing machine      208      137

  Brooks’ ring spinning machine      367      234

  Brooks’ revolving flat card      130      76

  Brooks’ slow motion for card      174      107

  Building motion, action of      252      168

  Building motion, construction of      251      167

  Building motion, objects of      250      166

  Building motion, reversal of lift by      254      171

  Building motion, roving frame      250      166

  Bundling press      396      267


  Cages, Crighton’s construction of      76      39

  Cages, position of      67      35

  Calender rollers of carding engines      109      55

  Calculation of counts      387      257

  Calculation of hank roving      387      257

  Cam shaft, effect of first half turn of      292      190

  Cam shaft, effect of second half turn of      345      218

  Cam shaft, ordinary position of      350      220

  Cam shaft, position of cams on      291      189

  Cans, arrangement in drawing machine      215      143

  Cans, Bridge’s corrugated      405      282

  Cans, Platt’s full stop motion      221      145

  Cans, position in coiler      110      55

  Cans, sliver      405      282

  Carding, importance of      190      119

  Card clothing, attachment to flats by rivets      166      101

  Card clothing, attachment to flats by sewing      166      101

  Card clothing, attachment to flats by clips      166      101

  Card clothing, attachment to flats by Platt’s clip    169    105

  Card clothing, construction of foundation      154      91

  Card clothing, counts of wire      156      92

  Card clothing, counts used      157      93

  Card clothing, defects of side grinding      159      94

  Card clothing, deflection of flats      167      102

  Card clothing, desirability of light grinding      163      95

  Card clothing, improved side grinding      162      95

  Card clothing, machine for winding fillets      165      96

  Card clothing, manufacture of fillets      155      91

  Card clothing, mode of attaching fillets      164      96

  Card clothing, Platt’s fastener for      169      105

  Card clothing, preparation before fixing      164      96

  Card clothing, principles of setting      158      93

  Card clothing, setting teeth      156      92

  Card clothing, shape of teeth      159      94

  Card clothing, side grinding of teeth      159      94

  Card clothing, striation of teeth      161      94

  Card clothing, teeth of licker-in      157      93

  Card clothing, Tweedale’s clip for      168      102

  Card grinding, best speed of cylinder      170      105

  Card grinding, Brooks’ slow motion for      174      107

  Card grinding, construction of brackets      178      110

  Card grinding, Dronsfield’s emery fillets      176      109

  Card grinding, Edge’s flat apparatus      182      113

  Card grinding, Hetherington’s flat apparatus      181      112

  Card grinding, Hetherington’s slow motion      172      106

  Card grinding, Higginson’s flat apparatus      183      114

  Card grinding, Horsfall roller      177      109

  Card grinding, Knowles’ and Tatham’s flat apparatus    180    111

  Card grinding, Knowles’ slow motion      175      108

  Card grinding, machine for rollers      186      117

  Card grinding, machine for Wellman flats      187      118

  Card grinding, Platt’s flat apparatus      184      116

  Card grinding, principles of flat      179      110

  Card grinding, rollers used in      176      108

  Card grinding, Sykes’ slow motion      171      105

  Carding machine, action of cylinder      151      86

  Carding machine, action of licker-in      150      85

  Carding machine, Ashworth’s      129      74

  Carding machine, Ashworth’s cylinder setting      129      74

  Carding machine, Ashworth’s driving      149      85

  Carding machine, Ashworth’s setting of pedestals      148      85

  Carding machine, attenuation of fleece      152      86

  Carding machine, Brook’s      130      76

  Carding machine, Brook’s adjustment of flats      131      77

  Carding machine, condition of fibres      153      88

  Carding machine, construction of bend      113      60

  Carding machine, construction of calender rolls      109      55

  Carding machine, construction of coiler      110      55

  Carding machine, construction of cylinder      107      54

  Carding machine, construction of dish feed      143      81

  Carding machine, construction of doffer      108      54

  Carding machine, construction of doffer comb      108      54

  Carding machine, construction of licker-in      106      54

  Carding machine, construction of pedestals      147      84

  Carding machine, construction of setting brackets      113      60

  Carding machine, construction theory of bend      118      64

  Carding machine, character of working settings      133      78

  Carding machine, development of      104      53

  Carding machine, Dobson and Barlow’s      125      69

  Carding machine, Dobson and Barlow’s covers for      145      82

  Carding machine, Dobson and Barlow’s pedestal
   setting      148      85

  Carding machine, driving of parts of      146      84

  Carding machine, driving of rollers      113      60

  Carding machine, ease of flexible bend adjustment      134      78

  Carding machine, effect of licker-in      143      82

  Carding machine, feeding laps      105      53

  Carding machine, Hetherington’s setting of bend      121      66

  Carding machine, Hetherington’s trueing apparatus      121      66

  Carding machine, Howard and Bullough’s      127      70

  Carding machine, Howard and Bullough’s pedestal setting  148  85

  Carding machine, inclination of teeth on rollers      112      56

  Carding machine, Knowles’s      128      73

  Carding machine, Leigh’s flexible bend      119      65

  Carding machine, method of setting flats      132      77

  Carding machine, movement of cylinder centre      135      79

  Carding machine, object of      103      53

  Carding machine, Platt’s bend setting      122      67

  Carding machine, Platt’s inspection of setting      137      79

  Carding machine, position of chain attachment      123      68

  Carding machine, position of flexible bend      120      64

  Carding machine, position of mote knives      144      82

  Carding machine, position of under casings      144      82

  Carding machine, removal of neps and short fibre      150      85

  Carding machine, revolving flat      115      61

  Carding machine, revolving, adjusting heel of flats    117    62

  Carding machine, revolving, construction of flats      116      61

  Carding machine, revolving, mode of shaping flats      116      61

  Carding machine, revolving, number of flats      115      61

  Carding machine, revolving, testing flats      117      62

  Carding machine, roller and clearer      111      56

  Carding machine, roller dirt stripper      111      56

  Carding machine, setting flexible bend      119      65

  Carding machine, setting licker-in and doffer      136      79

  Carding machine, ultimate draught      152      86

  Carding machine, velocity of cylinder      107      54

  Carding machine, velocity of doffer      108      54

  Carding machine, velocity of doffer comb      108      54

  Carding machine, velocity of rollers      112      56

  Carding machine, velocity of Wellman      141      81

  Carding machine, Wellman      138      79

  Carding machine, Wellman, Dobson, and Barlow’s      139      80

  Carding machine, Wellman, effect of setting of flats    141    81

  Carding machine, Wellman, future of      142      81

