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Title: ΝΕΚΡΟΚΗΔΕΙΑ; Or, the Art of Embalming; - Wherein Is Shewn the Right of Burial, and Funeral - Ceremonies, Especially That of Preserving Bodies After the - Egyptian Method. Together With an Account of the Egyptian - Mummies, Pyramids, Subterranean Vaults and Lamps, and Their - Opinion of the Metempsychosis, the Cause of Their Embalming. - As Also a Geographical Description of Egypt, the Rise and - Course of the Nile, the Temper, Constitution and Physic - of the Inhabitants, Their Inventions, Arts, Sciences, - Stupendous Works and Sepulchres, and Other Curious - Observations Any Ways Relating to the Physiology and - Knowledge of This Art.
Author: Greenhill, Thomas
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "ΝΕΚΡΟΚΗΔΕΙΑ; Or, the Art of Embalming; - Wherein Is Shewn the Right of Burial, and Funeral - Ceremonies, Especially That of Preserving Bodies After the - Egyptian Method. Together With an Account of the Egyptian - Mummies, Pyramids, Subterranean Vaults and Lamps, and Their - Opinion of the Metempsychosis, the Cause of Their Embalming. - As Also a Geographical Description of Egypt, the Rise and - Course of the Nile, the Temper, Constitution and Physic - of the Inhabitants, Their Inventions, Arts, Sciences, - Stupendous Works and Sepulchres, and Other Curious - Observations Any Ways Relating to the Physiology and - Knowledge of This Art." ***

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                 _The Explanation of the_ Frontispiece.

     Reader thou in this _Frontispiece_ may’st see
     How _mortal Man_ seeks _Immortalitie_;
     His beauteous _Frame_ he sees with speed decline,
     And soon dissolv’d by _Death_, tho’ form’d by _Hands Divine_.
       _Sadness_ in Widows Robes deplores his _State_,
     While the _Young Brood_ inspect the _Book of Fate_;
     Pensive they view the _Rise_ and _Fall_ of _Man_,
     With Tears survey his Transitory _Span_.
       But his great _Soul_, full of Cœlestial _Flame_,
     Disdaining _Death_, strives to extend his _Name_;
     And conscious of our too too fickle _State_,
     Would fain elude the Force of _Time_ and _Fate_:
     The narrow Boundaries of _Life_ would pass,
     By _Statues_, _Pillars_, Monumental _Brass_,
     Aspiring _Pyramids_, that lift on high
     Their spiral Heads to reach his kindred Skie,
     Which in their dark _Repositories_ keep
     The _Bodies_ safe in their _Immortal Sleep_;
     While healing _Balm_ and _Aromatic Spice_,
     _Death_’s odious _Dissipation_ to their _Form_ denies.
       _Death_ baffl’d thus by wise _Chyrurgic Art_,
     Wounds _Mortals_ there but with a blunted Dart;
     And half the Terror of the _Griesly Fiend_
     Is lost, when _Mortal Bodies_ know no end.
       The _Bodies_ thus _Preserv’d_, the thinking Part
     _Men_ strive to keep alive by various _Art_,
     And fine wrought _Medals_ and _Inscriptions_ use,
     But above all the _bright recording Muse_;
     Thro’ _Time_’s revolving Tide the faithful _Page_
     Conveys their earliest _Rise_ to the remotest _Age_,
     While _Death_ and _Time_ oppose their _Force_ in vain,
     Superior _Men_ above their _Force_ remain;
     _Temples_ and _Fanes_ they to the _Godhead_ raise,
     To bribe the only _Power_, that _can_ destroy, with Praise.
       _Jove_ pleas’d, in Pity of the pious _Race_,
     Two _Messengers_ sends down the Airy space,
     To raise _Man_’s _Ashes_ from the silent Urn,
     Which touch’d by _Hermes_ wand resume their pristine Form.
       _Jove_’s _Royal Bird_ attends to bear on high
     Th’ _Immortal Soul_ up to its Native _Skie_,
     While _Fame_ aloud her Silver Trumpet sounds,
     And with the _Lawrel Wreath_ the _Victor_ Crowns.
       And thus _Eternal_ lives the _deathless Mind_,
     Which, here on _Earth_, no setled _State_ could find.

[Illustration: _T. Murray pinx._

  _Thomas Greenhill_ Chirurgus.


  _Quo_ Fata trahunt retrahuntqꝫ sequamur.

  _P. Berchet delin^t._ _Nutting sculpsit. 1705._ ]

                           Art of Embalming;
                            Wherein is shewn
                          The Right of Burial,
                          FUNERAL CEREMONIES,
                        And the several Ways of
                         Preserving Dead Bodies
                       Most Nations of the WORLD.
                           With an Account of
     The particular Opinions, Experiments and Inventions of modern
             Physicians, Surgeons, Chymists and Anatomists.
Some new Matter propos’d concerning a better Method of _Embalming_ than
                     hath hitherto been discover’d.
  A _Pharmacopœia Galeno-Chymica, Anatomia sicca sive incruenta_, &c.

                            In Three PARTS.

          _The whole Work adorn’d with variety of Sculptures._

                   _By_ THOMAS GREENHILL, _Surgeon_.

                   _LONDON_: Printed for the Author.


                                OR, THE

                           Art of Embalming;

                            Wherein is shewn

                          The Right of Burial,


                          FUNERAL CEREMONIES,

                           Especially that of

                           Preserving Bodies

                      After the _EGYPTIAN_ Method.

                             TOGETHER WITH

 An Account of the _Egyptian_ Mummies, Pyramids, Subterranean Vaults and
    Lamps, and their Opinion of the _Metempsychosis_, the Cause of their

                                AS ALSO

 A Geographical Description of _Egypt_, the Rise and Course of the
    _Nile_, the Temper, Constitution and Physic of the Inhabitants,
    their Inventions, Arts, Sciences, Stupendous Works and Sepulchres,
    and other curious Observations any ways relating to the Physiology
    and Knowledge of this _Art_.

                                PART I.

           _Illustrated with a Map and Fourteen Sculptures._

                   _By_ THOMAS GREENHILL, _Surgeon_.

               _LONDON_: Printed for the Author, M DCC V.


 To the Right Honourable THOMAS Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery
 A List of such Noblemen and Gentlemen as have been pleas’d to Encourage
    this Work with Sculptures.
 A List of such Noblemen and Gentlemen as have been pleas’d to Encourage
    this Work by Subscriptions.
 Amico admodum colendo D. THOMÆ GREENHILL eximiam suam ΝΕΚΡΟΚΗΔΕΙΑΝ
    edenti χαίρειν καὶ εὐπραγεῖν.
 Viro Admodùm Erudito Thomæ Greenhill, Chirurgo in ΝΕΚΡΟΚΗΔΕΙΑΝ, sive
    Artem Pollincturæ, ab illo editam.
 TO HIS Ingenious Friend Mr. Thomas Greenhill.
 To his Friend the Author.
 A CATALOGUE OF Authors quoted in this Book.


                        To the Right Honourable

  Earl of _Pembroke_ and _Montgomery_; Baron _Herbert_ of _Caerdiff_;
    Lord _Rosse_, _Par_, _Marmion_, St. _Quintin_ and _Shurland_; Lord
    Lieutenant of the County of _Wilts_ and _South-Wales_; Knight of
    the most Noble Order of the Garter, and President of Her Majesties
    most Honourable Privy Council.

 _My Lord_,

I count it no small Happiness, in an Age so Censorious as this, to have
found a Patron so universally admir’d, that I am under no apprehension
of being thought a Flatterer, should I make use of and indulge all the
Liberty of a profest Panegyrist; but that is what a sense of my own
Inability and Your Lordship’s Modesty forbids: It is sufficient for me,
that, under Your Lordship’s known Learning in Antiquity and History,
both Antient and Modern, my weak Endeavours at restoring a _lost
Science_ may be secure from the Assaults of the _Envious_ or the

I have nothing to fear from the Animosities of Parties, since how
inveterate soever they may be against each other, yet they all agree in
this one Point, to Esteem and Honour Your Lordship, who are the
_Atticus_ of the Times, by Your Virtues endear’d to all sides, and each
believing that not to Value Your Lordship, would be to discover such an
aversion to Honour and Virtue as the worst of Men would abhor.

Your Virtues, my Lord, are so conspicuous, that they give you that
Natural and Rational Right to true Nobility, which the _Roman_ Satyrist
so justly exprest:

               ——_Nobilitas sola est atq; unica Virtus._

I will not dispute whether or no there be any Intrinsic Value in a long
Descent, or whether that be deriv’d from the necessity of a
Subordination essential to Government, or else from the just Reward of
Virtue, which ennobles all the Posterity of the Possessors of it, it
being here a very useless Disquisition since Your Lordship’s Family is
of so very high an Original that none can boast a greater Antiquity, and
that Your Lordship is possest of all that Merit which first
distinguish’d Man from Man, and gave a Preeminence to the Deserving.
Among all the Excellencies which thus dignifie Your Lordship’s
Character, perhaps there is none more eminent than Your Protection and
Encouragement of Arts and Sciences, to which the _English_ World owe the
incomparable Mr. _Lock_’s _Essays on Human Understanding_, and other
Works extreamly beneficial to the Public. Neither do I in the least
question but Your Lordship’s Protection of so excellent and useful an
_Art_ as _Surgery_, will render it as flourishing here in _England_ as
it is in any other part of the World. ’Tis true we are not wanting of
some extraordinary Professors of that _Art_, but I could also heartily
wish we had not a greater number of Bad, and yet perhaps the chief
occasion of this may be the want of a due Method of Encouragement, by
which the modest Endeavours of young Proficients are eclips’d, and which
(to make a Comparison) like tender Plants, are nipp’d in the Bud and
perish for want of Watering.

Now as the want of Opportunity has been in some respect a prejudice to
my Business, so also the want of Encouragement has in a great measure
been a hindrance to this Work: For what regret of Mind must it needs
occasion, to find none esteem’d but such as speak Experience in their
Looks, and that Youth should be despis’d tho’ never so hopeful and
industrious, meerly because of a particular number of Years, and what an
interruption must it be to our painful Studies, to think that even the
best Performances of this kind are contemn’d because they are chiefly a
Collection, when on the contrary it is receiv’d as an establish’d Maxim,
that such as Travel into Foreign Countries, are not only the most
capable to describe them, but also whatsoever they relate is look’d upon
as the sole matter of Fact and Truth, when many times Business is better
transacted by Correspondence, and those that have been at the trouble,
expence and danger of Travelling have come home no more improv’d than
they went out, except in the Fashions and Levities of the Age, yet are
we commonly so imprudent as to value Things meerly for their coming from
a far and at a great deal of Expence; but whilst we admire those
Novelties, we are often misled and deceiv’d by meer Fables and imaginary
Stories of such Things as neither are, nor ever have been.

This I speak not in prejudice to Travelling it self, which, if rightly
understood, is certainly the greatest Improvement in the World, and I
could heartily wish I had had the opportunity of its Advantage, but on
the contrary I do it chiefly to show that it is not impossible to give a
tolerable, if not the best Account of the Ancients without it; for what
can any one, who now travels into _Egypt_, learn or see but such a
ruin’d Country, that the very Place is hardly known where those
wonderful Cities _Thebes_ and _Memphis_ stood, except what is
Traditional or extracted from the Writings of the Ancients. ’Tis true,
the learn’d and accurate Mr. _Greaves_ has given us the best Description
of the _Pyramids_, but then this was both because they are at this Day
in being, and to be view’d by Travellers, as also that he carry’d along
with him the best contriv’d Instruments for taking their exact Altitudes
and Dimensions, which few besides that see them trouble themselves with,
but are content to say, they have seen them; nevertheless _Greaves_ can
neither give us the Names of the right Founders of them, nor any
certainty whether there were perpetual _burning Lamps_ in them, or a
_Colossus_ or _Statue_ on the top of the bigger _Pyramid_, or, in a
word, by whom and to what end the monstrous Figure of the _Sphinx_ was

But however the aforesaid Reflections are not the only Discouragements
to Industry and Study; to see our Profession over-run by _Quacks_ and
_Mountebanks_, and that _Valet de Chambres_ are suffer’d to Bleed, dress
Wounds, cut Fontanells, and perform the like Operations, is what has
reduc’d _Surgery_ to so low an ebb. In like manner the noble _Art of
Embalming_ has been intirely ruin’d by the _Undertakers_, as also the
_Court of Honour_ much prejudic’d, of which Your Lordship has been twice
Supreme Judge; from whence it is the _Balsamic Art_ is now-a-days look’d
upon as a very insignificant Thing, and not a little despis’d, whereas
the Knowledge and Practise of that _Art_ is both useful in Natural
_Phylosophy_, _Physiology_, _Physic_, _Surgery_ and _Anatomy_, as I hope
I have fully prov’d in the body of my Book, over and above that the
History thereof leads us into the first and best Antiquities of the
World. Your Lordship therefore being both a great Admirer and Encourager
of Things of this nature, I hope, thro’ Your generous Protection, not
only to secure my self against the contempt of all Critics, but also to
be enabl’d to continue and complete my intended Work, and this has also
been one Reason why I have thus vindicated _Surgery_, the _Art of
Embalming_ and my own _Collection_; in which, altho’ I am not thoroughly
satisfy’d that there is any thing worthy Your Lordship’s perusal, yet
this I am sure of, that Your Candour will appear the greater, by
condescending to accept my mean Performance.

And here, my Lord, I have the temptation to loose my self in the Field
of Your Praises, but that I know both my Patron and my self too well to
indulge the agreeable Contemplation. Were Your Lordship like common
Patrons, I should do like common Dedicators, speak of the admirable
Temperance of Your Life, Your Moderation, the Wonders of Your Conduct
when You were _Lord High Admiral_, which Office was Administer’d by Your
Lordship to the Universal Content and Satisfaction, both of the
Merchant, the Officers and Sailers; Your Lordship’s Prudence, Judgment
and Sincerity in Your high Post of _President_ of Her Majesties most
Honourable Privy Council: And I might extend my Considerations even to
the great Happiness such a Person must possess, who is so generally
valu’d and esteem’d both by his Queen and Country; but what is so well
known I shall leave as wanting not the help of any Panegyric to make it
more evident, and content my self with the Honour and Satisfaction of
being permitted to Subscribe my self, _My Lord_,

                                           _Your Lordship’s most Humble
                                             And most Obedient Servant_,
                                                       Thomas Greenhill.


_It is not only the Authority of King_ Solomon, _the greatest, richest
and wisest of Men, that convinces us_ There is nothing new under the
Sun, _but also common Observation daily shews us the Truth hereof; for
whether we respect Kingdoms and Monarchies, Cities or Villages, with
their Civil, Military and Rural Transactions; whether we consider the
Ambition of Kings and Princes, or the Captivity and Subjection of the
Common People; or if we look into the various Sects, Religions, Habits,
Customs, Manners, Arts and Sciences that are in the World, we shall in
all things find we are but Imitators of our Fore-Fathers, and tread only
in their Footsteps_.

_The same Thing is acted to Day which was done a Thousand Years ago, and
this, after a Vicissitude of fantastic Alterations, will in another
Century come into Fashion again; so that we move like the Cœlestial
Orbs, in the same Circumvolutions, and our whole Life is but_

               Actum agere, & _Penelopes_ telam retexere.

_It is the same with Books and Writings; for tho’ public Advertisements
do daily inform us, that some Work or other is continually on the
Stocks, yet is it but the same Story inculcated over again, in another
Language, different Volume, larger Print, additional Sculptures, and
some new Alterations; or else it is but a Translation, with Annotations,
Comments, and a Table annex’d, which serve for new Amusements and the
Maintenance of the Booksellers. Others which bear a greater Repute in
the World, as being penn’d by the more Learned and Ingenious Persons, in
a very Concise and Elegant Stile, are generally nothing but some new
fine-spun_ Virtuosi _Suggestions, extracted from an almost forgotten and
out-of-fashion_ Hypothesis, _and each Improvement in Modern Arts, has
undoubtedly ow’d its Original to somewhat hinted to us by the Ancients_.

_All this I freely acknowledge to be my own Case, with this difference
only, that I know my self deficient in that solid Learning and admirable
Stile they were wont to use; yet for your encouragement to peruse this
Treatise, I can assure you, you shall hardly find any other Book which
so generally, particularly and completely handles this Subject: Besides,
I can justly aver that I devis’d and compil’d the greatest part thereof
before I met with any Author that gave me so much Satisfaction as I have
since had; and notwithstanding my Notions were in a great measure
agreeable to theirs, tho’ unknown to me, yet will I modestly submit and
attribute the Invention thereof to them_, First, _As being my Seniors,
and who Wrote before me, and_, Secondly, _as infinitely the more Learn’d
and better Qualify’d Writers. Nor does this Submission detract the least
from my Labour, it having been to me the same thing as a_ lost Art: _And
I would gladly be inform’d, by any one at this Day, of the true Method
of the antient_ Egyptian Embalming; _nay, would be content only to know
the more Modern, tho’ more excellent Way, that of_ Bilsius.

_We must therefore grant that the Ancients knew many Things, which in
process of Time, either thro’ Fire, Inundations, hostile Invasions, or
other Accidents and Devastations, have intirely perish’d, and still
remain so, as_ Pancirollus _fully shews; or if we have any superficial
Knowledge of them, as is somewhat apparent from our Modern Architecture,
Sculpture, Painting_, &c. _yet are we even at this present so vastly
deficient in the very best of our Imitations, that none have ever
hitherto arriv’d to any tolerable Perfection; nevertheless should any
one so perfectly apply himself to the Study of one of those_ lost Arts,
_as to make a new Discovery therein, I hope you would allow him the same
Praise as if he had been the first Inventor; and, for my part, however I
should fail in answering your Expectation, of what is seemingly promis’d
in the_ Title-Page; _yet, thus far I am pretty sure, that I have given
more light into the Matter, than has been done by any of those imperfect
Accounts of_ Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, _&c. And tho’ some Things that
I say may seem to want Authority, yet for the most part, should I have
made all the Quotations I could have brought to prove my Assertions, it
would have extended this Volume to a much larger size than I intended;
wherefore I have in a great measure designedly omitted them, to the end
I might avoid Prolixity as much as possible, and in other places I have
us’d their Words expresly as my own, not to detract from them, but to be
more concise, and have in several places not mention’d their Names, for
the aforesaid Reasons: So I do here, once for all, with submission,
Apologize for my self, that the censorious World may not repute me an
ungrateful_ Plagiary.

_I acknowledge therefore this my Labour, in one respect to be a
Collection, in all to be still deficient of that Perfection which so
noble an_ Art _deserves; yet in some Things I have improv’d it, and in
others apply’d it to those Uses which have scarce before been thought
of. But all the Satisfaction I have herein, is to think that I have
perform’d my Duty, in exerting my small Talent, with the utmost Care and
Diligence, for the Benefit of our_ Company; _and if my Work does not
perform what is intended and desir’d, it will nevertheless be Useful,
Pleasant, and serve to Divert you, which_ Horace _says is the Perfection
and Chief end of all Writing_:

              Omne tulit punctum qui miscuit Utile Dulci.

A List of such Noblemen and Gentlemen as have been pleas’d to Encourage
                       this Work with Sculptures.

 His Grace _Wriothesly_ Duke of _Bedford_
 The Honourable _James Saunderson_, Esq;
 _Nathaniel Long_, Esq;
 Mr. _James Pettiver_, Apothecary, F. R. S.
 _Charles Bernard_, Esq; Serjeant Surgeon
 _John Lawson_, M. D.
 _Hans Sloane_, M. D.
 _William Gibbons_, M. D.
 Mr. _Francis Moult_, Chymist
 His Grace _Thomas_ Lord Arch-Bishop of _Canterbury_
 _John Thorpe_, A. M.
 Mr. _Joseph Whiston_, Druggist
 _Robert Nelson_, Esq;
 Mr. _George Rolfe_, Surgeon

A List of such Noblemen and Gentlemen as have been pleas’d to Encourage
                      this Work by Subscriptions.


 Mr. _Benjamin Adams_
 _John Allen_, Esq;
 Mr. _Richard Alsop_
 Mr. _Thomas Ashly_
 _William Ashmole_, M. D.
 _Philip Ayres_, Esq;


 Mr. _William Bacon_, Surgeon
 _William Baddiford_, M. D.
 _Nicholas Battersby_, Esq;
 Mr. _Nicholas Batt_
 Mr. _Robert Baylies_
 _Wriothesly_ Duke of _Bedford_
 Mr. _William Bedford_
 _Charles Bernard_, Esq; Serj. Surg.
 Mr. _Henry Bernard_, Apothecary
 Mrs. _Jane Bernard_
 Dr. _William Benson_
 _Joseph Birch_, M. B.
 Mr. _John Blomfield_
 Mr. _James Booth_, Surgeon
 Mr. _John Bound_
 Mr. _John Bornhold_
 _George Bramston_, L. L. D. Master of _Trinity-Hall_ in _Cambridge_.
 _Samuel Brewster_, Esq;
 Mr. _George Brewster_
 _William Bridge_, M. D.
 Mr. _Samuel Bridge_, for 6 Books
 Mr. _Jeremiah Bright_
 Mr. _Thomas Briscoe_
 Mr. _Barton Bromly_
 _Humphry Brooks_, M. D.
 _John Brown_, Esq;
 _Thomas Brown_, M. D.
 Mr. _Richard Brown_
 Mr. _Albert Bryan_
 Mr. _Richard Bull_, Druggist
 _Richard Butler_, Esq;
 Mr. _John Byard_, Surgeon
 Mr. _Christopher Byland_
 Mr. _Francis Bythel_


 _Thomas_ Lord Arch-Bishop of _Canterbury_, for 3.
 Mr. _Thomas Cawthorpe_, Apoth.
 Mr. _John Chamberlain_
 Mr. _Lawrence de la Chambre_
 _Thomas Chambers_, Esq;
 _Hans Peter Charriere_, M. D.
 Mr. _Thomas Child_, for 3.
 Mr. _Thomas Cholmley_
 Mr. _John Chrichloe_
 The Right Honourable the Earl of _Clarendon_
 Mr. _Joseph Clench_, Apothecary
 _William Cockburn_, M. D.
 _William Cole_, M. D.
 Mr. _William Cole_, Surgeon
 Mr. _George Collinson_
 Mr. _Andrew Cooper_, Surgeon
 Sir _Godfry Copley_
 _Thomas Cotton_, Esq;
 Mr. _William Cowper_, Surgeon
 Mr. _Brian Cozens_
 Monsieur _Le Croix_, Surgeon to the Sick and Wounded of _Kingsale_ in


 Sir _William Dawes_, Bar^t. D. D.
 Mr. _Philip Dewert_
 Mrs. _Elizabeth Dillingham_
 Mr. _Francis Douce_, Surgeon
 Capt. _Joseph Drake_, Clerk of the Admiralty
 _James Drake_, M. D.
 Mr. _Charles Draper_
 Mr. _Samuel Dudly_


 _Henry Edmunds_, M. A.
 The Reverend _Charles Elstob_, D. D.
 _Anthony Erby_, Esq;


 Dr. _William Forward_
 Sir _Andrew Fountain_


 _Samuel Garth_, M. D. for 4.
 Mr. _Christopher Gately_, Apoth.
 Mr. _Robert Gay_, Surgeon
 Mr. _Alexander Geekie_, Surgeon
 _William Gibbons_, M. D.
 The Reverend _Edmund Gibson_, D. D.
 Mr. _Charles Gildon_
 Mr. _Francis Glascock_
 Mr. _Thomas Granger_
 Mr. _Edward Green_ }
 Mr. _Joseph Green_ } Surgeons
 Mr. _John Green_   }
 _William Greenhill_, Esq; for 3.
 Mr. _John Greenhill_
 Mr. _William Grigson_
 Mr. _William Grimes_


 The Right Honourable the Lord _Halifax_
 Mr. _Stephen Hall_, Surgeon
 The Reverend _William Hanbury_, M. A.
 _John Hare_, Esq;
 Mr. _Charles Hargrave_
 Mr. _Charles Harman_
 Mr. _John Harris_
 _John Harrison_, Esq;
 Mr. _John Hartley_
 Mr. _Richard Harvey_, Surgeon
 Mr. _Joshua Hatfield_
 The Honourable _Charles Hatton_, Esq;
 Mr. _Henry Hazzard_
 _George Hepburn_, M. D.
 Mr. _John Hesket_
 _Thomas Hesket_, A. M.
 _Thomas Hewett_, M. A. and Fellow of _Clare-Hall_ in _Cambridge_
 The Reverend _George Hicks_, D. D.
 Mr. _Bevill Higgons_
 Mr. _Thomas Hill_
 Mr. _John Hill_, Apothecary
 Mr. _George Hinckster_, Surgeon
 Mr. _George Hockenhull_
 Mr. _Thomas Hodgson_
 _Henry Hoghton_, Esq;
 _Philip Horneck_, L. L. B.
 Mr. _Benjamin Howell_
 Mr. _Hungerford Hoskins_


 Mr. _Stephen Jermyn_


 Mr. _William Keith_
 Mr. _John Kersey_, Sen.
 Capt. _John Kerton_
 Capt. _John Key_
 Mr. _Thomas King_, Apothecary


 Mrs. _Catharine Lacy_
 Mr. _Samuel Lane_, Apothecary
 _John Lawson_, M. D.
 _Nathaniel Long_, Esq;
 Mr. _Josias Long_
 Mr. _Mordecai Lyde_, Surgeon


 Mr. _John Mackie_, Surgeon
 Mr. _John Magill_, Surgeon
 Sir _George Markham_, Baronet
 Mr. _Samuel Marwood_
 Mr. _Nathaniel Mezy_, Apoth.
 Dr. _Richard Middleton Massey_
 Mr. _Charles Mathar_
 Mr. _Charles Midgley_, Chymist
 Mr. _John Mills_, Surgeon
 Dr. _More_, Lord Bishop of _Norwich_
 Mr. _Peter Motteux_
 Mr. _George Moult_, Chymist
 Mr. _Francis Moult_, Chymist
 Mr. _Thomas Murray_


 _Robert Nelson_, Esq;
 Dr. _William Nicholson_, Lord Bishop of _Carlisle_
 _Denton Nicholas_, M. D.
 Mr. _Vincent St. Nicholas_, Surgeon
 Mr. _Marmaduke Norcliff_, Surgeon
 Mr. _Joseph Nutting_, for 2.


 Mr. _John Oldmixon_


 Mr. _John Padmore_, Apothecary
 _Richard Page_, Esq;
 Mr. _John Partridge_, Apothecary
 Mr. _John Peat_
 Mr. _James Pettiver_, Apothecary
 Mr. _William Philips_
 The Honourable _William Pierpoint_, Esq;
 Mr. _Thomas Pierce_, Surgeon
 The Reverend Mr. _George Plaxton_
 Mr. _William Plaxton_
 Mr. _Jacob Pullen_
 Mr. _Nathan Putt_


 Mrs. _Grace Rackstraugh_
 _John Rathborn_, M. D.
 Mr. _George Richardson_, Apoth.
 Mr. _Jonas Rolse_
 Mr. _George Rolfe_, Surgeon
 Mr. _Abel Roper_


 Mr. _Samuel Sault_
 Mr. _John Salter_, Surgeon
 Mr. _John Salter_, Apothecary
 Mr. _John Savage_
 Mr. _Richard Savery_
 The Honourable _James Saunderson_, Esq; for 2.
 Mr. _Joshua Sharpe_
 _John Shadwell_, M. D.
 _Hans Sloane_, M. D.
 Mr. _William Sloper_, Surgeon
 The Reverend _Thomas Smith_, D.D.
 Mr. _George Smith_
 Mr. _John Smith_
 Mr. _Nathaniel Smith_, Surgeon
 Mr. _Francis Snape_
 Mr. _Joshua Spencer_, Chymist
 Mr. _Thomas Spurway_
 _Samuel Stebbins_, Esq;
 Mr. _Thomas Stollord_, Surgeon
 Mr. _Samuel Storer_
 Mr. _John Sturmy_
 Mr. _John Sturt_


 Mr. _William Talman_
 Mr. _Christopher Talman_, Surgeon
 Dr. _Thomas Tomlinson_
 The Honourable Coll. _Thompson_
 _John Thorpe_, M. A.
 _Edward Tidcomb_, Esq;
 Mr. _Thomas Tucker_, Surgeon
 Mr. _James Tully_


 Mr. _Charles Wadcock_, Surgeon
 Mr. _Lyonel Wafer_, Surgeon
 Mr. _Henry Walker_, Surgeon
 _Robert Walpool_, Esq; Councellor of the Admiralty
 Mr. _Samuel Walton_, Chymist
 The Reverend _Richard Ward_, M.A.
 Capt. —— _Watkins_
 _Abraham Weeks_, M. A. of _Maudlin College_ in _Oxford_
 _Thomas West_, M. D.
 Mr. _John West_
 Mr. _Joseph Whiston_, for 6.
 Mr. _Ayliff White_
 Mr. _George Wilson_, Chymist
 Mr. _John Wilson_, Surgeon
 Mr. _James Wiltshire_
 _Henry Worsley_, Esq;
 Mr. _John Wyat_, for 6.


 Mr. _John Yates_, Surgeon

  Amico admodum colendo D. _THOMÆ GREENHILL_ eximiam suam ΝΕΚΡΟΚΗΔΕΙΑΝ
                     edenti χαίρειν καὶ εὐπραγεῖν.

      _Quodcunq; ex Terris volitat medicamen_ Eois,
        _Et quas commistas_ India _præbet Opes;
      Quotquot_ Persiacis _glomerantur Aromata in Arvis,
        Atq;_ Sabæorum _Balsama prompta Solo;
      Quascunq; auratas_ Arabum _Campestria Merces,
        Pharmaca vel quotquot_ Turcica Mecca, _locant;
      Fervidus exustas peragrans Mercator Arenas,
        Quæcunq; asportat Magmata odorifera;
      Quæq;_ Palæstinis _stillant Opobalsama Plantis,
        Et quæ_ Nilois _consita sparsa Jugis;
      Thaumata_ Memphiticis _quæcunq; videntur in Antris,
        Et quæ Pyramidum claustra stupenda tenent;
      Tradidit arcano quodcunq; Volumine_ Mystes
        Ter Magnus, _vel quæ dogmata_ Aristoteles;
      _Cuncta hæc dignatur nobis_ Greenhillius _ardens
        Ecce salutifera suppeditare Manu.
      Esse quid hoc dicam, novus hic divinus_ Apollo
        _Quod subito Arctois Alpibus exoritur!
      Cedite_, Romani _Medicastri, cedite_ Graii,
        _Abdicet atq; Artes_ [1]Anglica Turba _novas.
      Nullus adest Squalor, Fætorve, aut dira Mephitis,
        Sed redolent succis Atria thuriferis;
      Mirifico incisæ stipantur Pulvere Venæ,
        Atq; Artus laxos Unguina mista fovent.
      Volvas, Mysta sagax, Vita Ceromate functa
        Corpora, & intingas_ Bammate _perpetuo:
      Præclara socios pergas sanare Medela,
        Atq; Orci rabidis Faucibus eripere;
      Donec succinea sero sis clausus in Arca,
        Dumq; Animus propere tendat ad Astra Viam_.

                                              Joan. Kersey, _Sen._

Footnote 1:


 Viro Admodùm Erudito _Thomæ Greenhill_, Chirurgo in ΝΕΚΡΟΚΗΔΕΙΑΝ, sive
                  Artem _Pollincturæ_, ab illo editam.

         _Miramur_ Phariis _nutantia Pondera Saxis,
           Et minùs Hospitibus firma Sepulchra suis.
         Quod dare debuerant, Ævo Monumenta carerent,
           Sæcula ni functis sumeret ipse Lapis.
         Arguit elapsam, quâ_ Mumia _duruit, Artem,
           Orbatumq; dolet Matre superstes Opus.
         At tua Niliaci referent Arcana Laboris
           Scripta, nec ignotis jam fluet Amnis Aquis._
         Arabiæ Fœlicis _Opes, Miracula_ Memphis,
           Isiacos _Mores, Justa, Sepulchra, Faces,
         Quicquid_ Arabs _novit_, Pharii _docuere Sophistæ
           Indicibus Chartis pandet amica Manus_.
         Pollinctura _tibi reduces debebit Honores,
           Arteq;_ Apollineâ _Structa perennis erit.
         Corpora quâ nobis servas, tibi nomen in Ævum
           Servabis; quâ nos Fama manebit, ope.
         Quid dissolvendum restat, Mors irrita? Servat
           Corpora_ Greenhillus _salva, Animasq; DEUS_.

                                                         G. R.

                                 TO HIS
                _Ingenious Friend Mr._ Thomas Greenhill.

  ’Tis great and worthy of our _Praise_ to lead
  The _Living_ thro’ the _Dwellings_ of the _Dead_;
  _Death’s_ grisly _Terrours_ by your _Skill_ to Charm,
  And his fell _Furies_ of their _Stings_ disarm:
  The _Mighty Maker_ has on you bestow’d
  The wond’rous _Science_ for a general _Good_.
  The _Labours_ of your _Studies_ he has crown’d
  With _Art_, alike Important and Profound;
  With _Death_ and _Time_ he’s taught you to engage,
  And save his best _Creation_ from their _Rage_.
  _MAN_, the true _Image_ of his heav’nly _Form_,
  Was a rich _Prey_ to the devouring _Worm_;
  Scarce had his _Breath_ it’s Vital Seat forsook
  But frozen were his _Limbs_, and frightful was his _Look_,
  Livid his _Lips_, his whole _Complexion_ wan,
  And _Nature_ loath’d to view the lifeless _Man_;
  A poor Precarious _Being_ he enjoy’d,
  And soon the _Grave_ his beauteous _Frame_ destroy’d,
  Till you had learn’d by equal _Thought_ and _Care_
  To keep him, as he was created, _Fair_;
  To heal the ghastly _Wounds_ that _Death_ had made,
  And give new _Beauties_ which shall never fade:
  _Heav’n_ has to you the Sacred _Art_ reveal’d,
  Which had for twice ten _Ages_ been conceal’d;
  From common Ruine you the _Body_ keep,
  And turn the filthiness of _Death_ to _Sleep_;
  Fair as the _Slumbers_ of a _Virgin_ seem,
  Who dreams of _Joy_, and blushes at her _Dream_,
  _Youth_ you preserve, and by your _Science_ save
  The living _Graces_ in the rotting _Grave_.
  Sooner the _Egyptian_ King’s aspiring _Tomb_
  May fall, the _Marble_ waste, the _Brass_ consume,
  Old _Time_ may sooner run his destin’d Race,
  Than the new _Wonders_ of your _Art_ deface:
  The _Balm_ and _Eastern Odours_ you employ,
  The Noxious _Vapours_ of the _Vault_ destroy;
  You reconcile us to the Things we loath,
  We feel the _Flesh_ is firm, the _Features_ smooth;
  We see, we smell, by e’ry _Sense_ we try
  Your _Skill_, and are no more afraid to _Die_.
    Go on——And may you equal _Favour_ find,
  With the vast _Service_ you have done _Mankind_:
  May the vile _Quacks_, who _Heav’ns_ high _Form_ prophane,
  With _Practices_ as infamous as vain.
  The base _Impostors_ of the _Funeral Trade_,
  Who cheat at once the _Living_ and the _Dead_,
  Be _punish’d_ and _expos’d_, and _Art_ restor’d
  To her old _Honours_, and her due _Reward_:
  So late _Posterity_ shall sing your _Praise_,
  And _Fame_ bright _Statues_ to your _Glory_ raise.

                                                        _J. Oldmixon._

                      _To his Friend the Author._

 Fragrant _Arabian Gums_, employ’d with _Art_,
 From _Worms_ and _Dust_ preserve our meaner _Part_;
 But _Labours_, such as yours, enliven _Fame_,
 And with due _Elogies_ preserve a _Name_;
 They’ll make the _Worthies_ of the _Age_ to come
 Just _Homage_ pay, and venerate your _Tomb_.
 _Greenhill_, proceed in _Learning’s Paths_ to tread,
 And make your self _Immortal_ by the _Dead_;
 Be this your _Praise_, with equal _Skill_ you strive
 To _Embalm_ the _Dead_, and keep your _Friends_ alive.

                                                                 _B. B._


Page 24. Line 24. for _Jujiæ_ read _Injice_, p. 31. l. 9. for _Nolanus_
r. _Santorellus_, p. 111. l. 31. for on _r._ in, p. 127. l. 29. for
_Marenuna_ r. _Maremnia_, p. 230. l. 12. for _Romans_ r. _Grecians_, p.
330. l. 26. for _Scardonius_ r. _Scardeonius_.


                           Art of Embalming.

                               LETTER I.

  _To_ Charles Bernard, _Esq; Sergeant-Surgeon to Her MAJESTY, Present
    Master of the Surgeons Company, and one of the Surgeons of St._
    Bartholomew_’s Hospital_.


[Sidenote: _Surgery_ the Chief of _Art_]

If the Excellency of any _Art_ consist only in its Usefulness, or if it
derive its Preeminence from the Object, with which it converses, it
necessarily must follow, That the Profession of _Surgery_ is the Chief
of _Arts_, since it is employ’d about so noble a Subject as _Man_; and
therefore the _Greeks_ have thought fit to call such manual Operations
_The Art of Surgery_, which otherwise might as well have been apply’d to
any Mechanick Trade.

[Sidenote: Has two useful Branches;]

Thence it is _Anatomy_ and _Embalming_ are also equally to be esteem’d,
since they are not only Branches of this _Art_, but likewise absolutely
necessary to be known by its Professors; the one informing us of the
constituent Parts of the Body, and the other preserving it for ever in
our Memories.

[Sidenote: One Taught in our _Theatre_, and the other to be wish’d
           there, yet _Embalming_ practis’d only by _Undertakers_.]

The first has been Learnedly Treated of by our own Countrymen, as well
as Foreigners, and is admirably perform’d even at this Day in our
_Anatomical Theatre_; whereas the last, I know not by what Fate, is
surreptitiously cut off from _Surgery_, and chiefly practis’d by
ignorant _Undertakers_.

[Sidenote: The Author vindicates the Right of it.]

For the Honour therefore of our Profession, I have undertaken to
vindicate _The Art of Embalming_, and will prove it to be no less
antient and noble than _Surgery_ it self. In order to this, I will first
shew both the antient and modern Methods of _Embalming_, as practis’d by
the most learned and expert _Physicians_, _Surgeons_ and _Anatomists_,
and then proceed to detect the Frauds and Subtilties of the
_Undertakers_ or _Burial-Men_, to the end the World being made sensible
of their Abuses, may the easier be reconcil’d to a right Opinion of the
legal and skilful Artist; but before I proceed to acquaint you with any
farther particulars, I shall content my self to shew you the Authority
and Reasonableness of the Use of _Embalming_, together with the many
Advantages that accrue thereby. [Sidenote: Useful in _Natural
Philosophy_ and _Physiology_.] First, I presume, it may not be a little
Entertaining, should I relate how far the Knowledge of this _Art_ may be
necessary in our very Domestic and Culinary Affairs, such as, Tanning,
Painting, Dying, Brewing, Baking, _&c._ as also in Confectionery, by
Conserving all sorts of Roots, Herbs and Fruits, and Preserving Wines
and Juices; for this _Art_ being grounded as well on _Natural
Philosophy_ as _Physiology_, it not only teaches us how to Improve our
Drinks, but our Aliments likewise, and not only to give a grateful Taste
in Cookery, and thereby to whet the Appetite, but also to Preserve fresh
Meats, Fish, Fruits, _&c._ beyond their wonted duration.

[Sidenote: Particularly in _Anatomy_, _Surgery_, &c.]

These Things however I will pass by for the present, that I may come
more immediately to my principal _Intent_, which is to shew how a Body
may be so Preserv’d, that by the help of _Anatomy_ we may trace its
minute _Meanders_, and investigate the secret Passages thereof, without
being hindred by any offensive _Odour_ or contaminating _Cruor_.

[Sidenote: How Useful to the _Naturalist_,]

By this _Art_ the _Naturalist_ may be enabled to Collect and Preserve a
numberless variety of Birds, Beasts, Fishes, Reptiles, Herbs, Shrubs,
Trees, with Things monstrous and preternatural; as likewise those which
are more rare and not appropriate to his own Climate, and this for
compleating his _Musæum_ or Repository with all the Curiosities and
Rarities in the Animal and Vegetable World.

[Sidenote: To the _Physician_,]

By this _Art_ the _Physician_ learns the situation and use of the Parts
of Man’s Body, with the several alterations and changes in the Juices,
as well in their healthful as morbid State; and consequently knows how
to preserve and confirm them free from all Diseases, as likewise to
correct and put a stop to malignant and putrid Fevers, which otherwise
must inevitably destroy the sick and weak Patient.

[Sidenote: To the _Surgeon_.]

By this _Art_ the _Surgeon_, in a rightly prepar’d Skeleton, sees the
natural Position of the Bones, and proper Motions of each Part, with the
true and natural Schemes of the Veins, Arteries, Nerves and other
curious Preparations; which not only teach him the difference between
the Muscles, the _similar_, _dissimilar_, and _containing_ as well as
_contained_ Parts of the Body; but likewise how, in performing each
Operation, he should skilfully avoid Cutting what he should not, and
destroying the Function of that he is to relieve. He is also hereby
instructed what Remedies may be found out against _Gangrenes_,
_Sphacelus_ and other Distempers that are judg’d Incurable without being
extirpated by Knife or Fire: Who then can sufficiently admire and value
this Noble _Art of Embalming_ since it tends to the Conservation both of
Life and Limb?

[Sidenote: _Anatomy_ deficient without it.]

For tho’ _Anatomy_ gives us an Insight into these Things in general, yet
is it deficient without the _Balsamic Art_, in as much as it can neither
so particularly nor frequently shew us, what in conjunction with it, may
without any offence be Contemplated at any Time, and as often as we

[Sidenote: How useful in _Divinity_.]

Thus may we entirely conquer and accomplish that _Delphian_ Oracle,
Γνῶθι σεαυτὸν, by making most of our Disquisitions into Human Nature by
_Dissections_: And tho’ Brutes may sometimes be useful in _Comparative
Anatomy_, yet Man being the _Epitome_ and Perfection of the _Macrocosm_,
his Body shews a more wonderful Mechanism than all other Creatures can
do, as one thus very elegantly expresses in Latin: _Hominem_ (says he)
_a DEO post reliqua factum fuisse; ut DEUS in ipso exprimeret, sub brevi
quodam Compendio, quicquid diffuse ante fecerat_.

[Sidenote: What accounted by this Age and what by the _Antients_.]

The present Age therefore accounts the chief Use of this _Art_ to be in
_Anatomical_ Preparations; but I shall shew another more antient and
more general, which is the Preserving a Human Dead Body entire, and
which is properly term’d _Embalming_: More antient, I say, as having
been first devis’d and practis’d by the Wise and Learned _Egyptians_,
and more general in that it relates to every particular Person, yet is
it by most despis’d and look’d on meerly as an unnecessary expensive
Trouble; so that unless I can convince these People to the contrary, I
must not expect to find my ensuing Labours meet with any Favour. But
before I affirm _The Art of Embalming_ to be a particular part of that
Duty, which obliges all Mankind to take care of their Dead, [Sidenote:
The Right of Burial and Funeral Ceremonies.] I shall give some cogent
Reasons to prove the Right of Burial, what Things are necessary thereto,
whether Ceremonies are needless and superstitious, or Monuments
vain-glorious, _&c._ and this shall be as Nature dictates, the Law of
GOD appoints, and the Law of Nations directs and obliges.

[Sidenote: _Sepulture_ a Debt to Nature.]

First, _Sepulture_ is truly and rightly accounted to be _Jus Naturæ_, by
reason the very condition of Human Nature admonishes us, that the
spiritless Body should be restor’d to the Earth, from whence it was
deriv’d; so that it only pays that Debt of its own accord, which
otherwise Nature would require against its Will. Thus, in the beginning
of the World, so soon as _Adam_ had transgressed, [Sidenote: Ordain’d by
GOD himself.] GOD said to him, _Gen._ 3. 19. _Thou shalt return to the
Ground, from whence thou wert taken; for Dust thou art, and unto Dust
thou shalt return_. Whence _Ecclesiastes_, 12. 7. says, _The Dust shall
return to the Earth as it was: and the Spirit to GOD who gave it_.
Likewise patient _Job_ thus expresses himself, _Job_ 1. 21. _Naked came
I out of my Mothers Womb_ (which _David_ also calls the _Lowest part of
the Earth_, Psalm 139. 15.) _and naked shall I return thither_. Upon
which _Quenstedt_ thus Comments, _p._ 10. De Sepult. vet. _He shall not
return again into his Mothers Womb, but unto the Earth which is the
Mother of all Things_. Upon which occasion read also _Ecclesiasticus_,
40. 1.

[Sidenote: Practis’d by the _Heathens_.]

Hence it is the _Heathens_ have generally follow’d the same Custom of
restoring the Dead to their Mother Earth; since it is but according to
the course of Nature, for all Things to return at last to their first
Principles, and that so soon as ever a Disunion or Dissolution of the
Parts of Man’s Body shall be caused by Death. That each Thing has ever
immediately requir’d what it gave, is excellently describ’d by
_Euripides_, in one of his _Tragedies_ call’d the _Supplicants_, where
he introduces _Theseus_ Talking after this manner:

                Ἐάσατ’ ἤδη γῇ καλυφθῆναι νεκρούς.
                Ὅθεν δ’ ἕκαστον εἰς τὸ σῶμ’ ἀφίκετο,
                Ἐνταῦθ’ ἀπῆλθε, πνεῦμα μὲν πρὸς αἰθέρα,
                Τὸ σῶμα δ’ εἰς γῆν· οὔ τι γὰρ κεκτήμεθα
                Ἡμέτερον αὐτὸ πλὴν ἐνοικῆσαι βίον·
                Κᾄπειτα τὴν θρέψασαν αὐτὸ δεῖ λαβεῖν.

                _Jam sinite Terræ Mortuos Gremio tegi:
                Res unde quæque sumpserat Primordium,
                Eo recipitur: Spiritus Cælo redit
                Corpusque Terræ: Jure nec enim mancupi:
                Sed brevis ad Ævi Tempus utendum datur:
                Mox Terra repetit ipsa quod nutriverat._

           Suffer the Dead within the Earths cold Womb
           To be Interr’d, nor envy them a Tomb;
           For all Things, whence they did their Being draw,
           Thither, at last, return by Natures Law:
           The Soul flies back to Heav’n from whence it came,
           Our mouldring Bodies Mother Earth does claim;
           Lent us but for a fleeting space to wear,
           And then they to their first Abodes repair.

[Sidenote: Asserted in the _Scripture_.]

Hereby it plainly appears that we really possess nothing of our own, and
what we seem to enjoy, is but only lent us for a season, and must be
restor’d again when ever we die, which is agreeable to that Expression
of _Job_, in the latter part of the above-mentioned Verse and Chapter.
_The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away; blessed be the Name of the
Lord._ Also Holy _David_, Psalm 146. 4. (speaking of Man’s Frailty and
Mortality) says, _His Breath goes forth, he returns to his Earth_. Here
he emphatically calls it _his Earth_, both because he was made of it,
_Gen._ 2. 27. and must return to it again, _Gen._ 3. 19. and by reason
he has a Right to a Burial-Place in it.

[Sidenote: Confirm’d by the _Philosophers_ and _Poets_.]

The same is likewise Taught us by _Cicero_, where he says, _Reddenda
Terra Terræ_: _That the Earth_ (meaning Man’s Body) _must be restor’d to
its Earth_; which also gave occasion to the antient Philosophers to
contemplate the Beginning and End, or the Life and Death of Man, that
thereby they might be the better able to Teach us what we really are in
Nature, and how little we have to Boast of: The very Thought of which
put an old Poet into a Passion and Admiration, expressing himself thus
in gingling _Monkish_ Verses:

             _Cum Fæx, cum Limus, cum Res vilissima simus,
             Unde superbimus, ad Terram Terra redimus._

               Man who is made of _Earth_, Can he be vain
               And know he must return to _Earth_ again?

Methinks the very Consideration of this should cause us to lay aside all
Pride and Vanity, and serve for a perpetual Memorial of Humility and
Obedience to our _Creator_, who as he was pleas’d to endue us with
Rational Souls, and to give us Dominion over all Things here below, yet,
that we might not be thereby puffed up and tempted to forget him, he
wisely formed us of the _Dust_, and, in his good Time, will reduce us to
_Dust_ again. Thence Divine _Plato_ assures us, that the End and Scope
of his Philosophy was only _The Consideration of Death_.

[Sidenote: Its Rise and Antiquity.]

In Obedience therefore to the Laws both of GOD and Nature, _Sepulture_
undoubtedly was at first Instituted, and if either Antiquity or
universal Custom can prove a convincing Argument, you may account it as
antient as the World it self, and us’d by all Nations tho’ perhaps in
different manners; for you must allow, so soon as Death came in by Man’s
Transgression, it necessarily follow’d that some care must have been
taken to Bury his Carcass. The first Instance of this that we read of,
in the Sacred History of the old Testament, is how _Abraham_, the Father
of the _Faithful_, Buried his Wife _Sarah_ in the Cave of the Field
_Machpelah_, which he had bought of the Sons of _Heth_ for a
Burying-Place for his Family, _Gen._ 23. 19, 20. There also St. _Jerome_
asserts _Adam_ the first Man was Buried; and _Nicolaus Lyranus_ and
_Alphonsus Tostatus_ are of Opinion the Four Patriarchs were Buried
there likewise with their Wives, _Eve_, _Sarah_, _Rebecca_ and _Lea_,
all which you may find explain’d more at large in _Quenstedt_, p. 2, 3,

[Sidenote: First Cause of it.]

Now this seems to have been one of the _first Causes of Interment_, to
wit, that it being the course of Nature, for Bodies depriv’d of Spirit
or Life to corrupt or stink; and the Medicinal Art being little known
and less us’d in those early Days (without the Knowledge of which it was
impossible to preserve them) there remained no other way of securing the
Living from the pestiferous Exhalations of the Dead, than by burying
their Carcasses in the Earth, and so removing such miserable Objects out
of their sight; which seems clearly intimated by the aforesaid Example
of _Abraham_, when, being in much trouble for the Loss and Death of
_Sarah_ his _Delight_, he spake thus unto the Sons of _Heth_, Gen. 23.
4. _Give me a Possession of a Burial-Place with you, that I may Bury my
Dead out of my Sight._ (LXX. θάψω τὸν νεκρόν μου, ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ) where it is
to be observ’d, that he no longer calls her his Wife, but his Dead; as
knowing that those alterations, which she must in a few Days inevitably
undergo, would have deterr’d him from the very Thoughts of her, if he
had not earnestly sought for and obtain’d a _Burying-Place_, where he
might hide her out of his _Sight_.

[Sidenote: Second Cause.]

This is to be look’d upon as the _second Cause_ or _End of Burial_, to
wit, that it being not only disagreeable to the dignity of our Nature,
but also occasioning great sadness of Mind, for the Living to see what
dismal Accidents and Calamities befall the Dead, that we should free our
selves from the Apprehensions and black _Idea’s_ such Objects are
naturally apt to inspire, by removing them out of our Sight and Mind, by
a timely Sepulture: For as _Demosthenes_ said in a Funeral Oration,
_Leniatur ita Luctus Eorum, qui Suis sunt Orbati_; _By this means the
Grief of those, who are depriv’d of their Friends, is alleviated_.
[Sidenote: Thought more Beneficial to the _Living_ than the _Dead_.] So
that these two Reasons seeming to conduce more to the Benefit of the
Living than the Dead, it has given occasion to some to believe, that
Burial was from thence invented, and of this Opinion was _Grotius_, who
thus writes: _Hinc est, quod Officium Sepeliendi, non tam Homini, id
est, Personæ, quam Humanitati, id est, Naturæ Humanæ, præstari dicitur_;
_For this Reason it is that the Office of Burial is said not to be paid
so much to the Man_, viz. _To the particular Person, as to Humanity it
self, that is, to Human Nature in general_. And St. _Austin_, Lib. 1.
_De Civit. DEI_, cap. 12. and _Lib. De Cura pro Mortuis_, cap. 2.
affirms, _Curationem Funeris, Conditionem Sepulturæ, Pompas Exequiarum,
magis esse Vivorum Solatia, quam Mortuorum Subsidia_; that _The
regulating and management of the Funeral, the manner of Burial, the
Magnificence and Pomp of the Exequies, were devised rather as a
Consolation to the Living than any Relief to the Dead_. But _Seneca_,
Lib. 1. _De Remed._ hath more plainly confirm’d both the foregoing
Reasons, saying, _Non Defunctorum Causa, sed Vivorum inventa est
Sepultura, ut Corpora & Visu & Odore fœda submoverentur_; _Burial was
found out not so much for the sake of the Dead as the Living, that by
means thereof Bodies noisom both to Sight and Smell might be remov’d_:
Therefore _Andrew Rivet_, in his 19th _Exercise_, on the 23 Chap. of
_Genesis_, commends _Sepulture_ as a laudable Custom, pertaining to
common Policy and Honesty. Human Nature would be asham’d to see Man, the
Master-Piece of the Creation, left unregarded or lye unburied and naked,
expos’d to the Insults of all Creatures, and become a Herritage to the
most vile Worms and Serpents, or lye Rotting like Dung upon the face of
the Earth; so that if Pity and Compassion will not move our obdurate
Hearts to Bury him, the very Stench and Corruption of the Dead will
compel us to it. Hence _Chytræus_:

              _Corpus inane Animæ, tandem Fætore maligno,
              A se abigit Cunctos_——

                A breathless Body, tho’ our Pity fails
                To make us Bury it, its Stench prevails.

By these two fore-going Causes of Burial appears yet a farther Benefit
to Mankind, that they may live without that continual Terror of Death,
[Sidenote: Frees from the _Terror_ of _Death_.] which is occasion’d by
seeing such miserable Emblems of Mortality. If you do but consider, when
Men at first liv’d dispers’d, the very Abhorrence and Detestation of
meeting Dead Bodies, made them to remove such unpleasant Objects out of
their sight: Afterwards, when they assembl’d together and built Cities
to dwell in, they used Burial for this Reason says _Lilius Gyraldus_,
Lib. _De var. Sepult. Ritu._ pag. 4. _That the Living might not be
infected by the most noisom stench of the Dead_. The before-going
Arguments for Interment have been deduc’d from Natural and Political
Reasons, but the latter likewise relating to Physic, and particularly
conducing to the Health and long Life of Man (since _The Art of
Embalming_ was not known in those Days) we will a little more accurately
enquire into the pernicious Effects of _Putrefaction_, and the fatal
Consequences that from thence ensue; for this being the most potent
Enemy to Life, [Sidenote: From _Putrefaction_ the _Enemy_ of _Life_.]
Nature is very careful to expel it so soon as ever she perceives, by its
odious Scents, its invisible Approaches: Nor can she endure the lesser
ill Scents of Sweat or Urine, or those Excrements of the Belly, which
are necessarily produc’d from the Aliments of the Body, but the Body it
self as well as Spirits reject them; for this is to be observ’d, that
the Excrements and Putrefactions of all Creatures smell worst and are
most offensive to their own _Species_, which we may see by Cats, which
voiding a more than ordinary fetid Dung, always take care to bury it.
And such cleanliness of Living renders all Creatures the more Healthful,
as we daily find by Birds, Pigeons, Horses, Dogs, _&c._ which thrive
best when their Houses, Stables and Kennels are kept sweetest. There is
not only an unhealthy, but oftentimes a secret poysoning Quality in the
fetid Odours of a putrid Air, which are made so malignant by Bodies
corrupt and exposed therein; and thus, in several Countries, [Sidenote:
From the _Plague_.] great Plagues have been occasion’d only by the
Putrefaction of prodigious swarms of dead Grasshoppers and Locusts cast
up on heaps. Thus, the _Scripture_ testifies, the Land of _Egypt_ was
corrupted with Lice, Flies, Frogs and Locusts as a Punishment to
_Pharaoh_: The Fish of the Rivers died, and the Waters stank; also there
was a Murrain among the Beasts, and a Plague of Boils and Blains among
the Inhabitants, _Exod._ chap. 7, 8, 9, 10.

The infectious Atoms of a putrid Air are so very subtile and invisible,
that they meet with an easie reception into the Brain and Lungs, as
often as we breath, and thereby immediately occasion in the Brain either
an Apoplexy or _Delirium_, a _Syncope_ to the Spirits, a general
Convulsion of the Nerves, or else more slowly corrupt the Blood, by
mixing with it in its passage thro’ the Lungs, where they either produce
Imposthumes, Ulcers, Consumptions or _Hectic_-Fevers which prey upon the
Spirits and Vitals, or bring Gangrenes to the extreamest Parts, or the
Small-Pox, Purple Fevers, and other malignant Distempers to the whole
Body; nay, they too frequently prove the very principal Ingredient of
the Plague it self, that inexorable Spirit which so swiftly dispatches
many thousands of Souls to the other World.

[Sidenote: The _Art_ of _Poisoning_ the _Air_.]

Thus Poison’d _Air_, or _The Art of Empoisoning by Odours_, is more
dangerous than Poison’d Water, forasmuch as it is impossible Man should
live without Breathing, or subsist in an infectious Air, without a
proper Antidote. This _Art_ has been effectually practis’d by the
_Indians_ in their Trafficks, and the _Turks_ in their Wars, and was
particularly us’d by _Emanuel Comnenus_ towards the _Christians_, when
they pass’d thro’ his Country, in their way to the _Holy-Land_. This the
Lord _Bacon_ relates in the 10th Century of his _Natural History_, p.
201. where he is of Opinion, That foul Smells, rais’d by _Art_ for
Poisoning the _Air_, consist chiefly of _Man’s Flesh_ or _Sweat
putrefied_, since those Stinks, which the Nostrils immediately abhor and
expel, are not the most pernicious, but such as have some similitude
with _Man’s Body_, which thereby the easier insinuate themselves and
betray the Spirits. Thus in _Agues_, Spirits coming from _Putrefaction_
of _Humours_ bred within the Body, extinguish and suffocate the _Natural
Heat_, p. 74. The same effect is likewise to be observ’d in
_Pestilences_, in that the malignity of the infecting Vapour, daunts the
_principal Spirits_, and makes them to fly and leave their _Regiment_,
whereby the _Humours_, _Flesh_ and _Secundary Spirits_ dissolve and
break as it were in an _Anarchy_, Exper. 333. p. 74.

Also because the _Canibals_, in the _West-Indies_, eat _Man’s Flesh_,
the same Author thought it not improbable, but that the _Lues Venerea_
might owe its Origin to that foul and high Nourishment, since those
People were found full of the _Pox_ at their first Discovery, and at
this Day the most _Mortal Poisons_, practis’d by them, [Sidenote:
Consists partly of _Man’s Flesh_, &c.] have a mixture of _Man’s Flesh_,
_Fat_ or _Blood_. Likewise the Ointments that _Witches_ have us’d, are
reported to have been made of the _Fat_ of _Children_ dug out of their
Graves; and diverse _Sorceresses_, as well among the Heathens as
Christians, have fed upon _Man’s Flesh_, to help, as they thought, their
wicked Imaginations with high and foul Vapours, _Exper._ 26. and 859.

The most pernicious Infection, next the _Plague_ or _Air Poison’d by
Art_, is the Smell of a _Goal_ where Prisoners have been long, close and
nastily kept, whereof, says the Lord _Bacon_, we have in our Time had
Experience twice or thrice, when both the Judges that sat on the Trials,
and numbers of those that assisted, sickn’d on the spot and Died,
_Exper._ 914. The like would frequently befall those that visit
_Hospitals_, and other such Places, where either the _Leprosie_, _French
Pox_ or _Malignant Fevers_ rage, were not the Attendants dayly
accustom’d to it, or did they not use proper _Antidotes_ to keep them
from it. If therefore the morbid State of the Living only be so
pernicious to healthful Bodies, [Sidenote: _Air_ most _Infected_ by a
_putrid Carcass_.] what Destruction must that _Air_ produce, which is
replete with the volatile Steams and Spirits, that issue from a dead and
putrid Carcass?

        ——_Sicut Grex totus in Agris
        Unius Scabie cadit & Porrigine Porci,
        Uvaq; conspecta Livorem ducit ab Uva._   says _Juvenal_.

        From one infected Hog, Experience shows,               }
        Thro’ the whole Herd the dire Contagion goes;          }
        Thus from one tainted Grape the Bunch corrupted grows. }

For every Thing in Nature easiest Corrupts that of its own kind. The
Reason of this is because it is _Homogeneal_, as is commonly seen in
_Church-Yards_, where they bury much; for a Corps will consume in a far
shorter Time there, than it would have done in another place where few
have been buried.

It therefore necessarily follows, that if the Dead were not inhum’d,
whole Cities would Corrupt and be fill’d with the _Plague_; and after
great Battels, if the Dead should lie unbury’d, whole Countries would be
destroy’d; [Sidenote: _Sepulture_ defends from the _Plague_,] all which
Mischiefs are prevented by a timely _Sepulture_: For the Earth by its
weight and closeness not only suppresses and dissipates the Vapours that
arise from a _putrid Carcass_, but also imbibes and sucks up the
_stinking Gore_; and being a _Medium_ between that and the _Sun_,
prevents the Beams of that Planet from suddenly exhaling such fetid
Odours. [Sidenote: Likewise _preserves Bodies_.] Nay the Lord _Bacon_
farther assures us, That _Burying_ in the _Earth_, which is _cold_ and
_dry_, serves for _Preservation_, _Condensation_ and _Induration_ of
_Bodies_, as you may find in his 4th Century of his _Natural History_,
Exper. 376, 377. But this needs no farther Confirmation, since Bodies
are dug up in every Age perfect and uncorrupt, which perhaps had been
buried above 40 or 50 Years, and some have been found petrified to a
perfect Stone, of which we shall discourse more hereafter, therefore
will at present proceed to acquaint you with other _final Causes_ or
_Ends of Burial_.

[Sidenote: Third Cause of _Burial_.]

A _Third Cause of Burial_ is, That _Man’s Body_ may not be torn to
pieces and devour’d by savage Beasts, and Birds of Prey, which would be
a sight wholly unbecoming the Dignity of _Human Nature_, as _Seneca_
observes _Lib._ 6. De Beneficiis: _Inter maxima Rerum suarum_, says he,
_nihil habet Natura, quo magis glorietur_. _Nature has nothing in the
whole Creation of which she may boast more than of Man_: So that it must
needs be a grievous Trouble and Concern to her to see the _Master-Piece_
and _Perfection_ of all _Creatures_ become thus a Prey to the vilest of
Animals; and that he who whilst living had all of them under Subjection,
so soon as ever his Spirit is separated from his Body, they should
forget all Allegiance to their late Sovereign, and rebelliously Tear him
to Pieces: Therefore we who are his Fellow-Creatures, and endu’d with
Humanity, take care to bury him out of the way of such Harpies; and
ought to perform all his Funeral Obsequies with the same Respect we were
wont to show him whilst alive. Hence _Hugo Grotius_ is of Opinion, That
_Burial_ was invented in respect to the Excellency of _Man’s Body_.
[Sidenote: Taken from the Excellency of _Man’s Body_.] _Cum Homo cæteris
Animalibus præstet, indignum visum, si ejus Corpore alia Animantia
pascerentur, quare inventam Sepulturam, ut id quantum posset,
caveretur._ _Since Man excells all other Creatures, it was thought
unworthy they should feed upon his Body; for which reason Sepulture was
found out, that this Mischief might be prevented as far as possible._
Likewise _Lactantius_, Lib. 6. _Institut._ cap. 12. says, _Non patiemur
Figuram & Figmentum DEI, Feris & Volucribus in Prædam jacere, sed
reddamus id Terræ, unde ortum est_. _Let us not suffer the Image and
Workmanship of GOD to lie expos’d as a Prey to the Beasts and Birds, but
let us return it back to the Earth from whence it had its Origin._

[Sidenote: Accounted by us the Fourth _Cause_.]

So that we will account the _Fourth Reason for Burial_, to be the
_Excellency of Man’s Body_, to which we ought to show the greater Honour
and Respect, in that it is the Receptacle of the _Immortal Soul_. Hence
_Origen_, Lib. 8. _Contra Celsum_ says, _Rationalem Animam honorare
didicimus, & hujus Organa Sepulchro honorifice demandare_. _We have
learn’d to Honour the Rational Soul, and respectfully to convey its
Organs to the Grave._ And thus St. _Austin_ very elegantly expresses
himself, _Lib._ 1. De Civit. DEI, _cap._ 13. _Si Paterna Vestis &
Annulus, vel si quid hujusmodi, tanto carius Posteris, quanto erga
Parentes Affectus major, nullo modo ipsa spernenda sunt Corpora, quæ
utiq; multo familiarius, atq; conjunctius, quam quælibet Indumenta
gestamus._ _If we take so much the more care to preserve our Fathers
Apparel, Ring, and other Remainders of the like nature, as we bore an
Affection to them, ’tis plain their Bodies are by no means to be
neglected, which we wear closer and nearer to us than any Cloaths

[Sidenote: Fifth _Cause_ of _Burial_.]

But the _Fifth Cause_ and _ultimate End of Burial_ is in order to a
future _Resurrection_, and as B. _Gerhard_ asserts, agreeable to that
Companion of _Christ_ and St. _Paul_ his Apostle, _John_ 12. 24. 1
_Corinth._ 15. 37, 38. That Bodies are piously to be laid up in the
Earth, like to Corn sowed, to confirm the assured Hope of the
_Resurrection_: And therefore the _place_ of _Burial_ was call’d by St.
_Paul_, _Seminatio_, as others term it _Templi Hortus_, the _Churches
Orchard_ or _Garden_. By the _Greeks_ it was call’d, Κοιμητήριον,
_Dormitorium_, a _Sleeping Place_. By the _Hebrews_, בית חיים,
_Beth-chajim_, i. e. _Domus Viventium_, the _House of the Living_, in
the same respect as the _Germans_ call _Church-Yards_, =Gotsacker=,
i. e. _DEI Ager, aut Fundus_, _GOD’s Field_, in which the Bodies of the
Pious are sowed like to Grain or Corn, in expectation of a future
Harvest. By these Appellations we are admonish’d of the Resurrection of
the Body, and of the Immortality which is given by GOD to the Soul. _For
as they that Sleep awake again, and as Christ who is the Head arose
again, so shall we who are his Members arise._ Hence _Calvin_
(Commenting on _Isaiah_ 14. 18.) says, _The Carcasses of Beasts are
thrown out, because they were Born to Putrefaction; but our Bodies are
interr’d in the Earth, and being there deposited, expect the last Day,
that they may arise from thence to lead a Blessed and Immortal Life with
the Soul_. Also _Aurelius Prudentius_, a Christian Poet, rightly asserts
_The Hope of the Resurrection to be the chief Cause why the greatest
Care is taken of Burial_, whereof he has most excellently describ’d
every particular Circumstance in a Latin Funeral Hymn, which being
Translated by Sir _John Beaumont_, Baronet, into 172 Verses, I will for
brevity sake refer you to _Weaver_’s _Funeral Monuments_, pag. 25. where
you will find them inserted, and worth your Perusal.

[Sidenote: Want of _Burial_ not prejudicial to the _Soul_.]

Nevertheless, we are not to think, tho’ _Burial_ was ordain’d by GOD as
a Work both pleasing and acceptable to him, and consequently approv’d
and practis’d by all Men, that therefore the want of it, or any
particular Ceremony thereof, can any ways be prejudicial to a Christian
Soul, as St. _Austin_ and _Ludovicus Vives_ his Commentator alledges,
_Lib._ 1. De Civit. DEI, _cap._ 11. And that Complaint which the _Royal
Prophet_ makes, _Psalm_ 79. 3. _That there was none to bury the dead
Bodies of GOD’s Servants_, was spoken rather to intimate their Villany
that neglected it, than any Misery to them that underwent it. ’Tis true
such Actions may appear heinous and tyranous in the Eye of Man, but
precious in the Sight of the Lord is the Death of his Saints: Neither is
our _Faith_ in his assured Promise so frail, as to think ravenous Beasts
or Birds of Prey can any ways make the Body want any part at the
_Resurrection_; but, on the contrary, we are well satisfied that in a
Moment there shall be given such a new Restitution, not only out of the
Earth, but out of the most minute Particles of all the other Elements,
wherein any Bodies can possibly be included, that not a Hair of our
Heads shall be missing. We read how the Bodies of the _Christians_
(after great Battels, and the Sacking and Subverting of Towns and
Cities) stood in want of the Rights and Ceremonies of _Burial_, which
neither is to be accounted any Omission in the living Christians, who
could not perform them, nor any Hurt to the Dead, who could not feel
them. We may, moreover, find in the History of Martyrs, and such like
Persecutions, how barbarous and cruel Tyrants have raged over the Bodies
of Christians, who, not content with tormenting them to Death several
thousands of ways, still persever’d with inhumanity to insult over their
mangled Corps, and at length to shew their utmost Contempt, bury’d them
in the Bowels of rapacious Creatures, or what other ignominious ways
their wickedness could invent. Nevertheless, we have all the reason to
believe their Souls were receiv’d into Heaven, and that their Bodies
will at the last Day be reunited intire to them again; after which,
Death will have no more Power over their Bodies than their Souls, but as
St. _Paul_ says, 1 _Cor._ 15. 44. _They will become Spiritual Bodies_.
[Sidenote: Nor any kind thereof hurtful.] So that in this respect it
matters not after what manner the Body be destroy’d, dissolv’d or
bury’d, as _Tatian_ in his Book _Contra Gentes_ says, _Quamvis Caro tota
Incendio absumatur tamen Materiam evaporatam Mundus excipit, quanquam
aut in Fluviis, aut in Mari contabescam, aut Feriis dilanior, condor
tamen in Penu locupletis Domini_. _Altho’ the Flesh be wholly consum’d
by Fire, yet the World receives the evaporated Matter, nay, altho’ I am
wash’d to nothing in Rivers or Seas, or am devour’d by wild Beasts, yet
shall I be reposited in the Store-House of a most wealthy Lord._
Likewise _Minutius Fælix_ in _Octavio_ has these Words: _Corpus omne
sive arescit in Pulverem, sive in Humorem solvitur, vel in Cinerem
comprimitur, vel in Nidorem tenuatur, subducitur Bonis, sed DEO
Elementorum custodio reservatur_. _The Body whether it be dry’d into
Powder, resolv’d into Moisture, reduc’d to Ashes, or evaporated into
Air, is indeed taken away from Good Men, but still the custody of the
Elements is reserv’d to GOD._ Some have been accounted a rigid sort of
_Stoicks_, and void of all Humanity, for this Reason only, because they
averr’d it profited nothing, whether the Body corrupted above or beneath
the Earth. Thus _Lucan_, Lib. 7.

             ————_Tabesne Cadavera solvat
             An Rogus haud refert: Placido Natura receptat
             Cuncta Sinu, Finemq; sui sibi Corpora debent.
             ——Cælo tegitur qui non habet Urnam._

             ——————For ’tis all one
             Whether the Fire or Putrefaction
             Dissolve ’em; all to Natures Bosom go,
             Since to themselves their Ends the Bodies owe.
             The Skie shall cover him who wants a Grave.

And that Favorite-Courtier _Mecænas_ was wont to say:

              _Non Tumulum curo, sepelit Natura Relictos._

            I value not a Tomb, Nature provides that for me.

But this these spoke only in respect to the Soul, which could receive no
Hurt nor Damage from the Bodies being cast out unbury’d; therefore they
seemingly ridicul’d and despis’d it, the better to fortifie Men against
any fear of the want of Burial, yet they firmly believ’d that all those
who were depriv’d thereof, were the most miserable and wretched of
Creatures, and that their Souls continually wander’d, as _Virgil_
elegantly expresses, _Æneid._ 6. _v._ 325. where _Æneas_ asking the
_Cybil_ why such a number of Souls stood crowding near the Stygian Lake,
and were refus’d a Passage, he receiv’d this Answer:

 _Hæc Omnis, quam cernis, inops inhumataq; Turba est:
 Portitor ille, Charon: Hi, quos vehit unda, Sepulti.
 Nec Ripa datur horrendas, nec rauca Fluenta [Sidenote: Some have fear’d
    the want of it.]
 Transportare prius, quam Sedibus ossa quierunt.
 Centum errant Annos volitantq; hæc Littora circum,
 Tum demum admissi Stagna exoptata revisunt.
 Constitit Anchisa Satus, & Vestigia pressit,
 Multa putans, Sortemq; Animo miseratus iniquam
 Cernit ibi mæstos, & Mortis Honore carentes_, &c.

      These Ghosts rejected, are the unhappy Crew
      Depriv’d of Sepulchers and Funeral due.
      The Boat-Man, _Charon_; those the buried Host,
      He Ferries over to the farther Coast.
      Nor dares his Transport Vessel cross the Waves
      With such whose Bones are not compos’d in Graves.
      A Hundred Years they wander on the Shore,
      At length, their Pennance done, are wafted o’er.
      The _Trojan_ Chief his forward Pace repress’d,
      Revolving Anxious Thoughts within his Breast;
      He saw his Friends, who whelm’d beneath the Waves,
      Their Funeral Honours claim’d, and ask’d their quiet Graves.

Some again are induc’d perhaps to think the care of Burial needless,
because there is no Sense in a Dead Body, as the Proverb has it, _Mortui
non dolent_; and others reject it for this Reason, _Quia sentienti Onus
est Terra, nihil sentienti, supervacaneum_. _For the Earth’s a Burthen
to him that is sensible of it, but none to him that is not._

[Sidenote: Others have Despis’d it.]

_Diogenes_ the Cynic Philosopher, among the rest of his Whimsies,
despis’d Sepulture, and when he was told he must thereby become a Prey
to the Beasts and Birds, he gave them this jocose Advice, _Si id metues,
ponite juxta me Bacillum, quo abigam eos_. _If you fear that, place my
Staff by me that I may drive them away._ _Quid poteris nihil sentiens?_
_What can you do if you are sensible of nothing?_ Reply’d his Friend. To
which he answer’d, _Quid igitur Ferarum laniatus oberit nihil
sentienti?_ _If I am not sensible, how can their Teeth affect me?_ At
other times he was wont to say on the like Occasion, _Si Canes meum
lacerabunt Cadaver, Hyrcanorum nactus fuero Sepulturam, Si Vultures,
Iberiorum; quod si nullum Animal accederet, ipsum Tempus: Pulcherimam
fore Sepulturam, Corpore pretiosissimis Rebus, Sole, inquam & Imbribus
absumpto_. _If the Dogs eat my Carcass, I shall have the Sepulture of
the_ Hyrcanians, _if Vultures, of the_ Iberians; _but if no Animal come
near me, then shall I be consum’d by Time, and, What a fine sort of
Burial must that needs be, to have my Body reduc’d to Dust by two of the
most precious Things in Nature, the Sun and Showers?_ Likewise
_Demonactes_ being told, if he were flung out unbury’d, as he desir’d,
the Dogs would tear him to pieces, he wittily answer’d, _Quid incommodi,
si mortuus alicui sim usui?_ _What hurt can it do me, if after I am Dead
I do somebody Good?_

[Sidenote: In what Sense the _Philosophers_ slighted it.]

It may farther be ask’d, Why _Plato_, _Aristotle_, and other
Philosophers, famous for Learning and Piety, despis’d the Rites and
Ceremonies of Sepulture? To which I answer, They did not really Despise
them, nor durst they say they were not to be at all: They said only, if
by chance they were neglected, it could do no hurt. Nor lastly did
_Lucretius_ contemn Sepulture, he only laughed at those who procur’d it
for this Reason, because they thought there still remain’d a Sense in
the Dead, as you will perceive by these Lines of his, _Lib._ 3.

           _Proin’ cum videas, Hominem indignarier ipsum,
           Post Mortem fore, ut aut putrescat Corpore posto;
           Aut Flammis interfiat, Malisve Ferarum_, &c.

        Now when you hear a Man complain and moan,
        And mourn his Fate, because when Life is gone
        His Limbs must waste, or rot i’th’ Earth, or feast
        The greedy Flames, or some devouring Beast;
        All is not well; He, by strong Fancy led,
        Imagines Sense remains amongst the Dead;
        Nor can I think, tho’ He Himself denies,
        And openly declares the whole Man Dies;
        But that from strong Conceits he still believes,
        Fond Fool, that He Himself, Himself survives:
        For now e’en whilst He breaths, e’en whilst He lives,
        And thinks He must be Torn or Burnt, He grieves;
        Thinks still the Carcass must be He, and thence
        His wanton Fears infer there must be Sense.
        And hence He grieves that He was Born to Die,
        Subject to treacherous Mortality:
        But never thinks, fond Fool, that when kind Death
        Shall close His Eyes in Night, and stop His Breath;
        Then nothing of this thinking Thing remains
        To mourn His Fate, and feel sharp Grief and Pains.

Hereby ’tis plain _Lucretius_ only blames and chides those who are of a
doubtful and wavering Mind, and that openly confess there can be no
future Sense remaining after Death, yet privately hope within themselves
that some Parts will remain, and therefore mightily dread the want of
Burial, nay, violently abhor being a Prey to wild Beasts and Birds. This
I take to be a natural hint of the Resurrection of the Body and
Immortality of the Soul, tho’ outwardly these _Pagans_ disown’d both:

     _Eripe me his invicte Malis; aut tu mihi Terram
     Injice, sic saltem placidis in Morte quiescam
     Sedibus_, &c. as _Palinurus_’s Ghost said to _Æneas_, Æne. 6.

         From lasting Miseries my wandring Soul relieve,
         That she in pleasant Shades and perfect Rest may live.

We cannot believe there were ever any Philosophers in the World, of such
obdurate Hearts, as strictly to deny Burial, tho’ out of a seeming
Arrogance they despis’d it; but that they only pretended so lest their
Antagonists should think the want of Burial an inflicted Punishment,
therefore they were the easier mov’d, as much as in them lay, to expose
them. [Sidenote: Why the _French_deny’d it.] Thus _Pausanias_ in
_Phocic._ gives an Instance of some _French_ who deny’d Burial to the
slain in Battel, alledging it was a Ceremony nothing to be esteem’d of;
but the true Reason they did it was, That they might bring the greater
Terror on their Enemies, and make them to have the worse Opinion of
their Cruelty. It must be granted, the Dead have no sense of any Change
or Dissolution they undergo, and that it is a ridiculous Opinion of
Tyrants, to think to punish the Body by mangling it, and delivering it
to be torn to pieces and devour’d; neither do Bodies suffer any Hurt or
Damage in respect to the Soul, after what manner soever they are bury’d:
Yet you must grant these sufficient Reasons why the Dead should be taken
care of, and not be despis’d and cast away; for as we esteem the Body
the Temple of GOD, and Receptacle of the Soul, so ought we honourably to
Interr it with those Funeral Obsequies as are becoming its Quality and

[Sidenote: Right of _Burial_ grounded on the Law of GOD and Nature.]

Now we must look upon Burial to be a Work enjoin’d both by the Law of
Nature and Nations, and not only by the Human but by the Divine Law; for
the most Barbarous as well as Civiliz’d People of the World have ever
paid some Respect and Observance to their Dead, tho’ perhaps after
different Manners, by Burying them in the Water, Earth, Air, Fire, _&c._
The common Dictates of Nature have taught them to abhor such dismal
Objects and offensive Smells as dead Bodies must necessarily present,
and their Religion has shown them the Inhumanity and Cruelty of
neglecting their Duty to them: Nay, if we look into the Natural History
of Animals, we shall find some of them excelling Man in this particular,
by taking a more than ordinary Care of their Dead, as is to be seen not
only in Cranes, Elephants and Dolphins, _&c._ As _Ælian de Animalibus_,
Lib. 2. cap. 1. and _Lib._ 12. _cap._ 6. and _Franzius_ in his History
of Animals, _cap._ 4. _Peter Faber_ in his _Semestrium_, _Pliny_ and
others observe, but likewise in Ants, Bees and other Insects; for as
_Grotius_ in his Treatise, _De Jure Belli & Pacis_, Lib. 11. cap. 19.
rightly observes, [Sidenote: Observ’d by Brutes, _&c._ as well as Men.]
_Nullum est in Homine Factum laudabile, quin non Vestigium, in alio
aliquo Animantium Genere DEUS posuerit_. _There is nothing done by Man
worthy of Commendation, but GOD has imprinted some Imitation of it even
in Brutes._

A Corps lying unbury’d and Putrifying, is not only a dismal Aspect to
our Eyes, offensive to our Nose, and ungrateful to all our External
Senses, but even horrid in our very private Apprehensions and secret
Conceptions; nay to hear it but only nam’d, is so very unnatural and
unpleasant to us, that we care not to entertain the least Thought of
Death, even to the deferr’d Time of our Expiration. What presence of
Mind can enable a Fellow-Creature to behold such a miserable Object as
this, express’d by its dismal Aspect, deform’d Proportion, fœtid Smell,
putrid Carcass, and the like, and this perhaps of one who was but just
now your Bosom-Friend or the World’s Favorite, a Prince worthy of
Immortality for his Wisdom, Piety, Valour, Conduct, _&c._ and justly
admir’d for the Beauty of his Person, Gracefulness of his Mien, and
Conformity of all the External Parts of his Body, as well as Internal
Qualifications of his Mind? Certainly common Humanity and
Self-Preservation would alone persuade us to Inter him out of our Sight,
or else preserve him from a State of Corruption and Deformity by

[Sidenote: By both to prevent infection, _&c._]

I have before observ’d how Beasts receiv’d the Infection of the Murrain
from a Putrefaction of their own Bodies; now I will shew you how they
likewise, by Natural Instinct, avoid each other in such like Calamities:
The Sound shun the Company of the Infected, and they reciprocally
separate from the rest to Mourn by themselves. A wounded Bird leaves the
Flight: A Stag (when Shot) forsakes the Herd and flies to the Desarts:
And every Diseas’d Creature retires into some solitary Place, where its
last Care seems to be, that of providing for its Burial. [Sidenote:
Every Creature takes care of its own _Burial_.] Reptiles creep into
Holes, and Birds into their Nests, or the Bottoms of thick Hedges:
Rabbets die in their Burrows: Foxes, Badgers and Wolves, _&c._ in their
Dens, after which nothing will Inhabit there. So that they seem to know
they shall lie undisturb’d in those Dormitories, which they took care in
their Lives Time to provide and dig in order to their Interment; like as
some Hermits, who, during their Lives, made their Cave their Habitation,
but when Dead their Tomb.

The larger sort of Domestic and Tame Creatures seem likewise to
endeavour this, as much as they can, as may be observ’d from Horses,
Oxen, Sheep, _&c._ who when they decline and draw near their Deaths,
seek either the thickest part of a Wood, a Dell or Gravel-Pit in a
Common, or deep Ditch in a Field, where they may lay themselves down, as
in a Grave, and die: They seem to desire nothing more of their Master,
whom they have all their Lives faithfully serv’d, than to cover their
Bodies with the Earth.

The lesser Tame Animals, as Dogs, Cats, _&c._ know they have no occasion
to take that Care of themselves, for when they die, their Master is
oblig’d to remove them out of his House and bury them: [Sidenote: How
Insects bury themselves.] But as for Insects, they (fearing Mankind
should be regardless of their inconsiderable Bodies, and not be so
grateful as to take care of their Funerals, tho’ they had consum’d their
Lives in making Food and Raiment for their Master) seem with a more
extraordinary Contrivance, and admirable Art, to provide for their own
Burial. The little Bee works its Honey-Comb for the Benefit of Man while
it lives, and for its own Sepulture when it dies; the Comb serving for
its Tomb, and the Wax and remaining Honey for its Embalment, conformable
to that Saying of _Martial_, in his Fourth Book and Thirty Second

             _Et latet, & lucet Phaetontide condita Gutta,
               Ut videatur Apis Nectare clausa suo:
             Dignum tantorum Pretium tulit illa Laborum,
               Credibile est ipsam sic voluisse mori._

              She lurks, she shines within her balmy Nest,
              That there securely she may take her Rest;
              For all her Labours past she asks but this,
              That she may lye thus bury’d when she dies.

The Silk-Worm (which also willingly parts with her Stock and Labour for
the Benefit of Mankind) makes a small reserve of Silk, sufficient for
her Winding-Sheet, which when she has finish’d, she dies therein, and is
as nobly Interr’d, as all the _Egyptian Art_, with its fine Painted
Rowlers of Cyprus, Lawn or Silk could make her.

Other Insects, as Flies, Ants, Gnats, and the like, which are not
dispos’d with Organs to perform such Works, yet have this in particular,
that they can outdare the most resolute _Indian_ [Sidenote: Some are
_Burn’d_ and others _Embalm’d_.] (when, without any previous
Exhortation, they suddenly leap into the Funeral Pyre of a Candle or
Torch, and outvie the costly Embalming of _Arabia_) when they
voluntarily fly into liquid Amber, and by that means obtain a more noble
and incorruptible Sepulture than any other Creature. These have had
Poets to write Funeral Orations to their immortal Praise, as the two
Epigrams in _Martial_ of a Viper and Pismire in some measure testifie,
_Lib._ 4. _Ep._ 59. and _Lib._ 6. _Ep._ 15. Witness also _Brassavolus_
of the Pismire, and _Cardanus_’s _Mausoleum_ for a Flie: Nor could
_Virgil_ (the Prince of Poets) omit taking notice of the well order’d
Funerals of the Bees, _Georg._ _Lib._ 4. _l._ 255.

              ——_Tum Corpora Luce carentum
              Exportant Tectis, & tristia Funera ducunt._

      And crowds of Dead, that never must return                }
      To their lov’d Hives, in decent Pomp are born;            }
      Their Friends attend the Herse, and near Relations mourn. }

_Ælian_, Lib. 5. cap. 49. reports, That if one Elephant finds another
dead, he will not pass by ’till he has got together a great heap of
Earth and flung it over his Carcass; so, in all other Creatures, Nature
has provided both Burial and a Grave for them. [Sidenote: Brutes Bury’d
with Pomp and Magnificence.] Nay it is yet further remarkable, that such
Brutes as have either prov’d faithful or loving to their Masters, or
done any extraordinary Action, have been bury’d with wonderful
Magnificence, and had Tombs and Inscriptions made in Honour of them.
_Cimon_ the _Athenian_ bury’d those Horses he had been thrice a Victor
with in the _Olympick_ Games, with great Pomp near his own Sepulchre.
Also _Alexander_ the _Great_ made a magnificent Funeral for his Horse
_Bucephalus_, building a City where he dy’d, and calling it after that
Beast’s Name in memory of him. After his Example, several of the _Roman_
Emperors and _Cæsars_, such as _Augustus_, _Caligula_, _Nero_, _Adrian_,
_Antoninus_, _Commodus_, &c. bury’d their favourite Horses, and adorn’d
their Tombs with Epitaphs, as you may find in _Barthius_, Lib. 23. cap.
8. _Pliny_, Lib. 8. cap. 22. Affirms such Horses as had conquer’d at the
_Olympick_ Games, were bury’d and had Tombs and Pyramids erected to
perpetuate their Fame.

[Sidenote: Tombs and Epitaphs in Honour of Brutes.]

_Xantippus_ carefully bury’d his Dogs, and, as _Kornmannus_ reports,
_Polliacus_ erected, in the Garden of Cardinal _Urbin_ at _Rome_,
Columns of the finest Marble, of vast Expence, in Memory of his beloved
Bitch, on which he inscrib’d this Epitaph:

          _Quod potui, posui tibi, fida Catella, Sepulcrum;
          Digna magis Cæli Munere, quam Tumuli.
          Candenti ex Lapide hæc tibi convenit Urna: fuisti
          Candida tota Fide, candida tota Pilo.
          Si Cœlum, ut quondam, Canibus patet, haud tua Terras
          Incendet, sed Ver Stella perenne dabit._

         My Faithful Bitch, to thee this Pile is meant;
         More worthy Heaven than Mortal Monument:
         Of whitest Stone ’tis fit thy Tomb I rear,
         Since candid were thy Actions, white thy Hair.
         If Heav’n, as formerly, to Dogs gives Place,
         [2]Thy Star will never scorch, but cherish Human Race.

Footnote 2:

  Alluding to the _Dog Days_.

Also in the House of that Famous _Italian_ Poet _Francis Petrarch_, at
_Arqua_, near _Padua_, there is a Tomb of a Cat, adorn’d with an Elegy,
which _Santorellus_ in his _Post-Praxis Medica_, p. 5. has Printed, with
others of a Mule, a Crane, _&c._ _Pliny_, Lib. 10. cap. 43. says, a Crow
(which imitated Human Voice, and which was wont every Morning to salute
the Senators by their Names) was bury’d honourably, being carry’d out on
the Shoulders of two _Æthiopians_, with a Crown before it, and a Trumpet
sounding; the Person that kill’d it being ston’d to Death. _Ælian_, Lib
6. _Animal._ cap. 7. tells us, _Marrhes_, King of _Egypt_, built a
Sepulchre for a Raven, which was wont to carry his Letters to and fro
under its Wing; and, _Lib._ 7. _cap._ 41. he says, _Lacydes_, a
Peripatetic Philosopher, had a Goose which us’d to follow him up and
down, both at home and abroad, and whom for that Reason he Bury’d with
the same Honour and Respect as he would have done a Brother or Son. The
Stag which warr’d against the _Trojans_, was also honour’d with a Tomb;
but it were endless to relate all the Brutes the _Pagans_ have given
Burial to, as _Rhodiginus_ witnesses in _Antiq. Lect._ 58. cap. 13. The
_Parthians_ were accustom’d to bury their Horses, and the _Molossians_
their Dogs, as _Statius_ the Poet observes, _Lib._ 2. Sylvar. in
Epicedio Pileti.

             ——_Gemit inter Bella peremptum
             Parthus Equum, fidosq; Canes flevere Molossi:
             Et Volucres habuere Rogos, Cervusq; Maronis._

           The _Parthian_ mourns his Horse in Battel slain;
           For faithful Dogs _Molossians_ weep in vain.
           Ev’n Birds had Funeral Piles, and _Virgil_’s Stag.