  Carding machine, Wellman, principles of      138      79

  Carding machine, Wellman, setting flats of      140      81

  Card stripping, importance of      188      118

  Card stripping, method of      189      119

  Card stripping, reasons for      188      118

  Capital employed in spinning      3      5

  Carriage of mule, connection with square      278      183

  Carriage of mule, construction of      278      183

  Carriage of mule, gain of      288      189

  Carriage of mule, improved slips for      360      229

  Carriage of mule, reciprocal motion of      269      177

  Chain attachment to flats      123      68

  Chain, backing-off tightening      307      198

  Chain, winding      331      212

  Chain, winding tightening motion      333      213

  Cleanliness, importance of      16      11

  Clearers for drawing frames      212      142

  Clearers, Dobson and Barlow’s      212      142

  Clearers, Ermen’s revolving      212      142

  Clearers, roving frames      226      148

  Clearers, rollers of carding engines      112      56

  Click motion      341      217

  Click motion, defects of old      342      217

  Click motion, holding out rod and      343      217

  Coiler, construction of      110      56

  Collars, Mason’s long      229      152

  Combined opening machines, Dobson and Barlow’s      47      25

  Combined opening machines, Platt’s      52      28

  Combined opening machines, Lord’s      58      31

  Combined mixing, opening, and scutching      63      32

  Combined opening and scutching      93      48

  Combing machine, action of      198      126

  Combing machine, combing cylinder      196      125

  Combing machine, detaching mechanism      197      126

  Combing machine, Dobson and Barlow’s      202      130

  Combing machine, Imbs’      205      135

  Combing machine, nippers of, Dobson & Barlow’s      203      134

  Combing machine, nipper guard      201      130

  Combing machine, preparation of sliver for      192      120

  Combing machine, Pinel, Lecœur, & Hetherington’s      205      135

  Combing machine, speed of      200      129

  Combing machine, waste from      206      136

  Comparative spindle speeds      9      8

  Condenser, Theisen’s patent      11      9

  Cones, Asa Lees’ driving for      92      48

  Cones, Platt’s driving for      87      45

  Cones, roving frame      242      158

  Cones, scutching machine velocity      83      42

  Cones, shape of      249      166

  Cones, speed      249      166

  Construction of combing cylinder      196      125

  Construction of drawing machine      208      137

  Construction of roving frames      226      147

  Constructive methods, early      7      7

  Constructive methods, modern      8      7

  Cops, chase of      317      203

  Cops, form of      316      202

  Cops, layers of yarn in      317      203

  Cops, paper tubes for      316      202

  Cops, winding traverse in building      317      203

  Copping motion, action of      322      205

  Copping motion, loose copping rail      321      205

  Copping motion, object of rail      308      199

  Copping motion, theory of      319      203

  Copping motion, traverse of plates      320      204

  Cotton, American      21      13

  Cotton, Brazilian      20      13

  Cotton, cleaning of      39      23

  Cotton, commercial qualities      23      14

  Cotton, Egyptian      19      13

  Cotton gin      24      15

  Cotton, Indian      22      13

  Cotton, mixing      36      21

  Cotton, Sea Island      18      13

  Cotton fibre, structure of      17      12

  Cotton fibre, strength of      17      12

  Cotton mill, cost of      6      7

  Cotton, pneumatic conveyance of      63      32

  Cotton spinning industry      3      5

  Counts of yarn, definition of      387      257

  Counts of wire, how calculated      156      92

  Counts of wire commonly used      157      93

  Creel, roving machine      226      147

  Crighton opening machine      53      29

  Crighton opening, combined      63      32

  Crighton opening, double      61      32

  Crighton opening, distance of grids      59      31

  Crighton opening, lubrication of footsteps      57      31

  Crighton opening, position of fans      54      29

  Crighton opening, production of      60      32

  Crighton opening, shape of grids      56      30

  Curtis and Rhodes’ differential motion      247      164

  Curtis’ mule      358      228


  Dead plate in scutching machine      75      39

  Dead plate, effect of position of      80      41

  Dead plate, Platt’s arrangement of      81      41

  Dead plate, position of      77      39

  Definition of lead      237      156

  Deflection of flats      167      102

  Detaching mechanism of combers      197      126

  Development of carding machine      104      53

  Differential motion, action of plate wheel in      244      162

  Differential motion, Curtis and Rhodes’      247      164

  Differential motion, mode of driving plate wheel      246      163

  Differential motion of roving machines      243      161

  Differential motion, relative velocity of plate wheel   246   164

  Differential motion, theory of      244      162

  Differential motion, Tweedale’s      248      165

  Dirt roller of carding engine      111      56

  Dobson and Barlow’s bale breaker      34      19

  Dobson and Barlow’s combing machine      202      130

  Dobson and Barlow’s covers for carding engines      145      82

  Dobson and Barlow’s detaching mechanism      202      133

  Dobson and Barlow’s governing motion      354      225

  Dobson and Barlow’s nosing motion      353      223

  Dobson and Barlow’s opening machine      47      25

  Dobson and Barlow’s revolving flat card      125      69

  Dobson and Barlow’s setting cylinders      148      85

  Dobson and Barlow’s under casings      144      82

  Dobson and Barlow’s Wellman machine      139      80

  Doffer, carding machine      108      54

  Doffer, velocity of      108      54

  Doffer comb      108      54

  Doffing motion for reels      394      265

  Double fans in opening machines      52      28

  Doubling of laps in scutchers      97      52

  Doubling machine      384      284

  Doubling winding machine, objects of      397      271

  Doubling winding machine, Stubbs’      398      271

  Draught of bale breaker      30      18

  Draught of carding machine      152      86

  Draught in drawing machine      211      141

  Draught, effect of      211      141

  Draught of machines, definition      29      18

  Draught of scutching machine      98      52

  Draught of scutching where occurring      101      52

  Drawing machine, arrangement of sliver cans      215      143

  Drawing machine, Brooks’ stop motion      219      144

  Drawing machine, centres of rollers      210      141

  Drawing machine, clearers for      212      142

  Drawing machine, construction of      208      137

  Drawing machine, deliveries of      208      137

  Drawing machine, Dobson and Barlow’s, clearer for      212      142

  Drawing machine, draughts in      211      141

  Drawing machine, driving rollers of      209      138

  Drawing machine, doubling of slivers in      215      143

  Drawing machine, effect of doubling in      216      143

  Drawing machine, effect of staple      210      141

  Drawing machine, Ermen’s revolving clearer      212      142

  Drawing machine, essential features in      214      142

  Drawing machine, Howard and Bullough’s electric stop
    motion      223      145