But the _Egyptians_ surpass’d them all, for they Embalm’d the Bodies of
several Animals, as Cats, Crocodiles, Hawks and the like, that so they
might keep them the longer to adore and admire: If therefore _Pagans_
have been thus careful to honour Brutes with all the Rights of Burial,
how much more ought we who are _Christians_ to afford this last Duty to
one another?

We find in the first Age of the World, says _Cambden_, the Care of
Burial was so great, that Fathers laid a strict Charge on their
Children, concerning translating their Bodies to their Graves, every one
being desirous to return in _Sepulchra Majorum_, into the Sepulchres of
his Ancestors. Thus those Holy Patriarchs, _Abraham_, _Isaac_, _Jacob_,
_Joseph_ and the rest, did not only lay the heaviest Commands about
their being bury’d, but also about transferring their Bodies to such
Places as they nam’d: So _Jacob_, at his Death, charg’d his Son _Joseph_
to carry his Body into the Sepulchre of his Fathers, _Gen._ 47. 30. and
49. 29. And _Joseph_ commanded his Brethren they should remember and
tell their Posterity, that when they went away into the Land of Promise,
they should carry his Bones along with them, _Gen._ 50. 25. Now this
Filial Care was not only their last and greatest Duty to their Parents,
[Sidenote: _Burial_ a Work acceptable to GOD.] but also a Work well
pleasing and acceptable to GOD; an Example whereof we have in _Tobit_,
who being blind, GOD sent his Angel _Raphael_ to cure him, as a Reward
for his pious Care in burying those who had been slain by King
_Sennacherib_ in his wrath, and cast without the Walls of _Nineveh_: But
altho’ the King’s Servants forceably took away his Goods, and sought to
put him to Death; yet when he heard one more had been strangl’d, and
cast out into the Market-Place, he was so zealous in his Care, that tho’
he was just set down to Meat, he tasted not of it, ’till he had fetch’d
him up into a private Room, and when the Sun was set, he ventur’d to
make a Grave and bury him. [Sidenote: To our Saviour.] Likewise our
Saviour (being to rise again the Third Day) commended that good Work of
those Religious Women, who pour’d pretious Ointments, with sweet Odours,
on his Head and Body, which they did in order to his Burial. Moreover,
the Gospel has crown’d those with immortal Praise that took down
Christ’s Body from the Cross, and gave it honest and honourable Burial.
This signifies, says St. _Austin_, that the Providence of GOD extends
even to the Bodies of the Dead (for he is pleas’d with such good Works)
and builds up a Belief of the Resurrection, by which, says he, we may
learn this profitable Lesson, _viz._ How great the Reward of Alms done
to the Living must be, since this Duty and Kindness shown even to the
Dead is not forgotten of GOD.

_Burial of the Dead_ was accounted by the Antients a Work of _Piety_ and
_Religion_, because they esteem’d it both an Act of _Justice_ and

[Sidenote: An Act of Justice.]

Of _Justice_, in that Earth should be return’d to Earth and Dust to
Dust; for, What could be more just than to restore to Mother Earth her
Children, that as she had furnish’d them at first with a Material Being,
Food, Raiment, Sustenance, and all things necessary, so she might at
last receive them again into her Bosom, and afford them lodging ’till
the Resurrection? [Sidenote: Of Mercy.] The Antients also thought it an
_Act of Mercy_ to hide the Dead in the Earth, that the Organs of such
Divine Souls might not be torn and devour’d by wild Beasts, Birds, _&c._
_Cicero_ in his Oration for _Quinctius_ calls Burial an _Act of
Humanity_. [Sidenote: Of Humanity.] _Valerius Maximus_, Lib. 5. cap. 1.
_Humanity and Mildness_. _Seneca de Benefic._ Lib. 5 cap. 20. _Humanity
and Mercy_. _Ammianus Marcellinus_, Lib. 31. [Sidenote: Of Piety.] _A
necessary Office of Piety_; and St. _Ambrose_ in the beginning of an
Oration of his on the Death of the Emperor _Theodosius_, _The last and
greatest Office of Piety_. _Isocrates_ commending the _Athenians_ for
the great Care they took to bury their Dead, says, It was a mark and
token of their Piety towards the Gods, since it was they and not Men
that had establish’d that Law. Also _Servius_ observes _Virgil_ call’d
_Æneas_ by the name of _Pious_, because of the Funeral Honours, he, with
so much Care and Application, had always paid to his Relations and
Friends. _Plato_ speaking of the several kinds of Justice, has not
omitted what belongs to the Dead; nay _Aristotle_ thought it more just
to help those that were depriv’d of Life, than to assist the Living. The
_Latin_ Phrase also intimates how just a thing it is to bury the Dead,
where it calls Funeral Rites, _Justa Exequiarum_, or _Justa Funebria_,
_quia justum est_, _justa facere_, _solvere_, _peragere_. Nay it has no
other appellation in that Language than that of Justice, and in _Greek_
of a lawful Custom, Piety and Godliness, so that amongst both the
_Romans_ and _Grecians_, who have been the two most potent and civiliz’d
Nations of the World, when they would express one had been Interr’d,
they said, they had done him Right or Justice, and such as neglected to
do the like they accounted void of all Piety and Humanity.

[Sidenote: Burial the Care of the Gods.]

And to shew how Religious an Act it is to bury the Dead; the _Gentiles_
assign’d the Care of all Funerals and Sepulture to certain Gods they
term’d _Manes_, whose chief was _Pluto_, call’d also _Summanus_, whence
all Tombs and Monuments came to be dedicated, _Diis Manibus_. _Homer_,
_Euripedes_, _Aristotle_ and others have accounted Sepulture an Honour
and Reward to Mens Actions; and on the contrary look’d on all such as
miserable and unhappy whose Bodies lying unbury’d, wanted that last

[Sidenote: An Honour to the Dead.]

Decent Burial, with suitable Attendants of Kindred and Friends,
according to the Quality of the Person (says _Weever_ of _Funeral
Monuments_, p. 25.) is an Honour to the Deceas’d. _Hezekiah_, says the
Text, _slept with his Fathers, and they bury’d him in the highest
Sepulchres of the Sons of David, and all Judah and the Inhabitants of
Jerusalem did him Honour at his Death_, 2 Chron. 32. 33. Thus in all
Ages Burial has been accounted an Happiness and Quiet to the Mind, and a
Favour from GOD, whereas the want of it has been look’d on as an Evil
and Misery, a Curse and Punishment, a Disgrace and Ignominy.

[Sidenote: An Happiness, Favour and Kindness.]

First, In the Holy Scripture it is call’d an Happiness, Favour and
Kindness: This was foretold by _Ahijah_, and to be shewn to _Abijah_, 1
Kings 14. 13. _And all Israel shall mourn for him, and bury him; for he
only of Jeroboam shall come to the Grave, because in him there is found
some good Thing towards the Lord GOD of Israel_, &c. It was accounted a
Glory to be bury’d in a Sepulchre, even to Kings who were laid up in
stately Tombs and Monuments, as in their Beds, and thus the Prophet
_Isaiah_ speaks, _Chap._ 14. _ver._ 18. _All the Kings of the Nations
lye in Glory, every one in his own House._ By the same Prophet GOD
comforted _Zedekiah_ King of _Judah_ when he was taken Captive, telling
him he should never die in War or Battel, or be deny’d Burial; but that
the King of _Babylon_ should give his People leave to bury him in an
honourable manner, and with such Solemnities as the burning of sweet
Odours, _&c._ at his Funeral, as they were wont to use at the Exequies
of their Kings, who liv’d belov’d of their Country, 2 _Chron._ 16. 14.
_But thou shalt die in Peace_ (says _Jeremiah_ to him, _Chap._ 34.
_ver._ 5.) _and with the Burnings of thy Fathers, the former Kings which
were before thee, so shall they burn Odours for thee, and lament thee_,

[Sidenote: Especially in the Family-Sepulchre.]

To die a natural Death, to be lamented and bury’d, and to lye in the
Sepulchre of their Fathers, was ever accounted a great Honour and
Happiness among the antient _Jews_, for which the Scripture-Phrase,
throughout the Old Testament, is _Sleeping_, which implies lying at Rest
and undisturb’d as well as Dying. Thus, in 2 _Kings_ 8. 24. it is said,
_And Joram slept with his Fathers, and was bury’d with his Fathers in
the City of David_. And 9. 28. _His Servants carry’d Ahaziah in a
Chariot to Jerusalem, and bury’d him in a Sepulchre with his Fathers in
the City of David._ And _Cap._ 15. _ver._ 7. _So Azariah slept with his
Fathers_, &c. Also, _ver._ 22. and 28. of the same Chapter, and in many
other places, as 1 _Kings_ 2. 10. _So David slept with his Fathers, and
was bury’d in the City of David._ By all this it is to be observ’d, that
in this City was the usual Royal Burying-Place, where both _David_ and
all his Successors, that were of any Note or Renown, were bury’d. This
appears likewise by 1 _Kings_ 11. 43. 2 _Chron._ 12. 16. and 14. 1. and
16. 14. and 21. 1. _David_’s Sepulchre was made of such durable
Materials, and so well kept and repair’d by his Posterity, that it
continu’d ’till the Apostles Time (_Acts_ 2. 22.) which was the space of
almost 2000 Years.

[Sidenote: Of which Deprivation is a Curse.]

On the contrary, to die an unnatural Death, and in another Country, as
also to be depriv’d of the Sepulchre of ones Fathers or Ancestors, was
always esteem’d a note of Infamy and a kind of Curse. Thus, in 1 _Kings_
13. 22. the seduc’d Prophet, because he disobey’d the Word of the Lord,
was reprov’d by him who was the occasion of his Error, as he had it in
Command from GOD, and withal told, _That his Carcass should not come
into the Sepulchre of his Fathers_. _Isaiah_ speaking in derision of the
Death and Sepulture of the King of _Babylon_, which was not with his
Fathers, in that his Tyranny was so much abhorr’d, thus notes his
Unhappiness, _Chap._ 14. 19, 20. _Thou art cast out of thy Grave, like
an abominable Branch; and as the Raiment of those that are slain, thrust
thro’ with a Sword; and shall go down to the Stones of the Pit, as a
Carcass trodden under Foot. Thou shalt not be join’d with thy Fathers in
Burial._ That is, he should want all the Honours of Sepulture, and all
such Funeral Rites as were to have been paid to him as a most potent
King, and that he should not be admitted to lye in the Grave amongst his
Ancestors, but that his Corps should remain neglected above Ground
unbury’d, and be trodden to pieces like vile Carrion.

[Sidenote: And the Judgment of GOD.]

The want of Burial proceeds also from a Judgment of GOD, as will appear
from the Example of _Jehoiakim_, the Son of _Josiah_ King of _Judah_,
whom for his great Wickednesses, such as Covetousness, Oppression,
shedding innocent Blood and the like, GOD threatned with the want of
Burial (a severe Sentence!) and that he should have no solemn Funeral or
honourable Sepulture, such as Kings usually have, nay, not so much as an
ordinary Burial among the Graves of the common People, _Jer._ 26. 23.
but be cast out like Carrion in some remote Place: And _Chap._ 22. 19.
[Sidenote: To be bury’d like an Ass.] _He shall be bury’d with the
Burial of an Ass, drawn and cast forth beyond the Gates of Jerusalem_,
that is, as an Ass is wont to be bury’d, he being more worthy the
Society of Beasts than Men. The _Greeks_ call the Burial of an Ass,
ἄταφον τάφον, according to that Expression of _Cicero_, _Insepulta
Sepultura_; and _Sanctius_ expounds it, that to be bury’d like an Ass,
is to be cast out into a sordid and open Place, which neither covers the
horrid and obscene Parts of the Body, nor hinders the Dogs or Birds from
tearing it to pieces, but as in _Chap._ 36. _ver._ 30. _His dead Body
shall be cast out in the Day-Time to the Heat, and in the Night to the
Frost_; that being so expos’d, it may the sooner putrefie, and become
the more vile and loathsom; and that the sight of a King’s Body, in such
a condition, should be an hideous Spectacle and horrid Monument of GOD’s
heavy Wrath and Indignation unto all that should behold it, _Isaiah_ 66.
24. Wherefore _Ecclesiastes_ wisely concludes, _Chap._ 6. 3. _A Man had
better have never been born than to have no Burial._ The People of
_Israel_ (crying unto GOD against the barbarous Tyranny of the
_Babylonians_, who spoil’d GOD’s Inheritance, polluted his Temple,
destroy’d his Religion, and murther’d his Chosen Nation) amongst other
Calamities, thus complain for the want of Sepulture, _Psal._ 79. 2, 3.
_The dead Bodies of thy Servants have they given to be Meat to the Fowls
of the Heavens, the Flesh of thy Saints to the Beasts of the Earth.
Their Blood have they shed like to Water round about Jerusalem, and
there was none to bury them._ Here the Prophet observes, that GOD
suffers his Church sometimes to fall to great Extremities, to exercise
their Faith before he delivers them; as at other times he deprives the
Wicked of Sepulture, to bring them to Repentance by such an ignominious
and shameful Punishment. Thus, for the Pride and Wickedness of
_Jezebel_, the Prophet _Elijah_ pronounces GOD’s Vengeance against her,
saying, _In the Portion of Jezreel shall Dogs eat the Flesh of Jezebel,
and her Carcass shall be as Dung upon the face of the Field, so that
they shall not say, this is Jezebel, and there shall be none to bury
her_, 2 Kings 9. 10, 36, 37. [Sidenote: To become like _Dung_ rotting
upon the _Earth_.] By the Comparison to Dung is shown how odious and
contemptible a Thing it is to be cast out unbury’d, and to be trodden
under Foot, to lye expos’d to the Air and Weather, to rot and stink or
become Food to Birds, Beasts and Reptiles. _Jeremiah_ foretelling the
Desolation of the _Jews_, acquaints them, _Chap._ 19. 7. _Thus says the
Lord of Hosts, I will cause them to fall by the Sword before their
Enemies, and their Carcasses will I give to be Meat to the Fowls of the
Heavens, and to the Beasts of the Field, and none shall fright them
away_, Chap. 7. 33. _Deut._ 28. 26. Also speaking of their Kings,
Princes, Priests and Prophets, he tells them that _Their Bones shall be
spread before the Sun and Moon_, &c. _they shall not be bury’d, but be
for Dung upon the face of the Earth_, Jer. 8. 2. In other places of his
Prophesie he tells them, They shall die of grievous Deaths and Diseases,
they shall be neither bury’d nor lamented, but lye rotting like Dung,
and be Meat for the Fowls of the Heavens and Beasts of the Earth,
_Chap._ 16. 4. _Chap._ 25. 33. _Chap._ 34. 20. 1 _Kings_ 14. 11. _Chap._
21. 23, 24. 2 _Kings_ 9. 10. and _Ezek._ 29. 4. Also in the 39. Chapter
of the Prophet _Ezekiel_ and the 17, 18, 19 and 20 Verses, GOD to shew
his severe Judgment, calls the Fowls of the Air and Beasts of the Field
to a Sacrifice of the Flesh and Blood of the Princes of the Earth, to
eat their Fat and drink their Blood; abundance more Examples of the like
nature the Scripture affords us.

Next we will consider what a miserable thing it was esteem’d, even by
the _Pagans_, to lye cast out unbury’d. That disconsolate Mother of
_Euryalus_, is not so much griev’d for the loss of her Son, who was
slain in Battel, as for that he should be made a Prey to the Birds and
Beasts, whom therefore she thus bewails:

             _Heu Terra ignota, Canibus data Præda Latinis
             Alitibusq; jaces._  Virg. _Æn._ 9. _v._ 486.

         Cold on the Ground, and pressing foreign Clay,
         To _Latian_ Dogs and Fowls he lyes a Prey.  _Dryden._

Also the same Poet represents _Tarquitus_ thus insulting over his
conquer’d Enemy, _Æn._ 10. _v._ 557.

            _Istic nunc, metuende, jace: non te optima Mater
            Condet Humi, Patriove onerabit Membra Sepulchro;
            Alitibus linquere Feris, aut Gurgite Mersum
            Unda feret, Piscesq; impasti Vulnera lambent._

          The vengeful Victor thus upbraids the Slain:
          Lye there, Inglorious, and without a Tomb,
          Far from thy Mother and thy Native Home;
          Expos’d to salvage Beasts and Birds of Prey,
          Or thrown for Food to Monsters in the Sea.

So great was the Honour of Sepulture amongst the _Pagans_, says
_Quenstedt_, _De Sepult. Vet._ p. 24. [Sidenote: Sepulture deny’d
Enemies out of Revenge.] That when they design’d to shew the greatest
Envy and Reproach to their most inveterate Enemies, they depriv’d their
Bodies of Sepulture, as is noted in the History of the Heroes in
_Homer_, in the War between _Polynices_ and _Eteocles_ the _Theban_, and
other antient Histories, as likewise in _Claudian_, _De Bello Gild._ v.
39. Now _Mezentius_ fearing this, does not desire _Æneas_ to spare his
Life, but earnestly entreats him to afford him Burial, _Virg._ _Æneid_,
Lib. 10. v. 901.

          _Nullum in Cæde Nefas, nec sic ad Prælia veni;
          Unum hoc, per, si qua est Victis Venia Hostibus, oro
          Corpus Humo patiare tegi_, &c.

          Nor ask I Life, nor fought with that design;
          For this, this only Favour let me sue,
          (If Pity can to conquer’d Foes be due;)
          Refuse it not; but let my Body have
          The last retreat of Human Kind, a Grave.  _Dryden._

_Turnus_ also intreats the like Favour:

               _Et me, seu Corpus spoliatum Lumine mavis,
               Redde meis._ Æneid, _Lib._ 12. _v._ 935.

               Or if thy vow’d Revenge pursue my Death,
               Give to my Friends my Body void of Breath?

[Sidenote: Sepulture strictly observ’d in War.]

However, generally speaking, Sepulture was observ’d as well in Time of
War as Peace, to which purpose Heralds or Embassadors were wont to be
sent to make Truce ’till they could bury their Dead; which if deny’d,
says _Grotius_, the Antients thought their War more lawful and just.
Thus _Hannibal_, a sworn Enemy to the very Name of _Romans_, is said by
_Livy_, _Decad._ 3. _Lib._ 2. to have sought the Bodies of _Caius
Flaminius_, _Tiberius Gracchus_ and _Marcellus_ Roman Generals,
conquer’d and slain by him, that he might bury them. Likewise _Philip_
of _Macedon_ is equally to be commended for his Humanity, in performing
Funeral Rites and Ceremonies towards his deceas’d Enemies; of which see
_Peter Faber_, Lib. 3. _Semestr._ cap. 13. p. 183. who also gives the
like account of his Son _Alexander_, in that after he had overcome
_Darius_, he granted leave to his Mother to bury him after what manner
she pleas’d, and withal commanded the same Honour to be afforded the
_Persian_ Nobles; as also that all such Soldiers as were found slain
should be bury’d with care, as is recorded by _Q. Curtius_, Lib. 3.
_Valerius Maximus_ likewise, _Lib._ 9. _cap._ 8. tells us the
_Athenians_ so strictly observ’d this Custom in their Wars, [Sidenote:
Generals put to Death for neglecting it.] that they punish’d those
Generals with Death that neglected to bury the Slain, tho’ otherwise
they were Men of Valour and had done several extraordinary Exploits.
[Sidenote: Others have perform’d it with great Care.] _Plutarch_ in his
Lives, informs us how careful _Nicias_, an _Athenian_ General, was in
this point, for he commanded his whole Army to halt, while he honour’d
two slain Soldiers with Burial and a Tomb. The like pious Care is
mention’d of _Æneas_ to _Misenus_, by _Virgil_ in his 6th _Æneid_, _v._

               _At pius Æneas ingenti Mole Sepulchrum
               Imponit, suaq; Arma Viro, Remumq; Tubamq;_

        But good _Æneas_ order’d on the Shore                 }
        A stately Tomb, whose Top a Trumpet bore,             }
        A Soldier’s Faulchion, and a Seaman’s Oar.  _Dryden._ }

The _Romans_ in general as well as the _Grecians_ carefully bury’d their
Enemies, nor would they defraud them of any Funeral Rites, says
_Suidas_. The like _Rhodiginus_, _Lect. Antiq._ Lib. 17. testifies of
the _Hebrews_, by whose Law the Enemy was not to be left unbury’d. Nor
must we pass by the Humanity of the Northern People, who as _Olaus
Wormius_ in _Monument. Danic._ Lib. 1. cap. 6. writes, thought it
deserving the greatest Praise, to exercise this Hospitable Piety of
burying the Carcasses of their Enemies, to whom they bore no farther
Malice after their Deaths, but afforded them friendly Sepulture. Amongst
others, an Example of this nature is fetch’d out of _Saxo_, a most
eloquent _Danish_ Historian, who in the Third Book of his History, which
he wrote about 500 Years ago, introduces _Collerus_ pronouncing this
wise and elegant Oration to his Enemy _Horvendillus_, with whom he was
going to engage in Fight:

_Quoniam_, says he, _Exitus in dubio manet, invicem Humanitati
deferendum est, nec adeo Ingeniis indulgendum, ut Extrema negligantur
Officia. Odium in Animis est adsit tamen Pietas, quæ Rigori demum
opportuna succedat, nam etsi Mentium nos Discrimina separant, Naturæ
tamen Jura conciliant. Horum quippe Consortio jungimur, quantuscunq;
Animos Livor dissociet. Hæc itaque Pietatis nobis Conditio sit, ut
Victum Victor Exequiis prosequatur. His enim suprema Humanitatis Officia
inesse constat, quæ nemo Pius abhorruit. Utraq; Acies id Munus, Rigore
deposito concorditer exequatur. Facesset post Fatum Livor, Simultasq;
Funere sopiatur. Absit nobis tantæ Crudelitatis Specimen, ut quanquam
Vivis Odium intercesserit, Alter alterius Cineres persequatur. Gloriosum
Victori erit, si Victi Funus magnifice duxerit; nam qui defuncto Hosti
Justa persolverit, superstitis sibi Favorem adsciscit, vivumq;
Beneficiis vincit, quisquis extincto Studium Humanitatis impendet._
Which may be thus English’d: _By reason the Event of what we are going
about is doubtfull, let us mutually engage to shew Humanity to each
other, nor so far indulge our Passions as to neglect the last Duties. We
have Malice in our Hearts, let there be likewise such a Piety as may
opportunely succeed our Rigour; for tho’ a difference in our Minds
happens to divide us, the Law of Nature will reunite us. Tho’ we are
never so far seperated by Envy, this will bring us together again. Let
it therefore be the Condition of our Piety, that the Conqueror follow
the Herse of the Conquer’d. Herein the last Offices of Humanity consist,
which no good Man ever yet refus’d. Let both Armies then suspend their
Hatred to perform this Duty. After Death let Envy be remov’d and secret
Prejudice disarm’d. May every kind of Cruelty forsake us, tho’ living we
hated each other, let us lovingly accompany one anothers Ashes. ’Twill
be a Glorious Thing in the Victor Magnificently to Interr the
Vanquish’d; for he that performs Funeral Rites to a slain Enemy, will be
sure to have a surviving Friend, and whoever employs his Study in
Humanity towards the Dead, cannot thereby fail of obliging the Living._

[Sidenote: The Ancients fear’d Sea-Burial.]

Thus have the Ancients always provided for their Funerals, in case they
were slain in Battel; but when they dy’d at Sea, then were they
destitute of all such hopes, therefore dreaded that Element for fear
they should become a Prey to Fish or any Marine Monster, which was a
great check and damp to their Spirits in an Engagement, Storm or the
like. Both the _Greek_ and _Roman_ Hero’s, who fear’d not Death in
Land-Fights, as hoping the same Place where they fought might afford
them a peaceful Grave, were yet mightily concern’d and dismay’d at the
thoughts of a Naval-Combat, or when they were in danger of Shipwrack,
and this because they then saw themselves on the point of being for ever
depriv’d of Sepulture. Thus _Achilles_, who brav’d all manner of
Dangers, could not, as _Homer_ confesses, keep himself from being
daunted at that of Shipwrack, when he found himself ready to bulge in
the River _Xanthus_. A like Fear of _Scipio_’s, the greatest Captain the
_Romans_ ever had, _Silius Italicus_ mentions, who tells us, tho’ he had
so many Times, without the least concern or dread, seen Rivers of Blood
running down, yet was he most terribly affrighted in passing the River
_Trebia_, where he saw himself in danger of drowning. The same account
_Statius_ gives of _Hippomedon_, who, as he says, could without any
Trouble have presented his Body to the dint of a thousand Swords, yet
was not able to abide the Thoughts of being cast away in the River
_Theumesia_. Also that stout General _Æneas_, tho’ he fear’d neither
Fire nor Sword, yet was so afraid of Water, that being like to sink in a
Storm, he thus exclaims:

            _Extemplo Æneæ solvuntur Frigore Membra.
            Ingemit, & duplices tendens ad Sydera Palmas,
            Talia Voce refert: O terq; quaterq; beati,
            Queis ante Ora Patrum, Trojæ sub Mœnibus altis,
            Contigit oppetere._  Æneid, _Lib._ 1. _v._ 96.

     Struck with unusual Fright, the _Trojan_ Chief
     With lifted Hands and Eyes, invokes Relief:
     And thrice and four Times happy those, he cry’d,
     That under _Ilian_ Walls, before their Parents, dy’d.

In a Word, this was the Death _Ovid_ could by no means brook, and that
upon this score only, that it would deprive him of Burial:

             _Non Lethum timeo, Genus aut miserabile Lethi:
             Demite Naufragium; Mors mihi Munus erit.
             Est aliquid, Fatove suo, Ferrove cadentem
             In solida moriens, ponere Corpus Humo:
             Est mandata suis aliquid sperare Sepulchra,
             Et non æquoreis Piscibus esse Cibum._

            I fear not Death, nor value how I die;
            Free me from Seas, no matter where I lye.
            ’Tis somewhat, howsoe’er one’s Breath depart,
            In solid Earth to lay one’s meaner Part;
            ’Tis somewhat after Death to gain a Grave,
            And not be Food to Fish, or sport to ev’ry Wave.

[Sidenote: For what Reason.]

The _Ancients_ fear’d to die at Sea, because dead Bodies, being toss’d
to and fro with the Winds and Waves, were often dash’d against Rocks,
and never lay at rest, nay, perhaps were at last devour’d by greedy
Fish, or torn to pieces by the sharp Talons and Beaks of Sea-Fowls;
whereas to rest in the Grave was accounted the greatest Happiness
(whence Sepulchres came to be call’d, _Requietoria_) but to be depriv’d
of it the greatest Misery and Punishment, nay the vilest Ignominy and

[Sidenote: Want of Burial a Punishment.]

To want the Honour of Burial was held among the _Egyptians_ one of the
greatest Punishments could be inflicted, wherefore they deny’d it to
executed Criminals, whose Bodies they gave to the Birds and Beasts, as
may not obscurely be gather’d from _Joseph_’s Interpretation _Gen._ 40.
19. thus speaking to the chief Baker, _Within three Days shall Pharaoh
lift up thy Head from off thee, and shall hang thee on a Tree, and the
Birds shall eat thy Flesh_, &c.

Hence it was the _Greeks_, either refus’d all manner of Sepulture, or at
least decent Burial, to Infamous Persons, or such as had committed any
Notorious Crime. Thus they burned not those, according to Custom, who
kill’d themselves, but bury’d them in an obscure, ignoble Place, without
any Funeral Ceremonies, Tomb or Inscription. _Diodorus Siculus_, Lib.
16. _Bibl._ cap. 6. relates, It was enacted by Law, that one convicted
of Treason or Sacriledge should be cast out unbury’d; which Persons also
by the _Athenian_ Laws were prohibited Burial in _Athens_, as _Xenophon_
tells us, _Lib._ 1. Ἑλληνικῶν. _Pausanias_ likewise says the _Arcadians_
cast out unbury’d, without their Territories, the Traytor
_Aristocrates_, whom they had ston’d to Death. Among the _Romans_, those
that kill’d themselves were prohibited all manner of Sepulture, either
that others might thereby be deterr’d from so making away with
themselves, or because they thought it unreasonable any Hands should be
employ’d to bury him, whose own had destroy’d himself. _Tarquinius
Priscus_ order’d all such dead Bodies to be fix’d on a Cross, to be
view’d by all the Citizens, and afterwards to be devour’d by Birds,
_&c._ as _Pliny_ relates in his _Natural History_, Lib. 36. cap. 15.
_Albertus Leoninus_ in his _Process. Criminal._ says, If any one kill’d
himself (as being either weary of a tedious Life, or impatient of Pain
or Trouble, or else to avoid condign Punishment, or for any other Cause
whatsoever) his Body was cast out upon a Dunghill, to have a common
Sepulture with Dogs, _&c._ but however it was more customary to have his
Goods confiscated, and his Body hung on the _Furca_. The _Milesian
Virgins_ were deterr’d from hanging themselves by a Law of the Senate,
that Self-Murderers should be deny’d Burial, and have their Bodies
dragg’d naked thro’ the Streets, in the same Rope they had hang’d
themselves with. All such Persons as were hung upon this _Furca_ or
Gibbet, were by the Laws deny’d Sepulture, and a Centry, says
_Petronius_, was set to watch them, lest any Body should take them down.

[Sidenote: Burial deny’d to others.]

Hence also, according to the common custom of _Germany_, &c. the Bodies
of such as were Traytors, Highwaymen, Murderers, _&c._ were either fix’d
upon Poles, set up on Wheels, or hung upon Gibbets, there to remain a
Prey to ravenous Birds, or else to corrupt with the Sun and Rain, and
dissolve into a putrid and stinking Gore, and all this to the end that
others, by such an horrid and deform’d Spectacle, might learn to fear
and be deterr’d from such like Crimes. He that commits Treason is by our
Laws adjudg’d, says _Weever_ in his _Funeral Monuments_, p. 22. to be
hang’d, drawn and quarter’d, and his divided Limbs to be set up on Poles
in some eminent Place, within some great Market-Town or City. He
likewise that is found guilty of the crying Sin of Murder, is usually
hang’d up in Chains, there to continue ’till his Body shall be consum’d,
and this at or near the Place where the Fact was committed. Likewise we
are accustom’d to bury such as lay violent Hands upon themselves, in or
near the Highways, with a Stake thrust thro’ their Bodies, and this to
terrifie all Passengers by that so infamous and reproachful Burial, not
to make away with themselves. Those that are found guilty of other
criminal Matters, after a little hanging, are cut down and indeed
bury’d, yet seldom in a Christian manner, or in the Sepulchre of their
Fathers, unless their Fathers like them happen to have their Graves near
or under the Gallows. [Sidenote: Difference between Ecclesiastic and
Criminal Burial.] Hence the _Canonists_, says _Quenstedt_, _De Sepult.
Vet._ p. 49. distinguish between Ecclesiastic or Decent Burial, and
Criminal or Ignominious: They call that Decent to which Solemnities,
Rites and Ceremonies are allow’d according to the Custom of the Country,
but term that Ignominious which is without Decency, and where all manner
of Ceremonies are omitted, nay they have not so much as the Tolling of a
Bell, or a Prayer or Psalm us’d for them.

[Sidenote: Some sort of Burial a Punishment.]

Thus, as some Criminals have been deny’d Christian Burial, as an
ignominious Punishment, so others by reason of more heinous Offences
have been bury’d alive: _Korah_, _Dathan_ and _Abiram_ for murmuring and
rebelling against _Moses_ were swallow’d up alive by the Earth, _Numb._
16. 30, 33. _They and all that appertain’d to them, went down alive into
the Pit, and the Earth clos’d upon them_: But they were not only bury’d
alive, and after that manner descended into a Sepulchre, but likewise
into Hell, as some Commentators observe, for an eternal as well as
temporal Punishment. The _Vestal Virgins_ being defil’d, suffer’d this
Punishment as the most miserable that could be inflicted; for the
_Romans_ in case of this Crime, bury’d them alive in the _Campus
Sceleratus_, as _Plutarch_ in _Vita Numæ Pompilij_ observes, and we read
in _Constitut. Crim. Caroli_, p. 131. the same was inflicted on such as
kill’d their Children.

To be deny’d all manner of Burial, or to be bury’d dishonourably or
alive, have ever been thought severe Punishments; [Sidenote: To be dug
out of the Grave both a Curse and Punishment.] so likewise to be dug up
again, after Christian Burial, is a shameful Disgrace and equally
Ignominious. Thus in contempt of the deceas’d wicked Priests, King
_Josiah_ took their Bones out of their Sepulchres and burn’d them, 2
_Kings_ 23. 16. Also the Prophet _Jeremiah_ foretold the _Jews_ how GOD
would bring out of the Grave the Bones of their Kings, Princes, Priests
and Prophets, and expose them to the Sun and Moon, _&c._ _Chap._ 8. _v._
1, 2. In prophane History it is reported of _Sylla_ the Dictator, that
he dug up the Bones of _Caius Marius_, and commanded them to be flung
into the Sea; wherefore when he dy’d himself, he order’d his own Carcass
to be burn’d, that his Bones might not have the like ill Treatment from
his Enemies, _Pliny_’s Natural History, _Lib._ 7. _cap._ 54. Such
disturbing the Deceas’d in their Tombs, I look upon to have given the
first occasion of burning Dead Bodies, yet I think this latter as
obnoxious to ill Usage, since it would be a less difficult matter to
deprive Urns of their Ashes, scatter them before the Wind, sow them in
the Sea or barren Sands, or in a word, make a Paste of them to feed
Fowls with, or a Compost, out of which might be form’d ridiculous
Imagery, to make sport for Children, or diversion for Men. An Example of
both these kinds of the violation of the Dead, has been known to be
acted either out of Malice to Enemies, or as a Punishment to Oppressors
and Tyrants. The one is conspicuous from what _Saxo Grammaticus_ relates
in the Fourth Book of his History, that the Body of one _Fengo_ a
Tyrant, being judg’d worthy neither of an Urn nor Sepulture, his Ashes
were order’d to be dispers’d by the Winds, for it was not thought
reasonable that Country should protect his Ashes which he had depriv’d
of its Liberty. The other is confirm’d by the Usage of the _Roman_
Emperor _Vitellius_, who as _Suetonius_ reports, _cap._ 17. after
various Mockeries, was dragg’d to the _Gemoniæ_, cut into very small
pieces, and afterwards flung into the _Tyber_. _Heliogabalus_ likewise
was first dragg’d about the Streets of _Rome_, then thrown into a Common
Shoar, and soon after into the _Tiber_, as _Sextus Aurelius Victor_ and
_Lampridius_ relate.

There was another sort of Sepulture us’d antiently, _viz._ To be cover’d
over with a great heap of Stones, which was accounted by the _Jews_ an
ignominious kind of Burial, [Sidenote: Another ignominious Burial.] and
therefore only us’d to Malefactors, Rebels, _&c._ Thus we read when
_Joshua_ had taken _Achan_, he commanded his People to stone him to
Death, and raise over him a great heap of Stones, _Chap._ 7. _v._ 25,
26. Likewise _Joshua_ commanded his Servants to take down the Body of
King _Ai_, whom he had hang’d on a Tree, and cast it without the
City-Gate, raising over it a great heap of Stones, _Chap._ 8. _v._ 29.
Thus were the _Jews_ wont to bury such as dy’d ignominiously, that it
might serve as a Monument to warn others from committing the like
Offences. Nor was _Absalom_ thought worthy of common Sepulture, much
less of the Honours he had design’d for himself, by the Pillar he had
rais’d, but was flung into a Pit, and pil’d over with great heaps of
Stones, that the Place might be remark’d by the Name of such a
disobedient Son and notorious Rebel, 2 _Samuel_ 18. 17. also that his
ignominious Death might be suited with a like Burial; for altho’, in his
Life-Time, he had built a Pillar (like one of the Pyramids or Obelisks
of the Kings of _Egypt_) in the King’s Dale, _ver._ 18. a very pleasant
and fruitful Place, where the Kings us’d their Sports and Recreations,
and a great Concourse of the Nobility every Day resorted; there, to shew
his Pride and vain Glory, rais’d he this Pillar, that after his Death it
might serve as a Monument to eternize his Memory, yet GOD depriv’d him
of so noble a Sepulture, and afforded him no other than to be bury’d in
a great Pit, under a huge heap of Stones, as a common Malefactor.

[Sidenote: And a Curse.]

Now thus to be bury’d was accounted a Curse, as is confirm’d by
_Lamentations_ 3. 53. and _Ezekiel_ 32. 29, 30. From hence we infer,
that if some kinds of Burial denote a Curse and Disgrace, as well as not
being bury’d at all, Funeral Ceremonies and Expences are necessary to
shew what Burial is Honourable and what Ignominious: Otherwise, if we
should find a Carcass unbury’d and expos’d to the Air, or see a Grave in
the Highway or other Place, where Burial was not us’d, we should be apt
to reflect on this disgraceful Object, and from thence judge the Person
to have been either some notorious Criminal, a Self-Murderer, or at
least one that had dy’d some ignominious Death, and had been accordingly
bury’d: Therefore, to avoid all such like Censure, it is convenient
Burial should not only be distinguish’d between such as have liv’d
piously or prophanely, between those that have propagated the Laws and
good Constitutions of a Country, and such as have wickedly destroy’d
them, but even amongst honest People themselves, according to their
Qualities, Estates and Professions; for should a Cobler and a Prince be
bury’d after the same manner, such Extravagancies would bring reflection
and contempt on Burial in general, and they might say with the Poet:

             _Marmoreo Licinus Tumulo jacet, at Cato parvo;
             Pompeius nullo: Quis putet esse Deos?_

         Worthless _Licinus_ in a rich Tomb lies,            }
         Whilst the great _Cato_ for a poor one dies;        }
         _Pompey_ for none: Who’d think the God’s were wise? }

Having thus sufficiently shown and prov’d, that both according to the
Laws of GOD and Man, the Bodies of the Just are not to be despis’d or
cast out unbury’d, I will in the next place acquaint you with other
Particulars, [Sidenote: Particular Ceremonies of Funerals, not to be
neglected.] which are necessary to Funerals, without which a Prince’s
Interment would be as ignoble as a Malefactor’s; nor are we to think a
private burying a Corps in the Night-Time without any Ceremony or
Attendance, can discharge our Duty in this last and indispensable
Particular. We must study likewise a Method for the well ordering a dead
Body, as Washing, Anointing, Embalming, Dressing, and all other
Expences, Rites and Ceremonies relating to Funerals in general. In these
points, since the Ancients differ’d very much, it will be material to
consider how far all, or any of these Ceremonies are either lawful,
necessary, or commendable. In order to this, to the end we may treat of
each in its proper place, and be as succinct as we can, we will divide
these Funeral Ceremonies into such as were us’d to Persons when they
were dying, or else perform’d afterwards to their dead Corps.

[Sidenote: Custom of kissing the Dead.]

_First_, It was a Custom among the _Hebrews_ to kiss the Dead, as
appears from _Gen._ 50. 1. _Joseph fell on his Father’s Face, and wept
upon him, and kissed him_: whereby he express’d his sincere Affection to
his deceas’d Parent, notwithstanding by his Death he was for ever to be
separated from him, yet his Filial Duty still remain’d ready to perform
those Offices due to the Dead, such as _Embalming_, and the like. This
Custom of kissing the Dead seems likewise to be taking a solemn leave of
them at their departure out of this World, till they should have the
happiness of meeting them in another. But the _Romans_ had a different
Sense of this Matter, for when the sick Person was just expiring, the
nearest Relation or Friend, by a Kiss receiv’d his last gasping Breath,
whereby they imagin’d the Soul of the Deceas’d came out of his Body
thro’ the Mouth, and was the same way transfus’d into and receiv’d by
them; nor did they only kiss their Friend and Relation when just
expiring, but also when his Body was going to be laid on the Funeral
Pile. This the _Christians_ imitate now a days, when they likewise kiss
the Deceas’d just as he is going to be nail’d up in his Coffin, or to be
carry’d out to his Grave; but as for the other Ceremony, they have ever
abhorr’d it as a most superstitious and ridiculous Opinion. Both the
_Pagans_ and _Christians_ without doubt, look’d on Death as a Journey or
Peregrination to another World, therefore by kissing their Dead, they
took their solemn Farewel of them, as we do when we part with a Friend
that is going to Travel, _&c._ Hereupon we always find written on their
Tombs, _Abiit non Obiit_, and as _Grethserius_ relates, _Lib._ 1. _De
Fun. Christian._ when the _Greeks_ came to a Burying, both Friends and
Relations kiss’d and took leave of the Dead in these words, _Vade, cum
Natura nos vocaverit, sequemur_. _Go, when Nature calls, we’ll follow._
But let the Cause be what it will that induc’d the Ancients to kiss
their Dead, it were better totally to forbear it, since to the Dead they
are of no use, and to a dying Man are rather a Disturbance than any
Relief: Moreover, to the saluting Friend, those ill Scents and Vapours,
which proceed from the Mouth and Nostrils of the sick Person, may be an
infectious Breath, and prove not a little prejudicial to him; therefore
it is in no wise either convenient or useful to kiss a Person that is
just dying, or one that is already Dead.

[Sidenote: Closing the Eyes.]

The next Thing to be done after the Person was dead, was to close his
Eyes, and this Ceremony was for the most part perform’d by the nearest
Relation, as by the Husband for the Wife, _Et vice versa_, by the Wife
for the Husband; also by Parents towards their Children, and by Children
towards their Parents, and where such were wanting, one Friend did it
for another. This Custom was in that esteem among the _Hebrews_,
_Greeks_ and _Romans_, that the very Thoughts of having it perform’d by
their Kindred, mitigated, in some measure, the Pains and Agonies of
Death they underwent, whereby they dy’d in much greater content of Mind
than they would otherwise have done; whereas on the contrary, they
look’d on themselves not a little unhappy to die in a Place where no
Relations or Friends were present to perform that Office. This appears
by _Gen._ 46. 4. where _Jacob_ fearing he should die in his way to
_Egypt_, by reason of his extream old Age, or the length of the Journey,
and be thereby depriv’d of these Funeral Ceremonies; GOD to remove those
fears and comfort him, told him, He should die in peace with his
Children about him, and particularly that _Joseph should lay his Hands
on his Eyes_, as the Text expresses it, which was as much as to say, he
should close his Eyes, and take all other care of his Funeral.

Now why this Custom of closing the Eyes of the Dead was in such Esteem
and Use among the Ancients, there seem to be two Reasons: _First_, It
being natural to Men to die with their Eyes open, as _Santorellus_ in
his _Post-Praxis Medic._ p. 18. Philosophically proves; and Death being
compar’d to Sleep, they desir’d to have their Eyes shut, the better to
resemble sleeping and taking their Rest. _Secondly_, They might perhaps
desire it, that the By-Standers might not be offended at such an
unpleasant sight as a staring Corps, with its Eyes and Mouth open, must
needs present, which every one knows looks very ghastly: Besides, the
noisom Smells of the fermenting Stomach were thereby hinder’d from
making too swift a passage into the Room, and offending the Company.
That it is therefore convenient to use this Ceremony none will deny, yet
must it not be practis’d too soon, lest the Person it is to be us’d to
be not actually dead, but only in an _Apoplexy_, _Lethargy_, or the
like, and so by keeping his Mouth shut with a Muffler, be suffocated.
Nor are his Eyes to be clos’d ’till after he is actually dead, lest they
open again, as _Santorellus_ affirms they will; but this and other
Ceremonies of the like nature, which can in no wise further Death, in
case it should prove only an _Apoplexy_, &c. ought to be perform’d
before the Corps be quite cold, for afterwards they are not easily to be
brought to a graceful order, nor will make a handsom Corps, which the
Ancients so much lov’d to see: Hereupon, in a short Time after the
Person was dead, they clos’d his Eyes, [Sidenote: Shutting the Mouth,]
shut his Mouth with a Muffler, plac’d his Head streight, brought his
Arms to his Breast, his Legs close to one another, and then laid the
whole Body, with its Members, in a natural form and posture. But before
they proceeded to Anoint or _Embalm_ the Body, [Sidenote: Conclamation,]
they were wont to make great noises, to rowse and awake, if possible,
his fainted Spirits, and thereby fully satisfie themselves whether he
were really dead, or only asleep. To the same purpose they wash’d the
Body with warm Water, to the end that if it were only numm’d with Cold
it might thereby be recover’d. It was a Custom among the _Greeks_ to
make a mighty Noise with the tinkling or sounding of Brazen Vessels,
[Sidenote: Sounding of Brazen Vessels.] but the _Romans_ us’d
Conclamation, or a general Outcrie, set up at equal Intervals before the
Corps, by Persons who waited there on Purpose, which was done as
_Pliny_, Lib. 7. cap. 52. of his _Natural History_, and _Cornelius
Celsus_, Præf. Lib. 1. _De Re Medica_, tell us, either because they
hop’d by this means, to stop the Soul which was now taking its flight,
or else to awaken its Faculties, which they thought might only be silent
in the Body without Action; for sometimes such as have appear’d to be
Dead, have come to Life again as _Kirmannus_, _De F. R._ Lib. 1. p. 104.
affirms, and several Physicians have given many Instances of Persons,
who being bury’d thro’ haste in _Apopletick-Fits_, _&c._ have afterwards
come to themselves, and many times miserably perish’d for want of
Assistance. For this reason the _Romans_, as _Pancirollus_ and _Servius_
observe, lest they should be bury’d alive, kept the Bodies seven or
eight Days, call’d upon them at Intervals, wash’d them with warm Water,
and lastly us’d _Conclamation_ before they burn’d them, which was their
manner of Burial. But _Santorellus_ in his _Post-Praxis Medica_, p. 25.
proves _Conclamation_ to be a useless and insignificant Custom. _First_,
he says, It is ridiculous to use it to such as we are satisfy’d are
really Dead, from the nature of their Disease and other Symptoms. And,
_Secondly_, To those that we are doubtful of, as in case of
_Lethargies_, _Apoplexies_, _Hysteric Passions_, _Syncopes_, &c. Since
therefore this is no certain Rule to inform us, these Persons being many
Times neither sensible of burning nor large Scarifications, How can we
expect to excite them by Clamours? This also is confirm’d by an
Experiment of _Galen_’s, _viz._ Whether a Woman was really Dead that lay
in an _Hysteric Passion_; but it was so far from proving effectual, that
when she came to her self, she declar’d she knew nothing of what had
been done to her. ’Tis true in small _Syncopes_ it may perhaps rowse the
Spirits a little, but in Soporous Diseases, it is commonly an uncertain
and ineffectual Remedy, therefore never to be trusted, so that we may
pronounce it to be a Ceremony neither necessary to be us’d, nor useful
to know whether the sick Person be dead or alive.

[Sidenote: _Washing_ the Corps.]

The Custom of _Washing_ and _Anointing_ the Corps was in no wise
peculiar to the _Romans_, but us’d likewise by the _Hebrews_, _Greeks_,
_Trojans_ and _Christians_, nay, in almost all the civiliz’d Parts of
the World, yet ’tis certain it ows its Original to the Invention of the
_Egyptians_. That it was us’d in the Primitive Church, appears by the
Words of the Apostle, _Acts_ 9. 37. _And it came to pass in those Days
she (Tabitha) was sick and dy’d, whom when they had wash’d, they laid in
an upper Chamber._ Also _Johan. Chrysost._ as we find in _Theodoret_,
Homil. 84. _Alphonsus Salmeron_, Tom. 10. _De Sepultura Christi_; and
others affirm Christ’s Body was wash’d before it was anointed. We read
in _Plutarch_, that _Philippus Libertus_ wash’d the Body of _Pompey_
with Salt Water, which perhaps might be either because it was more
Abstersive, or that it help’d to prevent Putrifaction, and it is not
improbable the _Egyptians_ might have been accustom’d to wash the Body
with the same Pickle they us’d in the Salination, or with _Phænician_
Wine, which they wash’d the Entrails and inside of the Body with, in
order to the _Preserving_ and _Embalming_ it: But more commonly the
Ancients us’d warm Water, both that they might thereby cherish and
comfort the benumb’d and lifeless Limbs, and invite the natural Heat
again into the Body, by doing which they better satisfy’d themselves
whether the Body were really dead or not, and also that if it were past
recovery, they might by thus cleansing the Body from all Filth and
Purgings at the Nose, Mouth or lower Belly, render the Corps more
decorous, and sightly, as ’tis a Custom among many at this Day, to comb
the Hair, shave the Beard, and perfume the Corps with sweet Odours.

Two other Reasons are given for washing a dead Body, _First_, That it
might be the fitter for anointing. _Secondly_, _Johannes Buxtorfius_, in
_Synagog. Jud._ cap. 35. says, That it might be pure and clean when it
came to give an account of its Sins. These Ceremonies were carefully
practis’d among the _Jews_ as well as the _Greeks_ and _Romans_,
according to what _Maimonides in Tract. de Luctu_, Chap. 4 Sect. 1.
observes, _Mos vel Consuetudo est in Israel, circa Mortuos & eorum
Sepulturam, ut cum quis mortuus est, ejus Occulos occludant, & si Os
ipsius fuerit apertum, Maxillas ejus ligant, ne iterum aperiatur.
Obturatur etiam locus, per quem Excrementa ejiciuntur, sed hoc postquam
Corpus fuerit Lotum._ _It was a Custom among the_ Israelites, says he,
_towards the Dead and their Burial, that whenever any one was departed,
they closed his Eyes and shut his Mouth (keeping his Jaws close with a
Muffler) that it might not open again. Then they stopp’d the vents of
the Body, and lastly wash’d it._

[Sidenote: Anointing the Body.]

After the Body was wash’d, it was _Anointed_, which strictly speaking,
was _Embalming_, and differ’d in nothing but preserving the Corps for a
longer or shorter space, pursuant to the manner of performing it, the
nature of the Drugs, or composition of the Ointment. This Custom of
anointing the Dead was very common among the _Egyptians_, as _Pliny_ in
his _Nat. Hist._ Lib. 2. Cap. 37. writes, _Egyptiis Mos est Cadavera
adservare Medicata_. _It is a Custom among the_ Egyptians _to keep their
Bodies Embalm’d_, that is, anointed and preserv’d by Aromaticks. This
anointing was perform’d on the outside of the Body, with a composition
of bitter and Aromatick Ingredients, after which, they stuff’d the
inside with the same dry Spices and Gums as were us’d in the Ointment;
in doing which, and rouling or dressing the Body, they spent Forty Days.
_Diodorus Siculus_, Lib. 1. _Bibliothecæ_, No. 91. says, _After they had
wash’d the Body with Palm-Wine, wherein Aromaticks had been boil’d or
steep’d, they first anointed it with Ointment of Cedar, and then with
that of Myrrh, Cinnamon, and other Drugs_. This not only preserv’d the
Corps, but also made it fragrant and sweet, and of this Ceremony the
_Egyptians_ were the first Inventors. From them the _Hebrews_ deriv’d
their Custom of _Embalming_, which was us’d chiefly towards their Kings
or Great Men. The first of this kind was when _Joseph_ commanded the
Physicians of _Egypt_ to _Embalm_ his Father _Jacob_, Gen. 50. 2, 3.
from whom the _Jews_ learn’d it, and brought it with them into the Land
of _Canaan_: [Sidenote: The _Hebrews_ Embalming different from that of
the _Egyptians_.] But this manner of Anointing or _Embalming_ among the
_Hebrews_ was very different from that of the _Egyptians_, for their
Method was Thirty, Forty, and sometimes Seventy Days in performing, and
that by Balsamic Matters put into the Cavity of the Body, they first
taking out the Bowels and Entrails; but the _Hebrew_ way was one short
anointing and applying Aromatick and Balsamic Ointments to the external
Parts, without any Embowelling, and this was done rather out of Respect
to, and Veneration of the Dead, than to prevent any Putrifaction. Thus
we read of King _Asa_, 2 Chron. 16. 14. _That they bury’d him in his own
Sepulchre, which he had made for himself in the City of David, and laid
him in the Bed which was fill’d with sweet Odours and divers kinds of
Spices, prepar’d by the Apothecaries Art, and they made a great Burning
for him._ That is, they laid his dead Corps on a Bed fill’d with such
Aromaticks, prepar’d by the Apothecary, as were wont to be us’d in
_Embalming_, and afterwards burn’d sweet Odours and Perfumes at his
Funeral. Now this was accounted very Honourable to be done at the
Exequies of Kings, and was afforded King _Zedekiah_, tho’ he dy’d in a
strange Land, _Jerem._ 34. 5. Hereby it appears, thro’ the length and
injuries of Time, they might lose that Art of _Embalming_ which the
_Jews_, their Ancestors, had learn’d from the _Egyptians_, or else had
their Tradition so confusedly left to Posterity, that they were forc’d
to deviate from the antient Custom; for the best construction we can put
upon _Embalming_ of the latter Ages, was anointing the Corps with bitter
and Aromatick Ointments, compounded by the Apothecaries, [Sidenote:
_Jewish Embalming_ rather a Ceremony than Preserving the Corps.] which
nevertheless was rather a Ceremony, and render’d the Corps sweet and
fragrant, than prevented Putrifaction. Thus the most devout _Nicodemus_
and _Joseph_ of _Arimathea_ Embalm’d the Body of Christ, both out of the
Respect they bore him, and according to the Custom of their Nation.
Thus, says the Text, _They took the Body of Jesus, and wound it in
Linnen-Cloaths, with the Spices_ (_viz._ about an Hundred weight of
Myrrh and Aloes) _as the Manner of the Jews is to bury_, John 19. 40.
Likewise Holy _Mary_ anointed the Feet of Jesus, whilst alive, with a
most costly and rich Ointment of Spikenard, which was done by way of
Anticipation in order to his Burial, as the Words of our Saviour himself
imply, _John_ 12. 7. So also without doubt _Lazarus_, who was no mean
_Jew_, was Embalm’d, nevertheless _Martha_ fear’d he stunk, tho’ he had
been Dead but four Days, _John_ 11. 39. Thus you see the more Modern way
of _Embalming_ among the _Jews_, was only anointing the Body with an
Ointment compounded of sweet Spices, whose chief Ingredients were Myrrh
and Aloes, and which was not only very grateful to the Smell, but also
dry’d up the Humidity of the Body, preventing an immediate Putrifaction,
and likewise by its bitterness kept the Worms from eating it. The Custom
of such like anointing the Dead was moreover very common among the
_Greeks_, insomuch, says _Athenæus_ Lib. 15. that they studied what
Ointments were most agreeable and fitting for every Member of the Body.
From them it descended to the _Romans_, and was accounted one of the
most commendable Actions of this Life, as being an Honour which
appertain’d to the Dead, as _Pliny Nat. Hist._ Lib. 12. cap. 1. relates,
wherefore after they had wash’d the Corps, they anointed it, says he,
with Odoriferous and Aromatick Ointments. The _Babylonians_ either
anointed their Dead with, or laid them in Hony. The _Persians_ and
_Scythians_ did the same with Wax. The _Æthiopians_ with a sort of
Parget; and others us’d Compositions either of _Salt_, _Nitre_,
_Asphalt_, _Bitumen_, _Cedar_, _Balsam_, _Gypsum_, _Lime_, _Petrole_,
_Naptha_, _Turpentine_, _Rosin_, or the like, of which see _Kirkmannus
de F. R._ p. 62.

[Sidenote: _Anointing_ the _Dead_ to what purpose us’d.]

Now the general Intention of these Anointings, was either that such
Bodies as were to be bury’d might thereby smell sweet and pleasant, and
be kept a long while uncorrupt, or else that those that were to be
burn’d might not only catch Fire the sooner; but also to the end the Air
might be perfum’d by the sweet smelling Ointments and Balsams, and
thereby the Stench of the burning Flesh not be perceiv’d. Others give a
threefold Reason for this sort of _Embalming_, as, _First_, A Physical,
That all Stench and Putrifaction might be driven away from the Body.
_Secondly_, A Civil, That it was a principal Honour exhibited to Just
Men. And, _Thirdly_, A Mystical, It being a Testification of our Faith
in the Resurrection of Bodies, and a _Symbol_ of future
Incorruptibility. _Vide Quenstedt De Sepult. Vet._ p. 85.

[Sidenote: _Attiring_ the Corps,]

After the Body was _wash’d_ and _anointed_, they wrapp’d it in fine
Linnen, and drest it in a proper Habit. The first is only to be
understood a Winding-Sheet, either intire, or in two, three or more
pieces, fitted to the Head, Trunk and Limbs of the Body, bound on with
Roulers; but the latter was various according to the sort of Garment, or
Quality of the Deceas’d: The first was usually white, prepar’d by some
Woman or Friend in the Persons Life-Time, on purpose for this particular
use; the other was of divers colours, as Purple, Scarlet, _&c._ and of
several degrees of Richness, according to the Rank, Quality or
Profession of the Deceas’d, or as he had perform’d any extraordinary
Exploit in War, or otherwise honourably behav’d himself for the Honour
of his Country. So that as the one was such as he usually wore in his
Life-Time, the other was more Splendid, and given for a Reward to his
Virtues. Hence it is the Dead were term’d proud, as having never wore so
rich a Garment during their Lives, says _Sosia apud Plautum in
Amphitruone_. This Custom is said to have been first us’d by the
_Greeks_, but if we enquire more strictly into it, we shall find this,
as well as other Ceremonies, owes its Origin to the _Egyptians_, tho’
the manner of performing it be different; [Sidenote: With fine _Linnen_
and a _Vest_.] for the _Greeks_ cover’d their Dead from Head to Foot,
first with fine Linnen, and then put over that a white Vest, which was a
sort of _Pallium_ or Cloak they wore commonly when alive. So likewise
the _Athenians_ and _Lacedemonians_ dress’d their Dead in a Garb
suitable to every ones Condition, and honourably adorn’d such as had
behav’d themselves well in War with a Purple or Crimson Vest, as
_Alexander Sardus de Mor. & Rit. Gent._ Lib. 1. cap. 25. relates. As the
_Greeks_ put on their Dead the _Pallium_, so the _Romans_ us’d their
_Toga_ or Gown, conformable to every One’s degree. That ordinarily us’d
at the Funerals of vulgar Citizens was also white, but the Richer sort,
as likewise those that had acquir’d Honour by their Valour and Vertue,
were more splendidly Attir’d and carry’d out in State in the view of the
Public, so that any one might know the Face and Sex of the Deceas’d from
the manner of their Cloaths and Ornaments. Now this was so well observ’d
by the Ancients, that as _Juvenal_, Satyr 3. informs us, in some parts
of _Italy_, tho’ the Inhabitants were so rude as not to wear the _Toga_
whilst they liv’d, yet would they not want it at their Deaths:

          _Pars magna Italiæ est, si verum admittimus in qua,
          Nemo Togam sumit nisi Mortuus._

               Some distant Parts of _Italy_ are known,
               Where none but only dead Men wear a Gown.

Also the _Jews_ us’d to wrap their Dead in fine Linnen, but differ’d
from others in this respect, That they did not hold it lawful to dress
the Body of a Prince in a more costly Garment than others had, and as
_Cl. Salmasius apud Tho. Bartholinum de Latere Christi aperto_, p. 377.
observes, the Body of our Saviour was only wrapp’d in fine Linnen, his
Head in a _Sudarium_ or Handkerchief, and the whole swathed up from Head
to Foot, with Rowlers like to the Swathes of Children. _John Henry
Heiddegger in Dissert. de Sepult. Mort._ Sect. 30. divides this Linnen
into three sorts: _First_, A short piece, which was call’d _Sudarium_.
_Secondly_, A longer, nam’d _Syndon_. And, _Thirdly_, That which kept
both these on, bound up the Hands and Feet, and cover’d the rest of the
Body, was term’d _Fascia_ or a Swathing-Band. This seems clearly
intimated in the Gospel of St. _John_, 11. 44. _And he that was dead
came forth, bound Hand and Foot with Grave-Cloaths, and his Face was
bound up with a Napkin_: Therefore we are to understand, as the
Evangelist here speaks of _Lazarus_, that the Arms were laid close to
the Body, so that they almost reach’d the Knees, and afterwards rowl’d
up together with it; [Sidenote: Why the _Body_ should be _Cloath’d_.]
but it may perhaps be ask’d why the Body should be Cloath’d at all, and
why it might not be as well carry’d out Naked and uncover’d? To this
_Antonius Santorellus_ in his _Post-Praxis Medica_, p. 104. answers,
That all Nations have taught the Body ought to be Cloath’d, since no Man
has hitherto every been so immodest as not to be asham’d of his own
Nakedness; for altho’ this seems to signifie nothing to the Dead, who
are without Sense or Shame, yet because the Eyes of the Living are
offended at the Nakedness of the Body, all have for that Reason thought
fit to Cloath their Dead: Moreover, not only Deformity is thereby
remov’d from a Corps, but we thus procure as much as possible that it
may appear Comely, and besides ’tis more decent to see a Body Cloath’d
than Naked. On this account the _Greeks_ Cloath’d their Dead in white
Vests or Garments, [Sidenote: Why with _white Vests_.] by reason of the
purity of that Colour, White, according to _Plutarch_ in _Problem._
being alone sincere, pure, and no ways infected, so that the Dead seem
to be render’d in a manner simple, pure and separate from any mixture:
But at length a certain Luxury of Ostentation crepp’d into these Habits,
wherefore the _Spartan_ Law-Giver _Lycurgus_, order’d that Persons of
the greatest Valour and Worth should be bury’d in nothing but a red
Coat, which was the common Dress of Soldiers, and that the rest should
be deny’d even that; for he thought it wholly absurd and unreasonable
the Dead should be deck’d with superfluous Ornaments and Riches,
therefore neither Ointments nor Perfumes were us’d in that
Common-Wealth, being look’d on as conducing nothing to the Felicity of
the Dead, and therefore unworthy of the _Lacedemonians_ Gravity. Thus
St. _Jerom_ inveighs against them: _Cur & Mortuos vestros auratis
obvolvis Vestibus? Cur Ambitio inter Luctus, Lacrymasq; non cessat? An
Cadavera Divitum, nisi in serico, putrescere nequeunt?_ _Why do ye
Cloath even your Dead in Cloth of Tissue? Whence comes Ambition to
continue amidst Grief and Sorrow? Cannot a Rich Carcass, think ye, rot
out of a Silk-Covering?_ St. _Chrisostom_ also thus exclaims: _O inanem
Gloriam! Quantam in Luctu Vim, quantam Amentiam ostendit!_ _O empty
Glory! How does it exert it self in Grief, how discover its Madness!_
Likewise in _Homil._ 84. he thus writes, _Tu cum audieris Nudum Dominum
resurrexisse, cessa, quæso, ab insana Funeris impensa. Quid sibi hoc
superfluum vult & inutile Dispendium, quod ipsis, qui faciunt, plurimum
affert Detrimenti, Mortuis nullum Utilitatem vel Damnum potius?
Sumptuosa namq; Sepultura nonnunquam Causa est, ut Fures Cadaver
effodiant, & nudum & insepultum projiciant._ _Thou when thou shalt hear
thy Lord rise from the Dead, naked and unadorn’d, refrain, I beseech
thee, from thy vain Funeral-Expences. What signifies all this
superfluous and unprofitable Charge, which many times prejudices the
Living, yet never does any Good to the Dead, but rather Harm? For
oftentimes it happens a costly and sumptuous Interment, tempts Thieves
to dig up the Rich Carcass, and throw it out Naked and unbury’d._ Hence
St. _Austin_, speaking of his Mother, says, _Illa iminente Die, non
curavit Corpus suum sumptuose contegi_. _She with her last Breath did
desire her Body might not be splendidly Interr’d._ Notwithstanding this,
the aforesaid St. _Chrisostom_ approves the use of these Things in a
moderate way; for after he had so severely inveigh’d against them, he
thus concludes, _Non ut Sepulturam tollam, dico absit, sed Luxuriam &
superfluam Ambitionem_. _I am not for taking Burial wholly away, far be
that Thought from me, but I would have Luxury and unnecessary Ambition

_Antonius Santorellus_ thinks the Body ought to be carry’d out cover’d,
as well in respect to the Living as the Dead, to the Living, lest they
may be offended by some small Perspirations of the Carcass, and to the
Dead; lest being uncover’d, it might be more liable to external
Injuries. For this Reason the _Egyptians_, who were wont to keep their
Dead publickly in their Houses, richly attir’d them in fine Linnen, and
adorn’d them with Gold and precious Stones; also painted them with
Hieroglyphicks, thereby setting them forth in the most noble manner.
Thus by such a kind of Cloathing as is us’d in Embalming, _viz._
wrapping in Cerecloth, _&c._ all other Inconveniencies are prevented,
nor can it be thought so great a Vanity to Cloath a preserv’d Corps as
one that is corrupt and putrifying; but we may allow it reasonable
enough to adorn such in a moderate way, suitable to its Quality.

[Sidenote: _Crowning_ the _Dead_.]

When the Body was dress’d, they Crown’d it, which Custom was first us’d
by the _Greeks_, _Lacedemonians_ and _Athenians_, from whom it descended
to the _Romans_: Now if the Deceas’d had, thro’ Valour in War, obtain’d
but any one of the honourary Crowns, it was put on his Head, and carry’d
out with him to his Burial; and this, to the end the Reward of Virtue
might in some measure be enjoy’d after Death. For this reason _Cicero_
observes, _Lib._ 2. _De Legibus_, That the Laws commanded that Crown
which was gotten by Virtue, should, without fraud, be put on him that
obtain’d it, and that such Ornaments of Praise belong’d to the Dead.
Other Persons were Crown’d with Chaplets of Flowers and green Branches,
such as Lillies, Roses and Violets, Olive and Bay-Leaves, and the like
precious Flowers and Plants. With these they likewise adorn’d the Couch
the Body was to lye on, as the _Jews_ did theirs with sweet Odours and
Spices, as we have before observ’d of King _Asa_, 2 _Chron._ 16. 14.
Also in like manner as we at this Day fill Coffins with the like
Perfumes, or for want of them, with sweet Herbs and Flowers, _viz._
Rosemary, Lavender, Marjoram, Time, Flowers of Jessamin, Orange, Lillies
of the Valley, _&c._

[Sidenote: Whence Deriv’d, and to what End.]

This Ceremony of _Crowning the Dead_, _Suidas_ thinks was either taken
from the _Games_, wherein the Conquerors were rewarded with Crowns of
Leaves, signifying the Dead had finish’d their Course, or was design’d
to express the unmix’d and Everlasting Pleasures the Dead were to enjoy
upon their Removal out of this sinful and troublesom World, for Garlands
were Emblems of Mirth and Rejoycing, therefore usually worn at Banquets
and Festivals. The same may be observ’d of Ointments and Perfumes, the
constant Concomitants of Gaiety and Joy. But whatever was the cause of
these Customs being so generally observ’d by the _Heathens_, it was not
approv’d by the Primitive _Christians_, but look’d on as little less
than Idolatry, as may be particularly seen in _Minutius Fælix_ in
_Octav._ p. 109. and in _Tertullian de Corona Mil._ Nevertheless,
_Antonius Santorellus_ in his _Post-Praxis Medica_, p. 151. says, _If
Crowns were invented as Ornaments, and to preserve Health, Pleasure and
Virtue, why may not the Dead be Crown’d? And since those who fought
boldly and strenuously, were among the_ Heathens _adorn’d with various
sorts of Crowns, why may not the_ Christians, _who fight for Eternal
Health, and overcome more powerfull Enemies (the Lusts of the Flesh) be
thought more worthy of such Crowns?_ Nor has it displeas’d some
_Christians_, tho’ perhaps it might the _Primitive_, to carry a Garland
before the Corps, or fill the Coffin, or strow the Way or Grave with
Flowers, and this without any manner of Superstition. Thus _Prudentius_
a _Christian_ Poet writes:

                       _Nos tecta fovebimus Ossa,
                       Violis & Fronde frequenti,
                       Tumulumq; & frigida Saxa,
                       Liquido spargemus Odore._

                 We on the cover’d Bones o’th Dead,
                   Sweet Violets and Leaves will strow,
                 Whilst the Tomb, that cold hard Bed,
                   Shall with our liquid Odours flow.

[Sidenote: Laying out the _Corps_.]

The next Ceremony that follow’d, was laying out the Corps, which after
it was Wash’d, Anointed, Cloath’d and Crown’d, was brought from the
inner part of the House into the Porch or Entrance, and laid at the very
Threshold. The poorest People were laid on the Ground or a Bier in an
ordinary Coffin, _&c._ But the richer Sort on a Bed or Couch, adorn’d
sometimes with Jewels, Arms, Books and other Things in which they most
delighted whilst they liv’d, but commonly with all kinds of fragrant and
precious Flowers. Now the Reason why they thus plac’d the Corps in
public View, was that all Persons might satisfie themselves whether the
Deceas’d had any Wounds, or other Marks of an untimely and violent
Death. The like Custom we have in those we call _Searchers_, who are to
examine into the Cause of the Persons Death, make their Report
accordingly, and give an _Affidavit_ thereof: It may be farther
observ’d, the Feet of the Deceas’d were always turn’d next the Door or
Gate, to shew they were never to return after they were thus carry’d
out. _This Custom_, says _Pliny_, _is but according to the Course of
Nature, for we usually come into the World Head foremost, but are
carry’d out the contrary way_, of which see _Kornmannus de Mirac.
Mortuor_, Cap. 58. Whilst the Body lay in this Place, ’twas customary to
give it constant Attendance, to defend it from any Violence or Affront
that might be offer’d. The Corps being thus decently laid out on the
Couch or Bier, is now rightly compos’d for Sepulture, and in a readiness
to be carry’d out to the Grave, so soon as these Ceremonies shall be
ended; the next Thing therefore we have to speak of is the _carrying it
out_ to be Interr’d.

[Sidenote: _Carrying forth_ the _Corps_.]

Thus much was done before the Funeral, at it we may take notice of two
Things, the _Elatio_ or carrying forth, and the _Act_ of _Burial_. What
concerns the first of these will appear by our observing the _Day_,
_Time_, _Persons_ and _Place_; what _Day_ after the Person’s decease was
appointed for the Funeral is not well agreed on, nor does it seem to
have been limited, but was various, according to the Custom of the
Country, or Circumstance of the People. _Alexander ab Alexandro_ in Lib.
3. cap. 7. _Gen. Dier_, tells us Bodies were kept seventeen Days and as
many Nights before they were Interr’d. Also _Servius_ was of Opinion,
the Time of _Burning_ the Dead was the Eighth Day after Death, and the
Time of _Burying_ the Ninth; but this must only be understood of the
Funerals of Great Persons, which could not be duly solemniz’d without
extraordinary Preparations, whereas Men of inferior Rank, were committed
to the Ground without so much Ceremony and Pomp. The antient Burials
seem to have been on the Third and Fourth Day after Death, nor was it
unusual to perform Solemnities, especially of the poorer Sort, on the
very Day of their Death, yet are there many Instances to prove no set
number of Days were observ’d; however, this Care ought particularly to
be taken, that the Dead be not carry’d out too soon, for thro’ too much
haste, it has sometimes happen’d the Living have been bury’d for the

The _Time_ of carrying forth the Corps was likewise various, [Sidenote:
By some us’d in the _Day_ and by others in the _Night_.] and us’d either
in the Morning, at Noon, or in the Night, according to the Custom of the
Country, or Conveniency and Condition of the Person deceas’d. Thus the
_Athenians_ made their Funeral Processions before the Sun-Rising, and
the _Greeks_ perform’d the like Ceremony in the forepart of the Day, or
about Noon: So also the _Hebrews_ bury’d their Dead in the Day-Time, as
_Sopranes_, _David. dig._ fol. 487. asserts; but the _Romans_ made use
only of the Night, as the name of Funeral, _Servius_ thinks, denotes,
being, as he says, deriv’d _a Funalibus_, from the Torches, in like
manner as the _Vespillones_ (Bearers) were so call’d from _Vesper_ the
_Evening_; yet this Custom was not long observ’d at least in publick
Funerals, tho’ it seems to have continu’d in private ones, nevertheless,
the carrying of Torches and Tapers still remain’d in practice, even when
the Dead were bury’d in the Day-Time. This was a greater extravagance
than the other, inasmuch as tho’ in burying by Day they at first
intended to suppress the Charge of Torches, _&c._ yet at last they not
only burn’d these in vain to light the Sun, but also increas’d all other
Funeral-Expences to that degree, that Laws were fain to be made to
restrain them; but, omitting such superfluous Ceremonies, we must grant
the Day-Time to be the fittest for publick Funerals, and the Night for
private ones, both which have been us’d indifferently, as Occasion
serv’d, as well by the _Primitive Christians_ as others: The first were
chiefly chosen whilst they were in a quiet State, but the latter were
made use of in Times of Persecution.

[Sidenote: How _carry’d forth_ to the _Grave_.]

Now as concerning the Act or manner of _carrying forth_ the dead Body,
from the House wherein it was prepar’d for Burial, to the place where it
was to be interr’d, it is said of the antient _Grecians_, that they
carry’d such out without any support, tho’ it was a more frequent Custom
in the antient Church to bear the Dead on Mens Shoulders; afterwards
they plac’d them in a Coffin, on a Bier, Bed, or Couch of State, and so
convey’d them to the Sepulchre on their Shoulders. This Duty was
generally perform’d by the next Heir or nearest Relations, and sometimes
the Magistrates, Senators or chief of the Nobility bore the Bodies of
those who had deserv’d highly of the Common-Wealth, of which see several
Examples in _Quenstedt_, p. 114. but Persons of meaner Rank, nay, and
sometimes even Great Men, that had been hated by the People, were
carry’d forth to their Burial by the _Vespillones_ or _Sandapilarii_,
that is, the Sextons or common Bearers, who liv’d by that Employ, and in
this last way of bearing out the Dead, we may suppose them to have us’d
the _Sandapila_ or common Bier, as the others did the _Lecticæ_ or
_Lecti_, that is, the Litters or Beds; for the _Romans_ us’d two sorts
of Biers, the one call’d _Lectica_, which was for the Rich, and the
other _Sandapila_, for the Poor. We read of this Bed in the carrying
forth of _Abner_, 2 _Sam._ 3. 31. where the Translation is, that _King
David himself follow’d the Bier_, which word in _Hebrew_ signifies a
Bed. How this was wont to be perfum’d with Spices and deck’d with
precious Flowers has been intimated before, as also how the Corps was
Dress’d, Crown’d and expos’d to public View; but here we will take
notice of the Pride and Vanity of the _Romans_, who were accustom’d to
Paint or put a beautifying Wash on such whose Faces were deform’d, that
they might thereby appear handsomer while Dead than Living, which Custom
is said to be us’d even in _France_ and _Italy_ at this Day; but in case
the Visage were very much distorted by its Change, bruis’d by the fall
of an House, maim’d by any other Accident, or the like, so that it was
not fit to be seen, then were they wont to throw a Covering or Pall over

[Sidenote: _Persons_ at the _Funeral_.]

The Persons present at Funerals were the Dead Man’s Friends and
Relations, who thought themselves under an Obligation to pay this last
Respect to their deceas’d Parent or Friend, who commonly had Legacies
left in his Will, that they might appear in decent Mourning, and
accompany the Corps with greater Solemnity: Besides these, others were
frequently invited to encrease the Funeral-Procession, but this only
where the Laws did not restrain such Pomp as they sometimes did in some
Places, either to prevent the Disorders that often happen’d at such
promiscuous Meetings, or to moderate the excessive Charges of Funerals.

[Sidenote: The _Mourning-Habit_.]

The Habit these Persons wore was not always the same, for tho’ they
sometimes put on Mourning, and, in common Funerals, retain’d their
ordinary Apparel, yet were the Exequies of Great Men commonly celebrated
among the _Pagans_, with expressions of Joy for the reception of the
Dead into Heaven. The Herse was follow’d by abundance of Men and Women
cloath’d in white Garments, and bedeck’d with Garlands, as is usual in
Festival-Solemnities. The Funeral was solemniz’d with _Pæans_, or Songs
of Triumph, and Dances: This Custom was in use among the _Greeks_. The
_Chineses_, _Syracusans_ and _Argives_ mourn’d in white, as did also the
antient _Romans_; but after their Empire was settl’d they us’d black.
The _Hebrews_, &c. mourn’d in black; the _Carthaginians_ hung their
Walls with black, whence at this Day, to show the greater demonstration
of Grief, Palaces of Emperors, Kings and Princes, as likewise Churches
and Houses of private Persons, are upon like occasions us’d to be hung
with black, which Custom was anciently practis’d by many Nations, by
reason this Colour was accounted the most agreeable to Mourning and

[Sidenote: The Funeral _Procession_.]

Next we shall speak of the Funeral _Procession_, and of such Persons as
went before and usually follow’d the Funeral-Bed: When the Herald had
marshall’d all in good Order, the Procession began to move, and we are
to take notice it was often made on Horseback or in Coaches; but at the
Funerals of Persons, to whom a more than ordinary Respect was due, all
went on Foot: First march’d the Musicians with Trumpets, Flutes,
Cornets, Pipes and other Musical-Instruments, sounding most sorrowful
and mournful Notes; next came the _Præficæ_ or Women hir’d to mourn and
sing doleful Songs in Praise of the Deceas’d: These us’d strange
Shriekings and Gesticulations, beating their Breasts, tearing their Hair
and the like, so that by their false Tears and feign’d Sorrow, they
mov’d others to cry in good earnest. These foolish Songs and ridiculous
Incantations _Justinian_ the Emperor prohibited, introducing in their
room Psalms and Hymns, which among the _Christians_ continue to be sung
before the Corps even at this Day, and that to cherish their Hearts and
allay their Grief. If the Deceas’d had been eminent for his Warlike
Atchievements, then the Arms, Standards and other Trophies taken by him
were usually carry’d before him. Next follow’d the Priests and Religious
Orders, tho’ the ordinary way was for the Body to go first and the rest
to follow, whereby the Survivors were put in mind of their Mortality,
and warn’d to remember they were all to go the same way the Deceas’d had
gone before them: Then immediately after the Corps came the Relations or
true Mourners, apparell’d in proper Habits, and the Women with their
Hair dishevell’d and their Faces cover’d with Veils; the rest follow’d
at some distance, and the Funeral-Pomp was clos’d up by the common

[Sidenote: Manner of _Mourning_.]

But to speak somewhat of the antient Manner of _Mourning_, you must know
that was various according to the several Customs of Countries, yet this
may be laid down as a general Rule amongst most Nations, that the better
to express their Sorrow for the loss of a deceas’d Relation or Friend,
they on occasion of his Death differ’d as much as could be from their
ordinary Habit and Behaviour. Hence Mourners in some Cities demean’d
themselves after the same manner that in other Countries express’d Joy,
and what was esteem’d Rejoycing in some was in others a token of Sorrow:
For Example, in some Places it was customary to wear short Hair, where
long was a token of Mourning, but in others, where long Hair was in
Fashion, Mourners were accustom’d to shave themselves. The most usual
ways, whereby the Ancients express’d their Sorrow, was by refraining
from Musick, Banquets and Entertainments, from Garlands or Crowning
themselves, from Wine and strong Drink, and in a Word, from every thing
that occasion’d Mirth, or look’d Gay and Pleasant: Such things were not
judg’d fitting to be admitted into so melancholly a Society as that of
Mourners, to whom even the Light was to be odious, and nothing desirable
but Darkness and lonesom Retirements. These they thought best suited
with their Misfortunes, and therefore sequester’d themselves from all
Company and publick Solemnities, nay even refrain’d from the very
Comforts and Conveniences of Life. They usually confin’d themselves
within Doors, and abstain’d from all Luxury, Ointments, Baths, Venery,
_&c._ and on the contrary fasted and put on black Habits, differing not
only in Colour from their ordinary Apparel, but also in Value, being
only of a course and cheap Stuff. They sprinkl’d Dust on their Heads,
nay, rowl’d in the very Dirt, thinking they shew’d the greater Sorrow
and Dejection by how much they were the more dirty and nasty. These
Customs were likewise practis’d in the _East_, whence we find so
frequent mention of Penitents lying on the Ground, and putting on
Sackcloth and Ashes: [Sidenote: With Sackcloth and Ashes.] They were so
far from wearing good Apparel, that they frequently burn’d their richest
Goods and Cloaths, and rent and tore what they had off their Backs, on
the first news of any great Calamity: Thus _Reuben_ did, _Gen._ 37. 29,
and Verse 34. _Jacob rent his Cloaths, and put Sackcloth on his Loins,
and mourn’d for his Son many Days._ So in the 2 _Samuel_ 3. 31. _David_
commanded his Servants to mourn for _Abner_; and thus also mourn’d
_Hezekiah_, 2 _Kings_ 19. 1. See also _Nehem._ 9. 1. _Esther_, 4. 1. and
_Lamentations_ 2. 10.

[Sidenote: Cutting and tearing their Flesh.]

They also on such occasions shav’d off their Hair, beat their Breasts,
cut their Flesh, and with their Nails tore holes in their Faces, that
they might appear the more deform’d and discontented. These frantick
Actions, tho’ practis’d sometimes by Men, were more frequent among
Women, whose Passions were more violent and ungovernable; they wore
their Hair long, dishevel’d and carelessly flowing about, contrary to
the usage of the Men who shav’d theirs. The _Heathens_ were so
superstitious in these Ceremonies, that they extended the Practice of
them to a higher degree than the _Jews_, for they hir’d feign’d Mourners
to make frightful Howlings and sad Lamentations for the Dead, and were
wont to cause even their Horses, Mules, _&c._ to share in their Sorrows,
by shaving their Manes, and the like. These cruel and ridiculous
Ceremonies were restrain’d by Laws made on purpose, to restrain such
Excesses in Funerals; [Sidenote: Moderate _Weeping_ commendable.]
nevertheless a moderate Sorrow and Mourning was never disallow’d, but on
the contrary commended and promis’d as a Blessing to the Godly, and the
want thereof threaten’d as a Malediction or Curse, _Isaiah_ 57. 1. _To
mourn at the Interment of our Friends_ (says _Weever_, p. 16.) _is a
manifest Token of our true Love_: By it we express that natural
Affection we had to the departed Person, but this ought always to be
with a Christian moderation, whereby our Faith towards GOD is
demonstrated. He gave us natural Affections, and commanded us to love
one another, and is not pleas’d such Love should end with our Friends
Life, but rather that we should retain all due Respect to his Memory.
_Antonio de Guevara_ in his 10th Letter, English’d by Mr. _Savage_,
says, _The Heart of Man is tender, and not able to part with any Thing
it loves without Concern_. This daily Experience teaches us even in
Brutes, who will in like manner mourn for the Absence or Death of their
Companions or Young; for this Reason our Author thus Expostulates, _Why
should we not_, says he, _be allow’d to shed Tears and lament over the
Graves of our Friends, since we are of a superiour Nature to Beasts?_
Some account Weeping a weakness and effeminacy, but there are sufficient
Examples to prove the contrary, [Sidenote: Us’d by Kings and
Patriarchs.] for if such great and wise Men as Kings and Patriarchs
wept, surely a moderate Mourning for the Dead is justifiable and pious;
nay, the Holy Scripture shews how those devout Men were commended who
made great Lamentations over _Stephen_’s Burial. We read in the Old
Testament how _Abraham_ mourn’d and wept for his Wife _Sarah_, Gen. 23.
2. and in _Chap._ 50. _ver._ 1, 10, 17. we find _Joseph_ wept over his
dead Father _Jacob_, and mourn’d for him: So King _David_ follow’d the
Bier of _Abner_ weeping, and when he came to the Grave, both he and all
the People wept, 2 _Sam._ 3. 31, 32. At another Time, when he heard the
News of his Sons being slain, _He arose and tore his Garments and lay on
the Earth, and all his Servants stood by with their Cloaths rent_, 2
Sam. 13. 31. likewise Verse 33, 36. when it was told that _only Amnon
was dead, The King’s Sons lift up their Voices and wept, and the King
also, and all his Servants wept very sore_. At another Time he made
great Lamentation for his Son _Absalom_, 2 _Sam._ 18. 3. nevertheless he
did not allow of immoderate Grief and Mourning, but reprov’d it himself,
as you may read, 2 _Sam._ 12. 23. and this because it was vain to do so,
and could never recover the Dead; so that when he bewail’d the Death of
_Saul_ and _Jonathan_, of _Abner_ and _Absalom_, it was out of Love to
them, and by reason the Common-Wealth had a loss by some of their
Deaths, and because others of them died in their Sins. These may be
sufficient Reasons moderately to mourn for the Dead; but we read of
several other good Men who wept on other Occasions, as the _Man of God_,
2 _Kings_ 8. 11. _Hezekiah_, 2 _Kings_ 20. 3. _Nehemiah_ 1. 4. and
Christ himself, [Sidenote: By our _Saviour_.] who was never known to
laugh, is recorded to have wept twice, once over the foreseen Desolation
of _Jerusalem_, Luke 19. 41. and another Time over the Grave of
_Lazarus_, John 11. 35. from which last, the _Jews_ collected his Love
towards the Dead: Now as Weeping on the Death of a Friend expresses our
Grief for the Loss of him, and is done out of Respect and Love to him,
so does it likewise moderate our Passion and allay our Concern,
[Sidenote: _Weeping_ allays Grief.] as _Ovid_ in his Epistles speaks:

              _Flere licet certe, flendo diffudimus Iram._

            We certainly may Weep, weeping allays our Grief.

And in the Fourth Book of his _De Tristibus_, Eleg. 3.

                 ——_Est quædam flere Voluptas,
                 Expletur Lacrymis, egeriturq; Dolor._

            There is a certain Pleasure springs from Tears,
            They ease our Grief and sooth our coming Years.

Also St. _Ambrose_, speaking of the Death of _Valentine_, says, _Pascunt
frequenter Lacrymæ, & Mentem allevant Fletus, refrigerant Pectus, &
Mæstum consolantur: Est quoq; piis Affectibus quædam Flendi Voluptas, &
plerumq; graves Lacrymas evaporat Dolor_. _Tears and Weepings oftentimes
refresh the Mind, and comfort the afflicted Soul: There is a kind of
Pleasure in Godly Passions, for frequently by many Tears Grief
vanishes._ Likewise St. _Chrisostom_ makes this Comparison,
_Quemadmodum_, says he, _per vehementes Imbres, mundus Aer ac purus
efficitur; haud secus post Lacrymarum Pluvias, Serenitas Mentis sequitur
& Tranquilitas_. _In like manner as the Air is purify’d and cleans’d by
vehement Showers, so from a greater Effusion of Tears, a Serenity and
Tranquility of Mind follows._ As for the other Uses of Weeping, see
_Santorellus_ in his _Post-Praxis Medica_, p. 30. who writes
Philosophically of its Nature and Cause.

[Sidenote: _Following_ the _Corps_.]

Besides these Mourners and Relations there follow’d a great number of
Friends and Acquaintance to the Place of Burial; for it was not only
look’d on as a Duty, but a religious Friendship to attend a Corps to its
Grave. Thus we read, _Joseph went up to Bury his Father, and with him
all the Servants of Pharaoh, the Elders of his House, and all the Elders
of Egypt_, Gen. 50. 7. and this even from the Land of _Egypt_ to
_Canaan_. So King _David_ and all his Servants follow’d the Bier of
_Abner_, 2 Sam. 3. 31. and we read in _Luke_ 7. 12. that much People of
the City of _Naim_ follow’d the Widow’s Son.

The Corps being brought forth to the Place of Burial, after the manner
already describ’d, within or without the City, [Sidenote: The _Act_ of
_Burial_.] the next Thing was the _Act_ of _Burial_. This has been
perform’d various ways, but the two most common, were either _Burying_
or _Burning_, whether of which be the most eligible we shall next
enquire into. Burial is the more antient, as having been us’d in the
Primitive Ages by the _Hebrews_, _Greeks_, _Romans_, and most other
Nations, yet the two latter _burn’d_ their Dead, as is pretended on the
following Considerations. _First_, That Worms and such like vile Insects
might be thereby prevented from corroding the noble Bodies of the Dead,
and the Living be freed from the Infection and Stench of Carcasses
rotting in the Earth. _Secondly_, Because Fire purefy’d the Dead, and
was the quickest way of Incineration, or reducing Bodies to their first
Elements, whereby the Soul being set at Liberty, might take its Flight
to the Heavenly Mansions. _Thirdly_, Being so immediately reduc’d to
Ashes, it could not be easily inform’d and mov’d about by the Devil, to
the great Terror and Amazement of all People. And, _Lastly_, they
likewise thought it secur’d them from the Exultation of the Enemy, in
exposing and abusing their Corps, which last I take to be the true
Occasion of Burning their Dead: For as _Pliny_ says, _Lib._ 7. _cap._
54. _Sylla_ having dug up the Body of _Caius Marius_, his mortal Enemy,
and fearing the like Fate, engag’d the People by an express Law, that
they should for the future burn both him and others after they were
dead, and this tho’ none of the _Cornelii_ his Predecessors had ever
been burn’d. From hence it was the _Romans_ brought in the Custom of
_Burning_ their Dead, which was perform’d after the following manner:

[Sidenote: _Burning_ the _Dead_.]

Having erected a _Pile_ in form of an Altar, made either of ordinary
Wood, such as Oak, Ash, Olive, Pine, Fir, and the like resiniferous
Trees, which caus’d it easily to catch Fire, or else of odoriferous,
such as Cedar, Cypress, Mirtle, _&c._ They plac’d the Corps with the
Couch thereon, and then set round about the Arms, Sword, Belt or Spoils
taken in War of the Deceas’d, his best Houshold-Goods and richest
Apparel, his finest Horses, Dogs or the like, and in the more barbarous
Ages his Slaves, all which, having first slain the Beasts, _&c._ they
burn’d together with him. In some Places the Wives flung themselves
alive into the Pile, and were burn’d with their Husbands, and commonly
all such Things as the Deceas’d most valu’d while they liv’d, besides
abundance of rich Presents brought by Relations and Friends, all sorts
of Perfumes and sweet Odours, such as Cinamon, Cassia, Frankinsence,
_&c._ and odoriferous Oils and Ointments were burn’d with them, as we
read the _Israelites_ us’d to do at the Burials of their Kings, as they
did at that of _Asa_, 2 _Chron._ 16. 14. and other Places. When the Pile
was burn’d down, the nearest Relations gather’d up the Ashes and Bones,
[Sidenote: _Ossilegium._] and having wash’d them with Wine, Milk or
Water, put them into Urns made of different kinds of Matter, such as
Gold, Silver, Brass, Marble, Glass, Earthen-Ware, Cedar, and the like;
then they pour’d out Tears upon them, which being catch’d in small
Vessels call’d _Lacrymatoriæ_, were reposited with the Urn in a Tomb.