  Drawing machine, Leigh’s loose boss rollers      208      138

  Drawing machine, number of doublings      216      143

  Drawing machine, number of doublings permissible      217      144

  Drawing machine, objects of      207      137

  Drawing machine, Platt’s full can stop motion      221      145

  Drawing machine, reasons for stop motion      219      144

  Drawing machine, rollers for      208      138

  Drawing machine, roller laps      212      142

  Drawing machine, roller relieving motion      213      142

  Drawing machine, size of rollers      224      146

  Drawing machine, slubs      212      142

  Drawing machine, velocity of rollers      209      138

  Drawing machine, velocity of rollers      224      146

  Driving, Ashworth’s, of carding machine      149      84

  Driving belts, speed of      13      10

  Driving bobbins of roving machine      232      153

  Driving carding engines      146      84

  Driving rollers and clearers      113      60

  Driving rollers of roving machine      231      152

  Driving ropes, size and speed of      14      10

  Driving, spindles of roving machine      231      152

  Dronsfield’s emery fillets      176      109

  Dronsfield’s roller covering machine      409      284

  Dub’s governing motion      356      226

  Duplex driving of mules      287      188

  Dust trunks, construction of      64      32

  Dust trunks, Platt Brothers      65      33

  Dust trunks, position of      64      32

  Dust trunks, use of      63      32


  Early inventions      1      5

  Edge’s flat grinding apparatus      182      131

  Egyptian cotton      19      13

  Elephant opener      28      16

  Engines, steam, types of      11      8

  Ermen’s revolving clearer      212      142

  Essential features of drawing frames      214      142

  Extent of machine making trade      3      5


  Fans in opening machine      52      28

  Feed motion dish for carding engine      106      54

  Feed motion dish for carding engine      143      81

  Feed motion, Lord’s piano      82      42

  Feed motion, cones in scutching      84      43

  Feed motion, velocity of cones in scutching      83      42

  Feed rollers, draught of      98      52

  Feed rollers, drawing action of      85      44

  Feed rollers, scutcher 85      44

  Feeding carding machines      105      53

  Feeding scutching machines from laps      95      51

  Fibres, position in fleece      153      88

  Fillets attaching to cylinders      164      96

  Fillets attaching to flats      166      101

  Fillets, Dronsfield’s emery      176      109

  Fillets, foundation for card      154      91

  Fillets, manufacture of card      155      91

  Fillets, Platt’s fastener for      169      105

  Fillets, preparation of      164      96

  Fillets, setting teeth in      156      92

  Fillets, Tweedale’s clip for card      168      102

  Fillets, winding on      165      96

  Fillets, Whiteley’s clip for card      166      101

  Flats, adjustment of heel in      117      62

  Flats, attaching chain to      123      68

  Flats, attaching clothing to      166      101

  Flats, Brooks’ adjustment of      131      77

  Flats, character of working setting      133      78

  Flats, construction of      116      61

  Flats, deflection of      167      102

  Flats, Edge’s grinding apparatus for      182      113

  Flats, Hetherington’s grinding apparatus for      181      112

  Flats, Higginson’s grinding apparatus for      183      114

  Flats, Knowles’ grinding apparatus for      180      111

  Flats, number of      115      61

  Flats, Platt’s grinding apparatus      184      116

  Flats, Platt’s inspecting device for      137      79

  Flats, shaping      116      61

  Flats, setting      132      77

  Flats, setting, Wellman      140      80

  Flats, testing heel of      117      62

  Flyers, attachment of pressers to      228      148

  Flyers, construction of roving      227      148

  Flyers, lead of      240      158

  Flyers, retardation of      240      157


  Gassing machine      399      272

  Gauge of spindles in roving machines      227      148

  Gin, cotton      24      15

  Gin, Macarthy cotton      25      15

  Grids, Howard and Bullough’s air bars for      74      38

  Grids, pitch of projections on      60      32

  Grids, position in opening machine      59      31

  Grids, position in scutching machine      72      37

  Grids, shape of opening machine      56      30

  Grids, setting bars in      73      38

  Grinding, defects of side      160      94

  Grinding, desirability of light      163      95

  Grinding, Horsfall roller for      177      109

  Grinding, improved side      162      95

  Grinding, principles of flat      179      110

  Grinding, roller brackets for      178      110

  Grinding, roller      186      117

  Grinding, side      159      94

  Grinding, slow speed of cylinder during      170      105

  Grinding, striation of teeth      161      94

  Grinding, Wellman flat      187      118


  Hank, definition of      387      257

  Hank, roving calculation of      387      257

  Heating of mills      15      11

  Heilmann combing machine      195      122

  Hetherington’s flat-grinding apparatus      181      112

  Hetherington’s Heilmann comber      195      122

  Hetherington’s mule      352      222

  Hetherington’s production of mule      ...      233

  Hetherington’s setting of flexible bend      121      66

  Hetherington’s slow motion      172      106

  Hetherington’s trueing apparatus for card      121      66

  Higgins’ spindle bearing      230      152

  Higginson’s flat grinding apparatus      183      114

  Holding-out catch      309      199

  Horsfall grinding roller      177      109

  Howard and Bullough’s air bars      74      38

  Howard and Bullough’s carding engine      127      70

  Howard and Bullough’s clip for fillets      168      102

  Howard and Bullough’s differential motion      248      165

  Howard and Bullough’s electric stop motion      223      145

  Howard and Bullough’s electric stop motion      263      174

  Howard and Bullough’s production of ring frame      ...      259

  Howard and Bullough’s weft ring frame      382      253

  Humidity of mills      15      10


  Importance of cleanliness      16      11

  Importance of efficient carding      190      119

  Importance of stripping cards      188      118

  Imbs’ combing machine      205      135

  Inclination of carding roller teeth      112      56

  Inclination of spindle in mule      280      183

  Increase in production of machine      4      6

  Indian cotton      22      13

  Indicators for mules      417      292

  Indicators for slubbing machines      417      294


  Jack frame      225      147

  Jack shaft      241      158

  Jacking      361      231


  Knowles’ revolving flat carding engine      128      73

  Knowles’ slow motion      175      108

  Knowles and Tatham’s grinding apparatus      180      111


  Lap attachment to scutching machine      67      35

  Lap, doubling of      97      52

  Lap, effect of licker-in on      143      82

  Lap, feeding on scutching machine      95      51

  Lap, feeding on carding engine      105      53

  Lap, selvedges of      99      52

  Lap, weight and hank of      100      52

  Leaf extractor, Crighton’s      77      40

  Leigh’s flexible bend      119      65

  Leigh’s loose boss top roller      208      138

  Licker-in, action of      150      85

  Licker-in, construction of      106      54

  Licker-in, setting of      136      79

  Licker-in, teeth of      157      93

  Lift of roving bobbins      233      154

  Lift, amount of      233      154

  Lift, reversal of      254      171

  Lift, ring rail      367      236

  Lift, shortening of roving frame      235      155

  Locking lever in mule      305      196

  Long collar, Mason’s      229      152

  Long lever in mule      290      189

  Lord Brothers’ opening machine      58      31

  Lord Brothers’ piano feed motion      82      42

  Lord Brothers’ scutching machine      68      35

  Lord Brothers’ velocity of opening beaters      58      31


  Machine making industry, employment in      3      5

  Machinery, productive power of      4      6

  Main driving of mills      12      9

  Margin between yarn and cotton      5      6

  Mason’s long collars      229      152

  Methods, earlier, of machine construction      2      5

  Methods, earlier, of machine construction      7      7

  Methods, modern, of machine construction      8      7

  Mill, cost of      6      7

  Mill, construction of modern      10      8

  Mixing arrangements      35      20

  Mixing by machine      37      21

  Mixing, principles of      36      21

  Mixing, staples of cottons in      38      22

  Moisture in cotton      27      16

  Mote knives, position and setting      144      82

  Mule      264      176

  Mule, back shaft driving of      284      184

  Mule, back shaft clutch teeth of      284      187

  Mule, back shaft disengagement of clutch      293      190

  Mule, back shaft scrolls on      284      187

  Mule, backing-off, driving of wheel      282      184

  Mule, backing-off, effect of      282      184

  Mule, backing-off, engagement of clutch      299      193

  Mule, backing-off, operation of      270 177

  Mule, backing-off, rotation of wheel      296      190

  Mule, backing-off, release of clutch      312      200

  Mule, backing-off, release of lever      301      194

  Mule, backing-off, compression of spring      300      193

  Mule, backing-off, tightening motion of chain      307      198

  Mule, bands attaching to end frames      284      187

  Mule, cam shaft effects, first half turn      292      190

  Mule, cam shaft effects, second half turn      345      218

  Mule, cam shaft, position of cams on      291      189

  Mule, cam shaft, position of ordinary      350      220

  Mule, click motion, description of      341      217

  Mule, click motion, defects of old      342      217

  Mule, click motion, holding out rod, and      343      217

  Mule carriage, angularity of yarn during traverse
    of      360      229

  Mule carriage, connection with square      278      183

  Mule carriage, construction of      278      183

  Mule carriage, extent of traverse of      269      177

  Mule carriage, gain of      288      189

  Mule carriage, reciprocal motion of      269      177

  Mule carriage, relation of rollers to      276      180

  Mule cop, chase of      317      203

  Mule cop, form of      316      202

  Mule cop, layers of yarn in      317      203

  Mule cop, paper tubes for      316      202

  Mule cop, position of nose of      306      197

  Mule copping motion, action of      322      205

  Mule copping motion, loose rail in      321      205

  Mule copping motion, object of rail      308      199

  Mule copping motion, theory of      319      203

  Mule copping motion, traverse of plates in      320      204

  Mule, Curtis’      358      228

  Mule, driving arrangement of bands for      281      183

  Mule, driving, back shaft      284      184

  Mule, driving, dimensions of pulleys for      281      183

  Mule, driving, duplex      287      188

  Mule, driving, duplex, dimensions of pulleys for     287     188

  Mule, driving, gear of taking-in shaft      285      187

  Mule, driving, improved, for taking-in side shaft    286     188

  Mule, driving rollers from rim shaft      283      184

  Mule, driving scroll shaft      285      187

  Mule, driving spindles      280      183

  Mule fallers, action of      303      194

  Mule fallers, actuating mechanism of winding      305      196

  Mule fallers, construction and position of      303      194

  Mule fallers, difference in upward and downward
   traverse of                                        317  203