[Sidenote: Funeral _Oration_.]

An Oration or Funeral-Sermon was likewise solemnly pronounc’d in Praise
of the Deceas’d, by a Person appointed for that purpose by the public
Magistrate. When the Funeral was over, other Ceremonies were perform’d
in Honour of the Dead as Festivals, which may be reduc’d to these three
Heads, _Sacrifices_, _Feasts_ and _Games_.

[Sidenote: _Sacrifices._]

The _Sacrifices_ consisted of Liquors, Victims and Garlands; the Liquors
were Wine, Milk, Water, Blood, Honey and liquid Balsam.

[Sidenote: _Feasts._]

The _Feasts_ were either Publick or Private: The Private were kept about
the Tomb of the Deceas’d by the nearest Relations and Friends only,
being prepar’d both for the Dead and Living. The Repast design’d for the
Dead consisting commonly of Beans, Lettices, Bread and Eggs, or the
like, was laid on the Tomb for the Deceas’d to come out and Eat, as they
fancy’d he would. The Public Feasts were when the Heirs or Friends of
some Rich or Great Dead Person oblig’d the People with a general Treat
to his Honour and Memory.

[Sidenote: _Games._]

The Funeral _Games_ consisted of a great number of Gladiators, fighting
with Beasts, _&c._ the Ancients thinking the Dead delighted in such
bloody Sacrifices; but this Barbarous Custom of burning the Dead
continu’d no longer than the Time of the _Antonines_, who being virtuous
Princes abhorr’d such Cruelties, and therefore brought Burial again into
Practice. Thus it plainly appears, Burial was not only more antient but
more eligible than Burning, since one was admitted upon Choice and the
other by Compulsion; for so soon as such cruel minded Persons were
remov’d, Burial was again introduc’d: Besides, as it appears by Holy
Writ and the Canon-Law, Burning was a most ignominious way of dealing
with the Dead, to which none were expos’d but such as had lain with
Beasts or their own Sex; and we at this Day only burn Female-Traitors,
or such as have kill’d their Husbands, _&c._ thereby to show the
Heinousness of their Crime; on the contrary, Sepulture was always
esteem’d Honourable among GOD’s People. Thus the Patriarchs _Abraham_,
_Isaac_, _Jacob_ and _Joseph_, as also _Moses_ were bury’d, and the last
particularly by GOD himself, _Deut._ 34. 7. Likewise the Holy Fathers,
St. _Austin_, St. _Ambrose_, St. _Gregory_, and most of the _Primitive
Christians_ were for having their Bodies bury’d and not burn’d:
[Sidenote: _Situation_ of the _Dead_ in their _Sepulchres_.] But as for
the manner of Burying or placing them in their Sepulchres, that was
various, according to the different Opinions or Customs of several
Nations, a few of which we shall here relate. The _Egyptians_ set dead
Bodies on their Feet, as _Solinus_ observes:

                ————_Ægyptia Tellus
                Claudit odorato post Funus stantia Busto

            The _Egyptians_, when the Funeral-Pomp was made,
            Shut up in odorous Tombs the standing Dead.

The _Phænicians_ bury’d the Dead on their Backs, yet turn’d them to the
West, in Imitation of the Setting-Sun, as the _Athenians_ did to the
East in regard of its Rising. The _Nasamones_, a People of _Africa_, did
not only for the greatest part die sitting, but also bury’d their Dead
in that Posture, and the Inhabitants of _Megara_ plac’d their Dead with
their Faces downwards: So _Diogenes_ desir’d to be bury’d, his Reason
being, that as he believ’d the World would at last be turn’d
topsie-turvy, he then should lye upright: Yet the general way was to lye
with the Face upwards towards the Fountain of Life, and Abodes of the
Celestial Gods, and to be so situated in the Grave, as to see the
Rising-Sun. As for the _Christians_, they bury’d their Dead supine, as
looking towards Heaven, where their sole Hopes were plac’d, and towards
the East as waiting for the Resurrection.

Next let us consider the Places where the Ancients us’d to bury their
Dead, and how they dug their Graves, and erected their Sepulchres and
Monuments. In order to this you must know, _First_, That Sepulchres were
not always of a kind, nor might all People be bury’d in the same Place
of Sepulture, but proper ones were invented for different Degrees and
Ranks, so that some were Public and some Private; some common or
belonging to all, and others peculiar to one Family, and these again
either built by the Persons whilst alive, or order’d by their Wills how
they would have them erected after their Deaths. [Sidenote: _Monuments_
Built during Life.] Thus _Absalom_ in his Life-Time erected a Pillar to
preserve his Memory in case his Issue-Male fail’d, 2 _Sam._ 18. 18.
which Pillar, hewn out of a Rock or Quarry, he intended for his
Sepulchre, and which, according to _Sandys_, is to be seen at this Day.
_Augustus Cæsar_, in the 6th Year of his Consulship, built a
Funeral-Monument for himself and Successors; but that Mausoleum, as
_Xiphilinus_ writes, being full in the Time of _Adrian_, that Emperor
rais’d himself a Tomb or Sepulchre near the _Pons Ælius_. Nay it was
usual for such as were careful of their Burials, to provide their own
Tombs in their Lives Time, and this for their better Satisfactions, with
these or the like Inscriptions:

                    VIVUS FECIT. VIVUS SIBI POSUIT.
                    VIVUS FACIENDUM CURAVIT.

For the same Reason King _Henry_ the Seventh built a fair and glorious
Chapel at _Westminster_ as an House of Burial for himself, his Children,
and such only of the Blood-Royal as should descend from his Loins,
forbidding all others of what Degree or Quality soever to be interr’d in
that sacred Mould, as appears by his last Will and Testament, _Weever_
p. 20. Now, as for such as did not build their Monuments themselves, but
only order’d them by their last Wills, it was held such Wills could not
be violated with a safe Conscience, nor might any one change, alienate
or detract from them; for since Monuments were invented as well to
preserve Mens Memories as their Bodies, it would be very hard and
inhuman to deprive them of them, yet has there been such base Heirs, as
appears by the Inscriptions of some Tombs, which give the Reader a
Caution therein, whereof I have inserted two.

              _Fallax sæpe Fides, testataq; Vota peribunt;
                Constitues Tumulum, si sapis, ipse tuum._

           Since Heirs are Faithless and your Wills neglect,
           If ye are wise your own Tombs you’ll erect.

On others thus:

           _Certa Dies nulli, Mors certa, incerta sequentum:
             Constitues Tumulum, si sapis, ipse tuum._

    If Life’s uncertain, certain Death, and dubious what’s to come,
    You would do well to secure all, by building your own Tomb.

That some Persons were better pleas’d to build their Tombs themselves,
we read in 2 _Chron._ 16. 14. how _King Asa was bury’d in his own
Sepulchre, which he had made for himself in the City of David_: And how
_Shebnah_ had taken care to have a Sepulchre hew’d for himself in
_Jerusalem_. The same is also said of _Joseph_ of _Arimathæa_, Matth.
27. 60. [Sidenote: _Places_ of _Sepulture_.] The Places of Sepulture
were of two kinds, Public and Private. The Public were likewise of two
sorts, _viz._ Such as were allotted the Poor, and others that were us’d
only by the Rich: [Sidenote: The _Puticulæ_.] The poor Servants, and
such like mean Persons, were bury’d in Ditches or Graves call’d
_Puticulæ_ or _Puticuli_, and so nam’d, _A Puteis fossis, vel quod
Corpora ibi putrescerent_. These were Holes in the Earth made like to
Wells, between Mount _Esquiline_, the Walls of the City, and the Street
which leads to the Gate _Querquetulana_; but these Wells infecting all
the neighbouring parts of the City, _Augustus_ for removing thereof,
gave that Place to _Mæcenas_, who built a stately House, and made very
fine Gardens there, as his Favourite _Horace_ informs us. There were
other public Places, in which those that had deserv’d well of the
Common-Wealth had their Monuments, which were chiefly allow’d them as a
Reward of their Virtues. As for the _Roman_ Kings they were bury’d in
the _Campus Martius_, [Sidenote: _Campus Martius._] where the
_Mausolæum_ of _Augustus_ stood, together with a vast number of antient
Sepulchres and Monuments all along the River side.

[Sidenote: Private.]

Private Burying-Places were such as any one had in his own House, Garden
or Fields: Thus we read _Samuel_ was bury’d in his House at _Ramah_,
Sam. 25. 1. and _Joab_ in his House in the Wilderness, 1 _Kings_ 2. 34.
The antient _Grecians_ were also bury’d in Places prepar’d for that
purpose in their own Houses; and the _Thebans_ had once a Law, that no
Person should build a House without providing in it a Repository for the
Dead; but this Custom was afterwards forbidden, as appears by that
Passage in _Isiodorus_, Lib. 14. _Orig._ cap. 11. _Prius autem quisq; in
Domo sua sepeliebatur, postea vetitum est Legibus, ne fætore ipso
Corpora Viventium contactu inficerentur_. _At first every one was bury’d
in his own House, but afterwards it was forbidden by the Laws, lest the
Living might thereby be infected._ _Tolosanus in Syntagm. Juris
universal_, Lib. 33. cap. 23. gives another Reason, _Ne Licentia illa
Sepeliendi familiares daret delinquendi & occisos occultandi
Occasionem_. _Lest such a Liberty of Burying the Family, should give
occasion of committing Murder and afterwards hiding it._

[Sidenote: In _Gardens_.]

Sometimes the Ancients bury’d in their Gardens, as we read _Manasseth
was interr’d in the Garden of his own House, in the Garden of Uzza_, 2
Kings 21. 18. and _Tacitus_ tells us _Galba_’s Body was bury’d by
_Argius_ his Steward, with little or no Ceremony, in his private Garden.
We read also of a Sepulchre in the Garden made by _Joseph_ of
_Arimathæa_ to lay our Saviour’s Body in, _John_ 19. 41.

[Sidenote: In Fields.]

They likewise bury’d in Fields, and so the _Patriarchs_ were said to be
bury’d in a Cave in the Field of _Machpelah_, Gen. 23. 20. also ’tis
related that _Uzziah_ King of _Judah_ _slept with his Fathers, and was
bury’d with them in the Field of Burial which pertain’d to the Kings_, 2
Chron. 26. 23. Tho’ they term’d these two last Private, because they
bury’d in Fields and Gardens belonging only to their own Families, yet,
if it was possible, they always interr’d their Dead in that part of the
Garden or Field which lay nearest the common Road or Highway, thereby to
put Passengers in mind of their Mortality.

[Sidenote: In Highways.]

For this Reason they more frequently bury’d in the Highways and public
Roads, that by seeing the Monuments of the Dead the Memory of them might
not only be excited, but also the Living be encourag’d to imitate the
Virtues of such Great Men as were represented on those stately Tombs,
and likewise to admonish them, that what they were they should also be.
This plainly appears by the Epitaphs and Inscriptions which always spoke
to the Traveller after this manner:


[Sidenote: In Mountains and Hills.]

The Ancients likewise bury’d in Mountains and Hills. _Joshua_, Captain
of the _Hebrews_, and _Eleazar_, Son of _Aaron_, were both bury’d in
Mount _Ephraim_, _Joshua_ 24. 30, 33. _Judges_ 2. 9. and we read in 2
_Kings_ 23. 16. that _as Josiah turn’d himself, he spy’d the Sepulchres
that were in the Mountain_. Likewise the _Grecians_ and _Romans_ bury’d
their Kings and Great Men either on the tops of Mountains, or at their
feet, as _Isiodorus_, Lib. 15. _Etimolog._ cap. 11. observes. Thus
_Aventinus Sylvius_, King of the _Albans_, was interr’d in the Hill that
receiv’d its Name from him, as _Titus Livius_ and _Aurelius de Orig.
Gent. Roman._ testifie. _Virgil_ reports the same thing of King
_Dercennus_, Æn. 11. v. 850.

               ————_Fuit ingens Monte sub alto,
               Regis Dercenni terreno ex aggere Bustum._

               A Tomb beneath a mighty Mount they rear’d
               For King _Dercennus_.————

Hence likewise appears the Custom of raising a Mount over the Graves of
great Persons, which _Lucan_ Lib. 8. speaking of the _Egyptians_, has
thus express’d:

              _Et Regum Cineres extructo Monte quiescunt._

               Beneath a Mount their Monarchs Ashes rest.

So also _Weever_ in his Funeral-Monuments, _p._ 6. observes, they were
antiently wont to bury here in _England_ either on ridges of Hills, or
on spacious Plains fortify’d or fenc’d about with Obelisks, pointed
Stones, Pyramids, Pillars, or such like Monuments. For Example,
_England_’s Wonder on _Salisbury-Plain_ call’d _Stonehenge_, the
Sepulchre of so many _Britains_, who, by the Treachery of the _Saxons_,
were slain there at a Parley: That of _Wada_ the _Saxon_ Duke near
_Whitby_ in _Yorkshire_, and those of _Cartigerne_ the _Britain_, and
_Horsa_ the _Saxon_ near _Ailesford_ in _Kent_. It was a thing usual
among our _Saxon_ Ancestors (says _Verstegan_) as by _Tacitus_ it also
seems to have been among the other _Germans_, that the dead Bodies of
such as were slain in the Field, and bury’d there, were not laid in
Graves, but lying on the Ground were cover’d over with Turfs or Clods of
Earth, [Sidenote: In Plains cover’d with Turfs, _&c._] and the more
Reputation they had had, the greater and higher were the Turfs rais’d
over them. This some us’d to term _Byriging_, others _Beorging_, and
some _Buriging_, which we now call _Berying_ or _Burying_, which is
properly a shrouding or hiding the dead Body in the Earth. Of these
kinds of Funeral-Monuments you have many on _Salisbury-Plain_, out of
which the Bones of Bodies thus inhum’d have oftentimes been dug. These
Places the Inhabitants thereabouts call _Beries_, _Baroes_ or
_Burroughs_, which agrees with the words _Byrighs_, _Beorghs_ or
_Burghs_ spoken in the same Sence. From hence the Names of divers Towns
and Cities were originally deriv’d; Places first so call’d having been
with Walls of Turf or Clods of Earth, fenc’d about for Men to shroud
themselves in, as in Forts or Castles: Thus far _Weever_. We shall next
take notice that the _Romans_ antiently made their Graves of Turf, which
they call’d _Injectio Glebæ_, and for the same Reason the Latin word
_Tumulus_, which in its proper Sense imports no more than a Hillock,
came afterwards to signifie a Grave or Tomb. These were compos’d of two
parts, one the Grave or Tomb, and the other the Ground surrounding them,
fenc’d about with Pales, Walls, or the like. Here we may observe that
most of the Ancients Burials were without their Town and Cities, either
for fear the Air might be corrupted thro the stench of Putrefy’d Bodies,
or the Buildings endanger’d by the frequency of Funeral-Fires; wherefore
they made choice of more convenient Places for their Interments in the
Suburbs or Country, such as Mountains, Hills, Woods, Fields or Highways,
which were barren Places; for as _Plato_, Lib. 12. _De Leg._ says, No
Sepulchre was to be made in a fertile Soil or fruitful Field, but that
Place was only to be us’d which was steril and good for nothing else.

Now tho’ it was forbidden both by the _Greek_ and _Roman_ Laws,
[Sidenote: _Burial_ in the _City_.] to bury within the Walls of Cities,
yet was there nevertheless a Reserve made for some particular Persons,
such as Emperors, Vestal-Virgins, and those that had merited Favour by
some extraordinary Action or Virtue. It seem’d likewise an Honour due to
Lawyers, that they who had kept the Citizens in a healthful Concord
whilst alive, might when dead remain in the midst of them. Likewise we
often read of Monuments erected in the _Forum_ or middle of the City,
but that we must look on as a Favour chiefly bestow’d on Men of Worth,
and public Benefactors; nay, sometimes Persons of a more than ordinary
Desert and Excellency were permitted to be bury’d in the Temples of the
Gods; and some are of Opinion, such Honours paid the Dead were the first
Causes of erecting Temples; see _Arnobius_, Lib. 6. _advers. Gentes_,
and _Isiodorus_, Lib. 15. _Origin._ cap. 11. Nor are later Times wholly
destitute of such Examples. We read moreover in the Holy Scripture, that
Persons of eminent Ranks and Quality were bury’d in the City. So _David_
was bury’d in the City call’d after his own Name, where also _Solomon_,
_Abijam_, _Asa_, _Jehosaphat_, _Joram_, _Ahaziab_, _Jehoash_, _Amaziah_,
_Azariah_, _Jothan_, _Ahaz_, _Rehoboam_, _Jehoiada_ and _Joash_ were
bury’d, 1 _Kings_ 2. 10. 11. 43. 15. 8, 24. 22. 50. 2 _Kings_ 8. 24. 9.
28. 12. 21. 14. 20. 15. 7, 38. 16. 20. 2 _Chron._ 12. 16. 16. 14. 24.
16, 25. 27. 9. _Ahab_, _Jehu_, _Jehoahaz_, and the Kings of _Israel_
were interr’d in the City of _Samaria_, and _Amaziah_ in the City of
_Judah_, 1 _Kings_ 22. 27. 2 _Kings_ 10. 35. 13. 9. 14. 16. 2 _Chron._
25. 28. with abundance of other Instances, too many to be related here:
Besides it has long been the Custom of most modern Nations to bury in
their Cities and Churches their Kings, Princes, Nobles, Gentry, Poets,
and Men of the greatest Parts and Merit. The Emperors and Arch-Dukes of
_Austria_ are bury’d at _Vienna_, the Kings of _England_ in
_Westminster-Abbey_, the Kings of _France_ in the Monastery of St.
_Dennis_, the Kings of _Sueden_ at _Stockholm_, the Kings of _Poland_ at
_Cracow_, the Electors of _Saxony_ at _Fridberg_, the Counts Palatine of
the _Rhine_ at _Heydelberg_, and the like, whereof see more Examples in
_Quenstedt_, p. 205. and _Weever_, p. 8. but more especially in
_Panvinus de Rit. Sepeliendi_, who gives a whole Catalogue of such
Kings, Princes and Priests as have been bury’d in Churches. But to
proceed to speak of the Nature and Distinction of such Places of
Sepulture as the Ancients us’d, whether within or without the City, they
were distinguish’d into _Proper_ and _Common_, _Family_ and _Hereditary
Burial-Places_ or _Sepulchres_.

[Sidenote: _Proper Sepulchres._]

_Proper Sepulchres_ were such particular Places as any one reserv’d for
himself, where none had ever been laid before, and from whence he could
by his Will exclude any of his Heirs. To this purpose they inscrib’d on
their Tombs these Letters: H. M. H. N. S. that is, _Hoc Monumentum
Heredes non sequitur_. Or these, H. M. _ad_ H. N. TRANS. _Hoc Monumentum
ad Heredes non transit._ Which Inscriptions are still to be met with in
abundance of Places, and shew the Heir has no Right or Claim to Burial

[Sidenote: _Common Sepulchres._]

_Common Sepulchres_ were such as the _Puticulæ_ for the poorer Sort, the
_Campus Martius_ for Men of Quality, Honour or Merit, the _Ceramnicus_
for such as were slain in War, and other the like Places to bury
Strangers in, call’d _Poluandria_. So we read the chief Priests of the
_Jews_ bought the Potters Field for this Purpose, with Thirty pieces of
Silver, which _Judas_ had taken to betray Christ, _Matth._ 27. 7.

[Sidenote: _Family-Sepulchres._]

_Family-Sepulchres_ were such as were only common to Heirs and
Posterity, who had a right to be bury’d therein: Some again were only
for the Husband and Wife, having this Inscription, _Sibi & Conjugi_;
others for the Children likewise, inscrib’d _Sibi, Conjugi & Liberis_.

[Sidenote: _Hereditary-Sepulchres._]

_Hereditary-Sepulchres_ were such as the _Testator_ appointed for
himself and his Heirs, or acquir’d by Right of Inheritance. These
sometimes belong’d to the whole Family, as to Children and Relations:
Now for the better understanding how these Sepulchres were made, which
were capable of holding such a number of Persons, we must observe they
were certain Caves, Grots or Vaults dug under Ground, and divided into
several Partitions, in which each Body being put up in a Coffin of
Stone, Lead, Wood, _&c._ these Coffins were laid each in its own
Apartment; for such Burial-Places were wont to have as many Divisions as
they design’d Persons to be bury’d in them: Thus some became unlimited,
possessing several Miles of Ground; such were the _Cryptæ Kiovienses_,
which _Herbinius_ has wrote a Book of, and the Catacombs of _Rome_ and
_Naples_, of which you have an exact Account in _Bosio_’s _Roma
Subterranea_, and Bishop _Burnet_’s Travels. The _Greeks_ call’d such a
Burial-Place, ὙΠΌΓΕΙΟΝ, ὑπὸ τὴν γῆν, _sub Terra_, _Hypogeum_, and the
_Latins_ _Crypta_, deriving the Word from the Greek κρύπτη, _a_ κρύπτω,
_abdo_; _quia abdita est_. These serving not only for Sepultures to the
Primitive _Christians_, but during the Time of Persecution, for hiding
Places, where they held Synods and administred the Sacraments, as
_Panvinus_ in Lib. _De Cæmiteriis_, cap. 11 relates. These Subterranean
Caves were at first dug only out of the Earth, but afterwards they were
hew’d out of solid Rocks, or else curiously wrought and pay’d with
Stone, being arch’d above, and adorn’d with no less Art and Care than
the Houses of the Living; insomuch that it was customary to place Lamps
in these Subterranean-Vaults, whither such Mourners as had a mind to
express an extraordinary Concern for the Deceas’d, retir’d, cloistering
themselves up for many Days and Nights, whereof we have an Example in
_Petronius_’s Story of the _Ephesian_ Matron. Thus the _Egyptians_ and
_Persians_ bury’d in Caves dug out of solid Rocks, or at the bottoms of
such stony Mountains, as _Diodorus Siculus_ and other Writers inform us.
There was also at _Nismes_ in _Languedoc_ a _Crypta_ found, with a rich
inlaid Pavement and Niches round about the Wall, in each of which gilded
Glass-Urns full of Ashes were set in order. The _Jews_ likewise hew’d
their Sepulchres out of Rocks, into which they descended thro’ a narrow
Passage, which was shut up with a Stone, as appears by that of
_Lazarus_, John 11. 38. and that of _Joseph_ of _Arimathæa_, wherein our
Saviour’s Body was laid, _Matth._ 27. 60.

[Sidenote: _Cenotaphs._]

Thus far we have treated of Sepulchres properly so call’d, now we will
speak of such as were erected to preserve the Memories of those that
were bury’d else-where, whence they came to be call’d ΚΕΝΟΤΆΦΙΟΝ,
_i. e._ κενὸς τάφος, _inanis Tumulus_, _Tumulus sine Corpore_, a
Sepulchre rais’d in Honour of some Person, and wherein his Body had
never been laid. Of these there were two sorts, one erected to such as
had been honour’d with Funeral-Rites in another _Place_, and the other
for those who had never obtain’d any. _First_, They built these
Sepulchres for Religions sake, by reason they thought the Souls of those
that had been depriv’d of the Rites and Honours of Sepulture wander’d
about, and could never pass the _Stygian_ Lake: See _page_ 21.
_Secondly_, They esteem’d it the next Felicity to Sepulture to lye in
their own Country, wherefore when any one died in a forreign Land, they
thrice invok’d his Ghost or Soul, which thereby, as they thought,
speedily hastening to them, they erected a Tomb or Monument for it. This
without doubt afforded no small Joy and Comfort, by reason they believ’d
in doing thus, their Bodies were driven under Ground to their own
Country, and the _Jews_ even at this Day believe, that immediately after
their Deaths their Souls pass into the Land of _Canaan_. _Nicolaius_,
Lib. _De Luctu Græcorum_, p. 17. It was also customary, among the
nearest Friends and Relations, to build various Tombs for one and the
same Person, and that in various Places, which they did to do the
Deceas’d the more Honour, as _Dionysius Halicarnasseus_, Lib. 1.
_Antiqu. Roman._ observes. We may also gather from _Prudentius_, Lib.
περί στεφάνων that the _Christians_ built _Cenotaphs_ in Honour of their
Martyrs, and _Gretserius de Funer. Christi_, Lib. 3. cap. 6. says, they
were erected in Commemoration of the Deceas’d. Hence may be likewise
gather’d the Use and Benefit of Tombs, [Sidenote: Use and Benefit of
_Tombs_.] as _First_, That they were erected in Honour to the Deceas’d.
_Secondly_, Often Built at the public Cost, as a Reward to Virtue and
Valour. And, _Lastly_, they were moreover thought to be a Comfort to the
Living; for as _Theodoric_ gravely said, Bodies bury’d in Coffins and
Tombs were esteem’d no small Consolation to Mourners, inasmuch as the
Souls of the Deceas’d departed only from the Conversation of the World,
whereas their Bodies did not for some time leave their surviving
Friends: If therefore such Things could afford so great satisfaction to
the Living, how much more would it delight them to see the Bodies of
their dead Ancestors, with a long Lineage of their Family, so perfect as
to distinguish their Persons and Sex by the preserv’d Features, and this
without any offensive Smell or deform’d Aspect, as we are well assur’d
both the _Egyptians_ and the Inhabitants of _Teneriff_ us’d to do, which
is not even impossible to perform at this Day? The Ancients were so
exceedingly carefull of every particular Ceremony in Funeral-Rites, that
they made it the chief Point of their Religion to perform them, as an
indispensible Duty their Gods requir’d of them, and their Laws strictly
maintain’d; so that to neglect them was the greatest Cruelty, and to
violate them a capital Crime and Sacriledge. They added every thing to
their Sepulchres that could make them Sacred, Honourable and Respected,
or which could transmit their Names to Posterity, their Fame to
Eternity, and their Ashes to Perpetual Repose.

[Sidenote: How adorn’d and with what _Inscriptions_.]

Besides, they were wont to carve thereon the Arms, Trophies, Coat-Armour
and Effigies of the Deceas’d, subjoining moreover such _Elogiums_ and
Inscriptions as best express’d their Family, Virtues, Studies,
Emploiments, Works or noble Actions; their Condition of Life, Age, Time
and Cause of Death, and in a Word, whatever else was Remarkable in them
and worthy Commemoration. [Sidenote: How call’d.] These Structures for
the Dead were call’d after several Names, from the several Uses they
were put to when erected; for some contain’d whole Bodies, others their
Ashes only, and some neither one nor the other, being only built to
transmit the Memory of the Party deceas’d to succeeding Ages, whence
they were call’d _Cenotaphs_. [Sidenote: _Cenotaphs._ _Sepulchres._]
_Sepulchres_ were so nam’d _a Sepeliendo_, which signifies _committing
to the Ground_, _laying up therein_, or _hiding_ or _covering with
Earth_, whence _burying_ came to be call’d _Sepulture_, and
_Burial-Places_ _Sepulchres_. _Scipio Gentilis_, Lib. _Origin. Sing._
says, _Monumentum quasi Munimentum dicitur, quod Causa Muniendi ejus
Loci factum est_. Monuments _were sometimes very fitly call’d_
Muniments, [Sidenote: _Muniments._] _by reason they fenc’d in and
defended the Corps from being torn out of its Grave by Savage Beasts_,
and likewise preserv’d the same from all farther Violation. They were
call’d _Tumuli_, [Sidenote: _Tombs._] _quod coacervata ibi Terra
tumeat_, because Turf or Earth was wont to be heap’d over them, which
the higher it was the more Honourable; but these being easily scratch’d
up by _Hyena’s_, Wolves, and the like voracious Animals, and because the
Ancients bury’d at first far out of Cities, in the Highways, Woods,
Hills and Mountains, thence says _Servius_ on _Æneid._ 11. _Factum est
aut Pyramides fierent, aut ingentes collocarentur Columnæ._ _They
erected either Pyramids or Columns over their Graves._ [Sidenote:
_Memories_,] They were also call’d _Memories_, _a Memoria_, and
_Monuments_, [Sidenote: _Monuments_.] _a monendo, quia monebant Mentem_,
because as St. _Austin_ says, Lib. _De Cura pro Mortuis_, we are by them
put in Mind and warn’d to consider our frail Condition, they being
external Helps to excite and stir up our inward Thoughts, to have the
remembrance of Death before our Eyes, that our deceas’d Brethren may not
be out of our Minds, tho’ they are out of our sight. Much the same
Etymology of a Monument _Varro_ gives, Lib. 5. _De Lingua Latina_, and
_Weever_ of Funeral-Monuments, _p._ 9. has collected such another out of
a Manuscript in the _Cotton_ Library, entitul’d, _The Register of_
Gray-Friars _in_ London.

[Sidenote: _Dormitories._]

The _Christians_ us’d to call Sepulchres _Dormitories_ or _Sleeping
Places_, where the Bodies of the Faithful rested in their Graves as in
their Beds, _vide_ p. 17. The _Pagans_ also gave them the like
Synonymous Names, such as _Quietorium_, _Requietorium_, _&c._ [Sidenote:
_Resting-Places._] _Scilicet ubi quiescant condita Corpora._ _Places of
Rest and Quiet for the Dead._ [Sidenote: _Seats._] They were likewise
antiently call’d _Seats_, as appears by this old Inscription, _Hanc
Sedem sibi Vivi posuerunt_, and that of _Virgil_ in his 6th _Æneid_.

                   ————_Quam Sedibus Ossa quierunt._

              How they their Bones in quiet Seats do rest!
                    See also _pag._ 24.

[Sidenote: _Houses._]

Sometimes they were call’d _Houses_, in that there is no House so much
and truly our own as our Grave, whence _Job_ rightly express’d himself,
_Chap._ 30. _ver._ 23. _I know thou wilt bring me to Death, and to the
House appointed for all Men Living_. Likewise _Chap._ 4. 9. he terms
them _Houses of Clay_, but _Isaiah_ Chap. 14. 18. describes them more
elegantly in these Words, _All the Kings of the Nations lye in Glory,
every one in his own House_. Others gave them still more pompous Titles,
such as _Domus Æterna_, _Domus Æternitatis_, _&c._ for as _Diodorus
Siculus_, Lib. 1. _Bibl. Histor._ relates, The _Egyptians_ accounted the
Houses they liv’d in but as Inns, by reason their stay was so short in
them, whereas they deem’d their Sepulchres more durable and eternal, and
this because they believ’d the Dead were always to abide and continue in
them, so that they took more Care of, and were at far greater Charge
about them than their Houses: Also that these might be the more lasting
and permanent, the Ancients spared no Cost nor Trouble, but with
prodigious Labour and Expence rais’d them out of Marble, Stone, Brass or
the like. The _Æthiopians_ made some of their Monuments of Glass, as
_Herodotus_, Lib. 3. cap. 6. relates in these Words: _Deinde Cippum ei
cavum e Vitro, quod apud illos multum est, & facile effoditur,
circumdant: In ejus medio Mortuus interlucet, ut ab Hominibus conspici
queat, &c._ _Afterwards they enclose him in a Coffin of Glass, which is
plentiful with them and easily dug: In the midst of it the dead Body so
shines, that he may be seen of all._ _Alexander ab Alexandro_, Lib. 6.
_Gen. Dier._, cap. 14. says, The _Egyptians_ had three sorts of
Sepulchres, one of great Expence, which cost a Talent of Silver, another
of 20 _Minæ_, and a third kind of smaller Cost and Value; but the
_Æthiopians_ were more famous for their Monuments, those of the richer
Sort being made of Gold, the middle kind of Silver, and the poorer ones
of Earth.

[Sidenote: _Funeral-Ceremonies_ how and when useful.]

But I fear, Sir, you’ll think I have digress’d too much from my Subject
of _Embalming_, yet what I have said, was in order to shew how far
Funeral-Rites and Ceremonies are useful and allowable, when accompany’d
with this Art, and on the contrary, how vain and ridiculous they are
when us’d without it, especially if they do but in the least exceed the
Bounds of Modesty and Frugality. What tho’ other Ceremonies be perform’d
with the greatest Splendor and Exactness, they can give no other
Satisfaction than the Decency of Burial, or performing perhaps the Will
of the Dead; for the Body will nevertheless stink, corrupt, and it may
be startle the nearest Friend to see it a while after? Then shall his
Bones not be known, nor his Ashes be distinguish’d from another Mans,
nay even from common Earth, so that the parcimonious Heir may well
reflect, how vain and needless it would have been to have bestow’d more
than a decent Expence on his Funeral. Nor does it signifie much which
way the Body be dissolv’d, in regard it comes to the same End without
_Embalming_, and that such Tombs, how splendid soever, are but in effect
_Cenotaphs_ or empty Sepulchres, except that they are full of Stench and
Rottenness: [Sidenote: _Funeral-Expences_ insignificant without
_Embalming_.] We must therefore look upon it as the most extravagant
Vanity to erect Pyramids, Obelisks, Tombs, _&c._ for preserving an empty
airy Name and meer Shadow, while we neglect to keep any Remains of that
noble Workmanship the Body, whereby to distinguish Man from Earth and
Dust. That these Practices are not commendable is plainly prov’d in St.
_Matthew_’s Gospel, _Chap._ 23. 27, 29. where our _Saviour_ describing
Hypocrites, compares them to such Tombs and Sepulchres, in these Words,
_Wo unto you Scribes and Pharisees, Hypocrites, for ye are like unto
whited Sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful without, but within are
full of dead Mens Bones and all Uncleanness_. That is, the rigid _Jews_
affected plaister’d and whited Sepulchres, in Cadaverous and corrupted
Burials, garnishing their Tombs only outwardly, when within they were
full of Stench and Rottenness: But we shall endeavour to prove, that of
all Funeral-Ceremonies, _Embalming_ is the chief and most useful,
without which, all the rest are but vain, expensive and insignificant
Customs. [Sidenote: Why the Body is to be taken Care of.] We are not
ignorant some may object why the Body should be so much taken Care of,
since by Death there is a separation made of the Soul, that more noble
Part being fled, while the baser only is left. To this we must assent,
that the Body is depriv’d much of its Dignity and Worth by such a
Separation, inasmuch as it is but an ignoble Lump in respect of the
Soul, yet are we not to neglect and despise it, but rather to esteem it
the more for the Souls sake, in that it has once been in a happy State
of conjunction with it, and that it shall again come to be reunited
therewith. The Soul, says _Sandys_, p. 105. knowing it self by Divine
Instinct to be Immortal, does in a manner desire the Body, her belov’d
Companion, may, as far as may be, enjoy the like Felicity with her,
giving by lofty Monuments, and the Duties of Funerals, all possible
Eternity with her. With this _Hen. Salmuth_, _Comment. in Panciroll._
_Pars_ 1. pag. 336. agrees, saying, _Consentaneum est Veritati &
Observantiæ, imo indubitatum est Sapientibus, quædam nobis cognata esse
Semina Immortalitatis; cujus adeo appetentes sumus, ut etiam Sepulturæ
prospiciamus, & nolimus Cadaver nostrum male haberi. Humanum Ingenium
quod Animæ nostræ vis est, cum se sciat Immortale, optat etiam ut Corpus
ipsum quoq; & Comes & Domicilium suum quoad fieri potest eadem
Fælicitate perfruatur._ _It is both agreeable to Truth and Observation,
and not to be doubted by Wise Men, that there are in us some innate
Seeds of Immortality, which we so desirously seek, as to take Care both
of our Sepulture, and that our Carcass be not ill treated. Human
Understanding, which is the Force of the Soul, knowing it self Immortal,
desires also the Body, which is its Companion and Habitation, may enjoy
as much as may be the same Felicity she her self has._ [Sidenote: The
_Soul_ concern’d at the Usage of the _Body_.] For tho’ the Body be not
sensible, yet the Soul which cannot die, mourns sadly when its Companion
is either ill treated or neglected; but on the contrary rejoyces when it
is Honour’d and taken Care of. This _Lucretius_ hints at, where he shews
how Man, who whilst living, knows what will happen after Death, as that
his Body shall corrupt or be devour’d by Birds, Beasts, _&c._ or burn’d
by Fire, commiserates himself for not having been created Immortal, and
consequently departs out of this World regretfully, see _p._ 23. This is
also farther confirm’d by _Julius Cæsar Scaliger_, Lib. 3. _Poetices_,
cap. 20. who says, Altho’ the dead Body neither perceives what Condition
it is in, nor is any longer with the Soul, yet Man when living has a
Sense of all those things his Body must undergo after his Dissolution.
Now if Death were only ceasing to be, act or breath, then were that
State most desirable, inasmuch as Man would then only rest from his
Labours, and be by this means freed from the Troubles and Afflictions of
this Life. Whereas on the contrary to be dissolv’d or to become a Prey
to ravenous Beasts, Birds and Fishes, or an Heritage to Serpents and
Worms, is ungrateful to our Thoughts, miserable to our Sight, and
unpleasant to all our Senses; such a State being not only disagreeable
to our Nature, but also dishonouring and debasing of the Noble Image of
GOD, _pag._ 9. and 10. ’Tis this occasions great sadness of Mind to Man
whilst living, and makes him die the more regretfully: It grieves him
exceedingly to think what a miserable Object of Mortality he is like to
prove after Death, how ugly and deform’d, how offensive to his Friends,
and only fit for the Conversation of such new born Insects and Reptiles
as are bred out of, and live by Stench and Corruption. What a
_Metathesis_ is this! that he who perhaps was born of Royal Blood, and
kept Company with Kings and Princes, shall now cry out with _Job_, 17.
14. _To Corruption, thou art my Father; To the Worm, thou art my Mother
and Sister_. Whereas on the contrary, he who is assur’d of being
_Embalm’d_, and having all other Funeral-Rites perform’d to him, closes
his Eyes in full satisfaction of lying undisturb’d in his Grave, as in
his Bed, and enjoying Eternal Rest. [Sidenote: Therefore the _Body_ is
to be taken Care of.] Besides, other Considerations may induce us to
take Care of the Body; for would you not think it a strange Disgrace for
a Prince to dwell in a Hutt, and his Jewels and other Riches to be laid
up in a Sink of Filthiness? Surely such as the Prince is, such ought to
be the Palace wherein he dwells, and such as are the Jewels, such ought
to be the Cabbinet that contains them. The Soul is the most precious
Thing in this World, and accordingly GOD has enclos’d it with a Cover,
the Body, the most beautifully compos’d next to it that can be; Shall we
despise therefore this Cover, because Death has separated it from the
Soul? No, let us rather esteem it the more, and take the more Care to
preserve it, inasmuch as it has once been the Casket of that noble
Jewel, and is the only Way of representing that Divine Form which GOD
Almighty was pleas’d to impress on it. We may perhaps vainly please our
selves with having the Picture of our deceas’d Friend, which
nevertheless consists but of a few Lights and Shadows, or it may be we
have his Statue, which however wants the natural Complection and Air of
his Person: ’Tis true Pictures or Statues may preserve in our Minds our
Friends Memories, and so in some measure redeem them from the Injuries
of Oblivion, yet will they still but very faintly and imperfectly
represent that Body, to which _Embalming_ gives a real Presence, and
which may at any Time be essay’d by our Senses. _Aristotle_ adds
farther, _Corpore in Putredinem abeunte, nec Anima amare, nec reminisci
potest_. _That the Soul neither remembers nor loves the Body when
Putrify’d_; which is agreeable to the Opinion of the _Egyptians_,
[Sidenote: The _Egyptians_ Belief of a dead Body.] who pleasantly
conceited, that the Soul only left the Body when it was Corrupt and
Putrify’d, as abhorring so loathsome an Habitation; whereas on the
contrary, it never forsook it when it was preserv’d uncorrupt and
entire. For this reason they, with extraordinary Art and Care,
_Embalm’d_ their Dead, that so the Body by the Cleanliness of its
Mansion, by its being deliciously perfum’d and dighted with all the
Aromatic and Odoriferous Spices and Gums of _Arabia_, and in a word, by
its being dress’d in fine Linnen, might court and incline its best
Companion, the Soul, to cohabit with it (_Prov._ 7. 16, 17.) Methinks so
good an Example from Heathens might excite us to take more Care of our
inanimate Part. We are apt enough to respect the Outsides of other
Things, and set a Value on their Insides accordingly; Why therefore
should we not with our utmost Care support our earthly Tabernacle from
the fatal Ruins of Death, that it may thereby continue in one State,
like the _Israelites_ Cloaths, without Wearing or Corrupting, and be
Tenantable at any Time, whenever the Soul shall return to inhabit it
again? Now as we are all desirous of Immortality, so ought we likewise
to be of Eternity.

The desire of Living is as natural as the necessity of Dying inevitable,
and some have spared no means to render themselves Immortal, if Human
Nature could possibly have arriv’d at that State, but finding Death
inexorable and irresistable, they alter’d their Measures by inventing a
thousand ways to perpetuate their Memories after their Dissolution; as
by erecting Pyramids, Obelisks and Monuments of surprizing Magnificence,
on which they engrav’d Inscriptions capable as they thought to resist
Time, and to endure to Eternity. Yet of all Methods us’d to preserve and
perpetuate the Memories of the Dead, [Sidenote: _Embalming_ the best way
of preserving the _Memory_ of the _Dead_.] it may justly be said of
_Embalming_, that that Art has ever been most approv’d by the Polite
Nations, as being undeniably the most considerable and efficacious Means
to answer their Intention. For the utmost Care in erecting Monuments,
_&c._ yields but an obscure and imperfect Idea of the Person deceas’d,
whereas by _Embalming_, that very Person is known to be preserv’d:
Besides, if I may use the Words of Sir _Thomas Brown_ in his
_Hydriotaphia_, _Who knows the Fate of his Bones, or how often he is to
be bury’d? Who has the Oracle of his Ashes, or where they are to be
scatter’d?_ To be dug out of our Graves, have our Skulls made
Drinking-Cups, and our Bones turn’d into Pipes or Dice to delight and
sport our Enemies, shew Juglers Tricks, or divert Gamesters: To have
Drums made of our Skins, to please Children or terrifie in Battel, _&c._
These are tragical Abominations to dying Persons, the Consideration
whereof methinks should occasion us to take more care of our Interment.
Now _Embalming_ prevents all these Things, not the common sort, for that
is equally terrible to some People, but such as is perform’d without
cutting, slashing or Embowelling, which I shall hereafter shew. There
are some indeed who object against all kinds of _Embalming_, and this
because they think them contrary to Scripture and the Fate pronounc’d to
Man, [Sidenote: _Embalming_ not contrary to the _Scriptures_.] _Gen._ 3.
19. but this and all other such like Scruples we shall fully clear, by
examining what Man is, that GOD should be so mindful of him (_Psalm_ 8.
4.) and that notwithstanding his Transgression, he should so love him,
as to be careful of preserving him both in Life and Death.

[Sidenote: _Man’s Elogium._]

Man the Master-Piece of the Omniscient Architect, is but little
inferiour to the Angels themselves, being made after GOD’s own Image;
for his Use all other Creatures were made and put in Subjection to him:
He alone was endu’d with a Rational and Immortal Soul, a beautiful
Symmetry of Body, an Angelic Form, and a Countenance erect to Admire and
Worship his Creator. The inquisitive Anatomist can never sufficiently
investigate the noble Contrivance of his Organs; the profoundest
Naturalist give Reasons for, or the most exquisite Mathematician pretend
to imitate so Divine a Mechanism. Here’s a Subject of Contemplation for
a Divine, or of a Psalm for the Royal Prophet, to shew how wonderfully
Man is form’d and crown’d with Glory and Honour, to live for ever and
not see Corruption: [Sidenote: His _Transgression_] But alass! of how
short duration was this happy State? He was no sooner plac’d in
Paradise, than, being puff’d up with Pride, he grew disobedient and
transgress’d; so that his Happiness was immediately chang’d into a
Curse, _That all his Days should be but Trouble and Sorrow, and he at
length return to the Dust from whence he was taken_. Thus the latter
part of _Adam_’s Curse was, that he should die and moulder away,
whereas, had he not transgress’d, his Body had probably never been
destroy’d, but translated. He would not then have undergon either Death
or Corruption, nor would his Body have suffer’d so long a Separation
from his Soul; for in that State the Body was no less pure than the
Soul, it was every way to be admir’d, honour’d and esteem’d. It was, in
a word, nam’d _The Temple of GOD_, but thro’ Sin Man was curst with
Sickness and Infirmities whilst alive, and lastly, with Death, the
shamefullest Reproach, thereby to suffer the Corruption of the Grave,
and be Food to the vilest Reptiles of the Earth. Now as the Body was
once pure as well as the Soul, so is the Soul by Sin contaminated and
defil’d as well as the Body, both being made liable to Corrupt and
Putrifie thro’ the Curse of Death, and to be like the Beasts of the
Field which perish Eternally.

[Sidenote: And _Redemption_.]

But GOD, out of his infinite Love and Mercy to Mankind, sent his blessed
Son as a Redeemer, to make Atonement for Man’s Original Sin, whereby the
Curse of his Transgression was wip’d away, and Victory over Death and
the Grave obtain’d. Again, As GOD has appointed as a Blessing,
Physicians for curing Diseases, that Man might enjoy a tolerable state
of Health, till remov’d from this Life, so has he in Death likewise
given them a Knowledge to preserve them Incorruptible, which is the
promis’d Blessing, 1 _Cor._ 15. that tho’ our Flesh be Corruptible, yet
shall it put on Incorruption (by _Embalming_) and tho’ we are Mortal and
die, yet shall we become Immortal, and so both Death and Sin be
conquer’d by Life Eternal. Now this may as well be understood in a
Literal Sense, agreeable to our Subject, as in a Spiritual one;
[Sidenote: _Embalm’d Bodies_ Sleep ’till the _Resurrection_.] for Bodies
Embalm’d as aforesaid, seem not to be dead, but only asleep, waiting for
the Resurrection. For this Reason the _Hebrews_ call’d their
Burying-Places _Houses of the Living_, and the _Christians_ nam’d theirs
_Dormitories_ or _Sleeping-Places_, p. 17. where Bodies rest in their
Tombs as in their Beds. _Non Mortua, sed data Somno_, says _Prudentius_.
_Their Bodies are not dead, but asleep_; for Death to _Christians_ is
but Sleeping, and Sleeping Rest, out of which they hope and expect to be
awak’d at the joyful Day of Resurrection, well knowing it is no more
difficult with GOD to raise them from Death than Sleep; so that to them
Death is but as it were a mute _Interludium_ to the Resurrection, a
Cessation of Labour and Action, and differs from Life only in Motion and
Speech: [Sidenote: _Death_ compar’d to _Sleep_.] For this Reason Death
is rightly compar’d to Sleep, as being a Refreshment during the Night of
this World, till the Morning of the next. Thus _Jesus_ told the
By-Standers, _Matth._ 9. 24. _The Maid is not dead, but sleepeth_. _And
that Lazarus_ (who was _Embalm’d_ and restor’d to Life again) _slept_,
John 11. 11. which the better to explain he afterwards told them he was
dead, _ver._ 14. It is also written of the Martyr St. _Stephen_ that he
fell asleep, _Acts_ 7. 60. See also _Dan._ 12. 2. and 1 _Thess._ 4. 13.
and this way of speaking was more especially us’d in the Old Testament,
as I have already observ’d, _p._ 36. _Prudentius_’s Hymn _Ad Galli
Cantum_, p. 30. and that _Ante Somnum_, p. 46. excellently well compare
Death to Sleep, Sleep to Death, and Waking to the Resurrection. _Sleep_,
says Sir _Thomas Brown_ in his _Religio Medici_, p. 43. _is so like
Death, that I dare not trust it without my Prayers, and an half Adieu to
the World, taking my Farewel in this Colloquy with GOD_:

                 The Night is come, like to the Day,
                 Depart not Thou, Great GOD, away;
                 Let not my Sins, black as the Night,
                 Eclipse the Lustre of thy Light;
                 Keep still my Horizon, for to me
                 The Sun makes not the Day but Thee.
                 Thou, whose Nature cannot sleep,
                 On my Temples Centry keep;
                 Guard me ’gainst those watchful Foes,
                 Whose Eyes are open while mine close.
                 Let no Dreams my Head infest,
                 But such as _Jacob_’s Temples blest:
                 While I rest my Soul advance,
                 Make my Sleep a Holy Trance,
                 That I may, my Rest being wrought,
                 Awake into some Pious Thought,
                 And with as active Vigour run
                 My Course, as does the nimble Sun.
                 Sleep is Death, O make me try,
                 By sleeping, what it is to die;
                 And as gently lay my Head
                 In my Grave as on my Bed.
                 Howe’er I rest, Great GOD, let me
                 Awake again at last to Thee.
                 And thus assur’d behold I lye
                 Securely, or to wake or die.
                 These are my drowsie Days, in vain
                 I now do wake to sleep again:
                 O come that Hour when I shall never
                 Sleep no more, but wake for ever.

_This is the Dormitive I take to Bedward_, says my Author, _I need no
better Hypnotic to make me sleep; after which I close mine Eyes in
Security, content to take my leave of the Sun, and to sleep ’till the

Now what this Learn’d Author says of _Sleep_, the same may be said of
_Embalming_; for this Art prevents the Corruption of the Grave, so that
the Body will remain entire, and as it were asleep in its Bed, ’till
awak’d by the last Trumpet to a joyful Resurrection, _where in its Flesh
it shall see GOD_, Job 19. 26. and become Spiritual and Immortal. Hereby
Death has no more Power over us than a long Sleep, which refreshes us
from our Labours, and makes us arise in that Everlasting Morning
unweary’d and undefil’d to enjoy a perfect State of Bliss for ever.
Besides, this Benefit accrues from seeing Bodies thus preserv’d, that
Men are thereby put in mind of that most desirable and delectable
Mystery of the Resurrection. [Sidenote: _Embalming_ an Emblem of the
_Resurrection_.] _So we also that employ our Time and Labour in_
Embalming, says _Gabriel Clauder in Methodo Balsamandi_, p. 11. _have
before our Eyes, as it were in a Looking-Glass, a Præludium and Argument
of the Resurrection, a Symbol of our Future Integrity, and Testimony of
our Faith of the hoped for Incorruptibility and Everlasting Eternity_.
The _Pagans_ themselves were not without some Hopes of this nature, as
appears from the extraordinary Care they bestow’d on their Sepulchres
and _Embalmings_. Very remarkable is the civiliz’d Sepulture of the
antient Inhabitants of _Teneriffe_, who Embalm’d their Dead with
singular Art, and afterwards plac’d them in deep Caves in several
Postures, such as standing, lying, sitting, _&c._ These Burying-Places
they look on only as Dormitories, and rarely admit any one without leave
to go into them, seeming as tho’ they would not have them disturb’d.

The Inhabitants of a Country call’d _Zeilan_, as _Aria Montanus_
relates, do not bury their Dead, but _Embalm_ them with various
Aromatics, which done, they dress them in fine Cloaths, and afterwards
set them on Benches, according to their distinct Families and Quality,
whereby they appear as if alive, and any one may there know his Father,
Grandfather, Great Grandfather, or any other of his Predecessors or
Family to a long extent of Time. Much the same is reported of some of
the _Chineses_, _Laplanders_, _West-Indians_, _Egyptians_ and others, of
whom we shall give a full account in their proper Places. Now if the
_Heathens_, who either did not believe, or would not own the
Resurrection of the Flesh, were so careful in _Embalming_ their Dead,
much less are we to neglect it, who wait the Resurrection of our frail
Bodies, and expect when they shall become Incorruptible, Spiritual and
Immortal, eternally enjoying the most perfect state of Bliss and
Happiness: Besides, we _Christians_ ought to esteem _Embalming_ a pious
Work, [Sidenote: Acceptable to GOD.] acceptable to GOD, because it frees
us from that Corruption which he so much detests, and has so often
pronounc’d and threatn’d as his severest Judgment, _p._ 38, 39. GOD
Almighty has many Times permitted Mankind as well as Brutes and
Vegetables, so to petrifie without any Human Help or Assistance, as to
remain for ever free from Putrefaction or Corruption, and sometimes has
effected the same preservation of the Bodies of the Faithful, without
any manifest alteration, but only a little attenuation or dryness, and
that without any ill Savour. Thus the Bodies of several Martyrs and Holy
Men have been found in most Ages, especially those in the _Kiovian
Cryptæ_ or Vaults, which _Herbinius_ describes, and looks on as an
Instance of GOD’s Love, and Reward of their Piety and Virtues; Why
therefore should we think _Embalming_, or the artificial Preserving of
Bodies, either displeasing to GOD or unbecoming a _Christian_, since we
have so many Instances and Examples to the contrary? The Scriptures
testifie that GOD’s antient People the _Hebrews_ _embalm’d_ their Dead,
and that the Patriarchs _Jacob_ and _Joseph_ were both _embalm’d_; so
also _Joseph_ of _Arimathæa_ and _Nicodemus_, following the Footsteps of
their Ancestors, honour’d the Body of our _Saviour_ with _Embalming_.
This GOD Almighty was pleas’d to permit, because, as _David_ says, _He
would not suffer his Holy One to see Corruption_, Psal. 16. 10. Now as
Christ was bury’d to shew he was really dead, so was he _embalm’d_ in
order to his Resurrection; and as his Holy Body was no ways defil’d with
Original Sin, so also thro’ the special Privilege bestow’d on it by GOD,
was it exempt from the Laws of Corruption. Now this is moreover
remarkable, that before our _Saviour_ was born for the Redemption of
Mankind, lost by _Adam_’s Transgression, GOD shew’d a more than ordinary
Instance of his Love to Man, by the preservation of Holy _Enoch_ and
_Elijah_, both who, had they been bury’d, [Sidenote: _Enoch_ and
_Elijah_ neither dy’d nor corrupted.] must of consequence corrupted
under that Curse, _Gen._ 3. 19. wherefore that they might not undergo
those Alterations there threatn’d, _viz._ Death and Corruption, GOD
Almighty translated them: These two with our _Saviour_ are the only
Instances of a visible Ascention, and who suffer’d no Corruption.

[Sidenote: _Embalming_ approv’d by our _Saviour_.]

To these Reasons we may add what Christ himself witnesses, that he was
so far from being displeas’d at the _Embalming_ his Body, that he chid
those about him, when they were angry at the Womans pouring such
precious Nard Ointment on his Head, which, as they alledg’d, might have
better been sold for more than Three Hundred Pence (about 10 _l._ of our
Mony) and given to the Poor, _Mark_ 14. 6, 8, 9. _Jesus said, let her
alone, why trouble ye her? She hath wrought a good Work on me, she is
come aforehand to anoint my Body to the Burial. Verily I say unto you,
wheresoever this Gospel shall be preach’d throughout the whole World,
this also that she hath done shall be spoken of, for a Memorial of her._
In a word, this _Art_ of _Embalming_ is sufficiently warranted both by
the Old and New Testament, and equally celebrated by _Jewish_,
_Christian_ and _Heathen_ Writers.

Having now done with my Theological Arguments, I shall next proceed to
vindicate the _Art_ of _Embalming_ by some Physical and Political
Reasons. _First_ then, [Sidenote: _Embalming_, in a general Sense, very
Extensive.] If we take this Art in a general Sense of preserving the
Memory of Man, as well as his Body, we shall find it very Extensive and
Infinite, since both the Industry and Ingenuity of the Ancients have not
only sought after the surest Means of effecting this, but likewise
invented and contriv’d whatever else might preserve the Body, transmit
its Name to Posterity, and Fame to Eternity. Some have for this end
erected Pyramids, Obelisks, Columns, Temples, Statues and a thousand
other Things, whereby they imagin’d they might secure their Names from
Oblivion; whereas others thought Poems, Epigrams, Epitaphs and such like
Writings were the best and securest Monuments. [Sidenote: _Writings_
thought the best _Monuments_.] Of this Opinion was _Horace_, who, at the
end of his Third Book, thus boasts of his Works:

                _Exegi Monumentum Ære perennius,
                Regaliq; situ Pyramidum altius:
                Quod non Imber edax, non Aquilo impotens
                Possit diruere, aut innumerabilis
                Annorum series, & Fuga Temporum.
                Non omnis moriar, multaq; Pars mei
                Vitabit Libitinam._——

      A Monument, more lasting far than Brass,
      I’ve rais’d, which Pyramids shan’t in height surpass:
      Nor fretting Showers, nor blustring Winds deface,
      Nor flights of Years and Hours, tho’ numberless, shall raze.
      I shall not die whilst thus my better Part
      Avoids the Grave.——

In like manner _Ovid_ gives an endless date to himself, and his
_Metamorphosis_ in these Words:

           _Jamq; Opus exegi: quod nec Jovis Ira, nec Ignis,
           Nec poterit Ferrum, nec edax abolere Vetustas.
           Cum volet illa Dies, quæ nil nisi Corporis hujus
           Jus habet, incerti Spatium mihi finiat Ævi:
           Parte tamen meliore mei super alta perennis
           Astra ferar; Nomenq; erit indelibile nostrum.
           Quaq; patet domitis Romana Potentia Terris,
           Ore legar Populi; perq; omnia secula Fama
           (Si quid habent veri Vatum Præsagia) vivam._

           And now the Work is finish’d, which _Jove_’s Rage,
           Nor Fire, nor Sword shall hurt, nor eating Age.
           Come when it will my Death’s uncertain Hour,
           Which only o’er my Body can have Power;
           My better Part shall far transcend the Skie,
           And my Immortal Name shall never die:
           For wheresoe’er the _Roman_ Eagles spread
           Their conquering Wings, I shall of all be read;
           And if we Prophets truly can Divine,
           I, in my deathless Fame, shall ever shine.

Both these Poetical Flourishes may be esteem’d a kind of _Embalming_
their Authors Actions and Names; for as the aforesaid historical
Structures preserve and record our Actions, so are our Thoughts and
Sayings _embalm’d_ as it were by Writings. [Sidenote: _Fame_ the
_Goddess_ of _Embalming_.] In this respect _Fame_ may not improperly be
call’d the _Goddess_ and _Patroness_ of _Embalming_, and _Mercury_ her
chief Minister to proclaim to the World the Heroic Acts of Memorable and
Famous Men: Thus all Things intended to preserve a Name, whether
Pictures, Statues, Medals, Buildings or Writings, may be comprehended
under this general Sense of _Embalming_; nevertheless, experience
teaches us the preservation of a Body by the _Balsamic Art_ is not only
the best way of reviving Mens Memories, and bringing their Merits fresh
in our Minds, but also the most durable, [Sidenote: _Embalming_ the most
durable Thing.] for not only Tombs and Statues have decay’d in a few
Years, but also whole Towns and Cities have been ruin’d and demolish’d
within the Revolution of an Age, and that so, as hardly to have one
Stone left to witness what they have been; whereas _Embalm’d_ Bodies
have been found entire after Thousands of Years. Neither is _Embalming_
to be commended only for its Duration, [Sidenote: Useful in _Philosophy_
and _Physic_.] but likewise for its great Use in _Phisiology_, _Natural
Philosophy_ and _Physic_, as we have hinted before, _p._ 2, 3, 4. In
that we thereby know how to conserve all sorts of Herbs, Juices, _&c._
keep all kinds of Flesh and Fish, and preserve all sorts of Plants, rare
Exotics, and such like Curiosities.

[Sidenote: In _Anatomy_.]

_Embalming_ is likewise particularly useful in _Anatomy_, inasmuch as it
teaches how Bodies may be preserv’d, that the most minute Parts may be
Dissected, and such Preparations made as will remain to Posterity, and
serve instead of Books, Sculptures or Pictures, by which the Disposition
of the Human Fabric may be more accurately distinguish’d, and the Names
and Uses of the Parts easier retain’d in our Memories.

[Sidenote: In _Surgery_.]

It is also particularly useful to _Physicians_ and _Surgeons_, _First_,
In that by opening such Bodies, they may presently see the Nature and
Cause of Diseases. And, _Secondly_, by understanding what _Fermentation_
and _Putrefaction_ are, together with the Virtues and Qualities of
_Embalming_-Drugs that prevent and resist them, they may be better able
to cure malignant Feavers, Mortifications, _&c._ See _p._ 3, 4. for no
sooner is there a Separation of the Soul from the Body, but an immediate
tendency to Putrefaction follows: The florid colour of the Face
vanishes, the Belly swells, the Entrails turn green and fœtid, and the
extreme Parts become shrivel’d and contracted; when we may well cry out,
_Quantum mutatus ab illo!_ So suddain an Alteration ensues without a
previous _Balsamation_. What obdurate Hearts and pitiless Eyes can then
bear such a miserable Object, when _Embalming_ so easily prevents it, by
rendring the Body sweet and decorous, retaining still its natural Form,
Feature and Shape? Again, if we consider the natural and innate Desire
most People have of being bury’d in their own Tombs and Countries,
[Sidenote: Necessary for _Transporting Bodies_.] we shall find there is
a necessity of _Embalming_ such Bodies, the better to convey those that
die in Foreign Parts to their Native Soil. Thus _Jacob_ and _Joseph_
were transported from _Egypt_ to _Canaan_, whereas, had their Bodies not
been _embalm’d_, they must necessarily have corrupted in their Journey;
but as for the _Greeks_ and _Romans_, who were not well acquainted with
this Art, they were forc’d to burn such Bodies as dy’d abroad, and were
contented only to bring home their Ashes, which _Ovid_ seems so very
desirous of in the following Verses:

              _Ossa tamen facito parva referantur in Urna,
              Sic Ego non etiam Mortuus, Exul ero._

               Let but my Country have my Funeral-Urn,
               And after Death, tho’ exil’d, I’ll return.

Now certainly they would have thought it much better to have brought
over the whole Body than part of it, had they been but skillful enough
to have _embalm’d_ it; for there is no other difference between
Incineration and Putrefaction, than length of Time, therefore both are
equally to be avoided. Nay, some of the _Heathens_ themselves have
judg’d it an Impiety towards the Dead, either to commit them to the
Fire, or to Worms and Corruption, therefore they endeavour’d, as much as
in them lay, to _Embalm_ and Preserve them thereby from both. Now
nothing is more evident, than that those who intend to preserve a Body
entire, ought neither to burn nor bury it, but keep it in a proper
Repository, contriv’d to resist the Injuries of Time and Weather, and
which is neither expos’d nor obnoxious to Putrefaction.

To Conclude, _Embalming_ not only prevents the Plague and Putrefaction,
and consequently frees from the Terror and Deformity of Death, _page_ 9,
11, 12. [Sidenote: Secures from the Insults of Animals, _&c._] but
likewise defends and secures dead Bodies from Insults of Brutes and
Insects, by reason of its bitter ungrateful Taste: Yet considering the
antient Way of the _Egyptians_ by rowling, and the modern by wrapping up
in Cerecloaths, so obscure the Object, and also are so imperfect on
several other Accounts; I have endeavour’d to shew a possibility of
inventing a Method, how to preserve the whole _Compages_ of the Body for
ever without Putrefaction, in such manner, that its Texture and
Structure may remain entire, of the same Proportion as before, and of
the same Colour and Flexibility, without any visible contraction,
diminution or unconformity of the Parts whereby the dead Corps may be
handled by the _Anatomists_ without any offensive Smell or fastidious
_Mador_. St. _Jerome_, in _Epitaph. Paul. Eustoch._ speaks thus of
_Paulina_ a _Roman_ Lady, _Quodq; mirum sit nihil Pallor mutaverit
Faciem, sed ita Dignitas quædam omnia compleverat, ut putares non
mortuam sed dormientem_. _And what is wonderful, Paleness had not in the
least alter’d her Countenance, but Majesty was so preserv’d_ (_by_
Embalming) _in every Feature, that you would not have thought her dead
but asleep_. Thus to preserve any heroic Prince or great General, any
noted Professor of some Science or Faculty, _&c._ would sure be a finer
sight than their _Effigies_ in Wax, and withal be as durable as their
Tomb in Marble. I say, if we can arrive at this Perfection, without
Exenteration or Incision, so as to preserve a dead Body after the manner
aforesaid, it were reasonable to believe it would not only less terrifie
all scrupulous Persons, but likewise be of greater Use to the Common
Wealth. Yet least I should fail herein, it being an unbeaten Path, I
presume thro’ your Conduct and Guidance, that whilst I am endeavouring
to find it out, you will neither suffer me to lose my self, nor lead
others out of the Way. This is my only fear (well knowing too many
Examples of those that in making new Discoveries have Shipwreck’d
themselves) and the principal Request of,


                                           _Your most Obedient_

                                                   _Humble Servant_,

                                                       Thomas Greenhill.


  Who has been pleas’d to encourage this Work,
  This MAP OF EGYPT &c, _is dutyfully inscrib’d by his_ Graces _most
    obliged_ Surgeon _and humble servant_
  Tho. Greenhill.


                           Art of Embalming.

                               LETTER II.

  _To Dr._ John Lawson, _sometime President of the College of
    Phisicians_, London.


As your Knowledge in the _Coptic_ or antient _Egyptian_ Language, in the
_Arabic_ and _Oriental_ Tongues, as likewise your extraordinary Skill
both in _Phisic_ and _Philology_, best testifie you to be the fittest
Judge of an Art of such Antiquity as _Embalming_; so your favourable
Approbation of my Notions herein, has encourag’d me to endeavour finding
out the true Progress and exact Method of practising that Art. In order
hereunto I first think it not amiss to give a short Geographical
Description of the Kingdom of _Egypt_, as also to take notice of the
Salubrity of its _Air_ and _Water_, [Sidenote: What to be consider’d as
relating to _Embalming_.] Fertility of its _Soil_, and Sagacity of its
_Inhabitants_, together with several necessary Remarks on their
_Religion_, _Customs_, _Arts_, _Diseases_ and _Phisic_, nay, whatever
else may tend to the right Understanding of this Noble but lost Art.

Tho’ _Embalming_ be the chiefly intended Scope of this Letter, yet
considering the _Egyptians_ have been always allow’d the first Inventors
of Arts and Sciences, and that this particular manner of _Embalming_ was
at first us’d by them only, it may be requisite to consider every
particular circumstance of Time and Place, the several Drugs, Plants,
Minerals and other Advantages which accru’d to them beyond other
Nations, and likewise to inquire into the Reasons which induc’d them to
study this Art, as also by what means and after what manner they came to
find it out.

This indeed may seem to some a Digression from our Subject, yet the
Consequence of it will not prove a little advantageous to the Reader,
besides, like the Interlude of a Tragedy, may somewhat divert the
Melancholiness of our _Discourse about the Dead_. But before I proceed
to particulars, I shall speak somewhat of _Egypt_ in general, [Sidenote:
_Egypt_, how scituate and bounded.] which the antient Geographers plac’d
partly in _Africa_ and partly in _Asia_, making the River _Nile_ the
Boundary between those two great parts of the World; but _Egypt_,
according to the most common receiv’d Opinion, is at present held to be
all scituate in _Africa_, and bounded on the _East_ by _Idumæa_, and the
_Arabian Gulph_ or _Red Sea_, on the _West_ by the Desarts of _Barca_,
_Lybia_ and _Numidia_, on the _North_ by the _Egyptian Sea_, being part
of the _Mediterranean_, and on the _South_ by _Nubia_, the last City of
_Egypt_, that way being _Assuan_. [Sidenote: Its Denomination.] This
Country, says _Heylin_ in his Cosmography, _p._ 841. has had several
Names given it by prophane Authors, as, _First_, _Aeria_, from the
Serenity of its Air, which is seldom Cloudy. _Secondly_, _Potamia_, from
the propinquity of the Sea, which washes two sides of it. _Thirdly_,
_Ogygia_, from _Ogyges_, a suppos’d King thereof. _Fourthly_,
_Melampodus_, from the black colour of its Soil. _Fifthly_, _Osiria_,
from the God _Osiris_, here in high esteem. _Sixthly_, and lastly, it
was call’d _Ægyptus_, which in the end prevail’d over all the rest,
either from _Ægyptus_ Brother of _Danaus_, once King hereof (in the
Stories of this Nation better known by the Name of _Rameses_) or else
from _Ægyptus_, the old Name of the River _Nile_, whose annual
overflowings bringing Soil and Rubbish from the higher Countries, gave
occasion to some to believe it rais’d into firm Land, and gain’d out of
the Sea, who therefore call’d it _Nili Donum_, the Gift of _Nile_; yet
some there are who would have it call’d _Ægyptus_, from _Aiguphtus_,
deriv’d from _Aicoptus_, which signifies the Land or Country of
_Coptus_, that being suppos’d to have been antiently its chief City,
built by _Coptus_, whose Genealogy and Descent is thus describ’d by
Father _Vansleb_ in his Relation of _Egypt_, p. 3. Cham, says he, _one
of the three Sons of_ Noah, _had four Male Children_, Cus, Misraim, Fut
_and_ Canaan; Cus _was Father of the_ Abyssins, Misraim _of the_ Copties
_and_ Nubians, Fut _of the_ Africans, _and_ Canaan _of the_ Syrians _and
their Neighbours_. Misraim _after the Deluge, as_ Macrizi _an Arabian
Historian says, pitch’d upon_ Egypt, _made there his Abode, and left
that and the Country, as far as the farthest Part of_ Africa, _to his
Posterity: He had likewise four Sons_, Ischemun, Atrib, Sà _and_ Coptus,
_among whom he equally divided the Land of_ Egypt. Coptus _had all that
Tract of Land from_ Assuan _or_ Isvan _to the City of_ Coptus; Ischemun
_all the Country from that City to_ Menuf _or_ Memphis, Atrib _had the
heart and middle of_ Egypt; _now call’d_ Delta; _and_ Sà _all the
Continent, from the Province of_ Beheire _as far as_ Barbary: _They all
built Cities in their several Dominions, calling them after their own
Names. After the decease of their Father, the four Brothers were at
variance about the Soveraignty, neither of them caring to endure a
Partner; at length they resolv’d to end their Controversy by Battel,
which was to give the chief Command to the Victor._ [Sidenote: Govern’d
by _Coptus_.] Coptus _the youngest overcame the rest, and was
consequently acknowledg’d chief Lord by all. He chose the City of_ Menuf
_or_ Memphis, _where his Father liv’d, for his Residence: From this
first King all the Race of the_ Egyptians _have been since call’d_
Copties: _From him likewise the_ Greeks _gave the Name of_ Αἰγύπτος _to
the Land of_ Egypt, _by changing_ K. _into_ G. _which was allowable not
only in that Language, but also in the_ Arabian. _The_ Moors _and_
Copties, _natural Inhabitants of_ Egypt, _now call it_ Massr, _from_
Misraim, _eldest Son of_ Cham, _and Gran-Child of_ Noah, _who first laid
the Foundation of that Kingdom after the Deluge: From this_ Misraim
_the_ Turks _have also nam’d_ Egypt Missir, _which is very near the
Hebrew_ Misraim; _and the_ Jews _to this Day call it_ Eretz Misraim,
_the Country of_ Misraim. This may suffice as to its Denominations and

[Sidenote: Its _Extent_.]

_Nubiensis Geographia_ makes it to extend in length from _Assuan_ to the
_Mediterranean_, 25 Days Journey, which is about 655 English Miles, and
in breadth 8 Days Journey or 200 Miles; but _Sandys_ and _Vansleb_ agree
’tis from _North_ to _South_ only 560 Miles, the latter alledging it
scarce possible to declare its length precisely, by reason they are not
wont in that Country to measure by Miles or Leagues, but by Camels
Journeys only. As to its breadth, _Leo Africanus_ says, _p._ 296, it is
from _East_ to _West_ 50 Miles, being narrow towards the _South_, but
broader to the _North_ towards the _Mediterranean_. _Sandys_ likewise,
_p._ 72. says, That by reason of its being so contracted among barren
Mountains, it is in many Places hardly 4, in few above 8 Miles broad,
till not far above _Cairo_ it begins by degrees to enlarge it self, and
so continues even to the Sea, being between _Rosetta_ and _Damiata_,
which stand on the _West_ and _East_-Confines of that which is
overflow’d by the natural Course of the River, 140 Miles, and from
_Rosetta_ to _Alexandria_ 30.

[Sidenote: Antient and modern _Division_.]

Concerning the Division of this Country, the Ancients have taken
occasion to divide it first into high and low, and then into high,
middle and low; the higher they call’d _Thebais_, from a Place call’d
_Thebes_, at present _Saida_; the middle they nam’d _Septanomos_, from
the seven _Nomi_, Provostships or Governments it contain’d, at present
_Bechira_ or _Demesor_; the lower and more particular _Egypt_ they
call’d _Delta_, from its likeness to the Figure of the _Greek_ Letter Δ.
_Egypt_, according to _Sandys_, p. 85. is now divided into three Parts
or Provinces; that which lies _South_ of _Cairo_ is call’d _Sahid_, that
between _Cairo_, _Rosetta_ and _Alexandria_, _Errif_, that between
_Cairo_, _Damiata_ and _Tenese_, _Maremnia_, _Bechiria_: The _Pharaohs_
and _Egyptian_ Nobility resided in _Saida_, the _Ptolomies_ in _Errif_,
and the _Romans_ and _Greeks_ along the Sea-Coasts.

[Sidenote: The River _Nile_.]

I must now proceed to speak of the River _Nile_, which crossing great
part of _Æthiopia_, and then entring _Egypt_, runs the whole length of
that Kingdom, and after dividing and spreading it self into many
Branches, ends in the _Mediterranean Sea_. This River was thought by the
Ancients not to have its equal, and is still reputed one of the most
considerable of the World, having somewhat wonderful and peculiar to it
self, whether one considers its _Source_ or _Effects_. To this River
_Egypt_ ows its Fertility, and its Inhabitants the greatest of
Felicities, their Health and Fortunes, yet neither could their rich
Princes or wise Priests ever discover its _Source_ or _Origin_. ’Tis
this has baffl’d the greatest Philosophers, and withstood the Attempts
of all their Kings, _Roman_ Emperors, Sultans and other Potentates, who,
notwithstanding they endeavour’d it with vast Expenses, always prov’d
unsuccessful: Thus _Sesostris_, _Ptolemy_ and _Cyrus_ sought for it in
vain; _Alexander_ the Great consulted the Oracle of _Jupiter Ammon_ in
order to find it out, and _Cambyses_, as _Strabo_ witnesses, spent a
whole Year to the same purpose, yet both were disappointed: _Julius
Cæsar_ also, if we may believe _Lucan_, said, He would have given over
his pursuit of the Civil War, could he but have been sure to find out
this Secret, yet has its Spring-Head remain’d undiscover’d till of late
Years, when it was happily pitch’d upon by the _Portugueses_, which
makes me of the Opinion of _Le Bruyn_, That no Persons are more capable
of making these Searches and Discoveries than the _Roman Missionaries_;
for on one hand they make it their Duty and perpetual Employment to go
about everywhere gaining Proselites, and subjecting them to the See of
_Rome_, and on the other, under pretence of Devotion, and by virtue of
their poor and simple Habit, may easily penetrate the most remote
Countries, inaccessible to other Travellers by reason of the Dangers
that are to be met with. Now ’tis certain almost all those Missionaries,
especially the _Jesuites_, are most capable of making these Searches, by
reason of their insinuating and cunning Ways, so that making it their
Business, as they commonly do, they must be most likely to succeed
therein; ’tis therefore to their Care and Pains we are indebted for two
considerable Discoveries, of the Source and Rise of this River; the
first made by _Peter Pais_, and the second by Father _Telles_ a Jesuit,
which last being the shorter Account, yet no less Correct, I shall here
insert it as he has given it us in his History of _Æthiopia_, printed at

[Sidenote: The Rise and Course of the River _Nile_.]

_In the Kingdom of_ Gojam, _about_ 12 _Degrees from the Equinoctial
towards the_ West, _and in the Province of_ Sacahala, _inhabited by the_
Agaus, _in a Field of no great extent, incompass’d by many high
Mountains, is a small Lake, over which one may cast a Stone, full of
Bushes and low Trees, whereof the Roots are so thick and intangl’d, that
in Summer one may pass over them dry shod. In the middle of this Lake
are two great and deep Fountains very near each other, whence issues out
a clear Water that runs under these Bushes and Shrubs, in two several
Channels. Towards the_ East, _and about the distance of a Musket-Shot,
they turn to the_ North. _About half a Mile from thence there appears a
great deal of Water, and a considerable River, into which run many other
Streams. About 15 Miles farther it receives another larger Water call’d_
Gema, _which looses then its Name. A little farther, turning towards
the_ East, _it receives two other considerable Streams call’d_ Kelti
_and_ Branti: _Near this Place is the first fall of the River; not much
farther running towards the_ East, _it enters the Lake of the_ Abyssins,
_nam’d_ Bahr Dembea, _or the Sea of_ Dembea. _When it has pass’d through
this Lake, without mingling with its Waters, it receives many other
great Rivers, and chiefly the River_ Tekeze _near_ Egypt. _So soon as_
Nile _is out of the Lake_ Dembea, _it turns to the_ South-East, _leaving
on the left the Kingdoms of_ Beg-amidr, Amhara _and_ Voleca; _afterwards
running towards the_ South, _it has on the_ South-East _the Kingdom of_
Sauva, _and then turning again to_ East-North-East, _has on the_ South,
Ganz, Gafata _and_ Bizamo, _passing through the Countries of_ Gonga
_and_ Gafre; _a little farther it passes by_ Fascalo, _then enters the
Country of_ Funch _or_ Nubia, _whence it runs into_ Egypt, _as Father_
Telles _affirms_. But how it is there distributed and divided, I shall
shew by and by, after I have mention’d two of its Principal _Cataracts_
or _Cascades_ of a surprizing Nature.

[Sidenote: Its _Cataracts_.]

One of these is at _Ilack_, in _Numidia_, and the other above _Siene_ in
_Egypt_, being 12 Days Journey from each other. _Ptolomy_ calls the most
Southern, the _Great Cataract_, and the other, which he places about
_Siene_, now _Assuan_, the _Lesser_. This falls about 50 foot, but the
other three times as high, which last rouling off the Rocks into a vast
Abyss, the Waters, says _Sandys_, p. 73. make such a roaring Noise, that
a Colony, planted there by the _Persians_, were made almost Deaf with
it, and glad to abandon their Habitations, tho’ otherwise plentifully
provided with all Necessaries of Life. The adjoyning People nevertheless
are of that incredible boldness, that daring to commit themselves in
little Boats (capable of holding only two, whereof the one Steers and
the other Rows) unto the raging Current, and impetuous Eddies, have been
seen to pass the Streights of the Rocks by little Channels, and at
length to rush down with the Stream, to the amazement of all Beholders,
who giving them up for lost, beheld them a while after as if shot out of
an Engin, far from the place of their Fall, rowing safely in the
asswaged Waters; but _Danet_ will not allow the Noise made by the
Cataracts, renders the neighbouring Inhabitants Deaf, tho’ the same may
be heard 3 Days Journey off, and the Waters which rush down appear like
Smoak, being forc’d with so great a violence, that they form a kind of
Arch, and leave so great a space between, that a Man may pass it without
being wet: There are also Seats cut under the Rocks, where Travellers
may rest themselves.

The other _Cascade_, as _Sandys_, p. 73. tells us, is a little above the
place where once stood the City _Elephantis_: There two pointed Rocks
nam’d _Crophi_ and _Mophi_, or the Veins of _Nilus_, lift up their
eminent Heads, making the lesser Cataract by falling down with a furious
Cascade into the upper _Egypt_; then running from _South_ to _North_
very leisurely, it divides its self into two navigable Branches. That
towards the _East_ runs into the Midland Sea near _Damiata_, heretofore
_Pelusium_, while the other inclining to the _West_, and formerly call’d
_Canopus_, falls into the self same Sea a little below _Rosetta_,
making, of the richest Portion of the Land of _Egypt_, a triangular
Island, call’d _Delta_, in that being thus inclos’d between these two
Branches and the Sea, it bears the form of that Letter. Two other
Branches there are which run between these, but poor in Water, besides
divers Channels cut by the Labour of Man, for better Conveyance during
the Time of Inundation.

[Sidenote: Its _Ostiaries_ or _Mouths_.]

_Herodotus_ and _Strabo_ reckon up seven Mouths of the _Nile_, but
_Egypt_ has been so much chang’d since their Time, that there is hardly
any appearance or remembrance of the seven Cities they mention.
_Ptolemy_, in his Geography, expresly gives the names of nine; but
surely most of them must have been stop’d up by the Sands, since at
present there are but three or four at most, as is affirm’d by _William_
Arch-Bishop of _Tyre_, in his IX. Book, _De Bell. Sac._ cap. 33. and by
_Le Bruyn_ in his Voyage to the _Levant_, p. 161. who went on purpose to
make such Discoveries. But this is however remarkable, that the fresh
Waters of the _Nile_, keeping themselves united in a Body, and falling
into the salt Water or Sea, change the Colour of the _Mediterranean_
farther than any part thereof can be seen from the Shore. [Sidenote: Its
_Inundation_.] Yet amongst all the Misteries of Nature, none is more
wonderful than the Overflowing of this River, nor any Thing more
Beneficial; since to this alone the Inhabitants owe not only their
Riches but their Health, the most malignant Diseases immediately ceasing
at the Approach of it, and Famine and Dearth are as quickly expell’d. It
brings a Mirth and Joy to those People, and of a meer Desart it was
before, for such is _Egypt_ unwater’d by the _Nile_, makes that Country
the most fruitful of any in the habitable World.

Now the Earth, which had been so long scorch’d by the violent heat of
the Sun, is plentifully refresh’d with abundant Waters, and the very
Cattel seem to rejoyce at the approaching verdant Season: Boats are
row’d where not long before Men trod, and the Waters fill up the dusty
Channels and long empty’d Cisterns, covering in many Places the whole
superficies of the Land, making it appear as a troubl’d Lake. Nor is
this an unpleasant sight to the Natives, who think the less they see of
their Country, the more their Comfort will be. During this Inundation
they keep their Beasts and Cattel on the tops of such little Hills, as
either the Providence of Nature, or Industry of Man has prepar’d, where
they abide, waiting patiently for the decrease of the Waters. On these
Hills also stand most of their Towns and Villages, appearing, in the
time of the Flood; like so many Islands, the People in the mean Time
holding Commerce and continual Traffick, by intercourse of Boats and
Shallops, in which they transport their marketable Commodities from one
Place to another.

[Sidenote: Time of its Increase.]

This Increase of Waters begins about the 16th or 17th of _June_, when
the _Nile_ swells above its Banks for the space of 40 Days, and in as
many more gathers its Waters again to their proper Bounds; so that its
greatest height is about the end of _July_, and decrease about the
beginning of _September_. If it begins sooner or later, the People give
Judgment whether there will be more or less Water, and consequently are
advertis’d to the end they may take Order for what they have to do. The
Increase is known by certain Pillars in their Towns, and particularly in
the Castle of _Roude_, which stands in a little Isle opposite to old
_Cairo_, where the _Bassa_ resides, during the Solemnity of opening the
_Khalis_ or Channel, which passes thro’ and fills the Cisterns of _Grand
Cairo_. It is also known in the Fields by _Asps_, _Tortoises_,
_Crawfish_, _Crocodiles_, &c. who remove their Eggs or Young from the
Banks of the _Nile_, immediately before the Inundation, and lay them up
where they may be preserv’d.

[Sidenote: Its Effects.]

Now answerable to the Increase of this River is the Plenty or Scarcity
of the succeeding Year. _Heylin_ in his Cosmography writes, If it flow
not to the height of 15 Cubits, then the Earth will be deficient in her
Abundance or Increase for want of Moisture; and if it surmount the
superficies of the Earth, more than 17 Cubits, then, like a drunken Man,
it cannot produce its natural Operation, having its Stomach cloy’d and
surcharg’d as it were with too much Liquor; but if a moderate flowing
happen, then can no Country boast of a like Fertility, the Flood
bringing with it both Earth and Water into a sandy and thirsty Soil,
which as well manures as moistens it with the Fat and pregnant Slime it
leaves behind, and, as I said before, produces both Riches and Health;
for the _Plague_, which here oftentimes miserably rages, upon the first
Day of the Flood instantly ceases, insomuch, that whereas 500 had died
at _Cairo_ the Day before, on the Day following there dies not one Man.
But if it at any Time happens that the River does not thus overflow the
Country, then is it commonly the fore-runner of a following Dearth.
Thus, when this River flows but to 16 Degrees, they fear a Famine, but
when it comes to 23, ’tis a sign of a good Year, whereas when ’tis too
high the Inundation is dangerous. _Thevenot_ says, If it rises but to 16
Foot, a Famine unavoidably follows for want of Water; and if it swells
to 24, there will be a Dearth, because the Seed-Time must be lost. There
are besides many other rare Properties belonging to this River, which to
relate would make my Digression too long, and my intent was only to
mention such Things as chiefly tend to a Natural History, among which,
those curious Observations made by Father _Vansleb_ are most to my
purpose, which therefore I shall insert as follows:

[Sidenote: Remarkable _Observations_ on the _Nile_.]

_This is remarkable of_ Nile, _says my Author, That it begins to
increase and decrease on a certain Day, and that when it first
increases, it grows green and afterwards appears red: The Day on which
it begins to increase is Yearly the_ 12th _of_ June, _according to the_
Copties _Account, or the_ 17th _according to Ours, when the Natives
observe the Feast of St._ Michael _the Arch-Angel, on which Feast the
Drops begin to fall: Now these Drops, according to the Opinion of the
Inhabitants, are Tokens of the Mercies and Blessings of GOD. They
believe GOD sends the Arch-Angel, St._ Michael, _on that Day to cause
the River to be Fruitful; this is the common sentiment the People have,
but the Learned say, these Drops are a kind of Dew, which falls towards
the last quarter of the Night, near the Morning, and causes the River to
be Fertile, Purifies the Air from all Infection of_ Camsin, _and gives
Strength and Virtue to whatever it falls upon_.

[Sidenote: _Cause_ of its _Fertility_.]

_These Drops are doubtless the sole Cause of the Fertility of the_ Nile;
_for as soon as the Dew is fallen, the Waters begin to corrupt and turn
of a greenish Colour: This Colour increases more and more till the River
appears as a Lake cover’d all over with Moss; this Colour is to be seen
not only in its great Channel, but also in all the Bounds and Branches
that come from it, the Cisterns only preserving their Water pure; some
Years this green Colour continues about 20 Days, and sometimes longer,
but never above 40. The_ Egyptians _call this Time_ il chadraviat, _for
then they suffer much, the Water being corrupt and unwholesome, and
because good Water is very scarce. These Drops or Dew purifie the Air,
for so soon as ever they begin to fall, the_ Plague _ceases to be
mortal, none die of it; the Air becomes wholesome, all Diseases are
disarm’d, and if any Person happens to be sick of it, he shall be sure
not to die. This Dew gives Life to every Thing, and when it falls on the
Wheat, causes it to continue many Years without Corruption or Worms, nay
makes it far more Nourishing than any Corn on which it has never come.
For this Reason the Natives never house the_ Grand Signiors _Corn till
this Dew be fallen, to the end it may keep the longer free from Worms_.

[Sidenote: Its _Increase_.]

_The Increase of this River proceeds from several Causes; the first and
chiefest of which, is the Fermentation caused therein by this Dew, which
falls precisely at the Time before-mention’d. The continual Rains of_
Æthiopia, _that come in_ July, August _and_ September, _which is the
Winter Quarter of this Country, together with the great Torrents of
Water that rush down from the Mountains, into the Rivers that flow into
the_ Nile, _may be look’d on as another Cause of its Increase; for I
cannot conceive the Fermentation can last 100 Days, and singly cause it
to increase so much as it is wont. The third Cause are the Westerly
Winds call’d_ Maestrals, _and by the_ Egyptians Maltem, _which begin
about 12 Days before the Dew comes, and continue about four Months
without Cessation; they blow directly into the_ Nile, _and hinder the
fresh Water from coming out, so that it returns back, which causes the
River to swell. So soon as the green Colour is gone, the River begins to
turn red and very muddy; ’tis then no doubt the Fermentation is past,
and the Waters of_ Æthiopia _are arriv’d in_ Egypt, _which are of that
Colour, by reason of the red Earth the furious Torrents from the
Mountains carry along with them; for ’tis not probable the Land of_
Egypt, _which is very black, should give that Tincture. In the Year_
1673, _at the beginning of_ July, _the Water began to turn red, which
continu’d to the end of_ December, _the Time the River ordinarily
returns to its usual bigness. The_ Egyptians _have an Art to make this
muddy Water as clear as Cristal; so soon as the Water-Bearers have
fill’d their Vessels, they rub them in the inside with a Paste made of
pounded Almonds, which in a short Time causes the Water to become very
clear. In such Places where this Paste is not to be had, they use
instead of it the Kernels of Apricocks, pounded after the same manner,
and some say the Flower of little Beans will have the same Effect._

[Sidenote: _Operation_ of its _Waters_.]

_The Waters of this River have several Operations, for_, First, _They
bring a Loosness on new Comers, in case the Parties drink them at their
first arrival, and it continues about eight Days_. Secondly, _They cause
an Itching in the Skin, which troubles those that drink them when the
River increases: This Itch is very small, appearing first about the
Arms, then on the Stomach, and afterwards spreading all over the Body,
which causes grievous Pain. This Itch comes not only on such as have
drunk of the River, but such as drink out of the Cisterns fill’d with
River-Water; it lasts about six Weeks._ Thirdly, _About the Months of_
June, July, August _and_ September _it turns into Sweat, but is not so
in any other Time of the Year_. Fourthly, _When this Water covers the
Earth, it fattens the Land with the Slime it leaves behind. Monsieur_
Thevenot _is mistaken in his Travels into the_ Levant, _where he says,
This Slime makes the Ground so fat, that if Sand were not mingl’d with
it, it would Rot and Choak whatever is put into it; and that in_ Egypt
_they take as much Pains to carry Sand upon their Land, as we do to lay
Dung. This is not generally so, for they never use Sand but for Melons,
Cucumbers, and such like Fruits, which grow best in sandy Grounds; they
never use it for other Fruits and Grains._ Thus far _Vansleb_.

[Sidenote: Their _Virtues_ and _Goodness_.]