  Mule fallers, position of winding before unlocking    346    218

  Mule fallers, regulating mechanism of counter      304      195

  Mule fallers, regulation of unlocking winding       346      219

  Mule fallers, release of strain on rods      347      219

  Mule, fine yarn      361      230

  Mule governing, action of motion      338      216

  Mule governing, amount required      340      216

  Mule governing, construction of motion      337      215

  Mule governing, Dobson and Barlow’s motion      354      225

  Mule governing, Dub’s motion      356      226

  Mule governing, necessity for      336      214

  Mule governing, release of motion      339      216

  Mule, Hetherington’s      352      222

  Mule, holding out catch mechanism of      309      199

  Mule, holding out position during backing-off      310      200

  Mule, holding out catch release of      313      201

  Mule, holding out rod effect on click motion      343      217

  Mule, jacking motion       361      231

  Mule, long lever      290      189

  Mule, locking lever, position of      305      196

  Mule, locking point, relation to cop nose      306      197

  Mule, locking taking-in friction      309      200

  Mule, Mendoza lever      351      221

  Mule, Mendoza locking      352      222

  Mule nosing motion, Dobson and Hardman’s      353      223

  Mule nosing motion, Platt’s      333      213

  Mule nosing peg       332      213

  Mule, Platt’s reasons for selecting      275      179

  Mule, production of, 1835-1890      4      6

  Mule production, tables of      ...      233

  Mule, primary parts of      266       176

  Mule, regulation of releasing motions      314      201

  Mule rim shaft, driving bands on      281      183

  Mule rim shaft, driving back shaft from      284      184

  Mule rim shaft, driving rollers from      283      184

  Mule rim shaft, reversal of      302      194

  Mule rim shaft, velocity of       286      188

  Mule rollers, action of      267      177

  Mule rollers, construction of      277      180

  Mule rollers, driving of      283      184

  Mule rollers, disengagement of clutch      294      190

  Mule rollers, engagement of clutch       345      218

  Mule scroll, diameters of      315      202

  Mule scroll, connection with back shaft      315      202

  Mule scroll, driving of shaft      285      187

  Mule scroll, position of, on back shaft      284      189

  Mule scroll, position of check      315      202

  Mule scroll, revolution of shaft      315      201

  Mule spindles, attaching roving to       268      177

  Mule spindles, construction of      280      183

  Mule spindles, dimensions of      280      183

  Mule spindles, effect of taper of      324      206

  Mule spindles, fitting bands on      280      183

  Mule, number of spindles on      4      6

  Mule, reversal of spindles      302      194

  Mule, velocity of spindles      280      183

  Mule spinning, definition of spinning      264      176

  Mule, stages in working of      272      178

  Mule stages, definition of      272      178

  Mule stages, end of first       289      189

  Mule stages, end of second      295      190

  Mule stages, end of third      311      200

  Mule stages, end of fourth      344      218

  Mule stages, end of fifth      288      188

  Mule stages, end of fifth      345      218

  Mule stages, end of sixth      273      179

  Mule stages, varying operation of parts during       274      179

  Mule strap guide, lever mechanism of      297      193

  Mule strap guide, mode of releasing      298      193

  Mule strap guide, release of      295      190

  Mule strap guide, re-locking, &c.      345      218

  Mule, taking-in, action of back shaft during      315      202

  Mule, taking-in, locking of clutch      309      200

  Mule, taking-in, position of clutch during backing
    off      310      200

  Mule, taking-in, release of clutch      313      201

  Mule, taking-in, speed of carriage during      315      202

  Mule, Threlfall’s fine      362      231

  Mule, twist yarn produced      363      232

  Mule, tin roller, construction of      279      183

  Mule, tin roller, driving of      331      212

  Mule winding, action at end of      271      178

  Mule winding, acceleration of velocity during      329      210

  Mule winding, application of theory       329      210

  Mule winding, connection of chain with tin roller      331      212

  Mule winding, construction of quadrant mechanism      330      210

  Mule winding, chain tightening motion      333      213

  Mule winding, chain rewinding on scroll      348      219

  Mule winding, difference in velocity of      323      206

  Mule winding, effect of taper of spindle on      324      206

  Mule winding, elevation of initial point of      318      203

  Mule winding, mode of rotating quadrant screw      335      214

  Mule winding, position of parts during      271      177

  Mule winding, theory of      325      208

  Mule winding, theory of action of quadrant arm       328      209

  Mule, weft yarn      363      232

  Mule, waste spinning      364      232


  Neps, removal of      150      85

  Nipper guard      201      130

  Nipper, Dobson and Barlow’s      203      134

  Nosing motion, Dobson and Barlow’s      353      223

  Nosing motion, Platt’s      333      213

  Nosing peg       332      213

  Number of doublings in drawing      216      143

  Number of persons employed      3      6

  Number of roving machines for various counts      225      147

  Number of spindles at work      3      5


  Opening, conditions of, successful      42      23

  Opening, mode of      41      23

  Opening, object of      40      23

  Opening machine, combination with mixing room      63      32

  Opening machine, construction of dust trunks for      64      32

  Opening machine, conveyance of cotton to      63      32

  Opening machine, Crighton’s      53      29

  Opening machine, Dobson and Barlow’s      47      25

  Opening machine, distance between beater arms and grid      59      31

  Opening machine, double fans in      52      28

  Opening machine, essential features of      43      23

  Opening machine, forms of       44      24

  Opening machine, Lord Brothers’ combined      58      31

  Opening machine, lubrication of footstep in      57      31

  Opening machine, pitch of projections on grid      60      32

  Opening machine, Platt’s      52      28

  Opening machine, Platt’s improved dust trunks for      65      33

  Opening machine, porcupine rollers for       48      26

  Opening machine, porcupine position and speed of      49      27

  Opening machine, porcupine used as feed       50      27

  Opening machine, position of dust trunks      64      32

  Opening machine, position of fans      54      29

  Opening machine, production of Crighton      59      32

  Opening machine, shape of grids      56      30

  Opening machines, Taylor, Lang and Co.’s      46      24

  Opening machines, velocity of beaters in      55      30

  Opening machines, velocity of beaters in Lord’s      58      31

  Operation of twist wheel in roving machine      241      158


  Paley’s traverse motion      261      173

  Parallelisation of fibres in carding      151      86

  Persons employed      3      5

  Pedal motion, Asa Lees      91      47

  Pedal motion, Howard and Bullough’s      86      44

  Pedal motion, Platt’s      88      46

  Pedal motion, Lord’s      82      42

  Pedal motion, operation of      84      43

  Pedal motion, with rollers      85      44

  Pinel. Lecœur, and Hetherington’s combing machine      205      135

  Pitch of drawing frame rollers      210      141

  Plate wheel, action of      244      162

  Plate wheel, driving of      246      163

  Plate wheel, relative velocity of      246      164

  Platt’s carding machine      122      67

  Platt’s dust trunks      65      33

  Platt’s flat grinding apparatus      184      116

  Platt’s flexible bend setting      122      67

  Platt’s full can stop motion      221      145

  Platt’s inspection of carding setting      137      79

  Platt’s mule      275      169

  Platt’s opening machine      52      28

  Platt’s scutching machine      88      46

  Pneumatic conveyance of cotton      62      32

  Polishing machines for thread      402      274

  Porcupine rollers, construction of      48      26

  Porcupine rollers, position and speed of      49      27

  Porcupine rollers used as feed      50      27

  Preparation of card fillets      164      96

  Preparation of card slivers      192      120

  Principles of flat grinding      179      111

  Principles of mixing      36      21

  Principles of setting card teeth      158      93

  Principles of twisting      234      154

  Production of mule spindles, 1835-90      4      6

  Production, tables of mule              233

  Production of polishing machines      402      274

  Production of roving machines      ...      175

  Production of spooling machines      403      281

  Productive power of machinery      4      6

  Pugh’s under-clearer spring      226      148


  Quick traverse winding machines, Brooks’      401      273

  Quick traverse, Dobson and Barlow      401      273

  Quick traverse, Hetherington’s      401      273


  Reeling machines, construction of      390      262

  Reeling machines, doffing motions      394      266

  Reeling machines, formation of hanks on      391      265

  Reeling machines, Guest and Brooks’ skeining motion      395      266

  Reeling machines, seven lea motion      392      265

  Ribbon lap machine      194      121

  Rigidity of machine framing      8      7

  Ring doubling machine, English system      384      284

  Ring doubling machine, manufacture of thread on      385      257

  Ring doubling machine, Scotch system      384      254

  Ring spinning machine, angularity of roller brackets      370      240

  Ring spinning machine, Asa Lees’ rope driving      383      254

  Ring spinning machine, ballooning in      378      248

  Ring spinning machine, balloon guards      378      249

  Ring spinning machine, Bee spindle      374      246

  Ring spinning machine, Bernhardt’s anti-balloon
    guide      378      249

  Ring spinning machine, Booth Sawyer spindle      371      241

  Ring spinning machine, centrifugal action of
    traveller      377      248

  Ring spinning machine, common spindle      371      240

  Ring spinning machine, construction of      367      234

  Ring spinning machine, concentricity of ring and
    spindle      371      240

  Ring spinning machine, Coulthard’s double ring      375      246

  Ring spinning machine, definition of ring spinning      366      234

  Ring spinning machine, diameter of rings      375      246

  Ring spinning machine, diameter of front rollers      383      254

  Ring spinning machine, differential drag of
    traveller      379      250

  Ring spinning machine, Dobson Marsh spindle      372      242

  Ring spinning machine, Dodd spindle      374      245

  Ring spinning machine, early use of      368      239

  Ring spinning machine, effect of weight of
    traveller      378      249

  Ring spinning machine, elastic spindles      373      242

  Ring spinning machine, form of travellers for bare
    spindles      381      252

  Ring spinning machine, frictional resistance of
    traveller      377      248

  Ring spinning machine, gauge of spindles      383      254

  Ring spinning machine, Howard and Bullough’s weft      382      253

  Ring spinning machine, influence of weight of
    traveller      377      248

  Ring spinning machine, Lancaster’s system of weft      381      252

  Ring spinning machine, lift of ring rail      367      236

  Ring spinning machine, lift of spindles      383      254

  Ring spinning machine, loss of twist in      380      251

  Ring spinning machine, manufacture of rings      375      246

  Ring spinning machine, Platt’s bare spindle      382      252

  Ring spinning machine, Rabbeth spindle      372      241

  Ring spinning machine, self-contained spindles      372      241

  Ring spinning machine, spinning on bare spindles      379      250

  Ring spinning machine, tables of production      ...      259

  Ring spinning machine, tables of power     ...      260

  Ring spinning machine, unsteady running spindles      373      242

  Ring spinning machine, velocity of spindles      373      242

  Ring spinning machine, Whitin gravity spindles      374      242

  Rollers, bale breaker      33      19

  Rollers, calender      109      55

  Rollers, cloth pasting machine      407      282

  Rollers, construction of      406      282

  Rollers, covering machines for      409      284

  Rollers, drawing frame      208      138

  Rollers, ending machines for      409      284

  Rollers, grinding      186      117

  Rollers, grinding machines for finished      411      287

  Rollers, grinding machine for skins      408      283

  Rollers, inclination of teeth on      113      60

  Rollers, jointing of      406      282

  Rollers, pitch of centres of      210      141

  Rollers, relieving motion for      213      142

  Rollers, rolling machine for      410      284

  Rollers, size of      224      146

  Rollers, splicing machine for      408      283

  Rollers, velocity of      209      138

  Rollers, velocity of      224      146

  Ropes, speed of driving      13      10

  Rope driving      13      10

  Rope driving for scutchers, Asa Lees’      91      48

  Rope driving for scutchers, Platt’s      87      45

  Roving machines, action of building motion      252      168

  Roving machines, action of plate wheel      244      162

  Roving machines, action of ratchet wheel      257      171

  Roving machines, amount of lift      233      154

  Roving machines, building motion for      250      166

  Roving machines, clearers for      226      148

  Roving machines, construction of      226      147

  Roving machines, construction of building motion      251      167

  Roving machines, construction of collars      229      152

  Roving machines, construction of differential
    motion      243      161

  Roving machines, construction of speed cones      249      166

  Roving machines, construction of spindles      227      148

  Roving machines, cone motion for      242      158

  Roving machines, Curtis and Rhodes’ motion      247      164

  Roving machines, definition of lead in      237      156

  Roving machines, difference in bobbin and flyer
    leads      240      158

  Roving machines, effect of winding in      235      155

  Roving machines, effect of diminishing rod      255      171

  Roving machines, effect of ratchet wheel change      259      172

  Roving machines, Higgins’ bearing for spindles of      230      152

  Roving machines, Howard and Bullough’s electric stop
    motion      263      174