_Sandys_, speaking in Commendation of these Waters, says, They procure
liberal Urine, curing Pains in the Kidnies, and are a most sovereign
Remedy against the _Hypocondriacus Affectus_, or Wind-Melancholy. They
are not unpleasantly cold, but of all others the most sweet and
wholsome, by reason of their being well concocted by the Sun, which at
all Times is, in some part or other, directly over them, and by the
length of their Course, running from _South_ to _North_, besides
_Ambages_ above 41 Degrees, so that from this River there ascend no
Vapours, the Humour being rarifi’d by so long a Progress, which tho’
exhal’d, assumes no visible Body, but undistinguishably mixes with the
pure Air, agreeing with the same in tenuity. _Thevenot_ speaks much to
the same purpose in his Travels to the _Levant_, fol. 245. where he
says, This Water is so wholsome, it never does any harm, tho’ drank to
never so great a degree, by reason it comes a great way over Land, to
wit, from _Æthiopia_, so that in so long a Course, thro’ so hot a
Country, the Sun has Time to correct and purifie it from all Crudities,
and indeed it is sweated out as fast as one drinks it.

[Sidenote: Used instead of _Drink_.]

They have no other Water to drink in _Egypt_, therefore most of their
Cities, Towns and Villages stand on the Borders of this River; there are
also many Canals and deep Ponds which have been caus’d to be cut at
convenient Distances, by the Care and Magnificence of their Kings, for
the Refreshment and Use of the People, who indeed need no other Drink.
The Waters of this River are of such excellent Taste and Virtue, that
when _Pescennius Niger_ heard his Souldiers murmur for want of Wine, he
thus reply’d, _What! crave ye Wine and yet have_ Nile _to drink of?_ The
first Kings of _Egypt_ made such account of them, that they almost drank
nothing else; and when _Ptolomy Philadelphus_ marry’d his Daughter
_Berenice_ to _Antiochus Theos_, King of _Assyria_, he gave orders that
from Time to Time the Waters of _Nile_ should be carry’d her, that she
might drink no other Liquor. And indeed all Authors agree these Waters
are sweet, healthful and nourishing, and that they keep a long Time
without corrupting, for being left to settle but a small Season, they
become clean, clear, and so sweet and pleasant, that they excel all
others for smoothness and flavour. _Gabriel Sionata_ in his Tract _De
Moribus Orientalium_, p. 27. observes, That the Waters of _Nile_, being
only kept in Pans three Days, and during that Time expos’d to the heat
of the Sun, turn to a pure white Salt; so that the Land of _Egypt_ has
an inexhaustible supply of that which is so needful for the Life of Man,
and that at small Expence. Moreover, whatever is here valuable proceeds
from the Munificence of this River, whose Annual overflow is the only
Cause of that wonderful Fertility of the Soil of this Country, which is
so great that it is rather to be admir’d than describ’d.

[Sidenote: Fertility of _Egypt_.]

In Times past it was reputed the Granary of the whole World, insomuch,
that it was not thought possible for the _Roman_ Empire to subsist
without its affluence. Also, after _Selimus_ Emperor of the _Turks_ had
conquer’d this Country, he was heard to say, That now he had taken a
Farm would plentifully feed his _Jemoglans_. Monsieur _Thevenot_ says,
_Egypt_ may well be stil’d an Earthly Paradise; for so great is its
increase, that in many Places they reap two considerable Crops a Year;
Hay they mow four Times, and as for Pease, Beans, and other Garden-Ware,
those grow spontaneously all the Year round. All kinds of Fruit are
exceeding plentiful, Grapes only excepted, which it may be Nature keeps
back as thinking the Natives of _Egypt_ can want no Wine, since they
have so good Water. In a Word, _Lucan_ thus characterizes this Country:

             _Terra suis contenta Bonis, non indiga Mercis
             Aut_ Jovis, _in Solo tanta est fiducia_ Nilo.

              A Land that needs nor Trade nor Rain, a Soil
              Pleas’d in it self as confident in _Nile_.

[Sidenote: The _Red Sea_.]

Next we shall speak of the _Red Sea_, as having been so very Famous,
both for the miraculous Passage of the _Israelites_ as upon dry Land,
and the drowning of _Pharaoh Cenchres_, and all his Followers, as
likewise for that thro’ it the Spices of _India_ and _Arabia_ were first
brought to _Alexandria_, and thence dispers’d by the _Venetians_
throughout all _Europe_, _Africa_ and _America_, as _Heylin_, p. 852.
testifies. The _Turks_ call this Sea the _Gulf_ of _Mecca_, and the
Ancients nam’d it the _Arabian Gulf_ or _Red Sea_, the reason of which
last, see in Sir _Thomas Brown_’s _Vulgar Errors_, p. 261 and 262. who
also tells us several Princes have attempted to cut thro’ the _Isthmus_,
or narrow Tract of Land, that parts the _Arabian_ and _Mediterranean
Seas_, but whose intent was not immediately to unite those Waters, but
to make a Navigable Channel betwixt the former and the _Nile_, the Marks
whereof remain to this Day. This was first attempted by _Sesostris_ King
of _Egypt_, and afterwards by _Darius_ King of _Persia_, but, for fear
of drowning the Country, at length relinquish’d by them both; yet the
same Thing was long after re-attempted, and in some measure effected by
_Ptolomy Philadelphus_. Now the _Grand Signior_, who is Lord of all this
Country, conveys his Gallies into the _Red Sea_ by the _Nile_; for
bringing them down to _Grand Cairo_, they are there taken to pieces,
carry’d upon Camels Backs, and afterwards put together again at _Sues_,
his Port and Naval Station for that Sea, whereby he in effect puts the
Design of _Cleopatra_ in execution, who after the Battle at _Actium_, in
a different manner, would have convey’d her Gallies into the _Red Sea_.
Here, as the same Author affirms, Coral grows in great abundance.

[Sidenote: The _Lake_ of _Mœris_.]

As concerning the Lakes of _Egypt_, that of King _Mœris_ is not only the
most admirable, but likewise the largest of all, denominated after his
own Name, as is testify’d by _Herodotus_, _Diodorus Siculus_ and
_Pliny_; a Work the most useful and wonderful, says _Greaves_ in his
_Pyramidographia_, p. 11. if rightly consider’d, that ever was attempted
by Man. In the midst of this Lake that King erected two _Pyramids_, one
in Memory of himself, and the other of his Wife, each being 600 Feet in
height. The Description of both these and of this Lake we have in
_Herodotus_; the latter we find also in _Strabo_, but no where so fully
as in _Diodorus Siculus_, Lib. 1. therefore I shall relate his Words:
_Ten Schænes_ (600 Furlongs, tho’ _Strabo_ and _Artemidorus_ before him
observe a difference of _Schænes_ in _Egypt_) _above the City_ Memphis,
Mœris _dug a Lake of admirable Use, the Greatness of which is
incredible, the Circumference of it being said to be 3600 Furlongs, and
the Depth in many Places 50 Fathom (200 Cubits or 300 Feet.) Now who
that shall seriously consider the vastness of this Work, can forbear
asking how many Myriads of Men were employ’d on it, and in how many
Years they accomplish’d it? The common Benefit of this Undertaking to
those that inhabit_ Egypt, _as also the Wisdom of its Royal Contriver,
no Man can sufficiently admire; for since the increase of_ Nile _is not
always the same, and that the Country is ever made more Fertile by its
moderate Rise, this King contriv’d a Lake to receive the superfluity of
the Water, that neither the greatness of the Inundation unseasonably
drowning the Country, might occasion Marshes or Lakes, nor the Rivers
flowing less than required, corrupt the Fruits for want of Water. This
Prince therefore caus’d a Ditch to be cut from the River_ Nile _to this
Lake, 80 Furlongs long and 300 Feet broad, by which, sometimes receiving
in, and sometimes letting out the Water, he exhibited a seasonable
quantity thereof to the Husbandmen, the mouth of this Ditch being
sometimes open’d and sometimes shut, yet both not without much Art and
great Expence, for he that would either open the_ Sluces _or shut them,
was under a necessity of expending at least 50 Talents. This Lake, thus
benefiting the_ Egyptians, _has continu’d even to our Times, and from
its Author is at this Day call’d_, The Lake of _Mœris. He left a dry
place in the midst, on which he built a_ Sepulcher _and two_ Pyramids,
_each a Furlong high; one of these he made for himself, and the other
for his Wife, placing on each a Marble Statue sitting on a Throne,
imagining that by these Works he should transmit to Posterity an
indelible Remembrance of his Worth. The Revenue arising from the Fish of
this Lake he gave to his Wife for her Unguents and other Ornaments,
which is said to have been not less worth to her than a Talent a Day;
for according to common report there are 22 sorts of Fish in it, which
are taken in such huge quantities, that those who are perpetually
employ’d in salting them, of which there is a very large number, can
hardly dispatch the Work._ Thus far _Diodorus Siculus_, whose
Description of this Lake, as it is much fuller than that of _Herodotus_,
so _Herodotus_, Lib. 2. has this memorable Observation which _Diodorus_
omitted. _He says this Lake was made by Hand, as is apparent, because
almost in the midst of it there stand two_ Pyramids, _50 Fathoms above
Water and as many under: On each of these there is a_ Colossus _of
Stone, sitting on a Throne; so that by this means, these_ Pyramids _must
in all be 100 Fathoms high_. _Strabo_ likewise, _Lib._ 17. says, _This
Lake is wonderful, being like a Sea both for largeness and Colour_.

[Sidenote: The _Dead Sea_ or _Lake Asphaltites_.]

But now I am speaking of Seas and Lakes I will mention one more, which
tho’ not in _Egypt_ but in _Palestine_, is not yet above 2 _Italian_
Miles off _Damiata_, as _Le Bruyn_, p. 138. assures us. This Lake is
very beneficial as well to the _Holy Land_, in that it plentifully
furnishes that Country with Salt, as to _Egypt_, by reason of its large
store of Bituminous Matter, of great use in _Embalming_: By some it is
call’d _Mare Mortuum_, and by others the _Lake Asphaltites_. The Name of
this Sea is suppos’d to have been given it from its largeness and
saltness, being 70 Miles long and 16 broad, and so extream salt, that
its Water burns like Fire when tasted, and boils up weighty Bodies,
insomuch that whatever living Creature is thrown into it, sinks not
easily. It is call’d the _Dead Sea_, perhaps from its heavy Waters
hardly to be mov’d by the Winds, or else because it has no visible
efflux into the Ocean, nor is at all increas’d by the River _Jordan_,
and many other Waters that flow into it, or _Thirdly_, In that no living
Creature can breath in it, but is on the contrary suffocated by its
Bituminous Steams, the great abundance whereof also occasions it to be
call’d _Lacus Asphaltites_. Now of this _Asphaltum_ or _Bitumen_ there
are several Camel-Loads taken out of it Dayly, as _Thevenot_ assures us,
which raise a very great Revenue. _Diodorus Siculus_ moreover tells us,
there rise such large pieces of _Bitumen_ out of the midst this Lake, as
are 2 or 300 Feet square; the greater sort the Inhabitants term Bulls,
and the lesser Calves, which, swimming on the surface of the Water,
appear at a distance like so many Islands. The Time of the Lakes
throwing up this _Bitumen_, which is Yearly, may be perceiv’d above 20
Days before it comes; for everywhere round, for many Furlongs, a Steam
arises with great stench, which changes the natural Colour of all Gold,
Silver or Brass near it, till it be again exhal’d; and inasmuch as all
adjoyning Parts are thus corrupted with the heat and stench of this
Lake, the Inhabitants are commonly infected with Diseases, and their
Lives thereby shortn’d. This was once a fruitful Valley, compar’d for
delightfulness with Paradise, and call’d _Pentapolis_ from its five
Cities; but which being destroy’d by Fire from Heaven, it was thereupon
converted into this filthy Lake and barren Desolation which surrounds
it, a fearful Monument of Divine Wrath, for the Wickedness of _Sodom_
and _Gomorrha_, two of these five Cities, from the former of which it is
also call’d the _Lake_ of _Sodom_. But I make mention of this Lake
chiefly for the sake of its _Asphaltum_, so much us’d in the
_Embalmings_ of the _Egyptians_, and not that its stench can any ways
incommode or prove unhealthful to _Egypt_; for that Country has neither
Seas Lakes nor Rivers less prejudicial or more beneficial than the
_Nile_, a River sufficient of it self to water the Country, fertilize
its Soil, and thereby render its Inhabitants both chearful and healthy.

[Sidenote: Climate of _Egypt_.]

Another Thing to be consider’d, as very useful in the _Natural History_
of _Embalming_, is the Climate of _Egypt_, whether hot or cold, dry or
moist, or compriz’d under other general Heads, such as those of the
_Heavens_, _Air_, _Water_, _Earth_, _Winds_, _Seasons_, &c. which
Qualities, as they are in great measure occasion’d by the _Nile_, so are
they also best explain’d by setting forth those of that River, with
their Effects; for _Egypt_ by reason of its Southerly Situation is very
hot, and during the whole Summer almost insupportable, which being
farther increas’d by the reflexion of the Sun on its sandy Soil, renders
the Air so exceedingly warm that one can hardly breath in it, which is
indeed one of the greatest Inconveniencies _Egypt_ lies under. This heat
unavoidably dries up all the Rivers for near six Months together, so
that the People must of necessity die with Famine, did not the _Nile_
overflow and fill up their empty Channels, thereby relieving them,
thirsty as their Soil. Now the Property of this River is the more
remarkable, in that it differs from those of all others, which are only
full in Winter; whereas, on the contrary, this overflows in Summer, when
there is most occasion for it, as if purposely design’d by Providence to
save a famish’d and scorch’d Country. Moreover this is worth taking
notice of, that the Soil of _Egypt_ being naturally Sandy and Steril,
and withal very dry and scorch’d, is by means of the overflowing of
_Nile_ sufficiently water’d, and by the fat Mud it leaves behind made
very Fertile and fit for Tillage.

[Sidenote: The _Air_ very hot.]

The Air also of this Country, especially about _Cairo_, and farther
towards the _South_, because so near the Line, is extream hot, for
there, says _Ogilby_ in his Description of _Egypt_, p. 115. the Sun
casts its Beams perpendicularly from _Cancer_, during which Time of
violent Heat the People are wont to dwell in Caverns; nay in _Cairo_, in
the midst of every House, there are Wells with Water in them, which not
only cool the Mansions but refresh their Inhabitants: They have likewise
contriv’d large Pipes or Funnels in the midst of their Houses, which
standing right up into the Air, with broad Mouths like Bells, and lying
open to the _North_, receive the cool Air, which is thereby sent down
into the lowermost Rooms. For shade also in the Streets, every Dwelling
has a broad Penthouse; and for further refreshment the Inhabitants use
Bathing, having curious Bagnio’s of fresh and clear Water from the River
_Nile_, without any mixture either of Herbs or medicinal Ingredients.

[Sidenote: Cool’d by the _Nile_ and Annual _Winds_.]

The Heat of this Country is moreover somewhat moderated by the
overflowing of _Nile_, and the continual blowing of cool Northerly
Winds, otherwise it would be so vehement, neither Man nor Beast could be
able to breath in it. In Winter the Air is _hot_ and _dry_, tho’
sometimes a little _cool_, yet generally extream hot, and more
prejudicial to the Head than any other part of the Body. _Sandys_ says,
p. 76. It is as hot with them in the depth of _Winter_, as with us in
the midst of _July_. The Air a Nights is cool, which after Sun-rising
becomes a little warm, at Noon very hot, but at Night returns to be cold
again, so that its inequality breeds many Diseases; nevertheless, in as
much as it is exceeding Serene, being constantly free both from Rain,
Clouds, Mists, Fogs, Hail, Snow, _&c._ which rarely happen, it is
accounted very healthful; and in this Sense we must take _Herodotus_
Lib. 2. where he says, _The_ Egyptians _are the Healthiest People of the
World, by reason of the immutability of their Air_. But that it Rains,
Hails and Snows sometimes in that Country, tho’ many of the Ancients
deny it, is plainly confirm’d by several modern Writers, wherefore Sir
_Thomas Brown_ places that assertion among his Vulgar Errors, and _p._
260 thus confutes it. _’Tis confirm’d_, says he, _by many, and believ’d
by most, that it never Rains in_ Egypt, _the River_ Nile _plentifully
supplying that Defect, and bountifully requiting it by its Inundation;
yet this must be understood in a qualify’d Sense, that is, that it Rains
there but seldom in Summer, and very rarely in Winter_. [Sidenote: Rain
in _Egypt_.] But that great Showers do sometimes fall on this Region,
besides the Assertion of many Writers, is confirm’d by the Honourable
and Occular Testimony of Sir _William Paston_, Bar^{t.} who affirms,
That not many Years since it rain’d in _Grand Cairo_ for divers Days
together. The same is likewise attested as to other parts of _Egypt_ by
_Prosper Alpinus_, who liv’d long in that Country, and has left us an
accurate Treatise of the Medicinal Practice there: _Cairi, raro decidunt
Pluviæ, Alexandriæ, Pelusiiq; & in omnibus Locis Mari adjacentibus,
pluit largissime & sæpe_. That is, _It Rains seldom at_ Cairo, _but at_
Alexandria, Damiata, _and other Places near the Sea, very often and
plentifully_. The same likewise is to be inferr’d from this Author
concerning Snow, _Rarissime Nix, Grando_, &c. _It seldom either Snows or
Hails, wherefore we cannot deny Snow or Hail never to fall because they
happen but seldom._ The rarity of them however may be the occasion of
that Saying of _Horace_, Lib, 3. Ode 26.

                   _Memphim carentem Scythonia Nive._

             Scorch’d _Memphis_ knows no _Scythian_ Snows.

To all this may be added the Testimony of the Learn’d Mr. _Greaves_,
whose Words, as you may find them, _p._ 74, 75. of his accurate
Description of the _Pyramids_, I will here insert, by reason they not
only prove these Rains, but likewise impart some curious Observations on
the Air of _Egypt_ and _Nile_. _I cannot_, says he, _sufficiently wonder
at the Ancients who generally deny’d the fall of Rains in_ Egypt.
_Plato_ in his _Timæus_ speaking of this Country, where he had liv’d
many Years, writes thus, Κατὰ δὲ τὴν δὲ τὴν χώραν οὔτε τότε, οὔτε
ἄλλοτε, ἄνωθεν ἐπὶ τὰς ἀρούρας ὕδωρ ἐπιῤῥεῖ. _i. e._ But in that Country
no Rain falls on the Ground at any Time. _Pomponius Mela_ in express
Terms relates, _That_ Egypt _is_ Terra expers Imbrium, miré tamen
fertilis; _whereas for two Months_, viz. December _and_ January, _I have
not known it Rain so constantly, and with so great impetuosity at_
London, _as I found it to do at_ Alexandria, _the Winds continuing_ N.
N. W. _which caus’d me to keep a Diary, as well of the Weather as of my
Observations in Astronomy, and that not only there, but also at_ Grand
Cairo. _My very noble and worthy Friend, Sir_ William Paston, _observ’d
at the same Time that there fell much Rain; so likewise about the end
of_ March _following, being at the_ Mummies _somewhat beyond the_
Pyramids _towards the_ South, _there fell a gentle shower of Rain for
almost an whole Day together: But it may be the Ancients meant the upper
part of_ Egypt, _beyond_ Thebes, _about_ Siene, _and near the_ Catadupæ
_or_ Cataracts _of_ Nile _and not the lower Parts; for there indeed I
have been told by the_ Egyptians _it seldom Rains, wherefore_ Seneca
_Lib._ 4. Natur. Quæst. _may have written true, where he says_,
[Sidenote: Snow in _Egypt_] In ea parte quæ in Æthiopiam vergit,
_speaking of_ Egypt, aut nulli Imbres sunt aut rari. _But where he
says_, Alexandriæ Nives non cadunt, _’tis false; for at my being there
in_ January _it snow’d one whole Night. However, farther towards the_
South _than_ Egypt, _between the_ Tropicks, _and near the_ Line, _in the
Country of_ Abyssinia _or_ Æthiopia, _there falls every Year, for many
Weeks together, store of Rain, as the_ Abyssins _themselves have related
at_ Grand Cairo, _which may likewise be confirm’d by_ Josephus Acosta,
_Lib._ 1. De naturâ Orbis novi, _where he observes, that in_ Peru _and
some other Places, lying in the same Paralel with_ Æthiopia, _they have
abundance of Rain. [Sidenote: Cause of the Inundation of _Nile_.] This
then is the true Cause of the Inundation of_ Nile _in the Summer-Time,
it being then highest when other Rivers are lowest, and not those which
are alledg’d by_ Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, Plutarch, Aristides,
Heliodorus _and others, who are all extreamly troubl’d to give a Reason
for the Inundation of this River, imputing it either to the peculiar
Nature of its Water, the obstruction of it by the_ Etesiæ, _or else to
the melting of the Snows in_ Æthiopia, _which however I verily believe
rarely fall in those hot Countries, where the Natives, by reason of the
extream Heats, are all Black, and where, if we credit_ Seneca, Argentum
replumbatur, _Silver is melted by the scorching Climate, or in a word,
to some other such like Reasons of small weight. In_ Diodorus Siculus _I
find_ Agatharcides Cnidius _giving almost the same Reason I have done,
whose Assertion however those Times gave but little credit to, yet does_
Diodorus _seem to agree with it in these words_, Lib. 1. _Agatharcides
Cnidius_ has come nearest the Truth, he affirming that every Year, in
the Mountains about _Æthiopia_, there are continual Rains from the
Summer Solstice to the Autumnal Equinox, which cause this Inundation of
_Nile_. _The Time of this is so certain, that I have known the_ Egyptian
_Astronomers put down many Years before in their_ Ephemerides, That such
a Day of such a Month the _Nile_ will begin to rise. Thus far _Greaves_,
to which I may add an Experiment of the Lord _Bacon_’s concerning the
scarcity of Rain in _Egypt_. [Sidenote: An _Experiment_ concerning the
scarcity of _Rain_ in _Egypt_.] _’Tis strange_, says he, _p._ 161. _of
his_ Natural History, _the River_ Nile _overflowing as it does the
Country of_ Egypt, _there should nevertheless be little or no Rain known
in that Country. The Cause must lye either in the Nature of the_ Water,
_the_ Air, _or of both. As for the_ Water, _it may_, First, _be ascrib’d
to its long Course; for swift running Waters vapour less than those that
are standing, as those that have been sometimes boyling on the Fire, do
not cast so great a steam as they did at first: Now ’tis certain the
Waters of_ Nile _are sweeter than others in taste, and excellent good
against the_ Stone _and_ Hypocondriacal Melancholy, _which shews they
are_ Lenifying. Secondly, _The Reason of this Inundation may be, that
these Waters running thro’ a Country of a hot_ Climate _and flat,
without shade either from Woods or Hills, the_ Sun _must thereby
necessarily have greater power to concoct them. As for the_ Air, _whence
I conceive this want of Showers chiefly comes, the Cause must be, that
the_ Air _of it self is thin and thirsty, and therefore so soon as ever
it gets any moisture from the_ Water, _it imbibes and disperses it
throughout its whole Body, not suffering it to remain in a_ Vapour
_whereby it might breed_ Rain. Now tho’ it is not to be deny’d that
Rains fall sometimes in _Egypt_, yet this may however be averr’d, that
they happen but seldom, therefore the Air must consequently be more
settl’d than ours and freer from Vapours, Fogs, or the like, which
renders it not only healthful, but very beneficial in preserving and
_Embalming_ Bodies, they being by nothing so much damnify’d as by
uncertain Weather, [Sidenote: Moist _Air_ prejudicial to _Embalming_.]
of which we have too sad Experience in this our moist Climate. We are
therefore forc’d to supply the want of this, either by a total exclusion
of the Air by _Air-Pumps_, by immerging our dead Bodies into Spirituous
or Balsamic Liquors, or else by driving away all Damps and Moistures by
moderate Fires. This every one knows who has been us’d either to
Confectionery, preserving natural Curiosities, or the like, to whom the
giving, relaxing or molding Things, serves as a _Thermometer_ whereby to
distinguish the several changes and varieties of the Weather.

_Egypt_ has not only an advantage of other Countries by the goodness of
its _Water_, serenity of its _Air_, and warmth of its _Climate_, but
also derives a yet farther Benefit in regard of _Embalming_, [Sidenote:
_Sand_ how useful in _Embalming_.] from the Nature of its _Sand_ and
_Soil_, the usefulness of which has in this respect been sufficiently
experienc’d by Modern Artists. Thus it is reported curious Florists
preserve both the form and colours of beauteous Plants, by laying them
in Sand, drying them in an Oven, or the like; and thus some modern
_Embalmers_ have, by hot Sand laid on prepar’d Bodies, dry’d up the
superfluous Moisture, and reduc’d their _Embalming_ Matter to a just
Consistency: ’Tis likewise observable some Sands will naturally _Embalm_
without any addition of Balsamic Ingredients. Moreover, ’tis probable
the Sea-Sands may have the like Effect, provided they be not too often
wet; for thus a Body being first pickl’d or salted, as it were with the
Sea-Brine, may afterwards, when dry’d by the Wind or Sun, remain firm
and durable as long as it shall be preserv’d free from Wet or Moisture;
and partly of this Opinion perhaps was Mr. _William Glanvill_ of the
_Temple_, who having so order’d it in his Will, was bury’d in the
_Goodwin-Sands_, which tho’ they cannot preserve him, as before
alledg’d, because so often wet, yet he being inclos’d in a leaden
Coffin, that must in Time sink to the bottom, they may by their coolness
help to keep his Corps entire for many Years; or at least by being so
secur’d, he will be defended from the rapine of Animals, or disturbances
of Sextons: But the Sands of _Egypt_ being much more hot, from the
reflection of the scorching Sun, are capable of Preserving Bodies
without either Salination or _Embalming_, and that only by exhaling and
drying up the Humidities and adventitious Moisture, insomuch that it has
occasion’d no small Contests among some Authors, which of the two is the
truer Mummy, that dry’d in the _Sands_, or that which is _Embalm’d_ with
Balsams and Aromatics. _Le Fevre_ in his _Chymistry_, p. 138. is
entirely of the first Opinion; but I shall refer such Disputes to their
proper Places.

[Sidenote: _Mummies_ found in the _Sands_.]

Of those sorts of _Mummies_ there have been many casually found in the
Desarts of _Egypt_, _Lybia_, _Arabia_, &c. suppos’d to have been
Travellers suffocated by great drifts of Sand, rais’d by sudden
Tempests; for it sometimes so happens, that contrary Winds arising of a
sudden, agitate the Sands with such impetuosity, that they over-whelm
Passengers and Beasts with their Burthens, who perishing thus unawares,
are thro’ the power of the hot Sun and parching Sand so dry’d, they
become fix’d and for ever undissolvable.

[Sidenote: _Drying Quality_ of the _Earth_.]

Next as to the Medicinal Virtue of the Soil of _Egypt_, and how far it
may be serviceable in _Embalming_ and preserving Bodies, every one, who
does but consider its great Stipticity and drying Nature, will be very
well satisfy’d: Besides this Earth is never much dampt by Rains or
Springs, but kept constantly dry by the warmth of the Sun. _Aetius_ and
_Galen_ commend it as good against _Phlegmons_, _Oedematous_ Tumors, and
immoderate Fluxes of the _Hæmorhoids_; also that it cures Dropsies
meerly by anointing with it, of which see more in _Olaus Borrichius_, p.
146. Thus having consider’d the _Water_, _Air_ and _Earth_ of _Egypt_, I
will next add some Observations of Father _Vansleb_ on the Seasons of
the Egyptian Year, with their Computation of Time, calculated according
to the Account of the _Copties_.

[Sidenote: _Seasons_ of the _Year_.]

The _Egyptians_ reckon their _Autumn_ from the 15th of _September_ to
the 15th of _December_. _Winter_ begins with them the 15th of
_December_, and ends the 15th of _March_. _Spring_ begins the 15th of
_March_, and ends the 15th of _June_. _Summer_ begins the 15th of
_June_, and ends the 15th of _September_. They allot every _Season_ just
Three Months, and begin their Year in _September_, as I observ’d before.
Every Month has Thirty Days, which in Twelve Months make Three hundred
and sixty Days; but because there yet want Five to complete the Year,
they add those at the end of all, and call them _Epagomene_, which
signifies _added_.

[Sidenote: _Temperate Season._]

The most temperate Season, has still somewhat of _Spring_ or _Autumn_ in
it, which two last cannot well be distinguish’d in _Egypt_. Now the mild
Weather commences in _September_, then they begin to breath the fresh
Air, but, as about this Time, the Fields are all so cover’d with Water,
one cannot Walk nor Travel by Land; an Abode there is not pleasant till
the middle of _November_, for then the Country’s dry, the Ways free, the
Waters run into their Channels, the Air pleasant, the heat of the Sun
supportable, the Fields green and sweet, and refreshing Gales blow
every-where. In short, the Season is then very comfortable, and so
continues ’till the middle of _April_.

[Sidenote: _Cold Season._]

The cold Season, answerable to our _Winter_, begins about the middle of
_December_. It is a delightful Time, unless in those seven Days which
the _Arabians_ term, _Berd il agiuz_, (_the cold of the old Hag_.) They
begin about the 7th of _February_, and continue to the 14th. The
Mornings are then exceeding cold, the Sky cloudy, Rains fall, and the
Winds are continually boisterous. Now tho’ Winter be in this Country
extream mild, yet do Persons of Quality always wear furr’d Gowns from
the Month of _November_ to that of _March_, not on account of any great
cold, for there is hardly any at this Time; but because the Weather is
then more variable, and the _Egyptians_ fear to be incommoded by
Distempers, which such a changeable Time occasions.

[Sidenote: _Intemperate Season._]

_Summer_ is the worst and most troublesome Season, by reason of the
excessive heat of the hot Winds, and the perilous Diseases that are rife
about this Time, which the _Egyptians_ term _Camsins_, and we _Easter_:
This dangerous Season begins about the _Easter_-Monday of the _Copties_,
and ends with their _Whitson_-Monday. About this Time the Winds, the
_Arabians_ term _Merissi_, are boisterous; they are so hot and
troublesome, People are ready to be stifl’d by them, and raise in the
Air so much Straw and Sand, the Sky is almost darkned with it: This Sand
is so subtile, it penetrates every little chink and cranny. About this
Time _Malignant Fevers_, _Dysenterys_, and many other Diseases commonly
reign, the least of which is incurable if not resisted by necessary
Remedies timely apply’d; nay, when these Winds blow, Bodies that were
healthy before, will sicken and grow out of order.

[Sidenote: The _Winds_ which blow most in _Egypt_.]

These Southerly Winds blow not every Day in this Season, nor every Year
in the same manner, or with a like impetuosity. ’Tis not possible to
express the Peoples Joy when they favour them by becoming mild. Besides
the two chief Winds which blow in _Egypt_, viz. _Merissi_ and _Maltem_,
I must farther take notice, that not only the Southern Winds are term’d
_Merissi_, but also the Eastern. These blow commonly twice every Year,
at _Easter_, call’d, as I have already said, _Camsin_, and from the
Month of _November_ to the middle of _February_. The Winds call’d
_Maltem_ or _Teijah_ are Westerly ones; they begin about Twelve Days
before the Rains fall, and last ’till the Month of _November_, during
which Time scarce any other Wind blows. The Winds _Merissi_ are hot and
spoil the Corn, whereas these nourish and refresh it, and not only so,
but prove comfortable both to Man and Beast, since they are cooling and
afford strength.

[Sidenote: _Rains_ or _Mists_ of _Egypt_.]

The ordinary Time for _Rains_ and _Winds_, which might be compar’d to
our _Autumn_, begins in the Month of _December_, and lasts ’till
_January_ or _February_, tho’ at _Rosetta_ and _Alexandria_ the Rains
fall at other Times, by reason of the propinquity of the Sea, nay
sometimes it happens to be misty and moist at a Season when none expect
it, which often proves so considerable as to wet ones Cloaths, as much
as a shower of Rain: But these moist Mists are more frequent about
_Cairo_ than any where else. They usually begin about _November_, before
the rising of the Sun, and continue all _Winter_. Some happen in other
Seasons, and many times in _Summer_, as _Vansleb_ observ’d in the Year
1672. at the beginning of _August_, when returning back from _Fium_ to
_Mocanan_, a Village about Four Hours from _Cairo_, he saw over that
City so thick a Mist, he could neither see the Buildings there, nor the
_Pyramids_ that are near, tho’ the Air was clear where he stood.

[Sidenote: _Dew_ of _Egypt_.]

Throughout all the Seasons of the Year, when the Nights are serene, so
much Dew falls it may well be taken for a moderate Shower, whereas when
ever the Sky is cloudy no Dew must be expected. Were it not for these
Dews, there would neither be Grass nor Corn in _Egypt_; the Trees would
bear no Fruit, nor could the wild Beasts in the Desarts live, here being
neither Fountains nor Rivers, and the Rains falling but seldom.
[Sidenote: _Thunder_ seldom heard.] _Thunder_ is rarely heard, for in
all the Time _Vansleb_ liv’d in _Egypt_, he says, he heard that noise
but twice, _viz._ on the First of _January_ and the Fourth of _May_,

[Sidenote: _Seasons_ why to be observ’d in _Embalming_.]

These Things are to be regarded the more particularly, in that the
temperature of Seasons conduces much to the preservation of Bodies,
which is so far to be consider’d, as it acquaints us when is the best
and most proper Time for Pickling, Preserving or _Embalming_ Bodies;
what Time of the Year, Day or Moon is best for gathering Fruits,
Flowers, Plants, _&c._ in order to the well preserving and laying them
up, as also what Places are fittest for Repositories for them after they
are gather’d and prepar’d; for there are some, both Places and Airs,
where Sweet-Meats will give and dissolve, bak’d Meats, Pyes, _&c._
gather mould, Liquors mother, and Flesh or Fish corrupt sooner than in
others, wherefore such Places are to be avoided as exceeding prejudicial
to _Embalm’d_ Bodies, in as much as they will dispose what is not
preserv’d, to Putrifaction, and what is, to Relaxation. For this Reason
my Lord _Bacon_ advises us well, to be very careful in our choice of
Places for this purpose, and to the end the aptness or propensity either
of the Air or Water, to corrupt or putrifie, may be easier found out,
proposes the following Experiments: [Sidenote: _Experiments_ of the
_Air_.] _First_, To lay Wool, Sponge or a piece of Bread in a Place one
would make Tryal of, and then to observe whether it be wetter or more
ponderous than the same was when laid in other Places, by which one may
judge whether the Place design’d be in a moist or gross Air. _Secondly_,
To expose raw Flesh or Fish to the open Air, or lay them on the Earth,
when if they quickly corrupt, ’tis a sign of a disposition in that Air
to Putrifaction. _Thirdly_, The quick Putrifaction of Waters or Dews may
likewise disclose the Qualities of the Air and Vapours of the Earth more
or less corrupt: ’Tis good also to make Trial not only of the moisture
and dryness of the Air, but of the Temper thereof in heat or cold; for
that may concern Health variously, and whatever in this respect conduces
thereto, the same is to be observ’d in _Embalming_. _Fourthly_, The
goodness of Airs is likewise to be known by placing two Weather-Glasses
in several Places, where no shades or inclosures are, and then remarking
their difference, and the like. Now these sorts of Experiments serve for
a natural Divination of Seasons, shewing them much better than any
Astronomers can do by their Figures. They also inform us of the
wholsomness or unwholsomness of Dwelling-Places, and where to erect
Granaries for Corn, Store-Houses for Fruits, Green-Houses for Plants,
Vaults for Wine, and Conservatories for other Things which require
keeping either hot, or cold and dry.

[Sidenote: Of the _Water_.]

Next as to Waters, this may serve for one Trial of their goodness,
_viz._ To observe which will keep sweet the longest, for such likewise
denote the Healthfulness of any Place: Now, how far the goodness of
Waters tend to the preservation of Bodies and Things, may well enough be
observ’d from Brewing, Washing, Baking, and the like; for those that
make the strongest Drink, are ever the best concocted and most
nourishing; those that bear Soap well, fret not out Cloaths like those
that are hungry, but are fat, smooth and soft in Taste, which is also
allow’d to be a general sign of good Water; so likewise such as are
lightest and most apt quickly to boil away, are always best. Now these
are the most useful in making Bread, Pyes, _&c._ and will keep them
longest without moulding; but of all _European_-Waters that of the River
_Thames_ is the most noted for making Sea-Beer and Bisket, which are
carry’d the longest Voyages, and into the hottest Countries of both
_East_ and _West-Indies_.

[Sidenote: The _Air_ and _Water_ of _Egypt_ very good.]

By these Considerations on the Air and Water, we may see the great
advantage _Egypt_ receiv’d from the clearness and dryness of the one,
and sweetness and softness of the other, to which _Herodotus_ chiefly
attributes the Health and long Life of those People, as we, in some
measure, may the continuance and duration of their _Embalmings_; for, as
inequality of Air is pernicious to Health, so it is also to _Embalming_,
therefore we find the Winter-Seasons are not so proper for this Art as
the Summer, as producing much Rain, with misty or foggy Weather, which
disposes all things to Putrifaction, in so much that Flesh is then
hardly to be kept from being musty or stinking, by reason it will not so
well take Salt at that Time. Things preserv’d with Sugar relax, and
dry’d Things, imbibing the moisture, either rot or mould, which
Mouldiness is a beginning of Putrifaction, that afterwards turns to
Worms or odious Stinks. [Sidenote: Inequality of _Air_ bad for
_Embalming_.] Now as inequality of Air produces Putrifaction, so does
also an interchangeableness of heat and cold, wet and dry, as may be
observ’d from the mouldring of Earth in Frost and the Sun, or in the
more hasty rotting of Wood that is sometimes wet and sometimes dry; so
likewise a certain degree of heat or cold preserves and keeps Bodies
from Putrifaction, whereas a tepid heat inclines them to it; for, tho’
such a weak degree of heat may put the Spirits in a little motion, yet
is it not able to digest the Parts, or rarifie them, as may be seen by
Flesh kept in a Room that is not cool, whereas in a cold and wet Larder
’twill keep much longer, and we observe that Vivification, as the Lord
_Bacon_ says in his _Nat. Hist._ p. 74. (whereof Putrifaction is the
bastard Brother) is effected by such soft Heats, as the hatching of
Eggs, commonly practis’d at _Cairo_, the heat of the Womb, _&c._ whereas
such a heat as breaths forth adventitious Moisture best preserves
Bodies; for as wetting hastens Corruption, so convenient drying (whereby
the more radical Moisture is only kept in) puts back Putrifaction: So we
may also observe that Herbs and Flowers, when dry’d in the shade or hot
Sun, for a small space keep best. For these Reasons the warm Climate of
_Egypt_ must needs conduce best to the preservation of Things and
_Embalming_ Bodies, provided it be not attempted in the extream heat of
the Summer, which is between _Easter_ and _Whitsontide_, at which Time
the hot Southerly Winds blow, which bring malignant Fevers, Plagues and
great Putrifactions. Thus much as to the temperature of the Air shall
suffice; next we must speak of the _Egyptians_.

[Sidenote: The antient _Egyptians_.]

The antient and true _Egyptians_ were the _Copties_ or _Copts_, so
call’d, as I have formerly shown, p. 126. from _Coptus_, Son of
_Misraim_, who became King of _Egypt_ upon the Decease of his Father,
and his Conquest over his Brothers; for those who now inhabit that
Country, according to _Sandys_, _Heylin_ and others, [Sidenote:
_Character_ of the modern _Egyptians_.] are much degenerate from the
Ingenuity and Worth of their Ancestors, being not only Ignorant but
Barbarous, devoted to Luxury and Venery, and naturally addicted to
detract from what is Good and Eminent, nay, in a word, they are both
Cowardly and Cruel. In their Dealings they are more Observant than
Faithful; of a Genius much inclin’d to Craftiness, and very eager of
Profit. Such as inhabit the Cities apply themselves to Merchandize, grow
Rich by Trading, are reasonably well Habited, and not very differing
from the _Turks_ in Dress and Fashion. Those in the Country, who follow
Husbandry, are affirm’d to be a brutish and nasty People, crusted over
with Dirt, and stinking of Smoak and their abominable Fuel; for they
burn their own Dung, and that of Cattle, instead of Wood, which is here
so scarce it is sold by weight, and us’d only by Foreigners and the
richer sort. Nothing now remains among them of the laudable Arts of
their Ancestors, but a ridiculous affectation of Divination and
Fortune-telling, in which, and some other cheating Tricks, they are very
well vers’d, great numbers of them wandring from Place to Place, to get
their Livelihoods that way. This occasions Vagabonds and Straglers of
other Nations, who pretend to the same false Arts to assume their Names.
The whole Body of the present Inhabitants is an hotchpotch or medly of
many foreign Nations, such as _Moors_, _Arabians_, _Turks_, _Greeks_,
_Jews_, _Franks_, &c. the natural _Egyptians_ making the least part of
the number.

[Sidenote: The _Make_, _Complexion_ and _Temper_ of the _Egyptians_.]

Now as concerning the Make, Complexion, Temper and Constitution of the
_Egyptians_ in general, that varies according to the different Quality
or Employ of the Person or Sex. Those that dwell in _Cairo_ and other
Cities are gross, corpulent and sanguine, whereas the wandring
_Arabians_ and Husbandmen are meagre and slender, very active and
nimble, yet withal hairy, sweaty, and almost scorcht and burnt up with
the Sun. The People in general are of a mean Stature, tawny Complexion,
and spare Bodies, and this is remarkable of them, that tho’ their
Country be in the same Climate with _Barbary_, yet are they not black,
but tawny or olive-colour’d. The Women are of the same Complexion with
the Men, yet well shap’d and featur’d, did not they too much affect a
seeming Corpulency, which if they cannot get in Flesh they will be sure
to have in Cloaths. [Sidenote: Their _Women_ fruitful in _Children_.]
They Marry at Ten, or at farthest at Twelve Years of Age, being very
fruitful, some bearing Three or Four Children at a Birth; and those that
are born in the Eighth Month live to a good Age, and are not in such
danger of Death, as in other Countries.

[Sidenote: Their _Constitutions_ and _Habits_ of _Body_.]

As to the Constitutions of the _Egyptians_, they are hot and dry, being
by nature very wakeful and little inclin’d to sleep. They are of a
chearful Temper, yet delight much in an idle and lazy kind of Life,
being immoderate Votaries to _Venus_. Their continual Bathing, drinking
the Waters of _Nile_, and using cold Food, mightily lessen and alter
their heat and drought; but then this inconveniency ensues, that they
have cold and raw Stomachs full of Phlegm, which not only proceeds from
such cold Dyet, but also from the extraordinary heat of the Air, whereby
the natural heat is overcome.

[Sidenote: Are very long _liv’d_.]

They are nevertheless said to be longer liv’d than those of other
Countries, it being common to find among them People of above a Hundred
Years of Age. The reason of this longœvity Phisicians differ greatly
about, yet assign, as the chiefest Cause of it, next to the Air, the
spare way of living of that People, they eating little Flesh, but store
of Roots, Fruits and Herbs, nor often drinking any Wine, but commonly
Water, and sometimes Beer, which _Herodotus_ Lib. 1. Sect. 77. assures
us the antient _Egyptians_ made. On the contrary, all _Europeans_, who
drink abundance of Wine, and eat much Flesh, are for the most part short
liv’d. [Sidenote: A _Problem_ concerning _Diet_.] _Therefore whether it
were not better for us to conform to the simple Diet of our Forefathers?
Whether pure and simple Waters be not more healthful than fermented
Liquors? Whether there be not an ample sufficiency in the Food of Honey,
Oil, and several parts of Milk; in the great variety of Grains, Pulses
and all sorts of Fruits, since either Bread or Beverage may be made
almost of all of them? Whether Nations have rightly confin’d themselves
to peculiar Meats? Whether the common Food of one Country be not more
agreeable to another? How indistinctly all Tempers apply to the same,
and how the Diet of Youth and old Age is confounded, are Considerations
worth our notice_, says Sir _Thomas Brown_ in his _Vulgar Errors_, p.
138. _and might not a little prolong our Days_; yet must not this
Discourse, therefore I will proceed to speak of some Diseases the
_Egyptians_ have been always liable to. [Sidenote: Their _Diseases_.]
These are occasion’d either by the intemperate Air, the Summers here
being exceeding hot and sultry, or else by reason the Poor, who are very
numerous, are necessitated to eat foul and unwholsome Food, such as the
flesh of Camels, of Crocodiles, (by some worshipp’d and consequently
held Irreligious) rotten salt Fish, and mouldy stinking Cheese, by them
call’d _Gibnehalon_. They are also accustom’d to drink muddy and corrupt
Waters, whereby is ingendred much Choler, thick and adust Blood, gross
and crude Humours, which create many Distempers, the chief of which, and
most to our purpose, are _Sore Eyes_ and _Blindness_, _Scabs_ and
_Leprosie_, _Dropsie_, _Frenzie_, _Malignant Fevers_, _Poxes_ of both
kinds, _Plague_ and _Pestilence_, &c. which tho’ other Nations are
likewise subject to, yet it being not so constantly or grieviously,
these may properly enough be nam’d, _The Plagues of_ Egypt; wherefore I
shall a little expatiate upon them, with a suitable Application to our
Subject of _Embalming_.

[Sidenote: _Sore Eyes_ and _Blindness_.]

_First_, I shall take notice of the incredible number of blind People in
_Egypt_, but more-especially in _Cairo_, where sore Eyes or _Opthalmia_
are so common, scarce half the Inhabitants escape them. Nay, new-born
infants are so troubl’d with this Distemper, that it is sometimes hardly
to be cur’d, for it seems a Disease lodg’d in the Blood, of which the
Natives give this Reason, _viz._ That the subtile Particles of the Lime,
wherewith their Houses are built, being carry’d about by the Wind, stick
so close to the Eyes, that they not only cause Inflammations, but
likewise insensibly mixing with the Blood, occasion this Distemper to be
Hereditary; to which _Sandys_ adds, as other Causes of this Disease, the
reflecting heat of the Sun, the salt Dust of the Soil, and the
Inhabitants excessive Venery; wherefore did they not use frequent
Bathings in this Country, the stinking Sweat of their Bodies, mix’d with
this Dust, which so continually rises and adheres to them, wou’d, by
stopping their Pores, not only render them nasty and frowzy, but also
their Blood becoming Pruriginous, and exalted by the salt and corrupt
Diet, [Sidenote: _Scabs_ and _Leprosie_.] wou’d, as it often does,
produce _Mange_, _Scabs_ and _Leprosies_; so that to keep themselves
sweet, clean and free from these Diseases, they are wont to use constant
Bathings, and refrain from salt Meats, which are very unwholsome to
these _Eastern_ Nations. _Herodotus_ assures us they in his Time
abstain’d from Swines Flesh, as particularly apt to beget _Leprosie_ in
hot Countries, if salted, and if not, or well roasted, infallibly brings
a _Diarrhæa_, or else turns to some dangerous Fever or Surfet.
_Hippocrates_, Lib. _Poss._ _p._ 5. observes, it throws some People into
a _Cholera Morbus_, that is, It works vehemently upon them by Choleric
Vomits and Stools. _Plutarch_ likewise remarks, that the very Milk of
this Beast being drank, produces the _Scab_, &c.

[Sidenote: _Dropsie._]

The _Egyptians_ also from their too frequent use of _Colocasia_,
_Bammia_, _Melochia_, _Beets_, and such like Herbs as occasion thick and
tough Flegm, are often troubl’d with the _Dropsie_, which swells and
puffs up their Legs, with abundance of hard and gross Humours, like the
Legs of an Elephant, tho’ indeed they feel no pain, but are only
unweildy to walk.

[Sidenote: _Apoplexy._]

At _Cairo_ rages that most terrible Disease call’d by the _Arabians_,
_Dem el Muia_, which in few Hours seizes the Brain like an Apoplexy, and
bereaving it of Sense, soon dispatches the Patient. Every Year once the
_Egyptians_ are surpriz’d by this Disease, and multitudes die dayly of
it. At the same Time Children are wont to be greatly afflicted with a
malignant kind of _Pox_, [Sidenote: _Small Pox._] bred out of venemous
Damps, arising from the corrupt Waters of _Caleg_, a Branch or rather
Trench cut from the _Nile_ to _Alexandria_. Every Year, when that River
rises 8 or 10 Cubits, it falls into this Trench, and so runs thro’ the
whole City; so that, at the retiring of the River, this Water, remaining
without motion, stagnates and corrupts: It first becomes green, then
black, and at length sends fourth Pestilential Vapours, whereby the Air
is polluted and this Infection caus’d, wherefore, some Time before it is
expected, all the Children thereabouts are remov’d to other Places.
_Sandys_ also tells us, [Sidenote: _French Pox._] the _French Pox_ is
exceedingly rife among the _Egyptians_, which however is not to be
wonder’d at if we consider their hot Constitution, excessive Venery,

[Sidenote: Malignant _Agues_.]

In _Alexandria_ many malignant and mortal _Agues_ reign about the Time
of their Harvest, occasion’d by drinking the tainted and foul Waters,
which the Townsmen keep from Year to Year in Wells under their Houses.
But the most destructive of all Diseases to the _Egyptians_ is the
_Pestilence_ or _Plague_, [Sidenote: _Plague._] which very frequently
visits them, and is the more prevalent in that they seek no Remedy for
it, as believing none can die of it but such as are destin’d by GOD. For
this Reason they never go about to avoid any infected Person or Place,
for that they look upon as Irreligious. Nay the very Cloaths or
Houshold-Goods of such as die of this Distemper, are instantly sold in
the open Market by Outcry, which none are afraid to buy, thro’ which mad
obstinacy, in this their foolish Opinion, the Plague has in _Cairo_,
during only the space of six or seven Months, sometimes swept away above
Five hundred thousand People, as was observ’d in the Year 1580.

Those _Plagues_ which come out of _Barbary_ are the most pernicious and
of longest continuance, of which kind was the before mention’d; whereas
such as come from _Greece_ or _Syria_ are more mild and of a shorter
duration; for this Disease is seldom or never occasion’d by Putrifaction
of Air in _Egypt_, unless the _Nile_, overflowing the Country too high,
leaves its Waters a long while on the Ground, whereby the whole Land
becoming a corrupt and standing Lake, that by the Southerly Winds and
Summers heat, may be ripen’d and made fit to send up infectious Steams.
That _Plague_ which begins in the first Months of Summer is the worst,
whereas that which comes later is milder and ceases sooner. But let the
_Plague_ rage never so fiercely, when the Sun enters _Cancer_, which is
the Time of _Nile_’s overflowing, it wholly ceases, insomuch that not
one then dies of it, as has been before shown. The Reason of this so
sudden alteration seems to be the even and constant Temperature of the
Air, thro’ the blowing of the anniversary _North Winds_, which then
begin to rise and oppose the moist Nature of the _South Winds_, call’d
_Camsin_. Now these cooling, as well the Air as Mens Bodies, and taking
away the Cause (the infectious Heat) the Effect soon ceases.

Thus far have I shown how the infection of Air and Water may occasion
many Diseases, which therefore are carefully to be avoided as pernicious
to _Embalming_: I shall now only observe, that as the even Temper and
good Humour of Man tends much to his Health and long Life, so that
healthy State and Constitution, either affords a Natural _Embalming_, or
at least such Bodies are easiest to be preserv’d. But whether those
Bodies that dy’d of the Plague, or other malignant Distempers, could
with any Art be preserv’d, is a _Quære_ of no small concern in this our
_Natural History_, and must needs to the _Egyptians_ bring a great
scruple of Conscience, who believ’d the _Metempsychosis_ or
Transmigration of Souls, to think what must become of such Bodies as
were not _Embalm’d_? Since therefore no History can give us any
satisfaction herein, we are inclinable to believe they could not any
ways be preserv’d, by reason of the immediate tendency of such tabid
Carcasses to Putrifaction, and yet we know not but the _Egyptians_ might
do more in this case than others could, both thro’ the efficacy and
goodness of their Medicines, and their not being afraid of the
infectious Steams which issue from such Bodies, during their hot
_Embalming_; which brings me next to enquire into their Skill in
_Physic_, _Anatomy_ and _Chymistry_. In order to this, I shall first
begin with the Rise and Progress of their Physic, according to the
Opinion of the Learned Dr. _Grew_; and then shew its Effects, and how it
was practis’d, as affirm’d by _Herodotus_, _Diodorus Siculus_, _Prosper
Alpinus_, and others.

[Sidenote: _Egyptians_ first Authors of _Medicine_.]

‘The _Egyptians_, says Dr. _Grew_ in his _Cosmologia Sacra_, p. 265.
being from sundry Causes (some of which we have already discours’d of)
the most diseas’d of all People, were also the first Authors of
Medicine. _Mizraim_ their first King, otherwise call’d _Menez_,
_Osiris_, _Dionisius_ and _Bacchus_, all being Names of the same Person,
together with his Wife _Isis_, apply’d himself to furnish his People
with wholsome Food. He with Wine, which he had learn’d to make of his
Grandfather _Noah_; [Sidenote: _Osiris_ taught them _Drink_ and _Food_.]
and with Water, in making the best use of the River _Nile_; and She, by
teaching them, among so many various sorts of Roots and Fruits,
[Sidenote: _Isis_ salubrious _Plants_.] wherewith _Egypt_ abounds, to
distinguish the _Noxious_, many of which, as _Sulpitius Severus_ and _P.
Alpinus_ observe, are very sweet and tempting, from those which are
wholsome and fit to eat; from whence she was call’d Ὑγεία and _Salus_.

‘Their next King was _Orus_, by _Herodotus_, _Diodorus Siculus_ and
_Athenagoras_ in his Apology to the _Christians_, said to be _Osiris_’s
Son. This Prince seeing Food already provided for, bethought himself of
some means, such as they were, for the cure of Diseases. The first step
he took, being affrighted with a _Plague_, was to offer Sacrifice to the
Celestial Bodies, which he suppos’d Gods, and the only Arbiters of Life
and Death. Therefore _Anebo_ the _Egyptian_ Priest, [Sidenote: These
_Orus_, Son of _Osiris_, apply’d for _Physic_, by Sacrificing them.]
personated by _Jamblichus_, in his Book of the _Egyptian Mysteries_
says, That, even in his Time, they knew no other way of curing that
Disease; and what _Isis_ had found out for Food, he thought best apply’d
to this purpose. So _Porphyrius_ in his Book of Sacrifices tells us, the
most ancient _Egyptians_, _Cœlestibus litabant_, with Herbs, Roots and
Fruits, which at first _Orus_ offer’d singly, but afterwards compounded,
supposing them thereby, as is intimated by _Proclus_, the more

‘The _Plague_ and other contagious Diseases, being blown away, as they
commonly were and are, by the _North Winds_, _Orus_ thought it decent to
solemnize his Sacrifices with Music; [Sidenote: To which he added
_Music_.] and that he had excellent Skill herein, is witness’d by
_Diodorus_, from whence also he is taken to be the _Egyptian Apollo_.
Now finding Music acceptable to the People, he apply’d that also, with
the Sacrifices to which it was annex’d, towards the cure of Diseases;
for which Reason Music is by _Jamblichus_, in his Book aforesaid,
enobl’d with the Title of Divine. And it seem’d, for many Ages after, so
necessary to Medicine, as to give occasion to _Thessalus_, Head of the
Methodic Sect in the Reign of _Nero_, to brag, That he could make
Physicians without the help either of Astrology or Music. Thus all Music
consisting in a proportionate Measure, he saw it requisite the Notes or
Tunes, and Words he us’d with them, should be commensurate one to the
other, and so became the first Poet or Maker of Verses; [Sidenote: And
_Poetry_.] which being us’d with Music, were suppos’d to have the same
Divine Virtue, and came at length to be us’d alone in the cure of
Diseases. And it is by _Sanchuniathon_ affirm’d, that _Misora_, that is
_Misraim_, [Sidenote: Thence thought to be the _Egyptian Apollo_.] was
one of those two antient Gods, whose Sons were the Inventors of
Medicinal Charms, which as it seems were all the means _Orus_, or the
_Egyptian Apollo_, invented for the cure of Diseases, _viz._
_Sacrifices_, _Music_ and _Charms_, upon which three he began likewise
to build the Art of Divination; and as a branch hereof, his Magical
Prognostics in relation to Diseases. ’Next to _Orus_ succeeded
_Athothus_; by _Sanchuniathon_ nam’d, _Taautus_; by the less antient
_Egyptians_, [Sidenote: _Athothus_ the antient _Egyptian Mercury_,]
_Thoyth_, and by the _Greeks_ in _Alexandria_, _Thoth_. He was the most
antient _Egyptian Mercury_; said by _Manetho_ and _Eratosthenes_ to be
Son of _Menez_ or _Mizraim_, and was therefore younger Brother to
_Orus_, whom he succeeded by _Noah_’s Gift, as is witness’d by
_Sanchuniathon_: _Saturnus, in Deum Taautum a Misore Natum, Egypti
Regnum contulit_. This Man, to add to what his Predecessor had done,
[Sidenote: The Inventor of _Images_,] was the Inventor of Images,
dedicated to the Sun, Moon and Stars, with their Figures upon them,
according to their position in the Heavens, supposing they would be more
effectually mov’d by the Sacrifices offer’d to them, if thereby honour’d
and represented. And that none might be without what he thought so
necessary for the Peoples Health, he caus’d the making not only of
Images of Gold and Silver, but certain Sculptures or Paintings upon Wood
or some other Ground. The Figures or Marks, made upon all these,
[Sidenote: _Characters_,] were properly call’d _Characters_, and were
the original of all those us’d by Magicians in after Times for the cure
of Diseases: Whence it is these _Characters_, which were properly made,
are said by _Jamblichus_ to be _Diis congrui_, that is, agreeable to the
Celestial Bodies, they were suppos’d to represent; in which Sense also
the Author of the Epistle to the _Hebrews_, speaking of the Second
Person in the Sacred Trinity, uses the same word.

‘The same _Athothus_, observing how naturally the Music of the
Sacrifices put the Body into many Motions, [Sidenote: and _Dancing_.]
took thence occasion to reduce the motion of the Feet, as _Apollo_ had
done those of Speech, to a proportionate Measure, that is, to an
artificial Dance. That he was first Author hereof, is agreed from his
being describ’d with Wings, not only on his Shoulders, but Heels; and
that he had taught the People to apply it to Religion, is as evident
from the _Jews_, who had learn’d of the _Egyptians_ to dance about the
Golden Calf. Now, seeing this naturally conduces towards the cure of
some Diseases, ’tis likely he hereupon invented several sorts of Dances,
not as yet considering their natural but magical Aptitude to divers
kinds of Diseases, supposing certain Numbers and Measures, might as well
as Words, have a Divine Power. Now that he might make his Motions with
greater ease in so hot a Country, ’tis probable he danc’d half naked, as
_David_ did before the Ark, disdaining the Author of this Ceremony
should shew more Zeal before an Idol, than he did before the true GOD.
Therefore as the word _Gymnasium_ does properly signifie the Place where
People exercise themselves when stripp’d; so upon this Foundation, which
_Athothus_ or the first _Egyptian Mercury_ laid, was afterwards rais’d
the _Gymnastic Art_. For this Cause also _Jamblichus_, speaking of the
Powers which flow from the Gods, among those which co-operate with
Nature, mentions only the _Medicinal_ and _Gymnastic_ as the two
principal, and of kin to each other; nor is there ground to imagine,
that in Medicine, _Athothus_ or the first _Mercury_, understood any
Thing more. So that all the means the _Egyptians_ made use of hitherto
in the cure of Diseases, _viz._ ’till about the 350th Year after the
Flood, were to be referr’d intirely to their practical _Theology_,
stil’d by _Jamblichus_ θεουργική τέχνη, of which their magical Medicine
was a principal part. [Sidenote: Sacrific’d _Animals_, and learn’d
_Embalming_ and _Anatomy_.] After him they began to Sacrifice Animals as
well as Plants, and learn’d the _Art_ of _Embalming_. The Priests had
hereby an opportunity of observing the structure of the inward Parts;
and so of making many, both Anatomic and Pathologic Remarks. In doing
this it appears by what _Pliny_ says, _Lib._ 19. 5. _That Kings
themselves did often assist_. Also frequently perceiving the inefficacy
of their _Magic_, they began likewise to enquire into the Physical power
of Herbs, and other Remedies proper for the cure of Diseases, and the
Cures suppos’d to be made, whether by natural or magical Arts, were
preserv’d by some sort of Memoirs made of them by the Priests,
[Sidenote: _Serapis_ or _Apis_ the _Egyptian Æsculapius_.] wherein a
more especial care was taken by _Serapis_ or _Apis_ one of the Chief,
and the _Egyptian Æsculapius_. Upon these accounts, the Priests, as they
were the Doctors in Philosophy, [Sidenote: _Priests_ the proper
_Physicians_.] so were they the only Physicians, properly so call’d, by
whom Directions were given to _Surgeons_, _Embalmers_, and all other
Operators appertaining to Medicine. They were also of that honourable
Degree, as _Gyraldus_ reports from _Plato_, that out of them the Kings
were often chosen. For altho’ the Servants of _Joseph_, who _Embalm’d_
his Father, were term’d Physicians, yet are we to understand those Men,
who were directed by the Priests, the true Physicians, to be only
Operators in curing the Infirm or _Embalming_ the Dead. Wherefore the
_Septuagint_, who knew the Law in this Case, do not say, the Command was
given τοῖς Ἰατροῖς but τοῖς ἐνταφιασταῖς, a sort of Men to whom the Care
of Funerals was committed.

‘The next and greatest Improver and Patron of the _Egyptian_ Medicine,
[Sidenote: _Hermes Trismegistus._] was _Hermes Trismegistus_, so call’d
says _Diodorus Siculus_, and others after him, from ἑρμηνεύω, by reason
he interpreted the _Hieroglyphics_ and Sacred _Language_: But this tho’
he did, yet the derivation of his Name from thence is a fiction; for
according to the _Greek_ manner of deriving a Noun from a Verb, he
should not have been call’d Ἑρμῆς but Ἑρμηνεὺς; and therefore on the
contrary, as Ἑλληνίος, ἑλληνίζω and other like Words, are all deriv’d
from Ἕλλην the Son of _Deucalion_, who first planted _Greece_; so
ἑρμηνεύς, ἑρμηνεύω, and other Words of the same nature are all deriv’d
from Ἑρμῆς; for the Original whereof, we are not to look into _Greece_
but _Egypt_, where we find _Armais_, one of their Kings, and somewhat
junior to _Moses_, [Sidenote: Suppos’d to be _Armais_.] as _Hermes_ is
also said to be. The radical Letters in both are also the same. This
_Armais_ was also call’d _Amersis_ or _Mersurius_, and so by mistake
_Mercurius_; the _Coptic_ Letter _Sima_ being written like the _Roman_
C, and also _Trismegistus_, or thrice very great, answerable to a like
_Egyptian_ Name, now lost, given him, [Sidenote: A great _Philosopher_,
_Priest_ and _King_.] as he was esteem’d a great Philosopher, a great
Priest and a great King.

[Sidenote: The second _Mercury_.]

‘This second _Mercury_, having before him a considerable stock of
Observations provided by the Priests, and several others of his own,
compos’d all, as _Jamblichus_ from _Sulencus_ and _Manetho_ reports,
into many thousands of Volumes, that is, of so many Leaves roul’d up of
Books, afterwards made of these Volumes. _Clemens Alexandrinus_,
_Strom._ 6. says, _There were Forty two which were useful_; six of them
appertaining to Medicine, _viz._ of _Anatomy_, _Diseases_, _Surgery_,
_Pharmacy_, particular Medicines for the _Eyes_, infected with many
Diseases in _Egypt_, and lastly for _Women_; which Books became, as may
be gather’d from _Diodorus Siculus_, as it were the Statute-Law in
_Egypt_, for the practice in Physic in after Times. [Sidenote: The great
establisher of _Magic_.] Yet in all these Books, it is certain, with the
physical Account of Things, there was a mixture of _Magic_; the Author
of them being the great Establisher of this Art. Now if some
Chronologers are not mistaken when they say _Armais_ was the King who
was drown’d in the _Red-Sea_, then this same _Armais_, that is, _Hermes
Trismegistus_ must be the very Man, who by his Magicians contended with
_Moses_; and was therefore rais’d up, the more remarkably to confound
them at his fall. It is manifest the Books now and antiently extant,
under this _Hermes_’s Name, are all of this Nature; which tho’ not
written by him, but by certain of the later _Egyptian_ Priests, are
believ’d by _Jamblichus_, _Porphirius_ and others, faithfully to
represent his Sense. Therefore _Celsus_, also quoted by _Origen_ against
him, _Lib._ 8. tells us, as a piece of _Egyptian Philosophy_, in his
Time current, That the Body of Man was divided into Thirty six Parts;
each of which was possess’d with a _God_ or _Dæmon_, which being call’d
upon by the _Magi_, cur’d the Diseases of the parts they possess’d. And
as they appropriated several unto one Man, so, says _Herodotus_, did
they to every Beast one; to all, says _Justin_, but the _Hog_. And by
the Author of the Book entitul’d, _Trismegisti Asclepias_, the same in
effect is said of Plants and Stones, _viz._ That there was τὸ Θεῖον,
something of Divinity in them all; nor was the magical Ceremony laid
aside in _Galen_’s Time, as appears by what he reports of one
_Pamphilus_, _Qui ad Præstigiaturas Ægyptias versus fuit, junctis
Incantationibus quas obmurmurat, cum Herbas colligunt_. Also the Author
of the Book, _De Medicamentis Expertis_, ascrib’d to _Galen_, speaking
of the _Egyptian_ Priests, has this passage, _Laudamus Medicos
Altarium_, Ægyptiorum puta, _qui curant cum Cibis Sacrificiorum_.

[Sidenote: _Magical Medicine_ spread over most _Countries_.]

‘Nor did magical Medicine keep within _Egypt_ only, but was thence
spread abroad into most other Countries, partly as they fell under the
Government of some of their conquering Kings, and partly as _Egypt_ was
the great Academy, to which the Philosophers of other Nations made their
resort, and whence Physicians were often call’d unto Foreign Princes,
who, with their physical, carry’d abroad their magical Skill. The
younger _Apollo_ was Author of _Divination_ in _Greece_, as the elder
was in _Egypt_. Also in _Epidaurus_, _Cous_ and other Places, his Temple
was always full of sick People; as was likewise that of _Æsculapius_.

[Sidenote: _Medicines_, why call’d _Pharmaca_.]

‘Medicines were term’d _Pharmaca_, which antiently signify’d Poysons,
because it was believ’d, unless they were magically us’d, they would do
more hurt than good; therefore _Jarchas_, in his Life of _Apollonius_,
tells us also, They who were esteem’d Sons of _Æsculapius_ had made but
small proficiency in the Art of Medicine, _Nisi Æsculapius, juxta Patris
sui Vaticinia, Morbis proficua Remedia composuisset_. Nor were the
Oriental Nations without their _Teraphim_, a sort of constellated
Images, by them so call’d, and us’d, among other purposes, in the cure
of Diseases; from whence θεραπεύω, signifies both to worship and heal.
_Eusebius_ also in his _Prol. ad_ Lib. 4. _Præp. Evang._ reduces all to
_Theology_, as in _Egypt_, so among the rest of the _Gentiles_: _In
Gentilium Theologia Civili, continentur Oracula, Responsa, & Curæ
Morborum_. So true is that Saying of _Celsus_, concerning _Hippocrates_
in his Præface: _Primus Disciplinam hanc_, Medicinalem puta, _ab studio
Sapientiæ separavit_: that is, from _magical Theology_, the reputed
Wisdom of those Times.’

That this was the antient state of Medicine in _Egypt_, and all over the
World, is farther apparent from the _Hebrews_, being peremptorily
requir’d to expel from among them, all such as practis’d the same,
_Deut._ 18. 10, 11. Those who Sacrifice their Children, as the
_Phænicians_ did for a Remedy against the Plague, as also Diviners,
Observers of Times, Enchanters, Witches, Charmers, Consulters of
Familiar Spirits, Wizards and Necromancers; so many kinds of Magicians,
who among other Things, undertook the Cure and Prognostics of Diseases,
so many several ways, particularly the Charmer, _v._ 11. term’d by the
_Septuagint_, φαρμακὸς ἐπαείδων ἐπαοιδήν one that us’d Medicines and
Charms together: [Sidenote: _Magic_ us’d in _Embalming_.] Thus was
_Magic_ so generally mix’d by the _Egyptians_ with their _Physic_, that
the very Dead that were _Embalm’d_ were not free from it. This appears
from the various Ornaments of their _Mummies_, being adorn’d with
painted Characters and Hieroglyphics, and defended by several little
Idols or Averruncal Gods. Some of these were plac’d within the Bodies,
as suppos’d, perhaps to preserve them from Corruption; and others were
sow’d to their out-sides, plac’d upon their Tombs, or in their
Burial-Vaults, there to guard them from external Injuries, and by the
various Shapes they represented, to deter Men from violating them; but
of these we shall speak more particularly in another place.

Yet however Superstitious and Idolatrous the antient _Egyptians_ were in
Magical Physic, they were soon convinc’d of the inefficacy of such
Practices, therefore study’d other Methods and Physical Remedies, which
might prove more prevalent; and altho’ they did not immediately leave
off the former, yet was it to the latter only their admirable success in
Physic was owing. In like manner are we to believe the preservation of
dead Bodies was not effected by those Charms or Idols, found about them,
but purely perform’d by an extraordinary Skill in _Medicine_ and
_Anatomy_, and particularly in that exquisite _Art_ of _Embalming_. In
this, that they might be the better instructed, and more thoroughly
knowing, they took such infallible Methods, as none could hardly be
ignorant of that part they were to perform; for they had these several
Persons belonging to and employ’d in _Embalming_, [Sidenote: _Persons_
how qualify’d for _Embalming_.] each performing a distinct and separate
Office, _viz._ a _Designer_ or _Painter_, a _Dissector_ or _Anatomist_,
a _Pollinctor_ or _Apothecary_, an _Embalmer_ or _Surgeon_, and a
_Physician_ or _Priest_, which last was a great _Philosopher_, and
taught and instructed the others in these Ceremonies, as we shall shew
in its proper Place.

By this means, not only the Art of _Embalming_, but likewise every
branch of Physic, flourish’d and came to the greatest perfection,
whereas, in our Age, every Art grows the more imperfect as it incroaches
on another, and the civil Wars now a Days between _Physicians_,
_Surgeons_ and _Apothecaries_ have been the chief occasions of reducing
Physic to so low an ebb; for whilst these have been fighting for each
others Countries, the Monarchy was usurp’d by _Quacks_ and
_Undertakers_, who are the only _Vultures_ that attend such Battles, in
order to prey immediately on the vanquish’d Enemy. Now did every one
keep to his own Province, as they did formerly in _Egypt_, there would
be none of these Divisions among us, but every Art would flourish and
stand upon its own Basis, and yet, I assure you, it would be found more
difficult to understand, and perform one Art rightly, than to acquire a
superficial Knowledge of many Things, in other Businesses, which relate
little to the Purpose. [Sidenote: No _Quacks_ or _Undertakers_ in
_Egypt_.] To prevent these, there were in _Egypt_ no Pretenders to
Physic in general, nor any Artists who medl’d with anothers Province,
each keeping strictly to his own, as _Herodotus_ assures us in his
_Euterpe_, where he tells us, some only profess’d curing Diseases of the
Head, others of the Ears; some were Oculists, others Tooth-Drawers; some
for particular Diseases in Men, and others for those in Women. In a
word, there were Physicians for every Disease, but none pretended to
more than one. The same thing was observ’d in other Arts, for better
maintaining of which, a Law was enacted, that if any Person exercis’d
more than one Profession or Trade, he should incur the most grievous of
Punishments; and King _Amasis_ also made a Law, That such as had no
Profession or Trade at all, or did not yearly make appear, to the
Governors of the Provinces how they lawfully got their Livelihoods,
should be punish’d with Death. This Law _Solon_ borrow’d of the
_Egyptians_, and carry’d to _Athens_, where he had it put in practice:
Is it not therefore a shame for us, who, no doubt, esteem our selves a
much more polite People than those Heathens were, to suffer a sort of
Men call’d _Undertakers_, to monopolize the several Trades of _Glovers_,
_Milliners_, _Drapers_, _Wax-Chandlers_, _Coffin-Makers_,
_Herald-Painters_, _Surgeons_, _Apothecaries_, and the like.

[Sidenote: _Art_ can never Flourish where they are.]

Art can never flourish where ’tis assum’d by every ignorant Pretender,
nor be brought to any perfection, while practis’d by illiterate Persons.
We may as well expect one, that has never seen a Campaign, should
understand Military Discipline; or one that has never been at Sea,
Command and Steer a Ship rightly, as that an _Upholsterer_, a _Taylor_,
_Joyner_, or the like _Undertaker_, should be well skill’d in the
misterious _Art_ of _Embalming_. These are the present Grievances, as
well in Sciences as Trade, and ’till such Time as _Quacks_ and
_Undertakers_, _Hawkers_, _Pedlers_ and _Interlopers_, and all such
Persons, as were not brought up in the Emploiment they profess, be
remov’d; we can think no otherwise but that _Art_ must sink, Trade be
ruin’d, and every public Office, as well at Court as in the Country, be
ill serv’d: For whence came every Art and Science, nay all kinds of
Learning, to flourish so mightily in _Egypt_? And how came it to pass
the _Egyptians_ so much excell’d, and perform’d more wonderful Works,
than all the World beside, but only by strictly confining every Artist
to his particular Emploiment, and punishing all that any ways interfer’d
with another? But lest we may seem to dwell too long on this Subject,
which we think also more convenient to be discours’d of in another part
of this Book, we will next proceed to consider, besides their Pharmacy,
the extraordinary Skill of the _Egyptians_ in other Branches of
_Physic_, such as _Anatomy_, _Chymistry_, _Surgery_, &c.

[Sidenote: _Egyptians_ well skill’d in _Anatomy_.]

That the _Egyptians_ must needs understand the natural _Oeconomy_ of the
Body, appears in that they were the first that employ’d their Industry
in searching out the inward Nature of Animals by _Anatomy_, and first
open’d Human Bodies to discover their respective Diseases. _Olaus
Borrichius_, _Lib. de Ægypt. Sap._ p. 141. brings many Arguments to
prove their Knowledge in _Anatomy_; and among them, this out of _Aulus
Gellius_, Lib. 10. c. 10. _Veteres Græcos, annulum habuisse in Digito
sinistræ Manus, qui minimo est proximus: Romanos quoque Homines aiunt
sic plerumq; Annulis usitatos; Causam esse hujus rei Appion in Libris
Ægyptiacis hanc dicit; Quod insectis apertisq; Humanis Corporibus, ut
mos in Ægypto fuit, quas Græci_ Ἀνατομὰς _apellant repertum est Nervum
quendam tenuissimum, ab eo uno Digito, de quo diximus, ad Cor Hominis
pergere ac pervenire: Propterea non inscitum visum esse, eum potissimum
Digitum tali Honore decorandum, qui continens & quasi connexus esse in
principatu Cordis videretur_. _That the antient_ Greeks _wore a Ring on
that Finger of the left Hand, which is next to the little one: And it is
likewise said of the_ Romans, _that they for the most part wore their
Rings in the same manner; of which_ Appion, _in his_ Egyptian
_Treatises, gives this Reason; That the_ Egyptians _in Dissecting, and
opening Human Bodies, which was a Custom among them, call’d by the_
Greeks Anatomy, _found a certain slender Nerve, deriv’d from their
Finger above-mention’d, which crept along ’till it inserted it self into
the Heart; wherefore they thought convenient that Finger should chiefly
be adorn’d with such Honour_. _Macrobius_, as quoted by _Polydor
Virgil_, _de Rerum Inventione_, p. 140. affirms likewise, _Quod ille
Digitus annulo ornatur, quia ab eo Nervus quidam ad Cor pertinet_. Also
in _Saturnius_, Lib. 7. c. 13. _Disarius_, in consulting the _Egyptian_
Books of _Anatomy_, says, he found the same. _Orus_ adds, that for this
Reason the _Egyptian_ Priests anointed that Finger with sweet Odours;
which Doctrine however, _Conringius_ says, deserves rather to be laugh’d
at than confuted; nevertheless, _Borrichius_ thinks there may perhaps be
a more secret consent between that Finger and the Heart, than young
_Anatomists_ are aware of, therefore endeavours to prove the same, _p._
143. However, says he, we need not wonder if the _Egyptians_ were
sometimes in the dark, when at this Day the _Anatomy_ of the _Greeks_ is
so empty; and surely ’twas as easie a matter for the _Greeks_ to have
added something more solid, to the _Egyptian Anatomy_, as for us Moderns
to have so much improv’d it after them. But nothing was invented and
perfected at the same Time, therefore we must not imagine the _Anatomy_
of the _Egyptians_ to have been so compleat as ours is now. Yet he that
shall think the wise _Egyptians_ could be so absurd as to believe the
Heart Annually increas’d the weight of two Drams, for the space of Fifty
Years, and afterwards gradually decreas’d for Fifty more, must needs be
guilty of too great credulity, since none can doubt but that Persons of
all Ages were open’d by them, in order to _Embalming_, and therefore
such like Follies must of necessity have been refuted by ocular
Inspection and Demonstration. That which _Conringius_ chiefly builds
upon, is, that all the _Anatomy_ of the _Egyptians_ was only instituted
for the use of _Embalming_; yet, which is likewise confuted by _Pliny_,
Lib. 19. c. 5. where speaking of the _Phthiriasis_, he says, The Cure
thereof was found out in _Egypt_, Kings being accustom’d to Dissect dead
Bodies, for that purpose: The words are plain, _In Ægypto Regibus
Corpora mortuorum ad scrutandos Morbos insectantibus_. This I look upon
to be the chief intent of their _Anatomy_, and not the use of
_Embalming_, since, if we may believe _Diodorus Siculus_, those who were
the _Dissectors_ very probably understood no more than what they were
directed to perform by the _Priest_ and _Scribe_. The same Author
assures us it was even a very unthankful Office to perform that; for no
sooner had they finish’d their Incision, but they were forc’d to run
away, the By-standers most commonly flinging Stones at them, as
abhorring to see them exercise such seeming Cruelty on their Friend or
Relation. Yet this does not disprove their Skill or Practice of
_Anatomy_ for other Purposes, since, besides the foregoing Arguments, we
are assur’d they were well acquainted with _Ostiology_; [Sidenote: And
_Ostiology_.] for _Galen_, Lib. 1. _De admin. Anatom._ advising as well
ocular Inspection as reading good Authors, says, _It is best to be done
at_ Alexandria, _where Physicians, expose to the sight of their
Auditors, the Discipline of the Bones_. On the contrary, tho’ the
_Egyptian Embalmers_ did not rightly understand _Anatomy_, yet is that
_Art_ nevertheless very requisite to be known, by those who would be
thoroughly acquainted with the more exquisite Methods of the Moderns;
for hereby they may be instructed how to keep the Muscles, make
Skeletons, and prepare Schemes of the Nerves, Arteries and Veins, as
likewise to preserve the Brain, Lungs, Stomach, Bowels, _Uterus_, and
other curious Preparations, which serve instead of Books or Pictures for
the Instruction of young Pupils, and refreshing the Memories of more
experienc’d Practicers. In a word, I may justly say, to _Anatomy_ are
owing those rare Inventions of _Steno_, _Swammerdam_, _Ruysh_,
_Blanchard_, _Bilsius_ and others, for their new Methods of _Embalming_.

[Sidenote: _Chymistry_ Invented by _Hermes_.]

As _Chymistry_ is said to have had its Rise in _Egypt_, so is it also
generally suppos’d to have been invented by _Hermes_. But that this Art
was somewhat different from what we at this Day understand by that
Denomination, appears from the Etymology of the Word, which the _Greeks_
call, χημεία, ἡ τοῦ ἀργύρου καὶ χρυσοῦ κατασκευή, _al._ χυμία, i. e.
_Fusio Metallorum_; _præfixo artic. [Sidenote: The _Art_ of making
_Gold_ and _Silver_.] Arab_, Al, _Alchimy_, _Chymistry_; or, The Art of
melting and counterfeiting Metals. _Suidas_ likewise calls _Chymistry_,
The preparation or making of _Gold_ and _Silver_. This was the true
_Philosophers Stone_ which so enrich’d that Kingdom, and brought all
their Arts to a mighty Perfection; and in quest of which, so many
Persons of all Nations have since fruitlesly consum’d both their Lives
and Fortunes. Whereas, on the contrary, by this Art the Wealth of the
_Egyptians_ was increas’d to that immense degree, that they study’d
means how to expend what they had heap’d up. On this occasion _Pliny_,
Lib. 36. c. 12. thus writes: _Dicuntur_, says he, _obiter & Pyramides in
eadem Ægypto, Regum Pecuniæ otiosa & stulta Ostentatio_. But besides
their _Pyramids_, their _Obelisques_, _Colossus’s_, _Monuments_,
_Pensile Gardens_ and _Cities_, their _Labyrinth_, Lake _Mœris_, and the
like stupendious Works, which cost so many Millions of Talents, are
sufficient Arguments of their Skill in _Alchymy_, whence they receiv’d
so vast a supply of Riches. ’Tis recorded of _Ptolomy Philadelphus_, he
spent at one pompous Show at _Alexandria_, and that even when _Egypt_
was declining, 2239 Talents, as _Athenæus_ reckons up, _Deipn._ Lib. 5.
c. 8. Not to mention their Statues and Temples of entire Gold, or the
Cedar Ship, built by _Sesostris_, which was 280 Cubits in length, the
outside cover’d with Gold, and the inside with Silver, as _Diodorus_
asserts. We have a sufficient remarkable instance of their great Riches
in the Tomb of _Osymanduas_, describ’d by the same Author, about which
there was a Circle of Gold 365 Cubits in compass, and one Cubit thick,
which Circle was afterwards carry’d away by _Cambyses_, the _Persian_
Monarch, when he conquer’d _Egypt_; besides which, as _Marcellinus_,
Lib. 6. reports, he took out of _Thebes_ 300 Talens of Gold, and at
least 2300 of Silver. Now, since no Authors mention any Gold Mines in
the Time of _Osiris_ or _Hermes_, whence can we imagine they should
acquire such exceeding great Wealth, but from the _Chymic Art_ of
transmuting Metals? Besides the _Egyptian_ Mines, which perhaps were
afterwards discover’d, could yeild but little Profit, because of the
vast Expence and Labour they must be at in Digging them. What farther
seems to confirm their Knowledge in this misterious _Art_, is that, as
_Suidas_ reports, the Emperor _Dioclesian_ upon his taking _Alexandria_,
search’d with the utmost diligence for all these _Chymical_ Books,
written by the Ancients, and burn’d what he found, both to prevent the
_Egyptians_ growing thereby Rich and Rebelling against him. It was
nevertheless thought, the Art of making Gold remain’d for some Time,
among the _Egyptians_ of the first Rank, at _Colchis_, and that by
_Jason_’s Golden Fleece, was meant a Book of _Chymistry_ written on
Sheep-skin or Vellum, which he fetch’d from thence. However, at last
this _Art_ was lost, and perhaps for these following Reasons: [Sidenote:
How the _Egyptians Arts_ came to be lost.] _First_, Because the
_Egyptian_ Priests, who were Masters of all Sciences, conceal’d their
_Chymistry_ as much as might be, lest others, excited by their
Happiness, might envy their Treasure, and consequently hasten their
Ruin. _Secondly_, Because these Priests were so obstinate and resolute,
they would rather chuse to suffer the greatest Tortures than discover
their Art. _Thirdly_, In that their _Chymical Books_, &c. being written
in secret Characters, and consequently understood by few, were laid up
in Subterranean Vaults, or private Recesses of their Temples, for fear
of the Incursions of their Enemies, thro’ which means some never came to
light. And, _Lastly_, by reason of the hostile Invasions of the
_Persians_, _Ethiopians_, _Romans_ and others, who ransack’d the Temples
of _Memphis_, _Thebes_ and _Alexandria_, where these _secret Arts_ were
kept, burnt that famous Library of _Ptolemy Philadelphus_, which
contain’d about 700000 Volumes, and destroy’d in like manner the
_Serapion_. All this consider’d, we need not wonder if this, as well as
their _Art_ of _Embalming_, be lost. But ’tis farther to be noted, as
their _Chymistry_ was very profitable to them in making Gold and Silver,
[Sidenote: The _Art_ of tinging _Glass_ and making Artificial _Stones_.]
so in teaching them how to give beautiful Tinctures to Stones and Glass,
as also Enamel, make Pastes, and the like, was equally curious and
delightful. They were wont to make Drinking-Glasses, call’d
[3]_Allassontes_, which would change colour like a Pidgeons Neck; one of
which, as _Vopiscus_ relates, being presented by an _Alexandrian_ Priest
to the Emperor _Adrian_, was esteem’d by him as a great Gift and rare
Invention. They could likewise tinge the _Lapis Obsidianus_ and
_Cyanos_, with various beautiful Colours, as _Pliny_, _Lib._ 36. _c._
26. and _Lib._ 37. _c._ 9. relates. Also _Seneca_ _Epist._ XC. tells us
_Democritus_, by being well acquainted with the _Egyptians_, discover’d
how to soften Ivory, and by boiling a Stone, learn’d how to convert it
into an Emerald; for those People are said to have made Gems so
artificially, they imitated the natural both in lustre and hardness.
Moreover, _Appion Plistonices_ writes, there was to be seen in the
Labyrinth of _Egypt_ a Colossus of _Serapis_ 9 Cubits high of an entire
Emerald, which surely must have proceeded from a Chymical Operation,
since neither of the _Indies_ have hitherto been able to produce the
like Rarity. By all this ’tis plain the antient _Egyptians_ knew the
more secret and profitable part of _Chymistry_, but whether that
relating to Physic was practis’d by them, in the same manner as with us,
is a Matter of some concern in _Embalming_, but, by reason of the
scarcity of their Monuments or Books, not so easie to determine. Yet
that they were not wholly ignorant thereof, appears by their _Æs ustum_,
_Ærugo_, _Alumen ustum_, _Diphryges_, _Misy_, _Sory_, _Nitre_, _Sal
Armoniac_, _Salts_ latent in Ashes, _Calcinations_, and the like
Operations which require the help of Fire; [Sidenote: The _Art_ of
_Distilling_, _Calcining_, &c.] as also in that they were acquainted
with the _Art_ of _Distilling_, whereby Bodies were made Incorporeal,
rarify’d into Fumes, and afterwards kept from evaporating by help of
_Alembics_, _Matrasses_ and _Retorts_ well luted to their Heads and
Receivers. These Vessels were made of Glass, and some of them with their
Figures have been describ’d by _Zosimus_, an antient _Chymist_ of
_Panopolis_, in his Book περὶ ὀργάνων καὶ καμίνων, from whence _Olaus
Borrichius_ had his Plate in his Book _De Hermetis Ægyptiorum
sapientia_, p. 156. Now certainly, after all has been said, no Body will
pretend to dispute the use of _Chymical_ Preparations in _Embalming_,
[Sidenote: _Chymical Medicines_ useful in _Embalming_.] who has heard of
the wonderful Effects of the _Spiritus Solomonis_, the _Spiritus
universalis Clauderi_, the _Spiritus Matricalis Blancardi_, the _Sal
enixum Paracelsi_, _Sal mirabile Glauberi_, _Succinum liquidum
Kerkringij_, the _Arcanum Bilsij_, and other Chymical Spirits, Tinctures
and Balsams, too many to be enumerated here, therefore I intend to
describe them at large in my _Pharmacopœia_.

Footnote 3:

  Ἀλλάσσοντες, i. _Variantes, Sc. Calices, quod essent versicolores_.

[Sidenote: _Surgery_ Invented and Improv’d in _Egypt_.]

_Surgery_, which was another branch of their _Physic_, was, as
_Sanchuniathon_ asserts, invented by _Æsculapius_ the _Egyptian_, first
of that Name, Son of _Jupiter_, and Brother of _Mercury_, who reign’d at
_Memphis_ according to the report of _Clemens Alexandrinus_. After his
Name several others were so call’d, who, in succeeding Ages, contriv’d
any new Methods of dressing or binding up Wounds, or added any thing
else which was curious to _Surgery_. This _Art_ increas’d much in
_Egypt_, as _Celsus_ Lib. 7. _Præf._ witnesses; and _Philoxenus_, a very
good Author, compos’d many Books thereof. _Egypt_ also was the chief
place famous for _Surgery_, insomuch that _Cyrus_ King of the
_Persians_, when he found no Remedy for a Disease in his Eyes, among his
own _Physicians_ and _Surgeons_, friendly besought _Amasis_ King of
_Egypt_, that he would send him an Oculist, whom he accordingly receiv’d
with desir’d Success, as _Herodotus_ in his _Thalia_ acquaints us.
Likewise both the _Greeks_ and _Romans_, in case of necessity, requir’d
and receiv’d the like Benefit from the _Egyptians_; but that their
_Surgery_ was so complete as ours is now, none will allow, nevertheless,
this must be granted, that they had some Medicaments which we stand in
need of; for _Dioscorides_, Lib. 5. c. 158. and _Pliny_, Lib. 36. c. 7.
make mention of the _Lapis Memphitis_, which being powder’d and mix’d
with Vinegar, they us’d to anoint any part with which they intended to
Burn or Cut, and it so stupify’d it without any danger, that the Patient
underwent the Operation almost without any Pain.

[Sidenote: How useful in _Embalming_.]

_Surgery_ therefore being of that antiquity, and so well known by the
_Egyptians_, ’twill be expected I should apply it to our Subject of
_Embalming_: Wherefore, as was before mention’d, _p._ 177. there being
several Persons employ’d to _Embalm_ a Corps, as they were directed by
the _Physician_, so one of those, to wit the _Embalmer_, we take to be
properly a _Surgeon_, inasmuch as by understanding the nature of
Fermentation and Putrifaction, both of the Juices and Blood, as also how
to cure Mortifications in the Living, he might thereby be better enabl’d
to prevent the like Qualities in the Dead. This he is likewise more
capable of, by being well acquainted with Galenical and Chymical
Medicines, and Anatomical Preparations and Experiments; in which
Matters, seeing _Physicians_ are generally most knowing, _Santorellus_
thought it their Property, and consequently wrote a Book on this
Subject, entitl’d, _Post Praxis Medica_, which shews what a Physician
has to do after his Patient is dead, _viz._ To prescribe proper Remedies
for _Embalming_ him, as the _Egyptian Priests_ or _Physicians_ were wont
to direct their Operators to do. So that ’tis plain, the true Office of
the _Physician_ was to prescribe, the _Apothecaries_ to compound
Medicines, anoint the Body, _&c._ and the _Surgeons_ to _Embalm_ and
roul it up; [Sidenote: It teaches the _Art_ of _Bandage_.] an _Art_
which scarce any of our Moderns can equal, and perhaps I may have been
the first that has imitated it, as Mr. _Talman_, one of our _Masters_ of
_Anatomy_, can witness I perform’d on the Body of Sir _Robert Jeffrys_,
whom we _Embalm’d_.

[Sidenote: A _Surgeon_ the proper _Embalmer_.]

He therefore whom the _Egyptians_ call’d the _Embalmer_, was strictly
speaking the _Surgeon_, for as much as the _curing the Corps_ was to be
perform’d by a manual Operation, and local application of Medicines, a
Thing which requir’d much care, skill and dexterity, and which, a Person
that is not as well acquainted with this, as Balsamic Medicines, can
never perform as he ought, or be able to invent any new Method; whereas
_Frederic Ruysch_, a good _Physician_, a great _Anatomist_ and Reader of
_Surgery_ at _Amsterdam_, was well skill’d in this _Art_ of _Embalming_,
as his several Preparations of the Veins, Arteries, _Uterus_, &c.
testifie, all which, Doctor _Brown_, President of the College of
Physicians _London_, affirms he saw most accurately done at _Ruysch_’s
House at _Amsterdam_, and which he particularly mentions in his Book of
Travels, _viz._ The Lymphatic Vessels so preserv’d, that their Valves
were very perspicuous, and the very minute Vessels of an excarn’d Liver
clear and shining. He likewise says, he saw the Muscles of Children
dissected and kept free from Corruption; as also an entire Body
preserv’d, and the Face of one without the least spot, change of colour,
or alteration of the Lineaments, from what might be expected after
Death, and yet _Ruysch_ had kept them Two Years, and hop’d so to
continue them.

We have insisted the longer on _Physic_ and its particular Branches,
such as _Anatomy_, _Chymistry_, _Surgery_, &c. in as much as they not
only teach how to prevent and cure Diseases, but likewise to _Embalm_
dead Bodies. Yet seeing the _Egyptians_ were famous in other Arts and
Sciences, such as _Painting_, _Carving_, _Architecture_, _Astronomy_,
_Geometry_ and the _Mathematics_, some of which conduc’d very much to
their _Embalmings_, and others to the erecting and compleating their
_Pyramids_ and _Monuments_; it may not be impertinent to enquire into
those Arts, by which _Egypt_ grew into such repute, that it was
generally esteem’d, in respect to its Magnificence, [Sidenote: _Egypt
Mistress_ of the _World_, and _Mother_ of all _Arts_ and _Sciences_.]
_The Mistress of the World_; to its Fertility, _The Magazine or
Store-House of the World_; and to its Antiquity, _The Origin, or Mother
of all Arts and Sciences_. This Digression I hope will be the more
pardonable, in that it will be somewhat diverting to the _Lovers_ of
_Art_, and also help to give a true Notion of the several Ceremonies and
great Expences us’d about their _Embalm’d_ Bodies. [Sidenote:
_Egyptians_ their _Antiquity_.] We will first therefore begin with their
_Antiquity_, for from thence we may expect the first Progress or
Invention, tho’ perhaps not the Perfection of _Arts_; in which point the
_Egyptians_ would make us believe, the first Men were form’d in their
Country, and give so great a number of their Kings, and so long a
duration of their Reigns, as to deduce their Origin some Thousands of
Years before the Creation of the World; asserting also that they were
govern’d by the Gods about 25000 Years, before their Kingdom fell into
the Hands of Men: But however questionable this Tradition may be, yet is
it not to be doubted but the _Egyptians_ were of very great _Antiquity_,
and perhaps the antientest People of the World, from whom _Laws_,
_Arts_, _Sciences_ and _Ceremonies_ were first deriv’d to other
Countries. [Sidenote: Their _Inventions_.] Now the Inventions commonly
attributed to them are, _Geometry_, _Arithmetic_, _Music_, _Astrology_,
_Physic_, _Necromancy_ or _Sorcery_, _Carving_, _Painting_, _Enameling_,
_Fluxing_ of _Metals_ and _Stones_, curious Works in _Glass_, and making
of fine _Linnen_, _Mathematical Machines_ and _Automata_, _Pneumatic_
and _Hydraulic_ Engines, and various other _Mechanical Curiosities_; in
a word, all kinds of _Learning_ and _Ingenuity_, but more particularly
they were the first Inventors of the _Art_ of _Embalming_. Some of these
we have already mention’d, therefore shall only speak of those not
hitherto treated of. _First_ then, The _Thebans_ boast they were the
most antient _Philosophers_ and _Astrologers_, [Sidenote: _Astrology._]
as having found out the first Rules for the Improvement of those
_Sciences_, since they most accurately observ’d the Courses of the Sun,
Moon and Stars, their Eclipses, Constellations, Risings, Aspects and
Influences, dividing thereby their Years into Months, and grounding
their Divinations on their hidden Properties; yet did they so manage
their Prognostications, that they could certainly foretel every
particular Event.

[Sidenote: _Mathematics._]

In the _Mathematics_ and _Mechanical Powers_ the _Egyptians_ were
particularly famous, for they had Engines whereby they could raise their
_Obelisques_, and hoist up vast Stones to so incredible and prodigious a
height as their _Pyramids_ are. They also devis’d other wonderful
Machines for divers purposes, as some for dreining Marshes, others for
watering Gardens, of which _Diodorus Siculus_ says, In the pensile
Garden of _Semiramis_ there was an Engine, that, thro’ certain Conduits
or Conveyances from the Platform of the Garden, drew a great quantity of
Water out of the River, yet no Body was the wiser or knew how it was
done. A third sort of Machines they had for destroying and confounding
their Enemy, with which last they had once almost reduc’d _Julius Cæsar_
to extream despair, when he invested _Alexandria_ with his whole Army;
for as _Aulus Hirtius_, Writer of that War, relates, _Ganymedes_ with
Wheels and other Machines of great force, pump’d the Water out of the
Sea, and threw it from high Places, with that great force and violence
on _Cæsar_’s Men, that they thought of raising the Seige. He farther
adds, That by those means he also made all their Water so salt they
could not drink it. But besides these they had a sort of Water-Works for
pleasure, as their _Organa Hydraulica_ or Water-Organs, and others for
measuring Time, as the _Clepsydra_ or Water-Hour-Glass. They had
likewise other Machines which mov’d with the Air or Wind, and some
_Automata_ that went by invisible Springs; for, as _Cælius Rhodiginus_
relates, the _Egyptians_ made some Statues of their Gods both to walk of
themselves, and also to utter certain Words articulately. As to their
Motion, that may be ascrib’d to some Wheels and Springs within, and
their Voice or Speech, to some Air forc’d up thro’ Pipes plac’d in their
Heads and Mouths. _Kircher_ in _Tom._ 2. _Oed. Ægyptiac._ gives many
Examples of _Pneumatical_ Engines, among the _Egyptians_, in their
Temples. Yet is there none so remarkable as the Statue of _Memnon_,
which was made by the _Theban_ Priests with that Art and Contrivance,
that in the Morning, on the rising of the Sun, and the striking of its
Beams upon it, it utter’d a kind of Music. This was so famous a piece of
Work, that Men travell’d from far to see it. _Lucian_ the _Sophister_
went to view that Miracle, as he terms it, and as he tells us in his
_Philopseudes_. The same did the Emperor _Severus_, as _Spartianus_
informs us, and _Germanicus_, as _Tacitus_, and _Strabo_, that judicious
_Geographer_, went to see it; the like did _Apollonius Tyanæus_, as
_Philostratus_ writes, which Matter need not seem fabulous, says
_Natalis Comes_, to any that shall understand the Power of Art and Human
Wit, nor how expert the _Theban_ Priests were in all _Mathematical
Sciences_. But I need say no more in particular of their Art of
Building, Carving or Painting, [Sidenote: Their wonderful _Works_ in
_Architecture_.] since those will appear much more conspicuous by a
Relation of such stupendious and beautiful Works as were the City of
_Thebes_, together with its stately Sepulchres, Obelisks and Temples,
all built by them. The Sepulchre of King _Osymandua_, the Cities of
_Memphis_, _Cairo_, _Babylon_ and _Alexandria_, the Tower of _Pharos_,
the long Wall built by _Sesostris_, the _Labyrinth_, their _Pyramids_,
_Obelisks_, _Columns_, _Colossus’s_, _Statues_, _Sphinx’s_, _Monuments_,
_Subterranean Vaults_ and _Lamps_, and other like admirable Works,
testifie their extraordinary Skill and Ingenuity in all kinds of Arts to
be such, as neither the _Greeks_, _Romans_, nor any other Nation were
afterwards capable of. But that you may not, Sir, be put off with a bare
enumeration of them, I will give such a particular account of them, as
will, I dare say, not only surprise and divert the Reader, but also lead
him into every minute Circumstance of their _Embalming_.

[Sidenote: _Thebes._]

_First_ then of _Thebes_, a very rich and glorious City, once the Regal
Metropolis of all _Egypt_, and built by _Busyris_, who resided in it. It
was call’d by the _Egyptians_ _Heliopolis_, or the City of the _Sun_,
and by _Strabo_, _Diospolis_, or _Jupiter_’s City, by reason he was
there worshipp’d. It was in circuit about 140 Furlongs, or 17 Miles and
an half, and was adorn’d with so many stately Monuments both of Gold,
Silver and Ivory, such multitudes of Colossus’s and Obelisks, cut out of
entire Stone, such exceeding splendid Temples, Palaces and Tombs of the
old _Egyptian Pharaohs_, and other such like Ornaments and stupendious
Rarities, that it was not only look’d upon to be the most beautiful and
stately City of _Egypt_, but of all others in the World; for it is
recorded, that not only King _Busyris_, but all his Successors also from
Time to Time beautify’d and adorn’d it, and ’tis certain it had in it
20000 Chariots of War, and that there were 100 Stables all along the
River, from _Memphis_ to _Thebes_, towards _Libya_, each of which was
capable of containing 200 Horses. _Pomponius Mela_ says, _Thebes_ was so
exceeding Populous, it could draw out of every Gate 10000 armed Men, and
that the _Greek_ Word _Hecatompolis_, which as some think signifies an
hundred Gates, according to which, _Thebes_ was so call’d by _Homer_, is
not to be understood literally, but rather to be explain’d to relate to
an hundred Palaces, in which so many Princes had their Residence.
_Pliny_, Lib. 36. c 14. will have the whole City to have stood upon
Arches, so made on purpose, that the _Egyptian_ Kings might march their
Armies this way and that way under the Houses, without being discover’d.
In this City were also four Temples, very wonderful for their beauty and
largeness, of which, the most antient was 13 Furlongs, or above a Mile
and half in circuit, and 45 Cubits high, and had a Wall 24 Foot thick.
The Ornaments of this Temple were suitably magnificent both for Cost and
Workmanship, and the Fabric continu’d ’till _Diodorus Siculus_’s Time,
but the Silver, Gold, and other Ornaments of Ivory and precious Stones,
were carry’d away by the _Persians_ at such Time as _Cambyses_ burn’d
the Temples of _Egypt_. ‘Here, says _Diodorus Siculus_, Lib. 1. cap. 4.
were the wonderful Sepulchres of the antient Kings of _Egypt_, which for
State and Grandeur far exceeded all that Posterity could attain to even
to this Day. The _Egyptian_ Priests say, That in their Sacred Records
there were register’d 47 of these Sepulchres, yet which is not only
reported by the _Egyptians_, but by many of the _Grecians_ likewise, who
travel’d to _Thebes_ in the Time of _Ptolemeus Lagus_, and wrote
Histories of _Egypt_. Among these, one was _Hecatæus_, who agrees with
what _Diodorus_ relates, _viz._ That when he was there, which was in the
180th _Olympiad_, there remain’d only 17 of these Sepulchres. [Sidenote:
_Osymandua_’s Tomb.] Of the first of these, that of King _Osymandua_ was
10 Furlongs in compass, and at the entrance, they say, there was a
Portico of vari-colour’d Marble, 45 Cubits in height and 200 Feet long.
Thence going forward, you came into a four square Stone-Gallery, every
Square being 400 Feet, supported by Beasts instead of Pillars, each of
which was of an entire Stone, 16 Cubits high, and Carv’d after the
antique manner. The Roof was also entirely of Stone, each Stone being 8
Cubits broad, with an azure Sky all bespangl’d with Stars. Passing out
of this, you enter’d another Portico like the former, but more curiously
carv’d, and adorn’d with greater variety. At the entrance stood 3
Statues, each of one entire Stone, being the Workmanship of _Memnon_ of
_Scienitas_. One of these was sitting, whose Foot measur’d 7 Cubits, and
in the whole magnitude, exceeded all other Statues in _Egypt_. The other
two were much less, reaching but to the Knee, the one standing on the
right Hand, and the other on the left, being the Mother and Daughter.
This Piece is not only commendable for its greatness, but likewise
admirable for its Workmanship, and the excellency of the Stone, that in
so great a Work there was not to be discern’d the least flaw or blemish.
Upon the Tomb there was this Inscription:

  ‘_I am_ Osymandua, _King of Kings; if any would know how Great I am,
  and where I lye, let him excel me in any of my Works_.

‘There was likewise at the second Gate another Statue, of the Mother by
her self, of one Stone, 20 Cubits high; upon her Head were plac’d Three
Crowns, to denote she was both Daughter, Wife and Mother of a King. Near
this Portico, they say, there was another Gallery, more remarkable than
the former, in which were various Sculptures representing his Wars with
the _Bactrians_, who had revolted from him, against whom, ’tis said, he
march’d with 400000 Foot and 20000 Horse, which Army he divided into
four Bodies, and appointed his Sons Generals of the whole.

‘In the first Wall might be seen the King assaulting a Bulwark environ’d
with the River, and fighting at the head of his Men, against some that
made up against him, assisted by a Lion in a terrible posture; which
some affirm must be understood to be a real Lion that the King bred up
tame, went along with him in all his Wars, and by his great strength
ever put the Enemy to flight. Others make this Construction, that the
King being a Prince of extraordinary Courage and Strength, he was
willing to set forth his own Praises and bravery of Spirit, by the
representation of a Lion. In the second Wall were carv’d the Captives
dragg’d after the King, represented without Hands and Privy Members, to
signifie that they were effeminate Spirits, and had no Hands when they
came to fight. The third Wall represented all sorts of Sculptures and
curious Images, in which were set forth the King’s Sacrificing of Oxen,
and his Triumphs in that War. In the middle of the _Perystilion_ or
Portico, open to the Air at top, was rear’d an Altar of polish’d Marble,
being of excellent Workmanship, and equally to be admir’d for its
Magnitude. In the last Wall were two Statues, each of entire Stone, 27
Cubits high, near which three Passages open’d out of the Portico into a
stately Room, supported by Pillars, like a Theatre for Music. Every side
of the Theatre was 200 Feet square. Here were many Statues of Wood,
representing Pleaders and Spectators looking upon the Judges. Those
which were carv’d on one of the Walls were 30 in number, and in the
middle sat the Chief Justice, with the Image of Truth hanging about his
Neck, his Eyes clos’d, and many Books lying before him. This signify’d
that a Judge ought not to take any Bribes, but only to regard the Truth
and Merits of the Cause. Next adjoyning was a Gallery full of diverse
Apartments, in which were all sorts of delicate Meats ready serv’d up.
Near this was represented the King himself, curiously carv’d and painted
in glorious Colours, offering as much Gold and Silver to the Gods as he
yearly receiv’d out of his Mines. The Sum was there inscrib’d (according
to the rate of Silver) to amount unto 32 Millions of [4]_Mina’s_, which
is about 100 Millions of Pounds Sterling. Next was the Sacred Library,
on which were inscrib’d these words, _The Cure of the Mind_. Adjoyning
to this were the Images of all the Gods in _Egypt_, to every one of
which the King was making Offerings, peculiarly belonging to each of
them, that _Osiris_ and all his Associates, who were plac’d at his Feet,
might understand his Piety towards the Gods, and his Righteousness
towards Men. Next to the Library was a stately Room, wherein were 20
Beds to set upon, richly adorn’d, in which were the Images of _Jupiter_
and _Juno_ together with the Kings, and here it’s suppos’d the King’s
Body lay interr’d. Round the Room are many Apartments, wherein are to be
seen all the Beasts that are accounted Sacred in _Egypt_, very curiously
painted. Thence you ascend to the top of the Monument or Sepulchre,
which having mounted, there appears a Border of Gold round the Tomb of
365 Cubits in compass, and one in thickness; within the division of
every Cubit were the several Days of the Year ingraven, with the natural
Risings and Settings of the Stars, and their Significations, according
to the Observations of the _Egyptian_ Astrologers. In this manner they
describe the Sepulchre of King _Osymandua_, which seems far to exceed
all others both for Magnificence and curiosity of Workmanship.’ Now he
who shall seriously consider this, as also several other Passages in
_Herodotus_ and _Diodorus Siculus_ of the stupendious Works of the
_Egyptians_, says _Greaves_ in his _Pyramidographia_, p. 9. must needs
acknowledge, that for Magnificence, if not for Art, they far exceeded
the _Grecians_ and _Romans_, even when their Empires were at the highest
pitch and most flourishing: Wherefore those _Admiranda Romæ_, collected
by _Justus Lipsius_, are hardly admirable, if compar’d with some of
these. At this Day there is scarce any great Column or Obelisk remaining
in _Rome_ worthy of Note, which has not antiently been brought hither
out of _Egypt_.

Footnote 4:

  Every _Mina_ is about 3_l._ 2_s._ 6_d._

_Thebes_ sunk and fell to decay, upon removing the Court to _Memphis_,
[Sidenote: _Memphis._] a great and eminent City, built by _Uchoreus_, as
_Diodorus Siculus_, Lib. 1. relates, but _Sandys_ says ’twas built by
_Ogdoo_, and call’d _Memphis_ after the Name of his Daughter,
compress’d, as they feign, by _Nilus_ in the likeness of a Bull.
Hereupon this became the Regal City, and Strength and Glory of all
_Egypt_, being exceeding Populous, and adorn’d with a world of
Antiquities. It was particularly famous for the Temple of _Apis_, the
Subterranean Vaults or Burying-Places, and the Pyramids or stately
Sepulchres of the Kings, erected within a few Miles of it.


  M: V^{dr} Gucht Sculp:

  To the Honourable James Saunderson Esqꝫ, who has been pleas’d to
    encourage this Work, this Plate is humbly dedicated by his most
    humble Servant Thomas Greenhill.

The God most esteem’d by the _Egyptians_, and ador’d at _Memphis_,
[Sidenote: The God _Apis_.] was _Apis_, a coal-black Ox, with a white
Mark on his Forehead, the figure of an Eagle on his Back, and having
Hair on his Tail of two kinds. When this God happen’d to die, none
valu’d their Hair, tho’, as _Lucian_ says, they had as good as _Nisus_,
but shav’d it all off in token of their Grief. Also _Diodorus Siculus_,
Lib. 1. cap. 6. says, They were then as much concern’d, as at the Death
of their own Children, and laid out in the Burial of this God, as much,
if not more than all their Goods were worth; for when _Apis_ thro’ old
Age dy’d at _Memphis_, in the Reign of _Ptolomeus Lagus_, his Keeper not
only spent all the Provision he had heap’d up, in burying him, but also
borrow’d of _Ptolomy_ 50 Talents of Silver for the same purpose. Nay
even in our Time, says the same Author, some of the Keepers of these
Sacred Creatures, have lavish’d away no less than 100 Talents, in
maintaining them whilst alive. After the pompous Funeral of _Apis_ was
over, those Priests that had the charge of the Matter, sought out
another Calf, which they substituted in its stead, with the same Marks
as the former; and this pass’d for a great Miracle among them, but
certainly it was not difficult for evil Spirits, who might take pleasure
in deceiving these People, to represent to a Cow, when she went to Bull,
an Ox with those Marks, as _Jacob_ made the Goats and Sheep of the same
colours, by placing speckl’d Rods before the Eyes of the Dams at the
Time of their Coition. Thus, having found an Ox to their Mind, an end
was immediately put to all further Mourning and Lamentation, and the
young God was led by the Priests thro’ the City of _Nilopolis_, fed 40
Days, and afterwards put into a Barge, in a golden Cabbin, transported
to _Memphis_, and plac’d in _Vulcan_’s Grove. For the Adoration of this
Ox, they give this Reason, _viz._ That the Soul of _Osiris_ pass’d into
the Ox _Apis_, and consequently into all the rest that were successively
substituted in his stead: [Sidenote: Sepulchre of _Osiris_.] But some
say, the Members of _Osiris_, kill’d by _Typhon_, were thrown by _Isis_
into an Ox made of Wood, and cover’d with Ox-Hides (from whence the City
of _Busiris_ took its Name;) and this, as it is reported, she did,
because, as she was in search of her Husband, a very handsome Bull
appear’d to her, which she believ’d to be him, and whom she afterwards
caus’d to be Honour’d in _Egypt_, under the Figure of that Animal. Many
other Things are fabulously reported of _Apis_, which would be too
tedious to relate in particular; therefore I need only consider whether
the Adoration and Worship of that Creature, came first in use from being
the Sepulchre of _Osiris_, [Sidenote: Of _Mycerinus_’s Daughter.] or
from the Account _Herodotus_ in his _Euterpe_ gives of the Daughter of
_Mycerinus_, bury’d in like manner, which we shall here relate, _viz._
That one of the _Egyptian_ Kings, _Mycerinus_ by Name, seeing himself
depriv’d of Heirs by the Death of his Daughter and only Child, spar’d
nothing whereby he might express how sensibly he was touch’d with this
Loss, and consequently indeavour’d to immortalize her Memory, by the
most superb and sumptuous Structure he could possibly devise. Instead
therefore of a Monument he order’d a Palace to be erected for her, with
a great Hall in the midst of it, adorn’d with abundance of Figures and
Statues, all glittering with precious Stones. After this, he caus’d her
Corps to be deposited in a Coffin of incorruptible Wood, fashion’d after
the likeness of an Ox, which was cover’d all over with Plates of Gold,
and had a purple Mantle cast over it. The Figure of this Ox was
kneeling, having a Sun of Massy Gold between his Horns, and being
enlightn’d by a Lamp hanging before him, whose Flames were fed with a
most odoriferous Oil. Round about the Hall stood Perfuming-Pans and
Censers, which continually threw up clouds of sweet Scents and Perfumes.
In another Parlour adjoyning to this, stood about 20 great Images,
partly naked and carv’d in Wood, which as the Priests report were the
Concubines of _Mycerinus_. But some there are who speak otherwise of
this Ox and those Figures, _viz._ That _Mycerinus_ falling in Love with
his Daughter ravish’d her, who thereupon hanging herself for Grief, her
Father bury’d her in this Ox, and the Servants who betray’d the
Daughter, and slew the Mother, were represented by these Images, as
having been accessary to such Wickedness. This Sepulchral Story, _Porus_
has very well delineated in _Porcachius_, after the manner you’ll find
represented in this first Plate. But to return to the City _Memphis_,
said to have been in circuit about 20 Miles; _Greaves_ tells us, there
is not now so much as the Ruines of any such Place to be seen, altho’
Monsieur _Thevenot_ affirms, those pretty near the _Mummies_, enclining
towards the _Nile_, are doubtless the Ruines of that City, whose
Inhabitants, even at this Day, in imitation of their Ancestors, bury
their Dead without the Gates, and consequently make use of the Plain for
a Burying-Place. Yet _Sandys_ avers, ’tis not likely they should carry
their Dead so far, when they have as convenient a place belonging to
their City, and this is also agreeable to what some of the Ancients
write, _viz._ [Sidenote: _Subterranean Caves._] That on these
Subterranean Caves the City _Memphis_, and several other Places
thereabouts were built, as on so many Vaults or Arches. Without doubt
they bury’d in both places, tho’ cheifly in the Plains of _Egypt_ and
_Libya_, where, in Caves and Grots under Ground, are said to be about 40
Sepulchres of their Kings. In these they were very curious, sparing no
cost, but roofing them over like so many great Halls, and dividing them
into several Apartments, with Passages out of one into the other,
alotting also to each Family or Person, one suitable to his Quality and
Expense he had been at in making them. These were like those _Hypogea_
of the _Greeks_, or _Cryptæ_ of the _Romans_, p. 95, 96. and are thus
describ’d by _Sandys_, p. 103. Not far above _Memphis_, near the brow of
the _Libyan_ Desarts, and straitning of the Mountains, are the
Sepulchres or Graves of the antient _Egyptians_, who have been there
from the first inhabiting that Country, and who coveted that place of
Burial, as suppos’d to contain the Body of _Osiris_. When discover’d,
they are to be seen after this manner: By the removal of a certain
square Stone (which is very close fitted, and cover’d over with Sand for
privacy sake) a descent appears like the narrow mouth of a Well, with
holes on each side of the Wall to descend by, yet which are so
troublesome, that many, says _Sandys_, who go thither on purpose to see
them, refuse to go down into them. Some of these are near 10 Fathom
deep, leading into long Vaults, hewn out of Rocks, with Pillars of the
same, and which seem to have belong’d to particular Families: Under
every Arch lye the Bodies that have been _Embalm’d_, &c. Here also are
several Pyramids and Obelisks to be seen, adorn’d with _Hieroglyphical_
Inscriptions, which set forth the Riches and Power of those Kings; but
these we shall more particularly treat of in another place, and
therefore here only represent to you the _Ichnography_ and
_Schenography_ of the antient Burial-Places of the _Egyptians_, near the
_Pyramids_, out of which the _Mummies_ are brought, with a Prospect of
_Memphis_, _Babylon_, _Cairo_, &c. The Scituation and Disposition of
these, I presume, will appear very plainly describ’d in this second
Plate, taken out of _Johannes Nardius_, at the end of his _Lucretius_,
with the Mistakes amended.


  J. Kip Sculp.

  To Nathaniel Long Esq_{ꝫ} who has been pleas’d to encourage this Work,
    this Plate is humbly dedicated by
  His most humble Servant Thomas Greenhill.

  A. The Ruines of the antient City of _Memphis_.

  B. The City of _Babylon_, now _Grand Cairo_.

  C. The River _Nile_ flowing from _South_ to _North_.

  D. A carv’d Stone the Cover of the Well.

  E. The Well or Passage thro’ which they descended into the arch’d

  F. A Stone-Coffin carv’d with _Hieroglyphicks_, containing another
  of Wood mark’d G. which that it may be the better seen, is shown in
  another place, having an Image standing thereon, and some Tutelar
  Gods. At the Well or Passage E. a Servant holding by a Rope,
  descends with his Master upon his Shoulders, whom having set down at
  the bottom of the Well, he creeps upon his Belly through a Foramen
  at H. and then enters into a magnificent arch’d Chamber, in the
  middle of which is plac’d a Marble-Tomb, F. having a _Mummy_ in it.
  Out of this, many Passages lead into other Chambers, which are so
  numerous and intricate, the way out is almost as difficult to find,
  as that of a Labyrinth.

From _Memphis_, the Court of the _Egyptian_ Kings is said to have
remov’d to _Alexandria_, and afterwards to _Cairo_; [Sidenote:
_Babylon._] but in respect that _Babylon_, now _Cairo_, lies opposite to
_Memphis_, as is seen at Letter B, and this second Plate thereby better
describ’d, I will begin with that first. This, in opposition to the
great City of _Babylon_ in _Chaldæa_, built by _Semiramis_, was also for
distinction sake call’d the _Egyptian Babylon_: It is said to have been
founded by _Cambyses_ the _Persian_ Monarch, the first that made this
Kingdom stoop to the Yoke of a Foreign Power, and was by him peopled
with some _Babylonians_ or _Chaldæans_ transplanted thither. It stood at
some distance towards the _South_ of _Cairo_, where now appear nothing
hardly but great Mountains of Ruines, among which many of the Christian
Temples and Monasteries lye in rubbish. The Castle hereof serv’d long
after for a Garrison of three Legions, appointed to defend this Country
in the Time of the _Romans_. Adjoyning to this Castle are Store-Houses,
[Sidenote: _Granaries_ of _Joseph_.] suppos’d to be of the Granaries of
_Joseph_, which, as they say, he built, and therein laid up Corn against
the ensuing Famine. In all they were seven, but now three only are
standing, which are also employ’d to the same use: From hence, for the
space of 20 Miles up the River, there are nothing but Ruines.

[Sidenote: Old _Cairo_.]

From the Ruines of this City, _Babylon_, Old _Cairo_ was rais’d, being
heretofore a most stately City, but now in a manner desolate, having
been alter’d several Times, as the Conquerors or Lords of the Country
thought fit. At length a more convenient and pleasant place of Abode was
pitch’d upon, when about half a League off the Old, [Sidenote: New
_Cairo_.] they built New _Cairo_, which for a long Time has been, and at
present is, the chief City or _Metropolis_ of all _Egypt_. The
_Italians_ call it _Alcairo_, and others, by way of Excellency, _Grand
Cairo_. It is scituate on the _East_ side of _Nile_, in a very pleasant
Plain, at the foot of the rocky Mountain _Muccat_, winding therewith,
and representing the form of a Crescent. It stretches, says _Sandys_, p.
92. _South_ and _North_, with the adjoyning Suburbs, five _Italian_
Miles, and is in breadth scarce one and a half where it is broadest; but
as to the bigness or circumference of this City, Authors differ very
much, because some will have it consist of four Parts, _viz._ Old
_Cairo_, New _Cairo_, _Boulac_ and _Charafat_, which, if we compare with
_London_, the City of _Westminster_ and Borough of _Southwark_, we shall
find it at least three times bigger. For it is said, the parts of
_Cairo_, together with its Suburbs, are 10 or 12 Leagues in length, 7 or
8 in breadth, and 25 or 30 in circuit, and yet is this City so exceeding
Populous, that the People pass to and fro in throngs, altho’ the Women,
according to the Custom of that Country, seldom or never appear abroad.
Once in seven Years ’tis visited with a terrible Pestilence, insomuch
that 1000 or 1500 have dy’d in a Day, nevertheless, if not above 300000
die within the Year, the City is reckon’d to be in good Health, and
there is hardly any miss of the Deceas’d. There are said to be in it
18000 Streets, 23000 Mosques, and 200000 Houses, besides several
Markets, Exchanges, Hospitals, and other magnificent Structures. Every
Street is known by its Name, and fortify’d with a great Gate at each
end, which at Night, to prevent Tumults and Uproars, are lock’d up with
wooden Locks, and open’d with a Key of the same; for here all the Locks
and Keys, even of the City Gates themselves, which are plated with Iron,
are made only of Wood. The number of Men, which every Night guard this
City, is 28000. There is a _Canal_ or _Khalis_, as they call it, which
runs the whole length of the City, and conveys thro’ it Water from the
_Nile_. At the _South_ end it is fortify’d with a stately Castle (the
Palace of the _Mamaluke Sultans_) scituate on the top of a Mountain,
overlooking the City and a great part of the Country. It is so large it
seems a City of it self, environ’d with high Walls, divided into
Partitions, and enter’d by Doors of Iron, and has within it spacious
Courts, which in Time past were the places of Exercise. Now the Ruines
of those antient Buildings only show how sumptuous they have formerly
been, for there are Pillars of solid Marble yet standing, of so immense
a Magnitude, that how they came thither is not the least to be wonder’d
at. ’Tis not therefore without reason that this City was nam’d _Grand
Cairo_, which is reported in great measure to be encompass’d with a
Wall, and in which, says _Thevenot_, there are so many curious Things to
be seen, that a very large Book might be fill’d with the relation of
them. Among some of the extraordinary Things to be seen at _Cairo_,
[Sidenote: The _Hatching_ of _Chickens_.] is the artificial way of
Hatching Chickens, upon which the aforesaid Author well observes, it
might be thought a Fable to relate that Chickens are to be hatch’d
without Hens sitting upon the Eggs, and yet a greater to say, that
Chickens are sold by the Bushel, nevertheless they are both true. To
effect this, they put their Eggs into Ovens, and heat them with a
temperate warmth, which imitates so well the natural heat, that Chickens
are form’d and hatch’d in them; but for the particular manner of this, I
must refer you to _Thevenot_ in his Travels, _p._ 144. where it is to be
found more plainly describ’d. To _Cairo_ are brought, over Land by the
_Caravan_ from _Mecca_, all sorts of Perfumes, Aromatics, precious
Stones and Gums, [Sidenote: _Drugs_ brought by the _Caravan_.] such as
_Olibanum_, _Frankinsence_, _Mastic_, _Myrrh_, _Amber_ and
_Opobalsamum_, also _Indian_ Stuffs, _Indico_, and other rich and
valuable Commodities. The _Caravan_ consists of many Thousands of
Pilgrims, that Travel yearly to _Mecca_, out of Devotion and for
Traffic. That City is distant from _Cairo_ 40 easie Days Journey,
separated by a Wilderness of Sand, that lies in drifts, and is often
dangerous to the Traveller, when mov’d by the Wind, thro’ which he is
guided in many places by the Stars only, as Ships are in the Ocean. The
whole _Caravan_ has above 1000 Horses, Mules and Asses, and 500 Camels.
These are the Ships of _Arabia_, and their Seas are the Desarts. The
City of _Mecca_, Capital of _Arabia Fælix_, lying near the _Red Sea_, is
a Place of great Traffic, not only by reason of the _Indian Caravans_,
that repair thither yearly with their Commodities, but also of the
Country adjoyning, whose precious Productions have procur’d it the Name
of _Happy_. From hence they go to _Medina Talnabi_, or the _City_ of the
_Prophet_, where in a little Chappel, lighted by 3000 Lamps that burn
there perpetually, lye _Mahomet_, _Omer_ and _Haly_, in plain Tombs of
the antique Fashion, cut out like Lozenges. That of _Mahomet_ (not
hanging in the Air as is reported) is cover’d with green, having on the
side a Carbuncle as big as an Egg, which yields a marvellous Lustre.
These meet again the rest of the _Caravan_ at the place appointed, as
_Sandys_, p. 97. tells us, who gives the foregoing Account.


  The Balsam Plant

  Tho. Platt. sculp.

  To M^r. James Petiver Apothecary, F.R.S. who has been pleas’d to
    encourage this Work, this Plate is humbly dedicated by
  His most humble Servant Thomas Greenhill.

Five Miles _North-East_ of the City _Cairo_, lyes a Village call’d _El
Matharia_, [Sidenote: _Matarea._] where, in a Garden, is preserv’d the
_Balsam Plant_ as a great Rarity: [Sidenote: The _Balsam Plant_.] Some
falsly attribute the natural Production of it to this Country, and some
to other Places, tho’, truly speaking, ’tis brought from _Mecca_ in
_Arabia Fælix_, beyond the _Red Sea_, by the _Turkish_ Pilgrims when
they go to visit _Mahomet_’s Tomb, and so has been cultivated in several
Places, and renew’d by the same means whenever it dy’d. Thus the _Balsam
Plant_ grew and prosper’d in _Judæa_, as is attested by _Theophrastus_,
_Pliny_, _Justin_, and many more; nay by _Galen_ also, who purposely
travel’d into _Palæstin_ to see and learn the Virtues of this _Balsam_
of _Syria_; likewise from the Story of _Cleopatra_, who obtain’d some
Plants of _Balsam_ from _Herod_ the Great, to transplant in _Egypt_. Yet
that this Plant was not in _Judæa_ before the Time of _Solomon_, that
great Collector of Vegetable Rarities, appears from the Account of
_Josephus_, who relates how the Queen of _Sheba_, a part of _Arabia_,
brought, among other Presents to that King, some Plants of the
_Balsam-Tree_, as one of the most valuable Things in her Country;
whereby it appears it was not an original Native Plant of _Judæa_, and
others affirm also that it had not its natural Growth there, utterly
denying it was peculiar to that Country, or only to be seen in two
Gardens about _Jericho_. We are to rely chiefly on the Credit and
Authority of _Joannes Veslingius_ and _Prosper Alpinus_, who rightly
conclude the natural and original Place of this Plant to be in _Arabia_,
about _Mecca_ and _Medina_, where it still plentifully grows, and
Mountains abound therewith. From hence it has been carefully
transported, by the _Basha’s_ of _Grand Cairo_, to the Garden of
_Matarea_, where, when ever it dies, it is renew’d from those parts of
_Arabia_ where it grew, from whence the _Grand Signior_ yearly receives
a Present of _Balsam_ from the _Xeriff_ of _Mecca_, still call’d by the
_Arabians_ _Balessan_, and whence ’tis suppos’d the _Greek_ Apellative
_Balsam_ arose. The Shrub, which produces this Liquor, is about two
Cubits high, with few Leaves, like to those of Rue, always green, and
somewhat inclining to white, yet which fall not off in Winter. The Wood
is gummy, cleaving to the Fingers, and outwardly of a reddish colour,
with Branches of the same that are long, streight, slender and
odoriferous, with a few Leaves disorderly plac’d, sometimes three, five
or seven together, after the manner of the Mastic-Tree: It bears a few
small white Flowers, like _Acatia_ or the _Egyptian_ Thorn, which are of
a pleasant scent, but fade in a little Time. After the Blossoms follow
yellow fine scented Seeds, inclos’d in a reddish black Bladder, very
sweet, and containing a yellowish Liquor like Honey: They are bitterish
and a little tart on the Tongue, and of the same shape and bigness with
the Fruit of the Turpentine-Tree, in the middle thick, and at the ends
pointed. The Juice call’d _Opobalsamum_, drops in the Summer-Time from
the slit of the insected Bark, which no sooner comes into the Air but it
turns whitish, afterwards green, then of a gold colour, and lastly
becomes paler. When ’tis first dropp’d ’tis clear, but instantly turns
thick and cloudy, and when old grows like Turpentine. ’Tis at first of
so strong a Smell, that in many it causes the Head-Ach, and in some a
sudden bleeding at the Nose; but this strong and sharp Savour at length
changes into a pleasant Scent, which in old _Balsam_ is so weak that you
can hardly discover any Smell at all.

There is another sort of _Balsam_ brought from _Cairo_, in Flasks and
Leather-Bottles, which is very odoriferous, yet not the pure Liquor or
Gum issuing from the Bark of the aforesaid Tree, but drawn out of the
Wood and green Branches by boyling. Another sort is press’d out of the
Seeds, and many times sold for the right, tho’ not so strong scented nor
so bitter in Taste. There is no Medicine more generally us’d by the
_Egyptians_ than the _True Balsam_, which they esteem a kind of
_Panacea_ for all Diseases, both external and internal, curing therewith
divers sorts of Wounds, as also the bitings of venomous Creatures. They
use it moreover as a Preservative against the Plague, and to drive away
Agues or Fevers that proceed from Putrifaction. The Seeds and green
Branches, are likewise us’d against all Distempers that the _Balsam_ it
self is: The same Virtue is ascrib’d to the Wood; but the _Balsam_,
term’d by the _Greeks_, _Opobalsamum_, is the strongest, the Seed or
_Carpobalsamum_ more gentle, and the Wood or _Xylobalsamum_ the weakest
of all. But the chief Use of the _Balsam_ for our Purpose, is preserving
the dead Bodies of Kings and Princes; from which Quality, and on account
of its Analogy with _Embalming_, the _Art_ it self deriv’d its Name from
it, as we shall show hereafter, when we come to speak of its
_Etymology_: Its other Virtues, which are very many, together with a
more general Description of it, the manner of extracting the Liquor, and
the true signs of its Goodness when unsophisticated, I intend to treat
of more fully in my _Pharmacopœia_, in the Chapter of _Balsams_, &c.
therefore shall here only insert the Draft of this Plant, which is very
scarce, taken out of _Prosper Alpinus de Plantis Ægyptiacis_, and
represented in our third Plate.

We come next, according to the Method propos’d, to speak of
_Alexandria_, [Sidenote: _Alexandria._] so call’d from _Alexander_ the
_Great_, who built this City upon a Promontory, thrusting it self into
the Sea, by which on the one side, and the Lake _Mareotis_ on the other,
it is exceeding well defended. Here _Alexander_ built himself a large
and stately Palace of admirable Workmanship, and all the succeeding
Kings of _Egypt_ so enlarg’d and beautify’d this City, some with Ports
and Arsenals, and others with magnificent Temples, and such like rich
Donations, that it was then judg’d by many to be second, if not the
first City of the World; being exceeding Populous, and plentifully
provided with all sorts of Provisions and other Necessaries. _Diodorus
Siculus_ tells us, when he was there, he was inform’d by those that kept
the Rolls of the Inhabitants Names, that there were above 300000
Freemen, and the King receiv’d above 6000 Talents yearly Revenue. This
City _Alexander_ peopl’d with _Greeks_, immediately upon his Conquest of
_Egypt_, and some of his Successors had their Residence here for 900
Years. This was the _Metropolis_ of _Egypt_ before _Grand Cairo_ was
built; but _Alexandria_ is now so ruinous, says _Thevenot_, that many
Strangers ask where it is even when they are in the middle of it, yet
are there such fair remains among the Ruines, as shew it to have been a
wonderful Place. One of the finest Things, now to be seen there, are the
Walls, which, tho’ ruin’d, are so Magnificent, one must needs confess
they have been matchless. These Walls are strengthn’d with stately ranks
of Pillars, and have 118 great square Towers, with a little one betwixt
every two, nay, they are so neatly contriv’d, that there are stately
Casemates underneath, which may serve for Galleries and Walks: In each
Tower there is a large square Hall, the Vault whereof is supported by
great Pillars of _Thebaic_ Stone; there are a great many Chambers above,
and over all a large Platform, above 20 Paces square. In short, all
these Towers are so many Palaces, able to contain 200 Men each. The
Walls are several Foot thick, and have every-where Port-holes in them,
and formerly encompass’d the antient Town, fortify’d by such Towers.
Next to the Walls, the finest piece of Antiquity that has withstood the
rage of Time, is the Pillar of _Pompey_, [Sidenote: _Pompey_’s Pillar.]
scituate about 200 Paces from the City, upon an Eminence or little Hill,
whereby it is seen at a great distance: This Pillar stands on a square
Pedestal seven or eight Foot high, and each Face about 14 Foot over; the
Pedestal is fix’d on a square Base about half a Foot high and 20 broad,
made of several Stones cemented together. The Body of the Pillar
consists only of one Stone, which some believe to be of _Granit_; but
_Thevenot_ and others affirm, ’tis a sort of Cement, which, in process
of Time, grew into Stone, or else was cast on the spot, for ’tis aver’d
for truth, the Ancients had the Secret of casting Stones. But others
absolutely deny this Stone was so made, affirming the antient
_Egyptians_ got these Pillars and Obelisks, that are to be seen at so
many places in _Italy_, at _Saide_, where they pretend many have been
cut out and brought by Water down the _Nile_: If this be true, what
extraordinary Barks or Water Carriages must they have had, to bring so
great a weight, and in so large a bulk, as was that of this Pillar, nay,
what Engins to raise it on its Pedestal? _Thevenot_ says, No Artificer
could be found that would undertake to remove it to another place, and
that it is 120 Foot high, but _Le Bruyn_, who measur’d it, found it to
be but 90, yet as much as six Men could grasp round, which, according to
his Calculation is 38 Feet. On the top is a fine Chapiter,
proportionable to the bigness of the Pillar, but made of a distinct
piece of Stone. ’Tis said _Julius Cæsar_ erected this Pillar in memory
of the Victory he obtain’d over _Pompey_.

[Sidenote: _Cæsar_’s Palace.]

At some Paces distant is _Cæsar_’s Palace, but all ruin’d, says
_Thevenot_, except some Pillars of _Porphiry_ that are now entire and
standing, yet the Frontispiece is still pretty sound, being a very
lovely piece of Architecture. About 80 Paces wide of _Pompey_’s Pillar
is a _Khalis_ or _Canal_ of the _Nile_, dug by the antient _Egyptians_
to bring Water to _Alexandria_, which has no other to drink. This, when
the _Nile_ swells and breaks down a Bank, fills the Cisterns that are
purposely made under the City, and which are very magnificent and
spacious; for _Alexandria_ is all hollow underneath, being an entire
Cistern, whose Vaults are supported by several fair Marble-Pillars, and
upon these Arches the Houses are built. Now this Water of the _Nile_, so
convey’d by the _Khalis_ under the Town, is by Wheels, with Earthen
Pitchers or Buckets, drawn up into the private Cisterns of each House.
There are likewise to be seen at _Alexandria_ two very stately Obelisks
of _Theban_ Marble, intermix’d or speckl’d with Veins of various
colours: One of these remains entire, but so sunk into the Earth, that
it appears without a Pedestal. The other is quite bury’d in the Ground,
except the Pedestal only, which is about 10 Foot high; each of these are
of one entire Stone, 100 Foot in height and eight in breadth, suppos’d
to be larger than those at _Rome_, and mark’d with such like
_Hieroglyphical_ Figures.

[Sidenote: Palace of _Cleopatra_.]

Near these Pillars or Obelisks are the Ruins of _Cleopatra_’s Palace, by
whose stately Chambers or Apartments, in some part remaining entire, it
may reasonably be conjectur’d, it was a very superb and magnificent
Building, as likewise by some remains, still to be seen on the Sea-side,
of a Gallery supported by many fair Pillars, and running outwards to the
Mouth of the Harbour, so that any one might embark there from the
Palace. _Thevenot_ tells us, in his Travels to the _Levant_, p. 125.
that this City abounds with Marble, Porphiry and _Thebaic Stone_ or
_Granit_, as also that among the Ruins, there are several very curious
Stones to be found, such as _Agats_, _Garnets_, _Emeralds_, &c. like to
Medals, some engrav’d with Heads, others with Idols, and some with
Beasts, all being different from each other, and serving heretofore for
_Talismen_ or _Charms_. These are so excellently well wrought, that
certainly nothing now-a-days can come up to them, whereby it appears
either their Engravers were wonderful Artists, or else they had the Art
of casting, or at least of softning Stones; for tho’ some of these are
so small one can hardly finger them, yet are they nevertheless all
engrav’d or otherwise wrought to perfection.

This City of _Alexandria_ was likewise very famous for its Academies or
Colleges, endow’d with large Revenues, and planted with such Persons as
were eminent in Liberal Sciences, who were drawn thither by Rewards, and
cherish’d by Favours, thro’ which means _Alexandria_ became the
_Parnassus_ of the Muses, and the School of all good Literature. The
chiefest and most memorable Place of all these was the _Serapion_,
[Sidenote: The _Serapion_.] or Temple of the God _Serapis_, for
sumptuous Workmanship and magnificent Building inferior to none but the
_Roman_ Capitol. It had a curious _Portico_ of a Mile in length, whereto
adjoyn’d a Court of Justice and a Grove: In this last, the Followers of
_Aristotle_’s Doctrine had a peculiar School, whereof the
_Alexandrians_, as _Eusebius_ and _Nicephorus_ write, would needs impose
the Charge on Bishop _Anatolius_, for his extraordinary Knowledge in all
Arts. St. _Mark_ the Evangelist was here first Divinity-Professor, whose
Successor erected a School for _Theology_, wherein, for the advancement
of the Christian Religion, several of the most learn’d Men were
appointed Readers, who scholastically handled the main and fundamental
Points only: Among these was _Pantænus_, who read both Divinity and
Philosophy to all such as came to hear him, which, as it is conceiv’d,
gave the first hint to the instituting of Universities throughout the
rest of Christendom, insomuch that, from so small a beginning, the
Schools of _Alexandria_ became so great and eminent, that _Nazianzen_
gave them the Title of Παντοίας παιδεύσεως ἐργαστήριον, _The Shops or
Workhouses of all Learning_. Here also St _Jerom_, St. _Basil_, St.
_Gregory_ and others were educated, and _Philo-Judæus_ likewise became
eminent, for in this Academy the _Jews_ had a flourishing and populous
Synagogue; but what greatly encreas’d the glory of this Assembly, was
that most wonderful Library of _Ptolemy Philadelphus_, [Sidenote:
Library of _Ptolemy_.] Son of _Ptolemeus Lagus_, the second of that Name
of the Line of the _Egyptian_ Kings, first establish’d by him, and
afterwards augmented and enrich’d by his Successors; for this King being
an exceeding Lover of all Arts and Sciences, he, with great Labour and
much Expence, made a Collection of all manner of Books, as well in
Divinity as in all Arts, Sciences, History, and the like, some of which
he obtain’d from _Greece_ and other places, but the _Pentateuch_, and
the rest of the Old Testament, he procur’d from _Judæa_. Then wrote this
King to _Eleazer_ the High Priest, to send him six out of every Tribe to
Translate this Book for the common Use. These _Ptolemy_ receiv’d at
_Alexandria_ with exceeding great civility, and erected several
convenient Mansions for them, wherein every one was by himself to
Translate the Holy Law, which they so perform’d, according to the
Testimonies of _Josephus_, _Clemens Alexandrinus_, _Eusebius_
_Nicephorus_, St. _Austin_, and other learned Writers, that they not
only us’d the same Sense, but the very same Words also, yet that
certainly not without the special Grace and Assistance of the Holy
Spirit. Now this is the Translation which bears the Name of _Septuagint_
to this very Day. [Sidenote: The _Septuagint_.] Moreover, this King sent
to the _Chaldeans_, _Romans_ and other Nations for Books, all which he
likewise commanded to be Translated into the _Greek_ Tongue. One
_Phalerius Demetrius_, a Learned _Athenian_ Exile, was Keeper of this
Library, which amounted, as _Agellius_, _Ammianus Marcellinus_ and
_Diodorus Siculus_ alledge, to 700000 Volumes, and was afterwards from
Time to Time very much augmented by the succeeding Kings, ’till at
length this invaluable Treasure of _Manuscripts_ (for then the _Art_ of
_Printing_ was not so much as thought of) was burn’d in the Civil Wars
between _Pompey_ and _Cæsar_, in the 183 _Olympiad_, after it had
continu’d about 124 Years. This _Cæsar_ ever after accounted the
greatest of his Misfortunes, that he, who was so great a Lover of Arts
and Sciences, should be Cause of the destruction of so incomparable and
unparalel’d a _Library_.

[Sidenote: The _Serapion Library_.]

Another _Library_ was afterwards erected by _Cleopatra_ in the
_Serapion_, a Building of great Excellency and wonderful Art: This was
greatly adorn’d and enrich’d by the assistance of _Marc Anthony_, who
acquir’d the _Attalian_ and _Pergamæan_ Libraries, and which continu’d
during the Time of the Primitive Christianity; when, in the Days of
_Theodosius_ the Great, it was demolish’d, as a harbour of Infidelity.
Among other remarkable Places in this City of _Alexandria_, was the
_Seraglio_ call’d _Somia_, belonging to the Palace, famous for its being
the Burial-Place of the _Ptolemys_, and of _Alexander_ the Great,
[Sidenote: _Alexander_’s _Sepulchre_.] whose Body lay here inclos’d in a
Sepulchre of Gold; but _Cybiosactes_ despoil’d it of that precious
Cover, after which, it was cover’d with Glass, and so remain’d to the
Time of the _Saracens_, as _Sandys_, p. 87. informs us. Now since the
Burial of _Alexander_ the Great was manag’d, in all respects, suitably
to his Grandeur, whereby it not only exceeded all others in regard of
Expence, State and Pomp, but also in point of curiosity of Workmanship,
_Diodorus Siculus_, Lib. 18. cap. 3. thought fit to recommend to
Posterity these remarkable and entertaining Matters concerning it,
_viz._ That to _Aridæus_, Bastard Son of _Philip_, and Brother of
_Alexander_, whom he succeeded, the care of his Funeral, and preparing a
Chariot to convey his Body to the Temple of _Jupiter Ammon_, was
commited. First therefore he provided a Coffin of beaten Gold, wrought
in form and proportion to his Body: This he fill’d with Aromatic Spices,
as well to delight the Senses, as to preserve the Corps from
Putrifaction, and then fitted it exactly with a Cover of Gold, which
again was over-spread with a purple Pall, embroider’d with Gold, and
near it were plac’d the Arms of the Deceas’d, thereby to represent the
Acts of his Life. Then were these plac’d in a Chariot under a
Triumphal-Arch of Gold, beset with precious Stones, and supported by
Pillars and Chapiters of Gold also, made after the _Ionic_ Order. On
each side the Arch stood a Golden Image of _Victory_ bearing a Trophy,
and on the top was a Gold-Fringe of Net-Work, from which hung Bells so
large, that they might be heard at a great distance. Under this Portico
or Arch was plac’d a four square Throne of Gold, adorn’d with little
Coronets of various beautiful Colours. On every side of this Arch, from
a Net-Work of Gold, a Finger thick, hung four Tables or Pannels,
whereupon were pourtray’d all sorts of Creatures. In the first Table was
represented _Alexander_ sitting in a Chariot, with a Royal Scepter in
his Hand, his Armour-Bearer before him, and his Life-Guards, compleatly
arm’d, round about him. In the second follow’d Elephants, adorn’d in
their proper Habiliments, on which sat _Indians_ before, and
_Macedonians_ behind, arm’d according to the Customs of their respective
Countries. In the third might be seen Squadrons of Horse drawn up in
Battalia; and in the fourth appear’d a Fleet order’d in a Line of
Battel. At the entrance into this Arch were plac’d Golden Lions, looking
sternly towards those that should offer to enter. On the out-side of the
Arch, and middle of the Roof, was plac’d on a purple Carpet, a Crown of
Gold, so large, that by the reflection of the Sun-Beams, it darted such
an amazing splendor and brightness, that at a distance it appear’d like
a flash of Lightning. The whole Work was set upon two Axel-Trees, the
ends of which were likewise of Gold, representing Lions Heads with Darts
in their Mouths. The whole Machine was mov’d by four Wheels, whose
Spokes and Naves were also over-laid with Gold, and there were four
Poles to draw it by, to each of which were yok’d 16 of the largest and
finest Mules that could be got, in all 64. Every Mule was adorn’d with a
Crown of Gold, Bells of Gold on either side their Heads, and rich
Collars about their Necks, set off and beautify’d with precious Stones.
After this manner did the Chariot set forth, the sight of which was more
stately and pompous than can be imagin’d, so that its Fame brought
together Multitudes of Spectators; for the People out of every City,
whither it was coming, met it, and then ran back again before it, never
satisfy’d with the delight they took in gazing on it; and, suitable to
so stately a Show, attended a vast company of Workmen and Pioneers to
clear the way for its Passage. Thus _Aridæus_ (who spent two Years in
Preparations for it) brought the King’s Body from _Babylon_ to _Egypt_.
_Ptolemy_, in Honour to this great King, met the Corps with his Army as
far as _Syria_, where he receiv’d and accompany’d it with great Respect
and Observance; for he had resolv’d not to conduct it to the Temple of
_Jupiter Ammon_, but to keep it in this City which _Alexander_ had
built, being the most famous almost of any in the World. For this end he
built a Temple in Honour of _Alexander_, in greatness and stateliness of
Structure, becoming the Glory and Majesty of so great a King; and in
this Repository laid the Body, and honour’d his Exequies with Sacrifices
and magnificent Shows, agreeable to the State of a Demi-God: Thus much
for the glorious Sepulchre and Burial of the greatest Monarch perhaps
that ever liv’d. Next we shall take notice of two _Physiological_
Observations on the Earth and Water of _Egypt_, made by Father _Vansleb_
in his Voyage thither, p. 109. 111. where, speaking of _Alexandria_, he
tells us the Earth thereabouts is full of _Nitre_, which is easily
prov’d by the following Experiment, _viz._ That if you take a piece of
Earth and set it in the hot Sun, it will become white as Snow on that
side that is towards the Sun. Also in the _Grand Signior_’s Salt-Pits,
that are out of this City, near the _Khalis_ or Chanel of _Cleopatra_,
he took notice of two things very remarkable: _First_, That the Water of
_Nile_, the sweetest and freshest in the World, makes a Salt, not only
whiter than ordinary, but likewise very excellent. _Secondly_, That this
Salt has the taste of Violets. The last thing, but not the least, that I
have to say of _Alexandria_, [Sidenote: Isle of _Pharos_.] is concerning
the famous Isle of _Pharos_, which stands over-against the City, and was
formerly a Mile distant from the Land, but joyn’d to the Continent by
_Cleopatra_, on the following occasion, says _Heylin_, p. 849. The
_Rhodians_, then Lords of the Sea, us’d to exact some Tribute or
Acknowledgement from every Island within those Seas, and consequently
from this: Their Embassadors, upon this Occasion, sending to _Cleopatra_
to demand this Tribute, she deferr’d it for seven Days, under pretence
of celebrating a Solemn Festival, but in the mean Time, by raising huge
Dams and Banks in the Sea, both with incredible charge and speed, she
united the Island to the Shoar, which finish’d, she sent away the
_Rhodians_ empty-handed, with this witty Jeer, _That they were to take
Toll of the Islands, and not of the Continent_. A Work of great rarity
and magnificence this, both for its extent, taking up the space of seven
Furlongs, and thence call’d _Heptastadium_, and the incredible speed
wherewith it was finish’d. Upon a Promontory hereof, on a Rock,
environ’d by the Sea, _Ptolemy Philadelphus_ caus’d a Watch-Tower to be
built for the benefit of Sailors, (the Seas upon that Coast being very
unsafe and full of Flats) to guide them over the Bar of _Alexandria_.
This _Pharos_ or Watch-Tower was of wonderful height, ascended by Steps,
and having many Lanthorns at the top, wherein Lights burn’d nightly, as
a Direction to such as sail’d by Sea; yet oftentimes the multitude of
Lights appearing a far off as one, and being mistaken for a Star,
procur’d contrary effects to the promis’d Safety. This had the repute of
the Worlds seventh Wonder, call’d after the Name of the Island, and is
at this Day a general Name for such Towers as serve to that purpose. The
Materials of it were white Marble, and the chief Architect _Sostratus_
of _Gnidos_, who grav’d upon it this Inscription: Sostratus _of_ Gnidos,
_Son of_ Dixiphanes, _to the Gods Protectors for the safeguard of
Sailors_. This Inscription he cover’d over with Plaister, and inscrib’d
thereon the Name and Title of the King, Founder of this Tower, to the
end that when the King’s Name should be wasted and wash’d away, his own,
which was cut on Marble, might be celebrated to Eternity.

To the South side of the City of _Alexandria_, near the Lake _Mareotis_,
wherein the Sepulchres of King _Mœris_ and his Wife were Pyramidically
built, adjoins the _Labyrinth_, [Sidenote: The _Labyrinth_.] not much
inferior to that Structure, as will appear from that Description given
by _Sandys_, p. 88. where he tells us, ‘That in the midst of this
_Labyrinth_ were 37 Palaces, belonging to the 37 Jurisdictions of
_Egypt_; to which resorted the several Presidents to celebrate the
Festivals of their Gods (who had herein their particular Temples,
moreover 15 Chapels, containing each a _Nemesis_) and also to advise of
Matters of Importance relating to the Public Good. The Passages
thereunto were thro’ Caves of a miraculous length, full of dark and
winding Paths, and Rooms within one another, having many Doors to
confound the Memory and distract the Intention, and leading into
inextricable Error: Now mounting aloft, and then again re-descending,
not seldom turning about Walls infolded within each other, in the form
of intricate Mazes, not possible to thred or get out of without a
Conductor. The Building was more under Ground than above, being all of
massy Stone, and laid with that Art, that neither Cement nor Wood was
us’d in any part of the Fabric. The end at length being attain’d, a pair
of Stairs of 90 Steps, conducted into a stately _Portico_, supported by
Pillars of _Theban_ Marble, and this again gave entrance into a spacious
Hall, the place of general Conventions. All this Hall was of polish’d
Marble, and adorn’d with Statues both of Gods and Men. The Chambers were
so dispos’d, that upon their opening, the Doors gave Reports no less
terrible than Thunder. The first Entrance was of white Marble within,
adorn’d throughout with Marble Columns, and divers Figures.’ _Dedalus_
is said to have imitated this, in that _Labyrinth_ he built in _Crete_,
yet expressing hereof scarce the Hundredth part; for, as _Heylin_
observes, it fell as short of the Glories of this, as _Minos_ was
inferior to _Psammiticus_ (the Founder) in Power and Riches. ‘Whoso
mounted the top, should see as it were a large Plan of Stone, and
withal, those 37 Palaces environ’d with solid Pillars, and Walls
consisting of Stone of a mighty size. At the end of this _Labyrinth_
stood a square Pyramid of a marvelous breadth and answerable height,
being the Sepulchre of King _Ismandes_ that built it.’ [Sidenote: By
whom, and to what end built.] But who built this _Labyrinth_, and to
what end, Authors differ very much, and _Pliny_, who writes a great deal
of it, gives no certain Reason why it was made. ’Tis said it was first
built by King _Petesucus_ or _Tithoes_, altho’ _Herodotus_ affirms ’twas
the Work of all the Kings, and lastly of _Psammiticus_. The cause of
building it is as variously reported: _Demoteles_ thinks it to have been
the Palace of _Motherudis_; _Lycias_, that it was the Sepulchre of
_Mœris_ (of which Opinion is also _Diodorus_) but most believe ’twas
built as sacred to the Sun. _Bellonius_ thinks it to have been a
Sepulchre rather than any thing else, for such like magnificent Works,
as was also the _Mausoleum_, were commonly rais’d for that end, and
_Herodotus_ clearly describes this wonderful _Labyrinth_ to have been
built for a Sepulchre, telling us, ‘The Kings of _Egypt_, where they
perform’d their Sacred Rites, resolv’d to leave a common Monument of
themselves, therefore in that Place, which is a little above the Lake of
_Mœris_, and near the City of _Crocodiles_, they built a _Labyrinth_,
which _Herodotus_ himself saw, and which he says was much bigger than
Fame had represented it; for if any one should reason with himself about
the Walls and nature of this Work, according to the Narration of the
_Greeks_, he would never conceive the Labour and Charge of this
_Labyrinth_. The Temple of _Diana_ at _Ephesus_ is very well worth
mentioning, yet are the _Pyramids_ far greater, the least of which
equals the largest Labour of the _Grecians_; and tho’ this _Labyrinth_
likewise excels them, yet does the Lake _Mœris_, near which it is built,
and the Description of which you have at _p._ 141. afford much greater
admiration.’ The former of these, _viz._ the _Labyrinth_, is said to
have been for the Sepulchre of those Kings that built it, and for the
Sacred Crocodiles; and the latter to contain the Sepulchres of King
_Mœris_ and his Wife.

[Sidenote: The Wall built by _Sesostris_.]

Not to describe particularly that prodigious Wall built by _Sesostris_,
which defended the _East_ side of _Egypt_, against the Irruptions of the
_Syrians_ and _Arabians_, being 1500 Furlongs in length, and extending
from _Pelusium_ by the Desart as far as _Heliopolis_; we come next to
speak of those famous Walls belonging to the City of _Babylon_ in
_Chaldea_, built by _Semiramis_ the Wife of _Ninus_, a Princess, who
being naturally of an high aspiring Spirit, was ambitious of excelling
all others in glorious Actions. So soon therefore as she had bury’d her
Husband _Ninus_, [Sidenote: _Ninus_ his Sepulchre.] King of _Assyria_,
in the Royal Palace, and rais’d over him a Mound of Earth of wonderful
bigness, which as _Ctesias_ reports, standing at some distance from the
City that lay in the Plain, appear’d like a stately Cittadel, being 9
Furlongs high and 10 broad: She provided her self of 2000000 Artists and
Workmen to build this City of _Babylon_ in one Year, [Sidenote:
_Babylon_ in _Chaldea_.] so ordering it that the River _Euphrates_
should flow thro’ the midst of it, as _Diod. Siculus_, Lib. 2. cap. 1.
informs us. She next encompass’d it with a Wall as many Furlongs in
circuit as there are Days in the Year, _viz._ 365: This Wall was 300
Foot high and 75 broad, insomuch that Coaches might meet and turn upon
it; She adorn’d it with 250 Turrets of suitable proportion: Then she
made a Bridge 5 Furlongs in length, over the narrowest part of the
River, and Floor’d it with great Joists and Planks of Cedar, Cypress and
Palm-Tree, 30 Foot long: At each end of this Bridge, just on the Brink
of the River, she built a Palace, whence she might have a Prospect of
the whole City: Then in a low Ground she sunk a four square Pond, every
Square being 300 Furlongs and the depth of the whole 35 Foot, lining it
with Bricks, cemented together with a sort of _Bitumen_ of a very
glutinous Nature like _Asphalt_, which work’d out of the Earth so
plentifully thereabouts, that it not only supply’d the People with Fuel,
but serv’d them also instead of Mortar for their Buildings, and with
which both the Palaces and Walls of this City were cemented. Afterwards,
by turning the River aside, she made a Passage in the nature of a Vault
from one Palace to another, and then let the Water again into its former
Channel, which immediately overflow’d the whole Work, by which means she
could go under the River when she had not a mind to pass over it. She
likewise made two brazen Gates, one at each end of this Vault, as also
Banqueting-Houses of Brass, into which passages were open’d by certain
Engins. Here might be seen brazen Statues of _Ninus_, _Semiramis_ and
all the great Officers, as likewise Armies drawn up in _Battalia_. These
Palaces were moreover surrounded with Walls, 30 Furlongs in circuit,
with Turrets on them 140 Yards high, on whose Bricks were pourtray’d,
before they were burn’d, all kinds of living Creatures, with great Art
and curious Painting, particularly a general Hunting of all sorts of
wild Beasts, each Beast being four Cubits high: Among these was
_Semiramis_ on Horseback, striking a Leopard thro’ with a Dart, and near
her _Ninus_ her Husband peircing a Lion with his Lance.

In the middle of the City she built a Temple to _Jupiter Belus_ of
exceeding great height, [Sidenote: Temple of _Belus_.] by the advantage
of which, the _Chaldean_ Astrologers observ’d the setting and rising of
the Stars. Upon the top of it she plac’d three Statues of _Jupiter_,
_Juno_ and _Rhea_, all of beaten Gold. That of _Jupiter_ was about 40
Foot high, and _Juno_ held in her hand a Scepter adorn’d with precious
Stones. These three Statues weigh’d 2830 _Babylonish_ Talents, and for
these Deities, there were plac’d on an Altar of beaten Gold, 40 Cubits
long and 15 broad, Censors, Cups and Drinking-Bowls of Gold likewise,
weighing at least 3230 Talents. Besides the richness of this City, it
was so vast and great that _Aristotle_ said, it ought rather to have
been call’d a Country, adding withal, that when the Town was taken, it
was three Days before the farthest part had notice of it.

[Sidenote: The _Pensil Garden_.]

Here likewise was the _Pensil Garden_ so much fam’d, being 400 Foot
square, with an ascent to it like to the top of a Mountain, and having
Buildings and Apartments out of one into another, like a Theatre. Under
the Steps of the Ascent were Arches, gradually rising one above another,
and supporting the whole Building, the highest Arch upon which the
Platform of the Garden was laid being 50 Cubits high, and the Garden it
self surrounded with Battlements and Walls 22 Foot in thickness. The
whole Fabric was floor’d over with massy Stones, 16 Foot long and 4
broad, and these again cover’d with Reeds run over with _Bitumen_, upon
which were laid double Tiles, set together with hard Plaster, and those
cover’d with Sheet-Lead, that the wet which should drain thro’ the Earth
might not rot the Foundation. Upon all these was laid Earth of a
convenient depth, which was planted with all sorts of Trees, that for
largeness and beauty might delight the Spectators. The Arches had in
them many stately Rooms of all kinds, and for all purposes; one of these
had a certain Engin, that drew plenty of Water out of the River for
watering the Garden, after such manner as none above knew how it was
done. This Garden was built in latter Ages by _Cyrus_, at the request of
a _Persian_ Courtesan, who, coveting Meadows on the tops of Mountains,
desir’d the King, by an artificial Plantation, to imitate the Land in

_Semiramis_ built other Cities on the Banks of _Euphrates_ and _Tigris_,
and likewise caus’d a great Stone to be cut out of the Mountains of
_Armenia_, 125 Foot in length and 5 in breadth and thickness, which she
convey’d to the River by the help of many yokes of Oxen and Asses, and
there putting it on board a Ship, brought it to _Babylon_, where she set
it up in the most remarkable Place, as a wonderful Spectacle to all
Beholders. [Sidenote: _Obelisk_ of _Semiramis_.] This from its shape was
term’d an _Obelisk_, signifying in _Greek_, a _Spit_, and accounted,
says _Diodorus_, one of the seven Wonders of the World; from whence we
have a very good Argument, that the _Egyptian Obelisks_ were cut out of
Rocks or Quarries, and not cast as some have suppos’d. _Semiramis_
having finish’d these Works, went to the Mountain _Bagistan_ in _Media_,
which is 17 Furlongs from top to bottom, and there caus’d her own Image
to be carv’d on the side of the Rock, and 100 of her Guards with Lances
round about her. She also made a Garden on the middle of an exceeding
high Rock, and built therein stately Houses of Pleasure, from whence she
might have both a delightful Prospect into her Garden, and view her Army
encamp’d below on the Plain: Likewise that she might leave behind her a
lasting Monument of her Name, she in a short Time, yet at vast expence,
made a shorter Passage towards _Ecbatana_, for by hewing down the Rocks,
and filling up the Valleys, she laid that Way open and plain, which to
this Day is call’d _Semiramis_’s _Way_. She plentifully supply’d
_Ecbatana_ with wholsome Waters, by means of a Canal she dug, 15 Foot
over and 40 Foot deep, beginning from the foot of the Mountain
_Orontes_, and as she went thro’ _Persia_ and _Asia_, she plain’d all
along the way before her, levelling both Rocks and Mountains. On the
other hand, in Champagne Countries, she rais’d Eminences, whereon she
either built Towns and Cities, or else Sepulchres for her Officers and
great Commanders. Many other wonderful Things were done by this Queen,
which seem to exceed common Belief; but as for those more admirable
Works of the _Egyptians_, _Herodotus_, _Diodorus Siculus_, _Strabo_,
_Pliny_ and others are full of Relations of what they have been, and the
present Remains of some of them at _Rome_ are sufficient Arguments to
evince there were such, so that we should but loose Time in endeavouring
to prove that which we now hope every one is satisfied of. Our next
business therefore, must be to enquire how these Arts came first to be
found out, and by what means they were accomplish’d and brought to so
great Perfection: What these Arts and Sciences were, suppos’d by Authors
to have been found out by the _Egyptians_, I have already shown
else-where, so shall here only add, that _Hermes_ or _Mercury_ is
reported by _Diodorus Siculus_ and other Writers, to have been the chief
Inventor of them; but as no _Art_ was ever invented and compleated at
one Time, so neither was it ever invented and perfected by one Person so
far, but another could add somewhat more commodious or advantagious to

Now, as to the first Invention of Things, I shall consider these three
principal Causes: [Sidenote: _Arts_ how first Invented.] _First_,
_Necessity_ is said to have been the _Mother_ of Invention, by reason it
puts Mens Minds upon thinking how to supply their Wants, with such
Things, and after such manner as they have most occasion for.
_Secondly_, _Unexpected Experiments_, as when you aim and try to find
out one Thing, and accidentally light on another: Thus ’tis said
_Gun-Powder_ and divers other considerable Things have been found out by
Chance, and innumerable others by experimental _Chymistry_. _Thirdly_,
_Natural Philosophy_, or Observation of the Instincts of all living
Creatures, has suggested many noble Thoughts and Fancies to Men, both
for Imitation and Invention. Now tho’ we cannot assert that Men at first
learn’d _Architecture_ from the _Beaver_, which builds himself a House
for shelter and security in the Winter Time, yet are we certain they
took the several Ornaments of Building either from Birds, Beasts and
Fishes, or from the Leaves, Flowers and Fruits of Plants. Thus the
_Grecians_ generally us’d the Leaves of [5]_Acanthus_, and the _Jews_
those of Palm-Trees and Pomegranates in their Buildings. Nor is it less
probable their Weaving might be found out from the Spider or Silk-Worm,
than that the Fish call’d _Nautilus_, or the little Mariner, was
_Navigiorum Archetipus_, the first Type or Pattern of a Ship, who when
he is to Swim, contracts his Body and Finns into the form of a Galley
under Sail. From the sight whereof, some (as _Pliny_ conceives) took the
first hint of framing a Ship, as from the sight of a Kite flying in the
Air, who turns and steers his Body with his Tail (as Fishes also do in
the Water) some have devis’d the Stern and Rudder of a Ship. _Iidem
videntur Artem gubernandi docuisse Caudæ flexibus, in Cælo monstrante
Natura quod opus esset in profundo_, Pliny _Lib._ 10. cap. 10. _They
seem to have taught Men the Art of Steering a Ship by the flexures of
their Tails, Nature shewing in the Air what was needful to be done in
the Deep._ ’Tis also observ’d by that great _Naturalist_ Mr. _Ray_, that
the Trunk of a Bird’s Body does somewhat resemble the Hull of a Ship,
the Head the Prow, which is for the most part small, that it may the
more easily cut the Air, and the Tail serves to steer, govern and direct
its flight. We read there was a Beast in _Egypt_ call’d _Cynocephalus_,
of a very strange kind, kept in the Temple of _Serapis_, which, during
the Time of the two Equinoxes, made Water 12 Times in a Day, and as
often in the Night, regularly and at even Spaces of Time; from the
Observation of which, they divided the Natural Day into 24 Hours, that
Beast being as it were their Clock and Dial, both to divide their Day,
and reckon their Hours by. This probably gave _Ctesibius_ of
_Alexandria_ an hint to invent the _Clepsydræ_ or Water Glasses, which
distinguish’d the Hours by the fall or dropping of Water, as
_Clepsammidiæ_ or Sand-Glasses did by the running of Sand; and to shew
they ow’d the Invention of these Water-Glasses to the _Cynocephalus_,
they us’d to carve one on the top of them, as may be seen in _Kircher_
in _Mechanica Ægyptiaca_. Now _Egypt_ was both in respect of its
Scituation as well as natural production of curious Things, a mighty
help to the Invention and improvement of Arts and Sciences; for as
_Casalius de veter. Ægypt. Ritibus_, p. 35. tells us, _Arithmetic_ was
first found out by their great Commerce, and _Geometry_ from the River
_Nile_’s Annual over-flowing the Fields, and removing their Bound-Marks,
which occasion’d great Disputes among them, so that by the frequent
measuring of the Ground it was deriv’d into this Art. And as for
_Astrology_, the quality of the Climate and scituation of the Country
was such, as gave them an advantage above others, more clearly to
discern the rising and setting of the Stars, for by reason of the
perpetual Serenity of the Air, they found out the Course of the Sun,
Moon and Stars, with their Constellations, Aspects and Influences, and
moreover by their often Worshipping those Planets, beheld and
contemplated them more seriously, and from thence became the most
skillful _Astrologers_ in the World, as _Firmianus Divin. instit._ Lib.
2. cap. 14. says: Hereby also being made more perspicacious, and
observing of natural Things, they invented _Physick_, for, as _Prosper
Alpinus_, [Sidenote: _Physic_, how first found out.] Lib. _de Medicina
Ægyptiorum_ reports, They took the hints of curing divers Diseases from
brute Beasts and Animals. Thus _Phlebotomy_ or Bleeding was found out
from the _Hippopotomos_ or River-Horse, which lives in the _Nile_, for
when this Beast is grown over fat with continual Gluttony and
Gormandizing, he searches out for a sharp pointed Reed on the Banks of
the River, and having found one fit for his purpose, sticks it into his
Thigh, and wounds a certain Vein there; when having sufficiently emty’d
his Plethoric Body by Bleeding, he closes, and as it were plasters up
the Orifice with Mud. Also that a certain Bird call’d _Ibis_, about the
Banks of _Nile_, first taught the _Egyptians_ the way of administring
_Clysters_; for this Bird has been often observ’d, by means of his
crooked Bill intromitted into the _Anus_, to inject salt Water, as with
a Syringe, into its own Bowels, and thereby to exonerate its Paunch when
too much obstructed. Dogs are commonly known when Sick to Vomit
themselves by eating Grass. Swine, so soon as they perceive themselves
ill, refuse their Meat, and so recover by Abstinence. ’Tis reported the
wild Goat taught the use of the _Dictamnus_, for drawing out of Darts
and healing Wounds, and the Swallow the use of _Celandine_ for
recovering the Sight; whence we may as well infer, that from the
diversity of Bodies, such as Flies, Spiders, Gnats, Bees, Pismires,
Grashoppers, Locusts, Frogs, _&c._ inclos’d in Amber, the _Egyptians_
might first learn the Art of _Embalming_; [Sidenote: How _Embalming_.]
but since these things appear rather Fabulous, and the pleasant Flights
of acute Wits and inquisitive Naturalists, than solid Truths to be
rely’d on, we must have recourse to the fourth _Cause_, _viz._ That
their Opinion of the _Metemsychosis_ or Transmigration of the Soul, and
other such like religious Principles, first oblig’d them to study this
Art, and perhaps the known Virtues of _Opobalsamum_, so good against
Mortifications and Putrifactions, might suggest to them the use of it in
preserving the Bodies of Princes, as the Balsamic, Sulphurous and
Bituminous Nature of their _Asphalt_, taught them to use that for the
poorer sort of People; besides, whatever way it was first found out, it
was as easie for them to do it as for us to believe it, says _Gabriel
Clauderus_ in _Methodo Balsamandi_, p. 41. because they excell’d all
other Nations in Learning and Invention, so that by applying themselves
with the utmost diligence to the study of this Art, they could not fail
of attaining the perfection of it, especially since this Region was,
above all others, the best accommodated with an extraordinary
fruitfulness and plenty of Aromatic and Medicinal Things, necessary as
well for all Physical Uses as for the decent performing of their
_Embalmings_. Now _Sandys_, p. 38. tells us abundance of Practitioners
in Physic are frequently invited to _Cairo_ by the great store of
Simples there growing. Add to this the extraordinary Diligence of the
_Egyptian_ Kings and Priests, both in rewarding Arts and being
solicitously intent on finding out the Nature of Things themselves, not
by indulging Superstition, but by a strict search and scrutiny, not
trusting to plausible Appearances, but only to Experiments and
Demonstration. To prove this we shall show such infallible Methods for
the Invention and Improvement of all Arts and Sciences, that they could
not easily miscarry in their Designs; for besides the famous Library of
_Ptolemy Philadelphus_, and that in the Temple of _Serapis_, there was
at _Cairo_, as _Prosper Alpinus de Medicina Ægyptiorum_ relates, a
University or place of Study call’d _Gemelhazar_, which paid yearly out
of the public Stock of the Academy 300000 pieces of Gold for Books,
Food, Stipends, _&c._

Footnote 5:

  ’Tis said the Ornaments of the _Corinthian_ Chapiter were invented
  from seeing a Maid rest her Basket on a Tomb over-grown with this
  Plant; of which see _Vitruvius_.

The Invention of Arts and Sciences may be partly imputed to the goodness
of their Laws, [Sidenote: Goodness of their _Laws_.] and their
strictness in observing them; the _Egyptians_ alledging this as an
undeniable Argument, that the best Laws were made and instituted among
them, in that the Native Kings had Reign’d in _Egypt_ for the space of
above 4700 Years, and that their Country during all that Time had been
the most prosperous and flourishing in the World, which could never have
been so if the Inhabitants had not been civiliz’d and brought up under
good Laws, and a liberal Education in all kinds of Arts and Sciences. To
effect this therefore they divided their People into three Orders:
_First_, Priests. _Secondly_, Artificers and Husbandmen. And, _Thirdly_,
Military Persons or Souldiers. Now each Person strictly keeping to his
own Province, Art flourish’d in a right Line, and Sciences were not
attack’d by rustic and ignorant Pretenders, but only practis’d by
Priests, who were the chief of their Nobility, and liv’d separate from
all others least their Learning should be any ways divulg’d. Nor was it
lawful for any but Priests Sons to enter the Colleges where these
Sciences were taught, whereby the more polite Knowledge was secur’d to
the Priests, and mechanic Arts and Trades practis’d only by the inferior
People. Now the better to effect and propagate this, they had three Laws
that mightily encourag’d the Study and Invention of Arts, on which their
chief Felicity depended, as _Diodorus Siculus_ witnesses. _First_, In
that they honour’d and esteem’d all such as were the first Inventors and
Promoters of useful Things. _Secondly_, In that he who pretended to more
Arts than one, incurr’d a most grievous Punishment. And, _Thirdly_, In
that every one was oblig’d to appear annually before the Governour of
the Province to show how he got his Living, which if he could not prove,
or was found to subsist by unjust means, he was infallibly punish’d with
Death. Thus all Men were employ’d, [Sidenote: _Arts_ most flourishing in
the Reign of _Amasis_.] and every Art carry’d to the highest perfection
in the Reign of _Amasis_, who enacted the third Law. Now, as a further
Argument of the _Egyptian_ Industry, hear what _Fl. Vopiscus_ relates of
the _Alexandrians_: _Civitas_, says he, _[Alexandria] opulenta, dives,
fæcunda, in qua Nemo vivit otiosus, alii Vitrum conflant, ab aliis
Charta conficitur, alii Linyphiones sunt: Omnes certe cujuscunque Artis
& videntur & habentur; Podagrosi quod agant habent, habent cæci quod
faciant, ne Chiragrici quidem apud eos otiosi vivunt_. [Sidenote:
_Alexandria_, how Industrious and Flourishing.] Alexandria _is a
plentiful and opulent City, in which none live idle: Some blow Glass,
others make Paper, a third sort weave Linnen, and in a word, all have
some Trade or Work. Those that have the Gout in their Feet or are Blind
have something to do, and even such as have the Gout in their Hands are
not idle._ This shows how every Art was cultivated: Likewise their
Industry and number of Hands as plainly prove the facility of performing
those seemingly incredible and stupendious Works, which has taken us up
so much Time to relate; for ’tis said, throughout the whole Country of
_Egypt_, [Sidenote: _Egypt_, its number of Cities and Inhabitants.] in
the Reign of _Amasis_, there were reckon’d no fewer than 20000 Cities,
and that it was esteem’d the most populous Country of the World.
_Diodorus Siculus_ tells us it had in it above 18000 Cities, as might be
seen register’d in their Sacred Records; and in the Time of _Ptolemeus
Lagus_ there remain’d above 3000. Once, they say, in a general _Census_
taken of all the Inhabitants, they amounted to Seven Millions, and even
at the Time of _Diodorus_, there were no less than Three Millions of
People, [Sidenote: How it came to be so numerous.] which wonderful
Encrease some think might be effected by the constant drinking of the
_Nile_ Water, which had the Virtue of making the _Egyptian_ Women
Prolific, so as commonly to bring forth three or four Children at a
Birth. This may a little abate the wonder, how the Children of _Israel_
could multiply to that degree in so short a space, that in 430 Years,
from 70 Persons, which came with _Jacob_ into _Egypt_, he became a
mighty Nation; for it is said, at their departure, there journey’d, from
_Rameses_ to _Succoth_, about 600000 Men, besides Women and Children.
Now how populous the Land from whence they came was, may be collected
not only from their commanding such mighty Powers as were under them,
but also, as has been before observ’d, from the several Accounts of that
Kingdom, given us by _Herodotus_ and _Diodorus Siculus_; for it is
reported that _Sesac_ or _Sesonchis_ arm’d 400000 Foot, 60000 Horse and
1200 Chariots against _Rehoboam_, and that King _Cheops_ or _Chemnis_
employ’d 360000 Men in erecting one of the _Pyramids_. ’Tis also farther
said, they built other stupendious Works, such as the _Labyrinth_,
_Obelisks_, _Colossus’s_, &c. [Sidenote: By what Means such wonderful
Works were perform’d,] as not knowing otherwise how to expend their
Treasure or employ their People, thro’ which means their Kings, by their
great Riches and infinite numbers of Men, left behind them such eternal
Monuments of their State and Grandure, which altho’ they bear the name
of _Wonders_ to this very Day, as seeming very difficult to have been
perform’d, yet were such Works render’d easie enough, if we consider so
vast a multitude of Hands as were employ’d about them, and this being
rightly consider’d, we may well enough believe what _Herodotus_ says of
_Egypt_, _That it had more wonderful Works than all the Nations of the
World besides_.

[Sidenote: and to what End.]

Thus having shown how the _Egyptians_ were the first Inventors and
Propagators of Arts and Sciences, we will next show to what end they
built those admirable Structures with so great Labour and Expence,
thinking not as _Aristotle_, Lib. 3. _Polit._ who makes them to have
been the Works of Tyranny, or as _Pliny_, Lib. 26. cap. 12. conjectures,
that they built them partly out of Ostentation, and partly out of
State-Policy, to divert their People from Mutinies and Rebellion by
keeping them employ’d, but that they erected them as Repositories for
their Dead, which they did from a Belief they had of the Immortality of
the Soul, and an Opinion they held of the Metempsychosis or
Transmigration of it from one Body to another: ’Tis true, those
Arguments alledg’d by _Pliny_ might be Secondary Motives, yet says
_Greaves_ in his _Pyramidographia_, p. 45. the true Reason depends upon
higher and more weighty Considerations, [Sidenote: _Theology_ of the
_Egyptians_, or _Metempsychosis_.] springing from the _Theology_ of the
_Egyptians_, who as _Servius_ shews in his Comment on these words of
_Virgil_, Lib. 3. _Æneid._ where that Poet describes the Funeral of

                         ——_Animamq; Sepulchro

believ’d, _That as long as the Body endur’d so long should the Soul
continue with it_, which also was the Opinion of the _Stoicks_: _Hence
the_ Egyptians, _skilful in Wisdom, keep their Dead_ embalm’d _so much
the longer, to the end the Soul may for a long while continue with the
Body, lest it should quickly pass into another. The_ Romans _acted quite
contrary, burning their Dead, that the Soul might suddenly return into
the generality of Things, that is, into its own Nature_; wherefore, says
_Greaves_, that the Body might not either by Putrifaction be reduc’d to
Dust, out of which it was first form’d, or by Fire be converted to Ashes
(as the manner of the _Greeks_ and _Romans_ was) the _Egyptians_
invented curious Compositions, besides intombing their Dead in stately
Repositories, thereby to preserve them from Rottenness, and render them
Eternal. _Nec cremare, aut fodere fas putant, verum arte Medicatos intra
penetralia collocant_, says _Pomponius Mela_, Lib. 1. cap. 9. Also
_Herodotus_ in _Thalia_ gives the Reason why they neither burn’d nor
bury’d their Dead, for discoursing in his third Book of the Cruelty of
_Cambyses_, and his commanding the Body of _Amasis_, an _Egyptian_ King,
should be taken out of his Sepulchre, be whipp’d and us’d with all
contumely; he reports, after all this he order’d it to be burn’d,
_Commanding that which was not Holy, for the_ Persians _imagin’d the
Fire to be a God, [Sidenote: _Fire_ thought by the _Persians_ a _God_.]
and neither the_ Egyptians _nor they were accustom’d to burn their Dead:
The_ Persians, _for the Reason before alleg’d, because they conceiv’d it
unfit for a God to devour the Carcass of a Man; and the_ Egyptians,
_because they were persuaded the Fire was a living Creature, [Sidenote:
By the _Egyptians_ a living Creature.] devouring all Things it receiv’d,
and after it was satisfy’d with Food, dy’d with that it had devour’d.
Nor was it their Custom to give their dead Bodies to Beasts (as the_
Hyrcanians _were wont to do) but to_ Embalm _or Salt them, not only for
this Reason, but also that they might not be consum’d with Worms_. The
term ταριχεύειν, i. e. _Salting_ or _Embalming_ the Dead, us’d by
_Herodotus_, is also us’d by _Baruch_ and _Plato_. _Lucian_ likewise in
his Discourse _de Luctu_, treating of the several kinds of Burial
practis’d by divers Nations, says, _The_ Grecians _burn their Dead, the_
Persians _bury them, the_ Indians _anoint them with the Fat of Swine,
the_ Scythians _eat them, and the_ Egyptians (ταριχεύει) Embalm _them_:
Which manner likewise is alluded to by _M. Aurelius Antoninus_, under
the word τάριχος: His Words are these, _That which the other Day was
excrementitious Matter, shall within few Days either be_ τάριχος, _an_
Embalm’d _Body, or down right Ashes_; in the one expressing the Custom
of the _Egyptians_, and in the other that of the _Romans_. By Salting or
_Embalming_ the Soul, according to the Belief of the _Egyptians_, was
oblig’d to abide with the Body, and the Body on its part became as
durable as Marble, insomuch that _Plato_, who liv’d in _Egypt_ with
_Eudoxus_ no less than 13 Years, as _Strabo_ witnesses, brings it for an
Argument, in his _Phædon_, to prove the Immortality of the Soul, thro’
the long duration of these Bodies, which surely would have been yet more
conclusive with him, could he but have imagin’d they should have
continu’d so solid and entire even to this Day, as we find many of them
are: _For this Reason St._ Austin [Sidenote: _Egyptians_ believ’d the
_Resurrection_.] _truly affirms the_ Egyptians _had a Belief of the
Resurrection, in that they carefully preserv’d their Dead; for they had
a Custom among them of drying up the Bodies, and rendring them as
durable as Brass_: These, in their Language they call’d _Gabbares_,
whence the gloss of _Isidore_, _Gabbares mortuorum in Vulcanius_ his
Edition, or as _Spondanus de Cæmet. sacris_, Lib. 1. pars 1. cap. 5.
reads, _Gabbares mortuorum condita Corpora_.