  Roving machines, jack frame      225      147

  Roving machines, locking motion      260      173

  Roving machines, Mason’s long collar      229      152

  Roving machines, method of driving bobbins 232      153

  Roving machines, method of giving lift      233      154

  Roving machines, method of driving spindles and
    rollers      241      158

  Roving machines, method of driving plate wheel      246      163

  Roving machines, necessity for      225      147

  Roving machines, necessity for retardation of
    bobbin      238      157

  Roving machines, number employed      225      147

  Roving machines, number of rollers in      226      147

  Roving machines, object of building motion      250      166

  Roving machines, object of creel      226      148

  Roving machines, operation of twist wheel      241      158

  Roving machines, Paley’s traverse motion      261      173

  Roving machines, principles of reducing bobbin speed      239      157

  Roving machines, principles of reducing flyer speed      240      157

  Roving machines, twisting      234      154

  Roving machines, winding      236      155

  Roving machine, Pugh’s under-clearer for      226      148

  Roving machine, pressers attachment of      228      148

  Roving machine, reasons for bobbin lead      237      156

  Roving machine, releasing motion      256      171

  Roving machine, relation of strap and diminishing
    rod      258      172

  Roving machine, relative velocity of plate wheel      246      164

  Roving machine, reversal of lift      254      171

  Roving machine, setting of spindles      227      148

  Roving machine, shape of speed cones      249      166

  Roving machine, shortening of lift in      235      155

  Roving machine, size of rollers      226      148

  Roving machine, spindle speeds      234      155

  Roving machine, table of production      ...      175

  Roving machine, theory of action of differential
    motion      244      162

  Roving machine, Tweedale’s differential motion      248      165

  Roving machine, velocity of wheels      246      164

  Roving machine, weighting of rollers      226      148


  Scutching machine, Asa Lees’ pedal motion      91      47

  Scutching machine, Asa Lees’ rope driving      92      48

  Scutching machine, character of beater blow      69      37

  Scutching machine, combinations of      93      48

  Scutching machine combined with mixing      93      50

  Scutching machine, conditions of successful working      94      51

  Scutching machine, construction of air passages      79      41

  Scutching machine, construction of beaters      68      36

  Scutching machine, construction of feed rollers and
    pedals      85      44

  Scutching machine, Crighton’s cages      76      39

  Scutching machine, Crighton’s leaf extractor      77      40

  Scutching machine, distance of dead plate from beater
    sheet      77      39

  Scutching machine, Dobson and Barlow’s pedal motion      90      47

  Scutching machine, doubling of laps in feeding      97      52

  Scutching machine, draught of      98      52

  Scutching machine, drawing action of rollers      85      44

  Scutching machine, effect of dead plate on air current      80      41

  Scutching machine, Howard and Bullough’s airbars      74      38

  Scutching machine, Howard and Bullough’s pedal bowls      86      44

  Scutching machine, importance of balancing beaters      68      36

  Scutching machine, lap attachment      67      35

  Scutching machine, lap feeding of      95      51

  Scutching machine, lap even selvedge of      99      52

  Scutching machine, lap weight and hank of      100      52

  Scutching machine, Lord’s      68      35

  Scutching machine, Lord’s piano feed      82      42

  Scutching machine, number of workpeople required for      102      52

  Scutching machine, object of      66      35

  Scutching machine, operation of piano feed      84      43

  Scutching machine, Platt’s dead plate      81      41

  Scutching machine, Platt’s pedal motion      88      46

  Scutching machine, Platt’s rope driving      87      45

  Scutching machine, position of grids      72      37

  Scutching machine, position of dead plate      75      39

  Scutching machine, pulsations of beater      70      37

  Scutching machine, setting of grid bars      73      38

  Scutching machine, two or three winged beaters      69      36

  Scutching machine, velocity of air current      78      40

  Scutching machine, velocity of beaters      69      36

  Scutching machine, velocity of cones      83      42

  Sea Island cotton      18      13

  Selvedges in carding      120      66

  Selvedge, opener      52      28

  Selvedge, scutcher      99      52

  Setting brackets for rollers      113      60

  Setting card covers      145      82

  Setting card cylinders      129      74

  Setting card pedestals      148      85

  Setting, character of card      133      78

  Setting, effect of Wellman flats      141      81

  Setting flats      132      77

  Setting flats, theory of      18      64

  Setting flats, Wellman      140      81

  Setting flexible bend      119      65

  Setting licker-in and doffer      136      79

  Setting mote knives      141      82

  Setting, Platt’s inspection of      137      79

  Setting teeth in clothing      156      92

  Setting under casings      144      82

  Seven lea motion      392      265

  Shape of card teeth      159      94

  Shortening lift in roving machines      235      155

  Side grinding of card teeth      159      94

  Side grinding, defects of      160      94

  Side grinding, improved      162      95

  Side grinding, striation of teeth by      161      94

  Size of driving rollers      224      146

  Size of driving ropes      14      10

  Size of roving rollers      226      148

  Skeining motion      395      266

  Slivers, definition of      108      55

  Slivers, doubling of      193      121

  Slivers, doubling of      215      143

  Slivers, cans for      405      282

  Sliver lap machine      193      121

  Slow motion, Sykes’      171      105

  Slow motion, Hetherington’s      172      106

  Slow motion, Brooks’      174      107

  Slow motion, Knowles’      175      108

  Slubbing machine      225      147

  Slubs, production of       212      142

  Speed cones, construction of      249      166

  Speed cones, shape of      249      166

  Speed of combing machine      200      129

  Speed of belts and ropes      13      10

  Speed of roving spindles      234      155

  Spindles, comparative speed of      9      8

  Spindles, construction of roving      227      148

  Spindles, number at work      3      5

  Spindles, setting of      227      148

  Spooling machine      403      278

  Spooling, production of      403      281

  Standard Spinning Co’s Mill      ...      298

  Staple, definition of      17      12

  Staple, effect in drawing      210      141

  Starch pump      415      295

  Steam engines, types of      11      8

  Stop motion drawing frame      219      144

  Stop motion winding frame      398      271

  Stripping, method of      189      119


  Table of production of roving frame      ...      175

  Table of production of mule      ...      233

  Table of production of ring frame      ...      259

  Tables of power for ring frame      ...      260

  Taylor Lang’s opening machine      46      24

  Teeth, carding, setting of      156      92

  Teeth, carding, licker in      157      93

  Teeth, carding, principles of setting      158      93

  Teeth, carding, side grinding      160      94

  Testing flexible bend      119      65

  Testing heel in flats      117      62

  Theisen’s condenser      11      9

  Theory of differential motion      244      162

  Theory of mule winding      325      208

  Transmission of power by belts      12      9

  Transmission, loss in      13      10

  Twist in yarn, rule      387      258

  Twist wheel in roving frames      241      158


  Under casings for carding machine      144      82

  Under clearer for roving machine      226      148


  Velocity of beater in opener       55      30

  Velocity of beater in scutcher      69      36

  Velocity of carding cylinders      107      54

  Velocity of carding cylinders during grinding      170      105

  Velocity of doffer      108      54

  Velocity of doffer comb      108      54

  Velocity of main driving belts      13      10

  Velocity of main driving ropes      13      10

  Velocity of porcupine cylinders      49      27

  Velocity of rollers of drawing frame      209      138

  Velocity of rollers of ring frame      ...     259

  Velocity of spindles in roving machines      234      155

  Velocity of spindles in mule      280      183

  Velocity of spindles in ring frame      373      242

  Velocity of wheels in differential      246      164


  Waste from combing machine      206      136

  Wellman carding machine      138      79

  Width of lap for combing machine      194      121

  Whiteley’s clip      166      101

  Whiteley’s fillet winding machine      165      96

  Whiteley’s side-ground teeth      162      95

  Willow, The      45      24

  Workpeople employed in machine making      3      5

  Wrap reel      415      294


  Yarn, counts of      387      257

  Yarn testers      416      292














    (With Wilkinson’s Patent Adjustable Revolving Discs.)

    With Patented Motions, all Positive and Instantaneous in Action.

    From entirely New Models.

    FOR COTTON YARNS (Warp and Weft), and also for WORSTED YARN.

  The “RING” System has long been my Speciality, and the Frames contain
  many most valuable patented Inventions for increasing the production
  and improving the quality of the yarn.


    For Sewing Cottons, Mendings, Knittings, Heald Yarns, Nettings, &c.;
    also RING TWISTING FRAMES, fitted with Yorkshire “Trap” System, for
    Worsted Yarn.

    with their Machinery, one Firm alone having over 180,000 “RING”
    Spindles at work.


    WITH OR WITHOUT PATENT STOP MOTION, to wind upon Paper Tubes or
    Bobbins without heads; will build the yarn any width, from 3/4 in.
    upwards, and any diameter, either Parallel or Conical. The Machine
    is perfectly noiseless, has no traverse motion to get out of order,
    and can be run at any speed at which the yarn will come off the cop
    or bobbin—PATENT STOP MOTION for winding TWO OR MORE ENDS together
    upon ONE SPOOL.

    Converted (AT REASONABLE COST) into “RING” System.


    Sole Maker of the “AMERICAN STANDARD RING TRAVELLER,” for Spinning
    and Doubling, in Steel or Composition. A large and special plant has
    been put down for the production of these Travellers, and Customers
    may rely upon perfect exactness as to size and weight of each number
    of Traveller. Price Lists on application. Orders solicited.


  All communications to be addressed to the Head Offices:


[Illustration: Original image]






  With Corliss or other Valve Gear, especially adapted for driving all
  description of Mills.


  Improved Metallic Pistons and Air Pump Buckets.

[Illustration: Original image]


Castlefield Iron Works,



  Improved Roller Cotton Mixer.

  Improved Crighton Opener, with and without
  Feed Table.

  Patent Exhaust Crighton Openers.

  Patent Combined Openers and Lap Machines
  with or without Exhaust.

  Lap Machines, with Patent Leaf Extractor.

   Do.,  do.,   and Cone Regulator.

   Do.,  do.,   and Piano Motion Regulator.

  Derby Doublers.

  Grinding Machines.

  Proprietors by Assignment from W. Higgins
  & Sons and Sole Makers of

  Higgins’ Drawing  Frames.

  Higgins’ (Patent Express) Slubbing Frames.
           (Long   Collar)

     „           „          Intermediate  „

     „           „          Roving        „

     „           „          Jack          „

     „           „          Merino        „

     „           „          Silk Dandy    „

  The above made with Short Collars if required.




_References to the above Machines will be found in the Chapters
relating to them._

[Illustration: Original image]





  On the Latest and Most Approved Principles

  Cotton Waste, Wool, Worsted,
  and Vigonia Yarns.


[Illustration: Original image]

  In the following Machines:—

  =Double-Action Knife Roller Cotton Gin=, suitable for all
  classes of Cotton.

  =Vertical Conical Beater Openers.=

  =Double and Single Openers=, with or without Lap Machine.

  =Double and Single Scutchers=, with or without pedal motion.

  =Grinding Machines= and =Grinding Rollers= on our improved

  =Carding Engines= on =Wellman’s= principle, with our patented
  improvements and additional motions.

  =New Patent Comb Box.=

  =Carding Engines= with revolving flats, with our improvements.

  McConnell & Higginson’s =Patent Flat Grinding Apparatus=,
  for grinding Revolving Flats from their working surfaces.

  =Carding Engines, “Simplex,”= with revolving flats, with our
  Patent Automatic Flexible Bend Adjustment, 110 flats, 44
  constantly at work. Flats set to the cylinder to the two-thousandth
  part of an inch. Patent Adjustable Pedestal
  mathematically correct, for adjusting cylinder in any direction.

  =Carding Engines=, with rollers and clearers, specially adapted
  for waste and for coarse spinning, with or without Patent

  =Sliver Lap Machines= and =Derby Doublers=.

  =Heilmann’s Cotton Combing Machines=, of 6 or 8 heads,
  with our improvements for various kinds of Cotton.

  =Patent Draw Frame= and =Ribbon Lap Machine= combined,
  which gives increased out-turn, causes less waste and less wear
  to the Combers.

  =Drawing, Slubbing, Intermediate, Roving= and =Jack

  =Patent Self-Acting Mules= for spinning fine or coarse counts.

  =Patent Self-Acting Mules= for spinning Vigonia yarns.

  =Ring Throstles= and =Doublers= for Cotton, Silk, Combed
  Wool and Merino Yarns, with our patented cork-cushion
  flexible Spindle; also with the “Rabbeth” or other Spindle.

  =D. & B.’s Patent Automatic Anti-Ballooning
  Motion=, its application economising almost 10 per cent. spindle
  space; can be applied to existing Frames of any make.

  =Mule Twiners= on our recently improved principle.

  =Patent Quick Traverse Drum Winding Frames=, with or
  without Stop Motion to each end, for making parallel or
  conical bobbins, or parallel bobbins with tapered ends.

  =Improved Cop Winding Frame.=

  =Patent Gassing Frames=, with or without Patent Quick
  Traverse Motion, for winding on to wood or paper tubes, or
  with Patent Tapering Motion.

  =Cop Reels= on =Coleby’s= principle, with our Patent: Instantaneous
  Stop Motion for stopping the swift when a thread
  breaks, or when the required length is put on the swift.


Also Makers of many other Machines and Tools.

  Patented Cork-Cushion Flexible Spindle,

  For Spinning and Doubling. Will run either twist or weft way by
  simply changing the position of the bands.


  Stoppages of Spindles not required whilst Re-Oiling. No Pumping out
  of Dirty Oil. Oil Cups can be taken off, dirty oil removed, cups
  re-filled and attached whilst Spindles are in motion.

  The Dobson-Marsh Lubrication Attachment can also be applied to
  Rabbeth Spindles.


Particulars of Special Improvements in Cotton Preparing and Spinning
Machinery, also Plans and Estimates, may be had on application to

  DOBSON & BARLOW, Kay Street Works, BOLTON.

  Manchester Office: 2, ST. ANN’S PLACE.

[Illustration: Original image]



Cotton Spinning & Manufacturing Machinery

Of the most modern and approved principle, and embracing all the latest
patent improvements.



Comprise the best points of English and American Machines.

These Openers and Scutchers are remarkable for CLEANING POWER without
damaging Staple, and for REGULARITY and EVENNESS of LAP.


With RIGID Bend. 110 Flats. 43 Working.



  1.—Rigid bend, mathematically correct at all stages of the wire.

  2.—Arrangement for adjusting Flats, whereby accuracy to the
  thousandth part of an inch is attained. THE MOST ORDINARY WORKMAN CAN

  3.—Flats and Cylinders are covered with hardened and tempered steel

  4.—Quantity carded, from 900 to 1,100 lbs. per week.

  5.—FEWER ENGINES REQUIRED—less oil—less power—less room—less
  attention required, and EQUAL YARN made from CHEAPER COTTON or HIGHER


  Applied to Drawing and Intermediate Frames, for preventing “Single”;
  patented August, 1875; applied already to 27,631 Delivery heads of
  drawing, and 165,027 Intermediate Spindles.

[Illustration: Original image]



This Spinning Frame has been so extensively adopted, and has attained
its present high degree of perfection owing, Firstly—to its being
PROPERLY MADE. We had the advantage of Mr. Rabbeth’s personal
assistance and experience, and he furnished us with the most perfect
special tools for making the spindles and rings.

Secondly:—Our experience, now extending over =3,792,570=
spindles—constituting us the LARGEST MAKERS OF RING FRAMES IN THE
WORLD—has enabled us to perfect the machine mechanically and to
introduce improvements which have increased its production 20 per
cent. in five years—extended its scope into higher counts of yarn, and
enabled it to compete successfully with the Mule in spinning WEFT and


HOWARD & BULLOUGH desire to say that their Ring Spinning Weft Frame
is successfully established. It is as successful for spinning Weft on
Pirns (NOT on the bare spindle) as is their well-known Rabbeth Ring
Frame for spinning Twist, and is entitled to equal confidence.

References given on application, comprising leading and extensive mills
where the Weft Ring has entirely displaced the mule.


Made either on the English or Scotch system, for ordinary Doubling or
for Sewing Cottons.


AMERICAN SPINDLE OIL, for Ring Spindles.

BEST BOBBINS for Ring Spinning.

=CAUTION.=—HOWARD & BULLOUGH emphatically warn the trade against the
evils arising from BAD or unsuitable oil, and ILL-FITTING or BADLY


Accrington is distant from Manchester only 20 miles. Frequent trains
run daily from Victoria or Salford Stations on the Lancashire and
Yorkshire Railway.

  _July 31st, 1890._

[Illustration: Original image]

  Lord Brothers

  Telegraphic Add.

  No. 6

















[Illustration: Original image]


Canal Street Works,


_LORD BROTHERS are Makers of the following Machinery, off Newest
Models, with all latest Improvements_:—

  “Cotton Pulling” or “Bale Breaking” and Mixing Machines.

  Patent “Exhaust” Fans.

  =Patent “Exhaust” Openers.=

  =Patent “Exhaust” Horizontal Cylinder Openers, combined with
  Scutchers and Lap Machines, for drawing Cotton any distance up to
  1,000 feet.=

  =Patent Combined “Exhaust” VERTICAL CYLINDER Openers, with or without
  Scutchers and Lap Machines.=

  =Patent Openers, with Cylinders and Beaters, combined with Scutchers
  and Lap Machines.=

  =Patent Scutchers, with Lap Machines.=

  Patent “Express” Cards.

  Patent Improved “Piano” Regulators.

  Patent “Revolving” Flat and Improved “Wellman” Flat Cards.

  Single and Double Roller and Clearer Carding Engines, with Patent
  Setting Arrangements for Rollers, Clearers, Grinding Rollers and Mote

  Drawing Frames, with Improved Quick-Stop Motions.

  Slubbing Frames, with Patent Steps, Short or Long Collars, Patent
  Cone Motion, and built to stand high speeds.

  Intermediate Frames, Short or Long Collars, as above.

  Roving Frames, with      do.       do.         do.

  Fine Jack Frames, with   do.       do.         do.

  Improved “High-Speed Flyer” Throstle, with Patent Steel, New Patent
  “Self-Lubricating,” or our Improved Ashworth’s Cast-Iron Collars.

  Flyer Doubling Frames, on same principle as High-Speed Throstle, for
  every description of Thread or Lace Yarns.

  Ring Spinning Frames with our Improved “Flexible” or Rabbeth Spindles.

  Improved Ring Doubling Frames.

  Winding Frames.

  Warping Mills.

  Ball-Sizing Machinery.

  Warp-Drying Machines.

  Beaming Machines.

  Patent Looms, Single Shuttle or Box.

  Looms with Patent Positive “Let-off” Motion.

  Patent Indigo Mills, &c., &c.


N.B.—LORD BROTHERS purchased the whole of the Patterns and Business of
the late firm of John Elce & Co., Limited, and can execute orders for
new or repairs for existing Machinery.

  Telephone Number 6.
  Manchester Exchange, Tuesdays and Fridays, No. 12 Pillar.

  Telegraphic Address: “LORDS, TODMORDEN.”

[Illustration: Original image]

ASA LEES & CO. Limited, Soho Iron Works,



[Illustration: Original image]




MANCHESTER OFFICE (Open Tuesdays and Fridays), 27, HOPWOOD AVENUE.



For Preparing, Spinning, and Doubling Cotton and Wool.

  =OPENERS.=—Improved Cotton Openers, with Porcupine Cylinders.
  CRICHTON’S Openers and Patent Exhaust Openers.

  =SCUTCHERS OR LAP MACHINES.=—Single or Double, with our Patent Feed
  Regulator, with rope driving.


  =SINGLE CARDING ENGINES=, with Rollers and Clearers.

  flats, and recent improvements.

  =DOUBLE CARDING ENGINES= of various Patterns, with Rollers and
  Clearers, or with Revolving Flats.

  =COMPOSITE DOUBLE CARDING ENGINES=, with Rollers and Clearers on
  first Cylinder, and Revolving Flats on Finishing Cylinder.

  =CARDING ENGINES= for Wool, Wadding, &c. Condensers, &c.

  =DRAWING FRAMES=, with Improved Front and Back Stopping Motions.
  With Full Can Stopping Motion, Weight Relieving Motion, and Traverse
  Motion, if required.

  =SLUBBING, INTERMEDIATE & ROVING FRAMES=, made from new Patterns,
  with recent Improvements, Ordinary or Long Spindle Collars, &c.
  Taylor’s Patent Cone Releasing Motion.

  =PATENT SELF-ACTING MULES for Cotton=, Coarse or Fine Counts.