The manner how the _Egyptians_ prepar’d and _Embalm’d_ these Bodies is
very copiously, and by what I observ’d at my being there, says _Greaves_
in his _Pyramidographia_, p. 48. faithfully describ’d by _Herodotus_ and
_Diodorus_; in which Matter, tho’ I cannot totally dissent from Mr.
_Greaves_, for their Account may be true, yet is it not so copious as
they make it, but imperfectly related, or at least so far that some
Passages are hardly to be understood or made out, which may easily be
allow’d without Reflection on those famous Men, since they treated of
the Matter only as _Historians_ and not as _Physicians_: My business
therefore shall be, after relating their own Words, to reconcile their
Differences, explain the Difficulties, and compare the Opinions of
_Annotators_ and _Physicians_ on this _Art_, and lastly, to suggest some
new Thoughts, as plausible, and perhaps as true as any, especially since
it is all but guesswork, and the true _Art_ may have entirely perish’d
with the antient _Egyptians_, either by Inundation, Fire, Irruptions of
Enemies, or other hostile Devastations. I will begin first with
_Herodotus_, whose Words serve as well to shew the several Ceremonies of
_Sepulture_ as their _Embalmings_, and whom we find in his Second Book
call’d _Euterpe_, thus speaking of the _Egyptians_:

[Sidenote: _Herodotus_’s Account of the _Egyptian Funerals_.]

_Their Mourning_, says he, _and manner of Burial are after this kind:
When any Man of Quality dies, all the Women of that Family besmear their
Heads and Faces with Dirt; then leaving the Body at home, they go
lamenting up and down the City with all their Relations, their Apparel
being girt about them, and their Breasts left naked. On the other hand
the Men, having likewise their Cloaths girt about them, beat themselves.
These things being done, they carry the dead Body to be_ Embalm’d; _for
which, there are certain Persons appointed who profess this_ Art.
_These, when the Body is brought to them, shew to those that bring it
certain Models of Wood, painted like the Dead Person that is to be_
Embalm’d. _One of these they say is accurately made (which I think not
lawful to name;) then they shew a second inferior to it and of an easier
Price, and next a third cheaper than the former, and of a very small
value, which being seen, they ask them what Pattern they will have the
dead Body prepar’d by: When they have agreed on the Price they depart,
and those with whom the dead Corps is left proceed to_ Embalm _it after
the following manner: First of all they, with a crooked Iron, draw the
Brain out of the Head thro’ the Nostrils, and then fill up the Cavity
with Medicinal Ingredients. Next, with a sharp_ Æthiopic _Stone, they
cut up that part of the_ Abdomen _call’d the_ Ilia, _and that way draw
out all the Bowels, which having cleans’d and wash’d with Palm-Wine,
they again rinse and wash with Wine perfum’d with pounded Odours; then
filling up the Belly with pure_ Myrrh _and_ Cassia _grosly powder’d, and
all other Odours except_ Frankincense, _they sow it up again. Having so
done, they salt it up close with Nitre 70 Days, for longer they may not
salt it. After this number of Days are over, they wash the Corps again,
and then roul it up with fine Linnen all besmear’d with a sort of Gum
commonly us’d by the_ Egyptians _instead of Glue. Then is the Body
restor’d to its Relations, who prepare a wooden Coffin for it, in the
shape and likeness of a Man, and then put the_ Embalm’d _Body into it,
and thus inclos’d place it in a Repository in the House, setting it
upright against the Wall. After this manner they with great expence
preserve their Dead, whereas those who to avoid too great a Charge
desire a mediocrity, thus_ Embalm _them: They neither cut the Belly nor
pluck out the Entrails, but fill it with Clysters of Oil of_ Cedar
_injected up the_ Anus, _and then salt it the aforesaid number of Days.
On the last of these they press out the_ Cedar _Clyster, by the same way
they had injected it, which has such Virtue and Efficacy that it brings
out along with it the Bowels wasted, and the Nitre consumes the Flesh,
leaving only the Skin and Bones: Having thus done, they restore the dead
Body to the Relations, doing nothing more. The third way of_ Embalming
_is for those of yet meaner Circumstances: They with Lotions wash the
Belly, then dry it with Salt for 70 Days, and afterwards deliver it to
be carry’d away. Nevertheless, beautiful Women and Ladies of Quality
were not deliver’d to be_ Embalm’d _till three or four Days after they
had been dead_. Ea de causa facientes, ne cum Fæminis isti Salinarii
concumbant. Deprehensum enim quendam aiunt coeuntem cum recenti Cadavere
Muliebri, delatumq; ab ejusdem Artificii Socio. _But if any_ Egyptian
_or Stranger was either kill’d by a Crocodile, or drown’d in the River,
the City where he was cast up was to_ Embalm _and bury him honourably in
the Sacred Monuments, whom no one, no, not a Relation or Friend, but the
Priests of_ Nile _only might touch, because they bury’d one who was
something more than a dead Man_.

[Sidenote: _Diodorus Siculus_’s Account of the _Egyptian Funerals_.]

_Diodorus Siculus_, Lib. 1. relates the Funeral Ceremonies of the
_Egyptians_ more distinctly and clearly, and with some very remarkable
Circumstances. _When any one among the_ Egyptians _dies_, says he, _all
his Relations and Friends, putting Dirt upon their Heads, go lamenting
about the City, till such time as the Body shall be bury’d. In the mean
time they abstain from Baths and Wine, and all kinds of delicate Meats,
neither do they during that time wear any costly Apparel. The manner of
their Burials is threefold; one very costly, a second sort less
chargable, and a third very mean. In the first_, they say, _there is
spent a Talent of Silver, in the second 20_ Minæ, _but in the last there
is very little Expence. Those who have the care of ordering the Body,
are such as have been taught that Art by their Ancestors. These shewing
to the Kindred of the Deceas’d a Bill of Expences of each kind of
Burial, ask them after what manner they will have the Body prepar’d;
when they have agreed upon the matter, they deliver the Body to such as
are usually appointed for this Office. First he who has the name of
Scribe, laying it upon the Ground, marks about the Flank on the left
side, how much is to be cut away. Then he who is call’d the Cutter or
Dissector, with an_ Æthiopic _Stone, cuts away as much of the Flesh as
the Law commands, and presently runs away as fast as he can: Those who
are present persuing him, cast Stones at him, and curse him, hereby
turning all the Execrations, which they imagin due to his Office, upon
him. For whosoever offers violence, wounds or does any kind of injury to
a Body of the same nature with himself they think him worthy of Hatred;
but those who are call’d the_ Embalmers, _they esteem worthy of Honour
and Respect: For they are familiar with their Priests, and go into the
Temples as Holy Men, without any prohibition. So soon as they come to_
Embalm _the dissected Body, one of them thrusts his Hand thro’ the Wound
into the_ Abdomen, _and draws forth all the Bowels but the Heart and
Kidnies, which another washes and cleanses with Wine made of Palms and
aromatic Odours. Lastly, having wash’d the Body, they anoint it with Oil
of Cedar and other Things for above 30 Days, and afterwards with Myrrh,
Cinamon and other such like Matters; which have not only a power to
preserve it for a long Time, but also give it a sweet Smell; after which
they deliver it to the Kindred, in such manner that every Member remains
whole and entire, and no part of it chang’d, but the beauty and shape of
the Face seems just as it was before, and may be known, even the Hairs
of the Eye-Lids and Eye-Brows remaining as they were at first. By this
means many of the_ Egyptians, _keeping the dead Bodies of their
Ancestors in magnificent Houses, so perfectly see the true Visage and
Countenance of those that dy’d many Ages before they themselves were
born, that in viewing the Proportions of every one of them, and the
Lineaments of their Faces, they take as much delight as if they were
still living among them. Moreover, the Friends and nearest Relations of
the Deceas’d, for the greater Pomp of the Solemnity, acquaint the Judges
and the rest of their Friends with the Time prefix’d for the Funeral or
Day of Sepulture, declaring that such a one (calling the Dead by his
Name) is such a Day to pass the Lake, at which Time above 40 Judges
appear, and sit together in a Semicircle, in a place prepar’d on the
hither side of the Lake, where a Ship, provided before-hand by such as
have the care of the Business, is hal’d up to the Shoar, and steer’d by
a Pilot, whom the_ Egyptians _in their Language call_ Charon. _Hence,
they say_, Orpheus _upon seeing this Ceremony while he was in_ Egypt,
_invented the Fable of Hell, partly imitating therein the People of_
Egypt, _and partly adding somewhat of his own. The Ship being thus
brought to the Lake-side, before the Coffin is put on board, every one
is at liberty by the Law to accuse the Dead of what he thinks him
guilty. Now if any one proves he was an ill Liver, the Judges give
Sentence the Body shall be depriv’d of Sepulture; but in case the
Informer be convicted of false Accusation, then is he severely punish’d.
If no Accuser appear, or the Information prove false, then all the
Kindred of the Deceas’d leave off Mourning, and begin to set forth his
Praises, yet say nothing of his Birth (as the Custom is among the_
Greeks) _because the_ Egyptians _all think themselves equally Noble: But
then they recount how the Deceas’d was educated from his Youth, and
brought up to Man’s Estate, exalting his Piety towards the Gods and
Justice towards Men, his Chastity and other Virtues, wherein he
excell’d; and lastly, pray and call upon the Infernal Deities to receive
him into the Society of the Just. The common People take this from the
others, and consequently approve all is said in his Praise by a loud
shout, setting likewise forth his Virtues in the highest strains of
Commendation, as one that is to live for ever with the Infernal Gods.
Then those that have Tombs of their own, interr the Corps in places
appointed for that purpose, and they that have none, rear up the Body in
its Coffin against some strong Wall of their House. But such as are
deny’d Sepulture on account of some Crime or Debt, are laid up at home
without Coffins: Yet when it shall afterwards happen that any of their
Posterity grows Rich, he commonly pays off the deceas’d Persons Debts,
and gets his Crimes absolv’d, and so buries him honourably, for the_
Egyptians _are wont to boast of their Parents and Ancestors that were
magnificently bury’d. ’Tis a Custom likewise among them to pawn the dead
Bodies of their Parents to their Creditors, but then those that do not
redeem them fall under the greatest Disgrace imaginable, and are deny’d
Burial themselves at their Deaths._

[Sidenote: Reflections on the _Egyptian Embalming_.]

Thus far _Herodotus_ and _Diodorus Siculus_ have given the largest and
clearest Accounts of any of the Ancients of the Funeral Ceremonies and
_Embalmings_ of the _Egyptians_, but there are still remaining some
dubious and difficult Points necessary to be known, for the better
understanding this _Art_: We shall make some Quere’s and Reflexions
thereon, and endeavour to reconcile them by the Opinions of the more
refin’d Artists, the modern Physicians.

[Sidenote: The _Mourning_ of the _Egyptians_.]

First then of the Mourning of the _Egyptians_, by them very strictly
observ’d for a long time, and perform’d after the following manner: When
any of their Kings dy’d they lamented his Death with a general Mourning,
making sad Lamentations, putting Dirt upon their Heads, rending their
Cloaths and beating their Breasts; they shut up their Temples and
Markets, and prohibited all Festivals and Rejoycings; they abstain’d
from all delicate Meats and costly Apparel, from Baths, Perfumes and
Ointments, and neither made their Beds nor accompany’d with their Wives,
but express’d all the signs of an extraordinary Affliction, that they
could have done for their own Child. This their Mourning continu’d till
the Body was bury’d, which was no less than 72 Days, during which, both
Men and Women, and those about 2 or 300 in number, went about the City
twice a Day without any thing on but a Linnen-Cloath girt about their
Bodies, from beneath their Breasts downwards, renewing their Grief, and
intermixing the Virtues and Praises of the deceas’d Prince with their
Sighs and Outcries. Much the same Ceremonies were observ’d in their
private Funerals, some of which we shall insert from the Writings of the
famous _Don Antonio de Guevara_, Historiographer to the Emperor
_Charles_ V. who in his 10th Letter, English’d by Mr. _Savage_, thus
writes: ‘Of all Nations, none we read of made so much adoe about their
Dead as the _Egyptians_, who, when ever a Friend dy’d, always shew’d him
far more Respect than while he liv’d; insomuch that if a Father lost a
Son, a Son a Father, or one Friend was depriv’d of another, they us’d to
shave off half their Hair as a _Hieroglyphic_ to demonstrate they had
parted with half of themselves. Also the _Egyptian_ Women, when their
Husbands, Children or Relations dy’d, were wont to tear their Flesh, and
scratch their Faces with their Nails. Likewise the lesser Priests, at
the Funerals of the greater, were accustom’d to mark their Flesh with
red hot Irons, either on their Hands, Arms or Breasts, to the end that
when ever they beheld those Scars they might immediately be dispos’d to
lament their loss. In like manner they had a Custom, that when ever a
King or Prince dy’d, all his Officers were instantly oblig’d to slash
themselves with Knives in some visible part of their Bodies; insomuch,
that he who was observ’d to have most Wounds, was always look’d upon to
be the greatest Mourner. All which Ceremonies being in themselves
superstitious, and no doubt invented by the Devil, forasmuch as the
_Egyptians_ were all naturally Necromancers, Magicians, Wizzards and
Astrologers, and for that they were not only a damage to the Living, but
also no Advantage to the Dead; GOD forbad the Children of _Israel_ (who
living so long in _Egypt_, had contracted many ill Customs from those
People) both marking and cutting their Flesh, as appears from
_Leviticus_ 19. 27, 28. where he Commands the _Israelites_ neither to
_round the Corners of their Heads, nor mar the Points of their Beards:
To make any Cuttings in their Flesh, or print any Marks upon it on
account of their Dead_.’

[Sidenote: How the _Egyptians Embalm’d Bodies_.]

Thus _Herodotus_ and _Diodorus Siculus_ having first describ’d the
manner of _Mourning_ among the _Egyptians_, they next proceed to give an
Account of their _Embalmings_, telling us, That whilst the Ceremonies of
_Mourning_ were performing, they carry’d the Dead to be _Embalm’d_, as I
suppose, to a certain place appointed for that purpose, where Persons
resided who profess’d that Art, being well experienc’d therein, and
taught it by their Ancestors. These show’d the Relations or Persons that
brought the Body, and had commission for ordering the Funeral, certain
Models or Patterns of Wood, painted in the likeness of _Embalm’d_
Bodies, [Sidenote: Three different kinds of _Embalming_.] being of three
several kinds and Prizes, suitable to every one’s Condition and Quality;
some very Rich and Costly, others of a moderate Price, and a third sort
cheaper and of very little Value. Having agreed upon the Sort and Price,
they immediately go about _Embalming_ the Body, and as _Herodotus_ tells
us, first of all draw out the Brain, with a crooked Iron, thro’ the
Nostrils, infusing in its place, by the same way, several Medicaments,
which as it is contrary to our Custom of Dissection, that begins with
the _Abdomen_, seeing its Contents soonest putrifie and become offensive
even in our cold Country, and much more would do in so hot a Climate as
that of _Egypt_, if neglected; so the extraction of the Brain, after the
manner propos’d by him, is a very difficult and tedious piece of Work,
if possible to be perform’d at all; but his wrong beginning of this Work
of _Embalming_ is not so material a Mistake, as his amusing us with a
Story of drawing forth the Brain thro’ the Nostrils with a crooked Iron,
(by which I suppose he means some particular sort of Instrument) and not
farther explaining himself how or after what manner it was done; and
indeed I believe he could not, the thing being in it self impracticable
and ridiculous, which any one skill’d in _Anatomy_ will readily agree
to. But grant it could be done, the afore-said extraction of the Brain
thro’ the Nostrils, must nevertheless so dilacerate the cartilagineous
parts of the Nose, that the carnous and cutaneous parts would sink, and
thereby render the Face deform’d. More agreeable therefore to Reason is
what _Gryphius_ in _Tract. de Mum. Wratislav._ p. 45. asserts, That it
might be more commodiously extracted thro’ a large _Foramen_, made in
the hinder part of the Head, near the upper _Vertebræ_ of the Neck; but
that this was not the right way neither, I am thoroughly convinc’d from
the Skull of an _Embalm’d_ Body I have by me, which has no such
Apertion. [Sidenote: The _Brain_ how extracted.] To reconcile therefore
this seeming difficulty, I will shew a Method how ’tis possible to be
perform’d by a convenient Instrument which I have devis’d, and intend to
describe in another Place, contenting my self here to tell you, That by
injecting Oil of _Cedar_, or the like corrosive Medicine thro’ the
Nostrils, or thro’ the Ears, by a Passage privately made into the Skull,
the Brain may be consum’d and brought away, and the Skull, by injections
of spirituous and aromatic Wines, be thoroughly wash’d and cleans’d; and
lastly fill’d with melted _Bitumen_ or sweet Balsams, that acquire a
solid Consistence when cold. And altho’ _Greaves_ seems well satisfy’d
with _Herodotus_’s Account, yet is his Observation, _p._ 49. of his
_Pyramidographia_, more agreeable to this Opinion of mine, where he
tells us, That having caus’d the Head of one of the richer sort of
_Embalm’d_ Bodies to be open’d, he found in the hollow of the Skull the
quantity of two pounds of Medicament, which had the consistence,
blackness and smell of a kind of _Bitumen_ or Pitch, and by the heat of
the Sun was become soft.

_Diodorus Siculus_ begins more methodically with the _Scribe_ or
_Designer_, [Sidenote: The _Scribe_ or _Designer_.] an Officer so
call’d, who draws upon a piece of Paper, or marks on the Body it self,
the part that was to be open’d, _viz._ The Flank on the left side.
[Sidenote: _Dissector._] Then the _Dissector_ made the Incision
(_without cutting off any of the Flesh, or running away so soon as he
had done_) and thrusting his Hand into the Belly, drew out all the Guts,
which, as _Plutarch_ writes, were cast into the River _Nile_, _Tanquam
inquinamenta Corporis_, as defiling the Body: But _Diodorus_ tells us,
The Body was embowell’d by one of the _Embalmers_, which altho’ it
appears to me a more filthy and detestable Work than making the
Incision, [Sidenote: _Embalmers_ much honour’d.] yet he says the
_Embalmers_ were highly honour’d and respected, being familiar with the
Priests, and entring into the Temples as Holy Men, whereas he excludes
the _Dissectors_ from out of that number, as performing an odious
Operation hateful to all Men. In this distinction however I am apt to
think he’s either intirely out, or has mistaken it for just the
contrary; for, as we have already shown, _p._ 181. _Anatomy_ was not
only generally approv’d, but likewise often perform’d by Holy and Great
Men, such as the _Egyptian_ Priests and Kings, who would either have
practis’d or taught better, in case it had been so heinous a Crime as
this Author makes it; whence, without doubt, those that did this pious
and necessary Office towards preserving the Dead, must needs have been
equally honour’d with the _Embalmers_, and what seems yet clearly to
confirm this, is that sometimes the _Art of Embalming_ has been call’d
_Honesta Anatomia_.

Now the Instrument with which this Incision was made was an _Ethiopic_
Stone call’d _Basaltes_, [Sidenote: _Basaltes_ an _Ethiopic_ Stone.] and
nam’d from its hardness and colour like to Iron, that word in the
_Ethiopic_ Language signifying Iron, and this Stone being much harder
than that Metal, it might very probably be whet to a keen edge or point,
and so be ceremonially us’d instead of an Incision-Knife, like as the
antient _Jews_ were wont to use Knives made of Flints in their
Circumcision, _Joshua_ 5. 2.

[Sidenote: The _Embowelling_ a Corps.]

As to the Exenteration or Embowelling the Body, we are not to imagine
they drew out only the Brain and Guts, but likewise the Lungs, Stomach,
Liver, Spleen, and other _Viscera_, except the Heart and Kidnies, which
being carnous and fleshy might very likely be left, as being easier to
be preserv’d than the moist parts. The former they might probably leave
to be _Embalm’d_, as being the principal Bowel of the whole Body, and
source of vital Heat (wherefore it has been frequently preserv’d apart
by several People) but for what Reason, or out of what Superstition they
left the latter I cannot readily conjecture.

Then having empty’d the Head, Breast and Belly of their Contents, they
first wash’d and cleans’d them with Phænician or Palm-Wine, compounded
of aromatic Spices and sweet Odours, [Sidenote: The _Body_ stuff’d with
medicinal Ingredients.] and afterwards stuff’d them with a mixture of
sweet scented Drugs, Spices and Balsams, such as _Myrrh_, _Aloes_,
_Saffron_, _Cassia_ or _Cinamon_, _Opobalsamum_ and the like,
_Frankincense_ only being excepted, because that was by them consecrated
to their Gods. These Ingredients had not only a power to preserve the
Body for a long Time, but also gave it a sweet and agreeable Smell. This
done, they sew’d up the Incision or Passage thro’ which they drew forth
the Bowels; but _Antonius Santorellus_ in his _Post-Praxis Medica_, p.
136. not without Reason observes, That tho’ Aromatics are of a drying
quality, yet as they are likewise heating, they may occasion a
Fermentation in the Body; therefore I am apt to think _Myrrh_ and
_Aloes_ were the basis of the Composition, and that Aromatics were us’d
only in small quantities, and that rather to conciliate a grateful Odour
to the Body than preserve it from Putrifaction. Yet I am not ignorant at
the same time of what some alledge of Aromatics, that by their innate
balsamic Virtue, by their bitterness and oleaginous Sulphur, or
penetrability of their volatil Salts, they resist Putrifaction. Neither
am I ignorant of what _Bellonius_ affirms, Lib. 2. _De Medicato Funere_,
p. 27. that neither _Myrrh_, _Aloes_ nor _Saffron_ have so much Virtue
as to consume the Humidity of a dead Body, nor being hard Bodies can
penetrate so far as to enter the Bones and replete their Cavities.
Furthermore asserting, That if _Aloes_ were us’d in _Embalming_ they
would give the Body a bitter taste, whereas no Mummies have been ever
found to have such a taste; and this is also taken notice of, says the
aforesaid Author, by _Valerius Cordus_, one who wrote more truly of the
_Mummies_ than all the Physicians of his Time had done: But I suppose
both these Learned Men spoke rather from their experience of common
Bodies, _Embalm’d_ with _Cedar_, _Asphalt_ or _Pissasphalt_, than from
the Bodies of Princes and rich Men, which being _Embalm’d_ after the
best manner, with odoriferous and aromatic Gums and Spices, had in that
Composition a mixture of fine _Aloes_, and this any one will the readier
grant, who considers the manner of the [Sidenote: _Myrrh_, _Aloes_ and
_Cinnamon_.] antient _Jews_ or _Hebrews_ _Embalming_ with _Myrrh_,
_Aloes_ and _Cinamon_, which they learn’d of the _Egyptians_ by living
so long among them, chiefly differing in this, That the _Hebrews_
Anointed or _Embalm’d_ their Dead without Exenteration, thereby
intending only to render the Body sweet and free from Putrifaction for a
short Time, or ’till its Burial, whereas the _Egyptians_ Embowell’d and
_Embalm’d_ theirs for Eternity. But here still arises another
Controversie, _viz._ What is to be understood by the Word _Aloes_ in
Balsamation? Whether _Agalochum_ or _Lignum Aloes_, a Wood of a very
pleasant smell, or _Aloes_, an express’d Juice from the Leaves of a
Plant, a Gum of a strong Odour? Most Annotators on the word _Aloes_,
mention’d in the Holy Scripture, as in _Prov._ 7. 17. _Cant._ 4. 14.
_John_ 19. 39. interpret it the _Wood Aloes_, being an excellent sweet
scented and aromatic Perfume; and since it is also of a bitterish Taste,
and indu’d with some balsamic Qualities, ’tis not absur’d to think it
was us’d together with other Ingredients in _Embalming_, yet according
to a physical Judgment in this _Art_, we nevertheless believe that
_Aloes_, the Gum or inspissate Juice of a Plant, so manifest for its
extraordinary and incomparable bitterness and efficacy to resist
Putrifaction, was one of the chief Ingredients in their Composition, for
otherwise the Scripture would have given a more peculiar signification
of the Word, to distinguish the _Wood_ from the _Gum_: So that he who
determines that both might have been apply’d, one to correct the ill
Savour of the other, may commit no great Mistake, or at least if he
thinks, that the _Wood_ was chiefly us’d in their perfuming Ointments,
and the _Gum_ in their _Embalmings_.

The Body being stuff’d full of aromatic and sweet Odours, they sew’d it
up again, and then salted it with _Nitre_ for the space of 70 Days, as
_Herodotus_ relates; yet _Diodorus Siculus_ speaks nothing of this
Salting, but in its stead substitutes the manner of Anointing: Both
which Terms of _Salting_ and _Anointing_ Authors confound one with
another, and under the same denomination express two different
Operations or Works, and yet seem to make them perform’d by the same
Persons: For those who are said to be the _Embalmers_, [Sidenote: The
_Salters_ or _Pollinctors_.] are call’d by some _Taricheutæ_ or
_Salitores_, _a verbo_ ταριχεύειν, _Salire_ or _Sale durare_, and by
others _Pollinctors_, _ab unguendis Cadaveribus quasi polluti, vel a
verbo pollingere, quod est, polliendo ungere, vel Pellem ungere_, &c.
whose Office and Business was to exenterate or embowel the Body, to wash
and cleanse it, and to salt and anoint it. These again, some say, were
much honour’d and respected, and others on the contrary, That they were
so abominated that they would not suffer them to live in the City; which
latter I am most apt to believe, as performing a very vile and servile
Work, therefore might well be look’d upon as polluted Persons. Who then
were the true _Embalmers_, properly so call’d, and had in most esteem, I
shall anon show; but must first proceed to speak of their _Salination_,
and the Virtues and Qualities of _Nitre_ and other Salts.

[Sidenote: _Nitre_ why us’d in _Embalming_.]

‘_Bellonius_, Lib. 3. cap. 8. _De Medicato Funere_, tells us, the
_Egyptians_ and other _Eastern_ Nations, attributed very great Virtues
to _Nitre_ for preserving the Carcasses of the Dead, and that
notwithstanding other Salts and Aromatics, endu’d with astringent and
exsiccating Qualities, might have the same Virtue, yet since none were
more efficacious, _Embalmers_ or Salters were wont chiefly to use
_Nitre_. Those both the _Greek_ Historians and Physicians have
sufficiently describ’d, but since they so disagree about this, I think
it not improper to treat more particularly of it. _First_, _Herodotus_
tells us, The _Egyptians_ salted the dead Body 70 Days, and afterwards
adds the use and reason of it, because, says he, Salt consumes the
Flesh, and leaves nothing behind it but Skin and Bones; whence it
appears _Nitre_ was in very great esteem among them for preserving the
Dead. But now, says _Bellonius_, there is so great scarcity of _Nitre_
in _Europe_, that no Physician can say he has ever seen the true, for
certainly a Man may be as well cheated in that Salt as in any Drugs now
commonly us’d. Some there are who promiscuously use many Things instead
of it, and others that as erroneously assert there are two sorts of it,
one factitious and another natural, and I very much wonder that several
excellent Physicians should not have taken notice, that the _Saltpetre_
we now-a-days use is not the true _Nitre_: Nor have any of the Ancients
distinguish’d _Nitre_ into artificial and natural, one made by Art, and
the other a concrete Body dug out of the Earth; for all _Nitre_ is
certainly made by Art, after the manner of other Salts, and not
conceal’d in the Earth, but found above it. Nor is there any native
_Nitre_ dug out of the Earth, altho’ it may be made from Water; for
Rain-Water being the purest, lightest and sweetest of all Waters, makes
the best _Nitre_; so likewise does the _Nile_-Water, which from the
force of its Mud, soon condenses the _Nitre_. Now to know where _Nitre_
may be found, read _Theophrastus_, Lib. 3. cap. 22. who gives this as a
very plain Argument, That where _Palm-Trees_ grow in plenty, as they do
in _Africa_, _Syria_, and the like Countries, there the Soil will always
be Nitrous; for tho’ these Trees require the circum-ambient Air to be
hot, that their Fruits may ripen, yet they nevertheless covet a salt
Soil to refrigerate their Roots; whence we may gather that a Virtue in
Earth to make _Nitre_ is more wanting than in Water: But in _Africa_
_Nitre_ was cheaper than Salt, for tho’ Salt was both artificially made
and dug out of the Rock, yet by reason of a Tax and Duty upon it, it was
not so easie to be got as _Nitre_, which naturally concreted in the
Vallies, and might be had without any Expence; wherefore the _Arabians_,
who liv’d not far from the Sea, and the _Egyptians_, who had _Nitre_ so
cheap among them, us’d it before Salt, which they were forc’d to seek
for and get in more remote Places; nay, they us’d to eat _Nitre_ with
their Radishes and Pot-Herbs, after the same manner as we now do Salt.
And thus, so soon as the Inhabitants had first made Trial of _Nitre_,
using it in their Bread, Pottage, Gruels, with their Flesh and other
Food, and finding it wholesom, sought for no other Salt, but us’d
_Nitre_ in its stead, and taught the neighbouring Countries to do the
like. But the _Macedonians_ made their Bread with a sort of _Nitre_
call’d, [Sidenote: _Chalastræum Nitrum._] _Chalastræum Nitrum_, _a
Chalastra Civitate_, Plin. 13. 10. a pure sort of _Saltpetre_, which,
for the most part, they rather chose to make use of than Salt. _Nitre_
took its rise in many parts of _Europe_, _Asia_ and _Africa_, but
Authors know that of one Country from another, by the goodness and
badness of it, tho’ _Nitre_ in general be commended by all, [Sidenote:
_Nitrum Berenicum._] and _Galen_ praises the _Nitre_ of _Berenice_ of
_Pentapolis_ in _Egypt_.

‘Those Springs call’d by _Pliny_, _Fontes amari_, on the Shoar of the
_Red-Sea_, would have had but little bitterness, had not the Soil been
Nitrous. All the Fountains likewise of _Arabia_ are bitterish, by reason
of the nitrous Earth thro’ which they pass, and that Lake near the City
of _Chalastra_ in _Macedon_ affords much _Nitre_. [Sidenote: _Nitri
spuma._] Authors call it _Nitri spuma_, _Aphronitrum_, and by several
other Names. _Galen_ orders this stony Matter first to be burn’d, and
then levigated to a Powder; whereby it plainly appears our _Saltpetre_
is not _Nitre_. There is nothing more frequently mention’d by
_Absyrtus_, in his Book of Farriery, than _Nitre_; and it was also us’d
by _Ganea_, and the Skilful have observ’d many Things to grow tender by
_Nitre_, especially the Roots of Herbs, which are also made whiter by
it, and Coleworts and Pot-Herbs greener.’ Some call the Flower of the
_Lapis Assius_, _Nitre_, a kind of Stone of which Coffins were formerly
made, which wasted dead Bodies: ‘But I would advise the Reader, says
_Bellonius_, not to believe that _Nitre_, which we speak of, to have any
affinity with the Salt commonly so call’d. [Sidenote: _Armenian Nitre._]
_Avicenna_ prefers the _Armenian Nitre_ before the _Egyptian_, and
_Dioscorides_ very much praises the _Nitre_ of _Buna_. [Sidenote:
_Nitre_ of _Buna_.] The common People daily use the _Nitre_ of _Turkey_,
[Sidenote: _Nitre_ of _Turkey_.] tho’ we are nevertheless ignorant
whence it comes, and there is nothing more common among the Merchants of
_Nitria_, _Memphis_, _Constantinople_ and _Damascus_ than what they
vulgarly call _Natron_. It grows very plentifully in the _Eastern_
Countries, and is much us’d in Dying Silk and Wool. _Serapio_ also
confounds _Borax_, which the Goldsmiths use, with _Nitre_; but _Nitre_
is truly made by the benefit of the Soil and the force of the hot Sun,
wherefore ’tis call’d by some of the _Greeks_ _Halmirhaga_, [Sidenote:
_Halmirhaga._] deriving its Name partly from its bitterish Taste, and
partly from its being got out of the Earth at _Nitria_, a City of
_Egypt_, so call’d from _Nitre_. At _Naucratis_ and _Memphis_ there are
places where _Nitre_ grows, and where the Water is pour’d into it like
Sea-Water into Salt-Pits. Between _Memphis_ and _Jerusalem_ we saw a
Desart concreted with _Nitre_, from whence so great a quantity might be
taken, that many Ships might have been easily laden therewith; which
Desart, so concreted with _Nitre_, was longer than half a Mile, and when
I past by it in the Night-Time, I thought it had been cover’d with Salt;
and when the Moon shon, it rebounded up to the Pupils of my Eyes, and
dazl’d them with its splendor. In it Camels, Horses and Mules had left
the impression of their Footsteps, and when I lighted off my Horse and
had cut some of it up, I found it to be of the same kind which I had
before seen at _Memphis_. _Nitre_ therefore is not dug out of a
Mountain, or found in the Cavity of a Subterranean Den, or any where
cover’d with Earth, but gather’d up a concrete Body from the surface of
a Desart or solitary Place, and is to be ascrib’d more to the Earth than
Water, by reason the Earth has there a kind of nitrous Substance. When
Rain, Fountain or the _Nile_-Water has stood long in a Valley, it at
length becomes nitrous, by exhaling up to its self a salt Matter or
Substance from the bottom, which afterwards concretes, with the heat of
the Sun, and becomes much harder than Salt. The whole mass of _Nitre_ is
not concreted in one and the same Day, but gradually and by degrees
increases and becomes dry. The first Concretion has no great thickness,
but when wet again with other Water, it adds by little and little
another Covering. This growing harder and harder, so long concretes that
it at last becomes a Foot and half thick, by which it comes to pass that
the Face of the _Nitre_ keeps a certain likeness to crusted _Cadmia_;
for the whole Mass consists of right courses in equal Circles, and is
not divided by intricate Windings, which Remark argues, that _Nitre_
arises from a level Superficies or concretes in a certain solitary
Place. Moreover the porous _Nitre_ is dissolv’d in Water, but so that
you cannot see the least Settlement in it, altho’ a great deal of an
earthy Substance be found among it; and as a further Argument of the
Truth of this, its very Ashes show it contains in it a great mixture of
earthy Particles; for burning once a Pound of crude _Nitre_, I found
four Ounces of Ashes remain’d, whereas our _Saltpetre_, if it but touch
Fire, immediately flames, and is in an instant resolv’d into Air; whence
we collect, that it consists of very subtil Parts, for ’tis very pungent
on the Tongue, has great Tenuity, and plentifully provokes Spitle.
[Sidenote: Three kinds of _Nitre_.] There are three sorts of _Nitre_,
but that which is of a Rose-colour, or whitish and porous like Sponge,
such as is brought from the Islands of _Buna_, _Dioscorides_ prefers to
the rest, being hard and solid for the most part like that of _Egypt_,
and which indurates into heaps like Stone, which therefore are call’d by
the _Greeks_ Βουνοί, from the resemblance they have to Hills. The second
sort of _Nitre_ is not so well distinguish’d by _Dioscorides_ as by
_Galen_, who is thought to have us’d the name of _Spuma Nitri_ two ways,
first by dividing the words, Ἀφρὸς νίτρου, and secondly, by compounding
them into Ἀφρόνιτρον, which distinction _Pliny_ also seems to have
observ’d where he calls the _Spuma Nitri_ by the _Latin_ word
_Operimentum_, interpreted by _Avicenna_’s Annotator, _Capistrum Nitri_,
not because the _Nitre_ ferments or foams up in an old Valley, or that
it is in it self a light Froth, but by reason the _Spume_ of _Nitre_
lyes on the top of the _Nitre_, and flowers of it self in Nitre-Works or
Vallies in the Day-Time; for _Nitre_ flowers with the Dew which falls in
the Night, and then increases its Superficies and is perfected in the
Day-Time, which Covering therefore is rightly call’d by _Avicenna_’s
Interpreter _Capistrum_, but better by _Pliny_, _Operimentum_. Of this
_Dioscorides_ thus writes: [Sidenote: _Spuma Nitri._] ‘That _Spuma
Nitri_ is best which is lightest, friable, biting and of a purplish
Colour, such as is brought from _Philadelphia_ in _Lydia_. The second
sort is that of _Egypt_, which likewise is to be had in _Magnetia_ in
_Caria_.’ How this Efflorenscence which _Pliny_ sometimes calls
_Operimentum_, sometimes _Spuma Nitri_, and at other times
_Aphronitrum_, is generated, we have shewn before, so shall next show
what _Aphronitrum_ is, for I distinguish between _Aphronitrum_ and
_Spuma Nitri_, that is, the _Operimentum_ or Covering. But _Pliny_
confounds _Aphronitrum_ and _Nitrum_ together, so that I really believe
both _Pliny_ and _Serapio_ have taken what they have written of this
Matter from the same Fountains; for _Serapio_ speaking of _Nitre_ says,
There are two sorts of it, one call’d _Nitre_, which is _Saltpetre_, of
a reddish Colour, saltish and bitterish Taste, soon discovering its
burning Quality, [Sidenote: _Borax._] and another sort call’d _Borax_,
us’d by the Inhabitants of _Yaya_ in working up their Bread, to make it
look clear after ’tis bak’d. But that sort call’d artificial _Borax_ is
an incisive and abstersive _Saltpetre_, made from a nitrous Matter,
being a mixture of Lead and _Kali_ mingl’d together and put over the
Fire, and this seems to be nothing else but that which the Goldsmiths
use. _Rhasis_ also is in a manner of the same Opinion with _Serapio_,
for he says, of the two sorts of _Borax_, that which is made
artificially, and is white and froathy, is much better than that of an
earthy colour and dusty. It is from this that _Tincar_ is made and
seal’d. [Sidenote: _Tincar._] _Pliny_ has not omitted to mention this
sealing as _Galen_ and _Dioscorides_ have likewise done, therefore I
will insert his Words the better to show that his sealing of _Tincar_ is
the same with that of the _Arabians_. The next Age of _Physicians_, says
he, deliver’d that _Aphronitrum_ was gather’d in _Asia_, distilling into
soft Caves or Dens, which they call’d _Colycæ_, and afterwards dry’d in
the Sun. The best sort is that of _Lydia_, which is very light and
friable, and almost of a purplish Colour, and brought thence in little
Cakes or Trochisks, which words seem intirely to answer those of the
_Arabian_; for, What can this Author mean by Trochisks, but the same
thing which _Serapio_ calls little seal’d Pieces? But _Rhasis_ adds,
That the _Egyptian Nitre_ was brought in Vessels pitch’d over, least it
should melt; and _Pliny_ shows, that the next Age of Physicians
deliver’d it was gather’d in _Asia_. Perhaps in the Time of
_Dioscorides_, and also before his Time, they did not use to Seal the
_Spuma Nitri_ and _Aphronitrum_. [Sidenote: _Lydian Nitre._] _Pliny_
gives the Preference to the _Lydian_, and, moreover, when he describes
the Marks of chusing it, he gives the same to the _Aphronitrum_ as
_Dioscorides_ does to his Ἀφρόνιτρον. But that I may speak freely what I
know of those three, they all proceed from the same Mass, altho’ from
the different Places and Earth, they acquire a different colour, for
some are of a Rose-colour, and others white. The _Operimentum_ or
Covering falls in _Lydia_ and _Egypt_. The greatest use of _Nitre_ in
_Laconia_ is for scouring Bodies. But since the Mass of _Nitre_, when
long kept in Houses, consumes and wastes away by degrees, insomuch that
that which was before hard, becomes gradually soft and crumbling,
more-especially if it be kept in a moist place, nevertheless it does not
discontinue being a Mass or Lump, but only becomes softer than _Nitre_.
Physicians, when they remark or take notice as it were of a certain kind
of _Metamorphosis_, of that which was before hard, so easily to become
softer, think its Name ought to be chang’d, and its Virtues ascrib’d
apart. But that which I have said concerning the alteration of _Nitre_,
I have found true by experience, in some I brought with me out of the
Eastern-Countries; for having given a great part of it to my Friends,
some of them complain’d it was turn’d to Powder, and others, who had
kept it in a moister place, that it was grown softer, and had chang’d
its Colour. _Pliny_, Lib. 31. cap. 10. says, The Nature of _Nitre_ is
not to be esteem’d very different from Salt, and this he the more
diligently asserts, inasmuch as those Physicians who have written of it,
were ignorant of its true Nature, altho’ none has written more carefully
of it than _Theophrastus_. He says, moreover, some _Nitre_ is made in
_Media_, the Vallies growing white and hoary with dryness. After the
Rain or Fountain-Water is exhal’d from it, it is condens’d by the Soil,
and converted into _Nitre_. Hence appears, as I said before, that those
are very much deceiv’d, who report _Nitre_ to be a certain Subterranean
Matter like to Metal. _Pliny_ afterwards adds, That the sort of _Nitre_
call’d _Agrium_, in _Thrace_ near _Philippi_, is less mix’d with Earth
than any other sort; but I dare affirm _Nitre_ is now no longer made in
_Thrace_, for when I travell’d thither, and to and fro in the
_Philippian_ Country, that I might see this _Nitre_, I could find none
either about the Ruins of the before-mention’d City or the adjacent
Region. [Sidenote: _Chalastræum Nitrum._] The _Chalastræum Nitre_ took
its Name from the City _Chalastra_. This I believe to be that sort which
_Alexander_ call’d _Bucephalum_, from the Name of his Horse. Nitrous
Waters, says _Pliny_, are found in many places, but without any Power of
condensing, which agrees with what I have already said, that all nitrous
Waters will not make _Nitre_; so likewise all nitrous Earth, altho’
Water be pour’d over it, will not make _Nitre_, for ’tis necessary it
should have a Virtue of thickning by the Sun, therefore this Virtue is
believ’d not to be wanting in the Water, but in the Earth, for ’tis
certain _Nitre_ may be made out of the lightest, purest and sweetest
Water. _Nitre_ is very heavy in it self, for it sinks in Water like a
Stone. The best _Nitre_, says _Pliny_, is very plentiful in _Macedonia_,
[Sidenote: _Nitrum Chalastricum._] and is call’d _Chalastricum_, being
white and pure like to Salt. The Lake is nitrous, and out of its middle
a sweet Fountain flows; there _Nitre_ swims, about the rising of the
Dog-Star, for nine Days together, and in as many ceases, then swims
again, and afterwards ceases again, by which ’tis apparent the heat of
the Sun condenses the _Nitre_, provided the Nature of the Soil be
answerable, as _Pliny_ witnesses in these words: The Nature of the Soil
is what breeds _Nitre_, as is apparent, in that where it is wanting,
neither Salts nor Showers avail any thing. This is also very wonderful,
that tho’ the Spring be always seen to flow, yet neither does it
increase the Lake nor run over; but if it Rains in those Days in which
it is bred, the _Nitre_ will become more Salt, and worse if the
_North_-Winds happen to blow, for they violently stir up the Mud: In
this place indeed ’tis produc’d, but more plentifully in _Egypt_,
[Sidenote: _Egyptian Nitre._] tho’ a worser sort, for ’tis of a dark
colour and stony. It is made almost in the same manner with Salt, only
they let the Sea run into their Salt-Pits, but the River _Nile_ into
their _Nitre_-Works. The _Nile_-Water being drawn off they dry it, and
again infuse it in _Nitre_-Water 40 Days successively, but if it Rains
they add less of the River-Water. So soon as it begins to condense, it
is taken away least it should be dissolv’d in their _Nitre_-Works, but
if laid up in heaps it will keep. Thus much _Pliny_ speaks of _Nitre_,
which abundantly shows it is no where dug in any Mountain or Soil, but
as I have shown before, immediately so soon as it has begun to condense,
and it Rains, they take it away, and lay it up in heaps, that it may
last, for otherwise it would be melted by the Rain in their
_Nitre_-Works. What _Pliny_ says afterwards seems obscure, _viz._ That
the thinnest part of _Nitre_ is best, and consequently the
Efflorenscence is better, nevertheless the foul sort is useful for some
Things, as for dying Purples, Scarlets, _&c._ by which words ’tis
evident he means two sorts of _Nitre_, one very fine call’d _Spuma
Nitri_, [Sidenote: _Spuma Nitri._] which he prefers for the best, and
another course, us’d for dying Colours. The _Nitre_-Works in _Egypt_ are
very famous, and were wont to be only about _Naucratis_ and _Memphis_:
The worst are about _Memphis_, for there it lapifies in heaps, and from
that cause many Hillocks are stony, of which they make Vessels. They
also very frequently boil it with Sulphur upon Coals till it is melted;
and use it in those things they would have keep a long while. There are
_Nitre_-Works where it comes out reddish from the colour of the Earth.
Thus far of _Nitre_; next _Pliny_ mightily commends the Efflorenscence
of _Nitre_, yet says, The Ancients deny’d it could be made, but only
when the Dew fell and the _Nitre_-Places were pregnant, but not when
they brought forth, therefore could not be done by hastning or stirring
up altho’ it fell. Others think it was bred by Fermentation, _&c._’ Thus
far of _Nitre_ according to _Bellonius_, _Pliny_ and others.

[Sidenote: _Pickle_ made of _Nitre_.]

Now this is generally agreed on, that after the Body was stuff’d with
sweet Odours, Gums and Spices, it was macerated in a sort of Pickle, the
Composition of which, tho’ unknown to us, is asserted by most of the
Ancients to be made of _Nitre_. Nor is it proper for us, say _Penicher_,
_Traite des Embaumemens_, p. 83. to explain one Obscurity by another
that is greater; since this _Nitre_, so famous and mightily boasted of
by the Ancients, is at this Day a Mistery, for the more one endeavours
to show its Origin, by examining the different Descriptions given it,
the more reason one has to doubt of its Existence. In the first place,
they agree not in one point among themselves, [Sidenote: Different
_Opinions_ of _Nitre_.] either as to its Colour, Figure or Quality; for
some say ’tis white, others that ’tis red, and others again that ’tis of
a Leaden or Ash-colour: Some there are who will have it of a porous
Substance like a Sponge, others that ’tis solid and compact, and others
that ’tis shining and transparent like to Glass. Nor do they less
dissagree about its Virtue than its Form and Colour, for some say ’tis
of a cold Nature, and others that it has a Caustic Quality, as
_Herodotus_, who says, that it consumes the Flesh in such manner that it
leaves nothing but Skin and Bones. Wherefore, after so many
Contradictions and different Descriptions of the nature of this Mineral,
what can we believe for certain? Have we not just reason to doubt that
this _Nitre_ is but pretended? How should it come to be invisible if it
were a Mineral? And again why should we not have it, if it be produc’d
after the manner of our common Salt? The Sun, Moon and other Planets, as
also the Earth have not ceas’d since their Creation to obey yearly such
Orders as the Divine Providence has prescrib’d them, and their
Productions have daily been the same from one Age to another. The Earth
is the same Matrix for the formation of Vegetables and Minerals, and the
Sun has not refus’d its Influences for their Generation. What therefore
can be the reason, or by what accident should we at present be depriv’d
of so precious a Salt? We cannot see why it should be so lost as never
to be repair’d; but it is also reported that the true _Cinnamon_,
_Bdellium_, _Costus Amomum_, _Balsamum verum_, _Malobathrum_, _Sal
Armoniac_, _Myrrha_, and several Minerals, Gums and Plants are lost, yet
certainly it is not so, but only the Knowledge and Use of them lost to
many People; or perhaps they may not be found in those places where they
were wont to grow, yet may be had in others, which often happens; so
that they do not entirely Perish, but only change their Soil, by which
means it may come to pass they may not commonly be known, and sometimes
it happens they appear with a different Face, by reason of the diversity
of the Place and temperature of the Heavens; wherefore, as St.
_Chrisostom_ rightly concludes, none of those Substances or kinds of
Things, which GOD has created from the beginning of the World, have ever
been wanting or will ever perish. _Et Benedixit illa DEUS, & dixit,
Crescite & multiplicamini: Verbum enim illud in præsentem usq; diem illa
conservat, & tantum Tempus præteriit, neq; unum horum Genus imminutum
est; nam Benedictio DEI, & Verbum quod dixerat, ut subsisterent &
durarent, illis contulit._ _And GOD Blessed them and said, Be fruitful
and multiply: Which Word has preserv’d them even to this present Day, so
that the Time only is pass’d away, but not the least kind of them has
perish’d; for the Blessing of GOD, and the Words which he spake, made
them that they should endure for ever._

[Sidenote: The _Nitre_ of the _Ancients_ the same with our _Saltpetre_.]

The _Nitre_ therefore of the Ancients so renown’d, may be the same with
our _Saltpetre_, as _Schroder_ and the learned _Etmuller_ think, and
_Clarke_ more particularly in his _Natural History_ of _Nitre_, p. 12.
asserts, That the _Nitre_ of the Ancients is the same with Ours: In
which, says he, altho’ we dissent from some learned Philosophers, as
_Matthiolus_, _Bellonius_, &c. yet are there others as learned with whom
we agree, such as _Cardanus_, _Casimirus Siemienowicz Eques Lithuanus_,
and more particularly also may be mention’d the Ingenious Mr. _Henshaw_,
who has learnedly prov’d this Assertion to the _Royal Society_. But not
to inforce this Opinion only by Authority but Reason, we affirm this to
be the same from its Nature; for the Thing is yet in Being, and this
bearing its Name may not unjustly challenge its Nature: And that this
was known to the Ancients (as we affirm their _Nitre_ is to us) the
Testimony of _Pliny_ plainly evinces, as the before-mention’d learned
Author _Casimirus_ observes, _viz._ _Aperte enim Salem hunc, qui in
Cavernis sua sponte in Rupium Superficies erumpebat, Florem & Spumam
Nitri, Salemq; petrosum vel Petræ nominat_. But the Ancients seem not to
observe this Ἀφρόνιτρον or Efflorenscence of _Nitre_ on Walls, and in
Houses on Floors, as we do, they having had it in open Fields, tho’ we
have not, neither was it so much in use with them as with us, and this
gave occasion for the new Name of _Sal-petræ_ to be given to the old
_Nitre_. Now, tho’ by _Pliny_’s and other antient Authors descriptions
of _Nitre_, when compar’d with ours, they may seem to differ, yet may it
not be a real difference, but only in degrees of purity, the like
whereof we may see in Sugar and Salt, which by artificial Refining are
made one and the same; and as it bears the same Name, so has it the same
Qualities and Virtues, and was antiently us’d both by _Galenists_ and
_Chymists_. [Sidenote: _Nitre_ us’d in _Cookery_.] Now it was this no
doubt the Ancients us’d in their Aliments instead of common Salt; and
’tis by some affirm’d that Roots grow whiter if boil’d therewith, and
Herbs greener: Moreover, ’tis well known to us Moderns that _Nitre_ or
its Salt, separated in the Refining, gives a red colour to
Neats-Tongues, Coller’d Beef, Bacon, _&c._ adding to it also a more
savoury Taste, which does thereby both invite and please the Appetite.

Thus far of _Nitre_ according to the several Opinions of the
before-mention’d Authors; but what the Composition was, wherewith the
Ancients pickl’d the Body, whether with _Nitre_ or Salt, is not as yet
determin’d. _Herodotus_ and divers others affirm it was salted with
_Nitre_, yet some think the Virtue of Salt more commendable, finding it
of so great use in preserving Flesh and Fish; others again do not think
Bodies become unperishable by Salting, but are only preserv’d for some
Months or Years, and if fresh Pickle be not added, or any part of the
Body happen to be expos’d to the Air, it soon corrupts and stinks, for
the Moisture of the Air dissolves the imbib’d Salt, and this issuing
forth the Body soon perishes. This is farther remarkable from a Story of
_Baronius_ in his Annals, [Sidenote: A _Body_ found _Preserv’d_ in a
_Salt-Pit_.] of a Body found in a Subterranean Cave, full of salt Water,
in the Mountains of _Saltzburg_, which was whole and incorrupt, the Skin
white, the Eyes open and lively, and the whole remaining, with all its
parts, firm and hard as a Stone, yet in three Days Time, being as it
were impatient of the Air, it turn’d into Water and perish’d. From this
Story we may learn that salted Bodies, altho’ they resist Corruption for
a short Time, yet at length perish; [Sidenote: _Salt_ us’d with
_Balsamics_ preserves _Bodies_.] nevertheless Salt, or such things as
are Analagous to it, if us’d with other Balsamics, afford some help in
the _Embalming_ of Bodies, whereby they are not dispos’d to the same
Fluxion, as both Reason and Experience teach, and perhaps _Nitre_ being
a more solid Body and not so apt to dissolve in the Air, might also on
that account be preferr’d by the _Egyptians_. However, whether _Salt_ or
_Nitre_ be to be understood by this Work of _Salination_ needs not much
to be disputed, since both, by their known balsamic Virtue and innate
Siccity, may assist in this Operation, even as in the preparing
_English_ Hams, _&c._ we are wont to use them mix’d together, the one
perhaps being more peircing and the other more durable, the former to
give a grateful Taste, and the latter a pleasant Colour. But, as we
cannot readily grant, that the _Salting_ us’d by the _Egyptians_, was
effectual enough to preserve Bodies without Balsamic Medicines, so
neither can we, that any means besides could hinder its Extraction or
Dissolution, and therefore I am the more inclinable to think, _First_,
That they did not drysalt the Body, but macerated it in a liquid Pickle,
which equally surrounded it every-where, and peirc’d deeper thro’ the
Pores of the Skin; and when they had let it infuse for a convenient
Time, they anointed it with Oil of _Cedar_ for 30 Days together, as
_Diodorus Siculus_ relates, and afterwards with _Myrrh_, _Cinamon_ and
other Drugs, which Salting and Anointing took up in all 70 Days,
according to the Account of _Herodotus_. The latter Ointment was us’d as
well to give the Body a sweet Smell as to Preserve it; but, tho’ the
former was held of great efficacy for that purpose, yet is it a thing as
difficult to recover in these our Times, says _Penicher_, as it is to
find out the Composition of the Pickle we have been speaking of,
nevertheless we must make some attempt therein. First then, we will take
notice of the different Appellations, by which the Ancients have us’d to
express this Matter, calling it by the several names of a Gum or Rosin,
a Liquor or Juice, an Oil or Ointment, and lastly a Pitch; [Sidenote:
_Cedria_ what.] but which of all these they meant by the Word _Cedria_
will be better understood from a Description of that Tree, together with
the several sorts of Juices extracted from it, and their Uses and
Virtues. ’Tis true, as some Authors have said, a Matter so call’d may be
drawn from other Trees, such as _Larch_, _Pine_, _Birch_, _Cypress_ and
_Juniper_; but that which we mean is from the great _Cedar_, whose
Leaves never fall, and which bears Fruit all the Year round. Its Wood,
of all others, is esteem’d the least corruptible, and consequently, says
_Pierius_, is the _Hieroglyphic_ of Eternity. The Ark of the Covenant,
the Temple of _Solomon_, and that of _Diana_ at _Ephesus_, were all
built with it, and for the same reason the _Egyptians_ often made their
Coffins of it: The Ancients also us’d to anoint the Leaves and Covers of
their Books with its Oil, thereby to defend them from Moths, Worms and
the injuries of Time, whence it came to be spoken Proverbially of such a
one as had deserv’d to be recorded to Posterity, _Cedro digna locutus_,
in that his Writings were thereby preserv’d from perishing. Now this
Tree affords three or four different sorts of Liquors or Juices:
_First_, A thick, but clear Gum, of a good tho’ strong Odour, being a
Tear that drops from young _Cedars_ after their Barks are pill’d off,
and this is what they properly call’d _Cedria_. [Sidenote: _Gum_ of
_Cedar_.] _Secondly_, A sort of Liquor drawn from the said Wood,
[Sidenote: _Liquor_ of _Cedar_.] call’d by the _Syrians_ _Cedrum_, and
which are the first droppings of these Branches of _Cedar_ when one
burns them, for that which comes last is the _Pitch_ of _Cedar_,
[Sidenote: _Pitch_ of _Cedar_.] being prepar’d after the same manner
with other Pitch, as you may find describ’d in _Bellonius de Medic.
Funer._ p. 40. _Lastly_, There is an _Oil_ of _Cedar_, [Sidenote: _Oil_
of _Cedar_.] express’d from the warm’d Fruit of this Tree, and call’d by
_Pliny_ and _Delachampius_, _Cedrelæon_, as it were _Cedri-oleum_. These
several Liquors have been so confounded by Authors, as to have been
taken indifferently for one another, which perhaps was because they have
almost all the same Virtues; yet I suppose the _Egyptians_ might adapt
the Use of them according to their several Consistencies, and therefore
employ’d the Gum with other Drugs in stuffing the Body, the first
distill’d Liquor in their Injections, and the _Oil_, as more valuable,
for their Anointings; or else might use the _Tar_ or _Pitch_ after the
same manner as _Asphalt_ and _Pissasphalt_, for the inferior sort of
People. [Sidenote: _Virtues_ of _Cedar_.] Now in respect to the Virtues
of _Cedar_, besides that it heats and drys powerfully, it has likewise
this particular and remarkable Quality, that after the nature of Septic
and Escharotic Medicines, it corrodes and consumes the Flesh in a very
short Time, if apply’d to a living Body; but, on the contrary, is a
sovereign Preservative for the same Body the very moment ’tis depriv’d
of Life; for consisting of hot, dry and subtil Parts, it consumes all
superfluous Humidity, the cause of Putrifaction, and thereby preserves
the dead Body, whereas in living Creatures, being rarify’d and put in
action by the natural Heat, it disunites their Parts and consumes them.
Those antient Physicians _Dioscorides_, _Galen_, _Paulus_, _Aetius_ and
_Aegineta_ have all asserted, That the Nature of _Cedar_ was such as to
preserve dead Bodies, but would consume the Living, whereupon, they not
without reason have term’d it, _The Life of the Dead_, and _The Death of
the Living_. Likewise _Diodorus Siculus_ tells us, the _Egyptians_
anointed the Bodies they were to _Embalm_ with Oil or Ointment of
_Cedar_, for the space of 30 Days; whereas, _Herodotus_ gives us a quite
different Account, how that, without cutting open the Belly and pulling
out the Entrails, [Sidenote: _Clysters_ of _Cedar_ and their
_Operation_.] they injected up the _Anus_ Clysters of Oil or Juice of
_Cedar_, and then salted the Body 70 Days, at the end of which they
squeez’d out the Clysters, which had such Virtue and Efficacy, that they
brought away with them all the Guts and Bowels wasted. But in answer to
this, _Clauder in Methodo Balsamandi_, p. 58. says, he cannot but
believe that this Author had forgot to mention somewhat necessary to be
done besides, and _Nardius_ laughs at it as a ridiculous Story, to
imagine how these Clysters should spare the fleshy Parts, but rot the
Bowels. But grant an intire Efficacy to this Balsamic Liquor, thus
Clysterwise immitted into the Intestins, yet since it is well known to
Physicians, that Medicines, this way exhibited to the Dead, immediately
flow out again, the nervous and fibrous Parts, which before were us’d to
retain them, operate no longer by reason of their Stupor and defect of
Spirits. I cannot see, says _Clauder_, how a Clyster can be contain’d in
a dead body so as to perform its Work, or if it should be intruded up by
force, it cannot so quickly penetrate to the superior Parts; for it must
waste the _Mesentery_, _Liver_, _Spleen_, _Stomach_ and _Guts_ before it
can ascend into the Cavity of the Breast, by which time its Contents
will be putrify’d, and that more-especially since nothing besides was
done to prevent Corruption, but an external _Salting_. Wherefore, as was
said before, he must needs have mistaken the Process, and perhaps if
Bodies were _Embalm’d_ this way with _Cedar_ (which _Nardius_ utterly
denies) without Incision and Exenteration, it might be perform’d by
filling the Head, Breast and Belly with Pitch of _Cedar_ (the way of
doing which I shall hereafter show) and then infusing and macerating the
Body in its liquid Juice or Oil: And that the _Egyptians_ us’d to
_Embalm_ Bodies with _Cedar_, appears farther from their preserving
_Crocodiles_, _Hawks_ and other Animals, [Sidenote: _Animals Embalm’d_
with _Cedar_.] which they worshipp’d, with _Nitre_ and the Liquor of
_Cedar_, and afterwards anointing them with odoriferous Unguents, they
bury’d them in Sacred Places: _Diodorus Siculus_, Lib. 5. cap. 2. says,
the _Gauls_ were wont to deposite the Heads of their slain Enemies, that
were of any Quality, in Chests, having first _Embalm’d_ them with Oil of
_Cedar_, &c.

The third sort of _Embalming_, us’d for the poorer sort of People, was
perform’d, as _Herodotus_ tells us, by washing the Belly, and then
drying it with Salt for 70 Days, after which ’twas deliver’d to be
carry’d away. Now, as _Clauder_ says, if this was done without
Exenteration, it appears the least probable of all, as daily experience
shows; therefore we must look on that Historian as too credulous in the
Relation of some Things, and perhaps as one that had forgot other
Operations to be done, or medicinal Species to be added: But if the
Belly was open’d and thoroughly wash’d and cleans’d, the Bowels flung
into the River or else bury’d, and the Vessels empty’d of their Blood
and Juices, and then the Body salted and dry’d in the Sun, it might
probably be render’d very hard and durable, and not liable to dissolve
or melt by any Damps or Moisture, _Egypt_ being a warm Country, and
enjoying a perpetual Serenity of Air, even as Flesh and Fish when salted
and dry’d in the Wind, Sun or Smoak, _&c._ may be preserv’d for some
Years, if kept in a dry and warm place. _Diodorus Siculus_ speaks
nothing of this third sort of _Embalming_, and _Gabriel Clauder_,
_Johannes Nardius_, _Bellonius_, and other Physicians assert, there were
only two sorts, [Sidenote: Only two sorts of _Embalming_.] one for the
Rich and Noble, perform’d after a more accurate and costly manner, and
another more vile for the poorer Sort; for _Nardius_ is of Opinion, that
which was suppos’d to be perform’d with _Cedar_, was only a cheat of the
_Libitinarii_ to pick the Pockets of the richer People; the first sort
being perform’d with odoriferous Gums and Spices, and the latter with a
strong scented Bitumen call’d _Asphalt_, or for want of that with
_Pissasphalt_, which things are not mention’d in the Accounts of
_Herodotus_ and _Diodorus Siculus_ relating to _Embalming_; yet from the
occular Demonstration of several eminent Physicians, and their
Experiments and Dissections of such Bodies as are commonly brought over
for _Mummies_, it is plainly prov’d they were prepar’d with this
Bituminous Matter, therefore we will next describe what that is. Now
seeing Authors so much confound _Asphalt_ with _Pissasphalt_, and
thereby become mistaken even in the word _Mummy_, I think it very
necessary to show their differences, they being two sorts of _Bitumen_
that were commonly us’d by the _Egyptians_ in their _Embalmings_.

[Sidenote: _Asphalt._]

First then of _Asphalt_, a natural _Bitumen_ of a viscous and glutinous
Substance, which swims on the surface of the Lake _Asphaltites_ in
_Palestine_ (above 100 Miles from _Damiata_ in _Egypt_, whereas _Le
Bruyn_ is grosly mistaken when he makes it but two _Italian_ Miles, as
before quoted, _p._ 143.) and being driven by the Winds on the Shoar,
there condenses by the heat of the Sun, and becomes tough and hard like
Pitch. There is also _Bitumen_ found in several other places, as
_Dioscorides_ relates, _viz._ in _Phœnicia_, _Babylon_, _Sydon_, &c. But
this which comes from the Lake _Asphaltites_ in _Judea_, thence call’d
_Bitumen Judaicum_, is the best of all, being clean and shining, of a
black or purplish Colour, of a strong Smell, and that may easily be
burn’d and crumbl’d between the Fingers. With this _Asphalt_ were
_Embalm’d_ those of a middle sort, [Sidenote: How us’d in _Embalming_.]
but by reason it was of too dry a Substance, _Naptha_ and liquid
_Bitumen_, or _Oleum Petroleum_ were usually added to it by melting over
the Fire, and then the Body being boil’d therein, the _Embalming_ was
finish’d according to the accustom’d manner: To this purpose Authors
give these Reasons for the use of _Asphalt_, that by its astringent and
exsiccating Nature, it restrains that moisture which would lead to
Corruption, and no less by its balsamic Quality and Viscosity hinders
the fluid Atoms of the Air from penetrating the internal parts of the
Body, thereby opening a way for its Dissolution. In like manner the
poorer Sort were _Embalm’d_ with _Pissasphalt_, made fluid by some of
the above-mention’d Oils; and seeing likewise there were said to be two
kinds of this, one Natural and another Artificial, we will next enquire
into them:

[Sidenote: Natural _Pissasphalt_.]

The Natural _Pissasphalt_, according to _Dioscorides_, _Valerius Cordus_
his Commentator, and others, is a kind of _Bitumen_ flowing from certain
Mountains call’d _Ceraunii Montes_ in _Apollonia_, near the City
_Epidaurus_, now _Ragusa_, whence being carry’d by the impetuosity of
the River, it is cast on the Shoar and there condens’d into Clods,
smelling like to a mixture of _Pitch_ and _Bitumen_, from whence it came
to be term’d by the _Greeks_ _Pissasphaltos, a_ πίσσα, _vel_ πίττα _pix,
&_ ἄσφαλτος, _Bitumen, quasi dicas Pici Bitumen_, and had the same
Virtues with _Pitch_ and _Bitumen_ or _Asphalt_ mix’d together. ’Tis
brought in great Plenty from _Valona_ to _Venice_ for pitching Ships,
which it admirably performs if mix’d with the Pitch of _Pine-Trees_.
’Tis also brought from _Dalmatia_, being there dug near _Lesina_, not
far from _Narenta_, and is likewise found in _Hungary_, where the
Inhabitants call it _Fossil_ Wax; moreover ’tis to be had in
_Transilvania_, and the Germans name it =Erdtwachs= and =Bergwachs=,
that is Wax generated in the Earth or Mountains. The _Spaniards_
likewise call it, _Cera de minera_, mineral Wax, perhaps from its
Consistency; but the _Arabians_ term it _Mumia_, whence, it may be,
_Embalm’d_ Bodies came to be call’d _Mummies_, [Sidenote: Call’d
_Mummy_.] from their being preserv’d with this _Pissasphalt_, and this
we are the more apt to believe, since the true _Asphalt_ or _Bitumen
Judaicum_ was very scarce, nor is it now to be had in the Shops, as some
believe, but _Pissasphalt_ is sold in its stead. _Brasavolus_ thinks
those dry’d Bodies of the _Arabians_ and other Nations, brought to us
from _Syria_ and _Egypt_ for _Mummies_, were only fill’d with
_Pissasphalt_, inasmuch as being the poorer sort of People in those
Countries, they could not be suppos’d to afford the expence of a better
_Embalment_, for the Rich and Noble, whose Bodies were _Embalm’d_ more
costly with _Myrrh_, _Aloes_, _Cinamon_, _Balsam_, _Saffron_, and the
like, were so carefully inclos’d in their private Sepulchres, that it
was not only a very difficult matter to get at them, but also more rare
to bring any of them over; whereas the Bodies of the Poor and Ignoble,
stuff’d only with _Pissasphalt_, of so mean a price and after so slight
a manner, were to be come at with little trouble and less suspicion.
Thus the _Syrians_ and _Egyptians_ were wont to condite their Bodies,
and the _Arabians_ also, from what _Matthiolus_ could learn from their
Writings, esteem’d _Mummy_ to be _Pissasphalt_ rather than _Asphalt_,
for, as _Avicenna_ writes, _Mummy_ performs the very same thing as
_Asphalt_ does, when mix’d with _Pitch_; from whence we may easily
conjecture, that the Bodies were only prepar’d with _Pissasphalt_.
[Sidenote: _Bodies_ only prepar’d with _Pissasphalt_.] With this also
_Serapio_ agrees, who, discoursing of _Mummy_, according to the
Authority of _Dioscorides_, delivers the very same words as he does of
_Pissasphalt_, affirming, there is _Mummy_ or _Pissasphalt_ in the Land
of _Apollonia_, which, descending from the Mountains by the course of
the River, is cast upon its Banks, and there coagulated like Wax, having
the Smell of _Pitch_ mix’d with _Asphalt_, with some _Fætor_, and its
Virtue is like to _Pitch_ and _Asphalt_ mix’d together, whence ’tis also
thought our _Mummy_ is rather _Pissasphalt_ than _Asphalt_; for altho’
_Strabo_ says, The _Bitumen Judaicum_ was us’d for preserving Bodies,
nevertheless he does not deny but they mix’d _Pitch_ with _Bitumen_,
which makes an artificial _Pissasphalt_; [Sidenote: Artificial
_Pissasphalt_.] but _Serapio_ and _Avicenna_ knew these Mixtures very
well, since not only the _Syrians_, but, their Countrymen the
_Mauritanians_ also made use of it. Also that which is sold to us for
_Mummy_, is only the Body of an _Egyptian_, _Arabian_, or the like,
_Embalm’d_ with _Pissasphalt_, neither is it always properly so, says
_Struppius_, for they sometimes us’d to lay the Bones of a Human Body in
their proper places, and pour’d over them melted _Pissasphalt_,
[Sidenote: Sophisticate _Mummy_.] which working into the natural form
and shape of the Body, they sent over for _Mummy_, and such is that
which is brought to us even at this Day, having no particle of _Myrrh_,
_Aloes_, _Balsam_, &c. mix’d with it, as manifestly appears from its
Smell, Taste and Colour.

Thus having shew’d how the _Egyptians_ preserv’d their Dead after
several ways, as by _Salination_ with _Aromatics_, _Salination_ with
_Cedar_, _Asphalt_ or _Pissasphalt_, and by _Salination_ with _Salt_
alone, according to the Accounts of _Herodotus_, _Diodorus Siculus_ and
the Observations of other Persons upon them, I will next add some other
Remarks concerning the Nature of their _Embalmings_, and the respective
Works of the several Persons employ’d therein; likewise, the manner of
Rouling, Painting and Dressing their Dead, with the Ceremonies of
Judging them, ferrying them over the Lake, keeping them in their Houses,
setting them at their Tables, pawning them, _&c._

First then, we will suppose the _Egyptians_ had a certain Temple or
Office wherein all Things were kept in order for _Embalming_ a Body,
[Sidenote: An _Office_ of _Embalming_.] to which there belong’d, and
where there resided all sorts of Persons who perform’d any particular
part of that _Art_, as Washing, Salting, Anointing, _&c._ or else
prepar’d any kind of Necessaries for the Funeral Pomp. Now these were
distinguish’d by the several Names of a _Priest_ or _Physician_, an
_Embalmer_ or _Surgeon_, a _Pollinctor_ or _Apothecary_, a _Dissector_
or _Anatomist_, a _Salinator_ or _Salter_ and a _Designer_ or _Painter_,
also Νεκροκόσμος, a _Dresser_ of the Dead, and Ἐνταφιαστής, one that
furnish’d all Necessaries for the Funeral, and bury’d the Body, being
call’d in _Latin_ _Libitinarius_: That there was such an Office, appears
not only from these several Persons, mention’d by _Herodotus_ and
_Diodorus Siculus_, who were employ’d therein, and either profess’d the
_Art of Embalming_, or perform’d some other part belonging to the
Funeral Pomp, but is also prov’d from their saying, _That the dead Body
was carry’d out to be Embalm’d_, which plainly implies some certain
place allotted for that purpose. First therefore, we will suppose there
belong’d to this Office a Clerk, [Sidenote: The _Clerk_.] who shew’d,
the Friends of the Deceas’d, Patterns of all sorts of things belonging
either to the _Libitinarii_ or Furnishers of the _Funeral_, or to the
_Curatores Corporis_, the _Embalmers_, who having agreed with them after
what manner, and at what Price they would have it done, enter’d it into
a Book, and took care to see it perform’d accordingly. The President or
Head of this College, we take to be one who was both a _Priest_ and
_Physician_, [Sidenote: The _Physician_.] and therefore was highly
Honour’d, and had in the greatest Esteem and Respect. As a _Priest_ he
was qualify’d to instruct the several Officers in all Funeral Rites and
Ceremonies, and confirm the People in the _Metempsychosis_, upon which
those Matters were grounded: As a _Physician_, being skill’d in the _Art
of Embalming_, and the Nature of all Vegetables and Minerals, he
prescrib’d balsamic Medicines and odoriferous Unguents for the
_Apothecary_ to compound and apply pursuant to his Directions, and
instructed the _Surgeon_ how to perform the manual Operation. That there
was a _Physician_ made use of in _Embalming_, appears very plainly from
the Second Verse of the 50th Chapter of _Genesis_, where _Moses_,
speaking of the Death of _Jacob_, says his Son _Joseph commanded his
Servants, the Physicians, to Embalm his Father, and the Physicians
Embalm’d Israel_; where by _his Servants, the Physicians_, seems to be
meant either those properly belonging to his Person, it being antiently
a Custom for Princes and Noble Men to have such in their Families to
wait upon and take care of them, or by the Repetition _The Physicians
Embalm’d_ Israel, might be meant those of the _Office_, since _Joseph_,
being Viceroy of _Egypt_, might well command them, they being all his
Servants and in subjection to him. [Sidenote: _Embalming_ of _Jacob_.]
This leads me to digress a little in order to give a further Account of
the _Embalming Jacob_, whereby will appear how far those Heathen Writers
before-mention’d agree with the _Scripture_. First then there was a
great necessity for _Embalming Jacob_, by reason his Body was to be
carry’d a great way to his Sepulchre, and both _Herodotus_ and _Diodorus
Siculus_ tell us, there were those in _Egypt_ that profess’d the Art of
preserving Bodies from Corruption, which ’tis plain was part of the
Physicians Emploiment, for the word _Ropheim_ (which we Translate
_Physicians_) constantly signifies in Scripture such as cur’d or heal’d
sick Bodies; but the LXX. here aptly enough Translate it Ἐνταφιαστὰς,
(those that prepar’d and fitted Bodies for their Interment by
_Embalming_ as we, says the Bishop of _Ely_, likewise Translate it)
because that was their proper Business; whence ’tis _Pliny_, Lib. 11.
chap. 37. says, _Mos est Ægyptiis Cadavera asservare Medicata_, _’Tis
the Custom among the_ Egyptians _to preserve dead Bodies by the
Physicians Art_. In this Art they excell’d all the World besides, Bodies
of their _Embalming_ remaining entire even to this Day, and no question
but _Joseph_, who spar’d neither Cost nor Pains, had his Father
_Embalm’d_ after the noblest manner. [Sidenote: Perform’d in _Forty
Days_.] _And Forty Days were fulfill’d for him (for so are fulfill’d the
Days of those that are Embalm’d) and the Egyptians Mourn’d for him
Threescore and Ten Days_, ver. 3. That is, Forty Days were spent in
_Embalming_ him, which could not be finish’d in a shorter Time, for
_Diodorus Siculus_ tells us of several Officers that were employ’d about
it one after another, and that they anointed the dead Body with _Balsam_
of _Cedar_ for above 30 Days, and afterwards with _Myrrh_, _Cinamon_,
and the like, which might make up the residue of 40 Days: But
_Herodotus_ differs from him in this, by adding 30 Days more for Salting
the Body with _Nitre_, which makes in all 70 Days, the full Time of
their Mourning, [Sidenote: The _Time_ of their _Mourning_.] they being
accustom’d to spend all that Time, which they were _Embalming_ the Body
and preparing for the Funeral, in Mourning, the manner of which we have
before describ’d, _p._ 241, 243, 245, 247. so shall here only farther
take notice what some object, that this Mourning was immoderate, having
more of Ambition than Piety in it; to which _Jacobus Capellus_ answers,
That granting it be true, that _Joseph_ did not bring in this Custom,
and had peculiar Reason to follow what he found in use, that they might
be more condemn’d who vex’d the innocent Posterity, on whose Parent they
had bestow’d Royal Honours; there is besides something due to Kings and
great Men to distinguish them from common People. _Now when the Days of
Mourning were past_, that is 70 Days, _Joseph went up to Bury his
Father, and with him went up all the Servants of Pharaoh, the Elders of
his House, and all the Elders of the Land of Egypt_, [Sidenote: _Funeral
Procession._] ver. 7. The principal Persons in Authority and Dignity
throughout the whole Country, as well such as were Governors of
Provinces and Cities, Counsellors, _&c._ as such as were principal
Officers at Court. _And all the House of Joseph, and his Brethren, and
his Fathers House_, ver. 8. _And there went up with him both Chariots
and Horsemen_, v. 9. as a Guard to him, which ’tis likely always
attended him, as Viceroy of the Kingdom, but now might be necessary for
his safety as he pass’d thro’ the Desarts. _And it was a very great
Company._ That he might appear in great State at such a Solemnity. _When
they came beyond Jordan they mourn’d with a great and very sore
Lamentation seven Days_, the Time of public Mourning among the _Jews_ in
succeeding Ages, as appears from several Instances, particularly, 1
_Sam._ 31. 13. _Eccl._ 22. 13. _Judith_ 16. 20. Moreover this shows the
Lamentation was so exceeding great, that the Place where it was made was
afterwards call’d _Abel-Mizraim_, [Sidenote: _Abel-Mizraim._] that is,
_The Mourning of the_ Egyptians. But how they bury’d _Jacob_ when they
came into _Canaan_, as also concerning the nature of the Cave wherein
they laid him, see the Bishop of _Ely_’s Notes on the 50th Chapter of
_Genesis_, from whom I have chiefly extracted this; and other
Commentators, for I think it high time to return to the _Embalming_ of
the _Egyptians_, according to the propos’d institution of an Office, in
which having already shown the respective Emploiments of the _Clerk_ and
_Priest_ or _Physician_, we shall next proceed to speak of the _Surgeon_
or _Embalmer_, and of all other inferior Officers under him, such as the
_Dissector_, _Emboweller_, _Pollinctor_, _Salter_, and other dependant
Servants, as _Dressers of the Dead_, _Painters_, _Carvers_, and the

[Sidenote: The _Surgeon_.]

The _Surgeon_, who was the chief _Embalmer_, generally directed and took
care to see the several Operations perform’d in due order, and sometimes
did them himself; for tho’ the _Curatores Corporis_, that were his
Assistants and Servants, commonly Dissected, Embowell’d, Wash’d,
Anointed and _Embalm’d_ the Bodies of the meaner sort of People, yet
when any Prince or Nobleman was to be _Embalm’d_, after the richest and
most curious manner, he perform’d the chief part of the Work himself,
and this he was the more capable of as being both an exquisite
_Anatomist_, and well vers’d in the Nature of all _Balsamic_ Medicines,
whether _Galenical_ or _Chymical_, and tho’ he might be something
inferior to the _Physician_, yet in conjunction with him, was he both
the better able to consider the Nature of the deceas’d Person’s
Distemper, or Cause of his Death, and accordingly to proceed in his
_Embalming_; and lastly, he was very dextrous and knowing in the _Art_
of _Bandage_, whereby it appears his chief Business was to _Embalm_ and
Roul up the Body, which, in respect to its being thus preserv’d by
Balsamic and Medicinal Ingredients, artificially and topically apply’d,
was said to be _Corpus Medicatum_, [Sidenote: _Corpus Medicatum._] a
Body preserv’d from Putrifaction by _Embalming_. Now I cannot imagine,
as some Authors affirm, they did this always in one road or manner, but
that the Physician vary’d his Prescriptions, by adding one thing and
subtracting another, increasing the quantity of one Ingredient or
diminishing that of another, according to the Constitution of the
Person, and Nature of his Disease, agreeable to which was the
_Embalming_ perform’d; for ’tis certain some Medicines are more
prevalent against Putrifactions than others, and that there ought to be
a difference, as well, in the Composition of the Medicine, as in the
_Embalming_ one that dy’d only thro’ a natural Decay, one that dy’d of
some malignant Distemper, or one that dy’d of a _Hectic_ Feaver, which
consumes and dries up the radical Moisture of the Body, and one that
dy’d of a _Dropsie_, which colliquates the Body and makes it fluid with
its Waters. In a word, there ought to be a difference even in an old
Body and a Young; therefore, as the Doctor’s Prescriptions were vary’d,
according to these Considerations, so was there a greater occasion for a
skilful Apothecary, to take care of and see to the compounding the
_Aromatic Powders_, _Oils_, _Balsams_, _Ointments_, _Cerecloths_,
_Tinctures_, _Spirits_, and the like analogous Things, and their
Application, according to the Directions of the _Doctor_; and as the
_Surgeon_ had under him a _Dissector_, &c. [Sidenote: _Dissector._] who
embowell’d and wash’d the Body, and did the like inferior Businesses, so
had the _Apothecary_ Servants under him to make up the Medicines,
administer Clysters and Injections, and to Anoint the Body, thence
call’d _Pollinctors_. [Sidenote: _Pollinctor._] Thus was the chief
Concern of the _Embalming_ a Body manag’d by the Advice and Assistance
of the _Physician_, _Surgeon_ and _Apothecary_, as indeed it ought also
to be perform’d at this Day, and not to have ignorant _Undertakers_
direct and act all things at their pleasure. But when Bodies were to be
_Embalm’d_ without _Gums_, _Spices_, _Cedria_, _Asphalt_, _Pissasphalt_
or the like, such as the poorest People, who could not be at the expence
of them, they were chiefly committed to the Care of the _Taricheutæ_ or
_Salitores_, [Sidenote: _Taricheutæ Salitores._] who only prepar’d and
dry’d them with _Salt_, and then such Bodies were call’d _Corpora
Condita_, pickl’d or salted Bodies. [Sidenote: _Corpora Condita._] Thus
having shown the principal Persons of this _Office_, and who directed
and perform’d the _Embalming_, we will next give an account of those
that provided all things necessary for the Funeral. These were such as
the _Greeks_ call’d Ἐνταφιαστής, [Sidenote: Ἐνταφιαστής,] he that got
the Body ready and prepar’d all Necessaries for the Interment;
[Sidenote: Ἐνταφιοπώλις.] Ἐνταφιοπώλις, he that sold all Matters
appertaining to Funerals, and Νεκροκόσμος the Dresser, [Sidenote:
Νεκροκόσμος,] or one that put on the Ornaments of the Dead: But all
these were term’d by the _Romans_ in general _Libitinarii_, [Sidenote:
_Libitinarii._] the _Undertakers_ and _Furnishers_ of Funerals, who had
the Care of preparing, letting out or selling the Ornaments and Dresses
for the Dead, and of providing Mourners, mourning Habits, and whatever
else was necessary for the Funeral Pomp; nay who eas’d the afflicted
Friends of their Trouble. They were thus nam’d from _Libitina_, a
Goddess whom the Ancients believ’d to preside over Funerals, and some
took to be _Proserpina_, but others _Venus_, thereby to show, that as
she was at the beginning of Life by Generation, so was she likewise at
the end or conclusion thereof, inasmuch as in her Temple were kept and
sold all things necessary for Funeral-Solemnities. Other _Officers_ were
the _Herald_, _Painter_, _Carver_, &c.

[Sidenote: The _Herald_.]

The _Herald’s_ Business was to proclaim and give notice of the
approaching Funeral, to summon and invite the Company, and lastly to
marshall them in the Funeral-Procession, according to their respective
Dignities and Quality. [Sidenote: _Painter._] The _Painter_ was to gild
or paint the Body and Coffin, with _Hieroglyphic_ Characters, _&c._
[Sidenote: _Carver._] And the _Carver_ to make the Models of Wood that
were to be shown to the deceas’d Person’s Friends, to denote that they
_Embalm’d_ Bodies three several Ways, and at as many different Rates;
they likewise wrought the Coffins into the shape and form of the
Deceas’d. But we shall speak more of these in their order, after having
first given some Particulars relating to the several Methods of the
_Egyptian Embalming_, not hitherto so fully describ’d. [Sidenote:
_Embalming_ with _Cedar_.] First then, we believe the manner of
_Embalming_ with _Cedar_ might probably be invented to satisfie such
whose Consciences would admit of no Dissection at all, and the most
likely Method of performing it was by injecting into the _Brain_, thro’
the _Nostrils_, into the _Thorax_, thro’ the _Aspera Arteria_, and into
the _Stomach_ and _Intestines_, thro’ the _Oesophagus_ and _Anus_, _Oil_
of _Cedar_, by the help of a _Siringe_ and _Dilator_. This being a
subtil, hot, and rectify’d Oil of a _Caustic_ Nature, wasted and
consum’d the Bowels like to quick Lime, and then the Body being hung up
or plac’d in a declining posture, they press’d and squeez’d out the said
Oil, which brought away with it the Bowels wasted. Then the Corps being
wash’d and cleans’d, they again injected into all the _Cavities_ and
_Venters_, as much as they could of a _Balsam_ distill’d from the Pitch
of young _Cedars_, which being depriv’d of its corrosive and subtil Oil,
had nothing of a _Caustic_ Quality remaining in it, but consisted only
of drying, exsiccating and _Balsamic_ Parts. Then they laid the Body in
Pickle for 70 Days; after which, having wip’d it, they anointed it with
a sweet and drying Ointment, which perhaps from the _Basis_ of its
Composition might be term’d _Unguentum Cedrinum_, [Sidenote: _Unguentum
Cedrinum._] and then dry’d it in the Sun or otherwise, by which means
all remaining Moisture, and the thinner and more subtil parts of the
_Balsam_ being evaporated, the Body became hard, firm and solid, like to
a _Colophony_ of Turpentine or Pitch.

[Sidenote: _Embalming_ with _Pissasphalt_.]

The second Way of _Embalming_ among the _Egyptians_ was perform’d with
natural or factitious _Pissasphalt_, just in the same manner as I shall
show with _Asphalt_, but only the natural _Pissasphalt_ was us’d for the
midling sort of People, and the factitious for the poorer and common
People and Slaves; nor was there any Curiosity in these more than the
usual Exenteration, Salination and Coction in the _Bitumens_, for they
neither us’d Roulers nor bestow’d Coffins on them.

The third sort, which was for the more substantial People, [Sidenote:
_Embalming_ with _Asphalt_.] was more costly and exact, and perform’d
with _Asphalt_ after this manner: The Corps being open’d, embowell’d,
wash’d, cleans’d and salted after the usual Method, was put into a large
Cauldron fill’d with _Asphalt_, or _Bitumen Judaicum_, made fluid with
_Naptha_, and then boil’d ’till it had melted the Fat, and consum’d all
the Humors and Juices which are the Principals of Corruption, by which
means the soft parts of the Flesh were made firm, and the whole Body
penetrated, and as it were pitch’d to the Marrow of the Bones, with this
Bituminous Liquor. Then being taken out of the Cauldron, and swath’d up
whilst it was yet hot, it at length became petrify’d and hard like to


  _J. Sturt sculp._

  _To Charles Bernard Esq^r. Serjeant Surgeon:
  Who has been pleased to encourage this Work,
  This Plate is humbly dedicated by
  His most humble servant_ Tho. Greenhill.

[Sidenote: _Embalming_ with _Aromatics_ and _Balsams_.]

The fourth and last way is both Noble and Expensive, and was perform’d
to the utmost Perfection, Art and Skill. The _Brain_ being extracted,
and the _Thorax_ and _Abdomen_ releas’d of their _Viscera_, all the
Cavities were thoroughly cleans’d with aromatiz’d Wine, and then
repleted with a Composition of _Myrrh_, _Aloes_, _Cinamon_,
_Opobalsamum_, _Saffron_, and the like; after which, they sew’d up the
Incisions, and salted the Body with _Nitre_ for 70 Days, and then wiping
and drying it from the Pickle or Salt, they anointed it with an Ointment
made of aromatic, balsamic and odoriferous Ingredients, whence some
Authors have call’d a Body so prepar’d, _Funus odoratum_. [Sidenote:
_Funus odoratum._] This done, they swath’d it up with Roulers made of
fine Linnen, and dipp’d in some _Balsam_, _Ointment_ or _Cerecloth_,
which being dry, serv’d like Glue to stop the Pores, and hinder the
Dissipation of the volatil parts of the Aromatics, as well as the
Penetration of the Air. _Guichard_, cap. 10. p. 479. _des Funerailles
des Ægyptiens_, thinks this Gum to have been _Acacia_, of which see
_Dioscorides_, Lib. 1. cap. 134. _& apud Mathiol._ p. 115. But
_Bellonius_ and other Authors think the Gum which _Herodotus_ says the
_Egyptians_ us’d instead of Glue was _Cedria_, besmear’d on the Roulers
in manner of a Cerecloth: [Sidenote: _Roulers_ how prepar’d, _&c._]
Others say the Body was first anointed with a Gum, and then wrapped up
in fine Linnen, and _Casalius de veter. Ægyptior. Ritibus_, p. 30. says,
_Gummi Oleo inungebant_, which is more agreeable to the Observations I
have made, That the Roulers seem’d either dipp’d _in Oleo seu Unguento
Cedrino_, or after the Body was anointed with it, roul’d up and
finish’d, then that the Bandages were prepar’d after the manner of a
Cerecloth, with _Gum_ or _Rosin_ of _Cedar_, because this would have
made them hard and brittle, whereas those which I have seen, were
pliable and free from any _Gum_ or _Embalming_ Matter adhering to them,
and no ways different from other Linnen, but only of a Cinnamon or
Snuff-Colour; so that probably they might dip or anoint them with the
Oil or Ointment of _Cedar_, rather to make them lasting and durable than
to stick to the Body; for _Greaves_ tells us in his _Pyramidographia_,
p. 50. that he had seen some of these Roulers so strong and perfect, as
if they had been made but Yesterday. With these they bound and swath’d
the dead Body, beginning at the Head and ending with the Feet. Over
these again they wound others, so often one upon another, that there
could not be less than a 1000 ells upon one Body. They interwove these
Roulers so artificially and in such manner, says _Kircher_, as would
puzzle the Ingenuity and tire the Industry of our Modern _Surgeons_ to
find out, yet, with submission to him, it may not be so difficult to
perform by any one tollerably skill’d in the _Art_ of _Bandage_ as he
imagines, for, as I take it, they began with the Feet and Hands, and
ended with the Head, contrary to what _Greaves_ asserts, tho’ I cannot
say this of my own Knowledge, having never had any opportunity of
unrouling such Bodies, but only offer the Consideration thereof,
according to the appearance of the following Figures, of which the first
shows the interior artificial Circumvolutions of the Roulers, the Body
being first wrapp’d in fine Linnen, wherein _Egypt_ excell’d, as the
Holy Scriptures testifie, _Prov._ 7. 16. &c. The second Figure
represents the manner of the next Rouling, and the fourth shews the
external Ornaments, painted with _Hierogliphics_, &c. [Sidenote:
_Designer_ or _Painter_.] For when the Body was thus roul’d, the
_Designer_ or _Painter_ cover’d the superficies of the Roulers with a
kind of Paste or Gum, on which he gilded and painted Cyphers, Figures,
Letters, Characters and other _Hieroglyphics_. The third Figure shows a
Case to keep the Body in, made of Linnen, and painted in like manner
with _Hieroglyphics_ in distinct Colours, having been found in the
_Musæum_ of _Johannes Nardius_. Now concerning the nature and
signification of these _Hieroglyphics_, [Sidenote: _Hieroglyphic_
Characters.] Authors variously write; but none have taken so much Pains,
or div’d so far into the meaning of them, as the Learned _Kircher_, who
pretends to explain all the _Hieroglyphic_ Characters painted on the
Roulers and Coffins of the _Mummies_, in his _Oedipi Ægyptiaci Theatrum
Hieroglyphicum_, where also, _p._ 412 and 414. you may find the
particular Explanations of the third and fourth Figures. But since there
remains no Alphabet or Dictionary of these Characters (for the entire
Knowledge of _Hieroglyphics_ perish’d at the Time the _Egyptian_
Ceremonies ceas’d, and were abolish’d by the Irruption _Cambyses_ made
into _Egypt_) we believe all those assiduous Penetrations into these
Mysteries by _Kircher_ and _R. P. Menestrier_, are but imperfect
Conjectures and meer Imaginations. However, having spoken of the
_Egyptian_ Language in no part of this Book before, it may not be amiss
to insert here some few Particulars concerning it. [Sidenote: Two sorts
of _Languages_ and _Characters_.] First then, there were two sorts of
Languages and Characters among the _Egyptians_; one common and us’d by
all, constituted for their Trade and Commerce with Mankind, and which
was that Tongue or Idiom call’d the _Coptic_ or _Pharonic_, and the
other us’d only by Priests, Prophets, _Hierogrammatists_ or Holy
Writers, and the like Persons in Sacerdotal Orders. The first was
written from the Right Hand to the Left in Characters not unlike the old
_Greek_; but the latter consisted not of Letters, Syllables or Words,
but thro’ the Image and Pictures of Things, they endeavour’d to deliver
their hidden Conceits in the Letters and Language of Nature. Thus by a
representation of the several Parts and Actions of Man, the shape of
Artificers Tools and Instruments, the form of all sorts of Animals,
Beasts, Birds and Fish, the resemblance of the Sun, Moon, Planets and
the like, they exactly read and understood every thing couch’d within
those _Hieroglyphics_. For Example, the Crocodile was the Emblem of
Malice; the Eye the Preserver of Justice and the Guard of the Body; the
Right Hand, with its Fingers open, signify’d Plenty, and the Left, with
its Fingers clos’d, Preservation and Custody of Mens Goods and Estates.
To express their _Eneph_ or Creator of the World, the _Egyptians_
describ’d an old Man in a blew Mantle, with an Egg in his Mouth, which
was the Emblem of the World, and express’d their Notion of Divinity by
an Eye on a Scepter, by an Eagle’s Head, _&c._ Of which see more in Sir
_Thomas Brown_’s _Vulgar Errors_, cap. 20. where he rightly observes,
that of all Nations that suffer’d by the Confusion of _Babel_, the
_Egyptians_ found the best Evasion; for tho’ Words were confounded, they
invented a Language of Things, and spake to each other by common Notions
in Nature, whereby they discours’d in silence, and were intuitively
understood from the Theory of their Impressions; for they assum’d the
shapes of Animals common to all Eyes, and by their Conjunctions and
Compositions were able to communicate their Conception to any that
co-apprehended the _Syntaxis_ of their Natures. This many conceive to
have been the Primitive way of Writing, and of greater Antiquity than
Letters; and this Language indeed might _Adam_ well have spoken, who
understanding the Nature of Things, had the advantage of Natural
Expressions, _&c._ But to add two or three Examples more out of _Orus_:
For Eternity the _Egyptians_ painted the Sun and Moon, as Things which
they believ’d to have had no beginning, nor were likely to have any
ending; for a Year they painted a Snake with his Tail in his Mouth, to
show how, one Year succeeding another, the World was still kept in an
endless Circle; for a Month they painted a Palm-Tree, by reason at every
new Moon that Tree sends forth a new Branch; for GOD they painted a
Falcon, as well in that he soars so exceeding high, as that he governs
the lesser Birds, for Integrity of Life they painted Fire and Water,
both because these Elements are in themselves most pure, and by reason
all other Things are purify’d by them; for any thing that was abominable
to the Gods they painted a Fish, because in their Sacrifices the Priests
never us’d them, and the like of which you will find innumerable
Instances in _Pierius_’s Book of the _Egyptian Hieroglyphics_. Now what
so great a number of these Sacred Characters inscrib’d on their
_Obelisks_ and _Mummies_ signify’d, Authors seem to differ about, some
looking on them as _Charms_ and _Necromancy_, [Sidenote:
_Hieroglyphics_, their _Signification_.] and others thinking they did
thereby endeavour not so much to express as hide their Meanings, to
amuse and awe the Vulgar; but I am more inclinable to think they always
contain’d some History of the Life and Death, Virtues and Actions of the
Deceas’d, or else some Religious Ceremonies, and the like; for _Diodorus
Siculus_, Lib. 1. cap. 4. writes of _Sesoosis_, that he erected two
Obelisks of polish’d Marble 120 Cubits high, on which were inscrib’d a
Description of the large extent of his Empire, the great Value of his
Revenue, and the number of the Nations by him conquer’d; and what sort
of Writing this was, is explain’d a little before, where, speaking of
the like Works, he says, he erected Pillars whereon were inscrib’d in
_Egyptian_ Letters call’d _Hieroglyphics_ these Words: Sesoosis _King of
Kings and Lord of Lords subdu’d this Country by his Arms_. Also _Lib._
5. _cap._ 3. he writes of a Golden Pillar whereon were Letters
inscrib’d, call’d by the _Egyptians_ Sacred Writing, expressing the
famous Actions of _Uranus_, _Jupiter_, _Diana_ and _Apollo_, written, as
they say, by _Mercury_ himself, whom most Authors agree with him to have
been the first Inventor of these _Hieroglyphic Characters_.

[Sidenote: _Dresses_ and _Ornaments_ of the _Mummies_.]

But to return to the manner of _dressing_ and _adorning_ the _Embalm’d_
Bodies, such as is represented in Figure the 4th, where you may see the
Image and Form of a Woman set off with various Ornaments, the
signification of whose _Hieroglyphic Characters_ you have explain’d by
_Kircher_, in the Book and Page before-mention’d; we shall next proceed
to give an account of an extraordinary fine _Mummy_ which _Pietro della
Valle_ saw and describes in this manner, _viz._ That upon it was the
Figure of a young Man, dress’d in a long Gown, gilded and sprinkl’d over
with _Hieroglyphic_ Emblems from Head to Foot, set off with precious
Stones, with the Hair of his Head black and curl’d, and his Beard of the
same colour, but short; a Chain of Gold hung about his Neck, having a
Medal with the Image of the Bird _Ibis_ on it, with many other Marks and
Characters, which give us to understand this young Man was possess’d of
great Dignities. In his Right Hand he held a Golden Bason full of red
Liquor, and in his Left a Fruit somewhat resembling an Apple: He had a
Gold-Ring on his Thumb, and another on his little Finger, likewise
Sandals which cover’d the Soles of his Feet only, and were ty’d above
the Instep with Straps or Latchets. On a Fillet or Rouler hanging at his
Girdle, one might plainly read the word _Eutichi_, which signifies _Good
Time_. By his side was a Woman yet more richly and mysteriously adorn’d,
with an Ox, the Image of _Apis_ or _Isis_, at her Feet. In a word, both
these Figures were painted like to the Saints of the Ancients. When the
dead Bodies of the _Egyptians_ were _Embalm’d_, roul’d, painted and
adorn’d after the manner we have describ’d, as you may partly see at
Figures the first, second and fourth, they put them into Cases or
Coffins made of Linnen pasted to a great thickness, or else of Wood
carv’d in the similitude and likeness of the Person deceas’d, as you may
see at Figures the third and fifth; the first of which shows the back
part of a Linnen-Case for a _Mummy_, painted with several Colours, as is
to be seen in the Collection of _Johannes Nardius_; and the other how a
roul’d Body lies plac’d in a wooden Coffin, as may be seen in the
_Musæum_ of the Great Duke of _Tuscany_.


  Jos. Nutting Sculp.

  To D^r. John Lawson who has been pleas’d to encourage this Work, this
    Plate is humbly dedicated by his most humble Servant Thomas

[Sidenote: _Coffins_ of _Sycamore_.]

These Coffins were sometimes made of _Cedar_, but most commonly of
_Sycamore_, a large Tree, very plentifully growing in _Egypt_ and
_Judæa_, which bears Leaves like to the _Mulberry_-Tree, but larger, and
Fruit like to a Fig, not sprouting from the Branches, but from the Stock
or Body of the Tree. ’Tis call’d by us the _Egyptian_ Fig, by them
_Giumez_. Its Leaves afford a pleasant shade, its Fruit refreshment to
such as Travel in the Plains of those hot Countries, and its Wood serves
not only for Coffins but Buildings. ’Tis also a Tree so lasting and well
rooted, that the _Sycamore_ which _Zacheus_ ascended, is still shown in
_Judæa_ to Travellers, as is also the hollow _Sycamore_ at _Matarea_ in
_Egypt_, where the Blessed Virgin is said to have remain’d for some
Time, which tho’ it savour of the Legend, says Sir _Thomas Brown_ in his
Observations on _Scripture-Plants_, p. 12. yet it plainly shows what
Opinion the _Egyptians_ had of the lasting Condition of this Tree to
countenance their Tradition, of which likewise they might not be without
some Experience, since the Learned _Greaves_ observes, _p._ 57. that the
old _Egyptians_ made Coffins of this Wood, of which there are many
frequently found among the _Mummies_, very fair, entire and free from
Corruption even at this Day, nay after the Revolution perhaps of 3000
Years. Of these Coffins _Greaves_ tells us, _p._ 50. he had seen many
fashion’d after the likeness of a Man, or rather resembling one of those
_Embalm’d_ Bodies, which, as we have describ’d before, are bound about
with Fillets or Roulers, and wrapp’d in a Shroud of Linnen; for as in
those there is the shape of a Head, with a kind of painted Vizard or
Mask fastned to them, but without any appearance of their Arms or Legs,
in like manner is it with these Coffins, the Lids of which have the
shape of the Head of a Man, with a Face painted on it resembling a
Woman, the residue being one continued Trunk. At the end of this Trunk
is a Pedestal somewhat broad, on which it stood upright in the
Reconditory, as _Herodotus_ relates. Some of these Coffins are handsomly
painted without with several _Hieroglyphics_; opening two of them he
found within, over the Body, [Sidenote: _Scroles_ painted with
_Characters_, &c.] divers Scroles fastned to the Linnen-Shroud: These
were painted with Sacred _Characters_, in Colours very lively and fresh,
among which were, in a larger size, the Pictures both of Men and Women,
some headed like Hawks, others like Dogs, _&c._ These Scroles ran either
down the Belly and Sides, or else were plac’d on the Knees and Legs. On
the Feet was a Linnen-Cover (and so were all the Scroles
before-mention’d of Linnen, it being not lawful for them to use Woollen)
painted with _Hieroglyphics_, and fashion’d like a high Slipper. On the
Breast was a kind of Breast-Plate, made with folds of Linnen cut
Scallop-wise, richly painted and gilt. In the midst of the bend at the
top, was the Face of a Woman with her Arms extended, on each side, at
the two outmost ends, was the Head of a Hawk fairly gilt, by which they
represented the Divine Nature. Thus far _Greaves_. Moreover _Thevenot_,
_Bellonius_, _Nardius_ and others observe, [Sidenote: Several things
found included in the _Mummies_,] that the _Egyptians_ were wont to put
within the Cavities of the Breasts and Bellies of their _Embalm’d_
Bodies, such Things as they generally lov’d most in their Life-Time,
_viz._ Books, Writings, Arms, Medals, Money and pieces of Antiquity,
little Vessels, or any sort of antient Houshold-Goods; also little Idols
and Images of the Gods which they Worshipp’d whilst alive, _&c._
_Kircher_ tells us in his _Oedipus Ægyptiacus Theatr. Hierogl._ p. 420.
that _Nardius_ sent him two Roulers mark’d with _Hieroglyphics_, and
roul’d up in the manner of a Scrole, taken out of the Breast or Belly of
a Mummy; adding also that the _Egyptians_ did not only look on such
_Hieroglyphics_ as Symbols of the greatest Secrecy, but also that they
had a power to obtain Protection of those Gods to whom they were
fastned, and that these Roulers signify’d nothing else but the Funeral
Pomp, which was perform’d as magnificently as possible, especially if it
were of a King, Priest or the like, the Explanation whereof see in the
Page above-mention’d. _Gulielmus Rondeletus_, a Physician of
_Montpelier_, kept as a great Rarity 20 Leaves of antient Paper,
[Sidenote: as _Papers_,] taken out of the Breast of a _Mummy_, which was
fill’d with old _Arabic_ Letters, yet none could read it, tho’ the
_Jews_ of _Avignon_ conjectur’d it contain’d the Life of the Deceas’d;
but nothing is so commonly found in these Mummies, as Idols of various
sizes, tho’ generally about half a Foot or a Span long, form’d either of
Potters Earth, glaz’d or varnish’d and bak’d, or else of Stone, Metal,
Wood or the like. Some of all these kinds Mr. _Greaves_ brought over,
and particularly mentions one cut out of a _Magnes_ or Loadstone, in
the form and bigness of a _Scarabæus_: See _p._ 48. of his
_Pyramidographia_. _Camerarius_, _Horar. subcisivar._ Cent. 1. cap. 14.
speaks more remarkably of those made of Brass, [Sidenote:
_Brass-Images_,] affirming they were chiefly us’d in that manner, by
reason they had great Virtue to preserve dead Bodies from Putrifaction,
especially, since _Pierius_ in his Book of _Hieroglyphics_ witnesses,
that Brass-Nails were stuck into the Body for the same purpose; but this
is not to be credited by any one physically skill’d in the Virtues of
Minerals, _&c._ We have more reason to believe these Idols were so
plac’d out of Superstition, especially seeing many are the Figures of
_Isis_, _Osiris_, and other Gods; nor did they only place them in the
inside of dead Bodies, but also hung them there on the out-side, sewing
them to the Roulers and Ornaments, and likewise plac’d them in their
Sepulchres: These from their Office or Use were distinguish’d by several
Names, [Sidenote: _Averruncal_ and] such as _Averruncal_ or _Apotropæan_
Gods, so call’d because they were thought to avert Evil; [Sidenote:
_Prophylactic_ Statues.] others were term’d _Prophylactic_ Statues or
Portable _Amulets_, which they carry’d as Charms about their Necks, Arms
and Girdles; and a third sort, in general Esteem among them, [Sidenote:
_Serapes._] were the _Serapes_, the same with what the _Hebrews_ call’d
_Teraphim_, the _Latins_, _Penates_ and _Lares_, being _Tutelar_ Gods,
appointed to defend and keep certain Places, and some of these they
carry’d along with them where-ever they went. Of this number were
_Osiris_, _Isis_, _Nepthe_, _Horus_, _Harpocrates_, _Arveris_, _Apopis_
and innumerable others of the like kind, which altho’ they were all in
the Nature of _Genii_, and the same in Substance, differing only in
their Effects, yet, says _Kircher_, as they were deputed to the Custody
of private Things, so they obtain’d the Name of _Tutelar_ Gods, and were
accordingly Worshipp’d for private Deities. Thus some were Country-Gods,
others Defenders of Cities, and a third sort Keepers of private Houses.
There have been great numbers of these brought out of _Egypt_, of
various sizes and compos’d of different Matter, such as Earth, Stone,
Wood, Metal or the like, [Sidenote: Their _Forms_ and _Actions_.]
differing both in Form and Actions, some appearing like _Mummies_ and
roul’d up in the same manner, others with deform’d and threatning
Countenances thereby to strike an awe and terrifie, to which purpose
they held various Instruments in their Hands, such as Hooks and
Harping-Irons, Sheilds, Whips, and the like; but all these kinds of
Statues were adorn’d with _Hieroglyphic_ Characters both before and
behind, nay, some all over, whence they came to be call’d
_Polycharacteristic_ Statues, of which you may see above 50 several
Figures, with their Descriptions, in _Kircher_’s Book before-mention’d,
_Syntagma_ 16, 17, 18 and 19. I shall here therefore only insert two
Plates out of _Johannes Nardius_’s Annotations on _Lucretius_, whereof
all the Statues and Figures were in his own Custody and _Musæum_, and of
which the first Plate represents the foreside and backside of eight
Wooden Images, without either Arms or Legs, adorn’d in a manner with the
same Dresses, Ornaments and Characters as the _Mummies_, about a Cubit
and half long, which the _Egyptians_ were wont to place on their Tombs
and Coffins, as may be seen at _p._ 203. The 9th Figure shews a Linnen
Ornament for the Breast, distinctly painted with divers Colours, wherein
was express’d the true way of opening Bodies in order to their
_Embalming_; from which also appears, that they open’d the _Thorax_,
tho’ neither _Herodotus_ nor _Diodorus Siculus_ make any mention
thereof. The 10th Figure shews an Alabaster-Urn or Pot mark’d with
_Hieroglyphics_, and fill’d with _Asphalt_, with which they us’d to
_Embalm_ their Bodies, and the 11th is the Cover of the Pot with a Dog’s
Head on it.


  M: V^{dr}: Gucht Sculp.

  To Doctor Hans Sloane who has been pleas’d to encourage this Work,
    this Plate is humbly dedicated by
  His most humble Servant Thomas Greenhill.

The second Plate represents such Figures as the _Egyptians_ hung on
their _Embalm’d_ Bodies, which were made of glaz’d and colour’d Earth,
or else of Brass: The first nine are deform’d, with horrid Countenances,
either of Men or Animals, some joyning their Hands, others bearing on
their Knees, or else hanging them down. The 1st and 9th, which look most
terrible with a Lion’s Countenance, represent the _Mophtæi Genii_; the
2d has the Face of the Dog _Anubis_; the 3d and 7th have the monstrous
Beards of the Priests of _Isis_; the 4th and 6th are the _Nepthæi_; the
5th represents _Horus_, a Boy with a monstrous Head; the 8th has the
Face of a Boy likewise, with a loop-hole on the Back, to sew it to the
_Mummies_, as have also the 1st, 2d, 4th, 6th, 20th, 21st and 25th
Figures, tho’ not altogether so conspicuous. The 12th and 14th, as also
the 19th and 25th are the same, with the 1st and 9th, signifying the
_Genii Mophtæi_; the 11th and 15th are the same with the 4th and 6th;
the 16th, 21st and 23d carry great Stones on their Heads and Shoulders,
as it were threatning to fling them at such as offer’d to disturb them,
or else to bury them under them; the 10th is a _Scarabæus_; the 13th a
_Phallus occulatus_, which they carry’d about with them as one of the
greatest _Amulets_ they could use against Sterility; the 17th and 18th
are two Crocodiles, likewise carry’d along with them to appease
_Typhon_; the 20th and 24th with Hawks Heads represent _Osiris_; the 22d
is most monstrous of all, carrying a Bushel on its Head, all the Figure
being compos’d of Head and Belly. It denotes _Serapis_, of whom they say
there was a Statue in _Alexandria_ of that Magnitude, that it touch’d
both sides of the _Serapian_ Temple; the 26th is _Harpocrates_ holding
his Finger on his Mouth, to shew the Silence religiously observ’d by the
_Egyptians_ in their Mysteries; the 27th is the Ox _Apis_, before
describ’d _p._ 200, and the 28th the Statue of _Isis_, giving Suck to
her Son _Horus_.


  J. Nutting Sculp.

  To Doctor William Gibbons who has been pleas’d to encourage this Work
    this Plate is humbly dedicated by
  His most humble Servant Thomas Greenhill.

These were the true _Phylacteric_ and _Averruncal_ Statues of the
_Egyptians_, some made portable with Handles, and others with a square
piece of Wood proceeding from their Pedestal, whereby they were the
better fix’d on Tombs. Some again were put within the Bellies of the
Mummies, and others hung about the outsides of them, and that as well to
preserve the Bodies from Putrifaction as the Sepulchres from Rapine,
[Sidenote: Their _Use_ and _Virtues_.] which they were suppos’d to
effect by their Divine Power, or Magical Virtue, or else by their
terrible and deform’d Countenances were thought to strike a Dread into
every approaching Adversary.

Thus the Body being _Embalm’d_ and adorn’d with _Hieroglyphic_
Characters, magical Amulets, Statues and the like, and every thing else
got ready for the Funeral, it was on the last Day or Time appointed for
the Burial, put on board a Ship call’d _Barris_, and by the Ferry-Man,
_Charon_, [Sidenote: _Charon._] wafted o’er the Lake _Acherusia_; which
lies on the _South_ side of _Memphis_, where being landed on a Plain,
the chief Burial-Place of the _Egyptians_, and which is fabl’d by the
_Greeks_ to be the _Elysian_ Fields, they plac’d the Corps on a Bier,
before the Mouth of the Sepulchre, when the Judges, Priests and common
People surrounding it, [Sidenote: Manner of _Judging_ the _Dead_.] one
who was purposely appointed to rehearse impartially the
_Funeral-Oration_, openly declar’d the Virtues, Vices and Actions, nay
whole Life and Conversation of the Deceas’d, and after all the Evidences
were examin’d (every one having a free power to accuse the dead Person)
according to the majority of Votes and judgment of the Judges, the Corps
was dispos’d of. If he had liv’d Virtuously he was honour’d with the
greatest Praises and Commendations, and consequently magnificently
Interr’d; but if Viciously, he was mightily exclaim’d against and
depriv’d of Sepulture. This made even the Kings themselves to live
uprightly, fearing so much as to anger the common People whilst alive,
lest they should thereby incur their eternal Hatred after their Death.
This Custom of the _Egyptians_ examining and trying their Dead,
_Bossuet_ in his History of the World, _p._ 457, takes notice of as a
very extraordinary kind of Judgment which none escap’d, affirming, ‘It
was a Consolation at the Time of Death to leave their Names in esteem
among Men, and of all Human Blessings, this was the only one which Death
cannot ravish from us; but it was not suffer’d in _Egypt_ to commend all
the Dead indifferently, that was an Honour to be had only from a public
Judgment. The public Accuser was heard, if he prov’d the Conduct of the
Deceas’d bad, then was his Memory condemn’d and he depriv’d of
Sepulture. The People admir’d the power of their Laws, which reach’d
them even after Death, and every one being touch’d by the Example, was
afraid to dishonour his Memory and Family: But if the Defunct was not
convicted of any Crime, then had he an honourable Interment. They made
his Panegyric, but medled not in the least with his Birth: All _Egypt_
was Noble, and besides, they receiv’d no farther Commendations than what
they had got by their Merits. Moreover, the _Egyptians_ were very
curious in Preserving dead Bodies: Thus their Gratitude to their Kindred
became Immortal. Children, by seeing the Bodies of their Ancestors,
call’d to mind their Virtues, which the Public had made such
Acknowledgements to, and they were incited to love those Laws which had
so recommended them to them. This Custom of Judging Kings after their
Deaths, says he _p._ 457. seem’d so holy to the People of GOD, that they
have always practis’d it. We read in the Scriptures wicked Kings have
been depriv’d of the Burial of their Ancestors; and we learn from
_Josephus_, that that Custom lasted even to the Time of the _Asmoneans_:
This gave Kings to understand, that tho’ their Majesty put them above
Human Judgments whilst alive, yet were they not above them when Death
had equall’d them with other Men. Likewise our Author further adds, _p._
454. That to prevent borrowing, which was the Parent of Idleness, Frauds
and Branglings, the Decree of King _Asychis_ did not suffer any to
borrow, [Sidenote: _Pawning_ the _Dead_.] but on condition he pawn’d the
Body of his Ancestor to him of whom he borrow’d; and it was reputed both
an Impiety and Infamy together not to redeem it so soon as ever he
could, so precious a Pledge was it reckon’d, and he that dy’d before he
had acquitted himself of that Duty, was deny’d Burial.’

Now how the Bodies, which are said to have been bury’d, were laid up, is
somewhat difficult to determine, since Authors speak so variously of
their Burial; for some say they were bury’d either in their private or
proper Sepulchres, or else in a public Reconditory, and others say they
kept the Dead in their Dwelling-Houses. Now which of these was most us’d
by such as could indifferently afford the Expence of either, I will not
pretend to determine, however, the great variety of Sepulchres, found
even at this Day, plainly proves they bury’d in the Fields and Plains,
whereas the other is but traditionally asserted, yet not altogether
improbable to be done by so Superstitious a People, of whom it is
reported that some, especially the richer Sort, put their _Embalm’d_
Bodies in Cases carv’d after their own likeness, [Sidenote: The _Dead_
kept in _Houses_,] and these they set up in their Halls or Parlours in
great Order (perhaps in Niches) being very richly adorn’d, where they
took great delight to see a long Race of their Ancestors, in a manner,
with as great satisfaction as if they were alive, and they were
Conversing with them. Nay, _Herodotus_, _Pomponius Mela_ and _Lucian_
assert, [Sidenote: and plac’d at _Table_.] they plac’d them at Table
like Guests, and made merry with them by Eating and Drinking; yet, when
they were necessitous, they scrupl’d not to give them as a Pledge for
Money they borrow’d, yet then took particular Care, both punctually to
pay the one and redeem the other: But as for such as bury’d their Dead
out of their Houses and Villages, in the Fields and Plains, they built
Sepulchres for them as noble as possible, some after one Fashion, and
some after another, every one according to their own Fancy, or the
Charges they could best spare; for they chose rather to have their
Monuments magnificently built than their Dwelling-Houses, laughing at
the _Greeks_ and other Nations, who caus’d theirs to be rais’d with
great expence like to Palaces, notwithstanding they were to live but a
very little while in them, and at the same time neglected their Tombs,
where they were to lye for a much longer Time. But the _Egyptians_ acted
just contrary; they despis’d the present Life, and took little care in
building their Habitations, looking upon them only as so many Inns or
Baiting-Places, where they were to Inhabit but for a Season, whereas the
Glory of a future Life, that was to be procur’d by Virtue, they greatly
esteem’d, and consequently spent their whole Care, Study and Riches
about the magnificence of their Sepulchres, [Sidenote: _Sepulchres_
call’d _Eternal Houses_.] which they call’d Sempiternal or Eternal
Houses, looking upon the Time they were to dwell here on Earth as
nothing, in respect of the stay they were to make in the Grave. And
hence it is no Nation in the World has been so curious as the
_Egyptians_ in their Funeral Ceremonies, Preserving the Dead, and
magnificence of Sepulchres, which, besides abundance of private
Structures, those Obelisks at _Rome_ and the Pyramids of _Egypt_, do not
only testifie, but will for ever be numbred among the Wonders of the

                  *       *       *       *       *

These, Sir, are my humble Thoughts and Opinion concerning the Funerals
of the _Egyptians_, which I entirely submit to your better Judgment,
hoping you will pardon this Interruption of your precious Time from more
weighty Concerns, and candidly accept the mean, but grateful Performance


                                           _Your most Obliged and_

                                             _Devoted Humble Servant_,

                                                       Thomas Greenhill.


                           Art of Embalming.

                              LETTER III.

  _To Doctor_ Hans Sloane, _Secretary to the Royal Society, and Fellow
    of the College of Phisicians_, London.


In considering the Nature of the _Egyptian Pyramids_, _Subterranean
Vaults_ and _Lamps_, I not only found in them much Magnificence, but
more Curiosity, insomuch that tho’ the first were justly reputed Wonders
of the World, yet are the last as surprizing and unaccountable, even to
the most inquisitive Naturalist, or expert Chymist. Now well knowing
your incomparable Library contains the most curious Books wrote on this
Subject, as also that your unparalell’d _Musæum_ is furnish’d with a
great variety of Lamps, Lacrimatories, Averruncal Gods, and the like
Rarities, taken out of the _Pyramids_ and Subterranean Places of
_Egypt_, I thought it not only proper to beg your Patronage of the
following Sheets, but likewise believ’d my self oblig’d to return such
Acknowledgments for your many Favours as I was best able to make, in as
much as you are both a great Promoter of Arts and Sciences in general,
and have more particularly been pleas’d to encourage this Work of mine:
But as to write a Panegyric on your Merit and Virtues would look too
much like Flattery, so, entirely to pass them by without taking any
notice of them, would no less savour of Ingratitude, therefore I must
needs desire leave to say, That the Judgment of the Royal Society, Men
of the most polite Learning in the World, in choosing you for their
Secretary, is a sufficient Argument of your great Worth and acute
Discernment; but your Candour will appear in nothing so much as in
accepting this succinct Account of the _Pyramids_, Subterranean Vaults
and Lamps of the _Egyptians_, whilst you have by you the Learned Mr.
_Greaves_’s _Pyramidographia_, with the several Accounts of _Licetus_,
_Bellori_, and other Writers about _Lamps_, &c. Now whereas in the
foregoing Letter was fully shown the manner of preparing dead Bodies and
rendring them durable, in this I chiefly intend to speak of the
Sepulchres or Repositories wherein they were laid; for as much as the
_Egyptians_ did not only content themselves with _Embalming_ their Dead,
but likewise with equal Care provided Conditories that might be lasting
as the Body, and in which it might continue safe from the Injuries both
of Time and Men, because they religiously believ’d that so long as the
Body indur’d, so long would the Soul continue with it, not as a
quickning or animating Spirit, but as an Attendant or Guardian, and
without going into any other Body, as otherwise they thought it would;
so that after they had preserv’d the Dead from Putrifaction, they next
entomb’d them in firm and stately Monuments, such as were at first those
Mercurial Sepulchres of hard Marble of a Spherical Figure, as _Strabo_
records, and those wonderful ones of the antient Kings of _Thebes_ in
_Egypt_, which _Diodorus Siculus_, Lib. 1. mentions, and such were also
the _Hypogæa_, those Caves or Dormitories cut out in the _Lybian_
Desarts, by the _Egyptians_ of lower Quality, which are now term’d the
Mummies. Of the same Nature likewise are the stately _Pyramids_ built by
their Kings, [Sidenote: _Pyramids_ to what end built.] all being
design’d to secure the Dead, after they were _Embalm’d_, from the
Injuries of the _Nile_ or Weather, the rapine of an Enemy or any
voracious Animal; and that so the Soul might be still oblig’d to attend
them: But besides this general Reason why these Reconditories were
built, which was to preserve the Dead from all external Violence,
[Sidenote: Why of a _Pyramidal_ form.] there were two special ones why
they were made in a _Pyramidal_ form. The first was, in that this Figure
appears most permanent and durable, as being neither so liable to be
over-press’d by its own weight at top, nor to be undermin’d by the
sinking in of Rain at the bottom, as other Buildings are. The second
was, because these Structures were intended to represent some of the
_Egyptian_ Deities; for, in the most antient Times, _Pyramidal_ Columns
or Obelisks were worshipp’d as Images of the Gods, before the exact Art
of Carving Statues was found out, and so as _Isis Cornigera_ represented
the Horns of the Moon, in like manner might these _Pyramids_ represent
the Rays of the Sun, which the _Egyptians_ worshipp’d under the name of
_Osiris_. As to the number of _Pyramids_ to be seen in _Egypt_,
[Sidenote: Their number.] _Bellonius_ very much exceeds the Account
given us by other Travellers, for he makes them above 100, whereas
_Greaves_ says there are not 20, and Prince _Radzivil_ reckon’d but 17.
Three of these are the most remarkable, being built on _Africa_ side,
[Sidenote: Scituation.] on a rocky and barren Hill, between the City
_Memphis_ and the Place call’d _Delta_, from the _Nile_ less than four
Miles, from _Memphis_ six, and near to _Busiris_, a Village from whence
People are wont to ascend up to them, _Pliny_ Lib. 36. cap. 12. _Le
Bruyn_ has given us this Drawing of them, together with the _Sphinx_
which he made on the spot, whilst the _French_ Consul and some of his
Company were refreshing themselves under its Shade.

These three _Pyramids_ were not erected by the _Israelites_, under the
Tyranny of the _Pharaohs_, as _Josephus_ and some modern Writers affirm;
for the Scripture says positively, the Slavery of the _Jews_ consisted
in making and burning Brick, whereas all these _Pyramids_ were made of
Stone. The first and greatest of them was built, [Sidenote: Who were the
_Founders_ of them.] says _Herodotus_, by _Cheops_ (stil’d by _Diodorus
Siculus_, _Chemmis_) who succeeded _Rhampsinitus_ in the Kingdom of
_Egypt_. He adds, that the Stones were dug out of the Quarries of an
_Arabian_ Mountain, and from thence carry’d to the _Nile_; that there
were employ’d in the Work Ten Miriads or a Hundred Thousand Men, every
Three Months a Myriad; that the whole _Pyramid_ was finish’d in 20
Years, whereof 10 were spent in conveying the Stones to the Place of

[Illustration: J. Kip Sculp

  To M^r. Francis Moult Chymist who has been Pleas'd to encourage this
Work, this Plate is humbly dedicated by His most humble Servant Thomas
Greenhill. ]

The second _Pyramid_, like the first in respect to its Workmanship, but
far inferior in regard of its Magnitude, was built by the Successor to
_Cheops_, who was _Cephren_ his Brother, as _Herodotus_ and _Diodorus
Siculus_ agree.

The third _Pyramid_, less than either of the two former, was built by
_Mycerinus_, Son of _Cheops_ or _Chemmis_, says _Herodotus_. Other
Writers give different Names to the Founders of these _Pyramids_; but
this is what is most probable among their various Opinions, according to
Mr. _Greaves_. Besides these three now in being, _Herodotus_ mentions a
fourth built of Brick by _Asychis_, who succeeded _Mycerinus_, and
another in which _Imandes_ was bury’d, at the end of the Labyrinth built
by the 12 Kings of _Egypt_. Also long before any of these, _Mœris_ in
his wonderful Lake, had erected two _Pyramids_, one for himself and
another for his Wife, both long since gone to ruine; but there are many
yet standing in the _Lybian_ Desart, whose Founders none of the antient
Writers have ever nam’d. Among these one is no less worthy of Memory
than either of the three former, it standing about 20 Miles distant from
them, more within the sandy Desart, and appearing to have the same
Dimensions, the same Steps without as the first has, to be of the same
Colour, and to have an Entrance like it on the North side, which is
barr’d up within, and so whatever is said of the first in respect to its
out-side may be applicable to this last, therefore one Description may
serve for both.


  The outside of the First and Fairest Pyramid.

  J. Nutting Sculp.

  To his Grace Thomas Lord Arch-Bishop of Canterbury, who has been
    pleas’d to encourage this Work, this Plate is humbly dedicated by
  His Grace’s most obedient humble Servant Thomas Greenhill.

[Sidenote: A Description of the first and fairest _Pyramid_.]

The first and fairest of the three great _Pyramids_ is scituate on the
top of a rocky Hill, in the sandy Desart of _Lybia_, about a quarter of
a Mile distant Westward from the Plains of _Egypt_, the height of the
scituation giving Beauty as the solidity of the Rock does firmness to
the Superstructure. The Basis is exactly four square, and the North side
of it being measur’d by Mr. _Greaves_ with a _Radius_ of 10 Foot, was
found to be 693 _English_ Foot, and the Altitude being measur’d by its
Perpendicular, was found to be 481 Foot; but if taken as it ascends
inclining, then is it equal to the Basis, which is 693 Foot. To give a
true Idea of the just Dimensions of this _Pyramid_, we must imagine on
the sides of the Basis, which is exactly square, four equilateral
Triangles mutually propending, till they all meet at the top as it were
in a point; for so the _Perimeter_ of each Triangle comprehending 2079
Foot, and the _Perimeter_ of the Basis 2772 Foot, the whole Area of the
Basis will contain 480249 square Foot, or about 11 _English_ Acres of
Ground, which is a Proportion so monstrous, that it might seem
incredible were it not attested by the Ancients to be so much, and by
some of them more. The Ascent to the top of the _Pyramid_, from all the
sides without, is by Degrees or Steps; the lowermost Degree is near four
Foot in height, and three in breadth, which goes about the _Pyramid_ in
a level: The second Degree is like the first, only it retires inward
near three Foot; after the same manner is the third Row, and so the
rest, rising like so many Stairs one above another to the top, which
ends not in a point, but in a little flat, and is about 13 Foot broad,
being cover’d with nine Stones, besides two which are wanting at the
Angles. The Degrees by which we ascend are not of an equal depth, for
some are near four Foot, others want of three, and the higher we ascend,
the depth grows the less, and so in proportion does the breadth also.
These rows of Stones are much impair’d by the Weather, yet every Step,
which is but one single Stone, is at least 30 cubical Feet; the number
of Degrees from the bottom to the top is 207 or 208. Some of the
Ancients have reported, that this _Pyramid_ casts no Shadow, which must
be meant in the Summer-Time and at Mid-Day, for in the Winter Mr.
_Greaves_ saw it cast a Shadow at Noon. Thus far concerning the out-side
or Superficies of the greater _Pyramid_, with the Figure and Dimensions
of it; next Mr. _Greaves_ gives a particular Account of what he found
within it, of which, if the Ancients have been silent, he imputes it
chiefly to a reverend and awful Regard mix’d with Superstition, in not
presuming to enter those Chambers of Death, which Religion and Devotion
had consecrated to the Rest and Quiet of the Dead. And first he tells us
how he ascended on the North side 38 Foot, on an artificial Bank of
Earth, when he and his Company enter’d, [Sidenote: The _Entrance_.] with
Tapers in their Hands, thro’ a square narrow Passage three Foot broad
and 92 long, the Declivity of which was gradually so strait, that they
were forc’d, at the farther end, to creep on their Bellies. After this,
having pass’d thro’ a place in which they found ugly large Bats above a
Foot long, they enter’d the first Gallery, [Sidenote: First and second
_Gallery_.] the Pavement of which was of white and pollish’d Marble,
rising with a gentle Acclivity, being about five Foot broad, as many
high, and 110 Foot long: At the end of this begins the second Gallery, a
very stately piece of Work, and not inferiour, either in respect of the
curiosity of Art or richness of Materials, to the most sumptuous and
magnificent Buildings. ’Tis divided from the former by a Wall, thro’
which they pass’d stooping along a square hole, much about the same
bigness as the entrance of the _Pyramid_, but of no considerable length
yet level: At the end of this Hole on the right Hand, [Sidenote: The
_Well_.] they found the Well mention’d by _Pliny_ to be 86 Cubits in
depth, into which, he probably imagines, the Water of the River _Nile_
was brought by some secret Aqueduct, and _Bellonius_ thinks, out of this
Well the Workmen drew the Water which they drank, as likewise that it
serv’d them to dilute the Mortar they us’d in the Masons Work of the
Building; but others affirm, that after having descended 67 Foot strait
downwards, there is a square Window which leads into a Grot or Cave dug
out of a Hill found there, not of living or solid Stone, but of Sand
condens’d and press’d together; it extends in length from East to West
15 Foot lower, and consequently 82 from the top. There is a Way dug in
the Rock two Foot and half wide, whose descent downwards is very crooked
the length of 123 Foot, at the end of which it is fill’d with Sand and
Bats nastiness: As ’tis said a _Scotch_ Gentleman found it out, of whom
the _Sieur Thevenot_ makes mention in his Travels. _Le Bruyn_ thinks it
probable, that this Well was made to let down the Corps into, that were
put in the Cavities that are under the _Pyramids_, but would not venture
the Experiment of going down to see. _Greaves_ also thinks this Well was
the Passage to those secret Vaults, mention’d, but not describ’d by
_Herodotus_, which were hewn out of the natural Rock, over which this
_Pyramid_ was erected. This Well, says the former, is circular and about
three Foot over; the sides of it are lin’d with white Marble, and the
descent into it is by fixing the Hands and Feet in little open spaces,
cut into the sides within, opposite and answerable to one another in a
perpendicular. But by his measure, sounding it with a Line, he found it
only 20 Foot deep, the rest, as he supposes, has almost been damm’d up
and choak’d with Rubbage. Thence going strait forward the distance of 15
Foot, they entred another square Passage, opposite to the former and of
the same bigness, the Stones being very massy and exquisitely joyn’d;
this led, at the extent of 110 Foot, into an arch’d Vault or little
Chamber, standing East and West, about 20 Foot long, 17 broad and 15
high: The Walls were plaister’d over with Lime, but the Roof was cover’d
with large smooth Stones, which lay shelving and met above in a kind of
Arch or rather Angle. Returning back the same way they came, and being
out of this low and square Passage, they clim’d over it, and going
strait on in the trace of the second Gallery, on a shelving Pavement
(like that of the first) rising with an Angle of 26 Degrees, they at
length came to another Partition, being 154 Foot distant from the Well
below and the length of the Gallery. Here if we consider the narrow
Entrance or Mouth of the _Pyramid_ which descends, and the length of the
first and second Galleries that ascend, all of them lying as it were in
the same continu’d Line, and leading towards the middle of the
_Pyramid_, one may easily apprehend the Reason of that strange Eccho
within of four or five Voices, [Sidenote: A strange _Eccho_.] mention’d
by _Plutarch_, or rather of a long continued Sound, as Mr. _Greaves_
found by experience in discharging a Gun; for the Sound being carry’d
thro’ those Passages, and finding no vent outwards reflects on it self,
and causes a confus’d noise, which by degrees ceases. This Gallery is
built of white Marble, cut very exactly into spacious squares and
pollish’d; also the Roof and sides of the Wall are of the same Stone, so
closely joynted as scarce to be discern’d by the most curious Eye, and
tho’ the acclivity or rising of the Ascent make the Passage more
difficult and slippery, yet is it nevertheless very beautiful. The
height of this Gallery is 26 Foot, the breadth six, of which three are
to be allow’d for the way in the midst, which is set and bounded on both
sides with Seats (like Benches) of pollish’d Stone; each of these is
above one Foot in breadth and no less in depth. On the top of these
Benches near the Angle, where they close and joyn with the Wall, are
little Spaces cut in right angl’d parallel Figures, on each side
opposite to one another, intended, no doubt, for some other end than
Ornament. In casting and ranging the Marble in both the side Walls, all
the Courses, which are but seven, (so great are those Stones) lye and
flag over one another about three Inches, as is better to be conceiv’d
by Figure 2 at _p._ 314. than by any Description I can give.


  The inside of the First & fairest Pyramid.
  _If we imagin the whole_ Pyramid _to be divided in y^e midst, by a_
    Plan _extended from the North side to the South: the_ Entrance,
    Galleries, _and_ Chambers, _with y^e several passages to them, will
    appear in this manner_.

  J. Nutting Sculp.

  To M^r. John Thorpe, M.A.
  of University College in Oxford, who has been pleas’d to encourage
    this Work, this Plate is humbly dedicated by
  His most humble Servant Thomas Greenhill.


  J. Kip Sculp.

  To M^r. Joseph Whiston, Drugster, who has been pleas’d to encourage
    this Work, this Plate is humbly dedicated by
  His most humble Servant Thomas Greenhill.

[Sidenote: _Le Bruyn_’s Description of the _Gallery_.]

_Le Bruyn_ in his Voyage to the _Levant_, p. 139. writes more
particularly of this Gallery, after the following manner: ‘Being
return’d, says he, from the Horizontal Way, which is on the right Hand,
we enter’d the other on the left, which is six Foot four Inches wide,
and rises also the length of 162 Foot. On each side the Wall is a
Stone-Bench two Foot and half high, and pretty broad, which serves to
take hold by in going up, to which the Holes that are made almost every
step in the Wall, are of no small Service, yet are they altogether
confus’d and without order. It is not known by whom they were made; but
those that go to see the _Pyramids_ are extreamly oblig’d to them
however, for without these Holes it would be impossible to get up, and a
Man must likewise be very strong and in health that can do so by the
help of them, and the Stone-Bench by which one holds fast with one Hand
while the other holds the Candle; add to this, that a Man must make
large steps, because these Holes are six Hands breadth distant from each
other. This Ascent, which cannot be conceiv’d without admiration, may
well pass for what is most considerable in the _Pyramids_; for the
Stones which compose the Walls are as smooth as Looking-Glass, and so
well joyn’d together, that one would be apt to take them for one single
Stone. The same may be said of the Pavement. The Roof is here exceeding
high and so very sumptuous, that ’tis better to be represented than
describ’d; I therefore made this Draft of it, while my Countryman
_Adrian van Bierbeck_ rested himself on the Bench that is on the left
Hand, and some of our Company were already got up with their Lights into
the Chamber where the Tomb or Sepulchre is, which gave me opportunity to
take a view of all the Roof more at large.’

But to return to Mr. _Greaves_’s Account, he says, That after having
pass’d this Gallery, they enter’d another square Hole of the same
Dimension with the former, [Sidenote: Two _Anti-Closets_.] which brought
them into two _Anti-Closets_ lin’d with a rich and speckl’d sort of
_Thebaic_ Marble. The first of these had almost the same Dimensions as
the second. The second was thus proportion’d: The _Area_ was level, the
Figure of it oblong, the one side containing seven Foot, the other three
and a half, and the height was of 10 Foot. This inner _Anti-Closet_ was
separated from the former by a Stone of red speckl’d Marble, which hung
in two Mortices (like the Leaf of a Sluce) between two Walls, more than
three Foot above the Pavement, and wanting only two of the Roof. Out of
this Closet they enter’d another square Hole of the same wideness and
Dimensions with the rest, and near nine Foot long, all of _Thebaic_
Marble most exquisitely wrought, which landed them at the North end of a
very sumptuous Room. The distance from the end of the second Gallery to
this Entry is 24 Foot. [Sidenote: A spacious _Chamber_] This rich and
spacious Chamber, in which Art may seem to have contended with Nature,
the curious Workmanship being not inferiour to the rich Materials, lies
about the Center of the _Pyramid_. The Floor, Roof and Sides of it are
all compos’d of vast Tables of _Thebaic_ Marble, very gracefully siz’d
and plac’d. The nine Stones which cover the Roof are of a prodigious
length, like so many huge Beams traversing the Room, and supporting the
prodigious mass of the _Pyramid_ above: The length of this Chamber is
about 34 Foot, the breadth 17, the height 19 and a half. [Sidenote:
wherein stands _Cheops_’s Tomb.] Within this glorious Room stands the
Monument of _Cheops_ or _Chemmis_, of one piece of Marble, hollow
within, uncover’d at the top, and sounding like a Bell, without any
Sculpture or Embossment. But ’tis the common Opinion, after _Diodorus
Siculus_, that neither _Chemmis_ nor his Successor _Cephren_ were bury’d
in their _Pyramids_, because, says he, the People being over work’d by
them with hard Labour, threatned to tear their dead Bodies to pieces,
and throw them out of these Sepulchres, therefore they on their
Death-Beds commanded their Servants to bury them in some obscure Place,
_Diod._ Lib. 1. This Monument is of the same _Thebaic_ Marble with the
whole Room, being speckl’d with black, white and red Spots, and
resembling two Cubes finely set together, and hollow’d within. ’Tis
seven Foot three Inches and half long, in breadth and depth three Foot
three Inches and three quarters on the out-side, but within ’tis
something less, which shows that the Men of this Age are of the same
Stature with those that liv’d near 3000 Years ago, tho’ some famous Men
have thought the contrary. If any ask how this Monument could be
convey’d into this Chamber, since ’tis impossible for it to enter by
those narrow Passages in the _Pyramid_ which lead to it, I answer, It
must have been rais’d and convey’d up from without by some Engine,
before the Chamber was finish’d and the Roof clos’d: Thus far _Greaves_.
_Sandys_, p. 99. says, This _Pyramid_ which is the greatest of the
three, [Sidenote: How many _Workmen_ employ’d in the _Building_ it.] and
chief of the Worlds VII Wonders, employ’d 366000 Workmen continually in
building it for the space of 20 Years, in which Time they consum’d in
Radishes, Garlick and Onions only, 1800 Talents. Nor has Time, which
devours the proudest Structures, humbl’d this lofty Edifice, tho’ ’tis
very probably conjectur’d to have stood 3300 Years, and is now rather
old than ruinous, yet the North side is most worn by reason of the
humidity of the Northern Winds, which are here the moistest.

[Sidenote: The second _Pyramid_.]

The second _Pyramid_ is hardly distant the flight of an Arrow from the
first, and is all built of Stones of a whitish colour, nothing so large
as those of the first. The sides rise not by Degrees or Steps like those
of the former, but are smooth and equal, and the whole Fabrick seems
very entire, except on the South-side. Tho’ this _Pyramid_ is generally
thought to be inferiour to the first in Magnitude, yet by Mr.
_Greaves_’s Observation, the height and sides of the Basis are in both
equal. There is no Entrance into it, and therefore none can tell what
Chambers it contains; ’tis bounded on the North and West by two very
stately and elaborate Structures, being 30 Foot deep, and more than 1400
long, cut out of the hard Rock, and squar’d by a Chizzel, [Sidenote:
_Lodgings_ of the _Priests_.] which are suppos’d to be the Lodgings of
the Priests. They run along at a convenient distance, parallel to the
two sides of this _Pyramid_, and meet in a right Angle. The Entrance
into them is by square Openings, hewn out of the Rock, and much of the
same bigness with those of the first _Pyramid_. The hollow space within
is somewhat like a square and well proportion’d Chamber, cover’d and
arch’d above with the natural Rock: In most of these there was a Passage
opening into some other Apartment.

[Sidenote: The third _Pyramid_.]

The third _Pyramid_ is from the second about a Furlong, and tho’ it
appears at a distance to be of an equal height with the two former, by
reason of the advantage of its Scituation upon a higher rise of the
Hill, yet is it really much lower, each side of the Basis being but 300
Foot long, which wants near 400 of the two others. All the antient and
modern Writers generally agree, this _Pyramid_ was made of black
_Ethiopic_ Marble, whereas Mr. _Greaves_ assures us, on his own
Inspection, the whole Mass seems of a clear and white Stone, somewhat
choicer and brighter than that in either of the two other _Pyramids_;
but what the Stone within may be no Body can tell, since there never was
any Entrance into it. At some distance South-East of the biggest
_Pyramid_ stands the _Sphinx_, so famous among the Ancients: [Sidenote:
The _Sphinx_.] ’Tis a Statue or Image cut out of the main Rock,
representing the Head of a Woman with half her Breast, but is at present
sunk or bury’d in the Sand to the very Neck: It is an extraordinary
great Mass, but withal proportionable, altho’ the Head of it self be 26
Foot high, and from the Ear to the Chin 15 Foot, according to the
Measure the _Sieur Thevenot_ took of it. At a distance it seems five
Stones joyn’d together, but coming nearer one may discover what was
taken for the Joynings of the Stones, was properly nothing but the Veins
in the Rock. _Pliny_ says, this serv’d for a Tomb to King _Amasis_,
which is not improbable, since it is in a Part which was formerly a kind
of Burying-Place, and near the _Pyramids_ and Caves, which were nothing
but Places of Sepulture; and that according to his Calculation it was
102 Foot in compass about the Head, 62 high and 143 in length, for the
Body of it is suppos’d to resemble a Lion or Dog. Some will have it a
certain _Egyptian_ King caus’d this _Sphinx_ to be made in Memory of
_Rhodope_ of _Corinth_, with whom he was passionately in Love. They say,
among other Things, that when they consulted it at the rising of the
Sun, it answer’d like an Oracle; yet most believe this was done by the
cunning of the Priests, thro’ means of some hidden Pipes or Conduits
under Ground, and that the Well we describ’d in the great _Pyramid_ was
made use of for the same purpose; but what makes this appear to be
fabulous is, that there is no perforation or opening either at the
Mouth, Nose, Eyes or Ears. Many other the like Stories Authors have
rais’d of this Statue, affirming that by the Figure of a _Sphinx_, was
represented the Goddess _Momphta_, [Sidenote: It represented _Momphta_.]
who presided over all the Waters, and chiefly preserv’d and supply’d the
Causes of the Over-flowing of the River _Nile_; as also that thereby was
signify’d the State or Condition of that River, for as the Over-flowing
of the _Nile_ continues all the Summer, and during the Time of Harvest,
_viz._ in the Months of _July_ and _August_, and that in those two
Months, the Sun commonly runs thro’ the two Signs of _Leo_ and _Virgo_,
it was natural enough for the _Egyptians_, who had a great inclination
for _Hieroglyphics_ and misterious Representations, to make a Monster of
a Virgin and Lion, which they call’d _Sphinx_, and consecrated to the
River _Nile_; the representing of which lying on its Belly, was to
explain the Over-flowing of that River.

But to return again to the _Pyramids_, near which this _Sphinx_ stands,
[Sidenote: _Observations_ on the _Pyramids_.] we shall add these few
Observations of Father _Vansleb_ concerning them, _viz._ That they are
not built with Marble, but with a white sandy Stone exceeding hard; that
none of them are perfectly square, but have all two sides longer than
the others, which is plainly visible in the greater and the lesser
_Pyramid_: The North side is longer than that which stretches from East
to West, yet are they nevertheless built in very good Order, and each of
the three largest stand at the head of 10 lesser, which are not well to
be distinguish’d, by reason of heaps of Sand that lye before them. They
have all an Entrance that leads to a low Alley, which is exceeding long,
and has at the end a Chamber, where the antient _Egyptians_ plac’d the
Bodies of those Persons for whom the _Pyramid_ was design’d, tho’ this
Entrance is not to be seen in every one of them, because the Wind has
stopp’d it up with Sand. On the top of the largest _Pyramid_ was
antiently a Statue or _Colossus_: This appears in that it is not so
sharp as the others, but rather plain, and there are yet to be seen
great Holes, which were to keep the _Colossus_ from falling; but at
present there is nothing to be seen at top but many Letters of the Names
of Persons of all Nations, who had left them to witness they had been
there. Lastly, He makes no question but that this Place where the
_Pyramids_ are built, was the _Burying-Place_ of the old City of
_Memphis_, by reason all the _Arabian_ Histories inform us that this
City stood where the _Pyramids_ now are, over against old _Cairo_. He
also imagines the _Sphinx_ to be a Tomb, _First_, From its scituation in
a Place which was in former Ages a Burying-Place, and near the
_Pyramids_ and mortuary Caves. _Secondly_, That it appears to be a
Sepulchre from its Building; for in the hinder part is a Cave under
Ground, of a bigness answerable to that of the head, into which he
look’d by an Entrance that led into it, so that it could serve to no
other purpose than to keep a dead Corps.

[Sidenote: _Caves_ near the _Pyramids_.]

From the _Pyramids_, _Vansleb_ went to take a View of the _Caves_ that
are adjoyning, which formerly serv’d for Places to bury the Dead in: Of
these there are several hollow’d or cut in the side of a Rock, in bad
Order and without Symmetry on the out-side, but very even and well
proportion’d within: All of them have a square Well cut likewise out of
the Rock, in which the _Egyptians_ laid the Bodies of those for whom the
_Cave_ had been made, it serving them for a Tomb. The Walls of some of
these are full of _Hieroglyphic_ Figures, cut also in the Rock; in some
they are but small, in others very lively. In one, says he, I counted 16
great Figures, eight Men and as many Women, holding each other by the
Hand, with some other small Figures on each side.

[Sidenote: _Subterranean Caves._]

But to speak more particularly of the _Subterranean Caves_, near the
Borough of _Sacara_ in _Egypt_, we shall observe, that among the most
remarkable Things that were found, as well in the City of _Memphis_, as
some Miles round about it, the _Caves_ or Tombs under Ground were the
most considerable, and worthy the search of the Curious. It is on these
_Subterranean Caves_ that this City and several Places thereabouts were
built, as on so many Vaults, as the Ancients have written, and those
_Caves_ do by far surpass the _Catacombs_ of _Rome_ both in Grandeur and
Beauty; for the antient _Egyptians_, who maintain’d the _Metempsychosis_
or Transmigration of Souls from one Body to another, took care not only
to preserve their Dead from Putrifaction, but also endeavour’d to lay
them up in a secure and quiet Place of Burial: That they might therefore
take all manner of precaution against any alteration that might happen
to them from the Injuries of Air, Fire, or the length of Time, they did
not place their Dead in Places where the River _Nile_ might overflow,
nor in the open Fields, but either in _Pyramids_ of a more durable
continuance, or in _Subterranean Vaults_ built with great care of
Stones, or lastly, in _Caves_ cut out of the Rock it self, for which the
Region of _Memphis_ and Places adjoyning were very proper, because they
consist of a Rock, which is hid under the thickness of about a Foot and
half of Sand. [Sidenote: Their _Burying-Places_.] Their Burying-Places
then were _Subterranean Caves_ divided into several Apartments, roof’d
like great Halls, and with so many Windings, which went from one to the
other, that they resembl’d real _Labyrinths_ or _Meanders_. According to
the report of the antient _Egyptians_, there was such a vast number of
those _Subterranean Apartments_ which butted one against another, that
they extended some Miles in length, even to the Temple of _Jupiter
Ammon_, and the Oracle of _Serapis_, which was a great conveniency to
the Priests, who might hold a Correspondence with each other without
being scorch’d by the heat of the Sun, or incommoded by the Sands; so
that all those vast sandy Plains of _Egypt_ were hollow underneath, and
divided into numberless Apartments and Places for dead Corps. This seems
surprizing and almost incredible, but they that will consider the other
prodigious Works of the _Egyptians_, and make some Reflections on what
the antient Historians have wrote of the great and most antient City of
_Memphis_, and the almost infinite number of that People, will not find
this so impossible; besides what the _Arabian_ Authors say, that there
was formerly a Subterranean Communication between this City of _Memphis_
and that of _Heliopolis_, being several Miles assunder, and which pass’d
also under the Bed of the River _Nile_. The greatest part of the
Inhabitants of the Borough of _Sacara_, [Sidenote: How those of _Sacara_
get their _Livelyhoods_.] which is nearest those _Caves_ of the
_Mummies_ or _Embalm’d_ Bodies, and three good Hours Journey from the
_Pyramids_, get their Livelyhoods by digging into those _Caves_, and
taking out the _Mummies_, because their Tillage is not able to maintain
them by reason of the sterrility of the Soil, wherefore whoever has
occasion for their Service, may easily hire them for Money, to conduct
them into _Caves_ that are already open, to see them, or to dig for new
ones in the Sand, which have not hitherto been remov’d, for some of
these _Caves_ have not yet been discover’d, being hid in such manner
under the Sand, that there is no Stranger, nor hardly any Inhabitant of
the Country, that can be certain before-hand where any _Mummy_ may be
found: Besides, the _Europeans_ have from Time to Time caus’d so many to
be open’d, that they are become exceeding scarce.

[Sidenote: The _Entrance_ into these _Caves_.]

They enter these _Caves_ by an opening at top even with the Ground, into
which they are let down, as into a Well, by means of a Rope and the
assistance of a Servant with a Light in their Hands, tho’ in some few
they can climb up and down, by setting their Feet in certain gaps in the
Wall, as appears by the Plate at _p._ 203. Letter E. This Well or
Descent into these _Caves_ is about 16 or 18 Foot deep, and at bottom,
the Passage of it is so low, they are forc’d to stoop and creep thro’,
where they arrive in a four-square Chamber or Repository, [Sidenote: The
_Chamber_.] 24 Foot every way, on each side of which, next the Wall,
stand Bases or Tables cut out of the Rock, about five Foot long, two and
a half broad, and one high, whereon are plac’d the dead Bodies,
_Embalm’d_ and adorn’d after the manner before describ’d, and put into
Coffins of Wood or Stone, carv’d after their own similitude. Many times,
besides the number of Coffins just mention’d, there lye round about upon
the Floor several other little ones, which seem to be the Coffins of
Children. Sometimes there are abundance of these _Caves_ near each
other, as you may imagine by the Plate before-mention’d; but that you
may have a more clear _Idea_ of all that is here describ’d, I have added
another, the Description of which is as follows: [Sidenote:
_Description_ of the _Ichnography_ and _Scenography_ of these _Caves_.]
A. A. A. A. shows the _Ichnography_ of a _Burying-Place_, wherein are
nine Chambers or Apartments all of an equal bigness, mark’d with the
Letters, B. B. B. Each of these has four Bases whereon the Coffins are
set, as appears by the Figures 1. 2. 3. 4. The Walls or Partitions are
represented by the Letters C. C. C. but these are all more exactly seen
in the _Scenography_, in which D. and E. shows two _Caves_ with their
Walls turn’d over with Arches. Adjoyning to the Walls lye four Bases in
each _Cave_, whereon the Coffins are set, mark’d by the Letters F. G. H.
I. K. L. _&c._ At the Head of the Coffin, stands a Figure like a Boy in
Swadling-Clouts, and at the Feet a Hawk, being their Tutelar Gods, by
whose Presence and Assistance they thought the Bodies would be defended
from all kinds of Violence, and over these, against the Wall, were cut
in an oval form _Hieroglyphics_, mark’d M. N. O. P.


  Tho. Platt Sculp.

  To Robert Nelson Esq_{ꝫ}. who has been pleas’d to encourage this Work,
    this Plate is humbly dedicated by
  His most humble Servant Thomas Greenhill.

This may suffice for a general Description of these _Caves_, [Sidenote:
_Observations_ on the _Subterranean Caves_.] yet it may not be amiss to
add a few Observations made by Father _Vansleb_ on this Subject: He
tells us he went on purpose to see these _Caves_, and gives us every
particular Instance that happen’d to him; but this we must also take
notice of, that _Le Bruyn_ attributes the very same Remarks to one
_Milton_ an _English_ Man, and he that pleases to give himself the
trouble to read both, will find them much of a piece. They are as
follows: After having said that first an Agreement must be made with the
_Arabians_ of the Borough of _Sacara_, about the number and quality of
_Wells_ one would have open’d, as also what was to be given them for
their Trouble, and that for better security 12 _Arabian_ Horsemen ought
to be brought along with one; he adds, That the first _Well_ he went to
see was that of _Embalm’d_ Birds, [Sidenote: _Wells_ of _Embalm’d
Birds_.] and that having caus’d the Sand that cover’d the Mouth of the
_Well_ to be remov’d, thro’ which he was to go down, and from thence to
enter into the _Cave_, he caus’d himself and his Companions to be let
down one after another, by tying a double Rope about their Middles. So
soon as they were at the bottom, and that every one had lighted his
Flambeau, and several Matches they had brought along with them, they
crept on their Bellies into a _Cave_, which was an Entry cut thro’ the
Rock about a Man’s height, a Fathom wide, and extraordinary long. On
each side they found other Entries, cut also into the Rock, where were
several Chambers full of a great number of Earthen-Pots, with Covers of
the same. In these were contain’d _Embalm’d_ Birds of all kinds, every
Bird having a Pot to it self. They found there also several Hen-Eggs
whole, but which were empty, and consequently had no ill Smell.

Having sufficiently view’d this _Cave_, they were drawn up again in like
manner as they were let down. Then having commanded their _Arabians_ to
open a _Virgin-Well_ [Sidenote: A _Virgin-Well_.] (for so such are
call’d as have never been open’d) they were immediately let down into
it, in the same manner as before describ’d; but being come to the
bottom, they found such a horrid Stench, and so close an Air, that they
were not only not able to breath, but it also put out their Flambeaus,
as likewise their Matches every time they endeavour’d to light them, so
that they were thereupon forc’d to cause themselves to be drawn up again
with all speed, without having been able to advance one step. Our Author
says, that all he could say of this _Well_ was, That it was much deeper
than the former.

[Sidenote: A _Cave_ with two _Mummies_.]

After this he caus’d another _Cave_ to be open’d, which was not a
_Virgin-Well_ as the former. Being let down into it he found there two
_Mummies_, one greater and the other lesser of a Child, both in Coffins:
The biggest was of Marble, cut after the likeness of him for whom it was
made. He caus’d them to be open’d but found nothing extraordinary in
them, therefore took no Account of them, but left them where he found

[Sidenote: A _Cave_ call’d the _Church_.]

He went down next into a _Cave_ call’d the _Church_, which, he says, was
the shallowest of all he had seen, it being nothing but a long Entry
under Ground, well Plaister’d and Painted every-where with
_Hierogliphics_. He tells us there was so great a quantity of Sand in
this _Cave_, that he and his Company were forc’d to creep along on their
Knees; for as soon as any one has seen these _Wells_, the _Arabians_ are
wont to fill them up again with Sand, if the Wind does not do it for
them, that they may get more Money by them another Time; for this is the
greatest Livelihood these miserable Creatures have, and the least they
take for opening a _Virgin-Well_ is 30 [6]_Piasters_. The reason of this
high Price is, that those which cause them to be open’d, have the
liberty to carry away all the Curiosities and _Mummies_ they find there.

Footnote 6:

  Each _Piaster_ is 5 _s._ Sterling or thereabouts, so the whole may
  make near 9 _l._

Now to give a perfect _Idea_ of this Plain of _Mummies_, the antient
Burying-Place of the _Egyptians_, you must represent to your self a vast
and boundless Champion Country, cover’d all over with Sand, where there
are neither Trees, Plants, Grass, Houses, nor any thing like them to be
seen, but the whole Surface is strew’d with dry Bones of Arms, Legs,
Feet, Heads, old Linnen Rags, broken Tombs or Coffins, and a great many
little Idols, some of Wood, and others of Earth glaz’d with a green
colour, and mark’d before and behind with _Hieroglyphics_: In some
places you may see great Tomb-Stones, engrav’d with Cyphers and
Ænigmatical Figures, that represent something of Chymistry and other
Sciences and Mysteries of the antient _Egyptians_, as also some strange
Characters that are no _Hieroglyphics_. These are the remains of their
Pride and Vanity, as likewise sad Proofs that all Men are subject to
Death: This causes Horrour to those that come first into the Plain, and
if one considers attentively the number of Bones wherewith it is
strew’d, one would be apt to think that Place had formerly been a Field
of Battel. So much for the _Pyramids_ and _Subterranean Caves_, now
there only remains to speak of the _Sepulchral Lamps_, which some assert
to have burnt perpetually, and have therefore been the Subject of much
Discourse among the _Virtuosi_ of all Ages.

[Sidenote: _Authors_ who have written of _Sepulchral Lamps_.]

_Clemens Alexandrinus_, _Appian_, _Burattinus_, _Hermolaus Barbarus_,
_Costæus_, _Citesius_, _Cælius_, _Casalius_, _Cedrenus_, _Delrius_,
_Ericius_, _Foxius_, _Gesnerus_, _Jacobonus_, _Leander_, _Libavius_,
_Lazius_, _Langius_, _Licetus_, _Maiolus_, _Maturantius_, _Baptista
Porta_, _Pancirollus_, _Ruscellius_, _Scardeonius_, _Tassonius_,
_Ludovicus Vives_, _Volateranus_ and many other learned and ingenious
Authors, who have written of these _Sepulchral Lamps_, do most of them
believe and strenuously assert, that they burn’d for several Hundreds of
Years, and would have so continu’d, perhaps for ever, had they not been
broken by the unadvis’d Irruptions of Rustics and Husbandmen, by diging
up the Ground, or otherwise extinguish’d by the like Accidents. ’Tis
true, there are not many that affirm that they themselves saw any of
these _Lamps_ burning, but then they give you abundance of Instances of
such as did, and where they were found, which being too many to be
inserted here, we shall only mention a few, after having inquir’d to
what End and Purpose they were invented and made use of; of what Matter
and Fashion they were compos’d, and whether it were possible for any of
them, when once lighted, to burn perpetually without any addition or
supply of fresh Aliment.

[Sidenote: _Perpetual Lamps_ to what end invented.]

First then we are to understand, that as the _Egyptians_ (thro’ a firm
belief they had of the _Metempsychosis_) affected to procure a Perennity
to the Body by _Balsamation_ or _Embalming_, and the security thereof by
_Pyramids_, _Subterranean Vaults_, &c. so they endeavour’d to animate
the Defunct by perpetual Fire, which answer’d the Nature of their Souls:
[Sidenote: _Fire_ an _Emblem_ of the _Soul_.] For with them Fire was the
_Symbol_ of an Incorruptible, Immortal and Divine Nature, and hence some
will have it, they erected _Pyramids_ ([7]the _Symbols_ of Fire) of that
Solidity as easily to overcome the Injuries of Time, and by their Figure
to demonstrate the Immortality of the Soul. And whereas flaming Fire was
more corruscating and enlightning than any other Matter, they invented
_Lamps_ to hang in the Sepulchres of the Rich, which would burn
perpetually without any assistance or addition. This as it was a
_Symbol_ of the Immortality of the Soul, so did it likewise serve for a
_Symbol_ of their grateful Intentions towards the _Manes_ and Guardian
Gods, who protected the Bodies in their Sepulchres, thereby both
venerating, honouring and respecting the Souls of the Deceas’d, and also
rendring what was very grateful and acceptable to them. [Sidenote: And
of _Eternal Life_.] Now whereas the _Egyptians_ signify’d Life by a
_Lamp_, and also believ’d that their Immortal Souls tarry’d in the Grave
with their Bodies, so after having _Embalm’d_ those Bodies to prevent
the Souls forsaking them, by reason of their Corruption and Dissolution,
they deposited them in _Subterranean Caves_, where they had provided
_Lamps_ that would burn perpetually, to the end that their Souls might
not lye miserably imprison’d in darkness, and thereby any hurt befal
them; but on the contrary, enjoy eternal light and be free from all
evil, or that when the Soul should wander, it might not mistake its
Residence, but be by the light of the _Lamp_ guided and conducted to
return to its former Habitation.

Footnote 7:

  _Pyramis_, ἀπὸ τοῦ πυρὸς, _quod ad ignis speciem extenuatur in Conum_.

These are the absur’d Opinions of the Superstitious _Egyptians_, and the
Reasons why they plac’d burning _Lamps_ with the Dead in their
_Subterranean Vaults_, as _Jacobonus_, _Foxius_, _Scaliger_ and others
relate; therefore the next Thing which we shall consider, is, whether
there ever was or can be such a Thing made as a perpetual burning
_Lamp_. Most of the before-mention’d Authors believe there were such
_Lamps_: _Licetus_ particularly has writ a whole _Folio_ to prove it,
and _Kircher_ produces a Story out of _Schiangia_, an _Arabian_ Author,
which he thinks will solve it; but however, whether there have been any
perpetual burning _Lamps_ or not, since no Author of good Credit ever
saw one, it is nevertheless very certain that _Lamps_ are frequently
found in the Sepulchres and _Subterranean Caves_ of the Dead, which, to
what end and purpose they were there plac’d, will still remain a great
_Quere_, unless it were for the above-alledg’d Reasons, since _Licetus_
and other Authors say, These were the proper Places for them, asserting
they might be extinguish’d by the admission of Air in the breaking up of
such Places. _Greaves_ at the end of his Description of the first
_Pyramid_, p. 99. takes notice of two Inlets or Spaces in the _South_
and _North_ side of the Chamber, just opposite to one another, very
evenly cut and running in a straight Line about six Foot into the
thickness of the Wall, [Sidenote: _Lamps_ suppos’d to have been in the
first _Pyramid_.] which, he says, by the blackness within, seem to have
been a Receptacle for the burning of _Lamps_. _T. Livius Burattinus_
would gladly have believ’d it had been an Hearth for one of these
perpetual _Lamps_ which we now are speaking of; but _Greaves_ imagines
the Invention not to be so antient as this _Pyramid_: However,
_Burattinus_ in his _Italian_, and _Michael Schatta_ in his _Arabic_
Letter to _Kircher_, which you may read in _Oedipi Ægyptiaci Theatrum
Hierogliphicum_, p. 544. affirm that they found many _Lamps_ in the
_Subterranean Caves_ of old _Memphis_, [Sidenote: _Lamps_ in the
_Subterranean Caves_ of _Memphis_.] some having three, four, eight or 12
Lights, and made in the shape of Dog, Man, Bull, Hawk, Serpent and the
like. Also _Casalius_ tells us he had some _Lamps_ of Brass which
represented a Dog, Ox, Sphinx, _&c._ and some made of Earth. Seeing
therefore they are so different in their matter, shape and number of
Lights, I have given you the Sculptures of 15 of them, with their
Description more at large.


  Sturt sculp.

  _To M^r George Rolfe Surgeon:
  Who has been pleas’d to encourage this Work
  This Plate is humbly dedicated by
  His most humble Servant_ Tho. Greenhill.

[Sidenote: A _Description_ of some _Lamps_]

The first Figure represents _Serapis_ sitting in a Chair, having a
Basket made of Rushes on his Head; he rests his right Hand on a Staff or
Scepter, and lays his left on a tripple-headed Monster, such a one as is
joyn’d to the Statue of _Serapis_ at _Alexandria_: [Sidenote: and first
of _Serapis_.] This _Lamp_ was found between the Walls, near one of the
Gates of _Rome_ call’d _Capena_, and is in the Custody of _Pietro Santo
Bartoli_, as _Bellori_ informs us, from whom we have taken the three
first and the sixth Figures. [Sidenote: _Lamp_ of a tripple-headed
_Monster_.] The second Figure shews the tripple-headed monstrous
Representation of _Serapis_ at _Alexandria_: It is an Image of Brass
with the Heads of three several kinds of Animals, _viz._ In the middle
the Head of a Lion, on the right Hand that of a fawning Dog, and on the
left that of a rapacious Wolf, which signifie the three Times, the
present, past and to come. The Body is environ’d with two Serpents in
four Wreaths or Circumvolutions from the Legs to the Neck, perhaps to
denote the four Seasons, turn’d about by the Sun; for by the Figure of
_Serapis_ the _Egyptians_ denoted the Sun: See a fuller Description of
it in _Macrobii Saturnalibus_. This is kept at present in the Royal
Collection of the King of _Prussia_, together with the whole _Musæum_ of
_Bellori_, which that Prince purchas’d. [Sidenote: Another _Lamp_ of
_Serapis_.] The third Figure is the Head of _Serapis_, with a Basket and
Crown upon it like the Rays of the Sun: These express the Nature of that
God, whom the _Egyptians_ believ’d to be the same with the Sun, _viz._
The Beginning and Ending of all such Things as proceed from and return
back to it. The Basket on the top of the Head shows, says _Macrobius_,
the height of this Planet and the virtue of its Influence, in that all
earthly Things return to it, whilst they are drawn up by the Heat it
immits; for which Reason this God is thought to be the same with
_Pluto_, and was not rarely added to the _Sepulchral Lamps_, as these
two testifie; the latter of which, being of excellent Workmanship, is in
the Custody of _Raphael Fabrettus_. Before we proceed to give any
farther Description of these _Lamps_, it may be necessary to remark,
that some were also kept in the _Egyptian_ Temples and other Places, as
well as in the _Caves_ of the Dead; but then, says _Kircher_, they were
made in the similitude of that God who was worshipp’d in that Temple.
Thus in the Temple of _Anubis_, the _Lamp_ was in the likeness of a
Dog’s Head, or else in the shape of his whole Body; in the Temple of
_Osiris_ it was in the form of a Hawk’s Head, or of the whole Bird; in
the Temple of _Isis_, of a Half Moon, and so of the rest. The _Lamps_
were wrought in the same fashion with those _Numina_ represented in each
particular Temple or Place, as all those testifie which have been
brought from _Egypt_, and are at this Day kept in the Cabinets of the
Curious. Moreover you must observe that the _Egyptians_ set up _Lamps_
not only to those Gods that were beneficial to them, but likewise to
such as were mischievous, to the end they might more readily have
recourse to the one and avoid the other. Of this last kind _Johannes
Nardius_ sent one out of his _Musæum_ to _Kircher_, in the form and
shape as is express’d by Figure the fourth, _viz._ [Sidenote: A _Lamp_
of _Typhon_.] Under the _Symbol_ of an Ass, _Typhon_ was represented,
because, as _Plutarch_ observes, his Voice was like the braying of that
Animal, and which he likewise resembl’d in colour, ignorance and
stupidity. This _Typhon_ was thought to bring Sterility, Droughts,
Contagion, and the like kind of Evils upon the _Egyptians_, therefore to
prevent his obstructing the fruitful overflowing of the _Nile_, they
form’d his _Lamps_ in the manner you see, that knowing himself by his
Image, he might cease from perpetrating of Evil: _Silenus_ likewise, who
is the _Symbol_ of the _Nile_’s Fertility, and constant Attendant on
_Bacchus_ or _Osiris_, rides astride on his Head, and thereby restrains
his power of doing Mischief: This _Lamp_ moreover stands on the Foot of
an Eagle or Hawk, thereby, says _Kircher_, to represent how _Typhon_’s
destructive and flagrating Power lying hid in the Sun, was made more
temperate by a Humour which _Silenus_, the Page of the aforesaid
_Bacchus_, had the Command of; for, as _Plutarch_ well observes, _Isis_
would never have _Typhon_ quite destroy’d, but only conquer’d, because
tho’ his adust and fiery Nature, by reason of its too great Siccity, was
pernicious, nevertheless being temper’d with much moisture, it was
sometimes useful. The fifth Figure represents a _Lamp_, whose bigger
_Foramen_ on the middle of its Superficies, where they pour’d in the
Oil, is cover’d with a large _Heliotrope_ inverted, [Sidenote: A _Lamp_
of a _Heliotrope_.] a Flower so call’d by the _Greeks_ from its ever
inclining towards the Course of the Sun; for in the Morning it turns to
the _East_, at Noon is erect, towards the Evening faces the _West_, and
at Night inclines to the Earth, enquiring, as it were, for the Sun
bury’d under Ground, and waiting for its Resurrection the next Morning.
This may serve to teach us what Affinity, Temper and Agreement Things of
an inferior Nature have with those that are Celestial; and if
_Aristotle_ confesses that the Winds, Waters and other inanimate Things
follow the heavenly Circuit, why should we question the _Heliotrope_’s
subsequency to the Course of the Sun, or the _Seliotrope_’s to that of
the Moon? Surely he who form’d this Flower turn’d downwards on a
_Sepulchral Lamp_, seems thereby to intimate the Night of Death which
Bodies suffer under Ground, and withal to show, according to the Opinion
of the Ancients, that the Souls of the Deceas’d tarry together with
their Bodies in the Grave. This _Lamp_, as likewise those at Figure the
7th, 10th, 12th, 13th and 15th were first publish’d by _Casalius_, and
explain’d by _Licetus_. The next _Lamp_, mark’d with Figure six,
[Sidenote: _Lamp_ of the _Alexandrian Pharos_.] seems to represent the
_Pharos_ of _Alexandria_, into whose Haven a Ship is just entring, the
Seamen being furling up their Sails, and for want of a better Reason, is
suppos’d to have been plac’d in the Sepulchre of a certain Merchant of
that City; but is now in the _Musæum_ of _Pietro Santo Bartoli_, as
_Bellori_ informs us. As concerning the following _Lamp_, with a big
Belly and Handle, and standing upon three Feet, as you may see at Figure
the seventh, _Licetus_ believes _Casalius_ is under a mistake in
reckoning it for a _Lamp_, and that it was rather a certain Vessel in
form of a Cucumber, in which the Ancients were wont to heat Water; but I
cannot be of his Opinion, since by its shape it looks very much unlike a
Cucumber, and from the smallness of its Mouth at top, and the appearance
of a Place for the Wiek, it seems most probably to have been a _Lamp_.
[Sidenote: The _Lamp_ of an _Ox_ with a _Boy_ on his Back.] The eighth
_Lamp_, made in the shape of an Ox couching on the Ground, with a Boy
sitting on his Back, and holding a Fig-Leaf in his Hand, was sent by the
Great Duke of _Tuscany_ out of his _Musæum_, to _Kircher_: The Ox being
the Figure of _Apis_, and _Apis_ signifying the chief _Numen_ or Patron
of Agriculture, wherefore this _Lamp_ was plac’d in the Temple of _Apis_
in Honour of that God, denoting by the Vessel, the pious and religious
Affection the antient _Egyptians_ had for that Deity; and by the Fire
the vital Heat, thinking that if he were absent from their Husbandry,
all would run to the last Destruction. Under that _Symbol_ therefore
they tacitely sollicited this _Numen_ to grant warmth and vital Heat to
the Fields and Meadows, hoping, by the religious Ceremony of Fire, that
he would be more vigilant and take greater care of Things committed to
his Trust. By the Boy and Fig-Leaf they denoted the vital Heat and
vegetable Life communicated to this Deity, whereby all Things are
fructify’d, and seem as it were to grow young again. The ninth Figure or
_Lamp_ represents a very fair and entire _Sphinx_ with a Womans Face,
[Sidenote: _Lamp_ of a _Sphinx_.] having her Head bound about with a
Fillet or Hair-Lace, the hinder part cover’d with a Coif, and two Horns
rising out of her Forehead; the Body and Legs were like a Lion’s, and on
the top of the Back was a great _Foramen_, thro’ which they pour’d the
Oil: The Breast was very protuberant and somewhat like a Scollop-Shell,
at the top of which is seen a lesser _Foramen_ for the Wick. This
_Kircher_ positively believes to have been a _Sepulchral Lamp_,
forasmuch as the antient _Egyptians_ were wont to place _Sphinx_’s about
their _Sepulchres_, and _Pliny_ moreover witnesses, that an entire
_Pyramid_ was built in _Egypt_ of that shape, whom you may consult more
at large, _Lib._ 36. _cap._ 12. The tenth _Lamp_ has two Wieks,
[Sidenote: _Lamp_ of the _Moon_.] and may either be hung up or set upon
its Foot: From the form of a Crescent at the other extremity or handle,
it is thought to have been dedicated to the Moon, or else to have burn’d
in the Sepulchre of some Person of Rank, as a _Symbol_ of his Nobility,
of which this was an _Hieroglyphic_, and therefore they antiently wore
one in their Shoes, _&c._ to distinguish them from inferior Persons, and
perhaps might also Sup by a _Lamp_ made in that form in token of their
Quality and Grandure. As this had two, so the following _Lamp_ at Figure
eleven had four Wieks or Lights, [Sidenote: _Lamp_ with four _Lights_.]
being, as _Nardius_ tells us, brought out of _Egypt_, with some
_Mummies_, to the Grand Duke of _Tuscany_, by which, says _Kircher_,
nothing seems more to be meant than the Worship of those Deities which
went before the four Seasons of the Year; for seeing the Prosperity of
the whole Republic depended on the Plenty of those Things, to which the
abovesaid Deities were distributed, in the Circle of the four Seasons of
the Year, they aptly apply’d the _Lamp_ with four Lights to complete
these mysterious Ceremonies; for the _Egyptians_ erected their _Lamps_
with so many Lights as the number of that Deity, consecrated to any one,
contain’d of Unities. [Sidenote: _Lamp_ with an _Ox’s_ Head.] The _Lamp_
at Figure the twelfth, with the Head of an Ox, which as _Valerianus_,
Lib. 3. _Hierogl._ plainly demonstrates to be the _Symbol_ of the Earth,
was Sepulchral and depicted Hieroglyphically, to show that the Body of
Man was resolv’d into Earth from whence it was first form’d. [Sidenote:
_Lamp_ of a wing’d _Sphinx_.] Figure the thirteenth is a _Lamp_ on whose
Superficies a wing’d _Sphinx_ grav’d or wrought, which as it was among
the _Egyptians_ the _Symbol_ of secret Wisdom, so it denotes that this
_Lamp_ was plac’d in the Sepulchre of some Learned Man, whose Sayings
were wont to be Ænigmatical, and were represented by the Image of a
_Sphinx_; or perhaps more particularly to denote the _Depositum_ of some
Noble Poet; for it is the property of a Poet, under the cover of a
Fable, to contain the mysterious Secrets of Divine Matters, and to
enlighten the hidden Senses of honest Actions, that they may be
imitated. [Sidenote: _Lamp_ with two beaked _Ships_.] The next _Lamp_ at
Figure the fourtenth was purchas’d of the _Arabians_, by that excellent
Physician _John Baptista Bonagente Vicentinus_, who saw them take it out
of one of the Caves of the Mummies near the _Pyramids_, and after his
Death _Fr. Sanctus a Plebe Sacci_ bought it out of his Collection at
_Cairo_, and brought it to _Padua_, where he presented it to the most
illustrious _Sertorio Ursatto_, who afterwards show’d it to _Licetus_,
and he gave the following Figure and Description of it, _viz._ That it
had twelve Lights or Wieks, and on it was represented two beaked Ships
with many Oars, as it were mutually going into a hostile Engagement,
which denotes, says _Licetus_, that this _Lamp_ was plac’d in the
Sepulchre either of a certain famous Pirate, Commander of 12 Gallies,
with three Oars on a side, and who infested the _Egyptian_ Seas, or, on
the contrary, of some Captain who defended their Coasts from their
Enemies; to which he adds, that this _Lamp_ being but small, and having
12 large Wieks, it must undeniably have consumed away in a very short
Time, unless it were fill’d with incombustible Oil. [Sidenote: _Lamp_
with a _Dog_’s Head.] By the fifteenth and last Figure of a _Lamp_, on
the extremity of whose handle is a Dog’s Head, _Pierius_ and _Ambrosius_
think is signify’d, that Men are faithfully to keep their Words and
Trust in all Things committed to their Charge; and that a Dog’s Head had
a chief Place in Sepulchral _Lamps_, inasmuch as it was the Hieroglyphic
of a Sexton or _Libitinarius_; for as a Dog by firm and stedfast looking
on, watches and defends the Images both of Gods and Men, so the
_Libitinarii_ were to keep and look to the _Embalm’d_ Bodies, and all
Things appertaining thereunto or Funeral Ceremonies.

Thus _Licetus_, _Bellori_ and _Kircher_ have given you their Opinions of
the Hieroglyphical Signatures and Significations of some _Egyptian
Lamps_, which we have just now mention’d, to which we will add two more
very well worth the taking notice of, the one a particular Ceremony of
burning sweet-smelling _Lamps_ and _Incense_ to the deceas’d Daughter of
King _Mycerinus_, and the other a general lighting of _Lamps_ throughout
all _Egypt_, call’d _The Feast of Lamps_.

[Sidenote: _Lamp_ of _Mycerinus_.]

The first was instituted by _Mycerinus_, one of the Kings of _Egypt_,
who, being depriv’d of Heirs, by the Death of his Daughter and only
Child, endeavour’d to immortalize her Memory by the most sumptuous
Structure he could devise: For this end instead of a Subterranean Cave
or Sepulchre, he erected a very fine Palace, with a Hall in the midst of
it, beautifully adorn’d with abundance of Statues and Figures. In this
Hall he deposited her Corps in a Coffin made after the similitude of an
Ox in a kneeling posture, and cover’d over with Plates of Gold and a
Purple-Mantle: The Ox had between its Horns a Sun of massy Gold, and
before it there burn’d a _Lamp_, whose Flames were fed with most
odoriferous Oils. Round about the Hall stood Perfuming-Pans and Censers,
which continually threw up Clouds of sweet-smelling Odours; but this
being more fully describ’d before, _p._ 200. we will refer you thither
for a more particular Account, where it is also lively represented by a
Plate or Figure.

[Sidenote: _Feast_ of _Lamps_.]

The second, _viz._ The _Feast of Lamps_, is describ’d by several
Authors, tho’ they differ in their Opinions concerning its Origin; some
will have it that the _Egyptians_ celebrated this Feast on certain Days
of the Year, that _Osiris_, or the Sun, might not be wanting to preserve
them by his Plenty and Benevolence, therefore they made a Sacrifice of
_Lamps_, or a general Illumination to him throughout all _Egypt_, by
reason they thought Fire the best _Symbol_ or representation of the Sun,
whom they worshipp’d and call’d _Osiris_, but whom the _Greeks_ term’d
_Pluto_ or _Vulcan_, which last some think the first Inventor or God of
Fire. Moreover, _Macrobius_ says, _Osiris_ was nothing else but the Sun,
and _Isis_ the Earth and Nature, made fruitful by him, and Mother of all
Productions, which are form’d in her Bosom. Others say _Osiris_ and
_Isis_ were King and Queen of _Egypt_, who reign’d with extraordinary
mildness, conferring many great Benefits on their Subjects; also that
they hindred Men from eating one another as they were formerly wont to
do, and taught them Agriculture and the Use of Corn and Wine; moreover
that they made excellent Laws, wherefore _Plutarch_ says, from their
being such good _Genii_, they became Gods, as a just Reward to their
Virtue, and that _Osiris_ was _Pluto_ and _Isis_ _Proserpina_.
_Herodotus_ in his _Euterpe_ speaks thus of the _Feast of Lamps_, having
told us in another place, as _Casalius_ observes, that the _Egyptians_
were more religious than all others in the care of their _Lamps_. ‘But
when they had assembl’d together at _Sais_, the City of Sacrifice, they
took their _Lamps_, prepar’d with good Wieks, fill’d with Oil, and
season’d with Salt, and in the Evening lighted them in the open Air
before their Houses, burning them all the Night, whence this lighting of
_Lamps_ came to be call’d a _Feast of Lamps_. Now tho’ all the
_Egyptians_ might not come to this Convention, yet did they all observe
the Night of Sacrifice, and all lighted their _Lamps_, so that they were
not only lighted in _Sais_, but also throughout all _Egypt_; but for
what cause this Night obtain’d so much Glory and Honour, a certain holy
Reason is given;’ yet which _Herodotus_ does not declare.

[Sidenote: To what end the _Feast of Lamps_ was instituted.]

Some think the _Egyptians_ were wont to light up these _Lamps_ in the
Night, to find _Osiris_ out with _Isis_, he being kill’d, as they say,
by his Brother _Typhon_. Moreover, _Lactantius_ tells us, the Priests
beat their Breasts, and lamented with great Howlings, just as _Isis_ did
when she had lost _Osiris_, but rejoyc’d again when they had found him,
so that from this often loosing and finding him, _Lucan_ thus expresses
himself on that Subject:

                   _Nunquamq; satis quæsitus Osiris._

Also by observing this Worship or Celebration of the _Feast of Lamps_,
they promis’d themselves great Plenty of all Things; for as _Pausanias_
relates, the _Nile_’s beginning to encrease in those Days that they
celebrated this Feast to _Isis_, in bewailing _Osiris_, induc’d them to
believe, that the increase of that River, and Inundation of the Fields,
was occasion’d only by the Tears which _Isis_ shed for the Death of
_Osiris_, and some will have _Osiris_ to be the _Nile_, and _Isis_

[Sidenote: The true and sacred _Reason_.]