  =PATENT SELF-ACTING MULES for Wool, Shoddy, Mungo, and Cotton Waste.=


  =PATENT SELF-ACTING TWINERS=, with Improved Horizontal Brass Locking
  Slide with Moving Creels, or on the Mule principle, with Stationary

  =PATENT SELF-ACTING TWINERS= for Twisting or Doubling =Wool=,
  =Worsted=, or =Mixed Yarns=.

  =FLYER THROSTLE FRAMES=, for Spinning or Doubling.



BAERLEIN & CO., 12, Blackfriars Street, SALFORD, MANCHESTER,

_To whom all Communications relating to Continental Business should be

[Illustration: Original image]




Plain or Fancy, with Lifting or Revolving Boxes, for Cotton, Linen,
Woollen, Worsted, Jute, Silk, and Carpets.



[Illustration: Original image






  MANCHESTER OFFICE:—5, St. Ann’s Square.

  GLASGOW OFFICE:—160, Hope Street—Mr. RICHARD MURRAY, Agent.


  RUSSIA.—Messrs. De Jersey and Co., Manchester; and Mr. L. Knoop.,

  FRANCE, BELGIUM, ITALY, BAVARIA, &c.—Messrs. Adolphus Sington & Co.,

  BOHEMIA and SAXONY.—Mr. W. W. Derham, Leipsic.

  AUSTRIA.—Messrs. M. Schoch & Co., Vienna.

  BADEN, WURTEMBURG and SWITZERLAND.—Messrs. M. Schoch & Co., Zurich.

  SPAIN, PORTUGAL and MEXICO.—Messrs. John M. Sumner & Co., Manchester.

  WESTPHALIA.—Messrs. S. D. Bles & Sons, Manchester; and in HOLLAND
  (for Cotton Machinery only).

  SCANDINAVIA and DENMARK.—Messrs. D. Foxwell & Son, 1, North Parade,
  Parsonage, Manchester.

  UNITED STATES.—Messrs. F. A. Leigh & Co., 35 and 36, Mason Building,
  Boston, Mass.

  BOMBAY PRESIDENCY.—The Hon. N. N. Wadia, C.I.E., Tardeo, Bombay.

  JAPAN and the COREA.—Messrs. Mitsui & Co., 1, Crosby Square, London.


Machinery for Preparing and Spinning Vigogne and Cotton Waste or
Barchant Yarns.



For Cotton, Wool, Worsted, and Silk.


For Cotton, Worsted, and Silk.

[Illustration: Original image


RING SPINNING FRAMES (for Warp and Weft),

To Spin on Bobbins, Pirns, Paper Tubes, and =BARE SPINDLE=.



For Cotton, Wool and Worsted—with Motions for making Spot, Loop, and
all kinds of Fancy Yarns.



On the FRENCH SYSTEM, as lately Exhibited at the Manchester Jubilee


Including Winding, Warping, Sizing, Beaming, and Dressing Machines, for
Cotton, Linen, and Jute Yarns, and Starching Machines for Carpet Yarns.


  Telegraphic Address: “PLATTS, OLDHAM.”      Telephone No. 26.








  PATENT MACARTHY ROLLER COTTON GINS, for Long or Short Stapled Cotton.

  IMPROVED COTTON BALE BREAKER, with and without Mixing Lattices.


  CRIGHTON’S OPENERS, with Improved Creeper Feeder.

  PATENT “EXHAUST” OPENERS, with or without Lap Machines, and with
  Patent Travelling Dirt Lattice applied to Dust Trunk.

  SCUTCHERS, with Patent Pedal Regulators.


1888 PATENT,

Of Various Sections, from =72= Flats =2=in. wide, =90= Flats =1-5/8=in.
wide, to =106= Flats =1-3/8=in. wide.


ROLLER & CLEARER CARDING ENGINES, Single or Double, made to any width




CARDS AND CONDENSERS FOR WOOL, Martin’s, Bolette’s, Sachsische and
other Systems, with Ball, Scotch, and Blamire’s Feeding Arrangements.


[Illustration: Original image]




[Illustration: Original image




WINDING FRAMES, for winding from Mule Cops, Ring and Flyer Throstle or
Doubler Bobbins.

HANK and PIRN WINDING FRAMES of all descriptions.


Made from new patterns. Most simple stop-motion made.

GASSING FRAMES for Cotton, Worsted, and Silk Yarns, with latest

Reels are now made with new Patent “Bridge” Doffing Motion. This Motion
consists of one piece only. No soiling with oil in doffing.

YARN BUNDLING PRESSES of all descriptions. New Lifting Motion
preventing breakdowns.


_The above Improved Machines may be seen in operation in the Show Room
at my Works, and Inspection is specially invited._

Maker of ANNEALED and MALLEABLE IRON CASTINGS of superior quality.

Telegrams—“Winding, Manchester.” Telephone No. 440.

Manchester Exchange, No. 12 Pillar, Tuesdays and Fridays, 1.30 to 3



Brunswick Mills, HALIFAX, England.


In Mild, and Patent Hardened and Tempered Steel Wire, for Cotton, Wool,
Worsted, and Silk.



Patent Needle Pointed Card Clothing,




CARD TACKS. GAUGES for Setting Cylinders, Doffers, and Flats, &c., &c.


Flats Re-Cut and Clothed with Whiteley’s Patent Clasp, Ashworth’s
Sewing, or Lead Rivets, and Trued, Tested, and Ground ready for use.


_Burnishing Brushes._ _Spiral Flat Stripping Brushes._


Samples and Estimates on Application.

[Illustration: Original image]

_Four Minutes from Wardleworth Station, L. & Y. Railway._

_Fifteen Minutes from Rochdale Station, L. & Y. Railway._






Machinist and Ironfounder,




Patent Section Warping Machines.

Patent Curved Hecks.

Patent Balling Machines.

Patent Reels for Reeling Ring Frame Bobbins.

Patent Dressing Frames, &c., &c.





[Illustration: Original image]






=Estimates= _given and Plans made for complete Spinning and Weaving
Mills for Cotton, Wool, Flax, Jute, Silk, &c._



Supplied of approved high-class qualities.

F. J. & Co. hold Letters Patent for numerous Novelties and Improvements
in connection with Textile Machinery, amongst others:



     „        „     FAST REED MOTION.

     „        „     LOOSE REED MOTION.

     „        „     ADJUSTABLE SHUTTLE BOX END, &c.

[Illustration: Original image]




  Telegraphic Address—
  “Duplex, Hyde.” (JAMES SHENTON, PROPRIETOR.) Telephone No, 21.

Makers of High-Class Lancashire, Cornish, Vertical, Hyde Duplex,


Up to 200lbs. Working Pressure. Tested by Hydraulic Pressure to 350lbs.

Adapted and Constructed to Burn Coal, Wood, Vegetable Matter and Refuse
as Fuel.

Machinery of the most modern construction.



Please Address all Enquiries as above.


JAMES SHENTON has had upwards of 36 years’ Practical Experience in the
manufacturing of High-class Steel Boilers.

[Illustration: Original image]



Cooper Road, PRESTON.

Specialities for Ring Spinning & Doubling


Rabbeth, Elastic or Gravity, Booth-Sawyer & other Patent Spindles,


_The Simplest and most Durable Automatic Spindle Holder._

Patent Spinning & Doubling Rings, worth two of any other description.


For Worsted Spinning and Twisting.


_(HICK’S STANDARD) (Established 1854)_


Throstle Frames altered to Ring Frames


[Illustration: Original image]

  ESTABLISHED 1852.      Telegraphic Address: “WILSON, BARNSLEY.”

  15, MARKET STREET, MANCHESTER (Opposite Royal Exchange).

  Made from _SUITABLE TIMBER_, a large
  stock of which is always in season.


  Fitted at one or both ends with
  “Improved Patent Steel Shields.”

  effectually strengthened at small extra cost by PATENT
  Every bobbin tested, and accuracy of fit and balance on Spindle

  WEFT PIRNS fitted with PATENT “RINGS” & “TIPS”
  are practically unbreakable.

  Patent Steel or Brass “Protectors,”
  Are completely protected from wearing action of Driving Studs or Pegs.
  for above ensure a smooth edge and prevent breakage of thread.

  ensuring accurate fit on Spindles, steady running, and uniform drag.

WARPING and WINDING BOBBINS, of superior construction, with BRASS or
STEEL “RIMS,” to prevent breakage or opening of flanges.

TOP CLEARERS, Grooved or Parallel, &c., &c.


Estimates for Home or Export on application to the Works: _BARNSLEY.

[Illustration: Original image]



  “The best results” in
  Card Grinding
  are obtained by using
  Atlas Works, OLDHAM, England.









[Illustration: Original image]

Established 1832.

  Bee Hive Works, BOLTON.


  Patent DOUBLING Spindle.
  Unlimited Speed without vibration.]


  Gravity Spindle.

  _Manufacturer of all kinds of_
  Iron, Steel, and Case-hardened.


(Flyers of Steel) of every description, for Cotton, Silk, Woollen, and
Flax Spinning.

Seed & Ryder’s Presser attached by Patent Bottom Clip.


  For Spinning or Doubling.


  On the Flexible, Rabbeth, and other principles.

  Sawing Machines for Hot Iron,


[Illustration: Original image]





Weaving Printers, Shirtings, T Cloths, Domestics, Dhooties, &c.
Blackburn and Keighley Double-Lift Dobbies up to 40 Shafts. Drop Box
Looms for Ginghams, Handkerchiefs, &c.