But the true and Sacred Reason why the _Egyptians_ celebrated this Feast
of _Lamps_ with Tears and Lamentations, _Casalius_ thinks to have been
in Memory of that doleful Night, in which GOD slew all the First-Born of
_Egypt_, as well Men as Beasts (among whom was _Osiris_) to the end that
he might bring the Children of _Israel_ out of that Country; for then
King _Pharaoh_ and all the _Egyptians_ rose out of their Beds in the
midst of the Night, and lighting their _Lamps_, lamented their slain
Sons, thereby suffering the Sons of _Israel_ to go free out of the Land,
as appears by _Exodus_ the 12th Chapter and the 12th, 29th, 30th, 31st,
32d and 33d Verses, where it is thus written: _I the Lord will pass
thro’ the Land of_ Egypt _this Night, and will smite all the First-Born,
both Man and Beast; and against all the Gods of_ Egypt _will I execute
Judgment. And it came to pass that at Midnight the Lord smote all the
First-Born of_ Pharaoh, _that sat on his Throne, unto the First-Born of
the Captive that was in the Dungeon, and all the First-Born of Cattle.
And_ Pharaoh _rose up in the Night, he and all his Servants, and all
the_ Egyptians, _and there was a great Cry in all_ Egypt; _for there was
not a House where there was not one dead. And he call’d for_ Moses _and_
Aaron _by Night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from amongst my
People, both you and the Children of_ Israel, _and go, serve the Lord,
as ye have said. Also take your Flocks and your Herds, as ye have said;
and be gone, and bless me also. And the_ Egyptians _were urgent upon the
People, that they might send them out of the Land in haste; for they
said, we be all dead Men_. So that this true History of the Nightly
Bewailings of the _Egyptians_, every one over his First-Born that was
dead, and of their Joy by reason of their being freed from the fear of
the Death of their other Children, at GOD’s People going out of their
Land, was the true occasion why the _Egyptians_ did afterwards celebrate
it with the _Feast of Lamps_, describ’d by _Herodotus_, and which the
_Egyptian_ Priests, who conceal’d all their Mysteries under
_Hieroglyphics_ like to Fables, did to shew the wonderful and miserable
Bewailings of _Isis_ for slain _Osiris_, who some think was the
First-Born of _Pharaoh_. On the contrary, so soon as this Night was
over, the _Egyptians_ worshipp’d the Rising Sun, with rejoycings and
leaping about, and a great number of both Sexes, says _Apuleius_,
appeas’d the Celestial Bodies with _Lamps_, _Torches_ and other kind of
Lights; but the Chief Priest carry’d a very famous burning _Lamp_, not
like those commonly us’d at Evening-Banquets, but like to a Golden Boat,
out of the middle of which issu’d forth a very large and bright Flame.
But neither of these _Lamps_ describ’d by _Herodotus_, to wit, that of
_Mycerinus_, or those us’d at the _Feast of Lamps_, are said to have
burn’d perpetually, without ever going out, or any addition of new
Matter being made to them: Nevertheless, some affirm, there have been
such _Lamps_ as endur’d for many Ages, and probably might have been
perpetual, had they not been accidentally broken or extinguish’d:
[Sidenote: _Lamp_ of _Tulliola_.] Of these, the most remarkable is that
which _Erasmus Franciscus_ produces out of _Pflaumerus_, _Pancirollus_
and others, _viz._ That under the Reign of Pope _Paul_ III. in the
_Appian_ Way to _Rome_, where many of the chief Heathens were formerly
bury’d, a Tomb was open’d in which there was found the entire Body of a
very fair Lady, swimming in a wonderful Liquor which preserv’d it from
Putrifaction in such manner, that the Face was no ways sunk, but seem’d
exceeding beautiful and like to the Life it self: Her Hair was yellow,
wreath’d about with an artificial Ligature, and connected with a Circle
or Gold-Ring. Under her Feet burn’d a _Lamp_, whose Flame vanish’d upon
opening the Sepulchre; from some grav’d Marks it appear’d the Body had
been there bury’d above 1500 Years, but whose it was is not yet known,
tho’ many have suppos’d it to have been the Body of _Tulliola_, Daughter
of _Cicero_, from this short Inscription said to have been found grav’d
on the Tomb, _viz._

                          TULLIOLÆ FILIÆ MEÆ.

Some say this Body, so soon as it was touch’d, immediately turn’d to
Ashes and disappear’d; but the truth of this Story is very much to be
question’d, [Sidenote: _Refuted._] and if we enquire strictly into each
particular Circumstance, it will appear altogether fabulous: For,
_First_, if it had been kept with any Balsamic Liquor, it could not so
soon have turn’d to Ashes, and if it had not been _Embalm’d_, then for
it to have been kept uncorrupt so many Hundreds of Years, would have
been as great a Miracle as the burning of the _Lamp_. _Secondly_, The
Argument from the Inscription, that it was the Body of _Tulliola_, is as
doubtful as the matter of Fact can be true, for any one never so
indifferently vers’d in the Monuments of the Antients, will believe it
ought then to have been written in this manner, and according to their
usual Custom: _M. Tullius Cicero, Terentiæ Uxori, Tulliolæ Filiæ_, &c.
if either the Father had been bury’d there, or had built it for his Wife
and Children: Also the word _Meæ_ is needless, forasmuch as she was the
Daughter, not of another but of the Person that built the Tomb for
himself and Family; but who it was that either built the Tomb, or was
Father to the Daughter, the words of the Inscription do not show,
whereby they appear in all respects to be, not the Truth and Elegancy of
those Times, but meer Novelties and Follies: Besides, it could not be
any of _Cicero_’s Family (and therefore the Assertion and Title must be
false) because in his Time and long before, the _Romans_ were wont to
burn all Bodies, and thereby reduce them to Ashes, except those of
Infants that had not had their Teeth cut, and a few particular Families;
but of this number we do not read that _Cicero_ was one who was exempted
from the Flames of the Funeral Pyre. Some therefore who deservedly
suspect the Title, will have it to be the Body of _Priscilla_, Daughter
of _Abascantus_; but whoever it was, _Judæus Apella_ thinks it not to
have been reduc’d to Ashes by burning, but by the immission of the Air
or contact of the Body, and that it had without _Embalming_, remain’d
incorrupt 1500 Years, whereas both Iron and Marble are consum’d in much
lesser Time. But _Cælius Rhodiginus_, _Antiq. Lect._ Lib. 3. cap. 24.
relates it quite otherwise, _viz._ That it suffer’d not the Injuries of
Time, by reason of its being condited with Aromatics, until three Days
after it was brought into the City, when the Medicament being remov’d or
vitiated it putrify’d. _Lastly_, This Author as well as _Aresius_,
_Alexander ab Alexandro_, and _Raphael Volateranus_, who liv’d the same
Time at _Rome_ that this Tomb is reported to have been found, do not so
much as mention one word of a _Lamp_ found burning, whereas that being a
Thing so very wonderful and miraculous, it could not easily be
conceal’d, seeing that even common and frivolous Things are so easily
listn’d to by such as are desirous of and expect Novelties: Nay
_Alexander_ plainly enough lays down, that there was no Inscription; and
_Licetus_ himself does not affirm, that there was any _Lamp_ found
burning in that Sepulchre, so that as _Ferrarius_ observes, it appears
to be a meer Invention of _Pancirollus_, who out of an innate desire of
relating wonderful Things, and pleas’d with the sweetness of Fables,
first receiv’d it for a Truth, and afterwards communicated it to

Yet was this not so strange and wonderful a _Lamp_ as that of _Pallas_,
[Sidenote: _Lamp_ of _Pallas_,] which _Martinus_ the Chronologer
relates, and to which _Boccatius_, _Philippus Bergomas_ and
_Volateranus_ assent, _viz._ That in the Year 1501, when _Henry_ III.
was Emperor, a Countryman digging deep in the Earth, near the City of
_Rome_, discover’d a Tomb of Stone, wherein lay a Body so tall, that
being erected, it over-top’d the Walls of that City, and was as entire
as if it had been but newly bury’d, having a very large Wound on the
Breast, and a burning _Lamp_ at its Head, which could neither be
extinguish’d by Wind nor Water, so that they were forc’d to perforate
the bottom of the _Lamp_, and by that means put out the Flame. This was
said to be the Body of _Pallas_ slain by _Turnus_, these Verses being
inscrib’d on the Sepulchre:

               _Filius Evandri Pallas, quem Lancea Turni
               Militis occidit_, more suo _jacet hic_.
                 Others read it:——Mole sua _jacet hic_.

This _Lamp_ is said to have burn’d 2511 Years, and perhaps would have
continu’d so to the end of the World, had it not been broke and the
Liquor spilt. [Sidenote: _Ridicul’d._] Now as this Story appears very
fabulous, so _Ferrarius de Lucernis Sepulchralibus_, p. 17. as wittily
ridicules it, thinking it a fitter Tale for an old Grannam in a
Chimney-Corner to quiet a peevish and froward Child with, than for a Man
of Sense to give credit to; nay, he declares, that for his part, he is
almost asham’d to reherse it: Can any one think, says he, that _Pallas_
was so tall a Giant as to surmount the Walls of _Rome_, or that any one
should be so foolish to measure the Body by the Wall, and not by a
Foot-Rule, Cubit or Yard? That the Orifice of the Wound should be four
Foot wide, and proportionably big to his Body, so that a little Man
might jump in and out at it? Surely in this Case _Turnus_’s Lance must
have been as big as that of _Polyphemus_ or the _Philistian Goliah_’s.
Besides, if _Pallas_ were but a Lad when he was slain, as the Poet make
him, and yet taller than the Turrets of the _Roman_ Walls, what would he
have come to if he had liv’d? Would he not, think you, have encreas’d in
height ’till he had equall’d the Obelisk of the Sun? Besides, it must
have been more than an _Egyptian Embalming_ that could have preserv’d a
Body of that bulk entire for about 26 Ages: Yet, grant all this, the
Poet says expresly, the Body of _Pallas_ was burn’d and not bury’d. No
less absurd and barbarous are the Verses of the Inscription, which,
instead of being elegant and sublime, are mean and poor, undoubtedly
compos’d in some Cottage or Ale-House; for what can be meant by _more
suo_, unless he lay in a different posture from what other Bodies are
wont to do, or by _mole sua_, but his being of an unsizeable bulk?
However both are as ridiculous and foolish as the _Latin_ is trivial.
Nevertheless _Licetus_ endeavours to defend both, alledging by _more
suo_ is meant, that there is no other situation of Bodies more proper
than lying, either when they are asleep, which is the Emblem of Death,
or when they are sick, which is the way to it, but what need he then
mention that which every Body knows? The other words _mole sua_, he
says, were to describe the bulk of his Gigantic Body, or else by reason
the Ancients thought the Soul tarry’d with the Body in the Sepulchre, or
wander’d about it, yet could not either stand, sit or lye, as being an
incorporeal Substance, it was said of his Body, as separated from the
Soul, and laid up in a Sepulchre, _Mole sua jacet hic_; so that ’tis the
Opinion of this great Philosopher and Critic, that _mole sua_ was added
to the Verse, lest any one should suspect the Body and Soul of _Pallas_
did lye together in the same Cave. As to the _Lamp_, which exceeds all
Faith and Belief, for it is affirm’d to have burn’d 2611 Years, and that
whereas other _Lamps_ were but small, and soon extinguish’d by the
immission of Air, or the blast of Winds, this great and contumacious
Flame, well befitting a Giant, defy’d both the light of the Day or
darting of the Sun-Beams, and the rushing in of Air or blasts of Wind,
and, as they tell you, would have continu’d so for ever, if it had not
been broken, whereas they might have better said, if the Liquor had not
been spilt, seeing it might have been easier extinguish’d, by inverting
the _Lamp_, and pouring out that precious Oil, which yielded Aliment to
the Eternal Fire; nay every one knows, who has seen these _Lamps_, that
they were wont to have several holes at top, wherein they pour’d the
Oil: These are foolish and absurd Stories both committed to Print and
Posterity, as if they were only to come into the Hands of Boys, or
Cucumber-headed Men, as _Ferrarius_ expresses himself. There are several
other Relations of this kind, as the Golden _Lamp_ in the Temple of
_Minerva_ at _Athens_, [Sidenote: _Lamp_ of _Minerva_,] which, says
_Pausanias_, burn’d a whole Year, and was the workmanship of
_Callimachus_. [Sidenote: Of _Jupiter Ammon_,] The _Lamp_ of _Jupiter
Ammon_, which _Plutarch_, _Lib. de Def. Oracul._ speaks of, and which is
affirm’d by the Priests to have burn’d continually, yet consum’d less
Oil every Year than the former, and tho’ it burn’d in the open Air,
neither Wind nor Water could extinguish it. A _Lamp_ in the Fane of
_Venus_, [Sidenote: Of _Venus_,] which St. _Austin_ speaks of, being of
the same Nature with the fore-going, unextinguishable either by Wind or
Water. [Sidenote: A _Lamp_ found at _Edessa_.] A _Lamp_ at _Edessa_,
that _Cedrenus_ mentions, which being hid at the top of a certain Gate,
burn’d 500 Years. Another very wonderfull _Lamp_ was that of _Olybius
Maximus_ of _Padua_, [Sidenote: _Lamp_ of _Olybius_.] found near
_Atteste_, which _Scardeonius_, Lib. 1. Class. 3. cap. _ult._ thus
describes: In a large Earthen-Urn was contain’d a lesser, and in that a
burning _Lamp_, which had continu’d so 1500 Years, by means of a most
pure Liquor contain’d in two Bottles, one of Gold and the other of
Silver. These are in the Custody of _Franciscus Maturantius_, and are by
him valu’d at an exceeding Rate.

Abundance of other _Lamps_ of the like Nature are describ’d by
_Licetus_, and confuted by _Ferrarius_, whither we refer you; for seeing
they are but improbable Stories, and the Fictions of Poets, we think it
not worth while to spend our Time in repeating them; but in the next
place will proceed to enquire after what manner Authors do suppose
perpetual burning _Lamps_ to have been made.

[Sidenote: _Lamps_ that have burn’d by a _Divine Power_,]

These, says _Licetus_, _Kircher_ and others, were order’d divers ways,
_First_, Miraculously and Preternaturally, as was that at _Antioch_,
which burn’d 1500 Years in an open and public Place, over the Door of a
Church, preserv’d by that Divine Power who hath made so infinite a
number of Stars to burn with perpetual Light. _Secondly_, [Sidenote: By
the wiles of the _Devil_,] By the wiles of the Devil, who, as St.
_Austin_ tells us, deceives such a thousand ways, who, out of Curiosity
and Avarice, consult Oracles or worship false Gods, so that when Men
sought for the Sepulchres of these Gods, nothing was more easie than for
the Devil to represent a flash of Light or Flame to them at their first
entring into such _Subterranean Caves_. Others assign Natural Reasons
for this, as that which Countrymen imagine to be a burning _Lamp_, at
their first finding those _Sepulchres_, may be only a kind of _Ignis
fatuus_, or pellucid Matter which shines in the dark; [Sidenote: Or from
a _Natural Cause_.] for such glimmering Coruscations are frequently seen
in Church-Yards and fat marshy Grounds, especially at the breaking up of
old Tombs, where no Air has been immitted for many Ages. Also Miners
observe, that at the first opening of a new Vein of Ore, such flames or
flashes of Light break forth; yet are these not sufficient Arguments for
criticizing Philosophers, for some believe a _Lamp_ may be made with
such Art as to burn perpetually, and others as absolutely deny it,
alledging that whatever is resolv’d into Vapour or Smoak cannot be
permanent, but will consume, and the oily Nutriment of a lighted _Lamp_
is exhal’d into a Vapour, therefore the Fire cannot be perpetual for
want of a _Pabulum_. On the contrary, those that defend the possibility
of making a perpetual _Lamp_, deny that all the Nourishment of kindl’d
Fire must of necessity evaporate into a Damp or Vapour, asserting, that
there are things in Nature, which not only resist the force of Fire, and
are inconsumable by it, but also inextinguishable either by Wind or
Water: Such as these are some peculiar Preparations of _Gold_, _Silver_
or _Mercury_; _Naptha_, _Petroleum_, and the like bituminous _Oils_;
also _Oil_ of _Camphir_, _Amber_ and _Bricks_; the _Lapis Asbestos seu
Amianthus_, _Lapis Carystius_, _Cyprius_ and _Magnesius_ and _Linum
vivum seu Creticum_, &c. of all which in their Order. _First_, They
affirm such Matter might be prepar’d either of _Gold_, _Silver_, or the
like Metal, [Sidenote: Or can be made with _Gold_, _Silver_,] made fluid
after a particular manner, and _Gold_ they thought the fittest _Pabulum_
for such an inconsumable _Lamp_, because, of all Metals, that wastes the
least when either heated or melted, yet what Oily Humidity can that or
any other Metal afford which will catch Fire and continue its Flame? But
that these perpetual _Lamps_, if ever there were any such, were not
prepar’d of Metals, is sufficiently confuted by _Licetus_, p. 130 and
132. and by _Ferrarius_, p. 16. tho’ _Licetus_ in another place, _viz._
p. 44. makes mention of a Preparation of Quicksilver purged seven Times,
thro’ white Sand by Fire, of which, he says, _Lamps_ were made that
would burn perpetually; and that this Liquor was variously nam’d by the
Chymists, [Sidenote: Or _Mercury_.] as _Aqua Mercurialis_, _Materia
Metallorum_, _perpetua Dispositio_, _Materia prima Artis_, _Vitrum
perenne incorruptumque_, _Oleum Vitri_, and the like. Nevertheless, how
fabulous soever this may seem, both _Maturantius_ and _Citesius_ aver
they firmly believe, that to make a _Lamp_ which will burn perpetually,
must of necessity be a Chymical Work, tho’ perhaps not made from any
Preparation of Metal. [Sidenote: Two _Chymical Experiments_ for making
_Eternal Fire_.] This appears from the Chymical Experiments of
_Tritenhemius_ and _Bartholomeus Korndorferus_, who both made
Preparations for Eternal Fire after the following manner.

[Sidenote: First _Experiment_.]

The first was thus made: ℞ _Sulphur. Alum. ust. a_ ℥ iv. sublime them
into Flowers to ℥ ij. of which add of Christalline _Venetian_ Borax
pouder’d ℥ j. upon these affuse high rectify’d Spirit of Wine and digest
it, then abstract it and pour on fresh: Repeat this so often ’till the
Sulphur melt like Wax, without any Smoak, upon a hot Plate of Brass, and
this is for the _Pabulum_, but the Wiek is to be prepar’d after this
manner: You must gather together the Threds or Thrums of the _Lapis
Asbestos_, to the thickness of your middle, and length of your little
Finger, which done, put them into a _Venice_ Glass, and covering them
over with the aforesaid depurated Sulphur or Aliment, set the Glass in
Sand for the space of 24 Hours, so hot that the Sulphur may bubble all
the while. The Wiek being thus besmear’d and anointed, is to be put into
a Glass like a Scallop-Shell, in such manner, that some part of it may
lye above the Mass of prepar’d Sulphur; then setting this Glass upon hot
Sand, you must melt the Sulphur, so that it may lay hold of the Wiek,
and when ’tis lighted it will burn with a perpetual Flame, and you may
set this _Lamp_ in any Place where you please. The way of making the
other Eternal Fire is thus:

[Sidenote: Second _Experiment_.]

℞. _Salis tosti_, lb. j. affuse over it strong Wine-Vinegar, and
abstract it to the consistency of Oil; then put on fresh Vinegar and
macerate and distill it as before. This repeat four Times successively,
then put into this Vinegar _Vitr. Antimonii subtiliss. lævigat_, lb. j.
set it on Ashes in a close Vessel for the space of six Hours, to extract
its Tincture, decant the Liquor, and put on fresh, and then extract it
again; this repeat so often ’till you have got out all the redness.
Coagulate your Extractions to the consistency of Oil, and then rectifie
them in _Balneo Mariæ_: Then take the _Antimony_, from which the
Tincture was extracted, and reduce it to a very fine Meal, and so put it
into a glass Bolthead; pour upon it the rectify’d Oil, which abstract
and cohobate seven Times, ’till such time as the Pouder has imbib’d all
the Oil, and is quite dry. This extract again with Spirit of Wine, so
often, ’till all the Essence be got out of it, which put into a _Venice_
Matrass, well luted with Paper five-fold, and then distill it so that
the Spirit being drawn off, there may remain at bottom an inconsumable
Oil, to be us’d with a Wiek after the same manner with the Sulphur we
have describ’d before.

These are those Eternal Lights of _Tritenhemius_, adds _Libavius_’s
Commentator, which indeed tho’ they do not agree with the Pertinacy of
_Naptha_, yet these things can illustrate one another. [Sidenote: _Lamp_
made with _Naptha_,] _Naptha_ is not so durable as not to be burn’d, for
it exhales and deflagrates, but if it be fix’d by adding the Juice of
the _Lapis Asbestinos_, it can afford Perpetual Fuell, so says that
Learned Person upon this Matter. Moreover, _Naptha_ is a sort of
_Bitumen_ so very hot, that it presently burns every Thing it adheres
to, nor is it easily extinguish’d by any moist Thing; and _Pliny_ says
it has such Affinity with Fire, that it presently leaps to it wherever
it finds it. Thus ’tis reported _Glauca_ was burnt by _Medea_, when she
came to Sacrifice, for approaching the Altar the Fire immediately caught
hold of her: This was because _Jason_, being in Love with _Glauca_, the
Daughter of _Creon_ King of _Corinth_, had forsaken _Medea_, when she to
be reveng’d on that Princess, wetted her Vail and Crown with _Naptha_,
by which means she might be the sooner set on Fire, as _Plutarch_ has it
in the Life of _Alexander_ the Great. Thus as _Naptha_ is very
inflamable and ready to catch Fire, so is it not easily extinguish’d
either by Wind or Water, but burns more violently if cast into the
Water, or agitated by the Wind. Of this kind also are some other sorts
of _Bitumen_, such as _Petroleum_, _Amber_, _Camphir_, &c. therefore may
be proper Ingredients for these sorts of _Lamps_ we are speaking of. Now
in _Egypt_ there were many Places full of _Bitumen_ and _Petroleum_, as
_Bellonius_, _Radzivillus_, _Vallæus_, _Burattinus_, and other Searchers
into _Egyptian_ Antiquities testifie, which were constituted by the
hidden Counsels of Nature, with an inexhaustible store of Matter;
wherefore the Learned among them, who were great Naturalists, having
discover’d these bituminous Wells or Fountains, [Sidenote: With liquid
_Bitumen_ or _Petroleum_.] laid from them secret Canals or Pipes to the
Subterranean Caves and Sepulchres of the Dead, where, in a convenient
Place, they set a _Lamp_ with a Wiek of _Asbestos_, which was constantly
moisten’d and supply’d with Oil by means of this Duct from the
afore-said Places: Seeing therefore the flowing of the Oil was
perpetual, and the Wiek of _Asbestos_ inconsumable, it must of necessity
follow, that the Light also endur’d perpetually. And that this was so,
[Sidenote: Confirm’d by _Schiangia_.] fully appears from what
_Schiangia_ an _Arabian_ Author relates in his History of the memorable
Things of _Egypt_, in much the same Words as follow: ‘There was a Field
in _Egypt_ whose Ditches were full of Pitch and liquid _Bitumen_, whence
the Philosophers knowing the force of Nature, dug some Canals to their
Subterranean _Cryptæ_, where they set a _Lamp_, which was joyn’d to the
afore-said Canals, and which having a Wiek of incombustible Flax, by
that means being once lighted, it burn’d perpetually by reason of the
continual afflux of _Bitumen_, and the incombustible Wiek.’ The same
thing might perhaps be effected with _Naptha_, which flow’d at _Mutina_
in _Italy_, as also with _Petroleum_ and _Sicilian Oil_. [Sidenote: And
believ’d by _Kircher_, &c.] This _Kircher_ and several others are of
Opinion is the true way of making _perpetual Lamps_, seeing it is a
Thing purely natural, where such Bituminous Oils do abound, and has no
other difficulty in it, but preparing the Wiek of _Asbestos_, or the
like, which comes next under our Consideration.

[Sidenote: _Lapis Asbestos._]

First _Asbestos_, call’d by the _Greeks_ Ἄσβεστος, i. e.
_inextinguibilis_, a kind of Stone, which being set on fire, cannot be
quench’d, as _Pliny_ and _Solinus_ write. _Albertus Magnus_ describes it
to be a Stone of an Iron colour, found for the most part in _Arabia_,
and of such strange Virtue, as was manifest in the Temples of the
Heathen Gods, that being once lighted it was never to be extinguish’d,
by reason of some small quantity of oleaginous Moisture, which was
inseparately mix’d with it, and which being inflam’d cherish’d the Fire:
Now could any expert _Chymist_ rightly extract this indissoluble Oil, we
need not question but it would afford a perpetual _Pabulum_ for these
_Eternal Lamps_ which the Ancients boast of; but many Experiments of
that kind have been made in vain, some affirming, [Sidenote: Its _Oil_.]
the Liquor chymically extracted from that Stone was more of a watry than
oily Nature, and withal so fæculent, that it was not capable to receive
Fire and exist. Others again have said, that this Oil was of so thick
and solid a Substance that it would hardly flow, and for the most part
burn’d not at all or but very indifferently, emitting no Flame, or if it
did, it shone not with a bright splendor, but cast up thick and dark
Fumes, whereas on the contrary, those _Lamps_ of the Ancients, which
burn’d so many Ages, yielded a clear and bright Flame without any Smoak
to soil the Vessel and circum-ambient Places, and which in time might
both obscure, stop up and put out the Light: Hence _Kircher_ is of
Opinion, that tho’ the Mistery of extracting this Oil be not
impracticable, yet it is very difficult to be attain’d to by any Humane
Art, and as _Ferrarius_ also observes, that as the Stone _Asbestos_, if
once lighted is inextinguishable, so much more must its Oil be both
incombustible and inextinguishable, wherefore it does not appear that
the _Lamps_ of the Ancients were made either of one or the other, seeing
for the most part they are said to have gone out immediately on the
opening of the Sepulchre where they were plac’d.

[Sidenote: _Asbeston seu Asbestinum._]

_Secondly_, The very same is said of _Asbeston sive Asbestinum_, which
the _Greeks_ call Ἄσβεστον, i. e. _inextinguibile, & est genus Lini quod
Ignibus non absumitur_, a kind of Flax of which they made Cloth that was
to be cleans’d by burning, as Tobacco-Pipes are. _Pliny_ calls it _Linum
vivum_ and _Indian_ Flax, and says it was so dear it was esteem’d equal
to Pearl and Precious Stones, for it was hard to be met with, and then
very difficult to be woven, by reason of the shortness of it. Also he
tells us the Bodies of Kings were wont to be wrapp’d in this sort of
Cloth, when they were to be burn’d, to the end the Ashes might be
preserv’d unmix’d from those of the _Funeral Pile_, in order to the
laying them up in Urns, as the Custom then was when they burn’d their
dead Bodies. Moreover _Pliny_ says, he saw some Napkins of this sort of
Cloth in his Time, and was an Eye-Witness of the Experiment of purifying
them by Fire.

One _Podocattarus_, a _Cyprian_ Knight, who wrote _de Rebus Cypriis_ in
the Year 1566, had both Flax and Linnen of this kind with him at
_Venice_, which _Porcacchius_ says, in his Book of _Antient Funerals_,
he and many others that were with him, saw at that Knight’s House. Also
_Ludovicus Vives_ saw a Towel of this kind at _Lovain_ in _Brabant_, and
several Wieks of it at _Paris_, as he himself relates in his Commentary
upon St. _Austin_’s Treatise _de Civitate Dei_. Likewise _Baptista
Porta_, says he saw the same thing at _Venice_ in the hands of a
_Cyprian_ Woman, and which he terms _Secretum optimum, perpulchrum &
perutile_, a very useful, beautiful and profitable Secret. Several other
Authors testifie they have seen the same, but _Henricus Salmuthius_, in
his Commentary upon _Pancirollus_, p. 16. will have this sort of Linnen
to be call’d _Asbestinum_, from its likeness to Chalk, which he says the
_Greeks_ term’d Ἄσβεστον, for as that is wont to be purify’d by Fire, so
is this Linnen made clean and white by burning. [Sidenote: Two
_Objections_ against this _Asbeston_.] Now the chief Objections
_Ferrarius_ makes against _Pliny_’s Account of this incombustible and
inextinguishable Flax are, first, That if Wieks had been made of it,
they would never have been consum’d or extinguish’d, or when once the
Funeral Pile was lighted, the incombustible Linnen, wherein the Bodies
were wrapp’d, as also the Napkins and Towels, which Authors mention,
would never have been quench’d, but have burn’d perpetually, whereas, he
says, this kind of Linnen burn’d only so long as either Grease, Fat, or
the like _Sordes_ afforded the Flame a _Pabulum_, wherefore that being
consum’d which had occasion’d the Spots or Dirt, the Linnen appear’d
more white and clean than if it had been wash’d with Water and Soap.
From this it appears also that those Funeral Shrouds of Kings, often
mention’d in Authors, burn’d only so long upon the Pile as the Fat or
_Sanies_ of the Body afforded Aliment, and when that fail’d, the Flame
ceas’d likewise; for otherwise, if this sort of Flaxen Linnen had been
inextinguishable, as _Salmuthius_ seems to imply by the word Ἄσβεστον,
how could those Napkins or Funeral Shrouds, when once burn’d, be ever
handl’d or made use of any more without burning whatever they came near
or touch’d? The second Objection is taken from _Pliny_’s own Words, who
tells us, this sort of Flax was very scarce and of great Price, being
preserv’d for the Kings of that Country only, so that ’tis highly
probable the _Egyptians_ might make use of another sort of Cloth,
[Sidenote: _Lapis Amiantus._] made of the Stone _Amiantus_, for burning
their Bodies, and which, _Pliny_ says, they had the Art of Spinning at
that Time. _Plutarch_ also assures us that in his Time there was a
Quarry of that Stone in the Island of _Negropont_, and that the like was
to be found in the Isle of _Cyprus_, _Tines_, and else-where. Moreover,
’tis the common Opinion of the Learned, that both Funeral Shrouds or
Sheets, Table-Cloths, Napkins and the Wieks of the Perpetual _Lamps_ of
the Ancients, were made of this _Lapis Amiantus_, which Linnen, _&c._
_Porcacchius_ and _Ludovicus Vives_ have particularly spoken of before:
Besides, as _Dasamus_ relates, the Emperor _Constantine_ caus’d Wieks to
be made of this Flax for those _Lamps_ which burn’d perpetually in his
Bathing Place, and _Agricola_ affirms, that both Napkins, Table-Cloths,
_&c._ were made at _Rome_, and at _Vereberge_ in _Bohemia_, of this
_Lapis Amiantus_, which instead of washing when dirty, they were wont to
cleanse and purifie by Fire. The best sort of this Stone was to be had
in _Cyprus_ and _India_, from the former of which Countries it came to
be call’d _Lapis Cyprius_ and _Linum Cyprium_; [Sidenote: _Lapis
Cyprius_ and _Linum Cyprium_.] but of late there has been very good
found in some Mines of _Italy_, of which see _Philosophical Transact._
No. 72. This Stone being beaten with a Hammer, and the Earth and Dust
shaken out, appears like to Flax with its Filaments, and then is spun
and woven into Cloth, which Art, says Dr. _Grew_ in his Description of
the Rarities in _Gresham_-College, as well as the Use is thought to be
utterly lost, tho’ it be not really so; for _Septalius_ in his _Musæum_
has or lately had, both Thread, Ropes, Paper and Net-work, all made of
this Flax, and some of them with his own Hand. But _Grew_ seems to make
_Asbestinus Lapis_ and _Amiantus_ all one, and calls them in _English_
the _Thrum-Stone_; he says it grows in short Threads or Thrums, from
about a quarter of an Inch to an Inch in length, parallel and glossy, as
fine as those small single Threads the Silk-Worm spins, and very flexile
like to Flax or Tow. There are several pieces of this kind in the
aforesaid _Musæum_, both white and green, of which the latter has the
longest Threads and the most flexile.

Others think the Funeral Shrouds, wherein the dead Bodies of Kings were
burn’d, as also the Wieks of those Perpetual _Lamps_ were made of the
_Lapis Carystius_, [Sidenote: _Lapis Carystius._] a Stone so call’d from
the City _Carystos_, and which signifies, _Ardens Tela, quod ex Lapide
Carystio texeretur; Tela cujus sordes Igne purgabantur_. The Inhabitants
kemb’d, spun and wove this downy Stone into Mantles, Table-Linnen and
the like, which when foul they purify’d again with Fire instead of
Water, as _Mattheus Raderus_ mentions in his Comment on the 77th Epigr.
of the IX. Book of _Martial_. Also _Pausanias_ in _Atticis_, and
_Plutarch_ Lib. _De Oraculorum defectu_, deliver that the Wieks of
_Lamps_ made hereof, and burn’d with Oil, never consum’d, tho’ the
latter says the Stone was not to be found in his Time. [Sidenote: _Linum
Carpasium._] Others say it was the _Linum Carpasium_ which was apply’d
to all these Uses, so call’d _a Carpaso, Cypri Urbe_, and that Linnen
made thereof was call’d _Carbasa_, which _Solinus_ says, would endure
Fire without consuming. Sometimes also ’tis call’d _Linum Cyprium_,
[Sidenote: _Cyprium._] of which kind of Flax it was made, and they
report the before-mention’d _Podocatterus_, a _Cyprian_ Knight, shew’d a
piece of it to the _Venetians_, and which he cleans’d by burning in the
Fire. _Franciscus Ruæus_, _Albertus Magnus_, _Cælius Rhodiginus_,
_Camillus_, _Leonardus_, _Isiodorus_, and many other famous Writers
alledge, if a Wiek be made of this kind of Flax, it will not consume
with Fire, and _Pausanias_ particularly says, the Wiek of the Golden
_Lamp_ of _Minerva_ was made hereof. Much like this, if not directly the
same, was the Flax call’d _Linum Creticum_; [Sidenote: _Creticum._] for,
as _Solinus_ asserts, those _Carbasa_, that would endure the Fire, were
made in _Crete_. Also _Strabo_ says this _Linum Creticum_ was made out
of a Rock, beaten into Threads, and the Earthy Matter shaken out, after
which ’twas kemb’d and woven into Cloth which was not to be consum’d,
but might be cleans’d by burning.

Other Authors say inconsumable Cloth, and the Wieks of Perpetual _Lamps_
were made of the Stones _Magnesia_, _Alumen Sciscile_, and the like;
[Sidenote: _Magnesia_, _Alumen Sciscile_, &c.] but whether under
different Denominations one thing might be meant, I can by no means
pretend to determin, altho’ _Hieronymus Mercurialis_ thinks Linnen made
of the _Lapis Carystius_ to be the same which _Pliny_ calls _Linum
vivum_, _Pausanias_, _Carpasium_, _Solinus_, _Carbasum_, _Zoroaster_,
_Bostrichitem_, others _Corsoidem_, some _Poliam_ or _Spartopoliam_, and
the common People _Villam Salamandræ_. Tho’ after all, the Ancients
might very probably have some other Invention for burning Bodies, such
as to set them on the Fire in a Coffin of Stone, Brass or Iron, from
whence it was very easie to gather the Ashes and Bones that were not
consum’d; and as for the _Lamps_ some are of Opinion they had no Wieks
at all: Among these was _Licetus_, who believes the antient _Lamps_
wanted Wieks, because few or none of them have been found, and
_Ludovicus Vives_ is the only Person that affirms he has seen any; but
this is nevertheless a conjectural Opinion, since they might have been
destroy’d either by Time, Fire or any other Accident. However, he at
least affirms the Wiek of a _Lamp_ not to be absolutely necessary
towards its burning, by reason _Camphir_, _Naptha_, _Oil of Bricks_,
liquid _Bitumen_, and the like, will for the most part take Fire without
any addition of a Wiek. _Ferrarius_, on the contrary, does not deny but
rather confirm the use of Wieks, making the Question dubious, [Sidenote:
Whether the _Perpetuity_ of a _Lamp_ proceeded from the _Oil_ or
_Wiek_.] whether the perpetuity of Light in _Lamps_ proceeded mostly
from the Oil or Wiek? If from the Oil, says he, why did they generally
go out upon the admission of Air into the Sepulchre at its first
opening? For Air or a gentle gale of Wind is not commonly found
prejudicial to the flame of Oil, but only violent Blasts or Storms,
which if absent, the Flame or Light will continue so long as the Aliment
lasts. But how then came the _Lamps_ of _Minerva_, _Pallas_ and others
not to be extinguish’d by the rushing in of Wind or sprinkling of Dust,
and only by breaking the _Lamp_? Surely there must needs have been two
kinds of inconsumable Oil, one which fear’d any admission of Air, and
another which defy’d the most violent storms of Rain or Wind; or perhaps
one might be the effect of an Oil-_Lamp_ without any Wiek, and the other
of a _Lamp_ which had both Oil and Wiek, which certainly must have been
the most permanent. For grant there are some Oils so spirituous and
inflammable, that they will of themselves catch Fire at a great
distance, yet must these needs be too volatile to occasion a _Lamp_ to
burn perpetually, unless they are fix’d with some more permanent Matter,
[Sidenote: Both _Wiek_ and _Oil_ in a _Lamp_.] and then they cannot be
so easily lighted without a Wiek; neither can we understand how it
should burn so above the _Lamp_, unless the Flame be supported by a
little Cord or Wiek, the Vehicle of the Oil: Besides, What can that
little _Foramen_ at the Beak of all the _Lamps_ mean, but only to thrust
the Wiek and Light out at? ’Tis plain therefore they had Wieks, but what
they were made of, whether of _Asbestos_, _Amiantus_, or any of the
before-mention’d Things, is somewhat difficult to decide; forasmuch as
they being reported both to have been inconsumable and inextinguishable,
when once lighted, they must needs have burn’d perpetually, and
consequently the _Lamps_ have had no occasion for any Oil; but this is
certainly false, for both the _Lamps_ and _Funeral Shrouds_ burn’d only
so long as there was any Oil, Fat, or oleaginous Moisture remaining,
which being consum’d they likewise ceas’d, yet might perhaps remain
unconsum’d, but that without any Flame. However, we must not deny there
were any Wieks in _Lamps_, because they could not, as most are of
opinion, continue to burn of themselves without any oily inflammable
Matter, but rather all believe both the Oil and Wiek had a Virtue to
assist each other, and on the contrary could not burn separately for any
duration or considerable Time. But some have thought quite otherwise of
this matter, _viz._ That what Country-Peasants imagine they see at the
first breaking up of such Sepulchres are only the sudden irradiations
and reflections of the Sun in those dark Caves, or else some sparks of
Light rais’d by the percussion or attrition of their Iron-Tools against
the Stones, a glimmering Vapour of the Earth, or the like Appearances,
which being heightn’d by the strength of their prepossess’d Fancy, they
easily take to be one of the Perpetual _Lamps_ of the Ancients, which
had burn’d ’till then, but was immediately extinguish’d upon the rushing
in of the Air, or accidental breaking of the _Lamp_. But _Gutherius_
thinks the contrary; he imagines it was some Liquor or Pouder which took
fire at the entring in of the Air: And _Johan. Sigism. Elholtius_, in
his Observations _de Phosphoris_, p. 9. obs. 2. Sect. 4. compares his
liquid _Phosphorus_ or _Cold Fire_, as he terms it, with the _Lamps_ of
the Ancients in these Words: [Sidenote: _Perpetual Burning Lamp_ thought
to be liquid _Phosphorus_.] _Plura circa_ frigidum _hunc_ Ignem
_Phœnomina hactenus non observavimus, in posterum tamen istis
experimentis plus operæ sumus impensuri, & postea communicaturi.
Profecto, si conjectura quorundam de_ Lucernis Veterum _Sepulchralibus
vera est, quod scilicet non Mille vel amplius Annos illa arserint, sed
quod apertæ demum ardere cæperint, tum utique ab Oleo illo Antiquorum,
non multum obfuerit hic_ Phosphorus liquidus. _Qui enim quiescens &
obturatus haud nitet, apertus & inter aperiendum motus, corruscare atque
flagrare incipit: restauratæq; hoc pacto forent Lucernæ illæ, multis
retro Seculis inter_ Deperdita _ab omnibus relatæ_. _We have not
hitherto observ’d more_ Phœnomena _concerning this_ Cold Fire,
_nevertheless intend for the future to spend more Time and Labour in
these Experiments, and then will communicate them to the Public. But
surely if a certain Conjecture concerning the_ Lamps _of the Ancients be
true_, viz. _That they burn’d not a Thousand or more Years, but at
length when they came to be discover’d began to burn, then certainly
this liquid_ Phosphorus _cannot differ much from that Oil of the
Ancients, which lying quiet and stopp’d up, hardly shines; but being
open’d, in the motion of opening begins to corruscate and burn, and
after this manner those_ Lamps _would be restor’d, which are related by
all to have been lost for many Ages_.

[Sidenote: _Licetus_’s Opinion that a _Perpetual Lamp_ may be made.]

Nevertheless, _Licetus_ endeavours to persuade us that a _Pabulum_ for
Fire may be given with such an equal Temperament, as cannot be consum’d
but after a long Series of Ages, and so that neither the Matter shall
exhale but strongly resist the Fire, nor the Fire consume the Matter,
but be restrain’d by it, as it were with a Chain, from flying upward.
This, says Sir _Thomas Brown_ in his _Vulgar Errors_, p. 124. speaking
of _Lamps_ which have burn’d many Hundreds of Years, included in close
Bodies, proceeds from the Purity of the Oil, which yeilds no fuliginous
Exhalations to suffocate the Fire; for if Air had nourish’d the Flame,
then it had not continu’d many Minutes, for it would certainly in that
case have been spent and wasted by the Fire.

But the Art of preparing this _inconsumable Oil_ is lost, having
perish’d long since, as _Pancirollus_ assures us, but neither he nor any
other Learned Man has given us any convincing Proof that there ever was
such a Thing, but only think to amuse us with a wonderful Art, and then
tell us only it is quite lost. And for my part I cannot see hitherto
that all that has been wrote or said on this Subject is sufficient to
prove there ever was any such Thing, and much more that it ever could be
made. _Licetus_, who has argu’d most on this Head, is confuted by
_Aresius_, and in a word, all that can be alledg’d is, that if this Art
be not impossible to be effected, it is nevertheless as difficult to be
attain’d to, by any Human Invention, as the _Perpetual Motion_ or
_Philosophers Stone_, therefore I shall not trouble my Thoughts any
farther about these _Lamps_, but only look on them as so many
_Hieroglyphics_ or Symbols of the _Immortality_ of the _Soul_, and
heartily pray that we may not want _Oil_ in our _Lamps_ when the
_Bridegroom_ shall come, but be prepar’d to enjoy _Eternal Light_ with
him, which is the devout Prayer of,


                                                 _Your most Obliged_

                                                     _Humble Servant_,

                                                       Thomas Greenhill.


                      Authors quoted in this Book.


 _Cl. Ælianus._
 _Albertus Leoninus._
 _Albertus magnus._
 _P. Alpinus._
 _D. Ambrosius._
 _Ammianus Marcellinus._
 _Apella Judæus._
 _Petr. Appianus._
 _D. Augustinus._
 _M. Aurelius Antoninus._
 _Sext. Aurelius Victor._


 Lord _Bacon_.
 _Rob. Baronius, Cardinalis._
 _Tho. Bartholinus._
 Sir _John Beaumont_, Kt.
 _Phil. Bergomas._
 _Joh. Bilsius._
 _Steph. Blancardus._
 _Ol. Borrichius._
 Sir _Tho. Brown_, Kt.
 Dr. _Edw. Brown_.
 _M. Corneille le Bruyn._
 _Tit. Liv. Burattinus._
 _Gilb. Burnet_, D. D.
 _Joan. Buxtorfius._


 _Cælius Rhodiginus._
 _Joh. Calvin._
 _Jac. Capellus._
 _Hier. Cardanus._
 _Joan. Bapt. Casalius._
 _Gabr. Clauderus._
 _Clemens Alexandrinus._
 _Cl. Claudianus._
 _William Clark._
 _Herm. Conringius._
 _Cornelius Celsus._
 _Joan. Chrysostomus._
 _M. T. Cicero._
 _Franc. Citesius._
 _Val. Cordus._
 _Joan. Costæus._
 _Tho. Creech._
 _Q. Curtius._


 _Mart. Delrius._
 _Diodorus Siculus._
 _Dionysius Halicarnassæus._
 _Ped. Dioscorides._
 _Joh. Dryden._


 Bishop of _Ely_.
 _Joan. Sigism. Elholtius._
 _Sebast. Ericius._
 _Mich. Etmullerus._


 _Pet. Faber._
 _Erasm. Franciscus._
 _Wolfg. Franzius._


 _Cl. Galenus._
 _Aulus Gellius._
 _B. Gerhard._
 _Conr. Gesnerus._
 _Sax. Grammaticus._
 _Joh. Greaves._
 _Hug. Grotius._
 _Andr. Gryphius._
 _Antonio de Guevara._
 _Claude Guichard._
 _Melch. Guilandius._
 _Lil. Gyraldus._


 _Joan. Henr. Heideggerus._
 _M. Joan. Herbinius._
 _Hermolaus Barbarus._
 _Pet. Heylin._
 _Aul. Hirtius._


 St. _Jerome_.


 _Athan. Kircher._
 _Joan. Kirkmannus._
 _Barth. Korndorferus._


 _Wolfg. Lazius._
 _Leo Africanus._
 _Andr. Libavius._
 _Phil. Libertus._
 _Fortun. Licetus._
 _Just. Lipsius._
 _T. Livius._
 _Nich. Lyranus._


 _Sim. Maiolus._
 _Franc. Maturantius._
 _Andr. Maurocenus._
 _Pomp. Mela._
 _P. Menestrier._
 _Minutius Felix._
 _Hieron. Mercurialis._
 _Joh. Milton._
 _Bened. Ar. Montanus._


 _Joan. Nardius._
 _Natalis Comes._
 _Greg. Nazianzen._
 _Nicephorus Callistus._
 _Joan. Nicolaius._
 _Nubiensis Geographia._




 _Pet. Pais._
 _Guid. Pancirollus._
 _Onuph. Panvinus._
 _Louis Penicher._
 _Petronius Arbiter._
 _Tho. Porcacchius._
 _J. Bap. Porta._
 _Prosper Alpinus._
 _Aur. Prudentius._


 _Joan. Andr. Quenstedt._


 _Matth. Raderus._
 _Jo. Raius._
 _Cæl. Rhodiginus._
 _Andr. Rivetus._
 _Hier. Ruscellius._
 _Fran. Ruæus._
 _Frid. Ruysh._


 _Cl. Salmasius._
 _Alph. Salmeron._
 _Henr. Salmuthius._
 _Saxo Grammaticus._
 _Jul. Cæs. Scaliger._
 _Bernardin. Scardeonius._
 _Mich. Schatta._
 _Joan. Schroderus._
 _Cabr. Sionita._
 _Silius Italicus._
 _P. Statius._
 _Nich. Steno._
 _Sulpitius Severus._
 _Joh. Swammerdam._


 _Corn. Tacitus._
 _Alex. Tassonius._
 Father _Telles_.
 _William_ Arch-bishop of _Tyre_.
 _Alphons. Tostatus._
 _Joan. Trithemius._


 _Valerius Maximus._
 _Rich. Verstegan._
 _Joan. Veslingius._
 _P. Virgilius Maro._
 _Polyd. Vergilius._
 _Fl. Vopiscus._
 _Raph. Volaterranus._


 _Ol. Wormius._







 _Abel-mizraim_, 283.

 _Abiit, non obiit_, why writ on Tombs, 55.

 _Abraham_’s Burying-place, 8.

 _Absalom_, how buried, 52.

 —— his Pillar, _ibid. &_ 86.

 _Achan_ and King _Ai_ buried under a Heap of Stones, 51.

 _Acherusia_, 301.

 _Achilles_ feared Sea-burial, 48.

 _Act_ of Burial, 72, 82.

 _Adam_, where buried, 8.

 _Æneas_, why called by the Name of _Pious_, 34.

 —— afraid of Sea burial, 45.

 —— took care of Sepulture, 43.

 _Agues_ malignant, 165.

 _Æthiopians_, how they _Embalm_, 63.

 _Air_ and _Water_ of _Egypt_ both very good, 158.

 _Air_ of _Egypt_, very hot, 146.

 —— —— cool’d by the _Nile_, and Annual Winds, _ib._

 —— —— moist, prejudicial to _Embalming_, 151.

 —— —— unequal, bad for _Embalming_, 159.

 _Air_ poisoned, 13.

 —— moist, infected by a putrid Carcass, 14.

 _Alexander_ very careful of his _Sepulture_, 42.

 —— his Burial, 217, 218, 219, 220.

 —— made a magnificent _Funeral_ for his Horse _Bucephalus_, 30.

 _Alexandria_, 211.

 —— eminent for the Liberal Sciences, 215.

 —— how industrious and flourishing, 235.

 —— its Earth full of _Nitre_, 220.

 _Aloes_, what meant by that Word in _Embalming_, 253.

 Ἀλλάσσοντες, 185.

 _Amiantus Lapis_, 360.

 _Anatomy_, why so called, 180.

 —— its _Encomium_, 182.

 —— very useful in _Embalming_, ibid.

 —— anciently performed by great and holy Men, 251.

 _Ancients_ feared Sea burial, 45.

 _Animals_ which bury their Dead, 26.

 —— _embalmed_ with Cedar, 274.

 _Anointing_ the Dead, 59, 60, 61.

 —— a kind of _Embalming_, ib.

 —— to what purpose used, 63.

 _Apis_, 199.

 Ἀφρόνιτρον, 260.

 _Apoplexy_, 165.

 _Apollo_ the younger, 175.

 _Apothecary_, 61, 62, 177, 188.

 _Armais_, 173, 174.

 _Arithmetic_, how first invented, 231.

 _Arts_, how first invented, 229.

 —— most flourishing in the Reign of _Amasis_, 235.

 —— can never flourish where _Quacks_ and _Undertakers_ are, 179.

 _Art_ of making Gold and Silver, 183.

 —— of tinging Glass, and making artificial Stones, 185.

 —— of Distilling, Calcining, _&c._ 186.

 —— of _Bandage_, 188.

 —— of Poisoning the Air, 13.
   which chiefly consists of Man’s Flesh, 14.

 _Asa_’s Burial, 61.

 _Asphalt_, 276.

 —— how us’d in _Embalming_, ib. & 288.

 _Assius Lapis_, 257.

 _Astrology_ of the _Egyptians_, 191.

 —— how invented, 231.

 _Athothus_, the ancient Egyptian _Mercury_, 170.

 —— Inventor of Images, Characters, and Dancing, _ib._

 —— Sacrific’d Animals, and learned _Embalming_ and _Anatomy_, 172.

 Ἄταφον τάφον, 38.

 _Attiring_ the Corps, 64.

 —— with white Vests, 66.

 —— why it should be used, 66, 68.

 —— what sort only exclaim’d against, 67.

 _Asbestos Lapis_, 357.

 —— its Oil, _ib._

 _Asbeston_, seu _Asbestinum_, 358.

 —— two Objections against it, 359.

 _Averruncal_ Statues, 298.

 _Authors_ who have written of Sepulchral Lamps, 330.


 _Babylon_, 204.

 —— in _Chaldea_, 225.

 _Babylonians_, how they _embalmed_, 63.

 _Balsam Plant_, 208.

 —— Its Description, 209.

 —— Virtues, 110.

 _Basaltes_, an _Ethiopic_ Stone, 251.

 _Bechira_ seu _Bechiria_, 127.

 _Bees_, how they bury and _embalm_ themselves, 28.

 _Berd il Agiuz_, 154.

 =Bergwachs=, 277.

 _Beth-chajim_, 17.

 _Bitumen Judaicum_, 276, 288.

 _Body_, why to be taken care of, 25, 103, 105.

 —— the _Temple_ of _God_, 25.

 —— stuff’d with Medicinal Ingredients, 252.

 —— with _Myrrh_, _Aloes_, and _Cinnamon_, 253.

 —— preserv’d in a Salt-Pit, 269.

 —— salted with _Nitre_, 241, 254, 255, 269.

 —— only prepared with _Pissasphalt_, 278.

 —— with artificial _Pissasphalt_, ib.

 —— why burnt, 50, 119.

 First-_born_ of _Egypt_ slain, 343, 344.

 _Brain_ how extracted, 241, 248, 249.

 _Brutes_ buried with Pomp and Magnificence, 30.

 A great _Burning_ made for King _Asa_, 61.

 _Burning_ the Dead, how order’d, 83.

 —— why used, 82.

 —— how long continued in use, 85.

 —— as liable to be ill treated by an Enemy as Burial, 50.

 —— an ignominious Way of Burial, 85.

 _Burial_, its Rise and Antiquity, 8.

 —— 1st Cause of it, _ib._

 —— 2d Cause, 9.

 —— 3d Cause, 16.

 —— 4th Cause, 17.

 —— 5th Cause, _ib._

 _Burial_, thought more beneficial to the Living than Dead, 9, 10.

 —— frees from the Terror of Death, 11.

 —— preserves Bodies from Putrifaction, 11, 15.

 —— —— from the Plague, 12, 15, 27.

 _Burial_, a Work acceptable to God, 33.

 —— to our Saviour, _ib._

 —— an Act of _Justice_, ib.

 —— a Work of Piety and Religion, _ib._

 —— of Mercy and Humanity, _ib._

 _Burial_, the Care of the _Gods_, 35.

 —— an Honour to the Dead, _ib._

 —— an Happiness, Favour and Kindness, _ib._

 —— called by various Names, 33, 34.

 —— how called by the _Saxons_, 92.

 _Burial-place_, called by several Names, 17.

 _Burial_ in the City, 93. Vide, _Places of Sepulture_.

 —— by some used in the Day, by others in the Night, 72.

 —— more ancient than Burning, 85.

 —— observ’d by Brutes as well as Men, 26.

 —— decent, what, 49.

 —— ignominious, what, 49, 51.

 Why there ought to be different kinds of Burial, 35, 52, 53.

 _Burial_, why despised by some, 21, 22.

 —— in what Sense the _Philosophers_ slighted it, 23.

 —— the Want of it not prejudicial to the Soul, 18.

 —— yet much feared by the _Heathens_, 21.

 —— as believing the Souls of the unburied wandred 100 Years, _ib._

 _Burial_, the want of it a Punishment, 47.

 —— some kinds of it a Punishment, 49, 51, 52.

 To be buried like an _Ass_, a Curse, 38.


 _Cæsar_’s Palace, 213.

 _Cairo_, Old and New, 205.

 _Caleg_, 165.

 _Campus Sceleratus_, or Burying-place of the _Vestal Virgins_, 50.

 _Campus Martius_, 89.

 _Camsins_, 154, 155.

 _Canal_, or _Khalis_, 206, 213.

 _Canibals_, eat Man’s Flesh, 14.

 _Cardan_’s _Mausoleum_ for a Fly, 29.

 Care the _Ancients_ took of _Sepulture_, 32.

 Carrying forth the Corps, 71.

 —— —— how managed, 73.

 _Carver_, 286.

 _Castle_ of _Roude_, 133.

 _Cataracts_ of _Nile_, 130.

 —— the greater, _ib._

 —— the lesser, 131.

 _Caves_ near the _Pyramids_, 323.

 _Cave_ called the _Church_, 329.

 —— with two _Mummies_ in it, _ib._

 _Cedar_-Ship built by _Sesostris_, 183.

 _Cedria_, what, 271.

 —— its Liquor, Oil, Pitch, Gum, _&c._ 272.

 —— its Virtues, _ib._

 —— Clysters made of it, and their Operations, 273.

 _Cenotaphs_, 97, 99.

 —— why built, _ib. &_, 98.

 _Cera di Minera_, 277.

 _Ceremonies_ in Funerals not to be neglected, 53.

 —— how and when useful, 102.

 _Charon_, 245, 301.

 _Cheop_’s Tomb, 318.

 —— the spacious _Chamber_ which contains it, _ib._

 _Chimistry_ invented by _Hermes_, 183.

 _Chimical_ Medicines useful in _Embalming_, 186, 245.

 _Cimon_ the _Athenian_ buried his Horses, 30.

 _Cleopatra_’s Palace, 214.

 _Clerk_, who, 280.

 _Climate_ of _Egypt_, 145.

 _Closing_ the Eyes, 55.

 —— —— why used, 56.

 _Coffins_ made of _Sycamore_, 295.

 _Conclamation_, 57, 58.

 —— thought useless by _Santorellus_, 58.

 _Cold Fire_, a sort of _Phosphorus_, 365.

 _Cold of the old Hag_, a Season so call’d, 154.

 _Colossus_ made of _Emerald_, 9 Cubits high, 186.

 _Collerus_’s Funeral Oration, 43.

 _Comparative Anatomy_, 4.

 _Corpora Condita_, 285.

 _Corpus Medicatum_, 284.

 _Corps_, (Handsome) well-pleasing to the Ancients, 57.

 —— why it soonest consumes in a Church-yard, 15.

 _Creatures_, every one takes care of their own Funeral, 27.

 _Crowning_ the Dead, 69.

 —— a Reward to Vertue, _ib. &_ 70.

 —— whence deriv’d, and to what end, 69.

 _Cryptæ_, 202.

 —— why so call’d, 96.

 —— _Kiovienses_, 95.

 —— one found at _Nismes_, 96.

 _Curing a Corps_, what, 188.

 _Cynocephalus_, 231.


 _David_’s Sepulchre, 37.

 _Day_ of _Burial_, when, 72.

 —— of _Burning_, ib.

 _Delta_, why so called, 127, 131.

 _Dead Bodies_, why kept 7 Days, 58.

 —— kept in their Houses, 304.

 —— plac’d at the Table, _ib._

 _Dead Sea_, 143.

 _Death_ compar’d to Sleep, 56, 110.

 _Dei Ager aut Fundus_, 17.

 _Delphian Oracle_, how to be understood, 4.

 _Demonactes_, how he desired to be buried, 23.

 _Deprivation_ of ones Sepulchre, a Curse, 37.

 _Description_ of the _Ichnography_ and _Scenography_ of the
    Subterranean Caves, 327.

 —— of some _Lamps_, 333.

 —— of the first and fairest _Pyramid_, 312.

 —— of the Gallery, 316.

 _Dew_ of _Egypt_, 156.

 _Difference_ between Ecclesiastical and Criminal Burial, 49.

 _Dioclesian_, why he burnt all _Chimical_ Books, 184.

 _Diodorus Siculus_’s Account of the _Egyptian_ Funerals, 243.

 _Diogenes’_ jocose Sayings concerning _Sepulture_, 22.

 The _Dissector_, 177, 183, 250, 285.

 _Designer_, 177, 250, 290.

 _Dolphins_ take care of their Dead, 26.

 _Domus Viventium_, 17.

 _Dormitorium_, 17, 100, 110.

 _Dresses_ and _Ornaments_ of the _Mummies_, 294.

 _Dropsie_, 164.

 _Drugs_ brought by the _Caravan_, 207.

 To become like _Dung_, rotting upon the Earth, the severe Judgment and
    Punishment of _God_, 39, 40.


 _Eccho_ very remarkable in the great _Pyramid_, 315.

 _Egypt_, how scituate and bounded, 124.

 —— its Denominations, 125.

 —— why called _Ægyptus_, ib.

 —— Govern’d by _Coptus_, 126.

 —— its Extent, _ib._

 —— ancient and modern Division, _ib._

 —— its Fertility, 139.

 —— the drying Quality of its Earth, 153.

 —— Mistress of the World, and Mother of all Arts and Sciences, 190.

 —— its Number of Cities and Inhabitants, 236.

 —— how it came to be so populous, _ib._

 _Egyptian_, _Æsculapius_, 172.

 —— _Apollo_, 169.

 —— _Mercury_, 170.

 —— _Arts_, how they came to be lost, 184.

 _Egyptians_, their Characters, ancient and modern, 160.

 —— their Make, Complexion, and Temper, 161.

 —— Women very fruitful in Children, _ib._

 —— their Constitution and Habit of Body, 162.

 —— very long liv’d, _ib._

 —— their Diseases, 163.

 —— first Authors of _Medicine_, 168.

 —— well skill’d in _Anatomy_, 179.

 —— —— in _Ostiology_, 182.

 —— their Antiquity, 190.

 —— Inventions, _ib._

 —— Astrology, 191.

 —— Mathematics, _ib._

 —— Architecture, 193.

 —— their Opinion of the _Metempsychosis_, 238.

 —— their Belief of the Resurrection, 106, 240.

 —— Famous in Arts and Sciences, 189.

 —— the first Inventors of them, 190.

 —— by what Means they perform’d such wonderful Works, 237.

 —— and to what end, _ib._

 —— the first Inventors of _Embalming_, 61.

 —— why they _embalmed_ Bodies, 106.

 —— how they _embalm’d_ them, 238, 248.

 —— they _embalmed_ Cats, Crocodiles, Hawks, _&c._ 32.

 —— they set their Dead on their Feet, 85.

 —— they deny’d Burial to executed Persons, 47.

 _Elatio_, or the carrying forth a _Corps_, 71.

 _Elephants_ bury their Dead, 29.

 _Embalming_, a noble _Art_, 4.

 —— a Branch of _Surgery_, 2.

 —— very useful in Natural Philosophy, Physiology, Divinity, Physic,
    _&c._ 2, 3, 4.

 —— chiefly practised by _Undertakers_, 2.

 —— particularly useful in _Anatomy_ and _Surgery_, 3.

 —— teaches Medicines against _Gangrenes_, _&c._ 4.

 —— what accounted by the Ancients, and what by the present Age, 4, 5.

 —— its _Antiquity_, 5.

 —— invented by the _Egyptians_, ib.

 —— of general Use, _ib._

 —— by most despised, _ib._

 —— the chief of all funeral Ceremonies, 103.

 —— the best Way of Preserving the Memory of the Dead, 107.

 —— not contrary to the Scriptures, 108.

 —— acceptable to _God_, 112.

 —— approved by our _Saviour_, 115.

 —— an Emblem of the Resurrection, 112.

 _Embalming_, in a general sense very extensive, 115.

 —— the most durable thing, 117.

 —— useful in _Phisiology_ and _Physic_, 18.

 —— in _Anatomy_, ib.

 —— in _Surgery_, ib.

 —— necessary for transporting Bodies, 119.

 —— secures from the Insults of Animals, 120.

 —— what intended by it, 120, 121.

 —— that of the _Hebrews_ different from that of the old _Egyptians_,

 _Embalming_, how found out, 233.

 —— 2 or 3 sorts of it, 241, 242, 275, _viz._

 —— with _Pissasphalt_, 287.

 —— with _Cedar_, ib.

 —— with _Asphalt_, 288.

 —— with _Aromatics_, ib.

 _Embalming_ of _Jacob_, 281.

 —— —— performed in 40 Days, 282.

 _Embalmer_, 177.

 —— much honoured, 250.

 _Embowelling_ a Corps, 251.

 _Entrance_ into the Caves, 326.

 _Enoch_ and _Elijah_, neither dy’d nor corrupted, 115.

 _Epitaph_ on a Bee, 28.

 _Epagomene_, 153.

 Ἐνταφιοπώλις, 286.

 Ἐνταφιαστής, _ib._ & 280, 286.

 =Erdwachs=, 277.

 _Erriff_, 127.

 _Euripides_’s Opinion of _Sepulture_, 35.

 _Expences_ of a _Funeral_, insignificant without _Embalming_, 102.

 _Experiments_ concerning Scarcity of _Rain_ in _Egypt_, 157.

 —— of the _Water_, 158.

 —— for making _eternal Fire_, 352.

 —— the 1st, _ib._

 —— the 2d, 354.


 _Fame_ the _Goddess_ of _Embalming_, 117.

 _Feasts_ for the Dead, 84.

 —— of _Lamps_, 341.

 —— to what end instituted, 343.

 —— the true and sacred Reason, _ib._

 _Fengo_, the Tyrant’s Ashes scattered by the Winds, 51.

 _Fire_ an Emblem of the Soul, 331.

 —— —— of Life eternal, 332.

 —— thought by the _Persians_ to be a _God_, 239.

 —— —— by the _Egyptians_ a _living creature_, ib.

 Following the Corps, 82.

 To become Food to Birds and Beasts, a Curse, 39, 40.

 _French_, why they deny’d Burial, 25.

 _Funeral_, why so called, 73.

 —— Rites, why called _Justa Funebria_, 34.

 —— Oration spoke before Battel, 43.

 —— Procession, 282.

 —— Games, 84.

 _Funus odoratum_, 289.

 _Furca_, or a Gibbet: All such as were hanged thereon, were by the Laws
    deny’d Burial, 48.


 _Gabbares_, 240.

 _Gemelhazar_, 234.

 _Gauls embalmed_ with Oil of _Cedar_, 274.

 _Generals_ put to Death for neglecting to Bury the Dead, 42.

 _Gentiles_, assign’d the Care of _Funerals_ to certain _Gods_, 35.

 _Geometry_, how invented, 231.

 _Gibnehalon_, 163.

 =Gotsacker=, 17.

 _Granaries_ of _Joseph_, 204.

 _Graves_ in the Highway, or under the Gallows, 49.

 To be dug out of one’s Grave, a Curse and Punishment, 50.

 _Greeks_ deny’d decent Burial to infamous Persons and Criminals, 47.

 _Gulph_ of _Mecca_, or _Arabian Gulph_, 140.

 _Gymnasium_, what it signifies, 171.

 _Gymnastic Art_, ib.


 _Hannibal_ took great care of _Burial_, 42.

 _Hatching_ of Chickens at _Grand Cairo_, 207.

 _Halmirhaga_, 258.

 _Heliogabalus_’s Body dragg’d about Streets, and flung into a
    Common-shoar, 51.

 _Henry_ the Seventh’s Chappel, 87.

 _Herald_, 76, 286.

 _Hermes Trismegistus_, 173.

 —— supposed to be _Armais_, ib.

 —— a great _Philosopher_, _Priest_ and _King_, ibid.

 —— —— establisher of _Magic_, 174.

 _Herodotus_’s Account of the _Egyptian_ Funerals, 241.

 _Hieroglyphic_ Characters, 290.

 —— their signification, 293.

 _Highwaymen_ deny’d _Burial_, and set up on Wheels, _&c._ 48.

 _Homer_’s Opinion of Sepulture, 35.

 _Horace_’s Monument, 116.

 _Hypogeum_, 96, 202.


 _Ichnography_ and _Schenography_ of the _Burial Places_, 203.

 _Jews_ deriv’d their Manner of _Embalming_ from the _Egyptians_, 61.

 _Jewish Embalming_ rather a Ceremony than Preserving a Corps, 62.

 _Injectio Glebæ_, 92.

 _Inscriptions_ on _Tombs_, 87, 90, 94, 95, 196.

 _Insects_, which take Care of their Dead, 26.

 —— how they bury themselves, 28.

 —— some burn’d and others _embalm’d_, 29.

 _Insepulta sepultura_, 38.

 _Interment_, the first Cause of it, 8.

 _Josiah_ took Bones out of their Sepulchers and burnt them, 50.

 _Isis_ taught the _Egyptians_ salubrious Plants, 168.

 —— the Inventor of _Images_, 170.

 Isle of _Pharos_, 220.

 _Judging_ the _Dead_, 244, 302.



 _Khalis_ of _Cleopatra_, 220.

 _Kissing_ the Dead, 54.

 —— to what end used, _ib. &_ 55.

 —— rather prejudicial than otherwise, 55.

 Κοιμητήριον, 17.

 _Korah_, _Dathan_, and _Abiran_, buried alive, 49.


 _Labyrinth_, 222.

 —— by whom and to what end built, 223, 224.

 _Lake Mœris_, 141.

 —— —— why so called, 142.

 —— _Asphaltites_, 143, 144.

 _Lamps_ perpetual, to what end invented, 331, 343.

 —— supposed to have burnt in the first _Pyramid_, 333.

 —— in subterranean Caves and Vaults, 96, 333.

 —— that have burn’d by a Divine Power, 351.

 —— that have burn’d by the Wiles of the _Devil_, ib.

 —— —— or from a natural Cause, 352.

 —— or can be made with _Gold_, _Silver_, &c. 353.

 —— or _Mercury_, ib.

 —— with _Naptha_, 355.

 —— with liquid _Bitumen_, or _Petroleum_, 356.

 —— confirm’d by _Schiangia_, ib.

 —— and believed by _Kircher_, ib.

 —— whether their Perpetuity proceeded from the Oil or Wick, 363.

 —— thought to be a sort of _Phosphorus_, 365.

 —— how made according to _Licetus_’s Opinion, 366.

 —— _Hieroglyphics_, or _Symbols_ of the Immortality of the _Soul_, 367.

 _Lamp_ of the _Alexandrian Pharos_, 337.

 —— with a Dog’s Head, 340.

 —— found at _Edessa_, 351.

 —— of a _Heliotrope_, 336.

 —— of _Jupiter Ammon_, 350.

 —— with four Lights, 339.

 —— of _Minerva_, 350.

 —— of the _Moon_, 338.

 —— of _Mycerinus_, 341.

 —— with an _Ox_’s Head, 340.

 —— of an _Ox_ with a _Boy_ on his Back, 337.

 —— of _Olybius_, 351.

 —— of _Pallas_, 348.

 —— of _Serapis_, 333, 334.

 —— of a _Sphinx_, 338, 339.

 —— with two beaked Ships, 339.

 —— of a tripple-headed Monster, 334.

 —— of _Tulliola_, 345, 346.

 —— of _Typhon_, 335.

 —— of _Venus_, 351.

 _Languages_ and _Characters_ of the _Egyptians_ of two kinds, 291.

 _Lapis Asbestos_, 357.

 —— _Amiantus_, 360.

 —— _Cyprius_, ib.

 —— _Carystius_, 361.

 _Laws_, their Goodness, 234.

 —— made to restrain the Extravagancy of Funeral Ceremonies, 73, 79.

 _Laying out a Corps_, 70.

 —— why used, 71.

 _Lazarus_ embalmed, 62.

 _Lecticæ seu Lecti_, 74.

 _Letter_ to _Charles Bernard_, Esq; 1.

 —— to Dr. _John Lawson_, 123.

 —— to Dr. _Hans Sloan_, 307.

 _Libitina_, 286.

 _Libitinarii_, ib. & 340.

 _Library_ of _Ptolomy_, 185, 216.

 _Linum vivum_, 358.

 —— _Cyprium_, 300, 362.

 —— _Carpasium_, 361.

 —— _Creticum_, 362.

 _Lodgings_ of the _Priests_, 320.

 _Lucretius_, his Opinion of Sepulture, 24.

 _Lues Venerea_, its supposed Origin, 14.


 _Machpelah_, _Abraham_’s Burying-place, 8.

 _Magical Medicine_ spread over most Countries, 175.

 _Magic_ used in _Embalming_, 176.

 _Magnesia_, 362.

 _Maltem_, 155.

 _Man_, the Epitome and Perfection of the Macrocosm, 4.

 —— his Elogium, 108.

 —— his Transgression, _ib._

 —— has a right to a Burial-place in the Earth, 7.

 _Manes_, Gods of Funerals, 35.

 _Mare mortuum_, 143.

 _Caius Marius_’s, Bones dug up and flung into the Sea, 50.

 _Matarea_, 208.

 _Mathematics_, 191.

 _Medicines_, why call’d _Pharmaca_, 175.

 _Memphis_, 199.

 _Memphitis Lapis_, 187.

 _Memnon_’s Statue, 192.

 _Mercury_ II., 173.

 _Merissi_, 154, 155.

 _Metempsychosis_, 238.

 _Milesian_ Virgins, how deterr’d from hanging themselves, 48.

 _Mina_, what, 197.

 _Monuments_ built during Life, 86, 87.

 —— why call’d Muniments, 99.

 —— why Monuments, 100.

 —— made of Glass, 101.

 _Mourning_, 241, 242, 246, 247, 248.

 —— the Manner of it, 77.

 —— with Sackcloth and Ashes, 78.

 —— cutting and tearing the Flesh, _ib._

 —— Habit, 75.

 _Mourners_ feigned, 78.

 _Mouth_ of the Dead, why shut, 57.

 _Mummies_ found in the Sands, 152.

 —— several things found included in them, 297.

 —— Sophisticate, 279.

 _Murderers_ denied Burial, 47, 48.


 _Nature_ has provided Burial and a _Grave_ for all Creatures, 30.

 Νεκροκόσμος, 279, 286.

 _Nicias_ took great care to bury the slain, 43.

 _Nicodemus_ and _Joseph_ _embalm’d_ our Saviour, 62.

 _Nile_ River, 127.

 —— its Rise and Course, 129.

 —— its Cataracts, 130.

 —— its _Ostia_, or Mouths, 132.

 —— its Inundation, 132.

 —— time of its Increase, 133.

 —— its Effects, 134.

 —— Cause of its Fertility, 135.

 —— of its Increase, 136.

 —— Operation of its Waters, 137.

 _Ninus_’s Sepulchre, 225.

 _Nitrum Chalastræum_, 257, 263.

 —— _Chalastricum_, 264.

 —— _Berenicum_, 257.

 _Nitre Armenian_, 258.

 —— _Lydian_, 262.

 —— _Egyptian_, 264.

 —— of _Buna_, 258.

 —— of _Turkey_, ib.

 —— three kinds, 260.

 —— different Opinions of it, 266.

 —— that of the Ancients the same with our _Salt Petre_, 268.

 —— used in Cookery, 269.

 —— —— in _Embalming_, 255.

 _Nitri Spuma_, 257, 260, 265.

 _Nomi septem_, 127.


 _Obelisk_ of _Semiramis_, 191, 228.

 —— two at _Alexandria_, 214.

 _Observations_ on the _Nile_, 135.

 —— on the _Pyramids_, 322.

 —— on the subterranean Caves, 327.

 _Office_ of _Embalming_, 279.

 _Opobalsamum_, 210.

 _Osiris_ taught the _Egyptians_ Food and Drink, 168.

 _Orus_, Son of _Osiris_, apply’d for _Physic_, salubrious Plants, by
    sacrificing them, 168.

 —— to which he added _Music_, 169.

 —— and Poetry, _ib._

 —— thence thought to be the _Egyptian Apollo_, ib.

 _Ossilegium_, 84.

 _Osymandua_’s _Tomb_, 195.

 _Ovid_ afraid of _Sea-Burial_, 46.

 _Ointment_ of Children’s Fat used by Witches, 14.

 —— of Spikenard, 62.


 _Pagans_ not without some hopes of the Resurrection, 24, 112.

 _Painter_, 286, 290.

 _Painting_ of the Dead used in _France_ and _Italy_, 74.

 _Pall_, why used, _ib._

 _Palace_ of _Cleopatra_, 214.

 —— of the _Mamaluke Sultans_, 206.

 _Pallium_ used by the _Greeks_ to cover their Dead, 65.

 _Pantænus_, first Reader of _Divinity_ and _Philosophy_, 215.

 _Patriarchs_, where buried, 8.

 _Pawning_ the Dead, 246, 303.

 _Pensil Gardens_, 227.

 _Pentapolis_, 144.

 _Persians_, how they _Embalm_, 63.

 _Persons_ present at Funerals, 74.

 —— how qualify’d for _Embalming_, 177.

 _Pharaoh_’s Punishment, 12.

 _Pharos_, or Watch-Tower, 221.

 _Philosophers_ contemplated on Life and Death, 7.

 —— in what sense they slighted Burial, 23.

 _Phosphorus_, 365.

 _Physic_, how found out, 232.

 _Physician_, 280.

 _Piaster_, what, 329.

 _Pickle_ made of _Nitre_, 266.

 _Pissasphalt_ natural, 276.

 —— artificial, 278.

 —— natural, call’d _Mummy_, 277.

 _Places_ of _Sepulture_, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94.

 _Plague_, 165.

 —— ceases at the Inundation of the _Nile_, 134, 135, 166.

 _Plain_ of _Mummies_, 329, 330.

 _Plato_ defines the Scope and End of his _Philosophy_, to be only the
    Consideration of Death, 8.

 _Pluto_, the chief of the _Funeral Gods_, 35.

 _Polliacus_ erected a Tomb in Memory of his beloved Bitch, 30.

 _Polycharacteristic_ Statues, 299.

 _Pollinctor_, 177, 285.

 _Poisons_ made of Man’s Flesh, 14.

 _Pox_, (French) 165.

 —— Small, _ib._

 _Pompey_’s Pillar, 212.

 —— by whom built, 213.

 _Præficæ_, hired _Mourners_, 76.

 _Priests_, the proper and only _Physicians_, 172, 177.

 —— their Business, 188.

 _Problem_ concerning _Diet_, 162.

 _Procession_ of a _Funeral_, 76.

 _Providence_ of _God_ extends even to the Bodies of the Dead, 33.

 _Prophylactic_ Statues, 298.

 _Psalms_ and _Hymns_ when introduc’d, 76.

 _Ptolomean Library_, 216.

 _Puticulæ_, 88.

 _Putrifaction_, its pernicious Effects, 11, 12, 13.

 _Pyramids_, 311.

 —— why so call’d, 331.

 —— to what end built, 237, 309.

 —— why of a pyramidal Form, _ib._

 —— their Number, 310.

 —— Scituation, _ib._

 —— their _Founders_, ib.

 —— Description of the first, 312.

 —— the _Entrance_ into it, 313.

 —— first and second _Gallery_, ib.

 —— the _Well_, 314.

 —— strange Eccho, 315.

 —— fine _Gallery_, 316.

 —— two _Anti-Closets_, 317.

 —— spacious _Chamber_, 318.

 —— _Cheop_’s Tomb, _ib._

 —— how many Men employ’d in building it, 319.

 _Pyramid_ the second, 319.

 —— its Lodgings for the Priests, 320.

 —— the third, _ib._


 _Quacks_, who, 177.

 —— none in _Egypt_, 178.

 _Quietorium_ seu _Requietorium_, 100.


 _Rains_ in _Egypt_, 147, 155.

 _Red-Sea_, 140.

 _Reflections_ on the _Egyptian Embalming_, 246.

 _Resurrection_, the Hope of it the chief Cause of _Burial_, 18.

 _Right_ of _Burial_ and _Funeral Ceremonies_, 5.

 —— grounded on the _Law_ of _God_ and _Nature_, 25.

 _Roulers_, how prepar’d, 289.

 _Rudder_ of a _Ship_, how first invented, 230.


 _Sacara_, how the Inhabitants get their Livelyhood, 325.

 _Sacrifices_ to the _Dead_, 84.

 _Sacrilegious_ Persons deny’d Burial, 47.

 _Sand_, how useful in _Embalming_, 151.

 _Sandapilarii_, 74.

 _Salt_ made of the _Nile_ Waters, 139, 220.

 —— used with _Balsamics_ preserves Bodies, 270.

 _Salitores_, _Salters_, or _Pollinctors_, 254, 285.

 _Sarah_, where buried, 8.

 _Scabs_ and _Leprosie_ of _Egypt_, 164.

 _Scipio_ afraid of Sea-Burial, 45.

 _Scribe_, or _Designer_, 250.

 _Scroles_ painted with Characters, 296.

 _Scythians_, how they _Embalm_, 63.

 _Sea-Burial_, why feared by the _Ancients_, 46.

 _Searchers_, their Office, 71.

 _Seasons_ of the _Year_, 153.

 —— —— temperate, _ib._

 —— —— cold, 154.

 —— —— intemperate, _ib._

 —— why to be observ’d in _Embalming_, 156.

 _Seminatio_, 17.

 _Septuagint_, 216.

 _Serapis_, or _Apis_, the _Egyptian Æsculapius_, 172.

 _Serapes_, 298.

 —— their Forms and Actions, 299.

 —— their Use and Virtues, 301.

 _Serapion_, 215, 217.

 _Sepulchres_, why call’d _Requietoria_, 47.

 —— some proper, 94.

 —— common, 95.

 —— belonging to the Family, _ib._

 —— hereditary, _ib._

 _Sepulchre_, call’d by the _Egyptians_ _Domus æterna_, 101.

 —— why call’d eternal Houses, 305.

 —— of _Osiris_, 200.

 —— of _Mycerinus_’s Daughter, _ib._

 —— of _Alexander_, 217.

 —— of _Ninus_, 225.

 —— of the _Egyptian_ Kings, 194.

 _Sepulture_ rightly accounted _Jus Naturæ_, 5.

 —— a Debt to _Nature_, ib.

 —— ordain’d by _God_ himself, 5.

 —— practis’d by the _Heathens_, 6.

 —— asserted in the _Scriptures_, 7.

 —— confirm’d by the _Philosophers_ and _Poets_, ib.

 —— instituted in obedience to the Love of _God_ and _Nature_, 8.

 —— defends from the _Plague_, 15.

 —— and preserves _Bodies_, ib.

 —— why invented, 16.

 —— strictly observed in War, 42.

 —— yet deny’d some out of Revenge, 41.

 —— always esteem’d honourable among _God_’s People, 85.

 _Sesostris_’s Cedar _Ship_, 183.

 _Ships_ of _Arabia_, 207.

 _Silk-worm_, spins her own Winding-sheet, 29.

 _Situation_ of the Dead in their _Sepulchres_, 85, 86.

 _Smell_ of a _Goal_ very pernicious, 14.

 _Snow_ in _Egypt_, 149.

 _Somia_, the Burial-place of the _Ptolomies_, 217.

 _Sorceresses_ feed on Man’s Flesh, 14.

 _Sore Eyes_ and _Blindness_ of the _Egyptians_, 163.

 _Soul_ concern’d at the ill Usage of the _Body_, 104, 105.

 _Sounding_ of Brazen Vessels about the Dead, 57.

 _Sphinx_, 321.

 —— represents _Momphta_, 322.

 _Stoics_, value not the Corruption of the Body, 20.

 _Stonehenge_ the Sepulchre of the _Britains_, 91.

 _Stones_ heap’d over a Body, an ignominious sort of Burial, 51, 52.

 _Summer_ of _Egypt_, 154.

 _Subterranean Caves_, 202, 324.

 _Surgery_ the chief of _Arts_, 1.

 —— invented and improved in _Egypt_, 187.

 —— how useful in _Embalming_, 188.

 —— teaches the _Art_ of _Bandage_, ib.

 _Surgeon_, the chief _Embalmer_, 188, 283.

 —— his Business, 284.

 _Sylla_ the _Dictator_, order’d his own _Corps_ to be burnt, that he
    might not be ill treated by his Enemies, 50, 83.


 _Taricheutæ_, 254, 285.

 Τάριχος, 293.

 Ταριχεύειν, 254.

 _Templi Hortus_, 17.

 _Temple_ of _Belus_, 226.

 _Teneriff_, the _Inhabitants_ Manner of _Sepulture_ and _Embalming_,

 _Thebais_, 127.

 _Thebes_, 193.

 Θεουργικὴ τέχνη, 171.

 _Theology_ of the _Egyptians_, 238.

 Θεραπεύω, its signification, 175.

 _Thrum-stone_, 361.

 _Thunder_ seldom heard in _Egypt_, 156.

 _Time_ of carrying forth the _Corps_, 72.

 _Tincar_, 261.

 _Tobit_’s great Care in burying the Dead, 33.

 _Toga_ us’d by the _Romans_ to cloath their Dead with, 65.

 _Tombs_ erected for Horses, and honoured with _Epitaphs_, 30.

 —— why dedicated _Diis Manibus_, 35.

 _Tomb_ of a _Dog_ at _Rome_, 30.

 —— of King _Amasis_, 321.

 —— of a Cat, 31.

 _Tombs_, their Use and Benefit, 98.

 —— how adorn’d, and with what Inscriptions, 99.

 —— how called, 99, 100.

 —— why call’d _Tumulus_, 92, 99.

 —— _inanis, seu Tumulus sine Corpore_, 97.

 _Traitors_ deny’d _Burial_, 47, 48, 49.


 _Vespillones_, why so called, 73.

 —— their Office, 74.

 _Vestal Virgins_, how buried, 50.

 _Vitellius_’s Body cut in pieces, and flung into the _Tyber_, 51.

 _Unguentum Cedrinum_, 287.

 _Undertakers_, 2, 177, 178, 179, 185.


 _Urns_ of _Glass_ found at _Nismes_, ib.


 _Wall_ built by _Sesostris_, 224.

 _Washing_ a Corps, why used, 60.

 —— why with warm Water, 59.

 —— why with Salt, _ib._

 _Water_ of _Nile_ very prolific, 236.

 _Weeping_, if moderate, commendable, 79.

 —— us’d by _Kings_ and _Patriarchs_, ib.

 —— by our _Saviour_, 80.

 —— allays Grief, 81.

 _Wells_ of _embalmed_ Birds, 328.

 A Virgin _Well_, 329.

 _Wiek_ and _Oil_, both in a _Lamp_, 364.

 _Winds_ which blow most in _Egypt_, 155.

 _Winter_ in _Egypt_, 154.

 _Workmen_, what Number imploy’d in building the first _Pyramid_, 319.

 _Writings_ thought the best Monument, 116.


 _Xantippus_ buried his Dogs, 30.

 Χυμεία, 183.

 _Xylobalsamum_, 210.


 _Zeilan_, Inhabitants their Manner of _Sepulture_, 113.



                          TRANSCRIBER’S NOTES

 1. The Table of Contents was added by transcriber.
 2. Made corrections listed in the ERRATA.
 3. Phænician was consistently used instead of Phœnician.
 4. Changed “ἐυπραγεῖν” to “εὐπραγεῖν” in the Amico heading.
 5. Changed “Ε ασατ’ ἠδη” to “Εασατ’ ἤδη”, Ὁθεν δ’ ἓκαστον” to “Ὅθεν δ’
      ἕκαστον”, Ἐνταυθ’” to “Ἐνταῦθ’”, and “Ἡ μετερον” to “Ἡμετερον” on
      p. 6.
 6. Changed “τόν” to “τὸν” on p. 9.
 7. Changed “בית היימ” to “בית חיים” on p. 17.
 8. Changed “Mænibus” to “Mœnibus” on p. 46.
 9. Changed “insicerentur” to “inficerentur” on p. 89.
10. Changed “κρυπτω” to “κρύπτω” on p. 96.
11. Changed “ταφος” to “τάφος” and “περί” to “περὶ”on p. 97.
12. Changed “Synonimous” to “Synonymous” on p. 100.
13. Changed “Ἀιγύπτος” to “Αἰγύπτος” on p. 126.
14. Changed “out of the of midst” to “out of the midst” on p. 144.
15. Changed “Κατὰ δὲ την δὲ την χῶραν οὔτε τότε, ουτε ἄλλοτε, ἄνωθον ἐπί
      τάς ἄρούρας ὕδωρ ἐπίρῥεῖ” to “Κατὰ δὲ τὴν δὲ τὴν χώραν οὔτε τότε,
      οὔτε ἄλλοτε, ἄνωθεν ἐπὶ τὰς ἀρούρας ὕδωρ ἐπιῤῥεῖ” on p. 148.
16. Changed “θεουργική” to “θεουργικὴ” on p. 171.
17. Changed “ενταφίασταῖς” to “ἐνταφιασταῖς” on p. 172.
18. Changed “Ἑρμής” to “Ἑρμῆς” on p. 173.
19. Changed “τό” to “τὸ” on p. 174.
20. Changed “ἐπαοίδων ἐπαοίδίν” to “ἐπαείδων ἐπαοιδήν” on p. 176.
21. Changed “χρύσοῦ” to “χρυσοῦ” on p. 183.
22. Changed “eondem” to “eadem” on p. 183.
23. Changed “ostiosa” to “otiosa” on p. 183.
24. Changed “οργάνῶν καὶ κἀμίνων” to “ὀργάνων καὶ καμίνων” on p. 186.
25. Changed “Αλλάσσοντες” to “Ἀλλάσσοντες” on p. 187.
26. Changed “ἔργαστήριον” to “ἐργαστήριον” on p. 216.
27. Changed “ταριχος” to “τάριχος” on p. 239.
28. Changed “ταριχέυειν” to “ταριχεύειν” on p. 254.
29. Changed “Ἀφρός νιτρου” to “Ἀφρὸς νίτρου” and “Ἀφρονίτρον” to
      “Ἀφρόνιτρον” on p. 260.
30. Changed “Ἄφρο νίτρον” to “Ἀφρόνιτρον” on p. 262.
31. Changed “Ἀσβεστος” to “Ἄσβεστος” on p. 357.
32. Changed “Ἀσβεστον” to “Ἄσβεστον” on p. 358.
33. Changed “qnod” to “quod” on p. 358.
34. Changed “Bechira feu Bechiria” to “Bechira seu Bechiria” on the 2nd
      page of the TABLE.
35. Silently corrected typographical errors.
36. Retained anachronistic and non-standard spellings as printed.
37. Enclosed italics font in _underscores_.
38. Enclosed bold font in =equals=.
39. Superscripts are denoted by a caret before a single superscript
      character or a series of superscripted characters enclosed in
      curly braces, e.g. M^r. or M^{ister}.
40. Subscripts are denoted by an underscore before a series of
      subscripted characters enclosed in curly braces, e.g. H_{2}O.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "ΝΕΚΡΟΚΗΔΕΙΑ; Or, the Art of Embalming; - Wherein Is Shewn the Right of Burial, and Funeral - Ceremonies, Especially That of Preserving Bodies After the - Egyptian Method. Together With an Account of the Egyptian - Mummies, Pyramids, Subterranean Vaults and Lamps, and Their - Opinion of the Metempsychosis, the Cause of Their Embalming. - As Also a Geographical Description of Egypt, the Rise and - Course of the Nile, the Temper, Constitution and Physic - of the Inhabitants, Their Inventions, Arts, Sciences, - Stupendous Works and Sepulchres, and Other Curious - Observations Any Ways Relating to the Physiology and - Knowledge of This Art." ***

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