  _Illustrated Catalogues on application._

  Tuesday and
  10 Pillar,
  1-30 to 2-30.


  Silver Medal

  LIVESEY’S DROP BOX LOOM for Checks, Ginghams, Oxfords,
  Harvards (up to 5 Shuttles).

  Improved Cast-Iron Taking-up Beam,

  ‘Slasher’ Sizing & Warping Machines.
  For Linen and Coloured Yarns.

  Looming & Drawing-in Frames, &c.


_Loom Sides Planed and Cross Rails cut to exact length with Special
Tools. Bushes and Seatings on Loom Sides Planed by Special Machinery._


[Illustration: Original image]



  Automatic in Action.
  Easily Fixed.
  Reliable and Positive.
  Efficient and Easily Regulated.
  No Dirty Glasses.
  Few Parts in Small Space.
  Perfect Sight-Feed.


DESCRIPTION.—=A= is the oil chamber in which works a piston =B=, having
screwed into its top side a hollow piston rod =K=, which works through
a stuffing box. This piston rod also serves as an indicator showing
the level of the oil. At the top end of the rod is a filling-plug
=J=, through which the oil is delivered into the chamber =A=, the oil
passing through the small holes at the bottom of the tube; =D= is the
steam inlet, =H= the oil outlet, =G= the sight-feed, =L= an air valve,
=M= a plug which can be unscrewed and the sight-feed =G= inserted at
the other side or a second applied, =E= is a run-off valve, and =C= is
the base to which the Lubricator is fixed.



[Illustration: Original image]


  Textile Industries

  Published on the 15th day of each month
  Post-free, 9s. per annum.

  Is recognised at
  as the most

  _NOTE.—It is indisputable that the articles in_ “THE TEXTILE
  RECORDER” _are quoted in Continental, Colonial, and American Trade
  Magazines, to a greater extent than those of any other Textile

JOHN HEYWOOD, 1, Paternoster Buildings, London; and Ridgefield,

[Illustration: Original image]




  I. No water is wasted or consumed, as the condensed water can be used
  for feeding the boiler, and the same quantity ordinarily employed for
  boiler feeding suffices for effecting condensation.

  II. Hot distilled water is obtained, affording an absolute
  preventative against boiler incrustation.

  III. Very active condensation is obtained with a comparatively small
  surface, this effect being brought about by the rapid absorption of
  the heat through evaporation.

  IV. A high degree of vacuum is secured, resulting in a great saving
  of fuel.

  V. Hot and impure water can be used for cooling.

  VI. The apparatus can be executed to suit the most exacting

  VII. The cooling surfaces are automatically kept clean.

  VIII. The condensing passages are easily accessible.

  IX. The apparatus is simple in construction and easily manipulated.


  1, Clarence Street,

[Illustration: Original image]


  Cable and Telegraphic Address:


N.B.—Representatives in all the Industrial Centres of the World.

  MACHINERY for SPINNING and WEAVING Cotton, Wool, Worsted, Flax, Hemp,
  Jute, Silk, &c.


  Steam Boilers, Steam Engines, Economisers, Turbines, Mill Gearing,
  Electric Lighting and Gas Plant; Hoists, &c.

  Ironwork for Mills from A to Z—Fireproof, &c., Roofing and Patent
  Glazing; Heating and Ventilating Apparatus.

  Paper, Rice, Sugar, Ice, Flour, Oil, Chemical, Distillery, Iron and
  Steel Plants.

  Portable and Permanent Railway Plant, Rolling Stock, Locomotives,
  Steam Ships, Steam Launches, Dredgers, &c. Hydraulic Machinery and



British Patent, No. 6,703, 1886. U.S.A. Patent, No. 380,826, 1888. New
Patents, No. 15,454, 1889, and No. 9,264, 1890.

  N.B.—These Balances or Yarn Testers (indispensable to Spinners,
  Manufacturers, and Merchants) indicate the Counts of Yarn in small
  lengths, or from bits of cloth, in either Cotton, Woollen, Worsted,
  Linen, Jute, or other Fibre.



  _Large Size_



SCALE—One-fifth of full size.


  =INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS ABROAD= (Brochure) by Geo. Thomas, 1876. =Price

  =TEXTILE READY RECKONER= (Universal Tables for Calculating the
  Structures of Cotton, Woollen, Worsted, Linen, Silk, and Mixed
  Fabrics). (Translation from Staub)—1888. =Price 6/6=

  =STOCKHOLM’S MARIA ELEVATOR= (Hydro-Pneumatic Passenger Lift), by
  Geo. Thomas, with 5 plates, 1888. =Price 2/6=

  =COTTON= Goods (Translation from Dépierre), 1889. =Price 30/.=


[Illustration: Original image]


Whitworth Works,




  STAMPINGS in all Metals.
  WIRE GUIDES of all descriptions.
  Small Parts of Machinery.

Flat and Coiled SPRINGS.




_Inventions worked out by a Trained Staff of Toolmakers._


[Illustration: Original image]




  Attendance at
  Manchester Royal Exchange,
  No. 8 Pillar,
  Every Tuesday and Friday only.
  Telegraphic Address: Hall, Bury.

  Every Tuesday and Friday only.
  Telegraphic Address: Hall, Bury.





  Tapestry and Brussels Carpet Looms.
  Hosepipe and Belting Looms and Machinery.
  Turkish Towel and Sailcloth Looms.
  Drop-Box Looms.
  Pirn and Drum Winding Machinery.
  Shearing and Raising Machines.
  Sectional Warping and Balling Machines.
  Plush and Slipper Carpet Looms.
  Fustian and Bed-Tick Looms and Machinery.
  Jacquard and Dobby Looms.
  Damask Looms.
  Sponge Cloth Looms.
  Winding and Warping Machinery of every description.




French and German Correspondence.

[Illustration: Original image]


  1 lb. 6 oz.
  FOR 1-1/4 IN. GROOVE.

  1 lb. 14 oz.
  FOR 1-1/2 IN. GROOVE.

  2 lb. 7 oz.
  FOR 1-3/4 IN. GROOVE.

  3 lb. 4 oz.

In ordering these Ropes the diameter should not be overstated. They
contain more yarn in the given diameter than is usual, and, not being
liable to stretch, no provision need be made for loss in thickness.

BANDINGS to any description for Cotton Mills.

The Lambeth Cotton Ropes are of unique design and construction,
superseding all other Cotton Ropes for MAIN DRIVING.

_Tension and Friction_ accurately measured for and provided against,
and the _Ropes_ fitted exactly to the working part of the grooves of
the Pulley.


NOTE.—_No Ropes are the genuine Lambeth unless supplied direct from my
works, where they are alone made, or bearing my Registered Trade Mark._




[Illustration: Original image]


Consulting Engineer to Spinners, Manufacturers and Shippers,


TECHNICAL information on Carding, Spinning, Sizing and Weaving. OLD
MILLS (home or foreign) re-organized to improve quality and quantity of
Production. PATENTS bought from or introduced for Inventors.



Mill Engineers and Practical BUYING AGENTS for Mills Abroad of


and of =Mill Stores=, from =ALL= Makers at Clients’ option.

Plans and Estimates of complete New Mills. =Practical Mill Managers=,
Carders and Tacklers engaged for Clients abroad.

  _Before ordering Machinery and Mill Stores elsewhere,_ write
  LANCASTER & CO., who know the Cheapest Markets, and deal with all the
  leading Makers.

L. & CO. will supply you with Machinery and Sundries from your usual
Maker at his lowest prices.

_Offices opposite Royal Exchange_, =MANCHESTER=.

[Illustration: Original image]


[Illustration: TRADE MARK.]

Suitable for all classes of SPINNING.




Brown & Green Bands, Butts, Laces,

&c., &c.


JOHN CURTIS & CO., Leather Dressers,



Engineer & Machinery Merchant,



  =STEAM OVENS and KETTLES=, for Mills and Works, heated by a
  Small Jet of Steam.
  =PASTE MIXING MACHINES=, for Mixing Paste and Pumping it into
  Mule Rooms.


NEEDLE LUBRICATORS and MACHINERY GLASS of every kind used in Doubling.

TO COTTON SPINNERS AND OTHERS.—Machinery and Tools sold on Commission.

_Advice given regarding Colours and Materials used in Dyeing, by a
practical Dyer and Chemist.

[Illustration: Original image]



OVER =75,000= IN USE.


_These Ventilators and Humidifying Apparatus have been applied for Card
and Preparing Rooms for more than_ =3,000,000= _Spindles; for Mule and
Throstle Spinning, over_ =2,000,000= _Spindles; Looms_, =70,000=.



For Heating or Cooling, Moistening and Drying Air. For Weaving Sheds,
Spinning Rooms or other Buildings.


850 of the above apparatus are now in use.


For Heating, Cooling, Moistening and Drying Air.

For Weaving Sheds, Spinning Rooms, and other Buildings.

200 of these apparatus are now in use.

_For a scientific and successful application of the Revolving Screw
Ventilators, qualified by 29 years’ study and practical experience in
their application to every kind of Buildings, Works and Sewers, apply
to the Sole Makers_,

  JAS. HOWORTH & CO., Consulting & Ventilating Engineers,
  Victoria Works,
  Telegraphic Address: “VENTILATOR, MOSES GATE.”
  Nearest Station: Moses Gate, L. & Y.

[Illustration: Original image]


Consulting Engineer,



_Machinery Bought on Commission or Inspected for Foreign Clients._

General Expert Work Carried Out.


[Illustration: Original image]

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